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One generation shall praise thy works unto another, and declare thy power —The memorial 
of thine abundant kindness shall be shewed; and men shall sing of thy righteousness. 

Psalm cxIt. 4, 7. 


/-. ," ; V % 1 J J I ! { TjNVOL. II. PART I. 

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v^A /,;  u ;. Y .■ V0S OXFORD, 


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J. HE birth and christening of Prince Edward. Queen Jane Aono 1537. 
his mother's death and burial. The young Prince's educa- 
tion. P. 3. 


King Henry's departure. Young King Edward's Governors Anno 1M0. 
and Council. He is proclaimed : and comes to the Tower. 
New commissions to the Justices. The Duke of Somerset 
Protector. The war with Scotland : and victory obtained. 

P. 17. 

Protector's declarations and letters before and after the war with 
Scotland. Sir William Paget's new-year's gift. King Ed- 
ward's coronation. His piety. P. 27. 


Papists' behaviour towards the King. Lent sermons. P. 37. 


State books, and others, now published. The Bishop of Colen's Anno 1547. 
Consultation. Erasmus's Paraphrase in English. The Homi- 
lies. Images defaced. Bishop Gardiner busy. Religion stands 
as it did. Proclamations. King Henry's debts. King Edward's 
letter, and the Lady Mary's, to Queen Katharine. P. 41. 


Dr. Richard Smith recants. Some account of him and his writ- 
ings. Bell-metal not to be transported. P. 61. 





A royal visitation. Injunctions and articles of inquiry. The 
Bishop of Winchester's behaviour towards it. Consultation 
of entering into league with the Protestants. Pensions. The 
Lady Mary in a letter chargeth the Protector about religion. 
His answer. A plague. Proclamation about it. P. 72. 


A Parliament. Communion in both kinds. The act for chan- 
tries. The abuse thereof. Other acts. Letters and disputa- 
tions between Bishop Gardiner and Martin Bucer. They and 
Aless meet together in Germany. P. 96. 


Anabaptists. Bishop Ridley vindicates himself for a sermon at 
. Paul's Cross. Latymer's talk with an Anabaptist. Begins to 
preach. Bishop Gardiner complies with the King's proceed- 
ings. Hancock the preacher at Pool. His troubles. Account 
thereof from himself. P. 107. 


Lands, advowsons, and rectories settled upon certain churches 
and bishoprics, deans, and chapters. Cheke and Latymer gra- 
tified. Treaties with foreign princes. The King's gifts. The 
strangers' church at Canterbury. Orders to the Archbishop 
for taking away images. P. 117. 


inno 1648. Sundry wholesome orders of the King for religion. For the 
Communion. For Lent. Innovation forbid. The Book of 
Common Prayer appointed to be drawn up; and enacted. 
The Psalms in metre. The good progress of the reformation 
of religion. The revenues of the Church struck at. Artillery 
company. Office of ordnance. P. 125. 


Slanders raised of the King. No preaching without licence. 
Rebels in Cornwall: pardoned. Commission upon enclosures. 
Orders to the Earl of Sussex to raise men. Exportation of 
leather forbidden. Stipendiaries and Chantry Priests. P. 141. 




A gift to the Lady Mary. The King minds public affairs. 
Points of state-policy for the' King's study. Consultation 
about the coin. The nation involved in war frith France and 
Scotland. The English merchants of Antwerp wronged. The 
English ambassadors interpose. P. 155. 


The condition of the Protestants in Germany, related by the 

English Ambassador there. The Interim. Discourse between 

t Spaniard and the English Ambassador about the Elector. 

A conjurer reports the King dead. Seized and examined. 

Underhill, one of the band of pensioners, a memorable man 

in these times. P. 172. 


Preaching suspended. Pensions. Term put off. Exportation of 
corn forbid. The state of the coin. Philip Melancthon writes 
to the King. Martin JBucer and Peter Martyr placed in the 
Universities. Sharington of the mint attainted : and the Lord 
Admiral. His practices. His ill life. His death. P. 183. 


Of Queen Katharine Par, and her daughter by the Lord Ad- 
miral. That Queen's books of devotion. Some relation of 
her. Priests allowed marriage. Private acts of Parliament. 
Bilk in behalf of the Commons. The King sells chantries, 

guilds, &c. P. 200. 


Books published this year. Archbishop Cranmer's book of Un- 
written Verities. His notes of traditions. Dr. Turner against 
the mass. Crawly's book in behalf of the poor commons, 

far. P. 212. 


Proclamations for regulation of sundry abuses in the realm : as, Anno 1M9. 
about gold and silver coin. The King's bands of soldiers not 
filled. News, disparaging the King's affairs. The teston. 
Enclosures, &c. The Lord Protector loses himself with the 
nobility. The Lady Mary required to use the Common 
Prayer, established by law. Dr. Hopton her Chaplain. P. 229. 



The realm in ill terms with Scotland and France. Paget sent in 
embassy to the Emperor. A match propounded for the Lady 
Mary with Don Lewis of Portugal. The Emperor intercedes 
for that lady's liberty in her religion. P. 239. 


Matters with France. The Duke of Somerset's letter to Sir 
Philip Hoby, ambassador with the Emperor 5 shewing France's 
dealings with England. P. 254. 


Insurrection of the commons upon enclosures. Proclamations 
and commissions thereupon. The rebellion in Norfolk. Ket 
the captain. The Lady Mary touched. IJirst institution of 
the Lords Lieutenants of the counties. P. 259. 


The success of the French against the English in Boloignois. 
Execution of the rebels. Somerset's troubles. His Court of 
Requests. A sessions of Parliament. The Acts. P. 279. 


An embassy to the Emperor. The Emperor's requests. The 
Pope's death. Peace with France; by the means of Guidot, 
an Italian merchant : rewarded. P. 292. 


A fire in the palace. The Earl of Arundel confined. Books pub- 
lished this year j by Cheke, Hooper, Ochin, William Thomas, 
Bale, &c. New Book of Ordination, The state of the realm. 
Sir Stephen, curate of Cree church. P. 304. 


Anno 1550. The good service of learned foreigners in the business of religion. 
Disputations in the Universities about religion. The use of 
the Common Prayer pressed. Bishopric of Westminster dis- 
solved. P. 321. 



Order for sermons. Joan of Kent promotes Arianism. One re- 
cants. The English Communion Book reformed. P. 334. 


Ridley made Bishop of London. His exchanges of lands. In- 
surrections. A dearth. Price set upon victuals. P. 338. 


' Controversy about ecclesiastical habits. P. Martyr's, A Lasco's, 
and Bucer's judgments thereof. Altars taken down. Barlow, 
Bishop of Bath and Wells. Superstition in Wales. Foreign 
matters. Peace with France. Duke of Somerset restored. 
Grants of the King to the Lord Clyncarty. Earl of Arundel. 
Lady Elizabeth. Morice. Haddon. Knox. Some remarks 
of them. P. 350. 


Sectaries. Certain incompliant Bishops punished. Churches of 
strangers in London and Glastonbury. A Lasco and Polla- 
nus, their pastors. The Strasburgh liturgy. Bucer's death. 
Anabaptists. P. 369. 


Cecyl becomes Secretary. Gentlemen of the King's privy cham- 
ber. Sir Thomas Wroth. Earl of Arundel. Bullinger's coun- 
sels to the King. Hoper and A Lasco. Bishop Ridley visits 
his diocese. Gives holy orders. Ponet made Bishop of Ro- 
chester, p. 385. 


The state of the Universities. The evil of impropriations. The 
revenues of the monasteries misused. Buying of parsonages. 
Abuses. Bale's Votaries, and other books by him set forth. 

P. 404. 

The English Bible and other books set forth this year. The Bi- 
shop of Exeter resigns. Sir Martin Bowes, of the mint, gives 
up his offices. P. 415. 


The King s good progress in learning and virtue. The Marquis 
of Northampton. Commissioners for French matters. French 


crowns. A Scotch ship stayed. Earl of Southampton ; a ward. 
Thomas Lord Howard. Mines found of iron and steel. Em- 
bassy to Denmark. Preparations for Ireland. Parties at 
Court. Orders about a dearth. P. 426. 


An ambassador for France. Crofts goes to Ireland. Jersey 
fortified. Duke of Somerset's bare circumstances. Grants 
and leases of places to several courtiers. The Earl of South- 
ampton, Denny, and Lord Wentworth die. Lady Mary comes 
to Court. Offices of keeper of Windsor, and of the manor of 
Asscber and Hampton Court, granted the Marquis 1 of North- 
ampton. A short Pathway to the right understanding of holy 
Scripture, by Zuinglius : translated into English. P. 440. 



Anno 1551. The Lady Mary's concern with the King and Council, for re- 
taining mass in her family. Dr. Malet her chaplain. The 
Council*s letter to her concerning her chaplains. The Em- 
peror interposes for the Lady Mary to have mass. Her reso- 
lution. Her letter to the King. Resolutions of Council here- 
upon taken. P. 447+ 


The King writes to King Sigismond, and the Duke of Florence* 
Payments of the army. Lord Darcy created. Merchants of 
Calais. The King takes up money. The college of Galway. 
The Council for Wales. Lords Lieutenants. Forts. P. 459. 


Embassies and businesses abroad in Scotland, and France, and to 
the Emperor. Dr. Wotton sent ambassador. His business 
about the Lady Mary's mass. The affairs of Ireland. The 
match with France. The French ambassador comes about it* 
Herman, Archbishop of Colen. P. 456. 



John Gates advanced. Grants to him. Occurrences. The 
fchopric of Winton diminished. Regulation of coin. Cover- 
lale preferred to Exeter. The sweating sickness. Henry 
Poke of Suffolk dies. A dearth. Orders to the Bishops. 
Bishop Scory's letter to the King. Duke of Somerset's new 
troubles. P. 479. 


be Marquis of Dorset advanced. Polydore Virgil. A Lasco. 
The army mustered before the King. The Scots Queen en- 
tertained. Reports in Germany. Sir James Croft, lord 
admiral, goes into France. Barnaby Fitz-Patrick. Guisnes 
to be surveyed. P. 498. 


England jealous of the Emperor. The Bishop of Ely hath the 
great seal: delivered up by the Lord Rich. His rise and 
wealth. Some account of the Bishop of Ely. Richard Turner, 
D.D. A mint at York. Merchants of the Stilyard. P. 509. 


Ik King's chaplains. William Thomas his grants. Thomas 
Rose, Hugh Goodacre, eminent divines ; preferred. The 
King's deliberations. Annuities for the chaplains. The bi- 
shopric of Bristol fleeced. Inquiry into the King's revenue. 
Commissions. P. 521. 


Dr. Redman dies. Some account of him. Commissions for 
making ecclesiastical laws. BuUinger's correspondence in 
England. Dr. Cox's letter to him. Conferences about the 
sacrament. The Duke of Somerset's end : brought about by 
Northumberland and some others. Somerset's friends and 
dependents. Edward Seiinour restored. P. 527. 


1W King's debts. More's Utopia in English. Epistles of 
Bacer'f death j and other books printed now. Bible printed 
in folio. Bishop Ridley's ordination of ministers. A Parlia- 
ment. Private acts. A bill for apparel. Forms of wills and 
testaments. P. 544. 



Anno 1559. France and Cesar apply to the King. The King congratulate 
the Elector of Saxony. Gresham the King's agent in Ant- 
werp. The French successes against the Emperor. The Eng- 
lish incline to the Emperor. Jealousies of France. Steukley' 
intelligence thence. Minutes of Council for breaking wit] 
France. Fitz-Patric sent for home. Steukley committed 
French commission for sea affairs. P. 55G 


An embassy to the Emperor. Morison's address to him. Tl» 
King offers aid against the Turk. P. 57£ 


The King's military exercises. A splendid muster before him ii 
Greenwich park. The dearth. Lady Mary comes to Court 
The King's progress. Occurrences. A monstrous child bore 
Strange fishes taken in tfce Thames. The King consults fa 
the state of religion and the realm. His device for raisin - 
money. P. 585 


Matters of Ireland. The Emperor raises money in the Lo« 
Countries. Antwerp. The English merchants there. Bucki 
holt's process against the King. P. 59£ 






VOt. II. B 









The forth and christening of Prince Edward. Queen Jane 
his mother's death and burial The young Prince's 

A HE incomparable Prince Edward (the subject of our Anno tsar, 
awing history) was born on the 12th day of October, P" 1 "* **- 
in the twenty-ninth year of the reign of his father, King 
Henry VIII. at Hampton Court ; and christened on the 
Monday following, being the 15th of the said month, at 
the chapel there. And an heir male being now happily 
given to the realm, after so many a long year's expectation* 
the christening was performed with the greater solemnity. 
Which, since our historians are silent in, I shall set down 
*t length. The infant Prince was brought forth from his And chrUt- 
own lodgings, and conveyed through the council chamber 2^ c# 
into the gallery, leading through the King's great chamber, Armor, i. 
and so through the hall, and the second court into the gal- The solemn 
ley, that went into the chapel ; torches all the way borne mwine f r 
by the King's and other noblemen's servants; the way 
fenced with barriers (where no walls were) and richly hung, 
and underfoot strewed thick with rushes. At the chapel 2 



BOOK door was a large porch made, covered with rich cloth of 
_ gold, and double hanged with rich arras, the floor boarded 

Anno 1537. and covered with carpets. All the body of the chancel 
hung also with rich arras ; wherein was set a font of silver 
and gilt, upon a mount or stage four degrees in height, 
eight square in compass, enclosed with double barriers 
made of timber, with two or three entrances, one to come 
in, another to pass to the traverse, a third to the altar. 
The said barriers were covered with red say, and tacked 
with small latin nails. The steps of the said mount were 
covered with carpets ; and the barrier* hanged with cloth 
of gold, or arras. Over the font a rich canopy. On the 
south side, a little from the mount, was prepared a traverse 
of damask sarcenet, or satin, for making ready the Prince 
to the christening; the same traverse underfoot was co- 
vered with carpets or cushions; and therein a firepan of 
coals with a good perfume ; and basins and chavers of sil- 
ver and gilt, with water (whereof the sayes surely taken) 
to wash the Prinee, if need were. And all that time of the 
Prince's opening, the Bishops and godfathers (saving the 
lady godmother) remained under the canopy, there abid- 
ing the coming of the Prince. The choir hung on both 
sides with arms, and the high altar garnished sumptuously 
with stuff and plate. On the sooth side of the altar a tra- 
verse of cloth of gold, covered underfoot with carpets, and 
furnished with cushions j and likewise the space between 
the font and the altar spread with carpets. 

Gentlemen Ushers kept the door of the porch, the chapel 
door, the entrances of the barriers about the font, and the 
traverse, with Yeomen Ushers to assist them. Sir John 
Russel, Sir Francis Brian, Sir Nicolas Carew, and Sir An- 
thony Brown, in aprons and towels, took the charge of the 
font, and kept the same, till they were discharged thereof 
by the Lord Steward, or Treasurer of the King's house in 
his absence. Other Gentlemen Ushers kept the choir door, 
and the traverse next the altar. The Sergeant of the ewry 
was ready at the nursery door, to deliver the basins, cup of 
assay, and towels, and to give his attendance at the chapel 


to receive the same after the christening was done. The CHAP. 
Sergeant of the chandlery was ready at the same .chamber 

door to deliver the tapers* The Sergeant of the pantry to Anno l63 7- 
deliver the salt : and they to be ready at the chapel to re- 
ceive them again. The Sergeants of the trumpets, with all 
the company of that office, were ready with their trumpets, 
and stood and sounded as they were appointed by the Lord 
Chamberlain. Garter Principal King of Arms, and all 
the other kings and officers at arms, gave their attendance 
with their coats of arms. Also the Dean of the chapel 
and the choir gave their attendance to such service as to 
them appertained. The Sergeant of the vestry prepared 
the font, and all things that to his office belonged. The 
Lord Marshal of England had his servants there, with tip- 
staves to execute their office. The Knight Marshal and 
his men gave their attendance, to do as the Lord Steward, 
or, in his absence, as the Treasurer and Comptroller of the 
King's household should appoint. And all officers of the 
household were there, to do their respective services. 

Moreover, all estates, knights, and gentlemen, had warn- 
ings, by the Bang's letters, to make their repair to the 
Court, to do the service that to them should be appointed, 
whose names shall be set down hereafter. The like warn- 3 
ings had all Sergeants at Arms; and such of the King's 
Chaplains as were thought meet to do service at that time. 

The order of going from the Prince's lodgings to the 
christening was thus: first, all gentlemen, esquires, and 
knights, went two and two, every of them bearing a torch 
in his hand, not lighted, till the Prince was baptized. After 
them the children and ministers of the King's chapel, toge- 
ther with the Dean, in their surplices and copes, going out- 
ward. Next them the King's Council, with the great Lords 
spiritual and temporal. Next them, the Comptroller and 
Treasurer of the household. Then the Queen's Chamber- 
lain, the King's Chamberlain, and the Lord High Cham,, 
berlain of England in the midst. Next, ambassadors, and 
with them personages meet to accompany them. Then 
were carried. 9 pair of covered basins, and a towel there- 



BOOK upon, with a cup of assay borne by the Eari of Sussex, 
*' supported by another Lord. Next after; a taper of virgin** 

Anno 1537. wax, borne by the Earl of Wiltshire, with a towel about 
his neck. After that, a salt of gold, richly garnished with 
pear] and stone, borne by the Earl of Essex, with a towel 
about his neck. The chrysom, richly garnished, borne by 
the Lady Elizabeth, the King's daughter, who, for her 
tender age, was carried by the Viscount Beauchamp, assist- 
ed by the Lord Morley. The Prince himself was carried 
by the Lady Marchioness of Exeter, assisted by the Duke 
of Suffolk, and the Lord Marquis her husband, The train 
of the Prince's robe was borne by the Earl of Arundel, 
and sustained by the Lord William Howard. The nurse 
went equally with him that supported the train, and with 
her the midwife. A rich canopy was borne over the Prince 
by Sir Edward Nevyl, Sir John Wallop, Mr. Richard 
Long, Mr. Thomas Seimer, Mr. Henry Knyvet, and Mr, 
Radcliff, Gentlemen of the King's Privy Chamber. Torches 
of virgin wax were borne about the canopy by Sir Humfrey 
Foster, Robert Tyrwit, George Harper, and Richard 
Southwel. Next after the canopy went the Lady Mary, 
the King's daughter, appointed for the lady godmother. 
Her train was borne by the Lady Kingston. After the 
Lady Mary all other ladies of honour, and gentlewomen, 
in otder after their degrees. 
TbePrince's When the Prince was christened, all the tenches were 
32^^ lighted, and Garter Principal King at Arms proclaimed 
Garter. his name in this form following ,* God of his infinite grace 
and goodness gvoe and grant good life and long to the 
right high 9 excellent and noble Prince, Prince Edward 
Duke qf Cornwall, and Earl of Chester, most dear and 
most entirely beloved son to our most dread and gracious 
Lord, King Henry VIII. Large, Large. 

This being performed, the service following was done, 
while the Prince was making ready in the traverse. TV 
Deum was sung. Then first to the Lady Mary the Lord 
Williams gave the towel, the Lord Fitzwater bare the co- 
vered basins, and the Lord Mountague uncovered them. 


To the Bebop that did irfniMus ter> the Lord, Bulk* bflre cha*, 
the towel, the Lord Bray the bum* and the Lord J>eW I# 

ware uncovered them. To the Archbishop of Canterbury A** 16 * 7 ' 
and the Duke of Norfolk, godfathers to die Prinoe, the 
Lord Stourton bore the towel, and the Lord Weutwortb 
gave the water. Item, For the serving the Lady Mary ftfld 
the Lady Elizabeth with spices, wafers, aad wine, the Lord 
Hastings bore the cup to the Lady Mary, and the Lord 
Delaware another cup to the Lady Elizabeth. The Lord 4 
Dacxe of the South b*re the spice-plates to them both, the 
Lord Cobham the wafers, and the Lord Mountague unco* 
vered the spice-plates. The Bishop that administered waa 
served with spice, wine, and wafers, by diree of the ancient 
knights appointed by the Lord Chamberlain. The Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, the Duke of Norfolk, godfathers at 
the font, and the. Duke of Suffolk, godfather at the con- 
fimutDon, were served with like spices, wafers, and wine, by 
three knights, also by the Lord Chamberlain appointed. 
All other estates and gentlemen within the Church and 
Court were served with spice and hippocrass; and all others 
with bread and sweet wine. 

This being done, the going home with the Prince was in The Prince 
the same manner as the coming out was, saving that the^ 11 ^™^ 
taper, the salt, and the basins were there delivered. The ties uted. 
gifts that were given by the gossips were carried in order : 
a cope of gold, given by the Lady Mary, was carried by 
the Earl of Essex : three great bowls and two great pots, 
silver and gilt, given by the Archbishop, were carried by 
the Earl of Sussex : the same gifts with those of the Arch- 
bishop's were carried next by the Earl df Wiltshire: the 
two great flagons, and two great pots, silver and gilt, 
given by the Duke of Suffolk, were carried by the Viscount 
fieauchamp. The Lady Elizabeth went with the Lady 
Mary, her sister, and the Lady Herbert of Troy bore her 
train. After the King at Arms had 'proclaimed the name 
of the Prince, the trumpets set in the utter court within < 
the gate continually sounded, till the Prince was brought 
into the Queen's chamber. And all other minstrel* stood 

b 4 




BOOK with the trumpets to do their office when they should be 
L called. At the going of the Prince the chapel sang the ser- 

Alboo 1687. vice, and performed the ceremonies belonging, all the way. 

And this, at length, waa the splendid procession of our 

young Prince's baptism, 
rbe etutct To which I will add the names of all the estates and 
^nST gentlemen summoned to be present, and give their .ttend. 
Mnt * anoe at the said baptism. 

The Lord Chancellor 
The Duke of Norfolk 
The Duke of Suffolk 
The Marquis of Exeter 
The Lord Privy Seal 
The Earls of 





Viscount Beauchamp 
The Lords 








Hungerford of Hetchbury 


Dacres of the South 

William Howard 


Fitz water 
> Hastings 



The Archbishop of Canter* 

The Bishops of 





St Asaph 

The Abbots of 


St Albans 




Knights and Gentlemen* 
Mr. Hennage 
Sir John Russel 
Sir Francis Brian 
Sir Nicolas Carew 
Sir Thomas Cheyny 
Sir Anthony Brown 
Sir John Wallop 
Richard Long 
Thomas Seymer 
Henry Knyvet 
Peter Meutas 
Sir Humfrey Foster 
George Harper 




ty Knyvet 
mfrey Radclif 
n St. Johns 
anas Rotheram 

Iliam Essex 
th. Hungerford 
iliam Burnden 
titer Stonar 
in Brown 
in Bourghchier 
wsid Bainton 
nry Long 
lliam Kingston 
in Bridges 
olas Poynts 
liter Denys 
ly Kingston 
in St Lo 
gh Poulet 
es Strangwais 
omas Arundel 
in Horsay 
in Rogers 
iliam Poulet 
in Gage 
Jliam Goryn 
ward Nevyl 
in Dudley 
Jliam Hault 
ward Wotton 
illiam Kemp 
omas Poynings 

Sir Richard Weston 
Sir Richard Paige 
Sir Giles Capel 
Sir John Rainsforth 
Sir Thomas Darcy 
Sir John St Leger 
Sir John Tyrrel 
William Sailiard 
Sir Christ Willoughby 
Sir Richard Sands 
Sir George Somerset 
Sir Arthur Hopton 
Sir Anthony Wyngfield 
Sir William Drury 
Edward Chamberlain 
Richard Southwel 
Sir Henry Parker 
Sir Gryffith Dune 
Sir Philip Buder 
Sir Robert Peyton 
Sir Giles Alyngton 
Thomas Meggis 
Thomas Wryothesley 
Richard Manors. 

The Dean of St Stephens 
The Archdeacon of Rich* 

The Deans of 



Dr. Bell 
Dr. Thurlebe 
Dr. Turrit 
Mr. Pate 
Dr. Wilson 
Dr. Skippe 
Dr. Day. 


Anno 1637, 



OOK But all this joy and splendour soon received * aad died 

2; by the death of the Prince's mother, who deceased about 

© U87. twelve o'clock on Wednesday night, the 84th day of the 
mother aame montn f October, that is, twelve days after the 
Prince's birth ; as it is expressly set down in one of the 
Hfic manuscript volumes belonging to the Heralds 9 Office, where, 
or * u under the particular date of each day, are shewn the cere- 
monies done to that Queen's corpse, from her death to her 
funerals and last interment. What credit is to be given to 
the aforesaid manuscript book I leave to the readets, espe- 
cially when in this particular it disagrees with all our com- 
mon historians, as fox, Stow, Holingshed, the Lord Her- 
bert, and others, that write she died on Sunday the 14th 
day of October, two days after her delivery. But I suspect 
they borrowed one from another : and the first having mis- 
taken might soon draw on the rest, in a matter so easily to 
be slipt over : for some probability of the truth of this m*» 
tme nuscript, in dating the Queen's death ten days later than we 
of her commonly find it, it may be considered, that if she had died 
the 14th day, it is not likely there should have been such a 
great and splendid Court, such feasting and triumph) such 
trumpets and music sounding at the christening of he* son, 
the very next day after she was dead, and in the same 
house where she, the mother, lay a lifeless corpse ; nor is it 
likely, that after the ceremonies were performed at the cha- 
pel, that the Prince, with all his procession, should be 
6 brought into the Queen's chamber, as he is said to be in thfc 
Libr. former relation. It is also to be considered, that this date 
pUfied °^ ner death agrees well with the letter of the King's Doc- 
ill. tors to the Council, concerning the Queen's declining condi- 
4 1S ' tion ; and that her Confessor had been with her, and was 
preparing to minister to her the holy unction ; which sup- 
poses her near the point of death. And this letter was 
dated on Wednesday, at eight in the morning. On which 
day of the week, at night, our said manuscript assigns her 
death. Add also the excessive grief the King took, and the 
real sadness that seized on all at her death, could not con- 
sist with the magnificence of the christening, as was related 
before, unless she were at that time alive, and that there 


were hopes of her. " Whose departure (as that book re- CHAP. 
" lates) was as heavy to the King as had been seen or heard 

u teU of many years; yea, and likewise to all the states of Anno 1&37. 
tt this realm, and citizens, with the commons, great and 
u small, as ever was for any Queen." 

And if this date of her death be true, it will serve against 
slanderous Saunders, and other Papists, King Henry VIIFs 
mortal enemies, that labour all they can to bespatter his 
lame and memory; I mean, to disarm them of one instance 
of his pretended cruelty, in appointing this his son to be 
cut out of his mother's womb. For if she lived twelve days 
after her delivery, this will sufficiently confute that spiteful 

The manuscript goes on in way of diary, beginning at The grief 
the day of her death, that is, Oct 24, as it is there stated, %%%£* 
viz. That immediately the King retired to a solitary place, 
not to be spoken with, leaving some of his counsellors to 
take order about her burial. Then she was embowelled, Her tmriai. 
and wax-chandlers and plumbers, and such others, did their 
office about her: and this was the work of Thursday, Oc- 
tober £5. The next day, being Friday 26, was provided 
in the chamber of presence something in manner of an 
hearse, with twenty-four tapers standing aloft the majesty, 
garnished with pensils and other decencies. In the same 
chamber was an altar provided for mass to be said, richly 
appareled with black, garnished with the cross, images, 
censers, and other ornaments. And daily masses said by 
her Chaplains and others. This done, the corpse was con- 
veyed reverently from the place where she died, under the 
hoarse, covered with a rich pall of cloth of gold, and a cross 
set thereupon; lights burning night and day with six 
torches, and the lights aforesaid upon the altar, all divine 
service-time. AQ ladles and gentlewomen put off their rich 
ipparel, doing on them mourning habits, and white ker r 
chiefs hanging over their heads and shoulders : there kneel- 
ing about the said hearse all the service-time, in lamentable^ 
wise, at Mass afbrenoon, and at Dirige after. There was 
aleo a watch nightly, during the time that the corpse lay in 


BOOK the same chamber : and so continued till the last day of the 
Ia said month of October. 

Anno 1587. On which day, being Wednesday, and the vigil of All 
Saints, the corpse was removed between three and four of 
the clock in the afternoon, from the chamber to the chapel, 
in very great state and solemnity ; the chapel coming up 
with die Bishop of Carlile, her Almoner, who did execute 
in poniificalibusj assisted by the Bishop of Chichester, Dean 
of the King's chapel, and the Sub-dean ; entering into the 
chamber where the corpse lay ; and there doing all such ce- 
7 remonies thereto appertaining, as censing, holy water, with 
De profundi*. The solemnity in the chapel lasted day by 
day until the 12th day of November, being Monday, which 
was the day of removing the corpse towards Windsor: 
which was done with all the pomp and majesty that could 

The corpse The corpse was put in the.chair covered with a rich pall; 

^™jj^ and thereupon the representation of the Queen in her robes 

Windsor, of estate, with a rich crown of gold upon her head, all in 
her hair loose, a sceptre of gold in her right hand, and on 
her fingers rings set with precious stones, and her neck 
richly adorned with gold and stones ; and under the head a 
rich pillow of cloth of gold tissue ; her shoes of cloth of 
x gold, with hose and smock, and all other ornaments. The 
said chair drawn with six chariot horses trapped with black 
velvet: upon every horse four escutcheons of the King's 
arms and Queen's, beaten in fine gold upon double sarcenet; 
and upon every horse's forehead a shaffron of the said arms. 
The Lady Mary, the King's daughter, was chief mourner ; 
assisted on either hand by the Lord Clifford and the Lord 
Mountague ; her horse was trapped in black velvet These 
great ladies following, (their horses being trapped in black 
cloth,) the Lady Frances, daughter to the Duke of Suf- 
folk; the Countesses of Oxford, Rutland, Sussex, Bath, 
Southampton, and the Lady Margaret Howard : every of 
their footmen in demi-gowns, bareheaded. Then followed 
four other chairs with ladies and gentlewomen sitting in 
them, and other ladies and gentlewomen riding in order 


after each. On the 18th day she was interred, and the so- CHAP, 
lemnhies were finished. *' 

It redounded much to the praise of King Henry VIII. Anoo i587» 
that he would hate his children's minds well cultivated to ^^StaT* 
knowledge and virtue by the best education. And when 
this royal child was arrived to six years old, great care was 
taken to enter him now into learning, to qualify him for his 
high function to fall to him. A gfeat point of which lay 
upon Cranmer, Afchbishop of Canterbury, both as he was 
his godfather, and the chief overseer of the Church : whose 
welfare and peace he knew depended so much upon the 
wisdom and religion of the Prince. And here was a subject 
fit* by the puns and discretion of able" masters, to make a 
most accomplished man, and an absolute governor. For he hu excel- 
was of a most towardly , apt, and good disposition, of a Unt p * rt,# 
ready wit and great industry, as well as of most beautiful 
external features. William Thomas, one of the most learned Thorn*!** 
men of these times, and afterwards one of the Clerks of the Pjlgnm * 
Council, gave this character of his person and conditions, 
when he was young, aild scarce yet come to the crown: 
u If ye knew the towardness of that young Prince, your 
" hearts would melt to hear him named, and your stomach 
" abhor the malice of them that would him ill : the beauti- 
" fullest creature that liveth under the sun; 'the wittiest, 
" the most amiable, and the gentlest thing of all the world. 
" Such a spirit of capacity, learning the things taught him 
" by his schoolmasters, that it is a wonder to hear say. And, 
" finally, he hath such a grace of posture and gesture in 
" gravity, when he comes into a presence, that it should 
" seem he were already a father, and yet passeth he not the 
'" age of ten years. A thing undoubtedly much rather to be 
" seen than believed." 

We have seen the child; now shew us the persons chosen 8 
out for the forming of this excellent piece of matter. And ^J^*'* 
surely they were happily chosen, being both truly learned, o». 
sober, wise, and all favourers of the Gospel. Sir Anthony 
Cook, Knight, famous for his five learned daughters, was 


BOOK one of them : to whom the great Doctor Peter Martyr, in 
k an epistle from Zuric, professed, " that ever since he dwelt 

Anna is87. " in England he bare a singular love to him, and no small 
d£ti Ep! " an ^ vu ^g ar affection, as for his piety and learning, so for 
■d Roman. " that worthy office which he faithfully and with great re- 
" nown executed in the Christian state, in instructing Ed- 
" ward the most holy King, and most worthy to be loved." 
Another of his masters was Dr. Richard Cox, a very re- 
verend Divine, sometime Moderator of the school of Eaton, 
afterwards Dean of Christ-church, Oxon, and Chancellor 
of that University. Who instructed him in Christian man- 
ners, as well as other learning. He had also for his teacher 
of the Latin and Greek tongues, that most accomplished 
scholar, Sir John Cheke, Knight, once Public Reader of 
Greek in Cambridge* Divers pretty letters of his writing, 
in Latin, remain, some in manuscript, and some printed: 
which being writ when he was very young, shew what no- 
table progress he made. One or two of these I shall insert 
here for a specimen, and the rather, because never yet 
printed : the one to the King, his father, and the other to 
Queen Katharin Par, his mother-in-law. That to the 
ran in this tenor : 

TtePrince't Non flim ad te Uteras tarn saspe quam vellem, 

rile unto ***** ^ ex ** Poter charissin& 9 quia audivi Mqjestatem 

King. E tuam perturbari negotiis beBicis contra Regem Francu*. 

c! b c°c.'c. Etenim ante hoc tempus nohii scribere ad Mqjestatem tuam, 

D. No. «3. ne uOo tempore impedireris puerilibus iUis Uteris meis. Sed 

nunc do liter as ad Majestaiem tuam, dim propter qffirium, 

turn propter amorem erga te meum; denique quia Deus 

elicit, Honora parentem: postremd, ni ob ullam causam 

putares me ingratum. Nullum enim signum, nee vMum 

aUud tarn indicat tibi mentem meam absentis 9 sed cupientis 

admodum esse tecum, ac Uteres qua declarant mentem 

meam tibi, quum alia signa non declarant. Praterea, rogo 

Mqjestatem tuam, ut impertias mihi benedictionem tuam. 

Deus , qui prcebet omni carni cibum, tueatur ac servet Ma- 


jestatcm tua/m. Vale Rex nobilissime et Pater observandis- CHAFi 
time. Hunsdonke 4ta. 

Filius observantissimus Abho i 6*7. 
Nobilissimo Regi patri meo. M^estaHstum ' Annl54<? - 

Edoardus Princeps. 

This which follows seems to have been written the same 
month and year, to Queen Katharin Par, his dear mother- 
in-law, whom it appears he used frequently to address with 

Fortasse miraberis me km tape ad te scribere, itHU Latin 
que tarn brevi tempore, Regina nobilissima et Mater c&o-qJ^^ 
rurimaj sed eadem ratione pates mirari me erga te officiumVBV™** 
facere. Hoc autem nuncjacio tibenHUs, quia est mihi ido- 
neus nuntius serous meus 9 et ideo non potuinon dare adteQ 
Uteras ad testificandum stadium meum erga te. OptimZ va- 
leas 9 Regina nobilissima. Hunsdonia vigesimo quarto Maik 

Tibi obsequentissimus Filius 
IUustrissima Regime Mcyestatis tuee, 

matri mete. Edouardus Princeps. 

And aa other masters attended on him for other tongues, He writes 
so one John Belmain for the French: and one of Us^bUditer, 
French letters coming to hand at present, wrote when he 
was little above nine years old* I will here expose to the 
view of the reader. Whereby may be seen to what ripeness 
he had attained in that language also, even in his child* 
hood, and how handsomely he was able to write his mind 
And being writ to his sister the Lady Elizabeth, then but 
three years older, we may collect hence her proficiency, and 
her staidiwss too* at those years : taking upon her then to 
pre her brother counsel to ply his learning; and lastly, Us 
good nature* promising to make her exhortation and ex- 
ample a spur to him. 

Prince Edward to his sister the Lady Elizabeth, 
Puisque vpus a pleu me rescrire (treschere et bien ^ JS^ 1 ^* 


BOOK mle Saeur) Je vous remercie de bien bom «wr, et mm 

. ' . settlement de vostre lettre, nuns aussi de vostre bonne at- 

Anno \s97.hartaticn et exemple: laquette, antsy que Jespere 9 me *r- 

vira (Tesperon pour vous suivre en apprenant Primt 

Dieu vous avoir en sa garde. De Titenhanger 18 jour de 

Decembre, et Tan de nostre Seigneur 1546. 

Vostre Frere, 

Edovard Prima. 

This, by the date, appears to have been written but the 
month before his father's death, bong now nine yeanind 
about two months old. He was now at Titenhanger; where, 
as also in some other places, in the pleasant healthful coun- 
try of Hertfordshire, as Hunsdon, Hatfield, and Hertfixd, 
as also at Ampthil in Bedfordshire, the Prince, for the most 
part, held his court, and had his education. 

other let- There be other epistles of this Prince, that may be found 

^ fthe printed in Fox, and in Dr. Fuller's Chureh History, and 
others remaining in Sir Simonds D'Ewes' library, manu sua 
scriptiBy and divers others in private hands. 

His tnton. His tutors were latewardly much detained at Court; 

Cook. Cook (if I mistake not) being one of the bedchamber, and 
Cox the King's Chaplain : but Cheke did most constantly 
reside with him. Yet they supplied their absence by whole- 
some counsels and instructions conveyed to him by their 

Cox. letters. One from Cox, Dr. Haddon, a Fellow of King's 

college in Cambridge, brought, in his return home; the 

Cheke. Prince being then at Hertford. He delivered it to Cheke, 
and Cheke to the Prince ; into whose presence he intro- 
duced the said Haddon : to whom he spake two or three 
1 words, suaviter et perbenigne, (as Haddon reported to some 
of his friends,) after a sweet and very obliging manner ; 
such was his mild and affable address. 

And as he had these learned men for his tutors, of the 

His chap- same endowments were his chaplains : of whom were these 

* ,ni " two, Giles Aire and Tong, in household with him. The for- 
mer of whom was afterwards Dean of Chichester, and Preben- 
dary of Winchester and Westminster, and died anno 1551. 




King Henry's departure. Young King Edwar&s Go- 
vernors and Council. He is proclaimed: and comes to 
the Tower. New commissions to the Justices. The Duke 
Of Somerset Protector. The war with Scotland: and 
victory obtained. 

WHILE King Henry lay on his deathbed in his palace Anno 1 54*. 
at Westminster, Sir Edward Seimour, Earl of Hertford, <***"- 
and Sir William Paget, among others, were at Court ; and tween the 
Paget, being Secretary of State, was much about his per- Hertford 
ion : whom, being a man wise and learned, and well versed »° d 8ea»- 
in the affairs of state, both by reason of his office and his opon xEg 
several embassies abroad, the Earl prudently made choice J**"^* 
of for his inward friend and counsellor. By the King's 
desperate condition, the Earl well perceiving the crown 
ready to fall upon Prince Edward his nephew's head, be- 
fore the breath was out of his body, took a walk with Paget 
in the gallery; where he held some serious conference with 
him concerning the government And immediately after 
the King was departed they met again, the Earl devising 
with him concerning the high place he was to hold, being 
the next of km to the young King. Paget at both meet- 
ings freely and at large gave him his advice, for the safe 
managery of himself, and of the mighty trust likely to be 
reposed in him : and the Earl then promised him to follow 
his counsels in all his proceedings, more than any other 
man's. To his failure in which promises the said Secretary 
attributed those miseries which afterwards befell the nation 
and himself; as he plainly told him in one of his letters. 

The King then departed this world on the Friday before King 
Candlemas-day, being the 28th day of January; and wasJJ|£2£ 
buried in a most magnificent manner, Feb. 15, at Windsor. 
His corpse remained in his privy chamber five days, covered 
with a rich pall of cloth of gold, and an altar set up at his 
feet, where services, obsequies, and oraisons, were used night 
and day, with thirty persons of the gentlemen of his privy 

VOL. II. c 


BOOK chamber, besides his chaplains, always about him. On 
Wednesday, Feb. 2, being Candlemas-day, in the night, 

Anno 1546. the royal corpse was removed, with great reverence and ee- 
1 1 remony, into the chapel ; and there it abode twelve days, 
with services, masses, and dirges, said daily morning and 
even. The 14th day the corpse was conducted in all ima- 
ginable solemn state from Westminster towards Windsor : 
resting that night at Sion, and the next day was brought to 
offlc. Ar- Windsor. A particular account of all the solemnity of this 
funeral may be found in a volume in the Heralds' 1 Office,; 
A. and is transcribed thence into the Repository. 
The Sari of The same day King Henry expired, the said Earl of 
repairs' to Hertford, accompanied with Sir Anthony Brown, Master 
thtPrinoe. of t h e Horse, and a great number of noblemen, with 
knights pensioners, esquires, and gentlemen, did ride in 
their best manner, with all speed, to the Court of Prince 
Edward, to attend upon his Grace there, as on their Sove- 
reign Lord, according to the last will and testament of his 
said illustrious father: which was, That the true title of 
the crown of England should appertain, undoubtedly, to 
his said most dearly beloved son, and right heir apparent, 
then Prince Edward, now most worthily named, Our Sove- 
reign Lord, &c. and King of England, &c. 
The present p or the precise hour of King Henry's departure, and 

DOiture of 

affairs. who they were he entrusted by his last will with the care of 
the Prince his son, and the public affairs, when the new 
King was proclaimed; and how the public state of the king- 
dom at this crisis stood, I had rather the reader should take 
these things from the pen of a great Peer then at London, 
I mean Henry Earl of Sussex; who wrote thus to his 
Countess the last day of January : 

TheEadof " These be to signify unto you, that our late Sovereign 
{j?^^ 10 " Lord the King departed at Westminster, upon Friday 
concerning " last, the 28th of this instant January, about two of the 
King. " clock in the morning ; and the King's Majesty that now 
Titus, B. «. tt j g) proclaimed King this present last day of the same 
" month. And like as for the departure of the one we may 


" lament, so for the establishment of the other, to all our CHAP. 
u comforts, we may rejoice. The names of his executors - 




" are, the Archbishop of Canterbury ; the Lord Wriothes- Anno m6. 

" ley, Lord Chancellor of England ; the Lord St John, 

" Lord President of the Council, and great Master ; the 

Lord Russel, Lord Privy Seal ; the Earl of Hertford, 

Lord Great Chamberlain of England; the Viscount Lisle, 

Lord Admiral ; the Bishop of Durham ; Mr. Secretary 

Paget; Sir Anthony Denny; Sir Anthony Brown; Sir 

" William Herbert, the Lord Chief Justice of the Common 

" Pleas ; Bromley, another Justice there ; Sir Thomas 

" [John] Baker, Chancellor of the Tenths ; Sir Edward 

" North, and divers others, aiders to the same, which for lack 

" of time I pretermit. The Parliament is clearly dissolved ; 

" the term and all writs closed. The Court is now at the 

" Tower; from whence the King to-morrow shall be received 

" and conducted to his house, Durham Place. His Highness 9 

coronation shall be at Shrove-tide, &c. From Ely Place 

in Holbourn, the last day of January, in the first year of 

the reign of our Sovereign Lord King Edward VI. 

" Your assured loving husband, 

" Henry Sussex."" 

The ceremonies and circumstances that attended the pro- 1 2 
claiming of the King were as follow. On Monday, about The ■mow 
ten of the clock in the morning, the officers of arms and \ D g the 
trumpets assembled in the palace of Westminster: where^JJ 1 " 
I there was a stage of boards upon hogsheads; and upon itVoLN*. 17. 
t stood Garter, York, Richmond, Somerset, and Rouge Cros, J^^ 
\ with their coats of arms; and all the trumpeters standing inOffic 
\ on the ground in a range right before the said officers. And 
1 then one of the said trumpets blew three several times* 
\ Whereat was a great audience. Then when the Lords were 
I come from the Parliament House to the same place, Somer- 
I let Herald gave the audience command to keep silence, and 
I with a loud voice proclaimed these words following : 
' I " Edward the Sixth, by the grace of God King of Eng- 
' u land, France, and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, and of 


BOOK " the Church of England, and also Ireland, in earth su- 
" preme Head, greeting : Where it hath pleased Almighty 






Anno 1546. " God, on Friday last past in the morning, to call to his 
" infinite mercy the most excellent, high and mighty 
" Prince Henry VIII. of most noble and famous memory, 
" our most dear and entirely beloved father, (whose soul 
" God pardon.) Forasmuch as we being his only son 
" and undoubted heir, be now thereby invested and esta- 
" blished in the throne imperial of this realm, and other his 
realms, dominions, and countries, with all regalities, pre- 
eminences, styles, names, titles, and dignities, to the same 
belonging or any wise appertaining, We do by these pre- 
sents signify unto all our said most loving, faithful, and 
obedient subjects, That like as we for our parts shall by 
" God's great grace shew ourselves a most gracious and be- 
nign Sovereign Lord to all our good subjects in their 
just and lawful suits and causes ; so we mistrust not but 
they, and every of them, will again, for their parts, 
" at all times and in all causes shew themselves , unto us, 
" their natural liege Lord, most faithful and obedient sub- 
jects, according to their bounden duties and allegiances. 
Whereby they shall please God, and do the thing that 
" shall tend unto their own preservation and sureties: will- 
" ing and commanding all men, of all estates, degrees, and 
" conditions, to see our peace and accord kept, and to be 
" obedient to our laws, as they tender our favour, and will 
answer for the contrary at their extreme perils. In wit- 
" ness whereof we have caused these our letters patents. 
Witness ourself at Westminster, the Slst January, in the 
first year of our reign." 
Also Clarencieux, Carlyle, Winsor, and Chester, in their 
coats of arms, with one trumpeter, in places accustomed at 
the City, having the like commission, sealed with the King's 
Great Seal, assisted with the Mayor, Aldermen, and Sheriffs, 
proclaimed the same in like manner the same morning. 
And in the The King then was proclaimed the Slst day of January. 
countnet. The very next day warrants were hastened from the King to 
the sheriffs of the several counties, to see him proclaimed in 





their several aherifwicks. That to the Sheriff of Notting- CHAP, 
ham and Darby, having come to my hands, it may not be 

amiss to specify; especially for some variation that may be Anno lb * 6 - 
perceived in the proclamation. 

Rex Vicecomiti Nottingham et Derby salutem. Pracipi- 13 
mus tibi, quod statim visis prcesentibus, in singulis loots 
infra baUivas tuas, &c. " The King our Sovereign Lord 
" Edward the Sixth, by the Grace of God King of Eng- 
" land, France, and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, &c. of 
the Church of England, and also of Ireland, in earth the 
supreme Head, doth give to understand to all his most 
loving, and faithful, and obedient subjects, and to every 
" of them: that where it hath pleased Almighty God, on 
" Friday the 28th of January last past in the morning, to call 
unto his infinite mercy the most excellent, high and mighty 
Prince Henry VIII. of most noble and famous memory, 
" the King's Majesty's most entirely beloved father, whose 
soul' God pardon; forasmuch as the King's Majesty now 
being his only son and undoubted heir, is now hereby 
" invested and established in the crown imperial of this 
realm, and other his Majesty's realms, dominions, and coun- 
tries, with all regalities, preeminencies, styles, names, titles, 
and dignities to the same belonging, or in any wise apper- 
taining : the same our Sovereign Lord doth signify unto all 
" his said most loving, faithful, and obedient subjects, that 
like as his Majesty for his part shall by God's grace shew 
himself a most gracious and benign Sovereign Lord to all 
his good subjects, to all their just and lawful suits and 
causes: so his Majesty mistrusteth not but they, and 
every of them, will again for their parts, at all times and 
u in all causes, shew themselves unto his Highness, their 
natural liege Lord, most loving, faithful, and obedient 
subjects, according to their bounden duties and allegi- 
" ances. Whereby they shall please God, and do the thing 
" that shall tend to their own preservations and sureties. 
" Willing and commanding all men, of all states, degrees, 
" and conditions, to see the peace kept, and to be subject to 
" bis laws, as they tender his gracious favour, and will an. 








BOOK " swer for the contrary at their extreme perils. And God 
" save the King. Et hoc sub periculo incumbenti, nullate- 

Anno 1646." nu8 omittas, teste meipso apud Westmonasterium 9 prima 

" die Febr. anno reg. Edward* primo" 
The King On the same day the King was proclaimed in London 
the Tower, he was accompanied in goodly order, from his place of En- 
VoLj.7. figjd to th e Tower of London; to the which he came 

In Offic 

Armor. about three of the clock in the afternoon. Where all the 
nobility of the realm were ready to receive him, to their 
great joy and comfort. At his approaching near to the 
same was great shooting of ordnance in all places there- 
abouts, as well from the Tower as from the ships ; whereat 
the King took great pleasure. Being there arrived, he was 
welcomed by the nobles, and conducted by them to his 
lodging within the Tower, being richly hung and garnished 
with rich cloth of arras, and cloth of estate agreeable to 
such a royal guest. And so were all his nobles lodged and 
placed, some in the Tower and some in the City. His Coun- 
cil lodged for the most part about his Highness, who every 
day kept the council chamber for determination of main 
causes, as weD about the interment of the King's father, as 
for the expedition of his own coronation, 
^k^!*" ^ e morrow after, being Tuesday, all the Lords afore- 
King*t said, and most part of the nobility of the realm, as well spi- 
bMM,a ritual as temporal, there assembled about three of the clock 
14 in the afternoon, went into the King's chamber of presence. 
And after that the Earl of Hertford, the Lord Admiral, 
and other of the King's executors, had brought the King's 
Majesty from his privy chamber to his chair of estate pre- 
pared in the chamber, his Highness there standing, all the 
said Lords according to their degrees proceeded in order 
one after another : and there kneeling kissed his Majesty's 
hand, saying every one of them, " God save your Grace." 
And after they had so done, the Lord Chancellor in most 
eloquent wise declared unto them the effect of the late no- 
ble King's last will and testament, with the names of the 
executors therein contained, being sixteen in number, 
(which are commonly to be seen in our historians.) Adding, 


that it was condescended and agreed with the whole assent CHAP. 
and consent of them all, that the Earl of Hertford should _ 

be governor of the young King during his nonage. Where- Anno 1M6 - 

upon all the said Lords made answer in one voice, That J)^*^ of 

there was none so meet for the same in all the realm as he ; accepted 

and said also, That they were well content withal. Then the f the 

Earl gave them hearty thanks, and said, he trusted in God Kin «'» 

so to use himself, that it should be to their contentation, 

and required them in general to afford him their aid and 

help in the right of the realm. Who made answer all in 

one voice, That they would be ready at all times with all 

their might and power, both for the defence of the realm 

and of the King. This ended, they cried all together with a 

loud voice, " God save the noble King Edward." Then the 

King's Majesty put off his cap, and said, " We heartily 

" thank you, my Lords all ; and hereafter in all that ye 

" shall have to do with us for any suit or causes, ye shall 

" be heartily welcome to us." Then immediately after, all TheLorda 

the Lords temporal were warned to repair to the Star- t «"P™> 

chamber at Westminster, upon the next morrow, to be 

sworn to the King: and so they were. 

On Thursday and Friday ensuing were sworn at the And ipiri- 
isme chamber the Lords spiritual ; and the Master of the t ° t £ e 
Bolls, with the Clerks of the Chancery, in like manner King. 
sworn, to register the testament and last will of the late no- 
ble King Henry. 

When this high dignity and trust was devolved upon the The pratec- 
Earl of Hertford, he, like a considerate man, began to think tot '' pn, " m 
well what a weighty and ticklish office lay upon him ; and 
bow much wisdom and conduct it required to govern this 
great people : and therefore, first of all, like a good Chris- 
tian, solemnly implored the assistance of the King of kings 
in a very proper devout prayer, (which, I suppose, was his 
constant form.) Therein professing to God, how holy and 
sincere his intentions were, and that his endeavours should 
be to promote the divine glory and the good of God's 
Church. And for that end beseeching the Almighty to 
inspire him with all suitable qualifications; to grant him 


BOOK wisdom, and by his counsel to set forth his cause; and to 
give knowledge to all that should counsel him. And that 


Anno 1646.38 Qq^ hgj begun great things by his hand, so to let him 
be his minister to defend them. By the whole prayer may 
be perceived his piety and good intentions. See it in the 
B. Repository. 
Procimma- On Friday, February 4, Chester Herald, accompanied 
C ] a i ms ^ t j 19 with trumpets, proclaimed this proclamation in three several 
coronation, places in London. " Edward the Sixth, &c. Where by the 
mor. i. 7. " laws and ancient customs of this realm of England, the 
15" noble Knights and other the King's subjects, by sundry 
" tenures of their lands and hereditaments, are bounden to 
attend upon his Majesty's person royal at the time and 
day of his Grace's coronation ; to do, exhibit, and min- 
ister to his Highness their several services, duties, min- 
istries, and offices ; and thereupon to receive of his Ma- 
jesty such gifts, fees, and rewards, as to several services, 
" offices, and duties of ancient time hath been accustomed 
" and appertained; his Majesty Royal by his proclama- 
tion signifieth to all his said nobility, and other his 
subjects, claiming to do service at his said coronation, 
that his Majesty hath by his Highness' commission, ap- 
pointed, assigned, and authorized his right trusty and 
" right wellbeloved cousins and counsellors Francis Earl of 
Shrewsbury, William Earl of Essex, and John Lord 
Viscount Lisle, High Admiral of England; and his 
right wellbeloved counsellors Richard Lyster, Kt. Chief 
" Justice of England, and Edward Mountague, Kt Chief 
" Justice of the Common Pleas, [&c] and eight, or three 
" of them, to be Commissioners for the receiving and al- 
" lowance of the said claims. Who shall begin his Ma- 
" jesty's courts for that purpose upon Monday the 8th of 
«' this month of February, within Whitehall of his Ma- 
" jesty's palace." 
The King On Sunday following, the King was made Knight by the 
knighted, j^j Protector, his uncle. And immediately upon the 
same his Highness made the Mayor of London, and Justice 
Portman, Knights. 



Upon Monday next after, the King's Commissioners CHAP, 
began the Court of Claims and Services in Whitehall. "' 

On Friday, Feb. 11, [10,] the Lord Protector did re-ADooi54G. 
ceive and make oath, before the Lord Chancellor in West- 5?^ of 

' a Claims. 

minster Hall, to be a true Treasurer to the King, as of his TheLonl 
treasure, and to deliver it truly, when it should be de-** 01 ***™ 
manded. And also to his power to defend his realm, and to 
withstand the power of the Bishop of Home and his laws. 

Then Thursday, Feb. 17, that is, the day next after the Ami created 
burial of the late famous King, all the temporal Lords as- u e " 
sembled at the Tower of London in their robes of estate ; 
where the aforesaid Earl of Hertford was created Duke of 
Somerset, together with some other creations. 

One of the first cares of the deceased King's executors, Commb- 
and counsellors to the young King, was to renew commis- J£jJ! to tbe 
sions to the Justices of peace of the realm; whose for-newed. 
mer commissions, immediately upon King Henry's death, 
actually ceased. Which was necessary in the first place to 
be looked after, that so the course of justice and the order 
of laws throughout the countries might run as they did 
before. To these commissions the persons subscribed, who 
by the late King's will were made the chief administrators 
of the government, till the King should attain to eighteen 
years of age. And particularly wholesome politic directions 
were given to the said Justices, in order to the preserving 
of peace, righteousness, and good order; and for their 
meeting in the several hundreds every six weeks, and that 
no alteration or innovation should be made. The commis- 
sion to those of the county of Norfolk may deserve to be 
perused. The original is in the Cotton library. Which tran- cott. Li- 
scribed will be found in the Repository. }£**?• 

King Edward VI. a child, but of admirable hopes, being seimow, 
thus come to the crown, his uncle, created Duke of Somer- Governor 
set, (which honour, they say, was intended him by Kingtector. 
Henry,) was (as we heard before) governor of his person, jg 
Who in the beginning of this reign grew an exceeding great 
man, swelling with titles. And this was his style ; " The 
" most noble and victorious Prince Edward, Duke of So- 


BOOK "merset, Earl of Hertford, Viscount Beauchamp, Lord 
*• " Seimour, Grovernor of the person of the King's Majesty, 

Anno 1546." and Protector of all his realms, his Lieutenant General 
€t of all his armies both by land and by sea, Lord High 
" Treasurer, and Earl Marshal of England, Grovernor of 
" the Isles of Guernsey and Jersey, and Knight of the 
" most noble order of the Garter." 

He b the And because as he was thus great, so he also was a very 

write! generous and good man, and a sincere favourer of the Gos- 
pel, he was entirely beloved of those that professed it, and 
for the most part by the populacy ; and therefore was com- 
monly called, The good Duke. And indeed died the people's 

Gets a great It added still further to his glory and esteem, that he cot 

nctory over - . . 

tbt Scott, a complete victory over the Scots in this first year of the 
King, in the month of September : and it was the more glo- 
rious to him, in that the Scots were not only match and 
equal in force with the Protector's army, but treble, or at 
least double in number at the first onset, as was reported 
by strangers. And it was the more glorious still, because it 
was now given out, that this success would effect or bring 
on two admirable ends: "the one, the bettering and per- 
fecting the crown imperial of England, in reconciling the 
unnatural and ungodly hatred between two members of 
one body, viz. England and Scotland ; which of right 
and office should be as the right hand and the left, in 
peace and amity, to resist and withstand the force of all 
strange and foreign assaults. And the other, that the 
old amity and friendship might be restored between the 
two kingdoms, that God by the creation of the world 
appointed to be in this one realm and island, divided 
from all the world by the impaking of the sea, and by 
" natural parentage and blood ; one in language and 
speech, in form and proportion of personage; one in 
manners and condition of living. And that the occasion 
of all discord and hatred banished, the good Scotish 
English man might confess and do the same at home that 
he did in foreign countries, calling an English man al- 






" ways his countryman, and studious to do him pleasure CHAP. 
" before any other nation of the world. The breach of this u * 

" divine and natural friendship was the very work of the Anno 154s. 
" Devil by his wicked members, that hath not only taught 
" Scotland disobedience unto her natural and lawful Prince 
" and superior power, the King's Majesty of England, but 
" the contempt of Christ, and his most holy word." As 
John Hoper, then at Zuric, (afterward bishop and martyr,) Deciant. of 
spake in his epistle to a book which he dedicated to this h u office. 
Duke soon after this victory. 

The Protector's declarations and letters before and after 
the war with Scotland. Sir W. Pagefs new-year's-gift 
to the Protector. King Edwar&s coronation. His piety. 

BUT to stay a little at this war with Scotland, which Anno 1547. 
might seem to be hardly reconcileable with good policy, so™ 6 cmo . M 
aoon after a young King's access to his crown, to embroil into war 
himself in wars with his next neighbours, and that only j^ Scot ~ 
upon the account of a mistress. Therefore to lay open the 
merits of this cause somewhat more particularly than our 
printed histories have done. Before actual entrance into 
this hostility, the Lord Protector issued out proclamations* 
" declaring therein to the Scots, the justness of the English 
"quarrel with them, and offering them all the terms of 
"peace, in case they would perform what the states of 
" Scotland had before agreed to, in relation to the mar- 
" riage with the daughter of Scotland ; and assuring them 
"that they came not with any design to conquer their 
"country, or make themselves masters over the Scots, to 
" bring them into any bondage : but that both kingdoms 
" might live for time to come in perfect love and amity." 

But the Scotch governors and captains withheld these The Scotch 
proclamations from their nation, and stifled them for their ^JJ^^ 
own particular wealth and interest; not regarding the pub- England, 
lie good so much as their own private power and authority; 


BOOK still abusing the people with forgeries and tales concerning 
lm the English nation. 

Anno 1547. As the Lord Protector dealt thus fairly with that nation 
The Lord before the war, so after his victory and return home, he en- 
letter to deavoured by all fair means and messages to pursue toe 
ScotJand * same ends. And indeed a very great number of the Scotiah 
realm, that more impartially considered the benefit of the 
friendship of England, and the danger of the French, who 
were sending forces now to Scotland to assist them, came 
over to the King's side, and were well-willers to him, and 
aiders of his purpose. There was a very excellent letter 
exhortatory sent tcr the Scots by the Lord Protector, in the 
beginning of February; which was also printed, I suppose, 
for this end, that it might not be stifled, as his other former 
letters and proclamations were ; but that it might be read 
of all. Of which notable letter our historians make no 
mention : herein he wrote, " that it made him to marvel 
" what fatal chance it was that had so dissevered their 
" hearts, and made them so unmindful of their own profit, 
to heap to themselves most extreme miseries, which the 
English, whom they would needs have their enemies, went 
" about to take away from them. That though they [the 
English] were superiors in the field, and masters of a great 
part of their realm, and so might expect the Scots should 
" seek to them, yet such was their charity and brotherly 
18 " love, that they would not cease to provoke and call upon 
them to their own commodity : and they were content to 
cry and call upon them, to have the English rather their 
" brothers than their enemies, their countrymen than their 
conquerors. And this should be a witness before God 
and all Christian people between the two nations, that the 
English, professing the Gospel of Christ, did not cease to 
call and provoke them from the effusion of their own 
" blood, and the destruction of the realm of Scotland, from 
" perpetual feud and hatred, and the final eradication of 
" their nation, and from servitude to foreign nations." 

The Protector, in his said letter, shewed " the great bat- 
" ties that had been fought between the two realms, the in- 




" cursiong, roads, and spoils made on both parts; how the CHAP. 
" realm of Scotland was five times won by one King of 



England, jmd several of the Scotish Kings, some taken AnM> l647< 
prisoners, some slain, and some for very sorrow dying. 
" And how notwithstanding both nations were united to- 
" gether in one language, in one island, in like manners, 
" form, and conditions ; so that it was a very unmeet, un- 
" natural, and unchristian thing, that there should be such 
" mortal wars between them." 

And then to incline them to allow the marriage, he pro- 
ceeded, " that if God should grant whatsoever the Scots 
" would wish, what could they wish sooner, than that which 
" now by fortune chanced, that these two kingdoms might 
**be united under one ruler? And that two successions 
" could not concur and fall into one by any other means 
than by marriage, whereby one blood, one lineage, one 
parentage, is made of two, and an indefectible right given 
" at both to one, without the destruction and abolishing of 
" other : which, he said, he would have them to think to 
" come of God's own disposition and providence. And that 
" the rather, because the two sons of the former King, be- 
" ing in divers places, both died within four and twenty 
"hours: leaving but one maiden child and princess. 
" What could any Christian man, that thought the world 
" governed by God's providence, think otherwise, but that 
"it was God's pleasure it should be so, that these two 
u realms should join in marriage, and thereby make a godly 
u and perpetual unity. He protested, as his proclamations 
" at the last wars declared also, that it was the King his 
" master's mind, by his [the Protector's] advice and counsel, 
11 not to conquer, but to have in amity; not to win by force, 
" but to conciliate by love ; not to spoil and kill, but to 
" save and keep ; not to dissever and divorce, but to join 
" in marriage, from high to low, both the realms; to make 
" of both one isle and realm, in love, amity, concord, and 
« charity." 

He urged further, " that it could not be denied but they 
" had the great seal of Scotland granted by the Parliament 


B06K « of Scotland, for the marriage, with assurances and pledges 
" until the performance, and that in the time of the late 


Anno 1647. « j^ mg Henry VIII. And in the time of the same, the 
" Scotch Governor that now was, [viz. the Earl of Arran,] 
" was a great doer therein : though after, by the Cardinal of 
" St Andrew's and others, with certain vain fears and hopes, 
" and greediness of dignity, perverted, and revolted from 
" his first agreement : whereby he had put all the realm to 
" the loss of such holds and fortresses as were lately taken 
19 " from them, and to the loss of a fbughten field." He said 
further, " they [the English] offered the Scots, notwith- 
" standing their victory, to leave the name of their nation, 
" [England,] and to take the indifferent old name [common 
" to both nations] of Britain again ; because nothing shall 
" be left of the English part unoffered. That they intended 
" not to disinherit their [the Scotchmen's] Queen, but to 
make her offspring heirs and inheritors to England. What 
meeter marriage, added he, could be for her, than to 
" match with the King of England ? That they sought not 
u to take from the Scots their laws nor customs, but to re- 
" dress their oppressions. That if their Queen were mar- 
" ried out of the realm, [viz. to the French, who indeed got 
her away,] the English title remained ; and they would be 
subjects to a foreign Prince, of another country and an- 
other language, and have the English their enemies, even 
" at their elbow, and their succours far from them. And 
" if any foreign prince or power should be their aider, and 
" send any army, how would they oppress them, fill their 
" houses, waste their grounds, spend and consume their 
u victuals, and hold them in subjection, and regard them 
" but as slaves, and take their Queen to bestow as they list- 
" ed; and at last leave their realm to be a prey to the 
" English, and a true conquest ?" 

And lastly, an invitation was made to those of their na- 
tion, " that favoured peace, and that profitable marriage, to 
" enter and come into England, and to aid the English in 
" this most godly purpose, and to be witness of their doings ; 
" to whom they would keep promises heretofore declared, 


" and see further recompenced. And, which never yet be- CH A P. 
u fore was granted to Scotland, in any league betwixt Eng- I!1 ' 
" land and Scotland, the King, considering the multitudes Anno 1547 
" of them which were come to his Majesty's devotion, had, 
" by the Protector's advice and counsel, granted, that 
u from henceforth all merchants and other Scotchmen, that 
" would enter their names with one of the Lieutenants or 
" Wardens of the Marches, or any of the King's officers 
"having authority, and there profess to take part with 
" England, might lawfully, and without any trouble or 
" vexation, enter into any port or haven of England, and 
" use their traffic of merchandise, either by land or by sea, 
" and buy, sell, and bring in the commodities of Scotland ; 
" and take and carry forth the commodities of England, as 
" freely as Englishmen, and with no other customs or pay- 
" ments than were due by Englishmen." This excellent 
epistle is preserved in Grafton's Chronicle, and taken thence Pfcgc 998. 
by Holingahed into his, only leaving out a few words in 
the conclusion, shewing the date, viz. " At London the 5th 
" of February, in the second year of the reign of the most 
" noble Prince and our Sovereign Lord Edward VI. by the 
"grace of God of England, France, and Ireland, King, 
" Defender of the Faith, and in yearth under Christ the' 
"supreme Head of the Church of England and Ireland." 
The omission of which in the transcriber occasioned Ho- 
IrogshecTs mistake in placing this letter under the year 1549- 
It appears by Bale that this letter was wrote in Latin as 
well as English ; that it might be, I suppose, the more uni- 
versally read, and the justice of the quai^el, on the side of 
England, might appear to other countries. The same au- 
thor would make this letter to be of the Protector's own 
composing. For he saith, his incomparable wisdom and 
solid learning might be understood by his learned writings ; 
whereof this he sets down for one, and another letter to the 20 
nobility of Scotland he mentions for another, (though I am 
apt to think in this Bale was mistaken, and that both this 
and that was but one and the same,) besides some other dis- 
counts of his. 


BOOK The Duke carried a brave army with him, and was at- 
*• tended with a great many of the nobility. And in August, 
Anna iM7. as he passed by York, Francis Earl of Shrewsbury, that 
Shmvibury generous and loyal Peer, and of ancient nobility, and at that 
accomp*. time President, if I mistake not, of the North, offered to go 
Protector, forward with him and his army, and to do the King service 
with his person in that present journey into Scotland. The 
Duke then told him, that he was loath to put him to more 
trouble and disquiet than needs must, out of respect to hit 
quality, and that he would reserve him till greater need should 
require. But being now at Newcastle, Aug. 28, he sent for 
the said Earl, praying his company, considering sithence, 
as his letter to him imported, of what moment it would be 
to have such a nobleman as his Lordship with them, as well 
to have the charge of some one of the wards of footmen, as 
to foresee for experience the order of things, which might, 
God willing, be worthy of memory. That he should there- 
fore put himself in order with his servants, not passing what 
number he brought of them with him, and to be with him 
at Barwick by Sept. 6. And the Earl did accordingly ac- 
company the Lord Protector. I do not set down the ma- 
nagery of the battle, because our histories shew us that at 
King But when the good news of this victory over the Scots 

behaviour came **> Court, both by an express messenger, and by letters 
upon the from the Lord Protector, it is not to be passed without re- 
ry * mark, how becomingly the young King took it. For on the 
18th of September, being then at his house of Oatlands, 
he wrote an answer to his uncle with his own hand, im- 
porting, " that he had understood the good success it 
" pleased God to grant, by his courage and wise foresight* 
" And in the first place (most piously attributing the mercy 
" to God) he acknowledged himself most bounden to yield 
*\ him most hearty thanks, and to seek his true honour by 
" all the means he might And secondly, he thanked his 
" uncle, and prayed him, in his name, to thank most heartily 
" the Earl of Warwick, and all the other noblemen, gentle- 
" men, and the rest that served in that journey ; and bade 


M them be well assured, that, God granting him life, he CHAP. 
* would shew himself not unmindful of their service, and m " 
"would be ready to consider the same as any occasion Anna 1547. 
" should serve." 

As the above-mentioned letters and writings shewed theTheDoke't 
Duke's parts and abilities, so his conduct of the army* 1 ™ 7 ' 
against Scotland, and his success there, shewed his fortune, 
and added to his glory. But his greatness exposed him to 
die envy of the nobility: under which the good man could 
not long support himself, but fell twice, and the latter time And fall. 
fatally, to the ineffable grief of godly men, and the sore 
regret of the commons, to whom he was very dear. 

Sir John Hayward, (a writer of King Edward's life,) An ill cha- 
who was apt to give ill characters, especially of Protestant [^f^g. 
Churchmen, and others that were chief favourers of theL*fc° f 
Reformation, saith of this Duke, that " he was a man little p.15. 
tt esteemed for wisdom, or personage, or courage in arms." 
Yet let the same author relate some few other historical 
matters concerning the same nobleman, and his reader will 21 
scarcely give him credit in this : for in the same place he 
nth of him, " that he was in favour with King Henry, But un- 
a [and he would not receive fools nor cowards into his faJ *' 
" vour,] and by him was much employed, [which that King 
u would not have done, had he been so weak a person.] 
u That he was always observed to be both faithful and for- 
" tunate, as well in giving advice, as in managing a charge. 1 * 
And then concerning his successes he writes, " that he was 
K Warden of the marches against Scotland ; and that three 
" years successively he made great inroads into that king- 
"dom, and got great victories there: and that in the 
tt marches of Calais, upon the approach of 7000 English, 
" he raised an army of 21,000 French encamped before 
" Bulloyn, wan their ordnance, carriage, treasury, tents, with 
" the loss only of one man : and in his return wan the castle 
M of Outing, within shot of Arde : and the next year invaded 
" and spoiled Picardy." And this moreover the said author 
writes of the Duke, " that notwithstanding his constant suc- 
" cesses, yet did he never hereby rise either into haughti- 
vol. it. i> 



BOOK " ness in himself, or contempt of others; but remained 
" courteous and affable, choosing a course least subject to 

Anno 1547." envy, between stiff stubbornness and filthy flattery. 1 
These accounts of the Duke are hardly consistent with 
that mean character he had before given him, and which 
Page 82. elsewhere he fasteneth on him, charging him with a dull 
capacity, and calling him fearful and, suspicious, and of 
feeble spirit. 
Hi« truer For my part I think he deserves a better commendation 
to posterity. He was a man heartily favouring the Gospel 
and the professors of it, and by his influence the reform- 
ation of religion in England did so well proceed in the be- 
ginning. Nor did he want true courage and resolution, 
until he saw how the greatest part of the Court, for by- 
ends, had entered into combination against him, and had 
acquired such strength and interest, as should he have op- 
posed, might have endangered a civil war, the introducing 
of Popery, and the good King's life, as well as his own ; and 
therefore, in that emergency, reckoned it the best course to 
submit himself. His frailties which procured him enemies, 
more truly were hastiness and passion, snapping up the 
Counsellors, and taking up too sharply those who had busi- 
ness with him, nay, his very best friends, and affecting too 
much to have his own will stand : which Sir William Paget, 
Secretary of" State, his most faithful but plaindeaUng 
friend, once laid before him ; as we may see hereafter in 
this story. 
Paget'* The said Paget, for a new-year's-gift to this nobleman 

gift to the soon after his high advancements, sent him a short scroll, 
Duke - consisting of seasonable advices for his great place and sta- 
tion, enclosed in a letter. Which letter and scroll were as 
follow : 
Paget to " Because the determination to renew gifts of the new 
Protector. u vear was sudden, I could not prepare such a new-yearV 
Cotton Lib. " gift for your Grace as the fashion of the world required 
' * ' " me to present to a personage of your estate : and yet con- 
" sidering the favour of your Grace to be special toward 
" me, and my love is reciproque toward you, methought it 


" best to send your Grace, though no rich gift, yet a token CHAP. 
" of my heart, which wisheth both this and all other years 

" hereafter happy and lucky unto you. My token is this Afmo 154 ^< 
" schedule here enclosed, wherein, as in a glass, if your Grace " 
" will daily look, and by it make you ready, you shall so 
." well apparel yourself, as each man shall delight to behold 
" you. I pray your Grace to accept this token in good 
" part ; which very hearty love, and great carefulness of 
" your Grace's welldoing, hath moved me to send unto your 
" Grace. To whom I wish as well as to my own soul. 

" Your, &c. 
" Wcttminster, Jan. 8. « W. P." 

The Schedule. 

" Deliberate maturely in all things. Execute quickly the 

u determinations. Do justice without respect. Make as- 

M sured and staid men ministers under you. Maintain the 

M ministers in their offices. Punish the disobedient according 

" to their deserts. In the King's causes give commission in 

" the King's name. Reward the King's worthy servants li- 

" berally and quickly. Give your own to your own, and 

" die King's to the King's, frankly. Despatch suitors shortly. 

u Be affable to the good, and severe to the evil. Follow 

" advice in Council. Take fee or reward of the King only. 

" Keep your ministers about you uncorrupt. Thus God will 

w prosper you, the King favour you, and all men love you. D* 

" W. P." 

At the King's coronation, which was Shrove-Sunday, A notable 
Feb. 90, (Sir John Hay ward writes the 19. amiss,) an au-the King's 
thor that wrote about those times relates that he heard it P iet 7 » t . nU 


from credible hands, that when three swords were brought, Vint 
Ngnsof his being King of three kingdoms, he said, there mastnb * 
was one yet wanting. And when the nobles about him 
asked him what that was, he answered, the Bible. " That 
" book," added he, " is the sword of the Spirit, and to be 
" preferred before these swords. That ought in all right 
" to govern us, who use them for the people's safety by 



BOOK " God's appointment Without that sword we are no* 
*• " thing, we can do nothing, we have no power. From that 

Ann* 1547. " we are what we are this day. From that we receive what- 

" soever it is that we at this present do assume. He 

" that rules without it, is not to be called God's minister, 

" or a King. Under that we ought to live, to fight, to go- 

" vern the people, and to perform all our affairs. From 

" that alone we obtain all power, virtue, grace, salvation, 

" and whatsoever we have of divine strength.** And when 

the pious young King had said this, and some other like 

words, he commanded the Bible, with the greatest reverence, 

to be brought and carried before him. 

Knights of The ceremonies and solemnities of the King's coronation 

Ex offic. ma y be re& d elsewhere. There were then nominated and 

Armor. *• 7. made forty Knights of the Bath: who being created with 

so great royalty, were commanded to pay the duties of 

money to the Heralds, double to the same payable by other 

Knights. And because they are omitted by other historians, 

it may be fit to remember them here, for the honour of 

their posterity. 

23 The Duke of Suffolk. The Earl of Ormond. 

The Earl of Hertford. The Lord Herbert 

The Lord Talbot The Lord Cromwel. 

The Lord Charles Brandon. The Lord Winsore's son and 
The Lord Scrope's son and heir. 

heir. Sir Richard Devereux. 

Sir Francis Bussel. Sir Henry Seimour. 

Sir Anthony Brown. Sir Thomas Housselyn. 

Sir John Gates. Sir Edmund Molineux. 

Sir Alexander Umpton of Sir William Balthrope. 

Oxfordshire. [Babthorp perhaps.] 

Sir Valentine Knightly. Sir Tho. Nevyl of Hold. 

Sir G. Vernon of the Peak. Sir Henry Tirrel. 

Sir Holcroft. Sir Wymond Carew. 

[Thomas, perhaps, that The Lord Matravers. 

was Knight Marshal.] The Lord Strange. 

The Earl of Oxford. The Lord Lisle. 


The Lord Hastings. Sir James Hales. CHAP. 

Sir Anth. Cook of Essex. Sir Thomas BrycknaL lfl ' 

Sir George Norton. Sir Amgel Marian. Anno 1547. 

Sir Robert Lytton. Sir John Cuts of Essex. 

Sir John Porte of Derbyshire. Sir William Scarington. 

Sir Cbr. Barker, Garter. Sir William Snathe. 

The Knights of the Carpet dubbed by the King on 
Shrove-Tuesday in the morning, and at other times during 
the utas of the abovesaid noble solemnization were, 
Sir John Radcliff. Sir John Mason. 

Sir Thomas Gray. Sir John Wyndham. 

Sir Anthony Angier. Sir John Vaughan, &c. E F - 

Fifty-five in all. 


Papists* behaviour towards the King. Lent sermons. 

I 1 HE papistical sort were always jealous of this Prince, The Papists 
1 even before he came to the crown, as liking neither his in-^2jn° f 
rtructors nor his way of education. And as the Gospellers 
had their eyes upon him always, and placed great hope in 
him, ao the Papists looked asquint at him. And no small 
Inn there were among good men, lest that sort should 
have taken him off from good principles, by some means or 
other, or from continuance in life, to proceed in them. One John Bale, 
writer in the latter end of King Henry hath these words : 
"Many things I conclude concerning Prince Edward, 
" whom, I doubt not, but the Lord hath sent for the sin- 
" gular comfort of England. Not that I temerariously de- 
" fine any thing to come concerning him ; considering it 
"only in the Lord's power. But I desire the same Lord 
" to preserve his bringing up from the contagious drinks 
w of those false physicians. And this is to be prayed for 
"of all men." 

The King was but young, which supplied the Papists UndemUue 
with pretences to slight and disobey his orders, especially bicauwhe 

D 3 was young. 


BOOK about religious matters. And indeed they cried out after- 
wards of his proceedings, ap being done in his minority, and 



Anno 1 647. d one by others, the chief men about him. They would at- 
** dinarily say, " Tush, this gear will not tarry : it is but my 
" Lord Protector's and my Lord of Canterbury's doing. 
" The King is a child, and he knows not of it/* But oU 
father Latimer upon this hath these words : " Have we not 
" a noble King? Was there ever King so noble, so godly, 
brought up with such noble counsellors, so excellent and 
well learned schoolmasters ? I will tell you this, (and I 
" speak it even as I think,) his Majesty hath more godly 
wit and understanding, more learning and knowledge at 
this age, than twenty of his progenitors, -that I could 
" name, had at any time of their life." 

^"th**™" ^*J> 8ome t ' lere were > ** U P probably by the Papists, 
name of that made scruple of the lawfulness of the very name of 
King. King; because it is spoken in 1 Sam. viii. as a thing dis- 
pleasing to God, when the people of Israel would have a 
King, and that it was a rejecting Goct, that he should not 
reign over them. Which gave occasion to the above-recited 
Flwt §er- preacher thus to speak : " There is a great error risen now- 
tbeJting. " adays among many of us, which are vain and newfangled 
" men, climbing beyond the limits of our capacity and wit, 
" in wrenching this text of Scripture. They wrench these 
" words awry after their own fancies, and make much 
" doubt as touching a King, and his godly name. But it 
" makes no matter by what names the rulers be called, if 
" so be they walk ordinately with God, and direct their 
" steps with him. For both patriarchs, judges, and kings, 
" had and have their authority of God, and therefore 
« godly r 
s^dStM' Lent being come, care was taken to put up good preach- 
prcacbes ers in the King's chapel to preach before the King. And 
ito "tST one of these was Barlow, Bishop of St David's, who this 
I«nt. February preached at Court ; urging in his sermon a re- 
dress of several abuses in religion, and laying some platform 
Winchester f or a reformation. The Bishop of Winchester was then at 
bit doctrine. Court, and was mightily disturbed at it, calling it his tat- 



timg; and noting several points in that sermon, sent them CHAP. 
to the Lord Protector; urging to him, in a letter from his 

place in South wark, the great danger of making any alter- Anno im7. 
ations ; and that the Bishop of St. David's, and such as he, 
laboured to disorder the realm, it being a time rather to re- 
pair what needed reparation ; " that he laid a platform 
" for confusion and disturbances in State ; and that the 
" Council, who had so much other business to do, should 
u not have such inward disorders added to them. That if 
" his brother St David's did, like a champion, with his 
" sword in his hand, make enter for the rest, the door of 
" licence opened, there would be more by folly thrust in 
" with him than his Grace would wish. And that if the 
" Bishop of St David's, and such other, had their heads 
4 cumbered with any new platforms, he would wish they 

* were commanded, between this and the King's full age, 

* to draw the platform diligently, to hew the stones, dig 
"the sand, and chop the chalk, while the time was un- 
" seasonable for building. And when the King came to full 
" tge, to present their labours to him, and in the mean 
" time not to disturb the state of the realm." 

By these subtile counsels did Winchester study to wean St. David's 
the Protector from entering upon a reformation of the cor- * n ,cale * 
rupriofts of the Church, or at least to delay it. And to di- 
vert hi* mind from h, in the same letter, he threw in before 
him anaher plausible business ; namely, to forward a match 25 
between the young King and the daughter of the King 
of the Remans, if the Emperor would offer her, as he had 
once befoie done ; saying, that by this alliance the Protec- 
tor's estimition would increase, and the King's surety not a 
little augmented: and this he shewed might be a good 
check for France. But all the effect this letter of Bishop 
Gardiner had upon the Lord Protector was, that he gave 
to the Bishop of St. David's these notes and animadversions 
upon his semon, to consider the same, and vindicate him- 
self and his discourse, as well as he could. Which he did, 
and called it his purgation. The Protector having received 
it, conveyed it into Winchester, that he might see his own 

d 4 


BOOK cavilling answered. And he again, like a champion for the 
Ia Popish cause, discussed this purgation, and sent it to the 

Anno 1547. Protector. It was writ math such a freedom, that he asked 

the Protector to bear with him. 
Dr. Rid- Soon after, Dr. Ridley preached at Court on a Wednes- 

preacbtt ^"V' *** 8 S 61111011 ^BO ran u P° n t ^ le 8ame 8U kject. WintOH 

before tbe was then also present The business of his sermon was to 
^"*" confute the Bishop of Rome's pretended authority in go- 
vernment, and usurped power, and in pardons. He dis- 
coursed also touching the abuses of images in churches, and 
ceremonies, and especially holy water, for the driving away 
devils. This learned man used much modesty in his dis- 
course ; having such expressions as these, that " he wai 
" always desirous to set forth the mere truth and unity/ 
and would often add, when he laid down any thing, that 
" it was as far as he had read ;" or, " if any man could 
Winchester « shew him further, he would hear him." Winton, who wai 
again. very fond both of images and holy water, and could noJ 
hear them spoken against, wrote him a large letter in be- 
half of both these. The copy whereof he also sent to the 
p»g. im$. Protector. The letter is extant in Fox's Monuments. Bit 
as the Bishop of St. David's, so Ridley also answered Win- 
ton ; but the answers are lost 
Dr. Glazier This Lent, in the month of April, Dr. Hugh Glazier 
p«mi»i Croat preached at St. Paul's Cross, and affirmed there* that 
in Lent. « Lent was not ordained of God to be fasted, neitner the 
" eating of flesh to be forborne : but that the same ws a po- 
" litic ordinance of man, and might therefore be broken 
" of men at their pleasure." This Glazier was formerly a 
friar : Archbishop Cranmer made him his Comnissary for 
Calais and the parts thereabouts. 
The Com- The Complin, being a part of the Evening Prayer, was 
£ogii»h. m **&& in English in the Bang's chapel, before any act of Par- 
liament enjoined it. 


CHAP. V. 26 

)ooks, and others, now published. The Bishop qf 
% t s Consultation. Erasmus's Paraphrase in English. 
Homilies. Popish boohs setjbrth. Images defaced. 
op Gardiner busy. Religion stands as it did. King 
ry*s debts. King Edward's letter, and the Lady 
y*s 9 to Queen Katharine. 

book De Vera Differentia inter Regiam Potesta&em, Anno 1547. 
eriasticam, (called The King's Book, either because £noUix»k 
lenry was the author, or rather the authorizer of it,) premacy 
his time was reprinted by Henry Lord Stafford, with a ^'e^! 

• dedicatory by him made, and set before it. It wasiub and 
inted in Latin in the year 1538, when King Henry pnn 

it of shaking off the foreign power of Rome: and 
s before it was in Latin, that it might be communis 
into all princes, what the extent of regal power was ; 
r it was put into English, by the aforesaid Lord, to 
s the people the better to bear what the King was now 
in the reformation of the Church, and to make the 

* the willinger to let go the Pope and his religion, 

. Octob. 80 came forth, translated into English, theBp. of Co- 
rf the reformation of the Church of Colen; whereof J^*^ 11 " 
in, the good Archbishop and Elector, was the great printed in 
aent This book shewed itself in this kingdom at ngu * 
incture, undoubtedly, by the means of Archbishop 
er, and probably of the Protector, as a silent invi- 
to the people of the land to a reformation, and as a 
to incline them to be willing to forsake the old su- 
ion, when they should see the beauty of a reformed 
h so lively laid before them in this book. And per- 
; was intended to serve as some pattern to the heads 
►vernors of this Church, whereby to direct their pains 
'ere now ere long to take about the emendation of 
us worship. This book took so well, that it was 
1 again the next year, together with the mention of 
see where it was printed, namely, London, and the 
s who printed it, namely, John Day and William 


BOOK Seres, dwelling then in Sepulchre's parish, at the sign of 
*' the Resurrection, a little above Holborn, conduit: both 
Anno 1547. which were omitted in the first edition. The book was thus 
entitled: A simple and religious Consultation of us, Her- 
man, by the grace of God Archbishop qfCclen, and Prince 
Elector, §c. by what means a Christian reformation, and 
Jbunded in God's word, of doctrine, administration of the 
divine sacraments, of ceremonies, of the whole cure of 
souls, and other ecclesiastical ministries, may be begun 
among men committed to our charge, until the Lord grant 
a better, to be appointed either by ajree and Christian 
council, general or national, or else by the States of the 
empire of the nation of Germany, gathered together in the 
27 Holy Ghost. It is an excellent book, and was compiled, if 
I mistake not, by the pains and learning of Melancthon 
and Bucer, and reviewed, examined, and allowed by the 
Elector himself. It treated distinctly of all these heads 
following : 

That some lessons might be recited out of the holy Scrip- 
ture, before a sermon, and declared unto the people. 

That all sermons might be made to the magnifying of 
the Lord Christ. 

Of the Trinity. 

Of the creation and governance of all things. 

Of the cause of sin and death. 

Of original sin, and man's weakness before regeneration. 

Of the Old Testament. 

Of the difference of the Old and New Testament. 

Of preaching peculiar to the New Testament. 

Of the preaching of repentance. 

Of the true and proper use of God's law. 

A short exposition of the Ten Commandments. 

Of remission of sins, and justification. 

Of good works. 

Of the true and natural signification of the word faith* 

Of the cross and tribulations of the Church of God. 

Of the unity and concord of the Church. 

Of Christian prayer. 


A short exposition of the Lord's Prayer. ' CHAP. 

Of abuse in prayer. v * 

Qf the true and false use of images. Anno 1547. 

Of Christian fast 

Qf holy offerings. 

A premonition and commandment against the error of 
the Anabaptists. 

Qf the administration of religion. 

Qf sacraments generally. 

Of baptism. 

The form of a catechism before baptism. 

The exorcism. 

Qf the administration of baptism. 

How baptism must be administered at times and places 

Qf confirmation. 

Qf the Lord's Supper. 

At what time the Lord's Supper ought to be celebrated. 

Qf the communion of strangers and sick folk. 

How sick persons must be visited, and how we must ce- 
lebrate the communion with them. 

Qf communion in private houses for men in health. 

Qf turning from sin, and true repentance. 

Qf excommunication. 

Qf making of Pastors. 

Qf the blessing of marriages. 

Qf burying on holy and feastful days. 

Of fasting-days and Lent. 

Of the difference of meats. 

Of certain other rites and ceremonies of the Church. 

Of ecclesiastical rites upon working-days. 

Of peculiar days of procession. 

Of Litany. 

Of common alms. 

Of schools for children. 
Of schools of Divinity. 
Of disputation. 


BOOK By what means a Christian reformation of holy mua&rf 
and cure of souls may be begun and practised in parishes. 

Anno 1 547. Of reforming of canonical colleges. 

Of the reformation of monasteries both of men and wo- 

Of free and not monastics] colleges of virgins. 
Of the order of eel-brethren and lay-brethren. 
28 And to open the eyes of the people to see the irreligion 
of the mass, and to prepare them to desire the abolishing 
of the same, this same year 1547. came forth another book 
translated into English out of French, written by Anthony 
Deck!*- Marcort of Geneva, entitled, A Declaration qfike Mom: 
Mms°; e ike Fruit thereof, the Cause and the Means; i. e. [the in- 
EnriUh" 1 te " m ] wherefore ond how it ought to be maintained* It 
was printed at Wittenberg by Hans Luft. In this book 
are shewn certain damnable abuses that be in the mass, 
•contrary to the holy Scripture; and sundry Jruits of the 
mass, viz. 1. Multitude of prebends. £. Multitude of 
priests. 3. Multitude of temples and chapels. 4. Multi- 
tude of altars. 5. Divers oblations and offerings. 6» Worldly 
riches and pride. 7. Idleness and truantisse of die shaven* 
8. Multitude of harlots. 9. Feigned hours and prayers. 
10. Detestable hypocrisy. 11. Devouring of widows, or- 
phans, and the poor. IS. Renouncing and destroying of 
the death and passion of Christ. 
And the And about the same season another book, translated in 
oftheCa? our ton g ue > appeared abroad, of the same subject, entitled, 
nonof the The Disclosing of the Canon of the Popish Mass. With a 
Mi * sermon annexed unto it of thejamous Clerk of worthy me- 
mory. Dr. Martin Luther. In the preface to the reader, 
he is bid " to lift up his eyes and behold the abomination 
" of idolatry so shamefully used in those days, and not only 
" used, but with force and main fortified and uphoiden 
with fire and fagot, crudelity and strength ; and so e*re 
uphoiden, that the eternal word of God is clearly ba- 
" nislied." And it is called, " the most shameful mass and 
gazing-stock, the wicked mass, the upspring of Satan, the 



" invention of the Devil, the fair fruit of the Romish raven- CHAP. 
" ing Antichrist, and the laderhouae of all his shaven pos- ________ 

" terity." This book, for the concealing the printer, is said Anno 1547. 
to be imprinted, Have at all Papists, by me Hans Hit- 
prick. But to come to some other books that now were 
published by the present authority, and for public use. 

The Paraphrase of Erasmus upon the four Gospels and* 1 * 116 En &- 

lish Pan- 
tile Acts, was now printed in English, (for the other parts p hnue of 

of the New Testament were not yet finished,) having been Ertwno> « 
translated by the procurement and charge of that pious 
good Lady, Katharine Par, Queen Dowager ; for the help- 
ing of the ignorant multitude towards more knowledge of 
the holy Scriptures, and of their duty towards God and 
their neighbours. In this work she chiefly employed Nico- 
las Udal, (who called himself her servant,) an excellent 
grammarian and instructor of youth, as well as a learned 
divine ; afterward a Prebendary of Windsor : a person he 
was that devoted himself wholly, during his life, to writing 
or translating matters that might be of public profit and 
use. This, as he declared in one of his epistles dedicatory, 
he fully minded and intended. Divers select persons were 
made use of in this translation, that it might the more 
speedily and correctly be done for the common benefit. 
Udal translated the paraphrase upon St. Luke: and that The trant- 
which be did besides was, the digesting and placing the uda i/ 
texts throughout all the Gospels and the Acts, (except the 
Gospel of St. Mark done by another,) to the intent the 
reader might perceive, where and how the process and cir- 
cumstance of the paraphrase answered to the text, and how 
it was joined with it. He was rewarded with a prebend at 
Windsor anno 1551, and the next year with the parsonage 
of Colborn in the Isle of Wight. 

This Udal, Leland the antiquarian honoured with a 29 
copy of verses upon a book that he set forth, anno 1544, Leiand'i 
called Flares Terentii 9 appropriated to the use of learners ^ p 7 n ofTer " 
of the Latin tongue, his scholars; consisting of phrases menditioa 
taken out of Terence, explained and illustrated by him in 
English : printed by Berthelet. Before it are these verses 


BOOK of Leland, in commendation of the book and author : 
'* I will take leave here to set down. 

Candidas exactam monstrare Terentius artem 

Eloquii novit, Roma diseria, tuu 
JUius ex hortojlores selegit amcenos 

UdaBus cupidtB sedulus instar apis. 
Quodque labor pueris studiosis gratior esset> 

Transtulit inpatrios verba Latina sonos. 
lumper et scholionJacuncUe munera lingua 

Addidit, externa woere digna cedro. 
Vos igitur, Juvenes, Udallum ornate, Britanni, 

Sicjluat £ vestro comicus ore lepos. 

Key. Thomas Key, Registrary of Oxford, translated the pa- 

raphrase upon St Mark, by the motion of Dr. Owen, the 
King's Physician. He was rewarded afterwards, in the 
year 1551, with the mastership of University college, 
Oxon, by letters recommendatory from the King. 
The L&dy The Lady Mary, upon the suggestion of Queen Katha- 
Mary * rin, employed herself in the translation of the paraphrase 
upon St. John. But being cast into sickness, partly by 
overmuch study in this work, after she had made some pro- 
gress therein, she left the doing of the rest to Dr. Malet her 
chaplain. But certain it is, she took a great deal of pains 
in it, and went through a good part of it : and perhaps this 
she did, the better to please the King her father, (for this 
translation was taken in hand in his time,) who was ct 
opinion, that the knowledge of the Scripture should be 
Queen Ka- communicated to the people. The said Queen Katharine, 
letterto' m September, in a letter elegantly penned in Latin, had 
her, in desired the Lady Mary to get her said translation with all 
dationof care anc ^ diligence revised, and then with speed to send it 
her pain*, to her, calling it " her most fair and useful work :" that so 
she (the Queen) might with the rest commit it to the press. 
Desiring withal to know of her, whether it should be pub* 
lished in her name, or concealed under somd unknown au- 
thor. Yet she added, " that in her opinion she would seem 
" to do a wrong to her own work, if she should refuse to 


commend it to posterity under the advantage of her own CHAP. 
name: in which her accurate translation she had gone 
through so much pains for the public good, and would Anno iM7« 
; have undertaken more, had her health permitted. She 
: saw not, she said, why she should reject the praise which 
' all deservedly would give her. Yet she left all to her 
'own prudence; as being ready to approve of that most 
' which she thought best to be done." To which I add, 

John Old, who also seems to have been a teacher of °H. 
youth, as well as a teacher of the Gospel, preferred to the 
vicarage of Cobington in Warwickshire by the Duchess 
of Somerset, at the suit of Hugh Latymer, translated the 
paraphrase upon all the canonical epistles, and dedicated 
them to the said Duchess, anno 1549- Besides these, he 
translated also seven of St. Paul's Epistles thus para- 30 
phrased, namely, to the Ephesians, the Philippians, both 
to the Thessalonians, both to Timothy, and to Philemon. 
Which he did at the solicitation of Edward Whitchurch, 
an eminent printer of church books in this time. Who came 
to him and told him, that none were yet appointed to trans- 
late those Epistles, and that it was necessary the whole vo- 
lume should be finished and printed off by such a time 
(which drew on) according to the King's injunctions : which 
enjoined every priest, under such a degree in the Schools, 
to read them. Before the Epistle to the Ephesians the trans- 
lator hath a prologue to the reader. This man being a Doc- 
tor of Divinity got a prebend in the church of Hereford ; 
but not before the year 1552. 

Leonard Cox, a schoolmaster also, and preacher, was the Cox. 
translator of the paraphrased Epistle to Titus. Which he 
dedicated to John Hales, a learned and good man, Clerk of 
the Hanaper. 

The exposition of the Revelations was none of Erasmus's, Allen, 
(neither did he make any paraphrase upon that mysterious 
book,) but was the work of Leo Jude, writ originally in the 
German language, and translated into English by Edmund 
Allen, a learned Minister of the Gospel, and in nomination 
W a bishopric in the beginning of Queen Elizabeth. 


BOOK Who they were that turned the paraphraseAtpon St Mat- 
thew and the Acts, and who those on the Epistles to the 

Anno 1647. Romans, the Corinthians, and the Coloesians, I cannot trace! 
the translators choosing rather to lie concealed. But I am apt 
to think Queen Katharin herself might do one at least, and 
perhaps that upon St. Matthew. 
This work ^g putting of this paraphrase into English was under- 
under King taken before King Henry's death. For in 1546 Udal had 
Henry. finished his translation upon Luke, and dedicated it to 
Queen Katharin. Which makes me suppose these para- 
phrases were countenanced by that King, and had been sef 
forth by his order, if he had lived. 
The pan- The whole paraphrase upon the New Testament was 
printed printed at least twice under King Edward. The first edi- 
twicc. tion was, as was said, about 1547, which was only of the 
Gospels and the Acts. The rest of the New Testament was 
not so ready for the press, and came not forth till about 
1549. The second impression was in the year 1552. Both 
printed by Edward Whitchurch. The paraphrase upon the 
Gospels was ushered in with three epistles ; all composed 
by Udal : one to the King, another to Queen Katharin, 
and the third to the reader. The paraphrase upon the 
Epistles, containing the second volume, was dedicated also to 
the King by Miles Covefdale. 
Tht J ^ f Of Erasmus, in this paraphrase, thus speaketh the afore- 
the pant, said Udal: he "bringeth in and briefly compriseth the 
phme. «< pj^ Q f ^ m j n( j s an( j meanings f a n the good Doctors 

" of the Church, that ever writ, in justification of faith, in 
" honouring God only, in repentance and purity of a 
" Christian man's life, in detesting of imagery, and corrupt 
honouring of saints, in opening and defacing the tyranny, 
the blasphemy, the hypocrisy, the ambition and usurpa- 
" tion of the see of Rome ; in noting the abuses of all the 
" abominable sects and rabbles of counterfeit religions and 
" idle cloisters ; in bewraying the juggling sleights and fine 
" practices of Popery, in choice of meats, in esteeming the 
31" difference of days, in manifesting of vain ceremonies, in 
" the colour and pretence of holiness, crept into Christ's 


W Church ; in reprehending of pilgrimages with all the cir- CHAP. 
f  eumstances of idolatry and superstition ; in describing of 
' u a prince's office; in teaching obedience of the people to- Anno 1 647. 
"wards their rulers and governors; in declaring of a 
"pastors duty; in shewing the part of an evangelical 
"preacher, and what and how hi6 doctrine ought to be 
" out of the Scriptures." But notwithstanding all this good 
m these paraphrases, yet would the Bishop of Winton 
frm have suppressed them, and wrote earnestly to the Pro- 
tector against them; nibbling against some passages in 

The Archbishop of Canterbury had taken care to pre- The homi- 
pare certain pious homilies, to be made and published, with j*" dUHked 
command to be read by such priests as could not preach ; 
that so the poor people might have some means of instruc- 
tion. But it is strange to consider, how any thing, be it 
never so beneficial and innocent, oftentimes give offence. 
For a great many, both of the laity as well as the Clergy, 
could not digest these homilies. And therefore sometimes 
when they were read in the church, if the parishioners 
Eked them not, there would be such talking and babbling in 
the church, that nothing could be heard. And if the pa- 
riah were better affected, and the priest not so, then he 
would " so hawk it, and chop it," (I use the words of old 
Latimer,) " that it were as good for them to be without Latimer 
u it, for any word that could be understood " But some^^™^ 
priests would indeed read them very well. This ill prac- mines. 
bee the bishops winked at, and suffered in their dioceses. 
Which was so much known and disliked, that the aforesaid 
reverend Father complained to the King of it, and was a in his m- 
suitor to him, that he would give the bishops charge, ere mon before 
they went home, upon their allegiance, to look better to bim. 
their flocks, and to see the King's injunctions better kept. 
Hub book of homilies was twice printed by Grafton, anno n. Battel?. 
1547- The latter impression had this advantage, that in 
tome places the English was mended, and the style cor- 
rected and much refined, otherwise the same. Doubtless 
the first impression was found not sufficient to furnish all 

- VOL. II. e 


BOOK the churches and chapels of the kingdom, and for the 
of private persons also : and so the book was soon afte 


Anno 1647. vised and printed again. Before the book was a prefac 

the King, with the advice of the Duke of Somerset anc 

Privy Council, enjoining these homilies to be read ii 

churches every Sunday, and the King's injunctions 01 


Bucer's No sooner were these homilies composed and sent abi 

concerning but the news thereof (and the book itself, as it seemec 

the homi- rea dy translated into Latin) came to Strasburgh, an 

the Protestants there ; where it caused great rejoicing. 

Bucer, one of the chief ministers there, wrote a gratult 

epistle hereupon* to the Church of England, in Novel 

1547, which was printed the year after. Therein 

learned and moderate man shewed " how these pious 

mons were come among them, wherein the people 

so godly and effectually exhorted to the reading d 

holy Scriptures ; and faith was so well explained* wl 

by we become Christians; and justification, whereb 

" are saved ; and the other chief heads of Christian 

" gion so soundly handled. And therefore, as he ad 

these foundations being rightly laid, there could not 

be wanting in our churches requisite towards the b 

32"ing hereupon sound doctrine and discipline." Mea 

this as a gentle admonition to excite the governors oi 

Church to a further reformation. u He commended n 

the homily oi faith ; the nature and force of which wi 

clearly and soberly discussed ; and wherein it was so 

" distinguished from faith which was dead. He much 

" proved of the manner of treating concerning the mi 

" and death we are all lapsed into by the sin of our firs) 

" rent, and how we are rescued from this perdition onl 

" the grace of God, and by the merit and resurrectio 

" his Son ; and how hereby we are justified in the sig) 

" God, and adopted into the number of his children 

" heirs : and then shewing, what ought to be the study 

" work of those that are justified and regenerate. So 

14 he said, by this full and dexterous restitution of Ch 




doctrine, his kingdom was so fully explained to the people, CHAP, 
that there could no relics of the old leaven remain long 

in any parts of our ceremonies or discipline. Then he Anno l647# 
took occasion to stir up the ecclesiastical rulers to go on 
with the reformation of the sacraments : that they might 
be administered according as Christ commended and de- 
livered them to us: that all might partake of Christ's 
grace and saving communication ; as conferring very much 
to the undoubted restoring of faith and godliness." In 
lis epistle he also praised the English nation, in that God 
id often given it kings that were great lovers and pro- 
toters of good letters and arts, from King Sigebert, that 
nmded Cambridge, and many other schools throughout the 
md ; and particularly had brought forth King Henry VIII. 
tat most prudent and valiant Prince. And that at this day, 
» kingdom had more truly learned and godly peers and 
■hops, that exceeded both for their learning and piety. 
To these Church books I add a catechism, set forth not The Arch- 
ily by the Archbishop's authority, but in his own name, ^^k 
t bore this title: A short Instruction into the Christian Re- 
pom ; Jbr the syngvlar commoditie andprqfite qf children 
nd young people. Set Jbrth by the most reverend Father 
i God, Thomas, Archbyshoppe qf Canterbury. This book 
but a translation out of Latin, made by a Lutheran 
itbor; but there be additions in the English, as accom- 
odated to the English Church, which were not in the 
atin, but put in, as it seems, by the Archbishop : particu- 
rly the whole second sermon (as it is called) on the first 
ommandment (more truly the second) about images. 
This catechism, towards the latter end of King Edward's 
ign, was printed again, and had the approbation of a con- 
xation. Of this catechism I have this commendation to 
Id, which Ridley, Bishop of London, gave it in the be- Bishop Rid- 
oning of Queen Mary's reign, before Bourn Secretary of le £ 8 ch J" 
ate, Fecknam Dean of St. Paul's, Mr. Pope, Sir Roger the wither. 
folmely late Lord Chief Justice, and others, that then ^^ 
*e with the said Ridley in the Tower. Who, when they 
d in a conference put it to him, that he was the author 



BOOK of that catechism, though going under the name of Arcb* 
bishop Cranmer, he told them, " that book was made by* 

Anno 1547. " great learned man, and one that was able to do the Ski 

" again. And that, as for himself, he assured them (sad 

" bade them not be deceived in him) that he was never 

" able to do or write any such thing : and. that the writer 

passed him, no less than the learned master his young 

scholar." Meaning, no doubt, the Archbishop of Ctt* 


33 Now did the Papists also send abroad their books, to op- 

^rth°b SCt ^°^ t * le ^ r ^^g superstitions, and to check, as much ask 

Dr. Smith, them lay, the good effects of other books. Richard Smitft^ 

D. D. Reader of the King's Divinity Lecture in Oxon, puk 

lished A Defence of the Sacrament of the Mass, printed If 

John Hartford, 1546. 8vo. Though, but the next yeMj 

on the 15th of May, he made a retractation at Paul's CiWfj 

and soon after published A Declaration of his Retrt 

printed by Reinold Wolf, 8vo. 

Two more Stephen Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester, put out 

Gw^oTn his Declaration of such Articles as Geo. Joy had gome 

to confute, printed by Ro. Toy, 1546, 4to. And \m 

daration of the DeviFs Sophistry, wherein he robteA 

unlearned people qf the true belief in the Sacrament qf 

Altar, printed by Ro. Toy, 1546. 8vo. 

Joy's Re- But in reply to the former, Geo. Joy sent forth 

fuution. fotation of the Bishop qf Winchester's dark Declaration 

his Jake Articles, once before confuted, 8vo. 

Genrd's Lastly, Philip Gerard wrote an Invective against those 

erectile. t ^ at stopped die free passage of the Bible in English: 

which was printed by Richard Grafton, 8vo. 
The Papists And while the Protestants laboured to put the King fp- < 
•top the warc * to rec ^fy abuses, and to promote a reformation in At 
K>ng* Church, the Papists that were about him laboured hard tfctj 
other way; representing the superstitions and abuses of : 
ligion to him as fair as possible. As for images, they 
Latimer's him, " that whereas they had been used to be censed, 
tbTpiow. " to have candles offered unto them, none were so foolish 
" do it to the stock or stone, or to the image itself, but: 


u was done to God and his honour before the image. And CHAP. 

9 b case they had abused, (hey whispered the King in his 

"car, and told him, that this abuse was but a small matter; Ano ° 164 ?. 

u and the same, with all other abuses in the Church, might 

M easily be reformed. But it should not be taken in hand 

" at the first, for fear of trouble or further inconveniences. 

" That the people would not bear sudden alterations. An 

tt insurrection might be made after a sudden mutation, 

" which might be to the great harm and loss of the realm." 

These were just Winchester's arguments, which he used 

■omdays to brandish, and, I suppose, Latimer glanceth at 

lam: " that therefore all things should be well, but not 

u done presently, for fear of further business." And indeed 

these pretences were the occasion that the reformation went 

aot forward so fast; and they stopped the word of God, 

md hindered the true setting forth of the same : " there 

^were so many put-offs, so many put-byes, so many re- 

"specta and considerations of worldly wisdom," saith that 

plain speaking preacher. These men he afterwards took 

aeration to mention in a sermon before the King, calling 

Aembiatmchtrs: and exhorted the King to beware of them. 

The people, in the beginning of the King's reign, were images de- 
lay forward in pulling down and defacing images, even PorUl ^ at j 1 
without permission. This was done in Portsmouth ; where 
(Ewers crucifixes and saints were plucked down and de- 
tfraytxL In one church here the image of St. John the 
Evangelist, standing in the chancel by the high altar, was 
taken away, and a table of alabaster broken, and in it an 
iaage of Christ crucified contemptuously used; one eye 
bored out, and the side pierced. The report of this was 34 
brought to Gardiner the Bishop of the diocese, being then 
* Wolvesay, some great favourers of images relating it tra- 
peally to him. -And he, being a great patron of images 
tfnself, was much disturbed at it, and writ to Mr. Vaughan, 
dtftmn of Portsmouth, and the Mayor, the King's chief 
tfber there, to know the truth of it, and to consult with 
hem for the reformation of it, out of pretence of discharg- 

e 3 


BOOK ing his duty. He desired to know of Vaughan, who 1 
*' the doers, and what the circumstances of it were. Ai were not too far gone with the multitude, he would i 
Gardiner one thither to preach, to stop any further doings of 

writes thi- „ • i  i «. i «i i- 

ther about sort He said, " that such as were affected with this { 
lt ' " ciple of breaking down images, were hogs, and worse t 

" hogs, and were ever so taken in England, being cs 
" Lollards. And that the maintenance of this opinioi 
" destroying images, was utterly disliked in Germany : 
" such men were counted the dregs cast out by Lut 
" after all his brewings of Christ 1 s religion. And he 
" shop Gardiner] himself had seen images standing ir 
" their churches." He used also this terrible argument 
images, viz. " that the destruction of images contained 
" enterprise to subvert religion, and the state of the w. 
" with it ; and especially the nobility : who by inu 
" set forth and spread abroad, to be read of all men, t 
" lineage and parentage, with remembrance of their s 
" and actions." 
And to the In his zeal also he wrote another letter to the Lord J 
tector and Council, for redressing this mighty insole 
The Pro- To which the Protector thought fit to make a large rej 
JjJJ^* wherein he told the Bishop, " that neither the facts 
" words were so heinous as was brought to his ears. 1 
" that those facts that were punishable were already 
" dressed. He reminded the Bishop of the times of S 
Henry, when the Bible was laid aside for a time, u 
pretence that some had abused the reading thereof, w 
" as the images were still left to them who had abi 
" them. And more gentleness was used towards tl 
" books of images than to the true and unfeigned be 
" of God's word ; both being abused, the one to idola 
" and the other to contention. And therefore it seei 
t( meet to him, that what had been abused before mi 
" now be abused again, the advantage of some priests, 
'* simplicity of laymen, and the great inclination of m 
" nature to idolatry, giving cause thereto." 


L , 

■Winchester did, but he went himself in person to Ports- 
■mth, to inquire after this matter. And because the sol- Anno 1547. 
im seemed to be the persons that had been guilty of this"* &** * 
ladeness, upon Captain Vaughan's desire the Bishop made himself 
m exhortation to them as they stood there with their wea-^JJJJ^™ 
poos marshalled : and so departed in amity with the cap- 
tans and soldiers in the town, the captain telling him 
{family, that he was nothing offended with any thing he 
ad in his sermon. 

I have two or three passages more to relate concerning His admo- 
flfaiB Bishop; to shew how bigoted he was to the Pope and°he Pro- 
Is! superstitions, and how exceedingly nettled at the steps tect °r. 
that were now taking in amending corrupt religion. The 
Protector had not long before told him, that he would suf- ' 
ftr no innovation. Whereupon the Bishop took the op- 
portunity now about June, to put him in mind of it from 
Winchester, and advised him " to leave the realm to the 35 
K King at eighteen years old, as the King his father left it 

* to him. The act would be honourable and good. And 

* that it were pity to trouble it with any innovation ; which 

* would be a charge to his Grace more than needed, being 

* already burdened heavily. That the matter of the com- 
tf mon wealth under the King was chiefly his, and as it were 
" his alone ; and that every man had his eye directed to him 
u both here and abroad, and he should shadow other men's 
K doings, if they were done. Which was one incommodity 
a of high government" 

Bishop Tonstal, who was looked upon as one of the HU censure 
learnedest and gravest men, and of the most experience, ° nd xJ 1 ™" 
▼eot along, at first, with the King and the Archbishop in «tai. 
their proceedings. Whereat the said Bishop of Winton 
made this reflection : " That it was much to be noted, that 
" my Lord of Canterbury, being the high Bishop of the 

* realm, and highly in favour with his late Sovereign Lord, 

* [King Henry,] and my Lord of Durham, a man of re- 
" Downed fame in' learning and gravity, both put by that 
u King in trust for their counsel, in the order of the realm ; 




BOOK " should so soon forget their old knowledge in Scriptufe, 
L " set forth by the King's Majesty's book, [the Eruditiomtf 

with two 
books of 



Anno 1647. " a Christen Man,] and give their advice to bring in such 
" matters of alteration in religion as they had done." 

There were now two books published by John Bale, 
whereat Winchester was highly enraged, calling them per- 
nicious, seditious, and slanderous. Bale's pen indeed was 
sharp and foul enough sometimes, when he had such fool 
subjects to deal with, as the cruelties and uncleannesses of 
many of the popish priests, and prelates, and cloisterer* 
But of these books our Bishop writes from Winchester a 
long letter of complaint to the Protector. One of these 
books was, An Elucidation of the Martyrdom of Anne Ascus; 
wherein this Bishop had the chief hand. His exceptions he 
took to this book were, that Bale had made Anne Ascue to 
die a martyr. " Whereas she was, saith he, a sacramenlenf, 
" and so by the law worthy the death she suffered. Aid 

that he had falsely set forth her examination, misreportug 

it : and that hereby his dead master, King Henry, was 
" slandered, religion assaulted, and the realm troubled.* 
Such a zealous advocate was Bishop Gardiner for his be* 
loved mistress, Popery, now by him apprehended to bt in 
great danger. 

From the beginning of King Edward's reign, hitherto, 
the old way of worship, and the rites and ceremonies, con- 
tinued as they had done in the former reign, without or 
but small variation. And whatever inclination the King 
and the Protector, the Archbishop of Canterbury and some 
other of the Kong's Council, had towards a change of divers 
superstitions, yet they thought fit to tarry for a Parliament 
and a Convocation, for the more orderly and effectual do- 
ing of it For they apprehended danger, and some resist- 
ance and uproar among the people, if they should presently 
attempt it of themselves. So the King proceeded no fir* 
tber in a reformation, as yet, than a royal visitation, and in 
framing of some injunctions in order thereunto. But, not* 
withstanding, many there were that now whispered, and ae* 
cretly spread abroad in markets, fairs, alehouses, and other 

•tends yet 

A royal 


tee*, reports of innovations and changes in religion and CHAP, 
eranonies of the Church ; and that they were done by the 

Ling, the Protector, and others of the Privy Council. Anno 1547. 
rherefore for the stopping of these false rumours, May 24,36 
l proclamation was issued out against these reporters ; as- A proda- 
uring the KingV subjects, that such pretended innovations ^Mt fly. 
rere never begun nor attempted by the King and his Coun- in S report*. 
il. And besides these rumours concerning religion, they 
iso spread bruits of other things and facts, sounding to 
he dishonour and slander of the King's Majesty, the Pro- 
ector, and others of the Council, and to the disquieting 
md disturbing of his subjects. Therefore, for the prevent- 
ng of these reports, and discovering the talebearers, all 
ustices and other of the King's chief officers in the realm 
rere, by the said proclamation, commanded to search for 
hem, and imprison them, according to former good acts 
ttd statutes of the King's noble progenitors, made to reform 
dad punish, as lewd and vagrant persons, telling and re- 
porting false news and tales. And all persons that heard 
these reports were by the same proclamation commanded 
to repair to the Court, and declare the reporter, or to some 
yutace of the peace : who was accordingly to commit the 
reporter to prison, until he had brought forth the author of 
die said tales, or who told the same to him ; and to make 
further search from person to person ; and so to get out the 
fast author or beginner of the said tales or news. 

Commendable care was taken, in the beginning of the Can taken 
King's reign, to perform that part of the King's father's last J^*!!* 11 ' 
will, wherein he gave charge for his debts to be paid. And Henry's 
msny things there were that had been taken of the subjects 
by that King's officers, for the service of him and his realm. 
A proclamation therefore was issued out, May 29, for the By pre- 
payment of the King's father's debts: wherein the King damBt, ° 11 ' 
willed all his loving subjects, to whom in this case it apper- 
tained, to declare in writing to some certain of his officers, 
before the feast of St. John Baptist, what remained due 
into them, and wherefore; and he, the said officer, to send 


BOOK the said declarations to the Lord Great Master, before the 
L end of Trinity term : to the intent, that upon the know- ' 

Anno 1647. ledge of the pertain ty of the said debts, the Lord Protector, 
and other executors of the late King's Majesty, might take 
order for the full contentation of every debt. Which they 
intended to do accordingly. 
Com, when Another proclamation came forth in this month of May, 
be exported.!**. May 16, whereby leave and licence was granted to em- 
bark, ship, and carry over the seas, into all outward parts, 
By?"***- being in league with the King, all manner of wheat, and all 
other kinds of grain, so long as a quarter of wheat should 
not exceed the price of six shillings and eight pence ; the 
quarter of 'barley, malt, and rye, five shillings : or unto such 
time as his' Highness, by another proclamation under hit 
Great Seal, should determine the contrary. This liberty of 
exportation of corn lasted till December 7, when another : 
proclamation, directed to the customers, comptroller^, 
searchers, and other officers and ministers within the port 
of London, and all other ports, prohibited it : that whereas 
wheat and malt and other grain exceeded the prices above- 
said, the King's subjects were forbid to transport it from 
henceforth, without his special licence under his Great Seal, . 
upon pain to incur all such statutes and s proclamations at 
were provided in that behalf; and to be further punished 
by imprisonment of body, and otherwise, to the terrible ex- 
ample of all others. But this proclamation did not extend 
to the prohibiting grain to be carried over to Calais and 
Boloign, and other the King's pieces beyond sea. 
37 In this month of May Queen Katharin Far, an ingenious 
^.^^""and learned lady, being then at St. James's, out of her af- 
K. Edward, fection to the young King, her son-in-law, then, as it seems, 
at Westminster, writ him a letter, (and that, I suppose, in 
Latin,) wherein she professed her true love towards the late 
deceased King, and her kindness towards him ; and lastly* 
added proper passages taken out of the holy Scriptures. And 
then she earnestly desired some lines from him in answer. 
Whereupon the King wrote her this elegant Latin letter; 


which fell into the hands of Archbishop Parker, (a great CHAR' 
collector of curious MSS.) on the top of which he writ 

these words: » Annoiw. 

Epistola scripta manu propria serenissimi Regis Edwardi 
ad Dominam Katharinam Reginam, relictam Henrici 

Cum non procttl abs te abessem, et quotidie me te visurum Hit answer 
sperarem, mihi optimum videbatur non omnino ad te literas E Bibliotb. 
dare. Liter a cnim sunt cujusdam et memories et benevo- c -p\ c -C' 
ientuB wage absentium signa. Sed ego pehtwne tua 9 *an-E P itt,viror. 
dem accensus non potui non ad te literas mittere: primum IUartr ' 
ut tibi gratum Juctam ; deindc vero 9 ut tuis Uteris respon- 
deat* bencvclentia plenis 9 quas & Scmcto Jacobo ad me mi- 
nsti. In quibus primum ponis ante oculos tuum amorem 
irgapatrem meum, nobilissimtB memoriae Regem; deinde, 
heaevolcntiam erga me; ac postremb, pietatem, scientiam 
atque doctrinam in sacris Uteris. Perge igitur in tuo 
fcno incepto, et prosequere patrem a/more diuturno, et mihi 
' tmta signa benevolenti<e 9 qua semper hactenus in te sensi. 
Et me desinas amare et legere sacras literas 9 sed semper in 
is legendis persevera. 

In primo enim indicas qfficium bonce conjugis et sub- 
jed<e. In secundo ostendis laudem amicitice hue. Et in 
tertio tuam pietatem ergo Deum. 

Quare cum antes patrem 9 non possum non te vehementer 
hudare; cum me ames 9 non te iterum diligere: et cum 
verbum Dei ames 9 te colam et mirabor ex animo. Quare 
liquid sit quo possum tibi gratum Jacto vel verbo Jucere, 
Kbcnter prcestabo. Vale, tricesimo Mail. 

Which in English is to this tenor : 

A letter written by King Edward the Sixth? s own hand, to 
the Lady Katharine, Queen Dowager to King Henry 
the Eighth. 

** Since I was not far from you, and in hopes every day 
" to tee you, I thought it best to write no letter at all to 
" you. For letters are tokens of remembrance and, kind- 


BOOK " new between such as are at a great distance. But being 
at length moved by your request, I could not forbear to 

I. « 

Anno 1647. " send you a letter : first, to do somewhat that may be ac- 
" ceptable to you ; and then, to answer your letter, full of 
" kindness, which you sent me from St. James's. In which, 
" first, you set before mine eyes your love toward my fa- 
" ther the King, of most noble memory : then, your good- 
" will towards me : and lastly, your godliness, your know- 
" ledge and learning in the Scriptures. Go on therefore in 
" your good enterprise, and continue to love my father, 
" and to shew so great tokens of kindness to me, which I 
38 " have hitherto ever perceived in you. And cease not to 
" love and read the Scriptures : but hold out always in 
" reading them. For in the first you shew the duty of a 
" good wife and a good subject ; in the second, the praise 
" of your friendship ; and in the third, your piety towards 

" Wherefore, since you love my father, I cannot bat 
" much commend you : since you love me, I cannot but 
" love you again : and since you love God's word, I will 
" love and admire you from my heart Wherefore if there 

be any thing wherein I may do you a kindness, either 

in deed or word, I shall do it willingly. Farewell, the 

80th of May.* 

The Lady Queen Katharines benign and gracious disposition had 
JJjJ* to reconciled her the respect and love of her late royal hus- 
QJtattarin. band's children : and as the King, her son-in-law, had wrote 
her a letter in May, so in August she received one from her 
daughter-in-law, the Lady Mary : who made the Marquis 
of Northampton, the Queen's brother, the bearer, from 
Beaulieu, the Queen being then with child by the Lord Ad- 
miral, her husband. Which letter ran to this tenor : 

" Madam, 

Cot. Libr. " Although I have troubled your Highness with sundry 
otbo, .10. a ] etters ^ y et t } iat notwithstanding, seeing my Lord Marw 

" quia, who hath taken pains to come unto me at this pre* 


u tent, intendeth to we your Grace shortly, I could not be CHAP. 
* satisfied without writing to the same : and especially, he- 


" cause I purpose to-morrow, with the help of God, to be- Anno ***?< 

a gin my journey towards Norfolk, where I shall be farther 

from your Grace. Which journey I have intended since 

Whitsuntide, but lack of health hath stayed me all this 

" while Which, although it be as yet unstable, neverthe- 

" less I am enforced to remove for a time, hoping, with 

" God's grace, to return again about Mighelmas. At which 

" time, or shortly after, I trust to hear good success of your 

" Grace's great belly. And in the mean while shall desire 

"much to hear of your health, which I pray Almighty 

" God to continue and increase to his pleasure, as much as 

"your own heart can desire. And thus, with my most 

" humble commendations to your Highness, I take my leave 

M of the same, desiring your Grace to take the pains to 

"make my commendation to my Lord Admiral From 

" Beaulyeu, this 9th of August 

" Your Highness humble and assured 

" loving dowghter, 

" Marye " 

CHAP. VI. 39 

Dr. Smith recants. Some account of him and his writings. 
Bell metal not to be transported. 

IN the month of May, Dr. Richard Smith, public Professor Smith 
of Divinity in Oxon, made a recantation of his popish errors n "~ 
at St PauTs Cross. And in June one Pen-in, a ^lack 
Friar, recanted in the parish church of St Andrew Under- 
fhaft, London ; that whereas he had before, viz. on St. 
George's day, preached, that it was good to worship the 
pictures of Christ and saints, now he said he had been de- 
ceived, and was sorry that he had taught such doctrine, 
fiat in Queen Mary's reign they both appeared in the pul- 
pitis open defenders again of these and the like renounced 


BOOK The story of this Dr. Smith, his recantation, fickleness 
*' flight, and the books he wrote against P. Martyr, take dm 

Anno 1547. particular account of. A few days after he had pronounced 

£rice re^ "** recantetio 11 * or («■ ne rather chose to call it) his retrac- 
cants at taHon, at St. Paul's Cross, he repaired to Oxford, and there, 
And why. 8 ° on after, came up in public, and recanted, as he bad done 
• at London. But, it seems, it was done by him by halves: 
for instead of declaring at length, plainly and fully, the 
tenor of what he had said at St. Paul's, he insisted much 
- in shewing his auditory, that what he then said was not so 
much a recantation as a retractation. And then took occa- 
sion to fall foul upon some that believed not the real) that 
is, the corporeal presence. He wrote also letters to his 
friends, denying he had made a recantation. This occa- 
sioned many persons to talk, that Smith still retained his 
errors, and trod in his old steps : and therefore that the nv i 
cantation he had published, either was not his, or that he t 
was forced to it, and did it unwillingly. Therefore Smith 
came up again publicly in Oxford, not in August, (as was j 
mistaken in the Memorials of Archbishop Cranmer,) but the j 
9. of the calends of August, that is, July £4, and then [ 
read his whole recantation, verbatim* which he had made 


before at St. Paul's: having first made a large preface, 

shewing the reasons of his coming up there again. Therein 

His preface he acknowledged, " that the distinction he had lately made, 

cood ream. " to tne offence of many, between recantation and retract- 

trfon. « ation, was frivolous, both words signifying the very same 

thing ; and that the true reason he had affected the word 

was to palliate and excuse his own recantation. That it 

" troubled him, that by that obscurity he should decern 

" any. And whereas, after his recantation, be had writ 

" and scattered his letters, wherein he laboured to ex- 

" cuse himself to his friends, and dissembled his doings, 

seeming more studious to preserve his name and credit, 

than openly to avouch the true doctrine ; he now declar- 

" ed, that all he had afterwards writ in letters, or deli* 

" vered in his lectures, he renounced and revoked as false 



M and erroneous-" And then he proceeds to read the whole CHAP, 
leeantation, as he had made it before in London. V1 - 

Which began thus : " Men and brethren, the holy Pro- Anno 1547. 

* u phet David left it written, Every man is a liar, &c." 40 
The sum of this recantation may be read in the Appendix 
to Cranmer's Memorials. The whole of it in Peter Mar- 
tyr's works. In the conclusion of this his recantation, as 
he had prefaced something before it, so he subjoined some- 

; thing. And this it was, " that whereas some had been Smhh d*. 

 " offended with an assertion of his about justification, which ^JJ^JJ^" 
" was, that four things were required therein, God's pro- justific*- 
" mise, Christ's merits, the worthiness of the person, and 10n * 
" of the works : taking what he said of the works of a man 
" already justified, as spoken by him of a man in order to 
" his justifying. But to satisfy all, this he now said, and 

i- " this he affirmed, that this doctrine, that we are justified 

t u by faith in Christ alone, is not new, nor lately found out, Pt. i«49. 

F«, •. • « « « • ■» hi). HaaiI. 

but very ancient, taught by the most ancient doctors, x 


"Origen, Basil, Chrysostom, and others. That they se- 

" eluded all the merits of men, however specious, and 

" ascribed to Christ alone the glory and merit of our justi- 

u Station, and to his sacred blood and passion : by which 

u alone we are sanctified, delivered, justified. And that 

" this doctrine was delivered by them for this end, that all 

u glorying might be taken away, and that men should ac- 

" knowledge their own weakness and infirmity. Yet, that 

" it is not lawful for a Christian to despise good works, or 

" that die Christian life should be slothful and destitute of 

" the fear of God, of hope, repentance, amendment, cha- 

"rity, prayer, fasts, almsdeeds, and other good works; but 

" truly to acknowledge, that when we have done all, we are 

" unprofitable servants, not worthy to have thanks given us 

" for our works ; but to confess that We are saved by the 

" mere mercy of God, for the merits of his beloved Son." 

And this was the sum of Smith's recantation at Oxford. 

But notwithstanding all this that he had done to secure He ■• **• 
to himself his place of Professor, not long after, he was re-hu Profet- 
moved, and P. Martyr was sent down by the King's au-^'P 1 **- 


BOOK thority, and took the chair. At which Smith conce 
secret indignation, and returned to all the popish da 

Anno 1647. that he had revoked. But yet for a while frequented 

tyr*8 lectures, and took notes, as though he had be 

of his diligent and glad auditors. But all this was h 

simulation : for it was not long after, that he made a 

hubbub in the University, and publicly challenge* 

grave and learned man to a disputation, as hath' been i 

P**!**- in the Memorials of Archbishop Cranmer. But befo 

Lor^a. day appointed for it came, he was fled, first to Scotia 

it seems, and soon after to Lovain : where he soon p 

his book for the Celibacy of Priests, and Monastic 

against P. Martyr ; though it were at first designed 

forth against Martin Luther. Which book Martyr am 

learnedly 9 in a just treatise extant among his worki 

the end of which treatise he set down Smith's recant 

and a narration of his fickleness divers years past, wl 

read in the behalf of Justification by faith alone, on< 

Bishop Latimer being his auditor, and against it th 

next And two submissive letters writ by him to the 

bishop of Canterbury from Scotland. 

And to At Lovain he could not tarry long, but departed i 

J|££ he to Paris, where he professed divinity. And here, t 

printed his the latter end of the year 1560 he printed a seconc 

j^j^Qrt his book of the Celibacy of Priests, against Martyr, 1 

Martyr, gall and bitterness in the very title, which ran thut 

^Jensio sacri Episcoporum et Sacerdotum c&libatus . 

impias et indoctas Petri Martyris Vermilii nugas 

lumnias, qua %Ue Oxonii in Angtia duobus retro a% 

sacerdotalium nuptiarum assertionem tenure effutiv 

That is, A Defence of the holy single life of Bishop 

Priests, against the impious and unlearned trifle 

slanders of P. Martyr Vermilius, which two years < 

rashly uttered at Oxford in England, upon the asi 

of Priests* marriages. By Rich. Smith, an Engiu 

formerly for a great while professing Divinity at. 

and now at Paris. Also a short book by the same a 

concerning Monastic Vows, against the same Marty 


others of this sort. Both now the second time coming Jbrth CHAP. 
*onr correct and exact. And in this second edition also VI * 
waft pretended, by the tide-page, to be a refutation of Po- Anno 1547. 
net, who had writ upon this argument : though there be 
nothing in the book against him, unless now and then in 
the margin these and such like words, Hue adverte oculos, 
Ponete, et errorem agnosce tuwn. This book he dedicated Coiiegii 
to David Haliburton, the head of a college in Scotland, Jj^tup^ 
(who, I suppose, had entertained him in some of his flights,) posito. 
offing him his best friend, and to whom he was very much 
obliged. In this epistle he is ready to die in the quarrel of 
the Papal religion, which he styled Chrisfs Jaith. And in 
In recantation, not long before, he professed himself ready 
to die for the contrary doctrines. Which was a sign he 
neant to die for neither. 

Id the said epistle he cried aloud of the troubles of Eng-oWrr»- 
knd, as caused by the religion; "that the nation was{^° e >0 ^ f 
" every where afflicted with so great miseries, shaken with dedicatory. 
" so many differences of sects, tossed with so many waves 
u of divers opinions, as scarcely any country ever before 
" was. How many and various popular tumults have he- 
u resies, said he, brought forth in our land ! What miser- 
u able conspiracies have the sects raised ; the end of which 
" hath been bloody!" [He means the rebellion in the west, 
and other countries ; which yet was raised and carried on 
by no other sect than Papists : but he, being to be read in 
a foreign country, would charge most falsely these tumults 
upon the sects and heresies, by which he' meant the Gos- 
pellers.] And then he added, " Are not these evils open 
" tokens of God's anger ? Doth it not appear hence, that 
" the newsprung religion is displeasing to God ?"" In this 
episde he ventured his credit to say, " that there were more 
" by twenty times, nay, by a hundred times, in England, that 
" did abhor these sects, and wished for nothing more, than 
" thai all the heresies were totally overthrown, and that the 
" aid religion of Christ, and the ancient rites of worship- 
" ping God, might be restored." He added, with as much 
forehead, and with as little care of truth, " that, of the more 



BOOK " learned and pious sort in England, none hitherto joined 
" with the sects ; but all such constantly, and with fervent 

Anno iM7. « mind and strong resolution, opposed them." Lying noto- 
riously, if in the number of these pious and learned men he 
reckoned himself and Chedsey, and divers others, that re- 
canted and complied in this reign, though some of them 
fell off again soon after. 
Hecaium- And mentioning with extraordinary honour the Bishops' 
Hoper*t of Winton and London, Wigorn and Chichester, and some 
preaching. others who had undergone punishments from the state, lie 
42closeth up all with a most malicious lying story of that 
reverend man Mr. Hoper, viz. " That after he began to 
" preach in London, about one or two years ago, [toward* 
" the beginning of King Edward,] he was so admired by 
" the people, that they held him for a prophet, nay, they 
" looked upon him as some deity. But that now he was, by 
the impulse of his own spirit, sunk into the depth of error' 
and ignorance, that he was not content to thunder in his 
" pulpit against all the doctrines of the ancient and apo- 
" stolical Church, and to teach his disciples the highest con- 
" tempt of all the sacraments, to esteem the holy Eucharist 
" no more than a wheaten loaf, and the holy wine but 
what was pressed from the grape; but he must affirm, 
that by one act of fornication, one designation of adultery, 
marriage was so dissolved, that he who once had to do 
carnally with another main's wife became thereby the 
" husband of that woman ; as though, said he, one unclean 
" act alone was the cause of marriage." But as he went on 
with his story, " to preach these things was not enough for 
" him, unless he added other things more estranged from 
" truth. For which he was called, saith he, before the ma- 
" gistrates, and being brought to the bar was found guilty, 
" and had sentence pronounced upon him. But when cru- 
" cent commeruit, he deserved hanging" as he charitably 
said, " he was only silenced ; being so gently dealt with, 
" because his judges were of the sectaries, as he was." And 
then our author presently roars out against the injustice of 
the judges, and how partial they were. So apt was this 


idn and his party to run away with any silly stories, if CHAP. 
bey were but black enough to represent Protestant mi- 
isters as very black men. When as the true reason whyA*" 10164 ?. 
Hr. Hoper was enjoined silence was nothing else but be- 
cause he had preached against the habits. But Smith will 
tell you another story of him, that he was guilty of a com- 
plication of gross heresies. For so he writes somewhere in P*g. so. b. 
the margin of his book : Legal hcec Hoperus, &c. " Let 
" Hoper read this, who at this time is called into question, 
" and accused of divers horrid heresies. For they report 
" that he defends the heresies of the Arians, Anabaptists, 
u and Libertines." And all this is the entertainment he gave 
to Mr. Haliburton in his epistle to him. 

In his epistle to the reader he speaks boastingly of three obtenra- 
books he published about four years before, that in 1546 J^™* 
or 47, viz. 1. His Defence of the Eucharist against the p«^ie to 
(Ecolampadians. £. Of the Sacrifice of the Mass. And 
3. Of the Traditions of the Church. But he 'doth not speak 
a word how he had himself openly recanted the two latter 
die same year 1547, both at London and Oxon. No, that 
he thought fit to conceal ; only bragged, that now in four 
years no man had answered them ; only in pulpits many 
had ignorantly inveighed against them. But what needed 
they to be answered, when he himself had done it, by dis- 
claiming and confuting the two latter of them so publicly : 
tod probably he would so have done the first had he been 
required. But GEcolampadius's doctrine was not counte- 
nanced in King Edward's days. 

He tells his reader, moreover, what he had printed, so 
what more he had ready for the press, namely, another dis- 
course against P. Martyr, and such as he ; and another of 
the Holy Eucharist, and another of Purgatory, and an- 
other of the Imogen of Christ and the Saints, and another 
of Pulling down Churches, and another of Taking away A3 
Jtiors and Wax-candles; besides theological topics; with 
other things which he promised in a short time to set forth, 
if his present published work was not ungrateful to his 
fcader. But whether these pieces ever came abroad, I can- 



BOOK not tell ; and I suppose they did not, notwithstanding thk 
L manner of begging the sale of this book, by promising more 

Anno 1547. to follow. 

The book As for the book itself, it consists but of three chapter*. 
itMif. iji^g g rgt to pj^yg ^ celibacy by Scripture, the second by 

Fathers, and the third to confute the arguments brought 
by the adversaries. The whole book is levelled against P. 
Martyr ; but that he might take in certain others, who had 
writ for or approved the marriage of priests, as Cranmer, 
Cox, Ponet, Hoper, he had a very novel way of confuting 
them, namely, by little short flings at them, ever and anon, 
in the margin, after this manner ; Licet aliud impte docsat 
Thomas Cantuariensis. Lege hoc, Coxe, et reripisce. Hue 
adverte oculos, Ponete, et errorem agnosce tuum. Lege* 
Hopere; vide Hopere, ut scias quamfcede lapsus sis m 
enarrando mandatum Dei septimum : and many such like, 
But especially he is plentiful in these marginal memento? 
to P. Martyr:* as, Quid ad hcec mussites, Petre t Dam* 
natur ergo Petrus. Quid ad hoc vel hisces, Petre t Gm* 
nives ad hoc, Petre f Redde JUissimo vota tua, O Mar- 
tyr, &c. 
Reflections I shall take no farther notice of this book, except that 
the Arch" towards the conclusion there be base and unmannerly re- 
buhop of flections upon the good Archbishop of Canterbury, relating 
r to his wife and his book: where, speaking of an article 
in the Council of Nice, pretended to forbid marriage to 
priests, he thus accosts him ; Cur non lectitas hoc Synodi 
hujus sacrosanctiB verba, Thoma Cantuariensis Prtesul, he 
" Thomas Bishop of Canterbury, why do you not read 
" these words of the sacred Council, that you may th< 
" sooner and readier acknowledge how you are detained ii 
" an evident error, while you think a wife is lawful ion 
*' you, whom you have so long abused for the fulfilling fit 
« your lust? Do not drive our countrymen from readily 
" this [my] book, as lately you have forbid that my CStwgjflft 
" tation should be read by any, which I lately wrote fa 
" English, against that ungodly book published concerns^ 
" the Eucharist. Which plainly sheweth, that you diatrua 


44 your own cause, and fear lest your blindness and wicked CHAP. 
u ignorance, and theirs by whose labour that book was V!< 

"patched up, be by any discovered. But what you did, Anno 1*47. 

u hath more hurt than helped your purpose. For what 

44 wise man will think your doctrine true, and well defended 

44 and fortified with solid reasons, when he should see you 

M so earnestly and diligently labouring, and so anxiously 

" providing, that what is writ against it be not read? Was 

44 the Gospel of Christ propagated by such arts as ye now 

tf fie not ashamed to use ? For with you neither learning 

44 aor any reasons, however solid and enforcing, have any 

" weight ; with you all the sacred councils lie contemned ; 

" the judgments of the ancients, however pious and learned, 

44 are thrown by, and the authority of Christ's Church is of 

" bo value. Is it not hence, that daily so many abominable 

u sects arise up among you ? Whence, I beseech you, are so 

14 many Arians, Anabaptists, Libertines; whose heresies, 

u the report goes, John Hoper, our countryman, defends, 

" who so long hath been esteemed among you little less 

44 than a prophet? Doth it not proceed from the contempt 

« rf the Church and the Fathers ? Take heed that God 44 

" give you not up to a reprobate mind ; and so by little 

<* and little ye fall into most cursed heresies, and make way 

« for Antichrist" 

Thus did this man, without fear or wit, let fly at the Smith'* let- 
aost reverend Prelate, partly to recommend himself the fai ™"J£ 
more at Paris, where he now was, and partly to revenge w»»et to 
himself upon the Archbishop, who, it seems, had not, at 
bis desire and promise of submission, procured him a par- 
don from the King, and a safe admission into England out 
of Scotland, whither he had fled. For not long before this, 
lor certain misdemeanours he seemed to have been committed 
to the Archbishop's custody at Lambeth. Where he was 
by the gentle Archbishop used with all courtesy, and re- 
ceived from him many benefits, and particularly satisfaction 
in tbjfe controverted points. But Smith takes his opportu- 
■ty, and on a sudden secretly made his escape, fled beyond 


p. 1654. 


BOOK sea, and at length comes into Scotland. Thence, after tome 

*• time, weary of that country, or that country of him, be 

Anno 1547. addressed to the Archbishop his letters from St. Andrew's, 

• Se p t M m one wr * t * n ^ axmar 79 an< ^ two more m February ; " ac- 
De Vot. " knowledging his sudden and rash departure from him, and 
" praying that his Grace would forgive the wrongs he had 
" done him, repenting his evil deeds, and that he would 
" obtain for him the King's pardon in writing, for the 
" transgression of his laws in all points, that he might re- 
" turn home again in safety. And promising, that then he 
" would make a just satisfaction for what he had .wrote 
against priests' marriage, by writing a book in Latin for 
it, and that he would willingly embrace all other doo- 
" trines lately established. But otherwise, if he continued 
" there where he was, a quarter of a year longer, he pre- 
" tended he must be obliged to write against the Archbi- 
shop's book of the Sacrament, and to compose a discourse 
against all King Edward's proceedings : which, he said, 
" he could not with a good conscience do. And then vain- 
" gloriously added, that he desired to return home, not so 
" much that he wanted any good livelihood where he was, , 
as because it would be dishonourable to the King and 
realm, if he should tarry there." But I do not find his 
return into England, nor a pardon procured for him. 
Whereupon, I suppose, he was as good as his word, and 
wrote against the Archbishop's book, and inserted those 
rude and spiteful lines against him in the book above 
Urget juiti- i n fi nCj to take our leave of this man, to shew how giddy 
faith, be- and unstable he was all along, and of what a profligate 
fore Bi$ hop cong^nc^ whom the Papists esteem one of their best 

champions in those days, I will relate a passage of him, 
which P. Martyr received from one who was present at the 
matter. When this public reader of Divinity, about the 
year 1537,. or 1538, had understood that Latimer, Bishop 
of Worcester, was the next day to pass through Ox^pd to- 
wards London, and was like to be present at his lecture, he 


laid aside his ordinary reading, and for that day read out of CHAP. 
the fifth chapter to the Romans. And then urged most earn- Vl ' 
esdy the doctrine of justification by faith alone, without Anno 1547. 
works, without merits, and termed the faith that justified, 
xlusima et unissima. The Bishop, who was then one of 
his auditors, after he had done, thanked him, and told him, 
he perceived he had been mistaken in him, afad promised 
that he would, as occasion offered, recommend him favour- 
ably to the King. But when the same day Dr. Cotes, and 
two abbots named King and Masse, and some other of Ber-45 
nard college, had argued with him, and charged him sharply 
for reading such a lecture ; the next day he, in the same 
place where he had read before, revoked all he had said, 
and asserted quite the contrary doctrine; and acknow- 
ledged that what he had read the day before was done put And re- 
of fear, bang astonished at the presence of so great a man, the next 
and so unusual a multitude of auditors, and praying, that <*»?• 
they would attribute it to his youth ; at that time plucking 
off his cap, whereby every one saw his gray hairs, which 
caused laughter. 

England had been largely replenished with bell-metal Bell-metal 
once the dissolution of the monasteries ; and vast quantities exported ; 
of it were shipped off for gain. Nor -was the land yet emp- n ° r but ££ 
tied of it For now it was thought fit to restrain the car- 
riage of it abroad ; especially having so near an enemy of 
France, that might make use of it for great guns against 
ourselves. Therefore July 27. a proclamation was issued 
out, forbidding the exportation of that and other provi- 
sions, lest the enemy might be supplied, and our own coun- 
try and army want. It ran, " To our customers, comptrol- The proci*- 
u lew, &c. and other our officers within the port of Lon- ,llaU0,l • 
" don, and in all creeks and places to the said port belong- 
14 fog, for certain causes and considerations, us, and our 
u dearest uncle Edward Duke of Somerset, Governor of 
u oqr person, and of our realms and dominions and sub- 
" jects Protector, and other of our Privy Council, specially 
" moving ; we strictly charge and command you, that ye 
" permit, nor suffer to be carried or conveyed out of the 

f 4 


BOOK " said port, or any other creeks, any manner of bell-metal, 
h " butter, cheese, tallow, or candles; unto such time as by 
Anno 1647. " our letters patents sealed, ye shall especially have oar 
" farther commandment for the same; the towns of Cahai 
" and Boloign, and the marches of the same, always a- 
" cepted, &c. And that upon pain of 8002. to be levied of 
" your lands, goods, and chattels. Dated at Westminster* 
But this proclamation would not effect the thing intended, 
though it were founded upon a statute made in the thirty- 
third of Henry VIII. the inconvenience of having tUi 
metal transported being then apprehended. Which then- 
fore occasioned another act of Parliament in the second 
of this King, anno 1548, that no person should carry cr 
ship off beyond sea any brass, copper, latten, bell-metal 
pan-metal, gun-metal, &c. whether it were clear or mixe& 
tin and lead only excepted, upon certain forfeitures that 
set down. 

4 6 CHAP. VII. 

A royal visitation. Injunctions and articles of inquiry. 
The Bishop of Winchester's behaviour towards it. Cba- 
saltation of entering into league with the ProtesUm& 
Pensions. The Lady Mary chargeth the Protector about 
religion. A plague. 

^itJt' ^* ®^ a ro y^ visitation was on foot throughout Eng- 
land, wherein this autumn was spent, to look into and n- 
, gulate the affairs of the Church and of religion. Of whiflfc 
the Memorials of Archbishop Cranmer and other historian 
speak. I shall add some matters relating to it, omitted by 
them. The actual order for this visitation was issued oat * 
September 1, and during the time the Commissioners for the 
same were employed abroad, the King caused a Parlimnest j 
to be summoned, November 4. They carried along witMJ 
them the King's Injunctions printed, which are ordinarily 
to be seen. But these were also accompanied with a book 
of articles, printed at the same time, called, " Articles to be 


uired of in the King's Majesty's visitation." These ar- CHAf. 
were twice printed in the same year by Grafton. They _ 

mitted in Bishop Sparrow's Collections. My late reve- a™" >m»- 
friend, deceased, had one of these books at Injunctions A t«i« ot 
Articles, and which he verily believed did once belong N Batte] 
rcbbiahop Cranmer; wherein are certain corrections, The injunc- 
: supposed, of the said Archbishop's own hand : as 
i Mass changed thus, The celebration of the holy 
mumion: Mass arid Service changed into God's ser- 
Injunction XI, expunged : the latter part of Jnjunc- 
& Also Injunctions 35 and 36 marked to be ex- 
ed. And at the end of the form of bidding the coin- 
prayers is added a prayer for the success of the Duke 
raerset's expedition to Scotland, in order to the effeov 
if the King's match with the young Queen of Scot- 
; which prayer is writ by the same hand, and is as fol- 
;h: "Ye shall also make your harty and effectual a prayer 
lyer to Almighty God for the peace of all Christian Sj^jl^h" 
pons, and especially, that the most joyful and per- Scotland. 
:ual peace and unity of this reyalme and Scotland may 
ally be profited and brought to pass, by the most 
lly and happy manage of the Kings Majesty and the 
ting Queen of Scotland : and that it wold please Al- 
gbty God to ayd with strength, wisdom, and power, 
i with his holy defence, all those which favour and set 
ward the same, and vanquish and confound all those 
ich labour and study to the lett and interruption of 

godly a quiet and unity, wherof these two realms 
wild take such a benefyt and profltt : for these and all 
w, fcc" 

kd besides the King's Injunctions, the Commissioners The Com- 
forth particular injunctions of their own to each Bishop. ™,'"™J^, 
e given to Thomas Bishop of Westminster, as I find 

in the first edition of the Acts and Monuments, were 


BOOR Injunctions given in the King** Majesty* $ visitation < 
lm us, Sir Antony Cook, Knight; Sir Jhon Godsah 

Anno 1647. Knight; Jhon Gosnolde, Esq.; Christopher Newi 

4 7 sone, Dr. of Law ; and Jhon Madew, Dr. qfDivink 

Commissioners specially appointed by the King's M 

Jesty 9 to visit the churches of Westminster, Londo 

Norwich, and Ely; to the right reverend Father \ 

God, Thomas, Bishop of Westminster. 

Injunction! Imprimis, In consideration that above and before i 

*£" b o f Bl ~ things, such ways and means are to be sought for, wherei 

Weftmin- the people may learn to know their duties to God, the 

•ad Mod. sovereign Lord, and to one another ; you shall cause eva 

tat edit. Sunday divine service to be done and ended in every parii 

church within the city of Westminster, before nine of tl 

clock the same day, to the intent that the priests and tl 

laity of the city may resort to the sermon to be made i 

their cathedral church; except they have a sermon mac 

and preached in their, own parish churches. 

Item, That whereas by the ignorance of the Clergy n 
only God's glory is greatly obscured, but also the su 
Clergy much disdained and evil spoken of by some ci tl 
laity, you shall cause that every Parson, Vicar, Chanti 
Priest, and other stipendiary within the city of Westmh 
ster, be present at every lecture of divinity, to be mac 
within the college of St. Stephen ; except they, or any < 
them, have some reasonable let, to be allowed and admittc 
by your Chancellor, Commissary, or other officer for thi 
purpose, or the reader of the said lecture. 

Also you, your Chancellor, Commissary, or other exes 
rising jurisdiction ecclesiastical under you, shall proceed i 
all kinds of causes, summarie et de piano, sine fgura < 
strepitu judicii : and shall give sentence in every cam 
within four assignations after the term, ad audiendum Mi 
tentiam Jinalem. 

All which and singular injunctions you shall invtolaU 
observe and keep, upon pain of the King's Majesty's di 
pleasure, and as you will answer for the contrary. 

Given at Westminster the Sd day of September, in tl 


rear of the reign of our sovereign Lord Edward the CHAP. 
, by the grace of God Sing of England, France, and V11, 
id, Defender of the Faith, and in earth, of the Church AuoiM7. 
igland, and also of Ireland, the supreme Head. 
Antony Coke. Jhon Godsalve. Jhon Goenold. 

Christopher Newinson. Jhon Madew. 

t the Articles of Inquiry in this visitation beirig geue- 
ctmittcd in our historians, I have thought them worthy 
here inserted and preserved. 

let to be inquired of in the King's Majesty's visitation. 43 
ir Bishops, Archdeacons, and ecclesiastical Officers. 
■st, Whether the Bishop, Archdeacons, and others, printed by 
g jurisdiction ecclesiastical, have caused only to be ^J?™* 

or said the English procession in their cathedral 
h, and other churches of their diocese. 
at, Whether the Bishop, Chancellor, or Commissary, 
deacon, or Official, be propense and light in excommu- 
ng of men for a little lucre. 

m, Whether they, or any of them, for one man's trea- 
have taken away from the people, and the whole pa- 
ners, their divine service : as for violating and suspend- 
le churchyards, and such like. 

m, Whether they do take excessive sums of money for 
crating again, either of the churchyards, or of any 

ornaments, for the use of altars or of bells ; where is 
ed of consecration : but is superstitions and lucrative. 
m, Whether they, or any of them, take any great ex- 
is for institutions, inductions, assignations of pensions, 
r any other matter ecclesiastical. 
sis, Whether they do lightly call any persons before 
, ex officio, and put them to their purgation, without 
it suspicion, or infamy proved. 

as, Whether the Bishop have not preached, without 
nidation, against the usurped power of the Bishop of 
e ; and set forth the King's Majesty's jurisdiction to 
e only supreme power in all his realms and dominions. 


BOOK Iterth Whether the Bishop have personally preached k 

*' any of the churches, or any where within his diocese! 
Auo iM7.bow often in the year. 

Item, Whether he and his officers have diligently 
cuted, for their part, our late King's injunctions and hk 
letters missives, for a due order in the religion of Christ: 
and caused the same injunctions and letters to be diligently 
put in execution through his diocese. 

Item, Whether he had learned and discreet officers under 
him ; that do, without any respect of persona, punish sush 
crimes as appertaineth to ecclesiastical jurisdiction. 

Item, Whether he or any of his officers do take any 
money, or other gifts, to hide and cloak adultery or any 
other notorious vice, that ought by them to be punished. 

Item, If any commutation of penance have been made, 46 
any pecuniary sum. To what purpose the same hath bsm 
converted. And what good deeds have been done with the 
same. And specify the same indeed. 

Item, Whether the Bishop hath such chaplains aboil 
him, as have been able to preach the word of God ; and da 
the same purely and sincerely. And how oft in the year. 
And how many they be. What be their names. 
49 Far Parsons, Vicars, and Curates. 

Item, Whether Parsons, Vicars, and Curates, and evesy 
of them, have justly and truly, without dissimulation, 
preached against the usurped power and pretenced autho- 
rity and jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome. 

Item, Whether they have preached and declared, that 
the King's Majesty's power and authority and preeminence 
is, within this realm, and the dominions of the same, the 
most supreme and highest under God. 

Item, Whether any person hath by writing, ciphering, 
printing, preaching or teaching, deed or act, obstinately 
holden and stand with, to extol, set forth, maintain or d* 
fend the authority, jurisdiction, or power of the Bishop ef 
Borne, or of his see ; heretofore claimed or usurped: or by 
any pretence, obstinately or maliciously invented any thtfjg 
for the extolling of the same, or any part thereof. 


It&my Whether they have declared to their parishioners CHAl 
he articles concerning the abrogation of certain superfluous vn * 
bolydays; and done their endeavour to persuade their said Anno is 
parishioners to keep and observe the same articles invio- 
lably. And whether any of those abrogated days hath 
sfthetioe the said abrogation been kept as holydays, con- 
toarj to the said articles. And by whose occasion they were 

Item, Whether there do remain, not taken down in their 
chmches, chapels, or elsewhere, any misused images, with 
pSgrimages, cloths, stones, shoes, offerings, kissings, can- 
dlesticks, trindals of wax, and such other like. And whether 
time do remain, not delayed and destroyed, any shrines, 
Offerings of shrines, or any other monuments of idolatry, 
^Sm. «d hypoms/ 

Item, Whether they have not diligently taught, upon the 
Sandays and holydays, their parishioners, and especially 
the youth, their Pater noeter, the Articles of our faith, and 
the Ten Commandments in English. And whether they 
have expounded and declared the understanding of the 

Item, Whether they have diligently, duly, and reve- 
leodly ministered the sacraments in their cures. 

Item, Whether such beneficed men as be lawfully absent 
from their dioceses, do leave their cure, to a rude and un- 
learned person ; and not to an honest, well learned man, 
and expert Curate. 

Item, Whether they have provided and laid, in some con- 
venient places in the church, where they have cure, a Bible 
of the largest volume in English. 

Item, Whether Parsons, Vicars, Curates, Chauntry 
P ri e sts , and other stipendiaries, be common haunters and re- 
sorters to taverns and alehouses ; giving themselves to ex- 
esjsive drinking and rioting, and playing at unlawful games ; 
sfcdapply not themselves chiefly to the study of Scripture, 
hashing of youth, or some other honest and godly exer- 

Item, Whether they be resident upon their benefices, and 


BOOK keep hospitality, or no. And if they absent, and keep no 
Ia hospitality, whether they do make due distribution amot£ 

Anno 1547. the poor parishioners, or no. ' <* 

50 Item, Whether they that have yearly to dispend in ■J*-' 
ritual promotions an 1002. do not find competently out 
scholar in either University, or at some grammar-schoot 
And for as many hundred pounds as every one of then-' 
may dispend, so many scholars be found likewise. And' 
what be their names. And they so found. 

Item, Whether they keep their chancels, rectories, vicar- 
ages, and all other houses appertaining to them, in due v* 
parations. *^j 

Item, Whether they have, every Lent, required thefr' 
parishioners in their confession to recite their Pater noeterf 
the Articles of our faith, and the Ten Commandments Of* 

Item, Whether they have counselled or moved their pa- 1 J 

rishioners, rather to pray in a tongue not known, than m' 

- English. Or to put their trust in any prescribed number dH 

prayers ; as in saying over a number of beads, or otbepl 

like. -j 

Item, Whether they have preached, or caused to be ^ 
preached, purely and sincerely, the word of God, and the 
faith of Christ, in every of their cures, every quarter of the 
year once at the least : exhorting their parishioners to the 
works commanded by Scripture ; and not to works devised; 
by men's fantasies. 

Item, Whether in their sermons they have exhorted the 
fathers and mothers, masters and governors of youth, to 
bring them up in some virtuous study or occupation. 

Item, Whether they have exhorted the people to obedi- , 
ence to the King's Majesty and his officers ; and to charity 
and love one to another. 

Item, Whether they have moved the people to read and 
hear the Scripture in English ; and have not discouraged 1 
them from reading and hearing of the same. Such as be' 
not prohibited so to do. 

Item, Whether they have declared to their parishioners, 


it they ought to know and understand the Pater noster, CHAP. 
» Ankles of our faith, and the Ten Commandments in - 

ighsh, before they should receive the blessed Sacrament Anno 1647a 

the Altar. 

Item, Whether they have taught the people the true use 

images. Which is only to put them in remembrance of 

e godly and virtuous lives of them that they do represent 

■d that if the people use the images for any other pur- 

■e, they commit idolatry ; to the great danger of their 


Item, Whether they have declared, and to their wits and 

wrers have persuaded the people, that the manner and 

■d of Casting in Lent, and other days in the year, is but 

mere positive law. And that therefore all persons, having 

st cause of sickness or necessity, or being licensed by the 

Dig's Majesty, may temperately eat all kinds of meat, 

ithout grudge or scruple of conscience. 

Item, Whether your Parsons, Vicars, and Curates have 

ewed and declared unto you the true use of ceremonies ; 

st is to say, that they be no workers or works of salva- 

n; but only outward signs and tokens, to put us in re- 

mbrance of things of higher perfection. 

Item, Whether they have permitted any man to preach 

their cures, not being lawfully licensed thereunto: or 
?e refused or repelled such to preach as have been so li- 

Item, Whether they which have spoken and declared any 
ing for the setting forth of pilgrimages, feigned relics, 
ages, or any such superstition, have not openly recanted 

Item, Whether they have one book or register safely 51 
pt; wherein they write the day of every wedding, christ- 
og, and burying. 

Hem, Whether the King's Injunctions were quarterly 
i, or not. 

Hem, Whether they have declared to their parishioners, 
sther St. Mark's day, in the evens of the abrogated holy- 
s, should not be fasted. 


B0OK Item, Whether die knalling at the Area be used. 
'' Item, Whether they hare the Procession book in Eigc 

ADooi647.1ish. And in their processions use none other litany fatf 
that which is set forth in the same book. And whether they 
omit the same English litany at any time in their proces- 
sions. And whether they have had the same litany as oi 
as they were commanded. 

Item, Whether they have put out of their church boob 
this word papa; and the name and service of Thorns* 
Becket : and prayers having rubricies, containing pantos* 
or indulgences; and all other superstitious legends and 

Item, .Whether they bid the beads, according to the order 
prescribed by our late sovereign Lord King Henry VIIL 

Item, Whether they, or any of them, have been admktsd 
to their benefices by simony, or by any other unlawful 

Item, Whether in 'their passes they use not the collects 
made for the King; and make not special mention of hav. 
Majesty's name in the same. 

Item, Whether they, or any of them, do keep mo beoa»f 
fices, and other ecclesiastical promotions, than they ought to? 
do; not having sufficient licences and dispensations there- 
unto. And how many they keep. And their names. 

Articles Jbr the lay people. 

Whether they know any person that is a letter of the 
word of God to be read in English ; so that it be meekly, 
humbly, and reverendly done, and without disturbance of 
the people : and by them that have authority thereto. 

Item, Whether you know any persons, spiritual or ten* 
. poral, which do let the word of God to be preached; or 
that the King's Injunctions should not be duly executed. 

Item, Whether any person hath obstinately and mali- 
ciously, without any just and reasonable cause, broken die 
laudable customs of the Church, commanded to be ob- 
served ; or superstitiously abused the same. As in casting 
holy water upon their beads, or other places. And bearisg 
about them holy bread ; or making crosses of wood upoa< 



Palm-sonday ; or blessing with the holy candle, thinking 
thereby to put away sins, drive away devils, dreams, and 
fantasies ; or putting trust or confidence of salvation in the Anno 1*47. 
■one ceremonies. Whereas they be ordained only to put 
us in remembrance of the benefits which we have received 
by Christ 

Item, Whether any person, spiritual or temporal, keep 
die church holyday, and the dedication day, at any time, 
dan is appointed by the ordinance made in that behalf by 
4e King's Majesty. 

Item, Whether matin mass and even song be kept in 
doe hours in the church. 

Item, Whether any be brawlers, slanderers, chiders, 
Holders, and sowers of discord between one person and 

1 Item, Whether any be common swearers and blasphemers 
of the name of the Lord. 

'/feat, Whether any use lewd, unchaste, unhonest, and 
jBthy communication, songs, or ballads. 

Am, Whether any do use to common, jangle, or talk 
•a the church* at the time of r divine service, preaching, 
ftftding, or declaring of the word of God. 

Item, Whether any do obstinately keep and defend any 
erroneous opinion, contrary to the word of God, and faith 
of Christ. 

Item, Whether any commit adultery, fornication, or in- 
test; or be- common bawds, or receivers of such naughty 

Item, Whether you know any that use charms, sorcery, 
nd inchantments, witchcraft, soothsaying, or any other 
wkfced craft, invented by the Devil. 

Item, Whether you know any to be married within the 
degrees- prohibited by the law of God ; or that be separated 
and divorced without any just cause, approved by the law 
of God. And whether any such have married again. 

Item, Whether the church, pulpit, and other necessary 
tings, appertaining to the same, be sufficiently repaired. 

vol. 11. g 


BOOK Itemy Whether you know any to hare made privy 
contracts of matrimony, not calling two or more there- 

AMO 1*47. unto. 

/item, Whether any have married solempnely without 
banns asking. 

Item, Whether you know any that have taken upon them 
the execution of any man's testament, or be admitted to the 
administration of the goods of the dead, which do not duly 
distribute the same goods, according to the trust committed 
unto them : and especially such goods as were given, and 
bequeathed, and appointed to be distributed among the 
poor people, repairing of highways, finding of poor scho- 
lars, or marriage of poor maids. To what uses and intents 
all such gifts and bequests of cattle, money, or other things, 
as in time past were made, for the finding of tapers, candles, 
or lamps, be now employed. And whether to be embecilled 
and withholden. And by whom. 

/item, Whether there be any' persons commonly infamed 
of adultery, fornication, common swearing, blaspheming 
the name of God, drunkenness, simony, or other notorious 
crimes, whom the Bishop, Archdeacon, or other, the Ordi- 
naries, for favour, have not corrected accordingly : although 
they have been sundry times presented, and detected in vi- 
sitation, or otherwise lawfully accused. 

Item, Whether there be any other Primers used by them 
that do not understand Latin, than the English Primer, set 
forth by the King's Majesty. And whether they that un- 
derstand Latin do use any other than the Latin Primer, set 
forth by like authority. 

Item, Whether there be any other Grammar taught in 
any school within the realm, than that which is set forth by 
the Sing's Majesty. 

Item, Whether they know any alienation of lands, tene- 
ments, jewels, or goods, pertaining to the Church. 
53 For Chantry Priests. 

Whether they be resident upon their chantries. 

Item, Whether they be aiding and ««p«ting the Parson 


or Vicar of the church that they be of, in the ministration CHAP, 
of the sacraments and divine service accordingly. ^ l ' 

/taw, Whether they keep and perform all such doles Anao 1547. 
and distributions to the poor, and other deeds of charity, as 
they are bound by their'foundations to da 

Item, Whether they be of ill name, fame, or unhonest con- 
versation; fighters, swearers, drunkards, or incontinent livers. 

Item, What benefices, and how many they have, besides 
their chauntries. And by what title they do keep the same. 

This visitation, if we be desirous to know how it was How this 
taken, was generally very acceptable to most of the lay- ™ re«eot- 
people, and grievous only to the Clergy: who could not* 1 - 
endure to be unsettled from their old ways and courses in 
the observances of religion. One, who went with the vi- Jobn Oid. 
•tors for their preacher, and was a visitor himself, and well beforehis 
observed matters and persons in the parts where he came, t^j* 1 ** 011 
perceived how the ample vulgar sort were glad ; and con- phrue to 
fbcmably willing to hear the pure word of God, and obediently ^ e t ^ e pi,Ue 
to receive the King's Injunctions, training them to the same. EpbesiAn*. 
And so they were like to continue, in case their ordinary 
Curates and Ministers had not been triflers and hinderers 
thereof, and not been seduced and taught by seditious ear- 
whisperers. Nor were even the Priests, all of them, these 
triflers and hinderers, or sinister resisters. For sundry 
Ministers and Curates, which he knew, were honest, and 
diligently well-willing towards the truth, in divers shires, 
where he waited upon the King's visitors, especially in 
Lincolnshire and other shires of that diocese. And he 
reckoned, that the honest sort thereabouts would more and 
aure increase by the industrious ministry and uniform 
concurrence in wholesome doctrine of the Bishop [Holbech,] 
and Dean of Lincoln"[Dr. Taylor.] And the rather, by 
die helping forwardness of that devout woman of God, the 
Duchess of Suffolk. 

But there was another sort of priests now taken notice of, The dispo- 
who, for the safety of their pelf and promotions, employed wmeprieiu. 



BOOK their studies and forecasting policies to please all parties. 
These were they by whose occasion the people halted be- 


Anno 1547. tween two opinions, not knowing what was best for them to 
follow, whether God or Baal. " These were," as the before- 
mentioned person spake, " the messengers of Laodicea; 
" whose works were neither cold nor hot, but betwixt both, 
" smelling neither too much of the Gospel nor too little of 
Popery. But yet they affected to be called favourers of 
the truth, and would fain have God's corn come up ; but 
yet they dared to sow none any longer than the world, 
as they said, madejhir xceather? 

BUhop of But of the clerical sort, that most spited this visitation, 

refuses^ Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester, made the greatest figure. 

*h bm V° ** e wrote a l etter to Sir John Godsalve, one of the visitors, 

of the signifying his resolution not to comply with their orders; 

vi*»tor». pretending that he could not do it upon the account of 
honesty and truth : " which were more dear to him, he said, 
" than all the possessions of the realm : and in which he 
" took such pleasure and comfort, that he would never 
" leave them for any respects. And that if he might play 
" the last part of his life well, to depart from the bishopric 
" without offending God's law, or the King's laws, he should 
" think the tragedy of his life well spent." The letter is in 
the MS. library of Bene't college, and is transcribed in the 

p. ii. Coll. Bishop of Sarum's History. 

p. 1 12. 

Orders cer- ^ ut notwithstanding this his declared aversion to the 
tain proxies visitation, (which he also laboured by divers letters to the 
the visitors. Protector to obstruct,) whether he slipped away from it vo- 
luntarily, or was sent for up by the Council, he comes to 
London, and there he intended to stay. But that he might 
give as little offence as might be, he left his officers as Us 
proxies, in his absence, with command to shew all submis- 
sion to the commissioners in his [the Bishop's] name. So 
before the visitation in his diocese (which was there about 
October) he went up from his house at Walton ; and hear- 
ing the visitation should be kept soon after, willed John 
Seton, one of his chaplains, to do his duty in receiving rf 


them, and obediently to do all such things as by them CHAP, 
should be commanded. And he left order with John Cook, VI1 ' 
his Register, whom he had appointed to appear by proxy Anno 1 647. 
in his absence, by virtue thereof to go and receive the vi- 
sitors at Chichester, without the diocese of Winton. Which 
he did, and conducted and waited on them into the said 
diocese, and appeared for the Bishop in the chapter-house 
of the cathedral church; and there exhibiting the said 
proxy, gave an oath, in animam Episcopi, of obedience to 
the- King's Majesty, as supreme Head of the Church of 
England, and to renounce the Bishop of Rome's usurped 
power and jurisdiction. The Bishop also required this his 
proxy, and commanded his Chancellor, and other his offi- 
cers, to attend on the King's said visitors, and to see them 
with all reverence received and obeyed, and their command- 
ments executed accordingly. Which things were truly per- 
formed. And at Alton, when the Bishop was going up to 
the Council, a priest of the diocese repaired to him, to con- 
sult what he should do at the visitation then at hand : whom 
the Bishop willed to obey all such things as should be com- 
manded by the said visitors. And likewise at Kingston he 
gave the like charge to the Curate there. All this the Bi- 
shop, upon his departure, gave in charge in his diocese for 
obedience and submission, how little soever he liked the vi- 
sitation. But as for himself, having been before the Coun- 
cil about these proceedings of the King, which he shewed 
do good liking to, he was committed to the Fleet. 

Indeed Bishop Gardiner was the chief champion that A poem now 
now appeared for the Roman Catholic cause; who did ex- titled) A 
ceedingly bestir himself against making any alterations in re- Poor Help, 
ligion, both by his letters and influence with the Protector 
ami others of the Court, and by certain books which he 
wrote, and by this present opposition that he made to the 
proceedings of the King in this visitation. This temper of 
Gardiner the Gospellers well enough knew, and he wanted 
not for their good will expressed towards him, in pamphlets, 
and especially ballads and rhymes which they made against 
him : of which he complained to the Protector. Among the 



BOO K rest, there was published a very unlucky one, lampoon-witty 
put forth somewhat before this year, not without sh arpn ca 

Anno 1547. of wit and fancy, pretending to take the part of the Ptapute 
3^ against the Preachers, that now began to preach the Goqx) 
plainly, and to declaim against the papal superstitions, ft 
was entitled, A Pore Help : the Buckler and Defence $ 
Holy Mother Kyrke. It began, " Will none in all thisW 
" step forth and take in hand, these fellows to withstand,* 
&c. Setting upon those, and seemingly very angry wHk 
them, that spake against the old rites of the Church, ant 
specially the Sacrament of the Altar, and that said, " that 
" Christ could not all day be kept within a box, nor yet ill 
" in the stocks, nor hidden like a fox, nor be prisoner under 
" locks, nor be clothed with powdered ermin, nor breei 
" stinking vermin, &C." The poet pretended also to stand 
up stiffly for the said Bishop, who had lately, it seems, pdt 
lished something in rhyme against the Gospellers, whole 
name he veiled under the denomination of, An able Clerk 
of late, and worthy in estate. And described him thus: 
" He hath been a pardoner, and also a Gardiner ; he hath 
" been a vitailer, a lordly hospitaller, a noble teacher, 
" and soso a preacher. The Germain his man was hanged, 
" what then? 71 Germain Gardiner was his secretary, and 
executed for high treason under King Henry. A glance 
is also given in this ballad upon one Miles Hogherd, an 
hosier, who had wrote a silly book in rhyme against the Pro- 
I. testants. But I refer the reader to the Repository, if he 
be disposed to read this ballad. 
Hoperwrit- a more serious book was writ against him by John 
Winchester. Hoper, and printed in 4to. this year at Zurich, in English, 
entitled, An Answer unto my Lord of Winchester's book, 
entitled, "A Detection qftheDeviFs Sophistry," wherewith he 
robbeth the unlearned people of the true belief in the most 
B. Sacrament of the Altar. He dedicated his book to his 
adversary, the said Bishop, beginning his epistle thus, " Your 
book, my Lord, entitled, A Detection, &c. was delivered 
to me in Zurich, the 30th of April last : the which I have 
with leisure and diligence perused, marked your inten- 


" tion, and how ye fence a wrong opinion with many fair CHAP. 
** wends, and divers reasons, &c." It was dated, Tiguri, ^^ 

Sept 9, 1547. Anno 1647. 

In August there was a consultation about the expediency Consult*. 
of entering into league with the German Protestants : which jo^n^th 
I make no doubt the Archbishop of Canterbury, and other the German 
fovourers of the Gospel, did press, there having been some 
agents sent thence hither but the last year. This occasioned 
Sir William Paget, Secretary of State, a wise man, and 
well exercised in the matters of the English state, to draw 
up his thoughts, prepared for the Council, to be deliberated 
upon by them, and for resolution to be taken in these af- 
fairs. Wherein was shewed the ill condition of England 
at the first coming of King Edward to the crown, and the 
uncertain state his father left his kingdoms in. It was as 
follows, as I found it in a volume of the Cotton Library : 

" The cause of this consultation proceedeth of a care Paget'ioon- 
u for the honour and surety of the King's Majesty and hisxitut,b.ii. 
" realms, by the continuance and preservation of his policy P* 91 * 
u and of his victory. 

" This care cometh upon this, that we see apparently the 
u French King immeasurably desirous to redubb his great 
" dishonour sustained at the King's hands in the last wars, 
" by the loss of Boloign : and the Bishop of Rome, with 
" all his members, ardently inflamed to recover again his 
"usurped power and tyranny over this realm: and the 56 
" Emperor, with all his power, ready to serve the Bishop's 
u turn ; partly moved by a corrupt conscience, and partly 
" by ambition to reign alone, besides old grudges and dis- 
" pleasures. 

" For the defence of these two things, which stand us so 
u much in hand, it is necessary to make us strong both at 
" home and abroad. At home, by an establishment of an 
" unanimity among ourselves, and by gathering of riches, 
u as much as may be conveniently, and with doing some 
" things with little charge above use. And abroad, by 
" knitting unto us the most sincere and surest friends we 
" can get, to join with us to the effect that we desire. 

g 4 


BOOK • " For the working of that which is to be done at home, 
" we have commodity enough, and shall have time sufficient, 

Anno 1547. " if it be followed out of hand. 

" As for friendship abroad, if that either the French 
" King might be induced to leave Boloign upon some ho» 
" nourable condition, or the Emperor to leave the Bishop 
" of Rome, by reformation of his conscience, to be moved 
" thereto both by God's word, and by a certain and great 
" honour and gain, that should thereby grow unto him; 
" the one of these were best to serve or turn against the 
" other: but we see cither of them so affected in his opinion*- 
u and by daily experience know so little faith to be given ton 
" any of their promises, when the breach of the same may 
" serve to their purpose, as we have cause to be at the point; 
of despair, to find any friendship in either of them longer; 
than they may not choose. 

" The friendship of the Venetian might somewhat serve 
our turn : for they be very rich and strong, both by sea 
and by land, and have commodity enough to annoy either 
the French King or the Emperor, if any of them would 
disturb us : and if the fear of the Turk, by means of the 
French King, let them not, they are to be thought easy 
to be moved to enter league with us* For they fear ex- 
" ceedingly the Emperor's desire of a monarchy. And yet 
" being well inclined, as it is said, to join in league with us, 
would do no harm to our purpose, if the matter might 
be mightily advanced. 

" After the Venetians, there resteth only the league of 
" the Protestants : wherein, beside the Almains, we recount 
" Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. These men being now 
" presently in the war, and we in peace, if we should join 
" with them, it shall not only somewhat impair our means 
" to wax rich, but also of our dissembling friends, the Em- 
" peror and the French King, make peradventure our open 
" enemies, and bearing them both, with the Bishop of 
" Rome, at once in our necks, if not now presently, 
" yet when they have, all three joined together, subdued 
" the Protestants. For it may be thought, that if we do 





"join villi the Protestants, the French King shall find CHAP. 
" some ready way at the Emperor's hand, although not efc 

M fectual in the end, yet for the time,, by practice of mar- Anno im7. 
" riage, or otherwise, pleasant enough to feed the French 
" King withaL And this confederation may follow upon 
" the Emperor's only displeasure against us, though he be 
"in no extremity, in case we join immediately with the 

" On the other side, if we join not with the Protestants, 
"thence it may be thought, that whether the Emperor 
"have the gain or the loss, that the French King will 57 
M join with the Protestants: fearing (if the Emperor have 
u the gaito) the loss of Savoy and Piedmont, and shall well 
" see the Emperor's gain bought with so great a loss, as 
" there 1 shall remain little to defend him, being, somewhat 
"now refreshed; the Turk coming in on the other side, 
" petmdventure with all that he can make; and by these 
" mrarts overtreading the Emperor, and so leaving us little 
" help at his hands, and none at the Protestants; but ra- 
" ther an enmity, because we forsook being allied, entered 
" into a certain practice with them, he shall make hhpaelf 
* a strong enemy for us. If the Emperor have the over* 
" throw, then is it like we will the rather join with the Pro* 
" testmts, and staying the Turk, and having little cause to 
" doubt the Bishop of Rome, and no cause to fear us, per- 
" mitting to us peaceably, for the time, Bulloign, && he 
" will convert his whole power, with all the power of Al- 
w main, and no small help of Italy, first upon the state of 
" Milain, (work surely for the Emperor,) and consequently 
" torn upon us. 

" So as, join we or join we not with the Protestants, we 
" see what is to be looked for at the French King's hands. 
" Win the Emperor or lose he, and join we or join we 
" not with the Protestants, we see what is to be feared of 
" the Emperor, if he win : the worst is, upon the two occa- 
" sons, to have them both at once winned together to be 
" our enemies : or the one overcoming, the other to be our 
" enemy with the power of both, having first overcome the 


BOOK " other. The best way is both to keep them from agiwj 
'• " ing, and from being any of them any greater. If dtf ; 

Anno iM7." Emperor overcome not the Almains, he is not like to be 
u greater. 

" To bring both these to pass, the best way is to agnt 
" the Emperor and the Almains, by all the means posafak 
" And this done should be a great stay to and beag 

" done by us, should be a great surety to ourselves. 

" If this cannot be brought to pass, then remain we flU ; 
" in our former fear and doubt ; that for both these qupj 
" reles, for the Pope and Boloign, or for the one of tba^j 
" we shall have both these Princes at the last, or 
" power of them both at once upon us. And as it shall fat] 
" necessary, out of all question, for the greatest part of oor 
" strength, to work undelayedly our strength at home; 
" it is to be considered, whether it be better to have thai 
" both at the end upon us, without any friend at all, or 
" both upon us, with such friends as we may make now 
" with little charge. 

" For the following of the best way, the first part is g» 
" nerally to open your intent with moderation to the En* 
" peror's ambassador, and by him to learn, as soon as wuy 
" be, the Emperor's disposition to give ear to the 
" Which also may be done by our common ami 
" with the Emperor, or to both, if it be thought good. If 
" the Emperor mislike not the matter, then shall it be wdl 
" done, upon knowledge thereof, to send an express man, 
" not unagreeable to any of both the parts, with suck 
" means of reconciliation as may best be devised, to move 
" them to the same, with the preservation of their honour. 

" In the consultation, whether it were better to join with 

" the Protestants, and to have of them such a friend, as we 

" may, rather than none at all, it is to be considered, 

58 " with what power they may, at their worst, serve you 

withal, and what at their best, both by land and by sea; 

and how far forth also we may be entered already with 
" them. 

" William Paget." 


In September appeared another point of the honesty of CHAP, 
the King's policy, in taking care of the payment of his fa- vn< 

therfs debts: unless some will rather look upon it as aAnnoiw. 
device to come to the knowledge of what pensioners vere^j 1 " ** 
afire, and what dead. The 18th of the said month the«*ntof 

King issued a proclamation to be publiAedin eVeiycoi^yJJ^ 
about the payment of pensions, annuities, and comxbes^cUmatkm. 
granted by his father, or by some abbots or priors : that 
w he i eas before, they were used to be paid by the Receivers 
of the Court of Augmentations, the pensioners were hence- 
forth to receive them yearly at the hand of the Treasurer 
of the said Court, or of his deputies. And this order to 
take effect at Michaelmas next And it was appointed, for 
the ease* of the pensionaries and others, of what house or 
houses soever they were, to receive their pensions within the 
Aire where they dwelt, at the hand of the said Treasurer 
or his deputies. It was also commanded, that all having 
these pensions, annuities, and corrodies, should appear on 
such a day and place, before the said Treasurer's deputies, 
who were sent down to take notice of their patents and 
grants, which they were to bring with them, and to exhibit : 
to the intent the said Treasurer might be the better ascer- 
tained of their states, and of the sums of money he was to 
appoint to his said deputies ; for the contentation of their 
said pensions. And they were to repair to the place where 
the King's next audit should be kept within the shire, for 
the receipt of their pensions. And if any appeared not in 
person, to send a certificate in writing, under the hands of 
two Justices of peace, or one Justice and one gentleman, 
declaring the same to be living, and in lawful state to re- 
ceive his or their pensions. 

To the Lady Mary, the King's eldest sister, who was Respect* 
now at Beaulieu, all respects from the Court were shewn. JjJjJ^ 
She had lately desired two knights' rooms in Windsor; thethtLadj 
one to take place presently, the other the next audience. **** 
Which was granted her by the Lord Protector. And in 
October she sent a letter to Paget, the Comptroller, that 
one George Brigus, whose wife brought the letter to him, 


BOOK might be now placed, and have his fee accordingly. T<v 
wardp Christmas, the King invited her most courteously iv 

Anno 1547. keep her holydays with him, together with his other autcty 
the Lady Elizabeth. Yet if she were indisposed in hm 
health, as she had lately been, or if it were any othenrin 
inconvenient for her to come now, the King very obliging^ 
left it to her liberty, and invited her at any other time, wheft 
she pleased herself, to resort to him. This invitation of fail 
by writing was signed by divers Lords of the Council ; at 
may be seen by this transcript of it ensuing : 

^th^iIJd " Right dear and right entirely beloved sister, we grafc 
Mary, in- " you well. And whereas our right dear and right enm 
to^Court " tircty beloved sister, the Lady Elizabeth, having madpm 
otho, do." 8U it to visit us, hath sithence her coming desired to w 1 
" main with us during all this Christmas holydays, like ap I 
" we cannot but take this her request in thankful part, aa 
59 " would we be glad, and should think us very well acccoft 
" panied, if we might have you also with us the same timf. 
" But because the time is now very short, and we be not 
" well assured in what state of health you be, we pray yon. 
" no otherwise to take this journey upon you, but with sue? 
consideration of your health as is meet And therefore 
if for want of the same you may not conveniently repair 
hither before these holydays, we pray you to do that shall \ 
best stand with your quiet and health. And at any other 
time, when both the time and your health shall better 
" suffer, we will be right glad so see you. 

" R. Ryche, Cane. W. Saint John. J. Russel. 
" Arundel. T. Wentworth. 

« A. Wyngfeld. Rich. Southwell 

she cen- Yet she took upon her to censure the King's proceedings, 
proceedings and carried herself with some haughtiness of stomach to-* 
ward the Counsellors for the present management of affairs. 
Indeed the stiff Papists, such as Bishop Gardiner, were very 
much offended to see the reformation proceed, as it did, 
under this good King: and they gave out, that herein the 




King's Ministers, that forwarded these proceedings, brake CHAP, 
the late King Henry's will, and were not faithful to their V!I * 

trust And they set on the Lady Mary (who was of her Anno 1547. 
own nature forward enough to it) to charge these things 
home to the Counsellors. And to this purpose she wrote Writes to 
somewhat sharply to the Protector : charging him and the^^ 
other executors of King Henry's last testament, that they did 
not faithfully fulfil it by their present doings and proceed- 
ings. She told him, that the most part of the realm, through 
a naughty liberty and presumption, were now brought into 
such a division, as if they, who were the executors of the 
King's last will, went not about to bring them to that stay, 
v . that the King their late master left them in, they would 
forsake all obedience, unless they had their own will and 
fantasy. And then it would follow that the King should 
not be well served, and that other realms would have them 
of this realm in obloquy and derision ; and that not without 
just cause, as she said. She added, that there was a godly 
order and quietness left by the King, their late master and 
her father, in this realm, at the time of his death ; and that 
the spiritualty and temporalty of the whole realm did not 
only, without compulsion, fully assent to his doings and 
proceedings, specially in matters of religion, but also in all 
kind of talk, whereof she herself could partly witness. The 
present proceedings she esteemed nothing but Jhntcuty and 

The Protector, nettled somewhat with this her letter, in The Pro- 
answer told her, " that neither he nor any other of the!^^"" 
" executors, as he knew of, would willingly neglect the full vindication 
" execution of every jot of King Henry's will, as far as it counieiion. 
" might stand with the King their present master's honour 
" and surety. And otherwise he was sure that her Grace 
u would not have it take place. They doubted not, but 
" that their doings therein, and in all other things com- 
" mitted to their charge, should be such as they should be 
" able to answer to the whole world, both in honour and 
" discharge of their consciences. That her words sounded 
" so ill, that he could not persuade himself but she was set 


BOOK " on by some uncharitable and malicious persons: ai 

! * " sort there were, he said, too many. That they m 

Anno 1547. " so simple to weigh and regard the sayings of evil d 

DO " persons, nor the doings of other countries, as to 

" their duty to God, to their Sovereign, and native o 

" And that, thanks be to God, such had been the 

" proceedings, their young noble master, that all hi 

" ful subjects had more cause to render to God their 

" thanks (ox the manifold benefits shewed to the Kb 

" to the people and realm, since the first day of hi 

" to that hour, than to be offended with it : and tc 

" and think that God was contented and pleased witl 

" the King's ministers ; who sought nothing but tl 

glory of God, and the surety of the King's perso 

the quietness and wealth of his subjects. 

That it was so far from a godly and quiet orda 

was left by the late King, and that the spiritual 

temporalty all agreed and assented to that King's 

and proceedings, that, as she might call to remem 

" great were the labours and travails that King hadj 

" he could reform some of those stiffnecked Roman! 

" Papists, that they caused his subjects, to rise an 

against him. That some of them, viz. the Roi 

sect, within his realm, as well as without, conspire* 

times his Majesty's death. Which was manifest 

often proved, to the confusion of some of their p 

sisters. He appealed then to her, whether all 1 

ritualty or temporalty did fully consent to his go 

ders. He put it to her, as well knowing it, if thi 

did not depart this life before he had fully finish* 

" orders as he minded to have established among his 

" if death had not prevented him. And that it wj 

" true, that no kind of religion was perfected at his 

" but left all uncertain ; most likely to have broi 

" parties and divisions, if God had not helped. ] 

" others could witness, what regret and sorrow th 

" master had at the time of his departure, for t 

" knew religion was not established, as he purposed 






" done: and a great many knew, and so did he, what that CHAP. 
M King would have done further in it, if he had lived.'" ^^ 

The letter is of that import, and openeth so much the con- Anno 1547. 
elusion of that Prince's reign, and his mature and last mind 
in religion, that it deserves to stand upon record to pos- 
terity ; and I had entered it here from a Cotton volume, 
but find it done already by the right reverend author of the 
History of the Reformation, among the Collections. Page 1 is. 

The plague was this year in sundry places, and, among A plague. 
others, in the city of Westminster, where the King now was, 
and a great resort of the nobility and gentry, a Parliament 
being now sitting. Therefore, that as much care as could 
be, might be taken against the spreading of it, and that in- 
fected houses might be known, and so avoided, the King 
therefore, Nov. 18, set forth by proclamation a charge and A proclaim- 


to all persons, inhabiting as well within the said { 
city, as in other places adjoining to the same, in whose 
houses the said infection reigned, or hereafter should reign, 
that they forthwith set forth a cross upon their street doors, 
whereby the King's subjects might know that the infection 
was or had been in their houses : and moreover, that no 
manner of person, in whose houses the said infection was, or 
hath been, or had resorted to any such infected person, by 6l 
the space of three months last past, should from thenceforth 
repair to the Court, or suffer any of the attendants of the 
said Court, or other gentlemen's servants, whose masters 
attended the said Court, to enter their house where the said 
infection of the plague had been, upon pain of his high in- 
dignation and displeasure, and farther to be punished, &c. 

tion about 




AnnaiM^ p at u ament . Communion in both kinds enacted. The 
act Jbr chantries. The abuse thereof. Other acts. 
Letters and disputations between Bishop Gardiner and 
Martin Bucer. They and AUss meet together in Ger- 

T^clZ 'THIS first Parliament of King Edward sat November 4, 
manion in and continued sitting till December 24 following. When, 
established. amon g other memorable things which they did, viz. when 
they had enjoined the Sacrament to be received in both 
kinds, and that the Priests should give notice to the people 
as often as it should be celebrated, and some such things 
mentioned in the act ; the King had certain Bishops, and 
other learned Divines sitting, to draw an office in Eng- 
lish, to be used for that purpose : which being finished 
The Com. was called, The Communion; and is printed in Bishop 
^ K>k 10n Sparrow's Collections. This Communion Book was set 
abroad the beginning of March, with the King's proclama- 
tion before it, dated March 8. And the Privy Council sent 
their letters missive to all the Bishops, together with the 
said Communion Book, to be distributed to them for their 
use against Easter next. Which letters were dated March 18, 
and signed by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Rich. Lord 
Chancellor, Lord St. Johns, Lord Russel, Lord Arundel, 
Sir Ant. Wyngfeld, Sir W. Petre, Sir Edw. North, Sir Edw. 
Fox, Wotton. Therein it was said, " how the King, upon that 

" act of Parliament, had caused divers grave and learned 
prelates, and other men learned in the Scriptures,, to as- 
semble together; and that they, after long conference, 
" with deliberate advice, agreed upon that order to be used 
" in all places, in the distribution of the holy Sacrament." 
Howob- But the issue of this was, that there arose a marvellous. 
* erve ' schism and variety of factions, in celebrating the Communion 
Service : some followed the King's proceedings ; others ad- 
mitted them, but did patchingly use but some part of the 


book. But many carelessly contemned all, and would ex- chap. 
erase their old wonted popish 'mass. vm * 

The words of this law for communicating in both lands Aim 1*47. 
being so properly and well expressed, and the penning ^f^P" 1 " 
thereof seeming to me to have been done by the Archbi- Crmnmer 
shop himself, it may not be amiss to take some particular*" tb€ 

notice of it here. The whole act was made for three in- , 
tents; 1. For the checking and restraint of many, who, be- 62 
cause the Sacrament had been so abused in former times to 
su per sti tion and idolatry, began now to speak very irreve- 
rently of the sacred ordinance, giving it many rude and 
ridiculous names. Such, upon information, were to be pu- 
nished by fine and imprisonment 2. To bring in a due use 
of this Sacrament among the people, empowering them to 
receive the cup as well as the wafer, according to the in- 
stitution of Scripture. 3. To break off that unwarrantable 
practice brought into the Church in the corrupt times of it, 
Cor the priest to communicate by himself. And it is to be 
noted of this act, that it was made before the law for the 
abolishing of the mass. This remarkable act, both of Cran- 
mer's procuring and drawing up too, as I conjecture, began 

« The King, perceiving that many arrogant and ignorant 

" men do pervert many things, well and godly instituted ; 

" and, namely, in the most comfortable Sacrament of the 

" body and blood of our Saviour Jesus Christ, commonly 

" called, the Sacrament of the Altar, and in Scripture, 

" the Supper and table of the Lord, the Communion and 

" partaking of the body and blood of Christ. Which Sa- 

" crament was instituted of no less author than our Saviour, 

" both God and man, when at his last supper among his 

" Apostles he did take the bread into his holy hands, and 

" did say, Take you and eat : this is my body, which is 

"given and broken Jbr you. And taking up the chalice, 

" or cup, did give thanks and say, This is my Mood of the 

" new testament, which is shed Jbr you and Jbr many, 

"Jbr the remission of sins. That whensoever we should 

41 do the same, we should do it in the remembrance of him, 

VOL. If. H 


BOOK "and to declare and set forth his death, and moat gtoriont 
*• " passion, until his coming. Of which bread whosoever 

Anno 1547. " eth, or of the which cup whosoever drmkeih, unwortkSjt, 
44 eateth and drinketh condemnation and judgment iiflfc 
" himself, making no difference of the Lord's body. Tk 
" institution of which Sacrament being ordained by Chritf, 
44 as is aforesaid, and the said words spoken of it here h* 
" fore rehearsed being of eternal, infallible, and undoubted 
" truth ; yet the said Sacrament hath been of late marvd- 
44 lously abused by the said persons, contemning the whole 
" thing for certain abuses heretofore committed theraa; 
44 reviling it, and disputing ungodly of that most holy 
44 mystery, and calling it by vile and unseemly words: far 
44 reformation whereof, be it enacted, &c. 

44 And forasmuch as it is more agreeable, both to the fiat 
44 institution of the said Sacrament of the most preckm 
44 body and blood of our Saviour Jesus Christ, and akn 
more conformable to the common use and practice both 
of the Apostles and of the primitive Church, by the 
44 of five hundred years and more, after Christ's 
that the said holy Sacrament should be ministered toil 
Christian people, under both kinds of bread and wkfc 
than under the form of bread only ; 

And also, it is more agreeable to the first institution of 

44 Christ, and to the usage of the Apostles, and the primitive 

Church, that the people, being present, should recoil 

44 the same with the priest, than that the priest should re- 

44 ceive it alone ; 

44 Therefore be it enacted by our sovereign Lord the 

44 King, with the consent of the Lords spiritual and tern- 

63 " pond, and the Commons of this present Parliament nimmi 

44 bled, and by the authority of the same, that the «id 

44 most blessed Sacrament be hereafter commonly delivered 

44 and ministered unto the people, within this Church of 

England and Ireland, and other the King's dominions, 

under both the kinds, that is to say, of bread and whie; 

except necessity otherwise require: and also, that the 

priest which' shall minister the same, shall at the least 






* one day before, exhort all persons which shall be present CHAP. 
u likewise to resort and prepare themselves to receive the L 

: and when the day prefixed oometh, after a godly Ami0 1647 - 
■* exhortation by the minister made, (wherein shall be fur- 
u ther expressed the benefit and comfort promised to them 
u which worthily receive the said holy Sacrament, and dan- 
M ger and indignation of God threatened to them which 
u shall presume to receive the same unworthily ; to the end, 
u that every man may try and examine his own conscience 
" before he shall receive the same,) the said minister shall 
u not, without a lawful cause, deny the same to any per- 

* son that will devoutly and humbly desire it," &c 

Another act in this sessions that related to religion, was The act for 
that which gave the King all the colleges r free chapels, J^JJJ'Jj. 
chantries, hospitals, fraternities or guilds, which were not in wired. 
die actual and real possession of the late King Henry VIII. 
to whom the Parliament in the thirty-seventh year of his 
reign had made a grant of such like colleges, free chan- 
tries, 8cc. not in the possession of the present King. By 
virtue of which act there accrued to the King all the lands, 
tenements, rents, and other hereditaments, which had been 
employed for the finding or maintenance of any anniversary 
or obit 9 or any light or lamp in any church or chapel. And 
there were two good causes assigned for this gift to the 
King. The one was, for the dissolving of superstition, which 
these colleges and chantries were found to be great occa- 
rions of. The other, for the founding of schools of learn- 
ing, and providing for the poor ; for so the preamble of the 
set gives us to understand, " that a great part of supersti- 
"tion and errors in Christian religion had been brought 
" into the minds and estimation of men, by reason of the 
u ignorance of their very true and perfect salvation, through 
M the death of Jesus Christ, and by devising and fantasy- 
" ing vain opinions of purgatory and masses satisfactory, 

* to be done for them that were departed. The which doc- 
u trine and vain opinion, by nothing more was maintained 
M and upholden than by the abuse of trentals, chantries, 

* and other provisions made for the continuance of the said 

H % 


BOOK " blindness and ignorance. And secondly, that the aker- 
" ation and amendment of the same, and the converting 

Anno 1547. « them to good and godly uses, (as in erecting gr ammar* 
" schools for the education of youth in virtue and godfi- 
" ness, and for augmenting of the Universities, and better 
" provision for the poor and needy,) could not in that pre- 
" sent Parliament be provided and conveniently done ; nor 
" could not nor ought to be committed to any other per- 
" sons than to the King's Highness." 

Ttie ftbme But this act was soon after crossly abused, as the act a 

of this Afit 

thereby, the former King's reign for dissolving religious houses im 
For though the public good was pretended thereby, (and 
intended too, I hope,) yet private men, in truth, had mo* 
of the benefit, and the King and commonwealth, the state 
of learning, and the condition of the poor, left as they were 
before, or worse. Of this, great complaints were made by 
64 honest men : and some of the best and most conscientious 
preachers reproved it in the greatest auditories, as at Paul's 
Cross, and before the King himself. Thomas Lever, a Fel- 
low, and afterwards Master of St John's college in Cam- 
bridge, in a sermon before the King, in the year 16501 
shewed, " how those that pretended, that (beside the abo- 
" lishing of superstition) with the lands of abbeys, colleges, 
" and chantries, the King should be enriched, learning 
" maintained, poverty relieved, and the oommonwealdi 
" eased, purposely had enriched themselves : setting abroad 
encloistered Papists, to give them livings by giving that 
pensions, yea, and thrusting them into benefices, to poi- 
son the whole commonwealth, for the resignation of those 
pensions : and so craftily conveying much from the Km$ 
" from learning, from poverty, and from all the common- 
" wealth, unto their own private advantage." Thus ha 
Schools And bringing in grammar-schools, which these dissolved 

chantries were also to serve for the founding of, he told the 
King plainly, " Your Majesty hath given and received, by 
" act of Parliament, colleges, chantries, and guilds, for 
" many good considerations, and especially, as appears m 
" the same act, for erecting of grammar-schools, to the edu- 




0* KINO EDWABD VL - 101 

" cation of youth in virtue and godliness, to the further chap. 
" angnwwting of the Universities, and better provision of VIIL 

u the poor and needy. But now many grammar-schools, A— 1*47. 
"end much charitable provision for the poor, be taken, 
u told, and made away ; to the great slander of you and 
"your laws, to the utter discomfort of the poor, to the 
u grievous offence of the people, to the most miserable 
" dro w nin g of youth in ignorance, and sore decay of the 
" Universities." And then, for instance, he mentioned a 
grsmmax-echool founded in the north country among the 
rude people there, (who yet were most ready to spend their 
lires and goods in serving the King at the burning of a 
beacon,) having in the University of Cambridge of the 
aune foundation, eight scholarships and two fellowships, 
ever replenished with the scholars of that school: which 
school was now sold, decayed, and lost And mote then 
wen of the like sort so handled. But this, he said, he re- 
cited, because the sale of it was once stayed for charity 
arite, and yet afterwards brought to pass by bribery, as he 
heard aay, and believed it, because it was only bribery that 
enstomably overcameth charity. " For God sake," as he 
cnadnded, " you that be in authority look upon it For if 
" you wink at such matters, God will scowl upon you." 

And whereas also another charitable end of the'dissolu- Aad t *« 
tion of these colleges and chantries was for the better suc-JJJJon 
cour of the needy, it was turned much to their damage and™"** 
prejudice also. Whereof the same reverend man gave one 
particular instance : namely, that there were in some towns 
n, in some eight, and in some a dozen kine given unto a 
stock for the relief of the poor; and used in such wise, 
that the ordinary cottagers, which could make any provi- 
soo for fodder, had the milk for a very small hire; and 
then the number of the stock reserved, all manner of vails 
beside, both the hire of the milk, and the prices of the 
young veals, and old fat wares were disposed to the relief 
of the poor. " These, he said, were all sold, taken, and 
* made away. The King bore the slander, the poor felt the 
"lack. But who had the profit of such things, he. could 



book " not telL But he knew well, and all the world saw, tbtf 

L « the act made by the King's Majesty and his Lords and 

Aano 1547. " Commons of his Parliament, for maintenance of UaiMig 

65 « and relief of the poor, had served some as a fit instfumat 

" to rob learning, and to spoil the poor." All this I halt 

said by occasion of the act made this sessions of Paifis> 

k. l. ment for chantries. 

The rest of the public acts made this first session I for- 
bear to mention ; the statute books, ready at hand to every 
Private man, will shew them. But the private acts being not si 
"*• commonly known, because imprinted, and to be found oaly 

in the Clerk of the Parliament's office, were these : 

An act assuring lands [which once belonged to the 
Church] to the Lord Rich, and others. 

An act for the establishment of a deanery at Wells: the 
old deanery, as it seems, having been swallowed up. 
An act for the restitution of the Lord Henry Stafford. ' 
An act for the restitution of John Lumley, Esq. Aad 
another for the restitution of Griffith Ryce, Esq. 
The Xing The King by this time had made a good step in the i* 
the Got- formation of religion. For besides the Injunctions and the 
peUers. Royal Visitation, and an English Communion Book, and the 
Communion to be received in both kinds, the holy Bible in 
the vulgar tongue, the Homilies, and the excellent Para- 
phrase of that great scholar Erasmus, were all now by the 
King's command brought in, for the common use of his 
subjects. Which made the Gospellers most highly to octal 
him, and set forth his deserved praises. Thus one of thai 
Mil. Cover- 8 tyled him, " The high and chief admiral of the great navy 
dedic be- "of the Lord of hosts, principal captain and governor «f 
EiTi^fL " us *^ under him : the most noble ruler of his ship, even 
rephrase of " our most comfortable Noah, whom the eternal God hath 
e put * " chosen to be the bringer of us unto rest and quietn 

" him That he had set up his sail already, and 

" so well forward of his most godly journey, the gracious 
" wind of the Holy Ghost serving him, that it made many 
" a faithful subject of his, according as his calling required; 
" to come after a good pace *. That he was most godly 

«MCDUlBIMHrANl fVUt > ;r ms 

aari osatmued in etofipisg up the gaps lb*' OMAR 
and bis Mbe doctrine had made in the rini. vgL 
* ymnd of the Lord, and in building again the walk of hisAaasiett 
H hoaee^ which, through idolatry, superstition, evil exanw 
« jde, and horrible abuses, had been broken down. That Im 
luetic acta and statutes, his proclamations and injunction* 

"testified the same And that his godly homilies, and 

u notable work of Erasmus's Paraphrase upon the holy 
"Evangelists, were worthy to be compared to the rick 
"jewels that Moses used to the pleasant garnishing of the >r 

m temple. And as for the sacred Bible, and volume of Gkxft 
"holy book, set forth by his Majesty's appointment, te 
a be duly practised in all holy exercises within his churches* 
" as it was the fairest flower of his garden, and the most 
"precious pearl of God's jewel-house, so because his Mn- 
" jesty had graciously made them partakers thereof, they 
"acknowledged themselves no less bounden to his Majesty, 
" than the Israelites were first to their sovereign Moses, for 
" bringing them up out of Egypt, and for setting up the 
"tabernacle; and afterwards to noble King Jonas, for re- 
" itoring them again the book of the law.* 

In the latter days of King Henry VIII. Stephen, Bishop Bi*opG«r- 
of Winton, wrote two reproachful letters (convituUrices, ai <!iDerWTitw 
Bueer calls them) against a certain book of the said Bucer, «*; 
dispr ovin g the necessity of ringleUfi imposed upon priests** 
sod monks. Which book he wrote against one Latomus. 
Wherein Bucer endeavoured to prove, from the word of 
God, and the consent of the true apostolical Church, that 
the doctrine that Latomus endeavoured to defend, as the 
law of the Church, whereby priests were denied marriage^ 
was not a law of the Church of God, but rather the pest of 
laws: whereby all true sanctity, as well of the clergy as 
die laity, (following the chastity of priests;) was in an hor- 
rid manner laid waste. He shewed what marriage was of 
itself, an holy state of life, and had that in it whereby the 
priestly function was not a little helped. And for that cause 
the Holy Ghost, among the endowments and virtues of a 
Bishop, set it in the first place, that he should be an bus* 



BOOK baixl,aiKlapiotttfathercfafainily. Against this book Win- 
_^1__ cheater wrote his two letter* His way of answering this hook 

1*47. vat not fay solid answers (as Bucer complained) taken from 
the authority of God, and of the whole apostolical Chureh, 
but by nibbling at little words, and snatching some place* 
that might allow of a dubious and uncertain interpretation, 
whereby to shew how acute and sharp he was in p erv er ti ng 
things well spoken, and speaking evil of those that deserved 
it not. 
Bmea «n- It was somewhat long before Bucer published an answer 
J£J£ ~ to Bishop Gardiner, delaying it till the year 1647. For 
Gntoiftt. when he had prepared his answer, by enlarging what he 
{£jdu£Ji_ wrote against Latomus, consisting of proofs out of the 
gii«- Scriptures, and sentences of Fathers, before he put it forth, 

he signified his purpose to King Henry: who returned 
Bucer this answer; " That he had rather he would defer 
" the publishing it a little longer: for that he hoped he 
" should with a more quiet and sedate mind discourse with 
" Winchester, and other learned men of his kingdom, con- 
" cerning this and other controversies of religion, to find 
" out some godly reconciliation and restoration of the 
" Church. Which purpose the King feared might be 
" somewhat obstructed, if Winchester, whose sharpness in 
" writing, as he told Bucer, he liked not, should be pro- 
" voked to write further against him." With this pious 
and wise answer of the King, Bucer laid aside his purpose 
of sending abroad the things he had writ in his own vindi- 

But at length, in the year 1547, in an epistle to the 
Church of England, he put forth his answers to Winton's 
letters aforesaid, under these four heads : 

I. That he did piously and truly affirm, in his former 
book, that many men were so called to wedlock by God, 
that they could not receive the truly godly single Jife for 
the kingdom of heaven's sake. 

II. That although it were true, that every one could re* 
ceive this order of holy single life, if he would, as Win- 
chester contended they could, yet what was now required of 

. i /.' WMmmivamAMtw •■ i* m 

thr— thwitj of the timt Church. ••' vm - 

III* He jatfified hfauctf, not -to tare spoke dwt wfakh Ami iM7. 
m hHB| as was msptiteii to mni oy vvineiiester. 

IF. Coimrnmg>the genuine interpretation of that ptor, 
Jzv 4m£ standeA Jwm tii air heatt 9 having no Mcsafrijpi) 

ftsortifce* A* «» Andofaontty 

other plants, at that, It is not goodjbr mam Id be alone. 
Aj^ ihati It is good Jbr a m€m ni4 to tomdk a woman. And 
that, Because qfjbmicmtionj let every man have hie oani 
wjfa he 

It was about three yean before the aboveaaid BishopAmtiBg 
wrote hn letters to Bucer, that they both happened to niee* ££}£* 
together: where, in consequence of discourse, they fell into*** ***** 
a dispute about this argument For Bucer and Alexander o«nuy. 
Alee, the Soot, coming, whether on purpose or by chance, j^^j}*- 
where Bishop Gardiner Was, being then the King's amhaa-p. **/ 
lador in Germany, the Bishop began to discourse concern-**** 1MS * 
ing aome eonunon principles and means, whereby every man 
■ight fa» convinced of the controverted points of religion. 
Then the Biabop denied that there were any principles and 
enrtam way, fay which the true doctrines of our religion 
toight be demonstrated, and the contr ar y refuted. Which 
Bucer asserted, and then brought this place of Scripture, 
% Tim. iiL concluding hence, that the Scripture divinely 
inspired was abundantly sufficient to both ; as the Holy 
Ghost there, fay St. Paul, testified. But Winchester said, 
every one fixed the sense he pleased upon the Scriptures; 
and refused to stand to the interpretation of the ancients. 
Bucer answered, that to those to whom the faith of Christ, 
and a desire of following the word of God, was not want- 
ing, was easily shewn from the Scriptures, what was to be 
followed in religion, and what avoided* And concerning 
the sense of Scripture in doctrines necessary to our salva- 
tion, agreement might with no great pains be made among 
such, who, by prayer, and a study of godliness, and such 
like ways, inquired the true sense of Scripture, as inquiry 


BOOR is wont to be made into other authors for their tense. Bet 
*' the Bishop would not bring the matter into that 

Abdo 1647. compass, but asserted, that every one ought to follow tbtf 
which princes did decree and appoint concerning refign 
Then they descended into a dispute of the power of prima 
in matters relating to religion. And herein this took upi 
good part of their discourse, that the Bishop endeavoured 
to maintain, that princes did well in punishing the trans- 
gression of their own laws more severely than that of 
God's: which Bucer had laid to the charge of princes: * 
likewise that it was held capital to eat flesh a Fridays, 
whether it were of beasts, fowl, or fish ; or if a priest or 
a monk married a wife, while in the mean time they made 
a sport to commit adultery and fornication, and to IriD 
themselves and others with their cups. This gave occa- 
sion of falling into disputation of that law whereby msr- 
riage was forbid to priests. For the retaining of which law, 
and the punishing the breach of it, the Bishop said, the 
prince had as much power over his subject, as the firths 
had over his daughter. And the father, if he pleased, 
might keep his daughter unmarried. And so it was in the 
power of princes to command celibacy to priests. Hen 
Bucer urged the restraint of this power, which the Holy 
Ghost expressed in those words, Having no necessity^ md 
having power over his own will. For since none oodl 
have power over any other, unless to the edification of god- 
liness, he said, a father had not power from God to keep 
his daughter unmarried, unless he considered it would be 
to his daughter's profit, and that he should confer some- 
68 thing to her hereby, namely, to her serving of God mow 
readily. But a father was so far from having a power over 
his own will in this matter, to keep his daughter a virgin, 
that he had rather a necessity of giving her in marriage 
Here Winchester denied, that any necessity was given die 
father of marrying his daughter from the daughter herseK. 
But Bucer stuck to this principle of Scripture, that a fa- 
ther had not power of keeping his daughter, unless he 
knew it would be for her spiritual benefit ; and if he feared 


-3 I 


it would fall out otherwise, he muit bestow her in marriage. CHAP. 

foresaid letters. Ann© im7. 

In this disputation (because the Bishop in his letter de- 
nied that he used any contending in his discourse with Bu- 
cer) Bucer could not but take notice of the heat and pas- 
sion of the Bishop, and as a sign thereof *, "how the veiris'Ut ream 
" in his hands, the like to which he never saw in any before, ^d in ' 
"did leap and tremble, as often as Bucer said any thinjr nullo ° n " 
"that gave him offence; specially if he heard any such mine ridi, 
" thing spoken by that learned and truly pious divine Alex- J^J^ 1 ' 
"ander Ales, whom Bucer brought with him to Bishop rent, qw>- 
" Gardiner at this conference." ktob* ' 

quod offendebat, &c Grmtmlmt. md Eecl. 4ngl.p.&8. 


Anabaptists. Bishop Ridley vindicated. Latimer's talk 
with an Anabaptist. Begins to preach. Bishop Gardi- 
ner complies with the Kings proceedings. Hancock the 
preacher. His troubles. 

1 HIS busy Bishop, who had been imprisoned in the Fleet BUhopGmr- 
the last day of June, by the Council, was, the latter end of tulberty. 
this year, by the King's general pardon, set at liberty : but 
the Council asked him, whether he and all his diocese 
would receive the injunctions and homilies lately made. 
He said, he would conform to all, and enjoin his diocese so 
to do ; but he boggled at the homily of Justification, which 
was set forth to be by Jhith, and not by works. And con- 
cerning that, he desired some days to consider. And to sa- 
tisfy and persuade him in this point, Bishop Ridley was 
sent to him. 

At this time he and Ridley were appointed to deal with Ridley »U- 
two Anabaptists of Kent : for divers of that sect had lately by^Srdi- 
fled from Germany hither; and began to infect the realm ner * 
with odd and heretical opinions; and particularly spake 
contemptibly of the holy sacrament of the Lord's Supper 


BOOR So at the same time that Ridley exhorted Gardiner to re 
_!l_cer?e die true doctrine of justification, againat which b 

1647. was very refractory, he prayed him to be very diligent h 
confounding the Anabaptists in his diocese; and that b 
would be steady in defence of the Sacrament againat them 
This some Papist did pervert to such a sense, as thotigl 
Ridley had spoken of and a p prov e d a carnal presence 
$9 And so Bishop Gardiner reported to some in his house 
after Ridley was departed. But though Ridley were no 
for that gross, corporeal, popish presence in the Sacrament 
yet he a p prov e d of treating that holy mystery with all dc 
votion and honour; because there were many in those time* 
who, that they might run the farther from Popery, gave i 
little or no respect at all. Wherefore he, in a sermon at Si 
Paul's Cross, preached earnestly for giving great reverenc 
to the Sacrament : rebuking the unreverend behaviour c 
many towards it : for there had been fixed upon the cathe 
dral church doors, and other places, railing bills against th 
Sacrament, terming it, Jack in a box, the sacrament qfih 
halter, Round robin, and such like unseemly terms. Thoiig 
they meant not these contemptible expressions, I suppost 
against the holy Supper of our Lord, but only against th 
papal mass. But upon this occasion Bishop Ridley declare 
what estimation and reverence ought to be given to th 
holy institution; what danger ensued the mishandlm 
thereof: and affirmed, that in it there was truly and veril 
the body and blood of Christ effectuously by grace an 
spirit This some then understood again in the gross sen* 
of the Papists, though he so meant it not. 
Depositions And the more to expose Ridley, when Bishop of Lot 
j^ * don, and to take off his credit, being one of the Commii 
sioners in the year 1560 to examine Bishop Gardiner, th 
said Bishop got leave for certain of the clergy to be di 
posed on his behalf; to shew, that Bishop Ridley declare 
himself once for the corporal presence, and afterwards cU 
clared against the same doctrine. And what if he had « 
done P Is it such a crime to forsake an error, after a ma 
hath found it to be so? But let us see the depositions. Th 


t witness was Maurice Griffith, Archdeacon of Roches- CHAP. 
: who deposed, " Thai Ridley, Bishop of Rochester, **• 
he first year of the King, at Paul's Cross, treated earn- Anno jm7. 
sdy and vehemently of the Sacrament; and did set Act* and 
brth the presence of Christ's body there; and called J£' 
hem hogs and dogs, that did irreverendly behave them- 
elves touching die same." His second witness was 
nmas Watson, his Chaplain; and he deposed, " That 
le called them worse than dogs and hogs, that would as- 
ert the question, How he was there present And noting 
he dignity of the Sacrament said, that in the primitive 
hues three sorts of people were excluded from the Com- 
Dunion, cateckumcni, cnergumeni 9 and pcrnitcntes. And 
Ins, he said, he preached the first year of the King, in 
November." And then was George Bishop of Chichester 
losed, " That in the Parliament at Westminster, 1549, 
he same Bishop Ridley did openly impugn the verity 
t Christ's body and blood in the Sacrament" But so 
;, all this came to no more, but that he held a presence, 
t not after the gross popish way. So that these deposi- 
ts could not arise to a proof, that Ridley varied in his 
moos about the Sacrament 

But this slanderous report got such a vogue among the R»<Uf y'» 
pists, that Ridley could never after get himself clear of f what be 

-And in the beginning of Queen Mary's reign, Feek-|£l„ 
n, Dean of St Paul's, had the confidence to relate item*, 
bbdy in his sermon at St Paul's Cross, that Ridley 
se declared himself in that place for a substantial change 
the bread in the Sacrament But if we would know ra- 
id what Ridley preached, we may have it from himself: 
dicating himself in this matter to Secretary Bourn and Fox's Act. 
cknam, in a conference with them in the Tower, shewing^ 8 ' 
m how unjustly and untruly reported he had been, he 
i, that what he then delivered at Paul's Cross was, 
hat inveighing against them that esteemed the Sacra- 
nent flo better than a piece of bread, he told his auditors 
£ the pcenitentes, audientes, catechumeni, and energu- 
ncm in the primitive times, who were bid to depart when 


BOOK u the Sacrament wis to be administered ; and I," arid Rid- 
f * ley, u bid them depart, as unworthy to hear the m y s te r y ; 

Aano iM7.« and then said to those that were the sancti, that Cyprian 
u the martyr should tell them, how it was that Christ called 
" it, saying, Poms est corpus, cibus, potus, caro 9 fcc. Stead 
" was the body, meat, drink, Jlesh of Christ ; because unto 
" this material substance is given the property of the thing 
" whereof it beareth the name. And this [common] place, 11 
saith Ridley, " I then took to utter as the time would then 
" suffice, that the material substance of bread did remain.* 1 
Fecknam heard all this talk of Ridley, as red as scarlet in his 
face, and said not a word. Yet notwithstanding, Fecknam 
would afterwards, as occasion served, mention Ridley, as serv- 
ing his popish purpose. So he told Mr. Hawks the martyr, in 
his conference with him, that Ridley, in a sermon at PaiiFs 
Cross, had preached, " that the Devil believed better than 
" some among them ; for he believed that Christ was able 
" of stones to make bread, but they would not believe that 
" Christ's body was in the Sacrament." 
The effect Among other dangerous errors vented nowadays by die 
bJltfot i^ i Anabaptists, before spoken of, and believed by many ho- 
•ww. nest meaning people, they held, that after an apostasy from 
the truth, there was no salvation : and that this was the sin 
against the Holy Ghost This put one, about these times, 
into despair : for he had fallen from the truth known, and 
after fell to mocking and scorning it At length, upon 
some melancholic thoughts, he fell into the hideous condi- 
tion of desperation, reckoning verily that he had sinned the 
Sermon be- sin against the Holy Ghost. He repaired unto Latimer the 
great divine and casuist at this time, and told him, that 
" he should be damned, and that it was not possible for 
" him to be saved, for that he had sinned the sin against 
" the Holy Ghost" Latimer did think, that falling away 
from the truth was indeed the sin meant, of which the 
Scripture said, It should never bejbrgiven. But he told 
the man, " that it was a vehement manner of sptaking in 
" the Scripture, but was not spoken universally, as though 
" God did never forgive it, but it was commonly called un- 


** finvivaMe, because God Kfakai fonriveth it Yet that CHAR 
" there was no sin so great but that God may forgive it, and 

" doth forgive it to the repentant heart." And when no ar- An™ >**7 
gument he could use had any force upon the man, this best 
quieted him, and took some place with him. But the said 
good Father made this observation hereupon, How seldom 
this sin is forgiven, in that he knew no more, but that one 
man that fell from the truth, and after repented, and came 
to grace again, though he had, as he said, known many, 
that knew more than he, and some whom he honoured, that 
after they had fallen from the truth, never, this man ex- 
cepted, returned to grace and the truth again. 

The Anabaptists of these days were generally infected R<*«t 
also with Pelagianism and other heresies; they were alsohtptut. 
very confident and disputatious. One of this sort was now 
crept into the Court, namely Robert Cooke. He was a71 
person of a very courteous fair deportment, of some learn- 
ing, and particularly well skilled in music. When Park- 
hurst (he that afterwards was Bishop of Norwich) was 
preacher to Queen Katharin Par at the Court, he was 
keeper of the wine-cellar. Here he came acquainted with 
\ the said parkhurst, and also with Coverdale and Dr. Tur- 
ner, and other learned men in their attendances at the 
Court. This man, besides that he was against the baptism HU opini- 
af infants, denied original sin, and concerning the Lord's 
Supper he dispersed divers odd things. The said Dr. Tur- 
ner wrote a book against him, in which he confuted his opi- 
nion of original sin. He often created trouble to Parkhurst 
and Coverdale about these controversies, so that they were 
tired with him ; for he was a man full of words. When 
Jewel, and other learned men, his friends, came sometimes 
to Court to visit Parkhurst, Cooke would presently begin a 
dispute with them, and would never make an end. This 
man seems to have been among the exiles under Queen 
Mary, and became then known to the learned Rodulph 
Gualter at Zuric. Who afterwards in his correspondence 
with the said Parkhurst, then Bishop of Norwich, inquired 
after him; which was in the year 1573. He was then 



book alive, and still in the Court, being one of the gentiana 

** the Queen's chapeL And for his opinions, which he still 

Anno i&47.tained, had some time before been like to have been < 

charged of his place. But he made a recantation, and 

continued still in his room at the chapeL 

Latimer's January 1, Dr. Latymer began to preach his first son 

Mr ~ at St Paul's Cross, and so continued for three Sund 

Second, successively at the same place. And on March 7, be 

Wednesday, he preached his first sermon before the Ei 

in a pulpit set up in the King's privy garden, for the c 

venience of the auditors. 

BuhopGw- Bishop Gardiner being now set at liberty, was onk 

piks^witb" *° 8° d° wn to Winchester, to instruct his diocese: wh 

the King's he did ; himself receiving and obeying the book of sen 

tog,. and orders for religion ; and all the proclamations, statu) 

and injunctions that were then set forth by the King's 

thority, were observed duly, and quietly kept and ober 

by the said Bishop and his ministers of the diocese ; a 

was deposed afterwards by Seton. His servant Basset j 

testified, that when the Bishop came down to Wini 

(when Basset came also along with him,) he lived quia 

and did with all diligence execute all such laws, procki 

tions, and orders, as were set forth by the King; astheli 

book of the Communion set forth before Easter. Wl 

book the Bishop caused to be sent abroad within his < 

cese, with such diligence and haste as he possibly en 

And lastly, when he came first down into his diocese, a 

his delivery out of the Fleet, he preached two sermons, 

at Farnham and another at Winton, wherein he exha 

his audience to be obedient to the King's Majesty as tl 

sovereign Lord and supreme Head; alleging divers to 

of Scripture for the same. 

Theruigar There was now great care taken, that the vulgar sort mi 

thePsteT™ arrive to some understanding of religion, which they i 

notter in for the most part most barbarously ignorant of before, i 

for this purpose provision was made, that the people mi 

learn in English the .Lord's Prayer, the Creed, and thei 

that used always to be said before in Latin; but especi 


the Lord's Player, commonly called the Pater noeter. And CHAP, 
therefore the better to inculcate it into the memories of the IX * 

people, Latimer used to say this prayer constantly both be- Anno iM7. 
fore and after sermon, in the country where he was. And 79 
when any poor people came to him to ask an alms, he would 
oppose them with the Lord's Prayer, and bade them say it; 
and cause his servants sometimes to require them to say it 
Many would tell him, they could say the Latin Pater noeter, 
and others, that they could say their old Pater noster, (as 
they termed the Lord's Prayer in Latin,) but not the new, 
meaning that in English. 

I will now insert a narration of the troubles of oneTrouMetof 
Thomas Hancock, a preacher, who in the latter time of King the 
Henry, and the reign of King Edward, did much good in er * 
Wiltshire and Hampshire, by his diligent preaching the 
Gospel, of whom somewhat was said in another book. In Cnmmert 
the beginning of King Edward's reign, for preaching against p.^** 
the mass at Salisbury, Dr. Steward and Dr. Oking, Chan- 
cellors to Bishop Gardiner and Bishop Capon, being pre- 
sent, he was required of the Mayor to find sureties to an- 
swer for his sermon the next assizes ; because he pretended 
Hancock had spoke contemptuously of the Sacrament, con- 
trary to a late proclamation, (which we shall hear more of by 
and by,) viz. that no nicknames should be given to the Sa- 
crament ; though he said for himself, that that which he 
spake against was not the Sacrament, but an idol. But see- 
ing no way but to find sureties, or to go to gaol, six honest 
men were bound for his appearance. What followed upon 
this, 1 had rather you should have it from his own full rela- 
tion ; which was in these words : 

" When I came to the assizes, Sir Michael Lyster, being Hit n!a- 
" Lord Chief Justice, wylled me to have certayn to be*£ nt,,ew " 
" bound for me, that I shold not be before the Kyng in hisFo&UMSS. 
u proceedings. I making no haste to get my securities, 
" my Lord Chief Justice called upon me very earnestly, 
" that I should get some to be bound for me. The Bishop 
" suing at the bench, I requested him, that fbrsomuch as 
" my trouble was for the word of God, that he and his 

VOL. II. i • 





BOOK u Chaplain, one Mr. Reeve, wold be bound for me. My 
*' " Lord Chief Justice rebuked me, bycause I chose my sure- 
Amm im?. " ties out of the bench, saying, that yf he wold be my 
u surety, he would not take hym. So I stode styl, not 
" seking any to be bound for me. Wherat my Lord was 
" not very well pleased, and said unto me, Why seke ye 
u not some to be bownd for you ? I aunsweryd, that 1 knew 
" not to whom to speak. There was present a woolen 
draper, one Harry Dymoke, who asked my Lord, what 
" the band was ; who awnsweryd, one hundred pounds. He 
sayd again, that an hundred of them wold be bownd in 
an hundred pounds for me. Another sayd, that a thou- 
" sand of them wold be bownd in a thousand pounds for 
me. Wherat my Lord rebuked me, saying, See what an 
uproar you make among the people. I sayd unto him, 
I pray you, my Lord, lay no such thing to my charge. 
" I stand before you, and stir not. It ys God that moved* 
u ther harts thus to speak : I prayse his name for yt* 
" Then did my Lord again enter talk with the abovenamed 
" Harry Dymoke, and asked hym, whether ten of them 
" wold be bownd in an hundred pounds, for yf one hun- 
dred persons should be bownd in an hundred pounds, 
the names then wold occupy more ink and paper than 
73 " the obligation. Harry Dymoke answered, that I had no 
" rule of my self in that place [i. e, the pulpit,] and that 
" they thought that I wold break the band. Which yf I 
" shold, that wold greve them to forfeit x pounds a piece. 
" But in that quarrel to forfeit xx pound a piece yt wold 
" never greve them. So was the first band discharged; 
" and my Lord bownd ten of them in x pound, and I my 
" self was bownd in xc pound. 

This don, I ryd from Salisbury unto my L. of Somerset 

hys Grace, who lay at that tyme at Syon. I requested hys 

" Grace, that I mowght have his letter for the discharge 

" of them that were bownd for me. He cawsed my Lord 

• Sir w. " Treasurer hys Honor, that now is a , (who than was Master 

uS^hiey. " of the Requests,) to write to my L. Chefe Justice for the 

" discharge of the band. Which letter, whilst I was with 



« my Lord at Hampton b to deliver, the bel rang to the CH A*. 
" sermon. My Lord asked me, whether I mynded to 1X * 

" preach. I awnswered, Yea. My Lord said unto me, that Ana© 1*47. 
" Hampton was a haven-town, and that yf I shold teach J^JJJ^ 
" such doctrin as I taught at Sarum, the town wold besarum. 
" divided ; and so shold that be a way or a gap for the 
"enemy to enter in. And therfore he commaunded me 
" that I shold not preach. I awnswered, that I wold not 
" take that for a forbydding, but that forsomuch as the 
w people resorted to the church at the rynging of the bel, 
"to hear the word of God, they shold not return home 
" sgayn voyd of God's word. My Lord sayd agayn unto 
"me, that I shold not preach; and that there was one 
w id the Tower, (meaning Bishop Gardiner,) that he would 
M beleve before four hundred such as I was. I awnswered, 
" that he spake those words betwyxt him and me, but yf I 
"had record of them he wold not speak them. So my 
" Lord sent for the Maior and his brethren. Mr. Maior 
" asked me, whether I cold be content, that another shold 
" supply the room for me. I awnswered, Yea ; and that I 
" was as willing to hear the word, as to preach my self. So 
" did Mr. Maior tend to one Mr. Gryffeth, who did preach: 
" and my Lord being present, he chalenged him, that he, . 
" being Chief Justice of the land, did suffer images in the 
"church, the idol hanging in a string over the altar, can- 
dlesticks, and tapers on them, upon the altar, and the 
" people honouring the idol contrary to the law ; with much 
" other good doctrin. I praysed God for yt. And thus 
" were ray friends of Sarum, that were bound for me, dis- 
" charged their band. 

" This trouble being overcome, another followeth. For 
" after thys, I was called the same year (which was the first 
" year of King Edward) to be the Minister of God's word 
" at the town of Pole, in comt. Dorcet Which town was The town 
M at that tyme wealthy. For they embraced God's word ; ^diiera. 
M they were in favour with the rulers and governors of 
" the realm : they were the first that in that part of Eng- 
u land were called Protestants : they did love one another, 



BOOK " and every one glad of the company of the others : and so 
" God powred his blessings plentifully upon them. Bui 




Anno i«47. « noWj I have sorow to set my pen to write y t, they are be 

tion of a " come poor, they have no love to God's word ; they lack 

loring « the favour and friendship of the godly rulers and go- 

" vernors to defend them. They fell from their profession : 

they hate one another ; one cannot abyde the company oi 

another ; but they are divided amongst themselves. But 

O Lord God, heavenly Father, which workest all thing* 

74 "J° r the oe *t un t° thine elect and chosen, and art a Got 

qf mercy and long-buffering, suffer not that town of Pole, 

if it be thy good will, to come to desolation ; but, mcrcifw 

God, who hast the harts of all men in thine hands, one 

" dost turn them whom thou wilt turn, give them harts k 

" repent, and powr thy blessings upon them, that they tnay 

" embrace thy word, that they may be not only hearers, bw 

obedient JbUowers and doers qf the same ; and that the$ 

may love one another. And so pour upon them thy bless 

ings, that they may come, not to a worse, but to a bettet 

state, Jbr thy dear Son Christ Jesus sake, our only me- 

" diator and advocate. 

HU sermon « J being the Minister of God's word in Poole, preaching 

" the word upon some Sunday in the month of July, in 

" veyed against idolatry and covetousness, taking my plan 

" out of the sixth of the first of Timothy, Deus immortalu 

" est, et lucem habitat inaccessibiiem, quern nemo hominun 

" videt, sed nee videre potest. The brightness of the God 

head is such, that yt passeth the brightness of the sun, o: 

angels, and all creatures ; so that yt cannot be seen wit! 

our bodily eyes ; Jbr no man hath seen God at any thru 

" and liveth : the Priest at that time being at mass. Y: 

" that be so, that no man hath seen God, nor can see Got 

" with these bodily eyes, then that which the Priest liftetl 

" over his head is not God ; for you do see yt with youi 

" bodily eyes. Yf yt be not God, you may not honour j 

as God, nether for God. Wherat old Thomas Whight 

a gret rych merchant, and a ring-leader of the Papists 

" rose out of his seat, and went out of the church, saying 



* Come Jrtmx hym, good people, he came Jrom the Devil, CHA?. 
I teackeik unto you devilish docirin. John Nothrel, . 

 aHat John Spicer, following hym, Baying, It shall be God, Ann ° '•*?.• 
" when thou shall be but a knave. 

" The same year in the day of All Saints, as they call What hip. 
" jt, after that I came from expounding some place of the [*° )he ^ 
"Scripture at evening prayer, the abovenamed Thomas onAU 
" Wliight, John Nothrel, and William Haviland came to 
" the Priest, commanding hym that he ahold say dirige 
u for all sowls, I commanding hym the contrary ; they sayd 
"they wold make me to say dirige. I awnswered, not 
" whyle they lived. Than did all three with one mouth cal 
" me knave, and my wiff strompet : some of them threat 

 ning me, that they wold make me draw my gutts after 
"me. The Mayor being an honest good man, Morgan 
" Reed by name, thrust me into the quire, and pulled the 
"quire dure fast to me, commanding them to keep the 

* King's peace. But they spared not to call the Mayor 
" knave. The Mayor had much work to stop this hurly 
"burly, untyl he had got the chefe of them out of the 
" church. So was I driven again to be a sutor to my Lord 
" of Somerset his Grace. Who willed me to resort to Mr. 
" Cecyl, then Master of Requests, but now Lord Treasurer 
" of England. Of whom I had also another letter for my 
" quyetnes in preaching of God's word in the town of Pool. 

* From that tyme I contynued in Pool untyl the death of 
'good King Edward." 

CHAP. X. 75 

r Mnd), advowsons, and rectories settled upon certain 
tkmrdtet and bishoprics, deans and chapters. Cheke 
mid Latymer gratified. Treaties with Jbreign prince*. 
The Sing's gifts. The strangers* church at Canter- 
bury. Orders to the Archbishop Jbr taking away images. 
N the first year of the King he took care for the settle- Gnnt) of 
(Bt of revenues upon divers churches and colleges ; from lhe K '" K " 
(rich either, his father had taken their lands, and had not 


BOOK made them recompense by others equivalent, (which he yet 
by his last will required to be done,) or he himself to aatkfr 

Amw 1647. his courtiers : that so he might maintain religion and lean- 
ing, by maintaining the estate of the church. Here follot 
then the manors and lands granted by the King, with the coo* 
siderations why, as I took them from his Book of Sales: 
TotheDean May £g. To the Dean and Chapter of Wigorn, in coo*. 
ofWo!> r deration of the lordships and rectories at Grimley and 
cc * ter * Halowe, and the manor of Hytnwyke and Woodhal, in the 
county of Wigorn, and others, and in performance of King 
Henry's will, was granted the rectory of Ketnsey in the 
county of Wigorn, with the appurtenances, lately parcel of 
the possessions of Raf e Sadleyr, Kt and granted to the naA 
King Henry; and divers other manors, rectories, lands 
and tenements in the oounties of Wigorn, Glocester, Lan- 
caster, Hereford, and Bedford. The yearly value whgretf 
was 1802. 1*. Sob. certain rents reserved. 
And to the J un e 8. To Nicolas Bishop of Wigorn, for the fulfiHag 
them* King Henry's last will, were granted the advowsoos and 
rectories of the churches of Grimley and Halowe, late ptftod 
of the possessions of the cathedral church of Wigorn, value 
14/. 1*. lio6. 

The same June 8, to the same Nicolas, in consideration 
of the exchange of the lordships of Stoke Episcopi and 
Hernbury in the salt marsh in the county of Glocester, and 
other possessions in Glocester, Middlesex, and Lohdoo, 
and for the fulfilling of King Henry's will, were granted the 
manors of Grimley and Halowe, parcel of the possessions of 
the cathedral church of Wigorn, and divers other lands 
and tenements in Surrey and London. The yearly value 
135/. 6*. 9ob. 
To the Bi- Aug. 90. To Richard Bishop of Coventry and Litchfield, 
▼entry and" ^ n consideration of the manors of Longdon, Bewdesert, 
Litchfield. Rugeley, Heywood, Barkeswich, and Cannok, and divers 
other lands and tenements in Staffordshire, and for fulfilling 
King Henry's will, were granted the advowson of the rec- 
tory of Wolstaunton in the county of Stafford, and the 
rectory of Belgrave in the county of Leicester, and of the 


eetories of Pightesly, Buckby, and Towceter in North. GBAR 
mptonshire; and divers other advowsons and prebends in 

he county aforesaid, and within the bishopric of Bangor. A *** IM7 « 
rhe yearly value whereof was 1832. 8*. \6bq. with cbnsU* " 
farable rent reserved. 

Aug. 81. To the Dean and Chapter of the Holy Trinity, To the D«o 
Winton, in consideration of the exchange of the manors of " ^jJUJjJ* 
Overton, Alton, Stockton, and Patney, and of the rectories 
rf the two farmer, in Wilts, were granted the advowson of 
die rectory of Gresford, within the bishopric of St Asaph, 
ad of the rectory of Crockhorn in the county of Somerset, 
md the advowson of the rectory of Laugherne in the county 
cfCardigan, and the rectories and churches of the same. 

Aug. 80. To the Provost and College of St. Mary, at 
Eaton, for 252. 6s. Sob. and in performance of King Henry's 
hat will, and in consideration of the exchange of the manors 
cf Milborn Beck, Lutton, and Ponyngton in the county of 
Dorset, and divers other lands and tenements, were granted 
the revenues of Great Compton in the county of Warwick, 
lately parcel of the possessions of Thomas Crumwel, Kt. 
kte Earl of Essex, attainted of high treason, and of Blox* 
ham in the county of Oxon, late parcel of the possessions 
cf the late monastery of Godstow in the same county, and 
dhrers other lands and tenements in the counties of Oxford, 
Bedford, Lincoln, and Warwick. 

Aug. 81. To Thomas Archbishop of Canterbury, in con- To the 
■deration of King Henry's promises, and in performance of ^SjJJjJJj? 
ik last will, and for the exchange of the manor and park bury. 
of Mayfeld, &c. were granted the rectories of Whalley, 
Bbckborn, and Rochdale, &c. as is more at large related Memorial* 

Sept 8. To Henry Bishop of Lincoln, in consideration To the 
of die exchange of the manor of Dorchester, Cropredy, ul^ n , 
KTardington, Cotes, Newthorp, Cethorp, and Burton, in 
he county of Oxon, and divers other manors, lands, add 
enements, in the counties of Rutland, Leicester, North* 
aaptoo, Huntingdon, Bedford, Nottingham, and Lincoln ; 
granted him the capital mansion and outward gate of 

i 4 



BOOK the college of Thornton in the county of Lincoln, and <fi» 
_1_ vers other manors, lands, and tenements in the counties of 

Aam 1547. Lincoln, Leicester, Sussex, Nottingham, Cannarden, widi 

considerable rent reserved. 

Tfc tiw Bi- About this time, to Robert Bishop of Oxon, for the ftf- 

Onm. filling King Henry's last will, were granted the rectories of 

Welsford, Sibbertoft, and Overton, with the appurtenances 

in the counties of Northampton and Leicester, and the ma* 

nors of Medley, Hokenorton, and Watlington, in the county 

of Oxon, and divers other lands and tenements in Oxoa, 

Bucks, London, and Berks, to the yearly value of 8911 

1*. Bob. Rent reserved, 971. 14*. 9ob. To commence ham 

the feast of the Annunciation, an. 88. Hen. VIII. 

TotheDean Sept 27. To the Dean and Chapter of St Paul's, 

of SMtai" don, in consideration of the manor of Roumwel in 

and of the manor of Drayton in Middlesex, and drrai 
other lands, tenements, and rents, and in full execution tf 
King Henry's last? will, was granted the advowaon of thft 
rectory of Charing in Kent, and the chapel of Egerton hi 
the same county, and the manor of Mockyng in Essex, 
lately parcel of the possessions of the late monastery tf 
Berkyng in the said county, and divers other lands and 
tenements in Kent and Essex. Rent reserved, 1£J. ]*. Sob. 
7 jr Octob. 7. To the Dean and Canons of the King's fires 
To the De»n chapel of St. George within the castle of Windsor, as well 

*mXZ. {or thc fo,fimn g ^ng Henry's last will, as for exchange of 
the manor and rectory of Iver, and of the manor of Damaiy 
court, and divers other lands and tenements, to the said 
King Henry given and made over, and divers others sur- 
rendered by the said Dean and Chapter, were granted the 
rectories and churches of Bradnynch, Northam, Iplepes, 
Assington, and South Molton, in the county of Devon, and 
divers other manors, rectories, lands, and tenements ia 
Devon, London, Wilts, Glocester, Kent, Surrey, Cornwall, 
Middlesex, Oxon, Bucks, South Wales, Brecon, Carmar- 
then. Rent reserved, 42. £«. Sob. and 18/. 7*. 9ob. 

^ch^Tr The Bame date- To the Dean and Chapter of the col. 
of Thorn- legiate church of Thornton in Lincolnshire, in consideration 



the manor of Carleton in the moor land, in the county CHAF. 
of Lincoln, and divers other lands and tenements in the x * 
ame county, were granted the advowson of the rectory of Anno 1*47. 
Flamsted in the county of Hertford, and the advowson of 
the rectory of Holme in Spalding, in the county of York. 

Nov. 5. For the erection or founding of the deanery The drarch 
tnd chapter of Norwich, was granted the scite of the late j^™£ 
cathedral church of Norwich, with all its ancient privileges, ed. 
and all the jewels and implements of the said church. 

Nor. 9* To the Dean and Chapter of the church of theTotheDeao 
Holy Trinity in Norwich were granted in perpetual al^^l^nJic^ 
the manors of Hindoleston, Newton, Catton, Pookethorp, 
Eaton, Taverham, Aldeby, Ambringale, Worsted, Dylla- 
ham, and divers other manors, lands, and tenements, in the 
counties of Norfolk, Suffolk, York, Lincoln,. Norwich, Kent. 
And the time of the issues was from the time of the disso- 
lotion of the cathedral church of Norwich. Rent reserved 
wis 991 Us. Sob. 

For it may be here marked, that this church of Norwich How thi* 
continued a monastery of prior and monks to the second chan * 

J r came to be 

day of May, ann. Reg. Henruft VIII. xxx°. At which time founded by 
the said King Henry translated them from a prior and ,EdwanL 
convent into a dean and chapter, as by his letters patents 
appear. By virtue of which letters patents they continued 
a dean and chapter, and held all the lands to the late prior 
and convent belonging, till the 3d of June, anno 1 Reg. 
Edw. VI. At which day and time the said dean and chap- 
ter, for certain causes them moving, did surrender into the 
hands of the said King Edward all their said church, and 
all and singular their lands and rights whatsoever? Where- 
upon the said King, in the month of November aforesaid, 
did anew erect and found the said church, by the name of 
Ecdesue Sanctis et Individual Trinitatis Norwici exjim- 
datione Reg. Edward VI. and did endow it with all and 
singular the lands, &c. aforesaid ; reserving to himself the 
rent above mentioned. Which Queen Elizabeth by letters 
patents remitted, saving 50/. by year. The reason the Dean 
and Chapter thus surrendered their church seemed to have 


BOOR been, because they doubted of the title of their ftettlmn* 
L by King Henry ; the Bishop of the diocese, who was d* 

Aboo im7. founder of the priory in succession, not having given ha 

consent to the translation of the said priory into a dean aai 

„ chapter. Which flaw afterwards caused great trouble ft 

this church under queen Elizabeth. 
78 At Christmas I find the King's uncle, Sir Thomas S» 
Tfo L°ri mour, Lord Admiral, the Queen Katharin Par being at fife 
gratifies field, gratified Mr. Cheke, the King's careful instructor 
with a gratuity of twenty pounds, giving hira alao twaty 
more for the King, to dispose among his servants that goil 
time. Though Cheke, knowing probably the ambitious mi 
designing nature of the Admiral, was very loath to take fail 
gift, but he pressed it upon him. 
Tfo King The Lent following, Latimer preached before the IGqgfc 
to Latimer. an ^ bis Majesty, being minded to bestow some royal gift 
upon the preacher, sent to his said uncle for money, ml 
for his direction what he should give him. Whereupon b 
sent the King forty pounds, with advice to bestow kaK 
thereof upon Latimer, and the other half as gratuM 
among his servants. * 

Treaty con- That which was done abroad this year was the Bec uriq g 
Fmnce; of a good understanding with the King's neighbours. Thai 
a treaty was entered between King Edward and King Fran- 
cis of France, for taking away all occasions of strife wai 
contention about the limits of the new conquests of BokigB 
and Boloignois. Which treaty was agreed, sealed, and de- 
livered by the commissioners on both sides. And imias* 
diately after, that King died. And Henry II. his son, 
ceeded; who soon violated that treaty; as shall be 
And the There was also a treaty of peace, sealed Jan. ult b» 
peror# tween King Edward and Charles V. Emperor of Rome : to 
whose care and friendship King Henry his father, on hn 
deathbed, recommended his son, the said King Edward. 
The King's I n this first year of the King, the courtiers got away 
C £: r . from him a great number of fair lordships and manors, m 
pretence either of services, or for making good King Henry 


Jus father's last will, or by way of purchase for dispropor- CHAF. 
tunable earns of money, made in consideration of former 

lemoes; and in compliment of the deceased King's will. Anoo i**7« 
These lands thus given and granted were for the most part 
fluch as had belonged to monasteries and religious founda- 
tions, or bishoprics. In this manner were these persons fol- Book of 
taring gratified; Thomas Archbishop of Canterbury, the" **' 
Duke of Somerset, the Earl of Warwick, the Lord Rich, 
Marquis of Northampton, Earl of Southampton, Lord 
St John, Lord Russel, Lord Clynton and Say, the Lord 
Sdaiour, Gertrude Lady Courtney, Sir William Paget, 
& William Herbert, Sir Thomas Pope, Sir John Bridges, 
Sir Rafe Sadleir, Sir Thomas Cawarden, Sir John Gates, 
Sir Richard Lee, Sir Rafe Fane, Sir Richard Mannours, 
Sir Thomas Palmer, Sir Francis Brian, Sir Anthony Denny, 
Sir Anthony Brown, Sir Philip Hoby, Knights ; Thomas 
Denton, John Harrington, Richard Cotton, Edward WalcL 
pave, Tho. Paston, Henry Thompson, Ger. Harmond, 
Sicbard Cecyl, Esquires, and others. It would be too long 
to set down what lands and estates were passed over to each 
of them particularly. Which otherwise might be done. 

I find divers outlandish learned and godly men this year The begin, 
at Canterbury : among the rest there was John Utenho-™^^ 6 
vtus, a person of honourable rank and quality, afterwards church at 
elder and assistant to John a Lasco's church in London. an r UTJ ' 
Here was also Valerandus Pollanus, and one Franciscus ; 
Old the year after, Bucer was here. Now, I conjecture, 
were the beginnings of the foreigners' church planted in 
Canterbury, by the countenance and influence of Arch- 79 
bishop Cranmer. There was a loving correspondence held 
between the said Utenhovius here, and P. Martyr now at 
Lambeth. In one of his letters wrote to him this year, he E Bibiiotb. 
had desired Martyr to let him know the state of religion, J^ " 1 *' 
how it stood at that time in the land ; about which, in the 
winter of the year 1547, there being then a Parliament and 
a Convocation, both were mainly employed. Martyr wrote 
him an answer, by a letter dated Jan. 15, and superscribed 
Nobili Viro D. Utenhcrvio; " That as yet he knew nothing 


BOOK " determined, but that all the most knowing men bid us h 
*' " of good heart, and give hopes that the matter will sue 


Anno 1647. " ceed very well. God grant, added he, that it 'may a 
happen speedily and quietly. Reverendissimus nosier e 
strenuk et maxima cum laude bonorum, pugnai ;" tha 
is, " Our most reverend friend and father the Archbishoj 
" contends for it strenuously, and with the greatest pnria 
" of good men." And whereas Utenhovius had writ to 
Martyr, that they had at Canterbury condones intra pa 
rides, et conventus pios; t. e. " sermons and godly meet 
" ings within their own walls ;" Martyr makes only this re 
mark thereupon, that he doubted not, the Devil envied then 

In the year after this, viz. 1548, P. Martyr wrote an 

other letter, dated Sept 21, from Oxford to Utenhovius ai 

Canterbury, with the Archbishop there, removed thithe 

for the plague that then was in or about London. In tin 

letter there was not much besides a friendly correspondence 

and the signification that he had wrote a letter to Dr. Ponet 

the Archbishop's chaplain, about the business Utenhoviui 

had desired him. With this letter Martyr told him he hac 

sent three French crowns in gold borrowed of him : (which 

I suppose, he did upon his first coming to Canterbury 

after his arrival in England.) And concluded, wishing him 

and all the holy brethren with him, health and welfare ii 

the Lord. 

The Coon- Images in churches had been so grossly abused, anc 

Arcbbi-* 8UC ^ 1 idolatry and superstition committed by the means o: 

•fa>i>» for them, that it was in the King's Injunctions commanded t< 

aw*? the visitors to remove them every where, wheresoever the] 

'****&*- had been abused by pilgrimages, censings, and offerings 

Which was yet not so fully done, but that still they re 

mained in many places, there being great strife and conten 

tion about them. For the old priests were loath to part witi 

these their figures painted and dressed : and many were de 

sirous to retain all, how grossly soever they had beer 

abused. In some places where they were taken down, thej 

were set up again, after the visitors were gone away. Thi 


great pretence of those that were so tender of these images CHAP, 
sis, that some ct them had not been abused, and that such 
aid such had not been offered unto nor censed. And such Anno 1547. 
air was made about them, that tumults were likely to arise. 
And it was observed, where images were left, there was 
most contest, and most peace where they were all sheer 
polled down, as they were in some places. Therefore in 
the month of February the Council wrote to the Archbi- 
shop, " that the lively images of Christ might not contend 
"for dead images, which were things not necessary, and 
" without which the Church of Christ continued most 
u godly many years." Therefore they signified* to him, 
that it was the King's pleasure, with the consent and ad- 
fice of his Council, that all images should be removed out 
of churches and chapels in his diocese; and that he should 80 
signify the same to be done, unto all the Bishops within his 
province. This was dated from Somerset place, and signed 
by the Lord Protector, the Lord Russel, the Lord Arun- 
del, Sir Thomas Seimour, Sir Anthony Wyngfeld, and Sir 
William Paget. And accordingly the Archbishop (who no 
question moved for it) sent a copy of this letter, with his 
own command thereupon, speedily issued out, to Edmund 
Bishop of London. I do not here transcribe the CounciTs 
letter, as it is in Cranmer's register, because it is done al- 
ready in Bishop Burnet's History. 


Sundry wholesome orders of the Kingjbr religion. For 
the Communion. For Lent Innovation Jbrbid. The Book 
of Common Prayer drawn up : enacted. The Psalms in 
metre. The good progress of the Reformation. The re- 
venues of the Church struck at. 

W £ shall now shew some farther cares of the young King Anno ims. 
and his uncle, the Protector, for the good estate of religion, 
and for keeping the heady people of both persuasions from 
running into exorbitances. 


BOOK There were not a few, who, towards the declining of 
h this year, did, more openly and commonly than befant 
Anno 1548. speak of the holy Sacrament with much contempt Which} 
Unseemly to speak the truth, the former idolatrous and supendtkw 
dispute of doctrines thereof had given great occasion to: so that 
the Sacra- condemned in their hearts and speech the whole thing, 
bid. " reasoned unreverently of that high mystery : and in that 
sermons, or readings, or communication, called it by fOi i 
and unseemly terms. They made rhymes, and plays, an* 
jests of it And this occasioned chiefly by the misuse of it J ; 
as it is expressed in the act of Parliament of the first of Ed! 1 
ward VI. cap. 1. Therefore was that act of Parfiamadt 
made, being the very first act of this King. And to back 
this act, especially when these contemptuous dealings wfck 
the Sacrament continued still, and ceased not, the King 
sent forth a severe proclamation, December 27, against thart 
irreverent talkers of the Sacrament. Which I believe Arch- 
bishop Cranmer and Dr. Ridley between them were the 
composers of. This proclamation mentions the foresaid «t» 
calling it a good and godly act, and that it most pru- 
dently declared, by the words and terms of Scriptflrtj 
what is to be believed and spoken of the said Sacrament 
With which words and phrases of Scripture the King re- 
quired all his subjects to acquiesce. And to put a stop to 
those frequent and common disputes and wranglings con- 
cerning the manner, nature, or ways, the possibility or im- 
81 possibility of those matters, and those superfluous ques- 
tions and inquiries that many made; as, " Whether the 
" body and blood of Christ was there really or figuratively, 
" locally or circumscriptly, and having quantity and great- 
" ness, or but substantial and by substance only, or else but 
" in a figure and manner of speaking ? Whether his blessed 
" body be there, head, legs, arms, toes, nails, or in any 
other shape or manner, naked or clothed ? Whether he be 
broken or chewed, or he be always whole ? Whether the 
bread be there, as we see, or how it departeth ? Whether 
" the flesh be there alone and the blood, or part, or cadi 
" in other, or in the one both, in the other but only blood ; 



"and what blood? that only which did flow out of his side, CHAP. 
"or that which remained?" Being not contented reve- **' 
nendj to accept and believe the said Sacrament, according Anno ims. 
to the saying of St. Paul, The bread is the communion, or 
psrtaking, of the body of Christ, and the wine, likewise, the 
partaking of the Hood of Christ: and that the body and 
blood of Christ is there. Which is our comfort, thanksgiv- 
ing, and love-token of Christ's love towards us. 

Therefore the King, by this proclamation, did strictly 
forbid any such contemptuous talking of this mystery, or 
openly to argue, preach, or affirm any more terms of the 
Sacrament than be expressed in the holy Scriptures, and 
mentioned in the foresaid act ; until the King, with the ad- 
vice of his Council and Clergy of the realm, should set 
forth an open doctrine thereof, and what terms and words 
my justly be spoken thereby. But that in the mean time 
h» subjects should take the holy bread to be Christ's body, 
and the cup, the cup of his blood, according to the purport 
of die holy Scripture. And yet the King declared, that he 
allowed the ignorant to learn quietly and privately, and to 
demand of such as knew more, farther instruction in the 
nkl blessed Sacrament : so it were done not in contention, 
nor in open audience, nor with a company gathered toge- 
ther. Nor did he prohibit any man hereby quietly, de- 
voutly, and reverently to teach and instruct the weak and 
unlearned, according to the better talent by God given to 

And finally, the Justices were to apprehend and take all 
such as did contentiously and tumultuously, with com- 
panies or routs, dispute, argue, or reason, maintain or define 
the questions before mentioned. This is the sum of this not- 
able proclamation. Vide the Repository. M. 

This sort of men, that thus disrespectfully carried them- The King 
selves towards the Sacrament, had as little opinion of Lent, ^keeping 
and the keeping of it, supposing it to be a papal encroach- of lant. 
ment upon the liberty of Christians, to whom all meats 
were lawful But the King, as he required the strict ob- 
servation of this ancient ecclesiastical custom, and other 


BOOK fasting times, by a proclamation dated Jan. 16, ao therein,' 
to satisfy all persons, was shewed the lawfulness and cob* 

Anno 1648. yeniency thereof to be observed in his realm. It is wei 
drawn up, and by the pen, I suppose, of the Archbishop 
or some of his divines. In the preface it is exprasM^ 
how the King had the only cure and charge of til 
realms, not only as a king, but as a Christian king, nl , 
was supreme Head of the Church of England and J» i 
land. That he had a desire and will to lead his people k j 
such rites, ways, and customs, as might be acceptable It j 
God, and the farther increase of good living. That til j 
subjects now had a more perfect and clear light of tht > 
Gospel, through the infinite clemency and mercy of God,- 
82 " by the means of his Majesty and his most noble father? 
and should therefore in all good works increase, and be . 
more forward, as in fasting, prayer, and almsdeeds, ii 
love, charity, and obedience, and such like good wotki 
commanded in Scripture : but that alate, more than be*. 
fore, a great part of his subjects did break and op*, 
temn that abstinence, which of long time had been used 
in this realm upon Fridays and Saturdays, and thi 
time of Lent and other accustomed times. That the 
King therefore was constrained to see a convenient onkr 
therein. He minded not that his subjects should think 
there were any difference in days or meats, or that tin 
one should be to God more holy and pure than the other. 
For all days and meats were of equal purity : and in tai 
by them we should live to the glory of God. That for aD 
times and meats we should give glory to him : of which 
none can defile us at any time, or make us unclean, being 
Christian men. To whom all things be holy and pine: 
so that they be not used in disobedience and vice. But 
notwithstanding the King allowed and approved thett 
days and times before accustomed, to be still kept in the 
Church of England, that men should on these days ab- 
stain from their pleasure and meats wherein they had 
more delight, to subdue the body unto the soul an£ 
spirit And also for worldly and civil policy, to spare 


c< flesh and use fish, for the benefit of the commonwealth ; CHAP. 
" where many be fishers, and use the trade of living. And xl - 
4C that the nourishment of the land might be increased by Anno 154s. 
** saving flesh ; and especially at spring time, when Lent 
" doth commonly fall, and when the most common pknte- 
** ous b leed ing of flesh is. And that divers of the King's 
** subjects had good livings and riches in uttering and sell- 
44 ing such meat as the sea and waters did minister to us. 
" And that therefore the realm had more plenty of ships 
** aad boats for the following that trade of living. Besides, 
** that men of their own minds did not give themselves so 
** oft as they should do to fasting and abstinence. And 
** upon these considerations, the King commanded all per- 
** sons, of whatsoever state and degree, to observe and keep 
** from henceforth such fasting-days, and the time of Lent, 
** as had been heretofore used in the realm. But the King, 
c< as the Sang his father had done, did upon weighty con- 
" aidentions give licence to his subjects to eat white meats 
<c in the time of Lent, that is, butter, eggs, cheese, &c" 
The Parliament that sat the next year converted this or- 
der for observation of the fasting-days into a law, which 
contains the very words of this proclamation. Which is 
inserted in the Repository. N. 

But notwithstanding these orders for the keeping of Large H- 
Lent, I cannot but take notice what extravagant licences pending 
were granted sometimes by the King's patents for dispens- withLent « 
mg with the observation of it. As in the year 1551, 
Jan. 10, a licence was granted to the Lord Admiral Clin- 
ton to eat flesh, cum quibuscunque cum eo ad steam men- 
ktm convescentibus, omnibus ctiebus jejunalibus qmbuscun- 
fu: " and all others that should eat at his table with him, 
" on all fasting days whatsoever." Another licence under the 
King's seal, dated Feb. 24, 1551, was granted to John 
Ssmford of the city of Gloucester, draper, that he with 
two of his guests at his table might eat flesh and white 
meats, during all the Lent, and all other fasting-days in 
the year; and this licence was during his life. And the 
ijext Lent, viz. in the year 1552, a patent was granted to 83 



BOOK Gregory Ratttoo, one of the Clerks of the Signet, lb eat 
*• flesh with four in his company during his life. Another 
hm» iMa, licence for the Lord Treasurer, the Marquis of W in c he st er , 
and Elizabeth his wife, and to their family and friend*, 
ooming to the said Lord Marquis's house, not exceeding 
the number' of twelve guests, during his and his wives na- 
tural lives in the times of Lent and other Casting days ; to 
eat flesh or white meats, notwithstanding the statute of 
abstinence from flesh ; as the licence ran, dated March the 
19th. And another, dated March 11, was granted to John 
a Laseo, superintendent of the church of strangers within 
the city of London, and to every one else whom he shonld 
invite to his table for society sake; that to him and every 
of them, during his life, in Lent and other fasting times, it 
might be lawful to eat flesh and white meats freely, and 
without punishment, at their own will, any statute to the 
contrary notwithstanding. 
Innovation Now several preachers and laymen, lovers of the Gospel, 
ing without ^^^ labourers after a reformation of the old superstitions, 
licence for- had of themselves begun changes in their parish churches; 
laying aside the old rites and orders, and had brought in 
new ones, according to their own judgments and opinions, 
conformable, I suppose, to the practice of the foreign re- 
formed churches; but different from and beyond the in- 
junctions lately sent abroad from the King. He therefore 
issued out a proclamation, dated Feb. 6, therein charging 
these men with pride and arrogancy, and commanding that 
no person should omit or change or innovate any orders or 
ceremonies commonly used in the Church of England, and 
not commanded to be left off in his father King Henry's 
reign ; or than such as the present King, by his visitors 
and injunctions, had already, or hereafter should command 
to be omitted. And this be was moved to enjoin upon this 
consideration, as the said proclamation imports, thai »©- 
thing tended so much to the disquieting of the realm as di- 
versity of opinions, and variety of rites and ceremonies in 
religion and the worship of God : declaring, how he had 
studied all ways and means to direct the Church and ems 


committed to his charge, in one most true doctrine and CHAP, 
usage* And fay virtue of the same proclamation none were XI * 

to preach without licence from the King, or his viators, or Ann* i«4t 
the Archbishop of Canterbury, or the Bishop of the dio» 
ease, (exeept it were a Bishop, a Parson, a Vicar, a Curate, 
a Dean, or a Provost in their own cure,) upon pain of im* 
prisonment and other punishments. This proclamation also 
will be found in the Repository. °- 

Likewise, Maiteh 8. following, when the Communion ***** 
Book was published, the King in Ins proclamation before X^the 
it, to satisfy those that thirsted so much for a reformation, **?* P™- 
u advised them to stay and quiet themselves with the formation. 
" King's directions, as men content to follow authority, 
" and not enterprising to run afore : and so by that rash* 
" ness become the greatest hinderers of such things, as they, 
"more artogandy than godly, would seem by their own 
" private authority most hotly to set forward. And by 
" these means he might be encouraged from time to time 
" farther to travail for the reformation, and setting forth 
" audi godly orders, as might be to God's glory, and the 
" edifying of his subjects, and advancement of true rdi- 
tf gtom. Nor would he have his subjects so much to misBke 
** his judgment, nor mistrust his zeal, as though he could 84 
" not discern what were to be done, or would not do all 
" things in due time." 

But notwithstanding these proclamations, and that heNotwith- 


had divers other times before and since endeavoured to stop ^^^* 
the use of other forms and rite in the worship of God, ***• *** 
yet these his commands and endeavours would not prevail, 
but even in cathedral, as well as other parish churches, va- 
rious different ways of service were used, as well in the 
morning and evening prayers, as in the office of the Com- 
munion, and in the administration of the other sacraments. 
At length the King bore with this, which he could not well 
remedy ; calling it, " the frailty and weakness of his sub- 
"386*1:" and he abstained from punishing those that of- 
fended in that behalf. Because his Highness took, (as is 



"BOOK expressed in his act of Uniformity,) that they did it o 

good zeal. But for the preventing the evil that might 

Anno 1548. sue of these varieties, he appointed the Archbishop of C 

An. 9. Ed. terbury, and certain other Bishops and learned men, 

consider the premises, and with respect to the Scriptu 

and to the usages of the primitive Church, to draw oc 

convenient order, rite, and fashion of common prayer i 

administration of the Sacraments. Which was accordin 

done by them at Windsor, and prepared to be confirn 

and enacted by the Parliament that sat Nov. 24, 15 

when the use of it was by law enjoined, and to oomme 

at Whitsuntide following, which was in the year 15 

And by that act all those who had of their own wills u 

other forms or innovations were pardoned. 

The Papists Yet it passed not without some struggling and opposit 

Common made against it by the old Papalins. How illy they 

Prejer. gested it may be seen by this passage : while in the dayi 

Queen Mary, George Marsh of the north (afterwards is 

tyred for the Gospel) was in examination before the Ear 

Darby and divers others, and having said, that, as he 1 

ministered under King Edward, so, if the laws would h 

suffered him to minister after that sort, (that is, by the B< 

of Common Prayer,) he would minister again; preset 

one who was the Parson of Grampnal in Lancashire thi 

Fox, in this word, " This last Communion was the most devi] 

p. H99. m thing that ever was devised." 

Four Lords To the establishment of this book but four Lords r 
against it. tested. Of which I have this passage to relate. When 
said Marsh had told the Earl of Darby, that he hoped 
would not condemn him for that reformation, which 
was one of the makers and establishers of under King ] 
ward, saying, " that his trust was of that his Lords! 
" being one of the honourable Council of the late K 
" Edward, and agreeing to his actions concerning faith 
u wards God and religion, would not so soon after cons 
" to put poor men to death for embracing the sam 
he answered, " That he, with the Lord Winsor and 


" Lord Dacres, and one more, did not consent to those ao- CHAP. 
" boos* and that the nay of them four would be to be X1 * 

u teen as long as the Parliament house stood." Anno ims. 

This act, being the greatest stroke struck against Po-Tbe Com- 
pery, and for throwing out the mass, may deserve some£j^ D 
particular observation. It was called, An acijbr the uni- 
formity qf service and administration qf the sacrament* 
throughout the realm. The book confirmed by this act was 
the second office in English that came forth in this reign, 
the Communion Book being the first. Which was com- 85 
posed in pursuance of an act in the year 1547, enjoining 
die receiving of the Lord's Supper in both kinds, and that 
the people should receive with the priest, as most agreeable 
to the first institution of the Lord's Supper, and more con- 
formable to the practice of the Church for the first five 
hundred years. For the drawing up of the exhortations, 
and other prayers to be used on that occasion, the King 
appointed certain Bishops and other learned Divines with 
the Archbishop of Canterbury. And this being finished in 
English was called the Communion Booh. Which was 
printed by Grafton, and published 1647, as was shewn 

The same Bishops and Divines, as it seems, were soon The Book 
after appointed by the King to draw up a general public J^^ mon 
office in English, in the room of the Latin mass-book. Who 
accordingly met in May 1548, and in the latter end of the 
year it was confirmed by Parliament, as above was said ; 
bang entitled, The Book of Common Prayer and Admini- 
stration of the Sacraments, and other Rites and Ceremonies 
of the Church qf England. From the act which was made 
for the use of it, I gather divers matters historical concern- 
ing it. 

First, That before this book came forth, there was no 
uniform service in this Church, but a great variety of forms 
of prayer and communion ; some of older date, and some 
more lately followed. For example, there was a form ac- 
cording to the use of Sarum, which some churches fol- 
lowed; and another form according to the use of York, 



BOOK York, which other churches followed; and another mnd» 
,# ing to the uae of Bangor, and another of Lincoln, faUoecd 

Aas* i64t. by other churches. And those that liked not any of the* 
popish forms and Latin prayers, used other English fitfn% 
according as their own fancies led then. 

Secondly, That those who used these latter forms, (thf 
old ones yet remaining in force,) the King and the Pros* 
tor forbad; calling them innovations nod new rifct,ssi 
divers times assayed to stay the using of them, but eodty 
not Wherefore afterwards they thought fit to connive at 
them for a. while. , 

Thirdly, For the preventing of this different serving ef 
God, (for by it great divisions and contentions happeaedj 
the King resolved to have one form of prayer c ompo sed H ] 
be only used, and none other, throughout his realm. Ani 
that this might be drawn up after the best maimer, be, tkt 
Protector, and divers of his Council, nominated and eullsi 
out certain Bishops and other learned men, to be 
ployed in this business; men of that eminency in 
and piety, that they were called in the act, " the mot 
. " learned and discreet Bishops and Divines."* Whereof As 
Archbishop of Canterbury is mentioned, but none ds& 
But the rest of them (if we may give credit to Fuller's 
Church History, and what is commonly taken up and re- 
ported in our histories) were, Day, Bishop of Chichester i 
Goodrich, Bishop of Ely ; Skyp, of Hereford ; Hothead* 
of Lincoln ; Ridley, of Rochester ; Thirleby, of Westouft* 
ster ; May, Dean of St. Paul's ; Taylor, Dean of Lincoln; 
Haines, Dean of Exeter ; Robertson, Archdeacon of Let 
cester, and Prebendary of Sarum; Redman, Master of 
Trinity college, Cambridge, and Prebendary of Westmin- 
ster ; and Cox, Almoner to the King, and Dean of West- 
minster and Christ Church, Oxen. Though I conjecture 
the main of the work went through some few of these 
86 men's hands. For three of those Bishops, Thirleby, Skyp> 
and Day, protested against the bill for this liturgy, when it 
passed their house. And I believe Robertson and 
liked it as little. 


Fourthly, The rules they went by in this work was* the CHAft 
■ring an eye and respect unto the moet sincere and pure **' 
bristian religion taught by the holy Scripture*, and also Aaa» i*4*» 
> the usage of the primitive Church. 
Fifthly, The book being finished, they delivered it to 
m King, which is said to be " to the great comfort and 
quietness of his mind." 

Sixthly, As for the work itself, as it is said to be done 
f one uniform agreement, so also " by the aid of the Holy 
Ghost:" such was the high and venerable esteem then 

Lastly, The Parliament, both Lords and Commons, the 
flpesentatives of the whole kingdom, had such a- value for 
be whole composure, " that they gave unto the King moet 
1 hearty and. lowly thanks for it, and for his moet godly 
'tssmil in collecting and gathering together the said 
'Archbishop, Bishops, and learned men, and for the godly 
'prayers, orders, rites, and ceremonies in the said book; 
'awl considered the honour of God and the great quiet- 
'aces, which by the grace of God would ensue upon it: 
4 and finally, concluded the book such, that it would give 
'occasion to every honest man most willingly to em- 
4 brace it," 

Let me moreover take notice of a proviso in this actsiogiof of 
Turing singing of Psalms in public, used then custom- * he 
wHy 9 and probably some good while before this, by the 
pepeDers, according as the reformed in other countries 
aed to do ; yet without any authority. This practice was 
low authorixed by virtue of the said proviso, which ran in 
Us tenor; « Provided also, That it shall be lawful for all 
aa well in churches, chapels, oratories, or other 
to use openly any psalm or prayer taken out of 
die Bible, at any due time; not letting or emitting there- 
by the service, or any part thereof, mentioned in the said 
book." From hence it is, that the title-page of our pre- 
at books, the hymns and psalms in metre, carry these 
Bids* " Set forth and allowed to be sung in all churches 
of all the people together, before and after morning and 

k 4 


BOOK " evening prayer, and also before and after sermons; and 
*' " moreover in private houses, for their godly solace and 
Abac i*4t.« comfort." Which may serve to explain to us what the 
ordinary times of their singing together these psalms were; 
namely, before they began the morning service, and after 
it was done. Likewise, when there was a sermon, before it 
began, and after it was finished. As for the psalms or hymns 
thus allowed, they seem to be those that are yet set before 
and after our present singing psalms, done by Dr. Cox, W. 
Whittingham, Robert Wisdom, eminent divines in those 
times, and others ; and some of David's psalms, done by 
Sternhold, Hopkins, and others. It is certain that Stern- 
hold composed several at first for his own solace. For be 
set and sung them to his organ. Which music King Ed- 
ward VI. sometime hearing, (for he was a gentleman of the 
privy chamber,) was much delighted with them. Which 
occasioned his publication and dedication of them to the 
said King. After, when the whole book of Psalms (with seme 
other hymns) were completely finished in verse, (done, as it 
87 seems, by Hopkins and certain other exiles in Queen Mary's 
reign,) this clause in the aforesaid act gave them their au- 
thority for their public use in the Church hitherto. 

The first This Book of Common Prayer was printed first in the 

*l£a* ^ 

t&e book? month °f June. And a second edition thereof came fofth, 
March 8. following, with very little difference; only that 
in the first edition the Litany was put between the Commu- 
nion Service and the Office for Baptism: in the second, it 
was set at the end of the book. 
The Papist* And thus by the help and concurrence of the three 
J3brm»- U estates, religion became happily planted in this island, ire- 
tion. formed from abuses and corruptions of long time intro- 

duced into it. But the Papists were very angry to see their 
old superstitious ceremonies thus laid aside; and those that 
came after laboured all they could to asperse and enervate 
it, by calling the religion a parliamentary religion, (so 
Dr. Hill,) and the Church of England thus reformed, a 
parliament Church, (so Dr. Bristow.) As though it were 
forged and framed in Parliament by secular men ; and 


that ecclesiastics, whose chief business it had been, had CHAP, 
not been consulted herein. But in truth and reality it was 


not aa For the consideration and preparation of this Book Amno *•«•• 
of Common Prayer, together with other matters in religion, 
was committed first of all to divers learned divines, as was 
shewn before. And what they had concluded upon was of- 
fered the Convocation. And after ail this, the Parliament 
approved it, and gave it its ratification. The which is more 
fully shewed and declared by the pen of a very knowing 
and learned man, viz, 

" The religion which was then and is now established in But feisdy. 

• Dr Geo 

" England, is drawn out of the fountains of the word of Abbot ag. 
" God, and from the purest orders of the primitive Church. HU - P* 104 * 
Which for the ordinary exercise thereof, when it had 
been collected into the Book of Common Prayer, by the 
pains and labour of many learned men, and ci mature 
judgment, it was afterwards confirmed by the Upper and 
" Lower House. Yet not so, but that the more material 
" points were disputed and debated in the Convocation 
House by men of both parties : and might further have 
been discussed, so long as any popish divine had ought 

reasonably to say And then it being intended to add 

to ecclesiastical decision the corroboration of secular go- 
vernment, according to the ancient custom of this king- 
" dom, (as appeareth by record from the time of King Ed- 
" ward the Third,) the Parliament, which is the most ho- 
" nourable court of Christendom, did ratify the same. 
" That so all, of all orders and degrees, might be bound to 
" serve the Lord of heaven ; not after their own fancies, 
" but as himself had prescribed. And that this order hath 
" been the custom of good princes, to call their nobles and 
" their people to join with them for the establishing of 
" God's service, every man may know, who will but look 
" into the stories of the Bible. Joshua, Josh, xxiii. £8. Da- 
44 vid, 1 Chron. xxviii. 1. Asa, 58 Chron. xv. 9" 

So that the Reformation went well forward : and by the The re- 
latter end of this year religion and divine worship became the Cborch 
pretty well purged from error and superstition ; whereat all injured. 



BOOK good men took great satisfaction. But notwithstanding, thil 
l ' great evil accompanied this great good, that many set* 

Aaao iM8. ended men took this occasion to labour the diminishing At 
revenues of the Church, and the taking away a great put 
of the lands and livings of the Bishops, the Deans, and the 
88 Prebendaries ; suggesting that the wealth and dignities of 
the former Prelates made them such hinderers of the Got- 
pel, and obstructers of the word of God ; and that tbepm 
bends might be far better bestowed upon other secular met 
and politic uses. One of these well-willers to the Clergy^ 
revenues Sir Philip Hobby seems to have been. Who, be- 
ing this year Ambassador with the Emperor, had this lucky 
occasion offered to vent his mind plainly to the Protector 
in this matter. For hearing how some of the German pn> 
testants laid the blame of their wars and miseries upon thef 
popish Bishops, who were princes, and men of great ad 
high estate, and had their dependences chiefly upon the 
Pope, and so did the more vigorously oppose the Reforma- 
tion there; and observing what great enemies thenfixe 
they were to the flourishing state of the Bishops, thinking 
it irreooncileaUe with the Gospel; the said AmltassMlnr 
made this relation of it to the Protector, with the additkfti 
of his own judgment and wishes: which I choose to set 
Hobbie'i down in his own words, in his letter written Jan. 19- "Of our 
thsTpur- " proceedings in England, in matters of religion, are sundry 
p™*- " discourses here made. The Protestants have good hopes, 
B. 19. " and pray earnestly therefore, that the King's Majesty 
being warned by the late ruin of Germany, happening 
by the Bishops' princely and lordly estates, will take or- 
" der for the redress thereof in his dominions; and appoint 
unto the good Bishops an honest, and competent living, 
" sufficient for their maintenance, taking from them the 
u rest of their worldly possessions and dignities ; and the** 
" by avoid the vainglory that letteth them truly and tiff 
cerely to do their duty, and preach the Gospel and word d 
Christ. They on the other side doubt not, but my Lordi 
" the Bishops, being a great number, stout and wett-Iearnd 
men, will well enough weigh against their adversaries, sari 




"nainurin still their estate, which coming to pass, they CHAF. 
" have good hope in. time these princely pillars shall well XI ' 

u enough quiet this fury, and bring all things again to the Anno i*4t. 
"old order. Thus these men, having their sole expecta- 
u tkm converted to the success hereof, cease not to talk 

* their minds diversiy." Thus Hoby. 

And to shew his mind for taking away at one clap all the 
pnbends in England, he took bis occasion from some news 
he had to import. " Yesterday," as he related in the same 
letter, " was mustered here [i. e. at Brussels] five bands of 
" horsemen, being in number about 1500, which shall go 
u towards Spires, to meet the Prince of Spain. Among 
u whom, by all men's reports that saw them, there were so 
"many toward and handsome gentlemen, so well horsed 
44 and armed, and in all points so well in order, as hath few 
" tunes in so small a company been seen. Which when I 

* heard, remembering what great service such a number of 
w chosen men were able to do, specially in our country, 
44 wherein is so much lack of good horsemen, it caused me 
" to declare under your Grace's correction what I thought, 
" earnestly to wish with all my heart, that standing so with 
"the King's Majesty's pleasure, and your prudence, all 
41 the prebends within England were converted to the like 
" we, for the defence of our country, and maintenance of 
"honest poor gentlemen. Wherein, if I wish amiss, or 
44 dull seem unto your Grace over-presumptuous in the dev 
44 titration thereof, I shall most humbly beseech your good- 
M ness to pardon my boldness, and interpret my true 89 
"netting to the best part" What harm the suggesting 

of such counsels as these did, sufficiently appeared in this 

But perhaps Hoby's partiality towards martial men, who The artii- 
was a warlike man himself, may make some excuse for his JjJLn! 1 **" 
judgment. King Henry VIII. towards the latter end of 
his iourishing reign, moved by his seal to see Ins subjects 
profit in virtuous qualities, whereby they might the better 
do hhn service, established an order for the maintenance of 
artillery ; appointing a certain corporation, unto which for 



BOOK this respect he gave certain privileges by a patent Thii, 
how much it served for the framing of men meet for str- 

Anno 1548. vice, both for the harquebuss and great ordnance, was eaalj 
perceived, in that a number of this corporation in a small 
time became perfect masters in this military skill. But thn 
corporation decayed, and became now much neglected. A 
great reason whereof was, because it was not confirmed by 
this King : now about the month of January, one Anthony, 
an artillery man, it seems, and his company, took upon thai 
to solicit this business; and Sir Philip Hoby, who was Matter 
of the Ordnance, though now, as was said above, ambas- 
sador abroad, wrote to the Lord Protector, earnestly putting 
him in remembrance of this suit, and to take such order in 
The office it as might be expedient. And being informed how unfur- 
^ J " nished of necessary munition his office was, he remembered 
the Protector also of making timely provision there, tat 
negligence might be imputed to those, as he wrote, that 
ought to solicit the same. And he prayed him also to con- 
sider and take some order for the payments of the debts of 
the same office of the Ordnance, being about 7000/. which 
caused the officers to lose their credit, and be unable upon 
their word to make any further provisions before this were 
A licence The plenty of this present season made corn so cheap) 
oreTcorn. that it was thought necessary to have it transported. For 
allowance and encouragement whereof the King's proclama- 
Nobieman's tion went forth, dated from Leighs, March 30, to this tenor: 
Eiaex. " That where the King's most royal Majesty by his pro- 
clamation, bearing date at Westminster the 7th of De- 
cember last, had straitly charged and commanded his sub- 
jects, that after the publishing of the same they shouk 
not transport, or carry over the seas into any other parti 
any manner of grain, &c And forasmuch as (thanks b 
unto Almighty God) there was at that present gwa 
" plenty and abundance of wheat and other corn within th 
realm, whereby the farmers and others, which used tilling 
and manuring of their lands, might not sell their whea 
" and other grain, but at very low prices, to their utter in 





* doing, unless that some remedy might be provided in that CHAP, 
"behalf; the King's most excellent Majesty, with the ad- XL 

"rice, && granted, and by that present proclamation gave Anno ims. 
"free liberty and licence to all and singular his loving sub- 
ejects to embark, ship, and carry over the seas, all manner 
u of wheat and other kinds of grain, oats only excepted, so 
"long as a quarter of wheat should be under the price of 
"ax shillings and eight pence the quarter; barley, malt, 
* and rye five shillings the quarter; pease and beans four 
" shillings the quarter, at the time of embarking, &c." 

CHAP. XII. 90 

Slanders raised of the King. No preaching without licence. 
Rebels m Cornwall. Pardoned. Commission upon in- 
closures. Order to the Earl of Sussex to raise men. 
Exportation of leather Jbrbid. Stipendiaries and 
Chantry Priests. 

xHE King's proceedings, (as his steps in the reforming sundew of 
md ordering of this Church were called,) however pious his p^ceeSSt. 
intent was thereby, namely, that one good uniformity might 
he had throughout all his realms ; yet gave displeasure to 
BMmy preachers and priests of the popish sort, who took 
occasion in confession, and otherwise, to move the King's 
subjects to disobedience and stubbornness against his or- 
ders. And other light persons sowed abroad false rumours 
against him : telling out that they heard say, that the King 
Aould take and set upon them new and strange exactions : 
as, on every one that married, half a crown ; likewise the 
■me duty upon every christening and burial; and such 
other lying surmises. And hereby many were seduced and 
brought into such disorder of late, and in some parts in a 
manner to insurrection and rebellion, as we shall hear by 
and by. 

Much harm also was now done in disaffecting the P eo pl eP "jJ^3L 
by seditious and contentious preaching. To prevent the out licence" 


BOOK further hurt thereof, the King by m proclamation, April H 
charged and commanded that no man hereafter should be 

Anno 1MB. pennitted to preach, (however they might read the Hoarifin,) 
except he were licensed by the King, the Lord Protector, 
or the Archbishop of Canterbury, under their seals. And 
the same licence to be shewed to the Parson or Curate, sad 
two honest men of the parish beside, before his preaching 
upon pain of imprisonment, both of the Preacher and of the 
Curate that suffered him to preach without licence. And 
a charge was given to all Justices to look to this diligently. 
So that now no Bishop (except the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury) might license any to preach in his own diocese, nay, 
nor might preach himself without licence : so I have sea 
licences to preach granted to the Bishop of Exeter, an. 1551, 
and to the Bishops of Lincoln and Chichester, an. 155S. 
two wS?t7 There were also other unlearned and ill-disposed people! 
who whispered now into men's ears ill opinions against God's 
laws, and the good order of the realm ; as some taught, 
that a man might forsake his wife and marry another, hb 
first wife yet living, and likewise that the wife might do M 
to the husband. Others taught, that a man might have 
two wives, or more, at once ; and that these were prohibited, 
not by God's law, but by the Bishops of Rome. And tt 
by these fantastical opinions some did marry, and kept 
91 two wives. The King understanding this, charged by die 
proclamation aforesaid all Archbishops and Bishops, and 
others that had spiritual jurisdiction, to proceed agaimt 
such as had or should hereafter have two wives, or any 
that should put away his wife and marry another : and to 
punish such offenders according to the ecclesiastical laws, 
that others might be afraid to fall into such insolent and 
unlawful acts. And lastly it was required, that all tht 
King's officers should detect such to the Archbishops or 
Bishops, or others that exercised spiritual jurisdiction, and 
aid the same to the punishment of such evil doers. 
The Judges The Judges and Justices of the peace (namely, such ft) 
cited to the were then within the cities of London and Westminster, 01 
Star-Cham- „ u burbs) were required by proclamation, dated at West- 


r, April 90, to appear before the King's Council in CHAP, 
the Star-chamber on Friday by eight of the clock in the ML 

HMrning; there to know further of his Majesty's will and Aand ift4*. 

pleasure. The reason of this summons, I make no doubt, 

was became of the suspicion of some disturbances and nu- 

Onyinga in the country, which soon after brake out more 

openly. And this appeared from the charge (extant in 

Fox's History) which the Lord Chancellor Rich gave them, 

when they met in the Star-chamber : which was, among 

other things, " that they should go down into their several 

" countries, and there see good order kept, and the King's 

" laws 'obeyed : and that if there should chance any lewd or 

" fight fellows to make any routs, riots, or unlawful assem- 

" bfiea, or seditious meetings, or uproars, by the motion of 

" some private traitors, to appease them at the first, and 

"apprehend the first authors. Not (said he, concealing 

" however their jealousies at Court) as if we feared any 

"such thing, or that there is any such thing likely to 

"chance; but we give you warning, lest it might And 

"for the same purpose he required them to see in theit 

" several countries, that horse and harness, and other fur- 

" triture of weapons, were ready, according to the laws of 

" the land.* 

And indeed they were already up in Cornwall, and the A rebellion 
puts thereabouts, even in the month of April, where, by wa m 
I the means of some popishly affected persons, many idle 
' lying insinuations of the King's doings or intentions were 
buzzed about into the heads of the people, to blow them up 
into discontents : chiefly, as it seems, upon the King's pro- 
ceedings. Which the ignorant people refusing to obey, 
it came at last to that pass, that they got together in great 
numbers, and made an open rebellion. And in this con- 
fusion, one William Body, Gentleman, one on the King's 
side, was shun. But at length they were quelled, and 
begged the King's mercy, and obtained it : yet the chief 
ringleaders were excepted, and reserved for execution. This 
general pardon was dated at Westminster, May 17, in the 
second year of the King. And it ran to this purport : 



' 5 ' ' ' .  



" Albeit that many of the King's Highness* su 
commons, dwelling and inhabiting in that thire of Con- 
wall, or in any other place or isle, being reputed, or takes 
for any part, parcel, or member of the same shire, and 
such other the King's subjects inhabiting in other placet, 
have now of late attempted and committed manifest and 
open rebellion against his Majesty within the said shire 
or the limits of the same : whereby was like to have ensue? 
the utter ruin and destruction of that whole shire; an 
to the high displeasure of Almighty God, who strait^ 
commandeth you to obey your sovereign Lord and Co] 
in all things, and not with violence to resist his will am 
command for any cause whatsoever it be: neverthekai 
the King's most royal Majesty perceiving, by credihl 
reports, that your said offences proceeded of ignoranc 
and evil enticements, and by occasion of sundry false talei 
never purposed, minded, nor intended by his Highnew 
nor any of his Council ; but most craftily contrived, an 
most spitefully set abroad among you, by certain malkaoa 
and seditious persons. And thereupon his Highness, b 
clined to extend his most gracious pity and mercy to 
wards you, having the chief charge over you under God 
both of your souls and bodies ; and desiring rather th 
preservation of the same, and your reconciliation by hi 
merciful means, than by the order of rigor of justice t 
punish you according to your demerits; of his inetfi 
mable goodness, replenished with most godly pity am 
mercy, and at your most humble petitions and submit 
sions made unto him, is contented and pleased to gw 
and grant, and by this present proclamation doth gn 
and grant unto you all, and unto all and every of yoc 
confederates, wheresoever they dwell, of whatsoever estat 
degree, or condition soever, &c his general and free pa 
don for all manner of treasons, rebellions, insurrection 
&c. and for all manner of unlawful assemblies, unlawf 
conventicles, unlawful speaking of words, &c. from tl 
time of the beginning of the said rebellion, when it wi 
until the first day of May last past, &c. Provided th 


" this general and free pardon shall not extend unto John CHAP. 
" Williams, WilHam Kilter, John Kilter, John Kelion, ML 
44 Richard Trewela, &c. and' about twenty-six or twenty- Aimoi64a* 
44 seven persons more." 

And that these insurrections might be prevented for the a procia- 
fiiture, occasioned in a great measure by the poverty and ^lut 
discontent that reigned in the country by reason of the decay- endo-uret - 
of tillage, and the enclosing of land for pasturage ; therefore 
a commission was granted, to inquire into these abuses: and 
on the 1st of June there went out a notable proclamation 
against enclosures, letting houses fall to decay, and unlawful 
converting of arable ground into pastures, which accompa- 
nied the Commissioners. It set forth, " that the King, the 
" Lord Protector's Grace, and the rest of the Privy Council, 
" were advertised and put in remembrance, as well by di~ 
"vers supplications and pitiful complaints of the King's 
"poor subjects, as also by other wise and discreet men, 
" having care of the good order of the realm ; that of late, 
" by the enclosing of lands and arable grounds in divers 
" and sundry places of the realm, many had been driven to 
" extreme poverty, and compelled to leave the places where 
" they were born, and to seek them beings in other coun- 
" tries with great misery and poverty : insomuch as in time 
" past ten, twenty, yea, in some places, an hundred or two 
" hundred Christian people have been inhabiting, and kept 
" households to the bringing up and nourishing of youth, 
"and to the replenishing and fulfilling of his Majesty's 
" realm with faithful subjects, who might serve both Al- 
" mighty God, and the King's Majesty to the defence of 
44 this realm ; now there is nothing kept but sheep or bul- 
" locks. All that land which heretofore was tilled and oc- 
44 cupied with so many men, and did bring forth not only 
44 divers families in work and labour, but also capons, hens, 
44 chickens, pigs, and other such furniture of the markets, 
is now gotten by unsatiable greediness of mind into one 
or two men's hands, and scarcely dwelt upon with one 93 
44 poor shepherd. So that the realm thereby was brought 
44 to a marvellous desolation, houses decayed, parishes di- 
vol. 11. L 



BOOK " minnhed, the force of the realm weakened, and Christian 
" people, by the greedj covetousneBS of some men, eatett 




Anno 1*48. « U p aud devoured of brute beauts, and driven 6om their 
" houses by sheep and bullocks. And that although of the 
same thing many sundry complaints and lamentation 
have been heretofore made, and by the most wise and dk- 
" creet princes, his Majesty's father and grandfather, fce. 
" with the consent and assent of the Lords spiritual at 
" temporal in divers Parliaments assembled, divers ni 
" sundry laws and acts of Parliament, and most godly <* 
" dinances in their several times, have been made far tk 
" remedy thereof; yet the insatiable covetousness of mm 
doth not cease daily to encroach hereupon, and more ni 
more to waste the realm after this sort* bringing arable 
grounds into pasture, and letting houses, whole families, 
and copyholds to fall down, decay, and be waste: 
" Wherefore his Highness is greatly moved both witk • 
pitiful and tender zeal to his most loving subjects, espe- 
cially to the poor, which are minded to labour and trmfl 
for their livings, and forced to live an idle and loitering life; 
" and of a most necessary regard to the surety and defeaoe 
" of his realm, which must be defended against the enesny, 
" with force of men and the multitude of true subjects, not 
" with flocks of sheep and droves of beasts. 

" And further, it is advertised, that by the ungodly and 
" uncharitable means aforesaid, the said sheep and craf 
" being brought into a few men's hands, a great mulutudi 
" of them being together, and so made great droves ant 
" flocks, as well by natural reason, as also, as it may b 
" justly thought, by the due punishment of God for sue! 
" uncharitablene88, great rots and murrains, both of shee] 
" and bullocks, have lately been sent of God, and seen i 
" the realm : the which should not by all reason so soon fal 
" if the same were dispersed into divers men's hands. All 
" the said cattle also by all likelihood of truth should t 
" more cheap, being in many men's hands, as they be BO 1 
" in few, who may hold them dear, and tarry their advanta| 
" of the market. 


. * And therefore he, by the advice of his most entirely CHAP. 

* beloved uncle, the Duke of Somerset, &c and the rest of 

* his Majesty's Privy Council, hath weighed most deeply Ahhoims. 
u tll the said things, and upon the aforesaid considerations; 
"md of princely desire and zeal to see that godly laws, 

* made with great travail, and approved by experience, and 
"by the wise heads in the time of the said most prudent 
"princes, should not be made in vain, but put in lire and 

* "execution; hath appointed, according to the said acts 
"and proclamations, a view and inquiry to be made of all 
M such as, contrary to the said acts and godly ordinances, 
"have made enclosures and pastures of that which was 
" arable ground, or let any house, tenement, or mease decay 
" and fall down ; or otherwise committed or done any thing 
" to the contrary of the good and wholesome articles con- 
" tuned m the said acts. And therefore willeth and com- 
" mandeth all his loving subjects, who know any such de- 
" fruits and offences, contrary to the wealth and profit of 
" dns realm of England, and the said godly laws and .acts 
"of Parliament, done and committed by any person, who- 94 
" soever he or they be, to insinuate and give information 
" of the offence to the King's Majesty's Commissioners, who 
" be appointed to hear the same, so truly and faithfully, 
" that neither for favour nor fear they omit to tell the truth 
" of any; nor for displeasure name any man who is not 
"guilty thereof: that a convenient and speedy reformation 
"might be made herein, to the honour of God and the 
" King's Majesty, and the wealth and benefit of the whole 

So that, that these abuses and hard pressures upon the CommU- 
poor commons might be the more effectually remedied, J^ntedXr 
commissions were now given out to divers persons of qua-^ a >f7 
Sty and integrity, for inquiry into these misdemeanours 
throughout England. For the counties of Oxon, Berks, 
Warwick, Leicester, Bedford, Bucks, and Northampton, 
were appointed Sir Francis Russel, Sir Foulk Grevil, Knts. 
Mm Hales, John Marsh, William Pynnock, Roger Amys. 
And at their meeting for executing this commission, John 



BtiOK Hales made an excellent exhortation or charge to the peo- 
ple, who were sworn to make presentments. Wherem hi 

Anno 1648. first explained to them the good laws made against these 
corruptions. Whereof one was, that no man should keep 
above the number of two thousand sheep: another, that 
those that had the sites of any monasteries sup pre ss e d 
should keep continual household upon the same, and occupy 
as much of the demeans in tillage as had been occupied 
within twenty years before.. Which notwithstanding were 
not regarded nor obeyed. Whereby towns, villages, and pa- 
rishes decayed daily in great numbers; houses of hus- 
bandry and poor men's habitations utterly destroyed every 
where : husbandry, the very nourishment of the whole body 
of the realm, greatly abated, and the King's subjects won- 
derfully diminished ; as appeared by the new books of the 
musters compared with the old, and with the chronicles. 
And how all this grew through the great dropsy of the 
realm, that is, the covetousness of many men, given to then- 
own private profit, but passed nothing of the commonwealth. 
'  He shewed how the former King Henry VIII. and the 
present King Edward, for want of their own natural sub- 
jects to serve them in their wars, were forced to hire Almains, 
Italians, and Spaniards. And that this was the cause the 
King was fain to build so many castles and bulwarks by the 
seaside. And the charges by these means waxing daily 
greater and greater, he was of necessity driven to ask so 
great subsidies as he did. He went on, and shewed how 
these covetous men were disappointed. For they reckoned 
to leave great possessions to their children, and to make 
their families noble: whereas many times their children, 
before their fathers were laid in their graves, consumed and 
wasted all away upon harlots, gaming, and lewd company. 
And so, evil got, worse spent. But the whole charge is well 
drawn up, and containeth in it so many matters proper to 
give light into these times and affairs, that I have put both 
P- Q- it and the commission into the Repository. These Commis- 
sioners went down into the countries, and spent the summer 
in this necessary business. 


Jfct these commissions could not be so carefully and dili- CHAP- 
gently executed, but the commons were ready to right _____ 
themselves; and began to talk boldly, that if remedy were AuDO 1548 « 
not presently had for reducing of farms and copyholds to^* a °^ 
their wonted state, that they would not fail among them-^ithsund- 
tthres to attempt the reformation thereof. And some of ufni*. J 
diem were ready to pull down enclosures, the Commissioners 95 
still sitting. But where the Commissioners were discreet, 
as those were that were appointed for Oxon, Bucks, Berks, 
fee stayed them by their good management from their 

Such bruits as these came plentifully to Court. This oc-The Ring's 
onioned letters from the Protector and Council, written in J^to^kind 
August, to the Commissioners. Advising them in their re- mc «*£« to 
turn homeward to pass by all the good towns and other 
Double places, where they had sitten before in commission, 
and to declare that the King had sent them on purpose to 
tike notice of these grievances, in order to reform them, 
(which he would do in time convenient for it,) and to assure 
them of the good-will of the King and Council to them for 
their benefit, as much as they could wish ; exhorting them 
therefore to remain good and quiet subjects. But the an- 
swer which Hales gave to the Protector, dated from Co- 
ventry, Aug. 25, shewed, that his enemies, whom this com- 
mission chiefly touched, did rather give out these rumours, 
than that there was much truth in them. For he assured the 
Protector the people were in good quiet, and daily resorted 
to him to take his advice in making their presentments. 
So that he concluded this to be done to dash the commis- 
sion, or to put to shame the Commissioners. And therefore 
that there would not lack tales, surmises, and practices for 
that purpose. And that the hand of the Papists was in this, 
perceiving the execution of the commission would be an 
establishment to Christ's religion in the people's hearts. 
For they could not but love it, when they saw it brought 
forth such good fruit. He prayed the Protector therefore, 
that when such rumours again came to him, he would learn 
the names of the offenders and the accusers : and then the 



BOOK matter would soon be tried, where punishment was requiiwL 
*' But that according to the charge given them, the Comns- 

Anno 1648. sioners, they intended to do at their return, and what tarn* 
gressors they should find, to commit to ward, till his lb» 
jesty's pleasure were further known concerning them. He 
shewed the Protector moreover what practices were used^ 
and threatenings and revilings towards those honest meD, 
that were sworn to present the offenders. And in fine, he 
put the Protector in hope, that they should find the con- | 
monalty in their circuit (at least) quiet, and some of thai 
better disposed to religion and the King's proceedings thm 
they were before. 
Displeasure Such reports also came to the Earl of Warwick's esn, 
^es*for hi* being then at Warwick ; insomuch that he grew much da- 
commission, pleased with Hales, who acted very honestly in this com- 
mission, and favourably to the commons. Which ooCsv 
sioned him to write at large to the said Earl, answering the 
two causes of his displeasure against him, (according as he 
had taken it from Hales's enemies, that were secret Papists.) 
The one was, that he should sue out the commission against 
enclosures in that troublesome time. The other, that in the 
execution of it by his charge to the people, he stirred tip 
the commons against the nobility and gentry. But Hales, 
in a letter to him dated from Fladbury, August 12, as to 
the former, professed he thought upon nothing less than en- 
closures, when he was appointed to be a Commissioner, and 
willed to prepare to see the same executed. But he thought 
it not his part, he said, to deny to serve, nor to let that, 
that the King and his Council minded to set forward : die 
96 sore, he added, was brought to such an extremity, that if it 
were not remedied, all the realm would rue. And besides, 
that this was no new motion, for as long as he had know 
ledge of things, all men had cried out against enclosures 
He meant not, he said, hedging in lands, but decaying til 
lage and husbandry. Some had complained to the Par 
liament, some in their sermons, some in books. And as to 
the second, that he should by his hortadon set the oorti 
mons against the nobility and gentlemen, he said, that b 


lever jpake any word, but some of the Commissioners ware CHAP, 
present; who he doubted not would testify for him in this 

pert to hit accuser's shame. And then he declared untoAnnoiMS. 
the Earl the chief points of the charge he gave at that time, 
which had not one word that tended that way as was sur- 
mised. And therein he was sure that he offended neither 
God nor the King, nor gave occasion to any honest man to 
be offended ; saying, that whosoever that reported any other- 
wise to his Lordship, he trusted, should be found the child 
of the devil, and not of God : for he is true, and his chil- 
dren will not lie. He concluded, praying his Lordship for 
God's sake (though he trusted he should not need to put 
him in remembrance) to remember the poor, to have mercy 
tod compassion on them, and that he would not go about 
to hinder than. That the hindering of them, if we con- 
■dared it well, should be our own hinderance at length. 
That God had as much respect to the poor as to the rich, 
to the poor man as to the gentleman, and to every man in- 
differently. It grieved him much, he said, that those that 
naned to favour God's word should go about to hinder or 
wpeak evil of this thing : whereby the end and fruit of God's 
word, that is, love and charity to our poor neighbours, 
ihould be so set forth and published to the world. In a 
word, he exhorted to take example by the Germans, who, 
because they ware babblers, and no doers of God's word, 
were then and worthily punished, and brought to extreme 
misery and servitude, praying God the like happened not 
to them. 

It appears hence, that the favourers of the Gospel didTheGos- 
especially further and promote this commission, and laboured friends' to 
to remedy those oppressions towards the poor: knowing ^VV 
what lessons of compassion and benignity true religion re- 
quired; and reckoning, that hereby the Gospel would re- 
ceive the better countenance in the country, when they saw 
how it produced love and charity towards the poor neigh- 
bours, when others oppressed and vexed them. 

But though the good Duke of Somerset took all this Hath pot 
pains, and employed many honest men (such as Mr. Hales) [ ffttL 




BOOK in this charitable work, to put a stop to the impoverishing 
. *' and dispiriting of the poor, and to heal their discontents, 
Anno 1548. which he foresaw also a great danger in ; yet such was the 
greedy avarice of the gentry, that all these endeavcm 
proved insuccessful ; many great men at the Court, and dte 
Earl of Warwick, it seems, among the rest, backing thctt, 
being themselves probably guilty in that behalf. The m- 
vere effects of which appeared, as was feared, the next yesr, 
in insurrections almost throughout the kingdom. The jea- 
lousies of which were at present so great, that, besides the* 
gentler methods, it was thought necessary to summos a& 
the realm to be ready to arm, upon the fears of intestafc 
turmoils, as well as upon the present hostility with France 
and Scotland. Such an order I find now sent in May to 
97 the Earl of Sussex, dwelling in Norfolk, as no question the 
like were sent to others of the nobility and gentry. This 
to that nobleman was as follows : 

By the King. 

" Edward, 

To the Earl « Right trusty and right welbeloved, we greet you wet 

provide And being credibly informed that there is a great aid 

Tta h " P ut * n a rea ^^ ness to ^ s 611 * shortly by the seas into Scot- 

" land; in the which there shall be, as we be also certainly 

" advertised, a number of men at arms sent for defence of 

" the Scots impeachment of our affairs, and further annoy- 

" ance of our dominions and subjects; like as we have aU 

" ready, with the advice and consent of our dearest uncle 

" the Duke of Somerset, Governor of our person, and Pro- 

" tector of our realms, dominions, and subjects, and the 

rest of our Privy Council, both foreseen this matter and 

prepared for the same in all other parts, in such sort, as 

" if any thing shall upon courage of this aid be attempted 

" against any our ports, pieces, or subjects, the same shall 

" be, with help of Almighty God, so met withal, aa they 

" shall have smal cause to boast themselves of their doings: 

so being no less careful to provide also for the surety of 

our most loving subjects in all other events, wee have 





. IS 


r. M* 

y. T 2 

-■J i 



** thought good and necessary to have out of hand put in CHAP. 

** order a sufficient number of horsemen of sundry sorts, to 

*' be employed for defence and safeguard of our said sub- An™ i** 1 

44 jects, dominions, and countries, as occasion shall serve. 

** And for this it is, knowing your accustomed towardness 

** and good-wil toward the advancement of our service, we 

*' have, with the advice and consent aforesaid, thought meet 

** to pray and require you among others of that our county 

M of Norfolk, to have in ful areadiness by the 10th of June 

"next ensuing, two good and hable horses or geldings 

u meet to serve in the field for demilances, with two demi- 

u braces to be employed upon the same, harnessed, wea- 

"poned, and furnished in all things, as appertained : put- 

" ting the same in such order and arreadiness, as upon one 

"hours warning after the said 10th of June they may be 

tt m ful readiness to set forward to any such place, as by 

a us or our said dearest uncle and Council shal be appointed 

"unto you. Wherof we require you not to fail, as ye 

"tender the advancement of our service. Yeven under 

"our signet at our palace of Westminster, the 16th of 

" May, in the second year of our reign. 

" E. Somerset." 

There was now so great exportation of leather, that there Exporting 
beeune a mighty scarcity and lack thereof at home for the pro ^ bl ^ a 
mftmry use of the people : and the prices of that com- 
nodity rose to great, high, and unsupportable rates, which 
csused a proclamation dated from Westminster, June 1, 
that no manner of person should carry or export out of the 
realm any manner of leather or salt hides unto any strange 
nation without express licence. 

By virtue of the act made last year, whereby chantries Care taken 
was given to the King, the Commissioners appointed for™?^^ 
execution of the same were empowered to assign to the stipendiary 
stipendiary Priests that attended those chantries whose ^J^*" ' 
salaries the King was entitled to, and to every fellow and 98 
poor person that was wont to have yearly relief out of any 


BOOR of those colleges, free chapels, or chantries, such yearly an- 
nuities, pensions, or other recompenoes, during their fires, 

Anno 1*46. us by them should be thought convenient: and thereupon 
to make assignments and orders for the payment to the 
said Priests, or other. This occasioned vast numbers of 
stipendiaries, and other poor people that claimed these pen- 
nons, to flock to London, for getting them assigned to 
them. So that the Court, the Lord Protector's house, the 
Court of Augmentations, and other courts and places, were 
extremely pestered with them. Whereupon; to satisfy these 
men, and to deliver the town of such confluxes of unne- 
cessary people, a proclamation was issued forth, dated at 
Westminster, May 14, to this tenor : " that the King's 
44 Majesty, of his tender zeal and love which he bore to 
44 his loving subjects, understanding that divers chantry 
44 priests, poor men, and other men, of late dissolved cok 
u leges, chantries, free chapels, &c. which by the last act 
*' of Parliament were come to his hands, daily repaired to 
" London to him, and to the Protector, the Chancellor of 
u the Augmentations, and other courts, for assurance of 
" their pensions, to their great cost and charges, and no 
" small travail : by the advice of his entirely beloved uncle 
" the Duke of Somerset and the rest of his Council, for 
** the avoiding of the same, had taken order, that Commis- 
*' sioners should repair down shortly to every shire, and 
" there should declare unto them the manner of the pay>» 
u ment of their said pensions, so by the said act due, and 
" to be appointed, and also for their said patents of their 
44 pensions, in such sort and manner, and to the proportion 
" as they should be therewith right well contented. Where- 
fore his Highness willed and commanded all manner of 
chantry priests, prebendaries, guild priests, or any other 
u who had repaired thither for that purpose, to return ii 
44 mediately down into their countries." 




-^ gift 1° &* Luty Mary. The King minds the public af- 
fairs. Points of state polity for the King's exercise. Con- 
sultation about the coin. The case of the nation in- 
volved in war with France and Scotland. The merchants 
of Antwerp wronged. The English Ambassadors inter- 

X HIS second year of the King, to oblige his sister the Anno ims. 
Lady Mary, and in accomplishment of his father's last tes- I ^?. b y 
tament, on May 17, he granted to her the lordship and nut- granted to 
nor of Kenninghal, alias Kenningale, and the rectory im-^ eLBdy 
paropriate thereof with the appurtenances, in the county of Book of 
Norfolk; and divers other lordships, manors, lands, tene- *** 
ments, and possessions in the counties of Norfolk, Suf- 
folk, Hertford, Essex, Bucks, Chester, and Middlesex. To 
the yearly value of 8489/. 18*. 6d. q. di. q. Rent reserved 
99i 18#. 6d. q. di. The time of the issues of this estate so 
granted was to commence from the feast of St Michael, anno 
88 Hen. VIII. 

The young King, though but eleven years of age, did now The King 
seriously set himself to mind the public affairs of his king- J^ t n ^ n ™ 8elf 
dom, and to study to understand the state and condition of public *f- 
it, and to provide for the safety and peace of himself and his n * 
people. And for this purpose he began to bethink himself 
how he might make use of the present time with advantage 
to himself and his realm, and likewise to inspect more nar- 
rowly into his own affairs abroad and at home. And as to 
the former, how a great point of his security and strength 
consisted in a good understanding with his neighbours. 
And as to his own realm at home, this also he saw required 
a great deal of diligence, for the well understanding, regu- 
lation, and government thereof. And for the better furnish- 
ing himself with knowledge and insight into these things, 
he delighted to hear and read learned men, and learn their 
judgments. Among those, he made great use of William 
Thomas, Esq. a person (however unfortunate, bong after- 


BOOK wards executed for treason in Queen Mary's rough reign) 
I * excellently qualified to instruct the King in these and such 


Anno 1548. like politic matters, by his travels abroad, and his thorough 
acquaintance with the Roman and other histories, joined 
with an accurate skill of dexterity in drawing proper and 
useful inferences and conclusions from former accidents and 
Thomas This Thomas drew up proper questions of state polity, 

questions of devised for the exercise of the young King's contempk- 
•tat*. polity tions: upon which the said learned man purposed at his 
King. leisure to compose distinct discourses. He entitled them 
100 Common Places of State. Which, together with his prefa- 
tory letter to the King, when he presented them, may de- 
serve a place here. 

Cot. Lib. " To the King's Highness, 

' " Pleaseth your excellent Majesty. Albeit that my gross 

knowledge be utterly unapt to enterprise the instruction 
of any thing unto your Highness, whose erudition I know 
" to be such as every faithful heart ought to rejoice at ; yet 
" imagining with myself, that hitherto your Majesty hath 
" more applied your study of the tongues, than any matter 
" either of history or of policy, (the holy Scriptures except- 
ed,) and considering, that since your Highness is by the 
providence of God already grown to the administration of 
that great and famous charge, that hath been left unto 
you by your most noble progenitors ; there is no earthly 
thing more necessary than the knowledge of such exam- 
" pies, as in this and other regiments heretofore have hap- 
" pened : methinks, of my bounden duty, I could no leas 
" do, than present unto your Majesty the notes of those 
" discourses, that are now my principal study, which I have 
" gathered out of divers authors ; intending with leisure to 
" write the circumstances of those reasons that I can find to 
" make most for the purpose. And because there is no» 
" thing better learned than that which man laboureth for 
" himself, therefore I determined at this present to give 
" unto your Highness this little abstract only; trusting, 



"that like as in all kinds of virtuous living and exercise* CHAP. 

" ye hare always shewed yourself diligent ; even so in this xni * 

"part, which concerneth the chief maintenance of yourAaaoi548. 

"high estate, and preservation of your commonwealth, 

" your Majesty would shew no less industry than the mat- 

" ter deaerveth. For though these be but questions, yet 

" there is not so small an one among them, as will not ad- 

" minister /matter of much discourse, worthy the argument 

" and debating. AVhich your Highness may either for pas- 

"time, or in earnest, propone to the wisest man. And 

"whensoever there shall appear any difficulty, that your 

" Majesty would have discussed, if it shall stand with your 

"pleasure, I shall most gladly write the circumstance of 

" the best discourses that I can gather touching that part, 

"and accordingly present it unto your Highness: most 

" humbly beseeching the same to accept my good- will in as 

" good part, as if I were of ability to offer unto your Ma- 

" jesty a more worthy thing. 

" Your Majesty's most humble servant, 

" William Thomas." 

1. Whereof hath grown the authority of astates; and Politic 
how many kinds of astates there be? qo ,on8 ' 

2. Which of all astates is most commendable and neces- 

8. Whether a multitude without head may prosper ? 

4. Whether is wiser and most constant, the multitude or 
the prince? 

5. Whether it is better for the commonwealth, that the 
power be in the nobility or in the people ? 

6. Whether a mean estate may bear a great subject ? 101 

7. What laws are necessary, and how they ought to be 
maintained ? 

8. How easily a weak prince with good order may long be 
maintained : and how soon a mighty prince with little dis- 
order may be destroyed ? 

9. What causeth an inheritor king to lose his realm ? 

10. Whether religion, beside the honour of God, be not 


BOOK also the greatest stay of civil order ; and whether the mkj I 

*• thereof be not to be preserved with the sword and rigour? I 

Aano 1648. v 11. Whether of the two is the more unkind, the paofb 1 

or the prince? I 

12. How unkindness may be eschewed ? 1 

IS. What is the occasion of conspiracies ? I 

14. Whether the people commonly desire the destfuetiolB 
of him that is in authority ; and what moveth them so todwl 

15. What a man of authority may do in the multitude? I 

16. What is to be observed in choosing of officers? I 

17. How flatterers are to be known and despised? ■' I 

18. How men's opinions in great matters are to be poo* I 
dered? I 

19. Whether in judgments the mean way ought to be ob- 1 
served? I 

50. Whether a man of authority ought to conte mn his b* I 

feriors ? - 1 

51. How dangerous it is to leap from humility unto pride, I 
and from pity unto cruelty ? 3 

23. Whether men may easily be corrupted? 1 
28. How much good ministers are to be rewarded, and 1 

the evil punished ? ) 

24. How dangerous it is to be author of a new matter? 
95. Whether accusations are necessary, and whether evil 

reports are condemnable ? 

26. Whether evil report lighteth not most commonly 
upon the reporter ? 

27. Whether ambitious men mounting from one ambition 
to another, do first seek not to be offended, and after w a rd 
to offend ? 

28. Whether it be dangerous to make him an officer, that 
once hath been misused ? 

29. Whether they be not often deceived, that think with 
humility to overcome pride ? 

SO. What force the prince's example hath among the sub- 
jects ? 

31. How p prince ought to govern himself to attain repu- 


8*- What things deserve either praise or reproach? CHAP. 

83. What is liberality and misery ? XI1L 

84. What is cruelty and clemency ? Anno ims. 

85. Whether hate and dispraise ought to be eschewed ? 

86. What is fortune? 

87. How men be oftentimes blinded with fortune ? 

88. Whether it be not necessary for him that would have 
continually good fortune, to vary with the time ? 

89. What prince's amity is good ? 

40. Whether a puissant prince ought to purchase amity 
with money, or with virtue and stoutness ? 

41. What trust ought to be had in leagues? 
48. What is the cause of war? 

48. How many kinds of war there be ? 

44. How many kinds of soldiers. 

45. Whether they that fight for their own glory are good 
and faithful soldiers ? 

46. Why do men overrun strange countries ? 

' 47. How should a prince measure his force; and how rule 102 
himself in war? 

46. Whether a manifest war towards, ought to be begun 
upon the enemy, or abidden till the enemy begin ? 

40. Whether it is better to assault or to defend ? 

50. Whether money be the substance of war, or not ? 

51. Whether weak astates are ever doubtfully determin- 
ing ; and whether much deliberation doth rather hurt than 

52. Whether is greater in conquest, virtue or fortune? 

53. Whether prevaileth more in fortune, policy or force ? 

54. What is policy in war ? 

55. Whether conquests are not sometimes more noisome 
than profitable ? 

56. Whether it be wisdom to venture much ? 

57. What means ought to be used in defence ? 

58. Whether the country ought not always to be de- 
fended, the quarrel being right or wrong ? 

59- Whether inconveniences ought rather to be quali- 


BOOK fied and overcome with leisure; or at the first plainly re 
pressed ? 

Anno IMS. 60. What danger it is to a prince, not to be reveogpdcf 

an open injury ? 

61. What discommodity it is tp a prince to lack artnoor? 

651 How much ought artillery to be esteemed ? 

68. Whether ought more to be esteemed, footmen or 

horsemen ? j 

64. Whether it be dangerous to be served of strange nt 

65. Whether is an army better governed of one abfohlt 
head, or of divers ? 

66. What ought, the general of an army to be ? 

67. Whether is more to be esteemed, a good captain wkk 
a weak army, or a strong army with a weak captain? 

68. Whether it be necessary, that general captains htm 
large commissions ? 

69. What advantage is it to foresee the enemy's purport 

70. Whether a captain in the field may forsake the figfat» 
if the enemy will needs fight ? 

71. What is it to be quick of invention in time of battle? 

72. What sufferance and time is in fight ? 

73. Whether it be necessary to assure the army before 
the fight ? 

74. Whether it be not necessary sometimes to feign 

75. How to beware of craft, when the enemy seems to 
have committed a folly ? 

76. What advantage it is for a captain to know the 

77. Whether skirmishes be good ? 

78. Whether fortresses are not many times more noisome 
than profitable ? 

79. Whether an excellent man doth alter his courage for 
any adversity ? 

80. Whether princes ought to be contented with 
able victories, and so to leave ? 


81. Whether ftiry and bravery be any times necessary to CHAP, 
obtain purposes ? XI1L 

88. Whether promises made by force ought to be ob- A»n© i64*. 

83. Whether it becomes not a prince to pretend liberali- 
ty, when necessity oonstraineth him to depart with things? 

84. What is virtue ; and when it is most esteemed ? 

85. What destroyeth the memory of things ? 

t It beoometh a prince for his wisdom to be had in admira- 103 
tkm, as well of his chiefest counsellors, as of his other sub- 
jects. And since nothing serveth more to that, than to 
keep the principal things of wisdom secret, till occasion re- 
quire the utterance, I would wish them to be kept secret ; 
referring it nevertheless to your Majesty's good-will and 
pleasure. And so Mr. Thomas concluded his paper above, 
of questions of state and government 

These useful questions the King no doubt spent some 
thoughts upon: and soon wanted to see Thomas's dis- 
courses upon the same. 

To him therefore did the King now send certain notes by 
Sir Nicolas Throgmorton, one of his bedchamber, concern- 
ing such particular matters of state as he would hear his 
thoughts of; and to draw up some distinct discourses for 
his study and meditation, namely, of the things before men- 
tioned. This task this ingenious gentleman cheerfully un- 

Thus he compiled for the King's use a more general dis- Political 
course, whether it were expedient to vary with time. Which composed 
he determined to be exceeding necessary for a prince to do ; £f the 
that is, that they should not always observe one direct and 
obstinate proceeding, if the time fell out that would require 
the contrary. For then it would follow inevitably, that their 
proceedings must perish. He meant not, as he wrote, that 
men should vary in amity, or turn from virtue to vice, or to 
alter in any such things as required constancy ; but touch- 
ing other private or public doings he judged it necessary to 
humour the time. For which he gave many apt examples 
out of ancient Greek and Roman history. He drew up also 

VOL. II. m 


BOOK for the King, and by his command, another general d»» 
*• course, to instruct him concerning the different natures «f 
Anno 1548. the nobility and commonalty, of which two ranks of pesfk 
his whole realm consisted, and of the danger of the latttf 
above the former. This discourse he prosecuted under Ail 
question, whether it be better for a commonwealth,- that the 
power be in the nobility or in the commonalty. Then as t* 
his Majesty's amity with princes abroad, and how to Bake 
profitable leagues with them, the said Thomas compete! 
for the King's study another treatise; discoursing, what 
prince's amity is best. Wherein he shewed the use and l*t 
nefit of leagues with other states. Which he made to «n> 
sist in two things, viz. in giving aid to resist an enemy, afl£ 
in relieving his friend's country with the commodities Ant 
it wanted. The necessity of this friendship he shewed ty 
appear, in that few princes were able to maintain their own) 
if they wanted the friendship of other princes. And far tin 
better instructing the King what prince's friendship wM 
rather to be chosen, he propounded four things worthy 
consideration ;. viz. the propinquity, the antiquity of friend- 
ship, the religion and the nature of the prince whose amity 
was sought Again, the same person yielded the King a* 
other discourse, and this more particular, concerning the 
King's outward affairs at that juncture : shewing in what 31 
case things then were. Letting him understand, how the 
case was altered in the kingdom from its condition under 
hid father, when it was dreaded of all its neighbours, and 
needed not to esteem any of them more than they esteemed 
it : but how it was now hated and condemned of them afl. 
Whereupon it was necessary for the nation now, for lack of 
104 its own estimation, either to esteem them, or redeem hi 
own estimation, or perish. He let him see how war threat 
ened on every hand, and therefore friendship was to he 
gotten from abroad : which yet he saw not how it was fe 
be gotten, without either extreme disadvantage, or the da 
nying of our faith : neither of which was tolerable. Thai 
the King had two puissant enemies to deal withal, da 
French King, a doubtful friend, and the Emperor, a dis 


nabfing foe. Then the* writer deliberated, how either was CHAP. 
t> be dealt withal. And then stated the matters as to Scot- XIIL 


hod and Ireland. From which excellent discourse may be Anno imi. 
sen the present state of the kingdom at that time. All these 
orients discourses are preserved in the Repository. R- s. T. v. 

At home the coin was much debased since King Henry's Consulta- 
nt and much complaint was made of it, and many incon-{£ e nmbout 
raiences foreseen to follow, if it so continued : and there- 
ate great deliberation began to be concerning it at the Coun- 
SJkxurd. This occasioned the writing a fifth discourse by 
he King's especial (but secret) order to the said Thomas. 
ITiis indeed seemed to be writ first of all before any of the 
Mi; for this matter lying before the Council suddenly 
be considered, the young King, having a mind to be 
apepared to speak upon that argument, privately sent 
rhrogmorton to him, who, as he brought the King's notes, 
ppufying his will to Thomas, that he should draw up 
die discourses above mentioned, so particularly and immedi- 
Mdy to give him his thoughts upon the coin ; but secretly. 
Accordingly he shewed the King his judgment, that by all 
Means the coin should be reformed, and that without delay. 
Because, the badness of it bred multitudes of bargains, that 
people might get rid of it, to the utter impoverishing of the 
needy. That they indeed had silver coin, but in such kind, 
is that neither they esteemed it for silver, nor could without 
£eat loss use it as silver. And as the value of money daily 
dfecayed, so he shewed, that gold increased to that value, 
that lying, still it amounted above the revenues of any 
hods 'i and that the value of gold was likely to advance un- 
ncasurably ; so that he that lived a twelvemonth should see 
m old angel worth twelve shillings of the current money. 
Therefore in his discourse upon this argument, he advised, 
that twelve pence should be exacted, in the pound for the 
redress of money. This discourse he sent very privately to 
the King, sealed up as if it were a thing for the Council, as- 
suring his Majesty, that no creature living was or should 
he privy either to it, or any the rest of his discourses. One 
reason whereof was, that so the King might utter these 

m 2 


BOOR matters as of his own, whereby they might gain gre 

L credit with the Council, than if it were known to have ] 

Anno 1548. ceeded from Thomas, or any one else. This discoun 

would be pity it should be wanting. See it among the 

w - of his discourses, in the Repository, as they are found 

Cotton MS. 

Aphorisms And to exercise his princely mind in the great matte 

the Kinds' war, the last and only remedy oftentimes left for prince 

U8e> maintain or recover their rights, among the rest of the r 

of policy, provided for the King by Thomas, I know nc 

whom to attribute certain aphorisms of war, which c 

forth about this time, so well as to the said Thomas; 

for whose use drawn up, as for the young King's, b 

fitted for his study, by recommending to his reading set 

1 05 instances of the Roman history. It was entitled, A m 

in bibiioth. sar y order which a prince in battle must observe and k 

Rererend. .„,. . , , » »»• 

Patr. d. y he intend to subdue or peas through his enemies com 

EHen EpiIC °^*° ^ manner $f besieging ajbrtrcss; and how apr 
besieged should order himself: and how to pacify a ssdi 
of soldiers. This writing, which, I suppose, was penned 
ginally for the King's use and study, was soon after prm 
that it might be of more common benefit for such as i 
or should be captains and officers in the King's army.' 
This I saw among the excellent collections of the 
right reverend Bishop of Ely. 
The King's But as to Thomas's late discourse concerning the c 
about the ^ e K* n g m answer signified to him, notwithstanding 
coin. vehemency he expressed for the reformation of it, n 
dangers and inconveniences were urged by others, if 
alteration should be made. And that therefore some i 
of opinion, that sentence should take place here, ma 
bene conditum ne moveas. But Thomas, in another pri 
x. letter to the King, gave his sense of this objection agi 
the reformation of the coin, in these words : 
Thomas's " And where indeed I was somewhat earnest 


Cott. Libr. " the reformation of the coin, wherein it pleased your 
Vespasian, « jesty to command my opinion, truly my zeal to my o 
"try did so prick me, that I could not forbear to exe 


"against the fault Like as for the redress, I am not yet CHAP. 
tt persuaded from my device. For though I understand * 

a there be other arguments, perchance better than mine, Anno ims. 
u yet I like not his opinion, that in this case groundeth 
" himself on malum bene conditum ne moveas. For malum 
" it is indeed, but condition it is not, and bene it will rfever 
" be : wherefore necesse est moveri. And this I dare stand 
"to in argument, that where I devised an exaction of 
" twelve pence in the pound, if the money thus continue, 
" your Majesty, by reason of the mints, shall exact above 
" ox shillings of the pound, and yet be undone yourself at 
"length, .unless ye purchase land withal. 

" And whether it hath made your Majesty rich or no, I 
u cannot tell, but I am sure this coinage, since the first be- 
" ginning, hath exacted upon your subjects already above 
" eight shillings in the pound. 

w As for their frivole reasons that allege three parts of the 
" four through the realm to fare the better for it, I will not 
" say, that either they understand little of policy, or else 
" they would be glad to become commoners themselves ; but 
" this I dare avow, that there is not one of hundred, no, not 
" one of thousand, that is contented with this coin. 

" Helas ! can we suffer neither fault nor remedy ? Nei- 
" ther war nor peace ? 

" Your Majesty's most humble servant, 

" William Thomas." 

And we shall hear, not long after, what effectual care the 
King took for the bettering the estate of the coin of the na- 

The wars with Scotland, and the keeping and defending Soldiers 
of Boloign, and other pieces on that side, against the [J* Kin* 
French, created the King much trouble and charge of men >n the Low 
and treasure. This summer, Sir Thomas Chamberlain and , ~g 
Dr. Thomas Smith being Ambassadors with the Emperor, 
were raised two thousand men in the Low Countries for the 
service of the wars, the Emperor granting licence to levy 
them, and for their safe passage into England. And in Ja- 



BOOK nuaiy following, Mr. John Dymock, the King's servant, 

sent over by the Protector and Council, secretly to repair 

Anno 1548. to Sir Philip Hoby, the King's ambassador, now with tin 
Emperor, to raise two thousand men more. And Sir Philip . 
had command to acquaint the Emperor, that « great ptit 
of the former two thousand men were dead and spent in the 
wars of the last year, and the number being grown verf 
small, the King, desiring to have two thousand footmetf 
more to be levied about the parts of Free^land, prayed dfe 
Emperor's good permission thereof in respect of the treaty 
of amity between them. And it seemed to be granted. 
Pnyen ap- Upon the war likely to be with France, which looked 
upon the severely upon the state of the kingdom at this ; trouUls- 
^, ng8of some time at home, it was piously ordered by the Prtvjf 
Council, that prayers should be made in all chu&hesift 
the diocese of Westminster, to Almighty God, for succetf 
of the King's arms, and for the restoring of peace.' The 
Council's letter to Thirleby, Bishop of Westminster, watt? 
followeth : 
Tjie coun- « After our hearty commendations to their good Lord- 
to the Bi- " ship; hearing tell of great preparation made of foreign 
Weatmin- " princes* and otherwise ; being enforced for the procure 
•ter. " ment and continuance of peace to make preparation for 

XhLn,] " war; forsomuch as all power and aid vailable cometh 
" of God ; the which he granteth as he hath promised by 
his holy word, by nothing so much as by hearty prayer 
of good men : the which is also of more efficacy, made 
" of a whole congregation together, gathered in his holy 
" name : 

" Therefore this is to will and require you to give adver- 
" tisement and commandment to all the Curates in your 
" diocese, that every Sunday and holyday in their common 
" prayer they make devout and hearty intercession to Al- 
t' mighty God, for victory and peace. And to the intent 
" you should not be in doubt what sort and manner we do 
" like, we have sent unto you one : the which we would, that 
" you and they should follow, and read it, instead of one 
•' collect of the King's Majesty's 'process. Thus we pray 


tf you not to fail to do with all speed, and bid you farewell, CHAR 
« from Westminster, the 6th day of May, 1548. XUI ' 

« Your loving friends, Anno l64il 

u E. Somerset. R. Rich, Cane. W. Seint John. 

" J. Russel. T. Cheine." 

Christopher Mount was the King's agent, as be had been The Dam 
Us father's, among the Protestant princes of Germany . |j iatio * £ e " 
And being resident at Strasburgh, he happening in dis-Eogi*od* 
course with the Danish ambassadors there about English 
natters, they shewed more than once their master's great 
concern fear the differences between England and France, 
and how ready he would be to be a mediator for a right 
mderstanding between both princes. And so they had de- 
clared before to Thirlby, Bishop of Westminster, and Sir 
FWL Hoby, Ambassador with the Emperor. This Mount 
wrking to the Court, the English were willing to hearken 
unto the motion; and the rather, because that being now in 107 
with Scotland, the amity of the King of Denmark, 
country adjoined near thereunto, would be no little 
advantage to England. Upon this occasion therefore, Oc-TbePi©- 
tober 4, the Protector wrote to Hoby in a letter from Sion,^?^^ 
That this was not to be refused, being so gently offered; u P° n - 
■m! that he should take some occasion to talk hereupon b. i*. 
wkh the Danish Ambassador, and in discourse, that he 
sWuld declare the wrong the English had received from The injuries 
France, and how unjustly the French had handled them. p rench; 
As, in not paying the pension, by the treaty at the last 
conclusion of peace due unto us, in place and time there 
expressed; fortifying against the treaty; keeping away 
from the King's Majesty fines and other things there in 
Boloignois. Besides, that upon every pretence, when they 
would, they robbed and killed our men, and said their 
King had commanded them so to do, by way of revenge ; 
and that if one bullock were taken [by the English in Bo- 
loignois, where they bordered upon the French territories, 
and so might sometimes steal from one another] to take 
twenty; if one were killed, to kill forty; and that upon 

m 4 


BOOK only surmise, and no proof of justice. And under pretence 
** of Scots, if there were but one Scot in their ships, yea, and 

Aino i*4«. sometimes none, they robbed and spoiled the King's sub- 
jects on the seas, and then sold their goods openly in their 
havens and other places ; and then, when they listed, said 
they were Scots. And so Petro Strozzi, both going, and 
coming, and tarrying, being the French King's lieutenant, 
yet pilled and took our men, and burnt our ships so many 
as he could get, so that the English were enforced some- 
what also to do against him. 

AndScotch. And for Scotland the Ambassador was commanded to set 
out the right that the King had to that kingdom, which he 
knew well enough, and to shew that yet, for a quiet amity 
between the realms, the King's father was content that the 
King that now is should marry the young Queen of Scots. 
And that hereunto the Scots condescended by the whole 
Parliament of the three estates, and under the great seal of 
Scotland, which was then to shew. And that the French 
King, notwithstanding all this, not only had aided the Scots 
against the King's Majesty their sovereign Lord with mo- 
ney and men, but also, now lastly, had taken away the 
young Queen; and by that means taken away the best 
and most quiet way of concord betwixt these two realms, 
and defrauded the King's Majesty of his lawful and pro- 
mised wife. And now the French King had said, that he 
would marry her to the Dauphin. The which things, as 
the Ambassador was instructed to say, was not sufferable to 
any mean lord or prince, much less to a king as he was. 
And though his Majesty was young, yet that his power 
was able enough to see redress and revenge in these mat- 
ters: as this last year it had appeared. When, notwith- 
standing French powers there sent, the King had not only 
defended his realm against the French, but against all Scot- 
land too. But how far this mediation by the Danish King 
was carried, I cannot ascertain, finding no more of this 
matter. To be sure the hostility still continued between 
both nations till the end of the next year. 

tion for And to be prepared with ammunition against any insults 



from Scotland, an order came May IS. from the Protector CMAF. 
and Privy Council, to deliver out of die Tower, for New- XIIL 

castle, for supply of the stores there, hand-guns complete,-*** *•*•• 
eight hundred; fine cornpowder, three last; serpentine 1 ^ 
powder, ten last; matches, eight hundred weight ; saltpetre 
in roche, half a last; brimstone, two barrels; bows of.yough, 
a thousand; bow-strings, forty gross ; demy lances, four hun- 
dred; northern staves, two hundred; morice-pikes, two thou- 
sand seven hundred ; horse harness, twenty. 

April the 10th had a treaty been agreed to for the cooti-Wronp 
nuation of the price of wool, between the Emperor and the^diwto 
King, during his minority. But notwithstanding this and <**■**•?■ 
other treaties, our merchants at Antwerp met now lately 
with much unfair dealings from the government there, by 
laying heavier taxes and duties upon them than they ought 
to have done, by virtue of privileges granted the English 
traders, ratified by pacts and covenants: which were now 
grievously violated. Whereat the English complaining, and 
finding no redress, the governor of the merchants residing 
in the said town made a decree that they should trade no 
more there. And accordingly they withdrew their effects: 
which was no small detriment to die place, and to the Em- 
peror in his revenues. This gave great offence at tbatDebstcs 
Court, and it was urged as an infringement of the inter- tUl * u * WHI# 
course of treaties. Secretary Smith, together with Sir Tho- 
mas Chamberlain, who were at this Court this summer, 
maid came partly to adjust and settle the matter, had several 
meetings with the President of the Council, and others that 
wvere Commissioners, who shewed great passion and much 
disturbance at this withdrawing of the English and their \ 
trade. The said President affirmed, the officers of Antwerp 
load done no injury to our merchants. He asked them how 
the Emperor would be satisfied, that a governor of mer- 
chants in his dominions should make statutes to forbid the 
traffic from his town of Antwerp, and cause the merchants 
to depart thence so tumultously as they did. And so ag- 
gravated the matter, saying, that the Emperor both would 
and should punish the same. 


BOOK Smith the English Ambassador, on the other hud, who 
L liked well enough what the merchants had done, said man 

Anno 1548. calmly, that there had nothing been done, but what might 
^ l Jj!*A m .b e done by the intercourse and privileges, and upon jot 
taaMdor, occasion. But the Emperor's Commissioners looked that, 
count! on th e English ambassadors parts, they should have yielded 
in somewhat, and consented to some of these unjust impo- 
sitions what they did not. 

At a fourth meeting, when it was expected that they 
should come to some conclusion, the President, who had 
been answered over and over, was still as hot as he was be- 
fore. But Secretary Smith being by him required to speak 
what he had to say, answered gravely, that he wondered to 
see them now so far off, when he took the conclusion rather 
to be at hand, seeing that afore they had so fully answered, 
as it seemed, they themselves could not but allow their so* 
swers. Notwithstanding, he said, if they would be so pre- 
cise, and that reason might not serve, and seeing the Kint/i 
Majesty had purposely sent them to pacify the differences 
between the English merchants and them of Antwerp, 
meaning none other but continuance of amity betwixt both 
princes and their subjects, the King's Majesty, he said, wosJd 
not forsake his subjects. Whereat the President began again 
to startle, and asked, whether the King did more regard 
109 a governor of merchants and his fact, than the amity of an 
Emperor. But he was answered so reasonably and fully, 
as reason required. Then the said President cast them ia 
the teeth with the continuance of the merchants still fraa 
Antwerp ; and that three of them of late should say to some 
of the citizens of Antwerp, that they durst buy no wares of 
them for danger of their statute. 
The mer- But however such was the covetousness of the merchants, 
blamed for ^at though they were thus withdrawn, and their trade sus- 
breaking pended for a while, for their general benefit, yet some of 
orden. them did underhand bring over cloths to Bruges, notwith- 
standing the Protector's prohibition and stay of their ships; 
and also did buy at Antwerp, contrary to their own statute 
and ordinance. Whereby they had forfeited large sums, 


of which the King was to have a third part. At which OHAPJ 

. YII I 

Tho. Chamberlain, ledger ambassador at Brussels, was 

Jy offended, and affirmed, as he wrote to Sir William Anao 1,M ^ 
et, that till the King did take the same forfeiture, and Sj^fc^ 
e them smart, they would never keep order, but for ^ thereat, 
r private lucre undo, if they might* the commonwealth. Bi a ,^ 
L that it was their fashion, even when they made their 
ites, and swore to observe the same, even forthwith to 

by collusion and colour to break the same : generally 
og, that every man transgressing shall cause a general 
Ion among them. And thus, he said, they mocked with 
I and the world, and were perjured daily. For these The King's 
other misdemeanours of these merchants, the said Cham- ^ wLntl. 
tin protested, that after this time, for his part, he would 
ar wish the King to be at more charge and trouble with 
chants' aflairs than other princes were, seeing his Ma- 
f did for them that which none other prince, that he 
w of, did for their merchants; and yet took off the 
tar customs, and cared not whether they sunk or swum, 
resoever they went with their merchandize. He pro- 
sd that he was sorry that ever the King's Majesty en- 
i into this matter, and should be troubled with such 
i folks, that esteemed not their own weals, nor who 
for them. Wherefore in conclusion he prayed Paget, 

till he heard of their, with the other Commissioners' 1 
ement, it would not be ill in his opinion, to stay them 
lipping thither, which should be the only way to bring 
1 to a conclusion with honour. For that he had intel- 
ice by good and substantial advice, that they of Ant- 
i would fain the Commissioners on both sides were at a 
t : and also they that set the greatest brag thereupon 

that they wot not how to frame it, to redub all with 
' honour. This letter was writ July 84. And thus it 
1 now with the merchants of Antwerp. 




The Em- 
peror en- 
joins the 

Anno 1548. Tfa condition of the Protestants in Germany, related bgik 

110 English Ambassador there. The Interim. The Elector 

of Saxony. Allen, a conjurer 9 reports the King deal 

Seized and examined. UnderhU a memorable man m 

these times. 

U PON occasion of an English ambassador now residing 
in Germany, we have an opportunity of seeing how the 
Protestant affairs went in those parts. Thurleby, the Bi- 
shop of Westminster, lately went home, and in his root 
Sir Philip Hoby was now the King's ambassador to the 
Emperor Charles, then at a diet at Ausburgh. Thence, is 
the month of July, the said Ambassador wrote a letter to the 
Duke of Somerset, the Protector, of the news then stirring, 
chiefly in reference to the religion. " That the Emperor, 
" at the conclusion of the diet, was bent to cause the Fro* 
" testants to observe the Interim. That he had used both 
" fair means and foul to bring his purpose to pass. And 
" that by the latter means divers were brought to submit 
" to it against their wills. That the towns of Constancy 
Argentine, and Linda, refused it. The last whereof sent 
their Secretary to the Emperor to Ausburgh with this 
message, that they had all met together, and found the 
Interim so disagreeable to God's word, (whose laws they 
were bound upon pain of damnation to observe,) that they 
were resolved not to accept of it, fearing more of God's 
threatenings, and his just indignation against such as neg- 
lected his will and the Scriptures, than the loss of goodij 
" life, or any other temporal thing. But that the Empe 
" ror's Majesty should not think it was done out of obeb 
" nacy or disobedience, (whom they acknowledge for tbei 
prince,) they would not refuse or resist him, howsoever h 
should dispose of them. Nor should their gates be she 
to any of his soldiers, whether Spanish or Italians ; yei 
content that he should take their goods or lives frai 
them. And that he should not need to go about th 

towns re. 
fate it. 















"whh a strong hand: for it should suffice but to command. CHAPl 


fthem, and they would gladly offer their heads to the L_ 

tf blocks. Upon this message Grandvel, the Emperor's Anno IM *- 
"great counsellor, threatened them desperately. 

" The Duke of Wittemburgh, having received the Interim Tht Dni» 
« from the Emperor, with commandment to see it take place jfjg^ 
" throughout his country, did not then make a shew of dis-wch u 
u obeying the Emperor, but received his commission reve- 

f u reotly. But shortly after, without taking any notice of 
I u the reception of the Interim, caused proclamation to be 
I "made, that each person, for every time he heard mass, 
t m u should pay eight ducats of gold : whereby he forbade not 
tt the mass to be said, but required a tribute of such asm 

* heard it. He was aged, and sometimes merry-conceited. 
"Grandvel also required in the Emperor's name, thatDakeof 

* the Duke of Saxony, at that time the Emperor's prisoner, ^J^Si 
"diould promote this his desire for the peace of Germany, the interim. 

I "considering how well his Majesty had deserved at his 
j * hands by rendering his imprisonment easy. He piously 
* * answered, that his body was in the Emperor's hands, and 
u he might use his carcase as it liked him, but he prayed 
"his Majesty not to press him to yield to this, which was 
"against the word of God. Upon this the Emperor being 
" offended, clapped upon him a guard of three hundred Spa- 
" maids more than he had before, and disarmed his ser- 
" vants of all their arms, and dismissed his servants, being 
" seventy in number, reducing them to twenty-seven. His 
" preacher was also sent away upon pain of burning, if he 
u stayed any longer. And his cooks and officers, upon the 
u same pain, were commanded to dress no flesh for him on 
u Fridays and Saturdays, and other fasting-days. YetTUm, B.«. 
u herewith the Duke seemed so little moved, as there was 
a no alteration perceived in him." These and other things T. 
may be read more at large in the Ambassador's letter in the 
Cotton library. 

About the 11th or 12th of July, Hoby, the said ambas- A Sp»- 
ttdor, was visited by Don Alonso Vides, a Spaniard, who was nMiaSao" 
master of the camp to the Emperor, and had the custody with Hoby 


BOOK J&f the Duke of Saxony. This man, upon occasion of talk, 

*• (as Hobby related it in another letter to the Duke,) began to 

Anno 1548. set forth the Duke's patience and wisdom, lamenting that 

aboat the his case was not so ordered as by policy he might be won to 
Titm, b. 9. the Emperor's devotion : which, he said, in his mind was easy 
enough to bring to pass. For he said, he had talked and 
discoursed with him sundry times, and did very well per- 
ceive his stiff sticking to his opinion to proceed of no igntf 
ranee or lack of knowledge : for he was witty, and even si 
well seen in the Scripture, and knew as much by that he 
had read in his mother tongue, as all the whole heap of 
learned men of Germany could tell him. And how is it . 
possible, added he, that a man of such wisdom and know- 
ledge remaining in captivity, having lost such and so many 
possessions, and deprived of the electorship, a dignity of no 
small estimation, should be brought to grant to a thing a> 
far disagreeable to that doctrine, whereof he was and had 
been the chiefest stay and head ? Was it like, demanded 
he, that he having nothing left him but the estimation that 
those men had him in, would by granting to that Interim 
lose that also, without assurance thereby to be res tor e d to 
his former estate and dignity ? He assured the Ambassador 
he should not take him to be a man of that wit that he hi- 
therto had judged him of, if he would upon so slender a 
ground and small hope yield to that thing, the utter Uemish 
and defacing of this estimation, that was alone without any 
other comfort left him. But were not his Majesty, as he 
went on, guided in this case by such as regarded not to 
much his honour and quietness, as their own affection 
and profit, he assured the Ambassador, the Elector might 
easily have been won. And by the small practice he had of 
his nature and disposition, he would jeopard his head to be 
lost, if he did not, and that within a short space, win him to 
yield to the Emperor's request, so that his Majesty would 
therein be content to follow his advice and counsel. " For 
112 " I pray you," said he, " what may all this strait keeping 
" and threatening words avail to fear him, whose manly 
" heart is so far past all dread, that he seemeth to contemn, 



" aa flatting nothing by, whatsoever shall happen. unto him.. CHAP. 
"Such is bis> valiant stomach and princely courage. No, 

u no, said he, it must be gentleness shall win him : and Anno l548# 

" not gentle words only, but answerable deeds also. That 

" he may perceive an unfeignedly good-will burn towards 

" him. Let. him be again restored* to his electorship, placed 

u in his dukedom, at his liberty, and perceive himself to be 

M favoured of his Majesty, and then my life on it, he will 

" be so co nf ormable, and shew himself as true and as faith- 

w ful a prince toward his Majesty as the best of them that 

" now make the proudest brags. And what good this gen* 

w deman being reconciled may do, how much he may serve 

" far the setting forth of his Majesty's service, and for the 

" stay and quietness of Germany, may of all wise men be 

"eanly gathered. And therefore ought with the greater 

" study to be travailed." 

Unto all this discourse Hoby made no answer, neither Hoby^ 
discommending nor approving of it: but only gave him tD ^*f, 
the hearing. But in relating it to the Protector, he shewed 
him how he might perceive the opinions of men there, 
and how this gentleman's patience and constancy was by 
worldly persons judged to proceed of worldly wisdom and 
policy, like as others affirmed it to be the grace and assist- 
ance of God that did aid and strengthen him. 

Hoby did also at this time send to the Protector a note Articles of 

th# Interim 

of certain articles of the Interim, to which the Protestants diwdiowed 

by thePro- 

would not agree. Which were as follow : 

De authoritate et potestate 

De confirmation*. 
De sacramento pcmitentia. 
De caremoniis et usu sacra- 

De memoria defunctorum in 

De memoria sanctorum in 

citaris sactificiojieri con- 

sueta, et eorum interces- 
sion inibi expetita; et 

De sanctorum invocations 

De sacra unctione. 

De sacramento Eucharistice. 

De sacramentis in genere. 

De Pontifice summo, et Epi- 


BOOK . With these the people of the town of Auspurgh, where the \ 

*' Ambassador now was, were not satisfied : and against thm 
Anno 1548. certain learned men there protested, and would not agra 
^ A "»- to, as the same Ambassador signified; adding, that the 
Emperor seemed to desire to appease and allure them by 
gentleness and fair means. And therefore had caused ot 
a certain Sunday in July, a certain exhortation of hit to 
be read to the people in each church: whereby he did 
desire them, seeing he had travailed so much about their 
quietness, and set forth this thing for the establishment of j 
the same, (wherein he had in many thingB yielded to that 
own desire and request,) that they also, shewing themselves 
loving and obedient subjects, would for their part be coo- 
tent to bear with the rest, and grant to his request. But 
Hoby signified, how that those of that town had not as jet 
answered hereunto : neither had they hitherto altered their 
religion, but used the same es they had been accustomed. 
The Papists had good hope it should not long continue ia 
that state. The Protestants on the other side trusted it 
113 should not be altered. But commandment in the mtm 
time was given to the men of this town in the Emperart 
name, that from henceforth they should eat no flesh on the 
And Duke pricky^ Saturdays, nor on any fasting-days. Duke Mm- 
dominions, rice's subjects being by him required to accept the Interim, 
made answer, that they had both the Emperor's hand end 
seal, whereby he promised not to meddle with matters of 
religion, but with reformation of the commonwealth. Which 
they doubted not, they said, but his Majesty would hold, 
and not press them against his promise to grant to this 
thing, which they would not agree to. And they exhorted 
the said Duke to solicit this their suit to his Majesty, which 
if he would not do, they plainly told him they would not 
fail to find such a prince and head as should see his subject! } 
take no wrong. How this answer would be liked of the 
Emperor, the Ambassador told the Protector, to whom he 
wrote all this, his Grace would easily judge. 
Alien, a Here at home, about the month of July, a sudden report 
reports the flew through London, that King Edward was dead. Which 

Kin* dead. 


arriving to the Court, troubled them. The occasion where- CHAP, 
if was this. There was one Allen, whom people called the XIV * 

fropkesier, that pretended by casting figures to tell things Anno ims. 
to come, and to prognosticate of the length of men's lives. 
This fellow was much courted by the Papists to calculate 
the life of King Edward. Who did so, and giving assured 
belief to his own art, confidently gave out about this time, 
that the King was dead. This spread like lightning. The 
Court hearing the rumour at midnight, sent to Sir John 
Graham, the Mayor, to apprehend the persons, if he could 
find them, that raised this false report, the King being alive 
•nd well. Edward Underhil, one of the guard of gentlemen 
pensioners, the next morning came to the Mayor, requiring 
of him some officers to apprehend the raiser of this lie, hav- 
ing learned where he had a chamber. The Mayor sent two 
officers with him, who found Allen in St Paul's. These 
carried him away to his own chamber, where they saw 
figures set to take the nativity of the King, and a judgment 
given of his death, (I use the words of Underfill's ownFoaiMSS. 
narration,) whereof this foolish wretch thought himself so 
sure, that he and his counsellors, the Papists, bruited it all 
over, as was said before. The King lay at Hampton Court 
the same time, and the Lord Protector at Sion. To him 
Allen was brought with his books of conjurations, circles, 
and many things belonging to that devilish art. He af- 
firmed before the Protector, that it was a lawful science, 
and that the statute against such was repealed. " Thou 
" foolish knave," said my Lord, " if thou, and all that be of 
" thy science, tell me what I shall do to-morrow, I will 
"give thee all that I have. 11 

He was committed to the Tower, and the Protector wrote Sent to the 
a letter to Sir John Markham, then being lieutenant, to ower# 
cause him to be examined by such as were learned. Mr. 
Markham, as he was both wise and zealous in the Lord, 
talked with him : unto whom he did affirm, that he knew 
more in the science of astronomy than all the University of 
Oxford and Cambridge. Whereupon he 'sent for one Mr. 
Record, a Dr. of physic, and very learned in divinity also, 





Anno IMS. 





Allen ex- 
amined be- 
fore the 
King's vi- 

who examined him, and found that he knew not the rules 
of astronomy, but proved a very unlearned man, and* 
sorcerer. For the which, said Record, he was worth? 

For further matter with him, the lieutenant, and Mr. 
Underfill, who brought him to the Tower, sent for ThooMsl 
Robins, alias Morgan, commonly called Little Morgan, bto> 
ther unto Great Morgan of Salisbury-court, the great dicer. 
For he had formerly told Underfill many stories of Allen, 
what a cunning man he was, and what things he could do; 
as, to make a woman love a man ; to teach men how to win 
at the dice ; what should become of this realm ; nothing hot 
he could do it. When this Morgan and Allen were brongk* 
together, Morgan utterly denied that ever he had seen him 
or known him. Yes, said Allen, you know me, and I know 
you. For he had confessed that, before his coming. Upon 
this, the lieutenant stayed Little Morgan also prisoner in 
the Tower. 

Allen had his chambers in divers places of the city, whi- 
ther resorted many women for things stolen or lost, and to 
know their fortunes, and their children's fortunes; and where 
the russling roisters, the dicers, made their matches. 

Underfill caused also to be apprehended Gascon, the 
lawyer, at whose house this Allen was much, and had a 
chamber, a great dicer also : where were many things prac- 
tised too. Here citizens'' wives had meetings of debauchery, 
their husbands innocently letting them resort thither, upon 
pretence the women made of going there to inquire for 
things lost or stolen, which they hid for the nonce to blear 
their husbands'' eyes. By this means Gascon, a pander, had 
choice for himself, and for his friends, the young lawyers 
of the Temple. 

This Allen, a Norfolk man born, was called the god 0/ 
Norfolk, before they received in those parts the light of the 
Gospel ; and was a great doer in judgments in divers mat- 
ters there. This man was had before the King's Commit* 
sioners, and being before them, he required to talk with one 
of the Council, saying, if he were unburdened of that 



which.he would then say, be cared not what came of him. CHAP. 
He said also before the Commissioners, that he could make xtv * 

the great elixir. Also he stood earnestly before them, that Anno ims. 
he could say more concerning astrology and astronomy, 
than all the learned men within the University of Oxford 
and Cambridge, though he understood no part of the Latin 

Sir John Godsalve, one of the Commissioners for the 
royal visitation, 1547, required the other Commissioners to 
demand of Allen, whether he did not say unto two men, 
yet living, ten days before the apprehension of the Lord 
Cnunwel, that the said Lord Crumwel should be in the 
Tower within fourteen days following. This question be- 
ing demanded of him, he denied not that he said so ; but 
said, that he spake it not of his own knowledge, but of 
others. But Allen, and the others mentioned before, after 
a year's imprisonment, were by friendship delivered. But 
Underhil, the proctor and discoverer of this pack, they en- 
deavoured to take away by sorcery. 

Of this gentleman I shall here add a few things, being Some sc- 
one that deserves to have his name preserved in history, uotoWi. 
though nothing hitherto in any ecclesiastical commentaries 
of our nation be said of him. For he was a man zealous 
for pure religion against superstition and impieties of all 
sorts, and made a figure in King Edward the Vlth's days. I 
will first relate what his quality was, and then make report 
of certain of his actions. 

He was of a good family, (son of Thomas Underhil, 115 
of Honington in Warwickshire, Esquire,) and first bred a HU V^ lt f' 
soldier under Sir Richard Crumwel, in the journey to 
Laundresey. The next year, when King Henry VIII. made 
an expedition against Bulloign, being a stout and personable 
man, Sir Richard put him unto his Majesty in the room of 
a man at arms. In this band there were two hundred, all 
mounted upon barded horse, in one suit of red and yellow 
damask, (the bards of their horses and plumes of feathers 
being of the same colour,) to attend upon his Majesty for 
the defence of his person. Afterwards, for his deserts, he 




BOOK served the King in the band of gentlemen pensioners, as Ik 
did after to King Edward and Queen Mary. In the day* 


Anno 1648. of King Edward, he was of such good esteem, and so well 
known and beloved by the nobility, that having a son ban 
during the short reign of Queen Jane, she was godmother, 
and named him after her husband's name, Guildford, Si 
Nicolas Throgmorton's lady being her deputy, the Duke of 
Suffolk and the Earl of Pembroke, godfathers. Immedi- 
ately after the christening was done, Queen Mary was pro- 
claimed in Cheapside, the deputy-godmother returning to 
the Tower to wait upon her lady, found the cloth of state 
taken down, and all things defaced belonging to Jane as 
Queen, and she as well as her mistress made prisoners. 

FoUowt bad At first Underhil followed loose company, gamesters and 
ruffians. Some of them were these dicers, Great Morgan oi 
Salisbury-court, Sir John Palmer, called Buskin Palmer 
Sir Miles Partridge, lusty young Rafe Bagnal, men info 
mous in King Edward's days: yet in favour among th< 
magistrates, and were advanced, though they were the sower 
of sedition, and destroyers of the two dukes. These wer 
the court-flatterers, and knew well the old proverb ; 

He that will in Court abide, 

Must curry fault both back and side. 

To these was Allen the conjurer joined, of whom we ha\ 
spoken before. But Underhil soon forsook them by readm 
the Scriptures, and hearing the preachers. And then, i 
some satisfaction to the world, he put forth a satire again: 
the wickedness of these men, revealing the falsehood an 
knavery that he was made privy to. For this they hate 
him mortally. They called him the hot Gospeller, jesting an 
mocking him ; and would say of him, He is all of the Spirt 
It was their common custom at their tables to jest and sco 
the preachers and earnest followers of the Gospel. Eve 
among the magistrates and lords they would spend the tim 
in wanton and ribald talk. Which when they fell into, on 
or other would look through the board, saying, Take hee 
that Underhil be not here. And these persons, those c 

But leares 


Em that survived, (for Palmer and Partridge died by the CHAP, 
cod of justice,) at the change of prince, readily complied, 

jfth Queen Mary's religion, and then became infamous. Ano ° i&*** 
AX Underfill they raised scandals and false bruits, say- They bate 
g, be waa a spy for the Duke of Northumberland, and ^ndaiTof 
Bed him Hoper** champion. He was so indeed. For him - 
[oper, being a zealous reformer, drew upon himself great 
ivy: insomuch that he was abused with railing libels cast ll6 
lo pulpits against him, and by other ways. But Under- 
1, who was a very witty man, set up a bill upon St. Paul's 
oar in defence of Hoper, and another at St. Magnus 
burch, where especially such ignominious lampoons had 
een divulged against that reverend man. For the fixing 
§> these sort of bills was common in these times. 

How this Underhil apprehended a Vicar of Stepney for His actions. 
Bodering the preaching of the Gospel in his own church in 
Dug Henry's reign, and bringing him before the Archbi- Cranm. 
fcop of Canterbury, was told in another book. These fol- emo 
owing are acts which he did in the reign of King Edward. 

At Stratford on the Bow, he took the pix from the altar Takes away 
if copper, stored with copper gods, the Curate being {£* Bow 
iresent, and a popish justice dwelling in the town, called church. 
Justice Tawe. There had been an injunction, that the pix 
hould no more hang in a string over the altar, the mean- 
ng whereof was, that it should be taken wholly away. But 
he Papists thought to obey the injunction, and withal to 
veserve their pix, and so they set it upon the altar. This 
tirred the zeal of Underhil to observe how the orders of 
he government were illuded by such shifts as these : which 
Dade him, living not far off, viz. at Limehouse, to go him- 
elf and put it away. For this act, the Justice's wife, with 
he women of the town, conspired to have murdered him. 
^Thereof one of the parties gave him warning, whose good 
fill to the Gospel was unknown to the rest. And by that 
oaeans, being aware of them, he took care and preserved 
himself from them. 

There was one Luke, a physician in London, who wrote Frees pay 
divers books against the Papists, in the end of King Henry's 1 e pnn v 



BOOK reign : for which he had been imprisoned in the Fleet b 
L the first year of King Edward, he published one book, lot 

Anno 1M8. which he was heavily cried out upon by the Papists to Sf 
John Gresham, the Lord Mayor. It was a dialogue bet 
John Boon and Master Parson. Which two persons 
brought in, reasoning together of the natural presence it 
the Sacrament ; but the author had concealed himself. It 
was writ very facetiously, and sprinkled with wit, severely 
biting now and then at the Priests. The book took much 
at the Court, and the courtiers wore it in their pockets. 
But the Mayor had the book so illy represented unto ha% 
that he was very angry, and sent for Day the printer of it, 1 
intending to make him discover the author, and to lay hot 
in prison for printing the same. Underfill chanced to come 
in at this time, to desire aid of the Mayor to take Allen 
before spoken of, who reported the King's death. The 
Mayor made Underhil dine with him, and speaking to him 
at dinner concerning this book, the maker whereof, he told 
him, he intended to search for, that so, as it seems, Underhil 
might declare at Court the diligence of the Mayor in his 
office, he presently replied to him, that that book wis a 
good book, adding, that he had himself one of them about 
him, and that there were many of them in the Court With 
that the Mayor desired to see it, and took it and read a 
little, and laughed thereat, as it was both pithy and meny. 
And by this seasonable interposition of Underhil, John Day 
the printer, sitting at a side-board, after dinner, was bidden 
to go home, who had else gone to prison. 
117 The woodmongers in this King's reign had wronged the 
jj|]^2j£ city i n their firing extremely, by setting false marks upon 
monger*, their billets. Underhil, being moved with this piece erf dis- 
honesty to the injury of the public, complained of them, 
presenting them, and had a long conflict with them. For 
which he drew a great deal of spite upon himself from 
them, which they uttered in the next reign. When bong 
put into Newgate, they required the keeper to shew him no 
favour, and to lay irons upon him, declaring that he was 
the greatest heretic in London. 


He was of so active a spirit, and so inquisitive into chap. 
wicked and superstitious practices, that he made hiwwlf 
die mark of evil men's rancour and violence. Loose lords AnD0 164S * 
sad ladies, priests and lawyers, wizards, knaves, whores, dt ^^ at % . 
bawds, thieves, and gamesters, so hated him, that, as he 
vritin his narrative, " he walked as dangerously as Daniel 
M smong the lions; and yet from them all the Lord deli- 
" vered him, notwithstanding their often devices and con- 
* "federacies by violence to have shed his blood, or with 
" sorcery destroyed him." 1 But though he escaped in Xing 
Edward's time, having the countenance of authority, yet he 
kid his share of sorrow and persecution in the reign of 
Queen Mary, as we may see when we come to that time. 


Preaching suspended. Pensions. Term put off. Exporta- 
thnqfcomjbrbid. The state of ike com. Melancthon 
writes to the King. Bucer and Martyr placed m the 
Universities. Sharington of the mint attainted : and 
the Lord Admiral. His practices. His iU life. His 

NOTWITHSTANDING the care used in licensing fit Notice 
preachers, the sermons now preached gave much offence. d° n g , w 
For several who had preaching licences, either from the uniform 
King, the Lord Protector, or the Archbishop, (for none prayer. 
else might give them out,) and who at the receiving those 
licences had good advice given them for their discreet using 
them, yet had abused this their authority, and behaved 
themselves irreverently, and without good order in their 
preaching, contrary to such good instructions and advertise- 
ments as were suggested to them. Whereby much conten- 
tion and disorder was in danger of arising in the realm. 
Wherefore the King by a proclamation, Sept. 28, inhi- . 
bited all preachers for a time, and gave notice of a public 
form of divine service ere long to be expected. He told 

n 4 


BOOK his subjects, " that minding to see very shortly one 
L " order throughout his realm, and to put an end to all 

Anno 1548. « troversies in religion, so far as God should give gmfc 
1 18 « ^f or w hich cause at that time, as he added, certain 

and notable learned men by his commandment were 

AH pre**- « grecrate,) he thought fit to inhibit for a time, till that offtW 

en inhibit- *. * '/ *_ „ . ., * » # _j 

cd. " should be set forth, as well the said preachers so bem 

" licensed, as all manner of persons whosoever they wew> 
to preach in open audience in the pulpit, or elsewho* 
To the end that the whole Clergy in this mean space 
might apply themselves to prayer to Almighty God fat 
the better achieving of the said most godly intent and 
" purpose. Not doubting, but his loving subjects in the 
mean time would occupy themselves to God's honour, 
with due prayer in the Church, and patient hearing of 
godly homilies, heretofore set forth by his injunctions. 
And so endeavour themselves, that they might be the more 
ready with thankful obedience to receive a most quiet, 
godly, and uniform order, to be had throughout all bis 
" realms and dominions. And to see the infringers of this 
commandment to be imprisoned, he gave charge to all 
justices, mayors, sheriffs, bailiffs, and constables." 
The King When chantries and such like foundations were by a ' 
for paying & tatute given to the King in his Parliament, the incumbents 
bu pen- thereof being discharged, for their livelihood had pensions 
allowed them during their lives. For the King being 
minded to provide for those late incumbents of colleges, 
chantries, fraternities, guilds, and such other, convenient 
and reasonable recompences and pensions, according to the 
said statute, had commanded several letters patents to be 
made under the great seal of the Court of Augmentations, 
and the revenue of his crown, for the pensions and recom- 
pence of the said incumbents. But those that were ap- 
pointed to pay these poor men were suspected to deal hardly 
with them by making delays, or requiring bribes, and de- 
ductions out of the pensions, or fees for writing receipts; 
An. a and 3 as it appeared afterwards they did, which occasioned an act 
vif' €*. of Parliament in behalf of these pensioners. Therefore, by 





a pmduMrtkm dated the last day of October, published in CHAP, 
every shire, the King signified, that these pensions should xv * 
presently be sent to the hands of the auditors, receivers, Addoims. 
and surveyors of the respective counties, with strait com- 
mandment to believe the same patents immediately, and to 
make payment unto the parties when it concerned them, 
and hereafter yearly frank and free, without fee, duty, or 
sum of money to be demanded or taken of the said pen* 
sioners. And willed those persons who had to do herein to 
resort to his Highnesses audit presently, to be held within 
the county, or else where the officers should be, and there 
receive their pensions accordingly. 

Towards the declining of the summer, the King kept his a plague. 
Court in the country. In the beginning of September he 
at Hatfield ; . and at Leghes the month after : occasioned 
it seems by the plague, which now afflicted the city and 
other places. The danger of which infection made it ad- 
^risahle to put off the term for about a month. Which was 
therefore done by a proclamation, dated at Hatfield afore- 
said, Sept 6, to this import : " That the King's Majesty 
c< was credibly informed, that the infection of the plague 
*' reigned in sundry places of the realm, and especially 
" within the cities of London and Westminster, and in other 
" {daces near adjoining to the same. And that whereas, by 
" the continuance of the same, through the great repair and 1 19 
u resort of his loving subjects, greater peril and danger 
" might not only ensue unto his most royal person, but also 
" unto his most loving subjects repairing thither for their 
" suits and causes ; his Majesty therefore minding the pre- 
" servation of his loving subjects, and being in hope that 
" the same infection would, by the help of Almighty God, 
" and through the coldness of the year, the rather cease by 
" the adjournment of the next term of St. Michael, from 
" the vias of the same till the morrow after the feast of All 
" Saints next coming ; of his special favour and benignity 
" was pleased and contented to adjourn the said term of St. 
" Michael from the utas thereof unto creatine animarum 
" next coming ; and willed and commanded his subjects to 


BOOK " observe and keep their assembly and appearances, with 
" all their returns and certificates in his Courts at Wqtf* 
Anno 1548. " minster, to be holden in like manner, form, and conditio!* 
as they should or ought to have been done, if this presort 
proclamation of adjournment had not been had, mad% 
and proclaimed.'" 
Restraint of The prices of corn and other victuals now increased, and 
o?ttrn! Um ro6e m di yers places within the realm, and the marches sod 
confines of the same. Wherefore the King thought it meed 
weighing most especially (as it ran in the proclamation) tfci 
wealth and commodity of his poor subjects, to. have a m 
strain t for a season of all manner of grain, tallow, and vi* 
tuals in all places within his realm. And therefore stoutly 
charged and commanded all manner of persons, as well dfr 
nizens as strangers, that they should not transport WJ 
manner of grain, butter, cheese, tallow, or any kind of tip* 
tual, without his special licence under his great seal of Efly» 
land, upon pain to forfeit the grain, tallow, 8cc. and to bt 
farther punished by imprisonment, &c. This bore date 4 
Leighes, Oct. 8, an. secundo reg. 
A prohibi- This prohibition seemed to be relaxed again not long 
forth*"™ after. But in the month of January ensuing, the King, be- 
lting's oc- ing to equip and furnish out a navy and an army, put a stop 
again to the exportation of provisions, till himself were first 
served. For a proclamation went forth, dated from West* 
minster, Jan. 18, that forasmuch as the King's Highness 
at that present should occupy great provisions, he, by the ad- 
vice of his most entirely beloved uncle, &c. straitly charged 
and commanded, that no manner of person, whosoever he 
were, should ship or lade, to the intent to carry out of the 
realm, any wheat, malt, oats, barley, butter, cheese, bacon, 
cask or tallow, any licejice or grant heretofore made not- 
withstanding ; until such time as his Majesty's provision be 
fully certified and restored; upon pain that whosoever 
should, after the 22d of January this present year, and be- 
fore the 20th of April, transport or carry into the parts be- 
yond seas any of the foresaid things or provisions, contrary 
to this present proclamation, 8cc. 



The state of the coin of the nation at this present stood CHAP, 
thus. The King had lately called in the testons, a coarse xv * 

sort of money that went for I8d. the piece, though not Anno imb. 
worth half so much, as to the intrinsic value. Which occ&- ™* 8tat ^ 

7 of the coin. 

vast numbers of false testons to be coined by stealth, 
and to pass about Many therefore brought in these pieces 
to the King's mints. The smaller pieces of good coin, such 
as groats and half groats, were now also for the most part 
10 bent and battered, that they were hardly passable, and 
great boggle was made in the receiving them. By which 1 20 
means there was a great want of money to pass in ordinary 
exchange of buying and selling. This the King was sensi- 
ble of: and for the speedy help and relief of his loving sub- 
jects, and to the intent that money and coin might be more 
plentiful hereafter in the realm, had caused several pieces 
of gold and silver of various values to be coined, and com- 
nanded the other pieces of silver to go current. The pieces 
of gold which were now coined were of four sorts, whereof 
the first was called the sovereign of gold, and was appointed 
to be current for twenty shillings in lawful money of Eng- 
land. Another piece was called the half sovereign, or EcU 
ward's royal, running for ten shillings of the lawful money 
aforesaid. One other piece of gold called the crown, run- 
ning for five shillings. And the fourth piece was called the 
half crown, for two shillings and sixpence. The pieces of 
silver newly coined were, first, a piece called a shilling, run- 
ning for twelve pence of the lawful monies of England; 
one other piece or coin, which should be called the half 
shilling, running for six pence. All which pieces or coins, 
as well of gold as also of silver, the King by his proclama- 
tion signified it to be his pleasure and commandment, from 
henceforth, to be current within his realms and dominions, 
according to their several rates and valuations before ex- 
pressed. And moreover, he straitly charged and com- 
manded, that from henceforth all manner of groats, half 
groats, pence and halfpence, of his coins, being not counter- 
fats, current within his realms, not dipt nor fully broken, 
albeit they might be much crooked, should be taken, re- 


book caved and paid throughout the said realm, without any 
manner of refusal or denial. Wherefore he straitly charged 

Anno 1648. and commanded all mayors, justices of peace, sheriffs, bail- 
iffs, constables, and other his officers and subjects, that if 
any person or persons, of whatsoever state, 8cc should refwa 
or deny to take and receive the said monies of gold, being * 
weight, or any of the monies of silver before expressed, bt 
it for merchandises, victuals, change, or rechange, or other 
cause whatsoever, forthwith to take and arrest the same 
persons so making refusal or denial, and to put them » 
ward or prison, there to remain, and further to be punished 
at the King's pleasure. 
Meiftoc- The great learned German divine, Philip Melanctboo, 

toftngEd-ftddressed King Edward with a letter dated the 13th of J* 
wwi nuary : which one Francis Dryander, a learned Protestant, 
brought and presented, who fled hither, as many other pro- 
fessors of religion out of foreign parts had done, for avoid- 
ing the persecution which the Interim occasioned. By which 
letter it appeared, that great consultations were now held 
here at home by the King and some of his learned Divines, 
not only concerning the reformation of this Church, but of 
the other foreign churches too in Germany, Switzerland, 
and France, Italy and Spun, and for the uniting them to- 
gether in one uniform doctrine ; a matter thought fit for a 
royal breast. Wherein the Archbishop of Canterbury was 
the great mover. Melancthon in his letter commended the 
Bang for this, and told him, "that he followed his royal 
" father's example, whom he styled saptentissimum regem> 
" a very wise king ; and that many in Europe well knew, 
" how he, in the controversies of religion then moved, had it 
" a great while in his serious thoughts, that care should be 
" taken for the churches every where, by applying a due 
121 " moderation to the different opinions of men in matters of 
" religion ; and that he liked not of oppressing truth with 
" arms. And wished heartily that other kings had been 
" of his mind. For, as he added, whereas some thought 
" the concord of the Church might be restored by arms, 
they judged amiss : and that the unjust counsels of op- 



u pressing truth were neither pleasing to God, nor were CHAP. 
u long successful. That the wise King his father saw great XV * 

"diseases, and they of ancient date, in the Church; to Anno im*. 

" which there was high need of applying true and whole- 

" some remedies. He beseeched God the Father of our 

u Lord Jesus Christ to override the King's mind, and to 

u amend the churches in his kingdom and elsewhere ; that 

" his glory might be truly set forth, and many might be 

" truly converted to him, and at last made consorts with 

" the Son of God for ever. But he advised him to take 

" heed in this reformation, that men of ill principles mixed 

" not corruptions. And that he would therefore do well, 

a prudently to consider the senses and opinions, as well of 

"his own people, as of the strangers, the guests of his 

u kingdoms. And lastly, he commended to the King the 

"bearer Dryander, as well learned, and long known to 

" him ; that he was a man that judged aright of the con- 

* troversies of religion, and withal his heart abhorred wild 

u and seditious opinions. And therefore judged him a per- 

u son that would be of good use, as to the Church of God, 

u if he were placed in the University, or elsewhere in his 

u kingdom." To these letters of foreign learned men, the 

King paid a great reference, and they had a great influence 

with him. 

The King was beforehand with Melancthon in these mo-Mirtyr and 
tions, and had provided the two Universities of the land the Unirer- 
with two learned foreigners, Peter Martyr to read divinity «**•• 
at Oxford, and Martin Bucer at Cambridge, both com- 
ing from Strasburgh, but Martyr first. These grave and 
teamed Doctors were placed there, the Lord Protector and 
the Archbishop judging them the fittest persons to inform 
the students in their notions and doctrines concerning reli- 
gion. Because as they were very learned in other sciences, 
so in divinity they took the holy Scripture for their guide, 
and gathered their tenets from no other authority but from 
thence, according to the constant principle of that great 
and good Archbishop. It was especially thought necessary, 
that the corrupt opinions about the Eucharist should be 



BOOK rectified in the Universities as well as elsewhere. And both 
these foreigners thought aright in this great point, though 

-Aw*> IMS. differing in their judgments in the expressions to be naei 
-about them. Bucer thought, that for avoiding contention 
and for maintaining of peace and quietness in the Chuid^ 
somewhat more ambiguous words should be used, thtf 
might have a respect to both persuasions concerning the 
presence. But Martyr was of another judgment, and at 
fected to speak of the Sacrament with all plainness and 
Mimpre- perspicuity. Of this Bucer and he had some dispute at 
Pwuts. by Strasburg, before they set foot in England, as we are in- 
formed by Simler in his account of P. Martyr's life. By 
which it appears how much misrepresented these two per- 
sons have been by Papists, and namely by two, Fecknam 
and Parsons. The former, in Queen Mary's days, affirmed 
to Bartlet Green, a prisoner for the cause of religion, and 
after a martyr, " that Peter Martyr was a Papist at his fint 
" coming to Oxford, but perceiving the wicked tenets" « 
he styled them, « of the King's Council," [that is, to bring 
1 22 in another doctrine about the Sacrament against the carnal 
presence,] " was content to please them, and to forsake the 
Ward- « true Catholic faith." The other, with much face and littk 
4. vindi- shame, saith, both of Martyr and Bucer, that at their fin) 
cated - coming into England, they were conditioned with to tead 
the religion, whatsoever it were, that should be estahlishec 
in the Parliament approaching. 

But first, as for Fecknam's assertion concerning Martyr 
it was undoubtedly a slander, since it appears, by the write 
of his life, that his opinion in that point of the Sacramen 
was not according to the Roman doctrine, while he lived a 
Strasburgh. And the aforesaid Green, who had been i 
scholar at Oxford, while P. Martyr was Professor there 
and the hearer of him, told Fecknam, that he had himsel 
heard the said Professor say often, that he had not, while b 
was a Papist, read Chrysostom upon the tenth chapter of tin 
first Epistle to the Corinthians, nor many other places a 
the Doctors; but when he had read and well considerec 
them, he was contented to yield to those Doctors, having 


it humbled himself in prayer, desiring God to illuminate c H AP. 
n, sod bring him to the true understanding of the Scrip- _ 

Which was in all probability before he left Italy, or Anno v»«. 
ale he remained in Germany among those that professed 
i true doctrine. So that we may conclude him settled in 
it point of the Sacrament before his arrival in England. 
And as to what Parsons hath said, I leave the reader to Abbot sg. 
V George Abbot, afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury, Jj£ p " 1Ml 
10 gives this account of the matter : " Parsons may have 
die luune of a slanderer, who can glose and invent any 
ibing which may serve for his purpose : as, that Peter 
Martyr and Martin Bucer were indented withal, to teach 
H the Parliament should decree : implying, that whatso- 
ever it had been, they must have condescended unto it. 
This lying Jesuit can shew no letter, no act of record, no 
testimony of semblance of truth, to aver this his calumni- 
ation. But the matter indeed was, that the reformers of 
religion here, intending to level all by the line of God's 
word, knew that those two worthy men were so affected 
in all their teachings. And therefore, as also for their ad- 
mirable learning and judgment, they made choice of them 
before all the great clerks which were in Europe. And 
that those who called them hither were not deceived in 
them, the excellent monuments which they left in writing 
jehind them do testify to the world." 

Toward the latter end of this year the great and shame- Sbiring- 
frauds of Sir William Sharington, Knt. a chief officer of jJJJ/SJ 
! King's mint, were discovered. He had in 1547. coined 
tons (a sort of money embased, and under standard) to a 
at sum, without warrant, and contrary to a prohibition 
it unto him. Also, he defrauded the King of clippings 
1 shearings to the sum of 4000/. and above: and to 
ke up the sum in his accounts, made the King's coin the 
trier. And when the monthly books, shewing the doings 
the mint, were brought to him, he used to strike out as 
tcb as he thought good. And that he might do this with- 
l being discovered, he falsified the indentures and writ- 
is which might have charged him. His gain by this 


BOOK means amounted to an unknown sum. For these 

he was clapt up in the Tower: and in February mads a 

Anno 1548. fr^ confession of all, acknowledging himself worthy tf.j 
death, and grievous punishment, and upon his knees with* 
123 most woful heart prayed for mercy. The original of tW 
confession, drawn up by the hand of Sir Thomas Snntiy; 
Secretary, and signed by Sharington himself, and atteitedf 
by certain Privy Counsellors, having been sent to him is 
z. the Tower, I have seen. 
Attainted. In the month of February aforesaid, he was attainted by 
Parliament, and all his estate and lands given to the Cqp 
But the King pardoned him, as to life. This Sharington, to 
assist and abet the treason of the Lord Seimour of Suddy, 
granted the mint at Bristow to be at his commandment* 
Out of which the said Lord designed to receive 10,0001 a 
month, for the payment of ten thousand men of his tenant% 
and servants, and others, which were to be put in arms lor 
his treasonous purpose. 
Hu wealth. Sharington's wealth may be guessed at by a purchase he 
ward's Book made of the King in this second year of his reign for the 
of Sales. gum of 28082. 4*. 10 d. ob. and in consideration of the ex- 
change of woods, land, and tenements in the county of Etv* 
sex, and in performance of King Henry the Eighth's will 
The purchase was all the manors of Awbery, Winterbourn, 
and Charlton, in the county of Wilts, with the appurte- 
nances, lately parcel of the possessions and revenues of the 
college of St Mary and All Saints of Fotheringah, in the 
county of Northampton; and the whole farm called Bar- 
bury Leer, lying in Okeburn ; and divers other lands and 
tenements in the counties of Northamptonshire, Wilts, and 
Gloucester. Nay, and notwithstanding his forfeiture of all 
he had by his attaint, yet it seems he was not so undone? 
but was able soon after to make a great purchase again. 
For in the fourth year of this King, for two great sums of 
money, viz. 4866/. £#. 2d. and 8000/. the said King granted 
him the lordships and manors of Lacock, Beaulieu, Nat- 
ton, Woodre w, Send, Sendrew, Winterbourn, Charlton, Aw- 
bery, Avebury, Catcomb, Ladington, Cote, and Medburn; 




ad the rectory of Lacock, in the county of Wilts, with the CHAP, 
appurtenances, lately the said Sir W. Sharington's ; and di- XVu 
nrs other lands, tenements, and hereditaments in the conn- Anno ims. 
ties of Wilts, Gloucester, Berks, Devon, Somerset, and in 
Bristol; which also lately were the said Sharington's. It 
mms he had money enough still left, to buy again what 
he had forfeited to the crown by his treason. 

Indeed his repentance was looked upon to be sincere :R«towd to 
maomuch that Latymer, in one of his sermons at Court, 
took occasion to commend Sharington for his honest confes- 
sion of his fault. And as he was pardoned and restored in 
Uood by the Parliament in 1549, so he seems to have been 
loon restored to his offices again : for I find that in April 
1550, he, with Sir John Davies, was appointed to receive the 
&i fat payment from the French, according to the articles of 
peace lately made, and to give their acquittance for it And 
soon after he went over to Calais, and there received it 
Near the conclusion of this year, Sir Thomas Seimour,The Admi- 
ij lord Seimour of Sudley, (a manor and castle in Glou. imr,cn,ll8i# 
&*| cestershire, formerly belonging to the abbey of Winchel- 
comb,) uncle to the King, and Lord High Admiral of Eng- 
land, was beheaded on Tower-hill, for affecting the king- 
dom. But whereas it was wont to be much laid to the 
charge of the Duke of Somerset his brother, as a point of 
his weakness, to yield to the taking him off, by whose life 
he might have been the stronger to have withstood his ene- 124 
mies ; and that the quarrel between the brothers was occa- 
sioned by the strife of the two great ladies, their wives, for 
precedency, in which the men themselves became con- 
cerned ; I think they are no better to be esteemed than 
stories raised by the giddy multitude, or by the Duke's ene- 
mies, to impair his credit and reputation. For if we may 
believe the act of attainder, this Lord was so ill a man, 
and his nature so utterly spoiled and corrupted by insolence 
and ambition, that it was not fit he should live in the state. 
For in the first year of the King's reign, he laboured by 
craft and sleight to get the government of the King's person 
from his brother, to whom it was granted by the consent of 

VOL. II. o 


BOOK all the nobles, and himself among the rest And when thit 
f * would not do, soon after he proceeded to more open prao. 
Aon* iM8.tices of tumults and stirs, thinking to make the King ad 
Parliament serve his turn. For he had the confidence II ' 
go to the young King, and moved him to write a letter ftl 
the Parliament with his own hand ; wherein he should d* 
sire them to be good to the Lord Seimour in such suits aol 
matters as he should declare unto them. And to incfim 
the King to do it, he had several about the King's person, hil 
instruments, to help it forward. And this letter lie intends! 
himself to carry to the Lower House, and open the same ia 
the Upper ; and had procured parties in either House is 
forward his purposes ; to make a tumult and sedition botk 
in the Court and the whole realm. And he was heard ts 
say, that " he would make the blackest Parliament du* 
" ever was seen in England." He did also prepare a gnri 
number of men and of weapons ; and he travailed with ths 
most part of the Council to help him to the government of 1 
the King's person. And in the Parliament, by himself, hit 
friends, and servants, he ever laboured to obstruct evcty 
thing that tended to the honour, surety, and benefit of the 
King and his realms. He spread abroad sundry slanders 
touching the King's person, the Lord Protector, and the 
whole state of the Council ; and they so vile, as not fit to be 
TheProtto* When all this was discovered, and come to light, the 
new to? *~g°°d Duke his brother was heartily grieved at it, and ae- 
wards bim. cording to his gentle nature endeavoured by sober counsels 
to reclaim and 'save him, and to bring him to a better con- 
sideration of his duty to God and the King : and laboured 
with the whole Council, and otherwise, to reconcile and re- 
form him, who presently else must have perished in Ida 
folly. And though the Protector then had perfect know- 
ledge of all his attempts and misbehaviour; and though 
the Admiral had said that he would not come at the Lord 
Protector or Council, if they sent for him, or that he would 
not be committed to any ward for his doings by the best et 
them ; yet the Protector used still all good means, 


ing to bis clemency, by persufasion of certain of the Conn- CHAP, 
cil, and otherwise, to frame him to amendment of his ill xv ' 
toorses. And upon consideration of the state of things in Anno ims. 
the realm about the beginning of the King's reign, it was 
thought most meet for the King to pass his doings over 
with silence; and to bridle him with his liberality; and 
» gave him lands to the yearly value of eight hundred 
pound*. And by King Edward's Book of Sales, I observe 
this favour shewn him herein, that though his patent bore 
Arte the 19th of August, yet the time of the issues was 
reckoned from the Michaelmas before. This gift of the 
fing is thus set down: " The lordship, manor and castle, 125 
" and park of Sudeley, in the county of Gloucester, with 
u the appurtenances, lately belonging to the monastery of 
M Wmcheloomb, in the same county, dissolved ; and divers 
" other lands and tenements in the counties of Gloucester, 
w Wilts, Wigorn, Berks, Oxon, Kent, Sussex, Middlesex, 
"Southampton, Stafford, Salop, Denbigh, (where Holt 
" castle stood, of which by and by,) Bricon, Radnor, Essex, 
u Bedford, Somerset, and Karnarvan." 

It was not long he continued quiet, notwithstanding these Pnctiseth 
favours, but began to make a party and confederation, a * a " 1, 
whereof himself would be head ; and got rules and offices 
into his hands, and retained many gentlemen and yeomen 
m his service. Insomuch that he told some of his familiars, 
that he was able to raise ten thousand men. For whose 
wages he devised ten thousand pounds by the month ; 
which monies, by dealing with Sir William Sharington, he 
was to have out of the King's mint at Bristol, as was shewn 
before. He took up money, and ran in debt, owing to the 
said Sharington, almost three thousand pounds. Into that 
strong castle of Holt he put a great quantity of wheat, 
malt, beef, and a great mass of money, for the feeding and 
entertainment of a number of men. And for the blind- 
ing of his doings there, he caused it to l>e bruited as though 
the King were dead. He laboured also with sundry noble- 
men and otliers, to join with him : devising with them, 
how and by what policy they should make themselves strong 



BOOK in their countries, and how they should win the beti 
yeomen, and ringleaders of the common people. Hep** 

Anno 1648. mised favours and benefits very liberally, nay, and gmj 
promise of the King himself in marriage to a 
daughter in the realm. Moreover, he persuaded the 
to take upon him the rule and order of himself, inf 
thereby to take the King into his own hands and 
ment, and so to rule the affairs of the realm ; and 
voured to engender a hatred in the King's heart against hi 
uncle the Protector. But the King, though at that age* 
had the wisdom to resist that motion, and without any ad* 
vice or counsel refused his ill persuasion. He corruptod 
sundry of the privy-chamber to move the King to write let* 
ters according to his and their devices, and to put into til 
head a singular favour and affection toward him, and • 
disposition to follow whatsoever the Admiral would hire 
wrought towards others, the better to compass his traitorous 
Courts the And for further token of his ambition, immediately after 
betii 7 . lXa " King Henry's death he bore an affection towards the Lady 
Elizabeth, the King's daughter, second person in remainder 
of the succession to the crown, and would have married her, 
if he could by any means. But he was stayed by the Lord j 
Marries Protector and other of the Council. Then he married the J 
taurine. relict of King Henry, Queen Katharin Par, whom he mar- : 
ried privately first, and after sued to the King, and the Lord i 
Protector, and the Council, for his preferment to the match j 
with her. Whom nevertheless it was credibly spoken, be { 
holp to her end, to hasten his other purpose, which was still 3 
to marry the Lady Elizabeth. In which resolution be eon- j 
tinued in his said wife's time, while she was alive ; and by j 
sundry secret and crafty means endeavoured the achieving 
since her death. And when the Protector and Council dis- 
suaded him from this, and to forbear his pretended "pur- J 
126 pose, he would defend himself by asking, why he should 
not continue his suit towards the Lady Elizabeth, and did 
secretly and earnestly follow it, and did what he could to 
have married her. 


And all this the Parliament judged to be a traitorous CHAP. 
[ to the crown of the realm, and to be King of the _ 

■t, and an open deed and act, and a false and traitorous Anno imi. 
■■pass and imagination to depose and deprive his M«-JjJ*J^* 
say. For more of his doings still ; he abetted, assisted, mnt to 
■d maintained Sharington in his traitorous frauds. When^'" nmIli 
harington brought in his -false indentures, books, and More of hi* 
eekonings, he took them into his hands and custody, and'" decd> * 
finned, that he had wrong to be committed to prison, and 
ndesrvoured by all means he could to deliver him. So that 
ne may conclude him privy to his cheats, if not a sharer 
herein. The Admiral was also guilty of much oppression 
nd extortion of the King's subjects, using island, and 
ther voyages by sea, and resolved upon revenge towards 
II with whom he was offended, which his own letters and 
ither testimonies made appear. 

If we were minded to rake further into his life, he lived Hi* ill lift, 
hasolutely from his very youth. In the reign of King 
Henry VIII. about the year 1639, or 1540, a lewd woman, 
that bad lived an unclean life, and was condemned with 
■me of her comrades for a robbery, as she went to execu- 
tion, declared that Sir Thomas Seymour had first of all de- 
bauched her. And afterward she took to that unlawful 
morse of life that led her to consort with rogues ; and that 
brought her to her shameful end. Of which Latimer, then 
Bishop of Worcester, bearing, looked ever what would be- 
now of him, and feared that he would come to some bad 
nd. And bo this man fell from evil to worse, and from 
■one to worst of all, rill at length he was made a spec- 
acle to all the world. It was commonly reported of him 
hat he disbelieved the immortality of the soul. And the 
itUe devotion that appeared in him at his death, which we 
fall speak of presently, made this report the more proba- 
kle. The probability whereof appeared also too much in 
lis general neglect of prayer and serving God. For when 
ihe good Queen Katharine his wife had daily prayers be- 
fore and after noon in her house, the Admiral would get 
turn out of the way, and was a contemner of the common 


BOOK prayer. So that the grave father Latimer, ip ape rf fail 
L sermons before King Edward, said, that he was a man the 

Anno 1548. furthest from the fear of God that ever he knew or hsni 
of in England. When he was upon the scaffold, and r&Aj 
to be executed, a passage happened which shewed him Hi; 
of the same turbulent and malicious mind he was of befixv 
and that he had not yet subdued his spirit, and brought it 
to that charitable frame that was proper for dying penoo* 
His pnc- that believe they are going into another world. He had $ 
t2w Protec- great mind to be revenged of his brother, the Lard Protect* 
tor his bro- And though he should be dead, and so could not practi* 
before his himself his ruin, yet he endeavoured to kindle such coals at 
death. might afterwards cause others to do it For when be wm 
ready to lay his head upon the block, he turned to the 
lieutenant's servant, and said to him, that he should bid 
his servant speed the thing that he wot qf. And so imme- 
diately he laid down and died, having received two strokes 
of the axe. But the words he spake happened to be over- 
heard. The Admiral's servant hereupon was taken into ex- 
amination, who confessed that they were two letters which 
127 his master had written in the Tower to the Lady Maiy 
and the Lady Elizabeth, which he had enjoined him to 
His private take his opportunity to deliver. And that he had made his 
letters. p en Q £ t j ie ^ et Q £ a p j nt t j iat he plucked from his hose; 

and made his ink some other way as craftily, and then had 
caused these two papers (which were but of a small quan- 
tity) to be sewed between the sole of a velvet shoe of hia 
And by this means these letters came to light, and fell into 
the hands of the Protector and Council. The contents of 
them tended to this end, that the two sisters should con- 
spire against the Protector, enforcing many matters against 
him, to make these royal ladies jealous of him, as though 
he had, it may be, practised to estrange the King their bro- 
ther from them, or to deprive them of the right of their 
succession. Both these papers Latimer himself saw, and re- 
ported publicly in his fourth sermon before the King, 
though in the last edition of his sermons the passage be left 
out. This retaining of his malice and revenge to the last, 


caade that good old father to My, "that he died very don- chap. 
* geroudy, irksomely, horribly ; and to conclude, that God 

** had him left to himself, and had clean forsaken him. Anno ihi. 
** And then asked the question, What would he have done, 
*if he had lived still that went about that geere, when he 
"had laid his head on the block ? and again, Whether he 
** be saved or no, I leave it to God, but surely he was a 
" wicked man, and the realm is well rid of him.'" And this 
t reverend man said, to justify the Protector and Par- 
t in taking off 1 this seditious man, and to shew what 
a necessity there was of it, which some had thought very 
tfrange, considering Ins quality and relation both to the 
fhtg and the Protector. And therefore thought he was 
too rigorously dealt with. And some, because he seemed to 
<ne boldly, were apt to suppose him to die innocently. 

He that would see more of this man, may have recourse 
to the articles drawn up against him in the Collections to vol. ti ' 
the Bishop of Serum's History of the Reformation. p - ,sa ' 

The Admiral being condemned to die, the Council dealt Onto* for 
gently with him, and sent to him the Bishop of Ely to in-tj'^™" 1 " 
struct and comfort him. By whom the said Admiral made 
certain requests to the Council. Which what they were, 
and the method of his execution, take from an authentic 
MS. extracted, as it seems, out of the Council book. 

« This day, the 17th of March, the Lord Chancellor, 
" and the rest of the Kings Majesty's Council, piretifg in 
" his Highnesses palace of Westminster, heard the report of 
" the Bishop of Ely ; who, by the said Lords, and other of 
" the Council, was sent to instruct and comfort the Lord 
" Admiral. After the hearing whereof, consulting and de- 
" liberating within . themselves of the time most convenient 
" far the execution of the said Lord Admiral, now at- 
" tainted and condemned by the Parliament, they did con- 
** descend and agree, that the said Lord Admiral should be 
** executed the Wednesday next following, between the 
** hours of nine in the forenoon and twelve the same day, 
** upon the TowerbiD, his body and head to be buried 
"within the Tower; the King's writ, as in such cases 


BOOK " heret o fore hath been accustomed, bang first directed ni 
" sent forth for that purpose and effect 

Anno 1648. « Upon this, calling into the council-chamber the Bnhop 

" of Ely, they willed him to declare this their determinate 

" to the said Lord Admiral, and instruct and teach him tht 

128 " best he could to the quiet and patient suffering of jutficQ 

" and to prepare himself to Almighty God. 

" The said Bishop, after he had been with the said Lord 
" Admiral, repairing again to the Court, made report to Mr. 
" Comptroller and Secretary Smith of the Lord Adnrinft 
" requests. The which were, that he required Mr. Lati- 
" mer to come to him; the day of execution to be deferred; 
" certain of his servants to be with him ; his daughter to 
" be with my Lady Duchess of Suffolk to be brought up^ 
" and such like. Touching which requests, the said Lord* 
" and the rest of the Council declared their minds to Mr. 
" Secretary Smith : willing him to write their answer in a 
" letter to the Lieutenant of the Tower, who should shew 
" in all those requests their resolute answer to the said 
" Lord Admiral. The which was done accordingly." 


Of Queen Katharin Parr, and her daughter by ike Lord 
Admiral. That Queen's books of devotions. Some rela- 
tion of her. Priests allowed marriage. Private acts cf 
Parliament. Bills in behalf of the commons. The King 
sells chantries, guilds. Sec. 

The Lady JljlIS wife, Queen Katharin, saw not this heavy hour, dy- 
Mary born ^g m childbed of a daughter named Mary, but a little before. 
Katharin. This high born infant lady, destitute already both of father 

and mother, remained a little while at her uncle the Duke 
Committed of Somerset's house at Sion, and then, according to her fa- 
inrof ttie P " tier's dying request, was conveyed to Grimsthorp in Lin- 
Ducheta of colnshire, where the Duchess of Suffolk lived. There she 

had her governess, who was one Mrs. Aglionby, her nurse, 


wo maids, and other servants agreeable to her high quality, C H AP. 
S tand i ng on her. The Duke upon her going away pro- L_ 

a pension to be settled on her, for the maintenance of Aimo 1648 - 
er and her servants, and that a certain parcel of plate of 
iiver and household stuff, which belonged to her former 
ursery at the Duke's, should b£ applied to her service, 
rhen she went to live with the Duchess : and so Mr. Bartue 
er servant brought her word' from the Duchess of Somerset. 
lie said plate and stuff were, two pots, three goblets, one 
lit, parcel gilt, a maser with a band of silver and parcel 
ih, and eleven spoons ; a quilt for the cradle, three pillows, 
htree feather beds, three quilts, a testor of scarlet embroi- 
lered with a counterpoint of silksay belonging to the same, 
nd curtains of crimson taffeta, two counterpoints of impgery 
or the nurse's bed, six pair of sheets, six fair pieces of 
tangings within the inner chamber, four carpets for win- 129 
lows, ten pieces of hangings of the twelve months within 
be utter chamber, two cushions of cloth of gold, one chair 
if cloth of gold, two wrought stools, a bedstead gilt, with a 
estor and counterpoint, with curtains belonging to the same. 
Bat several months were past, and neither was this plate 
md furniture as yet sent, nor the promised pension settled, 
lor care taken for payment of the governess and servants, 
he whole burden and charge all this while lying upon the 
Duchess of Suffolk, without any satisfaction, which pressing 
ler so hard, and she was none of the wealthiest, made her 
end, in the latter end of August, to the Duchess of Somer- 
et, to urge the performance of what was promised, and to 
Hr. Cecyl, then a servant in the Duke's family, and Master 
if bis Requests, complaining heavily at the constant charge 
lie was at in maintaining the said Lady Mary and all her 
etinue, without any consideration hitherto. " Praying him 
4 to help her at a pinch, (as she expressed it,) all that 
4 he might help: that both governess and all the servants 
'called upon her for their wages ; whose voices her ears, 
w she said, might hardly bear, but her coffers much worse." 

This neglect no question was occasioned by the cares of The quality 
the weightier affairs of state incumbent on the Duke : for I tk^ofthe 


BOOK will not attribute it to his want of concern for his 

*' brother's child, however undeserving he had been. But it 
Anno 1548. was an hard case to put all this trouble upon the Ducfcai 
Mid Du- f Suffolk, w ho, although she were an excellent woman, t 
great professor and patroness of true religion, (entertains^ 
Latymer at Grimesthorp to preach to her family,) of high 
quality, the second wife and relict of Charles Brandon, Dub 
of Suffolk, by whom she had two sons; yet her inoomci 
were much too scanty for her quality, as appears by the 
foresaid letter to Cecyl, dated Aug. 27, which she began ia 
this ingenious manner : 
ThcDacheu « It is said, that the best mean of remedy to the tick, » 
" first plainly to confess and to disclose the disease. Where* 
" fore both for remedy, and again for that my disease is m 
strong that it will not be hidden, I will discover me unto 
you. First, I will, as it were under benedicUe, and in 
high secrecy, declare unto you, that all the world know* 
eth, though I go never so covertly in my net, what a very 
beggar I am. This sickness, as I have said, 1 promise 
you, increaseth mightily upon me; amongst other the 
causes thereof, if you will understand not the least, the 
" Queen's child hath lain and yet doth lie at my house 
" with her company, wholly at my charges, &c Wherefore 
" I cease, and commit me and my sickness to your diligent 
44 care, with my hearty commendations to your wife. At 
" my manor of Grimesthorp, the xxvii. of August 

" Your assured loving friend, 

« K. Suffoulk." 

This Lady I conclude, care was soon after taken about this infant 
jjj^7a" Iftdy' 8 family, and the Duchess's charges, as there was to 
blood. restore her in blood : which was done by act of Parliament, 
1549, under the name of Mary Seimour, daughter of Sir 
130 Thomas Seimour, late Lord Seimour of Sudley : when she 
was restored and enabled in blood, as daughter and heir, 
and heiress to the said Thomas Lord Seimour, and might 
demand, ask, have, hold, and enjoy all and every such ho- 
nours, castles, manors, lordships, &c which at any time 




enafter ahould come, remain, desoend, or revert from any C HAP. 
Bilateral ancestor, &c. And to use and have any action or 

4t, and make her pedigree and conveyance in blood. asAnnoiMS. 
sir, aa well to and from her said father, as also to any other 
fivon in like manner, form, and degree, to all intents, con- 
notions, and purposes, as if the said Thomas Lord Sei- 
lour had never been attainted. I have no more to say of 
lis child, but that she died not long after. 
But I have more to add of that illustrious woman andQ. Kath. 
tueen, her mother. She was a right noble lady, and had ncteu 
one abundance of good things, but yet cared not that they 
bould be known or spoken of. " Such was her modesty, E P . dedic. 
( that she sought nothing less than the fame of her good En g[* h * 
' deeds to be blown abroad. She was of virtuous living paraphrase 
' from her tender years. She was endued with a pregnant up0 n St. 
' wittiness, joined with right wonderful grace of eloquence: Luke " 
4 studiously diligent in acquiring knowledge, as well of 
' ether human disciplines, as also of the holy Scriptures. 

* Of incomparable chastity, which she kept not only from 

* all spot, but from all suspicion, by avoiding all occasions 

* of idleness, and contemning provocations of vain pastimes. 

* Her modesty was coupled with great integrity and inno- 
' cency in all her behaviour. She was mighty studious to 
1 promote the glory of God, and of the holy Gospel. These 

Lialibes moved King Henry to judge her a meet spouse 
' for his Majesty, and to pick her out to be his lawful wife 
' of so many women of nobility and honour, and high worth. 
' When she was Queen, she employed herself days and 
' night* in psalms and contemplative meditations, in lieu 
( of vain courtly pastimes and gaming. And these she her- 
( self set forth in print, for the example of all noble women, 
( and to the ghostly consolation and edifying of all that 
1 read them. By her godly bestowing her time, it ap- 
' peared she little set by the world ; thirsted much after 
' righteousness, carefully sought the kingdom of God, in 
( the midst of a thousand occasions, which otherwise might 
' have withdrawn her high esteem therefrom." As N. Udal 
rrites in his epistle dedicatory to her, while she was King 



BOOK Henry's Queen, before his translation of Erasmus* pm> 
Ia phrase upon St. Luke. She. caused, out of her seal to tfcl 


Anno 1648. Scripture, and her desire to bring in the knowledge of k 
among the common people, that divers, at her great coll 
and charges, should be employed in translating 
paraphrase into English. This she did in King Heary 
Eighth's time, and it seems it was in a manner finished i 
that King's days, and to which he was privy. For UAI 
writ, " he doubted not, but that it was so acceptable to the 
King, that he would not suffer it to lay buried in silenos, 
but would one day cause the said paraphrase thus Eng> 
" lished, to be published and set abroad in print" Hie 
translation of the paraphrase upon St Luke was finished k 
1545. For in that year the epistle dedicatory was writ 
131 Those devotions of this Queen's before mentioned, (where- 
by appeared what little opinion she had of her princely state, 
in comparison with her enjoyment of God, and desire of 
spiritual things,) consisted of psalms and prayers. The 
Her ptaims. psalms were in number fifteen, of good length each, made 
in imitation of David's Psalms ; being digested into vendee: 
zz * whereof many were excerptions out of the book of Psahm, 
and other places of Scripture. Each psalm had its proper 
subject The first was for obtaining remission of sins: 
beginning, " O Lord of lords, God Almighty, great and 
dreadful ; which by thy word hast made heaven, earth, 
the sea, and all things contained in them. 
" Nothing is able to resist thy power : thy mercy is over 
all thy works. 

All things be under thy dominion and rule, both man 
" and beast, and all living creatures. 

" Thou art merciful to whom thou wilt, and hast com- 
" passion on whom it pleascth thee," &c. 

The second psalm also was for remission of sins ; begin- 
ning, " O most mighty God of angels and men, whose 
" judgments be unsearchable, and whose wisdom is pro- 
found and deep : 

Hear the prayers of thy servant, and cast not away the 
" humble suit of thy poor creature and handy work,' 1 &c 






The third psalm was for remission of sins also. The CHAP, 
fourth, a complaint of a penitent sinner, which is sore trou- a 

fated and overcome with sins. The fifth, for obtaining of Anno i64s. 
godly wisdom. The sixth, a Christian man prayeth that 
fat may be healed of God. The seventh, for an order and 
arecbon of good living. The eighth, a Christian man 
prayeth that he may be defended from his enemies. The 
vinth, against enemies. The tenth, when the enemies be 
so cruel that he cannot suffer them. The eleventh, of 
confidence and trust in God. The twelfth, if God defer to 
help long time. The thirteenth, in which he giveth thanks 
to God, that his enemies have not gotten the over-hand of 
him. The fourteenth, in which the goodness of God is 
praised. The fifteenth, of the benefits of God, with thanks 
for the same. To which were subjoined the twenty-first 
psalm, entitled, The Complaint of Christ on the cross, and 
a psalm of thanksgiving; 

Then followed the book of prayers ; entitled, Prayers or And 
Meditations, wherein the mind is stirred patiently to suffer prmjcn * 
aU afflictions here ; to set at nought the vain prosperity of 
this world; and always to longjbr the everlasting felicity . 
Collected out of hoJy-*works by the most virtuous and gra- 
cious Princess Katharine, Queen of England, France, and 
Ireland, an. Dom. 1546. These prayers were all digested, 
as were the psalms abovesaid, into versicles or sentences, and 
contained a great strain of true piety and devotion, sense of 
God, and dependance on him ; and many of them excel- 
lently suited to the Queen's own condition. A part of one 
of these her devout exercises I remember to have read in 
the excellent collections of Dr. Sampson, a London physi- 
cian, deceased, shewing the devout spirit of this lady. 

Then follow two prayers for the King, and for men to 
«ay entering into battle. Which latter I make no doubt the 
Queen composed upon the King's expedition into France 
with a great army, when she was left Regent at home. In 
the said prayer she had this truly pious petition; " Our 132 

cause being now just, and being enforced to enter into 

war and battle, we most humbly beseech thee, O Lord 



BOOK " God of hosts, so to turn the hearts of our enemies to die 
desire of peace, that no Christian blood be spilt ; or ebe, 

I. « 

Anno 1548. " grant, O Lord, that with small effusion of blood, and to 
" the little hurt and damage of innocents, we may to thy 
'" glory obtain victory. And that the wars being soon end. 
" ed, we may all with one heart and mind, knit together fer 
" concord and unity, laud and praise thee," &c. The next 
is a devout prayer to be daily said, together with one or 
two prayers more. 
And her There was also printed another piece of the devout studies 
on Psalm h. of this good Queen, entitled, A goodly Exposition, after At 
manner of a Contemplation, upon the fifty-first Psalm, 
which Hierom of Ferrary made at the latter end of h» 
days. The which, I suppose, this godly woman translated 
into English, beginning, " Wretch that I am, comfortless 
" and forsaken of all men, which have offended both heaven 
" and earth," &c. Then follow in conclusion, other proper 
things very necessary to edify the congregation of Christ: 
as, of faith ; the power of faith ; the work of faith ; good 
works ; the prayer of the prophet Daniel. 
She wm I have met with a passage concerning this. Queen, m the 

be bom to margin of Bale's Centuries, in the possession of a late friend 
a crown. f m i ne a^ noted against her name by an uncertain hand : 
•on of lion- w hich shewed the greatness of her mind, and the quickness 
don, now f her ^t, while she was but a child. Somebody skilled 

deceased. . .. .. .. * i i  * 

in prognostication, casting her nativity, told her, that she 
was born to sit in the highest seat of imperial majesty, hav- 
ing all the eminent stars and planets in her house; which 
she took such notice of, that when her mother used some- 
times to call her to work, she would say, My hands are 
ordained to touch crowns and sceptres, not needles and 
She had The Admiral's marrying of this Queen was laid to his 

the g Lord charge as a point of his high ambition, as was said before, 
Admiral, though it seems by a letter of her own writing from Chelsey, 
soon after her marriage, that she rather courted him, than 
he her: professing, that she loved him when she was the 
Lord Latimer's widow, and before King Henry made her 


hit wife; ad therefore being at first very listless towards CRAP. 

that royal match* XVI - 

But to stay a little longer before we part with this, excel- Anno ims. 
lent lady. The King, when he undertook, in the year 1544, Sb ^ ?"**• 
an expedi t ion in person to France, made her general Regent Henry in hu 

in his absence. In his absence she wrote him a very well expedltion< 
penned letter, declaring her great love and high honour to- 
wards him, and expressing her earnest desire to know of his 
welfare since his departing, and her mighty concern for his 
prosperity and health, which she professed she preferred 
before her own. " She knew, she said, that his Majesty's 
" absence was never without great respects of things ; yet 
"it was her love and affection compelled her to desire 
"his presence: and again, the same zeal and love forced 
" her to be best content with that which was his will and 
" pleasure. And thus love made her in all things to set 
" apart her own commodity and pleasure, to embrace most 
"joyfully his will and pleasure, whom she loved." And so 
aha proceeded throughout her letter with profound reve- 
rence towards him ; as well knowing his lofty humour to 
require it, that she might keep herself in his favour, who 
had been so fickle towards his former Queens. 

In the year 1545, the University of Cambridge addressed 133 
their letters to her by Dr. Smith, (he that was aftenrards^ e J n *£ 
Sir Thomas, the learned Secretary of State to King Edward,) the King 
upon a late act made, that all colleges, chantries, and free J ni t Aity. 
chapels should be in the King's disposition. Which put the 
University in a great fright : and they prayed her to inter- 
cede with the King for their colleges ; which she effectually 
performed. Insomuch that she writ to them in answer, 
" that she had attempted the King for the stay of their 
" possessions : and that notwithstanding his Majesty's pro- 
" perty and interest to them, by virtue of that act of Par- 
" liament, he was, she said, such a patron to good learning, 
" that he would rather advance and erect new occasion 
" thereof, than confound those their colleges. So that learn- 
" ing hereafter might ascribe her very original, as well as 
" conservation and stay unto him. And then in the same 


BOOK " letter, she exhorted them not to hunger after 

" learning, and forget Christianity in the mean timet 



Anno i548.« though the Greek University of Athens were transpoaJ 
l^u*tothe " mto England.. Since their excellency did only atiaa 
Unirenity. " to moral and natural things. But she admonished thaa j 
" so to study those doctrines, that they might serve ai 
towards the attaining and better setting forth of ChntY 
most sacred doctrine. That it might not be laid 
them at the tribunal seat of God, how they were ashamed 
" of Christ's doctrine. That she trusted, that in their sevenl 
vocations they would apply themselves to the sincere a& 
ting it forth, and that they would- conform their sunckj 
gifts, arts, and studies to such end, that Cambridge might 
" be accounted rather an University of divine philosophy, 
" than natural or moral.'" 

King Edward, in his invaluable journal, preserved in the 

Cotton Library, and lately published by the Bishop of S* 

rum, noteth, that the Protector was much offended with 

The Ring this marriage of his brother to the Queen. But howettt 

woos the ^^ 

Queen for displeased he was, the King his nephew was pleased mil 
hu uncle, e^^g}, . willing, perhaps, that he that was so nearly related 
to him being a King, should be advanced to the bed of i 
Queen. And therefore he both wooed for his uncle, recom- 
mending him unto the Queen, and after the marriage wrote 
her a congratulatory letter, which was in answer to one that 
she had sent unto him by the hands of the Lord Admiral 
her new husband. 

To Queen Katharine Par, the King's letter congraUdatory^ 
upon Iter marriage with the Lord Admiral. 

mss. penes " Wee thank you hartely, not onlie for your gentle 
me * " acceptation of our sute moved unto you, but also for your 

" lovinge accomplishing of the same, wherin you have dfr. 
" clared not onlie a desire to gratifie us, but also moved ui 
" to declare the good-will likewise that wee bear to you in 
" all your requests. Wherefore yee shall not nede to feaie 
any grefe to come, or to suspect lake of ayde in nede; 
seeing that he, being mine uncle, is of so good a nature 


** that he will not be troublesome on the means unto you ; CHAP. 

** and I of that minde, that of divers just causes I must fa-. 

tt *or yo«L But even as without cause you merrily re-A* 111015 *** 

"quire help against him, whom you have put in trust with 

* the cariage of these letters ; so maye I merrily retourne 

w the nine request unto you, to provide that he maye live 

"with you alsa without grefe, which hath given him hoely 

a unto you. 

"And I will so provide for you both, that hereafter 134 
u if any greafe befal, I shall be a sufficient socor in your 
"godlie and praisable enterprises. Fare you well, with 
"such encrease of honour and vertue in Christ. From 
u Saincte James, the five and twenty day of June. 

" Edward." 

There is another ingenious letter written in Latin by this Another of 
Cog to this Queen, when he was prince, (wherein he called ^j^" 1 x 
her mother,) upon occasion of a new-year's gift sent by her 
to him at Hertford ; which was the King's picture and hers. 
Which letter is extant in Fuller's History. * 4 * 

After this digression concerning Queen Katharine, let us 
ttturn again to the Parliament now sitting, which we heard 
had attainted two eminent persons. I will briefly touch at 
one thing more done this sessions, relating to the Clergy. 
Which was the making an act for the lawfulness of Priests' An act for 
marriage. But before the bill passed in the house, it was ra amage. 
debated earnestly, and sifted thoroughly in the Convoca- 
tion. And however the Clergy was supposed to be preju- 
diced for the celibacy of Priests, yet, (as we learn from one 
who seems to have been a member in that 'Convocation, or 
at least well acquainted with the transactions of it,) there JohoRogen 
was in the Lower House, of Deans, Archdeacons, Doctors, £n<kd °" 
Heads of colleges, to the number of seventy, that set their speech to 
hands in allowance of the marriage of Priests, (as in the chancellor. 
Convocation the last year were fifty-three voices for it.) 
And most of the Bishops in the Upper House set their hands 
to the taking away the positive laws that prohibited such 
marriage. And hence it became enacted in Parliament 

VOL. II. p 


BOOK There was a bill sent from the Convocation the last year, 
*' that married men might be Priests, said have benefaa 

Anno 1548. Which was read thrice in two days in the Parliament, md 

agreed to, and sent up to the Lords House. Where it laj 

undispatched, by reason that sessions ended within two cr 

three days after it came before them. 

The P»r- This being the second sessions of the Parliament, it begat 

second Nov. 24, and ended not before March 14 ensuing. Besdei 

the public acts then mode, there were these private ones: 
Private An act concerning gavelkind lands in Kent 

***• Acts for the restitution of Sir George Darcy, Franck 

Carew, Edward Charleton, Sir Ralph Buhner^ Henry 
Weston, Ralph Bygot, Thomas Percy. 

An act for the uniting of churches in the city of Lincoln. 
And another act for the uniting of churches in Stamford. 
An act for the erecting a school at St. AlbanY 
An act for the uniting the churches of Ongar and Green- 
sted in Essex. 

An act for the founding of a school at Barkhamsted. 
And another for a school at Stamford. 
Bills pot There was one thing debated in this Parliament, which 
Parliament may deserve to be here related. For the pacifying of the 
fo fit he f tb" P 60 ?^ an( * making the condition of the poor easier against 
poor com- graziers and gentlemen, who enclosed commons, and neg- 
lected tillage, John Hales (that had been lately in a com- 
mission to inquire into enclosures, and then saw and pitied 
the oppression of the poor country people) devised three 
bills to be put into Parliament. Unto which he first made 
many wise men privy. The one was for the re-edifying of 
houses decayed, and for the maintenance of tillage and 
husbandry. The other, for regrating of victuals and other ' 
135 things, wherein one principal point was, that neither graziers 
nor none else should buy any cattle, and sell the same again 
within a certain time. For, as the said Hales had learned, 
and knew of certainty, divers graziers and sheepmasters 
brought both cattle and money to the market ; and if they 
could not sell their own as dear as they listed, they carried 
them home again, and bought all the rest. These two bilk 



first put to the Lords. The first being read was not CHAP. 

* XVI. 

Heed. The second they allowed and augmented, and sent 

down to the Lower House. Where it was so debated, and Anno 1648, 
tawed up and down, and at last committed to such men, 
tmd there so much deferred, that men's affections might 
have been notably discovered. And perhaps, (said 
relating this matter in a writing of his,) he that had 
all this would have said, that the lamb had been com- 
mitted to the wolfs custody. The third bill was set forth 
first in the Lower House, and tended to this end, that every 
that kept in several pasture sheep or beasts, should 
for every hundred sheep that he had above six score, 
two kine ; and for every of these two kine, should rear one 
calf. And for every two kine that he kept beside, more 
than' ten, he should rear one calf. By this means he 
thought and believed, that the nation should not only have 
plenty of beasts, whereof there was wonderful great decay, 
.but also thereby the markets should be replenished with 
milk, butter, and cheese, the common and principal suste- 
nance of the poor. The said Hales had such an opinion of 
tins bill, that he durst have laid his life on it, that if it had 
proceeded, there would have been within five years after 
the execution thereof, such plenty of victuals, and so good 
(heap, as never was in England ; and besides, a great many 
good things ensue, very necessary and profitable for the 
commonwealth of the country. Which neither by the ex- 
ecution of the late commission, nor yet by any positive law 
then in being, could be holpen. But, said Hales, Deme- 
trius and his fellows soon spied whereunto this thing tended. 
There was then, Hold with me> and I will hold with thee. 
Some alleged the opinion of their fathers in time past, (but 
these had been great sheepmasters,) who, when the like bill 
had been propounded, would never consent unto it, but 
and, that when any scarcity of cattle was, a proclamation 
was made that no calves should be killed for a time. Some 
alleged, that men then eat more flesh than they did in time 
past, and that in Lent, and other fasting days heretofore, the 
people eat neither butter, milk, nor cheese, and would have 



BOOK them do so again for policy sake. And thus these rich 
inclosers got the better of this good bill, intended for the [ 
Anno 1648. benefit of the poor. 

The King The King having the guilds or fraternities, chatitrifi, 
tries. ~ colleges, hospitals, &c. given him the last year, hastened to 
sell them, to make up the defects of his treasury, and to 
get ready money for necessary uses. He began to sell da 
last year, and so continued this and the next year, which 
brought in vast sums. What chantries, free chapels, eel- 
leges, &c. were sold this second year of the King, and to 
whom, and for what sums, and lastly, of what value they 
were respectively, I could set down, having extracted then 
zzz from an authentic. MS. of the King's sales, but for avoid- 
ing prolixity I omit them. 

136 CHAP. XVII. 

Books published tMs year. Archbishop Cranmer*s book if 
Unwritten Verities. His notes of traditions. Doctor ' 
Turner against the mass. Crowhfs book in behalf cf 
the poor commons , fyc. 

Cromer's £ OR the conclusion of this year, I shall glance at some 
Unwritten books of remark that issued abroad within the compass of the 
Verities, game. On e wa8 a small tract, entitled, Unwritten Verities. 

It was printed at London, in St. Andrew's parish in the 
Wardrobe, by Thomas Reynold, cum privUegio. This 
book, I make no doubt, was that very book which Archbi- 
shop Cranmer had before penned and printed, if I mistake 
not, in Latin ; which Dr. Richard Smith of Oxford, in the 
beginning of this reign, attempted to confute, and was vin- 
dicated by the Archbishop. This year, for more common 
use, it came forth in English. The drift of it was to prove 
and shew the divine authority of the holy Scriptures, and 
the difference between them and traditions, called Unwrittem 
Verities ; and to enervate these, by declaring the first rise 
and original of them. That as for the holy Scriptures* " It 


" was not lawful to deny any thing they affirmed, nor to CHAP. 
•* affirm any thing which they denied. And that because XVI! ' 



u they were received in the primitive times by assent of Anno 1548. 
u people and clergy, when the people were newly converted 
•* to the faith, and were full of grace and devotion, and 
^when there were blessed Bishops, and blessed Priests, 
M mod others blessed of the Clergy. And the time of the 
authorizing of the New Testament, and gathering it 
together, was the time, he supposed, of the most high 
u and gracious shedding out of the mercy of God into the 
M world, that ever was from the beginning of the world to 
** this day. That after this, by a common speaking among 
M the people, the Bishops and others of the Clergy were 
" called the Church, and under colour of the name Church, 
" in process of time, pretended that they might make ex- 
" positions of Scripture, as the universal Church of Christ 
u And thereupon, when covetousness and pride increased 
u among the Clergy, they expounded, very favourably., di- 
" vers texts of Scripture, to sound to the maintenance of 
" their honour, and power, and riches : and took upon them 
u to affirm, that they were the Church, and might not err; 
" and that Christ and his Apostles had spoken and taught 
" many things that were not expressly in Scripture ; but 
« nevertheless, that the people were as much bound to be- 
u lieve them as the Scripture. Then he proceeded to spe- 
u cify many of these traditions, which the Clergy called 
u unwritten verities, pretending they were left to the world 
"by tradition and revelation of the Apostles. Then he 137 
K briefly confuted the arguments commonly used in behalf 
" of their authority ; and reckoned it concerned princes 
u to look upon these unwritten verities, and upon the 
u Clergy's making laws, and upon their intruding things 
" upon the people to be believed, upon pain of damna- 
u turn." This short but excellent treatise, which is by 
this time almost wholly lost and extinct, I have thought 
fit to take this notice of. The whole tract may be found in 
the Repository. 



BOOK Having met with a volume of Archbishop Cranmeri 
common places, I will here transcribe thence vhat he wrote 

Anno 1548. anc [ collected of these traditions : especiallj because what u 
conedUont t ^ lere written is different from the foresaid book, and con- 
of tiadi- tains other things. 
mss. D. " Traditions not written recited by Tertuttian. Thrt. 
Henrici p. " children should be christened but two times in the year, tf 
p ° D ' 44 Easter and Whitsuntide. That the Bishops should christen 
them. They that should be christened, should be three 
times put in the water, the whole body. That by and by 
after, they should eat milk and honey mixed together. 
That the whole week after, they should not .be washed. 
" To offer yearly, the day of men's death, and of their birth. 
44 Upon the Sunday neither to fast, nor to kneel in prayer: 
" and likewise from Easter to Whitsuntide. To make a 
" cross upon our foreheads. 

" Traditions recited by BasUius. Making a cross upon 
" them that be christened. To turn our faces to the east, 
44 when we pray. Consecrating of oil and water in bap- 
" tism. Unction with oil. To put them that be baptized 
" three times in the water. To renounce the devil and his 
44 angels in baptism. 

44 Other authors rehearse a great number of traditions. 
44 The fast of Lent. To fast Wednesday and Friday. Not 
44 to fast Saturday nor Sunday. That a Bishop should be 
44 consecrated of two or three Bishops, and Priests of one. 
44 A Bishop, Priest, and Deacon shall not meddle with the 
44 business and care of worldly things : and if he do, let him 
be deposed. If a Bishop give orders in another Bishop's 
44 diocese without his licence, he shall be deposed, and also 
he that taketh orders of him. Giving of paa after mass. 
Consecrating of religious men. And a thousand mo tra- 
ditions apostolic there be, if we give credence to St. Denys 
De Ecclesiast. Hierarch. Ignatius, the Canons of the Apo- 
44 sties, Ecclesiastica et Tripartita Historia, Cyprian, Ter- 
44 tullian, Irenseus, with other old ancient authors. And 
44 yet ah infinite number mo, we shall be constrained to 


* receive, if we admit this rule, which St Augustm many CHAP. 

** times repeats, that whatsoever is universally observed, '_^ 

u and not written in the Scripture, nor ordained by general Anno jms. 
u councils, is a tradition coming from the Apostles. As 
u that Bishops have authority to excommunicate all persons 
".that be manifest and obstinate sinners: to admit or reject 
".other Bishops and Curates, presented by princes or pa- 
" trans : to ordain ceremonies to be observed in the Church: 
" to make laws, how to proceed in excommunication, and 
u other laws ecclesiastical : and what punishment is to be 
"given to offenders; and all people being within their 
^jurisdiction, of what state or condition soever they be, be 
" bound to obey them. 

" Reasons. Idem. If traditions apostolic have .the force 138 
" of God's word, so that every one is bound to the observa- 
" uon of them, the Bishop of Rome hath a great advantage 
. " thefeby to establish his primacy : not such a primacy as 
"he hath lately usurped, but such a primacy as he hath 
"had by prerogative from the beginning; that is to say, 
"to be one of the four patriarchs of Christendom, and 
"the chief of all four. And the traditions be the ^hief 
"authors, whereupon Pighius stayeth himself. And fur- 
" thermore, if we admit traditions to be of such authority, 
" it is to be feared that we must resort to the Church of 
" Rome to fetch there our traditions, as of the oldest, and 
" the mother Church. Irenaeus,^d hanc, $c. Cyprian calls 
" Rome, Petri caihedram et eccksiam principalem. Julius 
"writing for Athanasius, &c. Melchiades, and other quota- 
" tions he there mentioneth. 

" The Old Testament was sufficient for the Jews : and 
" is not both the Old and the New sufficient for us ? 

" What things came by traditions from the Apostles, no 
" man can tell certainly : and if we be bound to receive 
" them as articles of our faith, then is our faith uncertain. 
u For we be bound to believe we know not what. 

" Faith must needs be grounded upon God's word. For 
" St Paul saith, Fides ex auditu ; auditus autem per ver- 
" bum Dei.- Ornnis Scriptura divinitus in&pirata. This 

r 4 


BOOR " text St. John ChrysosL Theophylact, Thomas, with 
'*• " other authors, both old and new, do expound plainly * 


Anno 1648. w the words be, that whatsoever truth is necessary to be 
taught for our salvation, or the contrary to be reproved; 
whatsoever is necessary for us to do, and what to forhetf 
and not to do ; all is Completely contained in the Scop 
" ture. So that a man thereby may be perfectly instructed 
" unto all manner of goodness."" This was Archbishop Cns- 
mer's judgment. 
A book of ^8 the last year appeared abroad a Declaration of die 
against the Mass, so about this time, still for the further humiliation 
mass * of that popish service, came forth an Extermination of the 
Mass, made by Dr. William Turner, a physician, about 
this time living in the Duke of Somerset's family, after- 
wards X)ean of Wells, a witty as well as learned man. Tfak 
book was entitled, A new Dialogue, wherein is conteynd 
the examination of the Messe, and of that kind of priest* 
hood which is ordeyned to say Messe, and to offer up Jet 
remission of sin % the body and blood of Christ agayae. 
The names of the speakers in this dialogue are. Mistress 
Missa, Master Knowledge, Master Fremouth, Master Jus- 
tice of Peace, Peter Preco the Cryer, Palemon the Judge, 
Dr. Porphyry, Sir Philip Philargyry. Of which two last 
the former represented a Doctor of the Canon Law, and the 
latter a Doctor of Divinity and Priest, Missa's great friends 
and patrons. Mr. Knowledge describes her abuses, Fre- 
mouth accuses her. Mr. Justice of Peace is hasty to exe* 
cute the law upon Fremouth for speaking against her. 
Afterwards ail apply to Palemon, a wise judge, for his deci- 
sion. And he having at good length fully heard all parties, 
in the end finds Mistress Missa guilty, and pronounceth Us 
judgment against her in these words : " These men, thy ao- 
" cusers, have brought forth sufficient evidence and witness, 
" that thou art not of God ; that thou art contrary and an 
" enemy unto the holy Scriptures, and an idolatress, mak- 
" ing a God of consecrated bread and wine ; and that, to the 
" great injury of Christ's passion, thou offerest up Christ 
139 " again, and, as much as lyeth in thee, kyllest hym a thou- 


* mead tymes in one year. -Wherefore thou hast deserved CHAP, 
"death, and art worthy to be burned. But least thy fathers XV!I * 

*< generation, the Papists, should say, that we are as desyr- Am* ims. 
44 ous of kloud-sheddyng as they were, when they bare the 
u swynge, I oommaund thee in the payne of burnyng to 
"pock thee out of this realm withal thy bag and baggage 

* within these right days, and go to thy father the Pope 

* withal the speed that thou canst, and say, that here is in 
u England no more place for hym, neyther for any of hys 
u generation." And so the book concludes with these words 
of the mass, wherein she laments her case to her friends the 
priests; and prays them to look out some place in the Bible 
for her; which was so extremely difficult to find. 

Help and defend, my good brethren all, 

Which lore doctrine cathedral, 

And do believe unwritten veritie, 

To be as good as Scriptures sincerite. 

Because in the Bible I cannot be found, 

The hereticks would bury me under the ground. 

1 pray you hardly, yf it be possible, 

To get me a place in the great Bible. 

Or else, as I do understand, 

1 shall be banished out of this land ; 

And shall be compiled with sorrow and payne, 

To return to Rome, to my father again. 

Robert Crowley, a stationer, in Ely rents, but a man of A book re- 
letters, and bred up in Oxford, an earnest professor of reli-^^jj^ 
an, and who a year or two after this received orders from liament, in 
Bishop Ridley, wrote a book now complaining of the abuses the poor 
put upon the poor people, both by the clergy and laity ; conMno, »- 
recommending their cause to the Parliament now sitting. It 
was entitled, An Information and Petition against the Op- 
pressors qf the poor Commons of this Realm, Compiled 
imprinted Jbr this only purpose, that among them that 
to do in the Parliament, some godly minded men may 
htfsat take occasion to speak more in the matter than the 
mAor was able to write. Imprinted at London, by John 
Day. Because this book will shew much of the state of this 


BOOR nation at present, and how the people stood affected, 

what most aggrieved them, and the covetousness and op* 



Anno 1648. pressions of the wealthier sort, I shall in some larger mm 
ner represent the contents of it It began, " To the mo* 
" honourable Lords of the Parliament, with the Comma 
" of the same, their most humble and daily orator, Robert 
Crowly, wisheth the assistance of God's holy Spirit "I 
" Among the manifold and most weighty matters, molt 
worthy Counsellors, to be debated and commoned of tt 
this present Parliament, and by the advice, assent, and 
consent thereof speedily to be redressed, I think there k 
" no one thing more needful to be spoken of, than the 
" grievous oppression of the poor by the posaessionen, n 
'* well of the clergy as of the laity. 
140 " No doubt it is needful, and there ought to be a redress 
u bu *?i° J " of many matters of religion. As are these : the use of the 

be rectified * © 

in the " sacraments and ceremonies ; the usurping of tenths to pn- 
er B7- « vate commodity ; the superfluous, unlearned and undis- 

" creet, and vicious ministers of the Church, and their so* 
perstitious and idolatrous administration. Of these things, 
I say, ought there to be a speedy reformation. For they 
are now most like, hastily to bring upon this noble realm 

" the inevitable vengeance of God, if they be not shortly 
reformed. Forasmuch as it hath pleased the almighty 

" and living God to open unto us those abominations, 
which have heretofore been kept secret and hidden from 
us. These things, I say, are yet far out of joint, and 

" have great need to be reformed. For, notwithstanding 
the King's Majesty's late visitation, the ignorant people, 
who have long been fostered and brought up in the su- 
perstition, and wrong belief of these things, and are yet 
no doubt secretly instructed by their blind guides, and 
by them holden still in blindness, will not be persuaded 

" that their forefathers 1 superstition was not the true faith 

" of Christ ; till such as they have continuing among them, 
such preachers as shall be able, and will by the manifest 
Scripture, prove unto them, that, both they and their f*» 

" there were deceived, and knew not how to worship God 




OF ifrNG EDWARD VI. «19 

raright; bnt shamefully seduced by the covetise of the CHA*. 
abepherds and guides, sought him, where he is not; and, 

' when they thought they had been most high in his favour Anno 154S « 
'by doing him so much honour as they thought most ac- 

* ceptable in his sight, then committed they most detest- 
4 able blasphemy, and were abominable before him, &c." 

Be spake next of the abase of Orders. " That they who Orders. 

* received them were not shepherds, but butchers, and 

* came not to feed, but to be fed. That it was not possible 
"to amend this great enormity otherwise, than by reducing 
" the order of choosing of Ministers, unto the order that 
44 was in the primitive Church, whereof is mentioned in the 

u Acts of the Apostles. — Idle bellies may come to the Bi- Acu l 
u shop, and be smeared for money. — They applied them- 
u selves to priesting, because they liked well the idleness of 

* the life." He recommended to the Parliament the con- 
■deration of this matter at the full ; which he doubted not 
die King's Majesty's visitors knew more of, than he could 
be aide to write. 

Then he proceeded to speak of the sacraments, " how The 
M they were still abused ; using them as matters of mer- menU ' 
"ckandise, and chiefly the most worthy memory of our re- 
" demptibn. For that they sell both to the quick and the 
" dead, to the rich and to the poor. None shall receive at 
" their hands, without he will pay the ordinary shot. And 

* so are they ready to serve every man. They looked upon 
" the money only, and nothing upon the mind. Whether 
" it were taken to comfort of conscience, or judgment, they 
"passed not. They told the money, they looked for no 
"more. If they would deny this to be true, let them 
u say, why they suffered the poor to beg to pay for their 
"housel, as they called it. Perchance they would say, 
" that the money was not paid for the sacrament, but 
"for the four offering days. Then ask I, said he, this 
" question, why they appointed not another time to receive 

* it in, than that which was too little to be occupied in de- 
' claring to the people the right use and profit of the sacra- 
4 mcnts, and to instruct them so, that they did not receive 


BOOK " it to their judgment, but to their comfort and quietus 
" of conscience; for which purpose it was first instituted 


Anno4648.«< Undoubtedly they could not deny, but that they ap» 

141 " pointed to receive it then, because they would be ant 

" of it Their doing would declare it, though they abouU 

" " deny it For none might receive the Sacrament, unkai at 

" did first pay the money. And then, with how little rait 

" rence it was ministered and received, every Christian 

" there saw and lamented Wherefore he was certain, 

he said, they had occasion, and could do no leas but seek 
a further redress hereof in this present Parliament . 
The oppres- " And as for the oppression of the poor, which was no 
non , ^** r " less needful to be commoned of and reformed than the 
other, he feared it would be passed over with silence. Or 
" if it were commoned of, he could scarcely trust, that any 
" reformation could be had, unless God did now work in 
" the hearts of the possessioners of this realm, as he did 
" in the primitive Church, when the possessioners were 
" contented, and very willing to sell their possessions, and 
" give the price thereof to be common to all the faithful 
" believers. He would not have any to take him, as though 
he went about by these words to persuade men to make 
all things common. But he would wish, that the 
sioners would consider who gave them their 
" and how they ought to bestow them ; and then he 
" doubted not, it should not need to have all things made 
" common. 

" He protested unto them all, that the same Spirit that 
" sent Jonas to the Ninevites, Daniel to the Babylonians, 
" Nathan to King David, Achior unto Holofernes, Judith 
" unto the priests and elders of the Jews, the prophet to 
" Jeroboam in Bethel, John the Baptist unto Herod, and 
" Christ unto the Jews ; witnessed with his conscience that 
" he renne not unseat For even the same Spirit that said 
" unto Esay, Cry and cease not, and declare unto my people 
" their wickedness, cried also in his conscience, bidding 
" him not to spare to tell the possessioners of this realm, 
" that unless they repented the oppressions wherewith they 



44 vexed the poor commons, and shewed themselves through CRAP. 
a lave to be brothers of one father, and members of one XYfI * 
M body with them, .... and would repent the violence done Anno iS48. 
u to the poor and needy members of Christ, and become as 
"bands ministering unto every member his necessities; 
* they should at the day txf their account be bound hand 
u and foot, and east into utter darkness, where should be 
u weeping, &c 

" He cried out also against leasenumgers, as he called u«t- 
u them, that took grounds by lease, to the intent to let mon S €r,# 
u them out again for double and treble the rent; and 
" against surveyors of lands, that of ten pounds land could 
u make twenty. That they should not be forgotten in the 
K effusion of God's plague. For that, when they had mul- 
" tiplied their rents to the highest, so that they had made 
u all their tenants their slaves, to labour and toil, and bring 
u to them all that might be ploughed and digged out of 
u their grounds, then should death suddenly strike them ; 
" then should God withdraw his comfortable grace from 
"them; then should their consciences prick them, &c. 
M Oh ! noble counsellors, as he added, be merciful to your- 
" selves, destroy not your own souls to enrich your heirs. 
" Enlarge not your earthly possessions with the loss of the 
" eternal inheritance. Learn to know the estate that God 
tf hath called you unto, and to live according to your pro- 142 
a fesskm. Know, that ye are all members in the common- 
" weal, and that the portion which you are born unto, or 
" that your prince gives you, is your estate. Enow, that 
M your office is to distribute, and not to scrape together on 
u heaps. God hath not set you to survey his lands, but to 
" play the stewards in his household of this world, and to 
*? see that your poor fellow servants lack not their neces- 
" series. Consider, that you are but ministers and servants 
" unto the Lord our God, and that you shall render a 
a strait account of your administration. Stand not too 
u much in your own conceit, glorying in the worthiness of 
" your blood. For we are all one man's children, and have 
" by nature like right to the riches and treasures of this 


BOOK " world, whereof our natural father Adam was made lord 
" and king That you are lords and governohs thert- 




Anno 1548. " fore cometh not by nature, but by the ordinance and ap- 
pointment of God. Know then, that he had not called 
you to the wealth and glory of this world, but httfc 
charged you with the great and rude multitude. And if 
any of them perish through your default, know then for 
certainty, that the blood of them shall be required at 
your hands. If the impotent creatures perish for lack of i 
necessaries, you are the murderers : for you have their ! 
" inheritance, and do not minister unto them, &c. 
The aid ef- <« Do not therefore, as he went on, neglect this principal 
prettion. " P*** of your duty, to seek in this Parliament a redress of 
u this great oppression, wherewith the poor members of this 
" noble realm are most unmercifully vexed on every aide. 
" The landlords, for their parts, survey and take the utmost 
" penny of all their grounds ; beside the unreasonable fines 
" and incomes. And he that will not or cannot give all 
" that they demand, shall not enter, be he never so honest, , 
" or stand he in never so great need ; yea, though he hath 
" been an honest, true, faithful, and quiet tenant many 
years. Yet, at the vacation of his copy or indenture, he 
must pay welmost as much as would purchase so much 
ground, or else vend in haste, though he, his wife, and 
children should perish for lack of harbour. What a sea 
" of mischief hath flowed hence ? Honest householders have 
" been made followers of others. And so honest men*s 
" tables and honest matrons brought to the needy rock 
and cards. Men's children, of good hopes in the liberal 
sciences and other honest qualities, (whereof this* realm 
hath great lack,) compelled to fall to some handicrafts, 
as some to day labour, to sustain their parents' decrepit 
age, and miserable poverty. Froward and stubborn chil- 
dren have hereby shaken off the yoke of godly chastise- 
ment, running headlong into all kinds of wickedness, and 
finally garnished gallowtrees. Modest, chaste, and wo- 
" manly virgins, for lack of dowry, have been compelled to 
pass over the days of their youth under great service, or 








" else to marry to perpetual, miserable poverty. Immodest CRAV. 
"and wanton girls have hereby been made asters of the XV11 - 
"bank, [t. e. the bank side, where the stews were,] the Anno ims. 
" stumbling stocks of all frail youth, and finally most mi- 
" wrable creatures, lying and dying in the streets, full of 
" all plagues and penury, &c. 

" On the other side, there be certain tenants, not able to Rawing 
" be landlords, and yet after a sort they counterfeit land- J^ 1 ^? 
"lords by obtaining leases, and upon grounds and tene- othei ; o P- 
"ments, and to raise fines, incomes, and rents; and by 
" such pillage pike out a portion to maintain a proud port ; 143 
" and by pilling and polling the poor commons, that must 
" of necessity seek habitations at their hands, &c. For the 
^ I " truth of this he reported him to the Lord Mayor, and 

" other head officers of London, who could witness with Uraai in 
" him, that the most part, yea, he thought nine of the ten on ° 
" parts of the houses in London, were set and let by them 
"that had them by lease, and not by the owners. How 
" they polled the poor tenants would be tried, if their leases 
" were conferred with their rent rolls." 

He went afterward to the great extortion and usury that Extortion, 
reigned in the realm, and seemed to be authorized by Par- 
liament within these three years last past. . " The Clergy The Clergy 
"of the city of London had for their parts obtained by tent ^ r " 
"Parliament authority to over-tenths, ever after the ex- 
" ample of the landlords and leasemongers, and might by 
" virtue of the act require for double rents, double tenths. 
" If the rent of any kind of housing or ground within the city 
" of London were raised, as there was indeed very much 
" from ten shillings to twenty shillings ; then might the par- 
" son, who had before but 16 d. ob. by virtue of this act de- 
" mand 9,8. 9d. the double. Besides this, the exactions they 
" took of the poor commons was so much beyond all reason 
" and conscience. No couple could be married, but these 
u men must have a duty, as they called it. No woman 
" might be purified, but they and their idle ministers must 
" have some duties of her. None could be buried, but they , 
" would have a fleece." An instance of which he brings in, 


BOOK that it was not three months before the begiaung of the 
present Parliament, he had just occasion to be at the pap- 



Anno 1648. ment of this duty, for the burying of an honest poor 

whose friends were willing to have his body reverently bit 
in the ground ; and according to the custom he gave warn* 
ing to the Curate, that they should bring the dead body.!*; 
the church, desiring him that he would do his duty, and tfr 
be there to receive it, and according to the custom to lay it 
in the ground. " But this raven, said he, smelling the en* 
" rion, could not but reveal it to the other carrion birds of 
" the same church, and so would needs come all together is- 
" a. flock to fetch their prey, with cross and holy water, •* 
" they were wont to do, notwithstanding the King's injmxv 
" tions, and late visitation. The friends of the dead refuted 
all this, and required to have no more but the canuas* : 
coffin to put the body in ; agreeing to pay to the' keeper i 
thereof his accustomed duty, and in like manner to the 
grave-maker, and the four poor men to carry the body* 
" So that the whole charges had been but seven pence; 
" But when the corps was buried without either cross or 
" holy water, styck, dirige y or mass, with prayers of •» 
" small devotion as any poor Curate could say, yet mafe 
we needs pay seven pence more ; that is to say, one penny 
to the Curate, which he called an head-penny, and six 
pence to three clerks that we had no need of." This was 
done in Sepulchre's parish in the city of London. " This' 
he wrote, as he said, addressing to the worthy counsel- 
lors of Parliament, to give them an occasion to set such* 
an order in this and such other things, that either they 
might have Ministers found upon the tenths that they 
paid yearly to the churches; or else that it might be 
" lawful for them to do such ministries themselves : and' 
144 " not to be thus constrained to feed a sort of carrion crows, 
" which were never so merry as when other lamented the 
u loss of their friends." 
Urary. This for the extortion of the Clergy. Then he paaped 

" to the intolerable usury, which at that day reigned freely 
" in the realm over all ; and especially in London. That it 




* was taken for most lawful stain: vfe, that it was almost CHAP. 


" heresy to reprove it For men said, it was allowed by 

tt Parliament. Well, said he, the most part, I am sure, of Anno 1S48 « 
u this most godly assembly and Parliament do know, that 
tf die occasion of the act that passed here concerning usury, 
•was the insatiable desires of the usurers : who could not 
* be contented with usury, unless it were unreasonable 
u much. To restrain this greedy desire of theirs therefore, 
tt it was oommoned and agreed upon, and by the authority 
" of Parliament decreed, that none should take above 10/. 
"by year for the loan of a 100/. Alas! that ever any 
f "Christian assembly should be so void of God's holy 
; "Spirit, that they should allow for lawful, any thing that 
> "God's word forbiddeth* Be not abashed, most worthy 
" Counsellors, to call this act into question again. Scan the 
" words of the Psalmist concerning this matter, Who shall 
" enter into thy tabernacle, <$*c. He that hath not given his 

" money unto usury How can you suffer this act to 

" stand, which shall be a witness against you in the latter 
" day, that you allow that which God's Spirit forbiddeth, 
" Luke vi. Do ye lend, looking Jbr no gam thereof, and 
"your reward shall be plenteous, &c. 

"And so wishing them, in the conclusion, the same The coocia- 
u spirit that in the primitive Church gave unto the multi- J^ k of the 
" tude of believers one heart and one mind, to esteem no- 
" thing of this world their own ; ministering unto every 

" one according to his necessities And this reform- 

" ation had, no doubt, the majesty of God should so appear 
" in all their decrees, that none so wicked a creature should 
" be found so bold as once to open his mouth against the 

" order they should take in all matters of religion But 

w if they let these things pass, and regarded them not, he 
" bade them be sure the Lord should confound their wis- 
" dom : invent, decree, establish, and authorize what they 
u could, all should come to nought. The ways that they 
" should invent to establish unity and concord should be 
" the occasions of discord : the things whereby they should 
" think to win praise through all the world, should turn to 



BOOK « their utter shame, and the ways they should invent to 
" establish a kingdom, should be the utter subversion of the 


Mhu> ims. « gaa^^ 

Another Another small treatise came forth, and writ (as it 
the Praise *° me ) f° T ^e use of the same Parliament, and for the 
of .uch at intent with the former. It was entitled, The praise mi 
Common- commendation of such as sought commonwealth ; amd ft 
^forth.^ contrary, the end and discommendation of such ft 
sought private wealths, gathered both out qf ike Seriptw* 
and Philosophers. It was printed by Anth. Scoloker, dwell- 
ing in the Savoy Rents. This discourse is chiefly levelled 
against the covetousness and self-seeking of the age, which 
then so much prevailed. In the forefront of this discourse 
is set a moral saying of Epicurus : " If a man having goods 
u in abundance do not repute it sufficient, he is but • 
" wretch and a caitiff, although he were lord over the whole 
" world." Then followed this sentence ; " Four things foi- 
145 "low covetousness. I. Unsatiableness, being never con- 
u tented. II. Scarceness of all things among the commons. 
" III. Deceit among the people. And IV. The desire of 
<c worldly honour." The book begins thus : 

" Aristotle, in the first book of Politics, the tenth chap- 
" ter, saith, how that divers men esteem riches to be no* 
" thing but only a heap or quantity of gold and silver. 
" And it is great folly either to think or say the same. For 
" the philosopher saith, that and if the course of gold and 
" silver were restrained, that then it should no more be 
" profitable to commonwealths, neither yet to those things 
" that are needful to man's life. For many times it may 
" chance to him, which hath abundance of gold and silver, 
" to perish for lack of food." And after some lines, " We 
" see in these days men so given to unsatiable covetousness 
" in procuring their own private wealths, that the common- 
" wealth decayeth, and no man looketh to it We are com- 
" manded to love God above all, and our neighbour as our- 
" selves. But how do we love our neighbours as ourselves, 
when we put them out of their houses, and lay their 
goods in the streets?" And then soon after, reproving the 




son of the Gospel for this fault, adds, * Who in these CHAP. 

s are such oppressors, such graziers, [turning arable 1_ 

I into pasture,] such shepherds, [keeping sheep instead A** lMf • 
doughing for the setting poor men on work,] such en- 
oers of rents, such takers of incomes, as are those 
eh profess the Gospel ? What is this but to speak 
of that good name of Christ, after whom we are 

ted Christians? Would to God that in these days 

i would be as careful for their poor brethren, as they 

for their dogs. We see the city of London can of the London 

imberiainY cost provide an house to keep twenty or th f p^ r . 
ty dogs, and to give ten pounds a year for one to 
p them. But they will not allow ten pence by year 
of the chamber towards the finding of the poor. . But 
poor artificers must bear part and part alike to the 
C extremity that can be invented, as lately appeared 
lie Common Council. By hearsay, there is a good 
i yearly coming into the chamber of London : and no 
i knoweth how it is spent but the gray cloaks, [ser- 
ts to the Court of Aldermen, and such like.] Yet 
there not be a poor spring fet two flight shot out of 
city [to supply the city with water] but the poor am- 
is must bear part thereof. I trust within twenty years 
l will make suit to be Mayors of the City, &c. [Glanc- 
at the benefits and advantages the Mayors in those 
es looked at to make of that office.] 

Ve have now no Samuels, which will ask the commons, Bribery too 
mg, Have I taken any marts ox or ass t If I have 
e any man violence or wrong, if I have oppressed any 
i 9 ifl have received a gift of any maris hand, and 
t it secret, I will restore it you again. And the people 
I, No. We have none of these. Neither Daniels nor 
seus's, to deny gifts. But we have plenty of Gehazi's 
JI places to receive ; God defend them from their lepro- 

I dare not write for offending ; but this dare I 

te, that if divers officers within this realm should 
w their accounts from year to year, how they have 
ten their goods, as merchants may do, it should be 



BOOK " found that there were no marvel, though the King's 1fa» 
** " jesty lacked money, and the poor commons complsm* 

Anno 1648. Hereby may plainly be seen the great vice of this ag* 
14b gQ immeasurable affectation of wealth in the superior sot 
of men, which led them to divers ill practices, to the at 
poverishing of the commons, and, I may add, of the "Bag 
Crowley's I will mention yet another book that came abroad this 
ofShLton^yw; and this was in the behalf of religion, set forth by 
Articles. Crowley aforesaid. It was a confutation of the thirteen ar- 
ticles, whereunto Nic. Shaxton, late Bishop of Salisbury, 
subscribed, and caused to be set forth in print in the yetr 
1546, when he recanted in Smithfield, at the burning of 
Mrs. Anne Ascue. Printed by Day and Seres. In thb 
book were contained these several pieces. I. Certain mat- 
ters sent by Mr. Shaxton to his wife : they were counsels to 
her for chastity, now he was to be divorced from her. II. A 
letter sent him by the inhabitants of Hadley, where he had 
been Minister : whence he had been sent for up. At what 1 
time he told his people upon his parting, his resolution to per- 
sist in the acknowledgment of the truth, whatever became of 
him. His parishioners in this letter severely charge him for 
his inconstancy. III. His submission to King Henry, when 
he recanted. IV. His opinion in the Sacrament before his 
recantation, which was right and orthodox. Writ by him- 
self to the popish Bishops. V. His thirteen articles, con- 
taining the sum of the popish doctrine, by him confessed, 
subscribed, and put in print ; together with the confutation 
of them by Crowley : which makes the bulk of the book. 
And before all these is the said Crowley's epistle to Shax- 
BaiedeVi- The first edition of John Bale's most elaborate and 
bus. "* "" highly valuable book of the writers of Britain came forth 
this year in quarto. Printed at Ipswich, by John Overton, 
pridie col. Augusti. The author dedicated his book to 
King Edward : who in the title-page is represented sitting 
on his throne, and Bale upon his knees offering him his 
book, his tutor Cheke standing by at a curtain. 


To this I add another book in quarto of a foreigner; c *** p - 
dedicated this year also to the King, in a long epistle 

dated from Hamburgh. The author was Johannes JSpinus, AmD0 1M$ ? 
The subjects of his book were, De purgatorio 9 ^^Hf^^^aono, 
4kmibuSj remiss ions cuiparum et pcmtB, &c This JSpinus &*• 
Ms chief Minister of the Church of Hamburgh, and was 
wit twelve years before as envoy from Hamburgh into 
England to King Henry upon matters of religion. 

And lastly, Gratulatio Buceri ad Ecclcsiam JngUcanamVaeeAQm- 
de Retigionis Christi restitution*. Et ejusdem Responsio 
mi duo* Stephani Vmtonitnsis Episcopi epistolas 9 4to. 
Which answer of Bucer to Winchester was also this year 
put into English : and Bradford mentioneth it in a letter to 

The Lady Elizabeth's translation of a meditation of the Lriy Eib»- 

. beth'tbook. 

soul concerning love towards God and his Christ, must not 
here be forgotten : compiled in French by the late Mar- 
garet Queen of Navar. Printed in 8vo. and afterwards re- 
by H. Denham. 

Richard Bonner, Priest, a man of the same name with 5°*|J iert 


that bloody Bishop, but of better principles, set forth a 
treatise this year of the right worshipping of Christ in the 
flttrament of bread and wine, when it is ministered with 
thanksgiving in the holy Supper. Printed for Gualter 
Lyn, 8vo. 

CHAP. XVIII. 147 % 

Proclamations fir regulation of sundry abuses in the 
realm : as, about gold and silver coins. The Kings bands 
of soldiers not filed. News, disparaging the Kings af- 
fairs. The teston. Enclosures^ fyc. The Lord Protector 
loses himself with the nobility. The Lady Mary required 
to use the Common Prayer , established by law. Dr. Hop- 
ton her Chaplain. 

TAnno 1549. 
HE King's gold was now much conveyed out of theonkna- 

kingdom, occasioned, it may be, by the wars in Bulloyn ; t™?* **5 

Q o 


BOOK and especially the old coins of rials, (as they were 
** angels, half angels, crowns of the rose, and others of 

Anno 154 e. or like standard; and also sovereigns, half sovereigns, 
other of the King's new coin of gold. The King's gold 
carried away in such quantities, that it was sensibly felt, 
the great disfurnishing of the realm. Which obliged 
King to send forth a proclamation, bearing date April % 
forbidding that any man should convey it away, whole * 
broken, upon pain of imprisonment, and other pains sal 
forfeitures, as were by the law appointed. By virtue of thii 
proclamation other abuses, concerning the King's gold sal 
other coins, were provided against As, a change was gif» 
that none should buy or sell the abovesaid gold for otto 
price, than according as they were valued and appointed lw 
the proclamation, viz. 

The angel of gold at 

The half angel — 

The old rial — 

The new sovereign — 

The half sovereign — 

The crown «— - 

And if any should buy or sell the said pieces at above 
that price, he should forfeit the said coins so bought or 
sold, and besides ten times the value thereof, and suffer ist 

And a practice of goldsmiths and merchants was also by 
this proclamation forbid. Which was to buy and sell the 
King's coin at higher prices than it was by the King's pro* 
clamation rated and valued at And so to cull and try oat 
the finest and heaviest, and melt them down, or otherwise* 
make gain upon them; leaving the lightest and less fine 
only to be current; to the impairing the King's money, de- 
frauding the subjects, and disfurnishing and slandering the 
mints. For the prevention of this, it was the King's will 
and pleasure, that the old law, statutes, and customs of the 
realm in this case should be put in ure and execution. 
148 This proclamation also took notice, how persons beyond 
sea had of late attempted to counterfeit testons, shillings, 






4 10 






And other 


groats, and other the King's coin of silver, and in great CHAP, 
multitudes brought them into the realm. Such counter- XV1IL 

fciterewere to forfeit their lives and lands, goods and Anno i*4». 

A gross deceit was now discovered among the King's mi- Abates in 
fitary officers and soldiers, which he kept in constant pay, ^!^° st 
the numbers of the bands not being filled, though the 
King's full pay was allowed. And this abuse was especially 
m the counties of Northumberland, Cumberland, and West- 
norland, and other places of the borders. The captains of By the cap- 
the light horsemen were chiefly guilty of this fraud ; who ' 
had not so much before their eyes their duty towards their 
sovereign Lord and country, nor yet their own surety, as 4 
vile mind and filthy respect of their own gain. For they 
not only polled their soldiers without shame or dread, but 
diminished their numbers appointed to serve under them ; 
saving that for a colour at the muster-day, they procured 
some to supply the void places. And by pattishment with 
unmeet and unserviceable men for less wages than the King 
allowed, they did in such sort disguise their numbers, as in 
a manner the third part of the numbers, which the King ap- 
pointed and paid for, was not ready, able, or sufficiently fur- 
nished to do that service that was looked for; to the deceit 
of his Majesty, and the no less danger of the King's true 
subjects and soldiers, as upon the confidence of the aid of 
such light horsemen, to join with them at any encounter 
with the enemy, should find themselves deceived and aban- 
doned. And as the captains did thus, so the soldiers, tak-By the sol- 
ing example and boldness from them, provided not them- 
selves of horse or harness meet to serve withal ; and when 
they were commanded to set forth towards any place of 
service, repaired not thither together, but sometimes more 
than the half part remained behind. And if they went,' 
stuck not to return home by small companies, without 
leave, with several preys and booties, more by them sought, 
than doing service. And which was worse, at any approach 
or affronture of the enemy, without order or respect of 
abiding by the standard, they used commonly upon every 

a 4 


BOOK little moment, or causeless, to begin the flight, betraying; 
their fellows; who through such their flying lost 

Anno 1549. that assured advantage of victory, which with their tarrymg 
they might have been partakers of. And if so be thejl 
tarried, they did it not so much for discharge of their pro- 
fession of service, as only for desire of spoil and pillage 
And this pillage they sought not so much upon their eqe- 
mies, as rather upon the King's own subjects or friends, 
namely, the assured Scotchmen : whose goods and cattle di- 
vers of those light horsemen of Northumberland and otben 
of the borders had lately spoiled and robbed ; as by sunebjt 
complaints of such assured men was well known. TMl 
gross want of good discipline was in the King's militia. 
Redress For the remedying of which, the King, April 6, issued 

prodama- out a strict proclamation. The captains were commanded 
tion - henceforth not to fail to have in readiness their whole and 

entire number without diminishment in any part, and with* 
out defalcation of any part of the wages so allowed to every 
light horse ; and that they failed not to have their bands 
complete always, as in an hour's warning to be given them 
1 49 by the commissaries : and that none of the captains, or any. 
light horsemen of the bands, at any road or other invasion 
of the enemies' grounds, or defence of the borders, should 
dare to depart from the standard, or otherwise forsake or 
scatter from the rest of the army or company ; nor to for- 
sake or depart from any fortress, to the guard whereof they 
should be appointed, unless they should have express com- 
mandment And finally, to forbear henceforth to commit 
any spoils or pillages upon any of the assured Scotchmen 
their goods, lands, or cattle, which had been received into 
his Majesty's protection. And likewise, that they forbore 
from the embezzling or pilfering of horses, -geldings, har- 
ness, weapons, or any other thing, pertaining to any other 
soldier serving his Majesty in the wars, whereby the service 
of the party robbed might be hindered. And that no cap- 
tain or soldier sell, give, or exchange, or by any fraud find 
means to set out on purpose, any horses to be taken and 
come into the possession of any Scotchman, or other stranger* 


j. being his Majesty's enemy. And if any soldier placed in CHAP, 
tgurrison with any of his Majesty's pieces, shall, before dis- xvln * 

charge of the captain, leave his watch or ward to the danger Anno iM9. 
rd the loss of the piece, his Majesty doth and will order, 
tbat the offender shall incur the danger and pain of death. 

About this very time did many disaffected persons raise P u P ar *s- 
aeficious reports of great overthrows and losses, to the dis-^oid of the 
paragement of the King, his fortresses, captains and sol^^"^" 
diers in the north parts, and beyond the seas; and of dan- false, 
gen relating to his Majesty's other affairs : whereby they 
gave occasion to strangers to write into distant countries 
inch tales for news, to the great dishonour of the King; 
being most false and untrue. This caused the King to set 
ftrth a proclamation, bearing date April 29, to all Justices, 
and other officers, to give all diligence to seize all such 
sowers and tellers abroad of vain and forged tales and lies. 
And every such author or maker of false tales or news, to 
be committed into the galleys, there to row in chains, as a 
•lave or forsary, during the King's pleasure. 

The te*ton was a very common piece of current coin The teston 
under King Henry VIII. and in these times of King Ed- money ' 
ward. It was a sort of coarsermoney, or under standard, 
coined at first by the said King Henry, with his face 
»d stamp, and went for twelve pence. Vast quantities of 
diem* were coined abroad, and brought into England; and 
tbey more than other pieces for the greatness and facility 
of counterfeiting them. The counterfeiters were for the 
most part strangers, dwelling in foreign parts, who found 
means to convey hither privily, and disperse the said coun- 
terfeit pieces abroad in the King's dominions. But all tes- 
toiis were by a proclamation the last year put down, so that 
none should be taken after the last of December, in the 
second year of the King, but as bullion. But by another 
proclamation in January they were prolonged for some 
time, by reason of the great numbers erf these testons dis- 
persed in so many hands; besides, many in policy, hard 
upon the day, made whole payments in the said coin ; and 
especially for that those that had plenty of other money 


BOOK took unreasonable allowance of the poorer tort (which wot 
most to be relieved) for the exchange of their testons. fie 

Anno 1649. that much detriment might ensue to the possessors of] 
them, unless a remedy, by prolonging of the term then t^ 
150 pointed for their calling in, were provided. 'Upon whirik' 
considerations the King thought good to prolong the tent 
to the first of May : and so the teston to continue till thea 
for current money. 

They an On May £& another proclamation came forth for the 
own ' annihilating of testons : importing, that the King had pro* 
longed the term of allowing them for current money, is wee 
shewed before, upon trust, that in that space every mea 
helping in their way, all manner of the said testons of As 
stamp of the late King should have been brought into the 
mint and exchanged. But that many had kept them still 
in their hands, abusing his Majesty's clemency, and fewer 
si thence that time, till of late, had been brought into the mint 
Which testons, if they should remain only mere bullion, 
would be great loss and hinderance to the subject ; and if 
they should still remain, would be greatest loss and hinder- 
ance to the realm. Therefore they were now to be cried 
down, and never hereafter taken for current money. Yet 
the King of his princely clemency and liberality was con- 
tent, that such sums of money as should be due to him, u 
well for relief granted in the last session of Parliament, a* 
for all other rents and debts, might be paid in good and 
lawful testons before the first of June next, and so received 
of his treasurers after the rate and value of twelve pence : 
and after that for the space and time of two months, that i* 
until the last of July, the King was content to receive the* 
testons at the mint for bullion, after the rate of twelve 
pence the piece. And moreover, it should be lawful foi 
any person to buy testons, with intent to bring them to the 
mint, so that he buy them for no less price than eleven 
pence halfpenny the piece. Upon pain that whosoevet 
should buy any such pieces for his own greedy lucre, undei 
that value, to the damage of the poor men, who should seli 
the same, should forfeit those testons, and ten times the 


nine. And for that price the mints were ordered to re- CHAP, 
love them. * 

J About the month of May, the King, to prevent the dis- Anno ,M9 - 
guts that might arise amongst his commons, and to stop^ 1 ^!* 
Mirrections now foreseen, issued out his proclamation °* ***** 
sgainst decay of houses, (for husbandmen, ploughmen, and 
flnch like,) of commons, and lawful enclosures, contrary to 
good and wholesome laws heretofore made. The King did 
therefore command such offences to be amended, and to 
ledress all faults committed against those acts, and against 
the benefit of the commonwealth. And for the better per- 
formance of the same, that all his offices to whom it did ap- 
pertain to see the same redressed, should receive inform- 
ations, make inquiry, and earnestly endeavour to see redress 
sod punishment of all such offenders. 

But many of the King's subjects took occasion hence to Routs and 
ran into great disorder, or pretended to take occasion so to^^ en . 
do. For they riotously with routs and companies, with clotures. 
sword and violence, of their own heads and authority, as- 
sembled themselves in many places, plucked down men's 
hedges, disparked their parks; and being led by furious 
and light guides of uproars, taking upon them the direction 
of things, the King's royal power and sword not regarded, 
committed such enormities and offences, as they justly me- 
rited the loss of life, lands, and goods. But at length they 
were brought humbly to submit themselves, and beg pardon. 
Whereupon the King by a proclamation, dated June the 
12th, pardoned diem: looking upon this outrage (as the 151 
laid proclamation set forth) as done rather of folly, and p * rdoned# 
mktaking of his former proclamation, and at the instigation 
ud motion of certain lewd and seditious persons, than of 
any malice or ill-will that they bare to the King or quiet of 
the realm : excepting such persons as were apprehended and 
already in prison, as heads of the said outrage and routs. 
But this rage of the commons had gotten too great a head 
to be allayed by this clemency of the Prince, as it proved 
not long afterwards in many parts of England, as may be 
read at large in our historians. 


BOOK * All provisions this summer grew very dear, and the prig 
of victuals so enhanced above the accustomed value, fl 
Anno 1 649. this without ground or reasonable cause, as thereby gre 
^^f loss and danger, without speedy remedy, must happen*' 
proruion. the subject Therefore the King resolved to take sol 
remedy herein ; and especially being backed with the 1 
thority of former good statutes, and particularly two hmJ 
in 25 of Henry VIII. The effect of the latter when 
was, that the Lord Treasurer, the Lord Chancellor, si 
divers others of the King's great officers there mention 
should have power and authority, from time to time, tot 
and tax reasonable prices on all kind, of victuals, how th 
should be sold in gross or by retail, for relief of the Kinf 
subjects. And that after such prices be set, proclamati 
should be made under the great seal of the said prkx 
And that all farmers and other victuallers should seB i 
kind of victuals according as they should be taxed by ti 
said proclamation, upon certain pains and penalties. 1 
pursuance of this and other acts, the Lord Treasurer, m 
Lord Qhancellor, and others, set and taxed reasonable prie 
upon all kinds of victuals ; and the King confirmed the sti 
with his proclamation dated July 2. Which taxation wi 
after this manner : 

From Midsummer to Hallowmas. 

Every ox being primed and well stricken of the largest 
bone ...... ..88 

Of a meaner sort ...... 8f 

An ox fat and of the largest bone - - 41 

Of the meaner sort, being fat - - . - - 8J 

Steers or runts being primed or well stricken and large 
of bone -.-.....ft 

Of a meaner sort ...... 1( 

Being fat of the largest bone ... . 2i 

Being fat of a meaner sort ..... 2] 

Heifers and kine being primed and well stricken and 
large of bone -----.. 1< 

Of a meaner sort ...... 18*. 4 


Bang fat and huge of bone .... .- 88*. CHAF. 

Being fat and of a meaner sort .... 18*. XYIIL 

From Hallowmas to Christmas. Aim im*. 

Every ox being fat and large of bone - - 46*. 8d 
Bong fat of a meaner sort .... 89*. Sd. 

Steers and runts being fat and large of bone - 96s. 8<L 
Being fat of a meaner sort .... 88*. 8<L 

Heifers and kine being fat and laige of bone - - 88*152 
Of a meaner sort ....... 19*. 

From Christmas to Shrovetide. 
Every ox being fat and large of bone - - 48*. 4dL 
Of a meaner sort ...... 41*. 4dL 

Steers and runts being fat and large of bone - 88*. 4<L 
Of a meaner sort - . - - . - 84*. 4<L 

From shearing time to Michaelmas. 
Every wether being a shear-sheep, lean and large of 

bone .. - -. - - ..8*.. 
Of a meaner sort ------ 2*. 4dL 

Being fat and large of bone ..... 4*. 

Being fat of a meaner sort - - - - 8*. 

Ewes being lean and large of bone - - - 2*. 

Being lean of a meaner sort .... 80d. 

Being fat and large of bone . - - * . 8*. 

From Michaelmas to Shrovetide. 
Every wether being a shear-sheep, lean and large of 

bone --------- 8#. 

Being lean of a meaner sort - - - - is. 4d. 

Being fat and large of bone - - - 4*. 4dL 

Being fat of meaner sort - - * - -8*. 4dL 

And besides these, bacon, butter, cheese were rated. 
And all farmers, graziers, and others that had cattle at 
corn, were bound to bring a certain number and quantity 
of them to the market 

The Lord Protector had by this* time much lost himself The Pro- 
among the nobility and gentry. For, being of a gentle and himself 
good nature, he loved and pitied the poorer sort, too much ^ r tbc 


BOOK oppressed by the rich, and particularly by that covetous 
** practice of enclosures, whereby the cattle of the poor wm 

Abbo 1549. shut out of their ancient benefit of feeding in commons; by 
means of which their children and families were half mafaw 
tained. Which made the Protector somewhat sharp upon 
those of the higher rank and quality. He began also is 
grow too big for the rest of the nobles : so that there no* 
was but a thin Court and a thin Council-table. Of thb 
his friend Sir William Paget took notice, and wrote him 
letters of good counsel concerning it last Christmas, telling 
him the evil that would follow. And so indeed it fell oat 
this summer, as we shall see in due place. This behavionr 
of the Protector was so well observed, that a Spaniard be- 
ing now in England, made this witty, but malicious relation 
of it, when he came home, that he saw the Protector ride 
upon a fair goodly horse, but he trembled. And that be 
was so strong and big made, that he carried both his Grace 
and all the King's Council at once upon his bade : meaning, 
that there was no King's Council in effect but himself only. 
So that the Protector had now procured himself many for- 
midable enemies, as we shall hear ere long. 
X53 In June, the Protector and Council sent to the Lady 
TbeConncil Mary (knowing how averse she was thereunto) to conform 
L^Mnry to King Ed ward's laws, and to observe in her family the new 
to m* the Book of Common Prayer, now by Parliament commanded, 

Common J J , 

Pnyer. the use whereof to commence at and from Pentecost; ana 
also to send unto them her Comptroller and Dr. Hopton 

Herantwer.her Chaplain. But she in her answer, dated June ££, from 
Kenning-hall, refused to do either, saying, " she could not 
" spare her Comptroller, and her Chaplain had been sick. 
a She told them moreover, that the law made by Parlia- 
" ment [meaning the law lately made for ratifying and en* 
" joining the Common Prayer Book] was not worthy the 
" name of a law. That King Henry's executors were sworn 
" to his laws. That her house was her flock. That she 
" deferred her obedience to the King's laws, till he were of 
" sufficient years. That she was subject to none of the 
" Council," and the like, which gave great offence. 





. Dr. Hopton at length came before the Council. And to CH 
them he professed he allowed the Communion Book. And xv 
despatching him back to the Lady Mary, they bade him Anno 
declare this his conscience to her; and giving at large their J^h 
answers to the several parts of her letter, to deliver them lain b 
to her, (which answers of the Council are preserved in Fox,) theC * 
they sent him away. And this was the order they sent Mon. 
with him. p" 1 

" After due commendations unto your Grace, the same The < 
u may by these presents understand, that we have heard JjJ t0 
" your Chaplain, Dr. Hopton, and in like manner informed mss. 
" him for the declaration of such things as we have in- e ^ 
Cf structed him to utter unto you, whom we require your 
" Grace to credit therein accordingly. Thus we pray 

God conserve your Grace in health. From Richmond, 

July 7, 1549. 

" E. Somerset T. Cant. R. Ryche, Cane. W. S. John. 
u J. Warwyck. A. Wyngfield. W. Petre S. A. Denny. 
"E. North. R.Sadleyr." 

See more of these matters between the Council and the 
Lady Mary under the next year. 




Tike realm in Hi terms with Scotland and France. Paget $ 
embassy to the Emperor. A match propounded Jbr the 
Lady Mary. The Emperor intercedes Jbr her liberty in 

X HE English nation continued still in hostility with Scot- The F 
land, and in little better understanding with France. And* 1 ^ 
France, according to her custom, backed Scotland. Where 
Mons. de Termes arrived this summer from the French 
King, bringing with him the number of five hundred foot- 154 
men and an hundred horsemen : no great force, especially 
considering that far greater forces were expected to have 


BOOR been sent this year; for these were like to go but a little 
! * way in resisting the power of England. But the truth wn, 

Aouo 1549. the French were loath to spare men at this time, the E» 
peror,his enemy, being sick, and like to die. And theFreoct, 
w)io came now over with De Termes, had plainly confesn^ 
upon question asked, wherefore no greater aid was sent, art- 
ing such preparation for the war was reported to be made 
in France ; that it was true the French King had great* 
numbers in readiness, but because the Emperor was sickly, 
and unlike to continue long in life, (being laid up with l 
great fit of the gout, out of which yet he escaped,) that fiqg. 
kept his forces together, thinking that whensoever God 
should dispose of the Emperor, he should be able to <h 
great feats, and almost what he listed that way. 

indiequeth The English took from the Scots this year the island rf 

the Scots; Inchequeth, by the conduct of Cotton ; and being in graft 
towardness for the fortification thereof, it so chanced thtt 
our ships, and in them many of the soldiers appointed to 
• attend the said Cotton at Inchequeth, were departed from 
the island for the doing of another exploit ; when the Scot! 
and Frenchmen, having notice of the departure of our 
ships with the men in them, taking the advantage of some 
negligence used on our behalf, and having also prepared 
for this matter before, came with their galleys, and as many 
other ships and boats as they could make, and approached 
the island, and after some resistance, in the end, distressed 

And re- our men and took the island, with such ordnance as wis 

planted upon the same. 
The English During the Emperor's sickness mentioned before, there 
Emperor of was great practising in the beginning of this year between 
F«nch the French and the Germans. Which the English Court 

practices. ° 

understanding, out of friendship and gratitude to the Em- 
peror, who had before sent informations hither of practices 
against us, thought fit to give him notice of it by Hoby, 
ambassador ledger there. Which the Council thus ex- 
pressed in their letters to him, dated from Greenwich, May 5. 
Gaiba,B.i«:" That forasmuch as the Emperor divers times had very 
" gently and friendly advertised the King's Majesty of such 


pwcticei as. bad been attempted against hit country, or CHAP. 
nydF his fortresses or pieces, wherein the King's Ma- 

M jesty had taken great pleasure and comfort; they thought Anno lM * 

a it to be their parts, and the duty of mutual amity, to 

" signify all such things to his Majesty, which might peracU 

" venture be any danger to his person, or to the surety of 

u the Prince of Spain [bis son] and the house of Burgundy: 

" with whom the King's Majesty and his ancestors had so 

" long sure amity. And therefore, where they were cer- 

" tainly advertised, that the French King had great intek 

"hgence and conference with princes and noblemen about 

" the river of Elve and the Weser Holste, and the country 

"there adjoining about the sea; insomuch that where the 

M King's Majesty had intended to have transported by that 

" country a certain number of footmen and some horsemen 

" by the sea, there had been such practices partly by the 

" Rhinegrave, and by others, that not only they had been 

w let of coming that way, but that they did perceive to be 

"almost continual posting and riding to and fro of French 

"gentlemen. Who did practise with such captains and 

" noblemen as were thereabouts, to draw them to be not 155 

" content with the Emperor. Insomuch that it was not kept 

" secret, that they had gotten to the number of twenty-two 

" thousand foot and three thousand horse. Which were 

" ready at all times, expecting but the warning, to be 

" amassed for the French attempt, the which the French 

" King intended to put forth, if any thing should chance 

" otherwise but well to the Emperor ; daily expecting and 

" looking for his death. Upon which opportunity he would 

" give the attempt." 

This advice the Council required the ambassador, " tak- 
ing convenient time and opportunity, to shew and report 
to the Emperor, or Monsieur Arras, [one of his chief 
counsellors,] with gentle declaration of the good will of 
the King and his Council towards his Majesty ; to the 
intent he might not be ignorant thereof, and might order 
that such practices and dangers might be occurred and 
" met withal in convenient time." After this friendly man- 




„ooi «.«<■** M_ Mf M* *. En*™.* 

keep him the faster to her, while she had France and Scot- 

Anno 1549. land her enemies. 

**&****?* Considering therefore the present state of England, witk 
to the Em- respect to her enemies, both before and behind her, the 
peror * King and his Council thought it their interest to court the 
Emperor. To him they sent this summer (besides Hobj, 
resident at the Court) Sir William Paget, Comptroller of the 
King's household, a man who, as he was well learned, so as 
well exercised in embassies, and well seen in matters of state. 
Whose business was to renew and make fast the amity with 
the Emperor, which had been made formerly between hia 
and the King's father. And to make a proposition of mar- 
riage for the Lady Mary, the King's sister, with the Infant 
of Portugal, nephew, I think, to the Emperor : a thing com- 
mon in these times in all treaties almost, to strengthen the* 
with matches. By this embassy with the Emperor, the 
English Court intended to learn perfectly how he stood 
affected to this nation, and to get him to assist it in the de- 
fence of Boloign, now severely threatened by the French* 
and, if possible, to engage him into war with France. And 
it was a part of the ambassador's instructions to ofler to 
join with the Emperor in a common invasion of that king- 
The causes Th e g^d ambassador arrived at Brussels, June 19; *nd 

of his em- i * ^ i >■ «n * • J I 

bassj. two days after sent to Granvela, the Emperor 8 ancient ana , 
chief counsellor, signifying that he was come from the King 
of England, desiring to know when he should wait upon 
the Emperor, to open, on his Majesty's behalf, certain things 
unto him. With which message, in many obliging words, 
he promised to acquaint the Emperor presently. And the 
same day in the afternoon, Monsieur Chattony, GranveTs 
son, came to visit him on the Emperor's and his father's be- 
half. Paget, at his admission to the Emperor, (together with 
Hoby, the other ambassador,) acquainted his Majesty, that 
he was sent to travail to establish and confirm the amity 
between him and the King his master, by such means as \ 
should be thought good for both parties ; and the rather «* 


this time, when the prince his aoo w» there in those eoun- CHAP, 
tries, to whom, as they thought, he meant to leave his XIX * 

countries and dominions, so they doubted not he would Anno 1 849. 
make him inheritor of his amity and alliance. A second 
cause of his coming was to communicate unto him the estate 
of the King's affairs with the Scots, their common enemies; 156 
and also the French, .the Emperor's dissembled friend, and 
their enemies. And a third cause was to treat, if he so 
thought good, upon a matter of marriage, which chanced 
to come in communication, as the ambassador said, upon 
occasion of devising ways for the increase and augmentation 
of this amity. 

The Emperor's subjects had traffic with Scotland at this 
tune, who conveyed over commodities thither, and the Em- 
peror had granted safe conduct to them. The ambassador 
on this occasion desired the Emperor to give order to stay 
the safe conducts that were given out to his subjects to traffic 
thither; and also to grant his consent, that his subjects taken 
beyond Berwic iiTtheir voyage towards Scotland might be 
lawfully stayed by the English, and their goods taken as 
forfeits. Whereby the Scots wanting this continual relief 
and assistance might be sooner brought to some reason. 

" And, sir," said the ambassador to the Emperor, Thttmbtt- 
" whereas in the wars with the Scots, the French have by ^ e g^ 
u sundry means endeavoured to impeach our proceedings peror h ^ i 
w there, and also dealt on this side very unfriendly andtweentfc* 
w unneighbourly towards us, the King's Majesty, loath to|j)2^ alld 
" continue in this faint sort of friendship, and desirous to 
" know their meaning herein, sent lately a gentleman of his 
" to the French King, desiring to know what he intended 
" by this unfriendly sort of dealing. For if he thought, 
" as by the proceedings of his ministers he seemed to mean, 
u to break with his Majesty, and to enter into open hostility, 
" albeit he was not desirous of war, he required that, like a 
" prince of honour, he would notify unto us the same, and 
" he should be answered accordingly. For after this sort 
" to be used, his Majesty neither could nor would endure. 
" And that he looked by the same messenger to receive re- - 



BOOK " solute answer. Whereupon the French dig alleged, 
" that these piques had been ministered by ministers upon 

Anno IM9." the frontiers; and affirmed that he meant nothing ks 
" than to break with us, but rather to continue peace and 
" amity, yea, and to augment it : and also offered unto the 
" said gentleman to appoint commissioners to meet with 
" my master's, both for the relief of these quarrels, and the 
" establishment, if need were, of a further friendship, or to 
" do any other reasonable thing that might serve for that 
" purpose. Which offer, being so aptly moved on the 
" French part, his Grace the Lord Protector, (as the anv 
" bassador proceeded in his speech to the Emperor,) with 
" the advice of the rest of the Council, remembering that 
" the English had now this eight years, and four of them 
" alone without other help, continued in wars both againat 
" Scotland and the French King, (who was a prince of great 
" power, having to do no where else,) had thought good not 
" to refuse ; and hereupon had appointed commissioners to 
" meet with the French. But that they should not con- 
clude any thing prejudicial to the treaties that were or 
should be passed between the Emperor and the King his 
master. Neither should they proceed to any resolute 
conclusion, but the Emperor should have knowledge 
" thereof. 1 " 
Tk« Em- i»jj e Emperor made a very courteous, obliging answer in 
anawtr; general, in agreeableness to the ambassador's message: and 
particularly spake favourably of the Protector, saying, " I 
157 " know I cannot want my Lord Protector's good further- 
ance, who is my friend and old acquaintance, and hath 
heretofore been with me, when I have right well perceived 
his good affection towards mine estate and proceedings. 
" Which I shall not forget to requite as I may* j 

And Gran- Granvela spake more particularly and at large to the 
™ ** ambassador, of the good affection the Emperor bore to 
King Edward : and that he was moved the rather to owe 
the Kings Majesty this fatherly love, not only for theaaty 
that he always found in King Henry until his latter day* 
but also, because it liked him at the hour of Ins death to 





will the King his son to follow his friendship, and join with CHAP. 
the same, who, he affirmed in very deed, should find him a 

father, whensoever cause should require. Then speaking Anno 1549. 
of the Infant of Portugal, said, he was about forty years of The \**j 
?, brother to the King of Portugal. As for his personage, match. 

good wit, and qualities, he assured the ambassador, he was 
• gentleman worthy to be matched with any great princess; 
the good will the Emperor bare to him, whom he 
as his son: and affirming, that there was not in 
Christendom so meet a match as would be between these 
twain. " And I promise you, said the ambassador, for our 
u part, that the Lady Mary is, as I suppose you know well 
M enough, in beauty, virtue, and honest qualities, nothing 
u inferior to that worthiness ye report this gentleman Don 
u Louis of Portugal to be of. And on the other side, she 
" is sister to a King of England, and near kin to the Em- 
u perar, and one whom I guess his Majesty favoureth as a 
u daughter of his." When Granvela asked, What think ye 
to bestow on her? for I would be loath to come empty 
handed to the Emperor ; and therefore I pray you descend 
to some particulars : the ambassador said, she had a goodly 
yearly revenue left to her by the King deceased. Which 
Granvela making light of, the ambassador told him, that 
the King her father, at what time he was of very great 
riches, married his two sisters, the one to the French King 
with 200,000 crowns, and the other to the Scotch King with 
an 100,000 crowns. And I pray you, added the ambas- 
smIot, what did the King of Romans offer with his daughter 
far the King my master P Yea, said he, King Ferdinando is 
but a poor prince. But the King your master, being so 
rich and puissant, cannot but distribute liberally with his 
aster, and according to his honour. For his father did offer 
once with her to this same man 40,000/. sterling. Yea, sir, 
replied the ambassador, my master is, as you know, and 
hath been long time, in wars, and hath had occasion to be 
it great charges and expenses of money. However, in case 
the Infant may assure this lady a convenable dower, we will 
not let to stretch ourselves to twice as much as her father 



BOOK left her by his testament, peradventure to an 100,000 
l ' crowns. All this I extract from Paget's letter to the Pro. 

Anno 1549. teCtOT. 

<^Jted*' As to this match ^^ rmtx V^ Ae Council had before. 

to bjhtr. hand sent to the Lady Mary for her consent to move it; 
and she had sent them a letter signifying her allowance of 
it She had also sent the Council a letter, by her drawl 
up, to be presented to the Emperor. Which the Coundi 
in their next letters sent open to Paget to peruse, and afar 
to seal, endorse, and deliver. 

Dciibera- This mutual league against France, it seemed the Ea- 

inviwion of peror would stand well disposed to, because France had 

France - lately invaded his countries, and made great spoil then 
And therefore upon Paget's motion in his late letters, it- 
was deliberated in the Council, whether it should be an ar- 
ticle in this amity to invade France jointly, (as indeed it 
was put in his instructions,) seeing it was probable the Em- 
peror would and must do it the next year ; or rather wholly 
to omit the mention thereof; it seeming best to leave them- 
selves at liberty, and not to in tangle the nation in wars, whence 
it might be difficult to get out again, when it should be 
weary of them. Of this and other, things now in hand with 

Gaiba,B.i9.the Emperor, more light may be let in by a letter of the 
said ambassador, dated the last day of June, to the Lord 
Protector; and the answer given by the Council. The 
former may be found in the Cotton library, and both that 
bb. cc. and the other in the Repository. Whereby also appetn* 
that the Council varied also in another particular of their 

Boioign a instructions given to Paget, namely, about Boloign : for the 
defence of which, together with the rest of the King's forts* 
the Emperor's assistance was required. Which article the 
Council was now determined to omit, having considered the 
vast trouble and charges that place, with the memben 
thereof, had cost the King, and still was like to do, the be* 
nefit not answerable. And therefore the King was now 
minded to relinquish it to the French upon reasonable re- 
compence. Yet I find it was urged afterward by the am- 



Wbethsr.tbe propositions of the English ambassador OBAPt 
rf thmt import, that they required much time to deli- 

berate on them, or some other matter were the cause, but *■*> 1 * 4 * 
the 'Emperor was alow in giving his answer. For it wasT^^d?^ 
sot before July Jtt, that D'Arras came to Paget'* lodgings, the unb»- 
excused himself that he came not before to him with 

the Emperor's answer, having been busied, as he said, in 
smmiug the towns of Brabant to the Prince erf Spain. But 
he prayed the ambassador to take patience (seeing him 
somewhat hot at this delay) until his coming to Bruges, 
where he said he should be despatched without faiL But 
Paget at this, seeing himself only fed with fair words, could 
not keep patience, but entering somewhat into choler, an- 
swered him, " I am here now at the Emperor's will andwhokc* 
" commandment, and he may stay me as long as it liketh them*. 
M him, and despatch me when he list ; but were I once at 
" home, I know that neither the King's Majesty would send 
u me hither, nor I for my part, to win an 100,000 crowns, 
" would came again about any like matter, considering how 
"coldly ye have hitherto proceeded. And surely I am 
u sony, that either you should judge me so void of wit, that 
" I could not perceive wbereunto this childish excuse tend- 
" eth, or occasion me to suppose you so much without con- 
" skleration, as to think I would be brought to believe, that 
" the swearing of the Prince and his receiving into these 
" towns, could be any delay to the answering of those things 
" that I am now come hither for : a matter easy enough 
" to be perceived of such as never had any experience of 
" the world. For who can think that the Emperor would 
" have brought his son hither to be sworn and received of 
" his subjects, without having before concluded and deter- 
" mined the whole circumstance thereof with the estates 
" here ? or, can the occupation therein be such, and so con- 
" tinual, as he hath no time to answer to four or five points 
" proponed to him almost now five weeks past F 1 Hereunto 
D'Arras very coldly answered, that in truth the cause of 
his [the ambassador's] stay, whatsoever he thought, was 1 59. 
only such as he had shewed him: and therefore prayed 


BOOK him not to conceive any other opinion. " For I assure you,* 
L added he, " the Emperor beareth the King his good btr> 
Anno 1549. u ther as mueh affection as if he were his son; and would 
" gladly aid and assist him in all things to the utfeermoit 
" that he may conveniently. But," said he, " these mattcn 
" are weighty, and require to be answered unto with dck- 
" beratum." 
Emperor*! A few days after, Mobs, d' Arras, accompanied with tot 
w>awcr< presidents of the Emperor's council, S. Maurice and Vij 
litis, gave this answer to our ambassadors, "That albdl 
<* the Emperor thought, the King, being under age, could 
M not himself, by the order of the law, conclude upon say 
"thing now in his minority, that should be of due strength 
" and force, able to bind him and his country, when he 
u should come to his perfect age ; yet taking that his to- 
." tors, being authorized thereto by the common consent of 
u the Parliament, might go through and conclude upon 
" these, or like things, in his name, he thought it would do 
" well, when his [the Emperor's] subjects should be recotn- 
" pensed for the wrongs they had hitherto sustained : and 
" that some order might be devised for the administration 
" of justice hereafter in like cases. 

" That as touching the confirmation of the treaty that 
" was first made between the Emperor and King Henry 
" VIII. and not ratified by the present King, the Emperor 
u thought that he had most cause to require the same. 
" Wherefore, because he thought that what the King himself 
" should conclude upon, during his minority, could not be 
" of sufficient force, but if his tutors should be by authority 
" of Parliament enabled thereto, the Emperor was content 
the treaty should be confirmed by them in the King's name, 
and by the Prince of Spain, in such form as should be 
thought best by both parties. 

As to the comprehension of Boloign, that they had a 

treaty with France as well as with England ; which die 

Emperor could not, without some touch of his honour, 

" break without just ground. And albeit his Majesty would 

" be loath to see the King, his good brother, forego either 




that pieoa* or any jot of his right, yet could he not enter CHAP, 
this defence, unless he should break with France out of XIX ' 

- hand, which in respect of his other affidrs he could not Am* im*. 
' yet do- Howbett he would gladly assist his good brother 
'm any other thing the best he might: and would not fail 
L to shew him all the pleasure he could with regard to his 
1 honour. But with Boloign he could not meddle at that 

Here DP Arras staying, Paget asked him, whether thatTowMdi 
the Emperor's resolute and full answer? Which when,^,. re . 

PArraa had affirmed, Paget proceeded, " That albeit he P ,iei - 
1 had no commission to make any reply, because it was not 
' known to the Lord Protector what the Emperor's resolu- 
' tion should be, yet in way of talk he would be bold to 
1 say his mind herein. We have, Mons. d'Arras, said he, 
1 always esteemed the Emperor's friendship, and desired 
1 the o b ser va tion of the treaties, and the entertainment of 
'amity, as a thing necessary and common to both the 
'parties, for the better establishment thereof; and that 

* now and in this time some good fruit, to the benefit of 
' both, might appear to the world to follow of the same, I 

* was sent hither, which was the chiefest cause of my com- 

* ing. And because the amity betwixt both princes might 

4 be the firmer, and that all doubts being taken away, no l6o 

* cause of quarrel should be left, we thought best to put 
4 you in mind of the confirmation and revisitation of the 
4 treaty, to the intent that by the one the world might see 
4 an establishment of our friendship by overt deed ; and 
4 that by the other, one of us might understand another, 
4 and consider, whether any thing were to be added for the 
1 commodity of both parties. Which I suppose standeth 
1 you as much upon to desire, as it doth us. 

" And whereas you say, that the King's Majesty, be- The power 
1 cause he is under age, cannot conclude or go through |J[ £* j^* 
' with any thing that shall be of sufficient force, I must nority, 
; needs tell you plainly, that you touch his Majesty's ho-* hewvda 

nour over near herein. For we think that the majesty of 
is of such efficacy, that he hath even the same 


BOOK " authority and full power at the first hour of his birth 
1 " that he hath thirty years after. And what your laws art 






Anno 1549. " I know not, but sure I am, that by our laws, whatsoever 
" is done by the King in his minority, or by his ministers it 
" his name, is of no less force and strength, than if it fcai 
" been done in time of his full age and years. If once the 
" great seal of the realm hath passed, there is no remedy,' 
but need must he stand thereto. Marry, let the nripistfit 
take heed what they do, and look that they be able ts 
discharge themselves towards him of their doings, if hi 
shall require account of them, when he cometh to *gi 
" For it is they must answer him, but he must stand 19 
whatsoever they have counselled him to agree unto dhtf 
ing his minority. And to prove that our laws give hni : 
the same authority now, that he shall have when he cosa* 
eth to bis perfect age, if any man, either fat the instruct 
" tion of learning, or any other cause, should presume to 
lay hands upon, or touch his Majesty, in way of com& 
tion, he should by the law be taken as a traitor. And if 
« the matter were as ye take it, we should be then in a 
" strange and evil case. For neither might we conclude 
" peace, league, or treaty, nor make laws, acts, or statutes, 
" during the King's minority, which should be of sufficient 
" force to bind him and his to the observation of the same. 
" But ye mistake the matter much. And therefore, if the 
" Emperor mindeth to proceed to confirmation, he may, or 
" otherwise do, as it shall please him." 

Then did the ambassador descend to the other matters. 
As to answer a complaint of the Emperor for lack of justice 
in his subjects' causes. To which he said, " That there 
" had not any man complained in our country, and re- 
" quired justice, to whom the same had been denied. And 
" that although some men, abiding the order of the Eng- 
lish laws, or having some sentence that pleased them not, 
complained thither of delay or lack of justice, they were 
not therefore by and by to judge that they said true, or 
" that there was not uprightness or equity used in our 
country. For as the Emperor had in those his countries, 






» the English had in theirs, ministers that were wise CHAP, 
id well learned in the laws, and men of honesty and XLX * 

nod conscience, who dealt and proceeded justly, as the Ann* ims. 
rder of the laws led them, without respect to favour or 
iendship of any man." 

lut the complaints of one of the Emperor's subjects was The cueof 
icularly incumbent upon the ambassador now to M-w^j^SJ* 
r: whose case D' Arras had especially urged. It was t0 »Je*«i- 
aeming a jeweller, that had gotten a safe conduct ofpeA^fsnb- 
g Henry VIII. to bring into England certain jewels J e ^ 
which he had the said King's band and seal: but be- 
te he had it not sealed also with the great seal of Eng- 
I, his jewels were taken from him : and he not present, 
bough it were so named in his sentence, being then 
1,) was condemned to lose them by order of our law. 
ich sentence D* Arras had aggravated to have been con- 
y to all equity and justice. And that it seemed very 
age to him, that when the King's hand and seal ap- 
ed to be sufficient for greater matters, it sufficed not 
i less : and when the treaties provided, that the subjects 
ae prince might frankly without impediment traffic and 
ipy in the other prince's country. But to shade the 
ter, one, he could not tell who, had been agreed withal, 
so the poor- man and his heirs put from their right, 
fefore, said D' Arras, the Emperor thought it were meet, 
ver any further order, should be concluded upon, that 
subjects were first recompensed of those wrongs they 
sustained, and the matter brought to some end, and 
Emperor's people put in as good case as the King's 
5. For he assured him their wrongs were many. As to 
natter of the jeweller, thus did the ambassador answer ; 
hat as they there had laws in their country for the di- Answered 
ction of their commonwealth, so we had also in ours : bL«adorT~ 
lereby among the rest were forbidden, for good re- 
acts, the bringing or transporting forth certain things 
tbout the King's safe conduct and licence. And al- 
mgh the treaty gave liberty to the subjects of either' 
nee to traffic into the other's country, it was not, for 



BOOK u all that, meant hereby, that they should not be bound to 
" observe the laws or orders of the country whereunto they 

Au» 1649. « trafficked. For this liberty was only granted for the i* 
" curity of their persons to go and come without impeach- 
" ment, and made not men, for all that, lawless. And 
" whereas further it was provided by our law, that in cer- 
" tain things to be granted by the King, the same gnat 
" must pass under the great seal, if any of those thmp 
" pass under any other seal, they be not of due fast 
" until they have also passed the great seal of England. 
" Wherefore, added he, if the jeweller, either by negji- 
" gence or covetousness, of himself, or those he put ia 
44 trust, did not observe this order, but, for sparing a Htik 
44 cost, did presume to bring in his jewels before his lionet 
44 came to the broad seal, methinks, neither he nor any 
44 other can have just cause to say, that he was wronged, if 
44 according to our laws he were censured to lose the aame. 
44 And yet after he was thus condemned," the ambassador 
proceeded, " more to gratify the Emperor, than for that I 
44 took it to be reasonable, I myself was a suitor to My 
44 Lord Protector's Grace for some recompence to be made 
44 the jeweller's wife, whom we knew, and none other, to be 
44 party. For she followed the suit ; she presented the pe- ' 
44 titions; in her name were they made, and finally die, 
44 and none other, was by the Emperor's ambassador cotn- 
44 mended unto us. D* Arras said, he had seen the sentence, 
and did mislike nothing so much therein, as that the man 
was condemned, and named to have been present, at the 
44 time of his condemnation, when indeed he was dead a 
44 good while before. He was present," said the ambassador, 
44 in the person of his wife, who was his procurator, and re- 
44 presented himself." 
l62 And continuing his speech the more to clear this matter, 
44 He knew, he said, that those before whom this matter 
44 passed were men both learned and of good conscience, and 
44 such as would not have done herein any thing against 
44 right and order of the law. And finally, that the sen- 
44 tences given in our country by the justice and ministers 



u there, were just and true. And that therefore they nei- CH At. 
" ther could nor would revoke them for any man's pic- XIX * 

" Bare, after they had once passed the higher courts, from Anno ims. 
u whence there was no further appellation, no more than 
u they there would call back such final order, as had been 
" in any case taken by their high court of Brabant" 

And whereas the Emperor had declined comprehending The Empe- 
Boloign into the treaty, the ambassador said, " That if the^'ifBol 
r u same should happen to be taken from the King by force, **>§» *"• 
- " which he trusted it should not, the loss would be com- 
" mon, and touch the Emperor almost as near as us. And 
"therefore it was that he thought good, for the better 
* surety thereof, to move this comprehension ; which was as 
" necessary for the Emperor as it was for the King. And 
M whereas, as he added, they stuck so much upon their ho- 
" nours in breaking their treaties with the French, he re- 
" membered, he said, Monsieur Granvela, at his late being 
" with him, did not let to say, that he had his sleeve full 
w of quarrels against the French, whensoever the Emperor 
" list to break with them. D' Arras replied, they had so hv 
"deed; but the time was not yet come; and that they 
" must temporize their things in this case, as the rest of 
" their affairs led them.'" 

With this faint answer Paget came home from his em- Paget gets 
bassy, leaving Sir Philip Hoby behind, resident, as he was Jq 1 ^^. 
before. But though he succeeded not, he got great reputa- peroft 
don in the Emperor's Court, and was spoken of very ho- 
nourably, being gone. And Hoby wrote to the Protector, 
that he was grateful generally to all that Court, a few 
of England's back friends only excepted, who mistrusted 
much, lest he had compassed somewhat to their disadvan- 
tage. And the rather they were driven to conceive this 
opinion, because his entertainment had been such, and so 
respectful, as well with the Emperor as his Council. And 
he was so generally commended and well reported of by all, 
and the fame of his prudent handling himself so spread 
abroad every where, as they could not but think, but that 
of such toward likelihood some great effect must needs fol- 


BOOK low. Hoby added, that should he not perhaps be sujpectd 
Ia of adulation, he might find sufficient matter to consume* 

Anno 1649. long time in discoursing of his gravity and prudence, nasi 
as well in setting forth and well handling his charge to- 
wards the Emperor and his counsellors, as in his behavioat 
generally towards all others. Whereby he had purchase! 
to himself love and credit with all men. and not a little fir 
the King's Majesty's honour and estimation in those parts, 
TbeEupe- It must not be omitted, because reference will be mafb 
<*dc? for" to it hereafter, that upon Paget's last audience of the En* 
th« Lady peror, the Emperor recommended the case of his couattj 
liberty of the Lady Mary; .praying the King that she might be ft 
her religion. voupe( j ) ^j permitted ^ nave her ancient manner of reK 

gion. Whereunto the ambassador considering he had ai 
commission to treat of that matter, answered, with the ad- 
vice of Sir Philip Hoby, that he would make report of Mr 
l63 request unto his master and the Protector, and to the rest 
of the Council, and doubted not but she should have that 
favour that was convenient foi*her, being the King's sister | 
and the Emperor's cousin. Of which request and answer at 
his coming home he made report accordingly. 


Matters with France. The Duke of Somerset* letter to 
Sir Philip Hoby, ambassador with the Emperor ; shew- 
ing France^s dealings with England. 

The English J. HE answer of the Emperor's commissioners mentioned 
France. above was somewhat cold, and not according to the desire 
and expectation of the English Court, though it were inter- 
laced with plenty of good words : and as great plenty of 
the like had the English ambassador requited them with. 
The effect whereof (perceiving how little England was to 
expect from the Emperor) was, that the King and his 
Council did more seriously set themselves to make some 
conclusion with the French. For at this time Dr. Wotton 
was ambassador at that Court, being sent there to make 


iplaints, and to argue matters of difference between the CHAP, 
glish and them; and to know the reason of those great 

parations for war that were making there: when the Aoool * 4 * < 
uniasioners appointed to treat with Wotton, were Mon- 
ir de Rochepot, Monsieur de Chastilion, and one Mon- 
ir de Mortier, one of the masters of the requests, all 
Be of the Council. At the naming of whom the con- 
de Montmorency gave our ambassador very good words : 
for that the two chief of these men were officers upon 
ir frontiers, 'fierce and haughty in their dispositions, and 
aed by them contrary to the request made on the Eng- 
i behalf, it was doubted much, what would ensue of 
i meeting, notwithstanding all their fair words, of which 
j gave plenty. And indeed it proved of little effect, as 
shall perceive presently. 

fir Philip Hoby was still at Brussels, to prosecute the Open hottu 
glish affaire with the Emperor. And in the month of^*" 16 
gust, the King and Council brake into open hostility 
h the French King, whose abuses and wrongs were in- 
arable. And now without warning attacking England by 
and land, himself appearing at the head of an army 
dnst Boloign. To keep the Emperor fast, Hoby had in- 
actions from England to acquaint him herewith, and 
hal to shew him the whole state of our causes with 
race. Therefore at large, thus did the Duke of Somer- 
in the foresaid month inform the ambassador with these 
liters: which I the rather set down, because it will so 
ddate the quarrel between England and France. 
" After our hearty commendations : Albeit we think that 1 64 
he world, after so many examples, and so long ex V ej ^" f F^ T ^ ODa 
sice, be in all places well acquainted with the French The Protec- 
xacdces and crafty proceedings; who, having respect j£ [^JJJ^ 
Mily to the satisfaction of their own insatiable ambition, B. is. 
ease not, without respect to former leagues and confe- 
lerations, yea, or without warnings, or any intimations, 
uddenly to declare hostility, and by that means to take 
>y stealth the advantage of the time, and unlooked for, 
o attempt all the displeasure they may against their 




Anno IMS. 

neighbours and confederates: albeit, we aay, this be vd 
enough known to the world; yet for that we be d* 
last with whom they have renewed this feat; knomg 
that they use to travail to colour with brags and tm 
words all their doings, be they never so foul and db 
honourable : to the intent you may be truly informed o 
the occasion of these wars, which the French King had 
now begun against the King's Majesty, we have though 
good to make some declaration unto you of the vcr 
troth of theirs and our doings, since the death of th 
King's Majesty, our late master. 
" First, where for taking away of all occasions of suite 
or contention for the limits of Bolognois, there were cofl 
missioners appointed by our said late master and th 
late French King, to treat upon those and certain othi 
differences, and to bring the same to some good appotni 
ment ; the said differences being almost agreed upon, : 
pleased God to call our said late master to his mere] 
After whose death new commissioners were made by th 
late French King and the King's Majesty, by the advic 
of us, the Lord Protector and the Council : by force c 
which commission all those differences were well and ref 
sonably agreed upon : the treaties drawn, sealed, and At 
livered by the commissioners on both sides, and imnx 
diately after died the late French King. The Frenc! 
King that now is, not only refused to stand to this treat] 
but also seeking all occasions to encroach upon the King 
Majesty's ground, would never (although it hath bee 
many times required) assent to have any certain ord< 
taken for declaration of the limits. Upon occasion then 
of, albeit the treaty of perpetual peace, made at the en 
of the last wars, doth to every man's judgment set fori 
the said limits plain enough ; yet the French men cavi 
ling with words, and pretending now this, now that, ha' 
at one time claimed this piece of ground, and at a 
other time another, being parcel of his Majesty's ne 
conquests. And among all other, they have taken i 
old castle, called Fiennes, expressly within the King 


; and not only taken it, but fortified the same, c RAP. 
' contrary to the express words of the treaty, both in claim- _ " 

1 tng of it, and in fortifying. Forasmuch as the treaty Amu imk. 
' provided*, that neither prince should make any new for- 

* tjficajtjon within Boloignois, during the said term in the 

* said treaty specified. They have also, directly, both 

* against the treaty, and other special agreement, fortified 

* the point of the lull at the mouth of Boloign haven, for 

* the annoyance of our ships passing and repassing into the 

" Besides this, the French King demandeth from his 

* Highness the pension due to be paid yearly, and espe- 

* dally provided for in the said treaty. And with injuries 
4 not contented, they have, as all the world knoweth, of 
4 late attempted the suppressing of the King's Majesty's 

" fort of fioloignberg .at one time : at another, the taking 1 65 
" of the mole in Boloign haven, besides others their out- 

* rageous spoils, robberies, and- killing of his Highness* 
" subjects on that side. Which proceeded to such extre- 

* mity, and so far out of reason, that the French King's 
" great officers being spoken withal for redress, instead of 
" justice, answered, that for every of their men killed by 
" ours, tbey would kill twenty ; and for one ox or bullock 
" taken, forty, yea, an hundred should be taken of ours. 

" So as after many requests to have things considered ac- 
" cording to justice, his Majesty, having none other means 
" to see his subjects recompensed, was forced, for want of 
" other remedy, to grant them letters of mart, to get there- 
" by recompence of their losses upon the French King's 
« merchants trafficking the seas. And yet before the grant- 
" ing thereof, we caused all those to whom the same was 
" granted to be first bound with good sureties, that all 

* goods to be by them taken should be truly shewed be- 
" fore the officers of the next port, and valued by indif- 
" ferent men. So as either the said wares which were 
" taken, or the just value of them, should always be ready 
" to lie restored, if justice might have been had for the 

* King's Majesty's subjects in France. 



BOOK " To all these wrongs the French King hath heaped d* 
" taking away the Scotch Queen ; who, as you know, by 


Anno 1549." Parliament and common agreement of the three estate 
« of that realm, was before promised to the King's Ms- 
" jesty. And besides that, both before and sithence aho 
" hath aided the said Scotch, being the King's Majesty's 
" vassals, with men, munition, victuals, and all other neces- 
* saries, to the uttermost of his power, contrary, not only to 
" the treaties, but also to all friendship and honour. 

" These things considered, and seeing also prepantkxr 
u for the war made in France, we sent an express me* 
" senger to the French King to learn his meaning; and 
" required him, in case he meant to break with us, he would' 
Ci openly declare the same, using such means of ending the 1 
" war, as betwixt princes of honour hath been accustomed. 
" Whereunto he answered, that he minded no such thing.' 
" But whensoever he should by any occasion be provoked' 
cc thereunto, he would give us warning, after such honour- 
able sort as appertaineth. But fo? the present, he said, 
he was so far from any such meaning, as he desired the' 
continuance of the amity with the King's Majesty, as 
much as with any prince Christian ; affirming, that he 
" would omit no occasion that might conduce thereunto, 
" and to the good increase of the same. And hereupon en- 
" sued the appointing of commissioners on both sides, for 
the considering and appeasing of all things in contro- 
versy ; and to entreat of some good means of agreement 
" betwixt both parties. Which promise of sending commis- 
" moners depending, and the commissioners named on both 
" sides, with the matters whereof they should treat, all the 
" former fair words notwithstanding, the French King hav- 
" ing suddenly set forth an army to the sea, and with the 
same attempted the annoyance and invasion of the King's 
Majesty's isles of Jersey and Garnsey, to the utmost of 
" their power, and having taken an island there, (taking 
" the advantage of the young years of the King's Majesty, 
" and some seditions and tumults in the realm,) is presently' 
166 " descended in person towards his Highness' confines with 





" an aray royal by land ; and *s it were whh the sword hi CRAP. 
* his hand, hath at last revoked his ambassadors, and opened XXI * 

" the wars. AawiMt. 

" These things we have thought good to open unto you 
" the more fully, because we know the French, how false 
'< soever their doings be, will not let to colour the same, 
" and seem to put the fault and occasion of this breach 
" in us: requiring you at the lime of the delivery of the 
" King's Majesty's letters, which ye shall receive herewith, 
" to the Emperor, not only to declare the premises unto 
" him, but also to shew him, that as the King's Majesty is 
" forced, for defence of his dominions and subjects, and pre- 
" servation of his honour, to enter upon wars now against 
" France, and to take them for enemies ; so he hath willed 
" you to declare the same unto him : nothing doubting his 
" Highness shall find at his hands, whensoever any occasion 
"shall so require, all that friendship and aid, that the 

treaties and old ancient amity requireth. And thus we 

bid you well to fare, 13th Aug. 1549." 


Insurrections of the commons upon enclosures. Proclama- 
tions and commissions thereupon. The rebellion in Nor- 
JclUc. Ket the Captain. Lady Mary touched. First tn- 
stitution of Lords Lieutenants of the counties. 

JL HE commons began now to grow malcontent, and to go The placet 
apart into conspiracies, and betake themselves to arms, the" ^^j* 
priests and popish zealots blowing the coals. The first in- <*»*» 
surrection appeared in Hertfordshire for the commons at 
North-hall and Chesthunt. After this, a greater rising ap- 
peared in Somersetshire. From Somersetshire it proceeded 
into Gloucestershire, Wilts, Hampshire, Sussex, Surrey, 
Worcester, Essex, Kent, and divers other places, as Oxott 
and Berks, and in the westernmost parts, and in the north- 
ern also, as in Yorkshire, and especially in Norfolk. The 



BOOK causes of these disturbances were divers and sundry. Some 
*' were Papists, and required the restoration of their old idi- 

Anno 1648. gion. Some were Anabaptists and Libertines, and would 
have all things common. And a third sort of these muti- 
neers were certain poor men that sought to have their com- 
mons again, by force and power taken from them; and 
that a regulation might be made according to law of arable 
lands turned into pasture; and desired a redress of the 
great dearth, and abatement of the price of victuals. And 
some about the Lady Mary were not innocent : which oc- 
casioned some letters between her and the Lord Protector, 
concerning some of her servants charged to be privy to the 
rebellion. Of which we shall hear more by and by. 
167 And yet in truth the dearth, as was suggested, was more 

The dearth God's hand than man's. For victuals were extremely dear 

not man's. ' in foreign parts, as well as in England. And Sir William 
Paget, being now abroad in embassy in France, protested 
to the Protector, that he then spent twice as much as he 
did at his last being in the same place ; and yet kept no 
greater retinue. And as for enclosures, they were not now 
newly begun, but threescore years before, pastures were 
enclosed: and they and their fathers hitherto had lived 
quietly under them, as the said Paget wrote to the Protec- 
tor. But Paget indeed was a favourer of these enclosers, 
and it is likely was one himself. These were great graziers 
and sheepmasters, that ceased tilling the ground and sow- 
ing of corn; pulling down houses, and destroying whole 
towns, that so they might have the more land for grazing, 
and the less charge of poor tenants, who had dependence 
on them as their ploughmen and husbandmen. Whereby 
the poor countrymen being driven to great poverty, began 
thus to shew their discontents. 

Light made How little at first the Council made of these popular 

of these . vi r 

•tin at fint. commotions, may appear by the account they gave to 
the said Paget, to whom thus they wrote concerning it: 
" Where some light persons before your departing had ao- 
" licited some others like themselves, and a multitude of 
" simple persons, to assemble themselves, for plucking down 


" of pales and enclosures, and such like matters ; you shall CHAP. 
" understand, that sithence your departing hence, the like xxl ' 


u stire have been renewed in Essex* Kent, Hampshire, Anno 154s. 

u and Devonshire. Whereof part be already quietly ap- 
peased, and the rest in towardness also to return peace- 
ably to their houses. So as there is no likelihood of any 
great matter to ensue thereof. And yet having expe- 
rience how slanderously these small tumults shall be di- 

u vulged and spread by the Frenchmen, we have thought 

t€ good to advertise you by these and other letters, of the 

•• full truth of these matters. Upon knowledge whereof 
you may answer their untrue and vain bruits, as you 
shall think good.* But how little soever the thing were 

dreaded now, it proved of more dangerous consequence in 

the process of the year. 

For it was not long after, that the King and his Council Meant used 

, . j • i • * a l- • * to quell the 

having more and more jealousies of this, to ripen into ajnjurrec- 
fbrmidable rising, laboured at first what they could to re- tioni « 
strain and smother it before it brake out further, and that 
by all gentle means, as by appointing commissioners to ease 
the grievance of enclosures, and by giving pardon by pro- 
clamation to routs and uproars raised about in the countries, 
and by taking order for abating the excessive prices of pro- 
visions, as was shewn before. 

Yet some there were that did not approve this way of Censored 
proceeding with the discontented mutinous people, neither ^"JJJjJJ** 
would have them so gratified, having broken the peace and ©»«•»• 
raised tumults, as they had done : and judged it far better 
policy, that they should have first been made examples, and 
more rigours used toward them ; which might have terri- 
fied others, and been a means of preventing those insur- 
rections that happened in other parts soon after. Of this 
mind was Sir William Paget, a man of an austerer temper : 
who, soon after these pardons were granted, and the prices 
of victuals moderated, thus wrote to the Protector : «' He 
u wished to God, that at the first stir, he [the Protector] 
<* had caused justice to have been ministered in solemn fa- 
" shion to the terror of others ; and then to have granted a l68 



BOOK w pardon. But to have granted pardons out of oooiie did 
" as much good, he said, to the purpose the Protector 


Anno 1549. « meant, as the Bishop of Rome's pardons were wont to do? 
" which rather, upon hopes of a pardon, gave men occmim 
" and courage to sin, than to amend their faults. And is 
" have your pardons, added he, given evil men a boktaea 
" to enterprise as they do, and caused tbem to think yoi 
" dare not meddle with them. Victuals, they say, wool, 
cloth, and every thing is dear. They must have a new 
price at their pleasure. The commons must be pleased. 
You must take pity upon the poor men's children, kc? 
Thus were these milder courses of the Protector censured. 
The Lord But besides this, the Lord Russel, Lord Privy Seal, ha* 
goe* down in g the government of the west, was sent down thither to 
totbewest. wa tch these dangerous motions. And care was taken to 
provide some able men to preach good doctrine and obedi- 
ence to the people, and to inform them aright of the KiagV 
proceedings, and to rectify the ignorant sort, who were mis- 
led into these dangerous courses by their popish guide* 
For the King's Council thought preaching a good expedient 
to quell these stirs, as well as force, and that sober exhorta- 
tions, grounded upon God's word, which they had been little 
acquainted withal, would tend much to incline the people 
to obedience, and to keep them in their duty towards their 
licencct for prince. Wherefore licences were now again given out from 
in the we*t. the Privy Council to certain preachers, authorizing them to 
preach and teach from {dace to place, in such auditories and 
congregations as the Lord Privy Seal should appoint them, 
and where he conceived most need. And for this they had 
salaries paid them by the Council. Accordingly I find a li- 
cence sent to one Gregory, which ran in this tenor following: 

a licence. " After our hearty commendations. Forasmuch as it is 
Annig. " acceptable to God to have the people lead their lives in 
" the fear and knowledge of him ; and thereupon also foi- 
" loweth, as by good order, quiet, and due obedience of aH 
" people to their princes and heads : the which no wise so 
" conveniently can be brought to pass, as to have frequent 


and discreet preaching of the holy word and command- CHAP, 
ments: we have thought it meet, since our very good ** 1 ' 


Lord, the Lord Privy Seal, is appointed under the King's Anno 1549. 
44 Majesty to have the governance of the west parts of the 
44 realm, during his Majesty's pleasure, that they should 
44 both be licensed and commanded by us on the King's 
44 Majesty's behalf, to preach and openly declare with sin- 
44 cerity the word of God, in such public place and auditory 
44 as the same Lord Privy Seal shall solicit you, whose dis- 
44 crerion and grave wisdom the King's Majesty and we so 
44 well esteem, that without his order and certain know- 
44 ledge, we will ye take no labour upon you. And for 
44 your diligence and study herein, although the same be 
44 your duty, and of God prescribed, yet we will have it in 
44 good remembrance, and reward it to your contentation. 
44 And so we bid you farewell, from Richmond, 23. June, 

44 1549. 

44 Your loving friends," &c. 

It was signed by the Duke of Somerset, L. Rich Chan- 
cellor, Francis Earl of Shrewsbury, L. St. Johns, Earl of 
Arundel, Sir Ant. Wingfield, Edward Lord Mountague. 

Another letter, varying in the words, but of the same im- \&Q 
port, was at the same time, and by the same Counsellors, 
sent to Dr. Raynolds, to preach in those parts, according to 
the appointment of the Lord Privy Seal. Miles Coverdale 
was now also here employed in the said function, and parti- 
cularly made the thanksgiving sermon after the victory. 

The King and Council used also another means to break Ruffians 
and disperse these huriy-burlies. There was now a sort o{ taTb ^ xc ^' 
lewd idle fellows, the most part whereof had neither place m tbe 

• 1 1 • 1 i-i -kingdom. 

to inhabit, nor sought any stay to live by, persons many of 
them condemned of felony, or prison-breakers, run from the 
wars, and sea-rovers departed from the King's garrisons, 
and loiterers; these persons ran from place to place, from 
county to county, from town to town, to stir up rumours, 
raise up tales, imagine news, whereby to stir and gather to- 
gether the King's subjects, of simplicity and ignorance de- 

s 4 


BOOK caved. And by that pretence such lewd ruffians and and? 
vagabonds became ringleaders and masters of the Kingfc 

Anno 1649. people, seeking to spoil, rob, and ravin where or whoa 
they listed or might : and so lived, waxed rich, and fed on 
other men's labour, money, and food. And when the poor 
of one part of the country raised up by these felons re- 
pented and saw their folly, acknowledged their faults, and 
returned themselves to their duty, and received the Kingt 
pardon, the said runagates escaped from the places of their 
first attempts, and daily resorted to new places; and so tram 
place to place, shire to shire, never quieting themselves, bat 
devising slanderous tales, and divulging to the people sock 
kind of news as they thought might most readily move tbett 
to uproars and tumults ; and pretending the same time they 
' sought the redress of the commontoealih. The King sent a 
proclamation after these, dated July 8, charging all Jus- 
tices, Sheriffs, Bailiffs, and other his officers, to be diligent 
to take some good special order for the apprehension and 
attaching of such persons, whether as vagabonds, wayfaring 
men, stragglers, or otherwise. And that whosoever shooU 
discover any of them should have the King's hearty thanks, 
and twenty crowns for a reward, 
r*" t^iT ^ ut notwithstanding these means used for prevention, a 
oat. rebellion broke out in the west, in July, which cost the 

King and his Council much work, and the Protector parti- 
cularly many fears and cares. 
TbePro- j» or U p 0n a pardon, that had been indulgently granted 
blamed to these mutineers, they came so easily by it, that they soon 
utlta ran into disturbances again. Upon this the Protector, 
(whose doing this was,) for his too easy forgiveness of such 
criminals, was blamed generally by the Council, who were 
against that pardon, and were for making some examples 
first, and publishing a pardon for the rest after. This the 
Protector's friend, Sir William Paget, did declare to him Ins 
Paget'* ad- disapprobation of. He advised him by his letter, that the 
bow to rebellion being now up, he should do all things like a 
proceed king, governing for a king, during his imperfect age : that 
Jftei*. e he should send for all the Council that remained unsent 


afciuad, and nx other of the gravest and most experienced CHAP, 
men in the realm, and consult what was best to be done. 

Hi* own opinion was, to send for the Almain horse from Anno ims. 
Calais, which were about four thousand brave accoutred 
men* To appoint the Lord Ferrers and Sir William Her- 
bert to bring as many horsemen out of Wales as they dared 
trust. That the Earl of Shrewsbury should bring the like 
out of the counties of Darby, Salop, Stafford, and Not-1'70 
tmghain, of his servants, keepers of forests and parks. And 
that he, the Protector, should send for all his trusty ser- 
vants to come to him. Then, that he should appoint the 
King to lie at Windsor, accompanied with all his officers 
and servants of the household, the pensioners, the men at 
arms, and the guard. Then, that he should go himself in 
person, attended with the Almain horse, and all the rest 
which were sent for, first, into Barkshire ; commanding all 
the gentlemen to attend upon him by such a day, at such a 
place, with what friends and servants they could make. 
That the Chief Justices, with some of the Judges, should re- 
sort with commission of oyer and terminer to the town next 
to the place where the Protector should remain. That there 
should be also certain Justices of the peace of the same shire 
attending; to whom he should give order to attach him - 
and him, to the number of twenty or thirty of the rankest 
knaves of the shire, and to hang six of the ripest of them 
in sundry places : the rest to remain in prison. That the 
Justices should take sureties of the good abearing of the 
richer sort concerned herein, and for their appearance in 
the Star-chamber the next term. That the horsemen should 
lie in such towns as were busiest, taking enough for their 
money, that rebels might feel the smart of their villainy. 
To take away the freedom of some of the offending towns ; 
which he might restore again at his pleasure. And to send 
some of the doers away from their wives to the north, or to 
Boloign, to be soldiers or pioneers. To give them no good 
words, and to make no promise in any wise. And thus 
from one shire to another, to make a progress, till he had 
visited all the shires that offended, since their pardons. 


BOOK Thu. did Paget advice. In the men time the Ptota* j 

and Council issued out divers proclamations relating to the 

Anno IMS. present emergence. 

^ rocUma - And first of all a proclamation, dated July 11, for tk 
•ioncd punishment of the rebels in Devonshire and Cornwall, Ik 
n^Zu import of which was, that whosoever came not in within ■> 
estates many days, and submitted and yielded themselves unto tk 
siren twaj. j^^ R uase ] 5 ^ King's lieutenant in those parts, thods 

be deemed, accepted, and taken for rebels and tnilm 
And for the more terror to those who stood out nbeUkxMljft 
and for the encouragement and advancement of his knag 
and obedient subjects, that should withdraw themtehv 
from the said rebellious traitors, the King was cwntfiHwl 
that all and angular the forfeitures of all the goods, chair 
tels, offices, pensions, manors, lands, tenements, farms, co- 
pyholds, and other hereditaments of the said rebels sal 
traitors, should grow, come, and be unto all and evoj 
such person and persons as should first have, take, potto* 
and attain the said goods and chattels, or should first cat* 
into the said manors, lands, tenements, &c And the smm  
should have, hold, possess, and enjoy to his and their owt 
proper use, commodity, and behalf, in as large and ample 
manner as the King, by mean and right of the said forfeiture 
and confiscation, ought and might dispose the same; and 
should have assurance thereof by his letters patents. 
None par- The day after, viz. July 12, came forth another prod* 
Boiested. mation, concerning the effect of the King's pardon given to 
the rebels. In this he willed and commanded all his sub- 
jects, who of late, by their humble submission, and sorrowful 
1^1 repentance of their offences committed in sundry unlawful 
and riotous assemblies, obtained his pardon, that from 
henceforth they be of such good behaviour in the peace of 
God and the King's Majesty, and in all their actions and 
deeds so quiet, peaceable, and well ordered, that the King's 
Majesty might think his grace and pardon bestowed upon 
them with effect. And his Majesty willed and commanded 
all his other subjects, having suffered any manner of grief, 
damage, or loss, by the act of any the abovesaid King's sub» 

1 # 


, while they ofltnd0d, mi before they ittemd bis pes. CttAff. 
that they abould not by aft, suit, violence, or oonstoul XXL 

force, punish, avenge, or correct any manner efgJfeneeaaoQiiaf. 
espaas committed by jtbe aforesaid offenders, hairing 
pardoned lor the same. 

anther proclamation followed, July 16, wherein the For 
j prohibited any of his subject*, that neither by drum, 

*, pipe, or any other instrument striking or sounding, 
ir bells ringing, opening, crying, posting, riding, run- 
, or by any news, rumours, or tales, divulging or spread- 
or by any other device or token whatsoever, [which bad 
the rebels* practices,] to call together or muster, or at- 
t to assemble or muster any number of people ; either 
iick down any hedge, pole, fence, wall, or any manner 
iclosures, or to hunt, waste, spoil, desolate, or deface 
park, chase, warren, house, lodge, pond, waters, or do 
xber unlawful act which is forbidden; or to redress 
hing which should or might be by the King's MajeatyTs 
nisskm reformed, redressed, or amended* And that 
i pain of death presently to be executed by the autbop- 
od order of law martial.: wherein no delay or defav 
o£ time should be permitted, as in other causes, being 
xl of less importance. And therefore the King corn- 
led all Sheriffs, Justices, Ministers, and officers, upon 
rledge of any offender against the tenor of this procla- 
im, forthwith with all expedition, and with such power 
uould be requisite, to apprehend and attach the same 
ders, and them to commit to safe gaol. And thereupon 
ayedly to certify the Lord Protector and the Comical, 
e intent most speedy order may be given for the exe- 
>n of the said offenders. 

bout this time, for the redress of unlawful enclosures, Commit- 
such like enormities, the King had directed several "n^oraiw. 
nisakms, with large instructions for the same, into every 
ty, not only authorizing his commissioners to reform 
lanner of things, so far forth as the laws could any 
be construed or expounded, but also by special letters 
ive, he charged the same commissioners upon great 


BOOK pain, in the same letters contained, to redrew and amend 
lm their own proper faults. Which commissions were partly 

Anno 1549. put in execution, while the rising in the west happened, tad 
partly ready to be executed, and delayed only by the fcHy 
of the people, seeking their own redress unlawfully. And of 
this, information was given in the aforesaid proclamation. 
The gentry And here let us digress for a while, and consider that 
2? dno £jJ lty commissions. The gentlemen concerned in these enclosures 
at it. were highly offended, when the King and his Council had 
sent forth commissioners for examining enclosures, whereby 
poor men's commons and livings were thus taken awiy. 
They pretended that these things were innovations, and that 
no alterations ought to be made. And they took great rf 
fence against those that put the King and Protector upo* 
172 these proceedings : and particularly this charge they laid to 
John Hales, clerk of the hanaper, a good and public-spirited 
man, and one of these commissioners ; him they accused to 
have sued out the commission. They urged, that nowi 
was no time to send forth such commissions. That Halt* 
had stirred and encouraged the commonalty against the 
nobility; and, in fine, made him guilty of the present sedi- 
tion ; and that he procured them to be redressers of then 
own injuries, and to be executors of the law, and to repux 
and grudge at the nobility, and that he would have liberty 
liberty: and now it was come to a licentious liberty, as the] 
Their ways These enclosers used all the means they could to stoj 
to ev»de it. ^^ hjnjgj. t j, e coming forth of this commission. But who 

they could not do that, they laboured to invalidate, am 
make it fail of the good ends intended by it. Some of the* 
got means for their servants to be sworn of the juries, tha 
they might be more favourable to them. And in son 
parts where the commissioners went, such were the numba 
of retainers to the great men, (who were the chief enclosers. 
that it was not possible to make juries without them. Son 
were threatened to be put by their holds, if they presentee 
and others had no certainty of their holds, which were woi 
to be let by copy for lives, or otherwise, for years : so tha 


their landlords might have them upon the hank at no time. CHAP. 
nor in any thing to offend them. And some were indicted, 
because they presented the truth. And many shameful AnnaiMS 
lleights were used to blind the commissioners and the pre- 
senters, and to baffle the good work they were upon. But 
notwithstanding these ways and courses to stifle the present- 
ments, yet many things were presented. But the commis- 
aoners were so favourable to those that were presented, that 
they made the parties privy thereunto, to hear if they could 
jntly purge themselves. The commission extended only to 
inquire, not to hear and determine. And it was chiefly set 
faith, that the Protector and Council might know in part 
the whole state of the realm ; and so to proceed to the re- 
dress of all- 
John Hales, after he had sat upon the commission, prayed The offend. 
the King, that a general pardon might be sent out : which !|^^ 
he sued for and obtained, for the benefit of the rich en-' 
dosers as well as the poor sufferers : hoping the rich would 
have reformed their doings, as the poor men did. But 
some of these rich men, as soon as they had their pardon, 
returned to their old practice, and began immediately to 
enclose, and to take away the poor men's commons, and 
became more greedy than ever they were before ; looking 
upon this commission but as a storm for a time, that would 
soon pass over. 

Yet another proclamation was occasioned by this tumult, A com- 
namely, for the office of constables, dated July 28, who^ roo ^ n 
were too forward themselves in this rebellion : that whereas "tablet. 
the office of constables, bailiffs, or headboroughs was most 
politicly ordained, as well to be the stay in every city, town, 
or village, of quiet and peace, according to the King's Ma- 
jesty's laws, as also to put in execution whatsoever by the 
mid laws, or the higher ministers of the same, should be ap- 
pointed and limited ; contrary to which, the bailiffs, consta- 
bles, or headboroughs, in the places where these risings were, 
had been the very ringleaders and procurers, by their ex- 
ample and exhortation, to the rest of their neighbours, to 173 
levy themselves (as they had done) in his Majesty's name, 


flOOK abasing the authority of the some, contrary to their doty 
*• of allegiance: the King therefore commanded that tiny 
Anno 1549. henceforth forbore and abstained from raising and assn» 
bling of any the King's subjects, for any act or parpom, 
other than such as by the law and statutes of the realm is 
limited for them to execute and do, as incident to their 
office : under pain to be deemed, accepted, or taken as trai- 
tors, and suffer loss of life, lands, and goods for ever. 
Piaysforbid. To these let me subjoin one proclamation more, and, as k 
seems, relating to these tumults. It came forth August ( 
for stopping of players to act any play or interlude. The 
preface assigned the reason; viz. that such players within 
the city of London, as well as elsewhere, did for the mo* 
part play such interludes as contained matter tending to 
sedition, and contemning of sundry good orders and laws: 
whereupon were grown such disquiet, divisions, tumults* 
and uproars in the realm. 
The belli in When this rebellion was pretty well allayed, it was re* 
<£ra£rtto ttembered how the bells in the churches served, by ringing 
betaken to summon and call in the disaffected unto their 

Therefore, in September, an order was sent down from the 
Council to the Lord Russel, to execute a work, that proved, 
no doubt, highly disgustful unto the people, viz. to take 
away all the bells in Devonshire and Cornwall, leaving oat 
only in each steeple, which was to call the people to church. 
And this partly to prevent the like insurrection for the fu- 
ture, and partly to help to defray the charges the King had 
been at among them. And thus the Lord Protector and 
Council writ to the Lord Privy Seal in this matter, viz. 

The Conn- " After our hearty commendations to your Lordship, 
mss^p " Where * c rebels of the country of Devonshire and 
Armig. " Cornwall have used the bells in every parish, as an in- 
strument to stir the multitude, and call them together, 
thinking good to have this occasion of attempting the like 
hereafter to be taken from them ; and remembering withal, 
that by taking down of them, the King's Majepty may 
have some commodity towards his great charge that way: 




L we have thought good to pray your good Lordship to CHAP. % 

*gire order for the taking down the said bells in all the XXL 

'churches within those two counties; leaving in every Anno 1 549, 

'church one bell, the least of the ring that now is in the 

*Mme, which may serve to call the parishioners together 

1 to the sermons and divine service. In the doing whereof, 

1 we require your Lordship to use such moderation, as the 

* same may be done with as much quietness, and as little 

' offence of the common people as may be. And thus we 

■hid your Lordship most heartily farewell. From West- 

1 minster, 12 Sept 1549. 

" Your good Lordship's assured loving friends, 

« E. Somerset. T. Cant W. S. John. W. Paget 
" W. Petre. Ed. North. E. Wotton. R. Sadleir." 

Two gentlemen of those parts, Champion and Chichester, The dap. 
nistant perhaps against the rebels, took this opportunity ^^ ranted 
o get themselves rewarded, by begging, not the bells, but 174 
he bell-clappers only. Which was granted them, with 
he ironwork and furniture thereunto belonging. And no 
portion they made good benefit thereof. 

And as this rebellion in the west was now put to a con- The rebel- 

I* «4 * 

, so also was that in Norfolk about the same time Norfolk m- 

I, Robert Ket, the chief captain of the rebels, being peaied. 
iken and executed. This man, though said to be a tanner, cbief ^ 
is wealthy and well landed. For I find these several h . u P " 6 *- 
MUftors to have belonged to him, and forfeited to the King, 
is. the manor of MeUor's-hall, the manors of LetherVhall, 
ad GunviTs manor, in the county of Norfolk ; which, in 
3ng Edward's Book of Sales, is said to be parcel of the 
of Robert Ket, lately attainted of high treason. 
>, with several other lands, tenements, and heredita- 
lents in Norfolk, and all his goods and chattels, worth forty 
larks, were given to Thomas Audely, for and in cont- 
ention of his good service against the rebels in Norfolk. 
lie patent bore date May 16, an. 4. Reg. Edwardi. 
This Ket was a proper person to be a ringleader of mis-Ket't tre*~ 
lief. For he was of a bold haughty spirit, and of a can- 


^ BOOK kered mind against the government. He would be styled 
' the mastery nay, the king of Norfolk and Suffolk. He forced 

Anno 1549. all persons whatsoever to follow his camp, and laid maty 
in chains that made any opposition; a great waster ui 
spoiler, especially to the women of quality, whom he spued 
not to rob and spoil. 

The Marquis of Nottingham first went against him, bat- 
was unsuccessful in a battle fought with these rebels * 

Lord Sb*f- Norwich : where among others fell a brave nobleman, Ed* 
mund Lord Sheffield, who voluntarily and with cooodenUr 
expense went along with the Marquis. Which Lord ftllay. 
from his horse, was knocked on the head by a butcher. Hi 
left a son under age, named John Lord Sheffield, being i 
ward to the King. Who, to shew some particular mark if 
his favour upon him for his father's merits, granted him by 
patent, dated in November 1650, to bestow himself k 
marriage at his own free election and choice, without aty 
fine or payment to be required in the court of wards aoA 
liveries, or elsewhere, to the King's use, for the value 4i 
his marriage, being in his minority; in consideration (ask> 
ran in the grant) of the great charges that his said father] 
sustained in the King's war at Norwich. 

The King The King then intended to send his uncle, the Duke if 

intends to . . 

send So- Somerset, with a strong army into Norfolk, which was ta 
rendezvous at Walden in Essex. For there the gentry rf 
that county were appointed, with their men and arms, to 
meet the said Duke, on the 17th day of August And sack 
an order one of the gentlemen of the said county received, 
(by which we may judge of the rest,) which was as followetk 
(And I the rather exemplify it, because therein is some & 
count given of Ket and his doings.) 


TV King's u Trusty and well-beloved, we greet you well. And 
Irentryof he " w h ereas one Ket, a tanner, supported by a great many 
Essex. « of vile and idle persons, hath taken upon him our royal 
^espasiAn. iC po Wer ^j dignity, and calleth himself master and king 

175 " of Norfolk and Suffolk, in derogation of our imperial 

merset his 


crown and majesty: and not content to persuade our CHAP, 
subjects, whom we were content to receive to our mercy, 

to refuse our most gracious pardon, but causeth also a Anno1549 ' 
great number of our honest and good subjects by force 
to follow and aid him, and so continueth the rebellion in 
most vile sort; killing, spoiling, and keeping in fetters 
and chains, gentlemen, serving-men, yeomen, farmers, 
and other honest men, who have regard of their faith and 
duty unto us; robbing ladies and widows houses; seeking 
nothing but spoil and subversion of us, and the good 
estate of the realm : we have appointed our most entirely 
beloved uncle the Duke of Somerset, Governor of our 
person, and Protector of our realms, dominion, and sub- 
jects, with an army royal to go against them, and, by 
God's help, to subdue them, to the terror of all others. 
Whom like as we have appointed to march forwards with 
all speed possible, so having reposed a special trust and 
confidence in your good towardness and readiness to serve 
us, we have appointed you to give your attendance upon 
our said uncle. And therefore do will and require you 
immediately upon the sight hereof, with all speed to put 
yourself in a readiness with an hundred hable men, or so 
many mo as you are hable to make and trust unto, of 
your servants, tenants, and friends, well furnished with 
armour and weapon : whereof so many to be demilances, 
or light horsemen, as ye can furnish with hable and good 
" horses, and other convenient furniture, to be at our town 
" of Walden in our county of Essex, the 17th day of this 
' present month at the furthest At which time and place 
' order shall be given for the bringing of them thither to 
' your contentation. Requiring you not to fail, as ye ten- 
' der our pleasure, and will answer for the contrary at your 
' perils. Yeaven under our signet at our palace of West- 
' minster, the 6th of August, the third year of our reign. 

" E. Somerset." 
But the King's resolution soon changed, perhaps being 

VOL. II. x 


BOOK loath to part with hit uncle; and the Earl of Warwick was 
despatched in his room. 

Anno 1549. Upon occasion of this tumult, somewhat a severe execu- 

^iS^ tion happened to the bailiff of Rumford in Essex : who 

mwtial law. chancing to come to London just upon the noise of it ; when 

one "Sir Stephen, a curate of Cree church, meeting him 

Stew's and asking him what news out of the country, the other re 

plied, that they were up in arms in Norfolk, Suffolk, ami 

Essex ; yet adding, that " thanks to God, they were all quie 

" about their parts ;" a suspicion these words of his begat 

that he was privy to these mutinies. Sir Stephen* a zealoui 

man, informs against him: and immediately by a coun 

martial he was tried, and condemned to be hanged ; and « 

he was upon a gibbet by the well within Algate, which wai 

afterwards turned to a pump, there still remaining. Thougf 

upon the ladder he professed he was no further guilty thai 

those bare words could make him. 

The gentle- But to speak a little more particularly of this stir in Nor 

•ex, Suffolk, folk, which seemed as troublesome to the state to provide 

J ^ 1 ^" against and to quell, as that in the west. Therefore tlx 

pair'home. Earl of Warwick was sent against them, and the gentry ii 

the three counties of Norfolk, Suffolk, and Essex, were re 

quired to go down to their several dwellings, by a proclama 

tion, dated August 16, which ran to this tenor : " That th< 

176 " King's Majesty by the advice of his most entirely belovet 

" uncle, &c. straitly charged and commanded all gentlemen 

" of what estate, degree, or condition soever they were, wh< 

" had their habitations and dwellings in Essex, to depar 

'* from the Court, the city of London, and other place 

" near unto them, into their several habitations in the sax 

county, with all convenient speed, there to remain til 

they should know further of the King's Majesty's plea 

" sure. Likewise such gentlemen as dwelt in Suffolk, U 

" depart also to their habitations there ; and there to re 

" main unto such time as they should have command from 

the King or the Earl of Warwick. And further, thai 

all gentlemen, inhabitants of Norfolk, should repair tc 


aeidEarl; to be with him, to attend upon him in the CHAP. 
g'a array in his conduct and leading, for hit High.- XXL 

i*s better service, upon Saturday next following, orAaaoiMt. 

iday at the farthest. And his Majesty, by the advice 

taaid, did moat strictly charge all persons to whom it 

ht appertain, to follow and execute the aaid Earl'* 

mands, with all convenient speed and diligenoe, upon 

i of his Highnesses indignation and displeasure. Yet 

rided, that such gentlemen, aa were of the King's 

aber or household, should still give their attendance 

n his Highness aa heretofore." 

great appearance of these rebellious Norfolciana woce Lyn loyal. 

jgethar near Lyn. But the magistrates and people 

t town did not side with them, but kept themselves 

to the King. One of this seditious rout waa Sir Joha 

idefar, parson of Alswiththorp, a parish jiear Lyn, An- 

waa called Captain Bunting. Who, it seems, miatrtiat- 

ia doings, was resolved to get away secretly into Lyn. 

to do it so obscurely that none should know it, or 

st he was gone thither, he took his opportunity, and 

ia hat down by a well side, to make the rest of his 

dea think that he waa drowned there. And 90 they 

d he at the same time fled into Lyn. At whose com- Owiadtbr, 
lose in the town shot off a volley. But Chaundeler£££ > tJA9 
ruer to the cause ; and seemed to have been a person comc * *° 
yed by the rout to pass from place to place in the 
iea of Essex and Suffolk, to blow the coals, and to e*- 
be people in those counties to rise. For in the midst 
sae broils he rode to Bury, and Hadley, and Lavejv- 
and came to Colchester : where he met with several 
it city, his confidents, as it seemed, who were to pro- 
the cause there : namely, Will. Brown, draper and 
; Sir Roger Peerson of Colchester, priest; Sir John 
nson, priest, parson of Tadston in Suffolk; Richard 
of Sturton, in Suffolk, weaver. These were. all- at 
t together at Brown's house; where Chaundder did 
; how things stood with the rebels. And to provoke 



BOOK them the more against the government, he told them, haw 
there had been six posts sent from their camp unto the 

Anno 1549. King's Council, and not one of them could come to the said 
Council; and that the gentlemen's servants at Lyn went 
abroad and killed poor men in their harvest work, and also 
killed women with child. And to encourage them to enter i 
into the conjuration, he said, that the number of their men 
at Norwich camp was six score thousand : and that he met 
at Bury to the number as he thought of seventy thousand, 
consisting of the towns of Bury, Hadly, Lanham, BrantMj; 
177 [Branktree perhaps,] and other towns thereabouts. And 
as for the town of Lyn, and all the gentlemen there, he 
wished them all on fire. And whereas there was one 
among them, he wished there were ten. And all this 
deposed against Chauhdeler afterward, Aug. 7, by Brown 
and others that supped with him then at Colchester, be- 
fore Benjamin Clere and Robert Flyngant, bailiffs of Cot 
Pardons to After these dangerous tumults were dispersed and m- 
counties, quished, and the heads punished, the King granted a special 
pardon to the inhabitants of Norfolk for the rebellion there; ; 
which bore date Sept. 4. And the like was bestowed upon . 
the inhabitants of Suffolk and Essex. 
The Lady These rebellions touched upon the Lady Mary's reputa- 
herter? 1 tion. For the Lord Protector and Council had information - 
**"** brought them, that several of her servants were chief stir- i 
rers, procurers, and doers in those commotions. As namely, 
a priest and chaplain of hers of Sampford Courtney in De- ; 
von ; and Pooly, one of her receivers, and one Lyonel. Con- 
cerning these reports they thought fit to send her word by 
letter, dated July 17, wherein they likewise charged her, to 
give countenance herself to these disturbances by her oh- { 
stinate incompliance with the religion, and persistanoe in j 
the use of the old mass. She was now at her house at Ken- 
ninghall in High Suffolk, not far off of the rebels; which 
might give some umbrage to these jealousies against her. 
But she presently vindicated herself and her servants, and 
declared her dislike of these practices by an earnest letter 


srrit July 80, being the same day die received the Council's. CHAP. 
For first, as to her servants, she shewed, " how she had not L 

« one chaplain in those parts; that Pooly remained conti- Anno 154 *« 

u nually in her house, and was never doer among the com -}[Ji! I p|ir 

" moos, nor came into their company. It is true, she hadD.Johan. 

"another servant of that name dwelling in Suffolk; and E J^ p ' 

" whether the commons had taken him or no, she could not 

" tell : but by report they had taken by force many gentle- 

u men in those quarters, and used them very cruelly, and 

" perhaps so he might be served. That as for the third, 

" she could not but marvel at the bruit of him ; especially 

" because he dwelt within two miles of London, and was 

" not acquainted with the shires of Suffolk or Norfolk, nor 

" at any time came into those parts, but when he waited 

" upon her at her house ; and was then at London about 

" her business ; being also a man not at all apt or meet for 

"such purposes, but given to as much quietness as any 

"within her house. She added, it troubled her to hear 

"such reports of any of hers; and especially where no 

" cause was given : trusting, that her household should try 

" themselves true subjects to the King's Majesty, and ho- 

" nest, quiet persons, or else she would be loath. 

" And as for herself, she assured the Protector, that 

" these stirs did not less offend her than him and the rest 

" of the Council. And for Devonshire, no indifferent per- 

"son could lay their doings to her charge, for she had 

"neither land nor acquaintance in that country. And 

" Whereas they charged her, that her proceedings in mat- 

" ters of religion should have given no small courage to 

"many of those men to require and to do as they did; 

" that, she said, appeared to be most untrue, for that all 

" the rising about the parts where she was, was touching 

" no part of religion. But even as they ungently and with- 

" out desert charged her, so she omitted so fully to answer 

" it as the cause required, and would pray God that their 1/8 

" new alterations and unlawful liberties were' not rather 

" the occasions of these assemblies than her doings, who 

" was, God she took to witness, inquieted therewith." 

t 8 


BOOK Besides all this that I have already writ on this subject, 
f * I reckon it will not be unworthy any man's pains that n 

Anno 1549. studious of the history of these times, to read three letter* 
s ^ let ^ n concerning these intestine disturbances. The one written 
thu rebel- from the Lord Privy Seal to the Lords of the Council, and 
Gaiba, ty his son, Sir 1 Francis Russel, brought to them, Aug. & 
B.i«. Another Writ, Aug. 84, from the Protector to Hoby, am- 
bassador abroad. The third from the same to the same, 
dd. EE. dated Sept. I. Fer these consult the Repository ; taken 

from the Cotton library. 
The charges But this rebellion in Norfolk, in Devon, and Cornwall, cost 
beiikm. " the King a vast sum ; which rendered him the more neces- 
otho, E. i i . gitous of money all the time of his reign after. The charges 
are set down in one of the Cotton volumes ; viz. 

For coat and conduct - 6446 18 8 

In debts and wages ... 18827 19 6 

Emptioris of necessaries - - 47 11 8 

Divers and sundry necessary charges and 
expenses, as breaking down of bridges, 
carriages, and rewards - - 2800 4 S 

Sum total 27S30 7 7 

But the whole charges of King Edward's wars and forti- 
fications to the year 1549, amounted to 1356687 18 5} 
Firtt imti- This year began the making of the Lord Lieutenants 
Lord Lieu- OI * the counties : whose commissions bare date July £4, 
tenant* of 3 gj yi. as I find it in a clerk of the crown's book in the 


Cotton library: whose office undoubtedly was first insti- 
tuted upon occasion of these routs and uproars in most of 
the counties of England. They were called the King's Jus- 
tices in their commissions, as well as his Lieutenants. Which 
commissions ran to inquire of all treasons, misprisions of 
treason, insurrections, rebellions, unlawful assemblies and 
conventicles, unlawful speaking of words, confederacies, 
conspiracies, false allegations, contempts, falsehoods, negli- 
gences, concealments, oppressions, riots, routs, murders, fe- 
lonies, and other ill deeds whatsoever, and also all atees- 
saries of the same. And to appoint certain days and places 


for the inquiry thereof . And to be the King's Lieutenants CHAP, 
within the respective counties for levying of men, and to x ^ 1 ' 
fight against the King's enemies and rebels, and to execute Anno ims. 
upon them martial law ; and to subdue all invasions, insur- 
rections, &c These commissions were renewed yearly. 

CHAP. XXII. 179 

The French** success against the English in Boloignois. 
Execution of the rebels. Somersets troubles. The causes 
thereof. His Court of Requests. A sessions of Parlia- 
ment. The Acts. 

1HESE at length were the successes against the seditions A piece 
at home ; but from the other side of the seas came not so j^" n ^ 
good news. For the French King, taking now his time, to *&• 
and laying hold of this rebellion within the realm, came in 
August unto Boloignois with a great number of horse and 
foot, himself in person ; and on the 24th of the said month 
the Almain camp, or Almain hill, a piece appertaining to 
Ambleture or Newhaven, was delivered to the French by 
traitorous consent of the captain of the camp there, variance 
felling or feigned between the captain and his soldiers. So 
that now they were besieged very near, and in manner 
round. Howbeit the English at this very time wrote thence 
to the King and Council, that they trusted the piece itself 
[viz. Newhaven] would be well enough defended, God as- 
sisting them, who were in as good and stout a courage as 
any men might be, and as desirous to win honour, and give 
a good account of their charge. 

But soon after, by treachery, the main fort of Newhaven NewUven 
was also lost, and another strong place called Blackness; 1 
and the French proceeded to lay siege to Boloign itself. 
And all this loss caused by the mutinies at home ; the sup- 
pressing of which hindered the sending sufficient aid thi- 
ther. This the Protector unfolded to Hoby the ambassador 
with the Emperor, in his letter, dated September 1, in these 

t 4 


BOOK " We cannot omit to advertise you, that the French 
" King, by means of this dangerous business at home, hath 



Anno 1549. " taken courage to invade the King's Majesty's 

tectorto " ° n ^ e ot ^ er ^e °f ^ e seas * ^nd dbat it Was SO fof©- 

Hoby, giv- " seen, as order was taken for his encountering in the field, 
tion\here^ " y et ^ c outrageousness of the people was such within our- 
of. « selves, as, attending first to the pacifying things at home 

" as reason required, we could not in time provide for 
tilings abroad. Which the French King perceiving, and 
having before corrupted two of the Bang's Majesty*! 
" ministers, taking also advantage of our seditions and tu- 
mults at home, descended in person with an army royal, 
and by treason of the captain and master governor oft 
" little fortress, which stood upon a hill, named the Almam 
Camp, near the main fort of Newhaven, and was a key 
to the same, abandoned it. After the getting whereof by 
means of the same, and of such secret intelligence as they 
" had with the said traitors, did after in short time win the 
" main fort of Newhaven : which by these corrupt and 
" false means they now possess. And beside the fort of 
" Newhaven, one other small piece of his Majesty's, named 
" Blackness, and mindeth to do the uttermost he may 
1 80 " against Boloign. And because we doubt not but the 
" Frenchmen, according to their accustomed fashion, will 
brave much of this their sudden enterprize, though it be 
not great, we have thought good to write the whole of 
these matters unto you, to be used as ye shall see cause. 
And considering how dishonourably the French King 
hath begun these wars, whereof we have more at large 
heretofore written unto you, we trust in the end he shall 
" have small cause to boast himself of any gain." 

We leave the French besieging Boloign ; which ne?er- 
theless with all their strength they were not able to prevail 
against, so bravely did the English acquit themselves, till 
afterwards it was delivered up for money; the keeping 
whereof being not thought worth the expense. And turn 
we again to home matters. 
The chief- The heads and captains of the rebellion in the west 

tains of the * 





ome few of them, gentlemen inflamed with an ig- CHAP, 
zeal to the old religion, but the most of them the j_ 

rf the people, and not a few of them priests. But Anno 1 ms. 

in the west. 

*r most of them, when their herds by the valour and f* 06 " 1011 

t of the Lord Russel were routed, suffered the pains 
th. Their names were Arundel, Pomeroy, Coffin, 
ide, Roeogan, Holmes, Bury, Underhil, Soleman, Se- 
oyer, Lee, two Mayors, Pain, Maunder, Ashridge, 
Mon, Baret, Bocham, Wolcock, Alsa, Morton, Welsh, 
r, Benet : which last recited nine were priests. There 
other which our histories make no mention of, named 
whether he was captain, or some other great assist- P*£ et onc 
this disobedience ; who as it seems might be related 
«r William Paget Upon which account, or some 
reasori, the Lord Privy Seal was not so forward to 
m to death. But being a person of such note in 
nroils, the Protector and the Lords sent down a par- 
letter for his execution. And execution being still 
id, it was seconded with another from the Protector 
and that because people began to clamour against 
s though he were the cause of the delay of it, and 
reflected upon his honour, as though he were not now 
d impartial distributor of justice upon malefactors as 
t before, now to wink at Paget, when formerly he had 
ted to the death even of his own brother. But I must 
eave to insert his letter. 

fter our very hearty commendations unto your good The Protec- 
Iship : Whereas we, with divers others of the King's Lord Rug. 
esty's Council, heretofore addressed our letters to you *** * or e ?~ 

i ill Tfc* cution of 

due execution to be done and had upon Paget for Paget, 
worthy deserts ; which as we be informed is not done, JJ^-^' P ' 
respected [respited] upon what occasion we know 
whereat we cannot a little marvel, the thing so much 
hing our honour ; for, as we have been credibly in- 
led, divers have not left unspoken, that we should 
ent to the death of our own brother, and now would 
c at bim ! Wherefore we heartily pray you, as you 


BOOK " tender our honour, to see him suffer that he hath dfc 
« gerved^ according to the tenor of our former fatten; 

Anno 1649. « and that without delay. Thus fare ye welL From Syea, 
" 18. Sept 1549. 

" Your loving friend, 

<( E. Somerset* 

181 But while the Duke of Somerset was thus 
The Protec- quelling and punishing this conspiracy against the Kng 
into trou- and kingdom, a plot was hatching against himself, and al» 
ble *- most ripe. For no longer than the beginning of the not 

month it brake out and took effect; when he was taka 
from the King at Windsor, and carried openly through die 
city of London to the Tower. Seeing the storm approach* 
ing him, he endeavoured to make all the friends he could 
by messages and applications. And the Lord Privy Seal 
being now strong in the west, he wrote a letter to him, 
October 6, giving him account of the conspiracy made 
against him, beginning, " Here hath of late risen such a coa* 
" spiracy," &c. And by the postscript may be seen, what ca- 
lumnies were now bruited abroad to blacken him, and make 
him odious among the people. " They are not ashamed," 
writes he, " to send posts abroad to tell, that we are already 
" committed to the Tower : that we would deliver the Bi- 
shops of Winchester and London out of prison, and bring 
in again the old mass." And in the letter it appeal^ 
they gave out that he had sold Boloign, and withheld the 
soldiers' wages. But I refer the reader to our historians, to 
know more of these troubles that befel that Duke, under 
which at last he sunk. The foresaid letter of the Duke, bat 
without the postscript, together with the Lord Russet's an- 
p»g. it44. swer, may be found in Fox. 

The occa- Yet to inform ourselves a little in this place concerning 
•ioiw there- ^ o^^Qng f hjg misfortunes. It must be reckoned 
among his failures, and a thing whereby he procured ene- 
mies to himself, the havoc he made of sacred edifices, and 
whatsoever was contained in them. It was too barbarous 
indeed, what was practised by him, namely, the defacing 



ancient monuments, and rooting out hereby the memory of CHAP, 
men of note and quality in former times, of which posterity xxn# 

wont to be very tender. For he pulled down in Paul's Anno ims. 
church-yard, and other places, many churches and religi- 
ous fabrics, for the building of Somerset-house. And not 
only were the tombs of the dead razed, but their bones car- 
lied away in cartloads, and buried in Blomesbury. Yet this 
totiee of former superstitions was gained by this barbarity, 
wed by him and others under the reigns of King Henry 
aid King Edward, that among a great number of rotten 
encases were found caskets full of pardons safely folded 
md lapped together in the bottom of their graves : which 
Dr. Haddon himself bad observed, when they digged dead 
men out of their graves, and carried away their bones, occa- 
sioned by pulling down many churches and convents, as he 
wrote in his answer to Osorius. But this was but a little part 
of what created the Duke's misfortunes. 

By certain secret letters of Sir William Paget, Secretary 
of State, wrote to the Protector, we learn, that he was 
somewhat elated with his prosperity, and affected to be ar- He is «rbi- 
bitrary in the Court, and to have his own will take place, tnrj ' 
mi would seldom follow advice : whereby he procured to 
Irimself ill-will among the nobility and gentry ; with whom 
tbo he would sometimes be very sharp in words. Nay, 
even the Privy Counsellors did not escape him, when they 
chanced in council to speak contrary to his will or judg- 
ment. A knight once having some business with him, was 
k> nipped by him and rebuked, and that for no great mat- 
ter, that he could not forbear repairing to Paget's chamber, 
there complaining to him with tears, how he had been used 
a little before by the Protector. Nay, and his great friend 
Paget himself escaped not, but was often by him taken up 182 
very short at the Council-board, where he used to speak 
freely: insomuch that he told the Protector that he had 
been discouraged at his Grace's hands in open council to 
say his opinion, as much as ever man was. Which usage 
made, that neither he nor others of the Council cared to 
speak modi afterwards. These matters provoked the said 


BOOK Paget (who loved to speak his mind freely to his friend, 
*' and perhaps had liberty given him by the Protector so to 





Anno 1M9. do towards him) to write a letter to him, May 8, wherein he 
b^hu^ to °^ tlle Kberty to tell him, " that unless his Grace would 
friend Pa- " more quietly shew his pleasure in things wherein he d*> 
***" " bated with other men, and would hear them again grad- 1 

ously, to say their opinions, what would ensue thereof he < 
would be right sorry for, and his Grace would have cam ; 
u to repent For no man would dare to speak to him whit , 
he thought, though it were never so necessary. And tint - 
" would be dangerous for himself in the end. And that a 
" king, that should give occasion of discouragement to Us 
" counsellors to say their opinions frankly, received thereby 
" great hurt and peril to his realm. But a subject in great 
authority, as his Grace was, using such choleric fashion, 
was like to fall into great danger and peril of his own 
" person, besides that of the commonwealth." The Duke 
seemed but lately to have taken up this passionate way, per- 
haps in imitation of, or too much converse with his master 
King Henry, who did use in very hasty manner to treat 
those that were about him. 
Couru the And as this roughness to the gentry was one of the Duke's 
p°p •cy* error8) gQ ft was thought another, that he so much courted 
the populacy, and used himself with so much condescension 
towards them, that they stood in no fear of him. For this 
the said Secretary blamed him in a letter wrote to him io 
July, when the rebellion was now broke out, and men 
opened their mouths broadly against the government It 
was a long expostulatory letter, full of freedom and as great 
wisdom. He protested that he wrote it in such perplexity 
as he knew not what to do, and that his heart bled, and Us 
eyes distilled down with weeping. For he saw at hand that 
coming, as he said, which he feared of long time, vix. the 
destruction of that good young child his sovereign Lord, 
the subversion of his noble realm, and the ruin of his Grace. 
And hence he took occasion to tell him at large of his im- 
perfections in government, and particularly his too much 
gentleness and his too good nature, and his kindness to the 


fW""»«" tort, which had animated them to disobedience: CHAP. 


"his lenity, his softness, his opinion to be good to the 

* poor, and affectation of the good word of the commons, Anno l5 *& 

* who cried out, Oh Sir ! there was never a man had the bX'of **" 

* hearts of the commons as you have. The commons pray him for 
" for you, and say, God save your life." To which Paget 
aribjohis, " that he knew right well the Duke's gentle heart, 

* and that his meaning was good and godly. Though some 

* there were, he said, that prated otherwise, and that he 

* had some greater enterprize in his head, who leaned so 
u much to the multitude. But he knew his Grace's mean- 
"ingan honest virtue. But still he insisted, that that evil 

* thai happening in the land, had been occasioned by his 
H too much gentleness to the vulgar." 

And then as to his disobliging behaviour towards the Would op- 
Counsellors, be shewed him, how he would sometimes op-^ le e 
pose himself to the whole Council ; and when they joined Council, 
all in a matter, he would out-reason them, and think by his 
authority to make them bow to his opinion. And again, 
fcow he would first deliver his opinion in a matter, and then 
ok theirs: which the awe they had of him would make 
them incline to allow of, however inwardly they disliked it. 

The Protector also raised against himself much hard His Court 
feech for that Court of Requests he set up within his own disliked. 
bouse ; the good intent whereof was to hear poor men's pe- 
titions and suits. . And here oftentimes upon examination of 
their cases, and upon the compassion he took of their op- 
pressions, if he ended not their businesses, he would send 
Us letters to the Chancery in their favour : which some 
judged to be a stopping the course of the courts, and en- 
deavouring to warp the Judges, with whom his letters, they 
and, would be apt to weigh much. In the Cotton library Titus, F.s. 
there be two letters of Paget, whence these things above 
related are taken : wherein much of the true state of affairs 
at this juncture may be seen, and the slips of the Protector, 
and likewise the temper, wisdom, and great abilities of that 
statesman the writer. See them in the Repository. GG » HH. 

Yet Paget's temper naturally disposed to severity, and 


BOOR confirmed therein by the methods he had observed in &- 
*• shop Gardiner, under whom he had been bred, led him to 

Anno 1649. principles of government perhaps too rigorous, and by some 
The Duke's y^ men in those days disliked; as thinking it not safe to 
▼ernment hold such a strict hand over the commons, and to press and 
vindicated ; ^^ ^^ un der, in a kind of slavery ; which English sp- 
rits would not nor could digest And therefore Somerset 1 ! 
milder courses in his managery of public affairs were not to 
be thought so impolitic, however condemned by the ssid 
Paget, and some other of the lofty domineering nobles sod 
gentlemen, whose covetousness made them afflict and op- 

And his press the inferior sort. And as for his Court erf Requests, 
Requests, surely it deserved no such hard censure ; serving as some 
check to the rigorous and unjust dealings of the rich mi \ 
the mighty exercised upon the poor, who were not able to \ 
contend with them at law, by reason of their countenance : 
and wealth, whatsoever great wrongs were done them; ' 
which at this Court might easily and cheaply be shewn J 
and complained of by way of request and petition. Here < 
many controversies were made up, and restraints laid upon 
the destructive designs of the rich against the poor, and as* j 
cording to the cognizance of the causes brought before the >- 
Duke, he would sometimes send his letters to the Judges 
that were to hear them, not to warp their judgments, bat 
to incline them to do justice impartially, and not to favour 
the great in their extortions upon those of meaner rank and 
degree : sometimes he would appoint intelligent and hone* 
men as arbitrators, to consider the complaints preferred It 
him, and with speed to make a just determination and con- 
clusion between party and party, without the long 
sive formality of law. Such an order, for example sake, 
the Protector send to Francis None, and Owen Hopton, 
Esquires, the last year. His letter I will insert for the gift- 
ing the more light to this Court. 

mss. penes « After our hartie commendations : We send unto yon 
His letter " the supplication here inclosed ; wherin we minding di- 
from that « rection by right ; wherefore (knowing your wisdoms and 


M upright dexterities) we will and require you by vertue CHAP. 
44 hereof, calling all such parties before you, as you shall XXIL 

** think mete for the better knowledge of the truith therin, Anno 1549. 
a to hear and examine the same. And upon due know- 184 
u ledge of the case, to proceed, without furder tract of time, 
** unto the final determination therof, as to right, equity, 
"and conscience shall apperteyne. So as the party com- 
u pUinant may receive and enjoy th'ole that in conscience 
. " he ought to have by your order ; being you, by the tenor 
u hereof, authorised thereunto, without further cause here- 
" after eftsones to molest us in this behalf with complaint 
" Thus not doubting that you will not frustrate this the 
"good opinion we have conceyved in you, we bidde you 
"fare wet From Somerset Place the 11. of March, an. 

" Your louing freende, 

" E. Somerset" 

I need not enter into any further relation of these troubles The Lords, 
raised against the Duke; our histories discover them at^^^'* 
laige. Yet to shew in part the course the Lords, the Duke's ,ununon m 
CDfiWiien, took against him. They summoned armed men, to send up 
hone and foot, to repair to them from every county, to op- force8, 
pose the Duke and his men : giving out to the gentry the 
great dangers the King's person was in, and the necessity 
rf rescuing him out of the Duke's hands : whose doings 
they called traitorous and Jblse, and his proceedings de~ 
vUuks But upon the Duke's submission and surrendering 
die King's person, the Lords despatched another letter, 
dated from' London, October 11, to forbear the sending up 
it the forces they required in their last Whose letter ran 
in this strain : 

" After our harty commendations. Where we have here- Their let. 
" tofore addressed our letters unto sundry gentlemen, of j^ B 
u that the King's Majesty's county of — — for their 
"coming or sending towards us such and as great num- 
" bers of hable men, both horsemen and footmen, as they 


BOOK " might furnish, to join with us for the deliverance of die 
" King's Majesty's most royal person from the imminent 




Anno 1549. " danger the same was in, through the traitorous doings 
" and false practices of the Duke of Somerset: forasmuch 
" as it hath now pleased Almighty God of his infinite 
" goodness and mercy so to provide, that his Majesty ii 
" delivered from those dangers ; and the forces also as- 
sembled by the said Duke for maintenance of his naughty 
" and devilish proceedings, clearly also dispersed ; we have 
thought good both to advertise both of this great good* 
ness of God, requiring you to give him humble thanks 
" for the same : and also to pray you, to give notice by pro- 
clamation and otherwise, as you shall think good, to iH 
such gentlemen of that county, to whom any such letten 
" have been addressed from us, as is aforesaid, to stay 
" themselves with their men at home ; taking good heed to 
" the common peace, quiet, and good order of the shire, ao- 
" cording to the King's Majesty's laws : giving them hk 
" Majesty's most harty thanks for their readiness to sera 
" at this time. And so we bid you right hartily fareweL 
" From London, this 11. of Octob. 1549. 

" Your loving friends." 

185 Two days after, viz. October 18, a revocation was made 
The Duke's by letters patent, of the authority of Governor of the King's 
Governor person and protectorship granted to the Duke of Somerset, 
and Protec- December 24, anno 1 Edw. VI. for the ill government, rule, 

tor revoked. ■, ,. . . . r *_ i_ • 

and direction of his person : " whereby it was brought in 
" great danger ; the subjects by civil dissension much an- 
" noyed, and the laws subverted, and his realms and domi- 
" nions brought to great peril of utter ruin ;" as the instru- 
ment ran. 
TheParlia- The Parliament that had been prorogued began to at 
rtftnte°iawi ^ 8 vear > November 4, and continued sitting till February 
for religion. 1. following. In this session some further considerable steps 
were made in the reformation of religion, and abandoning 
the old superstitions out of the Church, which stuck still 
full close to it. For as yet images in many churches, set up 


r religious worship, remained, or else were in the keeping CHAP; 
r private men, priests and others. And .the old popish XMI ' 
Trice books were still preserved and used by Curates, as *■>"» '««■ 
ley stood affected. Of which there were divers and *un- jj^V*^' 
ry sorts, according to the various religious offices ; such popish «r- 
i antiphonals, missals, grails, processionals, manuals, le-"™ 
puds, pies, portuasses, primers, couchers, journals, ordi- 
•b. As to these, both books and images, it was decreed, 
bat they should be abolished totally, and kept no longer 

 the kingdom ; the images to be broken and defaced ; 
ad the books to be brought to the Mayor, or other officer 

 each parish, before the end of 80th of June next And 
fait under a penalty of money first, and then of imprison- 
BenL And such officers were upon pain of 40/. to bring 
hose books, which they received, within three months to 
he Bishop of the diocese, his chancellor or commissary. 
and he was to cause them openly to be burnt, or otherwise 
a be defaced or destroyed, upon pain likewise of 40/. But 
King Henry's Primer was particularly excepted ; which in- 
ked contained many good and wholesome instructions and 
letorJons ; that book therefore might be retained, only strik- 
ng out the sentences of invocation and prayer to saints. 
Neither were images and pictures belonging to tombs and 
ouuuments to be meddled withal, but to remain and stand, 
f the peraons for whom those monuments were erected, 
icre not reputed for saints, and so their pictures in danger 
s be abused to idolatry. 

The evil and inconvenience of the books aforesaid, hither- Which fm*. 
9 not called in, but remaining in churches, or otherwise g ™,d tn di 
reserved, was, that it was found to frustrate the good ends oItbt Com - 
■tended by the Book of Common Prayer lately set forth ; Book. 
Inch was, jbr an uniform, quiet, and godly order qfcom- 
ton and open prayer. " The use of which book, as the pre- 
amble set forth, was agreeable to the order of the primi- 
tive Church, and much more comfortable unto the King's 
•abject*, than other diversity of service, as heretofore of 
long time had been used ; nothing being ordered in the 


BOOK " same book to be read but the very pore word of Chi 
A * " which was evidently grounded upon the same. Wh» 

Anno 1549. " in the other were things corrupt, untrue, rain, and m 

" stitious, and as it were a preparation for stipend 

" And which still remaining gave occasion to divers 

" sons, as impugned the order and good meaning d 

" King's said Book of Common Prayer, to continue in 

" old accustomed superstitious service, and also minis! 

tt occasion, to diversity of opinions, rites, ceremonies, 

- " services." Many of these books upon this act ' 

186 brought in; but very many more were not, but card 

concealed by those that affected them, in secret pb 

which were produced again and came to light under Q 


An act for Another good law made this Parliament for amending 

desiwticaT corrupt state of the Church, was that whereby the 1 

***•• was empowered to appoint thirty-two learned mea 

peruse and examine the old ecclesiastical laws ; and to 

ther, order, and compile such laws ecclesiastical, as sb 

be thought to the King and his Council convenient U 

used, practised, and set forth within the realm, in all 

ritual or ecclesiastical courts. And that such laws so h 

should be taken and put in ure for the King's ecclesias 


An act for Also, the old Ordinal being full of superstition, a : 

iTnew^book o^k* of ordination of Archbishops, Bishops, Priests, I 

of ordina- cons, and other ministers, was allowed of; which had I 

or should be suddenly framed and devised by six Preb 

and six other learned in God's law, to be appointed by 

King, or the greatest number of them ; and by them ti 

set forth before the first day of April* next. And this 

enacted to be exercised and used, and none else. 

An act of This sessions of Parliament ended with an act of m 


and general pardon, designed as well for the ease of i 
as had been concerned in the late rebellion, as other 
fenders against the laws. There was in this act a pre* 
whereby persons that held certain opinions were exdu 


betafit at this pardon : which are set down expressly ; CHAP, 
that infants were not to be baptized ; and if they were, XXIL 

ftaptiund, that they ought to be rebaptized when they came Ano ° i**a. 
to lawful age. That it was not lawful for a Christian man ^JjJ}*** 
to bear office or rule in the commonwealth. That no men's out of it, 
laws ought to be obeyed. That it was not lawful for a 
Christian man to take an oath before any Judge. That 
Christ took no bodily substance of our blessed Lady. That 
toners after baptism could not be restored by repentance. 
That all things be or ought to be common, and nothing 
The persons that held these doctrines might well 
a note set upon them, being not consistent with a 
Christian commonweal. For if these should be believed and 
practiced, it were not able to subsist And they who held 
these tenets, were those they called Anabaptists ; whereof 
moral were now in prison : who were not thought fit to 
hate the benefit of this act But some of them were brought 
tft recant Two suffered death, viz. Van Paris and Joan 

In this Parliament, besides the public acts, which may be Pri?»teactf. 
mn in the ordinary printed statute books, were made seve- 
nl private acts, never printed: which may not be unuseful 
■or unacceptableto mention, viz. 

An act for dividends and quotidians in Wells. 

An act for disinheriting William West during his life. Lord <fo u 
lite reason whereof was, for designing to kill his uncle, the **' 
Lord La Ware, by poison, that he might the sooner enjoy his 
estate, and succeed to the honour of Baron La Ware. This 
William, whom Queen Elizabeth afterwards had created a 
Btoon anew, lived throughout the best part of that Queen's 
tag*. And his son Thomas was called to a Parliament 
fitting in the year 1597, and was presented to the ancient 
place of his forefathers, Lords La Ware, taking precedency, 
as his ancestors had done, which his father, by reason of his 1 87 
late creation, had not enjoyed. 

An act for the restitution of Thomas Islely, Esq. 

An act for the restitution of Sir William Hussey, Knight. 



BOOK An act touching the fine and ransom of the Duke of 
Somerset That is, for the punishment of his late 

Anno 1649. meanours, he was fined 20002. a year, of land, and kit ill 
of&^* his goods and offices. 




An embassy to the Emperor. The Emperor's requests. 
The Pope's death. Peace with France ; by the meam <f 
Guidoty an Italian merchant: rewarded. 

cheyne XN the month of November, the Xing and Lords of his 
banadorto Council (after the Duke was deposed of the protectorship) 
the Empe. g^ again an ambassador to the Emperor, viz. Sir Thomas 
Cheyne, treasurer of the King's chamber, to continue the 
good understanding between him and the Emperor, and to 
acquaint him with the present state of England, with parti- 
cular respect to the late disorders about Somerset; but 
chiefly to levy more soldiers out of his dominions, for the 
King's wars. He arrived at Brussels, Nov. 6. The morrow 
after his arrival, the Emperor sent a gentleman of his cham- 
ber, Don John Manrique, brother to the Duke of Naiara, 
to welcome him : which Manrique was one of the chief of- 
ficers of the Emperor's household, and in right good esti- 
mation with him. Cheyne, having admission to the Empe- 
ror's presence, signified to him, that a great end of his com- 
ing was to inform him of the late disorders in the kingdom 
about the Duke of Somerset. And some alterations touch- 
ing the order of the government, having lately happened, 
that the Lords of the Council thought good to give him in 
commandment to declare the truth and ground thereof 
unto his Majesty. And here Cheyne rehearsed unto him, 
from point to point, the whole discourse of the Duke of So- 
merset's proceedings, until the time of his apprehension* 
following therein as near as he could the very substance in 
effect of their Lordships' instructions. He subjoined, "that 
" albeit the King's Majesty's affairs, as well at home as 


iroad, were presently, by reason of the said Duke's CHAP. 
Iful and evil government, in some declination, yet would 

e Lords, as much as in them lay, travail by all means Anno 1549# 
ssible to redub and restore the same again to their for- 
er estate and estimation. For the furtherance whereof, 
> said, they doubted nothing of his Majesty's wonted 
tod-will and affection. And that seeing Boloign remained 
esently, by the forenamed occasion, in such strait terms, 
ere was now no other way to preserve it, but the re- 
ilse of the enemy from the siege, by force of men. That 
e Lord Clinton, the King's deputy there, had made a 
otion to Mons. Chastilion, the French King's lieutenant, 188 

• bring things to some composition. But that they re- 
ised to stand to the former treaties, and seemed in the 
st to be over-meager, and little conformable to reason, 
ad therefore that matter was broken off again ; and no 
ype of any appointment that ways, unless some other 
canon should be ministered on their part Which, if it 
mild be offered, they would' communicate to his Ma- 

And that therefore seeing there was now no other De»re$ 
eans to save that piece, but only by force of men, the ^m men. 
ing, as it was his will these matters should be discoursed 

length unto him, [the Emperor,] as to his most loving 
ther and very friend, so, by the advice of his Lords, did 
oat heartily pray him to grant him for his money the 
imber of two thousand horsemen, and four thousand foot, 

be levied within his countries, with such furniture of 
mour, and other ammunition, as should be necessary." 
Tie Emperor made this answer : " Mons. 1' Ambassador, The Em- 
must confess to have had both now, and at sundry other j^. * 
oaes, large experience of the faithful love and friendly 
fiance, that the King my good brother, and his Council, 
tve reposed in me, as well by sundry other arguments, 
i by their particular communicating unto me from time 

• time the estate of their affairs. And like as I am sorry 
» hear of the trouble and business that hath been lately 
nong them, so am I very glad to perceive it is at the 



BOOK " last grown to so good and quiet an end, and in so good 
" likelihood of continuance, which I hope, through the good 


Anno 1549. « and prudent governance of those grave and wise counsel- 
lors, the King my good brother, his estate and person 
shall henceforth be in good surety, his realms quietBer 
governed, and his enemies better encountered, than they 
have been hitherto. Whereto, for my good brotheA 
sake, I wish as good success, as I would to mine own 
proper affairs. 

". As to the estate of Boloign, albeit it standeth, as ye 
" say, in very weak terms, yet am I of opinion, that the 
" French are able for this winter time to work no manner 
" of displeasure that way. Wherein, and in the rest of my 
" good brother's affairs, I have heretofore at good length 
" declared mine advice and counsel unto Mons. FAm- 
" bassador here then : to which I have not presently any 
" other thing to add. But as to the numbers of men 
" that my good brother requireth at my hands, in good 
" faith, as well because his father was during his hfietiine 
" my very friend, and almost another father, as also be* 
" cause his Majesty, bang yet under years, hath therefore 
" need of his friend's assistance, I would even with all my 

" served : but yet can I not, without some touch of my 
estimation, and breach of my league with France, satisfy 
the request herein presently. And if I were disposed, or 
might agree thereto, yet to speak plainly as I think, I as- 
sure you it should in my mind rather hinder than further 
my good brother's affairs, for divers respects ; and namely, 
" because the French, how closely soever the matter were 
" gone about, might have commodity enough also to lety 
" such numbers of men as they should think good. Glad 
189" would I be to shew my good brother pleasure, and very 
u loath either to do any thing against mine own honour, or 
" hinder my good brother's affairs. On the other side, I 
" remember I am bound to observe my treaties with France, 
" which I cannot violate without some touch of mine ho- 



" nour." And so he concluded, praying the Ambassador to CHAP. 

common with Mons. d' Arras, who should further declare 1. 

unto him his mind, and devise such means herein as should Ann© iMf. 
be thought most indifferent and meetest for both parts. 
And so, after leave taken, they departed. 

Yet was not this embassy wholly ineffectual, as obtaining Some foot 
nothing but good words. For in Cheyne's and Hoby's^J^JT 
conference with D* Arras, he told them, that the Emperor 
was willing to grant the levying of five or six thousand 
footmen, so as they had them from about Freezland, 
and the seacoasts thereabouts, where they had at other 
times been accustomed to levy their men; and with con- 
dition only, that they were conveyed thence by sea, and 
none otherwise. He said further, that for the horsemen 
which they demanded, the Emperor thought they should 
not have occasion to make any such great preparation 
against the French, as well because they were presently, for 
want of provision of victuals and other necessaries, unable 
to bring down toward Boloign any great number of men of 
arms, as also for that the time of the year was now very late. 
Yet to satisfy, as much as he might, the King his good 
brother, he could be content they should have out of the 
country of Cleves five or six hundred horsemen to pass by 
land, by ten and twenty JUe cLjiic. But as for the carriage, 
provision, and victuals* they required, the Emperor could in 
no wise grant thereto : as well because the matter would be 
over-manifest to the world, and quite against the treaties 
with France ; as also for that his subjects in like case had 
been at other times ill entreated by the English, whereof 
they had heretofore made sundry complaints, and rested 
so ill satisfied, that they could never be brought to serve 
herein, without they were by the Emperor's express com- 
mand, yea, and with threatening of punishment, compelled 
thereto: which should too much open the matter to the 
world, and be almost a plain publication of war with France. 
And lastly, the scarcity of victuals in those parts presently 
was such, that he could not, without his subjects great pre- 

u 4 


BOOK judice and hinderance, grant liberty for the conveyance of 

any away. 

Anno 1549. This business of King Edward with the Emperor beuy 
quests"/*" thus answered, the Emperor had some business also with 
the Empe- King Edward : which D* Arras at this meeting reported 

ror to th* ^^ 

King. to the ambassadors, Cheyne and Hoby : whereof one was 
this. Certain French letters were lately intercepted by the 
English near about Boloign, which treated concerning cer- 
tain practices of Nece and Dragute Hayes, two infidels, sea 
commanders, that governed a fleet of ships belonging to the 

The French Turk; which the French King had procured of the greet 

Turk.* * Turk, for his service against the Emperor. A duplicate of 
these letters the King had sent to Hoby to deliver to the 
Emperor, for his behoof and service. D* Arras shewed that 
it was his master's desire, that the King would communkile 
to him the original letters, in case it might not turn to the 
hinderance of the King's proceedings, for the better proof 
and trial thereof: which might, he said, stand the Emperor 
in good stead, and would be an acceptable pleasure to him. , 
190 Secondly, He desired, that whereas one Sebastian Gabote, 

cm*™ 1 * 11 or Cabote, grand pilot of the Emperor's Indias, was then 
in England, forasmuch as he could not stand the King in 
any great stead, seeing he had but small practice in these 
seas, and was a very necessary man for the Emperor, whose 
servant he was, and had a pension of him ; that some order 
might be taken for his sending over in such sort as the 
Emperor should at better length declare unto the King's 
Council. Notwithstanding I suspect Gabote still abode in 
England at Bristow, (for there he lived,) having two or 
three years after set on foot a famous voyage hence, as we 
shall mention in due place. 

a bulwark Thirdly, There was a bulwark lately made by the Eng- 

tfoEmpc? l**h» *** lt SGems 9 m Boloignois, towards the Emjteror's 
ror's terri- frontiers, and built, as they asserted, upon part of his ter- 
ritories ; this had been sundry times declared unto the King's 
ambassadors, and redress required. Wherefore now the 
Emperor desired commissioners to be appointed on either 



arty for the determination thereof, as soon as might be. CHAP, 
'or he thought he had great wrong done herein. But to___ 

Sir Philip Hoby answered, that he was informed, the Anno ims. 
round whereon this bulwark was built, was indeed within 
he King's territories, and so proved by the confession of 
lie of the Emperor's own subjects. But D' Arras said, some 
if the officers there denied it. 

Lastly, Whereas at Paget's being ambassador there, The match 
Somerset being then Lord Protector, motion was made on the -^ 
he King's behalf for a marriage between the Infant of Por- Mftr 7 vxd 
ngal and the Lady Mary, because the matter rested then f Portugal 
ipon the knowledge of the Infant's estate, and what dower mOTtd * 
b could be able to assure unto the said Lady, with certain 
rther points desired to be cleared ; the Emperor had since 
Hit into Portugal, to treat upon this matter, and to know 
the certainty hereof. And therefore he would gladly know, 
whether upon answer received from thence, the King and 
bis Council minded to proceed any further herein, and stand 
to the motion made in the Protector's time. 

When Cheyne took his leave of the Emperor in order to The Empe- 
his return home, the Emperor used these words to him at™eaTreti- 
parting: " I shall pray you, said he, after my most hearty s* 00 to the 
* commendations to the King and his Council, to desire 
" both him and his Council to have matters of religion first 
K recommended ; to the end we may be at the length all of 
"one opinion. Till when, to speak plain unto you as I 
" think, I can neither so earnestly, nor so thoroughly assist 
" my good brother, as my desire is." 

The Pope dying in this month of November, while these The Pope 
two ambassadors were at Brussels, they gave the Court the 1Ci ' 
news of it, and of the canvassing that followed for a succes- 
cr. And because an English cardinal was nominated 
ittoog the rest as likely to wear the triple crown, I will set 
lown this part of their letter. " The Bishop of Rome being 
c dead, about the 9th of this instant, the Cardinal Farneze 
; sent word shortly after to the Emperor, that he would get 

him, if it were his pleasure, one and twenty voices with 
his own, for whomsoever he would have Pope. The Em* 


BOOK " peror made answer, that he would do herein as Goi 
l ' " should put in his head ; and, as it is said, he counselled 

Anno 1540. " him to do the like. Here are sundry opinions about the 
new Bishop elect. For some think the Emperor himself 
will be Pope, if he may : others think he will proems 
191 " his brother Perdinando to be Pope; and some suppott 
" the Duke of Savoy : others name the Cardinal Poles 
" others the Cardinal of Trent ; and many, the Cardinal 
" Carpi or Veruli, who are good Imperials. On the other 
" side, there are also said to be in the election the Cardinal 
" Salviati, and the Cardinal Ridolphi, who are both good 
" French." 
The begin- The year declining, and martial achievements being hin- 
S,^ dered by the long ni^ts and ill weather, it becanTipnv 
J W ^ D ^"per season for treaty between England and France: which 
France. began upon a pretty strange occasion. One Anthony Gui* 
Occasioned dot, a foreign merchant residing here, of his own head, iff 
ought appeared, (though he pretended he had his order tram 
France,) made several journeys in the month of December 
to and fro, to propound a treaty : which at last by his in- 
dustry had the intended effect, though at first there 
but little appearance thereof. The inkling thereof 
came to the Emperor's court ; who hearing of it, desired by 
Hoby, the English ambassador, to know the truth. By s 
letter of the 13th of December the said Ambassador adver- 
tised it over into England to the Council, with his advice 
thereupon. They, December 31, wrote back to him their 
thanks, and " how they perceived the bruit that was in the 
" Emperor's court, concerning the communication of peace 
" between the two realms. But that he might be assured 
" they had not forgotten what they had before written to 
" him, namely, that in case they proceeded towards a 000- 
" elusion of peace with the French, they would cause the 
" Emperor to be made privy to it. And that so they in- 
" tended to do indeed. But that as for the practice entered 
" by Anthony Guidot, it was a thing begun of his own mind. 
" And that because as yet there was no great likelihood it 
" should take any effect, seeing there was neither time, 


* place, nor meeting of commissioners appointed thereunto; CHAP. 
«* therefore they thought it not necessary to write of a thing XX11L 

u as yet so uncertain and doubtful. But that if they per- Aim ims 

M caved, if by that means, or any other, there should be 

u any Inwardness of a meeting for that purpose like to take 

" any good effect, they would certify him of it, to the intent 

« the Emperor might by him be made privy to it And 

tt thai one thing he might be assured of, that in case they 

"entered into any such communication with France, yet 

* nevertheless they would do nothing, that should by any 

u means be prejudicial to the treaty between the King's 

" Highness and the Emperor his good brother." 

But in. January, by the pains of Guidot, the matter began Commu- 
te ripen, and come to some further effect. For now, in ^i^j^ 
good earnest, commissioners were appointed on both sides, both udts. 
to treat. For, as the Council wrote to the said Ambassa- 
dor, January 16, Anthony Guidot came out of France, 
and brought word, that the French King desired to have a 
nesting to treat upon a peace, and for that purpose had 
named for his part Mons. de Rochepot, Mons. de Chastilion, 
Mods, de Mortier, and Mons. de Sassie, otherwise called the 
Secretary Boucheter. And perceiving the good inclination to 
peace, which the French shewed to have, they thought it 
not unmeet for the public wealth and quietness of Christ- 
endom, that the King's Highness for his part should give 
ear unto it. And so he had appointed the Lord Privy Seal, 
die Lord Paget, Sir William Peters, and Sir John Mason, 
at commissioners for his Majesty, to meet with the said 
French commissioners upon the frontiers, about the 85th 
or 86th of this present And they gave the Ambassador 
to know, moreover, that if upon their conference there ap- 1Q2 
peered any towardness of a good conclusion, he should be 
certified of it, to the intent he might advertise the Emperor. 

The business, now lying before the English commis-Tbe 
■ona-s, was to demand payment of an annual pension due JJ«£i 
Id England, as a debt owned by the former French King; bngs. 
and to hear what the French commissioners would offer 
xmcerning Boloign. But to know how matters went be- 


BOOK tween the commissioners, and how intolerably insolen 
Ia insulting the French were, and lastly, to understan 

Anno 1549. present condition of things at home, a letter from the 

1L Paget, one of the commissioners on the English side, 

Earl of Warwick, lord great master, will abundantly 

See the Whereby it appeared, that the French carried them 
* loftily in all their proceedings. And the knowledge c 
present juncture increased their courage. They tol 
commissioners, they would have Boloign by- fair mea 
by foul. And as for the pension, they would, they sa 
no longer tributaries. They extolled the power of 
King, and spake but meanly of ours, with such bra 
and braving terms «nd countenances, (which especial 
peared in Rochepot,) that one would have judged 1 
man, said the Lord Paget, more fit to make of peace i 
than of war a peace. They would recognize no debts, 
they said, the English had made them spend, and had 
upon the seas, ten times as much as the debt can 
They said, the pension was granted, but the times 
turned. That it was granted by the French King tin 
dead, to a King of England that was dead. And tfa 
King of France could not by his simple grant, withou 
firmation of Parliament, bind his successors. That 
Henry made his bargain at that time, when he had the 
in his hand, namely, the French King and the Empe 
one time, and so might make his bargain himself, as he ' 
But his ministers took not heed to knit it surely up b 
liament. They said therefore, they would use time as 
Henry did, when his time served. For they said, they 
their state, and that the English were not able to wai 
them. And in fine, all that they offered was, thi 
English commissioners should wipe away all pretence 
they made to France, and ask a reasonable sum for Bo 
and they would make a reasonable answer. Or, if 
would not, in respect of their master's young age, i 
his pretence, they required Boloign, and they would 
with them for a sum ; and they might reserve to their i 
his droits, that he pretended to ; and to them [the Fi 


their defences for the same. But Rochepot said, they would CHAP. 

* ~ «• W||| 

have Boloign, whosoever said nay; and that the English AAJI1 " 

were in poverty and mutiny at home, beset all about with Anno 1549. 
enemies, having no friend to succour them, destitute of 
money to furnish them, and so far in debt, as hardly they 
could find any creditors. This language angered the Eng- 
&h extremely, but they could not well tell how to help 

In short, it was thought the best way to sell Boloign, a a peace 
very chargeable place, and in danger to be lost, on the best 000 
terms they could. In March this produced a peace, and 
Boloign was sold. For what, and the conditions, let other 
historians relate. 

This the Lord Russel, Earl of Bedford, the Lord Paget, The Em- 
sad the other commissioners signified to the Ambassador at ^"Jnud 
the Emperor's court, with commission to him to open the with it by 
smbc, on the King and Council's behalf, to the Emperor. 8 J or# 
Upon the receipt whereof he demanded audience, when at 193 
kk coining to the Emperor's presence, which was March 2£, 
he said, " That whereas the King's Highness, by advice of his 
u Lords, had lately, for the better quietness of Christendom, 
u and such other grounds and considerations as had been 
" heretofore by him, the Ambassador, declared to him and 
* his ministers, entered to treat of peace with France ; and 
" having now at length, after some time spent in debating 
u the matter, grown finally to an end, and concluded a peace 
u with the French King ; the King his master had com- 
<*manded him to open and declare the same unto him. 
" The sum whereof, he said, was, that for a certain sum of 
u money to be paid to the King's Majesty, partly in hand, 
u and partly at days, Boloign, with the members thereto 
44 adjoining, and the other pieces of the new conquest, were 
"to be restored to the French King; and certain pieces 
" which the King had fortified in the midst of Scotland, to 
" the Scots, who were comprehended with the French King 
" in this treaty, in such sort as the form of their compre- 
u hension should appear to his Majesty. 

" And this, Sir, (as he proceeded,) is the effect of this 


BOOK u agreement Wherein each ooMsdmtiott 

! ' " been had to jour Majesty's amity and friendship, 


Aamo 1M9. « the strait league that is between you and the Kin 
" master appertained! ; as by this copy of those pai 
the treaty that concern this matter, may more plain] 
pear to your Majesty." And here he delivered unt 
Emperor a note containing two or three clauses of the t 
sent him by the Earl of Bedford and his colleagues: i 
the Emperor received, and said, he would cause it 1 
overlooked. The Ambassador went on, shewing the 
peror, " that the Bang trusted to find at his hands m 
M continuance of friendship, than he and his Council mi 
" towards him ; wherein he should find no lade in th 
the uttermost that by the treaty could be required, 
doubting but his Majesty, as a prince of such wi 
" and experience, and knowing as he did the state c 
" King his master's realm, and what great charges Be 
" did put his Highness and realm unto, did well en 
" remember, that after eight years wars with the Scob 
" six years wars with the French King, wanting the i 
" anoe of dither friend, neighbour, or ally, the Frend 
" the Scots being in th€ mean time joined together. 
" having to do no where else with any other; it was 
" than necessary for his Highness to grow to agree 
" and peace, as he had done. Nevertheless he remain 
" he had done always, his Majesty's assured friend, u 
" thing that he could or ought to do him pleasure i 
" hope, assuredly, to receive the semblable correspom 
,( of friendship at his hands, whom he reputed his be* 
" ther and perpetual ally.'* 
TbtEmpe- The Emperor perceiving the Ambassador to come 
wrt •*- end of his talk, after a little pause, and having with si 
words of ceremony willed the Ambassador to rend* 
most hearty commendations unto the King's Majesty, 
like thanks unto his Majesty, and the Lords for this n 
that they shewed him, said, " Mons. P Ambassador, 
" right glad, and do rejoice even with all my ha 
" understand, that the King my good brother is now i 


* last fallen to agreement and peace with France. And CHAP. 


" surely, I have long coveted to see him in these his tender 1 

at quiet, and at concord with his neighbours. Anno lb49 < 
u Which being now come to pass, I mistrust not, but both *9* 
" he for his own commodity, and we his friends for his 
" sake, shall have cause to rejoice thereat For the regard 
u that my good brother and the Lords of his Council have 
"had, in this their conclusion with France, towards me, 
u and the amity and league that is between us, I pray you 
M render unto them my most hearty thanks; assuring the 
? King my good brother, that like as I have always hitherto 
" looked for no less at his hands, so shall he be sure to find 
" the reciproque thereof at mine, in the sure observation of 
u the league that is between us to the uttermost jot, or in 
" any other thing that I may shew him pleasure in, to the 
" best of my power. And truly, I cannot but confess to 
"have perceived the earnest affection and good-will, that 
" the King my good brother and his Council have borne al- 
" ways towards me, in the communicating to me from time 
" to time the estate of his affairs. Whereby indeed I have 
u perceived, as ye say, how necessary it hath been for them 
" to grow to peace ; especially in respect of my good bro- 
" ther's younger years. And like as they have not hitherto 
u wanted (although in respect of their wisdom they have 
" had little need thereof) such friendly advice and counsel, 
" when they have required it at my hands, as I could give 
u them ; no more shall my good brother find me unready 
" to continue and increase the amity and friendship that 
" hath thus long continued between us and our houses, to 
" the uttermost that I may. The reciproque whereof I 
" doubt not to find at his and his minister's hands, when- 
" soever opportunity shall be thereto administered." And to 
this tenor the Emperor most obligingly concluded. 

Anthony Guidot was well rewarded for his pains. For Guidot 
whatsoever favours he received from France for this service, re 
Sing Edward soon after the peace gratified him with a 
thousand crowns, and a thousand crowns pension, and made 
him a knight, and his son had a pension of two hundred 


BOOK and fifty crowns, as the King makes a memorial of it in ha 
L journal. But this was not all ; for as I find elsewhere, the 

Anno 1649. King, about a year after, seemed to make him his merchant, 
Wanr.Book.Qoj granted him a licence, under the name of Sir Anthony 
Guidot, his factors and attorneys, to transport and carry over 
beyond seas woollen cloths and kersies, lead, tin, and all 
other merchandizes of this realm, being not of the staple of 
Calais, neither prohibited by the laws of the land : and abo 
to bring in velvet, cloth of gold, and other merchandizes, at 
sweet wines, and oils, paying for the customs and subsidies 
as the merchants of England did. The grant also of 25QL 
yearly (answering to the thousand crowns mentioned in the 
journal) during life, is also here set down ; to be received 
by the King's order of the Duke of Florence, who owed to 
the King and his successors 500/. a year for certain years. 


Afire in the palace. Earl of Arundel confined. Books pub- 
lished this year; by Cheke 9 P. Martyr, Hooper, Ochm, 
Witt. Thomas. The Holy Bible: Beck, Bale, $c. New 
Book of Ordination. The state of the realm. Sir Stephen, 
curate of Cree church. 

A fin at JN OW from more public affairs of state, let us descend to 
Court * more private matters. At Christmas a fire happened at the 
King's palace at Westminster ; the effect, as it seems, of the 
great feasting there. For it fell chiefly in the kitchen and 
office adjoining, as the scullery. Whereby, beside other da- 
mage, much of the King's plate was spoiled and consumed 
So that the charge only of recruiting his plate, partly occa- 
sioned by this fire, cost a good round sum. As appears in 
the Warrant Book, where a warrant is mentioned to the ex- 
chequer, to pay to certain persons for plate bought of them 
for the King's use, and for new making and gilding certain 
vessels burnt there at the feast of Christmas, together with 
mending of plate, the sum of 1687/. 16*. llq. 

In January was the Earl of Arundel for certain misde- 


namourt sequestered to his home ; as likewise, for certain CHAP. 
considerations, were Thomas Arundel and Mr. Rogers, of _ 

the privy chamber. Rumours likewise blew about, that the Al ™ >**•. 
Earl of Southampton also was sequestered to his house: of A,^d*i 
which indeed was not so. But he might go at hia pleasure contact! : 
whither him listed. This news the Council imparted in their" 4 otb "*' 
letters to Hobj their ambassador. What those misdemean- 
ours at the Earl of Arundel were, King Edward in his 
Journal relates, nix. plucking down locks and bulls at West- 
minster, and giving away the King's stun", fizc. Whence 
arose great suspicion of him. And he was fined 18000Z. 
Of which yet he was afterwards pardoned. We shall hear 
rf him again under the next year. 

I have little more to add concerning this year; only to 
■enbou some books that were now published, and to give 
nme prospect of the state of the nation at this juncture. 

This year Mr. Cheke, the King's schoolmaster, and one Cbeki'i 
of his bedchamber, (but retired this summer to his old mo- CTio k rt , ^ H , 
ther Cambridge,) put forth a book against the rebellion, en- rebellion. 
titled, The Hurt of Sedition,how grievous it is to a Common- 
wealth. On the reverse of the title-page is the picture of 
Absalom hanging in the tree, thrust through by Joab, with 
this motto, The reward of Absalom the rebel. The running 
title is, The true subject to the rebel. It was printed by John 
Day dwelling at Aldersgate, and William Seres dwelling in 
Peter-college, and were to be sold at the new shop in the 
little conduit in Cheapside. This discourse carried an ad- 
mirable strain of rhetoric and persuasion, and was close and 1 96 
piercing, like an oration of Demosthenes, with whom Cheke 
was very conversant, and of whom he was master. It began, 

M Among so many and notable benefits, wherewith God 
" bath already so plentifully endued us, there is nothing 
" more beneficial, than that we have by his grace kept us 
" quiet from rebellion at this time. For we Bee such nuse- 
" ries hang over the whole state of the commonwealth 
" through the great misorder of your sedition, that it maketh 
" us much to rejoice, that ws«have been neither partakers 
" of your doings, nor conspirers of your councils. For even 



BOOR "as the Lacedemonians, for the avoiding of drunkenness 
" did cause their sons to behold their servants when they 




Anno IMS. « we re drunk, that by beholding their beastliness, they 
" might avoid the like vice ; even so hath God like a mer- 
" ciful father stayed us from your wickedness, that by he* 
holding the filth of your fault, we may justly for 
abhor the like rebels, whom else by nature we love 
" Englishmen. And so for ourselves, we hare grea£. cause I 
" to thank God, by whose religion and holy word daily j 
taught us, we learn not only to fear him truly, but also 
to obey oujr King faithfully, and to serve in our own 
tion honestly. And as for you, we have surely just 
to lament you as brethren, and yet juster cause to 
" against you as enemies, and most just cause to overthrow "j 
" you as rebels." And a little after, " How do ye take ii 
hand to reform? Be ye kings? By what authority? or 
by what occasion? Beye the king's officers? Bywhatcom- j 
" mission? Be ye called of God? By what token declare j 
" ye that? God's word teacheth us, that no man should take 
" in hand any office, but he that is called of God, like Aft- 

" ron. Ye rise for religion. What religion taught ; 

" that? If ye were offered persecution for religion, ye ought : 
to fly. So Christ teacheth you, and yet you intend to 

fight Why rise ye for religion? Have ye any thing 

contrary to God's book? Yea, have you not all things 
agreeable to God's word?" Thus went he on, answering 
all their objections and demands, with an easy plainness 
and convincing evidence. This whole treatise is transcribed 
Pag. 1043. and preserved in Holingshed's History, 
p. Martyr's Now also came forth the readings of Peter Martyr, pub- 
book of the jj c p ro fessor of Divinity in Oxford, about the sacrament of 
the Lord's Supper, in quarto, entitled, Tractatio de Sacra- 
mento Eucharixtut; habita public^ Oxonii, per D. Petrum 
Martyrem VermUium Florentinum, in ea Academia 9acrt 
Theologia publicum et Regium Prqfessorem : cum Jam ab- j 
solvisset interprctaHoncm xi. capitis priori* EpistoUt ad j 
Corinthios. This book the ^gftned Professor dedicated to 
Archbishop Cranmer in a large epistle. The reason whereof 


be gave was, " Since he could not find a defender both of CHAP. 
" evangelical truth, and also of this cucharistical Sacrament, . ' 

-, doctior, etjirtmor; i. e. more holy, more learned, Anno iua. 
" and more steady than he. And that his Grace had so 
" great knowledge concerning this controversy, as he [P. 
K Martyr] well knew, that it was hard to find the like in 
" any one beside. That there was none of the fathers, 
" whom he had not very diligently made his observations 
" of; dot any book either of ancient or modern writers, 
" which I have not myself (as Martyr told him) with these 
" eyes seen, noted with his own band, whatever belonged to 
" that whole disputation.'" He went on in his character 
of ths great Archbishop and martyr: "That councils, 
"canons, popes, decrees, which pertained thereunto, he 197 
" had digested with so great labour into particular distinct 
" heads, that, unless he [P. Martyr] had not been an eye- 
" witness himself, he should scarcely ever have believed it 
" upon the relation of others. Nor had he [the Archbishop] 
" taken such pains, study, and labour in this subject only, 
** of the Eucharist, but that he had observed, how he [the 
" said Archbishop] had done the same almost in all other 
H doctrines, which were chiefly controverted in that age.  . . 
" That he had both publicly and privately conflicted with the 
u adversaries, and with admirable strength of learning, sharp- 
** ness of wit, and dexterity of performance, asserted what 
" be knew to be true, from the thorny and intricate cavils 

** of sopliisters That he [P. Martyr] saw it necessary to 

" fly to the authority ot his name, since he had need of some 
" powerful wngMwierrq;, [defender,] under whom he might 
" be protected from those, who had been detracting, tearing, 
M and traducing his name every where, with most shameless 
" lie*: and such men as be thought could never have been, 
" had be not found them/ 1 

In this work he disposed the order and method of bis dis- 
course under these- four heads. First, of that conjunction, 
where by it is commonly said, the bread and wine is transub- 
stantiated into the body and blood of Christ. Next, to ex- 
acMne another opinion, which makes the bread sod wine in- 


BOOK deed, as to their entire and true natures, to be ret ai ned m 
L the Sacrament; and so to be retained, that they have ai 

Anno ii49.joinedly, naturally i (as they speak,) corporally, and raa% 
the true body and blood of Christ In the third place* 
should be weighed what others also said, that they are not 
at all joined together any other way, than sacramental; that 
is, by signification and representation. And then, lastly, it 
should be shewn, how the second and third opinions, and 
what belongeth to them, do more tend to piety in this aacw 
mental affair. 

This book was printed again at Zuric, in the year 168$ 
by Johannes Wolphius, a learned minister there; and de- 
dicated by him to one John Butler, a gentleman of a oonaU 
derable family in England, and a great friend and bene* 
factor to the said Wolphius : with whom he became ac- 
quainted, assisting him in his studies; now settled at Zioicg 
after his travels into Germany, France, and Italy. At the 
beginning of this second edition of this book of Peter Mar* 
tyr's are added, (for the fuller understanding the diffiotaft 
opinions of the Sacrament,) I. Papa de Eucharistii qummt 
senten&a. II. Martini Lutheri de Eucharisti* sacramento, 
qua sententia. III. Hulderichi Zuingiii sententia de Christ 
in sacra coena prasentia. 

Hopert John Hoper did this year publish a funeral oration, mads 

oration *---.. ** »,■, 

gainst pur- Jan. 14, against purgatory ; upon that text, / heard a votes 

«* t0I 7- from heaven, saying unto me, Write, Blessed are the deed 

that die in the Lord, streightway, so- saith the Sprete, te 

Beginning with this preface, " The death of a man's frend is 

" paynful for two consyderations. The one, because he that 

lyveth is forsaken and destytute of the famylyarity abd 

frendship of him that is dead. The other, that the lyviog 

doubteth where the soul of his friend departed b b* 

" come : whether it be in heaven or in hell. Both the* 

^ ills may be redressed with one good, that is, to wit, if he 

" that lyveth be assured by the word of God, that his frend 

19^ " departed is by mortal death entred in Christ into eternal 

" lyfe. But now in this standeth all the doubt, how the 

" living may know in what state the souls departed stand* 


* doubt cannot the Gentile dissolve, the wisemen of the cha 
d, nor the common sort of soche as beareth the name , 
'hristianity. Namely, for this, that they ymagin their Anno n 
is souls to be broiled and rosted in the fyrc of purga  
. Wherfore even as they fear they wotte not what, 
eek they their remedy they know not how. Wyth 
se, dirigt, and such other. These pains by the lyving 
opposed of the dead. Who can justly reprehend the 
■belyving lyving for the state of the dead, that more 
i nede is, payneth themselves, and more than profyt 
edemeth the prayers of other? 

!ut what may the trueth conclude? Is there any cer- 
lty that puttyth all out of dowte, our frends souls to 
art from the earth straight unto eternal lyfe P Truly, 
r the judgment of the flesh, there is no such know- 
je. For the flesh in thys case either wyl playnly dis- 
re for the horrour and gretness of synne, or else dowte 
he means, how it may be remedyed. Only therfore 
certaynty is known by the Scripture of God. Gyve 
■efore nede what in thy case the word of God certineth 
if the dead. / heard a voice Jrom heaven, saying 
i me, Write, Blessed are the dead that die in the Lord, 
ightmay™ &c. This sermon was printed by Edward 
Jiurch at the sign of the Sun in Fleet-street. 
ir came forth a book in quarto, writ against the Fopeochin-. 
imardin Ochin, a learned Italian, and companion of D '*-^ t l 
Martyr into this land : both which were received with Pope'i 
respect by Archbishop Cranmer into his family. This """^ 
was writ in Latin by the author, but said to he trans- 
into English by Mr. John Ponet, D. D. and never 
■A before in any language, and was dedicated by the 
Ichin to King Edward VI. beginning thus, " Although 

I of his mere goodness hath given to your Majesty 
> treasures, moat large kingdoms, special grace and love 

II people, most high nobility of blood, most singular 
unenta both of the body and of the mind ; partly 
ing only of God, and partly through his favour ob. 
ed also by your industry : besides other innumerable 



BOOR " graces, which it hath pleased God to endue your Highnen 
" withal: yet notwithstanding, all these things ought not 

Anno 1649." or cannot be compared to that benefit which he hath 
shewed unto you, in giving you in such a dark world and 
so tender age, such clear light of Christ," &c It wa§ 
called A Tragedy ', or Dialogue of the unjust usurped Pri- 
macy of the Bishop of Rome, and of all the just abolishing 
of the same. This book consisted of nine dialogues. And 
the parties that spake in each of them were, in the first, Lu- 
cifer and Beelzebub. In the second, Boniface III. and Dr. 
Sapience, secretary to the Emperor. In the third, the peo- 
ple of Home and the Church of Rome. In the fourth, the 
Pope and man's judgment, and the people of Rome. In the 
fifth, Thomas Massuccius, the master of his horse, and Le- 
pidus the Pope's chamberlain. In the sixth, Lucifer and 
Beelzebub. In the seventh, Christ, and Michael and 
Gabriel, archangels. In the eighth, King Henry VIIL.and 
Papista, and Thomas Archbishop of Canterbury. And in 
the ninth, King Edward VI. and the Lord Protector. This 
book was printed at London for Gualter Lynne, dwelling 
on Summer-key by Billinsgate. 
199 To which is subjoined another book, and of the same sub- 
A book of j^, and printed by the same stationer, which therefore I 

prophecies . . m 

of the Pope, conclude came out also this year, entitled, The Beginning ami 
End of all Popery and Popish Kingdoms. The epistle is 
writ by Gualter Lynne, the printer to King Edward VI. 
It is said to be taken out of all prophecies for more than 

three hundred years ago, to the amendment of 

this present world. Set forth out of high Almayn, by 
Gualter Lynne." It hath a great many figures and pictures 
of the Pope and the beasts, and sometimes of Beelzebub, 
resembling the visions in the Revelation. Of which thus in 
the epistle. " Because it is so secret a mystery, that cannot 
" well be opened without plain demonstration, the author 
" of this book hath most plainly set forth by figures, the 
" state that this Antichrist is in, hath been in, or shall be in, 
" even to the day of his utter destruction.'" He added also, 
" that these figures were not of the author's own invention, 


" but they were found in ancient libraries above three hun- CHAP. 
u dred years since: and that there was at that present day 

"remaining in the abbey of St. Laurence in Luyke, a table Aaao 1M * 

u of great antiquity, containing pourtraicture of like matter. 

a Whereby, he said, it was manifest, that the fathers of an- ' 

" tient time saw in the papacy. the things that they durst not 

" utter, either by word or writing ; but trusting that the 

" time would come, when men might be bold to speak it, they 

u did in the mean time keep it in painting and portraiture." 

About September, came forth an ingenious book, made Thomas's 
by William Thomas, clerk of the Council. It was an his-itaij.° 
tory of Italy, in English ; treating of the estate of many 
and divers commonwealths, how they had been, and at that 
present were governed. Here he gave, first, a description 
of Italy: then, of the estate of it in general: then, an 
abridgment of the state thereof from the beginning, until 
the Roman empire was utterly divided : next, the descrip- 
tion of Rome, and the marvellous antiquities there : then, 
of the present estate of Rome : an abridgment of the lives 
of the Roman Bishops: the Venetian estate, and the order 
of their commonwealth : the description of Naples, and the 
history thereof: the description of Florence, and its estate : 
the description of Genoa, and the estate thereof: the de- 
scription of Milain, and its estate: also, the estates of Man- 
tua, Ferrara, Placentia, Parma, and Urbin. In writing this, 
the author was much assisted from his own experience and 
long travels in those parts. He dedicated his book to the 
Earl of Warwick, Viscount lisle, Knight of the most noble 
Order of the Garter, Lord Chamberlain, and High Admiral 
of England. In his epistle he shewed the profit he designed 
by his book, viz. " that setting forth in our mother tongue 
" the doings of strangers, and especially the Italian nation, 
" which seemed to flourish in civility, most of all other at 
" this day, his own countrymen might see upon what little 
" beginnings many great estates have risen ; and how they 
" that have had the power to rule, by using their authorities 
u well and prudently, have merited immortal fame of honour 
" and praise ; and using tyranny and evil government, have 

x 4 


BOOK " contrariwise borne eternal slander and shame. Likewise to 
" shew, how mutable fortune is, and how that which hath 

Anno 1649. " been gotten with extreme pains, unmeasurable expencetj 
" and unreasonable effusion of blood, hath been lost in a 
300 « moment And that commonly he that hath conquered 
" most in war, at the best is yet a loser. And finally, how 
" by division either among the nobility or the commoos, 
" there ensueth utter destruction of realms, and subversion 
" of commonwealths. Whereunto there is none so graft 
" a minister as the alteration of ancient laws and customs. 

" These and infinite more such like things, bong set 
" forth to the eyes of princes, their hearts would be more 
" inclined with peace and justice to enrich their subjects* 
" and thereby procure themselves glory, than by murder- 
" ing of innocents, ravishing of honest wives and maiden, 
" burning, spoiling, and destruction of countries, (which are. 
" the effects of war,) to make themselves conquerors of that 
" they cannot long enjoy. For surely, said he, more praise 
" shall the prince deserve that leaveth his realm quiet and 
" wealthy unto his successors, than he that, for the conquest 
" of other countries, impoverished! and disturbed* his own. 
" He wished all noblemen therefore to read his book, to the 
" end they might thereof take occasion so honourably to 
" spend their life-time, that after their death they might 
" shine in fame for ever. The reason he assigned of the de- 
" dication of this his travail to this great lord was, for his 
excellent feats of chivalry, both by sea and land; and 
being such an one as he was, able to judge whether his 
" [the author's] opinion were good or not. As his wonder- 
" ful knowledge in civil orders made him worthy to be no 
" less esteemed excellent in council, as he had been tried 
" a most excellent captain in the wars. 11 This dedication 
was Sept. 20. 
The Bible Now also came forth the holy Bible of TindaTs transla- 
printedthis ^ rev i se ^ by Coverdale. It bore this title, The Bible, 
that is to say, all the holy Scripture, in which are contained 
the Old and New Testament, truly and purely translated 
into English : and now lately with great industry and di- 



* recognized. Es. i. Hearken O heaven*, and thou CHAP. 
give ear : Jbr the Lord speaketh. Imprinted at Lon- 

y John Day, dwdkng at Jldcrsgate, and WUtiam** 001 * 4 *- 
, dwelling in Peter college. Cum gratia etprivilegio 
primendum solum. 17*A day of Aug. mdxlix. These 
i ensuing are joined with the present volume of the 
I. A calendar with an almanac. II. A descrip- 
ind succession of the Kings of Judah and Jerusa- 
declaring when, and under what kings, every prophet 
and what notable things happened in their times. 
An exhortation to the study of the holy Scripture, 
of the Old and New Testament. IV. A table to find 
• of the chief and principal matters contained in the 
. A supputation of the years from Adam to Christ, 
ted by Edm. Beck. VI. A prologue, shewing the use 
; Scripture. VII. The names of ail the books of the 
, and the contents of the chapters of every book. 
. A register, or brief rehearsal of the names of the 
famous and notable persons mentioned in the Bible, 
e be also prologues to the five books of Moses, and be- 
lie prophet Jonas, and to every of the four Evange- 
and before every epistle of the New Testament, and 
every chapter of the book, are added many plain an- 
ions and expositions of such places as unto the simple 
inlearaed seem hard to understand : which were done 

le same Edmund Beck, who was ordained Deacon by 201 
yp Ridley, anno 1551, either this year, or not far from 
iblished two dialogues, written in Latin by the famous 
, D. Erasmus of Rotterdam. One called Polyphe- 
or the Gospeller ; the other, Disposing of Tilings and 
ss 9 translated into English. Printed at Canterbury, in 
atd's Churchyard, by John Michel. 

r. Bale also, this year, 1549, set forth the New-year's J?jj^ 
of John Leland to King Henry VIII. Bang some land's New* 
int of his journey in the search of England's anti-g^£* t 

»; setting a dedication before it to King Edward VI. to King Ed- 


BOOK And his own declaration upon it, paragraph by paragraph. 
y * In his epistle to the young King v he excited him "to the 

Anno 1649." love of English history; hinting to him the profit that 
" arose by reading of ancient stories, (after the neceauy 
" search of the Bible,) which that treatise of Leland, he 
" said, would plenteously declare. They would teach him 
" what is in each commonwealth to be followed, and whit 
" to be eschewed ; what caused a realm to flourish, sod 
" what diminished the state thereof. He took this occasion 
" to reprehend Papists, who dissuaded Christian princes 
" from the study of the Scriptures and chronicles. Both 
" which sorts of knowledge he exhorted the Prince to ; bat 
" especially to know the laws of God. He shewed him 
" from Solomon, that the honour of a king stood not in 
" strength and riches, but in the search of wholesome doc- 
" trine, to divide the dross from the silver, and to follow 
" God's holy commandments." Then he armed the King 
against some sayings, that were then bruited abroad, as 
maxims for princes : as, " that the doctrine of Christ wss 
the cause of the decay of the commonwealth. Which he 
" shewed was a saying eleven hundred and thirty yean 
ago, when Paulus Orosius was a writer ; against which 
saying the author wrote seven notable books, as a confu- 
tation of that pernicious error. Yet, said Bale, is that 
" unhappy and devilish opinion now raised up again from 
" hell, and brought here into England by a great number 
" of Papists. Another ordinary saying among them was, 
" that if any plague or punishment for sin happened upon 
the nation, then was the Gospel wrongfully abused and 
noted, and to be the chief cause and stirrer up thereof, 
" when indeed it was rather their own fornication, bribery, 
" and a thousand evils more. He observed also to the 
" King, how they would usually say, It was never good 
" world since this new learning came w, neither are we 
like to have it till it be banished again. The true reason 
of which speech, he said, Christ shewed, namely, Every 
one that worketh wickedness doth abhor the light, because 





\ty mitt not their mh ch ieft thereby to be known. For CHAF. 
bat light manifesteth to the world their foul and naughty xx!v - 

OUlgS. 91 Abm 164f. 

3e added, " that these and other detestable abuses, 
rhose reformation chiefly belonged to a king, might, as 
1 a dear mirror, be seen in Scripture and chronicles, 
n them it might be seen, whereof- they arose, and how 
bey might well by good order be abolished. And there- 
>re he reckoned, as he, said, the continual search of them 
y a Christian governor most necessary." 
le proceeded to praise the King, " that in his princely 
eginning he appeared unto his people a very Josias, 
odi in his tender youth and virtuous education; and 
ow their special hope was, that in his daily proceedings 202 
e would still persevere in the same ; and that the likeli- 
oods were very apparent. For by his commandment 
ad been taken away the abominations of the ungodly ; 
rhkh was a plain token, he said, that the King had di- 
ected his noble heart to the living Lord, intending to 
et up his true worship; that being delivered out of the 
ruel hands of their enemies, they might serve him from 
enceforth without fear all the days of their life. That 
bese godly principles refreshed his Christian subjects, 
nd so greatly delighted their obedient hearts, that the 
nly remembrance of his Majesty's name was to them 
lore pleasant, sweet, and delicious, than any otherworldly 
leasures, like as was the name of the first Josias to theEccim.xKr. 
eople of that age." Thus, by frequent inculcation of 
d counsel, encouragement, and commendation, good 
a, in books dedicated to him, spurred him on in the 
rses of good literature and pure religion. 

in November 1549, John Hoper set forth an exposition Hopeft de- 
he Decalogue, (though printed, as it seems, beyond sea tbe Ten 
year before,) entitled, A Declaration of the Ten holy Command- 
nmandments of Almighty God, wroten Exod. xx. Deut.v. 
lected out qf the Scripture Canonical. In octavo. Before 
ras a preface to the reader, made by the author; where- 
le treated concerning the covenant (winch he called the 


BOOK alliance and confederacy) between God and man, in Adanr 
mA in Christ Whence I shall excerp tome 

Anno 1&48. shewing that reverend man's way of explaining certain ab- 
struse and controverted points in divinity, somewhat fit 
ferent from other Divines. He writ, "that as God a* 
" counted in Adam's sin, all mankind, being in his kins, 
" worthy death, so he counted in Christ all to be saved 
" from death; as Adam declared by the name of his wife* 
" called Heva, the mother of the living, and not of the 

" dead And as far extendeth the virtue and strength 

" of God's promise to save men, as the rigour and justice 

" of the law for sin to damn men And that the pro- 

M mise of grace appertaineth to every sort of men in the 
" world, and comprehendeth them all ; howbeit, widrnr 
" certain limits and bounds; the which if men neglect or 
** pass over, they exclude themselves from the p ro m is e nr 
" Christ. As Cain was no more excluded, till he excluded 
" himself, than Abel, Saul than David, Judas than Peter, 
M Esau than Jacob ; though by Mai. iL and Bool seoa- 
" eth, that the sentence of God was given to save the one* 
" and to damn the other, before the one loved God, or the 
" other hated God. Howbeit these threatenings of God 
" against Esau, if he had not of his wilful malice excluded 
" himself from the promise of grace, should no move have 
* " hindered his salvation, than God's threatenings against 
" Nineveh, Jon. i. Which, notwithstanding that God had 
" said should be destroyed within forty days, stood a gnat 
" time after, and did penance. Esau was circumcised, and 
" presented unto the Church of God by his father Isaac, in 
" all external ceremonies, ^s well as Jacob. And that his 
" life and conversation was not as agreeable unto justice 
" and equity as Jacob's, the sentence of God unto Rebecca, 
" Gen. xxv. was not in the fault, but his own malice. For 
" there is mentioned nothing at all in that place, Gen. xx? 
" that Esau was disherited of eternal life; but that he 
" should be inferior unto his brother Jacob in this world. 

Which prophecy was fulfilled in their posterities, and not 

in the persons themselves,'" &c. 

fc I 


And again, "St. Paul, Rom. ix. useth this example of CHAP. 
Jacob and Esau for none other purpose, but to take away ' 

1 from the Jews the thing that they most put their trust Anno 1649. 

; in, viz. the vain hope they had in the carnal lineage and 

1 natural descent from the family and household of Abnu 

6 ham ; and likewise their false confidence that they had in 

' the keeping of the law of Moses. Paul's whole purpose 

' is in that epistle, to bring man unto the knowledge of 

< his sin, and to shew him how it may be remitted ; and 

< with many testimonies and examples of Scripture, he 
' proveth man to be saved only by mercy, for the merits of 
' Christ ; which is apprehended and received by faith." And 
i little after, " It is our office therefore to see we exclude 
4 not ourselves from the general grace promised to all men* 
* It is not a Christian's part to attribute his salvation to his 
" own freewill with the Pelagian ; and extenuate original 
" sin, nor to make God the author of evil, or our damns* 
i€ tion, with the Manichee : nor yet to say, God hath wrote 
" fetal laws, as the Stoics ; and with necessity of destiny 
" violently pulleth one by the hair into heaven, and thrust* 
" eth the other headlong into hell. But ascertain thyself 
" by Scripture, what be the causes of reprobation, and 
" what of election. The cause of rejection or damnation is 
" sin in man, which will not hear nor receive the promise 
" of the Gospel ; or else, after he hath received it, by ac- 
" customed doing of evil, he falleth either in a contempt of 
"the Gospel, will not study to live thereafter; or else. 
" hateth the Gospel, because it condemneth his ungodly 
" life, and would there were neither God nor Gospel to pu- 
" nish him for doing of evil. 

" This sentence is true, howsoever men judge of pre* 
" destination ; God is not the cause of sin, nor would not 
" have men sin, &c. The cause of our election is the 
" mercy of God in Christ. Howbeit, he that will be par- 
" taker of this election must receive the promise in Christ 
u by faith. For therefore we be elected, because afterward 
" we are made the members of Christ, &c. So we judge of 


BOOK " election by the event or success that happened* in 
! * « of man." This was the sum of the preface. 
Abo* 1549. His method propounded in the declaration of the Con* 
mandments, was, I. To shew what this word, law, or com* 
mandmmt, meaneth. II. How the law should be used. 
III. To prepare the reader's mind, that he may alwayi 
read and hear these commandments with fruit and com- 
modity. IV. To interpret every commandment severalty, 
that the reader may perceive what God the giver of the 
law requireth of every man that professeth his name. V. To 
answer certain objections that keep men from the obedience 
of God's law. 
Omptaiiui Jacobus Omphalius dedicated a book to King Edwvd, 
tw l£*" printed at Basil, 1550, but the dedication bean date, orf. 
* um - Jul. 1549, Colonics Jgrippince. The title of the book wu, 
De Usurpatione Legurn^ et eorum Studiis, qui Jurupr*- 
dentim Prqfessionem sibi sumunt. This Omphalius was s 
learned civilian and dependent upon Herman, the late pi* 
ous Archbishop and Elector of Colen ; and who was sent 
his agent into England. 
The new Let me add, lastly, to the rest, that now first came forth 
diiutionr* tne reformed order for ordination, entitled, The Form mi 
Manner of making and consecrating Archbishops, Bishopty 
Priests, and Deacons. Where I observe this difference ia 
the ordination of Bishops. That the Archbishop laid the 
Bible upon the neck of the ordained Bishop, using these 
204 words, Give heed to reading, &c. Whereas now the book 
is only delivered to him with those words. And then the 
Archbishop put the pastoral staff into his hand, saying, Be 
thou to the flock of Christ a shepherd, &c. Which are words 
still in use, but the ceremony of the staff laid aside. 
Tbeiiistate And now to turn back our eyes, and take a prospect of 
realm. this year, we may perceive the condition of this land to 
have now been very ill, by reason of the rebellions, the 
imprisonment of the good Duke, and the courtiers, that 
sought themselves more than they took care of the public: 
beset with enemies abroad, and the King young; idleness 


and grading among the people, who talked high, and were CHAP, 
disposed to imagine and invent novelties, and devised mend- X3UV * 
ing thia and that : base money was fain to go current ; for Anno 1*49. 
the nation wanted money extremely, and provisions very 
dear at home, occasioned by the wars abroad in France, for 
the keeping of Bulloign. Of which place the Lord Clynton 
was deputy; as the Lord John Grey was of Newhaven, 
and the Lord Cobham of Calais. 

The French knew well enough the present condition of The French 
England, and boasted excessively to the Lord Paget, and 
the other English commissioners, as was shewn before. 

And to the rest of the calamities of the nation at thiBPricftt 
time we add the popish clergy; who were great u^er-^^^^ 
miners of the Gospel. For they outwardly conformed them- 
selves unto the King's proceedings, unto the English com- 
munion book, and the King's injunctions; but inwardly 
preserved their good-will to their superstitions. There was 
one of the Bishops that said, " Laws must be obeyed, and 
u civil ordinances I will follow; but my heart in religion is 
" free to think as I will." And the state thought conve- 
nient now to wink at them and their doings, and to con- 
tinue them still in their places, lest they should remain 
void for want of better to supply their rooms. But many 
that favoured the Gospel were for putting them out, as 
many as the visitors should find negligent and faulty in their 
duties, and to ordain sober laymen to succeed into their 
firings* " Out with them," said Latimer to the King, "Ire- Latimer's 
" quire it in God's behalf. Make them quondam*, all the££ , £jj£ 
" pack of them." He then told the King, that his Majesty the King, 
had divers of his Chaplains well learned men, and of good 
knowledge to put in their rooms. And in case they were 
not enough to fill all the vacancies, and that neither his 
Chaplains nor the Protector's sufficed, to furnish their 
places, he advised, that since there were a great sight of 
laymen well learned in the Scripture, and of a virtuous and laymen t© 
godly conversation, better learned than a great many of theMi^^^ 
Clergy, them he would have to be placed in the Church. 


BOOK And he said he knew a great number, thai 
** would be glad, he dared to say, to minister tbe 

Am» iM9. called. He told the King, he moved it to him in/ 

Let than, said he, be called to it orderly. Let them 
institution ; and give them the name of the clergy w—Brt.] 
this belongs rather to the year before. 
Anignonnt And on the other hand, there were some great preteadot 
52rIc^o*,to the Gospel, whose mixture of seal and ignorance djjtj 
'?*J^* r true religion no service at all : which two things would! 
stowi Sqt- tray themselves in their public sermons, even at 
**?' Cross. For whatever care was taken that that place 

be supplied with able men, yet the realm was not yet 
furnished with good preachers, but that em 
305 men &* turns there. There was one more bold *■& M 
than wise and learned, named Sir Stephen, curate at CW}] 
church, London, came up at the Cross Una year; whe fc 
his sermon fell foul upon the name of that parah chM| 
dedicated to St Andrew, because it was sumamad Uad#, 
shaft: so called, by reason of a vast long **qft,orpnls»d|# 
formerly used to be erected cm May-days in the street bfc< 
fore the south door of that church, which r eached fa^tt 
than the steeple. And so St Andrew was vndtr At dtyfc 
But the preacher, perhaps ignorant of this cause of St A* 
drew's being thus called, cried out, that this shaft warm* 
an idol of, as though it were preferred before St Andrav 
himself. Hence he proceeded to advise, that the names «f 
churches should be altered. And further, that the nam 
of the days of the week might be changed. And that thoe 
might be a thorough reformation indeed, he was for hcviag 
the fish-days kept any days but Fridays and Saturdspt 
and the Lent any time in the year, save only betas* 
Shrovetide and Easter. To give some further aooouat d 
this reformer ; he would often forsake his pulpit, and p 
into the churchyard, and preach out of an high dm tkft 
grew there. And then entering the church to perform As 
rest of the service, as was appointed in the English com? 
munion book, he would not go to the altar, where it ins 


sr said, but would go and sing it upon a certain tomb of CHAP. 
e dead that stood toward the north. And so we are told XXIV> 
r one that lived at that time, and near the place. Airoo r*4». 


Tie good service of learned ^foreigners in the business qf 
religion. Disputations in the Universities about religion. 

3UT it forwarded religion not a little, the help that di- Divert 
era very learned and godly foreigners, now in the realm, £ lgatn £ 
rought by their readings and studies. For many leading EngUnd. 
rofesaors and defenders of true religion were cherished 
ere, chiefly by Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury, who, 
s he encouraged them to come over, so was their great pap- 
ran and harbourer. The chief of these were Peter Martyr, 
tater Alexander, Bernardin Ochin, Immanuel Tremellius, 
ttffians; fiucer and Fagius, Germans. All whom he made 
arviceable, by the direction of their learnings, some way or 
ther, to the furtherance of religion. 

And first, as for Alexander he was much about the Arch- Peter 
bhop; and his clear head, and great industry withal, made AlczMM ^* 
im dear unto him. He was entertained in his family from 
be year 1547, and so forward for some years, until he be- 
■me a Prebendary of Canterbury, and had also the living 
f Alhallows, Lumbard-street, conferred upon him by the 
nd Archbishop. By rthose advice and exhortation he di- 
gently read over the most ancient Fathers, and faithfully 
dlected thence plenty of proper sentences, expressive of their 
suae concerning the various doctrines of religion ; and parti- 206 
olariy sueh as wherein consisted the modern controversies. 
toe folio volume of these collections, taken out of Dionysius, 
gnirins, Irenaeus, Tertullian, and Cyprian, he presented 
lu year to the Archbishop : which he took in very good 
art at his hands, approving and commending his diligence 
heran, as tending to the profit of the Church, and the be- 
efit of the studious : which encouraged the said Peter to 



BOOK go on in the same method with the ecclesiastical writes, 
next in order of time to them. So that by April 1560, he 

Anno 1549. presented the Archbishop with another great folio of notes, 

extracted out of the works of Origen, Athanaaius, and Epi- 

phanius ; before which he set an epistle dedicatory to the 

same, dated from Lambeth, which hath this conclusion: 

emss. Accipe igitur, reverendissime Prtegtd, nostri OrigenuJda- 

D. Job. Ep. mantii, Aihanasii 9 et Epiphanii sincere theologies compel 

EUeo * dhtm ; et hunc nostrum quencunque laborem eupri boniqu 

constde^nostrurnqiieconutumgratoanifnopersequere. Lam> 

bethi, 28. AprUis, 1550. 

T. G. deditusimus Petrus Alexander. 

Which volume is among the rare collection of MSS. 
belonging to the right reverend Dr. More, late Bishop of 


S?*?"* 9 r If any would know what became of this man afterwards: 

Minister of . J 

the French being married, in the beginning of Queen Mary's hard tsnei 
strobui*h. ** e wa8 unw ilhngly divorced from his wife by certain of dirt 
Queen's commissioners, and soon after fled over to Stm» 
burgh. Of whom Peter Martyr, in a letter to Utenhovioi, 
dated from Strasburgh, June the 7th, 1556, writ, that he 
succeeded Garnerius in the French Church there, and boldlj 
taught the pure doctrine of the sacrament, which Martyr 
and others of his mind professed. 

We have seen how the Archbishop employed and re- 
warded him. All the rest had their employments in order 
to the promoting of truth and learning, some in the Church, 
others in the Universities. Ochin wrote and published 
some books. The two learned Germans were this year at 
Cambridge, Bucer the King's Reader of Divinity, and Fa- 
Fagiu* diet gius. But Fagius died there but a few weeks after his 
bridge™ coming ; who being appointed the King's Reader of He- 
brew, by his deep skill and ability therein, might have 
vastly improved the students of divinity there in the know* 
ledge of the sacred writings of the Old Testament ; which 
are so necessary for the understanding of the New : a sort 
of learning then hardly known in England. 


But upon his death, TremeUius succeeded him in the CHAP, 
aime place. He fled from Italy when Peter Martyr his 

mmtryman did, and was one of those the Archbishop cave AnDO 1549 * 


odging and board unto. His father being a Jew, he was iuccee di 
nought up in Jewish learning, and had attained to great him * 
perfection in it. TremeUius now solicited at the Court ; (I 
suppose, for his patent or salary;) Cecyl saw him, and took 
particular friendly notice of him, and undertook the care of 
Ilia business. He was at this time mightily intent upon his 
study, employed therein from morning till night, to prepare 
for his readings. And therefore, lest his affairs might not 
je despatched by his not attending them himself, he wrote 
i letter to Cecyl to remember them, in these words : 

t non dubitem 9 clarissime Domine, ac patrone Am- 207 

manisrime, te semper gravissimis negotiis occupari ac pcme 7 ™** 111 ** 

ybrui, confisus nihilominus charitati tu<e 9 qua totum te per- Sectary. 

petud fidelibus Christi impend/is, ac singulari tu<e erga me MSS * v**** 

benevolentuB, quam nuper mihi in aula demonstrasti, hoc 

HM&f nunc sumpsi, ut te rogarem, ne met 6b alia negotia 

vuram remittas. Quin potius, quo me major premit neces- 

ri$a* 9 quoque minus valeo peregrinus, a mane ad vespcrem, 

museo indusuSj mea in aula curare, eo te magis teneai me- 

moria met. Dominus, qui omnia videt, tibi cumulatissimi 

rependet. Quern oro 9 ut diutissime tuam humanitatem cum 

totajamiliajelicissime conservet. 

Tu<b humanitati addictissimusjamulus, 

sir • -~ n ' r\^ v • Immanuel TremeUius. 
Clartsstmo Domino Dno. Sicu 

lo 9 serenissimi Regis Angiice 

Secretarioy et patrono meo 

humanissimo. In aula. 

Rafe Cavelarius, or Cavalier, another stranger, native of CaTeiariot 
France, (to lay these matters together,) in the year 1552, brew in 
(if not before,) did not so much succeed, as assist Tremel- Cambridge, 
lius in reading Hebrew in that University. For which he 
was gratified by the state, in a grant to be free denizen, 
and in the same patent to enjoy the advowson of a prebend Wmrr.Book. 



BOOK in Canterbury, in consideration of reading the Hebrew lee 
lm ture freely in Cambridge. This was dated in August 1561 

V » lit I'll"-' 

Anno 1649. In October the same year, I find a grant to the «d 
toTmLd- Tremellius, under the napie of John Emanuel TremeBo^ 
Hot. Professor of the Hebrew tongue, of the prebend of Carikkfc 

Warr - Book - which William Perry deceased, late had. And the nme 
month another grant of a free denizenship for jjmsmid 
Italo [as Tremellius is there styled] and Elizabeth Us wife 
Peter M»r- The Italian stranger, Peter Martyr, was designed to mi 
t3rrtt0xon ' divinity in Oxford; whither he repaired from the AicUt 
shop's, fortified by the King's authority : but after a litde 
time very rudely treated and opposed there by a PopA 
Martyr^ Yet notwithstanding these oppositions and discourage- 
feting. ° f ments of Peter Martyr, the King's learned Professor hew 
at Oxford, he steadily went on in the business 
to his trust. And besides his public lectures, he 
preached at St. Mary's, and had his private lectures, ai 
his private sermons in Italian at his house: whereon*) 
resorted many auditors, and Harding one of the chief, how- 
Vit. Judi. ever he revolted in QueenMary's days. On one Asb-Wedwft- 
day he preached a public and seasonable sermon concerniag 
fasting. Wherein he first defined a fast : then divided it 
into his parts; distinguished all the kinds of fasting; shewed 
the necessity of it ; unfolded the causes; taught the efieets 
and benefits of it : and then excited the auditors most 
earnestly " to the keeping a true Christan fast ; and accused 
" and blamed in many respects the pJuxrisaical and papist- 
ical fasting ; whereby God was but superstitiously wor- 
shipped, a snare cast upon the consciences of the weak, 
" and death, damnation, and the torments of hell denounced, 
" if any did not observe their frigid and pitiful constitu- 
" tions ; and if without their leave and licence any ate flesh 
" and milk-meats, God's clean creatures, however mode- 
" rately they did it, and soberly, with thanksgiving, and sano- 
" tification of God's word, according to the Apostles rule 
" Then he prayed and beseeched them to stand fast in the 
208 " liberty to which Christ had called them, and that none 


M should judge others in meats and drinks; that being re- CHAP. 

° XXV 

M deemed from the weak and beggarly elements of the 1 

u world, they became not the servants of men. And then AaDO lM *« 
u in 'a sad voice he cried out, Partite sanguini Christi, 
u partite ammabus vestris, t. e. O spare the blood of Christ! 
u spore your own souls!" And so came off with great ap- 
plause and admiration of many, and among the rest of Dr. 
Henry Cole of New college, that was almost in an ecstasy 
at the hearing: yet one of the starters aside afterwards. 

Parkhurst, a Fellow of Merton, and an earnest professor Parkhunt, 
of the Gospel, (afterwards Bishop of Norwich,) was one of Martyr. ° 
Martyr's great friends and acquaintance, and whom Park- 
hurst loved as his father. He, being removed from the 
University to the rich rectory of Cleve in Glocestershire, 
often invited him to come to his house to refresh himself: 
bat Martyr could never find time to do it. There was a 
certain liquor made of rough pears, called perry, used much 
in the counties of Glocester and Worcester, which the reve- 
rend man loved to drink when he was hot or feverish. This 
Ins friend Parkhurst used to supply him with. 
. Upon a challenge rudely given this Professor, he entered M«tyr «od 
the public -lists in St Mary's: the account whereof let they differ- 
other histories relate. But Martyr, June 15, wrote to Bucer ^^ t# 
concerning this his public disputation. Bucer five days 
after wrote again to him a letter in answer, dated from Can- 
tobiuy, where he was with thg Archbishop, I suppose. 
By which letter may be judged, that there was some differ- 
ence between Martyr's and Bucer's opinion in the matter 
of the Eucharist; and what that difference was. For Mar- 
tyr gave his questions thus : 

I. In sacramento Eucharistia non est pants et vini tran- 
substantiaHo in corpus et sanguinem Christi. 

IL Carpus et sanguis Christi non est carnaliter out cor- 
poraSter in pane et vino ; nee, ut alii dkunt, sub speciebus 
pants et vini, 

III. Corpus et sanguis Christi uniuntur pani et vino 



BOOK Now Buoer in his letter signified, that be could have been 
glad Martyr had proposed his second question thus: 

Anno I&49. Corpus Christt turn caniinetur localUer m pome et via* 
nee Us rebus affixum out adjunetum est ulla mundi ratio*. 
And to the third, Bucer wished had been added, 
Ita ut credentibus Christus hie vere exhibeatur; JUe to- 
men, nullo vel sensu 9 vd ratione kujus seculi, intuendus. 
a dispute* And as thus in the public schools, so privately in tht 
Christ's colleges, disputations were held. This same year 1540^ •* 
<*£". Christ's Church, happened a solemn disputation coocerng 
Ex tibr. De purgatory, and praying for the dead. Then Chrysoston 
rT^s ^ was P 1 ^ 110 ^' an( ^ 8ome other Fathers and learned writen, 
Lut. Paris, to assert, that this doctrine wtfs upheld by the authority of 
1550 ' p ' 45 'the Apostles; and that it ought therefore to be sacred to 
pious men, and piously believed and observed by all Chris- 
tians. But Dr. Cox, Dean of that college and church, re- 
plied, Hand temerh subscribendum est tt>, &ai.i. "That we 
" were not too hastily to subscribe to such things which 
" even the learnedest and most ancient authors deliver to 
us, to have proceeded from the Apostles : nor therefore to 
believe purgatory, because the Apostles taught, that we 
should pray for the souls of the dead. And he proved it 
thus : The Apostles, said he, delivered, that the souls of 
the dead might be helped by our prayers, and were to be 
2Q9 " helped. Therefore there is a purgatory, or we must be- 
" lieve, that the prayers of the living are profitable unto 
" the dead. The conclusion is weak, since the Apostles, 
" added Cox, enjoined the Gentiles to abstain from blood, 
" and strangled, as their Acts do shew. And yet that de- 
" cree of theirs doth not bind us, who are Gentiles, to ab- 
" stain from these." This is produced as Cox's argument, 
as it is crudely, and, I suppose, disadvantageous^ and falsely 
set down by Dr. Richard Smith, the fickle Papist. Whereat 
he cries out, " O that man's blind mind, who yet would be 
" accounted an assertor of true doctrine, and a vindicator 
" of godliness ! But how unworthy is he to be the chief of 
u that University !" For he was the Chancellor there. 



Bucer also this year took his share of responding in a CHAP, 
public disputation in Cambridge, in behalf of the truth, as XXV * 

Peter Martyr had done at Oxford. His questions were, Anno im*. ^ 
concerning the sufficiency of the holy Scripture*, <tfthejal-*"£$b- 

r, and of justification by faith. But Yong, ™7 ■* 
one of Bucer's opponents, drew out the matter to a greater 
length; and a particular dispute was instituted between 
them afterwards, by a kind of challenge on Yong's side, as 
Smith of Oxford had done with Peter Martyr. 

The controversy between Bucer and Yong was thus. The con- 
One of Bucer's questions was, that the good works which \J^^ 
my seem to do before Justification have the nature of sin. Bucer * ad 
Hereat Yong took great offence, and complained to the 
mate of the University against him, saying, that Bucer Buceri 
iras in a grievous error. But in Bucer's presence Yong %£S{ Wm 
spake not so much, but more mildly after this sort, that he 
Tor his part agreed not with Bucer, because the Scripture 
md Fathers spake otherwise. But Bucer on the other hand 
aid, that he confessed and believed what the King's Ho- 
nilies taught of good works. The issue was, that Yong 
altered the lists of disputation with the reverend man 
igainst his tenent When the disputation was over, Yong 
md his party laboured to make as bad representations of 
Bucer as they could, to run the stranger down. Both of 
hem penned their disputations. But Yong's paper, as 
Bucer affirmed, contained many falsities ; and when Bucer 
lenred to have it, it was denied him. Whereas he offered 
lis to all men to read and examine. The truth is, he was 
n some concern and fear, that misreports might be carried 
o the Court and elsewhere to his disadvantage. Therefore 
te sent a copy of his disputation to Cheke to communicate 

Ridley, now Bishop of London : and in August 1550, 
rrote to Mr. Grindal, President of Pembroke hall, and 
Chaplain to the Bishop of London, " desiring him to ac- 
8 quaint the Bishop diligently with the truth of the case, 
: as he had wrote it, in the controversy between him and 

1 Yong ; and having read himself what he [Bucer] had 
' writ, to convey it safely to his Lordship. He appealed 




BOOK " to several his gravest auditors, and namely, Dr. Parker, 
L " Dr. Sands, (who afterwards were both of them Bishops) 
Anno 1549. " men that would deal faithfully, [in their reports of fail 
" disputation,] in like manner Dr. Busbe, the Vke-Chia- 
" cellor. He applied himself to him, [Grindal,] who wa% 
" he said, a chief member of Christ, and his colleague k 
" the most sacred office of ministering the word of God; 
" entreating him to write to the Bishop of London in fail 
matter, being viator of the University, a doctor, a divine, 
and one of their college ; and to obtain of him his advice, 
210" what he [Bucer] should do: telling Grindal, that he fear* 
" ed he might be misrepresented by the Papists. For, he 
" said, they did with marvellous art strive to derogate from 
" his ministry, wheresoever they could do it. And do it 
" they could, said he, with not a few, both gentlemen and 
" others," Yong and his party could not but acknowledge, 
that they were pressed hard with the King's Homilies; and 
so in effect, they confessed, they made for Bucer again* 
them. And yet these very Homilies they had subscribed 
to. Whereat the pious man cried out, O homimtm reMgi* 
onem! O tncogitantes divmi Judkii animoi! Q the reli- 
gion of these men ! minds little mindful of God's judg- 
ment ! that will severely light upon such as lie and dissem- 
ble with him. 
Deputation Besides these disputations of Bucer, the King's commis- 
bridgebe- aioners, being at this University in a visitation, had the 
fore tbe matter of transubstantiation largely discussed there before 
them by divers learned men on both sides. And after all, it 
was learnedly determined by Ridley, Bishop of Rochester, 
one of the viators. Alban Langdale was one of the dis- 
putants in favour of the Popish opinion ; who, for his seal, 
became Archdeacon of Chichester under Queen Mary. This 
man composed a pretended confutation of Bishop Ridley's 
determination ; and printed it at Paris. The privilegwm 
regium to authorize the printing of it, was dated the viL of 
the ides (that is, the seventh day) of February, 1558. But 
it was not printed till three years after, when Langdale was 
secure that Ridley could make no reply. His method was, 

i . 


that first Ridley's determination was set down, and then CHAfi 
I<«gdakb confutation followed. The epistle dedicatory xxv * 

to ttr Anthony Brown, wherein he pretended to give Aww km*. 
account of the managing of this dispute. But 
PHkmgton, then of St John's, who was another of these dis^ N.&tteiy. 
pntanta, (afterwards Bishop of Durham,) in a printed book 
«rf his, shewed how Ridley's determination at that time gave 
gnat satisfaction to the students. Where, giving account 
of this matter, he writes, " that Dr. Ridley, Bishop of Ro~ 
u cheater, came in visitation to Cambridge, and because the 
u doctrine of the sacrament seemed then strange to many, 
u he propounded this proposition at that time to the whole 
u Uuvenity to dispute upon, that it could not be proved by 
" amy ancient writer Greek or Latin, which lived a thousand 
u years since, or within five hundred years after, Christ, that 
M the substance of the bread was changed in the sacra* 
a aient to the substance of Christ's body. Disputation be- 
a nig ended, the Bishop made all things so clear in his do* 
u termination, that they were so convinced, that some of 
" them would have turned Archbishop Cranmer's book of 
" that subject into Latin," &c. 

The use of the Common Prayer in English, lately enacted The King's 
by Parliament, was twice this year, 1549, pressed by special ^ 7 th £ 
letters of the King and his Council upon the governors of Common 
the Church, to see it duly observed in all their churches. 
For it was not performed so universally nor regularly as 
it should have been. In the month of July this command 
was issued from the King, then at his manor of Richmond, 
to Thirleby, Bishop of Westminster; importing, " thatRegfetr. 
"after great and serious debating and long conference of Thir * 
" sundry the Bishops, and other grave and well learned men 
" in the holy Scriptures, one uniform order for common 
" prayers and administration of the sacraments had been 
" and was most godly set forth, not only by the common 
" agreement and full assent of his nobility and commons 211 
" in the late Parliament ; but also by the like assent of the 
" Bishops in the same Parliament ; and by all other learned 
" men* of this realm in their synods and convocations 


BOOK " provincial: like as it was much to bis c omfcrt to mkr-< 
*• M stand the godly travail then diligently and willing tabs* 
1*49." for the true opening of things mentinwd in the said booty 
" whereby the true service and honour of Almighty Gad, 
" the right administration of the sacraments, being well «dl 
truly set forth according to the Scriptures and use of the 
primitive Church, much idolatry and vain supentmoa 
" was taken away : so it was no small occasion of sorrow to 
" him to understand, by the complaints and informations rf 
many, that our said book, so much travailed for, and w 
sincerely set forth, &c remained in many places of hit 
" realm, either not known at all, or not used; or at Wart 
" very seldom, and in irreverent sort. As the people is 
" many places either had heard nothing, or if they heard, 
" they neither understood, or had that spiritual delectation 
" in die same, as to good Christians appertained*" 

And then the King proceeded to lay the fiuiH of all tins 
upon them, the Bishops and Priests, or some of them. And 
then, " that considering that by that and such like uocsiamy 
" his loving subjects remained in their old blindness and w- 
44 perstitious errors ; and in some places in an irrefigkns 
" forgetfulness of God ; whereby his wrath might be pro- 
44 voked against him and them : and remembering withal, 
" that among other cures committed to his princely charge, 
44 he thought this the greatest, to see his glory and true 
44 service of him maintained and extolled ; by whose cle- 
44 mency he acknowledged himself to have all that he had: 
44 that he could not therefore, but by the consent and ad- 
44 vice of his uncle, Edward Duke of Somerset, Governor 
44 of his person, and Protector of his realms, &c. and the 
" rest of his Privy Council, admonish him [the Bishop] of 
44 the premises : wherein, as it had been their offices to 
44 have used an earnest diligence, and to have reformed the 
same in all places within his diocese, as the case required; 
so had / he [the King] thought good to pray and require 
him; and nevertheless straitly to charge and command 
44 him, that from henceforth he should have an earnest and 
special regard to the redoube of .these things : so as the 





curate, aright do their duty oftener, and in more reverend chap. 
aort; and the people be occasioned by the good advices * AV * 

' and examples of them, their chancellors, archdeacons, and Anoo is*. 
4 other inferior ministers, to come with oftener and more 
c devotion to their said common prayer ; to give thanks to 

* God, and be partakers of the most holy Communion. 
;< Wherein, shewing themselves diligent, and giving good 

* example in their own persons, they should both discharge 
« their duties to the great Pastor, (to whom we must all 
44 have to account,) and also do him [the King] good service. 

44 And of the other ride, if he should hereafter, these his 

* letters and commandments notwithstanding, have eftsones 
" complaint, and find like faults in his diocese, he should 
" have just cause to impute thereof, and of all that should 
"ensue thereof, unto him : and consequently be occasioned 
" thereby to see otherwise to the redress of these things : 
tt whereof we would be sorry. And therefore we do eftsones 
" charge and command you, upon your allegiance, to look 

u well upon your duty herein, as ye tender our pleasure. 212 
Ec Yeven under our signet at our manor at Richmond, the 

* 88d of July, the 8d year of our reign.*" 

This letter was directed, " To the right reverend Father 

* in God, our right trusty and wellbeloved, the Bishop of 
" Westminster." Mr. Fox in his Martyrology supposed this 
letter was writ only to Bishop Boner, reprimanding him for 
his negligence ; but meeting with it in the register of another 
Bishop, I conclude it was a common letter to them all. In 
the same register it appears how obedient he was to the 
King's said will and pleasure. 

For accordingly he executed the said letters to his brother, Tba Bi» 
the Archdeacon of Middlesex, and to his official, &c. certi- ,ho P' , <w * r 

.to bis arch- 
lying them of the said letters, and the import of them : dtaconnpoo 

44 and that he was right well-willing and desiring, that theJ£ t ^ ln s'• 

u said letters of the King should in all points be duly exe- 

44 cuted, according to the tenor and import of the same .... 

44 Therefore charged him diligently, considering the effect 

44 and words of the same letters, that from henceforth, with all 

44 diligence, wisdom, and dexterity, to travail earnestly, as 


BOOK " well in his own person, for and concerning the doe afc' 
L " soring and accomplishing of the said letters, as alsowttj 

Anno 1549." lite diligence, wisdom, and dexterity, to morish 

" command all persons, vicars, curates, church-wardens, rf 

" observe and accomplish the same from time to time Aaf 

u charging them to make certificate therein to him, or im 

" chancellor; and also of the persons, or names of such 4 

" henceforth should be found negligent in doing their dutierf 

u in the premises. Geven at his house at Henden, the ft' 

« of July, 1549." 

Hit order The said Bishop of Westminster also appointed George 

paritor. Cragges his apparitor; " that whereas he, the Bishop, bd 

Regi«t. " received the King's letters concerning the due ifbservalioa 


" and uniform order of common prayer and wu t mln &i 
" of the sacraments, now of late most godly set forth; mi 
" desiring the said letters should in all things be executed: 
" therefore to momsh and command all persona and vibof 
" and church-wardens, to appear personally before him, or 
" his chancellor, or his deputy, in the cathedral church of 
" St. Peter's Westminster, and in the consistory place there, 
on the first of August next ; to see and hear the contorts 
" and purposes of the said letter ; to be further opened and 
effectually declared unto them. And further to do and 
receive, for the due accomplishing and observing of the 
" same." Thus did Bishop Thirleby go along with the re- 
formation in King Edward's reign. 
The King Again, five months after, in the month of December, the 
again to the Xing sent his letters to this Bishop, as well as to the rot; 

Bishops, for 7* . . . r ' 

the use of urging again the strict observation of the Common Prayer: 
the Com- ^j t j lat upon a particular occasion. The troubles that 

moo Prayer. r r 

now the good Duke of Somerset, the Protector, fell into, gate 
great hopes to the popishly affected subjects, that the old 
Mass would come into use again, and the Common Prayer 
be cast off; as depending chiefly (as they supposed) upon 
the authority and sway of the Protector, the main ruling 
cause of bringing it into the Church. Therefore the King 
in his letter thought fit to take notice of it : namely, " how 
" some persons, upon the apprehension of the Duke, had 




. L . 


i noised and bruited abroad, that they should hare again CHAR 
1 their old Latin service, their conjured bread and water; xxv ' 

* with audi like vain and superstitious ceremonies: as though Aano imp. 
4 the. petting fSrth of the latter Book of Common Prayer 
< had been the only act of the forenamed Duke. 

" Therefore by the advice of the body and state of his 213 
" Privy Council, not only considering the said book to be 
" his own act, and the act of the whole state of the realm ; 
" but also the same to be grounded upon holy Scripture, 
li according to the order of the primitive Church, and tend- 
" ing much to the edifying of his subjects; to put away all 
" such vain expectation of having the public service, fee. 
" in the Latin tongue, which were a preferring of ignorance 
" to knowledge, and darkness to light, 8cc he [the King] 
" thought good to require him, [the Bishop,] and neverthe- 
" leas to charge him, immediately upon the receipt hereof, 
" to command the Dean and Prebendaries of his cathedral 
" church, and the parson, vicar, and curate, and church- 
" warden of every parish, to deliver to him, or his deputy, 
" all antiphoners, missals, grails, processionals, manuals, &c. 
54 after the use of Sarum, Lincoln, York, Bangor, Hereford; 
" and all other books of service ; the keeping whereof should 
" be a let to the usage of the Book of Common Prayer; 
" and those books to deface and abolish : that they never 
" after might serve to any such use as they were at first 
" provided ; and be at any time a let to the godly uniform 
" order. And that if he [the Bishop] should find any per- 
" son stubborn and disobedient in not bringing in the said 
" books, to commit them to ward, . . ,. . unto such time as 
u he should have certified him [the King] of his misbeha- 
" viour. He commanded further, that search should be 
" made from time to time, whether any such books were 
" withdrawn or hid, contrary to the tenor of these letters. 

" And whereas divers froward and obstinate persons had 
x refused to pay. for. the finding of bread and wine for the 
' holy Communion ; by reason whereof the holy Comrnu* 
' nion was many times omitted upon the Sunday ; these let- 
' ters willed and commanded him, the Bishop, to convent 


BOOK "such obstinate persons before him; and them to adno- 
'* " nish to keep the order prescribed: and that if any re- 

Aano 1549. " fused, to punish them by suspension, excommunication, 
" or other censures of the Church. And not to fail thrift 
" to do, as he would avoid his [the King's] displeasure. 
" Yeven under our signet at our palace of Westminster, 
" the third year of our reign." It was signed by Thorn* 
Archbishop of Canterbury, R. Rich Lord Chancellor, mil 
four others. 

These letters 1 have shortened, because I find there is t 
copy of them taken out of another register, and entered into 

HbLRef. the History of the Reformation. 

M9i. CoL Here & £ ain the Bisho P of Westminster, to whom the* 

letters were given, accordingly duly executed them by Us 

The Bi- letter to his archdeacon of Middlesex, Richard Eden. And 

dm he!*- forth** commanded all his Clergy to meet him en* his chan- 

upon. cellor at the cathedral church of St Peter, to receive hb 

commandment in that behalf. Dated the 28th of Decemb. 


Bishopric of The conclusion of .the registry of this Bishop is, " Nokm* 

i^Tdu- 11 " " dum ***> **** first ^y o{ A V^ 1550 ' "** the fourth rf 

•oired. " the King, the episcopal see of Westminster was dissolved; 
" and restored, and united to the see of London." 

214 CHAP. XXVI. 

Order Jbr sermons. Joan of Kent promotes Arianisn. 
The English Communion Book reformed. 

Anno 1550.XN the month of April 1550. it was ordered, that whoso- 

Se f n ^ n,ft P*ever should have ecclesiastical benefices granted them by the 

Court. King, should preach before him in or out of Lent: and 

that every Sunday, there should be a sermon made at Court 

Arianism now shewed itself so openly, and was in such 

danger of spreading farther, that it was thought necessary 

to suppress it by using more rugged methods than seemed 

agreeable to the merciful principles of the professors of the 

Kent's con. Gospel. ^ ne J * 11 Bocher or Knel, commonly called Joan 

dem nation ; 

t I 


£ Kent, being xoodemned for this heresy the latter end of CHAP, 
he last year, a warrant, dated April 27, was issued by order XXVm 
if Council to the Lord Chancellor, to make out a writ toAm* iwo. 
be Sheriff of London for her execution, [to be burned,] for Coandi* 
ertain detestable opinions of heresy. These are the words 
if the Council-Book. The Archbishop of Canterbury was 
lot then present at the Council-board, the Bishop of Ely 
ras. After her condemnation she was kept a great while, 
a hope to reclaim her. April 80. the Bishops of London 
j*d Ely were with her to persuade her, but she withstood 
hem. . And even at her execution, which was May £. she And evcn- 
eviled him that then preached, (who was Dr. Scory,) as the tl0n * 
Cng writes in his journal. 

If any be minded to hear more of this woman, he may be Some w> 
ofonned by Parsons, that she was at first a great disperser SISU Ll^ , 
f TindaTs New Testaments, translated by him into English, 
nd printed at Colen, and was a great reader of Scripture 
terself. Which books she also dispersed in the Court, and Ward Word 
o became known to certain women of quality, and was p< 
lore particularly acquainted with Mrs. Anne Ascue. She 
ised for the more secrecy to tie the books in strings under 
er apparel, and so pass with them into the Court. The 
lid author writes, that she was openly reported to have 
een dishonest of her body with base fellows. Which I 
haritably suppose might be but a calumny, too common 
rith Parsons. 

When she was condemned to die for her denial of Christ's Her words 
iking flesh of the blessed Virgin, she said to the Judges, j^ 
It is a goodly matter to consider your ignorance. It was 
not long ago since you burned Anne Ascue for a piece of 
bread, and yet came yourselves soon after to believe and 
profess the same doctrine for which you burned her. 
And now forsooth you will needs burn me for a piece of 
flesh, and in the end you will come to believe this also, 
• when you have read the Scriptures, and understand them." 
Vhen die came to die in Smithfield, and Dr. Scory endea* 
oured to convert her, she scoffed at him, and said, he Bed 
ke a rogue ; and bade him, Go, read the Scripture*. 


■HOOK The day after this woman's 

v »;i ii:. i in ' »m« i 




one Put 

a tanner of Colchester, brought before the King's cc 

Annomd.missioners. He was either of her opinion, or an Anabapt 

Potto does p OP these commissioners were appointed to at upoQ inqa 

Q1 after these sectaries chiefly. But Putto recanted; and b 

a fagot at Paul's Cross, and after that at Colchester. 
Alteration. p or ^^ remembrance of the book of public and Comn 

made in the . . r 

EngHih Prayer, which about this time underwent a diligent map 
book> tion and reformation by some of the Bishops, take th 
short hints of it In the calendar for the lessons were 
proper lessons for Sundays and holydays, but only pwj 
Psalms for the four great festivals, vix. Christmas, Bail 
Ascension, and Whit-Sunday. The book began with ' 
Lord's Prayer, ushered in with this rubric, " The priest 
ing in the quire, shall begin with a loud voice the Lot 
Prayer, or the Pater nostcr" The Confession and i 
solution were first added in the revised edition; 9§ 1 
German Protestant churches had their Confession and i 
solution. At the end of the former book were inserted 
vend rules with this tide, " Certain notes for the mote pi 
' explication and decent ministration of things contained 
'this book." One of these rules and notes is this: ** If th 
' be a sermon, or for other great cause, the Curate by 
' discretion may leave out the Litany, Gloria in exc& 
4 the Creed, the Homily, and the Exhortation to the Cc 
' munion." Another rule is, " That whensoever the But 
' shall celebrate the holy Communion in the Church, 
' execute any other public ministration, he shall have u] 
4 him, beside his rochet, a surplice or alb, and a cope 
4 vestment, and also his pastoral staff in his hand, or I 
4 borne or holden by his chaplain." Another rule was, " 
' touching kneeling, crossing, holding up of hands, kno 
* ing upon the breast, and other gestures, they may be 1 
4 or used, as every man's devotion seemeth, without Mas 
The last note is this : " And although it be read in ana 
4 writers, that the people many years past received at - 
4 Priest's hands the sacrament of the body of Christ in tl 
4 own hands, and no commandment of Christ to the o 


u trary ; yet forasmuch as they many times conveyed the CHAP. 
" same secretly away, kept it with them, and diversly abused XXVL 
"it to superstition and wickedness; lest any such thing Anno isso. 
" hereafter should be attempted, and that an uniformity 
u might be used throughout the whole realm ; it is thought 
" convenient the people commonly receive the Sacrament 
** of Christ's body in their mouths at the priest's hand.* 
But this last and other things were thought fit to be altered 

The Papists imagined they had a mighty advantage over For which 
the Protestants, for this reviewing, purging, and correcting nfJnhiSii 
the English book; upbraiding them with that which the* 1 * 8 *""** 
good reformers took so much satisfaction in having done ; 
that is, laying aside some needless ceremonies that escaped 
them before, and retrenching the book of such things as 
looked too like superstition, and which the times would not 
bear to be wholly taken away at once, or which perhaps at 
first were not so well perceived. And our reformers looked 
upon themselves as fallible men. Though even the first 
communion service and the first book of public prayers 
■truck off abundance of superstitions, and reduced the ser- 
vice of God to the primitive pattern, and the rule of God's 
word; yet they never looked upon it so perfect, but that it 
might admit of amendment and improvement. But in this 
the Papists vainly triumphed, as though hereby they were 
inconsistent to themselves, and contradicted what they ap-2l6 
proved before. Thus Dorman, in his book, wrote towards Proof, fo. 

• « • • 117b 

the beginning of Queen Elizabeth's reign, fondly bespeaks 
Bishop Jewel : " Call to your remembrance the changing 
" and turning in and out of your Communion Book: how the 
" first was pressed for uniformity, to be agreeable to Christ's 
" institution, and the usage of the primitive Church. And 

* yet in how short a space, that being taken away, you 
' brought in a new, to the first in the principal points clean 

* contrary : to Christ's institution, and the order neverthe- 

* less of the primitive Church, as agreeable just as was the 
' first And yet that, whether it be in all points as ye mind 
' to have it squared and trimmed, yourselves and your com- 

VOJu. II. / 


BOOK " panions perhaps can tell. Wise wen, that know the *•- 
" ture of heresy, and have observed the practice and ovfacf 

Anno 1650. <4 vour proceedings, think verily, no." 
Communioo This book, by such great wisdom and learning devised Iti 
used with improved, and so intelligible and edifying, in eomparnpa 
the super- yfijfa fa former Latin mass, yet could not ae yei dowl 

•tition of ill • • ^ i_ 

the must, every where. For even the old superstitions of the sscpa- 
ment were much used in the administration of it. Ami c*e| 
in St Paul's, London, the communion was used aa the mpfc 
Whereof information and complaint was made to the CailfldL 
And one impediment, why this godly office took npjplp) 
more universally, was, because the old office books still ifc 
mained. There were still the missals, manuals, pies, po* 
tuisees, primers, processionals, coucbers, journals, and I «*h 
not tell what other names of the old Popish services, remap- 
ing. And where the Priest stood affected that way, the 
books and offices being so near at hand, he would make «b 
of them, and understanding perhaps better to mumble our 
that Latin, than to read the English book. Of which sp 
much notice was taken, and so much offence given, that is 
the third and fourth of King Edward's reign, an act of 
Parliament commanded them all to be abolished and extin- 
guished for ever : and accordingly were called in, as 
shewed before. 


Ridley made Bishop of London. His exchange of kmdt 
with the King. Insurrections. A dearth. Prices set 
upon victuals. 

Ridley JAlDLEY, Bishop of Rochester, was in the month 
to London, this year translated to the see of London, by the King's let- 
5^ tr * ters patents ; mentioning an act of Parliament, taking away 
the congti (T£lbre, and empowering the King to nominate soy 
bishop by his letters patents to any see. In this letter is 
mentioned at large the dissolution of the bishopric of West- 


Saturday, April die lfth, the said Bishop was installed CHAP, 
tad eUtkronised by proxy. His proxy was Richard Wilkes, XX *U- 
l«fk: before William May, Dean of St Paul's; John Aw imo. 
Ifedmaker, alia* Taylor, present, now Vicar of St. Br%it\ *■**§*, 
fl ee t s twit ; one of the commissaries for the expedition df 21 7 
be bnsirtcas of the installation. After the installation was 
nag the Ts Dtum in English, with organs playing, and 
he choir singing. Then Dean May sung some versicles, 
ad then said this prayer in English : " O Lord, AJU 
1 nngfaty God, we beseech thee, grant to thy servant Ni- 

• colas* our Bishop, that by preaching and doing those 
1 things which be godly, he may both instruct the minds of 
1 him dioeraans with true faith, and example of good works; 
( and, fnaDy, receive of the most merciful Pastor the re» 

1 wftord of eternal life: who liveth with thee and the Holy 

• Ghost, world without end. Amen." 

la this fourth year of the King, Ridley, Bishop of Lon- An ex- 
oti, April 18, (that is, but nine days after he had taken his^f^ 
ath for the bishopric,) was fain to alienate to the King di- tween the 
ers lands and manors, belonging to his see, in exchange u^BUhop 
Mr others of the like value, which the King made over to of Loodon ' 
ittt and his successors, by letters patents bearing date the 
■ne day and year. The lands which the said Bishop con- 
eyed to the King were, the manors of Branktree and 
outhminster, and the advowson and right of patronage of 
le vicarage of Coggeshal, in the county of Essex ; and the 
lanors of Stebunheath and Hackney, and the marsh of 
tebunheath, in the county of Middlesex. The lands which 
ie King passed away to the Bishop in lieu hereof, were 
ie manors of Greenford, Hanwel, and Drayton, in the 
aunty of Middlesex, lately parcels of the possessions of 
ie bishopric of Westminster dissolved ; and all the lands, 
mements, and hereditaments in Uxbridge in the said coun- 
7 j parcels of the said bishopric: and all and singular the 
lessuages, houses, edifices, tenements, gardens, shops, and 
e r e ditam ettts in the parishes of St. Leonard, Foster-lane, 
(L Michael in the Querne, and St. DunstaiTs in the East, 
ie parcels of the aforesaid possessions : and the manors of 



BOOK Ashwel, Stevenage, Holwel, Todwd, and Dadieworth, a*d 
L the rectory and church of Ashwel, in the county of HflaW 

Anno ifr*o. fiord; all parcels of the foresaid bishopric: and the 

of Fering, Kelvedon, and Fawnton; and the rectories 
churches of Fering and Kelvedon, in the county of EaVafi 
late parcels of the said bishopric: the manor of KnovHaV 
the county of Warwick, parcel of the said bishopric: tkr 
manor, Rectory, and church of Rickmansworth, in thr 
county of Hertford, lately belonging to the 
St. Alban's: the manor of Paddington, in the county af 
Middlesex, lately belonging to the monastery of W< 
ster: the house commonly called the convict prism ^f 
Westminster; the advowsons, donations, and ptiauiUliiT 
ef Hanwel, and the chapel of Brainford, and the vicarage 
of the church of St. Martin's near Charing Craaa; andflf 
divers other churches. Churches and lands being in Mil-' 
dlesex, London, Hertford, Essex, Warwick, Tinooln, Bat- 
land, Oxon, Northampton, Huntingdon, Surrey, Ga> 
cester, Berks, and Wigorn. AH which extended to tat 
clear yearly value of 526. 19. 9j. 

•But the King made this exchange, not-far himself, bat to 
gratify certain of his courtiers. For April 16, that 1% far 
days after the Bishop had granted his lands to the Kn&k 
again granted by his patents, 

2 1 8 To Sir Thomas Darcy , Vice-chamberlain 
of his household, the manor of South- 
minster, of the value of - 194 IS 2 

To Richard, Lord Rich, Lord Chancel- 
lor of England, the manor of Brank- 
tree, and the advowson of Coggeshal, 
of the value of - - - - 99 18 4 

To Thomas, Lord Wentwbrth, Lord • 
Chamberlain of the .household, the 
manors of Stebunheath and Hackney, 
of the value of - £45 18 Soij. 

. 480 8 9oifr 
And in the first year of Queen Elizabeth, the 


assurance, made by the Bishop to the King, was confirmed CHAP* 
by act of Parliament; and also those lands by the said 

act were assured to the Lord Wentworth, the Lord Rich, Anno l **°* 
and Sir Thomas Darcy, and their heirs. In this act it is^^T**" 
expressed, ? that the King being seized of the foresaid ma- them by 
" nors, lands, and tenements, in consideration of the 8aidjj^ ent ~ 
" gift, and for a full recompence, did give by his letters 
" patents unto the Bishop of London and his successors 
" for ever, other manors, lands, and tenements, to the 
" yearly value thereof, and more." And indeed the King's 
lands made over to the Bishop exceeded the lands made 
over by the Bishop to the King in forty-six pounds odd 
money. This may serve to stop their mouths that are apt 
to blame Bishop Ridley for parting with such fur manors 
as Stepney and Hackney from the see. And Stow, or some 
of his enlargers after him, to aggravate this gift, and make 
all people that read it the more ready to blame him, do set 
down all the particular streets, lanes, townships, and places 
within these manors, to make his gift seem the greater, and 
the wrong done to the bishopric the more heinous. Where- 
as neither the King nor die Bishop were to be blamed for 
this, the advantage of the exchange being considerably on 
die Bishop's side. And therefore to make an equivalent, 
certain rents, to the value of an hundred pounds, were re- 
served to the King. 

In the further parts of Essex were many earnest gospel* 
lers. And for their better edification they procured preachers 
sometimes to preach to them on the week days. The report We«Uy ter- 
whereof came to the Court ; and that, as it appears, by the ™. Jj"* for " 
information of the Lord Rich, Lord Chancellor, not so well 
affected to the religion then settled, however politicly he 
complied with the time; whose seats were at Lees and 
Rochford, and his estate lying thereabouts. These weekly 
meetings to hear sermons, the Council, (upon some suggesr 
tions, it is likely, of his, of the inconvenience thereof, as 
being an hinderance of the common people's necessary la- 
bours,) did forbid. And in order to that, a letter was ad- 
dressed to the Bishop of London, to cause the same prac- 



BOOK ticea to cease, and that the people should content thon- 
** . selves with hearing sermons on Sundays and holydays only. 

Am* 1560. The letter was as follows : 

By tb« « To our very good Lord, the Bishop of London* After 

totter t0 * " our right hearty commendations unto your Lordship. Be- 

thcBiahop. « \ n g advertised from the Lord Chancellor, that divers 

" preachers within your diocese, in the county of Essex, 

do preach, as well the worky days as the holy days; 

wliereof some inconveniences may grow ; thinking it not 

219" convenient that the preachers should have liberty an to 

" do : because at this present it may increase the people's 

" idleness, who of themselves are so much disposed to k, 

" as all the ways that may be devised are little enough to 

draw them to work : we therefore pray you to take or* 

der, that they preach the holy days only, as they have 

" been accustomed to do. And the work days to use those 

" prayers that are prescribed unto them. Thus we bid 

" your good Lordship most heartily farewell. From Green- 

" wich, the 83d of June, 1550. 

" Your loving friends, 
E. Somerset. W. Northampton. E. Clynton. 
G. Cobham. W. Paget. W. Harbart. W. Petrel 




The Bishop Accordingly, the Bishop sent his executory letters to the 
order there- Archdeacon of Colchester ; to will him with convenient ex- 
"P°?* pedition, not only to give warning to all curates within his 
Ridi. archdeaconry, that they suffer not preaching on work days 

in their churches, but also to send for all and singular 
preachers, authorized within the said archdeaconry, and ad- 
monish them of the same: charging them in the King's 
Highnesses name, that from henceforth they do not preach, 
but only upon Sundays and holy days, and none other days, 
except it be at any burial or marriage. And thus fare you 
heartily well. From London, the £5th of June, 1550. 

" Your loving friend, 

M Nic Loud.* 

Peace with A perpetual peace made with France was declared by 


proclamation, May 38th. In which peace was the Emperor chap. 
and the Queen of Soots comprehended. xxvh. 

As the last jear a formidable rebellion happened in the Aoao imo. 
western parts, so in April this year an insurrection was set- ^22*- 
ting on foot in Kent, by a priest of that county. Which in- Kent, 
surrection was to have begun on May day. For the Popish ^f» s ^i r . 
priests, in seal to their old superstitions, were generally the d* 1 - 
movers of sedition and tumults in King Henry's and King 
Edward's reigns. So that the commotions last year in De- 
vonshire, Norfolk, and Yorkshire, were not so well allayed, 
but they had like to have broke out this year in Kent But 
the matter was discovered timely, and several of the sedi- 
tious were taken, and the priest fled into Essex ; but was 
there laid for. Near did this design of rising yet cease with 
the taking off some of the parties. For the next month, 
vi*. in that of May, upon pretence of a wedding, the 
people were to assemble, and take that opportunity of ap- 
pearing in arms. But the gentlemen of Kent took the party 
that was the inventor of this; and afterwards he suffered 

Were it not for the great watchfulness that was now in insurrec- 
the magistrates every where, a rising would have about this^^"^^ 
time appeared in Essex also. For in June certain were 
taken about Rumford, who intended an insurrection : and 
so it was stopped there. 

Others also of the said county of Essex gave at this very sermons on 
time a jealousy to the Council for their too unseasonable J^/jlJ 1 
meetings in numbers on week days for hearing of sermons. Essex. 
What dangers might lie, and what evil be hatched under 220 
colour of these assemblies of the people, was somewhat sus- 
pected. Which made the Council send a letter to the Bi- 
shop of London to suppress them ; as was shewn before. 

An order of Council happening just about this timeNocom- 
coftceming Bishops, I will here insert it; which was, that^^* 
none henceforth should hold cammendams, excepting one 
granted at the same time by them to Bishop Poinet 
" June £9. Upon consideration that Mr. Poynet, now 
" elected Bishop of Rochester, hath no house to dwell 

z 4 



BOOK " upon, it is agreed that be shall enjoy his benefice in 
*' " mendam. But henceforth it is decreed, that no Bishop 

Anno 1550. " shall keep other benefice than his bishopric only." 
SnrdMt to As the commons were upon these dangerous points k 
Saamx. m Kent and Essex, as was said before, so there were some 
jealousies of tumults in Sussex also. So that there was a 
privy search appointed to be made through that county for 
vagabonds, gypsies, conspirators, prophesiers, and pUyef% 
and such like. Who probably under such disguises met 
together, laid their plots, and enticed the people to no- 
A prod*. And this was but in pursuance of a proclamation set 
gMiisttt^ ^>rth May 17. last past ; shewing how several ill disposed 
ditiom per- persons had lately attempted and gone about in conven- 
ticles and secret places in the realm, where they durst speak 
their pleasure, and determined and conspired sundry evil 
facts, enterprises, and disorders, tending to rebellion, mur- 
der, and unlawful assemblies : but the said determinations 
had come to the King's knowledge, to the subduing and 
destruction of such persons, and as many as willingly took 
part with them. Wherefore, for the discovery of the re- 
mainders of these seditious persons, the King promised the 
reward of twenty pounds, and thanks, to any that should 
make discovery of any such attempts, and make the same 
known to him, or his Privy Council, or to the Lieutenant 
of the county, where any such thing should be intended, 
moved, or determined. And any person was to have the 
said reward, though he were before one of the conspiracy. 
Duke of In July the Duke of Somerset (who the beginning of 

goeTinto ^ s vear S ot over ^ 1S troubles, but with great loss of his 
the we»t. offices and estate) was sent down into Oxfordshire, Sussex, 
ward's Jour- Wiltshire, and Hampshire, to secure those places from rising; 
nal ' and so to take order for the keeping of peace. And in Au- 

gust he went to Reding for the same purpose. The reason of 
most of these present jealousies were upon account of the 
Lady Mary, who was privately to be conveyed out of Eng- 
land from some creek in Essex, by Shipperius, admiral of 
the navy, belonging to the Emperor. And then an open 


as to be begun, and an intestine conspiracy to be at CHAP. 

as Sir Thomas Chamberlain, ambassador with the xxV,L 
i of Hungary in the Low Countries, had learned at Anno 1 mo. 
!ourt, and advertised hither. 

i dearth before mentioned continued all along this A great 
all provisions being at high rates; which lay very 
upon the poorer sort. Which gives me occasion to 
ture, that this was the year wherein happened a great 
bt, that made great fears of a famine. Whereupon a 

fasting day was appointed, and a prayer was com- 
, and ordered to be used in the churches at that time, 
Sod would send rain: and the rather, because the 221 
es of the reformation were apt to lay the cause of 
idgment upon the reformation. See it in the Repo- 
, as I found it in Fox's MSS. kk. 

& King and his Council took especial care for the re- idle persons 
g of this calamity now laying upon the nation. And J^j^ 
or the ease of the city of London in this dear time, it don. 
lought expedient to clear it of as many poor, needy 
is as could be. Therefore the King, by proclamation, 
May 4, commanded all persons, of what state or de- 
loever, being the King's natural subjects, not born 
i the city or borough of Southwark, or the liberties, 
jing householders, nor having sufficient to live by, nor 
lad lived there by the space of three years together 
ist past, nor retained in any service with any person, 
pplying themselves to any bodily labour, and taking 

for the same; should forthwith depart out of the 
borough, and liberties, and return to their native 
ries, or the places where they last dwelt, by the space 
•ee years together, according to the tenor of a statute 
it behalf, concerning the order of aged impotent 
?, and for punishing vagabonds and idle persons, 
d for the easing of the city still of more of her unne- And «oi- 
y guests, on $0. July, the King by his proclamation ^odedT 
anded all captains, officers of bands, and soldiers, as 
3nglish, as strangers of what nation soever, which 
lot presently entertained in the King's wages, and had 


BOOK been paid for their service by treasurers thereunto ap- 
pointed, according to their capitulations, until the day ef 

Anno 1660. their cassmg and dismission ; that they failed not to depot 
and avoid the city, the suburbs, and the members of the 
same, within three days after the proclamation published, 
upon pain of suffering strait imprisonment, with further 
punishment at the King's pleasure. 

^t to'be* ^ n< * to sto P l ^ e conve y^ n g °f provisione out of the land* 
exported, (which was another cause of the high prices set upon tbm») 
a proclamation came forth, May the 7th, ooftimimditig, that 
none, upon pain of imprisonment, and of other forftkani 
according to the laws of the land, should carry add dddvty 
into the parts beyond seas, any kind of beefs, muttons, vesi^ 
lamb, pork, butter, cheese, corn, grain, wood, coals* afa^ 
beer, tallow, hides, or any other kind of victual t exempt 
only to the town of Calais, and the Parties of Chuftnta 4nd 
Hammes. And charge was given to all the King's co» 
tomers, comptrollers, searchers, &c. to make diligent toinfr 
for the better furtherance of the King's mod high md 
dreadful amnuxndment, as the phrase was. And this pro- 
clamation to continue till the feast of All Saint*. 
Forbad Within two months after, (the former commandment* 

***"*' through the covetousness of some merchants and others* 
not being sufficiently obeyed,) another proclamation, dated* 
July 8, was issued forth, charging, that no sort of victual* 
corn, beer, wools, fells, leather, hides, tallow, bell-metal^ 
wood, or coal, should be shipped or transported into foreigtt 
parts out of the realm, (the town of Calais only excepted^ 
until the King should hereafter allow the same, upon pain* 
of confiscation of the goods and forfeiture of die ship 
And the reason hereof was given, because of late years the 
said commodities had been reduced to a great scarcity, and 
to an unwonted excessive price. The cause whereof to no 
one thing might sooner be imputed, than that now com- 
monly those commodities, which ought especially to serve 
222 the turn, and be employed to the use and sustentatiott of the 
subject, were in over-large measures conveyed into foreign 
regions, as .well by colour of licences unlawfully used, as by 


ealth and covert And in the preface the King shewed CHAR 
8 princely compassion to his people, " calling to remem- 

brance how, according to the regal power and state to ADnoiM * 
him committed by Almighty God over his realm, nothing 
could better declare his zeal and affection borne toward 
the commonwealth, than when by all good means such 
onlers proceeded from his Majesty as might best tend to 
the general plenty of things needful, few the commodious 
fiving of his natural subjects ; and namely, such things as 
were brought forth, and given us of God, as the pecu- 
liar commodities of this realm, might be enjoyed by the 
subjects of the same, to their utility and mutual benefit 
among themselves, in plentiful sort and cheapness of 
price, before others, according as in ancient time had teen 

But this dearness still continuing in the realm, (notwith* Further 
Hiding all these former endeavours,) partly by reason of °J^™f^ 
oveyance of commodities beyond sea, and partly by men's pncti of 
lying up of corn in the markets to be sold again, and" 
m by not bringing any quantities to the market; the King 
sued out yet another proclamation, dated Sept 84, signify* 
g in the preface thereof, " how the insatiable greediness of 
divers ill-natured people, neither minding the due ob- 
servation of good laws, nor any preservation of natural 
societies within their own country, and contrary to the 
provision of divers good laws and statutes, by frequent 
unlawful exportation of victuals, and by many detestable 
frauds and covins, had occasioned great scarcity and un- 
reasonable prices of victuals :" and therefore he first com- 
anded, " that no person should, after eight days ensuing 
the proclamation, transport into Scotland, or elsewhere, 
wheat, malt, rye, barley, pease, beans, oats, or any kind 
of grain, or the meals of any of the same, beefs, muttons, 
weds, cheese, butter, tallow, candles, beer, ale, biscuit, lea- 
ther, sak, hides, wood, wool, fells. But if at any time 
of shipping or transporting the premises, corn were of 
such a particular price, then it should be lawful for the 
King's subjects to cany over grain at pleasure : that is, 


►at, or under 


L Wheat, ... 

Anno 1550. Malt of the best sort, 

Beans and pease, 

Oats, ... 

Rye, - - - 

Item, That no person after eight days should buy in opea 
market, or otherwise, to be sold again, any wheat, malt, 
barley, rye, pease, oats, beans, or any kind of meals, npol 
pain of forfeiture of the same grain, and the moiety of their 
goods, chattels, leases and farms for term of life, excepting 
brewers and bakers, innkeepers and innholders. 

Item, That Justices of peace in every shire should divide 
themselves into hundreds, rapes, wards, and wapentake 
according as heretofore in other the King's business they had 
done. And they, or two of them, within the limits of their 
division, were to repair to all farms, barns, stacks, and gw> 
223 ners, and there to view and try out, as well by the verdict rf 
honest men, as by all other good and lawful means, what 
quantity and kind of grain every person had within their 
respective division. And after the certainty thereof known, 
as near as could be, they were to allot and appoint to the 
owners of the corn and grain, sufficient and competent for 
the finding and maintenance of their houses, and payment 
of their rent-corns, and performance of any bargains for 
the King's Majesty's house, or to any nobleman, gentleman, 
or others, for the only maintenance of his or their house- 
hold, until the 20th of September next coming ; and also 
for necessary seed-corn. And the overplus of the said grain 
the Justices shall have authority to charge and command 
them in the King's name to bring to the markets next ad- 
joining ; and that in such portions as the Justices shall think 

And then the Justices were to signify unto the chief officer 
or officers of the respective markets, what quantity of grain 
is appointed to every man within their limits to bring to 
market. And if the owner of such corn shall refuse to bring 
to the market his corn, he should forfeit for every such de- 

V • I 


It teti pounds, and suffer imprisonment for three months. CHAP. 

• - • XXVII. 

t notwithstanding, there came but little corn to the mar-, 

s: whereupon letters were sent down to the gentlemen A" 0016 * - 
every shire for the better observing the last proclamation, Jo ^ # 
1 to punish the offenders. 

And as the King had taken this care for stocking the Pricca ?* 
irkets, and keeping victuals, that God sent the people of tuais. 
igland, within the realm, so he proceeded to set a mode- 
e price upon them by another proclamation, October 20. 
ilding upon that statute of £5. Henry VIII. whereby the 
nrd Chancellor, the Lord Treasurer, the Lord President 
the King's Privy Council, the Lord Privy Seal, the Lord 
sward, the Lord Chamberlain, and all other Lords of the 
uncil, the Treasurer and Comptroller of the King's house, 
i Chancellor of the Duchy, the King's Justices of either 
och, the Chancellor, Chamberlain, Under-treasurer, and 
jrons of the Exchequer, or seven of them at the least, 
>uld have power from time to time, as the case should re- 
ire, to set and tax reasonable prices of all kinds of cheese, 
tter, capons, hens, chickens, and other kind of victuals 
sessary for man's sustenance ; how they should be sold in 
366, or by retail, for the relief of the King's subjects, 
id that after such tax, proclamation should be made in 
3 King's name under his seal, of the said prices. Accord- 
j to which statute the prices were by certain of the King's 
sat officers now set as follow, viz. from the feast of All 
ints next ensuing : 

The quarter, 
hite wheat of the best sort, .... ISs. id. 

bite wheat of the second sort, and red wheat of 

the best sort, ...... 11*. OriL 

1 other wheat, as well white, red, and gray, of the 
meanest sort, not clean or tailed, 8*. OriL 

alt clean and sweet of the best sort, - - 10*. Od. 
sit of the second sort, — - - - - 8#. OriL 

re of the best and cleanest, - - • 7«. OriL 

re of the second sort, - - &. Od. 

rley of the best sort, - 9#. Od. 


BOOR Of the second sort, - - - - - If . (ML 

*' Beans or pease of the beat sort. . . . 5f.NL 

Aim i6M>.Of the second sort, Sf . 04 

Oats of the best sort, clean and sweet, - 4*. ML 

Accounting eight bushels to the quarter. 

The pound. 
224 A pound of sweet butter, not above - - - IdL afc 
Barrelled butter of Essex, not to be sold to any 

of the Ling's subjects above - - - oft. <B» £ 

And barrelled butter of any other parts, - <&f. 

Cheese of Essex, to be sold from Hallowmas 

till New-year's crop, - - - - - oft. of. jfr 

Cheese of other parts, not above ... oft. f 


Controversy aboui the ecclesiastical habits. Peier Martyr\ 
A Lasctfs> and Bucer*s judgments thereof. JHars take* 
down. Barlow, Bishop of Bath and Wells. Supers&io* 
in Wales. Foreign matters. Duke of Somerset restored. 
Grants of the King. Lady Elizabeth. Morice. Haddon. 

Hopert xSUT to return to ecclesiastical matters. This year also 
happened the great controversy with Hoper, who, being to 
be consecrated Bishop, refused to wearthe ordinary episcopal 
habits, because they had been used by papistical idolaters. 
But before this contest happened with Hoper, it seems the 
Cap and dispute of the cap and surplice, and other pretended popish 
fturp ice. ijubk^ g rew ver y warm . p or there is a letter of Peter 

Martyr extant to a certain friend nameless, dated July 1, 
wherein, by occasion of his friend's writing to him upon this 
p. Martyr's argument, he said, " That being indifferent things of them- 
thereof"* " s^ 66 * ^ey make no man either godly or ungodly. Yet 
" he judged it more expedient, that that garment and di- 
" vers other things were taken away, when it might con**- 


" Neatly be; whereby ecclesiastical things might be done CHAP* 
a im • move plain manner. For when signs are defended 

a and retained with to obstinate a mind, which are not un- AnaQ lAM * 

* dtrpropped with God's word, there men are oftentimes less 

* desirous of the things themselves signified thereby. And 

* where shew most prevails, there commonly that which is 
" serious is much neglected."" . 

John a Laaoo, superintendent of the Dutch church, a u«» 
hmAom, aaemed to encourage Hoper in his incompliance ;f^L^^ > 
ifcat aoUe and learned foreigner's judgment standing at 
rather against the use of such garments for the 
of the Gospel, however not come to full resolution, 
and Peter Martyr aforesaid, the two learned King's 
of Divinity in eaeh University, were for wearing 
in this case, when the laws of the land were so con* 225 
Muted, that a minister might not officiate, or exercise his 
ofice, except he were so appareled, habits bang things in 
their own nature indifferent ; and which might have a ten- 
dency to edification. An account of Martyr's letter in this 
pint* which he wrote to the said Hoper, may be seen in 
Archbishop Cranmer's Memorials. Bucer wrote two letters 
<* this argument, one to A Lasco, who had propounded 
ifasoPB to him against the habits ; and another to Hoper. 
The sum of both which shall here be shewn, especially be- 
ing so well replenished with learning, temper, and wisdom. 

In his letter to the former, he first prayed/" that they Bucer to 
** in those troublesome times of the Church might begin gh^^'fai, 
** and finish things, that offences and dangers were not in-i° d s ment - 
" creased. .Then going on, he said, that the more ^ili- 
c * gently he weighed what fruit men gathered by this con- 
** troversy of vestures, and what Satan went about hereby 
" to work, he could have wished that it had never once 
" been spoken of. But that all of their function had stoutly 
* and unanimously gone forward in teaching true repent- 
" ance, and the wholesome use of all things, and in com* 
" mending the putting on of the apparel of salvation. That 
u by helping forward this strife, (and he knew some that 
" did so*) the most necessary points were neglected, that is, 


BOOK " of removing sacrilegious persons from spoiling chuiche^ 
*' " of providing fit ministers for every parish, and r es to rin g 


Anno 1 550. " of discipline. As to Hoper's business, he did acknow- 
ledge, if it were his own case, if he thought ceremoaia 
and vestures were impure of themselves, [i e. in their 
own natures,] he would not in any wise take upon bia 
" the office of a Bishop till they were taken away by m- 
" thority. But he thought it not impertinent, that men 
" should be admonished to take heed of Satan's accustomed 
sleights, to lead men away, from the care of uiuswy 
things, to carefulness about things that might be let put* 
" and to a zeal to purge away things that are without us, 
" thereby to neglect inward deformities. He told A Lasco, 
" that, according to his talent, he had weighed his reason, 
" and yet he could perceive no other, but that the use of 
" all external things, as well in ceremonies as private mat- 
" ters, ought to be left free to the churches of God. He «o» 
" knowledged, as he had confessed before to A Lasco, sad 
" declared unto his own countrymen, that he had rather no 
kind of vestures, used by Papists, were retained; snd 
that for two or three reasons, viz. for shewing more 
full detestation of the Antichristian • priesthood, for the 
plainer avouching of Christian liberty, and for avoiding 
dangerous contentions among brethren. Yet that he was 
for ministers using a grave habit, to be discerned from 
" other men. But as far as he saw as yet, he could not be 
brought by any Scriptures to deny, that the true mi- 
nisters of God might use without superstition, and to * 
certain edification, any of those vestures which the An- 
tichristian Church used." Thence descending to particu- 
lars, he spent the remaining part of his letter in great per- 
spicuity, learning, and moderation. The whole letter wis 
translated into English, and set forth not far from the be- 
ginning of Queen Elizabeth's reign, for the use of the 
Church, that then was exercised afresh with the same con- 
ll. troversy ; and may be found in the Repository. 
226 The same reverend man having received a letter from 
Bucerto Hoper, and a paper enclosed, wherein were contained the 



easons of his present trouble, and why in his judgment the C H Af\ 
■bits ought not to be worn, and to which, if he approved XXVIU< 
hem, he desired Bucer to subscribe his name; he gave Anno 1550. 
hh this answer : " That he was exceeding sorry for this 

* controversy, which so grievously hindered his ministry, 
14 that he could have been willing to have given a great 
" deal, that either it had not been moved at all, or speedily 
u removed. That Satan by these lets prolonged his full 
P banishment from among the people of God. That it was 
'Us desire to have all things reduced to apostolic simpli- 
tt city in external things, and to full and perfect religion. 
N That he never procured to have any special kind of ap- 
R parel in the administration of the sacrament, in the places 

* where he had preached, as at Argentine, Ulm, Aus- 
" burgh, Casel. And that the abuse that he had seen of 
"the garments in many places in England, he could be 
" willing to suffer torment in his flesh, that they were taken 
" away. ~ But yet that which weighed most with him was, 
M that the sinews of Antichrist bore such sway : he meant, 
14 that church-robbers did still hold and spoil the chief p*- 
4 fish churches ; and that commonly one man had four or 

* ox of them, or more ; and that many patrons bestowed 
1 two or three upon their stewards or huntsmen ; and that 
6 upon condition that a good portion of the profits should 
' be reserved to themselves. And any were hired for vi- 
c cars, that would serve cheapest. That the Universities 
6 were miserably troubled by many, either Papists or Epi- 
cures. Whence it came to pass, that there were so few 

; Gospel preachers, that many churches had no sermons in 
1 five or six years, or more : that divine service was coldly 
and disorderly uttered, and so pronounced that it could 
no more be understood than if it were Afric or Indian 
tongue. That baptism was ministered in the presence 
of a few light women. When marriage was solemnized, 
they prattled and played. The Lord's Supper in many 
places celebrated like a mass. No regard had of Christ's 
flock. No conference of catechism with the ignorant sort. 
No public or private admonition given to them that were 
vol. 11. a a 



BOOK " slack in their duties, or otherwise offended. These and 
I. . * 

" divers other abuses, neglects, and impieties, he and, 



Anno iwo. « were fa e c hi e f members of Antichrist, his bones, field, 
" and sinews : which therefqre the members of Chmt 
" should with mutual force and continual travail seek to 
" overthrow. And then the abuse of apparel, and of afl 
other things, would utterly be abandoned, and all the 
badges and shadows of Antichrist would vanish amy. 
" But that if these principal members of Antichrist, Wfi 
" substance and whole body, were not cut off, and the kn£> ,j 
" dom of Christ thoroughly established, by restoring the 
" pure doctrine of Christ and good discipline, in ub 
" should they labour to put the marks and shadows of 
" Antichrist to flight. That if any .Church should give m 
" to him, they should not retain any garments which the ] 
Papists had used in their superstitious service, and that 
for these causes, that it might the more plainly declare 
that they had renounced all fellowship with the Boooh 
Antichrist, that they acknowledged the liberty of exter- 
" nal things, and that the greatest care was to rata* 
" chiefly those things wherein the discipline of Christ Si 
227 " especially consist, and that no occasion of strife might re- 
main among the weaker sort. But to say that these gar- 
ments were so defiled by the abuse of Antichrist, that do 
Church might use them, he dared not be so bold. Nei- 
ther did he see any place of Scripture whereby he might 
u defend this condemning of the good creature of God. 
" That any ceremony is wickedly Aaronical or Antichristian, 
" stood not in any creature of God, in any figure, in any 
" colour, but in the mind and profession of those that 
" abused God's good creature to wicked signification,— 
" And if any Church, by the liberty of Christ, would have 
" their ministers wear some special apparel in their ministry) 
to this end to edify the flock of Christ, setting apart aO 
superstition, all lightness and dissension, he could not see 
who could justly condemn such Churches of any sin, nor 
of any fellowship with Antichrist. And in the conclusion, 
he prayed God so to moderate or remove this oontnv 



rersy, that it hindered not the necessary cleansing of the CHAP. 
Church." Hoper's letter to this reverend man, and his to XXVIIL 
iper, (whereof this is some brief account,) may be con- Aooo i&so. 
tod in the Repository. mm. NN. 

Now did Ridley, Bishop of London, by his injunctions, Orden for 
ler the altars in his diocese to be taken down, as occa-^J^ ** 
us of great superstition and error, and tables to be set in 
ar rooms in some convenient places of the chancel or 
oir. And so far did the King's Council favour him King Edw. 
rein, that in the month of June Sir John Yates, or 
ilea, the high sheriff, went down with letters into Essex, 
tee the Bishop of London's injunctions put in force, for 
i {ducking down altars, superaltaries, and other corrup- 
ns in religion. This when it was urged against Ridley 
the commissioners a little before his burning, he said, 
*as done upon this consideration, among others, for that 
an seemed to come nigh the Jews 1 usage. But the Pa- 
ts now called the communion-table, most irreverently, an 
tier board. So did Dr. Weston, and White, afterward 
shop of Lincoln. But as Ridley began this reformation 
the Lord's table, so by the Council's letter to him, and 
iero sent to all the Bishops in the month of November, 
are were generally every where taken away. 
But great contest there happened hereupon, in what pre- Contest 
e part of the chancel the table should be placed, and gUnding ^ 
m it should stand, whether east or north. And 8ome tb ^ tebtet * 
iced it one way, and some another : which made White, 
Tore-mentioned, scoffingly tell Ridley, " When your table Act* and 
*as constituted, you could never be content in placing ^^ 
the same, now east, now north, now one way, now an- 
other, until it pleased God of his goodness to place it 
dean out of the Church." But Ridley told him more 
ively concerning the reformation that was made in re- 
ion to the holy communion, " that the supper of the 
Lord was not at any time better ministered, nor more 
July received, than in these latter days, when all things 
rere brought to the rites and usage of the primitive 



BOOK But altars gave them such disgust, that before these 
*• public orders for the taking them away, many well disposed 

Anno 1550. persons had changed them for tables. Thus George Con* 

Some altars s tantine, Archdeacon of Carmarthen, in the year 1548, 

before or- pulled down the altar there, and set up a table in the 

middle of the church ; which however made a great mur- 

mur among the people. And the Bishop of St. 
228 thinking this a dangerous matter at this time, when there 
was a rebellion in divers parts of the nation, and fearing i* 
might provoke the Welshmen to rise, and not liking the 
Archdeacon's doing this of his own head, without consult- 
ing the Bishop, and without any authority from above, 
commanded the Vicar to set up the communion table for 
the present time near the place where it was before, that is, 
where the altar stood. And this was made one of the ar- 
ticles against this Bishop by Constantine, and the rest of hk 
The case Barlow, Bishop of Bath and Wells, had deprived the 
Bishop of Dean, named John Goodman, for some fault, which I do 

w^iL^and not ** P re8ent And* For this act the common lawyers <K» 
the Dean, rected the Dean to sue the Bishop upon a prtmvnirt, 
because that deanery was a donative of the King's. And so 
he brought a writ of premunire, Octob. 11, against the Bi- 
shop. Upon this the Bishop applied himself to the Coun- 
cil, that, if the law would permit, he might be excused per- 
sonal appearance until the Parliament, and yet to answer 
by attorney. The Bishop also obtained a pardon, dated 
November 13, of all manner of contempts and prejudice!, 
and of all manner of judgments; and further, of all h» 
mss.d. ^ goods, lands, and tenements. But notwithstanding, the 
Justices proceeded in the cause. So that November the 2£d, 
Justice Lyster, Bromley, and Portman, appeared before the 
Council, and being demanded why they proceeded in the 
Bishop of Bathes matter of premunire, contrary to their 
letters of restraint addressed unto them in that behalf, they 
answered, that they were sworn to suffer the laws to have 
their due course : so that without violating their oaths, they 
could stay no process. Other excuses they made, but of 

Epis. Load. 


nail moment Wherefore in the end this question was CHAP, 
roposed to them : " If a spiritual office be surrendered U * 

to the King, and after, the King by Parliament newly Anno 1550. 
' erecteth the same office, whether the same office be a spi- 
( ritual office, or no ?" November 26. they gave in their 
rawer,* with the advice of the rest of the Justices ; which 
ras this: 

Resp. " A spiritual office surrendered to the King, not- 
' withstanding the new erection of the same by any act of 
'Parliament, remaineth still a spiritual office as it was be- 

I fore." 

These things seeming to go against the Bishop, he ap- 
Kaled from the common law and the Judges to the Privy 
Council. February 12. the Dean, for his disobedience and 
vil behaviour to the Bishop, was committed to the Fleet 
February 15. the Council ordered the King's attorney and 
olicitor to confer with some of his Majesty's Justices touqh- 
&g the premunire between the Bishop and Dean; and 
ipon the resolution of the same to repair to their Lordships 
nth the proceedings of the same. February 18. the Arch- Justice 
whop had a letter sent to him by the Council, to proceed Abridgm. 

II the appeal between the Bishop and the Dean : for Good- Tit - ***- 
sin, after his deprivation, had made a formal appeal unto n» 21. 

be King. But whether that appeal was to be allowed, Goodman 
inee the King had left Goodman's case unto the decision ^£4^^ 
f his commissioners delegate for that purpose, and they JPP**[ eth : 
id judged and deprived him, was a case much argued by part iv. 
le Judges. And this was the opinion of most of them; p,34 °' 
is. Where a sentence is given by commissioners delegate 
r the prince, the party grieved appealing, such appeal is 
it of the order prescribed by the said statute. And the 
inee in that case may grant a new commission to others 
• determine that appeal. And this, was done. The issue 
is, Goodman's deprivation stood, but the Bishop was con- 
rained to sue for a pardon. 

As to the success of the Reformation, it went on but 229 
mly in the parts farther distant from London. In Wales ?. upel,ti * 

J * tions and 

* people ordinarily carried their beads about with them-wickednns 

A ^ q in Wales. 



BOOK to church, and used them in prayer. And even at the 
church of Carmarthen, while the Bishop was at the coa- 

Anno i5M). mun i on _table bareheaded, doing his devotions, the people 
kneeled there and knocked their breasts at the sight of die 
communion, using the same superstitious ceremonies as they 
had used in times past before the mass. They brought 
there corpses to be buried with songs, and candles lighted 
up about them. And one Dr. Hughs ministering the 
. munion in the cathedral church of St. David's, did after 
xhe popish manner break the host into three pieces, putting 
one of the parts into the cup, and giving an whole cake to 
. the communicants without breaking the same. Also, this 
country was very infamous for concubinacy, adultery, and 
incest. Some kept four concubines together. It was com- 
mon for married men to keep concubines, and other men's 
wives. Some put away their own lawful wives, and married 
their concubines. One had two children by his own sister. 
One kept two sisters, whereof one was married to another 
man. One kept his own sister. And many of these smnen 
were priests. 

The French But to look out a little upon our nation's concerns abroad. 

J^*»b ly When matters were adjusted between England and France, 

conducted and Boloign was to be restored to the French, which was 
* agreed upon about the beginning of this year 1550, hos- 
tages on each side were to be given, and a great sum of 
money to be paid to King Edward. Account of this af- 
fair is given in the History of the Reformation. To which 
I add a few things relating hereunto out of the Council- 
Book. " April 20. Sir Thomas Cheney, Lord Warden of the 
" Cinque Ports, was ordered to repair to Dover, to meet 
" three of the French hostages, viz. Mons. d'Enghien, le 
" Marq. du Main, and Mons. Montmorancy, eldest son to 
" the Constable of France ; who were to remain here on 
w the French part for surety of the first payment. And for 
surety of the second payment were three other hostages, 
Mons. Tremoyl, Vidame de Chartres, and Mons. Hanni- 
bal d'Oy, the admiral's only son. And because these 
French hostages were of the principal nobility of France, 




*it was agreed, that the Lord Marquis of Northampton, CHAP. 
tt High Chamberlain of England, with an honourable com- 

* pany, viz. the Earl of Rutland, Lord Lisle, Lord Russel, Anno imo. 

* Lord Grey, Lord William Howard, Lord Bray, Sir An- 

* thony St. Leger, Sir William Stafford, Sir John Cutts, 
u Sr Peter Mewtas, with certain other gentlemen, should 

, u meet them between Dover and London, to conduct them 
^ u the more honourably, according to their estates. 

" Sir Maurice Denys and Sir William Sherington, com- Commi*- 
u , misaioners to receive the first payment, now to be madeJJ^f™ ' 
a by the French, are ordered to give, if Mons. Gondy, the **«"* 
" master of the French King's finances, doth bring the first 
u payment, 2000 crowns in reward from his Majesty: and 
" if another brings it, to give 2000 crowns, or so much as 
" their discretion shall think fit. The reward was ordered 
" to Mons. Gondy, because he was the first motioner and 
M procurer of the peace. 

" Also April 20. Sir John Mason, the ambassador, made Mason, 
tf a motion to the Council, to know how he should use the J£J f^^ 
" Bishop of Rome's nuncio, when they happened to meet 
w in the French Court. Wherein he was referred to his 230 
u own discretion, considering the trust committed to him, 
" being the King's Majesty's ambassador there. 

" Ordered the same day to dismiss the army in the north, Ordertupon 
"to send the Almains home by ships from Newcastle, to ^b France. 
tt send the Irish home by ships from Chester ; and to keep 
" up two hundred men more than were usually in pay, in 
" the town of Bar wick. And forasmuch as the French had 
u got the Queen of Scots into their hands, it was resolved to 
send a governor to the east and middle marches, one of 
great wisdom and ability and courage : and that the Earl 
44 of Warwick was thought the most fit for so important an 
u employment That he should have 1000/. per annum 
w fee, and an hundred horsemen : with liberty, when things 
" were established there, to return to the Court, or remain 
'* in the country, as he shall please.* 

To lay in here also some other matters from the same An embassy 
MS. " April 24. the Marquis of Brandenburgh's ambas- denburgb. 

a a 4 


BOOK " sador made these two requests to the Council: L His 
" master offered the King his service with aid of men. of 


Anno 15*0. « war. 2. He desired the Lady Mary in marriage. Tht 
" answer was, The King took the first offer in good part* 
" and returned him thanks. To the second, that his High- 
ness, by the advice of his Council, had already treated with 
the Emperor about it : which, being not yet determiaed, 
" allowed them not in honour to begin any new pnctioi 
" for the same." He was prayed to take this for answer, with; 
most hearty thanks for his good-will, and so despatched. 
£ SJJ5K. " May 2. the King sent notice to Sir Robert Bowet, 
Bowes in " [Warden of the marches,] that he resolved to place the 
• « Ear] of Warwick in the north ; and for the good service of 
" Sir Robert Bowes, he would settle a pension on him, and 
u further reward him. 
The com- « M 4 ^ Lo rd Clinton, with the rest of the com- 

miMionen J ' 

return from " missioners from Boloign, were received by the Council, 
0ign ' " and thanked for their good service beyond sea. The 
" Lord Clinton, by the whole Council, was conducted to 
" the King's presence, who thanked him, and declared that 
" he should be made admiral, and one of his Privy Coun. 
" cil.™ And full peace was made this month with the 
French King. In whose oath for the peace he confessed 
the King's styles, of supreme Head of the Church of Eng- 
land, and King of Ireland. 
Lord " May 11. the Lord Clinton's estate not being able to 

Jwarded. " maintain the port and dignity of Lord High Admiral, to 
" which he had been lately advaneed, upon surrender of 
" the Earl of Warwick's patent, and in consideration of his 
" great service at Boloign, (of which he was captain,) it was 
" determined to give him 200/. land, and to make him one 
" of the privy-chamber ." 
Manor* And accordingly, by a patent bearing date the 14th of 

g^elThi'm. May, he, by the name of Edward Lord Clynton and Say, 
Book of had granted to him the office of Great Admiral of England, 
Ireland, Wales, and the dominions and isles of the same, 
the town of Calais, and the marches of the same, of Nor- 
mandy, Gascoin, and Aquitain, as it ran in the patent 


\ad this to bold lor the term of bis life, with the fee of CHAP. 
S00 marks per annum. And by another patent granted to 

lim, June 10. following, the King gave him the manors of Anno im6» 
Yestinhunger and Satewood [alias Saltwood] in Kent, and 
he manors of Folkston and Walton, and divers other ma- 
yors, lands, and tenements, in Kent, Cornwall, York, Lin- 
oln, Devon, and Sussex, to the value of 227/. 19*. Sd, and 23 1 
82. 5*. IQd. ob. yet with some rent reserved. And (to take 
n together in this place other royal bounties enjoyed by 
his Lord) in the first year of King Edward's reign, for his 
rood service against the Scots, the said King gave him the 
nanor of Braunce^on in the county of Lincoln, with the 
ippurtenances, late parcel of the possessions of John Lord 
Elussey ; and the manor of Clifford in the county of Here- 
ford, parcel of the possessions of the late Earl of March, 
ind divers other lands and tenements : and the same year 
.he King gave him besides, the manor of Folkingham in 
Lincolnshire, late parcel of the possessions of the Duke of 
Norfolk attainted of treason, and divers other manors, lands, 
rod tenements. 

In November 1550. he had the grant of the office of More grant* 
Bigh Steward of the manors of Westborough, Calthorp, 1Qla 
Riskington, Hekington, and Welborn, in Lincolnshire; and Warr. Book, 
rf all other lands, tenements, &c. which were the demeans 
>f Thomas, late Duke of Norfolk, for life, with the fee of 
Sve pounds by year for the high stewardship, and four 
pounds by year for the keeper of the courts. In Jan. 17. 
lie obtained of the King a licence, that where of late he had 
enclosed a several ground in Aslabr, alias Aslakby, and 
Kirkby underwood in the county of Lincoln, for a park, 
that from henceforth it should be a free and lawful park 
for keeping and feeding of deer. The next day, vix. 
Jan. 18, he had of the King the reversion of the office of 
steward of the honour of Bullingbroke in Lincolnshire, and 
>f all the manors, lands, &c. in the parties of Kesteven, 
parcel of the duchy of Lancaster, for life, after the death 
)f Sir William Hussey, Knight, and all fees, profits, &c 
This was lately given to the Lord Clinton in possession, for 


BOOK that Sir William Hussey was supposed to be dead : now new 
signed and granted in reversion. In the very next month be 

Anno 1550. obtained the gift of all the lordships, manors, lands, &c ly- 
ing in the town of St. Botulph, alias Boston, in Linooh- 
shire, belonging to the late chantry of Corpus Christ], 
founded within the said town, the value not expressed; U 
be holden by fealty, and to take the profits from 
an. 2 Edward VI. The next month, viz. March 7, m '] 
indenture passed between the King and Edward Lori 
Clinton, witnessing, that the Lord Clinton had bargained 
and sold unto his Highness all his lordships and manors ii 
Folkingham, Aslackby, &c. And the King had bargained 
and sold unto the said Lord, the lordships and manors of 
Wy, and the rectory of Wy in the county of Kent, with di- 
vers other lands, &c. And a gift of the same date of the 
lordship and manor of Wy and other lands, to the yen!} 
value of 3581. 15*. 8& Again, March 16. he had the ofioe 
of keeping the castle of Bullingbroke, and the office d 
porter there. March 20. he had the office of steward d 
the lordship of Newark upon Trent, and of all the lank, 
tenements, &c whatsoever in Newark, and the office of the 
constable of the castle there, and of the bailiff of the flflne, 
for life, with fee. 

Still more. Anno 1551, March 25, he had a lease of the King fir 
sixty years, of the manors of Folkingham, Aslabe, and 
Temple Aslaby, in the county of Lincoln, with divers other 
lands. In April he was made Knight of the Garter, at 
the same time when the French King was elected into the 
same order. And the King gave him a George, set with 
eight small diamonds, which had been the Earl of South- 
232 ampton's, late deceased. The same month he had the office 
of steward and keeper of the courts of all the lordships sol 
manors in the county of Lincoln, parcel of the possessor 
of the late monasteries of Valday Newbo, Swinshed, fa 
and divers other lands, &c. (as appear by his letters patents) 
in the same county, for life, with several fees, amounting to 
100 mark. 
Anno 1552, in recompence of his journey to France, for 


1 i 

i baptizing of Edward Alexander, the son of the French CHAP. 

ng, in the name and place of King Edward his godfather, 

e said Song by patent, dated April 15, gave him the Anno 1550. 

mor of Kingstown in Somersetshire, with the advowson, 

d the manor of Chisilbourn in the county of York, with 

e advowson : which were lately parcel of the possessions 

Sir Thomas Arundel, and came to the King's hands by 
s attainder; to hold to him and his heirs, with some 
at reserved to the King. And the same year a patent of 
race, dated Nov. 1. was granted to the Bishop of Carlisle, 

sell to the said Lord Admiral his soke or lordship of 
oracastle in the county of Lincoln, together with all the 
purtenances and hereditaments in the villages, field, pa- 
iies of Horncastle, Overcompton, Nethercompton, Ashby, 
anting, Wilsby, Haltam, Conesby, Boughton, Thimelby, 
orby, Maram, and Enderby, in the same county, with the 
▼owsons thereunto appertaining : licensing also the Dean 
id Chapter to confirm and ratify the same: and granting 
ence to the said Lord to pay a yearly rent of 28/. 6s. Sd. 
the said Bishop and his successors for ever, out of the 
emises. And to have these letters patents with discharge 
1 the fees of the seal. In December, a lease for two hun- 
•ed years was granted him by the King of the Bishop of 
ereforcTs house in London. 

The Duke of Somerset, now after his imprisonment, sub- The Duke 
iasion, and pardon, was called, April 10, to the Privy ^ ore d. 
ouncil : who sued for himself to be again admitted to the 
ivy chamber : and was so the 14th of the next month, 
nd his estate being forfeited and given to the crown by 
arliament, an. 3 and 4 Reg. the King of his special favour, 
id at the humble petition of the Lords of his Council, by 
itent sealed June 4, gave him back of that, it seems, which And kndi 
id been his before, the castle of Maryborough, and all his King Edw. 
rdahip8 and manors of Barton, Ludgarshal, Alborn, and??° kof 
Id Wotton, and his parks of Ludgarshal, Great Vastern, 
ittle Vastern, Alborn Chase, and Alborn Warren, and the 
(rests and the liberties of the forests of Bradon and Sa- 
>rnake,. with' the appurtenances, in the county of Wilts ; 


BOOK and divers other lordships, manors, lands, and tenement^ 
*' in the counties of Wilts, Southampton, Dorset, Someno^ 

Anno i mo. Middlesex, Berks, and Bucks. And June the 14th, k 
consideration of the castle and lordship of Sleford, and otkr 
lands and manors in the county of Lincoln, the King, bjr 
patent of the same date, gave him all and singular the mm 
suages, lands, tenements, and hereditaments, with the apt/ 
purtenances, in the town of Glastenbury, in the county «f 
Somerset, and other lands and tenements in Kingston-upa* 
Hull. The which were valued at 2141 14*. Bd. obq. per 
J^* 8 ^ The Earl of Arundel, one of ancient nobility, but t» 
Council to whom the Earl of Warwick bare no good-will, for certab I 
Md! P^tended faults, had been fined very deep, whereof he w» 
remitted afterward by the Bang's clemency. To him had 
the Lord Cobham and Mr. Comptroller been sent. Aid 
" July 13. they were with him, [with their mesBage, which 
233 " was to go with a force into Sussex for the prevention of 
stirs, there likely to arise :] but they found him not d» 
posed to go, [taking his late punishment in no small in» 
" dignation.] He pretended sickness, poverty, and lack ct 
" provision. And that since his fine was set, he thought 
" himself restored to favour with the King's Council also, 
" which he had dearly bought ; considering that in his owi 
" conscience he had never offended. Wherefore it seemed 
" strange to him now to be commanded into Sussex. Where; 
" upon the Council resolved, that the Lord Admiral, th* 
" Lord Cobham, should go again unto him, and require 
" him to send back the pardon that he had sued and ob- 
" tained of the King, and telling him that he would find 
" means that they should come to the trial of this justifc 
" cation of himself, and to be used according to justice. 
" And as to his going into Sussex, he was commanded no 
" otherwise than as all other noblemen are in the whole 
realm, for the preserving the peace of the country be 
tween this and Michaelmas, in eschewing such inconve- 
niences as happened last year. To this his direct answer 
was required. 91 By the sequel it appears he went not 




nto Sussex, for the Duke of Somerset, as was hinted before, CHAP, 
despatched thither. XXVIII. 


July 19. It was not thought convenient for the Earl Anno mm. 
; * of Warwick to go into the north, as was before ordered ; Wlpwick 

° . goes not 

" but rather, for many urgent occasions, to attend the into the 
" King's person ; and Sir R. Bowes to remain Warden of north ' 
" the marches, as he was before. For the courtiers did not 
P care to give their enemies the advantage of their absence 
" in the present factions at Court. 

"January 13. Mr. Chamberlain, ambassador with the The am- 
" Lady Regent in Flanders, complained by letters to thej5Inderi m 
6 Council, that it was declared that he was, by the express forbad the 
u command of the Emperor, prohibited the service of God*^^ 
" in his house there, according to the order of the realm, 
" contrary to the privilege and liberty granted to ambassa- 
" dors in all countries. Wherefore it was thought conve- 
l€ nient, and for the King's honour, that the Emperor's am- 
* bassador here should be sent to and advertised, that the 
" Sing thought it strange, seeing he had the liberty here 
u to do in his own house as he would : and that if his am- 
u bassador be denied the liberty of divine service in his 
M house in Flanders, the Emperor's ambassador must be 
" prohibited the same liberty in England, and be cot*- 
" strained to use the forms of service only by law esta- 
*' blished in this realm, and to have no mass. That he 
" should take the message for warning. The Bishop of Ely 
" and Mr. Secretary Petre should deliver this message to 

" February 3. The Lord Maxwel of Scotland made a The Conn- 
" request for licence to pass through England from France ^ ^the 
%t to Scotland, with sixteen horse in his retinue. This mat- 1 - " 1 Mws - 


** ter being debated, seemed to be of great importance ; that 
" the Scots should pass to and fro through the realm, Scot- 
" land being made French. Which liberty wpuld much 
" advance the French affairs, and hinder our men. It was 
" resolved he should not pass this way. Which, with fair 
" words, was dissembled under this pretence, that the 
" realm had been so charged with the furnishing of those 


BOOK " that, since the peace concluded, had thus passed to and 
'• " from, that we could not conveniently any longer support 

1650. « it. Wherefore he was prayed to have patience." The 
234 Council before this had granted many passes to and from 
Scotland and France. 
Lands To the Lady Elizabeth, the King's sister, he now granted, 

STudy* for fatting the King his father's last will, the whole scite, 
Eluabeth. sept, circuit, compass, and precinct of the late monastery df 
Sties. Missenden in the county of Bucks, and all and singular 
the houses, edifices, &c lately in the occupation of Richard 
Grenway; and divers other lands, tenements, and here- 
ditaments, in Bucks, Bedford, Hertford, and divers other 
counties, to the yearly value of 3106/. IS*. 1 ob. q. rent 
reserved 1062. 18s. lob. q. The King also this year made 
over to her the manor of Hatfield Episcopi, alias Regis, 
late parcel of the possession of the Bishop of Ely. This, 
with other lands, were valued at 44/. 16*. 10 vb. yearly. 
This was granted upon consideration of her parting with 
the manor of Easter in Lincolnshire. 

From this her manor of Hatfield, and perhaps not long 
after this time, did the said lady write an ingenious letter 
to the King her brother, who had desired her picture; 
which was as follows : 

Her letter " Like as the rich man that daily gathereth riches to 

upon bit d?" riches, and to one bag of money layeth a great sort, till 

•iring of her « \i co me to infinite; so methinks your Majesty, not being 

Vespasian, " sufficed with many benefits and gentleness shewed to me 

3 * " afore this time, doth now increase them in asking and 

" desiring, where you may bid and command ; requiring a 

" thing not worthy the desiring for itself, but made worthy 

" for your Highness' request. My picture I mean : in 

" which, if the inward good mind toward your Grace might 

" as well be declared, as the outward face and countenance 

" shall be seen, I would not have tarried the command- 

" ment, but prevented it, nor have been the last to grant, 

" but the first to offer it For the face, I grant, I might 

" well blush to offer, but the mind I shall never be ashamed 


" to present. But though from the grace of the picture CHAP. 
** the colours may fade by time, may give by weather, may XXVIII# 

" be spited by chance; yet the other, nor time with her Anno imo, 
" swift wings shall overtake, nor the misty clouds with their 
" lowering may darken, nor chance with her slippery foot 
w may overthrow. 

" Of this also yet the proof could not be great, because 
" the occasions have been so small; notwithstanding as a dog 
" hath a day, so may I perchance have time to declare it in 
" deeds, which now I do write them but in words. And 
further, I shall humbly beseech your Majesty, that when 
you shall look on my picture you will wjtsafe to think, 
" that as you have but the outward shadow of the body 
" afore you, so my inward mind wisheth that the body it- 
" self were oftener in your presence. Howbeit, because 
" both my so being, I think, could do your Majesty little 
" pleasure, though myself great good ; and again, because 
" I see as yet not the time agreeing thereunto, I shall learn 
" to follow the saying of Orace, Feras rum ctdpcs quod vi- 
"tari rum potest And thus I will (troubling your Ma- 
" jesty I fear) end with my most humble thanks, beseech- 
" ing God long to preserve you to his honour, to your 
" comfort, to the realm's profit, and to my joy. From 
" Hatfield, this 15th day of May, 

" Your Majesty's most humble 

" sister and servant, 

« Elizabeth." 

The King also this year granted lands to Thirlby, Bi-235 
shop of Norwich ; that is to say, for the sum of 180/. 10*. |^S{VjjL 
and in consideration of service, the King made over to him 
the manor of Frith and Newhal, with the appurtenances, in 
the county of Middlesex, lately parcel of the possessions of 
the late bishopric of Westminster, of the yearly value of 
X&L 1*. The test of the patent was April 9. Again, by a 
patent dated two days after, viz, the 11th of April, of the 
King's special grace he granted him for augmentation of 


BOOK the bishopric of Norwich, all that manor, rectory, mA 

*• church of Happesborough in the county of Norfolk, vkk 

Ann* 1550. all the rights, members, and appurtenances thereof, formerijr 

belonging to the monastery of Wymondham in die mm 

county, lately dissolved, together with divers other miMtf 

and tenements in the counties of Norfolk, Suffolk, Lirakn 

the yearly value 8Q8J. 18s. 9d. rent reserve*! SStL Vis. 10 oi. 

and 64s£ IBs. 11 ob. And by patent dated June 19. fcfc 

lowing, in consideration of the manor of Happesborough 

with other lands and tenements, the King granted him tte 

manors of Northerek, Houghton, alias Laxhams, Brans- 

chehal, and Snorings, in the county of Norfolk, with the sp 

purtenances, formerly belonging to the late dissolved prioty 

of Blackborough, and divers other lands and tenements i» 

the county of Norfolk; of the yearly value of 531. is. 8i 

rent reserved £3*. 9d. 

w.Morice't And this year did William Morice, Esq. of High Ongar 

p ' in the county of Essex, make a purchase of the King, 

I the rather mention to revive the memory of a good matt, 
and ancient professor and confessor of religion. For be 
had been a great friend and patron of Latymer, under the 
reign of King Henry : and in the very latter end of ha 
reign suffered imprisonment for religion in the Charter 
House, London, then inhabited by Sir Robert Southwet, 
and narrowly escaped with his life by the death of that 
King intervening. He was the father of Rafe Morice, se- 
cretary to the most reverend father and martyr, Cranmer, 
Archbishop of Canterbury. This memorable person, with 
Edward Isaac, (he of Kent, I suppose, who under Queen 
Mary was an exile,) purchased of the King, for 1£13£ 5* 2d 
all that messuage or tenement and one garden, in the tenure 
of William Meryl, situate in Neylond in Suffolk, lately be- 
longing to a chantry called our Lady's Chantry in Neykmd, 
and divers other lands, tenements, and hereditaments, in the 
counties of Suffolk, Somerset, Devon, London, Cambridge, 
Cornwal, Dorset, to the yearly value of 72/. 11*. Id. The 
patents bare date July 8. 


I find a learned and wett-deaerving man now gratified by CHAP. 


the King, namely, Walter Haddon, LL. D. and Master of. 

Trinity hall in Cambridge. To him the King, out of his Anno 'W - 
special grace, granted the office of reading the civil law ^ pub | ic " 
within the university of Cambridge, durante beneplacito, reader of 
with the salary of 402. The patent bore date March 21. 

It was in the year 1550, or very near it, that the famous Knox 6nt 
Scotch divine, John Knox, was appointed preacher to Ber-g^^, 
wick, and after that to Newcastle : whence he came more 
southward, and at length to London; where he became 
known to the Sing and Court, whence he received a salary; 
and here, and in the parts of Buckinghamshire, he remained 
till the death of King Edward. 

CHAP. XXIX. 236 

Sectaries. Certain incompliant Bishops punished. Churches 
of strangers in London and Glastenbury. A Lasco and 
PottanuSy their pastors. The Strasburgh liturgy. Bu- 
cer v s death. Anabaptists. 

Wf E shall now spend some lines in matters relating to the 
present state of religion in the realm. And first we shall 
consider some that prejudiced and hindered it ; both such as 
pretended to the profession of the Gospel, and others that 
were open enemies to it : sectaries I mean, and Papists. 

Sectaries appeared now in Essex and Kent, sheltering The tecta- 
themselves under the profession of the Gospel: of whomj^^,^. 
complaint was made to the Council. These were the first 
that made separation from the reformed Church of England, 
having gathered congregations of their own. The congre- 
gation in Essex was mentioned to be at Booking : that in 
Kent was at Feversham, as I learn from an old register. 
From whence I also collect, that they held the opinions of Foxii MSS. 
the Anabaptists and Pelagians; that there were contribu- 
tions made among them for the better maintaining of their 

VOL. II. b b 


BOOK congregations; that the members of the congregation in 
Kent went over unto the congregation in Essex, to instruct 

Anno 1550. and to join with them ; and that they had their meetingiii . 
Kent in divers places beside Feversham. The names of 
some of the chief of these sectaries in Kent were, Henry 
Hart, Cole of Feversham, George Brodebridg, Humphrey 
Middleton, (who were their teachers, as it seems,) Wilfian 
Greneland, John Grey, William Forstal, Edmund Mora, 
Laurence Ramsay, Thomas Broke, Roger Linsey, Richari 
Dimeslake, clerk, Nicolas Yong, John Plume of T<nfhM% 
and Cole of Maidston. Their teachers and divers of thea 
were taken up, and found sureties for their appearance, and 
at length brought into the ecclesiastical court, where they 
were examined in forty-six articles, or more. Many of thoje 
before named being deposed upon the said articles, con- 
fessed these to be some sayings and tenets among than: 

J 1 *' 1 ' " That the doctrine of predestination was meeter for devik 
" than for Christian men : that children were not born a 
" original sin :" which were Cole's assertions. These that 
follow were taught by Hart : " That there was no man 10 
" chosen, but that he might damn himself ; neither any ami 
" so reprobate, but that he might keep God's command- 
" ments, and be saved : that St. Paul might have damned 
" himself, if he listed ; and that learned men were the can* 
" of great errors : that his faith was not grounded upoa 
" learned men, for that all errors were brought in by learned 
" men." Other doctrines of theirs were ; " That God's pre- 
237 " destination was not certain, but upon condition : that to 
" play at any manner of game for money is sin, and the 
work of the flesh : that they ought not to salute any 
sinner, or a man they knew not : that lust after evil was 
" not sin, if the act were not committed : that Adam wai 
" elected to be saved, and that all men being then in Adam » 
" loins were predestinated to be saved ; and that there wot 
" no reprobates: that the preaching of predestination is a 
" damnable thing : that we are not to communicate with 
" sinners :" and many other. 



But beside these sectaries, there was information sent to CHAP, 
die Court in June this year of another sort in Essex, but XXIX * 
they, as it seems, more harmless; namely, certain that came Anno 1550. 
together oil other days besides Sundays and holydays, tof >retch " , s 
hear sermons, who had preachers that then preached to work days 
them t and that, for ought I perceive, was all their fault ; ^"P 1 *** 1 
for I do not find any false doctrine or sedition laid to their 
ehatge. The Lord Chancellor Rich, who was no favourer 
ft the Gospel, bring, as it seems, at one of his houses in 
B as es , sent word of this to the Council, shewing the danger 
ft this practice, as bang likely to breed the common people 
op in a neglect of their ordinary callings, and an indulging 
ttf themselves to idleness. But I suppose the truth was, he 
was afraid the knowledge of the Gospel should spread too 
much. The issue of this was, " that June 28, a letter was And forbki- 
" directed to the Bishop of London, declaring the disposi-^ 11 ^. 
K tion of the people to idleness, and praying him therefore 
K to take order for preaching the holydays only, till a better 
u time of the people's inclination :" as the minutes run in 
the Council-Book. Of which some larger notice hath been 
given before. 

One Hickson now appeared, who pretending to have aHickson,* 
spirit of prophecy, had used divers strange practices ; among p^^ 1 
which he touched the King's person, and the estate of this council* 
realm : and was therefore, May 16, committed to the Tower 
by the Council. 

One Warreham, a priest, who had been eighteen years Wwhra, 
out of the realm, returning in a manner disguised, and be-»j^cud. 
mg suspected of matter of importance, was also committed 
lb the Tower by order of Council. 

Order had been given in June the last year, from the Manes still 
Council to Bishop Bonner, against the use of masses, said 1D Pauls ' 
privately in some of the chapels in St. Paul's, under the 
name of our Lady's communion : and that for the future 
[to prevent it) the communion should be celebrated no 
prhere else but at the high altar, and at no time else but 
it the times when the high masses used to be said. Of 
rhich order of Council the Bishop certified the Dean 



BOOK and Chapter. Yet still, to this time, even tinder Ridley, 
' who was now Bishop, the communion was celebrated with 

Anno 1550. such superstitions, as though it were a mass. Of this some 
informed the Council, and that when the Eucharist was ce- 
lebrated, it was in effect a mass. Whereupon the Council 
thought fit to appoint certain intelligent persons, favourers 
of the Gospel, to go to Paul's, and there to observe wdl 
what deviations were made from the late order prescribed. 

Council- For Octob. 11, 1550, it was ordered, " that Thomas Astely 

n.b. " join with two or three more honest gentlemen in London, 
" for the observation of the usage of the communion in 
" Paul's ; whereof information was given, that it was used 
" as the very mass." Such a secret good-will did many of 
the priests and churchmen belonging to the cathedral still 
bear to the old former usages. 
338 The church also of Westminster, nearer to the King's 
house than any other, was not yet freed from its supersti- 
tions, both in apparel and books, which were still preserved 
there. Which occasioned a letter, dated in February, from 
the King and his Council to the members of that church; 
" That, in the presence of Mr. Vicechamberlain, and Sir 
Anthony Aucher, all manner of garnishments and apparel 
of silver and gold, such as altar-cloths, copes, &c. should 
" be taken away, and delivered to the said Sir Anthony ; 
" and to deface and carry out of the library at Westminster 
" all books of superstition ; such as missals, breviaries, pro- 
" cessionals," &c. 

Three Bi- jj ut f or fa taking better order with cathedrals, infl%*- 

sbopt laid ... 

•side. enced much by their respective Bishops, as one, viz. Bon^ 1 

of London, was deposed last year, so we find three incoi 
pliant prelates more this year under confinement in 
Tower, Gardiner Bishop of Winchester, Heth of Worc^* 
ter, and Day of Chichester. The particular reasons where^"" 
may be read in other histories. Gardiner was this year, 
ward the latter end thereof, judicially deprived ; as the ti 
others were the year following ; the former for refusing l 
assist at the reforming of the old Ordinal, and the latter 0^ 
denying to obey the order of the Council for taking W*J 


the altars in their dioceses. For this contempt, as it was CHAP; 


styled in the Council-Book, they were both deprived Octo- 

ber 5, 1561. Anno 1660. 

As for Bishop Gardiner, his story is related at length Bishop g«t- 
dsewhere. He was dealt very honourably with, having di- matter. 
vers messages sent to him from the King, and divers of his Se^rW*. 
chiefest ministers repairing to him, to confer with and per- 
suade him. Among the rest, once the Lord Great Master, 
the Lord Treasurer, the Master of the Horse, and the Se- 
cretary, brought him certain articles to subscribe, together 
with the King's letter : which being omitted in Cranmer's 
Memorials, and so expressive of the matters wherein the 
Bishop gave offence, I shall here insert from the original : 

By the King. 
" It is not, we think, unknown unto you, with what de- The King's 
M mency and favour we, by the advice of our Council, Bishop Gmr- 
u caused you to be heard and used, upon those sundry din ^' p 
u complaints and informations, that were made to us andtyt.Armig. 
u our said Council of your disordered doings and words, 
M both at the time of our late visitation, and otherwise. 
** Which notwithstanding, considering that the favour, 
u both then and many other times ministered unto you, 
u wrought rather an insolent wilfulness in yourself, than 
" any obedient conformity, such as would have beseemed 
" a man of your vocation, we could not but use some de- 
a monstration of justice towards you, as well for such no- 
** torious and apparent contempts, and other inobediences, 
44 as, after and contrary to our commandment, were openly 
" known in you : as also, for some example and terror of 
** such other, as by your example seemed to take courage 
" to mutter and grudge against our most godly proceed- 
" ings; whereof great disorder and inconvenience might 
" have ensued. For the avoiding whereof, and for your just 
" deservings, you were by our said Council committed to 
" ward. Where, albeit we have suffered you to remain 239 
" a long space, sending unto you, in the mean time, at 



100 K 

mo 1650. 

e Bl- 
ip's wit- 

sundry times, divers of the noblemen and others of oar 
Privy Council, and travailing by them with clemency and 
favour to have reduced you to the knowledge of your duty; 
yet in all this time have you neither knowledged your 
faults, nor made any such submission as might have be- 
seemed you, nor yet shewed any appearance either of m» 
pentance, or of any good conformity to our godly proceed- 
ings. Wherewith albeit we have good cause to be offended, 
and might also justly, by the order of our laws, cshsb 
your former doings to be reformed and punished, to the 
example of others; yet for that we would both the world 
and yourself also should know, that we delight mote in 
clemency than the strait administration of justice, we 
have vouchsafed not only to address unto you these our 
letters, but also to send eftsones unto you four of our 
Privy Council, with certain articles ; which bong by m, 
with the advice of our said Council, considered, we think 
requisite, for sundry considerations, to be subscribed bj 
you. And therefore will and command you to subscribe 
the said articles, upon pain of incurring such punishment 
and penalties as by our laws may be put upon you fcr 
not doing the same. Yeven at our palace of Westminster 
the viii. day of July, the fourth year of our reign. 

E. Somerset W. Wiltshire. J. Warwyk. J. Bedford 
W.Northampton. E.Clynton. G. Cobhaxn. W.Paget 
A. Wyngfeld. W. Herbert Edw. North. W. Petre S." 

When his case came before the commissioners, he had 
the liberty of producing favourable witnesses in his behalf. 
And they were many, and some persons of honour, as the 
Lord Rich Lord Chancellor, Lord Paget, Sir John Baker, 
Bishop Tun8tal, Bishop Thirleby, John Seaton, D.D. 
William Meddow, John White, Thomas Watson, clerks, 
(these four last his chaplains ;) Francis Allen his secretary, 
James Basset, Jaques Wingfield, his proctors in this pro* 
cess; William Coppinger, John Davie, Rich. Hampden, 
Will. Brown, Thomas Growt, Robert Massie, and a great 
many more, some his chaplains, and others his officers or 




servants. Their depositions and testimonies are all set CHAP, 
down at large in John Fox's first edition of his Acts. xxfx - 

It may be observed here, that some of the Bishop's wit- Anno 1550. 

were of the Privy Council : but it was at the request, ]J^o*were 
was pretended, of certain of the Bishop's servants. And of the Privy 
favourably granted by order of Privy Council ; which mmci ' 
to this tenor : " Jan. 19. This day two of the Bishop 
44 of Winchester's servants came to the Council, and desired 

* certain of them [of the Council] to be sworn upon cer- 

* tain articles, for witness on his [the Bishop's] behalf. 
44 Whereunto they answered, that upon their honours, and 
44 as they would answer before God, they would witness 

* truly according to their conscience, and as effectually as 
44 if they were sworn upon a book." And when the Lord 
Rich, Lord Chancellor, on the eighth session, or court-day, 
was to be deposed, (that I may mention this by the bye,) 
he declared, that honourable personages, being of dignity 
and office, (as he was,) were by the laws of the realm privi- 
leged, not to be sworn in common form as other witnesses : 240 
promising nevertheless, upon his truth to God, his allegi- 
ance to the King, and upon his fidelity, to certify the truth. 
And the Judges did onerate him upon his truth to God, 

his allegiance to the King, and his honour and fidelity, to 
depose the plain and whole truth. 

And as these checks were given to sectarism and popery A church 
this year, to countenance was shewn to the true profession f^'gen. * 
of the Gospel : one instance whereof follows. Great num- 
bers of pious foreigners, Dutch, and of other nations, were 
mem in and about London ; many whereof were driven out of 
their own countries by the popish persecution. These had a 
piaoe assigned them for their safe assembling themselves to- 
gether for the public worship of God ; being a large and 
fair part of the church of the Augustin friary dissolved. 
And one Johannes a Lasco, a nobleman of Poland, became John a Lm- 
their first and chief pastor. This man had abandoned his" g ^" r 
own country and honours, to dwell an exile in other parts, 
for the freer acknowledgment of the Gospel ; but not with- 
out the Polish King's good leave, to whom he was well 



BOOK known and beloved. For so a foreign good historian 

us : A Lasco Itft Poland, sciente et permittente rege ; es$ 

Anno 1550. propter ingenii dextcritatem chorus erat, et qui in 
1 ^^ M ^ £tKm ne gotiis ejus opera nan semel usus est; that is, "by the 
menur. " knowledge and permission of the King, to whom, for bis 
" excellent parts, he was dear, and who did more than om 
" make use of him in his difficult affairs." 
The patent. The date of King Edward's grant of this church to the* 
strangers, and the particular place where, is ascertained 
from that King's Book of Sales, being set down in time 
words ; " The King, de special* gratia, of his especul 
" grace, granted the superintendent and ministers of the 
" church of the Germans and other strangers, Mum Uhd 
" tempi, she ecclesiam nuperjratrum Attgustinens. in cm* 
" tat. Lond. ac totam terram 9 fundum et solum ejusdem ee- 
" clesuB? The test of the patent was July 84. an. 4 Edw. VI. 
An order As for A Lasco, he was very vigilant in exercising 
Council for preaching, administering the sacraments, discipline, and go- 
thUclmrch vernment, as being superintendent, and deserved well d 
this church. And when in the year 1558. some of theai 
received molestation for not frequenting the parish churches 
where they dwelt, according as the laws then directed; sad 
opposition seems to have been made by some busy persons, 
to hinder the exercise of religion in this church ; A Lasco 
made his complaint above, where he was much respected, 
and got this obligation of going to the parish church dis- 
pensed with, and allowance for them to resort still to their 
own church. For he obtained this order of Council: 
" Nov. 4, 1552. Ordered, that the Bishop of London 
" should confer with John a Lasco, and between them 
" devise some good means for appeasing the disquiet lately 
" happened in the strangers' church in London, upon exe- 
" cution of the statute for coming to church. And in the 
" mean while, till the matter may be further considered, to 
" suffer the said strangers to repair to their accustomed 
" church, as they were wont to do." 
A Lasco A Lasco buried his wife anno 1558. And for his con- 

agauir veniency, comfort, and for the better managery of his do* 


«Ain, married again not long after. For he had CHAT. 

Y Yl Y 

differs young children : one was called Barbara, and an- 


other Thomas, (to whom I suspect Archbishop Thomas Anno 1 wo. 
Cmnmer was godfather, and gave him his own name.) 
Which marriage Peter Martyr, then at Oxon, approved of. 
For when John Utenhovius, a man of nobility, piety, and 241 
learning, and one of the ministers of the Dutch church in 
London, had by letter advised the said Martyr, lately also 
become a widower, to take another wife, as A Lasco had 
done, " the good man thanked him for his counsel, and p * Martyr's 
" added, that so he would, if he were in A Lasco's case, and thereof. 
" had children young and numerous as he had. Wherefore J^ ***- 
" he much commended and liked what he had done. But Lond. 
" as for Jiimself, he had no child, and was grown into years. 

And therefore thought it better for him to remain as he 

was." As I collect from a private letter of his. 

This grave nobleman, and servant of God, resided some A Lmco 
time in his youth at Basil in Switzerland ; where he seemed Erasmus at 
first to have tasted the word of God, and seen the errors and Ban1 ' 
superstitions ordinarily practised in the Church. Here he 
was, while Erasmus, that great scholar, abode here, by whom 
he was well known and highly esteemed. And, as a pecu- 
liar testimony thereof, he made a sale of his library to him 
in his lifetime, to enjoy after his death, paying such a sum. 
Which Erasmus forgets not to specify in his last will; 
wherein is this clause; " Bibliothccam quidem meant, &c. t. e. 
" I have sold my library to M. John a Lasco, a Pole, ao~ 
" cording to a bond made between us upon this contract, 
" Yet let not the books be delivered before he pay to my 
" heir two hundred florins." 

It was one commendable practice of this church of Strang- Discipline 
ers, that good discipline was preserved in it, to bring scan- tub church, 
dalous sinners to open shame, whatever their outward qua- 
lities or respects were. To this church, at this time, be- 
longed a scholar and a preacher, named Michael AngeloMicAn- 
Florio, an Italian ; who preached to a congregation of Ita-** 
lians, and had the countenance of the Archbishop and the 
Secretary ; by both whose means he had an annuity of 20/. 


BOOK for life, payable by the King quarterly. But having bat 
L found guilty of an act of fornication, he underwent the 

Anno i5M>.sures of the Church, and was deposed from his mimstij. 
Afterwards enjoined penance, which he performed. Bat 
some time after seemed to have been restored again. Hw 
was entered into the acts of the church: In the year 1566, 
I find Grindal, Bishop of London, sent unto Cousin and 
Wing, the Dutch preachers, that they would transcribe art 
of the said acts or register, a short account, what was done 
with this Italian for his scandalous sin in deflouring a mad, 
and the form of the public penance enjoined to and per- 
formed by him. But after search, this book was not to be 
found then among them. And the ministers abovesud coo- 
jectured, that Martin Micronius had carried it along with 
him to Embden, when that church was broken up upon 
Queen Mary's access to the crown, 
strmgm Nor must the church of strangers at Glastenbury in So- 
Glutei?- mersetshire be unmentioned, with Valerandus Pollanus, thar 
bury. preacher and superintendent These consisted chiefly d 
weavers of worsted. The good Duke of Somerset, to whoa 
that dissolved abbey was granted, settled them there bj 
indenture between him and them, with a promise to leal 
them money to buy wool and necessaries, to carry on their 
manufactures, and allotted them rooms for their dwelling, 
and ascertained certain proportions of land for feeding of 
their cows ; and lastly, appointed one Henry Cornish to be 
their chief overseer, to take care of them, and to see the* 
provided with all things needful for them and their trtdei 
But upon the disgrace and misfortunes of the Duke, that 
242 honest men's industry was at a stand for a time, till toate 
farther encouragement came to them from the Privy Coun- 
cil ; as we shall hear by and by. 
The liturgy This church, seated at Glastenbury, came from Stm- 
strangers* burgh, flying thence by reason of the interim. Pclham 

stnubur*!! ^^ come to ^ 8 cnurc ' 1 ^g^t years before. In Febrany 
removed to 1550, being in London, there he set forth in Latin the fi- 
r?i!" tell ~ turgy of these strangers, which they used in their religious 
N. B*t. worship at Strasburgh : that so exposing, as I suppose, their 


p to public view, they might the easier be admitted CHAP, 
gland to the, free exercise of it The epistle dedica- XXIX » 

as to King Edward, dated Feb. 19, 1561, that is, Anno i66o« 
ing to the computation of the Church of England, 
Herein he wrote, " that he thought it worth his 
s to put into Latin the rites and manners (never suf- 
itly commended) used by the strangers' church at 
entine, exiles for the Gospel of Christ: being in* 
id to it as a point of duty, understanding how this 
I church had been slandered by some for changing 
* religion ; by others, for the licentiousness of their 
nera He also mentioned aphorisms of their disci- 
3, which he intended ere long to publish : and gives 
high character of the said church, that there was 
► purer, or that came nearer to that which was in the 
sties' times." This liturgy is short. It was printed in 
or, and bare this title : Liturgia Sacra, seu Ritue Mi- 
i in Ecchsia Peregrinorum Prqfugorum propter 
jdium Christi, Argentine 1551. Cum Apologia pro 
turgia. Per Valerandum PoOanum Flandrum. 
1 because some more particular account of this fo- The parti- 
iturgy may, perhaps, not be unacceptable to some, I ^ a " t ^ 
ere set it down. burgh h- 

i service for the Lord's day. First, Sursum ^ord».JJ^ tel 
the first table of the Decalogue is sung in rhyme, 
the pastor, standing at the table, turning to the people, 
egins, Our help is in the name of ike Lord> &c A 
exhortation to confess their sins. A confession- [The 
ze, the exhortation, and confession are the same 
are at this day used in the French congregations, 
escribed in their liturgy. But therein is nothing of 
at follows.] Then the pastor rehearseth to the peo- 
me sentence out of the Scripture of the remission 
;, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and 
Holy Ghost, the people either kneeling or stand- 
this while. Then the Gospel is read. Then the ab- 
n is again repeated. Then the rest of the Decalogue 
r. Then the pastor exhorteth them to pray. Then 


BOOK follows a very short prayer, like one of our collects, that 
God would give them grace to keep the commandments. 

Abbo 16*0. Then the same collect is sung. And the pastor goes up 
into the pulpit ; where he first prays, and then preaches 
upon the New Testament, beginning some one book of it, 
and going on till he hath ended the whole book in several 
sermons. Then a prayer. Then banns of marriage are 
published, baptism celebrated, the sick particularly prayed 
for, alrfis collected by the deacons. Then comes a long 
prayer, the same with that prescribed in the French form, 
for the whole church, after sermon. Then the Apostles 1 
Creed. Then, when there is a communion, the pastor first 
243 rehearseth the institution of that sacrament out of 1 Cor.xi. 
Then he subjoins an excommunication of all idolaters, blas- 
phemers, heretics, schismatics, perjured, seditious, conten- 
tious, disobedient to parents, whoremongers, thieves, covet- 
ous, &c. and forbids any such to partake of the said Sup- 
per. Then he makes an exhortation concerning the Lord's 
Supper. Then he communicates in both kinds himself; 
next the deacon in both kinds ; then all the men first, and 
after them all the women, approach reverently to the table: 
where the pastor, at one end of the table, gives to every 
one of them the bread one by one ; and the deacon, at the 
other end of the table, gives them the wine : a psalm of 
praise being sung all the while by the people. The pastor 
in giving the bread to every one says, The bread which we 
break is the communion of the body of Christ. The deacon 
in giving the cup, says to every one, The cup which we blest 
is the communion of the blood of Christ Then follows the 
same thanksgiving and benediction which is at this day 
used by the French protestants. Here ends the morning 

At noon, after the singing of a psalm, the children are 
catechised and instructed in the Creed, the Lord's Prayer, 
and the Ten Commandments, for an hour. 

At even, after a psalm was sung, a sermon. After the 
sermon, a prayer and the benediction. 

The daily service. Every morning a psalm is sung, * 


?r, a sermon, a prayer and benediction in the pul- CHAP. 

r J ir ^ XXIX. 

le service of repentance. Every Tuesday was a day of Anno i560. 
solemn devotion, to deprecate God's judgment, and 
ss their sins, in this form : a psalm, the confession, a 
>n, a lqpg prayer, the same as above, 
le service of baptism is the same which is used by the 
ch, except that the parent and godfathers brought the 
. The minister asked them, Will you have this child 
zed in the name of the Father and qf the Son, and of 
r oly Ghost? They answered, This we desire, &c. 
le service of the blessing of wedlock, and of visitation 
i sick, the same with the French, 
le service for ordination of ministers, and ecclesiastical 
iline, not much differing from that which the French 

irther notices of this church of strangers at Glasten- 0pde ™ of 
may be taken up from several orders that issued from the stren- 
*rivy Council, concerning them, as they were taken out KJVf m 
3 Council-Book, viz. " Nov. 11, 1551. An order sent bury. 
Valerandus Pollanus, chief and superintendent of the j^k. 011 " 
ingers, worstedmakers at Glastenbury, signifying unto 
m, that order is taken with Henry Cornish for the 
(elusion of such conveniences as were drawn and arti- 
ated between the Duke of Somerset and the said com- 
ly, willing him and them, for the acceptance of the said 
rnish as their director herein, as they had done here- 

Ordered also, That Henry Cornish do agree with them 
divers leases, &c. 

Ordered also, The auditor and receiver of the Duke of 
nerset 1 s lands to conclude such articles as were agreed 
>n, &c. And to take an account of Henry Cornish, ap- 
nted by the said Duke to be the overseer of the said 
ingers, and to advance money for them. 
March £2, 1551. Ordered that the Bishop of Bath, 244 
Hugh Pawlet, Sir John St. Loo, &c. do consider the 
& places and rooms about the monastery of Glasten- 


BOOK « bury, that may be fittest for the placing such strangers 
" there as are not already provided for : and to put the 


Aaao iftso. fc same rooms in such order as the said strangers may inha- 
" bit in them, as soon as may be, having regard neverthe- 
" less to the best way of saving charges as they think may 
" be devised. 

" Nov. 99, 1552. A letter sent to the Bishop of Bath, 
" Sir John St Loo, Sir Ralph Hopton, and — — Clop- 
" wood) signifying, that it is agreed to provide for thirty- 
" six household strangers at Glastenbury ; and for every 
of them so much ground as may keep two kine, as good 
cheap as other inhabitants do there commonly pay." 
mss. D. Add to the rest of the favours shewed to these strangers 
Epiic.Lond. exiles planted at Glastenbury, what I find in the Council's 
" Warrant Book, viz. Decemb. — on. 5 Regis; a free de- 
" nizenship to Valerandus Pollanus, born under the Em- 
" peror, with a clause written under the said bill, to make 
" sixty-nine like letters patents to sixty-nine other persons, 
" whose names are mentioned therein." 
K. Edward's Martin Bucer, that godly confessor and public professor 
Buoerft °^ divinity at Cambridge, died in February. King Ed- 
death, ward, in his Journal, thought it not unworthy to make a 
memorial of this good man's death ; writing thereupon after 
this tenor: "Feb. 28, the learned man Bucerus died at 
" Cambridge, who was two days after buried in St Mary's 
" church at Cambridge, all the whole University, with 
" the whole town, bringing him to the grave, to the num- 
" ber of three thousand persons. Also there was an oration 
of Mr. Haddon made very elegantly at his death ; and a 
sermon of [Dr. Parker.] After that, Mr. Redman made 
" a third sermon. Which three sermons made the people 
" wonderfully to lament his death. Last of all, all the 
" learned men of the University made their epitaphs in his 
" praise, laying them on his grave." What time King Ed- 
ward assigned for the day of Bucer's death, we saw above ; 
but according to Sleidan, he died the last day of February 
save one ; and according to Nicolas Car, in his letter from 
Cambridge to Sir John Cheke, on the calends of March. 



One James Bucer was minister of a Dutch church at CHAP. 
Sandwich, about the beginning of Queen Elizabeth, in the XX1X * 
year 1562. But whether he were a son of Martin Bucer I Aono isao. 
cannot affirm. Jame » **- 


For the supply of Bucer^s room in Cambridge, to read Melancthon 
sound divinity there, the King sent a Latin letter to the J?" 1 fo *; 
great learned German, Philip Melancthon, to come over Warrant 
into England; certifying him, that his Majesty had elected Book * 
him in Bucer's place in that University. But this letter 
was not writ till the month of May, in the year 1558. And 
probably Melancthon might have come over, had not the 
King's death prevented. 

The summer before his death, July 22, being St Mary Bucer n- 
Magdalen's day, upon Martyr's invitation, Bucer came to*' ^ v " 
Oxford with John Bradford and some others, to see that * 00 * 
University and his dear friend and fellow professor. Where, 
before he departed, he read a lecture in Christ Church, 
upon that text, Scmctifica eos 9 O Pctfer, in veritate, &c. 
Though Bucer were well esteemed and highly valued by 
some of the best members of the University where he pro- 
cessed, yet, as his colleague at Oxon, he underwent much 245 
slander and disesteem from the general sort, addicted to 
asperse sobriety and godliness. Whereof to give an in- Defamed 
stance, the two hopeful sons of Katharin, Duchess of Suf-^wileUL 
folk, being admitted students at Cambridge, and she, as itp.seo. 
seems, for their sakes, some time sojourning there, had, 
among other her kindnesses, sent Bucer a cow and a calf 
towards the maintenance of his family. It happened that he 
walked out one day, for his recreation, into the fields to see 
them: upon this his enemies reported of him, that he was 
taught by a cow and a calf what he should read in the 
schools, as though they were some magic spirits that a&- 
sisted him. Which coming at length to the good man's ears, 
be said in a joke, without any passion, " Behold ! these are 
" my masters, whence I have learned what I teach others : 
" and yet they can neither speak Latin nor Greek, Hebrew 
" nor German, nor talk with me in any other language.'" 
To which I will add one defamation more, and that as hn- 


BOOK pudent as uncharitable: the author, one Pootac, of Bmr- 
lm dois, having the face to publish it in print, in a book mi 
Anno 15&0. out not long after Bucer's death; that Bnoer upon ha 
deathbed said, " That Jesus Christ was not the protmied 
" Messias, but that we were to look for another." Suffi- 
ciently confuted, not only by the long course of his pool 
life, but also by those many persons that were with him « 
his last sickness, and testified of the devout and holy end 
which he made. 
Hit ene- Among his enemies, and those that opposed him in the 
HiTfnendi. University, were Dr. Redman and Dr. Yong. Among Ml 
friends there, were Dr. Parker, Dr. Haddon. Among tboft 
that consorted to him were Bradford the holy martyr, and 
Roger Ascham, that fine wit; one whom, for his great ! 
L»b. u parts and ingenuity, he loved much. Whose frequent dis» 
pit courses with him (as he told his friend Sturmius of Argen- 

tine) were fresh in his memory: which were sometimei 
about the state and motions of religion and of the common- 
wealth ; sometimes concerning the right course and method 
of learning, and such like. For Bucer was very useful ia 
promoting learning and religion at home, as well as in the 
schools; communicative in excellent discourses to as many 
as repaired to him, as friends or learners. The foremea- 
tioned Ascham and he had much discourse together con- 
cerning that learned man of Argentine, Jo. Sturmius, and 
of putting him upon reading on Aristotle, by their joint let- 
ters. The good Duchess of Suffolk must be remembered 
with honour, who, knowing his worth, cherished him in his 
sickness by night and by day ; of whom she had a tender 
care, and endeavoured his cure and recovery, if possible. 
Haddon's s wi^ and useful was the conversation of him and his 
him and fellow, the King's Professor of Oxford, that a man in those 

A * rty r to ^ a y 8 ' °^ g reat ^ ame f° r learning and virtue, who was ac- 

Owrius, quainted with them both, called them " that golden couple 

• 39* • u f fathers, and confessed, that he received an inestimable 

" benefit of God, that he did once hear, see, and know 

" those notable fathers ; esteeming more, one clay's confe- 

" rence with them, than all the vainglorious pomp of Oso- 


* rios, a Portugal Bishop, [who had spoken contemptibly of CHAP. 
" them,] and that those two worthy personages did as much XXIX * 

w surmount him in wisdom and learning," &c. Anno ism. 

We heard before of Anabaptists and such like sectaries, a commis- 
that shewed themselves in Kent and Essex ; insomuch that Anai!^"* 
the ecclesiastical courts were fain to take notice of them. tisU - 
But that cognisance, it seems, sufficed not : for in January 246 
a special commission was issued forth against them from the 
King, to one and thirty persons, viz. to Thomas Archbishop 
of Canterbury, the Bishops of Ely, London, Lincoln, Nor- 
wich, and Rochester, Nic. Wotton Dean of Canterbury, 
WiL Petre, WilL Cecil, Richard Cocks, Anthony Coke, 
James Hales, Tho. Smith, John Cheke, Will. May, John 
Taylor, Simon Haynes, Gryffith Leyson, John Redman, 
Hugh Latimer, Giles Eire, Matt. Parker, Miles Coverdale, 
John Oliver, Richard Liel, Roland Taylor, Christopher 
Nerynaon, Richard Goodrick, John Gosnold, Richard 
Wilks, Henry Sidal, and Nic. Bullingham ; or to any three 
of them : whereof the Archbishop, the Bishops of Ely, 
Norwich, and Rochester, Nic. Wotton, Petre, Cecyl, Cox, 
Hales, and May, to be one. These were authorized to cor- 
rect and punish all Anabaptists, and such as did not duly 
administer the sacraments according to the Book of Com- 
mon Prayer set forth by the King's Majesty. 


Cecyl becomes Secretary. Gentlemen of the King's privy 
chamber. Sir Thomas Wroth. The Earl of Arundel. 
Buttinger's counsels to the King. Hoper and A Lasco. 
Ridley made Bishop of London. Visits his diocese. 
Gives orders. Ponet made Bishop of Rochester. 

AND now to turn our eyes a little to the King. He be- 
ing now at Otelands, Dr. Wotton, the present Secretary, a cecyl made 
man much employed abroad in embassies, was released of Secretary. 
his place, and September 5, William Cecyl, Esq. was sworn Book. 

VOL. II. c c 


BOOR Secretary in his stead, though he seemed to have officiated 
in that place a year before, according to a diary of his owa, 

Anno is6o. wherein he writ, that in the month of September, 8 Ed* 
ward VI. he was chosen into the office of Secretary. Aai 
in October following he had the grant of 1001 per ann. do* 
ing pleasure, out of the Augmentation Office, as his sakrp 

Hit eha- This man deserves to stand upon record, as meriting highly 
of this Church, I may say, above any one person about 
King Edward or Queen Elizabeth, and taking vast pain 
in settling it in that good constitution wherein it standi 
He was a man of great wisdom and sincere religion and i» 
tegrity, and endued with abundance of admirable quafitk% 
both as a statesman and a Christian ; and was the very bass, 
under God, of Queen Elizabeth's government, and worthily 
esteemed among all men, in those days, the very Nestor of 
his age. But all this hath of late been swallowed up and 
247 clearly forgotten, because of one act of his, which is wont, 
by some, to be laid to his charge, viz. of getting the hundred 
of Nassaburgh, with the appurtenances, from the bishopric 
of Peterburgh : and the observator upon Cranmer's Memo- 
rials is among this number, who falls very foul upon hi»» 
saying, that " he tore away from that bishopric the far bet- 
" ter part of the revenue thereof, and that he got a Bishop 
" removed that he might compass it." Which he had fron 
Heylin, a too hasty and passionate writer. This is not a 
place to inquire into the truth of this accusation, which, 
for my part, I doubt of: but I must needs say, it is very 
ungratefully done of the age, especially of the Clergy, to set 
this great and good man in so bad a light, to blacken his 
memory as they do, and to forget so many and so great 
good turns, for one supposed ill one. 

A new Mas- As there was now a new Secretary, so there was, a little 

Boik. e after, a new Master of the Rolls. For in December the 
office of Master of the Rolls was granted to John Beaumont, 
Esq. for life, with all fees and profits thereunto belonging, 
in as large and ample manner as Sir Robert Southwel lately 
had it. But how he managed this place for his own advan- 
tage, we shall hear hereafter. 



The King had divers sober and learned men about him, CHAP, 
gentlemen of his privy chamber, in whose wise and learned xxx ' 

eomrenation he was much delighted, and as much profited. Anno iwo. 
for great" care was taken by his uncle, the Duke, to have j^Jj^"*? 
only such about his person. And for these, as a grateful sir Tbomw 
master, he had a great kindness, and expressed it in royal Wroth ' 
bounty to them. And whosoever of these was in greatest 
favour with him, surely Sir Thomas Wroth, a gentleman of 
die west, was one of those that received the largest share 
of benefits from him : for he not only knighted him, but 
heaped great wealth, honours, offices, and possessions on 
him. Whereof these were some : 

In the fourth year of his reign, of his special grace, and Grants to 
in consideration of service, he granted him the reversion of Hook of 
the office of keeper of his manor of Elsing in Endefeld in 8 * 1 "* 
the county of Middlesex, and the office of steward and bailiff 
of the manors of Elsing and Worcester, and of the manor 
of Edelmeton, and of keeper of the new park in Enfeld, 
after the death or surrender of John Earl of Warwick. 
The value of which offices were five marks and sixty shil- 
lings per annum, and eight pence per diem. The patent 
dated March 10. 

April 9. following, for the like consideration, the King 
granted him the manors of North-hall, Down-Barnes, and 
Hamsted, with their appurtenances, rights, and members, in 
the county of Middlesex, parcel of the possessions of the 
late bishopric of Westminster. The value whereof yearly 
amounted to 657. 15*. 6b. 

July 24. following, for the like consideration, the King 
granted him the lordship and manor of Bardfield, and the 
town of Bardfield in Essex, and the manors of Chigwel and 
West-Hatch, with the appurtenances in the same county. 
Value yearly 77/. IBs. 4d. rent reserved, 11/. 2*. 3d. 

December 29. following, a patent, dated at Greenwich, Chancellor 
was granted to Sir Thomas Wroth of the privy chamber, Ullgt ^ok. 
of the manors of Lidiard in Somersetshire and Theydon Warr.Book. 
Boyce, and the scite and demean lands of Berden in Essex, 
with the appurtenances ; the scite and demean of Abendon, 



BOOK and other lands : to have to him and his heirs, in respect rf'j 
an annuity of an hundred mark already cancelled: wlwfc: 

Anno 1550. lands were of the yearly value of 842. 8*. 11 ob. q. ? 

348 In the fifth of the King he had an annuity of 1001 
granted him out of the bishopric of Winchester. 

Warr.Book. In June, the sixth of the King, he had the office d 
keeping the chief house and messuage of Sion, and theot 
fice of steward and bailiff of the manor of Istleworth in the 
county of Middlesex ; and all other lands, tenements, and 
hereditaments in Istleworth, Twickenham, Heston, Whittott, 
Sutton, Brainford, &c. in the same county, for life ; with si 
profits, and a fee for keeping of the house of Sion,&c [which 
house and lands belonged before to the Duke of Somerset] 
In September after, he granted the same Sir Thomas the 
rich furniture and bedding of the same house, which had 
been the said Duke's. 

Besides which, in the third of the King, he granted Urn 
the rectory of My tton in Yorkshire, with all the rights and 
appurtenances in the said county and in the county of Lan- 
caster, and five messuages in London, during the life of 
Bartholomew Burgoyn, clerk. 

L. Dyer'i The Lord Rich and Sir Thomas Wroth were joint pa- 

167. ° tentees for an office in Waltham forest, (it was, I suppose, 
that of lieutenant of the forest,) for the term of their lives. 
The Lord Rich, (Wroth being fled abroad,) under Queen 
Mary, surrendered his patent in the Chancery, and there it 
was cancelled. And upon this a new patent was granted of 
the Queen to Sir Edward Waldgrave, one of her Privy 
Council. But when Wroth returned, under Queen Eliza- 
beth, he sued for the said office, alleging, that he had never 
surrendered his patent. And so, I suppose, he had it 
again ; as his son Sir Robert enjoyed it after him. 

Sir Thomas Wroth had also of the King the manor of 
Ewing in the county of Hertford, and the manor of New- 
ton in the county of Somerset. 

The King sometimes would exercise and play with him : 
and once he won of the King ten yards of black velvet, which 
he received, by order, from the King's wardrobe. 



This gentleman was an exile under Queen Mary, with CHAP. 
9 but returned into England after her death. 

ind was in great favour with Queen Elizabeth, and lived Anno 15ft °* 
many yean in singular reputation in Enfield, augmenting "£ t f*' 
his estate, and serving his country long in the quality of a 
member of Parliament He had issue, Robert, (who was 
knighted,) Richard, Thomas, Gersom, and John, whereof 
Gersom was born in exile, on which account he had his 
name ; and by a private act, in one of Queen Elizabeth's 
first Parliaments, he was made a free denizen. Sir Robert 
kept up the state of the family, and enlarged his posses- 
sions by the purchase of Lucton, or Loughton, in Essex, 
an estate belonging to the duchy of Lancaster, whereof his 
father-in-law had a long lease before. He bought also of 
the Queen divers other leases of lands thereabouts, that for- 
merly belonged to the abbey of Waltham. I meet with 
John Wroth, Esq. of this family I doubt not, who obtained 
a. pardon of King Richard III. with a clause in the same of 
fines, amercements, and other debts and accounts by him 
due. For that he was escheator in the counties of So- 
merset and Dorset. The name and family still continues 
in Essex, but the estate greatly diminished ; the uncertain 
lot of all secular things. Pardon, reader, this digression, (24Q) 
which my neighbourhood to that seat, and knowledge of 
that family, drew from me. 

I subjoin the mention here of another courtier, of greater A debt of 
quality than Wroth, I mean Henry Earl of Arundel, a per- Arondei ° 
son of ancient nobility, and lately Lord Chamberlain. The ?■**»•*• 
last year he was fined 12,000/. for misdemeanours. And now 
again this year I find another for the payment of 10007. to 
the treasurer of the Augmentations. And a debt owing to 
the King lay upon him, viz. 8,800/. taxed and cessed upon 
him for a full recompence of certain contempts by him 
against the law made and committed. For which he had 
given eight several recognisances, remaining in the Court 
of Chancery, whereby he stood bound to the King. What 
these contempts were, I know not. King Edward in his 
Journal calls them, certain faults ; and writes, that he had 

<c 8 


book committed them within twelve years. So it teems he w» 
lm now called to account for twelve yean past; which — l 

Anno 1 550. somewhat hard, and a sign he had enemies at Court Bat 
he received the favour to have a clear discharge from tfeii 
debt For in January a warrant was sent to the Lad 
Rich, Lord Chancellor, to cancel every of the said recogni- 
sances and the enrolments of them ; so that the said Earl, 
his heirs, executors, &c. may be thereby discharged. The 
Court was minded not to lose this nobleman. But yet k 
seems he could not long hold in, an heartburning being be* 
tween some of the Court and him : for in the next year I find 
this Earl, with the Earl of Southampton, wholly discharged 
the Council-Board, and commanded to keep his house. And 
the year after that, he was fain to pronounce a solemn sub- 
mission before the King, as we relate in due place. 

The Parliament, that had been sitting from the 4th of 
BodeaYoon November, broke up the first of February. The Duke of 
ttoDuke Somerset, notwithstanding his enemies among the nobility, 
to hb pro- remained still favoured by the Commons. And some, as it 
seems, m the lower house were consulting among them^ 
selves for his restoration to the office of Protector of the 
King's person, which was taken away from him in his late 
troubles ; but seemed to be prevented by the breaking up 
of the session. Yet they intended the next session to set 
about it. In the mean time the Lords were to be prepared : 
and Whaley particularly, the receiver for Yorkshire, en- 
deavoured to persuade divers noblemen to make the Duke 
Protector the next Parliament For which Whaley was 
brought into trouble in February. And the Earl of Rut- 
land was one that was witness against him. 
Buiiinger In March (whether that were in the latter end of the 
^Uo^kTo J eBlX I**®* or th e beginning of 1550, I know not) Henry 
the King. Bullinger, the chief minister of Zurich, (a wise man, and of 
great esteem in the Protestant Churches,) dedicated, in a 
long epistle to King Edward, his third, and part of his 
fourth Decad ; being many learned discourses upon the chief 
heads of religion : invited, I suppose, by some in England, 
for the young King's benefit, so to do ; that King having 


fr great g p v twc e in his mind for the foreign learned re- CHAP. 
In the entrance of his epistle, being a stranger, XXX# 


he makes way for his admission and liberty of speech to the A 000 1560 « 
Kag, by promising to shew him, in a few words, the certain 
erases of the happiness or misery of kings and kingdoms. 

" Tour royal Majesty," as he begins, " would I know ad- 
* mit to speech some new guest, that should undertake, 
tf from the judgments of the wisest men, to lay before you, (250) 
44 in short, what the real causes were of the felicity or infe- 
44 lidty of kings and kingdoms. Your Majesty therefore 
44 will not, I hope, exclude me from access to you, who do 
44 surely promise you, clearly and evidently to demonstrate 
64 the very reasons thereof before you ; that whosoever hears 
44 me needs not attend with any painful diligence to appre- 
" bend me, but bring with him only a benevolent mind. 
44 For, by God's help, I shall offer it in that manner, that it 
shall not only be perceived by their understanding, but be, 
44 as it were, seen with their eyes, and felt with their hands. 
44 And this fetched not from the dubious placits of men, 
44 but the most certain oracles of the true God." 

Then he suggested to him what those things were which 
the wise men of the world agreed in, to be proper to render 
a king or a kingdom very happy; namely, " If he were a 
44 wise king that presided and governed : if he had about 
44 him for his counsellors many such as were men of pru- 
44 dence, stayed in years, faithful, and such as understood 
44 the affairs of the world : if he had captains that were va- 
44 lorous, well exercised, and fortunate in war : if he were 
furnished with plenty of all things : if his kingdom were 
on all parts well fortified, and, in a word, his subjects all 
of one mind, loyal, and obedient. These things, he said, 
were rightly and prudently spoken: but that there was 
another singular and most excellent thing omitted, with- 
44 out which no true prosperity could be obtained or pre- 
44 served ; and where that was, those other things mentioned 
44 before would also be." After this manner of preface did 
Bullinger heighten the pious King's expectation, which this 
learned man satisfied in his following discourse ; directing 

cc 4 




BOOK him straightway to God's word. " pod," Mud he, " wbo 
l ' " suggests the most wise and absolute counsels move sue* 



Aodo 1550. " cinctly and better than the wisest men, thus pronounced! 
" in his Gospel, But rather seek first the kingdom of God 
and his righteousness, and all these things shall be added 
unto you. And again, Blessed are the eyes which see ike 
things which ye see; for I say to you, that many kings 
and prophets have desired to see and hear those tkmge 
" which ye see and hear, and have not seen nor heard them. 
Therefore,'" as he subjoined, " being warranted by the holy 
oracles of God, I pronounce,? that those kings shall be 
" happy, who offer and subject themselves and their king- 
doms entirely to Jesus Christ, the King qf hinge, and 
Lord of lords; acknowledging him to be the highest 
" Prince and Monarch, and themselves his vassals, liege* 
" men, and servants : that in all things follow not their own 
• " wills, nor the laws of men, contrary to those that are 
God's, nor the good intentions of men, but the very laws 
of the highest and eternal King and Monarch ; and that 
deliver them to their subjects to be followed by them: 
" reforming all things according to the rule of God's word 
only. For so they shall enjoy most flourishing and happy 
kingdoms, and reign therein, wealthy, victorious, long, 
and happy." 

Then he shewed the King, " how God commanded the 
kings of old, that they should read the book of the law; 
and quoted that place in Deuteronomy xvii. When the 
king sitteih in the throne of his kingdom, he shall take 
(251)" the book of the law of God, that he may read in it all the 
days of his life, and do those things, and not departfrtm 
them, either to the right hand or to the left? 
Then he represented to the King, in a long series, the 
history of the kings of Judah and of Israel, and of other 
foreign kings, both before Christ and after : and how the 
godly, and those that took heed to God's law, were pros- 
perous, and the neglecters thereof unsuccessful and mise- 
rable. And when he came to young Josiah, the King of 
Judah, he took occasion to lay down his example at large 







before this young Sing; expatiating, " how peaceably and CHAP. 
" prosperously he reigned, of whose faith and obedience, ***' 
u which he most religiously yielded to God, the Scriptures Anno 1550. 
K speak : how the admonitions of his father's counsellors 
" moved him not: how when once he heard the words of 
" die book of the law, found in the temple by Hilkiah the 
" high-priest, he gave himself wholly to God and his word, 
" and not expecting the opinions or reformation of other 
** kings and kingdoms, he in time took care of his own sub- 
" jecta, and began to set upon the work of reformation 
tf when he was young, being but eighteen years old : and 
44 that in this reformation he esteemed the rules of the holy 
" Scriptures alone to be followed ; not the actions of kings 
" or predecessors, nor the prescription of long time, nor 
the suffrages of numbers of men : but calling together 
his own people, and propounding the book of the law in 
t the midst of them, appointed all things to be done accord- 
" ing to that rule : and that hence it came to pass, that he 
** spared not the old high places, of Solomon and Jeroboam, 
* set up against God's law ; nor the most ancient rites and 
"ceremonies. In short, he shewed how that king over- 
" threw whatsoever was set up in the Church and kingdom 
*< against God's word. And lest any should lay to his 
" charge as though he were too bold or too severe in 
"these his deeds, the Scripture, as he added, gave him 
" this testimony, that before him was no such king, who 
w turned to the Lord with his whole heart 9 and with his 
" whole soul and strength, according to aU the law of 
" Moses : neither after him arose any like him." 

Towards the conclusion he applied himself to the King 
more closely, telling him, " that the reason of all that he 
" had said before was, that he should hold it for a most 
" undoubted truth, that true prosperity was to be procured 
by him no other ways, than by submitting himself and 
his whole kingdom to Christ, the highest Prince, and by 
" framing all matters of religion and justice throughout his 
" dominions, according to the rule of God's word ; not stir- 



Anno 1560. 


another to 


* ring one inch from this rule ; propagating the kingdom 
4 of Christ, and trampling upon that of Antichrist, as he 
' had happily begun. Not that the King wanted, as he 
4 said, his admonition or teaching, carrying in his mind 
4 that heavenly teacher that suggested to him all the doc- 
' trines of true religion ; and having that most sacred book, 
( the Bible, in which, as in a most perfect canon, was coo- 
4 tained and delivered the whole substance of our salvation; 
4 having about him men that were learned, wise, godly, 
4 bold, well skilled both in divine and human laws, pro- 

* dent, hearty lovers of sincere truth, and well spoken of in 
'foreign countries. But he hoped, as King Hesekiah, 
( though he made use of those great prophets, Esay and 
4 Micah, yet he refused not to be advised by the ordinary 

44 Levites ; so his Majesty should receive some fruit and be- 
4 nefit by his discourse : having twelve years before dedi- 
4 cated to his father, King Henry of happy memoiy, a book 
4 concerning the authority of the holy Scripture, and the 
4 institution and function of Bishops, against the Roman 
4 superstition and tyranny : and he found that work had 
4 some good effect in England.'" By such dedications and 
counsels as these, the young King's mind was mightily 
whetted and quickened to the taking care of religion. And 
I make no doubt Bullinger and others were instructed by 
some good men here at home, to make these kinds of ad- 
dresses to him. 

This epistle and book was presented to the King by the 
hands of Hoper, Bishop of Gloucester, personally ac- 
quainted with Bullinger. To whom the King declared his 
good acceptance thereof, and the respect and esteem he had 
for the reverend author. In August ensuing, Bullinger de- 
dicated the remaining sermons of the fourth Decad unto the 
same King : which the author said he did offer him with 
more confidence and assurance than he had done the former, 
since he understood by that holy and vigilant Bishop the 
King's gracious good-will towards him. In the dedication 
of these sermons^ he suggested to his Majesty, 4i that he 



* bad fata eye upon nothing else but what he had men- CHAfc, 
u timed to hint before, namely, that he might assist, ac- xxx * 

u cording to the gift of God given unto him, the business Anno 1650. 
" of Christian piety, happily reviving in his flourishing 
44 kingdom, under his favour and the counsels of the best of 
u his nobility. He shewed him, that for this new birth of 
" the Gospel, all the faithful throughout the Christian 
" world did congratulate him and his kingdom ; beseeeh- 
" ing Christ to bring to an happy conclusion what had been 
" so happily begun in his fear. He acknowledged that this 
" work, by the King undertaken, was great, and full of la- 
" hour and trouble : but he who said, / will be with you dl- 
" ways to the end of the world, would not be wanting to his 
" godly endeavours.' 1 ! Then that reverend Father thought 
it convenient to take this opportunity, to refute a very 
plausible plea that was wont then to be urged in Germany 
and in England, and particularly to the King, to divert the 
present purging of corrupt religion, (and this was much in 
the mouths of the more politic sort,) namely, that such haste 
ought not to be made by private authority, but that men 
ought to stay for the determination of a general council in 
co n tro ve rsies of religion ; without whose judgment they pre- 
tended it was not lawful, no, not for a kingdom, much less 
for any commonwealth, to make the least alteration in reli- 
gion once received, and hitherto observed. But to this 
he put this answer into the King's mouth, " that the Pro- 
u phets and Apostles sent us not to the councils of elders 
" or priests, but to the word of God. And he alleged that 
" of die Prophet Jeremy, Quomodo dicitis, Sapientes sumus, Chap. riii. 
" et lex Domini apud nos est f Vere mendacium operatus 
" est stylus mendax scribarum, &c. He added, that the 
" authority of the Prophets and Evangelists persuaded to 
" go on, and further with suitable increases the reforma- 
" tkm of religion once undertaken in the fear of God, out 
u of the word of God ; and not to regard councils, which 
u were governed by the affections of men, and not by the 
" word of God." 


BOOK Then he went on to shew, " how little might be expected 
" from the decisions of councils, which the examples of 

Aaao imo. « some of the last ages might teach for four hundred yews 
(253) " past and better. That for five hundred years and more, 
" the best and most religious men have cried out of the w- 
" perstitions, errors, and abuses crept into the Church : that 
" the salt of the earth was become unsavoury, that is, that 
" the ministers of the Church were corrupted by sloth, ig- 
" norance, and vile actions, and all good discipline was gone. 
" Upon which account councils of priests were often called 
" together by popes, princes assisting. But what was done, 
" what amendment there was of doctrines, of teachers, and 
" of discipline, the thing itself spake. For how much the 
oftener councils met, so much the more prevailed super- 
stition, error in doctrine, abuses in rites, pride, luxury, 
covetousness, and all manner of corruption in the teachers 
or priests ; and, in short, a most foul neglect in all good 
" discipline. For such presided in those councils, who 
" ought to have been first brought into order, or altogether 
" banished out of the society of holy men. Neither did 
they in those councils treat of lawful causes, nor in a law- 
ful way. For the word of God obtained with them nei- 
ther its authority nor dignity. Nor did they admit to the 
" discussion of causes those whom they ought chiefly to 
have admitted, but whom they themselves would. Nei- 
ther did they seek the glory of God and the safety of the 
Church, but themselves, and the glory and pleasures of 
the world. And from the present Council [that of Trent] 
what they could promise to themselves, though they were 
blind, they might even feel." 

And then having thus represented what little good was 
like to come from councils, he applied himself to the King, 
with these words: " That when these things were as clear 
as the sun, he did most prudently and religiously, in not 
looking for the determination of a general council, but 
" proceeding, without more ado, to reform the churches in 
" his kingdom, according to the rules of both Testaments, 






"which we believe aright to be inspired by the Holy Ghost, CHAP. 
u and to be the very word of God.* xxx ' 

He shewed moreover, in the next place, " that it was Anno is&o. 
u lawful for every Christian church, much more Christian 
" kingdom, without consulting with the Church of Rome 
44 and her members, entirely to reform religion by them de- 
u prated, so it were according to the rule of God's word. 

* And then propounded to the King the example of Jonah, 
a whose doings would teach him what he might do, and do 

* by divine right ; how that most holy King understood, 
u by reacting of God's word, and by considering how divine 
" worship and other matters stood then in the Church, that 
" there was a very extraordinary swerving from the ample 
u truth by his forefathers. Presently therefore he called 
" together his princes, and all the estates of his kingdom, 
" together with all the priests. And in this assembly it 
M was not long disputed, whether they should follow the 
u example of their ancestors, rather than simply to receive 
" that which God had commanded ; whether should they 

* believe the Scripture or the Church. But that immedi- 
" ately the King commanded all to do according to God's 
" precepts, making no account of ancient custom, or of the 
" Church that then was. And therefore that his Majesty 
" could not follow better and safer counsel." Thus season- 
ably did this grave and learned man instruct this young 
and towardly Prince, and arm his mind against an objection 
which subtle men in these times were apt to insinuate to (254) 
him, to stop him in his commendable endeavours for a re- 

In March after, the said Bullinger dedicated the re- Bollinger 
mainder of his Decads to one of this King's Council, Henry ^ui de- 
Grey, Marquis of Dorset, and afterwards Duke of Suffolk, dicatory 
Which was advisable to be done for the confirming this qu i, c f 
and other great leading men, and such as were always at 001 *** 
the King's elbow, in the proceedings that were making in 
religion. To which this grave man apprehended some stop The reuon, 
might be made by a plausible occasion that now happened ; 
which was the issuing out of a bull of the indiction of the 


BOOK oecumenical Council, (as they called that of Trent,) on the 
*' calends of May next, [1661.] " From whence, as some 

Anno 1560. " every where, he said, seriously looked for a reformation 

" of the Church, so he supposed some in England expected 

" the like : and that therefore they judged there should be 

" a cessation from the reformation begun. He therefore 

" advised this nobleman, that he should diligently see sod 

" watch what damage the kingdom might hence sustain*" 

* n £^ b " And then he proceeded to shew, by solid arguments, " that 

thereof. " the expectation of a reformation thence would be most 

The true « va in. For that the Council was called by this Pope upon 

calling the " &o other ends, than for the confirmation of the old errors 

^jJJJJj* 1 of " and superstition, and for the overthrow of the reforma- 

" tion begun in Germany, England, Denmark, and other 

" nations of Christendom ; and for the oppression of the 

" pure and sincere doctrine of the Gospel. Here he shew- 

" ed, how the calling of the Council was in express words, 

"Jvr the extirpating of heresy: and Pope Paul did accuse 

" and condemn, as heretics, those that professed the Gos- 

" pel, and required reformation according to the word of 

" God : and how the prelates of the Church took an oath 

" to the Pope and Church of Rome, (there set down,) 

" so that they could not do any thing else, than what 

" he would have them, and what tended to his safety and 

•** security * 

He took occasion to examine some of the former decrees 


of this Council ; by which it appeared, as clear as the light, 
for what end it was indited by the Pope : " Not, that the 
" truth should be found out, or illustrated by the Scrip- 
" tures, but that the Scriptures should be reduced into 
" order, so as to serve for the preserving and confirming 
" the dignity, honour, wealth, and superstition of those 
" men : not, that the churches might be reformed^ but that 
" they might be brought back into the old dejbrmation. 
" And therefore he advised the Marquis, and the rest In 
" England, that they should not remove their eyes from 
that light, which whosoever followed, had the light of 
life. Go on, go on, said he, in Christ's name, to reform 



4 what needs reforming. Ye should not an, though ye CHAP. 
? never returned into favour again with that novel Roman 

" Church. He knew, he said, this nobleman needed not Annol66 °- 
" instructors, being so well instructed in true religion, and 
" having such learned men about him : among whom he 
u named two, who, I suppose, were his chaplains, viz. Robert 
u iUrinner and Andrew Wullock, [perhaps Bullock :] yet 

* ha hoped this labour of his would be well taken i seeing 
a he intended nothing thereby but the public weal and 
"safety; that the kingdom of the Son of God, which in 
u that time began to flourish again, as well in England as 
" elsewhere, might spread every where. And so taking no- 
" tke of his nobility and royal blood, and what a refuge he 

' was to poor strangers, and a Mecaenas of students and (255) 
4 learned men, and persuading him to persist therein, he 

* concluded : desiring him to recommend him to the no- 
' Ue-minded John Earl of Warwick, to whom he wished 
1 all happiness, and offered all services.*" Dated from Zu- 
ick, in the month of March 1551. 

And indeed great was the brotherhood and friendship A Lasco 
letween the foreign divines and ours. A Lasco was one appoint^ 
£ these, who had lived in Helvetia, and was greatly ac-" 1 ***" 1 * for 
[iiainted with Bullinger. In this year 1550, wherein his 
Sternum Church was first constituted in Austin Friars, I 
tnd Hoper spending a whole day in friendly converse with 
lim and some of his church. A Lasco had wrote to Uten- 
lovius, his elder and assistant, to invite Hoper and his 
rife, who was an Helvetian woman, to dinner with him ; 
propounding, that they should meet the next day at eight 
n the morning at Utenhovius's house, and confer about 
certain business relating to religion, I suppose, and their 
shurch, between themselves and some of their members, 
md thai to dine with A Lasco, and spend the afternoon 
n conversation. Utenhovius repaired to Hoper, shewed 
Imn A Lasco's letter, and Hoper, at the foot of it, writes 
id answer; which, for the sake of the reverend martyr's K*Bibiioth. 
nemory, I shall here set down, as I took from the original, i^j. 


book S. P. Per me non stabit, quin, Deo volenti, eras adtro; 
L ei si valetudo uxoris mea turn obstet> votis D. notiri 1 

Anno iteo.Lasco annuet. Hodie mutia capitis gravedine Juii m*fc- 

a°Lmco° tata ' ^°' et ** car P° re ate™** menie nos comitabitur. 
Quod perpetuo erga vosjhciet Deus sua Spiritu. Interim 
enuUur aKquid, quod cum gratiarum actione una acripi- 
amus ; ego aliquod, ei Deo visum Juerit, sumptus Jbdm. 
Dommus vos, he. T T /a Hopena. 

Hoper rad And, to take in one thing more, though it happened m 
friends!** ^ e Y ear before this, to shew the good correspondence be- 
tween Hoper and the Switzers : when Bullinger had drawn 
up a in the matter of the Sacrament with Calvin, he 

sent it unto Hoper here, and prayed him that Utenhorius 
might see it: as I find by a manuscript letter of Bullinger 
to Utenhovius here in England, 1549. 
BbhopRid- Ridley, who was now entered upon the government of 
Stont of "the see of London, did this year institute his primary vii 
I * Bd(m * tation. Wherein what reformation he intended to make, 
may be seen by the injunctions which he set forth for i 
uniformity in his diocese : which were printed by Reynold 
Wolf the same year. They imported, " that there should 
" be no reading of such injunctions (given before by other 
Popish Bishops] as extolled and set forth the Popish maa, 
candles, images, chantries. That ministers counterfeited 
" not the Popish mass, as in kissing the Lord's table, wash- 
ing their hands or fingers after the Gospel, or receipt of 
the holy communion, shifting the book from one place to 
" another, laying down and licking the chalice, blessing 
their eyes with the sudary of the communion, or the 
patin thereof, or crossing the head with the same, hold- 
ing up the forefingers and thumbs joined together to- 
wards the temples of the head after the receiving; mak- 
ing any elevation, ringing the sacring bell; with such 
" like strange and superstitious ceremonies, forbid by the 
(256)" King's Injunctions. Also, none to receive the commit- 
" nion but such as should be ready with meekness to con- 





M tea the articles of the Creed upon request of the curate. CHAP. 

^f \f V 

** None to make a mart of the holy communion, by buying ***• 

" or selling the receipt thereof, as was sometimes used to Anno 1660. 
"be done before. And whereas some used the Lord's 
* board after the form of a table, and some of an altar, 
u therefore wishing a godly unity to be in all the diocese, 
"rod considering that the form of a table might more 
" move the hearts of the simple from the old superstitious 
" opinion of the Popish mass, and to the right use of the 
"holy supper, the curates and churchwardens were ex- 
M horted to erect and set up the Lord's board after the fa- 
a Anon of an honest table, decently covered, in such place 
" of the choir or chancel as should be thought most meet. 
" by their discretion : so that the ministers might with the 
" communicants have their place separated from the rest of 
" the people ; and to take down and abolish all other by- 
u tables and altars. Ministers immediately after the offer- 
" tory, in time of communion, to admonish the communi- 
" cants, saying these or such like words ; That now was the 
" time, if it pleased them, to remember the poor man's 
" chest That the Homilies be read orderly, without omis- 
" rion of any part thereof. Common prayer to be had in 
" every church upon Wednesdays and Fridays. Curates to 
" be diligent to teach the catechism upon Sundays or holy- 
" days, whensoever just occasion was offered. And at the 
" least every six weeks once to call the parishioners, and 
" present himself ready to instruct and examine the youth. 
" None to maintain purgatory, invocation of saints, the six 
" articles, bedrols, pilgrimages, relics, rubrics, primers, jus. 
" thication of man by his own works, holy bread, palms, 
" ashes, candles, creeping to the cross, hallowing of fire or 
" altars, or such like abuses. Ministers to move the people to 
u often and worthy receiving the holy communion ; to come 
to church diligently, and there to behave themselves re- 
verently, godly, and devoutly. That churchwardens per- 
mit not any buying, selling, gaming, or outrageous noise 
*' or tumult, or other idle occupying of youth, in the 
vol. 11. p d 


BOOK " church, church-porch, or yard. None to minister the 
" sacraments in open audience of the congregation, or pre- 

Anno 1550. « sume to expound the holy Scripture before they be to* 
a fully called thereunto, and authorized in that behalf. 11 
This is the sum of the said Injunctions. The Bishop of 
Sarum hath exemplified them at large in his History, from 
a printed copy; which may be seen in the Collections to hk 
second part, only omitting two pertinent allegations of 
Scripture, which are added in the conclusion, viz. 

Prov. xv. The ear that heorkeneih to the reformatio* ff 
Ufe shall remain among the wise. He thai refuseth to be 
reformed, despiseth his own soul; but he that submMk 
himself to correction is raise. And 

3 Reg. xviii. Elias. How long halt ye between two opt- 
hums? If the Lord be God, JbOow him; but if Baal be he, 
then go after him. 

Besides these Injunctions, Bishop Ridley set forth articles 
also at this visitation : which be printed in Sparrow's Col- 
An ordina- June 24. ensuing, the said Bishop conferred holy ordoi 
•hop Ridley, upon divers persons, having been first (viz. June 23.) ex* 
Regwt. Rid. mined by Henry Harvy, LL. D. the Bishop's Vicar-gene- 
ral, and John Skory, S. T. B. his chaplain. They were or- 
dained before the high altar at St. Paul's, according to the 
rite, manner, and form of the Church of England lately 
(257) published and enjoined: whose names were, Edmund Tur- 1 
ges, M. A. Richard Fletcher, (the same, I suppose, who | 
afterwards was Dean and Bishop of Peterborough, and Bi- 
shop of London, successively ;) John Pelting de Hennonu- 
seg in Sussex, born in the town of Lewis, [of whose name 
and posterity ever since have been some worthy clergy- 
men ;] Thomas Forelore ; Lancelot Thexton, M. A. Fellow 
of St. John's in Cambridge, born in Bawtry in the county 
of Richmond ; James Clayton, living in Hackney ; John 
Rose of Lewes ; John Bee, M. A. Fellow of St. John's in 
Cambridge ; Henry May, B. A. Fellow of St. John's in 
Cambridge ; Richard Walker, B. A. Student of Christ cot 


lege, Cambridge ; Francis Randal ; William Bocher, B. A. CHAP, 
of Maiden in Essex ; Odnel Hebburn ; William Harley of, 

Ipswich ; William Cotinge of Middleton in Kent; Reginal Anno 1550. 
Blooke ; John Wright of Stratford at Bow ; Richard Gra- 
aon, Vicar of Chesterford Magna ; John Finch of Billerica ; 
Thomas Waiter; Edm. Thompson ; John Heron, M.A» 
Mr. John Fox, M. A. living with the Duchess of Suffolk, 
[the famous martyrologist,] born at Boston ; Henry Mark- 
ham, M. A. chaplain to the Archbishop of Canterbury ; 
Mr. Thomas Lever, M. A. Fellow of St John's in Cam- 
bridge, afterwards Master of the said house, a learned and 
pious man, and an exile under Queen Mary : all ordained 
deacons, to the number of twenty-five. 

Again, August 10. following, the Bishop ordained at Another or- 
Fulham these persons: John Bradford, his chaplain, and d>nst>on " 
after an holy martyr under Queen Mary ; John Horton, 
M* A. Thomas Sampson, born at Playford in the county of 
Suffolk, who afterwards was Dean of Chichester, and, under 
Queen Elizabeth, Dean of Christ Church, Oxon; from 
whence he was deprived in the contention for cap and sur- 
plice. All these were Fellows of Pembroke hall, Cambridge. 
And besides these, there were two more ordained, viz. Ro- 
bert Hart of Stebunhith, and Lever aforesaid, who was or- 
dained priest, the rest deacons. 

Sept. 7. was another ordination at Fulham, of one per- Another. 
son, namely Grason, made priest, and ordained deacon in 
June before. 

Novemb. 9. another; when Lawrence Nowel, afterwards Another. 
Dean of Litchfield, and brother to Alex. Nowel, Dean of 
St Paul's, was ordained, living then at Sutton Colfield in 
Warwickshire ; together with Richard Fletcher, B. A. af- 
terwards Bishop of Bristol, Worcester, and London, suc- 
cessively ; and Edmund Thompson of Southwark hospital, 
ordained priests. These were Bishop Ridley's ordinations 
in his first year. 

Dr. John Ponet, once of St. John's college, Cambridge, Ponet nude 
afterwards chaplain to King Henry VIII. and successively R^hetter. 
to the Archbishop, a man of great parts and acquired learn- Co«»«i- 


BOOK ing, succeeded the said Bishop Ridley in the diocese of 

Rochester, being consecrated in June*: and on the same 

Anno i550.(j a y na <l the favour following granted him by the Council: 

Upon consideration that Mr. Ponet, now elected Bishop 

of Rochester, hath no house to dwell upon, it is agreed, 

that he shall enjoy his benefice [which was Ashtisford in 

No com- « Kent! in commendam. But henceforth it is decreed, that 

mendams to 7 . . 

Bishops. " no Bishop shall keep other benefice than his bishopnc 


(258) CHAP. XXXI. 

Tlie state of the Universities. The evil of impropriations. 
Revenues of the monasteries misused. Books now id 

The Uni- J. HE Universities now were but in a sorry declining con- 
HiTOnd!-" 1 dition, occasioned by the discouragements given to learning, 
tion* the laity laying hold of the spiritual preferments so modi 

as they did, designed and appointed for the reward and 
maintenance of the Clergy. This abuse gave divers good 
men occasion to speak their minds : and among the rest 90 
Lever did one Thomas Lever, Fellow of St. John's college, (of 
the Cross, whose ordination mention was made before,) who preached 
at PauPs Cross, Decemb. 14. upon this text, 1 Cor. iv.l. 
Let a man so esteem of us as of the ministers of Christ, fa 
In this sermon he undertook to shew the causes of God's 
anger against England. One whereof he made to be, the 
great people about the King's Majesty, their obstructing 
him from doing that good he fully intended for the relief 
of the poor, and for the advancement of learning by means 
of the colleges and chantries given him by Parliament: 
which those men, by their importunity, got away by way 
of gift from him, or exchanged for impropriations." 
Against the But hear that reverend man speaking his mind in his 
the reve- own words : " If ye had any eyes, ye should see and be 
nues of ab« « ashamed, that in the great abundance of lands and goods 
" taken from abbeys, colleges, and chantries, for to serve the 


King in all necessaries and charges, especially in the re- CHAP, 
lief of the poor, and for maintenance of learning, the King 

is so disappointed, that both the poor be spoiled, all main- An »° isso. 
tenance of learning decayed, and you only enriched. And 
because ye have no eyes to see with, I will declare, that 
you may hear with your ears, and so perceive and know, 
that where God and the King have been most liberal to 
1 give and bestow, there you have been unfaithful to dis- 
; pose and deliver. For according unto God's word and 
: the King's pleasure, the Universities, which be the schools 
of all godliness and virtue, should have been nothing de- 
; cayed, but much increased And amended by this refor- 
mation of religion. As concerning God's regard for the 
upholding and increase of the Universities, I am sure 
that no man knowing learning and virtue doth doubt. 
And as for the King's pleasure, it did well appear, in that The favour 
he established unto the Universities all privileges granted ^j 1 "* 
afore his time : as also in all manner of payments required 
of the Clergy, as tithes and first-fruits, the Universities 
Jbe exempted. 

" Yea, and the King's Majesty, that dead is, did give And King 
unto the University of Cambridge at one time two hun- th eUni Te r- 
dred pounds yearly to the exhibition and finding of five »»*»<*• 
learned men, to read and teach divinity, law, physic, 
Greek, and Hebrew. And at another time thirty pounds, 
pt should be 3002.] yearly in liberam et puram eleemo- 
synam, in free and pure alms ; and finally, for the foun- 
dation of a new college, so much as should serve to build (259) 
it, and replenish it with mo scholars, and better living, 
than any other college in the University afore that time. 
By the which every man may perceive, that the King, 
giving many things, and taking nothing from the UnU 
versities, was very desirous to have them increased and 

" Howbeit, all they that have known the University ofThe<kc»y 
Cambridge since that time that it did first begin to re-b ridge# 
eeive v these great and manifold benefits from the King's 
Majesty at your hands, have just occasion to suspect, 



BOOK " that you have deceived both the King and the Univer- , 
" sity, to enrich yourselves. For, before that you did begin 




Anno 1550. " to be the disposers of the King's liberality towards lam- 
ing and poverty, there were in houses belonging unto the 
University of Cambridge, two hundred students of di- 
vinity, many very well learned ; which be now all clean 
gone home : and many young toward scholars, and old 
fatherly doctors, not one of them left. One hundred also 
" of another sort, that having rich friends, or being beneficed 
" men, did live of themselves in ostles and inns, be either 
" gone away, or else fain to creep into colleges, and put 
" poor men from bare livings. Those both be all gone, 
and a small number of poor, godly, diligent students, 
now remaining only in colleges, be not able to tarry, 
" and continue their studies, for lack of exhibition and 
" help. 
The diii- « There be divers there which rise daily about four or 
wane of " fi ye °f the clock in the morning, and from five till six of 
the fta. " the clock use common prayer, with an exhortation of 
" God's word in a common chapel : and from six until ten 
" of the clock use ever either private study or common 
" lectures. At ten of the clock they go to dinner, whereas 
they be content with a penny piece of beef among four, 
having a few pottage made of the broth of the same beef, 
with salt and oatmeal, and nothing else. After this slen- 
der diet, they be either teaching or learning until five of the 
" clock in the evening ; whenas they have a supper not much 
better than their dinner. Immediately after which they 
go either to reasoning in problems, or to some other 
study until it be nine or ten of the clock. And there be- 
ing without fires, are fain to walk or run up and down 
" half an hour, to get a heat on their feet when they go to 
The citizens " These be men not weary of their pains, but sorry to 
exhibit to " leave their studies. And sure they be not able some of 
them. « them to continue for lack of necessary exhibition and re- 
u lief. These be the living saints which serve God, taking 
" great pains in abstinence, study, labour, and diligence, 




" with watching and prayer. Whereas Paul for the saints CHAP. 

^° XXXI 

" and brethren at Jerusalem, so I for the brethren and 1 

" saints at Cambridge, most humbly beseech to make your Anno l&6 °* 
" collections among the rich merchants of this city, and 
w send them your oblations unto the University. 

" But to return unto them that should have better pro- The King's 
M vided for learning and poverty in all places, but espe- to'iuirnLg 
w dally in the Universities. Look you, whether there was a ?^J? rert3r 
" not a great number both of learned and poor, that might 
u have been kept, maintained, and relieved in the Univer- 
" sities, which lacking all help or comfort, were compelled 
u to forsake the Universities, leave their books, and seek 
" their livings abroad in the countries. 

" Yea, and in the country many grammar schools which (260) 
14 be founded of a godly intent, to bring up poor men's j^^ 01 * 
" sons in learning and virtue, now be taken away by reason commis- 
u of a greedy covetousness of you, that were put in trust by nootn * 
w God and the King, to erect and make grammar schools 
" in many places, and had neither commandment nor per- 
" mission to take away the schoolmaster's livings in any 
" place. Moreover such charitable alms was there yearly 
" to be bestowed in poor towns and parishes upon God's 
" people, the King's subjects ; which alms, to the great 
" displeasure of God, and dishonour of the King, yea, and 
u contrary to God's word and the King's laws, ye have 
" taken away. I know what ye do say and brag in the 
" same places : that ye have done as ye were commanded, 
u with as much charity and liberality towards poverty and 
" learning as your commission would bear and suffer. Take 
u heed whom ye slander. For God's word, and the King's 
" laws and statutes, be open unto every man's eyes. And 
" by every commission directed according unto them, ye 
u both might and should have given much, whereas ye 
" have taken much away. 

" Was it not a godly and charitable provision of the The evil of 
u King, to give unto the University 200/. yearly for excel- J^^*^ 
" lent readers ; 800/. yearly in pure alms ; and many 100/. pnationt. 
H also to the foundation and erection of a new college ? 



BOOK " And was it not a devilish device of you to turn all this 
L " the King's bounteous liberality into impropriations of be. 



Anno 1550. (< nefices; which be papistical and uncharitable spoils of 
most necessary provisions for poor parishes? Learn un- 
derstanding, you that play unwise parts among the peo- 
ple. You fools once wax wise. Qui plantavit 9 &c He 
" that set the ears, shall he not hear the sorrowful com- 
" plaints of poor parishes against you that have by impro- 
" priations clean taken away hospitality, and much im- 
" paired the due livings of God's ministers, the people* 
" instructors and teachers? Qui Jigurat oculum, &c Hi 
that fashioned the eye, doth not he behold, that the best 
lands of abbeys, colleges, and chantries be in your hands, 
" and evil impropriations conveyed to the King, ,and to the 
" Universities, and Bishops' lands? Qui corripit, &c He 
" that correcteth, and punisheth the heathen, lacking the 
" light of God's word, for the continual abuse of natural 
reason, will not he reprove and condemn you, who have 
good reasonable wits, God's holy word, the King's kws 
and statutes, and much power and authority given unto 
you to edify and do good ; seeing it is abused of you to 
" destroy and do hurt? Surely the abbeys did wrongfully 
" take and abuse nothing so much as the impropriations of 
" benefices. Nothing is so papistical as impropriations be: 
" they be the Pope's darlings and paramours ; which by 
" the devilish device of wicked Balaamites be set abroad in 
" this realm, to cause the learned men of the Universities, 
" and all Bishops that be godly men, the Pope's enemies, 
" to commit spiritual fornication with them." 

To this I subjoin what the same preacher spoke in an- 
other sermon : " The King's Majesty that dead is, did give 
" a benefice to be impropriate to the University of Cam- 
" bridge, in liberam et puram eleemosynam. Howbeit, 
" his hands were so impure, who should have delivered it, 
" that he received 600/. of the University for it. Whether 
(26l) " that this 600/. were conveyed to the King's behoof privily 
" for the alms, which by plain writing was given freely, or 
" else put in some Judas's pouch, I would it were known. 



f* For now by such charitable alms the King is slandered, CHAP. 

• • YYYI 

** the parish undone, and the University in worse case than * 

M it was before.™ This for the Universities. Anno iwt. 

Nor would the said Lever, being, as a conscientious, so a Lew 
bold preacher, change his argument in two other solemn £^ i „ the 
sermons, which he preached in two great auditories not Sbrouds > 
long after, the one in the Shrouds of St. Paul's, the fourth the King. 
Sunday after Twelftide; the other before the King, on 
the third Sunday in Lent. In both which he laid open in 
all freedom and plainness of speech, without respect of any 
the greatest person, the vices and abuses of those times; 
vix. concerning the revenues of the demolished abbeys, 
chantries, colleges, fraternities, and hospitals, converted to 
other uses than were originally intended, the covetousness 
of the gentry, the buying of spiritual livings, the neglect of 
those parishes, whereto were annexed the richest parson- 
ages, the little care priests took of their flocks, and such 
like. Concerning all which, after this manner he expressed 
his mind ; (which I do the rather set down, because it may 
serve somewhat to explain the history of these times.) 

" In suppressing of abbeys, cloisters, colleges, and chan- Therm. 
" tries, the intent of the King's Majesty that dead is, was, n^aterieT*" 
<c and of this our King now is, very godly ; and the pur- ™ d eh *?~ 
" pose, or else the pretence of others, wondrous godly : used. 
" that thereby such abundance of goods as was supersti- 
" tiously spent upon vain ceremonies, or voluptuously spent 
" upon idle bellies, might come to the King's hand, to bear 
" the great charges necessarily bestowed in the common- 
" wealth ; or part unto other men's hands, for the better re- 
" lief of the poor, maintenance of learning, and the setting 
" forth of God's word. Howbeit covetous officers have so 
" used this matter, that even those goods, which did serve 
" to the relief of the poor, the maintenance of learning, 
" and to comfortable necessary hospitality in the common- 
u wealth, be now turned to maintain worldly, wicked, covet- 
" Oils ambition.— You which have gotten these goods into 
" your own hands, to turn them from evil to worse, and 
" other goods mo from good unto evil,' be ye sure it is 


BOOK " even you that have offended God, beguiled the Kin$ 
" robbed the Church, spoiled the poor, and brought the 





Anno 1550. " commonwealth to a common misery. It is even you 
" that must either be plagued with God's vengeance, is 
were the Sodomites, or amend by repentance, as did the 
Ninevites. Even you it is, that must either make resti- 
tution, and amend speedily, or else feel the vengeance 
of God grievously. — Sure I am, .that if at the ordering 
of these things there had been in the officers as much 
godliness as there was covetousness, superstitious men 
" had not been put from their livings to their pensions 
out of those houses, where they might have had school- 
masters to have taught them to be good, [for many 
schools were intended, and others were swallowed up if 
they pertained to these religious foundations,] and for 
" less wages ; or, for the reservation of their pensions, re- 
" ceived into cures and parsonages, whereas they can do no 
" good, and will do much harm." 
The gen- The practices of the gentry towards their tenants he 
ous pne- thus set forth : " Now the people of the country use to say, 
JJJJJ^JV *** " that their gentlemen and officers were never so' fiill of 
(262) " fci r w <>rds and ill deeds, as they now be. For a gentleman 
" will say, that he loveth his tenant, but he keepeth not 
so good an house to make them cheer as his father did. 
" And yet he taketh mo fines and greater rents to make 
" them needy than his father had. Another will say, that 
" he would buy a lordship of the King, for the love that be 
" hath to the tenants thereof. But as soon as he hath 
bought it, by taking of fines, heightening of rents, and 
selling away of commodities, he maketh the same tenants 
pay for it. [And so he in effect obtains the purchase, and 
" makes others pay for it] Another saith, that he would 
" have an office to do good in his country. But as soon 
" as he hath authority to take the fee to himself, he setteth 
" his servants to do his duty. And instead of wages he 
" giveth them authority to live by pillage, bribery, and ex- 
" tortion in the country," 
Then he declaimed against another evil practice then 




common, which was the buying of parsonages and bene- CHAP, 
fices; whereby the tithes coming all in laymen's hands, pa- xx ^« 
were left destitute of priests and ministers to per- Anno 1550. 


form holy offices, and so the people were left in ignorance Bu v°s ■"»* 
and irreligion. Which Lever thus lamented : " Whereas parsonages. 
" they do not only buy lands and goods, but also lives 
" and souls of men from God, and the commonwealth, 
" unto the devil and themselves. A mischievous mart of 
" merchandry is this ; and yet now so commonly used, that 
" thereby shepherds be turned to thieves, dogs to wolves, 
" and the poor flock of Christ, redeemed with his precious 
" blood, most miserably pilled and spoiled, yea, cruelly de- 
voured. Be thou merchant in the city, or be thou gentle- 
man in the country ; be thou lawyer, be thou courtier, or 
" what manner of man soever thou be ; that cannot, yea, if 
thou be Doctor of Divinity, that will not do thy duty. It 
is not lawful for thee to have a parsonage, benefice, or any 
" such living, except thou do feed the flock spiritually with 
u God's word, and bodily with honest hospitality." 

And again, concerning the neglect of livings, and the Neglect of 
little care taken of Christ's flock, thus he reprehended those mo ^ m 
that were guilty : " Those parsonages that be most in num- 
" ber and greatest in value throughout all England, be 
" not now shepherds' houses to lay up fodder to feed the 
" poor sheep of the parish, but thievish dens to convey 
u away great spoils from all the rich of the parish. There 
a is no person there to relieve the poor and needy with na- 
" tural sustenance, in keeping of house, and to feed all in 
" general with the heavenly food of God's word by preach- 
u ing. But there is a parson's deputy, or farmer; which 
" having neither ability, power, nor authority to do the 
" parson's duty, in feeding and teaching the parish, is able, 
u sufficient, and stout enough to challenge, and take for his 
" master's duty the tenth part of all the parish. Now, my 
" lords, both of the laity and the clergy, in the nam&of God, 
" I advertise you to take heed. For when the Lord of lords 
" shall see the flock scattered, spilt, and lost, if he follow 



BOOK " the trace of the blood, it will lead him even 

*• " unto this court, and unto their houses, whereas these 
Anno 1550. " great thieves, which murder, spoil, and destroy the flocb 
" of Christ, be received, kept, and maintained. For you 
" maintain your chaplains to take pluralities, and your 
other servants mo offices than they can or will discharge. 
Fie ! for sin and shame ; either give your servants wages, 
" or else let them go and serve those which do give them 
(26d) " wages. For now your chaplains, your servants, and you 
" yourselves have the parson's, the shepherd's, and the 
" officer's wages; and neither you, nor they, nor others, do 
" the parson's, the shepherd's, or the officer's duty, except 
" peradventure ye imagine that there is a parish priest 
" curate which doth the parson's duty. But although ye 
" do so imagine, yet the people do feel and perceive that 
" he doth mean no other thing, but, Pay your duty, Pag 
"your duty. Yes, forsooth, he ministereth God's sacra- 
" moits, he saith his service, he readeth the Homilies, as 
" you find flattering courtiers, which speak by imagination, 
" term it But the rude lobs of the country, which be too 
" simple to paint a he, speak foully and truly as they find 
" it, and say, he minisheth God's sacraments, he slubbereth 
" up his service, and he cannot read the Humbles" 
Bmie put* And as Lever made and printed these remarkable ser- 
Votariet. mons this year, so John Bale now set forth as notable a book, 
(allowing for his broad way of writing,) namely, The ads 
a/iid unchaste examples of religious Votaries, gathered out 
of their own legends and chronicles. He designed to com- 
plete this history in four books; which should detect the 
foul lives and practices of the monastics, both men and wo- 
men, from the first times of their institution till that last 
age, wherein they were dissolved in England. To these 
four books he intended to give several titles, according to 
the various ages of monkery; viz. of their rising, their 
.building, their holding, and their Jailing, The first part 
was to treat of their uprising to mischief. The second part 
was to shew their hasty building, by hypocritish monks to 


establish the wicked kingdom of Antichrist. The third was CHAP, 
to declare the crafty upholding of their proud degrees and XXXL 
possessions, by the wily and subtil sleights of the four orders Anno isso. 
of friars- The fourth should manifest their horrible fall in 
this latter age, by the well-grounded doctrine of the true 
preachers and writers. The first part he finished in the year 
1546, and the second in this year 1550 ; and in the same 
year printed both together at London, in l£ mo . and dedi- 
cated them to King Edward. The second part reached to 
the year 1900. The two last parts he promised should 
speedily follow. But I think they never did ; the author 
probably being advised to suppress them for decency, if not 
for religion's sake, an assault on which might seem to be 
made, if so many abominable and shameful facts should 
come to light, as Bale had collected together. He had got 
the detecta, taken down in writing by King Henry's visitors, 
sent abroad to visit all the monasteries in England and 
Wales, and had once exposed them in a Parliament : which 
were of such a nature, that chaste ears could not hear them. 

The same Bale the same year set forth An Apology And an A- 
against a rank Papist; answering both him and the Doc-^%P™ nm 
tors 9 thai neither their Vows nor yet their Priesthood™^ 
are of the Gospel, but of Antichrist. Printed also at Lon- 
don in IS" 10 . At the end is a brief exposition upon the 
80th chapter of Numbers, which was the first occasion of his 
writing this book. This tract also the author dedicated to 
King Edward. The apology begins thus, (which will shew 
the occasion of the book :) " A few months ago, by chance, 
" as I sat at supper, this question was moved unto me by 
" one that fervently loves God's verity, and mightily de- 
" testeth all falsehood and hypocrisy ; Whether the vows 
" expressed in the 80th chapter of Numeri give any esta^ (264) 
" blishment to the vow of our priests now to live without 
" wives of their own, or nay. For the same party, as I 
** perceived anon after, had been assaulted and chased 
" the day afore with that most frivolous disputation. To 
** whom I remember I gave this short answer ; That they 
" made for that kind of vowing nothing at all, but con- 


book " deraned it. For, as I then judged of that matter, » 
l ' " judge I now still, that those vows were of things then 

Anno 1560. « present, and so forth continuing till Christ coming in the 
" flesh, concerning only the nation of the Jews, and now to 
" be of no force towards us. Forsomuch as they were not 
" expressly confirmed, declared, and taught of Christ, as 
" were the moral precepts of the Law, Matt. v. Moreover, 
" I considered that Christ being the clear light of the 
" world, John viii. and the brightness of Ins Father's 
u glory, Heb. i. left Moses feu- behind him, as a bare aha- 
" dow or figure ; constituting one only religion for ua and 
" the Jews: whose perfection standeth not in the works of 
" the law, neither in renouncing of Christian marriage, but 
" in a pure and constant faith in him and his Gospel. In 
" the end I was desired to write a sentence or two, what I 
thought in discharge of so single and sleeveless a matter. 
Whereupon the next day I turned me towards a win- 
" dow, and wrote the few sentences," &c. This writing 
was delivered to one who was the captain of that place 
where Bale then .was, being by birth a man of worship. 
Gently was it received at the first ; and so entertained by 
the space of five or six weeks. But within that time falling 
into the hands of a certain chaplain, he framed some an- 
swer to Bale's writing. And Bale again replied thereunto. 
And of all this consisted the aforesaid book. 

This year also he again put forth his Image of both 
Churches, at London, in 12 mo . being an exposition upon the 

And two To these let me add two little tracts more, composed by 

© er rac . ^ Qame au thor, this, or rather the former year. The one 
was, A Dialogue, or Communication to be had at a table 
between two children, gathered out of the holy Scripture, 
by John Bale, for the use of his two young sons, John and 
Paul, beginning, " Paulus junior jilius. Forsomuch as 
" God hath constituted me a creature reasonable, and en- 
" dued with an understanding, I am naturally desirous to 
" know to what end I am created," &c. The other is, A 

^ Confession of the Sinner , after the sacred Scripture, col- 



kcted by John Bale, at the request of a faithful friend of CHAP, 
hia, beginning, " I acknowledge unto my eternal and ever- XXXI< 

lasting God, that of mine own nature I am, as others, Anno imo. 

but a carnal thing, and the miserable child of Adam, 

justly exiled with him in his transgression," &c. 


CHAP. XXXII. (265) 

The English Bible and other books set Jbrth this year. 
Vezy, Bishop of Exeter, resigns. Sir Martin Bowes, 
of the Mint, gives up his office. Some account of him. 

JL HIS year the holy Bible, translated by Miles Coverdale, Coradtiet 
was printed in quarto, by Andrew Hester, for the more BlWe " 
common and private use of Christians; as he had set it 
forth in folio the year before: which is commonly called 
TyndaTs Bible. The same year (viz. 1550.) he set forth 
also the New Testament in octavo, conferred with the trans- And Testa- 
lation of William Tyndal, and printed by Reinold Wolf. 

About this time also certain sermons of Ochine, the Italian, Ocnine't 
being five and twenty in number, concerning the predesti- 
nation and election of God, were printed by John Day, in 
octavo. Having been translated out of Italian into English, 
by A. C. Gentlewoman : which capital letters, I make no 
question, meant Anne Cook, one of the learned daughters 
of Sir Anthony Cook, married after to Sir Nic. Bacon, Lord 
Keeper of the Great Seal. 

Now did Thomas Paynel, an old servant of King Henry, A book call- 
print a book, entitled, The pith and most noble sayings qf\ n & nuwt 
all Scripture : gathered by Thomas Paynel, ctfter the man- ? oWe S*T- 
ner of common places, very necessary Jot all those that de- Scripture. 
light in the consolations of the Scripture. It was dedicated 
to the right excellent and most graewus Lady, the Lady 
Mary's good Grace. In which dedication it appeared, that 
after he had made these collections out of Scripture, he was 
advised by a learned man to publish them for men's consola- 
tion and learning. And assigning the cause why he chose 


BOOK her to patronize this his work, he wrote, " that it was her 

" Graced fiery and fervent mind to virtuous and godly 


Anno 1 650. « living, her true intent and natural inclination to the same, 
" her liberal hand and favour to those which diligently ex- 
" ercised themselves in the spiritual and moral studies of 
" the sincere word of God, and lastly, her Grace's benignity 
" and gentleness of long time bountifully to him declared, 
" enforced him to publish it in her Grace's name. 19 Then 
he exhorted her, " to read the fruitful lessons thereof, and 
" to digest them thoroughly, to practise and prove in very 
" deed how sweet the Lord's words be : to use the profit- 
" able doctrines of that little book. For so doing, her Grace 
" should learn daily more and more truly to know the Lord, 
" to taste, relish, and to ensue his holy and sweet word, 
" to love and fear him, to be his faithful and obsequious 
handmaiden, and a diligent ensuer of his will and steps, 
most pleasantly and voluntariously to bear the yoke of 
" his most comfortable commandments." Thus he gravely 
bespake her upon this occasion, as though he hoped hereby 
to win her to the Gospel. 
(266) This year also Robert Crowley printed one and thirty 

Crowley's epigrams compiled by him. Wherein, as the title tells, are 
briefly touched so many abuses, that may and ought to be 
put away. They mainly drive at exposing the common 
vices and vicious men of that age ; and they shew several 
customs and practices of that time. Though the verses are 
old-fashioned rhymes, yet they want not sometimes good 
fancy and wit. And these are the various subjects of them, 
as they are placed alphabetically by the author: Of Ab- 
bayes. Alehouses. AUeyes. Almeshouses. Of Baylif cur- 
rants. Bauds. Beggars. Bear bayting. Brawlers. Bias- 
phemous swearers. OfcoUyars. Commotioners. Common 
drunkards. Common lyars. Of dice players. Double bene- 
ficed men. Of the Exchequer. Of flatterers. Fools. Fore- 
staUers. Of godless men. Of idle person*. Inventers cf 
strange news. Of laymen that take tithes. Leasemongers. 
Of merchants. Men that have divers offices. Of nice wives. 
Of obstinate Papists. Of renUraisers. Of vain writers. 


Vain talkers and vain hearers. Unsalable purchasers. CHAR* 
Usurers. Whereby a notable insight is given into matters, XXXIL 

customs, and abuses of these times. But to give a taste of Anno i5*o. 
Jiese epigrams, I refer the reader to the Repository. OO. 

Now was the Vision of Pierse Plowman die second time Kent 
Hinted by the foresaid Crowley. To which were added p, f WBIMI- 
certain notes and quotations in the margin, giving light to 
he reader. The book was very ancient, written in the reign 
>f King Edward III. For in the second side of the sixty- 
eighth leaf mention is made of a dear year, John Chichester 
xing then Mayor of London, which was anno 1350. In 
rhich time it pleased God to open the eyes of many to see 
he truth; giving them boldness of heart to open their 
nouths, and cry out against the works of darkness, as did 
(Vickliff; who also in these days translated the holy Bible 
nto the mother tongue. The writer of this book, whoever 
le was; in reporting certain visions and dreams that he 
feigned himself to have had, did Christianly instruct the 
peak, and sharply rebuke the obstinately blind. Nor was 
here any manner of vice that reigned in any state or order 
)f men, which he did not learnedly and wittily lash. And 
[of which much notice is wont to be taken) at the fiftieth 
eaf something is writ by way of prediction of the fall of 
ibbeys. The printer Crowley, being a learned man, and 
iesirous to know the name of the author, and the time of 
[lis writing, got together such ancient copies as he could 
Dome by, and consulted such men as he knew to be more 
sxercised in the study of antiquity. And by some of them 
be learnt the author's name was Langland, a Shropshire 
man, born in Cleybury, about eight miles from Malvern 
bills. And among the ancient copies, one was noted to be 
written in the year MIIIICIX. The book is writ in metre, 
but much different from the ipanner of our modern verse, 
there being no rhithms or chiming of words ; but the na- 
ture of the metre is, that three words at the least of each 
verse begin with one and the same letter. As for example, 
the two first verses of the book run upon the letter S, the 
next upon H, and the next upon W ; vix. 

vol. it. k e 


BOOR In a Summer Season, when Set was the Sun 

I* I Shope me into Shrobbs as a Shepe were. 

Anno 1660. In Habit as a Heremyt unHoly of werks 

(267) Wend Wyde in thys World Wonders to hear. 

And again, 

On a Mey Morning on Malvern hills, 
Me beFel a Ferly of Fayin me thought, &c 
Marbeck's jj ow ^ j orin Marbeck, an excellent musician for church 

prayers and # 

antbemf. music, once belonging to the choir at Windsor, now of the 
King's chapel, published prayers and anthems, set by him 
for the use of the said chapel, in quarto, printed by Grafton 
I shall not pretend to so much skill as to make observations 
upon the compositions ; but I cannot but remark bow is 
the Office of Burial, the prayer there, after the corpse was 
put into the earth, varied from our present Office: in that 
prayer is made for the deceased, and the soul departed 11 
held to be in a middle state till the last judgment. For thus 
it ran : " We commend into thy hands of mercy, moat mer- 
ciful Father, the soul of this our brother departed, JV. and 
his body we commit to the earth. Beseeching thine infi- 
nite goodness to give us grace to live in thy fear and lore, 
and to die in thy favour : that when the judgment shall 
come which thou hast committed to thy well-beloved Son, 
" both this our brother and we may be found acceptable in 
" thy sight, and receive that blessing," &c. And then fol- 
lows : " Almighty God, we give thee hearty thanks for thy 
" servant whom thou hast delivered from miseries of this 
" wretched world, from the body of death and all tempta- 
" tion ; and, as we trust, hast brought his soul, which he com- 
" mitted into thy holy hands, into sure consolation and rest; 
" grant, we beseech thee, that at the day of judgment his 
" soul, and all the souls of thy elect departed out of this 
" life, may with us, and we with them, fully receive thy 
promises, and be made perfect altogether, through the 
glorious resurrection of thy Son Jesus Christ our Lord." 
And again, after some psalms and versicles, this prayer: 
" O Lord, with whom do live the spirits of them that be 
" dead, and in whom the souls of them that be elected, after 


" they be delivered from the burthen of the flesh, be in joy CH AF. 

• • XXXII* 

" and felicity; grant unto this thy servant, that the «"■ 


a which he committed in this world be not imputed unto Ann0lW0 » 
u him, but that he, escaping the gates of hell, and the pains 
" of eternal darkness, may ever dwell in the region of light 
" with Abraham* Isaac, and Jacob, in the place where is 
" no weeping, sorrow, nor heaviness. And when that 
" dreadful day of the general resurrection shall come, make 
u him to rise also with the just and righteous, and receive 
his body again to glory, then made pure and incorrup- 
tible: set him cm the right hand of thy Son Jesus Christ, 
among the holyand elect That then he may hear with 
" them these most sweet and comfortable words, Come to 
" me> ye blessed of my Father, possess the kingdom which 
** hath been prepared for you from the beginning of the 
" world. Grant this, we beseech thee, O merciful Father, 
** through Jesus Christ our Mediator," &c. 

Jtlg, citizen and stationer of London, had a licence from (268) 
the King, dated in January, or his sufficient deputies, to ^f^f^ 
print the New Testament in English, as well in great vo- Tegument, 
lumes as in small, for the space of certain years. 

Cardinal Pole writ and finished, the thirteenth of the ca- Cardinal 
lends of February, a book, De summo Pontifice Christi in 
terris. Vtcario, &c. but not printed before the year 1569, at 

Smith, of Oxford, now set fbrth a book, DeDt c«ii- 
c&Ubatu sacerdotum 9 et votis monasticis contra PetTum^^^ 
Matrtyrem, octavo : which he afterwards recanted in Lon- 
don and Oxford. 

But chiefly, Archbishop Cranmer's book must not be £*? m * r Jl 
forgotten, published this year by him in octavo, entitled, A sacrament. 
defence of the true and Catholic doctrine of the Sacrament 
of the body and Hood of our Saviour Christ: with a con- 
fittation of sundry errors concerning the same. Grounded 
and established upon God's holy rqord, and approved by the 
consent of the most ancient Doctors of the Church. Printed 
by Reynold Wolf at London. The same book was after- - ,. 
mud printed hi Latin at Embden, anno 1557. Of which ex- Hut. •*. 

Ee2 crMn ' 


BOOK cellent book, thus a foreigner writ, that lived in those tunes: 
L Thomas Cranmerus prcBcipuos dbusus miesee Papistkek 

sets forth 
Vigon of 

Anno \bbo.beUo Anglico confitiavit, <$"£• Hoc scripto plurimi ad samam 
de Eucharistia doctrinam adducti sunL That by this writ- 
ing very many were brought to embrace the sound doctrine 
concerning the sacrament, the author having therein con- 
futed the chief abuses of the Popish mass. 
Bishop r phe same year did Gardiner, late Bishop of Winchester, 

book on the set forth a book in answer to the former, bearing this title: 
rone sub- j n expiicafan and assertion of the true Catholic Jaith, 

touching the most blessed Sacrament of the Jtiar : with At 
ctmfuUxtion of a book written against the same. Printed 
in France. 

Now also -did Bartholomew Traheron, a learned man, and 
well studied in the divinity of the Gospel, and an exile for 
religion under Queen Mary, set forth a book in folio of one 
Vigon, a famous Italian chirurgeon, translated by him out 
of Latin into English, and printed by Edward Whitchurch. 
It was entitled, The most excellent works of Ch i r urg tr y 
made and setjbrth by Master John Vigonj Head Cfttntr- 
geon of our time in Italy. The dedication was. To the 
earnest favourer of all good and godly learning, Master 
Richard Trade : beginning, " God, the mighty Governor 
" of all things, long time sithence hath witnessed by that 
" excellent prophet Moses, that for the transgression of his 
" holy laws he would plague the people with sundry and 
" grievous diseases. Howbeit our blindness hath been so 
" great, that in the multitude of most filthy and shameful 
" botches, sores, and other piteous maladies, we have not 
" perceived how horrible a thing sin is, and how present 
" vengeance the despising and neglecting of God's dread- 
" ful commandments bringeth upon us : no, not when we 
" have been burnt with fiery carbuncles, nor when our flesh 
" hath been torn from the bones and eaten up with loath- 
" some cankers : nor when we have been miserably tor- 
" mented with the moft filthy, pestiferous, and abominable 
" disease, the French or Spanish pox. In these, I say, so 
" manifest punishments of God for the outrageous trans* 


" irression of his laws, we have not acknowledged the ex- CHAP. 

° ° XXXII. 

M ceeding wickedness of our nature, neither have prayed for 
u the holy Spirit of God, which might change and tran*- Anno 185 °* 
" form our corrupt birth, and create in us new hearts with (2v9) 
u the print of fear and humble reverence to Godward. Yea, 
" we have been so far off from such a purpose, that some 
" of us have bragged of our natural strengths to our own 
" shame and confusion." Those filthy diseases, it seems, 
were ripe in these days, and to these causes did good men 
now deservedly attribute them; such need was there in these 
Tery evil days for the light of the Gospel to be brought in, 
for the reforming and amending the wretched looseness of 
the age. The reason of his dedicating this book to this 
gentleman, he expressed in these words : " I dedicate it to 
" you, good Master Tracie, not that I think it a thing fit for 
" you, (inasmuch as you have bestowed the most part of 
" your time in the fruitful studies of holy Scriptures,) but 
" that at this time it may be a monument and token of 
u my mind towards you, which cannot be (except I were 
" changed into a worse nature than any barbarous Scythian 
** is of) but most loving. For when I was destitute of fa- 
** ther or mother, you conceived a very fatherly affection 
" toward me, and not only brought me up in the Universities 
" of this and foreign realms, with your great cost and 
" charges, but also most earnestly exhorted me to forsake 
" the puddles of sophisters, and to fetch water from the 
** pure fountains of the Scripture. Wherefore, seeing you 
u have been the author and cause of that simple learning 
*? that I have obtained, I thought it my duty to render the 
** fruits thereof unto you. And albeit that both you desire, 
<4 and I delight, more to travail in the holy writings,""&c. 
I set down this the more at large, to retrieve the memory, as 
much as may be, of worthy men in former times, and to 
revive some knowledge of them and their good deeds. Such 
an one was this Richard Tracie, son, as it seems, of him of 
that surname in Glocestershire, who in Henry VIIIth'6 tnrie 
was, for his good religion, digged out of his grave after his 



BOOK death, and burnt From whom this gentleman did not de. 
generate in learning or piety. 

Anno lftfto. Lastly, to all the rest I add one book more, that came 
^SJ^Jhe abroad this same year, which was entitled, A debate between 
Henddt of the heralds of England and France. Compiled by John 
aafr raoce< Coke, Clerk of the Statutes of the Staple of Westminster. 
Imprinted by Richard Wier. The occasion and subject of 
this book he sets down in his preface : viz. that being one 
day in Brussels in Brabant, and being then secretary to the 
worshipful company of merchant adventurers of the Eng- 
lish nation, he chanced in a printer's shop to find a little 
pamphlet in French, called The debate of heralds of Eng- 
land and France : wherein were contained the commodities 
in effect of both the said realms, with the victorious acts 
and prowesses of sundry noble princes, ruling in times past 
over the said regions. Which after he had perused, he 
perceived the French herald wholly without desert to give 
the honour to France, and in all things debased this noble 
realm and people of England : and further found the said 
book to be compiled of hearty malice, little or nothing 
tracing the chronicles of the one realm or the other. There- 
fore out of zeal to his country, this author pretends to shew 
the truth, touching the said debate, out of a great many 
ancient historians which he had diligently consulted, in the 
behalf of England, as Eutropius, Colman, Bede, Gildas, 
Orote, Chronica Chronicorum, &c. The book begins thus: 
" Prudence upon a day for pleasure passed her time in a 
(270) " garden, where finding herself accompanied with two he- 
ralds, the one of England and the other of France, and 
minding to put unto them a question, to know if they 
were expert in their offices, reasoned with them in this 
" manner : Prudence speaketh. Fair Sirs, said she, you 
" have a goodly office, which all noblemen ought to love and 
" favour. For to your reports, emperors, kings, {winces, 
" ladies, and other great lords, submit themselves. You 
are judges of worldly honour*, be it in arms, as in as- 
saults, battles, rencounters, sieges, justs, tourneys, or in 





u shows, pomps, feasts, and obsequies, and in all other CHAP. 
" things done in magnificence, and tending to honour: by 

u you they ought to be published," &c. Anno 1550. 

An endeavour and intent there was to let the world see Diacosio- 
another tract about this year, (though it as yet came not M * rt y non - 
forth.) It was a book in verse, called Diacos%o-Martyri<m> 
writ by White, Warden of Winchester, with some assistance: 
in truth a very trifling piece, levelled against Peter Martyr. 
He sent it to Lovain, to be printed there. But upon the 
knowledge that such a book was by him sent thither, he 
was imprisoned ; and other his friends, who assisted in the 
making or transporting of it, were in great danger of suf- 
fering by it Hereupon the Lovain printer stopped or sup- 
pressed it, and sent it back, Nov. 1, 1553 : and then it was 
printed and published in London. This account is told of 
it in the preface to the reader. It was dedicated, Ad sere- 
nissimam ittustrissimamque Principem Marium Regis Ed- 
ward* VI. sororem. And this dedication was not altered, 
though published, when she was actually Queen. Before it 
is an epistle to Peter Martyr, full of reproaches for his te- 
nets about the Eucharist, his lectures at Oxford, and his 
refusing to dispute with Dr. Smith, when he was challenged. 
And he says there, that Peter Martyr, to avoid the dispute, 
complained to the government against Smith, and forced 
him to flee, to escape imprisonment. But the Memorials of 
Cranmer, chap. xiv. will give a true representation of that 

John Voisey, or Veyzey, alias Harman, was Bishop ofBp.Voitey 
Exeter, and so continued to this year; but seldom resided rewg ^ 
upon his bishopric, living for the most part in Warwick- 
shire, where he minded secular matters, tending chiefly to 
the improvement of the town of Sutton Coldfield, his native 
place. To whose absence from his diocese the rebellion in 
the west was partly attributed. The King and Court had 
an honour for the man, having been King Henry VIHth's 
chaplain, dean of his chapel, employed by him in honour* 
able employments abroad in embassies; and at home he 
had been governor to the Lady Mary, when she was the 

£ c 4 


BOOK King's only daughter, and entitled Prince* of Wales, kid 
president of Wales, and one -of those that assisted at the 

Anno 1&50. consecration of Archbishop Cranmer. He was now gvm 
very ancient, and so the less fit to look after his great dio- 
cese. And therefore, having made good provisions for him- 
self out of the temporalities thereof, did now in November 
resign it into the King's hands by word of mouth, as k 
seems, to the Earl of Bedford, being lord lieutenant of 
those western countries. Which resignation was so accept- 
able and well taken at this juncture, when there was such 
need there of an active and preaching Bishop, that a letter 
The Council f thanks was written from the King and Council to the 
Warr.Book! said Bishop, for surrendering to the King his office cr 
(271) charge, by reason of his age, not able to discharge the same 
according to his conscience, as it was reported by the Eai) 
of Bedford, keeper of the privy «eal. Yet he outliving 
King Edward, was replaced by Queen Mary in his old see, 
though unable to mind it And then Dr. Moreman ww 
his coadjutor : as Coverdale was under King Edward, and 
upon his resignation, his successor, as we shall see under 
the next year. 
Sir Martin Sir Martin Bows, Knight, that had been long under-tm- 
mint sur- surer of the mint, and faithful in his place, did now about 
renders bit January surrender his office in the State, as the Bishop had 
surrendered his in the Church. Which I the rather men- 
tion here, because John Stow, in his catalogue of citizen! 
that had been benefactors, leaves him wholly out, as also 
doth Dr. Willet in his catalogue. For as he was a very 
wealthy man, so was he largely charitable. He built an 
hospital at Woolwich in Kent, where he had an house and 
lands. He appointed a sermon to be preached yearly at the 
church of St Mary Woolnoth, (where he lived, and where 
he was buried,) at or near St. Martin's day. At which 
sermon the company of goldsmiths (whom he made his 
trustees) are to be present ; and certain of his gifts are then 
and there to be disposed by them : whose streamers and 
cognisances hang still up (or lately did) in the said church, 
find are to be renewed from time to time by the. said com- 


as they decay : which they are to do in memory of CHAR 


fge benefactions towards them. For he gave them 

plate, and curiously wrought, and many houses and A" 1 * l6ft0 ? 

He was Lord Mayor, anno 1546, 37 Henry VIII. 
iieriff five years before. But to return to the surrender 
office : the commissioners appointed to hear and deter- 
ill accounts and reckonings of the King's mints, within 
aim, (viz. the Earl of Warwick, Sir William Herbert, 
>ir Walter Mildmay,) found him in debt to the King 
OL And for his honest and faithful managery of his 
and surrender of his fee of 900 marks, first, he had 
nuity granted him of 900 mark, and the confirmation 
L 18*. 4sd. granted him by King Henry for his good 
e done in the said office. Secondly, he had a grant to 
od discharge the foresaid debt as followeth, that is 
r, in hand 3,0002. and so yearly 1,0002. till all were 
Xiastly , a pardon of all treasons, trespasses, contempts, 
one and committed by the said Martin, concerning 
f and coin of the King's Majesty and his father, and 
unjust and false making of money, and payments of 
ime : and of all other offences done contrary to the ef- 
f the common law, and to any statute, act, provision, 
imation, &c. or to any prescriptions, customs, or any 
conventions, concerning the making and coining of 
id money ; and of all forfeitures of goods, chattels, 
, and tenements, and pains of death ; and of all impri- 
■nts, and other pains whatsoever ; and of all prosecu- 
cmdemnations, judgments, and indictments, and the 
tion of them, which by reason of any of them he 
i run in the King's danger ; and of all manner of 
, accounts, arrearages of accounts, acts, and demands, 
gainst the said Martin, or Thomas Shepwith, or either 
m, as executors of the last will and testament of Bafe 
et, Esq. [to whom it seems Sir Martin succeeded in the 
| or against Sir Rafe Rowlet, Knt as son and heir of 
id Rowlet, by reason of any recognisances, obligations, 




Anno 1550. jife gfagg good progress in learning and virtue. its 

\r7*) Marquis of Northampton. Commissioners Jbr FrenA 

matters. French crowns. A Scotch ship stayed. Eart 

of Southampton ; a ward. Thomas Lord Howari 

Mines found, &c. 

TheKing'i J[ HE King was now thirteen years of age, and by thk 
his ttndiei. time understood Latin, spake it, wrote it properly, skilfully, 
fluently, and all this with judgment too. He made ako 
good progress in the Greek tongue, and with great erne 
turned Latin into Greek. He had learnt over lope, and 
was now entering into Aristotle's Ethics in Greek, (for Ci- 
cero's philosophy he was also versed in.) For bong owe 
instructed in those universal precepts and parte of virtue 
and vice, he would be able to bring a steady judgment to 
look into the various manners of men, which he should meet 
with plenteously in reading of history : which was the rea- 
son his learned tutor Cheke assigned for this course of study, 
in his answer made to Ascham ; who had asked him, why 
he had not rather put him upon reading the Institution of 
Cyrus, a book very proper for a king to read. When these 
Ethics were done with, which would take the King up but 
a little time, then he was to peruse Aristotle's Rhetoric. 
And in vir- But together with his aptness and great progress in learn- 
ing, he had a great disposition to virtue, a love of religion, 
a good judgment, and other excellent qualifications. As- 
cham, who knew him well, and lived then at the Court, 
in a letter dated in December to the learned Sturmius at 
Argentine, gave this account of him : " that his nature 
equalled his fortune ; but his virtue, or, to speak as a Chris- 
dan, the manifold grace of God in him, exceeded both. 
" That he did to admiration outrun his age in his desires 
" of the best learning, in his study of the truest religion, in 
" his will, his judgment, and his constancy." 

«- Though there wanted not for some about his 
take the w ho laboured to divert him from his studies and care of his 


lgdom, to pastime and gaiety, which therefore the graver CHAP* 
rt, as they had opportunity, endeavoured to arm the good XXXIII » 
tug against One whom we have mentioned before, took Anno mo. 
e confidence from the pulpit to bespeak him with respect j^°J '5j 
reunto, after this manner: " It is not unlike, but if your present 
Majesty with your Council speak unto your nobles for ^^ 
provision, now to be made for the poor people, ye shall Lever's aer- 
find some that, setting afore your eyes the hardness of the ™™£*£* 
matter, the tenderness of your years, and the wonderful on the third 
charges that should be requisite, will move and counsel £ dU y m 
you to quiet yourself, to take your ease, yea, to take your 
pastime in hawking, hunting, and gaming." And then turn- (273) 
5 his speech to such an one, he thus accosted him: " Thou 
hast no taste nor savour, how delicious God is unto a pure 
con science in godly exercise of good works. But all that 
thou regardest and feelest is voluptuous pleasures in 
worldly vanities. And therefore thou dost not perceive, 
how that they which be endowed with a special grace of 
God, may find more pleasure and pastime in godly go- 
vernance, to keep together and save simple men, than in 
hawking and hunting, to chase and kill wild beasts. Yea, 
a godly king shall find more pleasure in casting lots for 
Jonas, to try out offenders which trouble the ship of this 
commonwealth, than in casting dice at hazard, to allow 
and maintain by his example such things as should not 
be suffered in a commonwealth. Yea, surely a good king 
shall take far more delight in edifying with comfort, and 
decking with good order, the congregation of his people, 
the Church and house of God, the heavenly city of Je- 
rusalem, than in building such houses as seem gay and 
gorgeous, and be indeed but vile earth, stones, timber, 
and clay. Such like answer ought your Majesty and all 
noblemen to make, if ye find any of your counsellors 
more carnal than spiritual, more worldly than godly." 
I shall now set down some matters of more public coo- 
am, or special remark, that passed, and were signed by the 
jng and his Council, beginning at the month of October. 


BOOK William Parr, Marquis of Northampton, brother to Xng 
Henry's last wife, (bong therefore one whom King Edmri 

Anno 1660. called uncle,) was one of the favourites of this reign. Be* 
gnattd to sides his advancement to be Lord High Chamberlain of 
the Mar- England, he had a grant, dated October 20, of the office of 
Northamp- keeping the park of Hendley, and the little park of Wind- 
Um - sor, together with the constableship of the castle of Wind- 

sor ; and the keeping of all the forests, parks, warrens, and 
other places belonging to every of the same offices, for fife, 
with all profits thereto belonging; with the fee of ax- 
pence per day for keeping Hendley park, and four pence 
per day for keeping the little park of Windsor. To ham 
also was granted by patent, dated the same day, the office 
of keeping the laund of Benfield in the forest of Rocking- 
ham, in the county of Northampton, and of the game withii 
the said laund, with the outwoods of Thornehaw, Woodhaw, 
and Corbe woods, within the said forest ; and the keeping 
of Gratton woods, and of the west bailifwick within the said 
forest, with all fees and profits. Also he had a grant for 
life of all the chief messuage called the Laund Lodge, with- 
in the said laund ; together with a lease to him for life of the 
herbage and panage. Of the same date was granted also 
to this lord, the office of bailiff of Surrey, alias Bagshots 
Bailes, in the forest of Windsor ; and the office of steward 
and bailif of the manor of Godalming, and the hundred of 
Godalming, in the county of Surrey; with the gubernance 
of all the King's tenants and subjects within the said manor 
and hundred, inhabitant; with the keeping of the chief 
house and scite of the late prior's farm of Guildford in the 
Formerly said county, and the master of the game within the park of 
5f4^ y v , Whitley, for life. All which offices were surrendered by 

Sir Michael . J 7 J 

Stanbop. Sir Michael Stanhop. 

(274) A commission was issued out, November 16, to John 
^forlbe Wallop, Thomas Wyat, and Richard Rede, Knights, Wil- 
controrer- Ham Cook, LL. D. and Francis Hall, Esquires, or to any 
the French four, three* or two of them, to hear and determine with the 
about the French King's commissioners all controversies between the 

borders. ° 


King's Majesty and the said French King; touching as CHAP. 
well the right of title of lands and possessions, as also of xxxin * 
lordships and territories, as well within the King's Majesty's Anno issa, 
limits,, as within the French King's, upon the marches of 

. A new commission, but to the same tenor and purport, 
was made, only leaving out Sir Thomas Wyat, upon some 
reason of sickness, or the like, and putting Sir Richard 
Blount in his room* A memorial was then given by the 
Sang, with the advice of his Council, to the said commis* 
sioners, concerning the aforesaid controversies. And there 
was a warrant to Sir Edmund Peckham, cofferer, to pay to 
Sir Richard Rede, a learned common lawyer, and a judge, 
forty shillings per diem, until his return unto the King's 
presence, advancing him two months beforehand; and to , 
allow him for all such sums of money as by his bills should 
be signified unto him, to be laid out about sending letters 
to the King's Majesty, or otherwise about the said affairs. 
The like warrant to the said Peckham was directed to pay 
Dr. Cook, a learned civilian, for his diet, the sum of thirty- 
three shillings four pence per day, and to advance him two 

A proclamation came forth dated November 87, com-Apiocin- 
manding all the King's subjects, and every other person J^S 
having traffic within the realm, that from the last of De-crowm. 
cember next ensuing, they should not utter or receive any 
crowns, commonly called French crowns, above the value 
of six shillings and four pence of current money of England, 
upon pain of forfeiture of the same. Whereof the one half 
should be to the King's Majesty, and the other to the ac- 
cusers : with a proviso, that whosoever before the last day 
of December should bring any of the French crowns into 
the King's mints, should receive for every of them seven 
shillings, according to the value before limited. 

The Princess of Scotland had sent a letter of complaint A com. 
to the King in this month of November, advertising the Ic^J, ^ 
King, that a ship called the Trinity, appointed to help some rtapd. 
part of the train of the Queen her mother in her voyage to 


BOOK France, was stayed in the King's port of Hull, contra r y to 
the amity and late peace. But all this was but a gtamg 

Amo 1560. surmise, and perhaps this ship was no better in truth thsa 
a pirate. For to this import did the King's answer to the 
Princess run, that there was no such ship stayed in that portal 
Hull; but in the port of Grimsley, in the river of Humber, 
there was a Scotch ship stayed ; yet none of the ships that 
appertained to the said train, as appeared by the depoation 
of the mariners, and of Davy Simner, master and owns 
thereof. And that it was stayed there, because it was en- 
tered without any safe conduct, or other licence, contrary to 
law and the ancient customs of both realms. Wherewith, 
the King said, he nothing doubted but that she would be 
fen of Henry, the young Earl of Southampton, being the Kingfi 

ton wapd l tog°d 90fn > an ^ now his ward, was in December committed to 

Sir William g; r William Herbert His father Sir Thomas Wriothealy 


was created Earl the first year of this King, and Lord 
Chancellor, a man very inward with Stephen Gardiner, late 
Bishop of Winchester, and much addicted to his principle^ 
(275) an enemy to the Duke of Somerset, and assistant to War- 
wick in his practices against him. Being thrown out of the 
Court and his places, and in some apprehension of being 
called in question for his life, was thought to take it to 
heart, and retiring to his own house, died in discontent, or, 
as some said, by giving himself a dose. To Sir William 
Herbert, with his ward, was committed the keeping of the 
manor of Blumesbury, (where, if I mistake not, the Earl 
had his house,) and all the messuages, lands, and tenements 
in Milfield and Culverclose, with their appurtenances, in the 
county of Middlesex, and of the manor of Sutton with the 
appurtenances in the county of Somerset, to the yearly va- 
lue of 200/. with the wardship and marriage of the said 
Earl Henry, without disparagement during his minority. 
A warrant was also issued out, the same second of Decem- 
ber, to the Earl of Wiltshire, master of the wards and li- 
veries, that where the King had granted to Sir William 
Herbert the wardship of Henry Earl of Southampton, he 


ippointed to the said Sir William 1001. for the exhibition CRAP. 
if the said Earl during his minority, and that he should xxxm * 
)t several days pay one thousand pounds for the said ward- Anno ism. 
ifcip, and to appoint the said- Sir William another 100L of 
fcbe said Earl's lands : and also abate him 700*. part of the 
mid thousand, in. consideration that the said young Earl 
■Jtos the King's godson, and of the good sendee of the said 
Sir William 

Thomas Lord Howard, the same, I suppose, that wasDebtsjMur- 
ga titled Lord Howard of Bindon, seemed to be one of theffi^^ 
pool" noblemen of this reign, however his poverty were occa-Loni 
ooned. This man ran in arrears in the second and third How * nL 
payment of a subsidy granted to the King's father, in the 
84th of his reign, which came to the sum of 98/. 6s. Sd. 
And besides, he was indebted to King Edward 800/. who 
favourably considering his circumstances, pardoned him 
wholly the former sum, and threescore pounds of the latter; 
and took sufficient sureties for the payment of the rest in 
six years. 

. This year had one Michael Winston found out divers Mines of 
mines of iron and steel, within the King's forests of Exmore JJJJ uH* 
and Dartmore in Devonshire ; and also certain earth, which Dtron. 
would make moor coal. With the which the iron and Steel 
might be made of the ore of the said iron and steel to be 
found within the said forests. Upon information hereof 
the King granted a commission, bearing date December 11, 
whereby be authorized and licensed John, Earl of Bedford, 
Peter Carow, and Gawen Carow, Knights, Richard Duke, 
and the said Michael Winston, and every of them, and all 
others, by them or any of them to be named or appointed, 
to dig, found, win, and get, by all means they could from 
time to time hereafter, iron woore [ore] and steel, within 
his Highness 1 proper ground, within the said forests ; and 
likewise earth to make moor coal, without giving or paying 
any thing therefore. And also to erect and build in his 
tend proper ground, such. and 60 many houses and mills, as 
should . be thought meet and convenient to the said Earl, 


BOOK Peter,Gawen, Richard, and Michael, or any of them, for d» 
making of iron and steel with the said woor and coal. And 

Anno 1550. further, that they should enjoy the said houses and milli, 
and other the said necessaries to them, their heirs, executon, 
and assigns for ever ; with power and authority to bequeath 
and assign the same at their pleasure, and in such maimer 
. as by the said commissioners' order shall be appointed* So 
(276) the said mills and houses, and making of the said iron and 
steel may have continuance for ever : yielding to the King 
and his heirs for every ton of iron there made six shilling! 
and eighth pence ; and likewise for every ton of steel* And 
to the intent the said purpose should take effect, the said 
commissioners had authority to make orders and decrees fir 
the establishing the continuance thereof, so they be not 
against the commonweal, or laws or statutes of the realm: 
with a proviso, that they shall not intermeddle with any 
bodies several, without their consents. 
Beaumont Sir Robert South wel, Knight, Master of the Rolls, under 
ter of the some eclipse, did now resign, or was deprived of his place; 
R"* 1 ** and the office, December 11, conferred upon John Beaumont. 
Esq. for life, with all fees, &c. in as large and ample man- 
ner as the said Robert lately had it. 
A message One Dr. Albert Knoppert, a lawyer, was now in Eng- 
Danish land, lately sent from Christiern, King of Denmark, for ad- 
King con- j U8 ting some merchants* business, wherein he was civilly 
merchant*, treated. He had in this month of December complained, 
in the name of that King's subjects, of certain customs made 
here about merchandise, to their great loss and damage. 
But the King in answer shortly declared unto Christiern. 
that his subjects also complained of certain customs made 
there to their great hinderance. This complaint the King 
and his Council seemed to take the more offence at, because 
that but the month last past the King and his Council had 
fulfilled the desire of, and given satisfaction to, the said Dr. 
Albert, who came to be procurator in certain causes of in- 
jury, supposed to be done to some Danish merchants: and 
had given him a letter of answer to carry to King Christieni, 


jnifying the justice he had done his subjects, with a com- CHAP, 
nidation of die said Albert, for his diligence and wisdom XXXI11, 
ted therein. Anno 1550. 

In this month of December, I find a warrant signed by An embassy 
te King, to deliver to Sir John Borthwick, a Scotchman, toDenmmrk# 
re months' diet beforehand in prest after twenty-five shil- 
ags and eight pence per day, sent about certain the King's 
fairs ; and so hereafter to be allowed until his return to 
•e King, inclusive. This seems to have been some private 
nbassy, because no mention is made of the person, place, 
r message. But the King's journal discovers all ; where 

appears that Borthwic (who seems to have been knighted 
■r this purpose) was sent to the King of Denmark with 
rivate instructions, for the matching of the Lady Elizabeth 
ith his son. He had his passport to go beyond sea with 
ne gentleman and three servants, January 2. 

As a testimony of the King's gratitude and good-will to The King's 
tie citizens of Exeter for their last year's good service ^^ r t ^ ,Ml 
gainst the rebels, (besides the thanks he had rendered them Exeter, 
(ready,) by a patent, dated December 19, the King con- 
fined to the Mayor and commonalty of that city, and their 
uccesflors, all their old customs, liberties, privileges, fran- 
hises, and jurisdictions contained in any charters or letters 
atents of the King's Majesty or his progenitors ; with a 
;ift to them in fee-simple of all his manor of Exiland in 
)evonshire, with divers other lands, tenements, &c. to the 
early value of 981. 18*. lOd. over and above the reprizes : 
t> be holden by fealty only in sockage, with a licence to 
rurchase 10W. a year in land. 

This kingdom upon the sea-coasts towards France, and Commit- 
be English merchants, suffered much by French pirates jy^oX 
till, notwithstanding the peace with France : nor could the pirates. 
Spglish depend upon their friendship ; therefore a special \*77) 
ommission was given out, dated January &, to Dr. Griffith 
jeyson, Sir Richard Rede, and Dr. William Cook, or to 
wo of them, to examine and determine all and singular 
iracies, depredations, &c. now present, or hereafter to be 

VOL. II. r f 


book cl one between the King's subjects and the French King 1 *, 
since the last treaty of peace between them concluded. 

Anno 1550. gj r philip Hoby seems now to have returned home from 
£%% his embassy with the Emperor, where he had resided t. 
ambassador, or three years. A needy man it seems he was, whether the 

gratified. J . . V .. , ' . - * 

cause were his own prodigality, or some other misfortune. 
To which I attribute the counsel he suggested to the Pro- 
tector mentioned before, of taking away all the p rebends 
from the church, and bestowing them upon secular uses, tad 
reducing the revenues of the Bishops ; hoping thereby that 
His need, some part thereof might fall to him. His needs made him 
often craving supplies, while he was ambassador. Insomuch 
that in one of his letters to the Council he told them, that 
he had run into interest, and borrowed money upon credit, 
more than he could well yet a while discharge. And that if 
he should, through lack of payment of his diets, either nm 
into further debt, or else be forced to lay to pledge, or adl 
the King's plate that he had there, it would be little to the 
King's honour, and a great blot to his own honesty: he 
trusted therefore their Lordships would have consideration 
thereof. This person owed to the King 12491. IS*. 4doi. 
all which the King now forgave him, perhaps in reward of 
the service of his embassy : acquitting and discharging him, 
his heirs, executors, and administrators, and divers others 
standing bound with him for 1100/. due to the King for 
stalment of his debts. And whereas the said Sir Philip was 
indebted to the King in the sum of £72. 15*. for the con- 
tribution granted the King's father, a warrant was issued to 
the Exchequer to levy a tally or tallies containing the mi 
sum, and to deliver the same to him as of the King's gift 
These favours were granted him, January 7. And three 
days after, the King granted him in fee-simple all the manor 
of Norton, with Lenchwike in the parish of Norton, with 
the appurtenances in the county of Wigorn, and dim* 
other lands, &c. to the yearly value of 47/. 12*. lid. to be 
holden in capite, by the fortieth part of one knight's fee 
And whereas he had obtained of the Dean and Chapter of 


Worcester, the personage of Lenchwick and Norton, (to CHAP. 
which church it belonged,) for twenty-one years ; that would JLAA * 11 ' 
not serve his turn, but he procured the King's dispensatory Anno ltso. 
letters to them, (dated April 16,) to this import, that, al- 
though the statutes of their house did not permit them to 
•■tend their grants any farther than for twenty-one years, 
be did thereby dispense with their said statutes in that be- 
half, and desired them to grant the same leases for three* 
seme yean. 

Gnat fears were now upon good intelligence conceived, Prapum. 
concerning the realm of Ireland, lest it should be betrayed, inumd. 
the French practising that way. So that the King pur- 
posed to send forces speedily thither, and to put that place 
into a posture of defence. And for that end he wrote five 
letters in the month of January, to as many persons of the 
ehiefat esninency in that kingdom ; importing, that whereas 
the King's Majesty purposed this spring time to send an 
army into Ireland, they should therefore put themselves and 

len, as well those that were under their rule by their (278) 
as also their household servants and tenants, in a rea- 
to such a number of horsemen and footmen, as they 
might conveniently : and to be in a readiness against the 
day of And likewise, that they should make the?? 

repair to the King to understand his further pleasure: and 
also to certify the number of the said horsemen and foot- 
men forthwith ; and how many should be demilances, and 
how many light horsemen. The Lord Cobham was ap- 
pointed in February to lead the army into Ireland, and Sir 
Henry Palmer to be master of the ordnance. 

Henry Earl of Dorset, whose seat was in Leicestershire, An *Sto to 
had granted him in the month of January the office of j>m^ lor 
tftarward of the King's honours and lordships in the said 
county, and of all loodships, manors, lands, &c. in the coun- 
ties of Leicester, Rutland, Warwick, and Nottingham, par- 
ted of the duchy of Lancaster, for life : and also the office of 
constable of the castle of Leicester, and the office of porter 
of the same castle ; with all profits, and a fee of five pound 



BOOK a year for exercising the office of steward. And for keep- 
} ' ing of the castle and office of porter two pence per day. 

Anno 1550. Those that were of the King's Council, and so appointed 

■ton for the to ** ^ ^ ls father Kin g Henry in his last will enrolled in 
safety of the the Chancery, and the rest whom the said King by his said 
counsellors, ^yj orc j erec | to j^ aggigtants to the said counsellors, now 

thought it convenient to have their past councils and ma- 
nagement of the public affairs confirmed and ratified by 
the present King, and to be -specially cotnmisaonated by 
him for their future acting in the same quality, during the 
King's minority. And this no doubt for their own security, 
which otherwise perhaps might now or hereafter be called 
in question : and that chiefly in these ticklish times, when 
there were such parties in the Court. Wherefore there was 
a large commission drawn out for this purpose: (but whe- 
ther signed and sealed I cannot tell :) which may be found in 
Titus, b. «. the Repository, taken from the Cotton library. 
Parties in Upon occasion of this commission, it seems there hap- 
the court, p^^ great f eU( j 8 at Court, or else this commission occa- 

sioned by them. For in January, the Court then being at 
Greenwich, appeared great parties and sidings, the Earl of 
Warwick heading one party, and the Duke of Somerset's 
friends on the other side : whereof the Lord Privy Seal and 
the Lord Paget were two. These and others thought it of 
importance that this commission should proceed, as tending 
so to their own security and quiet, who were about the 
King. And the Lord Chancellor and Lord Treasurer did 
not dislike it. But the haughty, designing Earl of Warwick 
was against it, and pretended much his care of the King's 
safety, which some way or other might be in great danger 
hereby. And therefore in this fit he wrote a severe letter 
to Paget, who was a great doer in this business, giving him 
warning how he proceeded : whose letter was as follows. 

The Earl of " This may be to require your Lordship to be vigilant 
the Lord ° " anc ^ circumspect in the matter which now you have in 
Paget. « hand. Perhaps the Lord Chancellor and the Lord 

Titus, B. «. r 


" Treasurer, who thinketh me touch them least, can be CHAP. 


" content that it may be wrapt up in silence ; and to say, 

" it is not expedient it should come in question: but God Aano l5S P« 
preserve our master. If he should fail, there is watchers 
enough that would bring it in question, and would burden 
" you and others, who now will not understand the danger, (279) 
^ to be deceivers of the whole body of the realm with an 
instrument forged to execute your malicious meanings. 
Mark well the words that Baker yesterday spake in the 
" King's presence concerning the fault, if any were, must 
" be imputed to the Lords. Well, I would wish, as well 
" for the surety of the King's Majesty as for the truth of 
" the matter, that men should not be against the perfect 
*' reforming of it, now especially seeing it hath been thus 
u far debated", which I reckon even a happy thing. Pray- 
" ing you to participate this unto my Lord Privy Seal. 
" And so I commit you both unto the tuition of the Lord. 
" At Greenwich, the 82. Jan. 1550. 

Your loving friend, 

J. Warwyc. ,,, 

The letter is somewhat obscure, as depending upon some 
particular weighty matter then in agitation in the Council ; 
for the doing whereof the more securely the aforesaid com- 
mission was thought necessary. But in it appears Warwick's 
displeasure against some of them, covered over with a pre- 
tended extraordinary care of the King's person. 

The feuds grew more and more visible between the Discord ftp- 
parties of the Duke of Somerset and Earl of Warwick. And {JjJJjJ, ^. 
now it was laboured on both sides to strengthen their ™ er,e * *"* 
parties. In the next month, viz. in February, a certain 
great Lord in the north (whether the Earl of Shrewsbury, 
Lord President, or some other) received a letter from an- 
other, in or about the Court, giving him to understand 
these dissensions, and a report that went of him, that he of- 
fered himself to side with one of the parties. But he, like a 
wise and wary man, pretended, that he would not believe, 
that two such great and wise men, and related together, 



BOO* ahould have misunderstandings between them. And that 
** . far hi* part he would mind impartially the business ia» 
Aaao 1550. trusted with him by the King, and meant not to be biassed 
any other way. But this Lord's own words are worthy the 
pending: whereby may also appear his judgment of this 
A letter « My very good Lord, after my hearty commendations. 
JoTof the " Having perused your gentle and most friendly letters, 
north here- « w hich I yesterday received by your trusty servant this 
Tfttm, B. 9. " bearer, like as the same do fully declare your Lordship's 
" great friendship and amity to mewafds, being first by na- 
" ture grounded in consanguinity and nearness of blood ; 
*• even so through this your great gentleness I am enforced 
*' presently to testify my hearty good-will toward your 
" Lordship again; assuring the same, that, as both by n*» 
" ture and your kindness I am bounden, I shall at sM 
" times be ready in like case to do for your Lordship what 
" in my power lieth. And where you do write, it should 
" come to your hearing, that some person, having practised 
" with me to feel my disposition in friendship towards the 
" Duke of Somerset and the Earl of Warwic, should speak 
" certain words, whereby he would seem to perceive that I 
" rather offered myself to be a party, and to set variance 
" and disorder between my said Lords, than to preserve the 
" quietness, unity, and concord of this realm : my Lord, if 
" any person have made this report of me, be hath most 
" untruly slandered and belied me. God defend, that I, 
" considering the trust that it hath pleased the King's Ma- 
" jesty to repose in me, should so long live to mind any 
" dissension in this his Highnesses realm. 
(280) " And as concerning agreement between my said Lords, 
" albeit I have heard certain rumours in the country, that 
" they should not be in full and perfect amity, yet did I 
" never give credit thereto ; but both thought and said, 
" that I trusted my said Lords were too wise so to do, con- 
" sideling the great inconvenience that might come there- 
" of: and weighing with myself also their near alliance by 
" marriage, I was fully persuaded the same rumours to be 




u untrue. And surely great pity it were, and as 1 think not chap. 

" a little danger and disquietness to the whole realm would 1 

grow thereof, if any such thing should chance. Aaao 155 °- 

Wherefore, good my Lord, now that I have discoursed 
unto you my full mind in this behalf, I trust you will / 
" make answer to such slanderous reports, as be most un- 
truly feigned of me ; like as I would do for your Lord- 
ship in like case : which you may with your honour do. 
For I never intended to take party with any nobleman 
against another, but to my power to increase their friend- 
ships, and to serve the King's Majesty according to my 
duty : as knoweth the Almighty, who long preserve you, 
my very good Lord, in health and honour. From York, 

Id the west of England, and especially in Cornwall, corn, Orders for 
and other provisions of flesh and fish, and other necessaries, ^aelrth 
rerj dear, occasioned perhaps by the late insurrec- in Corn - 
there; whereby the poorer sort suffered not a little. 
And this furthered ift a great measure by the richer sort, 
who, by forestalling and monopolizing, and other unjust 
arts* of those that furnished the markets, sold their corn 
and cattle at their own prices. Therefore special order was 
sent to the Justices of that county, for the speedy regula- 
tion of these grievances, especially among this people newly 
pacified from a rebellion. These Justices were directed to 
learn the names of those that used to serve the markets in 
the several divisions with grain, butter, cheese, and flesh. 
And then to inquire, whether they had withdrawn of late 
fttKfi the markets which they furnished. To examine which 
of them sold at excessive prices, contrary to a late com- 
mandment. And so to require them to appear before them 
at certain days, putting them under sureties for their ap- 
pearance, to receive their deserts. If they should accuse 
others, ap spiling to them at excessive prices, then those to 
be sent for also, and put under like sureties. The grain of 
every parish to be surveyed by the Justices, and likewise 
tfc* 4£ttle, and to be entered down in books. Victuallers to 
be appointed to serve the market-towns; and they to be 

f f 4 


BOOK such as dwelt nigh, and to be no graziers; they to fetch 
_ cattle for the markets from the graziers; who were 

nuo isso. liver them to the said victuallers paying for the same at the 
King's price. Grain to be appointed by the said surveyors 
to serve the markets at reasonable prices, by them to be set- 
Likewise such as were accustomed to serve the markets 
with butter and cheese, to serve it at the King's price. 
Butchers having beef, muttons, and other victuals at the 
grazier's hands, to be compelled to sell the same according 
to a rate set by the mayors, or chief officers of the respec- 
tive towns. And such like orders were also given for sell- 
ing of fish. This commission to the Justice - of Coruwal, 
and a table of the several prices prescribed for these and 
other things brought to market, as wines, cloth, hides, lea- 
ther, &c. may be found in the MS. before mentioned, u- 
QQ. emplified in the Repository. 

(281) CHAP. XXXIV. 

An ambassador Jut France. Crqfis goes to Ireland. Jer- 
sey Jbrtified. Duke of Somersets bare circumstance!. 
Grants of leases and places to several courtiers. The 
Earl of Southampton, Denny, and the Lord fVentworA 
die. Lady Mary comes to Court. Offices granted to the 
Marquis of Northampton. A short Pathway, &c. 

SdETrfas" ^JRE AT. jealousies were now of the French's making 
or. into disturbances both in Scotland and Ireland. A French am- 
bassador came hither in January in favour of Scotland; 
as, to move the English to surrender certain places to the 
Scots, and to confer other benefits upon that nation. Upon 
this the King sent Sir William Pickering his ambassador 
into France, in February, and withal sent a letter to Sir 
John Mason, ambassador then in France, to return home 
for ease of his sickness, and to communicate to Sir William 
Pickering, placed there in his room, the whole state of the 
King's affairs there; and to deliver to him all plate and 
other things he had delivered to him here of the King at 


departure. To Sir William Pickering a letter was tent OHAJ». 
soon after to this import, that if Sir John Mason for his 

sickness were not able to join with him in the message he is Anno 1M0 * 
sent about to the French King, to authorize him to proceed 
therein. And if he be able, and after wax so feeble by sick- 
ness that he cannot continue his service of ambassage, that 
then the said Sir William shall succeed him in his room by 
authority of the King's letters. Pickering came home again 
in March, and went again in April. And then Mason came 

And whereas the French were practising in Ireland, Sir A^ S*f 
James Crofts, a good soldier, was sent thither in February, into ire- 
to look after the condition of that kingdom, and especially land * 
die havens, to prevent any invasion, and to begin some 
good fortifications. And he arrived with some artificers at 
Watnierd the next month, where the deputy was, having 
lately repaired to the south parts with his forces to watch 
die French. Four letters were sent at this time ; one to the 
Earl of Desmond, and the other three to other persons of 
credit, for the said Sir James Croft, Knight, sent thither to 
view certain ports, havens, and other places, which certain 
the King's enemies intended to invade there, and to report 
the discommodities that may come upon the loss thereof. 
And a fleet of ships was set forth for the defence of that 
realm, and to guard some havens on the south side toward 

The same apprehensions had the English of the French's Jeneyfar- 
surprising of the isle of Jersey. Orders were therefore 
taken for strengthening the castle and other important 
places there. And it was thought fit the isle should bear 
the whole charge of its own defence, though it made a hard 
shift For there was a letter sent thither to take down the (282) 
bells, reserving but one in every church of the island of 
St Obin's, [a place in Jersey.] And the half value of the 
same to be employed upon the fortifications of the castle 
there, and the other half upon the fortifications towards the - 
alleviating of the charges of the King's subjects there : and 
to arrest and tax the said subjects after the rate of their 


BOOK good*, towards the charges of the said fortifications: and 

further, to appoint unto priests that had fees and annuities 

Aoao 1&60. given to them for term of their lives, upon certain obits 

and masses founded there, such pensions as should be 

thought good by their discretion, to be paid of the chantry 

lands of that island. But these orders came not forth till 

the beginning of the next year. 

^•itijJ^P This year the Duke of Somerset got from Barlow, the 

palace Bishop of Bath and Wells, the palace of the Bishop of 

tbeDuke of ^ atD ' *" c ^^ Bishop alienating to him, November 9, the 

Somen*, scite, circuit, and precinct of the said palace, and divers 

other lands, to the yearly value of 621. 0*. lid. And ia 

March following he got a prebend, being the manor of 

Dultingcote and Chilcote in Somersetshire, from one Thyo, 

prebendary of Wells. Both, as it seems, in exchanges. 

The Duke's The Duke in his late fall had been fleeced of alt not 

cam»tmnces.only his beneficial places and offices, but also of his lands 

and revenues ; and was now reduced into narrow cticiun- 

stances : and therefore was to make his fortunes again, as 

well as he could. This his condition his nephew the King 

considered, and helped him as much as he might: which 

appeared, as in the respects above mentioned, so in this 

that followeth. The King was now soon after the 25th of 

March to send hostages into France, consisting of persons 

of the best nobility, that might answer the French hostages 

His ton a sent hither. And among the rest the Earl of Hertford, son 

***** and heir to the Duke, and the King's cousin, was one. 

And the King was at the charge of setting him out, which 

Warr.Book. I do not find he did to any other. For to Francis Nudi- 

gate, steward to the Duke, the King granted 200 mark by 

way of gift toward the charge of the said Earl's furniture. 

And more, to the Duke was given 246/. 6*. 3<2. in recom- 

pence of the charges of the board-wages of certain of the 

servants attending upon the Earl in France. And about 

the same time to the Duke was paid 500/. bequeathed him 

by King Henry's last will, which was paid upon account of 

his present need, as I must suppose, that legacy having in 

effect been before satisfied, when in the first year of the 


tag the Mid Duke had a grant of divert lands and lord* chap. 
ipe, partly in consideration of services, and partly for fuL- XXXIV * 

ling the King's last will ; as it ran in the Book of Sales. Aim* 1***. 
In December, Sir Andrew Dudley, brother to the Earl of Sir Aatew 
Tarwic, gained the office of keeping all the jewels, of the office* 7 ** 
ibes and other things in the palace of Westminster ; with 
horn was joined Arthur Sturton ; which place was granted 

> them for life, and the longest liver, with the fee of 100 

Mr. Cecy], Secretary, about this time had the rectory of !*«•«• to 
nmbku^ ; in ^«*o B granted him for thr^eecore^™, %%T 
acording to a letter sent by the King, dated in January, 

> the Dean and Chapter of Worcester, to whom the said 
story belonged : Sir Robert Tirwhit, Knight, being at 
resent in possession by an old lease, and Ceeyl having Sir 
lobert's interest in the same. 

William Honnmgs, Esq. now or late a clerk of the Coun- (283) 
i, got a prebend from the church of Salisbury. For Guido Honnfap 
iarakant, a stranger, incumbent of the prebend of Che- beodc/SiL. 
lag Farington in the county of Berks, belonging to the said rum * 
tnirch, being requested to give and surrender his interest 
nd estate of the possession of the said prebend, and betqg 
mtented thereto, the King this February wrote to the Si- 
mp, Dean, and Chapter of Salisbury, that they also would 
jree hereunto in such sort as the same might take effect 
nrards him in fee-simple. 

The King's justice appeared in an act of his that hap- A gnot to 
eoed about this time. The wardens, and scholars, and cJJL^ 
erks of the college of St. Mary's prope Winton, alias St. 
Eary's college of Winchester, had heretofore sold to King 
[enry certain lands, and paid 671/. 14*. £d. besides, to his 
easurer. For the which the manor of Endeford in Wilts, 
ith other lands, were granted to them: which manor 
ad lands were in remainder to one Thomas Culpeper and 
is heirs male of his body begotten: and who had law- 
dly entered. So their purchase was lost and gone. The 
ling therefore in satisfaction now this February granted 


BOOK them the manor of Aysshe in Surrey, with divers other lands, 
to the yearly value of 77/. 16s. 9d. 

Anno is5o. To gratify George Broke, Lord Cobham, a great soldier, 

Lordcob- w ^° ^^ ^ one ^ e ^ n £ g°°d service abroad, and was now 
ham. going with an army into Ireland, the King gave him in fee- 
simple the lordship and manor of Great Hoo and Little 
Hoo, and the hundred of Hoo, with divers other lands, te- 
nements, &c. to the yearly value of 1082. 3*1 Bd. sevenl 
rents reserved and deducted : to hold by the fortieth part 
of one knight's fee. Some of these lands lay in Rochester 
and Wrotham : to which was added the rectory of Earith. 
The Earl The Earl of Southampton, August 4, was honourably 
amptonbu- buried in the church of St Andrew's, Holborn: and Sir 
rieda John Hoper, priest, preached at his funerals. And Sep- 

tember 1. his lady and widow was buried at Farnham; 
who had sometime been the wife of Sir William Fits-Wil- 
liams, Lord Privy Seal to King Henry VIII. 
tho A, dmi ^ Anthony Denny, a learned and wise man, bred in St 
nydks. John's college, Cambridge, an ancient favourer of the Gos- 
pel, and professor of it, one of the chief gentlemen of Sag 
Henry's bedchamber, and of this King's, died about the 
latter end of this year.' His seat was at Waltham abbey in 
Essex, where I think he lies buried. He left dame Johan 
Denny, his widow, executrix of his last will and testament. 
A declaration by her made as well concerning stuff received 
by the said Sir Anthony, belonging to the King, as also 
for disbursing and delivery thereof, was taken February 12. 
Lord Went- As Denny finished his course, so the Lord Wentworth 
accompanied him: who being Lord Chamberlain of the 
King's household was honourably buried, March 7, in Westr 
minster abbey in the chapel, where the old Abbot was in- 
terred; two of the kings of arms and two of the chief 
heralds attending, and Coverdale preached. 
Lady Mary March 15, the Lady Mary rode through London unto 

comes to 

London ; St. John's, her place, with fifty knights and gentlemen in 
velvet coats and chains of gold afore her; and after her 
fourscore gentlemen and ladies ; and every one having a 


air of beads of black; to make an open profession, no CHAP, 
oubt, of their devotion for the mass ; which she lately had XXX1V * 

een required to lay aside, as we shall read hereafter. In Anno i660. 
lus equipage she rode through Cheapside and Smhhfield. (284) 
Two day9 after, she rode from St John's to the Court, And the 
brough Fleet-street, with many noblemen, knights, gen- 
lemen, ladies, and gentlewomen. And at Court she alight- 
d, and Mr. Wyngfield, comptroller of the King's house, 
md many lords and knights, brought her through the hall 
mto the chamber of presence. And there she tarried two 
lours, being treated at a goodly banquet. What her busi- 
ieas now at the Court was, we shall soon see. Afterwards 
he took horse, and rid back to St John's, and lay there all 
light, and on the morrow she rode to her house, called 
Newhall in Essex, where she remained for some time. 

As the Marquis of Northampton in October last obtained An office t* 
he keeping of Windsor, now, March 20, the King gave q Jj, "~ 
him the office of keeping the chief messuage of the manor Northman- 
rf Eascher, and the office of keeping the garden and ort- 
fards there, and the bailiff of the said manor ; and the 
keeping of the park, and the tieutenantship of the chase of 
Hampton Court, and the keeping of the chase, with three 
men to attend thereupon, for life, with fee. 

Let me add only the mention of a book that came forth A snort 
this year, imprinted at Worcester, by John Oswen, the 24th &c# **'• 
of May ; having this title, A short Pathway to the right 
md true understanding of the holy Scripture. Set Jbrih 
\y that most famous Clerk, Hulderick Zuinglius. And 
translated out of Latin into English by John Verou Seno- 
Qois. This man was a foreigner, but an eminent minister 
md preacher in London in the beginning of Queen Eli- 

He dedicated this his translated book to Sir Arthur 
Darcie, Knight Thus beginning his address, (whence we 
may collect the good progress of religion at this time, and 
the backwardness of a great part of the people yet to enter- 
tain it) " Many at this present, right worshipful Sir, that 
" the Gospel is so pregnantly, so sincerely, and purely 


BOOK " preached by innumerable learned godly men, whom God 
" doth stir up and excitate daily in this flourishing realm 

Am* is**, u and commonwealth, do greatly marrel and wonder that 
" yet the greatest part of the people doth frowardly draw 
" back, nor will submit themselves to the sweet and plea- 
" sant yoke of the Gospel ; having lyeffer to abide still in 
" the thick darkness of ignorance, and stinking puddle of 
" men's traditions, than to come to the shining and most 
" clear light of the everlasting truth and verity : which if 
" they would weigh, ponder, and examine, and consider the 
" matter more earnestly, and with greater diligence search 
" the Scripture, they should undoubtedly find, perceive, 
u and understand, that this blindness and error doth re- 
main yet in so many thousands, because that God hath 
not yet drawn them, without whose Spirit man's industry 
can profit nothing, though he teacheth and writeth never 
" so much, &c. 

" I do most humbly dedicate, offer, and nuncupate unto 
" your right worshipful mastership, as unto him who is 
" and hath been always most desirous to promote, set forth, 
" and enlarge the kingdom of our Lord Jesus Christ" 

And here we end the first book, having taken a view of 
the best part of this King's reign. Hereafter the factions at 
Court more increased, and proved fatal to some of them; 
as shall be seen. 










The Lady Mary's concern with the King and Council, Jbr 
retaining mass in her family. Dr. Mallet her, chaplain. 
The Emperor interposes Jbr the Lady Mary to have 

JL HE Lad j Mary's zeal for her religion, created her and Anno 1660. 
her chaplains and servants, this and the ensuing year, no^j"5° 11 ' 
little trouble. An office having been composed for the com- the Lady 
munion and public prayers in English, which was enjoined JJjjJ? 
by Parliament to be used throughout England, all were re- 
quired, by proclamation, to receive it with due reverence. 
But the Lady Mary would not admit it by any means in 
her family, but kept herself to the old mass, notwithstand- 
ing many messages and intimations from the King and his 
Council to dissuade her, and to forbid the use of it 

So it fell out, that in November Dr. Mallet and Mr. Her chap- 
Barkley, her two chaplains, were indicted for certain throgsjj^j^ 
committed by them, contrary to the King's laws ; and pro- ing hum. 
cess for them was awarded forth and delivered to the She- 


BOOK riff of Essex. And she seeming to defend them, the Coun- 
cil wrote to her, requiring her, as soon as they or either of 

Aono 1550. them returned to her house, to surrender them up unto 
the Sheriff, who had a warrant from the King to attach 
them. Or if it liked her not, then to Warn them from her 
house, and not to keep them there to be defended as it 
were from the justice of the law. Mallet's fault was, that 
250 he said mass at Newhall to her family, newly removed thi- 
ther from Woodham Water, she following, but as yet not 
being there. To whom in her closet only he ought to have 
said it. Alexander Barkley, her other chaplain, was vicar 
of Much Badow in Essex; and he, thinking to bear out 
himself with the authority of his mistress, had said mass in 
his church, contrary to the King's statutes and proceedings. 
But he submitted, and after some months' imprisonment 
had his pardon in May 1551. 

The letter of the Lords of the Council to the Lady Mary, 
concerning her chaplains, was this : 

The Conn- " After our due commendations unto your Grace. Where 

ilidy Mary. " two °^ vour chaplains, the one named Dr. Mallet, the 
otho. do." other Barkley, be indicted for certain things committed 
by them contrary to the King's Majesty's laws ; for whom 
process is also awarded forth, and delivered to our lov- 
ing friend Sir George Norton, Knight, Sheriff of Essex : 
" forasmuch as we understand, that the one of your said 
" chaplains doth continually attend about you, albeit we 
" nothing doubt but your conformity and obedience to the 
King's Majesty is such, that of yourself you will most 
readily cause any your servants, whatsoever they be, to 
" obey humbly his Majesty's officers and ministers for the 
" execution of justice ; yet being desirous, in respect of your 
u Grace's honour, to have this process executed in as quiet 
" sort as may be, we have thought good to pray your 
Grace to give order, that your said chaplain, remaining 
in your house, may be delivered to the Sheriff at such 
time as he, or any his deputy, shall come for him, to an- 
swer to the laws for such matters as he is charged withal. 







" And thus wishing your Grace long continuance of health, CHAP. 
" we pray Almighty God to have you in his blessed keeping. Ia 

" From Westminster, this 2d Decemb. 1660. Anno is«o. 

" Your Grace's assured, 
" E. Somerset. T. Wentworth. W. Wilts. 
" T. Cant. T. Cheyne. H. Dorset. 

" J. Warwick. W. Northt. T. Darcy. 
« E. Clynton. T. Ely. R. Sadleyr." 

" J. Bedford. A. Wyngfeld. 

Upon this passed several letters between her Grace and She writes 
the Council, both in this and the next year, (viz. that of £ rc £p. 
1661,) she vindicating her chaplain; inasmuch as he had ^n in- 
done no more than what she had bidden him, and so if any 
fault were committed, it was hers rather than his. And in 
justification of herself, she urged a promise, thrice repeated, 
which the King and Council had granted the Emperor's 
ambassador on her behalf; which was, that she should have 
leave to have mass said before her, and be exempted from 
the danger of the statute. But they told her, in a letter 
dated December 26, 1660, that " a promise was indeed 
" made a good while ago to the ambassador, that mass in 
" her own closet should be suffered and winked at ; but 
" that it was to be but a while, till she were better in- 251 
" formed ; and only a few of her own chamber to be pre- 
" sent with her. But that to the rest of her household the 
" communion service should be used." 

They signified to her moreover, what they said to the The Coun- 
Emperor's ambassador, that came to intercede for her to^JJ 1 ^ 
have the mass, viz. "that they had only reduced that abou * tbe 
" which was commonly called the mass, to the order of the munion- 
" primitive Church, and the institution of Christ ; with Book * 
" which the King and the whole realm had their con- 
" sciences well quieted. They added, that it had founda- 
" tion in Scripture upon plain texts, and no glosses, and 
" confirmed by the use of the primitive Church. That the 
" greatest change was, not in the substance of their faith, 
" nor in any one article of their creed ; but only the dif- 

VOL. II. g g 


BOOK " ference was, that they used the ceremonies, observations, 
" and sacraments of their religion, as the Apostles and first 


Anno 1550. « Fathers of the Church did. Whereas she used the same 
" that corruption of time had brought in, and very bar- 
barity and ignorance nourished. She held, they said, 
for custom against truth, they for truth against custom. 
" And whereas she had urged earnestly the maintenance of 
" her faith, they asked her, where her Grace had ground 
" for such a faith, to think common prayer in the English 
" Church should not be in English ; that images of God 
" should be set up in the Church ; or that the sacrament 
" of the body and blood of Christ should be offered by the 
" priest for the dead ? And that though she had no Scrip- 
. " ture to maintain them, they had plain Scripture to forbid 
" them. They took notice also, how she had baptism nri- 
" nistered in her house the old way, in a tongue unknown; 
" whereby, they said, the best part of the sacrament wv 
" unused, and as it were a blind bargain made by the god- 
" fathers.'" This excellent letter, which, I suppose, w» 
drawn by the pen of Archbishop Cranmer, is extant is 

Acts and p ox# 


p. 1215. But all convinced her not ; and she procured the Empe- 

TheEm- ror to interpose again in her behalf. For the Emperor's 

bassador ~ ambassador, February 16, put the Council in remembrance 

interposes, of fa^ promise made unto them for the Lady Mary, 

Book. that she should be suffered to use mass in her family: 

upon which promise she had hitherto used it Wherefore 

the Emperor trusted she should still do the same till the 

King came to years of perfection. Answer was made, that 

the Council would advise, and in three or four days give 

full answer. 

I do not find, neither in the King's Journal, nor Council- 
Book, what answer the Council gave to the ambassador. 
The Lady But March 18, the Lady Mary, being: summoned, I sup- 
to Court, pose, to come up, made her appearance at Court, and came 
to the King at Westminster; where she with the Council 
was called into a chamber. And then she was told, how 
long the King had borne with her, and that having now 


no more hope, as appeared by the purport of her let- CHAP, 
tera, the King could not bear it any longer, withbut some ** 

sudden amendment. But she answered resolutely, her soul Anno 1S6O. 
was God's, and her faith she would not change, nor dissem- 
ble her opinion by contrary doings. It was told her, that 
the King constrained not her faith, but willed her not to 
rule as a King, but obey as a subject. And the very next 
day, March 19, the Emperor's ambassador came boldly 
with a short message from his master for war, except his 
cousin the Princess, as he called her, might have mass. To 
thisHo answer was then given. The 20th day the Archbishop 
of Canterbury, and the Bishops of London and Rochester, 252 
were consulted with in this point ; who told the Council, 
that to give licence to sin, was sin; nevertheless they 
thought the King might suffer or wink at it for a time. In 
the mean- time, March 22, Mr. Rochester, Comptroller to 
the Lady Mary, was before the Council, and being asked, 
how many chaplains she had, he said, four, viz. Dr. 
Mallet, Hopton, Barker, and Richards. The next day, 
March 23, the result of the Council was, that Dean Wotton 
should be sent to the Emperor, to signify, that the King 
did wholly deny this request to the Lady Mary. And in 
the mean season it was resolved, to punish the offenders 
that heard mass ; first, such as were his own servants, and 
next hers. Hereupon, March 24, Sir Anthony Brown was 
sent to the Fleet for hearing mass, with Serjeant Morgan : 
and the Council-Book sets this note upon Morgan, that he 
could not excuse himself, because that being so learned a 
man, he gave an ill example unto others. And Sir Clement 
Smith, who had heard mass, though it were a year before, 
received a reprimand. 

March 26, 1551, the Emperor's ambassador came to the An wnbas- 
Council to receive his answer. But they gave him none to JJe Em- 
other, but that one should be sent to the Emperor within ai* 1 ™' 
month or two, to declare the matter. And accordingly, 
April 10, Wotton had instructions to repair in embassy to 
the Emperor, and to be ambassador ledger there: chiefly 
to give the reasons of the King and his Council, why 

~ — a 


BOOK the Emperor's ambassador, and the Lady Mary were de- 
' nied to have mass said before them ; and to make this ie> 

▲nno 1551. solution before the Emperor: "That if he would suffer 
Joura " l ^ e King's ambassador with him to