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The State of New York has published tne 
third and fourth volumes of tha Ecclesias- 
tical Records, a work of greatest value to 
historical students and to all interested in 
genealogical research. Hon. Hugh Hast- 

• ingB, the State historian, has given 
students of the sources of our 
country's history much cause for grati- 
tude in the able and devoted manner In 
which he has compiled and supervised the 
publication of these old documents. They 
are arranged in chronological order, under 
the heads of the respective governors and 
constitute an invaluable summary of the 
history of the provincial period of the 
present Empire State. -The two volumes 
just issued comprehend the period from 
1701 to 1750 inclusive, the first half of the 
eighteenth century and the amount of his- 
tory at first hand herein contained is 
enormous. The development of historical 
research In these days, under the stimulus 
to great extent of the growth of genealogi- 
cal study, makes such works as this of 
the greatest usefulness; they form worthy 

/porhplements of the series of New York 
State publications relating to the early 
wars, to the Revolutionary period, etc., 
which under Mr. Hastings's direction have 
reflected great honor on the State which so 
generously provides for the placing on 
permanent record and within the reacli of 
all the valuable archives and facts in its 
posses.sion. Would that other States might 
do as well, particularly some of the origin- 
al thirteen. We have valuable works of 
this nature from New Hampshire and 
Rhode Island, as well as in our own Com- 
monwealth, where the publication of the 
Bradford History of Plymouth Plantation 
and the series of Revolutionary Soldiers' 
and Sailors' records are of greatest benefit, 
but there Is room for much more and we 
hope in good time to have more of our 
Colonial records, papers and archives pub- 
lished for general circulation. 










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Ecclesiastical Records 

State of New York 

Published by the State under the s«pefvision of 
HUGH HASTINGS,. State Historian 

Volume I 





■ NEW YOi. : 




. '■",',■'■■:> AT IONS 


Hon. Timothy L. Woodbuff, Lieutenant-Governor of the State of 
New York, Senate Chamber, Albcmy, N. Y. 

Sir: Herewitii I have the honor to submit to the Legislature 
the copy of two volumes of records relating to the ecclesiastical 
history of the State of New York, which by legislative enactment 
have been prepared under the supervision of the State Historian. 
The active prosecution of this work has been conducted, however, 
by the Rev. Edward T. Cor-wdn, D. D., whose long residence in Hol- 
land and thorough knowledge of the Dutch language, well qualify 
him for the important task he has undertaken. Since 1841, when 
the State of New York dispatched John Romeyn Brodhead to 
Europe to collect documents affecting the history of this State, an 
impression has prevailed that Dutch correspondence of a price- 
less value bearing upon our colonial times, had been careleesly 
destroyed a hundred years ago. Dr. Corw^n's researches, which 
were prosecuted through the generosity of the Synod of the 
Dutch Reformed Church, have fortunately exploded this fallacy 
by the results w'hich he produces in the two accompanying 

The general plan of the work contemplated an ecclesiastical his- 
tory of New York, embracing every denomination, each secular 
narrative told by a representative member of the denomination, 
from the earliest Dutch times. To that end copious extracts from 
colonial and documentary records have been taken and utilized, 
and in order to forge missing links to the chain, quotations from 
standard religious publications have been made. 



The firat appropriation for this work was given by the Legis- 
lature of 1899, and reads as follows: 

" For translation of copied documents in the possession of 
ecclesiastical archives of Amsterdam and the Hague, relating 
to the colonial history of the state of New York, and for their 
preparation for publication, the sum of five thousand dollars, or 
as much thereof as may be necessary, said work to be done under 
the general direction of the state historian." 

By July 1, 1899, all the preliminaries having been made under 
the advice and with the co-operation of Attorney-General Jokn C. 
Davles and the State Comptroller, the late Colonel William J. 
Morgan, both of whom evinced earnest interest in the undertak- 
ing, the work of translating and transcribing the records began 
and has been pushed with energy, consistent with accuracy, ever 
since. The laborious effort necessary in putting into English, 
records of this character, can only be understood by those who 
have had experience in handling them. The volumes now sul>- 
mitted to the Legislature represent fifty per cent, of the entire 
material in hand, and cover the period from 1621 to -1700. The 
matter involved embraces the period of Dutch rule, the conquest 
of the Dutch by the English, the temporary reversion to Dutch 
rule, the restoration of the English domination and the Leisler 
rebellion. Light is thrown upon many religious propositions for 

the first time. 

During its progress, the work received a serious set back and 
the State suffered a serious loss in the untimely death of Dr. 
Corwin's assistant in translations, the Kev. Daniel Van Pelt, 
D. D. Advised by his physician of the efficacy of salt-water bath- 
ing, Dr. Van Pelt, who was suffering from a nervous affection, left 
his home in Astoria about midnight on October 23, 1900, and 
repaired to a lonely cove near Hell Gate. A few minutes later 
cries from the direction of the water were heard. The next morn- 
ing the neighborhood was examined and clothing was found, care- 



fully folded and arranged, upon a rock. The presumption that he 
ventured beyond his depth or had fallen into a pitfall, with which 
that locality abounds, and was swept away by the swiftly running 
current, was justified, for several days later, the body was discov- 
ered several miles distant. Dr. Yan Pelt was one of the most 
accomplished scholars in the country. He was thoroughly prO: 
ficient in the languages, especially in the Dutch, of which he had 
made a special study. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 


State Historian. 

State Capitol, Albany, iST. Y., Jan. 7, 1901. 


(All documents arranged under the heads of the respective Governors, and in 

chronological order.) 


1621. PAGE. 

Aug. 24 et seq. Synod of North Holland at Haarlem 32 

Names of delegates, including that of Rev. Jonas Michaelius, 

pastor at Hem. 
Note on village of Hem. 

The Walloons petition to be allowed to go to New Netherland. . 36 
Note on the Walloons. 

Note on the First and Second Directors, Cornelius Jacobsen 

May and William Verhulst <". . 37 


Aug. 6 et seq. Synod of North Holland at Enkhuysen 38 

Decisions as to what ecclesiastical bodies are to control 
colonial churches. 

Aug. 12 et seq. Synod of North Holland at Edam 39 

Oversight of colonial churches — Rev. Jonas Michielse 
(Michaelius) goes from Hem to Brazil — Notes on the 
Dutch in Brazil; and the Dutch church in Brazil. 


Note on Peter Minuit — Tablet to his memory 43 

Note on Comforters of the Sick — Tablet to their memorv .... 45 



Aug. 11 Letter of Rev. Jonas Michaelius, of New Amsterdam, to Rev. 
Adrian Smoutius (and others) of the Classis of Amsterdam. 

In Dutch and English 49 

Incidents. — Death of his wife; character of the voyage. Tite 
Church. — Consistory appointed; first celebration of the 
Lord's Supper; Walloon services in French; suV)jection to 
ministers in Amsterdam ; names of members of Consistory. 
CT^^I. Matters. — The Nalivcs; their character; difficulties 
of their conversion; their language; duty of instructing In- 


vi Table of Co?\^tents. 

Aug. 1 1 PAGE. 

dian children; praj-er and sovereignty of God — Ministerial 
support : house-keeping ; farming ; food ; need of land 
(glebe) ; need of farmers — Condition of the Colony: wars; 
industries; climate; harvests — Michaelius' relation to the 

Church of Holland; correspondence; conclusion 49-73 

Note on Rev. Jonas Michaelius — Tablet to his memory — 
Note on Johannes Michaelius, his cousin — Notes on Rev. 
Adrian Smoutius and the others mentioned in the letter, 
being the Committee on Colonial Churches. 

Aug. 15 et seq. Synod of North Holland at Amsterdam 74 

Art. 20. English Synod in Holland. 

Art. 51. Regulations for the colonial churches. 

June 7 Patroons in New Netherland, their duties in reference to 
ministers and schoolmasters as adopted by the West India 

Company 75 

Aug. 20 et seq. Synod of North Holland at Hoorn 75 

Art. 13. Contracts with ministers going to the colonies. 
Art. 17. English Synod in Holland. 
■ Art. 19. Care of persecuting churches. 
-,^ Art. 35. Church regulations for the colonies. 


Patroons in New Netherland. Their duties in reference to min- 
isters, schoolmasters and bond-servants, as adopted by the 

States-General 78 

Oct. 1 et seq. Synod of North Holland at Enckhuysen 79 

Preachers for the colonies. 
English Synod in Holland. 
Church-Order in the colonies. 
Comforters of the sick for the colonies. 
Comforters of the sick must be regularly called. 
Order of Extracts. 


Aug. 19 et seq. Synod of North Holland at Edam 81 

Art. 8. English Synod in Holland. 
Art. 13. Church-Order in the colonies. 


June 7 Classis of Amsterdam °1 

Everardus Bogardus seeks final examination. 
14 Examination and ordination of Rev. Everardus Bogardus* 81 













*As most of the Extracts are from the Acts of the Classis, or from the 
Acts of their Deputies on Foreign Aflfairs, including the Correspondence, it 
will not be necessary in this Table of Contents to specify hereafter " Classis " 
or " Deputies " or " Correspondence," as this will appear in the Extracts 

Table of Contents. vii 

1632. PAGE. 

Aug. 17 et seq. Synod of North Holland at Alckmaer 82 

Art. 10. English Synod in Holland. 

Art. 17. Extracts from Acts of other Synods, concerning 

English ministers in Holland. 
Art. 38. jMinisterial changes. Everardus Bogardus goes to 
New Netherland. 


April Note from Brodhead as to his arrival, and the arrival of 

Domine Bogardus — Note from O'Callaghan on the same .... 84 

Aug. 9 et seq. Synod of North Holland at Haarlem 84 

Art. 10. English Synod in Holland. 
Art. 33. Preachers practicing medicine. 
The first church building in New Amsterdam 85 


Aug. 14 et seq. Synod of North Holland at Amsterdam 86 

Art. 55. Ministerial changes. Rev. John Megapolensis. 


Aug. 14 et seq. Synod of North Holland at Hoorn 86 

Art. 7. Printing of the newly-translated Bibl'^ 
Dec. 3 Rev. Johannes Theodorus Polheim requests to oe sent to the 

West Indies 87 

The church in Virginia (New Amsterdam) asks for another 
April 7 Lubbertus Van Dincklagen complains of Dominie Bogardus ... . 87 
Committee appointed to draft Articles for the colonial 

April 17 Deputies on Foreign Affairs 89 

May 5 Regulations drawn up by the Deputies relating to the colonial 
churches of the East and West Indies, and adopted by 

the Classic 89-91 

I Of ministers. 
II Of Comforters of the Sick. 
Ill Of their Presentation to the Directors of the East and 

West India Companies. 
xV Of their Instructions. 
VI Of Schoolmasters. 

Addendum. East and West India Companies. 
Record Books. 

Note on volumes 39 and 37. 
June 7 " Form of Call " for ministers going to the colonies adopted — 
The Form itself — Other Forms adopted for Candidates, 
Comforters of the Sick and schoolmasters, going to the 
colonies 91-106 

viii Table of Contents. 

1636. PAGE. 

June 7 1. The Form of Call for Candidates, with Instructions. 

2. The Form of Call for Comforters of the Sick, with Instruc- 


3. Instructions and Credentials for schoolmasters. 

4. Form of Credential and Instructions for a minister with 

an Ambassador or Resident. 

5. Rules and Articles, with Instructions for ministers going 

to Muscovy. 

6. Instructions for the minister in Muscovy and Archangel. 

7. Form of Appointment and Instructions for Candidates 

sailing on Men of War. 

8. Form of Instruction for ministers on Men of War. 

9. Instructions for the minister going to Smyrna. 

Aug. 4 West Indies. Inquiry about a certain paper held by Hon. 

Councillor Carpentier 108, 109 

West Indies. Paper of Hachtoo ( or Ibachtoo ) , sent to Di- 
rectors of West India Company. 
Plan for the government of the West India churches — to be 

Sept. 9 et seq. Synod of North Holland at Enckhuysen 109 

Art. 34. Preacher for the West Indies. 
Art. 35. Ministerial Changes — Rev. Johannes Polhemus. 
(Fall?) Plan of govermnent for West India churches (Brazil) re- 
ported 110 

April 6 East and West Indies — Can Comforters of the Sick perform 

marriages and baptize? 110 

Committee on Indian ( colonial ) affairs. 

Aug. 10 et seq. Synod of North Holland at Edam Ill 

Ministers sent to Brazil. 
Sept. 7 Rev. Jonas Michaelius is asked to return to New Netherland. . Ill 
Oct. 5 Rev. Jonas Michaelius — Indians, East and West ■ — Plan to 

be devised to reach them Ill 

Nov. 2 Affairs in the West Indies 112 

16 Rev. -Jonas Michaelius to be further urged for New Netherland. 112 



April 10 West Indies — Brazil — Rev. Jonas Michaelius 114 

26 The States-General urge the colonization of New Netherland 

— Clergymen — Brazil 114 

June 7 Rev. Jonas Michaelius again recommended for New Nether- 
land 116 

July 5 Rev. .Jonas Michaelius; last reference to him 116 

Notes on Rev. .Johannes Michielsen in England, and on the 
Dutch in England. 

Table of Contents. 



July 8 The New Netherland Council resolve to retain Domine Bo- 

gardus 118 

22 A mortgage given to Bogardus 118 

Aug. 2 The Classis of Amsterdam adopt a seal 118 


A church and parsonage included in a list of buildings erected. 119 

Aug. 16 et seq. Synod of North Holland at Alckmaer 119, 120 

Art. 21. English ceremony in Holland. 

Art. 28. Synod of Utrecht awaits reports of the colonial 

Art. 29. Ministerial changes — Rev. John Megapolensis. 
Art. 30. The new translation of the Bible. 
Art. 33. Status of uneducated ministers in the Indies on 
returning to Holland. 
Aug. 30-Sept 2 Articles in reference to Religion in the " Proposed Ar- 
ticles for Colonization and Trade in New Nether- 
land" 120, 121 

June 6 Cornelius Pietersen offers to go to Virginia (New Nether- 
land ) ; accepted 121 

July 18 Adam Roalandsen, schoolmaster, goes to New Netherland 122 

18 Pieter Vanderlinde to West Indies 122 

29 Classis of Brazil 122 

29 Difficulties in England and Scotland 122 

Letter to be written to Archbishop of Canterbury. 

Baptismal Register of Church of New York 123 

Aug. 1 et seq. Synod of North Holland at Haarlem 123-126 

Art. 29. Status of uneducated ministers on returning to 

Art. 33. Extracts from Acts of the other Synods respecting 

the care of the colonial churches. 
Art. 46. Further treatment of the same. 
Art. 47. Question as to the right of the Classis of Amster- 
dam over the colonial churches. 
March 19 Lubbert Van Dincklagen asks to be relieved from his excom- 
munication by Domine Bogardus — Action on Van Dinckla- 

gen's salary 126 

April 23 Foreign churches — Ceremonies in — Comforters of the Sick 

sent to 127 

May 7 Lubbertus Van Dincklagen — Everardus Herdenbergius — 

James Dincklagen 129 

July 19 Articles on Religion in New Charter of Patroonships 130 

Aug. 21 et seq. Synod of North Holland at Amsterdam 130-13.5 

Art. 9. English Ceremonies. 

X Table of Contents. 

1640. PAGE. 

Aug. 21 Art. 30. Correspondence among the several Synods as to 
whom pertains the right to govern the colonial 

Oct. — Synod of North Holland — Extra Session 135 

Art. 20. East and West India Church Affairs. 

Sept. 4 Megapolensis 135 

Oct. 15 John Cornelisz Backer 136 

Dec. 3 Classis of Amsterdam will examine the Petitions of the several 

Synod about East and West India Affairs 136 


Feb. 26 and Mar. 25 John C. Backer examined in part 136 

May 6 and June 3 John C. Backer further examined 137 

June 6 Conditions under which an English Company may settle in New 
Netherland — (Eev. Francis Doughty, Newtown), with ex- 
tract on religion, from Patent 137 

Aug. 13 Synod of North Holland at Hoorn 138, 139 

Art. 29. Correspondence among the Provincial Synods about 

the care of the colonial churches. 
Art. 49, 2. On ministers practising medicine. 

Sept. 2, 3 ; Oct. 7, 8 ; Nov 1 John C. Backer further examined 140 

Nov. 19 John C. Backer informs the Classis of ministers willing to go 

to the West Indies 141 

19 Letter from New Netherland. read — Consistory there vindi- 
cates Bogardus against Van Dincklagen 142 

Dec. 2 John C. Backer finally passes his examination: to be ordained. 142 


Feb. 7 House for Adam Roelantsen, schoolmaster 143 

March 6 Contract between Patroon Van Rensselaer and Rev. John Mega- 
polensis 143 

17 Van Rensselaer seeks the approbation of the Classis, on his 

contract with Megapolensis 145 

18 Megapolensis accepts the call before the Deputies of Classis. . . 146 
22 Copy of Call on Megapolensis 146 

April 1 Spanish translation of the Belgic Confession of Faith — The 
West India Company — Extracts from letters of Consistory 
of New Amsterdam to be read about Van Dincklagen 148 

7 Vindication of Bogardus against Van Dincklagen, by Consistory 

of New Amsterdam 149 

8 Megapolensis dismissed from his church and Classis 149 

22 Letter from Classis to Consistory of New Amsterdam 150 

24 Letters sent to East and West Indies and New Netherland 152 

May 5 The case of Bogardus and Van Dincklagen 152 

June 2 Johannes Megapolensis 152 

3 Memorandum for Domine Johannes Megapolen?'« as he starts 

for America 153 

6 Agreement between Van Rensselaer and the West India Com- 
pany about Megapolensis 154 

Catalojme of Books sent to Rensselaerwvck 155 

Table of Contents. xi 

1642. ■ PAGE. 

July 21 John C. Backer eager to go to the West Indies 15G 

Aug. 11 Arrival of Megapolensis — O'Callaghan's remarks 1.56 

First Church at Rensselaerwyck. 

12 Synod of North Holland at Enckhuysen 15S 

Art. 34. East and West Indies — Complaints that the Synod 
of North Holland arrogates to itself the care of the colonial 
churches — Remedies proposed. 
Aug. 19 and Sept. 22 -John C. Backer — The Company had delayed send- 
ing him — Reasons for delay — Company pre- 
sent him one hundred dollars 161, 162 

Oct. 16 John C. Backer ordained and sent to Curacoa — Classis of Zee- 
land — West Indies — Brazil — Letters to Brazil 163 

Note. The Old Church in the Fort, at New Amsterdam. 

O'Callaghan's remarks — Brodhead's remarks 163 


Note. The Jesuits in Central New York 166-169 

Rescue of Fathers Jogues and Bressani. 
Jan. 31 Petition of the Dutch and other Foreign Churches in England 

to the House of Lords 168 

May 6 List of Books in a private family in Ncav Netherland 168 

June 16 Van Curler's letter to the Patroon 168 

July 27 Collections to be taken for suffering churches in England. 

Notes 169 

31 Extracts from Coetus in Brazil, Nov. 12, 1642 170 

(Rev. J. T. Polhemus a member.) 

Aug. 11 et seq. SjTiod of North Holland at Edam 173-177 

Art. 3. Ministers practising medicine. 
Art. 27. East and West Indies. 
Art. 30. Exiles from Ireland. 
Art. 54. Churches of England. 
Art. 57. Baptism of Comforters of the Sick. 
Art. 57. Extracts from Acts of other Synods about colonial 
churches; churches in England. 
31 Letter from London — Distress in Ireland — Alms solicited... 177 

Sept. 7 Alms for the Irish churches 178 

Nov. 13, 16. Collection for England 179 


April 4 Letter from Synod of London — Collection for Ireland — Lub- 

bert Van Dincklagen and Rev. Everardus Bogardus ISO 

IVIay 2 Letter from Synod of London — Collection for Ireland — Cata- 
logue of ministers of the Classis — Dincklagen 181 

June 13 Letter to the Synod of Holland ordered — The letter read — 

In Latin . . . ." 183 

July 17 Copy of said letter for preservation 183 

Aug. et seq. Synod of North Holland at Alckmaar 183-185 

Art 26. East and West Indies. 

Art. 36. Letter from London to be answered. 

xii Table of Contents. 

1644. PAGE. 

Aug. et seq. Art. 42. Baptism by Comforters of the Sick. 

Art. 52. Letter in Greek from the Bishop of Ephesus. 
Oct. 16 Book of Apollonius on Church Government; sent to Westmin- 
ster 185 

Nov. 7 Letter from Rev. Johannes Bacherus, of Curacoa, etc 186 

To make request for more ministers for the West Indies 186 

Magapolensis's Book on Mohawk Indians 187 

On Rev. Richard Denton's removal from New England to Hemp- 
stead, Long Island 187 

Report of Board of Accounts on New Netherland 187 

March 23 Rev. E. Bogardus refuses to receive a written admonition from 

the Director 188 

June 26 Extracts from Acts of Coetus of Brazil 189 

July 24 Deputies request the West India Company to send seven more 
ministers to Brazil — Extracts about colonial churches to be 

sent to the Synod 189, 190 

Aug. 8 et seq. Synod of North Holland at Haarlem 190-192 

Art. 20. East and West Indies. 
Oversight of colonial churches. 
Progress in Brazil. 

Art. 52. Church Government in England. 
(Presbyterianism adopted.) 
Aug. 31. Day of Thanksgiving appointed for Peace with the Indians. . 192 
Sept. 21 Action of West India Company on Ministers in New Nether- 
land and Brazil 193 


May 28 Brazil — Minister to New Netherland 194-196 

Extracts from Acts of the Classis of Brazil. 
June 5 New Netherland 196 

11 Council of New Netherland summons Rev. E. Bogardus to an- 

swer certain charges 196-200 

12 New Netherland — Brazil 201 

25 John Walraven, chorister and schoolmaster for New Nether- 
land 201 

Ministers sought for New Netherland. 

July 8 New Netherland — Brazil 203 

9 Remonstrance to the Company by the Classis about neglect of 

church privileges in the West Indies 203-209 

28 Commission of Peter Stuyvesant 209.. 210 

July ? Extracts about East and West India churches 210 

28 Calls to New Netherland declined — Bogardus to be asked to 

stay 210, 211 

Aug. 7 et seq. Synod of North Holland at Amsterdam 211, 212 

Art. 22. Plan as to East and West India Affairs. 

Art. 23. Returns from West Indies: John Walraven from 

New Netherland. 

Table of Contents. xiii 

1646. PAGE. 

Sept. 21 Rev. Everardus Bogardus to deliver a certain bill of ex- 
change 212-214 

June 4-Oct. 18 Father Jogues — His death 214, 215 

May 9 Deacons of Rensselaerwyek lend money to the Patroon 215 


Extracts from a journal of New Netherland, 1641-1646, cov- 
ering the last six years of the ministry of Bogardus . 216 


May 11, 1647-1664, Sept. 5. 

July 22 Resignation and death of Rev. Everardus Bogardus 216-218 

Notes by Valentine and O'Callaghan — Annetje Jans. 

Aug. 12 et seq. Synod of North Holland at Hoorn 218, 219 

Art. 17. East and West India Affairs. 

Art. 39. West Indies — Extracts from a letter from Brazil 

of June 10, 1646. 
Art. 41. Rev. William Grasmeer. 

Sept. 16 Points for Remonstrances (or Memorial) 219-224 

I To the East India Company. 
II To the West India Company. 
22 Extract relating to Religion from Stuyvesant's Charter — 

Church and School 224 

Oct. 28 Memorial to the XIX — Henry Dries 225 

Nov. 26 Letter to the East and West Indies 225 


Jan. 27 Megapolensis asks his dismission from Rensselaerwyck 225 

Rev. John Backerus — Megapolensis. 
Feb. 1 Flushing, L. I., petitions the Director for a minister — Order 

thereon 226 

10 Letter from Megapolensis, read — Referred to the Deputies. . . 227 

24 Conference with the widow Rentselaer 227 

April 7 Rev. John Megapolensis — Letter to Megapolensis 228 

7 Directors' letter to Stuy^-esant — Death of Bogardus 228, 229 

8 Letter to Megapolensis in full 230, 231 

June 29 T^etter from John Backerus, read 232 

Aug. 11 et seq. Synod of North Holland at Enckhuysen 232 

Art. 19. East and West Indies. 
Aug. 15 and Sept. 2 Letter of Rev. John Backerus to the Classis of Am- 
sterdam 233-237 

Aug. 15-25 Letter of Rev. John Megapolensis to the Classis of Amster- 
dam . . .^ 237-239 

Sept. 14 Letter from Rev. John Bachorus, road — Letter from Rev. John 

Megapolensis. road 239 

28 Memorial to the XIX — Lettor to the Brethren of Zeeland. 240-242 

xiv Table of Contents. 

1648. PAGE. 

Oct. 5 Classis of Amsterdam — Letter of Backerus and Megapolensis 

read 242 

26 Pieter Vander Linden, precentor — Matters on which to me- 
morialize the XIX 242-244 

Letter of Megapolensis of Aug. 15, read. 
Letter of Backerus read. 

Nov. 2 Directors to Peter Stuyvesant — Backerus — Megapolensis — 

West India Company, godfather of children 244-245 

30 Action of the XIX on ecclesiastical matters — Action of the 

Deputies — Pastors to be sought for New Netherland 245 

Dec. 7 Letter from Megapolensis read — The widow Bogardus — Let- 
ter from Backerus read — Pastors needed in the colonies .... 246 

28 Letter from Backerus, read, of Sept. 22 — Letter from Consis- 

tory of New Amsterdam 247 

Jan. 14 Lease from Van Eensselaer requires religious services at Cats- 
kill 248 

25 Pastor to be sought for New Netherland 248 

March 15 Rev. Wm. Grasmeer seeks a release for Rev. Megapolensis .... 248 

29 Megapolensis seeks dismission from Rensselaerswyek 249 

April 13 Letters from New Netherland to be answered 249 

26 Letter of Classis to Rev. John Backerus — Letter of Classis to 

Rev. John Megapolensis 250-252 

May 8 The Director forbids Rev. Backerus to read political writings 

in the church — O'Callaghan's remark thereon 252 

June 28 Gideon Schaets 253 

July 6 The Council of New Amsterdam permit Rev. Backerus to re- 
sign ; request Rev. John Megapolensis, on his way to Holland, 
to remain, Aug. 2 — The departure of Backerus and settle- 
ment of Megapolensis 253, 254 

28 Remonstrance of the people of New Netherland to the States- 
General — Abstract and Extracts concerning social and re- 
ligious affairs, chiefly during the ministries of Bogardus and 
Backerus, 1643-9 — Discovery and location of the country — 
Religious ideas of the Indians — Settlements by the Dutch ; 
and English encroachments — "Vast capabilities of New 
Netherland — Causes of its decline — Bad government; High 
prices — Arbitrary power — Account of building the church 
in the Fort by Kieft in 1642 — Church revenues — School — 
Alms money — Asylum — Kieft did nothing for the people 
except the building of the church — Bad treatment of Negro 
slaves — Stuyvesant thus far had done little except repairing 
the church — Kieft's arbitrary dealings with Rev. Francis 
Doughty — Stiiyvesant's administration — Van Dincklagen, 
the Vice-Governor, afraid to speak — Stu\wesant keeps able 
men out of the Council — His nirs — Stu>"\-esant's treatment 
of Doughtv — Conditions for success on New Netherland, 254-260 

Table of Contents. xv 

1649. PAGE. 

Aug. 9 et seq. Synod of North Holland at Edam. 

Art. 15. Plan for East and West India Affairs. 

Art. 28. East and West India Affairs. 

Art. 30. Rev. John Backerus. 

Art. 31. Rev. Johannes Megapolensis. 

Art. 32. Extract from Synod of Utrecht. 

Art. 36. Ecclesiastical changes 260, 261 

Aug. Letter from Peter Stuyvesant, as elder to the Classis — 

Revs. Backerus and Megapolensis — Schoolmasters .... 261-263 

Oct. 25 Letter read from Rev. John Megapolensis 261 

Nov. 1 Rev. John Backerus in Holland 263 

9. Brazil 264 

Dec. 27 Letters from Megapolensis, read 264 


Jan. 10 Letter of Classis to Rev. John Megapolensis 264 

27 Digest of Remonstrance of July 28, 1649, of Excesses and 
Neglect which New Netherland has experienced — Of the 
Church — Extracts from Report, and Replies, especially re- 
lating to the Church 266-268 

31 Answer of West India Company 267 

Wm. Vestens, recommended as schoolmaster, etc — Rev. John 

Megapolensis — Rensselaerswyck 269 

Feb. 16 The Directors to Stuyvesant — Rev. John Megapolensis — 

Schoolmaster — Rev. John Backerus — The Remonstrance . . 269 
March 4 Information for settlers in New Netherland — A clergyman, 
etc., needed — Report of Committee of States-General on New 
Netherland — Three clergymen must be sent to New Nether- 
land — Remark of the Company thereon 270 

7 Classis of Amsterdam 270 

Rev. Caspar Carpentier 270 

Rev. Megapolensis — Wm. Vestensz — Rensselaerswyck 271 

April 4 Rev. John Backerus — Rev. Wm. Grasmeer 271 

Letter of Classis to Consistory at Manhattan about Rev. 

Grasmeer 272, 273 

11 Further action of the Deputies on the Grasmeer case. . . . 273, 274 

16 Action of Classis of Alckmaar on Rev. Wm. Grasmeer 274 

His answer. 

19 Rev. Caspar de Carpentier, and note 275 

20 Directors to Stuyvesant — Result of the Remonstrance — Rev. 

Megapolensis — His Tract on Confession 275 

May 24 Freedoms and Exemptions granted by the Company; as to 

religion 276 

Aug. 4 Court at Rensselaerswyck on Rev. William Grasmeer.... 276, 277 

6 et seq. Synod of North Holland at Alckmaer 277, 278 

Art. 1. Rev. John Backerus. 
Art. 18. Plan for East and West Indies. 
Art. 30. East and West Indies — Ministerial changes — 
Megapolensis — Vestersse. 

xvi Table of Coxtents. 

1650. PAGE. 

July 4 and Aug. 29 Stuyvesant's Eefusal to reform the Government — 
Extract from Journal of the select men concerning Stuy- 
vesant's action in reference to their pew in the Church 27S 

Aug. 8 Request of Rev. John Backerus 270 

Sept. 9 Andries Jansy appointed schoolmaster at Fort Orange 279 

12 Letter of John Walraven, schoolmaster, from New Amsterdam 

— Rev. Backerus 280 

Nov. 28 Form of Acceptance and Instruction for Comforters of the Sick 

and Readers on ships of war 281 

Acts of the Classis of Alckmaer about Rev. Wm. Grasmeer .... 283 
29 Extracts relating to the Church from Secretary Van Tien- 
hoven's answer to Remonstrance of July 28, 1649 — Rev. 
Francis Doughty — Note on Doughty 284-286 


Jan. 2 Rev. William Grasmeer 286 

20 Rev. William Grasmeer — Catechism of Rev. John Megapo- 

lensis, -Jr 287 

Feb. 20 Letter of Classis of Amsterdam to Rev. William Grasmeer .... 288 
Letter of Classis of Amsterdam to the Church of Rensselaers- 

wyck 289-293 

Letter of Classis to the Church at Manhattan 293-295 

March 21 The Directors to Stuyvesant — Book of Megapolensis on " Con- 
fession, etc." .... 296 

Aug. 7 Rev. William Grasmeer — Rensselaers^vyck 296 

15 et seq. Synod of North Holland at Haarlem 206, 297 

Art. 22. East and West India Affairs. 
Art. 27. The case of Grasmeer. 
Aug 28-Nov. 13 Seven items on Rev. John Backerus 297-300 


Feb. 12 Church Property — Megapolensis 300 

Rensselaerswyck ^^^ 

Rev. Wm. Grasmeer — Rev. Samuel Drisius 301, 302 

14 Affidavit of Rev. Wm. Grasmeer 303 

26 and March 11, 18 Rev. Samuel Drisius — New Amsterdam, 303, 304 

March 18 Rev. Samuel Drisius — New Amsterdam — Rev. John Olx — 

Rensselaers-wyck — Rev. John Episcopius 304, 305 

April 2 Letter from William Vestens of New Amsterdam to the Classis 

— Rev. John Episcopius — Rensselaerswyck 306 

4 The Director to Stuwesant — New Amsterdam — Schoolmaster 

— English preacher — Revs. Drisius and Grasmeer — 
Note on Jan de la Montagne — O'Callaghan's remarks, 307, 308 

15 Rev. John Episcopius — Rensselaerswyck — Gideon Schaats.. 308 
May 6 Rev. Gideon Schaats — Rensselaerswyck 309 

8 Contract with Rev. Gideon Schaats — The Patroon's instruc- 
tions concerning religion 309, 310 

29 The mirage seen during the negotiations between the Republics 

of England and Holland 311 

Table of Contents. xvii 

1652. PAGE. 

Aug. 12 et seq. Synod of North Holland at Amsterdam 311-313 

Art. 29. ^Ministerial changes — Rev. John Backerus — Rev. 

Samuel Drisius — Rev. Gideon Schaats. 
Arts. 34, 39, 40. Rev. William Grasmeer. 
Founding of Newtown and Flatbush 314 


Feb. 6 Prayer at beginning of Court, at New Amsterdam 314 

Aug.-Oct. Father Poncet's capture and deliverance 315, 316 

Oct. 6 Letter from Revs. Megapolensis and Drisius to Classis of 

Amsterdam — Lutheran request 317 

Dec. Deduction of Director and Council regarding Remonstrance of 
Dec. 11, 1653 — English elections, without reference to re- 
ligion — Note on Government of New Xetherland 318 

16 Commission of Rev. Samuel Drisius as diplomatic agent to 

Virginia 319 


Jan. 1 Request to the XIX to prevent Lutheran preaching and as- 
semblies in New Netherland 320 

Feb. 5-Aug. 16 Father Le Moyne discovers the Salt Springs 321 

23 Request of Jan. 1, granted — -Directors willing to send a 

minister to Long Island 322 

26 Letter of Classis to Revs. Megapolensis and Drisius — 

Lutherans 322, 323 

March 2 A minister to be sought for New Netherland : . . . 324 

12 The Directors to Stuyvesant — Lutherans — Long Island 324 

May 11 William Vestensz 325 

June 1 Salaries of ministers 325 

8 Director-General to Burgomaster, to pay ministers' salaries — 

Remark of O'Callaghan 325 

July 15 Letter of Revs. Megapolensis and Drisius to Classis of Amster- 
dam — Lutherans — Indians 326, 327 

17 Proclamation of the Peace between the Republics of England 

and Holland 327 

Aug. 24 Mrs. Catherine Polhonuis. wife of Th. J. Polhonuis 328 

24 Support of the Church in New Amsterdam 328 

31 Burgomasters to the Director — Minister's salaries 329 

Sept. 16 Answer of Director concerning the payment of ministers. . 329, 330 

Oct. 13 Petition from Midwout and Amesfoort — Domine Polhemius 
teaching — Note on Church of ]Midwout and Domine 
Polhemus 330 

Nov. 11 Letter of the Classis to the ii:iiiistcrs in New Netherland — 

William Vestensz 331 

Dec. 17 A church and parsonage to be built at INIidwout 332 

Jan. 4 Hermanus Blom — Action of Classis on the call of Rev. Pol- 
hemus to Long Island 332 

26 Schoolmaster, Wm. Vestiensz. petition to return to Holland.. 33.'> 


x^iii Table of CoNTEifTS. 

1655. PAGE. 

Feb. 9 Domine Polhemus asks for aid for himself, and for building 

a church at Midwout 333 

March 2 Report of Domine Megapolensis on building a church at 

Midwout 333 

8 Action of the Deputies on Polhemus' call — William Vestensz, 334 
18 Letter of Rev. Megapolensis to the Classis — Polhemus — Long 

Island — William Vestiens — Jews — Various sects .... 334-336 

22 Rev. Polhemus 336 

23 Harmanus Van Hoboocken — William Vestiens 336 

23 Affairs of Polhemus 337 

April 5 Rev. Polhemius 337, 338 

26 The Directors to Stuyvesant — Jews — Polhemus 338 

June 14 William Vestiens 338 

15 Petition for assistance to Midwout and Amesfoort to support 

Domine Polhemus 339 

Aug. 17 et seq. Synod of North Holland at Edam 339 

Art. 42. Rev. Polhemus and his wife. 

28 Jews to be exempt from military service 340 

Sept. 26 Expulsion of Swedish Ministers from Delaware 340 

Father Le Moyne at Beverwyck 340 

Oct. 1 1 Voluntary subscription for defence of New Amsterdam — Sub- 
scriptions of the ministers 341 


Religious Condition of New Netherland 341, 342 

Jan. 15 Petition of the Clergy against allowing conventicles and 

preaching by unqualified persons — Rev. Moore 342 

24 New Graveyard — Board of Churchmasters 343 

Feb. 1 Action of Director and Council on conventicles 343, 344 

18 New Church at Fort Orange 344 

15 Petition from Midwout and Amesfoort to take up a collection 

for the support of their minister 345 

21 Herman van Hoboocken, schoolmaster 345 

25 Petition from Brooklyn that the minister, Polhemus, preach 

alternately there "^45, 346 

28 Churchmasters 346 

March 28 Petition from Midwout for assistance to pay their minister .... 346 

April 4 Sale of the old wooden church in New Amsterdam 347 

18 Catechism of Rev. Megapolensis 347 

May 1 Action of Classis on said Catechism 347 

12, 26 Letter of Classis to Rev. Consistory of New Netherland. 
dated May 26 — Lutherans — Mennonites — Independents — 
Jews — Catechism of Megapolensis not allowed — Polhemus 

— Long Island — South River — William Vestens 348-351 

June 13 Megapolensis — Polhemus — Letter of May 26, to New Nether- 
land. read in Classis 351, 352 

14 Action of West India Company on Stuyvesant's placard 

against the Jews and Lutherans — Mrs. Polhemus 352 

20 Remonstrance of Patroon Van Rensselaer against Stuyvesant's 

tithes 353 












Table of Contents. xix 


Action thereon by the Council 353 

Order in favor of the Waldenses — Note 353 

The Deputies will report action of Company on the Lutherans 

to Classis 354 

Action of Classis thereon 354 

Lutheran worship in New Netherland 355 

The old Church lot 355 

et seq. Synod of North Holland at Alckmaer 355 

Art. 32. Names of Ministers in New Netherland. 
12-16 Conditions offered by the City of Amsterdam to settlers on 
South River — As to schools and religion — Action of States- 
General on same 356 

Oct. 3 New Netherland — Action of Classis on the freedom of con- 
science about to be allowed — Lutherans 357 

4, 5 Resolutions of States-General and the Company, on van der Ca- 

pelle's petition 357, 358 

9 Repairs of the Church 358 

24 Petition of the Lutherans to Governor and Council to be al- 

lowed Public Worship ; with answer 358-360 

Nov. 7 Lutherans in New Netherland 360 

7 Petition of Hermanus Van Hoboocken for a school-room; with 

answer — Note on Hoboken 360, 361 

8, 11 Sentence on Hallett and Wickendam for allowing Baptist con- 
venticles at Flushing 361, 362 

Dec. 14 Letter from Domine Polhemus to Stuyvesant 362 

19 The Directors to StuvA'esant on Jesuits among the Senecas — 
Bells for churches at Rensselaerswyck, Hempstead and Mid- 
wout 363 

21 Stuyvesant to the Magistrates of Midwout about minister's 

house — Petition of Domine Polhemus for an advance of 

salary 363, 364 

29 Inhabitants of Oostdorp refuse to receive a Civil Commission 

on Sunday — Their mode of worship 364, 365 

Jan. 1 Oostdorp (East- town) accept of Government of New Nether- 
land 365 

13 Petition from Midwout to be allowed to make an assessment 

to pay minister's salary 365 

13 Petition from Amesfoort asking for confirmation of assessment 

to pay minister's salary 366, 367 

16 Petition from Brooklyn against assessment for minister's 

salary and appointment of Domine Polhemus 367, 368 

Letter of Magistrates of Brooklyn to the Director about the 
order to assess to pay minister's salary 368, 369 

22 Petition from Newtown about their parsonage 369 

25 Answer to foretroing 369 

Feb. 7, 13 Tax in Brooklyn for Minister's salary 370 

12 Rev. Jacob P. Gouwcster. offers to <ro to New Netherland 370 

XX Table of Contents. 

1657. PAGE. 

Feb. 15 Letter of Classis to Church of New Amsterdam, (of Dee. 15, 

1656 ) Lost 370 

March 8, 9 Election of a Churehmaster, New Amsterdam, and their ac- 
counts 370 

9 Regulations adopted by City of Amsterdam respecting a min- 
ister for New Amstel (Delaware) 371 

19 New Colony in New Nether land — The Lutherans in New 

Netherland 371, 372 

April 7 Directors to Stuyvesant — Bells for churches — Lutherans... 372 
9 Oath of Burghers 373 

10 Eev. Everardus Welius — Lutherans and Sects in New Nether- 

land 373-374 

11 Petition of Jews denied 375 

13 Vice-Director Aldrich to the Commissioners of Colony of New 

Amstel 375 

23 Rev. Mr. Welius — Lutherans 376 

May 7 Rev. Mr. Welius 376 

Rev. Hermanns Blom declines to act as chaplain for the Dutch 

Navy 376 

Lutherans and sects in New Netherland and the Colony — Rev. 

Gutwasser 377 

Letter of Classis to the Consistory of New Amsterdam — South 
River — Evart Pietersen — Rev. Mr. Welius — The sects — 

Lutherans — Gutwasser 378-381 

Vice-Director Aldrichs to the Burgomasters of Amsterdam, 381, 382 
25 Vice-Director Aldrichs to the Commissioners of the Colony on 

the Delaware 382 

June 5 Lutherans and New Netherland 382 

27 Rev. Gideon Schaats to Rev. Domine Laurentius, on state of the 

Church, especially at Fort Orange 382-386 

July 6 Petition of Revs. Megapolensis and Drisius to the authorities 

of New Amsterdam against tolerating the Lutherans. . . . 386-388 

14 Report of authorities on said Petition 388-390 

17 Gov. StuyA'esant to Magistrates of Hempstead, L. I., and an- 
swer July, 25 391 

29 Gov. Stuyvesant to Magistrates of Hempstead 391 

31 Rev. J. T. Polhemus to Classis of Amsterdam 392 

Aug. 5, 14 Revs. Megapolensis and Drisius to Classis of Amsterdam — 
Lutherans; Rev. Goetwater — Petition against him — 
Schaats and Rensselaerswyck — South River — Fort Chris- 
tina — Lutheran services on South River — Rev. Casparus 
Carpentier — Dutch Villages on Long Island — Rev. Pol- 
hemiis — English Villages on Long Island — Mennonites — 
Independents — Presbyterians — Rev. Denton — Oostdorp — 
Kingston — Schools — Indian converts — P. S. Quakers . . 393-400 
10 Everet Pietersen. schoolmaster at South River 401 

12 Evert Pietersen to Domine Ruileus — Need of books 401-403 

13 et seq. Synod of North Holland at Harlem. 

Art. 2. Refrister. 

Table of Contents. xxi 

1657. PAGE. 

Aug. 13 Art. 35. Extracts concerning the colonial churches — 
Lutherans — Rev. Everadus Welius — Aert 

Pietersen — John Walraven 403, 404 

28 Father Simon Le Moyne — Notes 404 

Sept. 3 Henry Selyns asks to be examined for licensure 405 

Oct. 2 Examination and licensure of Henry Selyns 405 

10 Petition of the Lutherans to the Governor and Council against 

the banishment of Rev. Gutwasser — Answer 405-407 

15 Petition of Rev. J. E. Gutwasser, asking why he is to be ban- 
ished — Answer 407-409 

22, 25 Revs. Megapolensis and Drisius to the Classis of Amsterdam — 
Lutherans — Quakers — Sectaries — Need of English minis- 
ters — Rev. Doughty — Rev. Moore — Rev. Denton.... 409-412 
Jan. 1 and 3 Remonstrance of the inhabitants of Flushing against 

anti-Quaker laws 412^14 

21 Proclamation of a Day of Prayer for March 13 414-415 

28 Sentence on Tobias Feaks, schout of Flushing, for protecting 

Quakers 415 

29 Petition of Magistrates of Midwout as to the disposition of i 

certain church-lands — Answer — Petition of Domine Pol- 
henius concerning his salary 415-41T 

Feb. 11 Letter from Domine Schaats read by the Deputies 417 

26 Election of Churchmaster and Orphanmaster 417 

March 5 Jacob Van Corlaer not allowed to teach school 418 

19 Jacobus Van Corlaer forbidden to teach school in New Amster- 

dam 419 

26 Van Corlaer again forbidden to teach school — Minister's 

salary in Brooklyn 419 

30 Rev. Welius preaches on a Fast-day 419 

April Form of Oath taken by Swedes on South River 420 

2 Sentence on those who refused to pay minister's salary 420 

Letter from New Netherland received by the Deputies 420 

7 Letter from Father Simon Le Moyne. S. J., to Director Stuyve- 

sant; with enclosure from Governor of Canada 421, 422 

1 5 The Deputies read letters from New Netherland 422 

May 6 Letters from New Netherland shown to Directors of West 

India Company -^ New Amstel 422, 423 

20 The Directors to Stuyvesant — Lutherans — Latin School — 

Domine Schaats 423, 424 

June 4 Rev. J. T. Polhemus to Classis of Amsterdam 424 

7 Further orders of the Directors about the Baptismal Formula. . 425 

22 Rev. John Carpentier 425 

Aug. 5 Extract from the Letters from New Netherland 425 

12 et seq. Synod of North Holland at Amsterdam 425-427 

Art. 36. Extract of letters about churches in foreign lands: 
From a letter of Aiig. 5, 1657. from New Netherland. 
From a letter of Aug. 12, 16.'i6. from New Netherland. 
From n letter of Oct. 22. 1657. from Manhattan. 

xxii ° Table of Contents. ■ ^c 

1658. PAGE. 

Aug. 13 Petition of Jan Lubbert's to teach school — Granted 427 

19 The Director General and Council ask the opinion of the 
ministers of New Netherland, on the action of the Company, 
on May 20, 1658, concerning Form of Baptism 427 

23 Answer of the ministers of said request, concerning Form of 

Baptism 428-431 

Sept. 19 Request for a Latin school 431 

24 Revs. Megapolensis and Drisius to the Classis of Amsterdam — 

Need of ministers for the English towns on Long Island — 
Quakers — Lutherans — Dutch ministers needed — Father 
Le Moyne 432-434 

25 Rev. John Megapolensis to the Classis; about his son 

Samuel 434-436 

28 Revs. Megapolensis and Drisius to the Classis; about the 
Jesuits on the Mohawk — Father Jogues — Father Bres- 

sani — Father Le Moyne 436-439 

Oct. 7 Rev. J. T. Polhemus 439 


Jan. 13 Deputies read letters from New Netherland 439, 440 

Feb. 3 Letters from New Amsterdam read before the Classis 440 

13 Directors to Stuyvesant — Lutherans — Polhemus 441 

24 New Netherland — Form of Baptism 441 

April 10 Alexander Carolus Curtius, Latin schoolmaster 442 

25 Directors to Stuyvesant — Rensselaerwyck — Latin school, 442, 443 
July 4 Salary of Curtius, Latin teacher 443 

23 Stuvvesant to the Directors — The tithes — Rensselaerswyck — 

Curtius, the Latin teacher — Polhemus 443, 444 

Aug. 5 et seq. Synod of North Holland at Hoorn 444 

^j^ jT**. ^j.^ 25. Extracts of letters on the state of the foreign 
^ ...•"''*"•■*"'"''' churches — From a letter from New Nether- 

land of Sept. 24, 1658. 
11 Stuyvesant to Sergeant Laurensen at Esopus, recommending 

Rev. Hermanns Blom to the people there 445 

Stuyvesant to Sergeant Laurensen at Esopus, per Megapo- 
lensis 446 

16 Church of New Amstle 446 

17 Inhabitants of Esopus petition that Rev. Blom may be their 

minister 446 

22 Commissioners of the Colony on the Delaware to Vice-Director 

Aldriehs, as to the church there — The Swedish parson 447 

Aug.-Sept. Proceedings of the XIX concerning New Netherland — Report 
on the Committee of Classis to them, about sects; necessity 
of English preachers; salary of Polhemus — Action of the 

Company 447, 448 

Sept. 10 Revs. Megapolensis and Drisius to Classis of Amsterdam — 

The Lutherans — Hermanns Blom 449, 450 

17 Stuyvesant to the Directors — Rev. Blom 450, 451 

Latin school — Rector's salarv — Medicinal seeds 451 

Table of Contents. xxiii 

1059. PAGE, 

Sept. 30 Day of Fasting and Prayer appointed for Oct. 15 451-453 

Dutch Embassy to Maryland — Rev. Doughty 453 

Nov. 3 Lutheran Church in New Netherland — Hermanus Blom chosen 

for New Netherland 454, 455 

14 Election of a Churchmaster 455 

17 Hermanus Blom to be examined 455 

Rev. Everardus Welius 456 

His death 456 

Dec. 9 Sheriff van Schweringen to Commissioners of Colony on Dela- 
ware River 457 

12 Church of New Amstel to Classis of Amsterdam 456 

Vice-Director Aldrichs to the Commissioners of the Colony — 

Death of Welius 457 

9 Skipper Huys to the Commissioners of Colony on Delaware 

River 458 

13 Beekman to Stuyvesant 458, 459 

22 Directors to Stuyvesant — Blom — Directors to Stuyvesant ■ — 

Intending to send over more liberal-minded preachers — 
Blom 459-461 

20 Petition of Church of Midwout for material to paint their 

church 461 


Jan. 5 Call of a minister to New Netherland — Selyns and Blom 462' 

16 Petition of Herman van Hoboocken — Schools 463: 

Feb. 4 Petition of certain Englishmen to settle at Jamaica.... 463, 464 
16 Revs. Blom and Selyns examined and ordained for New Nether- 
land — Certificate of ordination of Rev. Hermanus Blom — 
Call of Rev. Selyns to Brooklyn 464-468 

23 Appointment of a day of Fasting and Prayer 468, 460 

March 1 Letter of Classis to the Consistories in New Netherland, per 

Blom and Selyns 469-472 

11 Ecclesiastical Testimonial to Selyns 472' 

29 Directors to Stuy^^esant — Blom and Selyns 47$ 

April 5 Death of Rev. Welius — Another minister to be sent in his 

place 47$ 

12 Petition of Gravesend for a minister; and answer thereto. 473, 474 
16 Directors to Stuvvesant — Blom and Selyns — Curtius 474 

21 Stuvvesant to the Directors — Blom — The preachers — Form 

of Baptism 475 

May 4 The Deputati to seek for another minister for New Netherland . 475 

11 Building the Church of ^lidwout — Not paid for 475, 476 

June 1 New Netherland — Form of Baptism 476 

July 5 Church matters in Brooklyn — Salary of Selyns — Selyns to 

preach at Stuyv^esant's bouwerie 477 

6 Form of Baptism 477 

Aug. 9 Salary of Curtius, Latin teacher 478 

10 et seq. Synod of North Holland at Enckhuvsen 478 

Art. 29. Extracts from a letter from New Amsterdam, of 
Sept. 10, 1659. 

xxiv Table of Contents. 

1660. PAGE. 

Sept. 2 Petition of Revs. Blom and Selyns for board during their 

detention 479 

3 Formal introduction of Domine Selyns to church of Brooklyn 

by Nicasius de Sille 479, 480 

7 The Consistory of Brooklyn to Domine Polhemus — 

Lutherans 481, 482 

22 Rev. Gideon Schaats to Classis of Amsterdam 482, 483 

Sept. 29 Rev. J. T. Polhemus to the Classis of Amsterdam 484 

30 Church of Midwout; costs; help given '. . 484, 485 

Oct. 4 Rev. Samuel Drisius to Classis of Amsterdam — Form of Bap- 
tism 485-^87 

4 Rev. Henry Selyns to Classis of Amsterdam — Account of the 

beginning of his labors 487-491 

Note on Stuyvesanfs Bouwery. 

5 Form of Baptism 492 

6 Stu\"\-esant to the Directors — English villages on Long Island 

without preachers — Four other villages in need of preach- 
ers — Blom and Selyns 492 

25 Michael Siperius ( Zyperius ) 492-494 

Dec. 1 Instructions of Charles I to the English Committee on Planta- 
tions — As to Religion 494 

24 Directors to Stuyvesant — Ministers for the English villages on 
Long Island — INIap of Amsterdam — Church Bell for Brook- 
lyn 494 

— Evert Pietersen 495 

Parsonage at Wiltwyck ( Esopus ) 495 

24 Payments to Rev. E. Welius 496 


Jan. 26 Payments to Rev. E. Welius 496 

Jan.-Feb. Proceedings against Quakers on Long Island 496-499 

Feb. 14 Conditions offered by West India Company to dissenters in 

England to settle in America 499, 500 

18 Petition from Newtown to use the Minister's house for a school. 500 


Feb.-March. Rev. Drisius sent to Hempstead to baptize children 

March 4 Contract between inhabitants of Esopus and Rev. Hermanus 

Blom 501 

29 Petition from Church of Midwout for assistance in paying for 

building church 501 

April 11 Religious and charitable goods exempt from certain fees 502 

Spring Church of New Amsterdam to the West India Company 502 

May 2, 9 Evert Pietersen appointed Schoolmaster 503 

16 Court of Justice at Wild^vyck — Religion of the Judges 503 

23 Letters from New Netherland, read 504 

30 Rev. Samuel Megapolensis examined — Those baptized by Men- 

nonites need not be re-baptized 503-505 

July 1 Michael Cornelisz — Siperus 505 

Table of Contents. 


1661. PAGE. 

June 7 Form of Baptism in the West Indies 505 

12 Alexander Carolus Curtius offers to teach Latin on certain con- 
ditions 506 

9 Letter of Classis to Rev. Van Beaumont of Curaeoa, concerning 
Rev. Michael Siperus — Baptism of Negroes, Indians and 

their children 506-508 

Aug. 8 Judicial decisions, in favor of legality of Quaker marriages, 

cited .....' 508-510 

Nov. 8 Proposals under which English churches may be planted in 

New Netherland 510-512 

28 Answer of Director and Council to Proposals of Nov. 8 — Ref- 
erences to ordinances on parsonages, the sabbath and arrears 
of ministers' salaries 511 

18 Ordinance for observance of the Sabbath 512 

19 Bricks purchased for Domine Blom 512 

Dec. 5 Letter of Classis to Rev. Samuel Drisius — Re-baptism not 

required — Michael Siperius 513-515 

15 The Classis of Amsterdam to Rev. Gideon Schaats 515, 516 

Jan. 26 Proclamation of a Day of Thanksgiving, etc., for March 15, 

1662 516-518 

Feb. 20 Beekman to Stuy^/esant — Aegidius Luyck 518 

March 11 Further answer of Director, etc., to proposals of English to 

settle in New Netherland. See Nov. 8 and 28, 1661 518-520 

16 Beekman to Stuyvesant — Domine Laers 520 

28 Repairs of Church of New Amsterdam 521 

April — West India Company sell their rights on South River to City 

of Amsterdam 521 

20 New Amstel, Del. — Mennonites 521 

30 Rev. Laurentius Carolus petitions for remission of a fine. . 521, 522 

Harmen Van Hoboocken 522 

May 16 Petition in reference to minister's salary at Hempstead and 

Answer 523 

30 Further answer of Director, etc., to Proposals of Nov. 8, 1661 . . 523 


June 9 Contract for conveyance of Mennonites to South River . . 524, 525 

Aug. 8 Rev. J. T. Polhemus to Classis of Amsterdam 525, 526 

21 Call of Rev. Samuel Megapolensis to New Netherland 526 

24 Complaint against Quakers at Flushing 526, 527 

Orders against them, Sept. 9. 

Sept. 4 Rev. Samuel Megapolensis 527 

12 Petition to be allowed to collect funds for building a church at 

Araesfoort 527 

25 Rev. Samuel Megapolensis. chosen fnr New Netherland. . 527, 528 
Oct. 2 Rev. Nicholas Rensselaer received as a candidate 528 

2 Rev. Sninuel IMegapolcnsis, examined and ordained 528 

Dec. 28 BushM'vok school affairs 529 












xxvi Table of Contents. • 


Church affairs in Midwout , 529 

Pastor for New Amstel 529, 530 

Directors to Stuyvesant — Huguenots; Quakers 530 

Church at Amesfoort — Tithes 531 

Request of Samuel Megapolensis for increase of salary — Min- 
isters acting as physicians 531 

6 Beekman to Stuyvesant — Rev. Abelius Zetscoorn 532 

Rev. Samuel Megapolensis to Classis of Amsterdam — Lost.. 532 
24 Beekman to Stuyvesant — Rev. Abelius Zetscoorn 632 

24 Order to enforce the British Navigation Act in America 632 

25 Deputies read a letter from Rev. Samuel Megapolensis — Ac- 

tion thereon 532, 53.^ 

Sept. 11 Rev. J. T. Polhemus to the Classis of Amsterdam 533 

18 Condition of Church of Kingston — Indian Massacre.... 534, 535 

Nov. 6 Pastor for New Amstel 536 

15 Beekman to Stuyvesant — Rev. Abelius Zetscoorn 536 

Nov. 21 Stuyvesant to the Magistrates at Wiltwyck — Consistory must 

not interfere with intestate estates 536, 537 

Dec. 3 Answer of Rev. Blom to Stuyvesant about church affairs at 

Wiltwyck 538 

12 Magistrates at Wiltwyck to Stuyvesant — Church Affairs — 

Court of Wiltwyck to Stuyvesant — Church Affairs .... 538, 539 

17 Magistrates of Bergen concerning the schoolmaster 539, 540 


Waldense and Huguenots emigrate to South River, 1656- 

1663 — Population, 1664 540 

Jan. 16 Return of Rev. Henry Selyns from New Netherland to Hol- 
land 540, 541 

20 Directors to Stuyvesant — Departure of Rev. Samuel Megapo- 

lensis 541 

Feb. 24 Subscriptions for defence ; 541 

March 12 Extract from Patent of Charles II., to Duke of York, for terri- 
tory of New Netherland 541 

17 Ordinance to catechize the children 642 

April 7 Letter from Rev. Polhemus received — Referred to the Depu- 
ties — Deputati request the Directors to send another min- 
ister to Brooklyn 542, 543 

8 Letter from Rev. Polhemus read by the Deputies — Rev. 

Schaats — Rev. Wernerus Hadson sent to South River .... 643 

21 Rev. J. T. Polhemus to Classis of Amsterdam — Lack of united 

effort 643 

23 Secret Instructions to Col. R. Nicolls, in reference to religion 
in New England, and in New Netherland — If conquered, 

See Aug. 4, 1664 544, 545 

;May 4 Letter of Rev. Blom to Director Stuyvesant as to annual 

Tlianksgiving at Esopus for escape from Indian massacre, 545, 54& 
"May 12 Report of Deputies on affair of Schaats — Correspondence 

among the American churches suggested 546, 547 

31 Proclamation of a Day of Thanksgiving 547 

Table of Contents, xxvii 

1664. PAGE. 

June 9 Eev. Henry Selyns to Classis of Amsterdam 547-550 

23 Letter read by the Deputies from Rev. Polhemus 551 

July 17 Petition of Rev. Selyns to Director to be released 551 

Aug. 4 Stuyvesant to the Directors; his fears of English fleet. (Two 

translations.) The French refugees 551-553 

4 Letter read from Rev. Selyns of June 9; from Rev. Polhemus 

of April 21 553 

Aug. 5-14 Rev. Samuel Drisius to Classis of Amsterdam — Sorrow at 
departure of Rev. Selyns for Holland — Rev. Samuel Meg- 
apolensis to succeed him — French on Staten Island sup- 
plied by Drisius 554, 555 

Sept. 5 Remonstrance of the people against resisting the English, 

while without adequate resources 655-557 

8 New Netherland conquered by the English (Aug. 29, O. S. ; 

Sept. 8, N. S. ) 557-560 

Abticles of Capitulation. Notes: On the English Policy 
in the Conquest; on the Dutch Rule for the half century 


8 Sept. 1664-1668. 
Sept. 15 Rev. Samuel Drisius to Classis of Amsterdam on the surren- 
der 560-562 

29 Rev. Henricus Selyns, in Holland, gives a verbal report to the 

Classis of Amsterdam 562 

Oct. 10 Articles of Agreement on the surrender of Albany 563 

1 1 Salary of Evert Pietersen, schoolmaster 563 

14-20 Dutch refuse to take oath of allegiance to Great Britain until 

assured that it does not conflict with Articles of Surrender . . 563 

21-26 Names of the Dutch who swore allegiance to Great Britain, 564, 565 
24 West India Company to the States General on the Surrender . . 565 
Oct. 24-Nov. 1 Resolutions and action of the States General on the Sur- 
render 565-567 

Nov. 10 Letter of Drisius, on Surrender, read in Classis 568 

Feb. 10 Concessions and Agreements of Carteret and Berkeley in New 

Jersey, — bo far as they relate to Religion 569, 670 

16 Rev. Matthias Nevius in New York 570 

28 Gov. Nicolls calls a General Meeting of Deputies of the towns 
of Long Island at Hempstead, L. I. — The Duke's Laws there 

adopted: — So far as they relate to Religion 570-573 

May 2 (O. S.) Certificate as to the loyalty of Peter Stuyvesant, at the 

Surrender — Note 573, 574 

June 17 Repairs of Graveyard 574 

xxviii Table of Contents. 

16C5. FAQE. 

Aug. 1 et seq. Synod of North Holland at Hoorn 574 

Art. 15. Extract of letter of Rev. Samuel Drisius was read, 

respecting the transfer of New Netherland 574 

Sept. 7 Letter from Rev. Drisius, read — Desires to return to Holland 

— To be asked to remain 574, 575 

19 Salary of Evert Pietersen, schoolmaster 575 

Oct. 19 Extracts from Stuys^esant's Report on the surrender.... 575-577 
Nov. 13 The City advances money to repair Graveyard 577 


Feb. 20 Salary of Evert Pietersen, schoolmaster 577 

April — Aegidius Luyck testifies about Surrender 578 

3, 5 Minister's support at Seatalcott 578 

May 8 Rent for sehoolhouse to be paid 578 

June 13 Election of Churchmasters, New York 578 

Aug. 7 Land at Domine's Point 579 

16 Rev. John Megapolensis to Classis of Amsterdam 679 

17 C. Van Ruyven to Stuyvesant 579 

Sept. 6 Rev. Henry Selyns, called to Waverveen, Holland — Rev. Aegi- 
dius Luyck 580-582 

Oct. 9 Percentage to Collector of Salary for minister 582 

11 Rev. Henry Selyns 582, 583 

13 English Governor tolerates the Lutherans 583 

18 Letter from J. Megapolensis, read: defending his advice to sur- 

render New Netherland 583 

25 Rev. Peter Tesschenmaker , 584 

30 Percentage to Collector of Salary for minister 584 

Dec. 10 Megapolensis's defence rejected by the XIX 584 


Reply of West India Company to Stm'\-esant's answer .... 584-586 

Feb. 7 Voluntary subscription for support of minister 586 

May 7 Rev. Gideon Schaats to the Classis of Amsterdam 587 

June 18 Arrearages for ministers salaries to be paid 588 

Aug. 8 et seq. Synod of North Holland at Edam 588, 589 

Art. 12. Indian Affairs — Megapolensis's defence. 
Art. 53. Ministerial changes — Rev. Casparus de Carpen- 
tier: Rev. Henry Selyns. 

15 Aegidus Luyck 589 

16 Rev. Wm. (Guilhelmus) Nieuwenhuyscn, received as candidate. 589 

29 Aegidius Luyck 590 

Oct. 10-20. Colonel Nicolls to Father Pierron 590 

19 Election of Churchmasters, New York 591 

Jan. 2 Candidates for Indian churches, approved — Rev. Wm. Nieu- 
wenhuyscn 591, 592 

11 Abram De la Nov, schoolmaster 593 

30 Rev. Wm. Niuwenhuysen 592, 593 

Table of Contents. xxix 

1668. PAGE. 

Aug. 27 Testimonials as to the loyalty of Domine Megapolensis at the 

surrender — Rev. Hermanus Blom 593 

28 Eev. Hermanus Blom back in Holland 594 

Sept. 3 Rev. Hermanus Blom 594 

4 Election of Orphanmasters 594 

7 Rev. Samuel Megapolensis to a friend 594-597 


Sept. 17, 1668-1637, Aug. 9. 

Sept. 24 Domines bouwerie at Esopus 597 

Oct. 1 Rev. Hermanus Blom — Letter received from Rev. Drisius .... 598 

Nov. 5 Rev. Hermanus Blom — Letter from Rev. Drisius, read ^^98 

19 Gov. Lovelace to Rev. Mr. James 598-600 


Jan. 21 Letter from Rev. Samuel Megapolensis, read 600 

Feb. 16 Evert Pietersen 600 

March 27 Rev. Francis Doughty 600, 601 

April 17-27 Rev. John Megapolensis to Classis of Amsterdam — Arrears 
of salary — State of the Church under the English — Luth- 
erans 601-603 

July 1 New Netherland — Case of discipline — Rev. Samuel Megapo- 
lensis — Rev. Samuel Drisius 603, 604 

July 3 Salaries of Megapolensis and Drisius 604 

29 Rev. Samuel Drisius — Rev. Gideon Schaats 605 

Aug. 5 Salary of Rev. Drisius 605 

6 et seq. Synod of North Holland at Haarlem 605, 606 

Art. 8. Indian Affairs. 

Extracts from letter of Rev. John Megapolensis. 
Art. 15. Rev. Samuel Megapolensis. 
Sept. 15 Gov. Lovelace to the Magistrates of New Castle — Rev. Fabri- 

tius 606, 607 

Jan. 24 Church of New York to Classis of Amsterdam — Death of Rev. 
John Megapolensis — Drisius feeble — Desire for return of 

Selyns 607, 608 

25 Election of Churchmasters, New York 609 

April 13 Gov. Lovelace to Gov. Carr of New Castle — Rev. Fabritius. . . 609 

22 Rent of City-school to be paid 609 

June 5 Church of New York to Classis of Amsterdam — Drisius feeble 

— The chorister conducts service 610 

28 Gov. Lovelace guarantees a salary to any Dutch minister who 
will come to America — Letter from Church of New York, 

read in Classis 611 

July 28 Letter from New York, read in Classis 612 

XXX Table of Contents. 

1670. PAGE, 

Aug. 5 et seq. Synod of North Holland at Amsterdam 612, 613- 

Art. 7. Indian Affairs. 

Abstract of letter of Church of New York of Jan. 
24, 1670. 
Art. 40. Ministerial changes. 

Rev. Samuel Megapolensis. 
Art. 41. Loss of Synodical Acts, 1618-19 — Recovered — 
Translated into Dutch. 

Sept. 10 The Classis of Amsterdam to Church of New York 613, 614 

Dec. 1 Letters from New York reported — Gov. Lovelace's offer 615 

9 Effort to find ministers to go to New York 615 


Montanus's Description of New York 615, 618 

Jan. 19 Order concerning Domine Polhemus 616 

March 16 Letters from New York — Rev. Wm. Nieuwenhuysen chosen 

minister for New York 616, 617 

28 Rev. Aegidius Luyck requested to assist Rev. Drisius 617 

April 6 Rev. Rudolphus Varick '. 617, 618 

May 16 Arrears of salary of ministers 618 

July 10 Gov. Lovelace rebukes the minister at Southold for undue se- 
verity 618, 619 

11 How salary for new Dutch minister is to be raised 619 

14 Ministers' salaries 619, 620 

Aug. 4 et seq. Synod of North Holland at 620 

Art. 12. Indian Affairs — Letter from New York of June 5, 
1670 — Ministerial changes — Rev. Wm. Nieu- 
Aug. 10 Order for a new assessment to pay for a parsonage in Brooklyn. 620 

11 Rev. Jacob Fabritius permitted to preach his farewell 621 

Dec. 5 Support of a poor Lutheran 621 

21 Each church to maintain its own poor 621, 622 


Jan. 5 Ministers for East Indies — Rev. Rudolphus Varick 622 

16 Permit to raise moneys in Delaware for Lutheran Church in 

New York 622 

March 5 Domine Luyck paid for his services 623 

21 Governor's order to pay Mr. Charlton, schoolmaster at Hemp- 
stead 623 

21 Church in the Fort to be repaired 623 

April 4 Rev. Nicolas Van Rensselaer received as a candidate in Classis 

of Amsterdam ■ 623, 624 

June? The Church of New York to the Classis of Amsterdam — Rev. 

Van Nieuwenhuysen 624 

July 13 Contract for salary between Church of New York and Rev. 

Nieuwenhuysen 625, 626 

Sept. 13 Letter from New York without date, read — Van Nieuwen- 
huysen 626 

Table of Contents. xxxi 

1672. PAGE. 

Dec. 6 Concessions, as to Religion, made by Carteret and Berkeley, 

Proprietors of East Jersey 627 


Petition of Lutherans for four hundred acres of land on the 

Delaware 627 


Aug. 8 et seq. Synod of North Holland at Edam 628 

Art. 12. Indian Affairs — Undated letter from New York 
(of June, 1672?), read. 
Aug. 9 Reconquest of New York by the Dutch 628 

Aug. 9, 1673 — Nov. 10, 1G74. 


Nathan Gould's Account of the reconquest of New York by the 

Dutch 628, 629 

Orders to the several towns to send delegates to swear allegiance 

to the Dutch 629, 630 

Aug. 14 Petitions from the English towns on Long Island for freedom 

of religion, etc 630 

15 Dutch Magistrates in New York appointed — only of the Re- 
formed Religion — The Oath exacted 630 

18 Petitions from the English in New Jersey for Freedom of Re- 
ligion 631, 632 

24 Form of Oath for Town Magisti^tes 632 

28 Ordinance for better observance of the Sabbath 632, 633 

29 Forms of Oath for the Dutch and English, respectively 633 

Sept. 1 Petition from Kingston for help to support their minister.... 634 

1 Petition from Albany as to iheir rights under the restored 

Dutch Government 634 

8 The Corporation of New Orange (New York) to the States 
General, respecting the means for prosperity in New Nether- 
land 635, 636 

26 Freedom of Religion granted to Lutherans at Albany 636 

27 Instructions for Andries Draeyer, Commandant at Fort Nassau. 636 

29 Others than Quakers to be elected at Shrewsbury, N. J 636 

29 Instructions for Peter Aldrichs, Commander at South River. . . 637 

Oct. 1 Instructions for the Magistrates of the Dutch villages on Long 

Island 637 

Nov. 15 Proclamation for a Day of Humiliation and Prayer 637 

Dec. 9-19 The States General to Charles II 639 


Jan. 15 Magistrates to be only of tbe Reformed Religion 640 

17 Case of Rev. Jacob Fabritius 640 

Feb. 15 Case of Rev. Jacob Fabritius 640 

24 Petition against Rev. J. Fabritius 041 


Table of Contents. 

March 17 


April 9 





May 9 

June 16 
















Valuation of Property of Inhabitants of New Orange (New 

York) 641-643 

Charles II. to States General 644 

Rev. Rolandus Carpentier 644, 645 

States General to Governor of New Netherland 645 

Rev. Fabritius forbidden to baptize 645 

Case between Wm. Teller and Gideon Schaats 646 

Punishment for disturbing Public Worship 646 

Maintenance of Minister at Jamaica 646, 647 

Petition of Widow Megapolensis for arrears of husband's sal- 
ary, with action thereon ; June 27 647 

Arrears of salary of Rev. Megapolensis 648 

Instructions to Gov. Andros: as to religion 648 

Complaint against Rev. Fabritius 649 

Petition of Church of New York, and confirmation of their 

title to the Church in the Fort — Dutch and English 649 

Duke of York recommends Rev. Nicholas Van Rensselaer to 

one of the Dutch Churches 649, 650 

Merchants to the Admiralty at Amsterdam 651, 652 

Rev. Wm. Van Nieuwenhuysen to Classis of Amsterdam — 

Death of Rev. Drisius — Treaty of Peace — Holland vs. 

France — Condition of Church — Questions 652-655 

Order to put the Duke's Laws of Feb. 28, 1665 in force in New 

York 655, 656 

Action on the Labadists sent to New York 656 

Petition of the Lutherans of Williamstadt for Leave to bury 

their Dead 659, 660 

Election of Churchmasters 660 

Rev. Roelandius Carpentier 661 

Churchmasters confirmed 661 

Conditions of Re-surrender 662 









Oct. 31, Nov. 10, 1674-1683. 

Committee to welcome Gov. Andros 663 

Pass to Rev. B. Arensius, Lutheran, to go to Albany 663 

Proclamation by Gov. Andros, confirming all right as existing 

before 663, 664 

Petition of the Lutherans about non-contributors 664 

Letter from Rev. Nieuwenhuysen, read 664, 665 

Inhabitants of Hempstead petition the Governor for a minister. 665 
The Classis of Amsterdam to Rev. Wm. Nieuwenhuysen. . 667, 668 
Anneke Jans propertj' (owned by Gov. Lovelace), confiscated 

to Duke of York 668 

Table of Contents. xxxiii 

1675. PAGE. 

March 16 Petition of Dutch Burghers of New York to Gov. Andros, as 

to the form of the oath of allegiance 669, 670 

16 Petition of the Dutch Burghers to the States General, as to 

said oath 671, 672 

May 27 Rev. Henry Selyns, Chaplain in the Dutch Army 672 

June 1 Petition of Lutherans for confirmation of grant of land on the 
Delaware of 1672; and for confirmation of Domines Laers 

and Fabritius as their ministers 672, 673 

Declaration of Magistrates of New Castle 673 

Order summoning Ogle and Fabritius before the Governor. . . . 674 

July 26 Warrant sent to Fabritius and Ogle 674 

Aug. 1 ? Petition of Fabritius relative to changes made 675 

July 29 et seq. Synod of North Holland at Haarlem 675, 676 

Art. 30. Labadists. 

Aug. 14 Remonstrance against the ministry of Fabritius 676 

26 Letter from Rev. Selyns on the religious condition of the 

Dutch army 676 

Sept. 7 Rev. Gideon Schaats to Classis of Amsterdam 676, 677 

15 Suspension of Rev. Fabritius 677 

15 Duke of York to Gov. Andros, concerning those who refused to 

take an unconditional oath 677 

25 Domine Van Nieuwenhuysen summoned before the Council — 

Nicholas Van Rensselaer case 678, 67'J 

25-30 Defence of Rev. Van Nieuwenhuysen in reference to the claims 

of Rev. Nicholas Van Rensselaer 679-681 

30 Answer of Domine Van Nieuwenhuysen 681 

Oct. 1 Conditions under which Van Nieuwenhuysen is willing that 

Van Rensselaer should officiate in a Dutch Chiirch. . . . 681, 682 

2 Promise of Van Rensselaer to conform 682 


Dec. 26 Rev. Henry Selyns reports on his army life 682 

March 30 Classis fail to get West India Company to pay arrearages of 

salary of Megapolensis 683 

April 27 The widow Megapolensis 683 

Petition of inhabitants of Esopus for a minister: — Rev. Peter 

Tesschenmaker 683, 684 

May 20-30 Rev. Wm. Van Nieuwenhuysen to the Classis of Amsterdam 

— Rev. Van Rensselaer case 684-686 

26 Widow Megapolensis 686 

July 20 Rev. Casparus Van Zuuren 686-687 

Aug. 15 Affidavits as to Rev. John Megapolensis's loyalty 687 

29 Rev. Wm. Van Nieuwenhuysen to Classis of Amsterdam . . 688, 089 

Sept. 8 Arrest and release of Domine Van Rensselaer 689 

15 Domine Van Rensselaer gives bail 689 

16 Case of Rev. Van Rensselaer 689, 690 

18 Leysler vs. Van Rensselaer 690 

23 Case of Rev. Van Rensselaer 690 

28 Case of Revs. Schaats and Van Rensselaer 690, 691 


xxxiv Table of Contents. 

1677. PAGE. 

Oct. 23 Case of Rev. Van Rensselaer 691 

Petition from Huntington, L. I., against Quakers 691, 692 

March 15 Rev. Casparus Van Zueren — Letter from Rev. Van Nieuwen- 
huysen, read — Death of Rev. Polhemus — Desire for return 
of Rev. Selyns — Rev. Van Zuuren 692, 693 

July 17 Memorial of Bishop of London respecting churches in the Plan- 
tations 693 

26 Extracts from letters — Van Nieuwenhuysen 694 

Aug. 10 et seq. Synod of North Holland at Hoorn 695, 696 

Art. 9. Extract of Indian AflFairs. j 

Abstract of letter of Van Nieuwenhuysen of July 
27, 1676. 
Art. 55. Ministerial changes. 

Rev. Casparus Van Zuuren. 
Rev. Samuel Megapolensis. 
Sept. 26 Church of Kingston to Classis of Amsterdam 697 

27 Petition of the three villages, Kingston, Marbletown and Hur- 

ley, to Gov. Andros, to be permitted to call a preacher.. 697-699 
30 Rev. Casparus Van Zuuren to Classis of Amsterdam.,.. 699-704 
Oct. 4 Petition of East and North Ridings of Long Island for support 

of ministers, schoolmasters, etc 705 


The Classis of Amsterdam to Rev. Casparus Van Zuuren. 705, 706 


March 7 Call of ministers: Rev. Laurentus Gaasbeek to Esopus 706 

18 Huntington and its clergyman 708 

Jan.? Answer of Governor Andros to enquiries about New England 

(Received April 16, 1678) 709 

Jan.- Answer of Governor Andros to enquiries of Council of trade, 

about New York. (Received April 9, 1678) 709 

May 2 Van Zueren's letters 709 

June 24 Matthias Nicols to Rev. Prudden of Jamaica 710 

July 15 Friends in West Jersey resolve to hold Monthly Meetings 710 

Aug. 1 et seq. Synod of North Holland at Enckhuysen 710 

Art. 9. Rev. Rudolphus Varick, received under care of 

Art. 10. Ministerial changes. 

Rev. Laurence Gaasbeeck. 

Oct. 15 English Church Service in New York 711 

30 Rev. Casparus Van Zueren to Classis of Amsterdam 711-719 


Rev. Charles Wooley, chaplain to Gov. Andros 720 


Feb. 6 Minister's House at Albany — Rev. Schaats 720 

May 4 Rev. Casparus Van Zueren to Domine Cornelius Danckerts of 

Amsterdam 721, 722 

26 Prevention of Quaker Meetings at Hempstead 723 

July 24 Letters from Van Suren (Van Zueren) 723 

Table of Contents. xxxv 

1679 PAGE. 

Aug. 4 et seq. Synod of North Holland at Edam 723, 724 

Art. 32. Labadists — Coelman. 
Art. 61. Ministerial changes. 

Died, Rev. William Grasmeer. 
Rev. Gerardus Beekman. 
Martinus Lydius. 
Theodore Brouwer. 
Entered: Rev. Rudolphus Varick. 
Sept. 30 Order of Gov. Andros to the Dutch ministers to examine and 

ordain Rev. Peter Tesschenmaker 724-726 

Oct. 9 Copy of the proceedings of the meeting which ordained Peter 

Teschenmaker 726, 727 

15-25 Rev. Laurentius Van Gaasbeeck to the Classis of Amster- 
dam 727-729 

Nov. — The four Dutch ministers, Schaats, Van Nieuwenhuysen, Van 
Zueren and Van Gaasbeeck, to Classis of Amsterdam. 
(About the first ordination in State of New York, that of 

Peter Teschenmaker) 730-733 

A Minute by an unknown party, about the ordination of Peter 

Teschenmaker 733-735 

Dec. 4 Letters from Rev. Van Zueren, read 735 

31 Commissioners of Schenectady to certain merchants in Amster- 
dam to procure them a minister 735 


Jan. 24 Minister's house at Flatbush ». 736 

29 Letter of the four Dutch ministers (Nov. 1679) who ordained 

Teschenmaker, read 737 

Domine Schaats and the Lutherans 737, 738 

The Classis of Amsterdam to the Dutch ministers in America, 

approving ordination of Teschenmaker 739 

2 The Classis of Amsterdam to the churches of Long Island.. 740, 741 
21 The Classis of Amsterdam to Rev. Caspar Van Zueren. . . 742, 743 
31 Proposals to raise funds to build a new Dutch Church in New 

York 743 

4 Petition of Quakers against fines for celebrating marriages — 

Certificate for Reverend Charles Wolley 744 


1. Frontispiece — New York City about 1667. page. 

2. Seal of the Classis of Amsterdam, Adopted 1638 68 

3. North East and South East Corners of Broad Street and Ex- 

change Place at the Close of the 17th Century 164 

4. Father Isaac Jogues 2i4 

5. Sample of Old Manuscript oog 

6. Address of Letter of Eev. Henry Selyns 540 

7. Dutch House in New York City, 1679 641 

8. Sample of Old Manuscript gg^ 



The worth of contemporary documents for the writing of his- 
tory needs no discussion. The zeal of Americans in searching 
out and accumulating such material has steadily increased since 
the opening of the nineteenth century. By the aid of Historical 
Societies and of Legislatures, thousands of valuable documents 
have been rescued from destruction or oblivion. 

Interest of the State of ]^ew York in Sijoh Documents.* 

The State of 'New York has ever done and is yet doing its share 
in securing and preserving original documents for the elucida- 
tion of her history. Historical inquiry is always an incentive to 
progress, in whatever department it is pursued. It was under 
such a spirit that the New York Historical Society was founded 
in 1804, " The principal design of which should be to collect and 
preserve whatever may relate to the natural, civil or ecclesiastical 
history of the United States, in general, and of this State," New 
York, " in particular." 

This Society had not pursued its objects very long, before it 
was discovered that the attainment of such objects, so various, 
comprehensive and important, requiring so much knowledge, 
research, industry and expense, was beyond the means or ability 
of individual enterprise. Hence the Legislature granted a char- 

• Bee " Introduction " in Vol. i. of Col. Docb. New Torli. 

6 Introduction. 

ter to the said Society in 1809, to facilitate its work, having 
already frequently befriended it by its munificence before. 

It was this Society, in a Memorial prepared by De Witt Clinton 
in 1814, which pointed out to the Legislature, the necessity and 
importance of searching Archives in Europe in order to obtain 
documents for an authentic history of the State. After repeated 
overtures on this subject, and much preliminary work, in order 
to understand what material was already on hand, the New York 
Historical Society again memorialized the Legislature in 1839 on 
the importance of securing official documents from Europe, and 
asked that the Legislature would make an appropriation to this 
end, and appoint an agent to do the work. 

The Memorial was transmitted to the Legislature by Governor 
Seward, with a special message recommending it. 

A Select Committee was appointed by the House, (Loring D. 
Chapin, Chairman), who made a report. This report spoke of the 
former indifference to historical studies; of the importance of 
transcripts from foreign Archives; of the design of Historical 
Societies, and their great importance; of the Tvash of the New 
York Historical Society to have an Agent sent to Europe; of the 
fact that other States were doing this; of the high position of 
New York State in the Union; of the only history of New York 
yet existing — that of William Smith — which was a mere narra- 
tive, and that New York had yet no reliable history; of the fact 
that the relations with Holland and England had been most inti- 
mate, and that there must be many documents in their Archives, 
relating to New York, as well as in those of Erance; and therefore 
it was suggested that four thousand dollars be appropriated, as it 
woidd take at least two years to make the searches. 

The Appointment of J. Romeyn Brodhead. 

A Bill was passed May 2, 1839, that an Agent be appointed to 
visit England, Holland and Erance to secure copies of all desirable 


documents, to be deposited in the office of the Secretary of State, 
subject to the use of the l^&w York Historical Society. Four 
thousand dollars were appropriated to this object. 

The Act was purposely made broad and indefinite. The Agent 
was to exercise his discretion in selecting any documents or papers 
relating to, or in any way affecting the Colonial or other history 
of the State. 

In January, 1841, J. Romeyn Brodhead was selected as such 
Agent. He had been already attached to the American Legation 
at the Hague. He spent considerable time at Albany before start- 
ing on his mission, to learn what documents were already there in 
order to avoid duplications. 

On March 27, 1841, he received specific instructions from Gov- 
ernor Seward: — In these, reference was first made to the Act 
appointing an Agent and its design, and that the " Instructions " 
now given were only advisory. Reference was made to the benefit 
of possessing such documents; to the fact that there must be a 
great quantity of official material relating to America, in Holland, 
England and France; that copies of the Instructions to the Eng- 
lish Governors would be of great use, as well as those to the 
French Governors of Canada; indeed, that all papers in the Euro- 
pean Archives relating to ISTew JSTetherland or ISTew York should 
be secured. He was first to visit Holland, then England, then 
France, and to report to the Governor, and ask further advice. 

Brodhead sailed on May 1, 1841. On February 1, 1845, he 
made an elaborate report to the Governor, Silas Wright, who 
transmitted it to the Legislature, the substance of which is as 
follows : 

Brodhead's Repoet. 

Brodhead's report to the Governor first refers to the anti- 
quarian spirit which led to the formation of the Historical 
Society, and to his appointment; of his interviews vsdth Mr. Steven- 
son, the American Minister in England; of the difficulties of 

8 Intboductiok. 

obtaining access to the documents in England; and of the nec«e- 
sity of temporarily leaving England without success, and pro- 
ceeding to Holland. 

In Holland he was cordially received, and through Mr. Bleecker, 
the American Charge d' Affaires, the King became interested, and 
secured him every facility to the Archives. Reference is then 
made to the riches of the Holland Archives, and their convenient 
arrangement, as well as the excellence of the indexing. He refers 
to the difficulties of the early chirography. He was greatly dis- 
appointed, however, to find that the Records of the West India 
Company had been sold in 1821, for old paper. In Holland, he 
obtained about four thousand pages of transcripts. 

In December, 1841, he returned to London. He now found 
Mr. Everett there as Minister of the United States, who had 
instructions from the President to apply to the British Govern- 
ment to secure facilities for Mr. Brodhead to make searches in 
the English Archives. Lord Aberdeen was Secretary of State. 
Upon Mr. Everett's stating the general object of Mr. Brodhead's 
mission, success finally crowned his efforts, April, 1842, yet not 
without embarrassments and delays. 

Mr. Brodhead in his Report here gives an account of the super- 
vision of the State Paper Office from 1660 onward, and of the 
Records of the Board of Trade, which relate chiefly to the Ameri- 
can colonies. This "Board of Trade" was organized May 15, 
1696, by William III, and was continued until 1782. Its Rec- 
ords make two thousand volumes. This Board had general charge 
of the Plantations, nominated the Governors for the Colonies, 
and reported on their respective administrations, upon the Colonial 
Acts, and examined the Instructions sent to them. Brodhead 
here describes the various sets of Records. He examined over 
five hundred volumes. He also describes his visits to the British 
Museum and other Libraries. He obtained in England about 
seventeen thousand pages of transcripts. The documents relat- 
ing to New York are only full and complete after 1696. 

Introdttction. 9 

He then describes his going to Paris, and the facilities secured 
to him through Mr. Cass, American Minister in France. The 
French Government, from the first, showed every courtesy that 
could be desired. He describes the French Archives in part. He 
there secured six thousand pages of transcripts. 

He embarked for home on July 7, 1844. He states that he was 
obliged to limit his researches from lack of funds. He at once 
reported to the Governor, on his arrival, and spent the rest of the 
year in making a Calendar of the papers secured. He used the 
dates of the Historical Year, beginning January 1, rather than of 
the then English Legal Year, beginning March 25th, and also so 
as to avoid the confusion of Old and ]!!Tew Style. 

He expended in all twelve thousand dollars, not to speak of 
considerable private expense incurred besides. 

Action on Bkodhead's Report. 

This Report with the Governor's message was referred to a 
special Committee, who reported on May 5, 1845 : 

They said, in substance : — • A respect for the memorials of the 
past was a mark of advanced civilization. Savages and irrational 
animals care only for the present, and are indifferent to the past 
and the future. With the growth of intelligence there comes 
solicitude for the future; but it requires a still higher degree of 
progress to develop an interest in the past. The monuments of 
antiquity are passed by as rubbish, until an enlightened desire 
is awakened to understand the foundations of society, and the 
sources of national greatness. America was long reproached 
because she took no pains to preserve her ancient records. This 
was no longer true. 

To remove this reproach, it was only necessary to show the char- 
acter of its early founders, whose Fatherland was a model of free- 
dom and prosperity. The Report then referred to the action of 
the Historical Society and to the Act of the Legislature appoint- 

10 Introduction. 

ing an Agent to go to Europe to procure copies of all important 
documents; of the successive appropriations aggregating twelve 
thousand dollars; of the appointment of Brodhead, and of his 
efforts, with the voluminous results. Certain of the early inter- 
esting documents were referred to. It was recommended that 
the documents in foreign languages should be translated. The 
Report referred to the great lack of documents and even of any 
proper knowledge of jSTew York before 1638, until these docu- 
ments were brought over. A letter of Bancroft was also referred 
to, expressing his deep sense of their importance. 

FuKTHEE Action on the Brodhead Documents. 

The Brodhead documents remained for several years in the 
condition in which they were, when deposited in the Secretary's 
office. They were subsequently removed to the new State Hall 
at Albany. Secretary Morgan then had all the other records 
arranged and bound, making two hundred large folio volumes. 
It was now suggested that a general Calendar of the entire Archives 
should be made. 

In 1848 an Act was passed for translating certain of these Dutch 
and French documents. This was done by Dr. E. B. O'Callaghan, 
and on January 5, 1849, these were ordered to be printed. In 
April, 1850, a second volume of Documentary History was printed, 
containing some of the Brodhead documents. On March 30, 1849, 
another Act was passed to provide for the further publication of 
Colonial Documents. 

It was finally determined to print all the documents, and Dr. 
O'Callaghan was appointed General Manager. In Assembly 
Document 66 (1851), and Senate Document 24 (1853), and the 
annual reports of the Comptroller, may be found detailed state- 
ments of the progress of this work. The publication was to 
consist of ten quarto volimies. Volumes 1 and 2 were to be Hol- 
land Documents ; volumes 3 to 8, London Documents ; and volumes 

Introduction. 11 

9 and 10, Paris Documents. Volume 3 was first issued. This 
was in 1853, and the others rapidly appeared. 

The Usefulness of these Documents. 

Accurate histories of the Empire State in part or in whole, have 
greatly multiplied since the State has possessed this material. We 
need only refer to O'Oallaghan's History of l^ew iNetherland, 
coming down to 1664; Brodhead's History of New York, coming 
down. to 1691. Mr. Brodhead died in 1873. We need not speak 
of many others. Scores also of local histories have heen written, 
drawing chiefly, or largely, from this material. Histories also of 
Religious Denominations and of individual churches have multi- 
plied : as Perry's History of the Episcopal Church ; Shea's History 
of the Catholic Church; Corwin's Manual of the Eeformed 
Church ; Briggs' History of Presbyterianism, and many others ; be- 
sides the thirteen volumes of the American Church History Series, 
embracing all denominations. Almost every one of these histories 
resorted to this great storehouse of facts — the Documentary His- 
tory and Colonial Documents — furnished by the State of !N'ew 
York, for much of their material. 

The further history of the procurement of Ecclesiastical Docu- 
ments by Mr. Brodhead in 1841-4, and of the subsequent addi- 
tions to the same, may perhaps be best given by extracts from a 
Report made by the writer, who recently spent fifteen months in 
Holland on a similar business: 

When Mr. Brodhead started on his mission, the Rev. Dr. 
Thomas De Witt, one of the pastors of the Collegiate Church of 
New York, requested him to seek access also to some of the Eccle- 
siastical Archives in Holland, (See Brodhead's Address, 1844, p. 
8,) to ascertain whether there was not material to be found 
therein which would throw light on the early history of the 
churches of New York and New Jereey. This request was in 

12 Introduction. 

perfect harmony with, his main enterprise, and he cheerfully 
consented. His letter, making application to the ecclesiastical 
authorities in Holland, in 1841, for permission to search their 
Archives, was found by the writer in his recent researches, as 
well as several letters of Rev. Thomas De Witt bearing on the 
same subject. Mr. Brodhead's application begins as follows : 

" The undersigned, commissioned by the Governor of the State 
of New York, as Agent, for the purpose of procuring in Holland, 
England and France, documents illustratiag the early history of 
the State, begs leave to submit a few observations to your Rev. 
body ". He then briefly refers to the early planting of the 
in their (Holland) Archives for the elucidation of the social and 
religious history of the State. He adds : " The Revolutionary 
War . . . was no doubt the cause why so many of our 
precious records and memorials, which were deposited with the 
different churches and ministers, are not now to be found. Great 
exertions have been made, and are now making, to recover what- 
ever is possible of these papers. . . . Unless the requisite- 
material can be procured, it is obvious that we can never hope to 
have a full and perfect history of our church written, which is 
now an object of such great interest. . . . The documents 
and papers in the Archives of the Classis " (of Amsterdam) " relat- 
ing to the churches in 'New iN'etherland . . . are of the high- 
est importance to the historian in New York. . . . They 
would furnish a rich treasure from whence to draw materials for 
the contemplated history . . . and would perpetuate the 
remembrance of former times, and of the gratitude due to our 
ancestors of the Fatherland. . . . ". 

" Submitting most respectfully these observations to the Rev. 

The undersigned has the honor to be. Reverend Gentlemen, 
Your obedient servant, 
Amsterdam, J. Romeyn Brodhead." 

6th Sept. 1841. '. 

Inteoduotion. 13 

His request was cheerfully granted. Mr. Brodhead, however, 
could not make these particular searches himself, but he employed 
Mr. Prins, then Stated Clerk of the Olassis of Amsterdam, and 
a Mr. Vander Broek, an elder of the church there, and who 
had also been the United States Consul in Amsterdam, to make 
these searches for him. They did not, however, make their 
investigations exhaustive. 

They examined FIRST, as the Documents then obtained, show, 
the seven volumes of the Correspondence, in which the letters 
of the Classis of Amsterdam to their Colonial Churches in all 
quarters of the world, were recorded. Transcripts were made 
from these volumes, of much of the material relating to America, 
amounting to about nine hundred pages. 

In the SECOND PLACE, the parties employed to make these 
searches, sought out the letters sent from America to the Classis. 
Eor while the Classis kept copies of the letters which they sent 
to the churches abroad, the letters from the Foreign Churches 
to the Classis, were kept on file. At the time of Mr. Brodhead's 
visit, (1841), they were stored away in bundles, according to some 
method of classification, not now exactly understood. Out of 
hundreds of such bundles, only seven were then found relating 
to America. Five of these bundles related to the Dutch Churches 
of !N"ew York and ISTew Jersey, and two of them to the German 
Churches in 'New York, ISTew Jersey and Pennsylvania. These 
seven bundles Avere placed in Mr, Brodhead's hands as a loan to 
the General Synod of the Reformed Dutch Church in America, 
for the term of four years, 1842-46. It was supposed at the time, 
that these embraced all the letters, which had been written in 
America, and sent to the Classis. At the end of the four years, 
upon the earnest and repeated request of Rev. Dr. Thomas De 
Witt, the ownership of these original letters was transferred ab- 
solutely to the General Synod of the Dutch Church in America. 

14 In^tkodtjction". 

Tbaistsi^tion of the Brodhead Ecclesiastical Material. 

isTow most of this Correspondence then obtained, — both that of 
the Classis to America, and that of the American Churches to the 
Classis — was translated about 1875, under the auspices of the 
Synod's Committee for the selection of books for the Sage Library 
(in l^ew Brunswick, K J.)^ This work was done by students of 
Dutch descent, then in the Theological Seminary at New Bruns- 
wick, IN". J. But these translations did not always prove to be in 
the best English idiom. They have, therefore, been revised by 
the writer, as opportunity permitted during the intervening years. 
This material which was secured by Mr. Brodhead, approximates 
to a couple of thousand pages and was largely utilized^ by the 
writer in his Article on " The Church in the Colonial Period ", 
in the volume known as " The Centennial Discourses^" 1876 ; and 
also in the Third Edition of his " Manual of the Eeformed Church 
in America, 1879." 

Calendar of the Brodhead Ecclesiastical Material. 

But while engaged in the preparation of the works just alluded 
to, the writer gradually made for his own use a " Calendar " in 
Chronological order, of all the ecclesiastical material obtained by 
Brodhead, as well as of other similar material in the possession 
of the Synod. He also included in this Calendar the titles of other 

1 This Committee consisted of the Faculty of the New Brunswick Seminary — Rev. 
Drs. S. M. Woodbridge, John De Witt, David Demarest, Abraham B. Van Zandt, 
together with a Committee of co-operation — Rev. Drs. Talbot W. Chambers, 
Chester D. Hartranft and Edward T. Corwin. In 1878 Dr. Hartranft removed to 
Hartford, Ct., and Rev. Dr. Jacob Cooper, of Rutgers College, was appointed in his 
place. Meetings were held monthly for ten years, 1875-85, and books amounting to 
sixty thousand dollars were added to the Sage Library. This Library contains the 
best collection on Holland, civil and ecclesiastical, in America. 

* Broadhead in his history of New York, which unfortunately only extends down 
to 1691, constantly quotes from these letters. A third volume of his History of New 
York, 1691-1705, was almost ready for the press in 1873, when he died. Could not 
this portion of his papers yet be recovered and edited? They cover a very important 
period, 1691-1705, in the history of New York. O'Callaghan also quotes from these 
same documents. 

Introduction. 15 

documents, incidentally alluded to, in the documents already pos- 

As lie proceeded in this work, it became increasingly evident 
that hardly half the Holland documents, which were certainly once 
in existence, were now in the possession of the Church in this 
country. This fact was confirmed by Rev. E. Randall Hoes, a 
chaplain in the l!^avy, and a devoted student of Colonial Church 
History, who visited Holland in 1885, and spent a month in the 
Church Archives. He found two portfolios containing more than 
three hundred documents written in America, mostly additional 
to those obtained by Brodhead. He also noticed that the Minutes 
of the various ecclesiastical bodies — those of the Classis and of the 
Deputies — had not been examined in 1841, at least to any great 
extent. He reported these facts to the General Synod of 1887, 
and that Body, understanding that Rev. E. T. Corwin was about 
to visit Holland for his health, authorized him to negotiate for the 
additional material. (See Minutes of Greneral Synod, 1887, pages 
440-2.) He could not secure a meeting of the Classis, as the minis- 
ters, with two exceptions, were out of Amsterdam on their vaca- 
tion; but he obtained access to the Archives, and he was abun- 
dantly confirmed in the belief that there was a large quantity of 
additional material. He, therefore, addressed a communication 
to the Classis, explaining the -wish of the Synod; referring to the 
material before obtained in 1841, and of the loan and ultimate 
gift of the letters from America to the Synod; and of the desire 
of the Synod to translate and print all the documents relating to 
America, when the collection was complete. This communication 
was translated into Dutch and fifty copies printed for distribu- 
tion among members of the Classis. The Classis in due time 
replied, expressing their joy at the interest manifested in these 
historical studies in America, and their willingness to facilitate 

» This Calendar was alao made ultimately to include references to most of the 
similar material, both civil and ecclesiastical, relating to all phases of our colonial 
■church history, of all denominations. 

1^ Inteoduction. 

them in any way in their power; but they could not comply 
with the Synod's request. They could not loan documente, and 
could not even consider the matter of selling them, as they be- 
longed to the " TJniversitas." 

Eeseaeches by De. Cobwin, 1897-8. — Peepaeatoey and 


The above facts were duly reported to the Synod of 1888 (pages 
685-6), but the matter remained in abeyance for several years. In 
1895, however, Eev. Dr. T. W. Chambers requested the writer to 
furnish a copy of his Calendar of these ecclesiastical documents 
obtained by Brodhead, for the Library of the Collegiate Church, 
that renewed efforts might be initiated by that Church to 
secure the additional material. The Calendar would show what 
documents were already on hand, and avoid duplication in 
the new efforts. His request was complied with, but before the 
copy was delivered. Dr. Chambers died. Correspondence now 
sprung up among the remaining members of the Committee (Revs. 
D. D. Demarest, E. T. Corwin and R. E. Hoes), on this subject, 
and interest in it was revived. This led to the calling of a meet- 
ing of a number of gentlemen on June 1, 1896, to consider the 
whole matter. This inaugurated a new enterprise for the procur- 
ing of this material. Meantime Eev. Dr. Samuel M. Jackson of 
Is^ew York, Secretary of the American Church History Society, 
hearing of this movement, requested the wT-iter to prepare a Paper, 
to be read before the Society in December, 1896 on " THE AM- 
STEEDAM COEEESPOisTDEKCE." This was done. The 
Paper was printed in the proceedings of the Society, and five hun- 
dred copies separately, for private circulation. A report of the 
Committee had also been made, to the Synod of 1896 (pages 
499, 500,) which renewed the Synod's interest in the matter; and 
circulars were issued about the same time, asking for one hundred 
dollar subscriptions, or, lesser amounts, to raise five thousand 

Inteocuction. 17 

dollars to carry the enterprise of securing those documents to 

Financial arrangements having been partially made by the Com- 
mittee having the business in charge, the writer left New York 
on August 21, 1897, and was safely located in Amsterdam on 
the first day of September. Every facility that could be desired 
was soon accorded him by the Classis of Amsterdam, which 
received him most courteously. They gave him the use of their 
large ministerial chamber in the Consistory Building, erected in 
one of the angles of the I^ew Church in Amsterdam, except when 
it was wanted for other purposes. Not only here did he have 
most excellent accommodations, in a large, well-lighted, airy-room,, 
with extensive tables; but they also granted him as the representa- 
tive of the American Reformed Dutch Church, whose credentials 
he carried, free and unrestricted access to the rich Archives of the 
Classis. He remained in Amsterdam for nine months, occupied 
daily, with few exceptions, in the duties undertaken. The Synod 
of North Holland, whose Archives are in the same apartments as 
those of the Classis, granted him similar privileges. In the early 
part of June he removed to the Hague, where equal facilities were 
accorded him in the Archives of the General Synod, which are 
there located. Here he remained for five months in similar occu- 
pation, except a visit to Great Britain in the month of August. 

* The pamphlet above alluded to, " The Amsterdam Correspondence." gives a 
pretty full history of the whole enterprise down to date. The Circulars issued add 
some information, as well as the Reports to the General Synod, 1896, pages 499. 500: 
1897, pages 774-6; 1898, pages 250-2; 1899, pages 572-4. There were also not a few 
Articles on the subject, about that time In the Christian Intelligencer; e. g. on 
April 1, 1896; Sept. 29, 1897; Nov. 17, 1897; Jan. 5, 1898; Feb. 23, 1898; May 25. 
1898; July, 1898; together with numerous other Articles by Drs. Suydam, Van Pelt, 
Good; as well as Editorials on the Subject. 



The Minutes of the (Old) Classis of Amsterdam. 

The Acts of the (Old) Classis are contained in eighteen large 
volumes, and extend from 1582-1816, as follows: 

Vol. 1 from 1582-1605. 

Vol. 10 from 1715-1730. 

















" 11 


" 12 


" 13 


a 14 


" 15 


" 16 


a ^^ 


'' 18 


Vol. 19, Extracts from Vols. 6-9 from 1655-1705. 

They were generally very closely written, one of their pages 
making three or four of modern foolscap, when transcribed. Un- 
til about 1700, they were written in the old Gothic chirogTaphy, 
a peculiar script, imlike either the German or Latin script. 

The writer did not think it necessary to examine Volumes 1 
and 2, as they antedated the settlement of ISTew York, but Vol- 
umes 3 to 18^ were carefully examined, page by page, with 
the one object in view of securing everything relating to !N"ew 
York and New Jersey. References were kept to every item of this 
kind, and transcripts secured, amounting to three hundred and 
eighty-two pages. These Extracts the writer had bound in two 
volumes with dates and appropriate titles. They cover a period 
of one hundred and seventy-eight years from 1632, the date of the 
examination of Domine Everardus Bogardus, until 1810, when the 
last lament is recorded, " ISTo news from New York and New Jer- 

» Vol. 19, consisting of Extracts relating to the Foreign churches, taken from Vols. 
6 to 9, (1655-1705), was also carefully examined. Having been made later in 
another chirography, and no doubt for the convenience of the Deputies, it was often 
of great service when the Gothic chirography was very difficult to read. 

Introduction. 19 

sey." It is believed that everything in the Minutes of the Classis, 
relating to the American Dutch Churches, will be found in these 

The Minutes of the Deputati Ad Res Exteras. 

The Minutes of the " Deputies of the Classis on Foreign 
Affairs," consists of six folio volumes, running, as numbered, from 
twenty to twenty five, and cover a period of one hundred and 
sixty six years, or from 1639-1804, as follows : 

Vol. 20 from 1639-1663. 

" 21 " 1663-1720. 

" 22 " 1721-1744. 

'" 23 " 1744-1751-1756.^ 

" 24 " 1751-1781. 

" 25 " 1781-1804. 

These Deputies were a sort of Permanent Executive Committee 
of Classis, having special charge of the Colonial Churches in all 
parts of the world. They corresponded not only with the Ameri- 
can Dutch and German churches, but with those in the West 
Indies, Guiana and Brazil ; with those in Guiana and the Cape of 
Good Hope ; with those in Hindustan, Ceylon, Borneo, Java, For- 
mosa and other islands of the Pacific, as well as wdth Japan; and 
wath individual churches in several cities of the Russian and 
Turkish Empires, and other parts of Europe. They provided 
ministers and Comforters of the Sick for these churches or locali- 
ties; made various arrangements, financial and otherwise, in their 
behalf, with the Great Commercial Companies doing business 
with these lands; endeavored to settle difficulties which arose; 
gave advice, kept Minutes of their proceedings, recorded their 

• Vol. 23 carries oa the Minutes from 1744-1751, wlien tiiey are continued in Voi. 
24. But the Extracts from Foreign letters found In all these Minutes, are con- 
tinued In Vol. 23, down to 1758; and these are then further continued in Vols. 33 
and 34. Vols. 24 and 25 are supposed to contain " Minutes " only; but some letters 
have slipped in. i 

20 Introduction. 

letters, filed those received from abroad, made Extracts of the 
same for the information of the Classis, and reported monthly or 
oftener thereon. In writing to the churches abroad, they acted 
under general or specific instructions in each case. Their Minutes 
exhibited the same multitudinous variety of subjects as those of 
the Classis, and until about 1700 the same peculiar Gothic 
chirography. The writing is extremely compact, yet perfectly 
clear, although difficult to read. 

The Coerespondence Between the Classis of Amsterdam 
AND THE Colonial Churches. 

The Minutes of the Classis and of the Deputies constantly 
allude to the Correspondence. The letters to the Colonies were 
prepared by the Deputies, subject to the approval of the Classis. 
The Deputies also received all letters from abroad, and reported 
them to the Classis. This Correspondence was maintained with 
about a score of places in the East and West Indies. 

The Letters of the Classis to the Foreign Churches. 

There are now seven volumes of such letters in the Old Ar- 
chives, which are numbered from 26-32 and run from 164S-1804, 
as follows:"^ 

Vol. 26 from 1648-1655. 













'' Between 1714-1720 very few documents or letters are found. There are also 
several smaller gaps. 

Introduction. 21 

These volumes contain many hundreds of letters. An odd 
Volume, 39 (1636-1648), constitutes, in certain respects, a pre- 
liminary volume to this set, as well as to the volumes of Minutes 
of the Deputies. There was once, another volume, still earlier 
than 39, ending in 1635, according to the " Inventory ", (or 
Catalogue) but which is damaged to such an extent as to be use- 
less. The injury to this volume must have occurred before 1816, 
as it was not numbered, when the other volumes were numbered. 
Vol. 26, the first of this set, as now numbered, runs from 1648- 
1655, when an hiatus occurs of about eleven years, suggesting 
lanother lost volume, but to which no allusion is made in the 
^' Inventory ". The other volumes of Correspondence, ]^os. 27-32, 
run without break from 1666-1804. Vol. 28, of this set, is said 
in the " Inventory " to be lost; but there is now a volume in the 
Archives, quite dilapidated, apparently unnumbered, and which 
just fills in the gap, and is, no doubt, the once lost volume 28. 
Vols. 30, 31 and 32, are designated on their covers, respectively 
as "Copy-book, Part I"; "Copy-book, Part n"; "Copy-book, 
Part III " ; this word being used in the sense of a volume in which 
letters are copied or recorded. 

Vol. 30 Copy-book, Part I; Letters 1-136. 

" 31 " " " II; " 1-314. 

" 32 " " " in; " 1-95, the balance of 
the letters being unnumbered. 

!N"ow it was from these seven volumes of Correspondence, Nos. 
26-32, that most of the material obtained by Brodhead in 1841-4, 
was secured. The nine hundred pages then obtained have already 
been referred to in this Report. 

The searchers employed by Brodhead do not seem to have ex- 
amined the Minutes of the Classis at all; to have made a very 

22 Intkodtjction. 

cursory examination of the Minutes of the Deputies, and to have 
done nothing with the Minutes of the Synod of l^orth Holland. 
They seem to have supposed that the transcription of the items 
in the Correspondence would sufficiently cover everything. 
Neither did they examine the odd volume, 'No. 39. If they had 
examined the Minutes of the Classis, and Vol. 39, they could not 
well have missed the references to Michaelius and Bogardus 
which are contained therein. But Michaelius was yet utterly un- 
known to Brodhead when he published the first edition of Vol. I. 
of his history of !N'ew York in 1853, twelve years after these 
searches; and indeed the items in these volumes were not dis- 
covered, until after the discovery of the famous Michaelius letter 
in 1857. This led to an examination, under the auspices of Hon. 
Henry C. Murphy, of the Minutes of the Classis and the Deputies, 
and brought to light the few references therein, to Michaelius.^ 

We may now be reasonably sure that we have all the material 
written by the Classis to our churches, so far as it now exists in 
their Archives ; part of it being in the bound volume of nine hun- 
dred pages in the Xew Brunswick Archives, and part being in 
the present collection. These two lots are intermingled in this 

The Letteks of the Foreign Churches to the Chassis. 

The Classis has many thousands of such letters on file, at pres- 
ent arranged in twenty five large Portfolios, with titles accord- 
ing to the countries from which they came. The present Classifi- 
cation, the writer was informed, was made about 1880, by Drs. 
Kogge and Scheltema, at the request of the Classis. There are 
now four Portfolios containing letters from the East Indies; three 
containing letters from Ceylon ; seven from the West Indies ; two 
from Curacoa and Surinam; one from the smaller islands of the 
West Indies; two from the Cape of Good Hope; three from l^orth 

» Col. DocB. N. T. 11. 759. 

Introduction. 23 

America, of whicli two contain letters from 'New York and !N"ew 
Jersey being the residue of those not found in 1842 ; and one from 
Pennsylvania; while one Portfolio contains letters of a miscel- 
laneous kind. 

If this classification had existed in 1842, we would, no doubt, 
have received, at that time, the loan of the entire collection of 
letters written in America; but only about one half were then 
placed in Mr. Brodhead's hands. But the belief, excited by the 
construction of the writer's Calendar in 1875, that there must be 
a large additional number of letters in existence, and the actual 
discovery of the same by Chaplain Hoes, in 1885, owing to the 
new classification of all the filed letters in 1880, led, ultimately, 
as we have seen, to the enterprise of sending the writer to Hol- 
land in 1897, for a new search, and the acquisition of copies of 
this new material. Among the first things which he did upon 
reaching Amsterdam, was carefully to examine the two port- 
folios of letters from Nevr York and New Jersey, in the very hand 
writing of the early Domines, and compare their titles and dates 
with his Calendar of similar letters already prepared. While 
there were a few duplicates, about ninety per cent of them were 
new material, and were needed, to complete our collection. Tran- 
scribers were at once set to work, and the resiilts are exhibited 
in four large volumes of transcriptions, making about a thousand 

These transcriptions are thus arranged: 

Vol. I. 1700-1730. 

" 11. 1731-1750. 

" III. 1751-1754. 

" IV. 1755-1788; 

but these do not include the American letters obtained by Brod- 
head in 1842. The two lots are to be commingled in this publi- 

24 Introdttction". 

This new material is all between 1700 and 1800. Among these 
letters and documents are recovered the lost Minutes of several 
sessions of the Coetus, or early American Classis, subsequent 
to 1754, representing some of the most important Acts of that 
body in connection with the assumption of independence by the 
Dutch Church. But we are sarry to say that the Minutes of sev- 
eral sessions of that body are still missing, but all the facts are 
probably covered by the Correspondence of the period. There are 
also several lengthy and important papers among the documents 
now recovered, upon special local, or personal themes, which will 
clear up not a few obscure points in the history of the last century. 
We cannot here refer to these documents in detail. These new 
found documents are about three hundred and twelve in number, 
often with other documents appended.^ 

The Minutes of the Synod of IsToeth Holland. 

The Minutes of this Synod begin as far back as 1572, ten years 
before those of the Classis of Amsterdam, reaching into the very 
days of Spanish tyranny. The Minutes of all the Particular 
Synods of the N'orthern ISTetherlands from 1572-1620, have re- 
cently been collected together and printed, in eight volumes. 
This publication is very valuable, and although antedating the 
settlement of 'New York, contains much matter of great historical 
interest to Americans. A set of these Minutes was purchased for 
the Collegiate Church of ISTew York. There is also a set of the 
same in the Sage Library at ISTew Brunswick, IT. J.^^ 

» These appended documents are called " Bylagen ", meaning Attached Documents, 
Supplements or Appendix-es. 

"> This publication Is edited by Reitsma and Van Veen, and was printed by 
Wolters of Groningen. The first volume was Issued in 1891, and the eighth appeared 
in 1899. From 1608-1618, the Synod of North Holland did not hold any sessions, on 
account of the civil and theological troubles then developing, and which led to the 
holding of the National Synod of Dort, 1618-19. At the close of the Minutes of 1608, 
occurs a Latin note, which reads as follows: " From this time, 1608, until the year 
of our Lord, 1618, the Annual Synodlcai Assembly could not be held, according to 
Its wonted custom, on account of the excessive troubles, with the dissensions In the 
Church. At the restoration of ecclesiastical and civil order, a Provincial Synod was 
legally held, and afterward a National Synod, as convoked by public authority, In 
the year 1618." 

Inteoduction. 25 

The writer began his examination of the Minutes of the North 
Holland Synod with the year 1621. His researches in this field 
were carried on partly at the Hague. All the volumes were care- 
fully examined between 1621 and 1810, covering a period of one 
hundred and ninety years. The examinations and departures 
of the ministers (to the Colonies) are quite regularly reported 
therein. Brief extracts from the letters from the Colonies, includ- 
ing, of course, New Netherland, are also quite generally given. 

The writer was pleased to find the name of Jonas Michaelius 
our first American Minister, 1628, in the Minutes of the Synod 
of North Holland, in the year 1621 and 1624. On the first 
occasion he is mentioned as a delegate from the Classis of Enk- 
huysen, to the Synod, coming from the Church of Hem, a little 
hamlet near the city of Hoorn; and in the second instance, as 
being dismissed from Hem, by the same Classis, in order to go 
to San Salvador, in Brazil; but strange to say, no further refer- 
ences to him are found in the Minutes of the Synod of North 
Holland, although he was probably sent by the same Classis of 
Enkhuysen to New York, and which should have been reported 
to this Synod, in 1628 or 1629. The records of the Classis of 
Enkhuysen were burned in 1838, in a fire which consumed the 
Groote Kerk there, and hence we could not examine into the 
matter from that source. 

The transcriptions from these Synodical Minutes amount to 
about fourteen hundred pages, and are bound in five volumes, 
which are properly " titled " and " dated ".^^ 

" These transcriptions »re as follows: 
Vol. I. 1621-1642. 
II. 1643-1666. 
" III. 1667-1683. 
" IV. 1684-1729. 
V. 1730-1810. 
But mnch of the material secured from these Synodical Minutes, of interest In a 
general way, the writer did not feel warranted to put among the material published 
by the State. 

26 Introduction. 

The Aechives of the General Synod. 

It is proper here to say a few words, in passing, about the 
Archives of the GENERAL SYNOD of the Church of the 
Netherlands. Their General Synod as a distinct body, dates back 
only to 1816. With the Minutes of this body,^ this Report has no 
special interest, as they do not reach back to the Colonial Period. 
But the Archives of the General Synod contain a unique collec- 
tion of records and documents, and are the most extensive Eccle- 
siastical Archives in the country. They are located in the 
" Synodical Building " at 100 Java street, in the Hague. The 
older records are kept in two very large iron safes, on the lower 
floor. Therein are found the original Minutes of those six early 
Synodical Conventions from 1568-1586,-^^ which formulated the 
government of the Dutch Church, and also adopted its standards 
— 'the Belgic Confession and the Heidelberg Catechism. Here 
are also the original Minutes of the great and famous Synod of 
Dort, 1618-19, in nineteen large volumes. ■'^* They are in the 
Latin language, and after two hundred and seventy years, are yet 
in a perfect state of preservation, the ink being just as black as if 
written yesterday. Here are to be seen the original signatures 
of all the delegates from most of the countries of Europe. All 
these signatures are repeated five times, as they are subscribed 
separately, to each of the five Heads of Doctrine involved; and 
each set of signatures occupies five pages. The writer also had 
photographic copies of these signatures taken.-^^ Here are also 

" These Minutes have been regularly printed since 1816, and a set of them Is to 
Bfr' found in the Sage Library at New Brunswick, N. J. 

" Of Wesel, 1568; of Embden, 1571; of Dordrecht, 1574 and 1578; of Middleburg, 
1581; and of the Hague, 1586. These have been printed in the " Groot Plakaat 
Boek " and the " Kerkelyk Plakaat Boek ", and in many other editions, but never 
yet, in full, in English. 

" Ail the business of this Synod, which lasted for six months, was conducted In 
Latin. Latin and Dutch editions of the proceedings were soon issued; but, perhaps, 
only one Latin edition of the " Post-Acta " was ever published, and hence, prob- 
ably, its scarcity. But the Latin being the original, and, therefore, especially 
desirable, photographic copies of the original sixty-four pages were secured. 

" Since writing the above, the Post-Acta In both Latin and Dutch, in parallel 

Introduction. 27 

the original Minutes and ISTotes of the Translators of the Dutch 
Bible of 1637, filling many volumes. These Archives also con- 
tain manuscript sets of the Minutes of each of the Particular 
Synods of Holland, — of Gelderland, Friesland, Overyssel, Gron- 
ingen, Utrecht, South Holland and ISTorth Holland, with many 
individual duplicate volumes. The Minutes of the old Classis 
of DeKt, in seven volumes, are also here, and perhaps those of 
other Classes. The loose documents belonging to the Synod of 
South Holland, (whose Archives are also here), are very numer- 
ous, among which are many documents relating to Pennsylvania. 
There are very few papers here relating to I^ew York, as their 
Correspondence was almost exclusively wirth the Classis of Amster- 
dam, and the Synod of I^orth Holland. Here is also a set of 
the Great Edict Book, (Groot Plakaat Boek), of the States-Gen- 
eral, containing all the Edicts, civil and ecclesiastical,-'^^ for about 
two centuries. This work is printed in seven huge volumes. 
The Edicts relating especially to the Church have also been 
collected out of this great work, and are found in the " Eccle- 
siastical Edict Book " (Kerckelyke Plakaat Boek), which is 
printed in four smaller volumes.-^^ Here are also countless docu- 

columns, have been issued by Dr. H. H. Kuyper, in one volume of five hundred and 
thirty pages, octavo, under the following title: 

" De Post-Acta of Nahandellngen van de Nationale Synode van Dordrecht in 1618 
en 1619 Gehouden, naar den autheutieken tekst in het Latyn en Nederlandsch* 
uitgegeven en met toelichtingen voorzien, voorafgegaan door De Geschiedenls van de 
Acta, de Autographa en de Post-Acta dler Synode en Gevolgd door de Geschiedenls 
van de Revisie der Belydeniddchrlften en der Liturgle benevens de Volledlge Lyst 
der Gravamina op de Dordtsche Synode ingedlend Een Historische Studie door Dr. 
H. H. Kuyper, Bedienaar des Woords te Leeuwarden. Boekhandel, voorheen 
Hovoker en Wormser. Amsterdam. Pretoria ". 

Or: " The Post-Acta, or After-Acta of the National Synod of Dort, held In 1618-19 
published according to the authentic text of the Latin and Dutch, and provided with 
explanations; preceded by the history of the Acts, the Autographs and the Post- 
Acta of this Synod, and followed by the History of the Revision of the Confession 
of Faith and the Liturgy; together with a complete list of the Gravamina presented 
at the Synod of Dort. A Historical Study by Dr. H. H. Kuyper, Minister of the 
Word at Leewardon. Hoveker and Wormser. Amsterdam and Pretoria." (1899). 

" Even all the doctrinal parts of the Synod of Dort are In full in this Groot 
Plakaat Boek, with the names of the delegates. There is a copy of this work in the 
New York State Library; in the Sage Library at New Brunswick,- N. J., and a copy 
Is owned by Rev. E. T. Corwin. The copy in State Library was secured by Brod- 
head. See Col. Docs. N. Y. i. 27. 

" A copy of this work was bought for the Collegiate Church of New York. The 
Sage Library has only the first two volumes. 

2° Intboductiow. 

ments relating to the Colonial Churches in all parts of tRe world. 
A printed Catalogue of these Archives, called the Old Sjnodical 
Archives, (Oud Synodaal Archief) was prepared bj H. Q. Jans- 
sen, 1876, containing one hundred and ninety six pages, several 
copies of which were secured. One was given to the Library of the 
Collegiate Church, New York; one to the Sage Library, New 
Brunswick, K J. ; one to the Library of Theological Seminary, 
Holland, Mich. ; one to State Library, New York; and the writer 
has one. 

Limitations in these Eesearches. 

It was impossible, under limitations of time and means, to make 
more extensive researches in these several Archives. 

As the Synods communicated their business to one another, 
corroborations of the facts of our American history would, more 
or less fully, be found, and occasionally additional facts might 
have been secured, by such examinations. ^^ If circumstances had 
permitted, items of interest might have been looked up also at 
the birth-places, or settlements of the early Dutch ministers, as the 
Church records are, generally, very complete. The General Cata- 
logues of the Universities ' indicate the ages, residences, depart- 
ments of study and other particulars, of nearly all of the early 
Dutch ministers.^^ 

The writer had also intended to visit the town of Hem, near 
Hoorn, to try to discover additional facts from the church there, 
about Eev. Jonas Michaelius, who was settled there from 1614- 
1624, when he went to Brazil; but sad to say, the records of this 

*» E. g. The Coetus of Pennsylvania reported quite fully to the Synod of South 
Holland the overtures for union made to them by the Coetus of New York, 1763-1770. 
The Synod of South Holland seems to have as much, if not more material, relating 
to Pennsylvania, than the Synod of North Holland and the Ciassis of Amsterdam. 
This has been obtained by Rev. Dr. James I. Good, of Reading, Pa., and Prof. 
Hinke, of Philadelphia. 

" The General Catalogue is styled, " Album Studiosorum " 

Many facts as to the places from which these ministers came, their ages, the de- 
partments of study — medicine, jurisprudence, or theology — will be found in these 
Alba Studiosorum. Those of Leyden and Utrecht were purchased for the Collegiate 
Church. That of Groningen is owned by the writer. 

Inteoduction. 29 

Church were burned up during his first week's residence in Amster- 
dam, September, 1897. This shows the importance of collecting 
documents relating to America while it is possible. 

References to Other Items of Interest to the German 
Churches in Pennsylvania. 

In going over the volumes of the Classis of Amsterdam and 
of its Deputies, references were kept to all items relating to the 
German Churches in the United States, not only because of their 
own importance to our American Church History, but because 
of their many interlinked relations with the Dutch Churches of 
ISTew York and ISTew Jersey. Before The Revolution there were 
about twenty German Churches in these two States; and not a 
few German ministers went back and forth between these J^ew 
York churches and those of Pennsylvania. Transcriptions were, 
therefore, secured, of items relating especially to the New York 
and N"ew Jersey German churches of that period, while references 
were kept to the other items referred to. 

General Worth of the Material Obtained. 

To the historian original documents are invaluable. The 
transcriptions now secured constitute the fundamental facts of 
the ecclesiastical history of New York and New Jersey. About 
three-fourths of these documents relate to New York and one- 
fourth to New Jersey, but they cannot very well be separated, 
and ought not to be. They represent much of the social history 
of colonial times, although they of course relate chiefly to the 
religious history. There are also not a few allusions to civil mat- 
ters, which cannot fail to be of interest in the General Civil His- 
tory of these States. Indeed, the social, civil and religioi^s his- 
tories in colonial times were so closely blended that they cannot 
be altogether divided. This fact abundantly appears in the 
Documentary History of New York, and in the Colonial Docu- 

30 Introduction. 

ments of the same State. The eame also appears in the similar 
set of volumes styled " The Archives of iSTew Jersey ". The gen- 
eral tone of the documents obtained also gives a true and living 
picture of the religious life of Holland during the seventeenth 
and eighteenth centuries. They show a genuine spirit of piety^ 
and great zeal to promote the spiritual interests of the Colonial 
churches. The labor involved in the care of the many Colonial 
churches, by. this Classis, scattered all over the world, seems 
almost incredible. A general spirit of fraternity also existed vnth 
all the neighboring churches — those of Switzerland, Germany, 
Poland, France and England. There is a standing Article in the 
Minutes, for several generations, on " Oppressed Churches " and 
" Sufferers on the Galleys. " There is an unceasing stream of 
" love gifts ", received and bestowed, on needy churches and 
individuals. Indeed, as early as 1643-48, the Classis of Amster- 
dam sent no less than ten thousand dollars (no small sum in those 
days), to Ireland, to relieve the distress in that country, after the 
desolating wars of those times. Also provinces which had been 
inundated always called out the gifts of the churches. Money 
was annually sent to Pennsylvania, to assist the Germans there, 
for two full generations, 1728-1792. 

There are also constant allusions, in this Correspondence, to 
other denominations in -America, especially to the Presbyterians 
from 1740 onward. Allusions to the Church of England are not 
infrequent. The influence of the Dutch in resisting the Estab- 
lishment of the English Church, which did not represent a tenth 
of the inhabitants, will receive much additional light from these 
documents; as well as the general influence of the Dutch in pre- 
paring the way for the entire separation of Church and State. 
What the " Documentary History of New York ", and the 
" Documents Relating to the Colonial History of New York ", 
have been for the study of the civil history, including much of 
the ecclesiastical; the same will these "Original Ecclesiastical 

Inteoduction". 31 

Documents " be, for the study of the ecclesiastical history of the 
State, including also much of the civil history. Their worth to 
local church histories will also be very great. 

Incorporation of Other Material. 

It was thought wise, finally, in such a collection, embracing 
so large a proportion of the ecclesiastical documents of Colonial 
times, to incorporate also some other important papers, such as 
church-charters, the legal phraseology of which becomes more 
liberal ■v\dth the growing century; also the repeated applications 
for Charters by congregations of other denominations besides 
those of the Heformed Dutch Church and the Episcopalians, but 
which were never granted; also the three college charters of ISTew 
York and New Jersey of the Colonial period. These are those of 
the College of ]^ew Jersey (now at Princeton), 1746; Kings 
(Columbia) College, 'N&w York City, 1753; Queens (Rutgers) Col- 
lege, 'New Brunswick, 1766 and 1770. Occasionally, also, church 
calls, with their varying forms of phraseology according to the 
periods and the struggles of the times, have been included; also 
certain civil legislation, bearing on the churches, as well as certain 
judicial decisions relating to the same, anticipating the dawn of 
full religious liberty ;^^ or where this was found to be imprac- 
ticable, at least an abstract of such facts, with references to the 
documents, have been inserted at the proper points. It adds but 
little to the bulk of the work, to include the documents from all 
denominations, or at least abstracts and references to the same. 
This also adds greatly to the value of the work, making it more 
unique and complete as " Original Documents Relating to all the 
Religious Bodies of Colonial Times in New York and New 
Jersey " ; for these two provinces were generally under one 

*" Certain ecclesiastical edicts in Holland and England would aUo throw further 
light on American Church history. 

Acts of the Synod of North Holland, at Haablem. 1621 

1621, Aug. 24 et seq. 
Transactions of the Particular Synod of Xorth Holland, held in 
the city of Haarlem, Anno, 1621, on August 24 and follow- 
ing davs. 

After the Brethren, delegated by the Classes belonging to the 
Synod of l^orth Holland, appeared, the Rev. Henricus Gees- 
teranus began the meeting by calling on the name of the Lord. 
Afterwards the credentials of the aforesaid delegates were opened 
and read, and unanimously approved by the Assembly. It was 
found that the following Ministers and Elders had been delegated 
to this Synod: 

("We give the names of the delegates to this Synod of Xorth 
Holland for 1621, in full, because Rev. Jonas IVIichaelius, sub- 
sequently, 1628, the first Minister at Xew York, was among them.) 

From (Classis of) Haarlem. 

Rev. Henricus Geesteranus, of Haerlem. 
Rev. John Junius, Minister at Assendelft. 
Cornelius Cornelisse, Elder of Haerlem. 
Aert Jansse, Elder of East Laenen. 

From (Classis of) Amsterdam. 

Rev. John La Maire, Minister at Amsterdam. 
Rev. Hermanns Busschovius, ]\Iinister at Weesp. 
Dirck Gerritze, Elder at Amsterdam. 
Peter Cornelisse, Elder at Sloterdyk. 
3 33 

34 Ecclesiastical Kecords 

From (Classis of) Hoorn. 

Eev. RippertiTs Sirtus, Minister at Hoorn. 
Eev. Anthonius Hansonis, llinister at Twisch. 
Peter Willemse, Elder at Hoorn. 
Claes Jansse, Elder at Hoiiwaert. 

Erom (Classis of) Enkhnysen. 

Rev. Abraham a Doreslaer, Minister at Enkhnysen. 


John Erancisci (Fransse) Hooman, Elder at Enkhnysen. 
Bartholomew Martensse, Elder at Medemblik. 

From (Classis of) Edam. 

Rev. Jacobus de Roo, Minister at Edam. 
Rev. Bemardns Jaitz, Minister at Znider Horn. 
Simon Pietersse, Elder at Edam. 
Henry Dirxe, Elder at Parmerend. 

From (Classis of) Alkmaar. 

Rev. William jSTicolay Somer, Minister at Alkmaar. 
Rev. Gualterus Adriani, Minister at Graft and Ryp. 
Barck Cornelisse Achagen, Elder at Alkmaar. 
Claes Cornelisse, Elder at Schagen. 

Note on the Village of Hem, where Rev. Jonas Michaelius first 
settled, 161^1624. 

Hem, the to^\Ti and church where the Rev. Jonas Michaelius 
ministered from 1614-1624, when he went to San Salvador in 
Brazil, and in 1623 became the first Dutch minister in New Am- 
sterdam, (New York,) is thus described in Van der Aa's Geo- 
graphical Gazetteer, 1644. 

* Johannis here is in genitive case, and is the name of the Father of Jonas, 
t The name of Michaelius does not occur a^ain in the Minutes of this session. 

OF THE State of !N^ew Yoek. 35 

Yillage and Ckurch of Hem. 
Hem, village in Dregterland, Province of North Holland, a 
court circuit, and two kours W. S. W. from Enkhuizen, a subdi- 
vision of the community (gemeente) of " Yenhuizen-and-Hem " ; 
a half hour W. of Yenhuizen, on the so called Short Stretch 
(Korte-Streek). It is estimated that there are within the bounds 
(kom) of the village, one hundred houses, and six hundred and 
thirty inhabitants. These mostly gain their subsistence by agri- 
culture and cattle raising. 

The Reformed, who are here fully five hundred in number, and 
among whom are one hundred and sixty communicants, consti- 
tute a congregation which belongs to the Classis of Hoorn, and 
the subdivision (ring) of Enkhuizen.* The first one to exercise 
here the duties of a minister, was Sybrand Yomelius, who came 
here in the year 1573, and died or left in the year 1580. The 
Church, (or living), which before the Eeformation, was dedicated 
to the Holy Evangelist Luke, was at that time subject to the gift 
of the Counts; the "Investiture" was made by the Provost 
(Proost) of West Friesland. The "living" (pastorij) amounted 
altogether to 50 Rhenish guilders (75 Dutch guilders, or $30.) 
It then possessed no house for the pastor, but it had seven mor- 
gan (fourteen acres) of land. For the sexton's support (lit. sex- 
tonship) there were three morgen (six acres) of land. The 
church is an ancient cruciform structure, in which at the base 
much duifsteen (gravelly, porous stone) may still be seen. The 
tower is square, with an octagonal steeple, rather high. There 
is no organ in the church. The call is made by the Consistory. 

The Roman Catholics of whom there are found to be three hun- 
dred and fifty, belong to the Stat, (station?) of Hem-and-Yen- 
huizen, which had a church here dedicated in early times to Saint 
Luke. This was abandoned in the year 1835. 

• In 1785 and 1793. Hem and Venhuizen were separate churches, and reckoned 
lander the Classis of Enkhuizen. Several other of the early Dutch ministers of New 
\ork were previously or subsequently pastors at Hem; for example, Rev. Samuel 
Megapolensis and Rev. William Nleuwenhuyaen, etc 

36 Ecclesiastical Records 

The baptismal scliool (doop school — parochial school?) is at- 
tended, on the average, by about one hundred pupils. 

In the year 1387 Ham-and-Venhuizen leased their own fishery 
from the Count. According to charter by Duke William of 
Bavaria (Count William II) under date of February 2, 1413, 
Hem, in union with Venhuizen, was elevated into a city, under the 
designation of the " City of Hem ", whereby were determined its 
Citizen rights. Magistracy, Government, etc. In 1492, the fine 
imposed upon it on account of the Cheese and Bread Rebellion 
(an agrarian insurrection) was lightened one third. In 1508 
there arose a fierce dispute between them and Wydeness about a 
road, stretching from the Blokdyke to the Meeu Road, which was 
arbitrated by Enkhuizen. In 1508 the people of Hem cooperated 
as a labor of love in the fortifying of the city of Hoorn, The 
rulers (regenten) iu the year 1741, bought up (hebben afgekocht) 
the manorial rights, (ambachtsheerlijkheid), so that now it is no 
longer a manor, (heerlijkheid.) 

From the " Aardrijkskundig Woordenboek der Nederlanden bi- 
jeengebracht door A. J, van der Aa." Published at Gorinchem by 
Jacobus Noorduyn, 1844. 


1622, Feb. 5. 

Certain Walloons* and French petitioned the King of England to settle In Vir- 
ginia. See Petition, Col. Docs. N. Y. ill. 9. This was not granted. Certain Wal- 
loons, probably the same, subsequently petitioned the States General, to settle in 
New Netherland. The following action was taken: 

Beaoiution of the States of Holland and West Friesland on a proposed plan of 
Emigration. The 21 April, 1622. 

The Directors of the West India Company report that they have examined the 
paper relative to the Families to be conveyed to the West Indies, and are of 
opinion, that it is very advantageous for the Company, and therefore that an effort 

• The Walloons were a Romance people of Galilean and Teutonic origin, who had 
crossed the French border, and settled in Belgium chiefly in Hainault, Namur, Lux- 
emburg, Limburg and Liege. Their language is an old dialect of the French; It 
has a small literature of Its own. Of these Walloons many embraced the Reformed 
faith, and were obliged to fly in consequence, being expelled by the Spaniards from 
the Catholic Netherlands; many passed into Holland, and somw found their way to 
England. From some of these people, desirous of finding a settled home, came a 
petition to King James in 1621, for permission to go to Virginia and there to form 
an establishment of their own. They had high and aristocratic notions; they 

OF THE State of IsTew York. 37 

ought to be made to promote it, with a promise that they should be employed; 
and to postpone it until the Directors should be formed, if the Assembly thought 
proper that this promise should be made to them; which, being considered by tha 
Lords, gentlemen and cities, it is unanimously resolved and concluded, that tha 
said promise shall be given with the knowledge of the Magistracy, and to proceed 
with it accordingly.— Col. Docs. N. Y. 1. 28. 

Says Wassenaar: In the spring of 1623, the West India Company equipped •' a 
vessel of one hundred and thirty lasts, called the New Netherlands, whereof Cor- 
nelius Jacobs of Hoorn was Skipper, with thirty families, mostly Walloons ". 
They sailed by way of the Canaries, and reached the Hudson River. . . . 

The New Netherlands, on her arrival, was joined by the yacht Mackerel, which 
kad come over by way of the West Indies the previous year. She found a French 
Ship in the harbor, which, with the aid of the Mackerel, she attacked and drove 
away. On the New Netherlands, was one Catallna Trico, born in Paris. — Doc. 
Hist. N. Y. ill. 23, 24. 


The West India Company was chartered June 3, 1621. After two years of pre- 
liminary preparation, the Company was fully organized, and began to prosecute with 
energy the objects of its incorporation. New Netherland was made a province In 
1623, and assigned to the care of the Amsterdam Chamber. The Provincial seal of 
New Netherland was a shield, bearing a beaver, proper, surmounted by a count's 
coronet, and encircled by the words " Sigillum Novi Belgii ". In the spring of 1623, 
the first permanent colonization began. The ship " New Netherland " was equipped 
and brought thirty families over, the greater part of whom were Walloons. Cor- 
nells Jacobson May superintended this expedition, which reached Manhattan in 
May. Manhattan Island was taken possession of in the name of the Company. 
The Director then went with the colonists up the North River and built Fort 
Orange on Castle Island, where about eighteen families settled. Alliances were at 
once made with the neighboring Indians, and trade in peltry was begun. May then 
went to the South River and built Fort Nassau, near where the city of Gloucester 
now stands. Some of the Walloons who came over at this time settled at Walla- 
bout, or the Walloon's Boght or Cove. Other emigrants soon followed. The furs 
sent back to Holland during May's administration amounted to twenty-eight thou- 
sand guilders. He was succeeded in 1624 by William Verhulst as Director, who 
returned to Holland in November, 1625. There seem to be no special references to 
religion or ecclesiastical matters during the term of these two Directors. 


wished to live as nobles, in a kind of feudal system, and asked that they might be 
granted, in the new country, certain extraordinary and exclusive privileges for 
themselves and their descendants. The petition was denied, and the scheme, though 
twice propo.sid iu 1G21, and again In 1622, fell through.— Dr. Dix, Hist. Trinity Ch. 
N. Y., 1. 24, 25. 


38 Ecclesiastical Eecoeds 

1624, Aug. 6, et seq. 

SnfroD or IN'orth Holland, held at Enkhtjysen. 

Article 33. 

IV. With whom shall be the direction and supervision of the 
Churches in the East Indies?* 

Answer: That the direction shall remain with the churches 
and Classes within whose bounds are located the East India 
(Company's) Chambers. In order that this matter, general 
equality, [lit. a footing universally equal], may be maintained, 
it was resolved to request the Seventeen, [the Central Board 
of the East India Company, consisting of seventeen members,] 
to be pleased to defray the necessary expenses. Thus the dele- 
gates of the several Churches and Classes may assemble at con- 
venient seasons, and conjointly be able to adopt resolutions about 
the Gravamina [Grievances or Questions] coming up from the 
East Indies, with unanimity, and in the presence of the Deputies 
of the Synods; thus also may they be able to render a proper re- 
port of what has been done [by the several Classes], to the re- 
spective Synods. But in order that all this may be done with due 
respect for the High Authorities, therefore the Messrs., the States 
of Holland and West Friesland, shall be waited on [begroeten] 
about this matter, and their High ]\Iighty Authority be requested. 

On this same occasion, the delegates of the other Provinces 
suggested, that inasmuch as the supervision of the church affairs 
in the East Indies concerns all the churches of this land in com- 
mon, whether it would not be well to pcnnit the churches of the 

• Upon the same principle was founded the management of the churches in the 
territories of the West India Company, viz., New Netherland, Brazil, Surinam, 
West India Islands, Cape Colony, etc. Hence the ports of Hoorn and Bnkhuysen, 
and the Classes of the same name, at first had charge of any ecclesiastical mat- 
ters In New Netherland. Michaelius was sent over by the Classis of Enkhuysen. 
But in 1628, just after his departure for America, the control of New Netherland 
passed Into the care of the Classis of Amsterdam, as Michaelius intimates in his 

OF THE State of New York. 39 

other Provinces to send their delegates, at their own expense, to 
the Assembly beforementioned, that they might likewise take part 
in the knowledge and supervision of all. The Synod having dis- 
cussed this matter, gave for answer as follows: that while this 
business [above alluded to] is not yet effected, they will be 
pleased to be patient; and to believe that when it is carried into 
effect, as desired, that then, this their suggestion, shall be duly 
taken into consideration. They were veiy well pleased to accept 
of this answer. 

1625, Aug. 12, et seq. 

Synod of J^oeth Holland, at Edam. 

Article 19. The matter of the Church-Order in the East Indies, 
remains open, as heretofore. 

Art. 22. East Indian Chui'ches. 
As to the direction and supervision of the East India Churches 
— more fully recited in Art. 33, (1624) — it is reported that the 
proposal therein mentioned, is not as yet granted by definite de- 
cisions. It was proposed by the Deputati of Utrecht, as well as by 
those of Overyssel, in the name of their respective Synods, and 
more urgently by those of Gelderland, that inasmuch as the su- 
pervision of Church affairs in the East Indias concerns equally, 
all the churches of this land, whether it were not well to recog^ 
nize in this whole business, all the churches in their respective 
Provinces. The Synod gave further consideration to this matter 
but still holds to the previous resolution. This matter is therefor© 
still left in statu. 

Art. 43. Ministerial changes, in the several Classes, indicated. 
[This first example of such changes is given, because the name 
of Michaelius occurs.] 

In the Classis of Edam. 
Died: Jacobus Pauli, formerly Minister at Beets and Oud- 



40 Ecclesiastical Records 

Removed: Isaac Lvdius. 

Came in: John Ab. Otten, ordained and called at Beets and 

In tlie Classis of xVlkmaar. 
Died : Vincentins Mensevoet, at Schagen, 

Removed : Daniel Koningsvelt, of .the TVael and Oosterejmde. 
Came in : Louis Hondins, from Huyssam to Schagen. John 

Backer, called and ordained at the Wael and Oos- 


In the Classis of Haarlem. 
Died : Claes Claessen, late Minister at Uitgeest, 

Emeritus : Claes Aelbertsen, at East Saenen. 
Came in: Henry Geldorpius, at East Saenen; Isaac Plantius, at 
Heemstede; Obdias Witmarius, at Uytgeest. 

In the Classis of Amsterdam. 
Removed: Louis Hondius, from Huyssum to Schagen. 
Came in: Cornelius Hanecopius, from Breda to Amsterdam; 
Philip Bevert, called and ordained at Huyssum. 

In the Classis of Hoorn. 

Died: Corn. Jansse, late Minister at Schellinchout. 

Came in : Gerard Puppius, from Breuckel to Hoorn. 

In the Classis of Enkhuysen. 

Removed: Jonas Michielse,* from Hem to Brazil, at San Sal- 

Came in: Frans Esause, on East Vlielandt; George "\^"esselius, 
at Hem. 

• This Is the Dutch form of the name generally Latinized into Michaelius. 

OF THE State of ^ew York. 41 


The Dutch in Brazil. 

In 1624, the fleet of the West India Company, under Admiral 
Piet Hein, captured Baliia. It had to be abandoned however the 
next year, and the Dutch gained no permanent hold until 1630. 
Though a Portuguese possession, the conquest of Portugal by 
Spain in 1584, made all the colonies of the former nation the 
legitimate spoils of War for the Dutch in their War against Spain. 

The seat of colonial government was located at the captured 
city of Olinda, in the Captaincy of Pernambuco. The city 
founded by the Dutch was called Mauritsstad, after John Maurice, 
Count of Nassau, (a cousin of the Prince of Orange,) who was 
governor of Dutch Brazil from 1636 to 1644. In 1640 Portugal 
threw off the Spanish yoke and became again an independent 
government, largely by aid of the Dutch Republic. This pro- 
duced serious complications in Brazil, and finally the Dutch pos- 
sessions there had to be restored to their original owners, Portugal 
by a convention in 1661 agreeing to pay to the West India Com- 
pany an indemnity of eight millions of guilders (or three million 
two hundred thousand dollars). Things had been in great con- 
fusion years before this final settlement, which accounts for the 
emigration of Dutch preachers from Brazil to Kew Xetherland. 

The Dutch Church in Brazil. 


There had already been an attempt to found the French Re- 
formed Church in Brazil, for which see the Missionary Histories. 
But the Dutch West India Company took Bahia from the Portu- 
guese in 1624, and in 1625, Rev. Jonas Michaelius went thither as 
minister. The Jesuists, under the Portuguese, had already done 
some missionary work in Brazil. !Michaelius left the next year 
for Guinea. Other Dutch ministers followed in Brazil, but in 


42 Ecclesiastical Eecoeds 

1637, Count John Maurice, the Governor, wrote to Holland for 
eight more Reformed ministers. Eev. Davilus was the first to 
learn the language of the natives. Eev. Domine Eiflarius was 
eloquent in preaching both in Portuguese and Brazilian, and trans- 
lated the Heidelberg Catechism into the Tapuya dialect. Eev. 
Frederic Casseber preached at Eeissa. At Olinda and the neigh- 
boring villages, the Eevs. Joachim Soller and Johannes Theo- 
dorus Polhemius, preached, both in French and Portuguese. Pol- 
hemus came to l>lew ISTetherland in 1654, and is the ancestor of 
the large and respected family of that name in Xew York and 
elsewhere. Eev. Cornelius Poelius (Pool) preached in Tamarica, 
and Eev. Samuel Eathclarius, an Englishman, preached in 
Paraiba, St. Augustine; and Eev. John Eduardi at Serinhaen. 
Two Classes were finally organized here, and even a Synod. The 
ecclesiastical records in Holland are full of material, and Dutch 
and Latin histories, as well as one or more in German, of Count 
John Maurice, abound in Holland. A small Latin History was 
purchased by the writer in 1898, and is in the Collegiate Church 
Library, New York. See also Dr. Jas. I. Good's " Eeformed 
Church in America ", 1899. 

OF THE State of I^ew York. 43 


Peter Mirniit was bom in the city of Wesel, on the Rhine, in the 
Duchy of Cleves. This city was famous as an asylum for the 
persecuted. Being adjacent to the northeastern part of Holland, 
myriads of persecuted Hollanders flocked thither, as well as exiles 
from England and Scotland. Besides the regular German Re- 
formed Church in Wesel, there were also organized there, from 
these exiles, large and influential French Reformed, Dutch Re- 
formed and English Reformed congregations. Wesel was famous 
at this time for its religious and literary activity. Here mingled 
some of the choicest spirits of Europe. It was here that the 
exiles of the churches of Holland met, in 1568, and adopted their 
Presbyterial Form of Church Government. 

It was in such a center of intelligence that Peter Minuit was 
bom in 1580 of Huguenot parentage. While he generally wrote 
his name Minuit, it is sometimes found written Menewee, accord- 
ing to pronunciation. He was of robust form, and had dark eyes 
and brusque manners. In time he became a ruling elder of the 
Walloon or French Reformed Church of Wesel; while his brother- 
in-law Jan Huyghens, who subsequently went with him to New 
Netherland and was prominent in both Church and State, was a 
deacon of the Dutch Reformed Church of Wesel, which some- 
times numbered four or five thousand members. 

Minuit probably left Wesel about 1624, because the city had 
fallen into the hands of the Spaniards. He was, perhaps, specially 
fitted to take charge of a colony, for he was a man of sound prin- 
ciples and practical tact. He combined the qualities of a Christian, 
a merchant and a pioneer; and was therefore well qualified to lay 


44 Ecclesiastical Records 

the foundations of Chnrch and State in ISTew Amsterdam. He 
was appointed Director of ISTew ISTetlierland by the West India 
Company, December 19, 1625, and landed at New Amsterdam, 
May 4, 1626. He was careful that seeds, plants, animals and 
implements of husbandry should be provided for his colony. 

Minuit at once bought the island of Manhattan of the red men, 
for twenty four dollars. He always dealt honorably with the In- 
dians. He was the actual founder of civil government in !New 
Netherland. Business began to flourish as never before. He 
opened up correspondence with Governor Bradford of Plymouth, 
and proposed commercial reciprocity. He also sent Bradford a 
present of sugar and Holland cheese. 

Upon the arrival of Domine Michaelius in April, 1628, Minuit 
and his brother-in-law Huyghens were at once chosen to be the 
ruling elders of the Dutch Church which Michaelius established. 
According to researches made in. 1868 by pastor J. D. Sardeman, 
of Wesel, Huyghens was deacon of the Dutch Reformed Church 
in Wesel in 1612; but Minuit's name was not found in the records 
of that Church. It is probable, therefore, that Minuit was elder 
of the French Church of Wesel, and that Michaelius was not 
exactly accurate in his expression. 'No doubt Minuit was also a 
deacon in that French Church before he became an elder, as was 
the custom. ISTeither does Minuit's name occur in the records of 
the German Church of Wesel. The records of the French Church 
are lost. Minuit's name, however, occurs in the civil records of 
Wesel on March 6, 1619, as guardian of his sister's minor chil- 
dren; and again on April 15, 1625, it is recorded that he had left 
for foreign lands. Minuit was recalled in the spring of 1632. In 
1638 he returned to America to found the colony of New Sweden 
in Delaware. He succeeded, but perished in a West Indian hur- 
ricane the same year. 

OF THE State of ISTew Yoek. 45 

See "Memorial Services in honor of Peter Minuit ",* vdih. 
addresses by Kev. Dr. Cyrus Cort and others, April 23, 1895, un- 
der the auspices of the State of Delaware. Several errors in 
former histories are therein corrected. See also Indexes of O'Cal- 
loghan and Brodhead. 

Comforters or the Sick. 


While it was the general duty of ministers in the IRetherlands 
to visit the sick, yet in destitute fields, or in those too large for 
the minister properly to attend to, certain ones, perhaps gen- 

• The following Tablet has recently been erected in the Middle Dutch Church, 
New York City, 2nd Avenue, near 7th St., to the Memory of Peter Mlnult: 

A.D. 1626 
A.D. 1628. 




ERECTED A.D. 1900.J 

t William L. Brower of New York City erected this and other Tablets mentioned 


46 Ecclesiastical Eecokds 


erally from the Great Consistory, and especially from the deacons, 
were appointed to this duty. There was an elaborate Form pre- 
pared for their use, which was formerly printed in all the editions 
of the Liturgy, (It was thus printed also in the first English 
editions in 1793 and 1815, in this country.) These special officers 
read this Form, in whole or in part, to the sick, together ^vith the 
creeds. There were two words used to describe these officers, 
viz.: Krankenbezoeker and Ziekentrooster. Strictly speaking, the 
former means a seeker out, or visitor of the sick — especially 
those overtaken suddenly by sickness; while the latter means a 
comforter of those who are very sick — especially when nearing 
their end. Practically, the two terms were used synonymously. 

While many agencies are now devised to relieve the distressed, 
and to comfort the invalid, it is 'an interesting circumstance that 
the Dutch Eeformed Church, the oldest in the Empire State by 
half a centur)', had a unique provision for this very work from the 
beginning. With Peter Minuit, the Director General of New 
ISTetherland, came over two Comforters of the sick. These were 
Sebastian Jansen Krol (or Crol) and Jan Huyck. As yet no ajr- 
rangements had been made for a regular clergyman, but his place 
was thus partially supplied. The Form which they used consisted 
chiefly of consolatory texts of Scijipture. When the Rev. Jonas 
Michaelius, the first minister, arrived, in 1628, these two Com- 
forters of the Sick, together with Peter Minuit, the Director Gen- 
eral, were made the first elders of the Dut<?h Church of New Am- 
sterdam, (New York,) and with their appointment the Church 
was regularly organized. 

In the Charter establishing Patroonships in 1629, and in sub- 
sequent similar Charters, it was required of the Patroons that 
they "shall particularly exert themselves to find speedy means 
to maintain a clergyman and schoolmaster, in order that Divine 
Service and zeal for religion may be planted in that country, and 
(must) send at first a Comforter of the Sick ". 

OF THE State of New York. 47 

The Title of this Form is " The Consolation of the Sick; which 
is an Instruction in Faith and the "Way of Salvation, to prepare 
Believers to die willingly ". 

The line of thought which these Krankenbezoeckers or Zieken- 
troosters read, in the performance of their duty, was as follows : — 

The Form first referred to Man's original creation in righteous- 
ness; the fall, and original sin, and the penalty of death, with 
many texts of Scripture relating to the brevity and vanity of life; 
to the Providence of God, which determines our days; to our 
weakness and general sinfulness, and our exposure to the Divine 
wrath; and then to the gift of Christ as the Light of the world, 
as an atonement for our sins, and through whom we may triumph. 
Very many beautiful texts are then quoted about the love of God 
to sinners; the Person and work of Christ; His worthiness of our 
love, and the duty of prayer, and of faith in Christ, His inter- 
cession for sinners is then specially emphasized, and his willing- 
ness to save all classes of men. The peace which God gives the 
believer in Christ is then referred to, however great may have 
been one's sins; and hence the believer's right to desire to be de- 
livered from this mortal body and to enter on the glorious inherit- 
ance of the children of God. This is again supported by many 
delightful texts of Scripture. The benefits of tribulation are then 
referred to, and the certainty of the believer's victory; also the 
importance of always watching for the change and fighting against 
the temptations to which we are exposed. Regeneration and the 
fruits of the Spirit are next alluded to, with the resurrection of 
the body, and the blessedness of all those who believe in Christ, 
and who shall hear his welcome " Come, ye blessed of my Father, 
inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the 
world ". The form ends with the words — Blessed are they whose 
names are written in the Book of Life. 



48 Ecclesiastical Recoeds 

Comforters of the Sick* continued to be sent to New ISTetherland 
for forty or fifty years from 1626, and to the West Indies for a 
century or more. To the East Indies they continued to be sent 
for a couple of centuries, and they were sometimes there ordained 
to the Ministry. This whole matter is elaborately reviewed in 
Hofstede, " Oost-Indien Kerk-Zaken ", East Indian Church-Cases, 
2 Tols., 1779. Published at Rotterdam, Copy procured for Col- 
legiate Church Library, ISTew York, 1898, by E. T. C. 


Rev, Jonas ]\Iichaelius, First Minister of Manhattan, New 
ISTetherland, to Rev, Adrian Smoutius, one of the Ministers of the 
Collegiate Churches of Amsterdam, August 11, 1628. 

• The following Tablet has recently been erected In the Middle Dutch Church, 
Hew York City, 2nd Avenue, near 7th St. to the Memory of these first Krankeu- 

















A.D. 1900. 

OF THE State of Xew Yoek. 


[First translation by Hon. Henrv C. Murphy, 1858, and care- 
fully revised by Eev. Jotin G. Fagg, 1896, one of the pastors of 
the Collegiate Church, New York City.] 


(Addressed on back.) 

Den Berwaerdigen Welgeleerden 
ende Godvruclitigen Heere Adi'iano 
Smoutio, getrouwen Bedienaer des 
H. Evangelii Cbristi in sijne Ge- 
meynte, wonende op de Heeren- 
gracht, niet verde van het West- 
Indiscbe buys tot Amsterdam. 

Per Trieud dien God beware. 

Tbe Honorable, Learned and 
Pious Mr. Adrian Smoutlus, Faitb- 
ful Minister of tbe Holy Gospel of 
Cbrist in bis Cburcb, Dwelling upon 
tbe Heerengracbt, not far from the 
bouse of tbe West India Company 
at Amsterdam. 

By a friend, whom God preserve. 

(Sealed with a wafered signet not discernible.) 

De Vrede Cbristi. 
Eerwaerdige Heere, welbeminde 
Broeder inCbristo, guustige Vriend! 

Tbe Peace of Cbrist to You. 
Reverend Sir, Well Beloved 
Brotber in Cbrist, Kind Friend! 


De goede gelegenbeyd, die mij nu 
voorcomt, om aan UWelEw. te 
scbrijveu, en can icli niet laten 
voorbij (gaen), sonder bet solve, 
volgens mijne belofte te doen. 
Ende opdat ick mij in dese com- 
muuicatie, van een droevige zake 
eerst ontlade, bet heeft den Heere 
belieft mij mijne goede parture (die 
mij nu over de 16 jaren langb, een 
deugtsame, getrouwe ende ganscb 
lieftallige jockgeuoot geweest 
badde) af te nemen, nadat wij 
ruym 7 weken* bier te lande gear- 
riveert waxen; ende vynde mij nu 
sonder baer gezelscbap ende bulpe, 
seer gediscommodeert, met mijne 3 
kinderkeus alleene. Docb wat beb 
ick te seggen? De Heere selve 
heeft bet gedaeu: tegeu welcken 
hem niemajid can stellen. Ende 
waerom soud ick oock willen, 

Tbe favorable opportunity which 
now presents itself of writing to 
your Reverence I cannot let pass, 
without embracing it, according to 
my promise. And I first unburden 
myself in this communication of a 
sorrowful circumstance. It pleased 
tbe Lord, seven weeks 
after we arrived in this Death of 
country, to take from his wife, 
me my good paitner, 
who was to me, for more than sis- 
teen years, a virtuous, faithful, 
and altogether amiable yoke fel- 
low; and I now find myself* with 
three children very much discom- 
moded, without her society and as- 
sistance. But what have I to sayV 
Tbe Lord himself has done this, 
against whom no one can oppose 
himself. And why should I wish 
to, knowing that all things must 

* Dit gebeurde dus omstreeks half 


• This happened about the middle of 
June (or rather about the last of May?) 


Ecclesiastical Eecoeds 

wetende dat alle dingen ten goede 
moeten helpen dengenen die God 
lief hebben. Hope derhalven mijn 
cruyce lijdsamelijck te dragen, 
ende de couragie, die mij albier In 
mijnen dienst sonderlinge "^an 
nooden is, niet te laten ontvallen, 
door des Heeren genade ende hulpe. 
De reyse heeft lange geduyrt, 
namelijli van den 24 Januarii tot 
den 7 Aprilis, als wij eerst onsen 
Toet bier aen land stelden. Storm 
ende onweder en bebben wij geen 
gebreck gebat, voornemelijcli om- 
trent de Barmudes ende de ruyge 
custen deser Landen: twelck de 
goede vrouwe ende de kinderen 
hard viel, docb sy bielden sic nocb 
ongelijck beter, soo ten aensien van 
zeesiecte als vreese, dan ick wel 
verwacbt badde. Ons tractament 
te scbepe viel ganscb bard ende 
sober, so dat mijn zalige huys- 
vrouwe ende kinderen, niet etende 
met ons in de cajuyte van wegen 
de cleyne ruymte, een arger lot 
hadden dan de bootsgesellen selve, 
ende dat van wegen enen ondeu- 
genden cock, die voornam ben op 
alle manieren te plagen: maer in- 
Bonderbeyd van den scbipper selve, 
dewelcke (boewel ick menicbmael 
met alle beleeftbeyd daerover 
claegde) hem sulcs int minste niet 
aen en trock. om den rabaut* 
daerover te bestraffen: nocb oock 
selve genicb dinck en gaf, selfs als 
sij ganscb qualijck te passe waren, 
dat bun conde goed doen, ende 
nochtans genoech iu bet scbip was: 
gelijck bij oock selve wel genoech 
wiste te vynden, om buytens tijds 
synen buyk tevullen. Al de deugdt 
die hij ons dede, bestond alleen- 
lijck in liberale beloften met een 
, droncken boofd, op de welcke, als 
hij beuuchtert was, niet en volgde 

work together for good to them 
that love God. I hope therefore to 
bear my cross patiently, and by the 
grace and help of the Lord, not to 
let the com^age fail me which in 
my duties here I so especially need. 

The voyage was long, namely, 
from the 24th of January till the 
7th of April, when we first set foot 
upon land. Of storm and tempest 
which fell hard upon 
the good wife and Character 
children, though they of the 
bore it better as re- voyage, 
gards sea-sickness and 
fear than I had expected, we bad ' 
no lack, particularly in the vicinity 
of the Bermudas and the rough 
coasts of this country. Our fare 
in the ship was very poor and 
scanty, so that my blessed wife 
and children, not eating with us in 
the cabin, on account of the little 
room in it, had a worse lot than 
the sailors themselves; and that by 
reason of a wicked cook who an- 
noyed them in every way; but 
especially by reason of the captain 
himself, who, although I frequently 
complained of it in the most 
courteous manner, did not concern 
himself in the least about correct- 
ing the rascal;* nor did be, even 
when they were all sick, give them 
anything which could do them any 
good, although there was enough 
in the ship: as he himself knew 
very well where to find it in order, 
out of meal times, to fill his own 
stomach. All the relief which he 
gave us, consisted merely in liberal 
promises, with a drunken head; 
upon which nothing followed when 
be was sober but a sour face; and 
he raved at the officers and kept 

* Hij bedoelt den kok. 

• He means the cook. 

OF THE State of ]^ew Yokk. 



dan een suyr gesichte, ende dus 
heeft hij mede de beeste gespeelt 
tegens de offlcieren, ende hem ge- 
stadich aen den wijn gehouden, soo 
in zee, als oock voornemelijck hier 
liggende in de Riviere (Hudson), 
soo dat bij dagelijcx te scbepe ge- 
loopeu beeft met een nat seyl ende 
berooyt boofd, comende seer selden 
te lande in den Raed* ende nim- 
mermeer in de publycke Godsdienst. 
Wij bebben 't te scbepe al met 
stilswijgen verdragen, maer bet 
jammert mij, als ick daer aen ge- 
dencke om mijner buysrouwen 
Tville, te meer omdat se soo gestelt 
was, als sij was, niet anders 
wetende of sij was swanger van 
kynde, ende omdat den tijd soo 
cort was, dien sij noch badde te 
leven. Ick bebbe in mijne eerste 
voyagie* lange met bem gesworen, 
jae gelgeert in 6en butte, maer en 
wiste nooyt datter sulcken buffel 
ende dronckaerd in stack. Maer 
doe stond bij onder d'opsicbt van 
den Heer Lam, ende nu badd' bij 
selve over alles te gebieden. Ick 
heb oock aen den Heere Godynf 
daervan gescbreven, noodicb acb- 
tende dat ment wete. 

Onse aencomste was albier aen- 
genaem bij alien, ende verbope 
door des Heeren genade dat mijn 
dienst niet onvrucbtbaer sal wesen. 
Het volck is de meeste part al vrij 
wat ruycb ende ongebonden, docb 
ick bevynde in meest alien, beyde 

bimself constantly to tbe wine, 
both at sea and especially bere 
wbile lying in tbe (Hudson) River; 
so tbat be navigated tbe sbip daily 
witb a wet sail and an empty bead, 
seldom coming asbore to tbe Coun- 
cil* and never to Divine service. 
We bore all witb silence on board 
tbe sbip; but it grieves me, when 
I think of it, on account of my 
wife; the more, because she was in 
such a physical state as she was — 
believing herself to be in a delicate 
condition — and the time so short 
which she had yet to live. On my 
first voyage* I roamed about with 
him a gi-eat deal, even lodged in 
tbe same hut, but never knew that 
he was such a brute and drunkard. 
But he was then under tbe direc- 
tion of Mr. Lam, and now he had 
tbe chief command himself. I 
have also written to Mr. Godynf 
about it, considering it necessary 
tbat It should be known. 

Our coming here was agreeable 
to all, and I hope, by the grace of 
the Lord, that my service will not 
be unfruitful. The 
people, for the most His recep- 
part, are rather tion at 
rough, and unre- Manhattan- 
strained, but I find 
in most all of them both love and 
respect towards me; two things 
with which hitherto the Lord has 
everywhere graciously blessed my 
labors, and which in our calling, as 

* Raed: welUgt de Raad van bestuur 
der kolonie, waarin hij mlsschlen, vol- 
gens zijne commissie, wat te zeggen 
had bij de verdere ten nltvoer brenging 
der kolonisatle. 

* Werwaarts? naar Rrazilie en Gui- 
nea, tusschen 1624 en 1626. 

t Welligt bedoelt hij Samuel Godyn, 
bij O'Callaghan, 1. 479. 

♦ Council: perhaps the Council of the 
administration of the Colony, wherein 
he, probably according to his Commis- 
sion, had a voice in reference to pro- 
moting colonization. 

* Whither? to Brazil and Guinea, be- 
tween 1024-1626. 

t Perhaps he means Samuel Godyn, 
with O'Callaghan, 1. 479. 


Ecclesiastical Records 


liefde t'mljwaert, ende oock ont- 
sich; twee dingen daermede de 
Heere mijnen dienst tot noch toe 
allenthalren genadelijck gezegent 
heeft, ende die ons in onse be- 
dieninge (gelijck UWelEerw. selve 
Tvel weet ende bevyndt) sonderlinge 
wel te paBse comen om vruclit tc 

your Reverence well knows and 
finds, are especially desirable, in 
order to make (our ministry) fruit- 

The Church. 

Wij hebben van eersten aen een 
forme van een gemeente aenge- 
stelt; ende dewljle de Breeder 
Bastiaen Crol* seer selden na bene- 
den afcomt van 't fort Orangie, 
doordieu hem aldaer de Directie 
van tselve fort en den handel be- 
volen is: soo is goed gevonden twe 
Ouderlingen te verkiesen, mij tot 
assistentie ende beboorlijck com- 
municatie alles wat kerckelijk 
sonde mogen voorvallen: denckende 
het toecomende jaer soo 't de Heere 
toelaet, den enen te laten afgaen, 
ende enen anderen in sijne plaetse 
te verkiesen uyt een dubbeld getal, 
der Gemeynte eerst wettelijk voor- 
gestelt. D'een die wij nu gecoren 
hebben, is de heer Directeur* selve 
ende d'ander de winkelhouder der 

From the beginning we estab- 
lished the form of a church; and 
as Brother Bastiaen Crol* very 
seldom comes down from Fort 
Orange, because the Directorship 
of that fort and the trade there is 
committed to him, it has been 
thought best to choose two elders 
for my assistance and for the 
proper consideration of all such 
ecclesiastical matters as might oc- 
cur, intending the coming year, if 
the Lord permit, to let one of them 
retire, and to choose another in his 
place from a double 
number first lawfully Consistory 
proposed to the congre- appointed, 
gation. One of those 
whom we have now chosed is the 
Honorable Director* himself, and 

* O'Callaghan, 1. 122. Seb. Jansen 
Krol was ook volgens Brodhead In 1626 
krankbezoeker' op bet elland Manhat- 
tans, In 1628 Vice-DIrecteur op fort 
Oranje. Br., p. 165, 169, 183, 201, 212, 

• Director, Peter Minult or MInnewit, 
Tan Wesel. O'Callaghan, I. 100. Brod- 
head, 162 en passim tot 32v. Hij zag 
zlch In 1631 ontslagen, en stiorf later iu 
de Zweodsche kolonie aan de Zuldrlvler, 
als haar beschermer. In 1641. Er Is geen 
epoor van mlsverstand tusschen hem en 
Mlchaellus gevonden, gelijk wel later 
tusschen Mlnult's opvolger, Ev. Bogar- 
dtis, en den volgenden Directeur der 
kolonie, Wouter van Twlller. 

• O'Callaghan, i. 422. Sebastian Jan- 
sen Krol, was also, according to Brod- 
head, a Comforter of the Sick on the 
Island of Manhattan in 1626, and Vice- 
Director at Fort Orange in 1628. Brod- 
head, i., 165, 169, 183, 201, 212, 223. 

* Director, Peter Minult or MInnewit, 
from Wesel. O'Callaghan, i. 100. Brod- 
bi-ad. 1G2, and in various places down to 
320. He saw himself dismissed In 1631, 
and subsequently died in the Swedish 
Colony on the South River, while " Pro- 
tector " there in 1641. There has been 
found no trace of any misunderstanding 
between him and Michaellus, as subse- 
quently there was between his successor 
Bogardus, and Van Twlller, the uext 
Director of the Colony. 

OF THE State of New York. 


Compagnle, Jan Huygen, zijn 
swager, luyden van zeer goeden 
getuygenisse, soo vele ick doemaels 
vernemen conde; hebbende beyden 
wel eer geweest in kerckelijke be- 
dieninge, d'eene der diaconye ende 
d'ander des Ouderlingschaps re- 
spectivelijk in de Duytsclie ende 
Fransche Kercke tot Wesel. 

Wij hebben in de eerste be- 
dieninge des H. Avondmaels (niet 
sender groote blijdscnap ende 
troost van velen geliouden) gehat 
niyn 50 communicanten, soo Walen 
als Duytschen: van de welcke een 
partije hare eerste belydenisse des 
geloofs voor one gedaen hebben, 
ende andere hare kerchelijcke at- 
testatien verthoont. Andere had- 
den ee vergeten mede te nemen, 
niet denckende dat hier een ge- 
meente geformeert ende opgericht 
sonde werden; ende enige die se 
metgenomen hadden hebben se in 
enen gemeynen ongeluckigen brand 
verloren: doch sijn geadmitteert op 
goede getuigenisse van andere dien 
sulx bekent was, ende oock op hun 
dagelijcx goed eomportement; de- 
wijle men in een sulcke gelegen- 
heyd om een be-ginsel te maken, 
alle behoorlijcke formaliteyten soo 
naeuwe niet can observeren. 

Wij houden des heeren H. 
Avondmael eens om de 4 maenden 
bij provisie, tot dat een meerder 
frequentie des volex anders sal 
vereysschen. De Walen ende 
Francoisen en hebben des sondaegs 
genen dienst anders dan in de 
Duytsche tale: want die geen 
Duytseh en verstaen syn gansch 
weynich. Daer gaet oock een 
partije A^alen na 't vaderland, 

the other is the storekeeper of the 
Company, Jan Huyghens,* his 
brother - in - law, persons of very 
good character, as far as I have 
been able to learn, having both 
been formerly in office in the 
Church, the one as deacon, and the 
other as elder in the Dutch and 
French churches, respectively, at 

At the first administration of the 
Lord's Supper which was observed, 
not without great joy and comfort 
to many, we had fully fifty com- 
municants — Walloons and Dutch; 
of whom, a portion made their first 
confession of faith before us, and 
others exhibited their church cer- 
tificates. Others had for- 
gotten to bring their cer- Lord's 
tificates with them not Supper, 
thinking that a church 
would be formed and established 
here; and some who brought them, 
had lost them unfortunately in a 
general conflagration, but they 
were admitted upon the satisfac- 
tory testimony of others to whom 
they were known, and also upon 
their daily good deportment, since 
we cannot observe strictly all the 
usual formalities in making a be- 
ginning under such circumstances. 

We administer the Holy Sacra- 
ment of the Lord once in four 
months, provisionally, until a larger 
number of people shall otherwise 
require. The Walloons 
and French have no Walloon*, 
service on Sundays, French 
otherwise than in the service. 
Dutch language, for 
those who understand no Dutch are 
very few. A portion of the Wal- 

* This was probably the " Jan 
Huyck ", who was the colleague of 
Crol, as Krnnkbesoecker, at Manhattan, 
In 1026. 


Ecclesiastical Records 


'tslj dan omdat hare jaren alhler 
geexpireert sijn, ofte oock omdat 
enige der Compagnie niet seer 
dienstich en ziju: sommige wonen 
verde, ende en souden blj grooten 
regen ofte onweder niet wel con- 
nen comen, soo datse selve sulcx 
niet raedsaem en connen vyndeu 
enigen bysonderen dienst int 
Frausche aen te stellen onder een 
BOO clyne boopken, ende dat noch 
op het onsekere. Evenwel bet 
Avondmael werdt ben toegedient in 
de Franscbe tale ende op de 
Franscbe wljse met een voorgaende 
predicatie, die iek in gescbrifte voor 
mlj legge, soo lange ick mijselven 
de bebooriijcke veerdicbeid niet toe 
en vertrouwe.* Isser yet soo in 
dese als in andere zaken daerin 
UWelEerw. ende de E. E. Broede- 
ren des Kerckenraeds (welcker in- 
spectie over ons bier d'aldernaeste 
Is) noodicb acbten ons te dienen 
met enige correctie, instructie ofte 
goede advysen, tsal ons aengenaem 
Bijn ende wij sullen UWelEerw. 
daer voren danck weten: dewijle 
wij alle geen ander oogemerck 
moeten bebben dan d'eere Godes in 
de opboiiwiuge van sijn Couinck- 
rijcke ende beboudenisse van vele 
zlelen. Ick boude mij soo veel als 
doenlijck is binnen de palen mijner 
beroupinge, daerin ick mij oock ge- 
noechsamelijck geoccupeert vynde. 
Ende boewel onse cleyne Raed der 
Kercke. bestaende ten boogsten (als 
de Broeder Crol bier beneden is) 
niet meer dan wt 4 personen, de 
alle (mij alleene wtgesondert) oock 
politycque bedieningen bebben, soo 
verhope ick hocbtans de voorval- 
lende kerckelijcke diugen van de 
borgerlijcke sorgfuldelijck te onder- 

loons are going back to tbe Father- 
land, either because their years 
here are expired, or else because 
some are not very serviceable to 
tbe company. Some of them live 
far away and could not well come 
in time of heavy rain and storm, 
so that it is not advisable to ap- 
point any special service in French 
for so small a number, and that 
upon an uncertainty. Nevertheless, 
the Lord's Supper was administered 
to them in the French language, 
and according to the French mode, 
with a discourse preceding, which 
I had before me in writing, as I 
could not trust myself extempo- 
raneously.* If in this and in other 
matters your Reverence and the 
Honorable Brethren* of the Con- 
sistory, (at Amsterdam,) who have 
special superintendence over us 
here, deem it neces- 
sary to administer to Subjection 
us any correction, in- to minis- 
struction or good ad- tors at 
vice, it will be agree- Amster- 
able to us and we will dam. 
thank j'our Reverence 
therefor; since we must have no 
other object than the glory of God 
in the building up of his kingdom 
and the salvation of many souls. 
I keep myself as far as practicable 
within the pale of my calling, 
wherein I find myself sufBciently 
occupied. And although our small 
Consistory embraces 
at the most — when Consistory: 
Brother Crol is down Michaelius, 
here — not more than Crol, 
four persons, all of Minuit, 
whom, myself alone Huyg'hens. 
excepted, have also 
public business to attend to, I still 

• Namelljk, om voor de vulst in het 
Vraascb te prediken. 

• That is to preach extempore in 

* Kamed near the end of this letter. 

OF THE State of j^ew York. 


echeyden, opdat elck geoccupeert 
blijve met sijn eygen subject. 

hope to separate carefully the 
ecclesiastical from the civil matters 
which occur, so that each one will 
be occupied with his own subject 

Civil ]\Iattees. 

Ende hoewel vele dingen sijn 
mixti generis, ende de politycque 
ende kerckelijcke personeu malcan- 
deren grootelijcx connen dienen, 
eoo moeten nochtans te samen 
gaende dingen ende ampten niet 
vermengt maer ouderdscheyden 
werden, om alle verwerringen ende 
brodderijen te verhoeden. Ende 
ftlsoo den Raedt deser plaetse be- 
staet uyt goede luyden, die nochtans 
de meeste part eenvoudigh sijn 
ende weynich geoeffent in poli- 
tycque dingen, soo ist dat ick wel 
cleyne swaricheyd maken sonde 
hun in enige sware ofte dubieuse 
dingen met goede advysen te 
dienen. mids dat ick mijselven 
eerst enichsins capabel keude ende 
daertoe versocht wierde; in welcken 
gevalle Ick niet en achte dat ick 
yet sonde misbeuren ofte oock bij 
yemand in suspitie comen van een 
kwaaddoener, often als een die zich 
met eens anders doen bemoeit, te 

Tware mijns bedunkens gansch 
oorboir, dat de Heeren Bewyntheb- 
bei'en dese plaetse voorsagen met 
duydelijcker ende naerdcr Instruc- 
tien voor den Regeerders, opdat se 
mochten bescheydelijck weten, hoe 
sij sicii in alle voorcomende bur- 
gerlijcke swaricheden ende gaval- 
len hadden te reguleren: gelijck 
mede dat mij alhier eens mochten 
geworden al sulcke Acta Synodalia, 
als in de Hollaudsche Synoden, 
600 Particuliere onses quartiers, als 

And though many things are 
mixti generis, and political and 
ecclesiastical persons can greatly 
assist each other, nevertheless the 
matters and oflBces belonging to- 
gether must not be mixed but kept 
separate, in order to prevent all 
confusion and disorder. As the 
Council of this place consists of 
good people, who are, however, for 
the most part simple and have 
little experience in public affairs, 
I should have little objection to 
serve them in any serious or du- 
bious affair with good advice, pro- 
vided I considered myself capable 
and my advice should be asked; 
in which case I suppose that I 
would not do amiss or be suspected 
by any one of being a busy-body 
in other men's matters.* (1 Pet. 4: 

In my opinion it is very expe- 
dient that the Honorable Directors 
of this place should furnish plain 
and precise instructions to their 
Governors that they may distinctly 
know how to conduct themselves 
in all possible public difficulties 
and events; and also that I should 
have all such ACTA SYNODALIA, 
as are adopted in the Synods of 
Holland; both the special ones re- 
lating to this region, and those 
which are provincial and national, 

♦ Quoted In Greek. 


Ecclesiastical Kecoeds 


Provinciale ende Nationale, orer 
alle kerckelijcke swaricbeden ge- 
stelt zijn, ofte ten minsten die na 
het oordeel der E. E. Broederen tot 
Amsterdam ons hier aldermeest 
zouden connen te pas comen. Ou- 
dertusscben soo hope ick, dat de 
zaken hier wel gaen sullen, soo wij 
slechs aen wederzijden ons beste 
doen in alle oprecbticbeyd ende 
goeden yver; waertoe gelijck ik 
mij van eersten aen ganscbelijek 
overgegeven bebbe, alsoo en bebbe 
ick oock tot nocb toe door des 
Heeren genade geen billijcke oor- 
zake om over yemand te clagen. 
Ende soo mij bier enige dubiense 
dingen van enigen gewicbte sullen 
Toorvallen, insonderheid als de 
sakeu enich wtstel connen lijden, 
soo sal ick mij refereren een der 
E. E. Broederen goede ende voor- 
sichtige advysen. aen de vrelcke ick 
mij alreede ganscbelijek recom- 

in relation to ecclesiastical points 
of difficulty; or at least such of 
tbem as in the judgment of the 
Honorable Brethren at Amsterdam 
Tvould be most likely to be of serv- 
ice to us here. In the meantime, 
I hope matters will go well here, 
if only on both sides we do our 
best in all sincerity and honest 
zeal; whereunto I have from the 
first entirely devoted myself, and 
wherein I have also hitherto, by 
the grace of God, had no just 
cause to complain of any one. 
And if any dubious matters of im- 
portance happen to me, and es- 
pecially if they will admit of any 
delay, I shall be guided by the 
good and prudent advice of the 
Honorable Brethren, (the Consist- 
ory at Amsterdam), to whom I 
have already wholly commended 

The ^Natives. 

Wat aengaet de natie deses 
Lands, die vynd ick gansch wild 
ende woest, vreemd van alle borger- 
lijcke sedicheyd, jae onbeleeft ende 
bot als tuynstaken, in alle boo- 
sheyd ende godloosheyd gelijck als 
gepromoveert, verduyvelde men- 
schen, die niemand anders dan den 
Duyvel dienen. wesende die Geest, 
dien sij op hare sprake Menetto 
noemen: gelijck sij mede onder 
dien tytel begrijpen alles wat 
subtyl ende geestich is ende beyde 
men schelijck vernuft ende crach- 
ten te boven gaet Sij gaen met 
vele tooverijen, waerseggingen, 
besweeringen ende snoode consten 
om, soo datse bijna in genige 
banden ofte sloten en siju te 
houden. Sij sijn soo diefachtich 

As to the natives of this country, 
I find them entirely savage and 
wild, strangers to all decency, yea, 
uncivil and stupid as garden poles, 
proficient in all wickedness and 
godlessness; devilish men, who 
serve nobody but the devil, that 
is, the spirit, which, In their lan- 
guage, they call Menetto; under 
which title they com- 
prehend everything that Their 
is subtle and crafty Character, 
and beyond human skill 
and power. They have eo much 
witchcraft, divination, sorcery, and 
wicked tricks, that they cannot be 
held in by any bands or locks. 
They are as thievish and treach- 
erous as they are tall; and in 
cruelty they are altogether in- 

OF THE State of Xew York. 



ende verradisch als sij groot zijn: 
ende in wreedheyd sijnee gansch 
oumenschelijck ende meer dan 
Barbarisch ende gaen d'Africanen 
daerin al verde te boven.* 

lek hebbe dies aengaende aen 
versclieydene personen elders ges- 
clireven, niet twijfelende of de 
Breeder Crol sal daervan aen 
UWE. ofte immers aan de Heeren 
Bewyndhebberen genoecb gesch- 
reven hebben: gelijck oock van het 
snoode verraed ende de moorderijre 
die de Mahicans aent oppereynde 
deser Riviere tegens het fort Orau- 
gien voorgenomen hadden,* doch is 
bun misluckt door een genadige 
bestieringe des Heeren ens ten 
goede: de welcke als bet hem ge- 
lieft, in dese onnatuyrlijcke men- 
schen onversiens natuyrlijcke bewe- 
gingen weet te storten om baer 
doen te beletten. Hoe men nu 
best dese luyden tot de ware ken- 
nisse Godes ende des Middelaers 
Cbristi sonde connen aenleyden, 
is qualijck te seggen. Ick en can 
mij selven niet genoech verwonde- 
ren wie UWerE. ende velen an- 
deren int Vaderland soo vele op 
de mouwe gespeldt macli hebben, 
belangende de geseggelijckheyd de- 
ser lieden, en den goeden aerdt, 
de gevoechlijcke principia religionis 
ende vestigia legis naturae die bij 
haer souden sijn: in de welcke ick 

human, more than barbarous, far 
exceeding the Africans.* 

I have written concerning these 
things to several persons elsewhere, 
not doubting that Brother Crol will 
have written sufficient to your 
Reverence, or to the Honorable 
Directors; as also of the base 
treachery, and the murders which 
the Mohicans, at the upper part of 
this river, had planned against 
Fort Orange,t but, by the gracious 
interposition of the Lord, for our 
good — who, when it pleased him, 
knows how to pour, unexpectedly, 
natural impulses into these un- 
natural men, in order to prevent 
them — they did net 
succeed. How these Difficulties 
people can best be of their 
led to the true knowl- conversion, 
edge of God and of 
the Mediator Christ, is hard to say. 
I cannot myself wonder enough 
who it is that has imposed so much 
upon your Reverence and many 
others in the Fatherland, concern- 
ing the docility of these people and 
their good nature, the proper prin- 
cipia religionis and vestigia legis 
naturae which should be among 
them; in whom I have as yet been 
able to discover hardly a single 
good point, except that they do not 
speak so jeeringly and so scof- 
fiugly of the godlike and glorious 

* Hij kon dlt uit eigene ondervindlng, 
In Africa opgedaan, getulgen. 

* Brodhead spreekt ook hiervan niet: 
alleen dat In het voorjaar van dlt jaar 
1628, dlgt bij het fort Oranje vljande- 
lljkheden waron ultgebroken tusschen 
de Mahicans, ook elders Mohlcanen ge- 
heeten, en de Mohawks, waarblj de 
eerstgenoemden verslageu en verjangd 
zijnde, naar Connecticut River geweken 
waren. L. 1. 113 en hler onder In het 
vervolg des briefs. 

• He could testify as to this from hU 
own experience, obtained In Africa. 

♦ Brodhead does not speak of this; 
only that in the spring of 1628, close by 
Fort Orange, animosities had broken out 
between the Mahicans, elsewhere called 
Mohegans, and the Mohawks, so that 
the first named, smitten and pursued, 
betook themselves to the Connecticut 
river. L. 1. 113 and toward the sequel 
of this letter. 


Ecclesiastical Records 

tot noch toe schaers een enich goed 
point hebbe connen bemercken, 
wtgenomen dat se van de godde- 
lijcke ende glorieuse majesteyt 
hares Scheppers soo spottelijck 
ende versmadelijck niet en spreken, 
als d'Africanen wel durven doen. 
Doch 't can wesen omdat se van 
hem noch soo sekere kennisse niet 
en hebben ofte oock wel gansche 
gene. Als wij tot bun van God 
willen spreken, het schijnt bun een 
droom te sijn: ende wij sijn genoot- 
saekt dat te doen onder den name, 
niet van Menotto dien sij kennen 
ende dienen (want dat ware een 
Laster), maer van enigen gnooten, 
jae den alderappersten Sackiema* 
met welcken name sij — sonder 
Coningh levende — heten den genen 
die over enige hondereen onder hun 
hebben te gebieden, die van de 
onsen Sackemakers genaemt wer- 
den, het welcke sij lieden hoorende 
600 sullen sommige beginnen te 
grijnen ende het hoofd te schudden 
als over een coude fabel, ende 
andere om met eeren ende vriend- 
schap uyt een sulck propoost te 
comen. suUon seggen Orith. dats 
goed. Nu. wat middel om dit volck 
ter salicheyd te ontginnen, ofte 
een heylsame bresse daeronder te 
maken? Ick neme verloff om in 
dit point wat wijdluftiger met 
Uwe E. te discoureren. 

Hare tale die het eerste is bij 
hun te besigen, dunckt, mij gansch 
vreembd. Vele onder ons gemeyne 
volck hetense gemeynelijck een 
lichte tale die haest geleert is: ick 
ben van een andere opinie. Want 
degene die hare woorden enigsins 
verstaen ende naspreken connen, 
die feylen grootelijck in pronun- 
tiatie ende radebraken se gelijck 

majesty of their Creator as the 
Africans dare to do. But it is be- 
cause they have no certain knowl- 
edge of Him, or scarcely any. If 
we speak to them of God, it ap- 
pears to them like a dream; and 
we are compelled to speak of him, 
not under the name of Menetto, 
whom they know and serve — for 
that would be blasphemy — but of 
one great, yea, most high, Sack- 
iema* by which name they — 
living without a king — call him 
who has the command over several 
hundred among them, and who by 
our people are called Sackemakers; 
and as the people listen, some will 
begin to mutter and shake their 
heads as if it were a silly fable; 
and others, in order to express re- 
gard and friendship for such a 
proposition, will say orith, that is, 
good. Now. by what means are we 
to make a salutary breach for the 
salvation of this people? I take 
the liberty on this point of enlarg- 
ing somewhat to your Reverence. 

Their language, which is the first 
thing to be employed with them, 
methinks is entirely 
peculiar. Many of our Their 
common people call it language, 
an easy language, which 
is soon learned, but I am of a con- 
trary opinion. For those who can 
understand their words to some ex- 
tent and repeat them, fail greatly 

• Sacklema, later in de Noord-Ameri- 
kaansche werken steeds Sachem ge- 

* Sackiema; subsequently in North 
American works always called Sachem. 

OF THE State of Xew York. 


de sprake Asdod.* Want dese natie 
heeft sware aspiratie ende vele 
litterras gutturales die meer in de 
kele dan door den mond, tanden 
ende lippen geformeert worden, 
betwelcke onse popelf ougewent 
signde, op sijne wi^'se een groven 
slach daerinne slaet ende meynt 
sijne dingen noch wonder wel 
gedaen te hebben. 'Tis waer, men 
can lichtelijck soo vele leeren als 
genoech is om te handelen, maer 
dit geschiedt bijcans soo vele int 
wijsen met duym ende vingeren als 
door spreken; het welcke in zaken 
van religie soo niet sonde connen 
geschieden. Oock soo schijnt het 
dat se bare tale voor ons liever 
occulteren, dan behoorlijck mede- 
deylen, ten sij dan in dingen die 
In den dagelijckschen handel te 
passe comen; seggende dat het 
genoech is dat wij hen daerinne 
verstaen connen: ende dan spreken 
se noch maer halve redenen. afge- 
cortede woorden ende noemen dick- 
wils een douzijne dingen ende noch 
meer; .iae al Tvat met malcanderon 
slechts eenige I'ouwe gelijckenisse 
heeft noemen sij dickwils al met 
6nen name. In summa 't is een 
gemaeckte kyndische tale: soo dat 
selfs degene die best van alien met 
den Wilden connen spreken ende 
In handel seer wel te rechte comen. 
nochtans gansch blind staen ende 
geljjck als met baeuist sijn, als 
slj de "Wilden allene onder mal- 
cauderen hooren spreken. 

in the pronunciation, and speak a 
broken language, like the language 
of Ashdod.* For these people have 
difficult aspirates and many gut- 
tural letters, which are formed 
more in the throat than by the 
mouth, teeth and lips, to which our 
peoplef are not accustomed, and 
making a bold stroke at which 
they imagine that they have accom- 
plished something wonderful. It 
is true one can learn as much as 
is sufficient for the purposes of 
trading, but this occurs almost as 
much by signs with the thumb and 
fingers as by speaking; but this 
cannot be done in religious matters. 
It also seems to us that they rather 
design to conceal their language 
from us than to properly communi- 
cate it. except in things which 
happen in dai'y trade; saying that 
it is sufficient for us to understand 
them in that; and then they speak 
only half sentences, shortened 
Avords, and frequently call out a 
dozen things and even more; and 
all things which have only a rude 
resemblance to each other, they 
frequently call by the same name. 
In truth it is a made-up, childish 
language; so that even those who 
can best of all speak vrtth the 
savages, and get along well In 
trade, are nevertheless wholly in 
the dark and bewildered^ when 
they hear the savages talking 
among themselves. 

Hij doelt op Nehemia ilii:24. 

t Verwant met gepeupel. 

J Baeuis (sic). Kan het ook In ver- 
band staan met het Fransche bijv. 
naamwoord eebahl? 

♦ He alludes to Neh. 13:24: And their 
children spake half In the speech of 
Ashdod, and could not speak in the 
Jews language, . . . 

t People — popel, connected with ge- 
peupel, — populace, mob. 

t rU'wildered — baeuis (sic). Can this 
word stand in connection with the 
French adjective esbahl? 


Ecci:esiastical Records 


Wei, of men dan d'oude in haer 
weeen llete ende aen den kinder- 
kens die noch jongh sijn, begonne. 
Tzij alzoo. Maer slj moesten yan 
joncks op van haren ouderen af- 
gesondert werdeu. jae van hare 
ganeche Natie: Want, sender dit. 
soo souden se de heydensche grillen 
ende duyvelryen terstond soo ge- 
went eijn als d'oude, die doch van 
gelfs door een rechtveerdich oordeel 
Godes in hare herten geknedet sijn 
van naturen: soo dat se eens diepe 
wortelen gecrengen hebbende door 
gewoonte, gansch swaerlijk daer- 
van souden sijn aftebrengen. Doch 
dese afflonderinge is qualijck te 
doen. Want d'oiiders hebben hare 
kinderen hertelijck lief, ende souden 
eeer noode daeraf scheyden, ende 
als het gesohiedt (want men heeft 
er al prouve af) soo en sijn d'ouders 
nlmmermeer te degen gerust, ende 
nemen se vreder steels wijse "wech. 
ofte maken dat se van selfs ont- 
loopen. Nochtans dies weege mo- 
este men uyt. al sonde men enige 
costen daertoe aenwenden. om de 
kinderen door gaven ende onder 
goede beloften met danck ende 
wille der ouderen te becomen. om 
de selve onder de hand van enich 
welervaren ende godsalich school- 
meester te bestellen, daer se moch- 
ten geoeffend werden, niet alleen- 
lijck in onse tale te spreken. te 
lesen ende te schrijven, maer oock 
voornemelijck in de fundamenten 
oneer Christelijcker religie, ende 
daer beneffens daer sij niet dan 
goede exempelen enes deugtsamen 
levens en zagen; raids dat se noch- 
tans eomtijds onder malkanderen 
hare moederlijcke tale spraken om 
de selve niet te vergeten. als ap- 
parentlljck een voorneme middel 
sijnde om de kenniese der Religie 
onder de gansche Natie uytte- 
breiden. Ondertusschen en moeste 
men niet vergeten den Heere om 

It Tvould be vrell then to leave 
the parents as they are, and begin 
with the children who are stall 
young. So be it. But they onght 
in youth to be separated from their 
parents; yea, from their whole na- 
tion. For, without this, they would 
forthwith be as much accustomed 
as their parents to heathenish 
tricks and deviltries, which are 
kneaded naturally in their hearts 
l)y themselves through a just judg- 
ment of God: so that having once, 
by habit, obtained deep root, they 
would with great diffi- 
culty be emancipated Duty of 
therefrom. But this instructing 
separation is hard the Indian 
to effect, for the children, 
parents have a strong 
affection for their children, and are 
very loth to part with them; and. 
when they are separated from 
them, as we have already had 
proof, the parents are never con- 
tented, but take them away stealth- 
ily, or induce them to run away. 
Nevertheless, although it would be 
attended with some expense, we 
ought, by means of presents, 
and promises to obtain the children, 
with the gratitude and consent 
of the parents; in order to 
place them under the instruc- 
tion of some experienced and 
godly schoolmaster, where they 
may be instructed not only to 
speak, read, and write in our lan- 
guage, but also especially in the 
fundamentals of our Christian re- 
ligion; and where, besides, they 
will see nothing but the good ex- 
ample of virtuous living; but they 
must sometimes speak their native 
tongue among themselves, in order 
not to forget it, as being evidently 
a principal means of spreading the 
knowledge of religion through the 
whole nation. In the meantime we 
should not forget to beseech the 

or THE State of iSTew York. 



sljnen zegen te soliciteren met vie- 
rlge ende geduyrige gebeden, die 
doch dingeu die ongesien sijn, haest 
gesien ende gelegen can maken, 
die den dooden het leven geeft ende 
roupt hetgene dat niet en is als 
of het -ware ende daertoe rijck 
sijnde in barmharticheyd hem ont- 
fermt wiens hij wil: gelijck hij 
sich onser ontfermt heeft om sijn 
Tolck te wesen, als "wij te voren 
nlet ontfermt ende sijn volck niet 
en waren, ende heeft ons, als -svij 
met een gelijcke sop aller verdor- 
Tentheden overgoten waren. afge- 
wassen, geheyligt ende gerechtveer- 
digt, ons roiipende tot de zalige 
kenniBBe sijns Soons, ende uyt de 
macht der duysternisse tot sijnen 
wonderbaerlijcken lichte. Ende dit 
achte Ick soo vele te noodiger als 
de toorn Godes ende vloek te 
■wnerder is, de -weleke tot noch toe 
op dese elendlge natie bevonden 
wordt te leggen. Magschien of 
hem God noch ten eynde ont- 
fermde, opdat de volheyd der hey- 
deneu allenskens inconem mochte 
ende het heyl onses Godes oock al- 
hier gesien mochte werden onder 
dese "wilde ende woeste menschen. 
Ick hope een sorgfuldige ooge over 
dese luyden te houden ende soo 
vele van hare tale te leeren als 
doenli.ick si.1n sal, ende te prac- 
tlzeren op betere gelegentheden 
haerder onderwljsinge dan men tot 
noch toe heeft connen wnden. 

Lord, with ardent and continual 
prayers, for His blessing; who can 
make things which 
are unseen suddenly Prayer, 
and opportunely to SovereigTity 
appear; who gives of God. 
life to the dead; calls 
that which is not as though it 
were; and being rich in mercy has 
pity on whom He will; as He has 
compassionated us to be His peo- 
ple; and has washed us clean, sanc- 
tified us and justified us, when we 
were covered with all manner of 
corruption, calling us to the blessed 
knowledge of His Son, and from 
the power of darkness to His mar- 
vellous light. And this I regard so 
much the moi'e necessary, as the 
wrath and curse of God. resting 
upon this miserable people, is found 
to be the heavier. Perchance God 
may to that end have mercy upon 
them, that the fulness of the hea- 
then may be gradually brought in. 
and the salvation of our God may 
be here also seen among these wild 
savage men. I hope to keep a 
watchful eye over these people, 
and to learn as much of their lan- 
guage as will be practicable, and 
to seek better opportunities for 
their instruction than hitherto it 
has been possible to find. 

His Support. 

Wat nu mij selven belangt ende 
mijne huishoudinge: ick vynde mij 
door het verlies van mijne goede 
ende behulpsame parture seer 
ontrijft ende verlegen. Want miju 
twee dochterkens sijn noch cleyn; 
dieustmaegden en sijn hier niet te 
becomen, Immers gene die men mij 

As to what concerns myself and 
my household: I find myself by 
the loss of my good and helpful 
partner very much 
hindered and distres- House- 
sed — for my two keeping, 
little daughters are 
yet small; maid servants are 


Ecclesiastical Recokds 


raden sonde in te nemen: d'An- 
goolsche slavinnen sijn oock die- 
facbtige. luije ende ontijdige vod- 
deu. Den jongbman dien ick met 
mij nam. bebbe ick na Pinsteren 
■n-edev laten gaen, om dies wille. 
dat ick bem buyten'sbuys tot ge- 
nicb landwerk en conde besigen 
ende binnens buys mij meer be- 
swaerde. dan verlicbtinge aen- 
bracbte; bij dient nu elders bij de 

De belofte die mij de Heeren 
Meesters der Comp. gedaen bedden 
van enige mergens ofte gemeten 
lands te doen bebben om mij daerop 
te geneeren ende dat in de plaetse 
van een vrije tafel die mij anders- 
sins toebeboorde, is ganscb nieticb 
ende ijdel. Want bare E. E. -^visten 
immers selve wel dat albier geen 
peerden nocb koeijen nocb arbeyds- 
lieden om geld te necomen sijn. 
Want elck beeft in desen nocb te 
cort ende roept om meer. De costen 
sonde ick mij ontsien,* soo de ge- 
legenheyd slecbts viele: ende dat 
om ons eygen gerijf, al waert 
schoon datter geen voordeel op 
liepe (beboudens nocbtans dat d'E. 
E. Meesters mij scbuldicb blijven 
soo vele als de weerde van een 
vrije tafel) want bier en is gene 
verversscbinge van boter ende 
melck etc. te crijgen, boewel bet 
tot ganscb dieren prijs vercocbt 
(werdt), want de lieden die bet 
halen ofte bespreken sijn jaloers 
over malcanderen. Dus sal ick den 
wynter moeten overbrengen sonder 
boter ende andere noodige diugen, 
die de schepen niet mede en brengen 
om bier verkocbt te werden. Ende 
het randzoen dat bier wtgedeelt 
■werdt ende booge genoech aenge- 
BChreven, is al barde oude cost, ge- 

uot bere to be bad, at least none 
wbom tbey advise me to take; and 
tbe Angola (female) slaves are 
tbievisb, lazy, and useless trash. 
The young man whom I took with 
me, I discharged after Whitsuntide, 
for the reason that I could not em- 
ploy him out-of-doors at any work- 
ing of the land, and in-doors be 
was a burden to me instead of an 
assistance. He is now elsewhere 
at service among the farmers. 

The promise which the Honorable 
Directors of the Company had 
made me of some acres or surveyed 
lands for me to make myself a 
home, instead of a free table which 
otherwise belonged to 
me, is void and use- Unable yet 
less. For their Hon- to farm- 
ers well knew that 
there are no horses, cows, or labor- 
ers to be obtained here for money. 
Every one is short in these par- 
ticulars and wants more. I should 
not mind* the expense if the op- 
portunity only offered, for the sake 
of otir own comfort, although there 
were no profit in it (the Honorable 
Directors nevertheless remaining 
indebted to me for as much as the 
value of a free table), for refresh- 
ment of butter, milk, etc., cannot 
be here obtained; though some is 
indeed sold at a very high price, 
for those who bring it in or be- 
speak it are jealous of each other. 
So I shall be compelled to pass 
through the winter without butter 
and other necessities, which the 
ships do not bring with them to be 
sold here. The ra- 
tions, which are given Food, 
out and charged for 
high enough, are all hard stale 
food, as they are used to on board 

• Ontsien is hier zoo veel als ge- 

* Not mind — ontzien, treat gently; is 
here the same as getroosten — bear 

OF THE State of Xew York. 



lijck men te schepe plach te ge- 
bruycken: oock dickwils niet seer 
goed ende noch en can men 't tot 
sijnen Tville niet genoech becomen. 
Ick begonde vrij Avat stercte te 
crijgen door des Heeren genade, 
maer door dit harde voedsel van 
boontgens, graeuw erwten die hard 
genoech zijn, gort, stockvis etc. 
sender vele vernieuwinge, doet dat 
Ick niet geheel can becomen, ge- 
lijck ick anders vrel sonde. De 
somer geeft wel yet, maer wat ist 
voor yemand die niet en heeft aen 
hem selven? De Wllden brengen 
oock wel sommige dingen, maer die 
gene waren en heeft, als messen, 
coralen ende diergelijcke ofte seeu- 
wan,* die en can niet te rechte 
comen. Ende hoewel de lieden 
sulcke dingen verhandelen voor 
eerlijcke waren, soo en weet ids 
noch niet of het hun al vrij staet 
na de wetten der Comp. Ick hebbe 
nu wt Holland meest alle noodige 
dingen ontboden: ende verhope den 
wynter met harden ende schralen 
cost noch overtebrengen. 

Het land geeft vele goede dingen 
tot den leeftocht, maer sij sijn al 
te ongereedt ende wild te soecken: 
daer moeste beter ordre gestelt 
werden, ende luyden sljn die ver- 
stand ende gereedschap hadden om 
alles in sijn behoorlijck saysoen 
optesoecken, te vangen ende bijeen 
te brengen: gelijk ongetwijffelt 'al- 
lenskens sal geschieden. Onder- 
tusschen soo wilde ick wel den E. 
E. Heeren Bewynthebberen beleef- 
delijck gevraegt hebben, hoe Ick 
best de gelegenheyd sal connen heb- 
ben om een partije lands te beslaen 

ship, and frequently not very good, 
and even so one cannot obtain as 
much as he desires. I began to 
get considerable strength by the 
grace (favor) of the Lord, but in 
consequence of this hard fare of 
beans and gray peas, which are 
hard enough, barley, stockfish, etc., 
without much change I cannot fully 
recuperate as I otherwise would. 
The summer yields something, but 
what of that for any one who has 
no strength? The savages also 
bring some things, but one who has 
no wares, such as knives, beads, 
and the like, or seewan,* cannot 
come to any terms with them. 
Though the people trade such 
things for proper wares, I know not 
whether it is permitted by the laws 
of the Company. I have now 
ordered from Holland most all 
necessaries; but I expect to pass 
through the winter with hard and 
scanty food. 

The country yields many good 
things for the support of life, but 
they are all too unfit and wild to 
be gathered. Better regulations 
should be established, as doubtless 
will gradually be the case, so that 
people who have the knowledge 
and implements for seeking out all 
kinds of things in their season shall 
secure and gather them. In the 
meanwhile, I wish the 
Honorable Directors Need of 
to be courteously en- land, 

quired of, how I can 
have the opportunity to possess a 

• Seeuwan, eene eoort van walvisch- 
baard of balein, in den niilhandel 
destijds aldaar gebniikolljk en bIJ de 
Inboorlingen zeer gewlld. Zle A.v.d. 
Donck, Bescher. van Nleuw-Nederlant, 
2de dr. Amst. 1656. bl. 56, 57. 

• Sccwan — a sort of whale fin or 
whale bone, very useful in the barter 
of those times, and with the nativea 
much In demand. See Vander Donck's 
Description of New Netherland, 2nd ed., 
1G5G. 5G. 57. 


Ecclesiastical Records 

ende mij selven daerop (oock tot 
mijnen costen) te geneeren? Want 
soo lange hier niet meer van gerief 
bij den landlieden te crijgen is ende 
ick genoodzaeckt sonde Tvesen tot 
hooge costen met vele moeyten ende 
peryckel alles wt het Vaderland te 
ontbieden ofte hier op dit enckel 
sober ende hard rantzoen te leven: 
dat sonde mij ende mijne kinderen 
gansch slecht bevallen. Ons ont- 
breken noch 10 ofte 12 boeren met 
peerden, koeijen ende arbeydslieden 
naer advenant om onsselven te 
bedroopen van brood, suyvel ende 
behoorlijcke verversschinge. Want 
hier sijn nabij gelegene plaetsen, 
die licht sijn te beschermen ende 
seer bequaem: die men oock den 
Wilden om een geringe snuyster- 
inge sonde connen afcoopen, ofte 
oock eonder peryckel innemen: 
dewijle wij daerop meer dan ge- 
noechsame actien op hebben de 
welcke nooyt afgedaen en sijn ge- 
worden, maer met sulken insicht 
altijd gereserveert. 

portion of land, and at my ovm ex- 
pense to support myself upon it. 
For as long as there is no more 
accommodation to be obtained here 
from the country people, I shall be 
compelled to order everything from 
the Fatherland at great expense 
and with much risk and trouble, or 
else live here upon these poor and 
hard rations alone, which would 
badly suit me and 
my children. We Need of 
want ten or twelve farmers, 
farmers with horses, 
cows and laborers in proportion, to 
furnish us with bread and fresh 
butter, milk and cheese. There are 
convenient places which can be 
easily protected and very suitable, 
which can be bought from the sav- 
ages for trifling toys, or could be 
occupied without risk, because we 
have more than enough shares 
which have never been cleared but 
have been always reserved for that 


De negotie in de vellen* valt slap 
ende dat van wegen een ■ nieuwe 
oorloge der Maechibaeys tegen de 
Mahicans aent oppereynde van dese 
riviere. Daer vallen wreede moor- 
derijen tusschen beyden. De Ma- 
hicans sijn vluchtich; ende hun 
lant staet open, seer vruchtbaer 
ende plaisierich: het jammert ons 
alleen dat men geen volck, noch 
ordre en heeft van de Heeren 
Meesters om het selve te besetten. 
Men velt hier vele houts om na 't 
Vaderland te voeren, maer de 
schepen sijn te weynich om vele 
te laden. Men maeckt enen meulen 

The business of furs* is dull on 
account of the new war of the 
Maechibaeys (Mohawks) against 
the Mohicans at the upper end of 
this river. There have occurred 
cruel murders on both 
sides. The Mohicans Wars, 
have fled and their Industries, 
lands are unoccupied 
and are very fertile and pleasant. 
It grieves us that there are no peo- 
ple, and that there is no regulation 
of the Honorable Directors to oc- 
cupy the same. They fell much 
wood here to carry to the Father- 
land, but the vessels are too few 

• Bevervellen. 

* The beaver-skins. 

OF THE State of I^ew York. 


te wynde* om hovit te sagen; ge- 
lljck wij oock al enen meelmolen 
hebben. Men backt hier stenen 
doch slj vallen gansch slecM. Om 
calck te branden isser goede 
stoffe namelijck oesterscbelpen bij 
menicbten. De potascbbrandinge 
en succedeert nlet ende de meester 
met sijne arbeydslieden sijn ar- 
bej'dslleden sijn alle grootelijcx 

Men is besich met een forteresse 
te bouwen van goede bergbstenen, 
die niet verde van bier bij menicb- 
ten leggen. De Heere bouTre 
slechts mede, ende sij de wacbter 
op onse muyren. Men siet hier 
goede commoditeyt om sont te 
maken: want daer sijn gelegene 
plaatsen, bet water is sout genoech 
ende 'ten onbreeckt niet aen hitte 
in den somer. Yoorts wat de 
wateren al geven van vele soorten 
riscb beyde in zee ende in de 
rivieren: wat bet land al beeft van 
gevogelte. wild ende bosschagien, 
van eerdvruchten, boomvrucbten, 
wortelen, gewassen, cruyden soo 
om te eten als medicinale ende 
met de welcke wonderlijeke curen 
gewrocbt conn en werden, soo (sou) 
gansch langh vallen om te ver- 
halen. ende ick en sonde 't soo 
geheel pertinent alsnocb niet con- 
nen doen. Uwe E. heeft daer af 
ten deele al kennisse gecregen ende 
sal wt andere noch meer be- 
scheyds connen vernemon. Het 
land is goed ende playsiericb, de 
lucht is gesond niet tegenstaende 
de subyte veranderinge van coude 
ende hitte. De sonne is gansch 
beet, de wynter fel ende strenge 
ende duyrt ruym soo lange als in 

to take much of it. They are mak- 
ing a windmill* to saw the wood 
and we also have a gristmill. 
They bake brick here, but it is very 
poor. There is good material for 
burning lime, namely, oyster shells, 
in large quantities. The burning 
of potash has not succeeded; the 
master and his laborers are all 
greatly disappointed. t 

Yv'e are busy now in building a 
fort of good quarry stone, which is 
to be found not far from here in 
abundance. May the Lord only 
build and watch over our walls. 
There is good opportunity for mak- 
ing salt, for there are convenient 
places, the water is salt enough, 
and there is no want of heat In 
summer. Besides, as to the waters, 
both of the sea and rivers, they 
yield all kinds of fish; and as to 
the land, it abounds in all kinds 
of game, wild and in the groves, 
with vegetables, fruits, roots, herbs 
and plants, both for eating and 
medicinal purposes; and with which 
wonderful cures can be effected, 
which it would take too long to 
tell, nor could I do justice to the 
tale. Your Reverence has already 
obtained some knowledge thereof 
and will be able to 
obtain from others Climate, 
further information. 
The country is good and pleasant, 
the climate is healthj-, notwith- 
standing the sudden changes of 
cold and heat. The sun is very 
warm, the winter is strong and 
severe and continues fully as long 
as in our country. The best rem- 
edy is not to spare the wood, of 

• Windmolen. 

t D. i. vinden zich bedrogen. 


* Meulcn te wynde — windmolen, wind- 

t Verabuseert — vinden zich bedrogen 
— find themselves defrauded. 


Ecclesiastical Records 

ouse landen. De beste i-emedie is 
geen hout te sparen: want 't isser 
genoech. ende sich "wel te deckeu 
met ruyge vellen, die men oocli tot 
sijn gerief licht can becomen. 

Den oogst is Gode loff in de 
schuyre ende beter geslaegt dan 
ooyt te voren: daer was oock wat 
meer toe gedaen dan te voren. De 
grond is vruclitbaer genoech om den 
arbeyd te beloouen, maer men moet 
hem wel suyveren, alle deugt doeu 
ende cultiveren. gelijck onse landen 
ook vereyssclien. Het lieeft tot 
noch toe veel te arger gegaen 
omdat vele lieden niet seer arbeyd- 
saem en waren ofte oock haren 
behoorlijcken nooddruft niet en 
cregen bij gebreck van brood ende 
toespijse. Dan liet begint nu alles 
bet te gaeu ende bet siet nu geheel 
uyt een ander ooge: soo de Meesters 
slechts goede arbeyders senden ende 
op alle dingen ordre geven om hem 
met die dingen die dit land selve 
geeft ten besten te geneeren. 

which there is enough, and to cover 
one's self with rough skins, which 
can also easily be obtained. 

The harvest, God be praised, is 
in the barns, and is larger than 
ever before. There has been more 
work put on it than 
before. The ground Harvests. 
is fertile enough to 
reward labor, but they must clear 
it well, and till it, just as our lands 
require. Until now there has been 
distress because many people were 
not very industrious, and also did 
not obtain proper sustenance for 
want of bread and other neces- 
saries. But affairs are beginning 
to put on a better appearance, if 
only the Directors will send out 
good laborers and exercise all care 
that they be maintained as well as 
possible with what this country 

His Relation to the Church of Holland. 

Ick hadde wel voor, ende oock 
belooft (te schrijven) aen de E. E. 
Broederen Rudolphum Petri, Joan- 
nem Sylvium. ende aen D. Cloppen- 
burgium, die neffens Uwe E. met 
de besorginge deses quartiers was 
belastet;* doch alsoo dit langh 
sonde vallen, den tijd cort is ende 
mijne occupatien voor dees tijd 
vele, soo sal Uwe E. gelieven mijne 
vriendelijcke ende beleefde groeten- 
isse aen hare E. E. te doen ende 

I had promised (to write) to the 
Honorable Brethren, Rudolphus 
Petri, Joannes Sylvius and Domiue 
[Joannes] Cloppenburg, who, with 
your Reverence, were charged* 
with the superintendence of these 
regions; but as this would take 
long and the time is short, and my 
occupations at the present time 
many, will your Reverence be 
pleased to give my friendly and 
kind regards to their Reverences, 

• Belastet. Dit was dus door de • Belastet — charged, burdened. This 

Noord-Holl. Synodus aau eenige Am- 
sterdamsche predikanten opgedragen. — 
De in den tekst genoemde predikanten 
waren alien destljds nog te Amsterdam 
werkzaam; Sylvius en Ti'lglandius sints 
1610, Petri sints 1612, en Cloppenburg 
siuts 1621. 

duty had been thus committed to cer- 
tain Amsterdam preachers by the Synod 
of North Holland. The preachers named 
in the text were all at this time active 
In Amsterdam; Sylvius and Triglandius 
since 1610, Petri since 1612, and Clop- 
penRurj; hince 1621. 

OF THE State of New York. 



mij te excuseren. mids dat ick 
haren schuldenaer blijve, orn mijne 
belofte de naeste reyse (soo God 
wil) te vervullen. Wilt oock mijne 
hertgrondelijcke groetenisse doen 
aen E. D. Triglandium ende voorts 
alle de Broederen des Kercken- 
raeds, aen welcke alle ick voor dees 
tijd niet noodich en achte bijscon- 
derlijck te schrijven, als die van 
mij gemaeckt werden participanten 
in dese tijdingen, ende geerne 
tevreden sijn uyt Uwer E. hand 
geaest te werden. Soo 't Uwer B. 
gelegen sal zijn ofte yemand der 
E. Broederen om herwaerds aen 
mij een letterken te schrijven van 
dingen daeraen mij enigsins mochte 
gelegen zijn: het sonde mij (bier 
levende in een woest land, buyten 
alle tgeselschap van onse orden) 
gansch vermakelijck sijn. ende een 
spore om den E. E. Broederen, van 
alles dat bier sonde mogen voor- 
vallen, des te vlijtiger overte- 
schrijven. Docli vooval en dient 
niet vergeten dat mijne hertelijcke 
groete geschieden aen Uwer E. be- 
mlnde huysvrouwe ende swager 
dewelcke mij niet dan alle vriend- 
schap ende deugt (oock boven mijne 
weerde) bewesen hebben. Soo daer 
yets ware waerin ick hen ende 
Uwer E. wederomme conde dienen 
ofte gratificeren, het sonde mij van 
herten lief zijn ende ick sonde mij 
in genige dingen willen te nooden 

Hiermede dan eindigende. ende 
mij selven in Uwer E. gunste ende 
godsalige gebeden tot den Heere 

Eerweerde Welgeleerde Heere, 
beminde Br. in Christo ende goed- 
gnnstige vriend, 

and to excuse me, on condition that 
I remain their debtor to fulfill my 
promise — God willing — the next 
time. Will you, also, give my sin- 
cere respects to the Reverend 
Domine Triglandius, and to all the 
Brethren of the Consistory (at Am- 
sterdam) besides, to all of whom I 
have not thought it necessary to 
write particularly at this time, as 
they are made by me participants 
in these tidings, and are content to 
be fed from the hand of your 
Reverence. If it shall be conveni- 
ent for your Rever- 
ence or any of the Correspond- 
Reverend Brethren to ence. 

write to me a letter 
concerning matters which might be 
Important in any degree to me, it 
would be very Interesting to me, 
living here in a wild country with- 
out any society of our order, and 
would be a spur to write more as- 
siduously to the Reverend Brethren 
concerning what may happen here. 
And especially do not forget my 
hearty salutations to the beloved 
wife and brother-in-law of your 
Reverence, who have shown me 
nothing but friendship and kind- 
ness above my deserts. If there is 
anything in which I can in return 
serve or gratify your Reverence, I 
shall be glad to do so, and shall 
not be delinquent In anything.* 

Concluding then herewith, and 
commending myself to your Rever- 
ence's favor and to your holy pray- 
ers to the Lord. 

Reverend and Learned Sir, Be- 
loved Brother in Christ, and Kind 

♦ Beteekent 

dit: willen te kort 

♦Willen te nooden maken: — Thia 
means — to be willing to fall short — 
in nothing. 


68 Ecclesiastical Records 

Soo wll ick Uwe E. ende alien Heartily commending your Rev- 
den uwen den Almogenden God in erence and all of you to Almighty 
genaden tot een langduyrige voor- God, to continue health and pros- 
spoed ende gesondheyd ende tot perity, and to eternal salvation, by 
een eeuwige zalicheyd van herten His Grace, 
bevolen hebben. From the island of Manhatas in 

Wt het Eyland van Manhatas New Netherland, this 11th day of 

desen lln Augusti Ao. 1628, in August, Anno 1628, by me, your 

NieuTV-Nederland, bij mij Uwer E. Reverence's very obedient servant 

in Christo gansch dienst willige. in Christ. 


E-Ev. Jonas Michaelius. 

Froin Van der Aa's Biograpliical Dictionary. — Michaelius, 
Jonas, cousin (neef) of the following, born in 1577, probably at 
Hoom, allowed himself to be inscribed as a Member of the Uni- 
versity (Academie-burgher, or citizen of the University) at Ley- 
den. He became pastor at Nieuwbokswoude in 1612, and at Hem 
in 1614. Ten years later in 1624, he sailed vnth the fleet of Piet 
Heyn, to San Salvador in Brazil, where he had been appointed 
as the permanent minister. The next year, when we (the Dutch) 
had to vacate again this strong point, the Reformed minister left 
also with the Dutch. In 1625, or in the beginning of 1626, we 
find him laboring in Guinea, at the fort St. George del Mina, 
(d'Elmina). In 1627 he returned to the Fatherland. In Janu- 
ary, 1628, he sailed with his wife and three children to iSTorth 
America and became the first minister of the Dutch Reformed 
Church at Manhattan or N"ew Amsterdam, subsequently called 
l^ew York. Thence he wrote on August 11, 1628, an important 
letter to Adrian Smoutius, minister in Amsterdam. This letter 
was communicated by Mr. Bodel ISTijenhuis to the Archives 
(Archief) of Profs. Kist and Moll, Part I, pp. 365 et seq. It 
seems that about the year 1633 he returned again to the Father- 
land or removed as minister, to Virginia.* In 1637 and 1638 

• This Is plainly an error in Van der Aa. There could have been no reason for 
his going to (the present state of) Virginia, where there were no Dutch; but the 
term Virginia is frequently employed, as inclusive of New Netherland. The extracts 
given below in this work abundantly show this. See such extracts. See also Henry 
C. Murphy's remarks on Rev. Jonas Michaelius in Col. Docs. N. Y. ii. 759-761. 

Seal of the Ouassis df Amsterdam, AnopTKn 163S. 

An open Bible with an Olivo Branch lying upon it and with the words " Veritas ct 
Pax " encircling it and the word " Jehovah " in Hebrew letters, over the Bible. 

Photographed from a wax impression on a letter of tlio Classis written in 1772 in 
which they grant independence to the Reformed Churcli in America. 

OF THE State of 'N'ew Yoke. 69 

he is again met with in the jSTetherlands, and was again recom- 
mended bj the Classis of Amsterdam to the Directors of the 
West India Company. 

See J. Hoornbech, Sorg en Raad aang. de Evangelie-prediking 
in Oost en West Indie, 's Gravenh. 1732 (achter W. Hogerwaarts 
Afscheidsreden tot de gemeynte op Batavia, bl. 53, 55; M. Veeris, 

The following Tablet has recently been erected In the Middle Dutch Church, 
New York City, 2nd Avenue, near 7th St. to ReT. Jonas Michaellus. 






Who, A.D. 1628, organized, in New Amsterdam, this Church, when " full fifty 
communicants, received the Lord's Supper — not without joy and comfort to many." 

From this " beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ the Sou of God," this Church 
has " continued steadfastly In the apostles doctrine and fellowship, and in brealjiug 
of bread and in prayers." 

" Mid toil and tribulation. 

And tumult of her war, 
She waits the consummation 

Of peace for evermore; 
Till with the vision glorious 

Her longing eyes are blest. 
And the great Church victorious 

Shall be the Church at rest." 


ERECTED, A.D. 1900. 

Note on John Michaellus, cousin of Rev. Jonas Michaellus, who was the first 
minister in New Amsterdam. 

Michaellus, Johannes, or Michielsz. Jan, called also Johannes Michaellus Kerati- 
nus, (Horn), after his birth place Hoorn, was a pupil of Beeckman, and preceptor of 
the third class at the Illustrious School at Dordrecht. He lived during the first 
half of the XVIIth century, and was, in his day, a philosopher not without renown, 
as well as a Greek, Latin, and Dutch poet. His bosom friend and brother in arts, 
John van Someren, secretary of the " Chambre-mie-partic," (a Chamber of Rhet- 
oric^ and Pensionary (or Corporation Counsel) of Nymegen, somewhere calls him 
•' Magnus Philosophus ". His " Llbellus de Oculo, seu de naturn visus "; his " Dla- 
logus de aeternitate ", Dordrechti, H. Essaeus, 1645, 12 mo.; and some philosophical 
and mathematical treatises, which were never published, would have given him a 
right to this title. Of his Greek muse, we possess as a specimen, only a " Te- 
trastichon ", among the poemata at the back of the aforesaid Llbellus; of his Latin 
muse there are more at hand, such as " Carmina Sacra "; " Elogla "; one entitled — 
"Virgo Dordraceua "; anotlier, " De Continlbus 70 pagls Dordrechtum clrcumja- 


YO Ecclesiastical Eecobds 

Reg. r. K Holl. bl. 318; v. d. Aa, Aardrijksk. Woordenb. D. 
viii.) bl. 92; vooral Bodel iSTijenhuis, t. a. p. 

Adrianus Smoutius. 

!N'ote on Kev. Adrianiis Smoutius, to whom Rev. Jonas Michaelius 
addressed his letter in 1628. 

For many years Rev. Adrian Smoutius had borne an active part 
in the controversies between Calvinists and Arminians. In 1606 
he was without charge. Previously, he had been pastor of the 
church of Rhoon, a village a few miles south of Delftshaven, but 
across the river Maas. Under the lead of an older minister, a 
pastor at Rotterdam, he came into conflict in 1606 with the magis- 
trates of that city on account of their tolerance of Arminians. 
On July 20, 1613, he was summoned before the States for a 
seditious publication. He was condemned to live at 's Gravesande, 
which is south of the Hague and west of Delft, and to remain 

centibus inundatione liorribile submersis ". [This refers to the great flood of 1477, 
when the Biesborch was formed.] Of his Dutch poems we possess only a tragedy 
entitled, " Julius Caesar ofte Kaisermoorders ", — Emperor murderers, or Regicides, 
Dordrecht, H. van Esch, 1645, 12 mo. This pleased the poet van Someren so greatly 
that he composed on it an " Epitymblon ". He wrote poetry also after the style 
of Huyghens and Hooft, as is evident from a certain poem of his, written in the 
style wherein these, as well as Tesselschade and Anna Roemer Visschers, (two 
sisters), J. van Brosterhuyzen, G. R. Doublet, and others, have written. 

He also composed a few Latin verses (to be placed) under the likeness of John 
van Beverwyck. 

Under his own likeness, by Joshua Offermaus. are two lines by Brey: under an- 
other are these, by van Someren: 

" Wat oyt het prachtigh Griekenlandt, 

En Rome vol van wysheyt vant, 

Dat schuylt hier in dit deftig hooft, 

Wiens naem geen sterflickheyt en dooft." 
(Whate'er the splendid land of Greece, 

And Roman wisdom found t' increase. 
This hides here in this stately head. 
Whose name oblivion need not dread.) 

The same poet composed an Epitymblon in obltum lectissimae foeminae Jacobae 
Michaelius, V. Kal. 1644 — (Month not given.) 

Michaelius died August 3, 1646. See Hoeufft, Paru. Belg. p. 174; van Someren, 
Uysp. der Vem. passim.; Schotel, Gesch. Lett, en Oudheidk. Avoudst. bl. 99; Bijdr. 
tot de Gesch. v.d. Geest en Wereldl. Kleed. D. I. bl. 57; 111. school, bl. 82-84, 225.— 
From A. J. van der Aa's Biographlsch Woordenboek. 

OF THE State of Xew Yoke. 71 

there until further orders. But in 1617 he went to Amsterdam 
in defiance of orders, but he had enrolled himself as a citizen, as 
a precautionary measure. 

In 1617 a few bright spirits in the literary life of the Capital 
had formed an " Akademie " for the encouragement of litera- 
ture, among whose members was Vondel, the famous poet. But 
this " Academy ", says Jonckbloet, with its poets, found in 
domine Smout a vehement antagonist, not so much on literary 
grounds, as because these gifted minds occupied themselves 
mainly in satirizing the prevailing clericalism of the day. Smout 
signally failed in " speaking the truth in love ". He was so vio- 
lent and unmeasured in his denunciations that Burgomaster Hooft, 
the father of the poet and historian, once asked him, " if he 
could point to any author who could equal him in slander and 
vituperation ". 

He was again complained of because of an attack on a pastor 
of Rotterdam whom he charged with being a follower of Arminius. 
He, however, appealed to his privilege as a citizen, which would 
have compelled the aggrieved party to prosecute him in Amster- 
dam, which he did not care to do. In August, 1618, he was 
permitted by the States to visit his sick and aged mother at Rot- 
terdam, on condition that he announce his arrival to the Burgo- 
masters, and pledge himself to keep the peace. He was allowed 
to stay two weeks, but if detained longer, he must give notice 
to the Burgomasters and obtain permission for a longer stay. 

With the meeting of the Synod of Dort, 1618-19, Calvinism 
l)Ccamo triumphant. In November, Smoutius was still at Rot- 
terdam, but not as an exile. The decree, banishing him from 
Rotterdam and Schiedam, was rescinded. He even visited the 
Synod of Dort, with letters to the clerical and political delegates 
from Rotterdam. He then became pastor at Overmass, a hamlet 
across the river Maas, and opposite Rotterdam. In Wagenaar's 
Description of Amsterdam, ii. 143, we read that, " as the twenty 
second minister, called to the Collegiate churches of AmBterdam 
in 1620 from Overmaas, he remained until January 7th 1630, 


72 Ecclesiastical Records 

when he withdrew from that city to Rotterdam, and died in 16-i6 ". 
This is mildly expressed. In Amsterdam he pursued the same 
intolerant course against all opponents of Calvinism. In 1622 
a couple of Arminians were elected to the municipal government 
of Amsterdam. Much to the disgust of Smoutius, they began 
soon to be allowed some religious privileges. From 1619-1625 
public worship had been forbidden to them. Smoutius was fore- 
most in denouncing this leniency. He declared that the election 
of Arminians to the Magistracy and the recall of Hugo Grotius 
was " admitting the Trojan horse ". At his instigation and that 
of others, the conventicles of Arminians were attacked, furniture 
destroyed, and personal violence experienced. When the Burgo- 
masters called upon the Prince of Orange for troops to quell these 
disturbances, Smoutius declared that officers and men, who were 
thus compelled to protect Arminians, were discharged from their 
oath of allegiance to the Prince, because that oath bound them 
only to defend the true' religion, and not that condemned by the 
Synod of Dort. Some acted on this advice and were cashiered. 
The Calvinists attacked the Council. Smoutius denounced the 
magistrates from the pulpit, and held up the soldiers who had 
listened to him, as models. Summoned before the Burgomasters, 
he denounced them to their face, comparing them to Rehoboam. 
The riot continued, until on January 7, 1630, he was ordered 
to leave Amsterdam before sundown. A canal boat was placed 
at his disposal, and he departed. This circumstance as well as 
the name of Smoutius are commemorated in verse by that prince 
of Dutch poets, Joost Vondel: 

" No Papist and no firebrand here 

Their baneful trade may ply; 
The packet-boat's at hand for those 

Who raise Sedition's cry, 
Like Smout and Kloppenburg "* 

* Geen Paep geen stokebrand mag hier den wervel draeien; 

De tochtschult leit gereet, voor al die oproer kraeien, 

Als Smout, en Kloppenburgh; wien nu het harte breekt, 

Zoo dlk by in den Briel voor zee paer voren preekt. — Hekeld, page 199. 

OF THE State of ITew York. Y3 


Kloppenburg, one of the ministers mentioned in the letter of 
Michaelius, was banished at the same time and for the same reason. 
Smoiitius subsequently accepted a salary from the Council that 
banished him. He died at Rotterdam in 1646. 

His plain Dutch name, in full, was Adriaan Jorisson Smout. 
He must have been a man of ability to have been called to Am- 

See Dr. Daniel Van Pelt's Article, Christian Intelligencer, 
October 13, 1897. See also Jan Wagenaar's Amsterdam, 3 vols. 
Dutch, Vol. i. 481, 510-513, with references to authorities. Tran- 
scripts, covering many years, concerning Smoutius, were made 
by Rev. E. T. Corwin, in 1898, from the Minutes of Synod of 
North Holland. These are in the Sage Library, New Brunswick, 
N. J. They have been translated. 

Notes on the other Ministers mentioned in the letter of 
Michaelius, 1628. 

Rev. Joannes Cornelius Silvius was the eighteenth minister in 
the Collegiate churches of Amsterdam. He was called there from 
Sloten to the Gasthuis, (Hospital) in 1610, and in 1622, to the 
churches. He died 19 November, 1638. 

Rev. Jacobus Triglandius was the nineteenth minister in Am- 
sterdam. He was called in 1610 from the church of Stolck^v;)'ck, 
and in 1634 became professor of Theology at Leiden, where he 
died on April 11, 1654. 

Rev. Rudolphus Petri was the twentieth minister in Amster- 
dam. He was called from the church of Saanredam in 1612 to 
the church of Amsterdam, and died on the 4th of June, 1649. 

Rev. Johannes Kloppenburg was the twenty fourth minister in 
Amsterdam. He was called from Heusden in 1621; in 1630 he 
became the minister at Brielle; and in 1640, professor of Theology 
at Harderwyck, and in 1644, Professor of Theology at Fransker. 
He died in 1652. 


Y4 Ecclesiastical Records 

Sykod of Noeth Holland, at Amsterdam. 

1628, Ang. 15 et seq. 
Article 20, English Synod. 
Toiiching the 3rd G-ravamen of (the Classis of) Amsterdam, 
concerning the opposition to the pretended English Synod, 
touched on in Art. 24 (of this year) : There is opened up, in this 
topic, the subject of the English Synod in South Holland, about 
which silence has been maintained. Under this Synod, therefore, 
(reference to) their (English) Synods may be omitted. The 
Deputies ■were ordered to keep a watchful eye that the name of 
said (English) Synod be omitted, as heretofore. 

Article 51. (East and West Indies.) 
In relation to (lit. occasion of) Church Government in the East 
Indies: It was resolved that all those who shall be hereafter 
sent, as preachers or sieckentroosters to the East or West Indies, 
must have from the respective Churches and Classes, which send 
them, special calls, in conformity with the examples of (the 
Classis of) Amsterdam and Enckhuysen. This matter has been 
particularly urged upon the correspondents, (from the other 
Synods), especially upon those of Groningen, and they have ac- 
cepted it. 

Furthermore, the said Church-Order, as the same was sent 
hither from India, was brought before Synod by the Eev. Jacob 
Laurentius, minister at Amsterdam, coming from the hands of 
the Directors of the East India Company. The offer was made 
by the said Company, that if anything should be inserted or modi- 
fied in the said Church-Order, if it were done with their cog- 
nizance, it would be approved by them. This Church-Order hav- 
ing been read, at the request of the respective correspondents, 
(of the other Synods), it was resolved, to have the same communi- 
cated by the Deputies of our Synod to those respective corre- 
spondents; and that copies be allowed them, and that the same 

OF THE State of 'Nbw York. 75 

shall be brouglit to the next ensuing Synod, with notes and 
amendments. Such action will then be taken as seems proper. 


1629, June 7. 

Freedoms and Exemptions granted by the West India Company 
to Patroons in JSTew ITetherland, for the purpose of planting 
colonies. — Col. Docs. K Y. ii. 551-7. 

1629, June 7. In reference to religion. 

XXVn. The Patroons and colonists shall in particular, and in 
the speediest manner, endeavor to find out ways and means 
whereby they may support a Minister and Schoolmaster, that 
thus the service of God and zeal for religion may not grow cool 
and be neglected among them, and they shall, for the first, pro- 
cure a Comforter of the Sick there. — Col. Docs. IST. Y. ii. 557; 
Laws and Ordinances of New Neth. 9. 

Synod of ISTorth Holland, at Hoorn. 

1629, Aug 20, et seq. 

Article 13. Instrument of Contract for Ministers going to the 

East Indies. 

The contents of Article 15, treating of the instrument (act) of 
contract, was further recommended to the brethren, in order that 
it may be put into practice; especially in those localities where 
there are Chambei-s, (of the East and West India Company,) in 
reference to ministers wdio are sent to the East or West Indies. 

Article 17. English Synod. 

As far as concerns Art. 20: the Deputies presented as their 
report, that no English Synod was to be held this year; and they 
remained enjoined in this matter, as heretofore, to exercise dili- 
gence that the (sessions of the) said Synod should henceforth be 



76 Ecclesiastical Records 

Art. 19. Care of the Churches under the Cross. 

The Brethren Deputies asked to make some report as to 
Art, 27: Speaking of the care of the Churches under the 
Cross, in Flanders and adjoining quarters, they declared, that 
thev had found a capable person, who had heen ordained by the 
la^dng on of hands, after evidences previously ascertained of 
his fitness; and that he had been sent thither, furnished with a 
proper letter of commission. 

Art, 35. Church Regulations for the East and West Indies. 

In reference to Art. 51, referring to the Church Regulations 
of the East and West Indies: The delegates of the Classis of 
Amsterdam inform the Synod, that the ministers and siecken- 
troosters going from Amsterdam to the East Indies, are sent in 
conformity with the regulation contained in this article; that 
the Directors of both the East and West India Companies gave 
perfect satisfaction to the members in this particular. As re- 
gards the notes on the Church-Order of the East Indies, prout 
in actis : The Deputies from the corresponding Synod of Overys- 
sel stated, that some notes had been drawn up by them; and that 
the same had been communicated, by means of the respective 
Deputies of Synod, as expressed in the acts of their Synod; and 
had been briefly taken ad notam by this Rev, Synod, to be ex- 
amined more fully at a later time. Likewise some things were 
handed over by the Deputies of the Classis of Amsterdam, which 
had been sent from the East Indies, touching " Church Regula- 
tions for the East Indies ", These were read, in further com- 
munication, to this Synod, in order to ascertain the mind and 
decision of the Synod thereon. 

First: The question was asked, whether it were advisable, 
and whether it could be understood as approved, in the case of 
children whom they do not as yet find to be fit for baptism and 
whose parents are heathen, that a blessing and confirmation 

OF THE State of j^ew Yobk. TY 


might be used, with the laving on of hands, instead of baptism. 
It was learned from the Acta handed in that this had already 
been done. The Synod having given heed, in the fear of God, 
to this matter, it was decided and understood, that what was pro- 
posed, ought not to be done. Such a practice was not Christian, 
and was not in conformity with the Word of God. It should not 
be done, especially, because of its effect. Adoption into the 
Christian Church in such a way, would produce evil consequences, 
and could in no sense be justified by the example of Christ's lay- 
ing his hands upon the children of the Jews; inasmuch as those 
children were partakers of the covenant. Therefore, instead of 
such a confiinnation and blessing, the children should be diligently 
instructed in the fundamental doctrines of Christianity. 

In the second place, at the suggestion of the delegates from the 
C'lassis of Amsterdam, the question was taken up, whether the 
English mode of responsive reading and singing, could be per- 
mitted, as edifying, to the Church in the East Indies, where wor- 
ship is conducted in the Malay-Japanese, (Malees Japons.) This 
point, having been maturely considered by the Synod, the Synod 
is of the opinion, that the following is most expedient in refer- 
ence to this particular matter: Inasmuch as the Church of the 
East Indies is altogether one mth the churches of our land, they 
should conform themselves to the Church of this land: Because 
no(t only where the worship is in Dutch, but even where it is 
conducted in the Malay and Japanese (Maleesche en Japaneesche) 
languages, a marked difference is offensive. In case the officers 
are convinced that the reading aloud would be very useful among 
the heathen, the Synod thinks that, quite as suitably, an entire 
Psalm might be read continuously for instruction and edification, 
whether in prose or rhyme. This could be done as the rulers 
and officers of the Church there might consider the most edif^dng 
way for the church there; but as for reading line by line alter- 

78 Ecclesiastical Eecoeds 


natively, the sense often depends upon the preceding — (line be- 
ing correctly read.) 

Whereas, in the same Church Regulations of the East Indies, 
mention is made of still another method of blessing and confir- 
mation, employed -^ith baptized children of ten or eleven years: 
therefore, the Synod, after having properly given heed thereto, 
deems it best and advisable, although the custom, in itself, is 
harmless, that this confirmation by the laying on of hands be 
omitted on account of its evil tendencies toward superstition. The 
Synod thinks that the confirmation should be accomplished by in- 
struction in the principles of Christian doctrine. Accordingly 
the Church of the East Indies shall conform itself to the custom- 
ary way of doing in the Reformed Churches in this land. Mean- 
while the Synod commends the excellent and praiseworthy care of 
the Churches of the East Indies, by their officers, in the propa- 
gation of the Christian religion, and the education of youth, 
exhibited in these particulars. 

IQQO Patrooxs, 1630. 

Ereedoms and Exemptions granted by the States-General, ex 
plenitudine potestatis, to all persons of condition, as Patroous in 
New Netherland, for the purpose of planting colonies, etc. 

In reference to religion we find the following: 


The Patroons shall also particularly exert themselves to find 
speedy means to maintain a Clergyman and Schoolmaster, in 
order that Divine Serv'ice and zeal for religion may be planted 
in that country; and send, at first, a Comforter of the Sick thither. 


Their High Mightinesses shall exert themselves to provide the 
Patroons with persons bound to service, who shall be obliged to 
serve out their bounden time, in all obedience, for their board and 

OF THE State of New York. 79 

clotking only, whicli being done, on bringing to tbis country a 
certificate tbereof from tHe Patroons or tbeir Commissaries, such, 
persons shall be here restored to their former state and freedom. 
(Vagabonds and outcasts, who live on alms, and in idleness and 
crime, are hereby meant.) 

In like manner, the Incorporated West India Company shall 
allot to each Patroon twelve black men and women out of the 
prizes in which ISTegroes shall be found, for the advancement of 
the Colonies in ISTew IvTetherland. 


All private and poor people (onvermogen personen) are ex- 
cluded from these Exemptions Privileges and Freedoms, and are 
not allowed to purchase any lands or grounds from the Sachems 
or Indians in ISTew jN^etherland, but must repair under the juris- 
diction of the respective Lords Patroons. — Col. Docs. IST. Y. i. 
99, 100. 

1630, Oct. 1st et seq. 

Synod of North Holland, at Enckhuyzen. 

Art. 7. Preachers for the East and West Indies. 

It is understood that the 13th Article, referring to the sub- 
scription by preachera going to the East and West Indies, is 
being observed. 

Art. 11. The English Synod. 

As to the 17th Article, relating to the English Synod, it remains 
as before, for the vigilant supervision of the Deputies. 

Art. 17. Church-Order in the East and West Indies. 

On taking up the 35tli Article, referring entirely to the Church- 
Order of the East and West Indies: It is understood that the 



80 Ecclesiastical Records 

inj-unction, Avith the advise of this Synod, was sent over by the 
Church of Amsterdam, according to the requirement in the afore- 
mentioned Article. There was also read a letter from the 
Ecclesiastical Assembly, at Batavia, on Java-Major, dated i!^o- 
vember 23, 1629, to this Synod, Also one of the same contents 
was sent to the Synod of South Holland. In these advice is 
asked, in reference to the matter of the laying on of hands; in 
reference to a fixed rule, in the sending of ecclesiastical persons 
and sieckentroosters ; and in reference to the transmission of our 
annual Synodical Acta, to aid them in the government of their 
churches. The first has been acted on before. In regard to the 
second, it has been resolved by the Seventeen to allow a rule to 
be enacted by the several churches. In regard to the third, it 
was resolved to cause the Deputies of our Synods to transmit to 
the churches of the East Indies, annually, the substance of our 
Acts, so far as they might be serviceable to these churches. (This 
was all done, in those days, by transcription.) 

Art. 26. Sieckentroosters for the East and West Indies. 

III. Whether the Sieckentroosters who are sent to the East 
and West Indies, as well as to Guinea, ought not to subscribe to 
the Confession, the Catechism, and the Canones Synodi Nationalis 
lately held at Dordrecht? Answer: Yes; and that the respec- 
tive churches where there are Chambers (of the East and West 
India Companies) shall pay proper attention to this matter. 

Art. 28. Office of Sieckentrooster. 

Questio particularis Classis Amstelodamensis : Whether the 
Sieckentrooster's office is not a purely ecclesiastical office; and 
that a member of the church cannot accept of it until he has had 
a previous ecclesiastical call? Answer: Yes. 

OF THE State of !^^EW York. 81 


Art. 36. Order of Extracts. 

It is found ad\dsable that henceforth the extracts from the 
respective S^niods be so registered inter acta of onr Synod, that 
the resolutions adopted thereon in matters of importance can at 
once be ascertained. 

Synod of ISToeth Holland. 

Art. 8. English Synod. 
The matter of the English Synod Art. 11, remains in terminis 
prout in actis. 

Art. 13. Church-Order in the East and West Indies. 

As to the 17th Article, bearing in summa, on the Church-Order 
of the East and West Indies, it was resolved, in conformity with 
the resolution of the Sjmod of South Holland, to request the 
Assembly to act on the church affairs of the East Indies. 


Eirst Extract from Minutes of the Classis of Amsterdam. 

1632, Junl 7. 1632, June 7. 

Everardus Bogardus, die voor Everai'dus Bogardns, who was 

siekentrooster is geweest In Guinea, formerly a Comforter of the Sick 

heeft syne testimonla naar den in Guinea, presented his Testl- 

Classis gepraesenteert, dewelcke monials to the Classis, which are 

seer goet syn; en dtuirby versoeckt very excellent. He then requested 

van den Classis peromptoir geex- to be examined by the Classis per- 

amineert te worden, welck ver- emptoir, (finally, for ordination), 

soeck hem is toegcstaen, en sal which request was granted him. 

toecomen Maandach geexamineert Next Monday he will, accordingly, 

worden van D. praesidie; met Con- be examined by the Rev. President, 

rado Clevio, die oock goede ge- together with Conradus Clevius, 

tuygenisse overgeleveert heeft. iv. who has also handed in good testi- 

22. monials. iv. 22. 

• He matriculated in the Leydeu Unlversltj-, July 17, 1G27. as a student of Letters. 
He was then twenty years of age, and was therefore born In 1G07, and was of the 
Tillage of Woerdan. The Leyden General Catalogue shows 22 other students of the 
Latinized name of " Bogardus ", and more than 40 of the name of Bogart or Bogard. 
See " Album Studlosorum Acadamiae-Lugduno-Batavae " 1575-1S75, published by 
Martinus Nljhoff, at the Hague, 


82 Ecclesiastical Kecords 

Bogardus and Cleviiis. 

1632. JunI 14. 1632, June 14. 

Everardus Bogardus heeft een Everardus Bogardus treated a 

propositie gedaan over de woorden proposition (preached a sermon) on 
Pauli, Gal. 5:16, en is daarop tot the words of Paul, Gal. 5:16. — 
examen togelaten worden. Con- Walk in the Spirit, and ye shall 
radus Clevius. die met hem sonde not fulfill the lusts of the flesh — 

geexamineert worden, and was thereupon admitted to the 

en beyde mogen tot den H. dienst examination. Conradus Clevius 

gepromoteert worden. iv. 23. who was examined with him 

and both are to be promoted (or- 
dained) to the Holy Ministry, iv. 

1632, Aug. 17 et seq. 

Synod of ISTorth Holland, at Alckmaer. 

Art. 10. English Synod. 

The matter of the English Synod, Art. 8, in regard to -which 
nothing has as jet revealed itself, remains further recommended 
to the Eey. Deputati Sjnodi. 

Art. 37. p. 19. Generalia, extracted from the Acts of the Synod 
of Utrecht, Anno, 1631. 

Offices of Minister and Schoolmaster. 

It -was requested of the States of (by?) Utrecht, that the Minis- 
ters of the English Church in this land, be subjected to the 
Church Regulations; and particularly to all Eegulations in use in 

That some alumni of the (University of) Utrecht be sent to 
France and England, so that having become expert in the use 
of the French and English languages, they may minister to the 
French and English churches in this land. 

Art. 38. Ministerial Changes. 
^ In the Classis of Alckmaer: 

Called: Peter Serooskerke, in de Koogh, on the Texel. 

Samuel Echtenius, at Warmanhuysen. 

OF THE State of j^ew York. 



Transferred: jSTicholas Joliannis, from Schoorl to Sluysduynen. 
Abraham Jacobi, from Huysduynen to Sclioorl. 



Removed : 

Arrived : 

Entered : 

In the Classis of Haarlem: 
Rev. Samuel Ampsingh, Minister at Haerlem. 
Leonard Todinaens, from Wormer to Delft. 
Booritius Silema, from Oostzanen to Schiedam. 

In the Classis of Amsterdam. 

Rev. Rolandius, Minister at Amsterdam. 
Rev. John Bantius from Waverveen to Diemen. 
William Henricides, at Waverveen. 
Evexardus Bogardus, sent to New ISTetherland. 
Conrad Cleyems sent to Pharna bruck. 

In the Classis of Hoorn. 

John Adriaensse, Minister at Hanwart. 

John Goethals, Minister at Schellinck houwe. 

In the Classis of Edam. 

Cornelius Lemannus, from Broek to Bois-le-Duc. 
Cornelius Lettingh, installed at Oosthuysen. 
Maurice Hantius, called from End in Friesland, to 
the church of Broek in Waterland. 

8-i Ecclesiastical Eecoeds 



Note from Brodhead as to his arrival, and the arrival of Do- 

mine Bogardus. 

Van Twiller arrived at Manhattan in April, 1633, having sailed 
on the Companv's ship " Soutberg ", of twenty g*uns, with a mili- 
taiy force of one hundred and four soldiers. He had married a 
niece of Van Eensselaer, and had been employed by the Patroon 
to ship cattle to his colony. Such were his recommendations. A 
Spanish caravel^ the St. Martin, was captured on the voyage. Eev. 
Everardus Bogardus, and Adam Eoelandsen, the first schoolmaster, 
came over with Van Twiller. — Brodhead, i. 222-3. 

Note from O'Callaghan as to the arrival of Domine Bogardus. 

After referring to the members of the Council of Director 
Van Twiller, he says : " Claes Jacobsen van Schagen acted as 
overseer at Eort Amsterdam, at which place the Eev. Everardus 
Bogardus officiated as minister of the Gospel.* 

Synod of North Holland, at Haarlem. 

1633, Aug. 9, et seq. 
Art. 9, p. 5. English Synod. 
In regard to Art. 10. The Eev. Deputati reported their doings 
in the prevention and stopping of the English Synod. 

• Hoi. Doc. 11., 88; Ix., 187; Alb. Rec. ii., 328, GG, 31, 57. The earliest mention 
I find of Rer. E. Bogardus Is In Alb. Rec. 11., where reference is made to a letter 
from him to Van Twiller, dated 17th June, 1634. It is to be presumed that he came 
•ut with that Director General. He is the first clergyman of whom we have any 
mention in New Netherland. Where he came from originally, I have not been able 
to ascertain, but his brother, Cornelius Willemsen Bogaerdt, resided at Leyden, in 
South Holland, In 1647-8. Possibly he, also, might have been from that place. He 
married, about 1637 or 1638, Annetje, relict of Roeloff Jansen, of Masterlandt, the 
daughter of Tryn Jansen, midwife at Amsterdam, and a connection, by marriage, 
Of Govert Lookermans, surgeon Hans Klerstede, and Pieter Hartgers. The Rev. 
Mr. Bogardus was proprietor of a tobacco plantation on the island of Manhattans, 
which he rented, in 1639, on shares, to Richard Brudnel.— O'Callaghan's History of 
New Netherland, Vol. i. 142. 

OF THE State of IN'ew York. 85 

And the same are enjoined hencefortli to keep a watchful eye, 
go that no abuses against the order of the churches here in this 
land may creep in. 

Art. 33. Preachers exercising the practice of medicine. 

II. The question was asked, whether heretofore it had not 
been decided, that ministers should not undertake to act also in 
the capacity of physicians; that nevertheless the custom increas- 
ingly continues ; that those who are in the pastorates of churches 
aesume to themselves also the practice of medicine. The ques- 
tion, therefore, arises, whether this present Synod ought not to 
take action, to maintain its former resolution in reference to this 
matter, and to enforce it. 

Answer: That the previous resolution is sustained; that is, 
that each preacher keep himself within the limits of his calling; 
and, moreover, that the matter be recommended to the supervision 
and discretion of the respective Classes and churches, which are 
hereby enjoined to execute this action, each within its o^\ti borders. 

The First Church Building in 'N'ew Amsterdam. 


In the mean while, the authorities at Fort Amsterdam were actively engaged plan- 
ning various forts and buildings, suitable to the growing trade and wants of the 
country. Orders were Issued for the thorough reconstruction of the principal fort at 
New Amsterdam, to which place was now attached the privilege of " staple right," 
whereby all masters of vessels trading along the coast were obliged to unload at 
this port, or pay, in lieu, certain fixed duties. It was determined to build a guard- 
house and a small barrack for the soldiers within that fort, and near it, on the East 
River, a church for general worship,* with a dwelling and stable adjoining, for the 
use of the Rev. Mr. Bogardus; a residence for the Honorable Mr. Gerritsen; a new 
bake house; and a small dwelling " for the midwife." An appropriate mansion was 
ordered to be raised, " on the plantation," for the Director-general; on farm No. 1, 

* The site of this ancient church, (the first ever erected in New Netherland,) Is 
determined by an entry in Alb. Rec. x., .^5, anno 1656, as follows: " The house, 
lot, and appurtenances called ' the old church,' standing and situate on the East 
River, next to the alley which lays betwixt the house of Attorney General Van 
Tlenhoven and this house, and opposite the house of Mr. Hendrick Kip, are ordered 
to be sold to the highest bidder." Hendrick Kip lived, in 1665, in Bridge street. — 
Paulding's New Amsterdam. Speaking of this church. Judge Benson saye, (Hist. 
Mem. 34,) " The site of the first church is perhaps not to be now further ascertained 
than as a piece of ground once called the Dude Kerck, (old church,) and afterwards 
the house of Allard Anthony, lying between Customhouse street (the portion of 
Penrl street between Whitehall and Broad streets) and Bridge street, and fronting 
on Broad street." [Now known as 100 Broad st.] 




a barn, dwelling, brewery, and boat house, " to be covered with tiles: " a goats' 
stable " behind the five houses," besides dwellings for the smith, the cooper, and 
the corporal; and several mills, one of which was to be adapted for grinding corn. 
"An elegant large house with balustrades, and eight small dwellings for the people," 
were directed to be raised at Fort Orange; two houses at Pavonia; and one larg* 
house in Fort Nassau on the South River. — O'Callaghan's History of New Nether- 
land, Vol. i. 135, 156. 

Synod of North Holland, at A^isterdam. 

1634, Aug. 14, et seq. 

Art. 55. Under Ministerial changes, occur among manv items, 

the following: 

Classis of Edam: 
Entered: Domine Johannes Bocardns, at Warder. 

Olassis of Alckmaer: 
Entered: Joannes Megapolensis, at Wieringerweert. 

1635, Aug. 14, et seq. 

Synod of !N'orth Holland, at Hoorn. 

Art. 7. Printing of the ITewly Translated Bible. 

It was reported by the Deputies of Synod, that the re^-ision 
and the translation of the Old Testament, whereof, see in Actis 
4, has now been completed; and that the revision of the Xew 
Testament had been brought down to the Epistle of James; also 
that good progress had been made in the printing and correcting 
of proof, of the same; that the proofs are examined three times; 
and that there is no doubt that the same will be published next 
March. Therein the Synod expressed its pleasure. The Depu- 
ties remain charged, in conjunction with the Deputies of the 
Synod of South Holland to give careful attention to the correct 
printing of the same.* 

• This l8 the version which came Into general use In New Netherland for the next 
century and a half. 

OF THE State of IsTew Yoek. 87 

Acts of the Classis of Amsterdam. 

Johannes Theodorus Polheim. 

1635, Dec. 3rd. 

There appeared in Classis the Eev. John Theodore Polheini 
(Polhemus,) formerly a preacher in the Palatinate; (then subse- 
quently at) Meppel, in Overyssel, and later, again in the Palati- 
nate; but on account of renewed persecution, he was forced to 
leave (the latter field) a second time. He requested that he might 
be appointed a minister in the West Indies, (America). Accord- 
ingly his testimonials from both Meppel and Wieten were read 
by the Deputies on Indian Affairs, who also mad© report thereon. 
The Assembly resolved, to appoint the said individual, as soon as 
possible, to that field, through the instrumentality of the Deputies, 
iv. 66. 

Church in Virginia,* [Xew Xetherland.] 

A letter was read from the Consistory in Virginia, (New 
Netherland,) making the request, since their minister (Bogardus) 
was about to return to the Fatherland, that their congregation 
there might be provided with another pious person. The Depu- 
ties on Indian Affairs will greet the Directors of the West India 
Company thereupon, iv. 67. 

Lubbertus van Dincklagen. 

1636, April 7th. 

Lubbertus van Dincklagen formerly ficare, (schout-fiscaal, legal 
officer) of New Netherland, handed in to the Assembly (of Classis) 
a lengthy paper, containing an accusation against Everardus Wil- 
helmus Bogaert (Bogardus.) minister there. It referred to his 
bad government of the Church, as well as his conduct and walk. 

• The general name " Virginia " Is often used, especially In early times, as refer- 
ring to the whole American coast. In a certain Index, Vol. 37, Mlchaelius is re- 
ferred to as " late minister to Virginia." 



88 Ecclesiastical Records 

It was resolved that the said paper be referred to the Brethren 
on Indian Aifairs, (to be by them) read and examined. This was 
done by their Eeverences, and they have briefly explained the 
contents thereof to the Assembly (of Classis) ; bnt since the minis- 
ter is yet in jSTew Xetherland, the brethren resolved to postpone 
further action until his return, iv. 71. 

Committee to draft Articles for the Colonial churches. 

1636, April 7. 

Also certain brethren were commissioned by the Assembly 
to draw up certain Articles and Orders of (government for 
the Indian churches). The brethren commissioned for the 
said duty v.-ill have to regulate (these churches) hereafter. The 
Articles shall be draAvn up by lie v. President, Rev. Jacobinus 
Lauristius, Rev. Rudolphius Petri, Rev. Hennannus Antonideus, 
and Rev. John Bantius ; and the said brethren shall bring in these 
Articles at the first Classical gathering, that they may be ex- 
amined by the same. iv. 71; xxxix. 19. 

Acta Classical ia: 

Regarding the Churches in the East Indies and West Indies, and 

in other regions. 

1636, April I7th. 
Deputati ad res ludicas." 

The Rev. Goldorpius is released from the care of the Indian 
Islands. This burden he has borne for two years, and is thanked 
for his services. The number of the Committee was now en- 
larged by the addition of two brethren of Classis from without 
(i. e., outside the city of Amsterdam), iv. 75; xxxix. 19. 

• See second item under April 7, 1636. It might tiave been well to have copied 
the names of the " Deputati ad res Exteras " (or " . . . ad res Indicas ", or 
" • • • ad res Maritimas ",) as they were variously called, as a portion of this 
Committee was chosen anew each year, — especially as they were the official cor- 
respondent^ with all the colonies: but as it would have considerably Increased the- 
size of this worli, they were omitted. 

OF THE State of ISTew York. 89 

Acts of the Deputies. [May 5, 1636.] 
Regulations relating to East India and West India affairs, etc., 
devised by the Deputies of the Classis appointed therefor, April 
7, 1636. (See Acts of Classis, iv. 71.) 

I. Of the Ministers. 

1. The person shall present himself before the Classis, and 
having exhibited proper certificates as to doctrine and life, shall 
be examined in Plena Classis. Such a Classis shall be called on 
extraordinary occasion. 

2. In case a person should "wish to present himself in mnter 
time to the Brethren of the Deputies, when no extraordinary 
Classis is generally held, these Brethren shall then communicate 
with one another about the case, and decide whether it be neces- 
sary to call an extraordinary Classis for the purpose. 

3. A similar footing shall be maintained mth candidates — 

4. The laying on of hands and ordination shall be done at 
a meeting of the Classis, if in any way possible; otherwise, if the 
time and occasion require it, the Deputies shall request all the 
ministers of Amsterdam, together with an elder of the same 
church to meet with them, and this business shall be transacted 
at such a gathering. 

II. Of the Siecken-Troosters, 
(Comforters of the Sick). 

1. The Siecke-Troosters must present themselves, as far as 
is practicable, before the Classis. The Classis must endeavor 
to have a good supply of tliese on hand, and shall decide whicli 
out of all of them shall firet be recommended by the Deputies to 
the Companies. 

2. The examination of the Siecke-Troosters shall be conducted 
by the Brethren Deputies, who shall bring in a report thereof 
at the next Classis. 



90 Ecclesiastical Kecords 

in. Of their Presentation to the Directors [of the East and 
"West India Companies.] 

The ministers, proponents, (candidates or licentiates,) and 
siecke-troosters shall be presented and recommended by the two 
oldest Deputies, one from the city (of Amsterdaan), and one from 
outside the city. 

TV. Of their Instructions. 

The Instructions of the Ministers Candidates and Siecke- 
Troosters shall be written by and in the name of the Brethren 
Deputies, and signed by two of the oldest of them, and also by 
the elders of the Church of Amsterdam; and the Forms hitherto 
in use be resumed at the next ensuing Classis. 

V. Of the Receiving and Answ^ering of Letters. 

1. The letters coming from the East and West Indies, etc., 
etc., addressed to the Classis, shall be opened immediately upon 
their receipt by (bij) the Deputies. They shall indicate their 
contents, whenever required; and shall also make report thereof 
at the next meeting of Classis, and hand over the letters 
themselves openly to each of the members. (Or hand over each 
of the letters, etc.) 

2. When the Classis has taken action on all the matters 
reported by the Brethren Deputies, or on all that is contained in 
the said letters, the Deputies shall then write out the said resolu- 
tions in forma, as they were adopted in Classis. When these 
have been again read and approved in Classis, they shall be signed 
by the Deputies as before, namely, by those previously mentioned, 
and thus be dispatched to the churches of the East and West 
Indies,- for which they are intended. 

3. Letters relating especially to either of the Companies, and 
coming from any of the churches of any of the provinces, and 
addressed to the Classis shall be opened as the others above al- 
luded to, and held by the Deputies. 

or THE State of New Yoke. 91 

VI. Of the Schoolmasters. 
In case any Schoolmasters shall be sent to any of these foreign 
fields, the same course shall be pursued with them, (or, lit, 
therein the same footing shall be maintained,) as with the Siecke- 
Troosters mentioned above. 


[East and West India Companies. — Record Books.] 
Besides these ordinary affairs, if something else should occur 
that ought to be brought before one of the chambers, respec- 
tively, of either the East or West India Companies, or before 
one of the Assemblies, respectively, of the XVII or the XIX, or 
any special orders (are issued) — these shall remain (stand) at 
the disposition of the Classis to render the appropriate seiwice, 
and to depute such members (to carry it out) as shall be approved 
by the Classis. 

In conclusion the Committee ad hanc instructionem (deem it) 
necessary and expedient, that all the Acta, and actitata resolu- 
tions — all those which refer to East Indian and West Indian af- 
fairs, etc., be recorded separately in a book* specially made there- 
for. Therein also, at the beginning, shall be copied the Forms of 
Instructions for Ministers, Candidates and Siecken-Troosters, 
which shall now be ratified by the Classis. xxxix. 1, 2. 

Form of a Call to Ministers for the East and West Indies. 

1636, Juno 7th. 
Eev. Rudolphus Petri drafted the Form of the Call, for such 
ministers as are to be sent to the East or West Indies, to Guinea, 

• This book Is Vol. XXXIX, (IG.'iS-lG^S.^ in which the Acts of the CInssis, rclnting 
to tlie foreign churches, are transcribed from their Vols. IV and V; and the Acts of 
the Deputies are also found therein. References are given In these Extracts, as 
herein presented, to both sets of volumes. There Is said to have been a volume pre- 
ceding this volume XXXIX, (which is lost,) according to an Index of the Archives 
made in 1880. If there was such a volume, which is not altogether clear, it prob- 
abiF ran from 1G15 to 1635. The next volume of these Extracts, etc., is numbered 
XXVI, (1648-5.")); and the next Is XIX, (1655-1705). The peculiarity of this number- 
ing will be treated elsewhere. The numbering was not done until after the closina; 
of the Old Archives, In 1816. Vol. XXXVII is an Index only to Vol. XXXIX. as 
Its contents prove. 



92 Ecclesiastical Records 

etc. The Form proposed was accepted as final, (permanently, for 
good,) by the (Classical) Assembly, and incorporated by liim into 
a (book*) as aforesaid, iv. 76; xxxix. 20. 

Acts of the Deputies. 
June 4, 1636. 

Copy of a call for Preachers going to the East or "West Indies. 

Whereas it is proper, so far as is possible, that the glory of 
God, and the salvation of the people should be promoted, in all 
regions and localities where the people may be scattered, or where 
they may go to pursue their divers kinds of business: 

And to this end religious gatherings ought to be established 
and maintained, with the pure preaching of God's Word, the 
lawful administration of the Sacraments, the public calling on 
the name of the Lord, and whatever else belongs to regular wor- 
ship: that thus the Lord may be honored, that believers may in- 
crease in the saving knowledge of Christ, and in the true faith, 
and so be improved in their actions and conduct, unto salvation: 
and also that those who are alienated from religion may be led 
thereunto: and whereas the condition of (the East Indies, or the 
West Indies, or Guinea, or Moscow, etc.) requires that (one or 
more) pious and well qualified persons be sent thither, in the 
capacity of a lawfully called minister, who shall perform in such 
a place all the functions of a minister: and in order that the 
fonn of a church and church government, may be established 
there, in , according to the Word of God, and con- 
formably to the excellent usages of the Reformed Churches here 
in this land, and may be maintained: Therefore w0, the Min- 
isters of the Divine Word, and Elders of the Church of Christ, 
belonging to the Classis of Amsterdam, in the fear of the Lord, 
and after calling upon the name of God, and with the approval 

• See fuller description of this Volume, XXXIX, and of the Archives of the 
ClasBis, generally, in Introduction. 

OF THE State of IjTew Yoek. 93 

of the Messrs. Directors of (the East India Company, — or the 
West India Company, or the N'egotiators of the Moscow Trade, 
or the Directors of the Greenland Company, as the case may be) 
have called, and by these presents do call 

the Rev. and God-pleasing N. N. the Rev. and God-pleasing N. N. 

, late minister at who after previous and 

whose praiseworthy certificates due examination, and questioning 

from the church of in the upon the principal points of Chris- 

Classis of have been tian Doctrine; and having given 

shown unto us, and who has him- sufficient evidence of piety of life; 
self also appeared before us and having ascertained his posses- 
sion of the necessary gifts and 
qualifications for presenting the 
Word of the Lord unto the en- 
lightenment of men; and having 
previously subscribed the Nether- 
lands Confession of Faith, the 
Christian Catechism, and the Can- 
ons of the National Synod of Dort: 
have solemnly ordained by the lay- 
ing on of hands, 

and we do now by these (presents or acts) set him, the Rev. 

, well-beloved of God, apart, in order, whether on 

water or on land, or while imder way, and especially when ar- 
rived at his destination, to preach God's Holy Word, as embraced 
in the Scriptures of the Old and E'ew Testament; to proclaim to 
men, in God's name, repentance towards God, and reconciliation 
with Him through faith in Jesus Christ; to administer the Sacra- 
ments — Baptism and the Supper — which the Lord instituted as 
seals of his grace; to lead the Church of Christ in public prayers; 
and in conjunction with the Elders and Deacons, after the pre- 
scription of the Apostle in 1 Timothy 3, and in Art. 1: (.-Vrts. 
22-24 of 1619): and, with the advice and assistance of these 

(Elders) to regulate and maintain brotherly love, by 

good discipline and order, all in accordance with God's Word and 
in conformity with the Confession of the Netherland Churches 
and the Christian Catechism. We request of all those to whom 
these presents shall be shown, and unto whom our said Brother 



94 Ecclesiastical Eecokds 

shall come, that they will be pleased to recognize him as a law- 
fully called Minister; to hold him in honor far his office and 
work's sake; and to assist him with all their power, that he may 
administer his office unhindered and with joy, to the magnifying 
of God's holy name, and the conversion and salvation of many 

The Almighty God, who hath called him to this office, enrich 
him more and more with all needed gifts of his Holy Spirit; 
bless his labor abundantly to the glory of his name, and the con- 
version of many souls ; and when the Chief Shepherd of the sheep 
shall appear, bestow upon him the imperishable crown of glory. 
Thus done in our Classical Assembly, within Amsterdam, 
, xxxix. 3, 4. 

Forms for Candidates, Comforters of the Sick and Schoolmasters, 
going to the Indies. 

1636, June 7th. 

The rorms for Candidates, Comforters of the Sick, and School- 
masters going to the Indies, were read to the (Classical) Assem- 
bly, and approved by the same; and they were recorded in a 
volume, (xxxix. 3-9.) iv. 78; xxxix. 22. 

Acts of the Deputies. 

June 7, 1636. 

1. Call and Letter. Copy of Instructions for Proponents 
(Licentiates) going to the East or "West Indies. 

Whereas, by reason of the (frequent) navigation at the present 
time to far distant lands, it is in the highest degree proper and 
necessary, that persons sound in doctrine and pious in conduct 
should be appointed to instruct the people in the doctrines of the 
truth, out of the Word of God, and admonish them to true piety; 
to offer the public prayers at appointed times and otherwise; to 
comfort those in difficulty or in sickness, and particularly at the 
approach of death: — Therefore the Classis of Amsterdam, with 

OF THE State of jSTew Yoek. 95 

the consent and approval of the Hon. Messrs, Directors (of the 
East or West India Company, Directors of the Greenland Com- 
pany, Traders to Moscow, etc.,) have resolved to send thither as 

Proponent the Rev. and Godly .... jST N : And in 

order that the same may be known as such by every one, and 
that he may know how he shall have to conduct himself in this 
oJBfice of 

Therefore is this Credential given to him, and this Letter of 
Instruction, and he is required to maintain the following point? 
in accordance therewith: 

First: He shall carefully observe public prayers on shipboard. 
mornings and evenings, before and after meals, particularly at 
religious gatherings, and also under other circumstances as oc- 
casion may require. 

Secondly: Both at sea and on land, he shall console and in- 
struct out of the Word of God, those in the extremity of death, 
as well as others who are sick, or who may be distressed by their 
necessities and difficulties. Also, particularly must he earnestly 
admonish every one, as occasion requires; and especially must he 
warn against cursing and swearing, and the thoughtless misuse 
of God's Holy Name. 

Thirdly: He must be allowed on the Lord's Day and on other 
proper occasions, to deliver sermons out of God's Word, for the 
instruction, admonition, comfort and further enlightening (or 
easing) of the people. K he be detained on the island of Ceylon, 
he must give himself to the ser\'ice of the seminary there, or 
where ever else his sacred office may be required. 

All of these duties the said shall perform in 

the best manner possible, ^nd so commend his office by a Christian 
and pious walk, that he may edify those among whom he lives b\ 
speech and deportment; but he must not assimie anything else 
that belongs to the ministerial office, under any pretext whatever 

Tlius done by us the Ministers of God's Word and Elders, be 
longing to the Classis of Amsterdam on this ....... day o1 

16. . . xxxix. 5. 



96 Ecclesiastical Records 

June 7, 1636. 

2. Copy of a Call and of a Letter of Instruction for Sleeken 
Troosters (Comforters of the Sick) going to tke East or West 
Indies, etc. 

Whereas, it has been found necessary, for the success of True 
Religion and Divine Worship, and for the benefit of those who 
enter into the employ of the jN'etherlands Companies, in connec- 
tion Trith theii" regular sailing services for the purposes of trade 
canded on with far distant lands, — that the true knowledge of 
God should be introduced not only among the blind heathen, btlt 
that the ships should be provided with Siecken-Troosters (Com- 
forters of the Sick) who should accompany these expeditions for 
these purposes: and whereas, IST. IST. has offered his services, for 
the pui-poses indicated, to the Classis of Amsterdam: Therefore, 
the said Classis, having previously sought infonnation, and upon 
testimonials from others, has admitted said person to an exami- 
nation, to ascertain his fitness : and said person, having been found 
qualified, was, upon the report made hj said Classis, set apart as a 
Siecke-Trooster (Comforter of the Sick), with the consent and 
approbation of the Honorable Directors (of said Company;) and 
by these presents, he is commissioned in such capacity to the 
(East Indies, West Indies, etc., as the case may be,) with the fol- 
lowing instructions: 

First: He is to instruct, admonish, and comfort the sick and 
ill, out of God's Holy Word, every one according to his neces- 
sity, and as occasion permits. 

Secondly: At appointed times, and on other proper occasions 
he is to read, in connection with the .singing of Psalms, some 
chapters from God's Word; and also some good sermons from the 
Decadier Bullinger's Ursini Catechismus; or from some other 
books written by some minister of the true Christian Reformed 
Church, -udth suitable remarks; and he is to begin and end aU 
such services ^vith prayer. 

OF THE State of JSTew Yoek. 97 

Thirdly: He is to lead and serve the people when assembled in 
an orderly manner, with prayers, every morning and evening; 
and also before and after meals. 

Fourthly: He is also diligently to instruct the ignorant in the 
faith, especially out of the Word of God; and also earnestly at 
every opportunity, to admonish sinners to penitence and to the 
leaving off of their sins, by holding before them the fearful judg- 
ment of God, warning them faithfully of their danger of per- 
dition; he is especially to oppose, in every possible and proper 
manner, all cursing, swearing, and profane abuse of the dear 
ISTame of the Lord, as well as all indecent language ; he is also to 
comfort and strengthen apparently discouraged ones, as circum- 
stances may require. 

And even as the said ]^. IsT. is directed always to conduct him- 
self in compliance with and according to these instructions, and in 
such a way that he never arrogate to himself, beyond these duties, 
under any pretext whatever, anything which properly belongs 
to the ministerial office: — So he, on his part, has sacredly prom- 
ised to regulate himself by these instructions, and to conduct him- 
self agreeably and usefully, and to continue in the exhibition of 
a pious life, to walk worthily in this his calling and office. 

Therefore, these open letters are given to him, both for his 
own guidance, and as his credentials on his contemplated journey, 
that they may be useful to him wherever he may be, and on any 

Thus done in our Classical Meeting held within Amsterdam, 
Anno 1G36, May 5, xxxix. 7. 

June 7, 1636. 

3. Instructions and Letter of Credential for School-Masters 
going to the East or West Indies or elsewhere. 

Whereas, it is well understood by the Hon. Directors of the 
N. N. Company, that nothing is more important for the well- 
being of men, of whatever station, than that they should be taken 
care of from the very beginning, by keeping them under the eye 



98 Ecclesiastical Records 

and supervision of the Schoolmaster, and in the exercises of the 
school, that they may derive from such instruction the means 
necessary for their support, in all the stations and callings of 
life: and 

Inasmuch as, also, upon these exercises, both the glory of God 
and the salvation of men are not a little dependent; and such 
exercises are deemed expedient both for the •welfare of their 
Company, as well as for the individuals employed therein; and 
also that their ships, besides the other officers, may also be pro- 
vided with Schoolmasters ; and 

Inasmuch as the by these, by the name of ]!^. IT. 

has offered his services, in this capacity, to the Com- 
mittee on Ecclesiastical Affairs of the said Company, and which 
Committee is specially charged therewith by the Classis of Am- 
sterdam : and the said Classis having previously inquired as to this 
individual, and by examination have ascertained his fitness and 
experience for such a position ; that on the report rendered by the 
said Classis, and with the approbation and consent of the said 
Hon. Directors, he has been appointed Schoolmaster, and sent in 

such capacity to IST IST with these specific instructions^ 

to wit: 

He is to instruct the youth, both on shipboard and on land, in 
reading, writing, ciphering, and arithmetic, with all zeal and dili- 
gence: he is also to implant the fundamental principles of the true 
Christian Eeligion and salvation, by means of catechizing: he is 
to teach them the customary Eorms of Prayers, and also to ac- 
custom them to pray: he is to give heed to their manners, and 
bring these as far as possible to modesty and propriety: and to 
this end, he is to maintain good discipline and order, and further 
to do all that is required of a good, diligent and faithful School- 

And inasmuch as IST IST. .... is directed to conduct him- 
self in this office according to these instructions, and he, on his 
part, has promised so to do, as well as to set a good example be- 

' OF THE State of 'N'ew York. 99 

fore youth and others: Therefore, these open letters, both 
Credentials and Instructions, are given him upon his sailing, to 
B&rve him as may be found necessary. 

Thus done in our Classical Assembly held in Amsterdam, on 

xxxix. 9. 

June 7, 1636. 

4. Form of Credential and Instruction for the Minister with an 
Ambassador or Resident. 

Whereas, It is proper, so far as may be possible, that the glory 
of God and the salvation of men be promoted by the exercise 
of the regular worship of God, in all parts of the world, and in 
all places, where opportunity offers: and. Whereas, His Excel- 
lency, Mr. ]^ IST , Ambassador, or Resident, on be- 
half of this city (state? staet, not stadt,) at the Court of E". 'N., 
has need of a preacher: Therefore, We, Ministers of the Divine 
Word, and Elders of the Church of Christ, belonging to the 
Classis of Amsterdam, with the consent of the said Ambassador, 
or Resident: after previous proper inquiries, and examination in 
the principal points of Scriptural Doctrine; and after sufficient 
proof of the piety of life, as well as the evidence of necessary 
gifts and ability, to present the Word of the Lord unto edifica- 
tion; and after previous subscription of the ITetherlands Confes- 
sion, the Christian Catechism, and the Canones Synodi ISTationalis 
Dordrechtis: have solemnly set apart and do by these presents 

set apart this reverend, pious, and learned IN" IST , as 

preacher to the said Ambassador, or Resident; to preach God's 
Holy Word, as contained in the Scriptures of the Old and 'New 
Testaments; to administer the Sacraments of Baptism and the 
Supper, which the Lord has instituted as seals of his grace; duly 
to visit the sick, and comfort them ; and, when necessaiy, prudently 
to administer church discipline; also, if it be practicable, to ob- 
serve catechizing with all diligence ; and furthermore in all things 
to execute the office of a minister, as becomes a true servant of 
Jesus Christ, according to the Word of God, and in conformity 



100 Ecclesiastical Records 

with the Netherlands churches, Confession, and Christian Cate- 
chism. We request of all those to whom this instrument shall be 
exhibited, and nnto whom our said brother shall come, that they 
will be pleased to recognize him as a lawfully commissioned ser- 
vant of Christ; and hold him in honor for his office and his work's 
sake; and also to be of aid to him, as far as they can: in order 
that he may fulfill his office unhindered and with gladness, to the 
magnifying of God's Holy Name, and the conversion and sal- 
vation of many. Whereunto we wish him the abundant blessing 
of the Lord. 

Thus done in our Classical Assembly, within Amsterdam, on 

, and signed in the name of all 

xxxix. 10. 

June 7, 1G36. 

5. Rules and Articles determined on — founded on the Delibe- 
rations of the Deputies, (and) of the Messrs. ISTegotiators of 
Moskow, (Muskovy) and submitted to the Assembly of the Clas- 
sis, concerning Ministers who shall go thither; and Instructions 
for said Ministers. 

1. That there shall go thither a person well versed in doc- 
trine, and who, as minister, shall preach the Word of God, and 
administer the Sacraments, and perform all other ministerial 

2. That the said person shall sail from here to Archangel at 
the first opportunity, and A\-ith one of the first ships. 

3. That having arrived at Archangel, he shall preach on Sun- 
day mornings and on Thursday evenings, during the period of 
his stay there; and if it can possibly be done, the Catechism 
shall be taught on Sunday afternoons, that the Lord's Day may 
bo the more fully hallowed. 

4. That he shall be obliged to come back here with the fleet, 
unless some Negotiator should pass the winter there. In case, 
then, an agreement can be made between the parties, after the 

OF THE State of New York. 101 


minister's engagement at Archangel has terminated, that he may, 

upon invitation, continue there through the winter, taking up 

his residence at Wolga, or at Jereslau — permission is granted 

to the minister to do this: it being well understood that he 

shall remain there not longer than a year; and in the follo-s\dng 

summer he is to cross over to Dalaar (or) Gersbarte, so that 

the Classis may have not only due knowledge of the location of 

the (]\rinister?) there, but also that it may remain with Classis 

to decide whether to continue the one thus commissioned, or to 

invite another one in his place. 

5. Also that ^vritten instructions shall be drawn up, in accord- 
ance with which the commissioned one shall be obliged to con- 
duct himself. These shall be drawn up by the Classis, and sent 
along mth him. 

6. That two persons shall accompany his Reverence, who shall 

be chosen thereto by the Classis of the Reformed 

religion in the Netherlands language (or church?) 

alms, and to receive them at Archangel. These shall also make 
due report of all such moneys received, as well as other moneys 
collected on private occasions. These shall be brought hither, 
and paid over to the Diaconate of the Netherlands Church, inas- 
much as in the said Classis there are no garonen, ? The said col- 
lectors shall be nominated \\dth the previous knowledge and ad- 
vice of the minister, and for the present there are (nominated?) 
by the Classis, Christian Mupa (?) and La^^Tence Gossnirs (?). 

7. That the minister in Moscow (Muscovy) shall have sole and 
independent control of his own church there; and there must 
not be allowed in any vnse, any assumption (of power) or influ- 
ence from the church of Archangel. This shall also be clearly 
expressed in his instructions; especially because it is not? un- 
derstood that the Rev. Bergius, who is at present located there, 
did formerly send an elder and dsacon every 3'^ear from Mos- 
cow to Archangel, and that this has not subsequently been con- 
tinued. (?) 


102 Ecclesiastical Records 

8. That the minister from (in) Moscow (Muscovy), and especi- 
ally the one in Archangel shall be maintained by his regular salary, 
without receiving anything for baptizing or marrying, or from 
the congregation; so that the honor and reputation of the ISTeth- 
erland Church in such localities may suffer no disparagement 

xxxix. 11. 

June 7, 1636. 

6. Instructions for the Minister in Moscow and Archangel. 

1. That the teachings of God's Word be presented to the peo- 
ple with prudence, and in a sound and edifying manner, and in 
conformity with the teachings of the National Synod recently 
held at Dordrecht, (1618-19); that the Sacraments be adminis- 
tered according to the institution of Christ, and in conformity 
with the general order of the Eef ormed Church in this land, and 
that this be done as often as the condition of the church there 
may require it; that also the sick be visited and comforted, and 
that church discipline be prudently attended to, according to 
the necessities of the church. 

2. That the ministers, both at Moscow and at Archangel, shall 
concern themselves only with their respective churches, and shall 
in no wise assume to themselves what belongs to the govern- 
ment of (other) churches, there or elsewhere. 

3. That every year a written ecclesiastical report be made to 
the Classis, of the condition of the two churches. This report 
shall be signed by the preachers and elders. 

4. That each of these preachers must refrain from all dis- 
putes, whether in behalf of or against the Russians, as well as 
with others who have gone there, whether Lutherans or Papists. 

They shall also prudently write but not 

without the advice of their consistories. 

5. Furthermore, each of these preachers must be on his guard 
against inducting any person into the ser^dce of the church, or 

OF THE State of JSTew York. 103 


into the office of the preacher, without special authorization by 

our Classis. 

6. That each of the said preachers shall be supported by the 
regular salary assigned to them, respectively, by the Messrs. jSTego- 
tiators, without laying any claim to, or receiving fees from, any- 
body, for marrying, baptizing, or by way of benefit. The in- 
tention of the Messrs. IsTegotiators, which is thoroughly approved, 
being this : that they are not to be held accountable, outside the 
said salary, for any other expenses, whether for traveling, or 
for his lodgings there; but that the preacher at Archangel must 
meet the cost of his travel, and for his lodging there, on the 
best terms he can make; and that the be consti- 
tuted and the married people, and the children for 

baptism shall give zeal, and that such by the 

Almighty may be 

7. That the minister sent to Archangel shall be required to 
go -vvith one of the first ships sailing thither; and return again 
with the fleet, or at the longest (stay) there during the summer, 
according to the articles of the Negotiators, concerning this ser- 
vice, xxxix. 12. 

June Y, 1636. 

T. Drawn up by the Classis and .approved by the College of the 

Admiralty, at Amsterdam, ISTov. 28, 1636. 
Form of Admiapringe (appointments?) and Instruction for 
Licentiates (Proponents) sailing upon Men-of-War. 
Whereas, it is suitable and necessary, for the promoting of 
God's glory and the salvation of men, that there should be in- 
stituted upon Men-of-War (periods of) Keligious Meditations, 
when, at appointed times, God's Word should be preached in a 
praiseworthy manner; God's Name be publicly invoked; and the 
people be admonished into true piety; and, in addition, that men 
may be edified and comforted in a Christian manner, when in dis- 

104 Ecclesiastical Records 

couragement, or illness, and especially when in the hour of death : 
Therefore, We, Ministers of the Word, and Elders of the Chnrch 
of Christ, belonging to the Classis of Amsterdam, in the fear 
of the Lord, and \\dth the invocation of his Name, have adjudged 
the licentiate (proponent) N. N. — who has also exhibited laud- 
able certificates both as to his soundness of doctrine and piety 
of life : and who, after the customary examination in the prin- 
cipal Articles of the Christian Religion, and his subscription to 
the Formulae of Concord — as a suitable person to enter upon, 
and undertake the office of Proponent, on the War Elect: for 
which service he has also been accepted by the High Mighty, the 
Messrs., the College of ' Admiralty : 

And in order that he may become known as such to every one 
whom it may concern, and that they may know how he must con- 
duct himself in this his office, this Letter of Instruction is sent 
with him : Therein it is ordered, that on the Lord's day, and on 
other proper occasions he shall preach a sermon on God's Word, 
with all edification, and unto the instruction, admonition, com- 
fort and rebuke of the people. 

He shall also comfort and instruct those lying at the point of 
death; and also other sick and distressed ones, in their necessi- 
ties and discouragements, out of the Word of God. Also, be- 
sides, in private, he must admonish every one upon occasion, and 
particularly against cursing, swearing, and the thoughtless abuse 
of the name of the Lord, etc., and earnestly warn them. 

And inasmuch as the said N. N. has agreed and -promised 
faithfully to observe all this, and to accompany his ministry with 
a Christian and pious walk: Therefore we request all whom 
it may concern, to respect him very highly, (lit. to hold the same 
in peace) as the servant of Christ, for his office and work's sake : 
also, so far as is possible, to aid him, in order that he may per- 
form his duties unhindered, and with gladness, to the magnify- 
ing of God's Holy Name and the conversion and salvation of 

OF THE State of New York. 105 

Thus done in our Classical Assembly, signed by ns in tbe 

name of all. xxxix. 13. 

June 7, 1636. 

8. Form of Instruction for Preachers on Men-of-War. 

Whereas it is proper and necessary for the advancement of 
God's glory and the salvation of men, that God's Word should 
be preached on the Ships of War, in its purity; that God's name 
should be publicly invoked; that the Holy Sacraments should be 
administered on occasion: that the people should be admonished 
to greater piety, and be edified and comforted in a Christian man- 
ner, in times of need, in illness, and especially in the hour of 
death: Therefore, We, Ministers of the Divine Word, and Elders 
of the Church of Christ, belonging to the Classis of Amsterdam, 
in the fear of the Lord, and after invoking his IsTame; with the 
consent and approval of the l^oble and Mighty, the Messrs. Coun- 
cil of the Admiralty of the College of Amsterdam; after previous 
and due investigation and examination of him on the principal 
points of Christian doctrine; and after sufficient evidence of his 
piety of life; also after the finding of the necessai-y gifts and 
qualifications in him to present the Word of the Lord unto edifi- 
cation ; and after his previous subscription of the Netherland Con- 
fession, the Christian Catechism, and the Canones Synodi Na- 
tionalis Dordreehtis: have solemnly ordained, with the laying on 
of hands, and by these presents do ordain, the reverend, pious, 

and highly-learned IST JST , to occupy the office of a 

preacher on the War Fleet, and to perform all the functions 
thereof, as becomes a pious and faithful servant of Jesus Christ. 
And, to the end that the same may be known as such, to every 
one whom it may concern, and since he has agreed and promised 
faithfully to observe this, his ministry, in everything, according 
to God's Word, and to pursue it with a pious walk: Therefore 
have we given unto him these lettei-s of Instruction, %\'ith the re- 
quest that every one, whom it may concern, will be pleased to 
hold the same in honor, as a servant of Christ, for liis office and 



106 Ecclesiastical Records 

work's sake; also to assist him, as far as possible, in order that 
he may perform his office unhindered and with gladness, to the 
magnifying of God's Holy Name, and the conversion and salva- 
tion of many. 

Thus done in our Classical Assembly on 

Signed by us in the n^me of all 

xxxix. 14. 

June 7, 1636. 

9. Instructions for the Minister going to Smyrna, drawn up by 
order of the Rev. Classis of Amsterdam. (Given to Domin© 
Thomas Koenen?) 

1. He shall present and proclaim to the people the teaching of 
the Divine Word in a sound and edifying manner, and with all 
prudence; he shall administer the Sacraments instituted by Christ 
as frequently as the condition of the place and the congregation 
shall require; he shall duly visit and comfort the sick, and also 
administer church discipline as occasion requires, but with all 
prudence; he shall also hold catechetical exercises with all dili- 
gence, so far as it may be practicable; and he shall take care that 
everything be done in conformity with God's Word, and with 
the confession of Faith, the Christian Catechism, and the decrees 
of the last National Synod, held at Dordrecht, (1618-19), and 
as is the usual practice here in this country, in our Reformed 

2. He shall also maintain a proper correspondence with thia 
Classis, and advise it of all extraordinary events, if time permit 
him, and annually to report in writing the state of the church. 
To this end, he shall suitably note down all events as they take 
place in a church-book. 

3. And as soon as he arrives there, he shall endeavor to estab- 
lish a church among people of our own nation. To this end he 
shall seek to ascertain of what members there are 

OF THE State of i!«[ew Yoek. lOY 

tliere of the Reformed Keligion, and lie must give special attention 
to all such, so as to promote an edifying walk among them, and 
purity of doctrine, that he may from them gather members, and 
form capable material, that he may, as opportunity serves, select 
and establish a Consistory. 

4. And in order that the preacher now going there may be pro- 
vided with some help, he shall for the present discriminatingly 
seek to employ the help and advice of Mr. Consul in necessary 

5. When the minister has been there for some time, and there 
shall have been found among those of our own nationality fit 
material; or when other pious and experienced persons shall have 
joined those already there; and some of these have been induced 
temporarily, to exercise the duties of Elders and Deacons, until 
such time as, under the mighty blessing of God, the hoped for 
church shall be erected there ; — then, when the people shall have 
so increased that it has become possible, shall they proceed, ac- 
cording to the usual Order of the Church in this country, to the 
regular election of Elders and Deacons. 

6. In the reception of members, and the baptizing of children 
or adults, he shall (act) according to the Order and custom which 
are in use in this country. Thus may everything be done with 
proper regularity and prudence, and offences be avoided as much 
as possible, and the glory of the church preserved and upheld. 

T. And if any come from other places, and represent them- 
selves as church members of the Reformed Religion, and request 
to be admitted to the Communion, but without having with them 
their church certificates; it Avill be expedient to inquire, as far as 
possible, into the deportment of each one of them. If nothing be 
found against them, they shall be temporarily admitted upon such 
evidence and during their abode in that place, as transients, 
(passants). In the meantime they are to be admonished to bring 
their certificates with them another time. 

108 Ecclesiastical Records 

8. He shall also constantly give heed, and, as far as practicable, 
maintain conformity in everj^hing, with the practice of the church 
in this land, in reference to betrothments and marriage, (onder- 
tronwen and trouwen,) if such circumstances arise there; and 
regulate himself therein in accordance with the marriage-law or 
the civil ordinance in the matter of marriage made by this State. 

9. He shall also take care that collections of alms be made at 
religious gatherings, and a careful account of the same be kept. 
Out of these, on occasion, needy transients (passants) and the 
poor church members, or also captive slaves may be aided and 

10. He shall also keep a correct register of all the members, 
and of those who are baptized and are married. 

According to these Instructions the said jST. N". is ordered to 
conduct himself in his office. He, on his part, has promised so 
to do, according to his act of Call; and according to the estab- 
lished Form, these Instructions are also given him. 

The Hon. Consul has been pleased to agree to these points of 
Instruction. At the same time it is recommended to his Honor, 

1. To keep a register of those who die there. 

2. To attend to the matter of organizing a school for the in- 
struction of the youth in reading and writing and the knowledge 
of the Christian religion. 

The first his Honor (the Consul?) has deemed very necessary. 
The second to be deserving of further consideration, xxxix. 
IT, 18. 

Acts of the Classis of Amsterdam. 

(West Indies.) 

Inquiry about a certain paper. 

1636, Aug. 4th. 

"Whereas the Assembly has understood that the said writings 
from the consistory in the West Indies, sent to the Fatherland, 
are in the keeping of the Hon. Councillor Cai-peutier; the said 

OF THE State of ISTew Yoek. 109 

brethren shall address his Hon. in order to ascertain to whom 
these said papers belong. This was done; but no papers for us 
were found, iv. 79; xxxix. 22. 

(West Indies.) 

There was read a copy of a lengthy paper, which was sent to 
the Messrs. Directoi-s of the West India Company, by Christian 
Ilachtoo (or Ibachtoo) who was formerly a minister in the West 
Indies. And the Committee ad confus Indicus were directed to 
peruse together the said paper, and to extract therefrom the most 
noteworthy matters, and to present the same at the next meeting, 
iv. 79; xxxLx. 22. [See Oct. 5, 1637.] 

(Plan for West Indian Churches.) 

The Assembly commissioned Rev. Hachendorsius, Rev. Ohars- 
chius. Rev. Meefius (ISTeefius?) and Rev. ISTitmordonchius to de- 
vise among themselves a certain Plan (Concert) in accordance with 
which the churches in the West Indies may be governed edifyingly 
and with good order; and the said Brethren shall report the same 
to the Classis. iv. 80; xxxix. 22. 

Syistod of JSTorth Holland, at Enkhuysen. 

1636, Sept. 9, et seq. 

Art. 34. Preacher for the West Indies. 

His Excellency, Count (John) Maurice, of Nassau, about to 
proceed to the West Indies, (Brazil) has made request that a 
thoughtful and capable minister be selected, to be sent to the West 
Indies in accordance with Church-Rules. This request was par- 
ticularly pleasing to this Synod, and it was resolved, that the 
Classes shall give heed to it at the earliest opportunity; and if 
they learn of any one disposed to go thither to inform the Church 
of Amsterdam. The Rev. Correspondents (of other Synods) will 
also be pleased to do the same. 



110 Ecclesiastical Records 

1636. Art. 35. (Under the Ministerial Changes this year oc- 
curs the following item:) 

Classis of Amsterdam. 

Sent to the West Indies, (Brazil) Eev. Joannes PoUiemus.* 

Acts of the Deputies. 

Plan for the partial government of the West Indian Churches. 


1636 [Fall.] 

The plan drawn up by the above mentioned brethren was read, 
relating to the regulation of the churches in Brazil. It was re- 
solved that at the next meeting of the Classis this shall be more 
fully discussed, and maturer consideration be given to every par- 
ticular, xxxix. 23. 

(East and West Indies.) 

(1637, April 6th.) 

It was resolved to ask advice of the Synod whethei 

the Comforters of the Sick, [Siecken-Troosters] going to the 
East and West Indies, in cases that may arise, shall be permitted 
to perform the marriage ceremony and to baptize, iv. 90; 
xxxix. 27. 

[Committee on Indian Affairs.] 

(1637, April 6th.) 

Rev. Mourcourtius having been a member of the Committee 
on Indian Affairs, and having served out his term of two years, 
requested to be discharged from his office. The Classis resolved, 
to continue Rev. Aarsenius, Rev. Meursius; and to them are 
added Rev. Treteatius and Rev. John Ambrosius. iv. 90; 
xxxix. 27. 

• This Is the Johannes Theodorus Polhemus, who, with the loss of Brazil to the 
Dutch in 1654, came to Long Island, and established Dutch Churches there, and It 
ancestor of the Polhemus family in America. 

OF THE State of IsTew York. Ill 


Synod of !N"orth Holland, at Edam. 

163Y, Aug. 10 et seq. 

Art. 29. Ministerial Changes. (Among many others:) 

Classis of Amsterdam. 

Sent to the West Indies: Domine Fredericus Keslerus, 
preacher at Amsterdam. Domine Franciscus Planti, newly or- 
dained to the service. 

Classis of Enkhiiysen. 

Domine David a'Doreslaer, called, examined and sent, as 
minister to Brazil. 

Acts of the Classis of Amsterdam. 

Jonas Michaelius. 

163Y, Sept. 7th. 

Whereas the Messrs. Directors of the West India Company 
request a minister for New Netherland; and since Rev. Jonas 
Michaelius is now present here (in Holland) without a charge; 
the Brethren resolve that the Deputies on Indian Affairs must 
put forth every endeavor to persuade him to the acceptance of 
this service. Having done this, they will recommend him most 
favorably to the Directors, iv. 103; also in xxxix. 33. 

1637, Oct. 5th. 

The Brethren, the Deputies on Indian Affairs report, that 
they had recommended and proposed Rev. Jonas Michaelius 
(Dominum Jonam Michaelium) to the Directors; but they had 
finally given as an answer, that when they had need of him, 
they would summon him. This greatly displeased the (Classical) 
Assembly, iv. 107; xxxix. 34. 

112 Ecclesiastical Records 


Indiams (East asv) West). 

Plan to 1)0 devised to roach tluMu. 

Altlionp,li sov(M-al luallovs rtMiiaiii inillnisliod wliioli oiig'ht to be 
att(Mid(Ml (d, 1( was rcsolvod to ooiiio to soiuo dooision ix\2;avding 
these snvago mon of tlio I'ast and AVc>st intlios, at tlu^ lirst oxira 
Classical scission, and to scMid siu'li diM'isions to tlio olinrclics there. 
In case that extra session slionld bt'conio too prolonged, it shall 
then and there Avrito sjiociallv io the (rognlar meeting of the) 
Classis, (a statement of the whole case); after wdiieh it shall 
take lip the case of Christian ITaehtoo, allnsion to which shall 
also ho made al the sanu^ time, in the same special connuunication 
lo the (ri'gnlar) Chissis. iv. 107; xxxix. 3-i. 

Afkaiks in the West Tnoiks. 

1637, Xov. lOth. 

Concerning aiTairs in tlu^ AV(>st Indies it was reported, 1. That 
their Acta had been sent to the Svnod o^ North Holland and 
to the chnrches of the ]\lense, (Macs); 2. That the Acta of onr 
Svnod, I'vom the year 1(120 to the ]n-esont lime (1G37) will bo 
sent to I hem; 3. That some copies (specin\ens) of the Alarriage 
Ordinance', adopttMl by tlu^ lligli Anthoritii\s here, will be sent 
tiiither; -1. 'IVniching the baptism of niibaptized children of Bra- 
zilians, negroes and others: Inasmuch as this matter has been 
referred to the Synod, (of "N"orth Holland,) and has been acted 
on by them, their action will be sent over, (to Hra/.il.) At the 
same lime they will lu> fold, that so far a.s onr C^lassis is con- 
cerm>d, she has nincli wished that the casus jiad been somewhat 

more specitically stated, and ]>:irticnlarly It had 

really also the intention to tpiestion the t'liildnMi ot' Brazilians, 
lud'ore (h(\v wci'c adopted, and so passed ov»m- into familiam 
Christianornm. The Ibvlhren depnted on hulian Affairs will 

OF THE State of New Yokk. 1 1 .'I 


correct the letters for both the Indies (East and West) and 

bring them in at the next meeting of Classis. iv. Ill; xxxix. 

35, 36. 

Jonas Michaelins. 

1637, Nov. 16th. 

The case of Eev. Jonas Michaelins and Peter el ansz. Lantman 

shall be bronght anew before the Directors by the Deputies, and 

be earnestly rcconmicnded. iv, 113; xxxix. 37. 


114 Ecclesiastical Records 



Classis of Amsterdam. 

Acts of the Deputies. 

("West Indies.) 

(1638, April 10.) 

It was represented to the Hon. Messrs. Directors (of the West 

India Company?) by the East India Company, which 

also by ministers in Brazil answered to this with 

the fii'st now expected the advice of the Assembly 

of the XIX 

There were also handed over the Synodical Acta from the 
year 1618 to 1638. It was promised to recommend this business 
in the most favorable manner to the said Assembly. 

In reference to the marriage ordinances, it was answered that 
some had been sent before, and more would be sent. 

On May 15 the Directors informed Rev. Somerus that the As- 
sembly of the XIX had agreed to the suggestion, and requested 
two ministers, as well as Siecken-Troosters, and Schoolmasters. 
Thereupon it was resolved to recommend as ministers Rev. Jonas 
Michaelius, Abraham Middlehovius, and Peter Jansen Lantman; 
as Siecken-Troosters, Isaac Abrahams and Peter Wemerius, of 
Meppel; as Schoolmaster Philip Cyriacus Nicolaus. These 
recommendations were announced on 20th inst. to the Directors 
by the Deputies. Answer was given that the decision of the 
Company shall be made known to the Brethren through their 
Committee, as soon as possible, xxxix. 40. 

ResolutiojS" of the States General urging the Colonization 

OF Xew Xetherland. 

1638, April 26. 

Whereas their High Mightinesses learn that a sufficient num- 
ber of good and pious clergymen have not been sent to labor at 
Brazil in the harvest of the Lord; also that church discipline 

OF THE State of iSTEW Yokk. 115 


has not been duly introduced, much less practiced there, nor 
even order taken for the establishment of schools for the educa- 
tion of the rising youth, that they may be brought up in religion 
and piety. 

Secondly, their High Mightinesses receive additional informa- 
tion that the population in Xew Netherland does not only not 
increase as it ought, but even that the population which had 
been commenced is decreasing, and appears to be neglected by 
the West India Company, so that the inhabitants of foreign 
princes and potentates, are endeavoring to incorporate ISTew ISTeth- 
erland, and if not seasonably attended to, will at once entirely 
overrun it. 

Therefore their High Mightinesses, after previous delibera- 
tion, have resolved and concluded on the first point, hereby to 
instruct and authorize their deputies to the Assembly of the 
XIX., that in conjunction with the present delegates from the 
respective Chambers to said Assembly, they assist in making and 
enacting such order, that Divine Worship in Brazil be duly at- 
tended to, church ordinance and discipline introduced and prac- 
ticed, and the rising youth educated and brought up in the fear 
of the Lord and in the Christian Reformed religion. 

On the second point, their High Mightinesses have resolved 
and concluded, that before the present delegates from the re- 
spective Chambers to the aforesaid present Assembly of the XIX. 
adjourn, their High Mightinesses' deputies shall assist in making 
and enacting such effectual order regarding the population of 
ISTew Xetherland, and thereunto in\dte all good inhabitants of 
these Netherlands by such inducements and pre-eminences as, 
with the approbation of their High Mightinesses, they shall re- 
solve to offer to all colonists, so that this State may not be 
deprived of the aforesaid ISTew Netherland, by any indirect under- 
hand dealing of some inhabitants of this country, and the intru- 
sion and invasion of those of foreign princes and potentates. — 
Col. Docs. N. Y. i. 106. 

116 Ecclesiastical Eecoeds 

Jonas Michaelius. 

1638, June 7th. 

The Brethren Deputati ad Ees Indicas reported that thej had 

recommended to the Directors of the West India Company, as 

ministers, Eev. Jonas Michaelius, Kev. Middlehovius, and Kev. 

Peter Jansz. Lantsman. Of these three, Peter Jansz. alone is 

accepted, while they give little or no hope to the other two. It 

was now resolved to ask for a more definite reply concerning 

the first two. iv. 125, xxxix. 41. 

1638, July 5th. 

Concerning the Revs. Jonas Michaelius* and Middelhouvius, 
the Deputati ad Res Indicas reported, that they understood from 
the Hon. President of the West India Company that the rejec- 
tion of those two individuals had been announced by his Honor, 
in the name of the iVssembly, (the Assembly of the XIX, or 
Governing Board of the West India Company.) iv. 129; 
xxxix. 42. 

XoTE ON Rev. Joannes Michielsen in England. 

On May 10/20, 1641, the Dutch Church of Yai-mouth, Eng- 
land, wrote to the Dutch Church of London, asking for some 
pecuniary assistance. They had temporarily secured the services 
of Rev. Joannes Michielsen through one of their Elders who had 
met him in Zeeland. Of this they were very glad, as they had 
long been without a minister, and they were hungering for the 
bread of life. This Michielsen had been with them about ten 
weeks to their great edification. He was now about to depart 
and they ^vished to reward him for his services, — Archives of 
the Dutch Church of London, Document 2610. 

On Sept. 4/14, 1641, the Dutch Church of Maidstone, wrote 
to the Colloque (Synod) of the Dutch Churches in London, that 

* This is ttie last reference in the minutes of the Classis of Amsterdam to this 
individual. From preceding documents it will be seen that his father's name was 
Joannes, and he was probably thus called sometimes himself. He may have had a 
son Joannes, if the following documents do not refer to himself. It may possibly 
suggest Zeeland as a place to seek for further light on the subsequent history of 
the first minister of New York. 

OF THE State of ISTew Yokk. 117 

they were about to engage as their minister Eev. Joannes 
Mijchijlsen, and hence they sent their elder, Danneel Beeckman 
to confer with the Colloque on the subject. — Document 2632. 

On October 27 (N". S. Xov. 6) 1641, Rev. Joannes Michielsen 
wrote to the Dutch Church at London. 

He refers to the fact that when traveling some weeks before 
to Yarmouth, by way of London, he had promised the Elders 
of the Dutch Church of Maidstone that he would come to them, 
in case he received no summons from Holland; but he had re^ 
ceived such a summons, and hence he could not fulfill the con- 
ditional engagement. He was about going to Zeeland. — Docu- 
ment 2640. 

On ^ov. 16/26, 1641, the Dutch Church of Maidstone wrote 
to the Dutch Church of London, asking for information as to 
what the Colloque of Dutch Churches in London had done. Mr. 
Michielsen had written them that he would come to them in two 
or three weeks, but two months had now passed. — Document 


Statement of the number of the members of the Eoreign 
Churches in England, Eeb. 23 (N. S.) 1634. 

French and Walloons of London 1,400 

Dutch of London 840 

Walloons of Canterbury 900 

Dutch of Colchester 700 

Walloons of Nonvich 396 

Dutch of Normch 363 

Dutch of Maidstone 50 

Dutch of Sandmch 500 

Dutch of Yai-mouth 28 

Walloons of Southampton 36 



118 Ecclesiastical Records 

Document 2347 in tlie Ecclesiae-Londino-Batavae ArchiTum. 
Published 1897, (or Archives of the Dutch Church of London.) 

Eteraedus Bogaedus. 

Resolution to retain him as Minister of the Gospel. 

On Thursday, being the 8th of July. (1638.): In Council presented a certain peti- 
tion by Everardus Bogardus, wherein he requests leave to depart for Fatherland, to 
defend himself against Lubbert van Dincklage. 

We have deemed it necessary to retain the Minister here, so that the Church of 
God may increase more and more every day. — Col. Docs. N. Y. xiv. 10. 

Mortgage on Achtervelt, L. I., given by Andries Hudde to Rev. Everardus Bogardus. 

To-day, date underwritten, before me, Cornells van Tienhoven, Secretary of New 
Netherland, appeared Andries Hudde, formerly Commissary of store goods here in 
New Netherland, who voluntarily acknowledged to be well and truly indebted for 
the sum of six hundred Carolus guilders of Holland, arising out of a certain bond 
given by the said Hudde to Everardus Bogardus preacher in this place, on the first 
of July 1637, which sum the said Hudde promises truly and faithfully to deliver 
and pay free of costs and charges and without any gainsay into the hands of said 
Bogardus; pledging to that end all his property, as well his buildings and animals 
as otherwise, which the deponent may have here in New Netherland and at present 
located in the district of Achtervelt, placing him, Bogardus, as he hereby does, in 
possession of the effects aforesaid and finally and wholly conveying and transferring 
to him the property aforesaid to him, Andries Hudde, belonging and that to the 
amount of the above said sum. For all which the deponent pledges his person and 
property, real and personal, present and future, without any exception, submitting 
to the Provincial Court of Holland, in all good faith is this confirmed by deponent's 
usual signature. 

Done upon the Island Manhates, this 22nd of July 1638. A. Hudde. — Col. Docs. 
N. Y. xiv. 12. 

Acts of the Classis of Amsterdam. 

Classical Seal. 

1638, Aug. 2nd. 

The brethren deputed to devise a Classical Seal, submitted to 
the (Classical) Assembly some (designs) drawn on paper by them. 
The one which was adopted by a majority of votes contained the 


-with an open Bible, and an olive branch lying ■^\'ithin it, and shoot- 
ing up out of it iv. 132. 

OF THE State of JSTew Yokk. 119 

List of Buildings erected in ISTew ]^etlierland during Wouter Van 
Twiller's Administration, 1633-1638. Among these are the 
following references to the Church. 

The Church with a house and stable behind it. (On the north 
side of Pearl street, [ISTo. 33] between Whitehall and Broad 

The house of Domine Bogardus. — Col. Docs; ]^. Y. xiv. 16. 

Syistod of ISToETH Holland, at Alckmaee. 

1638, Aug. 16 et seq. 
Article 21. 

In regard to Art. 34, touching the introduction of these Eng- 
lish ceremonies, (responsive readings), it has been learned that 
some very good endeavors have been made about (in opposition 
to) these things bj the respective Deputies of the Synod and the 
Classis of the Hague. This business, therefore, remains thus far 
in statu quo, 

1638. Art. 28. (Among reports from the several provincial 
Synods, appears this item on p. 14 from Utrecht). 
The result is awaited, concerning the care of (or provision for) 
the East and West Indian Churches. 

1638. Art. 29. Ministerial Changes. 

Classis of Alckmaer: 
Removed: Eev. Joannes Megapolensis, from Wieringerweert, 
Classis of Edam, to Schoorl and Bergen. 

1638. Art. 30. (Interesting discussion about the newly trans- 
lated Bible, but not properly belonging to New York State 


120 Ecclesiastical Records 


1638. Art. 33. Gravamina of the Classis of Enkhuysen. 

Whether persons who have not Answer: That the maintenance 

studied, and who wish to let them- of .the laws of the National Synod, 
selves be used as preachers or pro- regarding this article, in so far as 
ponents in the employ of the East it is any way possible, shall be ob- 
or West India Company, are or are served; and shall not be over- 
not exempt from that rule, estab- stepped, except in some great ne- 
lished by the National Synod, re- cessity. And that therefore those 
garding those persons who have not Classes or Churches, where there 
studied: Art. 3, of that Church are Chambers of the East or West 
order? India Company, shall proceed with 

discretion herein. But first, as re- 
gards those persons who, as read- 
ers, or sieckentroosters go 

to the East or West Indies and come back here again as preach- 
ers; or, secondly: as regards such, who, only in case of necessity, 
are qualified here, in this land, and are accepted as preachers for 
the East and West Indies, and subsequently, also come back here 
again, from those lands, as preachers: — on this matter, action 
shall be taken at the next Synod, at Haerlem, Anno, 1639. The 
Classis, meanwhile, remains charged by Synod to "write a grava- 
men, about this matter, to the several Classes. 

Proposed Articles for CoLoisrizATioN and Trade of ISTew 


1638, Aug. 30-Sept. 2. 
On the subject of religion: 
2. And inasmuch as it is of the highest importance, that in 
the first commencement and settlement of this population, proper 
arrangement be made for Divine worship, according to the prac- 
tice established by the government of this country; Eeligion shall 
be taught and preached there according to the Confession and 
formularies of union here publicly accepted in the respective 
churches, with which every one shall be satisfied and content; 
without, however, it being inferred from this, that any person 
shall be hereby in any wise constrained or aggrieved in his con- 
science, but every man shall be free to live up to his own in peace 
and decorum ; provided he avoid frequenting any forbidden assem- 

OF THE State of ISTew Yoek. 121 

Llies or conventicles, mncli less collect or get up any such; and 
further abstain from all public scandals and offences, whicli the 
magistrate is charged to prevent by all fitting reproofs and ad- 
monitions, and if necessar}^, to advise the Company, from time 
to time, of what may occur there herein, so that confusions and 
misunderstandings may be timely obviated and prevented, p. 110. 
8. Each householder and inhabitant shall bear such tax and 
public charge as shall hereafter be considered proper for the 
maintenance of Clergymen, Comforters of the Sick, School- 
masters and such like necessary officers; and the Director and 
Council there shall be written to touching the form hereof, in 
order, on receiving further information hereupon, it be rendered 
the least onerous and vexatious, p. 112. 

All those who will be inclined to go thither, to inhabit the 
country or to trade, shall severally declare under their signa- 
tures, that they will voluntarily submit to these regulations, and 
to the orders of the Company, and shall allow all questions and 
differences there arising to be decided by the ordinary courts of 
justice, which shall be established in that country, and freely 
suffer there the execution of the sentences and verdicts, without 
any further opposition. And shall pay, for passage and board in 
the state room, one guilder, in the cabin (hutte), twelve stivers, 
and between decks eight stivers, per diem.-^ Col. Docs. N. Y. i. 

Acts of the Classis of Amsterdam. 

Cornelius Pietersen, Comforter of the Sick. 

1639, June 6. 
In the same connection, one Cornelius Pietersen, of Edam, but 
now living at Amsterdam, offered himself for service in the Vir- 
ginias. He was promised the position, iv. 151. xxxix. 48. 



122 Ecclesiastical Recoeds 

Acts of the Deputies. 

Adam Rolands.* 

1639, July 18. 

Adam Rolands having requested to go to New ISTetherland as 
schoolmaster, reader, (Voorleser) and precentor, (Voorsanger), 
was accepted, as recommended, upon his good testimonials and the 
trial of his gifts, on August 4, 1673; and was sent thither, xx. 1. 

Peter van der Linde. 

Peter van der Linde asked to go as Siecken-trooster to the 
West Indies. Having been heard, he was advised to exercise 
himself still further in reading and singing. It was also resolved 
to inquire about him in the Haerlem Street across from the " Old 
England ", the first house in that street, xx. 9. 

Extract from the Acta of the Classis of Brazil. 

The churches of Brazil request, first, a larger number of minis- 
ters; secondly, Siecken-troosters; thirdly, annually, the Acta of 
the Synod of North Holland, xx. 13. 

The Difficulties of England and Scotland. • 

1639, July 29th. 

Thirdly; Inasmuch as it is understood that the four Reformed 
cities in South Scotland, have appealed to the Archbishop of 
Canterbury in an earnest letter, that he would devise measures 
for further removal of the grievances directed against the Church 
of Scotland; (it is a question) whether it ought not to be sub- 
mitted to the consideration of the Synod (of North Holland) in 
conjunction with them of South Zeeland,* that we should address 
a communication to this same Archbishop upon the subject, in the 
name of our (Netherlands) Chui-ch. iv. 155. 

* Can this be tho same Indiridual as Adam Roelantsen, who came over in 1633, 
with Rev. Bogardus? In 1639, Adam Roelantsen van Hamelwaard is among the 
citizens of Fort Orange, and said to be formerly a schoolmaster in New Amsterdam. 
<0'Callaghan, i. 448.) See also Valentine's Manual, 1863, pp. 559-561. 

• Perhaps an error for South Scotland. 

OF THE State of ISTew Yokk. 123 

Baptismal, Register of Church of 'New York. 


The Baptismal List of the Church of New Amsterdam, be- 
tween 1639-169Y, was printed in English in Valentine's Man- 
ual of the Common Council of New York in 1863, pages Y38-834, 
the names being arranged in alphabetical order. The same list, 
from 1639 and onward, is printed in its original form, in Dutch 
and in chronological order, in the New York Genealogical and 
Biographical Record, having been begun in 1874, and is not yet 
completed. Ten or twelve pages of names are printed quarterly. 
It is interesting to notice how often twins and triplets are re- 
ported, and occasionally " vierlings ". 


1639, Aug. 1 et seq. 
Article 29. 

In regard to proponents, who have not regularly studied, and 
who have gone to the East or West Indies, and have returned 
again; in what capacity these are to be received in the jSTether- 
land Churches — of which mention was made in Art. 33, (1638,) 
— shall be treated later under the Gravamina. 

Article 33. 

There were read and brought in by the Rev. Deputies of our 
Synod, the extracts from the Acts of the corresponding Synods, 
as they here follow: 

From the Acts of Gelderland: 

That the affairs of the East and West Indian Churches belong 
to the cognizance of the ISTetherland Churches in general. 

From the Acts of South Holland: 

That these (Churches) will remain under the same care, until 
the Assemblv further decides as to the Church affairs of the East 



124 Ecclesiastical Eecokds 

and West Indian Churches. And that the Churches and Classes, 
which now manage these affairs, shall make abstracts from the 
letters coming from the East and West Indies about their prin- 
cipal items of ecclesiastical business, and shall present these annu- 
ally at the session of the several Synods, and shall communicates 
them to the correspondents. 

Also, if any one knows of any students or preachers, capable 
and willing, for the service of the Churches in the East and West 
Indies, they are requested to be kind enough to notify the re- 
spective Chambers (of the East or West India Company), in 
regard to them. 

Erom the Acts of Utrecht. 

(That the same) "will yet continue their care of the East and 
West India Churches; together with those of Gelderland and 

That the Acta of the Synod of Brazil, coming annually, might 
be sent to them at the expense of this Synod. 

Art. 46. 

The Eev. Deputatus, in correspondence, from (the Synod of) 
Gelderland, requests, very amicably, in the name of his Synod, 
that, in order to a good and close correspondence, there should 
be communicated to it by our Synod, an account of the East and 
West India Church-affairs. Eor this business, and their Church- 
Order, belong to the churches in general. The Gelderland Synod 
is of the opinion, and the other corresponding Synods agree 
therein, that this entire Netherland Church, as the Mother- 
Church of the East and West India Churches, claims equal rights 
herein. Therefore is this right (of common supervision) insisted 
on every year. But if this communication (overture) be rejected, 
the S}Tiod must endeavor to secure this right through their High 
Mightinesses, (the States-General). 

The Rev. Deputati, in correspondence, from (the Synods of) 
Utrecht, Eriesland, and Oveiyssel, join in the preceding request. 

OF THE State of jSTew York. 125 

Tliey declare that they understand, in general, by this (foreign) 
business which has been alluded to, that some (understand it), 
that it is the sending over of the Church-Order (as adopted in 
the Indies,) with a statement of the difficulties which arise in 
connection therewith, etc.; and that others understand it, that it 
means (the sending over) of information about the proper per- 
sons who may be employed as sieckentroosters or ministers; such 
a case recently occurred in the second Gravamen of Haerlem; 
so that the information, direction and adjudication of all mat- 
ters should be equally attended to by all the corresponding 

It would at least, be agreeable to them, (the above mentioned 
Synods) to receive from our Synod (of Korth Holland) as much 
inforiy:ation (about the foreign churches) as the Rev. Deputati 
of the Synod of South Holland have been in the habit of making 
known to us. For it has been resolved on in their Synod of South 
Holland, as the custom has also been heretofore, to give " ex- 
tracts " (of the affairs in the East and West Indies) accounts of 
which are sent over — to the (several Synods), when assembled, 
or to their delegates, present, as correspondents (in the Synod of 
South Holland.) — (The same is asked from the Synod of North 
Holland) — that their (other) Synods may also be kept informed. 

Concerning all of this, it was resolved to answer on the part 
of our Synod, (of North Holland) that the Rev. Synods will please 
to agree among themselves as to the notes of general and par- 
ticular matters which should be thus communicated; and that 
these things having been made kno^vn to the Classes of our Synod, 
resolutions shall be taken thereon, and declared at the next Synod. 

Art. 47. 

Further: In regard to this same business, it was asked by one 
of the Rev. Correspondents: 

(1) Whether the Classis of Amsterdam alone is authorized by 
the Synod, to conduct the examinations of persons going to the 
East or West Indies : and 



126 Ecclesiastical Recoeds 

(2) Whether it, (the said Classis), ought not to render an ac- 
count annually of what has thus been entrusted to it. ' 

As to the first question: It was answered, 'No; that the Classis 
of Amsterdam is not authorized (to conduct examinations) any 
more than other Classes w^here there are Chambers (of the Com- 

As to the second question: It is shown by the Rev. Deputies 
of our Synod, from the Acta of our previous Synods, that such 
has been the practice for a long time; that the persons examined 
for the service of the Church in the East or West Indies, as well 
as the facts of their return, are reported to this Synod, several 
instances of which are adduced; and as yet the Synod is inclined 

These examples are now adduced by the Rev. Brethren of the 
Classis of Amsterdam: That there were sent, as preachers from 
their Classis, to the East Indies: Rev. Simon Stuilengius, and 
John Claessen Bakes, of Gisp: In the West Indies: Anthony 
Claessen van (or of) Lemuyen, (although it has been learned that 
he died on the way;) Peter Janssen Lantman, of Abbekerk. It 
is also related by the Rev. Deputy from South Holland, that in 
their Synod an extract is annually introduced in regard to th© 
East and West India affairs, that these may be well attended to; 
since in these affairs misunderstandings or mistakes can easily 
occur. Our Rev. Deputies also read a letter of thanks from 
Utrecht, for what was communicated to them in regard to Brazil.* 

Acts of the Classis of Amsterdam. 

Lubb. van Dincklagen asks to be relieved from his excom- 

1640, March 19th. 

Lubbert van Dincklagen, who was formerly Fiscal in the Vir- 
ginias, (Virgenys, xxxix. 69,) appeared (in Classis) and complained 

♦ The above references to ministers to the West Indies, do not profess to be com- 
plete. It is a little remarkable that the reference to Rev. Everardus Bogardus, at 
this time in New Netherland, is not referred to. His departure was reported to 
Synod of 1632, Art. 38. 

OF THE State of Xew Yoke. 127 

of botli the ecclesiastical and secular proceedings. He asserted 
that, although he was innocent, he was excommunicated by the 
machinations of Rev. Everardus Bogaert (Bogardus;) that subse- 
quently, such proceedings were instituted against him, that, in 
order to escape them, he had been forced to hide himself in the 
wilderness, where, for days at a time, he had been compelled to 
sustain himself by the grass of the field, through lack of neces- 
sary food. He requests that this Bev. (Classical) Assembly would 
be pleased to investigate this case, and if they find him innocent, 
as he was sure they would, that they would relieve him from the 

Inasmuch as this case appears very peculiar to many, it was 
resolved to postpone the consideration of the same until the next 
meeting. But at the same time, the Deputati ad Causas Indicas, 
are hereby directed to draw up a report in a legal paper, showing 
all the facts in the case, and at the earliest opportunity, to hand 
it over to the Eev. God. (fridus?) Petri Bontius, so that he may, 
meantime, wait upon the Assembly of the Nineteen, or upon the 
Committee of the States-General, or Mr. Arnhem, provisionally, 
in order that his (Van Dincklagen's) affair, be not neglected to 
his prejudice, or to the deprivation of his salary, iv. 193-4; 
xxxix. 69, 70. 

Acts of the Deputies — Foreign Churches. 

1640, April 23rd. 

The business and other things touching the care of the for- 
eign churches, heretofore arranged by Rev. Boutum, are these 
following, which shall be brought before Classis simultaneously: 

1. Whether it be advisable to observe certain ceremonies in 
regard to burying the dead at Ende, D. 'No. 14, and Amboyna, 
D. 25? 

2. Whether Leoninus de Jonge, minister at in that 

city, who does not seem to be disinclined to the service of the 
church in the East Indies, shall be further (encouraged?) D. 15. 



128 Ecclesiastical Recoeds 

3. Whether henceforth all letters to the foreign churches 
ought not to be copied, as well as those which are sent to us? 

4. "Whether an appointed plan of index (register) in those mat- 
ters ought not to be followed. 

5. To note that Rev, George Candidius, shows himself inclined 
to go at a certain time to the East Indies: D. l^o. 15-28. 

6. Item: That the following were sent to the East Indies as 
Siecken-Troosters : Edward Bout, John Willemsen, Arent Ros- 
senrade, John HejTidricasen, Theo. Maelur, John Ybrecht Croese, 
Stephen Heyndricasen, Peter Laurense van Lynseel, Eredeirica 
Alcaen (A woman?) Michael Smit, Hejndrices Hartong, Alex- 
ander Rossenrade, Isaac Eransen, Gerrit Cornelisse. 

And to the West Indies: Abraham Isaacsen, John Jansen Smit, 
Edward Ooms, Simon Hulse, Cornelius van der Beek, Clement 
Eransen, Cornelius Andriesen. 

7. To speak of the extract from Rev. Hewring's written dec- 
laration of Martin Gideons " Considerations ", and the necessary 
reflections drawn from the letter of the church of Batavia, handed 
over in writing to the Directors; D. ISTo. 24: whereof some are 
postponed for the later advice of the Classis: 25. 

8. Of the of the Siecken-Troosters 

about the D. iN'o. 29. 

9. Of the manner in which the salaries of the Siecken-Troosters 
going to the West Indies are to be provided. D. Xo. 28. Item 31. 

10. Of Bartholomeus Coole: that he has handed in satisfactory 
testimonials, and is recommended to the West India Company; 
D. N"©. 25; is accepted by them, with the promise of fifty guilders 
per month for eight or nine montlis; 24; is sent with recommenda- 
tion to Utrecht, and ordered to prepare himself with a sermon at 
Easter No. 26; and agaiii cited for the Classis in May. Iso. 32. 

11. Jonas Aerts, accepted by the Hon. Directors, D. 26 and 
32, and sent to Curacoa. The Elder van Sunderdorp was foimd 
unfit. D. :N'o. 22, 23. 

12. Directions given to make inquiries about the condition of 
the church of Moscow, xx. 32, 33. 

OF THE State of IsTew York. 129 

Lubbertus Dincklagen. 

1640, May 7tb. 

Lubbertus Dincklagen, formerly Fiscal in ISTew ISTetherland, 
appeared (in Classis.) He requested a written memorandum from 
this Rev. Assembly, by which, the gentlemen of the justiciary of 
this city (Amsterdam) might be informed that the excommuni- 
cation passed upon him in New Netherland, should not be pub- 
licly posted (published in Indicio) to his injury, or be made to 
work to his prejudice. The Assembly resolved to record the 
preceding as a resolution, and verbally to request the President 
of the schepens, (aldermen or justices,) that the occurrence re- 
ferred to should not operate to the withholding of his salary. 
This will be done by the clerk, iv. 201; xxxix. 75. 

Everardus Hardenbergius, 

Everardus Hardenbergius, a candidate in Sacred Theology, pre- 
sented his credentials from the Consistory, and the Professors 
of Sacred Theology at Leyden; and among the rest, the certifi- 
cate of his Preparatory Examination (for licensure). He re- 
quested to be accepted as a candidate of this Classis, (of Am- 
sterdam.) To this the Classis acceded: iv. 201. 

James Dincklagen. 

James Dincklagen, formerly sent by the brethren of Zeeland 
as a Comforter of the Sick to Guinea, as well as to the island of 
Spitzbergen presented his credentials. The Classis was so well 
satisfied, that it was resolved, through the Deputies, to suggest 
his name to the Directors, iv. 202. 

New Charter of Patroonships. 

Freedoms and Exemptions granted by the West India Company 
to all Patroons, or others, who will plant colonies in New 
Netherland.— Col. Docs. N. Y. i. 119-123. 



130 Ecclesiastical Records 

1640, July 19. 

In reference to religion, we find the following: 
The Company reserves unto itself all large and small tythes, 
all waifs, the right of mintage, laj^-ing out highways, erecting 
forts, making war and peace, together -^dth all wildernesses, found- 
ing of cities, to^^Tis and churches; retaining the supreme author- 
ity, sovereignty and supremacy, the interpretation of all ob- 
scurity which may arise out of this Grant ; with such understand- 
ing, however, that nothing herein contained shall alter or dimin- 
ish what has been granted heretofore to the Patroons in regard 
to high, middle and low jurisdiction, p. 123. 

And no other Religion shall be publicly admitted in ISTew Xeth- 
erland except the Reformed, as it is at present preached and 
practiced by public authority in the United Netherlands; and 
for this purpose the Company shall provide and maintain good 
and suitable preachers, schoolmasters and comforters of the sick, 
p. 123. 

1640, Aug. 21 et seq. 

Syxod of Holla:!^^©, at A^nisterdam. 

Art. 9. English Ceremonies. 
As to Art. 18, relative to the introduction of the English cere- 
monies into the English Churches in this land: Inasmuch as 
nothing new has come before the Synod in regard to this matter, 
it was resolved to pass by the said article, at present, and to omit 
it henceforth from the Acta. 

1640. Article 30. 

Correspondence in the matter of the East and West India 


As to Art. 46, Synodi superioris, regarding the closer corre- 
spondence about the East and West India Church-affairs, which 
was asked for in said article; (1639) The Reverend Correspond- 
ents of (the Synod of) Gelderland, South Holland, Utrecht and 
Overyssel, read the resolutions adopted at their respective Synods, 

OF THE State of New York. 131 

and the plans therein proposed. The Rev. Deputatus of Gronin- 
gen. as subsequently, also, the Rev. Deputatus of Friesland, stated 
that they had received no directions upon these matters, and had 
no complaint (doleantie) to make; and no resolutions in regard to 
this matter were to be found in the Acta of their Synods. On 
this business much discussion now took place, between the Rev. 
Synod and the Reverend Brethren correspondents. The corre- 
spondents strongly insisted that satisfaction should be given to 
them and their Synods in this matter; that they might not be com- 
pelled to turn themselves to their respective (Provincial) author- 
ities, and to complain (doleren) before them. It was, therefore, 
resolved, in accordance with the resolution of the last Synod, at 
]Taerlem, by which this Assembly is bound, and in order to satisfy 
these brethren so far as possible, that the brethren correspondents 
will be pleased to hand in their petitions in writing, even as they 
are now spread upon their minutes. These petitions may then 
be sent to the several Classes of North Holland, and the resolu- 
tions of the same thereon may be learned at the next Synod. This 
could have already been done at this time if the Rev. Brethren 
had caused their considerations to be placed in the hands of the 
Deputies of our Synod. 

The petition and considerations are these, as they were ob- 
tained from the Acta of the Synod of South Holland, with the 
consent of the other Rev. Correspondents present: 

The care of the churches in the East and West Indies does not 
belong to one particular Church, or Classis, or even to one Synod ; 
but it properly belongs to all the Synods of the United Provinces, 
or to all the churches in general, of the Netherlands. This is 
the opinion as well as the sentiment of almost all the Particular 
Synods; for every one to whom the salutary correspondence is 
dear, and the mutual peace of the churches desirable, should cer- 
tainly have the privilege to promote the same. And this is just, 
especially because such opinion and sentiment rest upon incon- 
trovertible grounds, aside from the fact that each of the Com- 


132 Ecclesiastical Records 

panies (the East India and the West India Company) received its 
Charter from the Provinces in general, and is sustained by gen- 
eral funds (investments from all parts) and is ruled by Directors 
from each of all (the Provinces.) 

This also is clear beyond all doubt: that it is a work belonging 
to the National Synod, or to the churches in general of all these 
Provinces, not only to originate but to establish Particular Synods ; 
and to this (National) Synod, all individual Churches and Classes 
belong. If any particular Church or Classes or even Synod 
should assume the care of any other churches or Classes, whether 
in the East or in the West Indies, not having been authorized 
thereto by the churches in general: — many Provincial Synods 
would take great umbrage thereat, even as, for a long time past, 
they have manifested their displeasure; and it is to be feared that 
such displeasure will increase still more greatly, from time to 
time,, and produce troubles which ought to be prevented. 

To this may be added yet the follo^ving: That such difficulties 
might occur in the East or West Indies, as could and ought not, 
to be settled by any particular Churches, Classes, or even Synods, 
Also, particular churches (or Classes?) may be neglectful in com- 
plying vath the request of the East and West India churches. 
It is indeed understood that the said (foreign) churches have here- 
tofore complained, and do still complain, that at times no proper 
attention has been given to their letters and gravamina; and that 
full information is not always furnished them of the ecclesiastical 
proceedings in these Provinces. 

Now to give once for all (eenelyck) some further explanation 
of the matters which ought to come im^der the supeiwision and dis- 
position of the churches in general: This, first of all, is regarded 
as a point touching all the Synods of these United Provinces, that 
they should see well to it that the said churches of the East and 
West Indies abide by the purest doctrine, and by the common 
church regulations, and not be allowed to introduce anything 

OF THE State of !N^ew Yokk, 133 

peculiar, without the knowledge and approval of all the churches 
in general. 

Moreover, that the gravamina of the said churches ought to be 
sent over to all the Provincial Synods of this land, in order to 
consult and decide about these unitedly. 

Further: That the SjTiods in general have a right not only to 
the inspection of all the alumni of each of the Companies, but 
that these Synods ought also to have an eye to the sending and 
appointing of schoolmasters, readers, sieckentroosters, proponents, 
and especially ministers, upon whose fitness, so much depends 
there, and in so marked a degree. 

Finally, that all the Acta and letters of the churches of the 
East dnd West Indies ought to be addressed to the churches in 
general; even as in turn all the Synods in this land should an- 
nually send over general extracts from their Acta to the churches 
of the East and West Indies, in so far as these may be of service 
to them. 

' But in opposition to all this, it may be said, that several re- 
quests and attempts have been made, to be allowed* to form, from 
all the Provinces, one Ecclesiastical Assembly, which should have 
common oversight of all the East and West India churches; but 
that this has not been efi^ected, because it was not kno^vn how 
the expenses incurred thereby could be met. 

It was answered, that such an Assembly would have to be or- 
ganized at the charge of each Synod; inasmuch as the said ex- 
penses could not be obtained either from the Hon. Messrs. Direct- 
ors, or from the High Mighty Messrs. the States, nor from 
anywhere else. 

It might also be said that matters now and then come up which 
would not brook the delay of being treated by correspondence 
with the other Provinces: But this serves as a reply: That cer- 
tain ecclesiastical bodies can be appointed and authorized to con- 
sider such matters as require haste. These should be required 
to give an account of what they do or do not do, to their prin- 
cipals, with their reasons therefor. 


13i Ecclesiastical Records 

In order then, that this good cause may have progress and be 
facilitated, it is expedient that this project be made known to the 
churches of all the other Provinces. 

Further : In case of refusal or longer delay, a remedy could 
be requested from their High Mightinesses, the States-Greneral : 
The Synods interested shall themselves recommend this to their 
respective States, mth the request that they would be pleased 
to promote this affair at the meeting of their High Mightinesses. 

1640. Article 38. 

There were introduced and read the extracts from the general 
affairs, out of the Acta of the Corresponding Synods, even as 
follows : 

From the Acta of the Synod of Gelderland of the year 1638. 

To request an increase of the salary of ministers' widows, 
by the correspondencies among the Synods of these United 
provinces, in regard to the East and West Indian churches : 
Also the form and manner of that plan of a Marriage Ordi- 
nance, (echt ordaninge; or if this be read egt ordaninge, it 
might mean " genuine ordination " :) accompanied by the pre- 
ceding advice of the respective Classes. This after being fur- 
ther examined in the Synod, shall be presented to the Hon. 
Court, and the Landschap, (landship; authorities of the com- 
munity; magistrates.) 

From the Acta of the Synod of South Holland: 

A plan to arrange a common supervision over the church 
affairs of the East and West Indies, approved by the Synod, 
shall be communicated to the Eev. Brethren of Zeeland,* and to 
all the Synods of these Provinces. After the said plan has been 
approved, it shall be laid before the Assembly of the XVII and 
XIX, and sent to the Messrs. the States of each Province. 

• There was no Synod In Zeeland. 

OF THE State of I^ew York. 135 

Synod of North Holland, Oct. 1640. 

(Extra session.) 

Continuatioii of the Acts of the Particular Synod of North 

Holland, reassembled at Amsterdam, on October 30, of the year 


Art. 20. East and West India Church affairs. 

Thereupon the said Deputatus made known, in the matter of 
the East and West India Church affairs, that many debates 
thereon had taken place in the Sjiiod of Utrecht; and that it 
was finally resolved to let the matter rest for a year, until the 
petitions and considerations, which were presented by the cor- 
responding Synods on that subject, and which are embodied in 
Article 30 of the Acta of the North Holland Synod, (1640) shall 
have been considered in the Classes of North Holland. A de- 
cision will then have been reached at the next Synod of that 
Province (Utrecht). There is added thereto, that this Synod 
(North Holland) will kindly permit it (Synod of Utrecht) to 
receive, upon its request, which was also made in writing in a 
letter of October 28, — and at its expense, the Acta of the 
Synod held (or, to be held — te houden) in Brazil, whenever the 
same shall be brought over. 

This Synod takes pleasure in the resolution. It replies to 
the second, that the request of the Synod of Utrecht, as well 
as of the brethren of South Holland, who have made a similar 
request, shall be favorably made known to the several Classes; 
so that the Acta requested, when they come from Brazil, may 
be communicated to them. 

Classis of Amsterdam, 1640. 

Acts of the Deputies. 

Megapoleusis. 1640, Sept. 4th. 

It was resolved that at the next meeting discussion shall be had 
about what was comjnunicated by Megapolensis. xx. 39. 


136 Ecclesiastical Records 

John Comelisz, of Barsinger-Horn. 

1640, Oct. 15th. 

A letter was read from Eev. John Megapolensis minister at 
Koedjk, in regard to one John Cornelisse (Backer) of Barsinger 
Horn, who is disposed to let himself be employed as Siecken- 
trooster or also as minister, in the East Indies. But inasmuch 
as he has not studied, this matter is set aside, xx. 41. 

Petitions from the other Synods regarding Church affairs in 

the Indies. 

1640, Dec. 3rd. 

Tinder the 30th Article, concerning the affairs of the East 
and West Indies, the petitions of the Synods of the other Prov- 
inces shall be examined by the Classis, against the next ensuing 
Synod of ITorth Holland, iv. 217. 

John Comelisz. Backer, 
pp. 45, 52, 58, 78, [of Vol. 20.] 

1641, Eeb. 26th. 

Dr. Rudolphus reported, that Kev. John Comelisz Backer of 
Barsinger Horn — ,who had been sent hither by John Megapo- 
lensis (Senior) minister at Coedyk, and who had exercised him- 
self there two years in the Postamena of the Christian Doc- 
trine — has applied in ^vriting, to be sent to the East Indies, as 
proponent or Siecken-Trooster, as the Assembly might deter- 
mine. It was resolved that said John Cornelisse shall (present?) 
himself before us on March 25, proximo, in order then to give 

proof of his gifts (and that shall inform) his cousin, 

(or Nephew, neef,) John Cornelisse, of this arrangement. 
XX. 43. 

John Comelisz. Backer. 

pp. 43, 52, 58, 78, [of Vol. 20.] 

1641, March 25th. 
John Cornelisse Backer appeared, in accordance with the reso- 
lution of the preceding meeting. He preached a sermon on 

OF THE State of New Yoek. 137 

Eom. 3 :28, " Therefore we conclude that a man is justified 
by faith, without the deeds of the law ". He showed that he 
understood tolerably well the justification of sinful man before 
God, but when he was further questioned of un- 
ending .......... the article used, and answer was given for 

ministers should to the East Indies : it was consid- 
ered that he would have to present himself before the Classis 
again on the first Monday in May, in order to let his gifts be 
ecxhibited more fully. Then his case will be acted on according 
to the advice of Classis. xx. 45. 

(J. C. Backer.) 

1641, May 6. 

John Cornelisse Backer preached a sermon on John 3:16. 
The Assembly decided* that he had indeed some good notions, 
(reymselen), but that all his ideas were yet crude and tame; 
that he had need to study diligently, and hereafter he might 
present himself again before us. xxxix. 84. 

John Cornelisz.* Backer. (See) pages BY, 88, 84. 

1641, June 3. 

John Cornelisz. Backer presented himself in order to preach 
a sermon. He was put off, and it was announced to him that 
he must come back after two months, prepared to preach a 
sermon, xxxix. 85. 

Council Minute. Conditions under which a party of English 
people may come and settle in ISTew jSTetherland. 

[Kev. Francis Doughty. Newtown.] 

Thursday, the 6th of June, 1641. 

Whereas a good number of respectable English people with their preacher have 
petitioned for permission to settle here and live among us, asking that the condi- 
tions might be communicated to them, therefore we have resolved to send them the 
following terms: 

First they will be obliged to take the oath of allegiance to their High Might, the 
States and to the West India Company, under whose protection they are to live here. 

• The letter z, with a period sometimes after it, in the middle name, stands for 
" zoon ", " son ", and means that John Backer was the son of Cornelius Backer. 
Sometimes the father's name, with the z attached, is placed after the full name of 
the eon. 



138 Ecclesiastical Records 

a. They shall have free exercise of their religion. 

3. As to their political government, if they desire a Magistrate, they may nomi- 
nate three or four of their ablest men, from whose number the Governor of New 
Netherland will select him, who is to be their Magistrate, having final jurisdiction 
In all civil cases up to forty guilders, cases for higher amounts may be appealed to 
the Governor and Council of New Netherland and criminal jurisdiction up to (i. e. 
not including) capital punishment. 

4. They shall not build fortifications without permission. 

5. The land shall be allotted to them as their property without expense, they shall 
use It for ten years without paying taxes and at the end of these ten years they 
shall pay the tenth. 

6. They shall have free fishing and hunting and be allowed to trade subject to 
the privileges of New Netherland. 

7. They will be obliged to use the measures and weights of the Country. — Col. 
Docs. N. Y. xlii. 8. 

For Patent for Mespath or Newtown, March 28, 1642, see O'Callaghan i. 425, and 
Riker's Newtown, 17, 18. Extract: " With power ... to erect a church or 
churches; to exercise the Reformed Christian Religion, and Church discipline which 
they profess ", etc. 

See further references to Rev. Francis Doughty under date of July 28, 1649, etc. 

Synod of IToeth Holland, at Hoorn. 

1641, Aug. 13 et seq. 
Art. 29. 

In regard to Art. 30, (1640), referring to the closer cor- 
respondence with the Eev. Synods of Gelderland, South Hol- 
land, Utrecht and Overyssel, concerning church affairs in the 
East and West Indies : 

The several Classes have complied with the resolution of the 
preceding Synod, and have taken into earnest consideration the 
representations and remarks relating to this matter, as contained 
in the Acta of the Synod of South Holland, which were laid 
before the Synod at Amsterdam with, the consent of the said 
Brethren, the Correspondents. Upon this business, the advices 
of the respective Classes have l:ieen heard and collected. The 
Majority declare that it is altogether unadvisable to make any 
change, or to depart from the old footing. 

]Srevertheless, in order to satisfy the Eev. Bretliren, the Cor- 
respondents, it was agreed, that at their request, (copies of) the 

OF THE State of 'Nbw York. 139 

ecclesiastical Acta of the said East and West India Cliurches 
shall be sent to the respective Corresponding Synods. Much 
discussion ensued on this resolution, between the Rev. Synod 
and the Rev. Brethren, the Correspondents. The result was, 
that finally, their Reverences read before the Rev. Synod a 
grievance, (doleantie), wherein they complained of the said reso- 
lution, in behalf of their principals. They also declared, in ful- 
filment of their commission, that their interested principals 
would be compelled to resort to such other means as the con- 
stitution of the church, and the nature and the justice of the 
case permit. Thereupon, the Rev. Deputies of the other Synods 
were warned to guard against anything which they might under- 
take, that might be to the prejudice of this Synod. 

Art. 49. 

2. Whereas it is insufferable, that the limitations of callings 
and offices should be confused, (lit. that the boundaries should 
overlap), it is asked whether the Rev. Synod ought not to estab- 
lish a fixed nile, that no preacher, either now or hereafter, under 
any pretext vs'hatever, should intrude himself into the practice of 
Medicine ? 

Answer: The Rev. Synod (decrees) that the ministers prac- 
ticing (medicine), whether now in such practice, or about to 
undertake it, shall at once desist from such medical practice. 
And in order that the said resolution may suffer no infringement, 
the Classes and Churches belonging to this Synod are enjoined 
to give serious heed thereto, and to act with all earnestness; to 
the end that, once for all, the intent of Synod may be complied 
with. In case any of the said ministers refuse to obey the said 
resolution, the Classes and Churches shall report such trans- 
gressors to the next Synod that further provision may be made 
against this practice in the most suitable manner. The Rev. 
Deputies of Synod are also charged to be vigilant in this matter. 



140 Ecclesiastical Records 

Classis of Amsterdam. 

Acts of the Deputies. 

John Cornelis Backer, of Barsinger-Horn. 

pp. 45, 43, 58, 78. 

1641, Sept. 3rd. 

John Cornelis Backer, in accordance with the order of the Rev. 
Classis, preached a sermon before the Assembly on the words of 
Christ, Matt. 16 :18, " Thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will 
build my Church ". The Assembly found that he had improved; 
but admonished him still further diligently to apply himself. 
Another text was given him on which to preach a sermon at the 
next meeting of Classis, to wit: John 2:3, " And hereby do we 
know that we know him, if we keep his commandments ". Of all 
this report shall be made at the next Classis. xx. 52, 53. 

John Cornelisse Backer. 

pages 88, 85, 84. 

1641, Sept. 2. 

John Cornelisse Backer came before Classis aimounoing that 
he had come to preach a sermon, even as the Classis had charged 
him; but inasmuch as there was a great deal to be done, his 
request was postponed till tomorrow after the (regular Classical) 
sermons. Then he might preach his sermon before the Depu- 
ties on Indian Churches, xxxix. 87. 

1641, Oct. 7. 

The Brethren Deputies on Indian Affairs report, that they 
have heard the sermon of John Comelisz Backer on Matt. 16:18, 
and had been reasonably well satisfied therewith. They had also 
assigned him as a text 1 John 3:1, on which he was ready to 
preach before the Assembly. It was then resolved that the said 
Deputies should hear him on the morrow, and if they obtained 
good satisfaction, they should speak Avith him, to see if he could 

OF THE State of New York. 141 


let himself be employed on Curacoa. Later, a decision could be 
reached thereupon in our Assembly, as soon as convenient. 
xxxix. 88. ' 

John Corneliz Backer, pp. 52, 45, 43, 58, 78. 

. 1641, Oct. 8th. 

John Comelisz Backer, in accordance with the injunction of 
Classis, appeared before the Assembly, and preached on the 
words of 1 John 2:3. Therewith the Assembly was reasonably 
well pleased, and it was deemed advisable to advance him to the 
ministry on the Island of Curacoa, in place of Jonas Aertz. In 
regard to this the Directors of the West India Company shall be 
spoken to. xx. 58. 

John Cornelissen Backer. 

1641, Nov. 1. 

A sermon by John Comelisse Backer on Rom. 3 :1, was 
listened to. Therewith the Assembly was so greatly pleased, 
that it was resolved to proceed with his examination. This shall 
take place this afternoon to be conducted by the Rev. President 
Witten"\\Tongel. xxxix. 91. 

Two Ministers in the Classis of Alkmaar, not disinclined to sail 
to the East or West Indies. 

1641, Nov. 19th. 

John Comelis Backer informed the Assembly that he had 
learned on good authority that there were certain ministers in 
the Classis of Alkmaar, who were not adverse to making the 
journey to the East or West Indies, in this same service, if they 
could obtain good and favorable conditions. These were the 
minister at Schorel, and the minister at Koedyk.* In regard to 
them, John Corneliz Backer was told that, in the name of this 
Assembly, he should request these two ministers to come down 

• One of these ministers was John Megapolensls. 


142 Ecclesiastical Records 

to this Classis in order that fuller conference might be had with 
them about this matter. The Classis promised to do everything 
that might sei-^-e towards their advancement, xx. 62, 63. 

Acta Deputatorum ad res Exteras. 

i 1641, Nov. 19th. 

Rev. Peter Wittenwrongel in the chair. 

A communication, with some accompanying documents, was 
read, which had been sent to the Classis by the elders and deacons 
in New Netherland, (at ISTew Amsterdam.) Therein they report 
and justify the procedure of the church against Lubbert Van 
Dincklagen, the treasurer (of the Colony.) They sent to the 
Classis two commendatory testimonials concerning their pastor, 
one from the Consistory, and another from the Director. They 
desire and request that the good correspondence be maintained 
with them more promptly than had been the case for a long time 
past. They report the good condition and daily increase of their 
congregation. The Americans (Indians) come not yet to the 
right knowledge of God; but the negroes, living among the col- 
onists, come nearer thereto, and give better hope. They request 
earnestly and perseveringly that the Rev. Classis would take 
their case to heart, and support them in their action against Lub- 
bert Van Dincklagen, in order to maintain the honor of their 
worthy pastor, the Rev. Edward Bogardus. xx. 64. 

John Cornelisz. Backer. 

1641, Dec. 2. 

The Rev. President questioned John Comelisse Backer. He 
was examined in the fundamentals of the Christian Religion. 
His answers so pleased the Rev. Brethren that they will present 
him, at the proper time, to the Messrs. Directors of the West 
India Company, to be sent as minister to Curacoa. Further- 
more, he shall be ordained to the ministry by the laying on of 
hands, against the time that the ships shall depart for the said 
place, xxxix. 92. 

OF THE State of jSTew York. 143 

1642, Feb. 7. 

Agreement between Adam Roelantsen of Dockum, and John 
Teunison, Carpenter, respecting the building of a house for 
said Eoelantsen. 

John Teunison agrees to build the same of the following dimen- 
sions: In length thirty feet, in width eighteen feet, in height 
eight feet; the beams to be hewni at four sides, the house to be 
well and tight clapboarded, and roofed with substantial reeden 
thatch; the floors tight and made of clapboard; two doors, one 
entry, a pantry, a bedstead, a staircase to go to the garret; the 
upper part of the chimneys to be of wood; one mantelpiece; the 
entry to be three feet wide, with a partition. The house to be 
ready by 1st of May next. All for the sum of three hundred 
and fifty guilders (one hundred and forty dollars,) to be paid, 
by Roelantsen, one half when the timber is on the ground and 
the other half when the building is finished. — Dunshee, 17. 



1642, March 6th. 

Conditions freely assented to and accepted by Kiliaen Van 
Rensselaer, in his quality as Patroon of his Colony named Rens- 
selaerswyck, and by Dr. Johannes Megapolensis, minister of the 
Holy Gospel to the congregation at Schoorel and Berge, under 
the venerable Classis of Alkmaar, in the presence of Mr. Adam 
Bessels, copartner in the said Colony, and the Rev. Jacobus Lau- 
rentius and Petrus Wittenwi'ongel, both ministers of Amsterdam, 
as preacher to administer and promote divine service in the 
aforesaid Colony for the term of six successive years, according 
to previous dismission from his said Classis. 

First, Dr. Johannes Megapolensis, thirty nine years old, with 
his wife, Machtelt Willemsen, aged forty two years, besides his 
children, Hellegond, Dirrick, Jan, and Samuel, aged fourteen, 
twelve, ten and eight years, shall furnish and provide themselves 



144 Ecclesiastical Records 

as well with clothing, furniture, and other utensils, and these 
put up in such small and compact parcels, as can be properly- 
stowed away in the ship. 

In the meantime, as his six years and his salary shall commence 
so soon as he shall set foot in the aforesaid Colony, the Patroon, 
in addition to free board for them all in the ship, until they 
reach the Colony, shall over and above make him a present, for 
future service, at once, of three hundred guilders, without 

And in case it happen, which the Lord God in His mercy for- 
bid, that he and his family come to fall in the hands of the Dun- 
kirkers, the Patroon promises to use all diligence to procure his 
ransom; to forward him afterwards on his voyage, according as 
occasion shall again offer, and to cause to be paid him, during his 
'detention, for the support of himself and his family, forty 
guilders per month; and also so much here monthly, after he 
shall have received his liberty and orders, and shall have con- 
veyed him hither, until he embarks. 

On his arrival, by God's help, in the Colony, the Patroon shall 
cause to be shown to him where he and his shall lodge at first, 
until a fit dwelling shall be erected for him. So soon as he shall 
reach the Colony, his hereafter-mentioned salary shall commence, 
and his board and wages cease, and the Patroon be discharged 

Which salary, in order that he and his family shall be able 
honorably to maintain themselves, and not be necessitated to 
have resource to any other means, whetlier tilling the land, com- 
merce, rearing of cattle, or such like; but by the diligent per- 
formance of his duties for the edifying improvement of the inhab- 
itants and the Indians, without being indebted to any person, 
which he also acknowledges to observe; wherefore the Patroon 
promises to cause to be paid to him for the first three years 
salary, meat, drink, and whatever else he may claim in that 
regard, one thousand or ten hundred guilders yearly, one half 

OF THE State of ISTew York, 145 

here in this country, the remaining half in proper account there, 
according as he requires it, in provisions, clothing, and such like, 
at the ordinary and accustomed prices, and a further yearly addi- 
tion of thirty schepels of wheat — ■ I say thirty schepels — and 
two firkins of butter, or, in place thereof, sixty guilders in 
money's worth. Should the Patroon be satisfied with his ser- 
vice, he shall give him yearly, the three following years, an in- 
crease of two hundred guilders. 

In case of decease within the aforesaid six years, at which time 
the salary shall cease, the Patroon shall pay to his widow, besides 
the supplement of the half year in which he shall have entered, 
a yearly sum of one hundred guilders, until the expiration of the 
aforesaid six years. He shall, besides, befriend and serve the 
Patroon, in all things wherein he can do so without interfering 
with or impeding his duties. The aforesaid Johannes Mega- 
polensis having also promised to comport himself in the said 
Colony as a loyal subject and inhabitant thereof, the above named 
Patroon, on his side, also promises for him and his successors, to 
perform and execute what is herein-before set forth, and to fur- 
nish him with due acte and commission sealed with the seal of 
the Patroon and the Colony: and in acknowledgment of the 
truth, without fraud, guile, or deceit, has this writing been signed 
by both sides. In Amsterdam, this 6th of March, 1642. 

Kiliaen Van Rensselaer. 

Johannes Megapolensis. 

See also O'Callaghan's New Netherland, i. 449; Munsell's 
Annals of Albany, i. 21, 92. 

Van Rensselaer. 

1642, March l7th. 

Rev. Peter Wittenwrongel announced to the (Classical) Assem- 
bly, that Kiliaen Van Rensselaer, liaAang a colony in New Nether- 
land, made request of us to aid him in sending a minister thereto; 

that such a minister had been suggested to him, with excellent 



146 Ecclesiastical Kecoeds 

testimonials, by the name of John Megapolensis, Jr., at present 
settled in the church of Schoorel, in the Classis of Alkmaar. 
The Deputies on Indian Affairs ask, that the brethren of the 
Classis would lend their aid in these affairs. Everything was 
confirmed bv the Classis, and the further direction and execu- 
tion of the call, both with respect to the church and the Classis of 
Alkmaar, were commended to the Deputies, iv. 249. 

Acts of the Deputies. 

1642, March 18th. 

Rev. Peter Wittenwrongel in the Chair. 

Her. John Megapolensis, pastor at Schorel, by request, 
appeared in the meeting. He was asked if his Reverence were 
inclined to go as preacher to Rensselaerswyck in ISTew IS^ether- 
land. He responded that he had a great desire to do so. There- 
upon the meeting requested Mr. Rentselaer, (who, in connection 
with a few partners, is engaged in commerce at the above men- 
tioned-place), to please to come into the meeting, and confer 
with the said Rev. Mr. Megapolensis, and make arrangements 
about his salary. Having come to a good understanding con- 
cerning this, and Mr. Rentselaer having accepted him (Mega- 
polensis) in the above-mentioned capacity, the meeting resolved 
to expedite his dismissal from his church and Classis. Revs. Lau- 
rentius and Britmannus were appointed a committee to effect 
this. It was further resolved that the next meeting be held 
two weeks from date, viz. April 1st. xx. 70. 

1642, March 22nd. 
Call of Rev. Johannes Megapolensis. 

"VThereas, by the state of the navigation in East and West 
Indies, a door is opened through the special providence of God, 
also in 'New N'etherland for the preaching of the Gospel of Jesus 
Christ for the salvation of men, as good fruits have been already 
witnessed there through God's mercy; and whereas the Brethren 
of the Classis of Amsterdam have been notified that Mr. Kiliaen 

OF THE State of jSTew York. 147 

van Rensselaer hath within the said limits in the JSTorth Eiver 
as Patroon, or Lord, founded a Colony, named Rensselaerswyck, 
and would fain have the same provided with a good, honest, and 
pure preacher; therefore they have observed and fixed their eyes 
on the Reverend, Pious and TVell Learned Dr. Johannes Mega- 
polensis, Junior, a faithful servant of the Gospel of the Lord, 
in the congregation of Schorel and Berg, under the Classis of 
Alkmaar, whom ye have also called, after they had spoken vnth. 
the said Lord, Mr. Kiliaen van Rensselaer, in the same manner 
as they, with his Honor's approbation, do hereby call him to be 
sent to ISTew Ketherlaiid, there to preach God's Word in the 
said Colony, to administer the Holy Sacraments of Baptism and 
the Lord's Supper; to set an example to the congregation, in a 
christian-like manner, by public precept; to ordain elders and 
deacons according to the form of the holy Apostle Paul, 1 Tim. 
iii., v. 1; moreover to keep and govern, with the advice and 
assistance of the same, God's congregation in good discipline and 
order, all according to God's Holy Word, and in conformity with 
the government, confession, and catechism of the itTetherland 
Churches and the Synodal Acts of Dordrecht, subscribed by him, 
to this end, with his own hand, and promised in the presence of 
God, at his ordination, requesting hereby all and every who shall 
see and read these, to respect our worthy brother as a la'wfully 
called minister, and him to esteem by reason of his office, so 
that he may perform the duty of the Gospel to the advancement 
of God's Holy ISTame and the conversion of many poor blind men. 
May the Almighty God, who hath called him to this ministry, 
and instilled this good zeal in his heart, to proclaim Christ to 
christians and heathens in such distant lands, strengthen liim, 
more and more, in this his undertaking; enrich him with all sorts 
of spiritual gifts ; and bless overflowingly his faithful labors : and 
when the Chief Shepherd, Christ Jesus, shall appear, present liim 
with the imperishable Crown of Eternal Glory. Amen. 



148 Ecclesiastical Records 

Thus given in our Classical Assembly at Amsterdam, this 22nd 
day of March, 1642. Signed in the name and on behalf of the 

whole body, 

Wilhelmus Somenis, Looo Praesidis, 

Zloahar Swalmins, Scriba Classis, 

Jonas Abeels, as Elder. 

Examined and approved by the Directors of the West India 
Company, Chamber of Amsterdam, 6th June, 1642. 

(Signed) Charles Looten, 

Elias De Raet. 

See also O'Callaghan's -Nev7 Is^etherland, i. 449; Mimsell's An- 
nals of Albany, i. 21, 92. 

1642, April 1st. 

Eev. Peter Wittenwrongel in the Chair. 
The minutes of the last meeting were examined, and also the 
minutes of the Classis, in reference to Indian Affairs, to see if 
there was anything therein needing consideration, or which ought 
to be brought before the Classis. It was foimd that the Com- 
mittee ad causas were charged to inquire concerning the Spanish 
translation of the Dutch Confession of Paith. THs had been 
entrusted to their excellencies, the Directors of the West India 
Company, and the above Committee were directed to endeavor to 
obtain it from them. Eev. Mr. Wittenwrongel promised to do 
this. It was also thought proper to present or read in the next 
meeting of the Classis, extracts from the letter and documents of 
the K'ew J^etherland Consistory concerning the case of Lubbei-t 
Van Dincklagen, that that business may be discussed in a proper 
manner. It was also resolved, as certain vessels were soon to sail, 
to write letters to the East and West Indies, as well as to the 
Consistory of New Netherland with special reference to the case 
of Lubbert Van Dincklagen. xx. 71. 

OF THE State of I^ew York. 149 


Van Dincklagen. 

1642, April 7tli. 

The Rev. Meui'siiis stated that a communication had been re- 
ceived from N^ew iJ^etherland, (New Amsterdam,) coming from 
the Consistory there, and signed "by the elders and deacons. They 
request that correspondence may he maintained with them by let- 
ters. They state that they had sent over the proceedings against 
Lnbbert Dincklagen, and were very much surprised that hitherto 
no reply had been received. They request that one of (the state- 
ments?) of Everardiis Bogardns may be placed over against Lnb- 
bert Dincklagen. They hand in for this purpose a certificate (at- 
test) and extract from his Church Book, being a vindication of 
the aforesaid Everardus Bogardus. This having been discussed, 
after (the reading?) of the aforesaid missive and certificate, it was 
resolved to postpone the matter until after further examination 
of the Acta of the aforesaid Consistory, (of New Amsterdam) 
which must be sent over; and until after Dincklagen himself 
should have been heard. Meanwhile the Rev. Brethren ad causas 
Tndicas shall inform that church of our action by writing. They 
shall also investigate the whole matter ab ovo, so as to be able 
properly to inform the Classis in regard to everything, iv. 252; 

xxxix. 102. 

1642, April 8th. 

Rev. Matthias Meursius in the Chair. 

Revs. James Laurentius and Henry Britmannus report, that 
in accordance with their cojnmission they went before the Con- 
sistory at Schorel, and before the Rev. Classis of Alkmaer, and 
that they had requested and obtained the dismissal of Rev. John 
Megapolensis, pastor at Schorel. He will at the earliest oppor- 
tunity depart for ISTew N'etherland to enter upon his charge at 
the place called Rentselaerwyck. xx. 72. 



150 Ecclesiastical Recoeds 

The Classis of Amsterdam to the Consistory of K'ew Amsterdam, 

April 22, 1642. 

Reverend, Pious, Wise, Discreet and much Beloved Brethren, 

Rev. (Bogardus) and Rev of the Church of Christ 

at Manhattan in New Netherland: 

We duly received your esteemed letter which you sent us 
in September of last year (1641) with all the accompanying 
papers. We learned therefrom not only the good condition of the 
Church of Christ among you, and your hopes for the conversion 
of the Americans (the Indians) and the Negroes; but we also 
learned of your entire condition, and your acts and procedures 
against Lubbert van Dinclagen, formerly fiscal (Treasurer) there. 
Regarding the first items, we heartily rejoice, and thank the good 
God for the great grace and blessing which He bestows upon the 
proclamation of his saving Word in those strange and far distant 
lands, and that He vouchsafes a reasonable degree of prosperity 
to his church there; also that good hopes exist for the conversion 
of the jSTegroes, (jSTegrita-men). W^e beseech him as Lord of Lords 
(or Sovereig-n) of the most hardened, that it may please him to 
open also the door among the Americans (the Indians), so that 
the ministration of his Holy Word may have free course among 
them; and that those blind heathen may be delivered from the 
thick darknesses of their idolatries and the service of the devil, 
and brought to the knowledge and fear of the true God and 
Saviour, to the glory of His name and their own salvation. 

As regards the second item, touching the affair of Lubbert van 
Dincklagen : we have diligently perused your papers, and seriously 
noted the extract from your church-book in relation to his affairs; 
and also the laudatory testimony given to your minister, the Rev. 
Edwardus Bogardus. We should have immediately summoned 
the said Lubbert van Dincklagen before our Classical Assembly, 
to lay all this before him, and to hear what h6 had to say about it; 

OF THE State of New Yoke. 151 


but we were informed that he was not living in the city, (of Am- 
sterdam), but had some time ago removed his residence to 

It was therefore resolved by us to write to him, and to act fur- 
ther in the premises as might seem proper. In the meantime we, 
here, shall not fail to defend the honor of a minister, our honored 
colleague, Eev. E. Bogardus; and as occasion serves, we shall 
write further what shall be done by us in this matter. 

There is also to be sent to New ISTetherland, notwithstanding a 
verbal protest, to wit, to Rensselaerswyck, a certain minister of 
the name of John Megapolensis, who has been in the ministry in 
this country (Holland) for a long time already, (since 1634), 

with whom Eev. Bogardus and his entire Consistory 

are admonished and exhorted to hold correspondence and com- 
munion, so far at least as the circumstances and the place permit; 
and thus with united hands to proclaim the Word of the Lord 
not only among our own nationality, but also among the blind 
heathen in America. Thus will we all heartily rejoice that the 
kingdom of Christ Jesus is more widely extended there. May the 
Lord bless the labors of both these ministers abundantly, 
strengthen them by the power of the Holy Ghost, and grant that 
they may faithfully use their talents to the magnifying of His 
Holy Name, to the extension of the kingdom of our Saviour Christ, 
and to the conversion and salvation of men. 

Heremth concluding, Reverend, Pious, Wise, Discreet, and 
Much Beloved Brethren, we commend you all unitedly, and at 
the same time the Rev. Domine Bogardus, our colleague and fel- 
low-laborer in the work of the Lord, to God and the Word of His 
Grace. May He strengthen you in your respective offices and in- 
vigorate you with long continued health, to the glory of his Name, 
and to your own salvation. Amen. Dated at Amsterdam, April 
22, 1642. 

By order and in the name of the Rev. Brethren of the Classis 
of Amsterdam, the Committee thereof, etc. xxxix. 103, 104. 


152 Ecclesiastical Records 

[Names not given in the Record Book.] 

1642, April 24th. 
Eer. James Lanrentius in the Chair. 

As the vessels for the East and West Indies, and for New 
Netherland, lay ready for sailing, two letters were written, re- 
vised, signed, and despatched: one to the East Indies, and one 
to New Netherland. But the letter for the East Indies was de- 
livered a little too late; and it was deemed unnecessary at this 
time to write to the West Indies, as during the previous winter 
there had been sent thither full information concerning all the 
affairs, xx. 72. 

Case of Everardus Bogardus and Lubbertus Dincklagen. 

1642, May 5th. 

Regarding the case of Rev. Everardus Bogardus versus Lub- 
bert Dincklagen, the Rev. Deputati ad causas Indicas stated that 
they have already written to the church of New Netherland (New 
Amsterdam,) and that they have also investigated the whole mat- 
ter, so as to be able to instruct the Classis in accordance with the 
foregoing resolution, (of April 7, 1642.) But the case is post- 
poned until the arrival of the aforesaid Dincklagen, with whom 
the Rev. Deputies will then confer, after which they will make 
their report, iv. 253-4; xxxix. 104. 

Johannes Megapolensis. 

1642, June 2nd. 

Concerning the case of John Megapolensis, the Deputed 
Brethren report, that in compliance with their desire, they had 
proposed to and urged upon the Classis of Alkmaar, the dismissal 
of the aforesaid Megapolensis, ancl had also secured the same, 
iv. 258; xxxix. 107. 

OF THE State of New Yoek. 153 

Memorandum for Dominie Johannes Megapolensls, this 3rd June, 1642, proceeding 
to the Colonle by the ship De Houttuyn, skipper Adrlaen Dlrcksen Houttuyn. 

From the Rensselaerswyck MSS. — His Reverence -will be pleased to take charge 
of my people and property, which are at present conveyed over In God's name, In 
the ship De Houttuyn. The persons going over will be these: — 

Do. Johannes Megapolensls, Jeurlach Bestvaell, van Lr.ydendorp, 

Matheld Willemsen, his wife, Claes Jansen, van TVaalwyck, 
Hellegond, Dirrick, John, and N. Brabant, 

Samuel, his children, Paulus Jansen, van Geertruydenburg, do. 

Abraham Staes, surgeon, Hans Vos van Baden. 

his servant, Juriaen van Sleswyck, N. Brabant, 

Evert Pels, beer-brewer, Hendrlck Albertsen van Wuden, 

his wife, 29 years old, 

his man, Gertrude Dries, his wife ~j 
Cornells Lamberssen, van Doom, 23 years old, I From 

Utrecht, farm servant, Hendrlck, Dries, her bro | Driesburg. 
Jochim Kettelhuer, van Cremyn, ther, 21 years, J 

Johan Helms, van Barltt, N. Brabant, 
Johan Carsterssen, van Barltt, 

N. Brabant, 

It Is to be remembered that this Hendrlck Albertz, for his three; Abraham Staes, 
for his two; Evert Pels, for his three, must pay the skipper Adrlaen Dlrcksen for 
their board, in the same manner as all the other freemen. But the farm servants 
are to come at my expense. 

N. B. The book-keeper in the colonle shall usually observe that the expense of 
the board of the freemen must be charged to their account, as Director Kleft some- 
times places it under one head, altogether to the charge of the Patroon. 

He shall take care that these persons embarked on shipboard, and having arrived, 
by God's help, at the Manhattans, where the Noble Director Kleft resides, obtain 
that they, and my goods, be forwarded to the colonle by the first opportunity, and 
provided with food at my expense, and according to my cordial salutations to the 
Honorable Director Kleft, which shall be followed. 

On the arrival of these persons at the colonle, they shall present themselves first 
to the Commissary Arendt van Curler, to be by him registered, and allotted their 
work, by and with the advice of the officer Adrlaen van der Donck, who, if eo be 
he should have occasion for the services of the two Bredaeise young men, may keep 
them by him. Otherwise they are there on my account for closer examination. 

Herry Albertzen, who hath equally come home before his time, has allowed me 
one guilder per hide for recognition, according to contract made with him. Then 
concerning the amount of tobacco over the tenths, (which he hath consented to,) I 
have not been able to agree with him. He has been treating with me for the place 
of ferry-man, fixing his dwelling by the Beavers Creek, in order to convey the 
people to the church neighborhood, (Kerckebuyrte.) and back again from thence. 
As the church, the minister's house, that of the officer, and, moreover, of all the 
trades-people, (ambachten,) must henceforward be established there, as Abraham 
Staes and Evert Pels, the brewer, have undertaken, I am entirely willing, and con- 
sent that, with the exception of the farmers and tobacco-planters, who must reside 


154 Ecclesiastical Records 

at their farms and plantations, no other tradesman, henceforward and after the 
expiration of their service, shall establish themselves elsewhere than in the church 
vicinage, in the order and according to the plan of building sent herewith; for every 
one residing where he thinks fit, separated far from others, would be, uafortu- 
nately, in danger of their lives, in the same manner as sorrowful experience has 
taught, around the Manhattans, of all which the commissary, Arendt van Curler, 
shall give notice to all persons, being called together, so that they may regulate 
themselves accordingly. — O'Callaghan's History of New Netherland, Vol. i, 451, 452. 

June 6, 1642. 

Agreement between Kiliaen van Rensselaer and the Directors 
of the West India Company, relative to the approval of the call of 
Rev. Mr. Megapolensis. 

Whereas, differences have occurred between the Directors of 
the Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Company and Eliliaen. 
van Rensselaer, Patroon of his Colony named Rensselaerswyck, 
in New Netherland, as to the approval of the Acte of Commis- 
sion granted by the Classis of Amsterdam to Domine Joannes 
Megapolensis to be invested with the office of preacher in the 
aforesaid Colony of Rensselaerswyck in ISTew Netherland, and as 
the ship wherein the said minister must depart lies ready to sail, 
60 that periculmn in mora est of injuring the said voyage — 
Therefore, the aforesaid Kiliaen van Rensselaer consents that the 
said Directors shall affix their approbation to the aforesaid Acte 
of Commission, under express protest that he, Rensselaer, shall 
not be prejudiced in his right, but the parties on either side shall 
remain unprejudiced in their present rights. In witness whereof, 
the Directors and Kiliaen van Rensselaer have granted and signed 
this present Acte at Amsterdam, this 6th June, XVI hundred 
two and forty. 

Signed respectively, 

Charles Looten, 
Elias De Raet. 

See also O'Callaghan's New Netherland, i. 449; Munsell's An- 
nals of Albany, i. 21, 92. 

OF THE State of I^ew York. 155 


Catalogue of Books which are sent for the Library In Rensselaerswyck, to be for- 
warded there. 

IN folio. 

1. Biblia Graeca, 

2. Concordantia Bibliorum, 

3. Opera Calvini, 8 torn. 

4. Opera Ursinii, 

5. Polyanthea Langii et Gruteri: torn 2. 

6. Titus Llvius, 

7. Cursus Philosoph. Roderlci de Arriag, 

8. Theatrum Terrae Sanctae Christiani 



1. Adrianl Metii Primum Mobile, 

2. Adrianl Metii Arithmet., 

3. Theologia Naturalis Alstedii, 

4. Manuale Conciouum, Did. Alrares, 

5. Animadversiones in 4 Evang. Lud: de 


6. Thesaurus OBconomiae, J. Casi, 

7. Petri Rami Arithm. et Geom., 

8. Distinct. Philos. et Theolog. Casta- 


9. Theologia didactica Alstedii. 


No remarks necessary on 1, 2, and 3. 

4. Urslnius, (probably Zachary.) the friend of Melancthon and of Sir Philip Sidney. 
Horn in Silesia, in 1534; died, 1583. (Chalmers' General Biographical Dictionary.) 

5. John Gruter, (in Latin, Janus Gruterus,) born at Antwerp, 1560; died, 1627. He 
edited the Polyanthea of Langius. (Biographic Universelle.) 


7. Arriaga, (Roderic de.) A learned Jesuit, native of Castile. Born, 1592; died, 
1667. Chancellor of the University of Prague; published, in 1632, a Course of 
Philosophy, In one volume. Folio. (Ibid.) 

8. Christian, Andrichonius, a geographer of considerable reputation, born at Delft, 
In Holland, 1533; died, 1585. The work for which he is best known is Terrae 
Sanctae Theatrum et Biblicarum Historiarum, or History of the Holy Laud, illus- 
trated by maps. It passed through a number of editions in folio, from 1590 to 
1682. (Watt's Bibliotheca Britannica.) 


1, 2. Adrian Metius, an able Dutch Geometrician, born at Alkmar, in 1571; died, 
1635. His "Treatise on Arithmetic" was published in 1611, in quarto. " I'rimum 
Mobile astronomice, sciographice, Geometrice, et hydrographice novi methodo expli- 
catum." Amsterdam: Quarto: 1631. (Biographic Universelle.) 

3, 9. Alstedius. born at Herborn, county of Nassau, where he became Professor 
of Philosophy and Theology. He then went as professor to Weissenburg, in Tran- 
sylvania, where he died in 1638. He was a member of the Synod of Dort. A 
most indefatigable writer. (Ibid.) Alstedius " Theologia Naturalis " was published 


156 Ecclesiastical Records 

in 1615 and In 1662 In quarto. (Biographical Dictionary of the Society for the dif- 
fusion of Useful Knowledge, vol. 2.) 

4. Dldacns (Diego) Alvarez. There vrere two of this name. One a Spanish Do- 
minican, Archbishop of Trasii, died in 1635; the other a Spanish Jesuit, died 1617. 
I cannot find the above work among the list of their writings. 

5. Lewis de Dieu; Protestant Professor in the Walloon College at Flushing. Born, 
1590; died, 1642. His work entitled "Animadversiones in quatuor Evangelia," was 
published at Leyden, in quarto, in 1631. (Biog. Universelle.) 

6. Case, John, M. D., an eminent Physician and Philosopher of Oxford; born at 
Woodstock, Bng. ; died, 1600. He published a number of works, among which is 
Thesaurus CEconomiae, seu Commentarius in CT>onomia Aristotelis; Oxon. 1597, 
1598; Hanov. 1598; 8vo. There is a monument to his memory in St. John's College. 
(Watt; also Biog. Diet.) 

7. Peter Ramus, a celebrated French Mathematician, born 1515; died, 1572. Pub- 
lished "Arithmetica, Graeca et Latina," at Paris, quarto, 1555; " Geometria," at 
Basle, quarto, 1596. (Watt.) 

8. Henry Lewis Castaneus published a work entitled " Celebriorum distinctionum 
tum Philosophicorum et Theologicorum Synopsis." (Watt.) — O'Callaghan's History 
of New Netherland, Vol. i. 454, 455. 

Classis OF Amsterdam. 

Acts of the Deputies. 

John Cornelisz Backer. 
43, 45, 52, 58. 

1642, July 21st. 

Whereas John Cornelisz Backer has earnestly requested cer- 
tain of the Brethren, Deputies ad Causas, that his case should 
be pushed with all seriousness with the Messrs. Directors of the 
"West India Company, that he may sail as minister to Curacoa 
at the earliest opportunity, as was promised him by the Classis: 
therefore it was resolved, that to-morrow the Messrs. Directors 
shall be addressed about this matter, in order to advance it as 
much as possible, xx. 78. 

Arrival of Megapolensis. 

The Rev. Johannes Megapolensls, " the pious and well-learned minister of th? 
congregation of Schoorei and Berge," under the Classis of Alkmaer, was duly called 
to disseminate the light of the gospel among the Christians and heathen in the 
colonic, and regularly commissioned " to preach God's Word there; to administer 
the holy sacraments of baptism and the Lord's Supper; to set an example. In a 
Chrlstlan-llke manner, by public precept; to ordain elders and deacons; to keep 
and govern, by and with the advice and assistance of the same, God's congregation 
In good discipline and order, all according to God's Holy Word, and in conformity 

OF THE State of ISTew York. 157 

with the government, confession, and catechism of the Netherland churches, and 
the synodal acts of Dordrecht."* 

The allowance guaranteed to this clergyman was free passage on board for him- 
self, his wife and four children, who accompanied him to New Netherland; an 
outfit of three hundred guilders, or one hundred and twenty dollars, and an annual 
stipend, for the first three years, of eleven hundred guilders, (four hundred and 
forty dollars,) thirty schepels of wheat and two firkins of butter, or In place 
thereof, should he prefer it, sixty guilders in cash. This salary was to be further 
Increased by an addition of two hundred guilders a year, for the second term of 
three years, if the Patroon were satisfied with his services. A pension of one hun- 
dred guilders per annum was secured to his wife, in case of his demise within the 
above term, for and during whatever time might remain unexpired of his engage 

These preliminaries having been thus arranged, an obstacle was unexpectedly 
thrown in the way of Mr. Megapolensis' departure by the Directors of the West 
India Company, who claimed the exclusive right to approve of his appointment. To 
this, however, the feudal lord of Rensselaerswyck demurred; and it was not until 
after a lapse of several months that a compromise was agreed to, the Directors 
approving of the appointment under protest on the part of Mr. Van Rensselaer, 
saving his right as Patroon. 

The Rev. Mr. Megapolensis and family embarked, together with Abraham Staes, 
surgeon. Evert Pels, a brewer, and a number of other freemen, farmers, and farm- 
servants, shortly after this, in the ship the Houttuyn, or Woodyard, which was 
freighted with a quantity of goods for the Colonie — between two and three hun 
dred bushels of malt for Mr. Pels — four thousand tiles, and thirty thousand stone 
for building — besides some vines and madder, the cultivation of which the Patroon 
was desirous of introducing among his people. On the arrival of Mr. Megapolensis 
at Rensselaerwyck, a contract was concluded for the erection of a dwelling for 
himself and family, but the contractor having failed in fulfilling his agreement, a 
house belonging to Maryn Adriaensen, constructed entirely of oak, was subsequently 
purchased for h\h use, for the sum of three hundred guilders, or one hundred and 
twenty dollars. 

A church, thirty-four feet long, and nineteen feet wide — the first In this quarter 
— was erected in the course of the following year. Though humble In its dimen- 
sions, when compared with modern edifices of a similar sacred character, it was 
considered, at this time, sutficiently ample for the accommodation of the faithful, 
" for the next three or four years, after which it might be converted into a school- 
house, or a dwelling for the sexton." A pulpit, ornamented with a canopy, was 
Boon added for the preacher, as well as pews for the magistrates and for the dea- 
cons, and " nine benches " for the congregation. The expense of all this neces- 
sary furniture amounted to the sum of thirty-two dollars. While providing accom- 
modation for the living, the dead were not forgotten. The " church-yard " lay In 
the rear, or to the west, of the Patroou's trading-house — In what is now very 
correctly called " Church " street: and in order " to be safe from the ravages of 
the Indians," the Infant hamlet, living and dead, nestled close under the guns of 
Port Orange, t 

* This gentleman was the sou of the Rev. Johannes Megapolensis. minister of 
Coedyck In Holland, and of Hellegond Jansen. He married his cousin Machteld Wll- 
lemsen, daughter of William Steengs, or Heengs, who was his senior by three 
years. See Appendix J; also Alb. Rec. v., 323. 339. 

t The date of the erection of the above church is taken from Van Curler's letter 
to the Patroon, dated June. 1643, which will be found translated in part, under 
that date. Kieft, when proposing, in 1642, to erect a church in New Amsterdam, 


158 Ecclesiastical Records 

Synod of Nokth Holland, at Enckhuyzen. 

1642, Aug. 12 et seq. 
. Art. 34, East and AVest Indies. 

In reference to Art. 29, (1641), the Deputati reported, that 
certain Deputies from the S;)Tiods of Gelderland, South Hol- 
land, Utrecht and Overyssel, handed in to their High Mighti- 
nesses a doleantie, in which they complain that the Synod of 
North Holland arrogates to itself the care and supervision of 
the churches in the East and West Indies; and that such care 
ought to be common to all the churches of the United Provinces. 
At the same time they request that matters should be so ar- 
ranged, that upon the granting of ISTew Charters (to the East 
India Company and to the "West India Company) a casus corre- 
spondentiam might be decreed, consisting of Deputies from the 
Synods of all the United Provinces; that these should have 
charge of eveiything necessary for the welfare of the East and 
West India churches. Their Honors, however, have given such 
instructions to the Eev. Synod of South Holland, that the same 
has agreed to (hold) a conference between our (and) their Depu- 
ties, in the presence of the corresponding brethren. Finally 
the f ollo-wdng proposition was submitted : 

To prevent all estrangement and dissensions which would nec- 
essarily arise between the respective Synods, so is it, that the 

referred to the then contemplated erection of this church in Rensselaerswycli. That 
it was erected in 1643. is evident from Megapolensis' tract on the Maquaas, pub- 
lished in 1644, in which allusion is made to it. The expense of the pulpit, pews, 
etc., is taken from the " Groet Boek der Colonie Rensselaerswyck," anno 1645-6, p. 
56, in which we find to the credit of " Willem Fredericksz " the following entry: — 
" Voor dat hy in de kerck heeft gemaakt een Predickstool, het verwulf, een 
voor de overicheyt, een ditto voor de Diaconie, een cosyn met 2 lichten, een kruys 
cosyn dieht gemaackt, en daerin een kusje, een hoeckjo nevens de stool, met een 
banck in een wlnckelhaeek, en 9 bancken, te saemen voor. SO fl." This church was 
Bufflciently wealthy in 1647, (May 29,) to loan two hundred guilders to the Patroon, ■ 
for which the Diaconie, or deacons, received the obligation of the colonial court, 
payable in one year after date, at ten per cent. See account-book F. Rensselaers- 
wyck MSS.; also the obligation itself in the Gerechtsrolle. A new " stoop," or steps, 
was added in 1651, to the front of the above building, which accommodated the 
faithful until 1656, when a second church was erected at the junction of what are 
now State and Market streets. In 1715, a new church was erected on the latter 
site, including within its walls that of 1656. The church of 1715 was finally pulled 
down in 1806.— O'Callaghan's History of New Netherland, Vol. I. 328-331. 

OF THE State of I^ew York. 159 

charge of, or the correspondence with, the churches in the East 
and West Indies shall be maintained by, and left to, all the 
respective churches. Classes, and SjTiods, within whose bounds 
there are Chambers (of the Companies). They shall carefully 
see to it, that the churches in those far distant regions shall 
abide by the same doctrine of the truth, and ecclesiastical order 
and government as the churches of this land; and until such time 
and occasion as shall otherwise be determined at a National 
Coetus on the subject, and to the mutual satisfaction of the re- 
spective Synods, these following matters are provisionally sub- 
mitted and accepted: First: That all the churches and Classes 
where the Chambers are located, shall annually make a full 
(pertinent) report in their Synods of the state of the churches 
in the East and West Indies; what ministers and Ziekentroosters 
have been sent thither; and that a summary thereof shall be in- 
serted in the Actis Synodibus, and this brought to the knowl- 
edge of all the Synods of our land. 

2. That the Correspondents shall, at their own expense, take 
with them copies of the Classical Acta, and of all other letters 
and documents which are of any pertinence to these matters. 

3. That whenever any notable difficulties arise in these Indian 
Churches, touching Doctrine or Order, and which can not well 
be acted on in any one particular Classis or Synod, that then 
such difficulties shall be communicated to the several Synods of 
these lands, in order to obtain also their decisions thereon; and 
in case the matter did not permit any further delay, then the 
facts should be made kno^vn to the Revs. Deputies of the sev- 
eral Synods. 

4. So, also, whenever any individuals from the Classes or 
Synods where there are no Chambers (of the Companies) might 
be inclined to serve the church of God in the East and West 
Indies; such shall address themselves to some Classes or Synod 
where there are such Chambers, and if they are provided with 



lt30 Ecclesiastical Records 

proper certificates as to doctrine and life, caeteris paribus, they 
shall always be held in good recommendation. 

This proposition the Eev. Synod of South Holland has ac- 
cepted provisionally, and the Eev. Brethren, the Correspondents, 
have promised to make it known to their respective Synods. On 
this occasion was also read a certain writing from the Classis 
of Walcheren, (in Zeeland), addressed to this Synod; they have 
also sent over their remarks on the abovementioned doleantie, 
(complaint) which were submitted to their High Mightinesses. 
In these they argue against tliis matter at great length, and 
request that these their remarks may be read at this SjTiod, and 
be properly considered; also that they may be informed as to 
what shall be resolved on in regard to this new proposition of 
the aggrieved Synods, as to the care of the churches of the East 
and West Indies. Thereupon their remarks were read to the 
Assembly. These having been listened to, some of the Rev. 
Brethren, the Correspondents, manifested their displeasure at 
such manner of ^vriting, and requested a copy. 

The Synod after looking into and considering everything well, 
in the first place, accepted the aforesaid proposition, drawn up 
at the last Synod of South Holland, at Gorkum. 

2. They thought that the giving of a copy of that paper from 
Walcheren (Chamber at Middleburg on the Island of Walcheren) 
might easily cause some unpleasantness, and retard the accept- 
ance of the said proposition by the other aggi'ieved Synods. There- 
fore the Rev. Brethren, the Correspondents, were requested, in 
the interest of peace, to relinquish the demand for a copy; es- 
pecially, as the letter from the Classis of Walcheren plainly 
indicates that the oft mentioned proposition was not kno\vn to 
them at the time; otherwise they doubtless would not have sent 
their objections. 

3. That the President of the Deputies, Wittewrongel, shall 
thank the Rev. Classis of Walcheren for the good correspond- 
ence maintained in this instance, and let them know in what 

OP THE State of ^ew York. • 161 

state this case is now; also that while recognizing their object 
as good, the Rev. Synod, nevertheless, could have wished that 
they had employed a somewhat gentler and less offensive man- 
ner of writing; especially, as the Rev. Brethren, the Correspond- 
ents had shown no little displeasure at the same. The Depiit^ti 
were also thanked for their diligence and faithful care.* 

Classis of Amsterdam. 

Acts of the Deputies. 

John Jansen Smeet — John Cornelius Backer. 

1642, August 19th. 

The Rev. Jacob (James) Laurentius, and Matthias Meursius, 
reported, that according to their commission, they had been be- 
fore the meeting of the Directors of the West India Company, 
and had presented before them the name of John Jansen Smeet 
as Krankbezoeker, making mention at the same time of the 
meagerness of his knowledge of writing, and also of their doubt 
whether indeed heretofore he acted as schoolmaster in Brazil, 
as he said. Whereupon the Messrs. Directors aforesaid, taking- 
no account of these objections, accepted him in the said capacity. 
They did also at the same time speak with the said Directors 
about the case of John Cornelius Backer. The Classis long ago 
resolved to advance him as minister to Curacoa, and then re- 
quested their Honors that, if it were possible, they would for- 
ward him thither as soon as convenient, inasmuch as he was 
getting distressed by the long delay and the consumption of his 
means. They answered, that for the present, they saw no op- 
portunity of sending him thither, as no ship would sail for Cura- 
coa for a long time. They added that a resolution had been 
adopted by the Assembly of the Nineteen that they would ac- 

• Zeeland stood by North and South Holland, because there were Chambers of 
the Companies also In Zeeland. There were no Chambers of the East India Com- 
pany In the bounds of the complaining Synods. The West India Company had a 
Chamber in the bounds of the Synod of Friesland only, besides those in Holland 
and Zoelaud. 



162 • Ecclesiastical Recokds 

ccpt no more as ministers in their service. But Lav- 
ing reflected further on this matter, a few days later they let 
some of the Brethren of the Committee (the Deputies) know 
that their Honors, through some of their Committee, would once 
more enter into negotiations with us in this matter. 'i'liey 
wished to in(juire what was best to be done for the satisfaction 
and solace of the said person. For long before that resolution 
of the Company, he was examined by the Classis with the knowl- 
edge and approval of their Honors. Their request was accepted 
by the Brethren, xx. 84, 85. 

John Cornelisz Backer. 

* 1642, Sept. 22nd. 

Appeared at the meeting, John Cornelisz Backer. He said 
tli.'it lie li:ul spoken with some of the Directors of the West 
India Company, and had understood that their Honors had dis- 
cussed the question whether they should remove their people 
from Curacoa and abandon the island, or whether they should 
still keep it. In case they should wish to keep their {xjople 
there, thou that they would send him thither as minister. He 
requested that the Assembly would please to assist him in this 
matter as much as possible. It was now a long time since he 
was examined. The Assembly resolves to await the action of 
the Directors as to the Island of Curacoa, in order to act properly. 

At this same time the Bev. Laurentius and Swalmius told of 
a conversation with some of the Directors, in reference to said 
John Cornelius Backer, as is indicated on page 84; that, finally, 
the Directors presented him for his solace and satisfaction in 
one sum, one hundred Ryks-dollars ($100.) They also promised 
him, in addition, that in case he should not go as minister to 
Curacoa, they would ctnploy liim in tliat capacity on some other 
good opportunity, either in (Juinea or at Angola, or at some 
other place, only excepting Brazil. Thereupon the said John Cor- 
nelisz answered their Honors that he would consider their offer. 
The matter for the present remains in this condition, xx. 92. 

OF THE State of IvTew York. 163 

John Cornelisz Backer. 

1642, Oct. 16th. 

The Assembly has understood that the Directors of the West. 
India Company, at their General Meeting of the Nineteen, had 
decided to maintain the Island of Curacoa and their people on 
it; that thereupon they had accepted John Cornelisz Backer 
to serve there as minister. To this end John Cornelisz Backer 
was ordained by the laying on of hands to that same service, 
and his Instructions were given him to take with him upon 
his intended voyage, xx. 94. 

Affairs of the Brethren in Zeeland. , 

1642, Oct. 16th. ^ 
There shall be communicated to — "The Committee of the 
Classis of Zeeland* on the ecclesiastical affairs in the West 
Indies " — what our Classis has decided on, in regard to the mat- 
ters which were discussed by us and by them, in reference to 
the Acta of the Classis of Brazil. Of these mention is made pp. 
80, 89, and 93. xx. 96. 

To write to Brazil. 

1642, Oct. 16th. 
At this time a letter shall also be written to the churches 
of Brazil, both in regard to the observations on the affairs pre- 
viously related, in the Acts of their Classis; as also concerning 
the Brazilian pamphlet by Rev. David a Doreslaer, (?) and some 
other matters; in reply to their letters sent at various times to 
our Classis. xx. 96. 

The Church in the Fort. 

The church erected by Director Vnn Twlller, had. by this time, shared the fate 
common to all the public bnli.linps constructed during his administration, and was 
now In such a state of dilapidation, that It was considered nothing better than "a 
mean barn ". The necessity of a new church was admitted by the Director and 
council so far back as 1640; when, with a view to supply the fund s requisite to 

• There was no Synod of Zeeland, but only a Classis. 



164 -Ecclesiastical Records 

defray the expenses of a new building, a portion of the fines imposed l)y the court 
of justice was appropriated to that purpose. But nothing practical eventuated 
from this arrangement. The accommodation continued to be of the most wretched 
description, when Captain Darld De Vries urged the matter anew on the consider- 
ation of the Director General. " It was a shame," he said, " that the English 
should see, when they passed, nothing but a mean barn In which public worship 
was performed. The first thing they did in New England, when they raised some 
dwellings, was, on the contrary, to build a fine church. We ought to do the same,'" 
he continued; " we had good materials, fine oak wood, fine building stone, good 
lime made from oyster shells, which was better than the lime in Holland." This 
reasoning, backed by the intelligence that the colonists of Rensselaerswyck had it 
In contemplation to raise a church also, had considerable weight with Director 
Kieft. He seemed desirous to leave behind him a monument to perpetuate the 
memory of his zeal for religion, and forthwith inquired who should superintend the 
good work. There were not wanting " friends of the Reformed Religion." Joachim 
Pletersen Kuyter, " who was a good Calvinist, and had a good sett of hands," was 
elected deacon, and with Jan Dam, Captain De Vries, and Director Kieft, " formed 
the first consistory to superintend the erection of the projected church." 

These points having been arranged, the next question to be decided was. the site 
of the building. It was ordered to be erected within the fort. But this was looked 
upon in the light of " a fifth wheel to a coach," and excited considerable opposition 
among the commonalty, who represented that the fort was already " very small," 
and that it stood on the point, or extremity of the island, whereas a more central 
position ought to be selected for the accommodation of the faithful generally. It 
was, moreover, particularly urged that the erection of a church within the fort, 
would prevent the southeast wind reaching the grist-mill which stood thereabout, 
and thus cause the people to suffer, especially in summer, through want of bread.* 

These objections were, however, overruled. It was with justice remarked that 
the building would be more safe from the attacks of the Indians, within than with- 
out the fort. As to its being an impediment to the working of the wind-mill, it 
was remarked that the walls of the fort then impeded the action of the southeast 
wind on the mill, and prevented its working even before the erection of the church.* 

Nought, therefore, now remained but to find ways and means to defray the neces- 
sary expenses. Director Kieft promised to advance a few thousand guilders from 
the public chest. The remainder was to be raised by private subscription. 

It happened about this time that the daughter of the Rev. Mr. Bogardus was 
being married. This was considered a favorable opportunity for raising the re- 
quired subscription. So when the wedding party was in the height of good humor, 
and mellow with the host's good cheer, the Director General called on the guests 
to subscribe. The disposition to be generous was not wanting at such a time. Each 
guest emulated his neighbor, and a handsome list was made out. When the morn- 
ing came, a few were found desirous of reconsidering the transactions of the wed- 

* Men spraake, dan, van de plaatse waerse staende sonde. De Directeur wllde en 
oordeelde datse in het fort staen moest, daerse oock tegens wll en dank van de 
andere geset Is; en immers soo wel past als het vyffde wlel aen een wagen; want 
behalve dat hot fort cleyn is, op een punct leyt, dat meer importeren sonde in 
cas van populatie. De Kercke die de gemeente, diese becostlght hebben, eygen 
behoort te wcsen, soo breeckse en beneemt den zuytooston wint aen de koren-molen, 
die daeromtrcnt staet; het welcke een mede oorsaek Is, dat men des zomers dick- 
wils by gebreek van maalen sondcr broot is Van der Donk. 

Eer de kercke gebouwt was, oonde de coornniolon met een zuyt oosten wint niet 
malen, doordleu de wint door de wallen van't fort sestut wiert. — Van Tieuhoven's 
Answer to Van der Donck. 

H H 



55 ^ 

OF THE State of New York. 165 

ding feast. But Director Kieft would allow no such second thought. They must 
all pay without exception.* 

He entered, as churchmaster, into a contract, forthwith, for the mason-worli, 
with John and Richard Ogden, of Stamford, who engaged to build a church of 
rock-stone, seventy two feet long, fifty two feet broad, and sixteen feet over the 
ground, in a good and workmanlike manner, for the sum of two thousand five hun- 
dred guilders, equal to one thousand dollars. The churchmasters were to furnish 
the lime; to transport the stone from the river side to the spot where the building 
was to be erected; and to allow the use of the company's boat to the contractors, 
who were to receive also a douceur of one hundred guilders, equal to forty dollars, 
should the work be finished to the satisfaction of the employers. t 

With such energy now was the work pushed forward, that the walls soon rose 
to their proper height, and the shingle roof soon followed. To commemorate the 
zeal both of the Director General and the commonalty on this occasion, a marble 
slab was placed conspicuously in front of the building, with the following Inscription 

engraved thereon: — 

Anno 1642; 

willem kieft, DIRECTEUR-GBNERAEL; 
" heeft de gemeente desen Tempel doen bouwen." § 

1642. The old church had now become dilapidated; and De Vries, dining with 
Kieft, told him it was a shame that the English, when they visited Manhattan, 

• De Directeur hadde dan besloten een kerck te doen timmeren, en dat ter plaetse 
daer het hem goot docht. Het man queert hem aan de penningen; en waer die te 
becomen? Het gebeurde om desen tyt, dat den Predikant Everardus Rogardus 
eene vrouwvoordochter bestede. Dese gelegeutheyd oordeelde de Directeur een 
bequame tyt tot zyn voornemen te wesen, dat hy, naer den vierden off vytt'deu 
dronck oock in 't werck stelde, en hy selffs met een goet exempel voorgaende, Het 
de bruy-looffsgusten teyckenen, watse tot de kerckgeven wilde. Ider, dan, met een 
lichthooffd, teyckende ryckelick wech, de een tegcn de ander; en hoewel het 
eenige wel beroude, doen de sinnenweder 't buys quamen, sy moesten even wel 
betalen, daer viel niet tegen. — Van der Donok. 

t The following is a copy of the contract: — "Appeared before me Cornells van 
Tienhoven, secretary in behalf of the General Privileged West iftdia Company, In 
New Netherlands, the Honorable Wm. Kieft, Churchmaster, at the request of his 
brethren, the Churchmasters of the Church in New Netherlands, to transact, and 
ill their name to conclude the following busiuess; So did he, as Churchmaster, agree 
with John Ogden, about a church in the following manner: — John Ogden of Stam- 
ford, and Richard Ogden, engaged to l)uild, in behalf of said Churchmasters, a church 
of rock-sioue, seventy two feet long, fifty feet broad, and sixteen feet high, above the 
soil, all in good order, and in workmanlike manner. They shall be obliged to procure 
the stone, and bring it on shore near the fort at their own expense, from whence 
the Churchmasters shall further convey the stone to the place where it is 
intended to build the church, at their own expense. The Churchmasters afore- 
said will procure as much lime as shall be re(iuired for the building of the afore- 
said church. John and Richard Ogden shall at their own charge pay for the 
masonry, etc., provided, that when the work shall be finished, the Churchmasters 
shall pay to them the sum of two thousand five hundred guilders, which payment 
shall be made in beaver, cash, or merchandise, to wit: — if the Churchmasters are 
satisfied with the work, so that in their judgment the two thousand five hundred 
guilders shall have been earned, then the said Churchmasters shall reward them 
with one hundred guilders more; and the further promise to John and Richard 
Ogden to assist them whenever it is In their power. They further agree to facili- 
tate the carrying the stone thither, and that John and Richard Ogden may UBei 
during a month or six weeks the company's boat; engaging themselves and the 
aforesaid John and Richard Ogden, to finish the undertaken work In the manner 
they contracted. Done in Fort Amsterdam, in New Netherlands. (Signed) Willem 
Kieft, John Ogden, Richard Ogden, Gysbert op Dyck, Thimas Willett." — Alb. Rec. 
Hi., 31 These Ogdens are the ancestors of the present families of that name in 
New York, New Jersey, etc. 

§ "Anno 1642, William Kieft, Director-general; hath the Commonalty caused this 
Temple to be built."— Van der Donck. Judge Benson, writing in 1817, says that 
when the fort was taken down " a few years since," the marble slab, above alluded 



166 Ecclesiastical Records 

" saw only a mean barn in which we preached ". " The first thing they built In New 
England after their dwelling houses, was a fine church; we should do the like ", 
urged De Vries; " we have fine oak wood, good mountain stone, and excellent lime, 
which we burn from oyster shells — much better than our lime in Holland *'. De 
Vries immediately subscribed one hundred guilders. The Director agreed to advance 
" some thousand guilders " on the West India Company's account. For security 
against the Indians the church was ordered to be erected within the Fort. At the 
wedding of Domine Bogardus' daughter about that time, the Director secured lib- 
eral subscriptions. A stone building was erected 72x50 feet, and 16 feet high, at a 
cost of twenty five hundred guilders. The honor and the ownership of the work 
were both commemorated by a square stone inserted in the front wall bearing the 
inscription "A. D. 1642. William Kieft, Director-General, hath the commonalty 
caused to build this Temple ". When the foundation of the Fort was dug away in 
1790 this stone was found. It was removed to the belfry of the church in Garden 
Street, where it remained till both were destroyed in the great fire of December 
1835.— Brodhead i. 335-337. See document under July 28, 1649. 

The Jesuits in New Yokk, 1642-3. 

The Jesuits commenced their labors in Canada a little later than the Dutch 
settled in New York. The first Jesuit Missionary who entered within the borders 
of the State of New York was Father Isaac Jogues. He was also the first priest 
who visited Manhattan Island. He was captured by the Mohawks in 1642 and 
treated with great cruelty. He was beaten with clubs and stones; all his finger 
nails pulled out, and the fore-finger of each hand gnawed by the savages. They 
Journeyed five weeks to reach Central New York, Jogues and the other prisoners 
being obliged to carry the baggage of their persecutors. Here Father Jogues had 
the thumb of his right hand cut off by an Indian woman, at her chieftain's com- 
mand, although she was a Christian. Now also Rene Goupil, a lay brother, who 
accompanied Jogues, was killed by the blow of a hatchet. 

Father Jogues was at length permitted a little more freedom, and he instructed 
some Indians in-the faith and baptized some dying children. He afterward escaped 
to the Dutch at Fort Orange, who protected him against the wrath of the Indians, 
and finally paid them one hundred pieces of gold for his ransom. This was sub- 
sequently remitted to them from France. Domine Megapolensis secreted him until 
he went to New Amsterdam. Gov. Kieft kindly received him, and gave him clothes 
and lodged him in the Fort. He afterward wrote a description of New Nether- 
land. He sailed for France and was received with great honor. He returned to 
Canada in 1646, and returned to Central New York and was killed by the Mohawks. 
— Bayley's Hist. Catholic Church, 13-15. 

Van Curler's efforts to rescue Father Jogues. Rescue of Father Bressani, 1642-1644. 

Van Curler's benevolent mind was, however, ill at ease in the midst of these re- 
joicings. The Christian captives might be doomed to undergo, in a few days, at the 
Btake, all the tortures which savage cruelty and ingenuity combined could invent to 
render death more terrific and appalling. Among the prisoners was the mild and 

to, was found, with the Dutch inscription on It, burled in the earth, and then re- 
moved to the belfry of the church in Garden street. New York, belonging to the 
Dutch Reformed Congregation. On the destruction of the latter building by the 
great fire 1835, this slab totally disappeared. 

The Immediate completion of this church was, however, doomed to be interrupted 
by the spirit of faction, and continued misunderstanding with the aborigines, the 
progress and ruinous consequences of which it becomes our duty now to relate. — 
O'Callaghan's History of New Netherland, Vol. 1, 259-263. 

OF TUB State of New Yokk. 167 

disinterested Father Jogues, a learned Jesuit missionary — " one of the first to carry 
the cross into Michigan, and now the first to bear it through the villages of the 
Mohawks." Despising ease, comfort, life, and every attachment which nature ren- 
ders dear to man, he preferred captivity, suffering, and mutilation, to an abandon- 
ment of his tender converts; and now awaited, in resignation and prayer, the crown 
of martyrdom for which his soul had so long panted. 

To save these unfortunate men, Van Curler called together the chiefs of the dif- 
ferent Mohawk castles. He recalled to their minds the friendship and alliance 
which had so long existed between them — and demanded the release of their 
captives, offering, at the same time, for their ransom, presents to the amount of 
six hundred guilders, which, to their honor be it recorded, the Dutch settlers of the 
colonic, forgetful of all differences of creed, and actuated by the holy impulses 
of the Gospel, had generously subscribed to purchase the freedom of their Christian 
brethren. The savages, however, were not to be moved, either by appeals to ancient 
friendship, or by the Dutchmen's presents. They were willing to grant to their 
allies whatever was in their power, but on the point under discussion they would 
remain silent. Curler well knew how the French treated those who fell into their 
hands. Had the chief not been successful in his attack, the Iroquois would have 
been burnt. For the liberation of the French prisoners he could not treat. In a 
few months the warriors of the several nations would assemble, and then th.i 
matter would be finally disposed of. All Van Curler could effect was to persuade 
the savages to spare the lives of their prisoners, and to promise to restore them 
to their country. Escorted by a party of ten or twelve, armed Indians, the Dutch 
ambassadors now returned to Beverswyck, their minds filled with admiration of 
the lovely country through which they traveled. 

The disinterested missionary continued now to solace his captivity by spreading 
the light of Christianity through the benighted region into which Providence had 
cast his lot. Though his labors were most signally blest, and numbers of converts 
were brought into the fold, the hearts of the principal savages continued hardened 
against him. In one of his visits with some Indians to Fort Orange, he learned 
that inlelligence had been received that the Mohawks were defeated by the French 
at Fort Richelieu, and that he, on his return, would assuredly be burnt. The 
commander of the fort counselled him, thereupon, to escape. A vessel was about 
to proceed to Virginia. There he would be safe. Father Jogues demanded until 
the morrow to consider this proposal, " which greatly surprised the Dutch." The 
offer was finally accepted, but it was not so easy to evade the vigilance of his 
savage companions. Innumerable difl3culties followed. He at length succeeded iu 
secreting himself in the hold of a sloop in the river, whose close air and a horrid 
stench made him almost regret that he had "not remained among the cruel Iroquois, 
who now, enraged at the escape of their victim, crowded to Beverwyck, and de- 
manded, with violent gestures and angry words, the surrender of their prisoner. 
The Dutch were much embarrassed. They could uot consent to deliver over a 
Christian brother to the tortures and barbarities of the heathen. The States Gen- 
eral had sent out orders that every means should be used to rescue from the sav- 
ages those Frenchmen who might fall into their power. On the other hand, the 
colonic was too feeble to make any resistance. In this dilemma the offer was 
again renewed to ransom the fugitive; after considerable wrangling, the Indians 
accepted this offer, and presents to the amount of about one hundred pieces of gold 
were accordingly delivered them. Father Jogues was sent to New Amsterdam, 
where he was most kindly received and clothed by Director Kleft, who gave him a 
passage to Holland in a vessel which sailed shortly after. But misfortune was not 
yet weary of persecuting the Christian missionary. The vessel was driven in a 
Btorm on the coast of Falmouth, where It was seized by wreckers, who, as 


168 Ecclesiastical Records 

merciless as the savages, stripped Father Jogues and his companions of every 
article of their wearing apparel, and left them bruised and naked to pursue their 
journey as best they could. 

In the course of the following year Father Bressani, another Jesuit missionary, 
fell into the hands of the Iroquois. " Beaten, mangled, mutilated; driven barefoot 
over rough paths, through briers and thickets; burnt, tortured, wounded, and 
scarred, he was eye-witness to the fate of one of his companions who was boiled 
and eaten. Yet some mysterious awe protected his life, and he too was at last 
humanely rescued by the Dutch," who purchased his freedom at a large sum, and, 
with true Samaritan kindness, dressed his wounds and nursed him until he was 
perfectly convalescent, when they supplied him with clothing, " of which he stood 
in much need," and sent him to the Manhattans. Here he was received in the 
most hospitable manner by the public authorities, who furnished him, at his de- 
parture for Europe, with the following letter of safe-conduct: — 

" We, Willem Kieft, Director-General, and the Council of New Nethcrland, to all 
those who shall see these presents, greeting: Francis Joseph Bressani, of the Society 
of Jesus, for some time a prisoner among the Iroquois savages, commonly called 
Maquaas, and daily persecuted by these, was, when about to be burnt, snatched 
out of their hands, and ransomed by us for a large sum, after considerable difficulty. 
As he now proceeds with our permission to Holland, thence to return to Prance, 
Christian charity requires that he be humanely treated by those into whose hands 
he may happen to fall. Wherefore we request all governors, viceroys, or their 
lieutenants and captains, that they would afford him their favor in going and 
returning, promising to do the same, on like occasion. Dated in Fort Amsterdam, 
in New Netherland, this 20th September, anno Salutis, 1644, Stylo Novo." 

These and many other acts of similar kindness secured ever afterwards, for both 
the inhabitants and authorities, as well of Rensselaerswyck as of New Netherland 
generally, the warm attachment and regard of the Jesuit missionaries, who at the 
risk of health and life were disseminating the truths of the Gospel among the 
Indian tribes in the valley of the Mohawk, and along the shores of the great lakes, 
and who, it may be safely said, allowed no occasion to pass without giving expres- 
sion to their gratitude and respect. — O'Callaghan's History of New Netherland, Vol. 
1. 334-337. 

1643, May 6. 
Inventory of the personal property of the widow Bronck at Emaus. 

Among the many items enumerated the following books are mentioned: — One 
Bible, folio; Calvin's Institutes, folio; Bullingeri. (Opera.); Schultetus Dominicalla. 
(Medical); Moleneri Praxis, quarto. (Moral and Practical Discourses); One German 
Bible, quarto; Mirror of the Sea (Seespiegel), folio; One Luther's Psalter; Sledani, 
folio. (History of Reformation); Danish Chronicle, quarto; Danish Law-Book, 
quarto; Luther's Complete Catechism; The Praise of Christ, quarto; The Four Ends 
of Death; Petri Apiani; Danish Child's Book; Forty Pictures of Death, by Symoi» 
Golaert; Biblical Stories; Danish Calendar; Eighteen Dutch and Danish Pamphlets; 
Seventeen Books In Manuscript; Eleven Pictures, large and small. 

This Inventory was made in the presence of Rev. Everardus Bogardus. — Co). 
Docs. N. Y. XIV. 42, 43. 

Van Curler's Letter to the Patroon. 
Laus Deo. At the Manhattans, this 16th June, 1643. 

What the Lord, my master, commands me to receive in good regard the counsel 
of Domine Megapolensis; and therein to follow his Reverence's advice — I have 
never failed so to do, but have always communicated to him whatever occurred 

OF THE State of jSTew York. 169 

here, to have his opinion thereupon ere I concluded to uudertalie anything, aud 
have always thankfully received his Reverence's counsel. Further, I shall use my 
utmost diligence to collect the rest and to post all the debits and credits, (schuldeu 
en wederschulden,) Beavers and Seawan. I shall then, without fall, send you all 
by the next opportunity. As to what appertains to the duffels, I have, in all I 
received, not perceived any damage worth mentioning, but got them in good con- 


As for the Church, it is not yet contracted for, nor even begun. I had written 
last year to your Honor, that I had a building almost ready, namely, the covenanted 
work, which would have been for Domine Megapolensis; and this house was not 
agreeable to the taste of Domine Johannes; in other respects it was altogether 
suitable for him, so that I have laid it aside. That which I intend to build this 
summer in the pine grove, (in het Greynen Bosch,) will be thirty four feet long by 
nineteen feet wide. It will be large enough, for the first three or four years, to 
preach in, and can afterwards always serve for the residence of the sexton, or for a 
school. I hope your Honor will not take this ill, as it happened through good in- 
tention. — O'Callaghan's History of New Netherland, Vol i. 456, 457, 459. 

Acts of the Classis of Amsterdam. 

Clmrches in England. 

1643, July 27th. 

In aid of the suffering churches in England, the following 
measures are found good and necessary: 

1. Earnestly and fervently to pray for the same in public and 

2. To urge upon their High and Great Mightinesses (i. e. the 
States-General and the several Provincial States, separately,) 
days of public fasting and prayer. 

3. Also to beseech the same to contribute all that is within 
their power for the advocacy and preservation of the Holy Gos- 
pel in all verity, iv. 294. 

Already Xew England had begim to desire that these exiles 

in England and Ireland should be sent to America, as appears 

from the following: 

1643, Feb. 10, X. S. 

Petition of the Inliabitants of New England to the House of 
Commons, for a Collection. 

They ask for a collection in the parishes in and about London, 
for two Lords days, for the transporting of poor children driven 


170 Ecclesiastical Records 

out of Ireland, and other orphans in England. The request was 

The Major of London arranged for these collections to pay 
the transportation of boys and girls to ISTew England. Argu- 
ments and recommendations are presented. 

Documents 2704, 2705, 2706, in Archives of London Dutch 
church; pages 1907-S. 


It was in this year that Rev. Hugh Peters visited Holland. — He was born of an 
old English family in 1599, and graduated at Cambridge, 1622. He was ordained 
by Dr. Mountain, Bishop of London, but on account of his opposition to the Bishops, 
retired to Holland, and officiated in the English congregation at Rotterdam. In 
1643 he went to New England, and was elected minister at Salem, and officiated also 
in Boston. In 1641 he was sent by the colonies to England, on official business 
with Parliament, in reference to the boundary between New England and New 
Netherland. He found the civil war raging in England and joined the Parliamen- 
tarians. In 1G43 he again visited Holland, and preached so violently against Charles 
I. that the English Ambassador complained of him to the States-General. He gave 
a series of discourses in the English Congregation in Amsterdam, accusing Charles 
of exciting the Catholics of Ireland against Cromwell, so that women gave their 
wedding rings to supply the English under Cromwell with funds. The Dutch were 
not opposed to his actions. Peters subsequently became chaplain to Cromwell, and 
is said to have thanked God for the Drogheda massacre. After the restoration 
Peters was accused as one of the regicides, and he was put to death in 1660. — See 
Bancroft's U. S. ii. 32. 

Classis of Amsterdam. 

Acts of the Deputies. 


[Rev. J. T. Polhemus was from 1635-1654 in Brazil.] 

July 31, 1643. 

From the Acta of the Coetus preparatorii ad Synodum, held in 
Brazil, at Recyst, ISTovember 12, 1642. 

There appeared also at this session one of the Councillors of 
India, being deputed thereto. 

Art. 10. 

Complaint is made, that there have not been sent to them the 
Acta of the Synod of JN'orth Holland, since the year 1637. They 
also promise that they will make an effort to send theirs. 

OF THE State of ^ew York. lYl 

Art. 13. 


The pavment of the ministers has been remedied. Hereto- 
re tl 

fore their salaries were taken from the wages of soldiers and 

Art. 16. 

In the case of the Jews, nothing else has been done, except 
only that blaspheming has been forbidden. A rule has also been 
established that their men servants and maid servants may not 
be Christians. And the Popish (services?) ought to be limited 
within their churches. 

Art. 20. 

It is requested that six or seven more ministers may be sent to 

Art. 41. 

The ministers have been denied their housing; or these have 
been taken by the Company. 

Art. 47. 

Rev. de Varix is judged unfitted to serve any churches in 
Brazil, as it is declared that he has never produced any edification. 

Art. 69. 

How those shall be regarded Avho were baptized by Siecken- 
Troosters, and by others who are not ministers, and whether 
these must be rebaptized; the advice of the Synod of North Hol- 
land is asked on this subject. 

Art. 29. 

Lack of Siecken-Troosters, Schoolmasters and large Bibles 
is referred to. 

Art. 80. 

Rev. Oosterdach, who came out from South Holland, is dis- 
charged from his service. 


172 Ecclesiastical Records 

Art. 89. 

A resolution is referred to about bringing the judicature 
(trial?) of cburch matters to the civil (power?); but it is under- 
stood that this must not be done. The Hon. Directors shall 
be remonstrated ^vith on this subject. 

Art. 90. 

It was resolved, that the representatives of the civil power (lit. 
the Politicals) shall not be permitted to appear in Classes and 
Consistories; but only at Synods. The cutting off of corre- 
spondence is sought by the Politicals, but the Synod shows its 
inclination for such correspondence. 

Art. 12, in the order of Synod. 

Mention is made of the writing and sending of the Synodical 
Acta, to Classes and Churches; but nothing is said of the 

Acta of the Synod of Brazil held February 29, 1643. 

Art. 47. 

Rev. Doomich is dismissed from his charge in Pariba, and 
declared unable (physically) to do any more service in churches 
of the West Indies; on that account he shall be sent back to his 
congregation in the Fatherland. 

ISTo '^ Censura Morum " was held. 

Letter to the Rev. Classis of Mauristad, (in Brazil?) March. 24, 


They are surprised about our poor reformations, and that we 
should not have accepted these, against them (?) 

They refer themselves to the first Art , on the 

subject of the sitting of Civilians in Church Assemblies. 

|i • OF THE State of IsTew York. 173 


They complain of the harshness of the censures of the Classis 

of Amsterdam. 

They declare themselves to be a Reformed Church. 

They accuse us of Cayture (?) 

Letter from Francis Plante, in the ISTame of their last General 


They say that they have need of more Siecken-Troosters. 
That we should take heed to have only capable Schoolmasters. 
That they are still awaiting the Bibles. 
Excuse is made for the pamphlet of Doom. xx. 114-116. 

Synod of ISTokth Holland, at Edam. 

1643, Aug. 11 et seq. 

Art. 3. Ecquest of the Revs. Deputati Synodi. 

The Rev. Deputati of our Synod requested that their fellow 
Deputies, who are with them entrusted with the business of 
'^ Preachers practicing medicine " might be written to for Thurs- 
day, so that they might be able to render a proper report on 
what has been done on this subject. It was resolved to summon 
the said fellow Deputies ad causani for the time stated, and to- 
write to those outside of this city. 

Art. 27. East and West India Affairs. 

Under Art. 34, (1642), of East and West India Affairs, the 
Rev. Deputati Correspondents are recommended to do their best 
in their o^^nl (Synods), that the Articles proposed and agreed to, 
for the accommodation of the several Synods, may be accepted 
by their (Synods). 

On this same occasion it was also ascertained, that the Rev. 
Synod of South Holland had resolved to instruct their delegates 
to the corresponding Synods, to try to induce the objecting 
provinces to accept of the Articles which have been put into 
practice and approved by the respective Synods. 


174 Ecclesiastical Records 

It is found advisable this same week to have an interview 
with (to go to) those of South Holland, in order to arrive at the 
"desired agreement; also that our Deputati ad correspondentiam 
336 furnished with reasons. 

And, in accordance with the first proposition, it was asked 
in reference to these Articles agreed on, whether the several 
^churches or Classes within whose bounds are located the Cham- 
laers of the Companies, ought not to inform this present Synod 
as to the condition of the churches in the East and West Indies, 
by way of report, (tot opening). The Rev. Brethren of Enck- 
huysen declared that in this business nothing had occurred in 
particular. The Brethren of Hoorn said likewise. But the 
Rev. Brethren of Amsterdam exhibited many and various papers 
touching the state of the East and West India Churches. Also 
the aforesaid Rev. Brethren of Amsterdam, read an extract 
about East and West India Affairs. It was resolved, that the 
respective Classes within whose bounds are located Chambers 
(of the Companies) shall remain enjoined henceforth, in this 
same manner, to make a report to Rev. Synod, in conformity 
with those words of the project of the 34th Article, (1642); 
and that such reports shall be inserted imder the extracts of 

Art. 30. Exiles from Ireland. 

A letter was read from two ministers who had been driven 
out of Ireland, William Davidzoon, and Alexander Junius, 
wherein was represented their distressed and precarious condi- 
tion. They requested therewith, in an enclosed paper, that some 
eubsidium might be granted them in their very pressing need. 
It was resolved that they be granted, in conformity with the ac- 
tion of the Synod of South Holland, a proper amount, (sum- 
metie, sommetje?) with the announcement that they must hold 
themselves contented therewith, and not annoy our churches 

OF THE State of Xew Yokk. 175 


Art. 54. Churches of England. 
II. That this VENEEANDA SYNODUS, according to the 
duty enjoined by " The Communion of the Saints ", and after 
the example of the churches of Zeeland, South Holland, and 
Switzerland, would be pleased to consider, and look about, for 
ecclesiastical methods, to aid and solace, in an ecclesiastical man- 
ner, the churches in England, Scotland and Ireland. These are 
at present in the utmost need and peril. The same also form- 
erly, when our churches of the Fatherland were in need and af- 
fliction, interested themselves faithfully in them. 

Answer: The VENEKANDA SYNODUS — having learned 
the application to their Noble Great Mightinesses, (the Pro- 
vincial States), made through the Estimable, the Messrs.; the 
Commissioners, (the civil magistrates in Synod); and that their 
Estimables would manage the business of the churches in Eng- 
land, Scotland (and Ireland) in such a way that the same would 
be left in statu, even as it is now, — declared its good wishes, 
and inclinations to aid and solace the said churches in an ecclesi- 
astical manner, and by ecclesiastical methods. They therefore 
requested that their Estimables would make these things known 
to their Noble Great Mightinesses, and the decision of their 
Koble Great Mightinesses shall be awaited. 

Art. 57. Individual Question by Amsterdam. 

2. Baptism by Ziekentroostcrs. 

What shall be held regarding the baptism administered by 
Ziekentroostcrs? Among these are some who are authorized to 
baptize by the Classis of Amsterdam; and there are (baptisms) 
by others, who are not ministers; — whether these are to be 

Answer: This matter was referred to the several Classes. 
When these have been heard from, a Synodical advice will be 
drawn up. 


176 Ecclesiastical Eecoeds 

1643. Extracts from Acts of the Corresponding Synods, 

Art. 17. The (Synod) of Gelderland, 1642. 

Regarding the general direction of the East and West India 
churches, the Eev. Synod (of Gelderland) understands that this 
business shall be placed, generally, under the Synods of all the 
Provinces; and so far as this could not be brought about, the 
Deputati Synodi shall address themselves to the iN'oble Court, 
(Hof — Legislature), of Gelderland to issue letters to their rep- 
resentatives at The Hague, in the States General, so that this 
point may be taken notice of, in the petition for the prolonga- 
tion of the Charters of the said Companies. 

Extracts from the Synod of South Holland, at Brielle, 1643. 

The plan for the care of the East and West India Churches 
shall be made palatable to the objecting provinces by acquiesc- 
ing therein for the present, (in als een interim), until another 
arrangement can be made at a general Coetus. The Remon- 
strance of both Synods, with the prodromus (?) has been handed 
over, and their Noble Great Mightinesses have placed the same 
in the hands of the ISToble Court to serve it by way of advice. 

Upon the proposal of the Rev. Brethren from Zeeland regard- 
ing the distressed state of the churches in England (Scotland) 
and Ireland, their High Mightinesses (the States General) re- 
solved, that the respective Synods shall be given a copy of the 
intercession by the States of Zeeland, as also of the creditive of 
the delegates, and of the plans as proposed, so that these may 
be more fully communicated to their respective bodies. 

To the West India Churches shall be communicated in writ- 
ing the displeasure at the printed booklets; and that they do not 
possess such Synodical liberty as they imagine they do. . . . . . . . ., 

As yet the decision, (arrest) on the regulation (Constitution) 
regarding the English preachers, shall not be requested; but where 

OF THE State of New York. 177 

they are, and have independent (gesloten, closed) Consistories and 
lawful calls, the Classes are permitted to ask them to come under 
their jurisdiction. 

England and Ireland shall be frequently prayed for, and also 
be placed in the petition for days-of -prayer, in genere " Oppressed 
Churches ", if the^STorth Holland Sjaiod doth also so resolve; and 
the resolution of their Noble Great Mightinesses (the Provincial 
States) does not militate against this petition, (which shall first be 

Extracts Ex actis Synodi of Utrecht, held Anno 1642. 

Eev. Keselius sent to the Synod the Ecclesiastical Acta of 
Brazil, of the year 1636 to 1641, inclusive. 

Extracts Ex actis Synodi of Friesland held at Bolswart, 1643. 

The plan regarding the care of the East and West India 
Churches was communicated to Synod, and placed in Actis 

Extracts Ex actis Synodi of Overyssel, held at Deventer, 1643. 

The short Catechism of the Synod of Zeeland shall not be in- 
troduced for the youth in the schools; but besides the Heidelberg 
Catechism, only the small Catechism at the back of the Psalm 
Book, shall be used. 

Acts of the Classis of Amsterdam. 

Letter from London. 

1643, August 31st. 

Finally, there was read the letter which had been received from 

many Reformed ministers in London, in behalf of the distressed 

churches in Ireland, where more than 150,000 have been mur- 



178 Ecclesiastical Records 

dered, driven away, or have otherwise perished in some miserable 
manner, while those who are left still run the risk of perishing 
from hunger and want. It is, therefore, requested, by said minis- 
ters, of the minister of the English (Presbyterian) Church,* in this 
city (of Amsterdam,) to make a statement of this distress to all 
the N'etherland churches, that they come to their aid with all 
possible means. It was resolved to come to the assistance of 
these churches as quickly as possible, with collections, as has been 
done in the case of other suffering churches, and to inform the 
Eev. Synod (of ISTorth Holland) of this need, and of our resolu- 
tion thereon, together vnth the communication of the letter, al- 
though with all prudence, iv. 295. 

Alms for the Irish Churches. 

1643, Sept. 7th. 

Three letters were presented which had come from England. 
One, from the committee of Parliament, on Irish affairs; one from 
the Consensus Theologus at London; and one from Rev. Dr. 
Frisissus (?). These give the information that Irish Papists, or 
rebels in Ireland, within four months have mutilated and mur- 
dered 154,000 of our brethren in the faith, and are seeking to 
wipe out the remainder, not only there, but throughout the whole 
world. Wherefore they request and beseech that the churches 
of these provinces, in accordance with their customary compas- 
sion and liberality towards others, would be pleased also to be- 
stow their Christian alms, in this direction, for the preservation 
of the brethren in the faith in Ireland. This was sympathetically 
acceded to by the Eev. Classis. It was unanimously resolved, 
that the officers of each (church) shall do their utmost to collect 
the greatest amount of alms possible. In order to transmit this 

* This was Rev. Theodore Paget [Latinized into Pagetus,] who settled over the 
Presbyterian Church in Amsterdam, on the Begyn-Hof, In 1639. In 1646 he removed 
to another field. His name frequently occurs in the Minutes of the Classis of. 

OF THE State of New York. 179 

money safely, it shall be delivered into the hands of the comr 
mittee on this business in London, through the Rev. Professor 
Wittenwrongel, Eev. Matthew Meursius and Isaac Van Beeck, 
the deputies of the Classis on this matter. But all this shall be 
done under these special securities and conditions: 

1. That what is donated shall be given purely as Christian alms 
for the suffering fellows-in-the-faith, in Ireland, 

2. That there shall be obtained from them a particular receipt 
and acknowledgment, upon the delivery of the moneys, wherein 
the recipients shall make it clear, that these donations, for suf- 
ferers in Ireland, have been duly received, under the conditions 

Hereupon there appeared two representatives of the above 
mentioned Committee of Parliament, viz., Sir Adam Lawrence, 
and Maurice Thompson, who confirmed by word of mouth what 
is related above, and requested a liberal alms, if possible, in aid 
of the churches in Ireland. The sympathetic resolution of the 
Classis was then made kno\vn to them, for which, friendly (thanks 

were offered) by them, and they took their leave 

The Acta adopted by the Provincial Synod (of ISTorth Holland) 
were read, and whatsoever concerned this Classis was observed, 
and noted for further discussion at the next Classis. iv. 297-8. 

Collection for England. 

(1643,) 'Nov. 13, 10. 

In view of the fact that there has been ordered by their noble 
(Jreat Mightinesses, (the Provincial States,) a public collection 
for the distressed members of Christ in Ireland, in the churches 
of this province, and the need of the same is great; the Rev. Mr. 
Wittenwrongel proposes, whether it would not be well tliat this 
work of love were pushed as rapidly as possible in the respective 
churches of this Classis, and the moneys handed to Isaac van 
Beeck, elder in Amsterdam. It was learned that this had already 
been diligently done, and liberally by several churches. The 

180 Ecclesiastical Records 


others were exhorted to hasten the work as rapidly as possible. 
Revs. Meursius and "Wittenwrongel, who had been appointed bj 
Classis to keep account of the moneys and deliver the same, were 
urged to secure the distribution of the same, as soon as possible^ 
for the assistance and relief of those distressed (church) mem- 
bers, iv. 300. 

Letters from the Synod of London, 

1644, April 4th. 

Rev. Wackendorssius, as deputy from this Synod, hands in a 
certain letter from the Synod of London, addressed to the Classis 
of North Holland. Therein, after a vivid recital of the sad state 
of the church of God in that land, two things are requested of the 
churches of this Synod: First, the Christian prayers, of these 
(Dutch) churches, are earnestly besought in their behalf, in their 
sad state; Secondly, as might be determined on by the church here 
(in Holland). 

The Covenant between England and Scotland was also read. 
Thereupon, it was resolved to send this letter, after it has been 
recorded by the clerk for the use of the Classis, to the other Classes, 
and to propose that each Classis would appoint two (of its mem- 
bers) to consult with the regular deputies as to the character of 
the reply (to be sent to London). Also the regular Deputies were 
requested to inform the Rev. Body (the Synod of London) as soon 
as possible, of the receipt of their letter, and to promise them all 
good will. This Classis provisionally nominated the Rev. Presi- 
dent and Rev. Wittenwrongel, to treat with the Deputies of the 
other Classes as to the full response to the aforesaid letter, iv, 

Collection for Ireland. 

1644, April 4th. 

The Acts of the Classis of October 5th last, (September 7. 
? 1643), and specially those items which refer to the collections 
of this Classis, for the distressed members of Christ in Ireland^ 

OF THE State of New Yoek. 181 

■were read over again. Rev. Wittenwrongel and Meursius gave 
the information that most of the churches had done their share in 
this business, and the few others will yet do the same. The said 
Brethren promised to bring in a complete account thereof as soon 
as possible. Also on motion of Thomas Cave, elder in the English 
(Presbyterian) church here (at Amsterdam,) it was resolved that 
the moneys in this Classis be expended here, in this land (Hol- 
land) for victuals and other necessities, iv. 304. 

(The English and Scotch churches in Holland were members 
of the Dutch Classis. Food was also cheaper in Holland.) 

Lubbert Dincklagen. 

1644, April 4th. 

A letter was read from Lubbert van Dincklagen, making re- 
quests that complaints which might be renewedly made against 
him, should be made known to him, that he might answer them. 
Also that Rev. Bogardus be summoned hither. It was resolved 
to await the arrival of Rev. Everardus Bogardus, and then to sum- 
mon Lubbert van Dincklagen. The clerk will inform him of this 
action, iv. 304; xxxix. 120. 

Letters from the Synod of London. 

1644, May 2nd. 

In reference to the letter of the Rev. Synod of London, it was 
reported that the same had been copied by the clerk for the use 
of this Classis. Rev. Wackendorssius also sent a copy of the same 
to the other Clas^Bcs of this Synod, but has, as yet, received no an- 
swer. And inasmuch as no reply, in acknowledgment of the re- 
ceipt of this letter has yet been sent to that same Rev. Body (the 
Synod of London) , it was resolved that the Rev. Deputy Wacken- 
dorssius shall again communicate with Rev. Deputy Puppius, to 
send the receipts (recepisse, acknowledgments) as soon as possi- 
ble. If any objection be raised by him, such acknowledgment shall 
be made by Rev. Wackendorssius, and the two brethren of this 



182 Ecclesiastical Records 

Classis heretofore charged with the full reply, as soon as possible^ 
and in nomine hnjiis Classis. iv, 306. 

Collection for Ireland. 

1644, May 2nd. 
In reference to the collections for Ireland, the accounts of Revs. 
Wittenwrongel and Meursius have been brought in. What each 
church had contributed, was read, amounting altogether to the 
sum of florins 22,451f ($8,980.50 cts.) Everything was per- 
fectly exhibited m writing. The two brethren of the committee, 
as well as Mr. Isaac van Beeck, were thanked for their trouble. 
They remained charged with the duty of procuring a receipt from 
the parties in Ireland, iv. 305. 

Catalogue of the Classis. 

1644, May 2nd. 

The clerk inquires whether the catalogue made up by order of 
Classis, should not be recorded, (literally, placed in the book;) 
also, whether any one should be put down as not in his proper 
location. Reply was made that it should be recorded, even as it 
was read. iv. 307. 

(There are no lists of ministers and churches in the Minutes of 
the Classis of Amsterdam; but such lists came to be written on 
the fly leaves of the buccessive volumes. These were amended from 
time to time, as changes took place, but dates were not always 
added. The erasures and additions made these lists often very 
difficult to read. A few of these in the earlier volumes were 
copied, but there are no allusions to America.) 


1644, May 2nd. 

The letter of Lubbert van Dincklagen has been answered by the 
clerk, iv. 307. 

OF THE State of New York. 18P* 

RepJ V to the Letter of the London Synod. 

1644, June 13th. 

In regard to the reply to the letter of the Rev. Wackendorssius 
reports, that he had written to the Rev. Puppius to send a receipt 
(acknowledgment) to the said Rev. Synod but that Rev. Puppius 
still objected. It was resolved that the said acknowledgment, 
(recepisse,) in accordance with the preceding resolution, should 
be drawn up by the brethren designated, so that our sympathy 
with their sad condition may be made known to them; also that 
the arrival of the Rev. Puppius shall yet be awaited to-day. The 
draft of the acknowledgment, meantime having been composed, 
may be examined by the Classis. Rev. Times shall fill the place 
of Rev. Anthonides. iv. 309. 

Reply to the Letter of the London Synod. 

1644, June 13th. 

The brethren deputed to draw up a reply (recepisse) to the letter 
of the Rev. Synod of London, read a written Latin reply composed 
by them, which pleased the Classis. It was resolved to forward 
the same as soon as possible to the same Rev. Synod, in the name 
of this Classis. iv. 311. 

Letter to London Synod. 

1644, July lYth. 

Rev. Wittenwrongel handed in a copy of the letter, which was 
written and sent, in the name of this Classis to the Rev. Synod 
of London. It was resolved to preserve this in the Classical chest 
(keep on file.) iv. 314. 

Synod of North Holland, at Alckmaer. 

1644, Aug. 16 et seq. 

Art. 28. East and West India Affairs. 

Regarding Article 27, relating to the East and West India 
Affairs; it has been ascertained that the Synods of Gelderland, 
Utrecht and Overyssel were not yet fully contented. It was re- 



184 Ecclesiastical Recokds 

solved that, in conformity with the action of South Holland, we 
shall continue, as before, to make the Plan, provisionally, pala- 
table, through the Deputies of Synod ad Correspondentias. It 
was then asked, in turn, whether the Classes, where there are 
Chambers, had anything to communicate to the Synod. It was 
ascertained that nothing had been received, because no ships had 
arrived. The Classes of Amsterdam and Enkhuysen reported the 
names of those who had been sent out as preachers and sieken- 
troosters to the East Indies. — These had been sent out by, Amster- 

Rev. Goergius Candidius, to Tajoucken, ) . 

Rev. John a Briel, to Batavia, \ 

As Zieckentroosters, the following: 

Lawrence Zacharias. 

Cornelius Willemsen. 

Paul Jansen. 

Alexander Abrams. 

Dirck Vermeule. 

Reynier Adriaensen. 

Jacob Claessen Schoenmaker. 

And as minister to Muscovy, Rev, John Gaiwinckel, to Thoula ; 
from Enckhuysen as Ziekentrooster to the East Indies, Hein 

At the same time it was asked of the Rev. Deputies of the Classis 
of Amsterdam, whether the ministers and siekentroosters on re- 
turning home again to the Fatherland, ought not to present them- 
selves and show their certificates to the Classes by whom they 
were sent out. The Rev. Synod resolved to charge the respective 
Classes, where there are Chambers, to take heed to this. 

Art. 36. Letters from London to be answered. 

It was resolved that the letter sent to the Classes of our Synod 
by the Rev, Synod at London, the contents of which have been 

* OF THE State of !N"ew Yokk. 185 


made known to all the respective Classes, through the copies here- 
with furnished to the Classes, shall be answered nomine hujus 
Sjnodi. To draft this letter, Eev. Correspondent of South Hol- 
land, Peter Cabbeljauw is invited ; and Eev, Deputati Sjnodi 
nostri, John Puppius, and with him, Pev. Adrianus Snellius. The 
copy of the same shall be inserted at the back of the Acta of 

Art. 42. Baptism by Siekentroosters. 

To the second question of Amsterdam, — See on the same Art. 
57, (1643) — "What shall be held as to the baptisms administered 
by Siekentroosters, etc. It is understood that the opinions of the 
respective Synods are, that baptism by Siekentroosters is to be 
held of no value. As to the matter of rebaptising ? The Synod 
refers this to the answers to the Questione particularia vige simani 
nonan Synodi l^ationalis, held at Dordrecht Anno 1578. — (This 
was the first ISTational Synod ever held in Holland, 1578.) 

Art. 52. 1644 — p. 21. Greek Letter. 

Deputati Synodi nostrae are ordered to communicate a certain 
Greek letter handed in b}^ the Estimable Commissioner Dedel, 
sent to this Synod by the Bishop of Ephesus, Meletius Pantagolus, 
to Revs. Deputati of South Holland, in order to act conjunctim 
with the same pro re nata. 

Book of Guilielmus Apollonius, on Church Government, sent 
from Holland to the Westminster Assembly. 

Oct. 16, 1644. 

Consideratio quanmdam Controver&iarum ad Pcgimcn Eccle- 
siae Dei spectantium, quae in Angliae Regno hodic agitantur. Ex 
mandato et jussu Classis Walachrianae conscripta a Guilielmo 

• A photographic copy of this letter, embracing five closely written pages, was 
secured from the copy In the records. Vol. 52, 111. p. 29, at 100 Java straat, in the 

186 Ecclesiastical Records 


Apollonii Verbi Dei apud Middelburgensis Ministro. Et ab 

Ecclesiis Walachris ad Ecclesianim suarinn sensiim et consensum 

judicandum transmissa ad Sjnodum Londinensem 16 Octobris 

Anni 1644. 


A Consideration of certain Controversies at this time agitated 
in the Kingdom of England concerning the Government of the 
Church of God Written at the Command and appointment of the 
Walachrian Classis by Guilielmus Apollonii, Minister of the Word 
of God at Middelburgh. And sent from the Walachrian churches, 
to declare the sense and consent of their Churches to the Synod 
of London, Oct. 16, 1644, JST.S. Translated out of the Latin, 
1645. — See Corwin's Manual of Reformed Church, 1879, page 
xii, note. Also Steven's Dutch Ecc. Establishment, and his His- 
tory of the Scotch Church of Rotterdam. 

Acts of the Classis of Amsterdam. 

Letters from Curacoa and Angola. Johannes Backerus. 

1644, Nov. 7th. 

A letter was read from John Backerus, minister at Curacoa, 
relating to the state of the Church on the said island also, another, 
from Rev. Jacobus Beth, minister at Angola. Each asked what 
they must do in reference to baptizing the children of heathen. 
It was resolved that the clerk look up the resolution of the Synod 
on this subject, and report the same at the next Classis. iv. 335. 

Acts of the Deputies. 

Service of the Church in the West Indies. 


Regarding the Sacred Ministry in the Churches in the West 
Indies, it was resolved that Revs. Deputies ad res Indicas shall 
make request of the XIX (the Executive Committee of the 
West India Company) that we may be allowed to look about 

OF THE State of New York. 187 

for some capable ministers, in order to dispatch them thither at 
the earliest opportunity. And in doing this, we must inform 
them, that there is danger from the great necessities of the field, 
that persons of all sorts of character, and therefore but little fit 
for so worthy an ofiice, may seek that position and be advanced 
thereto, xxxix. 137. 

Book on the Mohawk Indians, by Rev. John Megapolensis. 


Rev. John Megapolensis wrote the following: ''A short Ac- 
count of the Mohawk Indians, their country, language, figure, 
costume, religion and government. Written and despatched from 
N'ew ISTetherland, AugT^st 26, 1644, by J. M., minister there. 
"With a brief account of the Life and Manners of the Stapongers 
in Brazil ". 

This was published at Alkmaer, by Ysbr. Jansz v. Houten, 8vo. 
pp. 32. 1651, without the author's consent. Translations may 
be found in Hazard's State Papers i. 517-526 ; and in the Histori- 
cal Collections of the State of ISTew York, iii. See also Duyck- 
inck's Cyc. Lit. i. 80. 

Rev. Richard Denton. 

Those New England settlers who preferred Presbyterianlsm to Independency, 
drifted southward, through Connecticut and Long Island into New Jersey. Rev. 
Richard Denton was one of these. He came from England in 1630, with a largo 
part of his congregation, and settled at Watertown, Mass. Denton was a Presby- 
terian by choice. He was graduated from Cambridge in 1623, and was subsequently 
pastor of Cooly Chapel. He was driven out of Massachusetts on account of opposi- 
tion to his Presbyterian ways. He removed to Hempstead, Long Island, in 1644, 
but there he experienced the same troubles. The Independents and Presbyterians 
did not then harmonize well. In 10.36 two of Denton's sons purchased lands of the 
Indians and founded Jamaica. They seem to have had a Church from the start, 
for as early as 1G62 they provided a parsonage. In 1710, George McNlsh was called 
as eighth pastor of Jamaica. The last notice of that Presbyterian Church at Hemp- 
stead is 1729. The history of the Jamaica Presbyterian Church Is unbroken. Den- 
ton was a man of more than ordinary talent and ability. — Hays, 64. 

New JSTetherland 1614-1639. — Historical Extract. 

Report of the Board of Accounts on New Netherland. 1644. 

Report and Advice on the Condition of New Netherland, drawn up from docu- 
ments and papers placed by commission of the Assembly of the XIX., dated 15th 
of December, 1644, in the hands of the General Board of Accounts, to examine the 

188 Ecclesiastical Records 

eame. to make a digest thereof, and to advise the Assembly how the decay there' 
can be prevented, population increased, agriculture advanced, and that country 
■wholly Improved for the Company's benefit. 

New Netherland, situate in America, between English Virginia and New England, 
extending from the South River, lying in thirty four and a half degrees, to Cape 
Malabar, in the latitude of forty one and a half degrees, was first frequented by tho- 
inhabitants of this country in the year 1598 (?), and especially by those of the 
Greenland Company, but without making any fixed settlements, only as a shelter 
in the winter. For which purpose they erected on the North and South Rivers 
there, two little forts against the incursions of the Indians. A charter was after- 
wards, on the 11th of October, 1614, granted by their High Mightinesses to Gerrit 
Jacobsz. Witsen, antient burgomaster of the city of Amsterdam, Jonas Witsz, Sy- 
mon Morrisen, Lambert van Tweenhuysen, Wessel Schenck and associates, all In- 
habitants of these parts, to trade (1614-1617) exclusively to the newly discovered 
countries, situate in America, between New France and Virginia, and now called 
New Netherland, to resort thither exclusively for the term of three years, without 
any other persons being able, during that time, to frequent that place from this 
country, on pain of confiscation of ships and goods, and a fine of fifty thousand 
Netherland ducats. — Col. Docs. i. 149. 

In the years 1622 and 1623, the West India Company took possession, by virtue 
of their charter, of the said country, and conveyed thither, in their ship, the New 
Netherland, divers Colonists under the direction of Cornells Jacobsz. Mey, and Adri- 
aen Jorissz. Tienpolnt, which Directors, in the year 1624, built Fort Orange on the 
North River, and Fort Nassau on the South River, and after that, in 1626, Fort 
Amsterdam on the Manhattes. In all which, garrisons were continually maintained, 
and trade was carried on in those several districts with yachts, sloops and other 
crafts. And in the year 1629, the Freedoms and Exemptions conceded by the Hon- 
orable Assembly of the XIX. were published, with their High Mightinesses' appro- 
bation. Thereupon divers Patroons and Colonists resorted thither and endeavored 
to advance agriculture and population. For further security. Fort Good Hope was 
also erected in 1633, on the Fresh River. But said population did not experience 
any special impulse until the year 1639, when the fur trade with the Indians, which 
had been previously reserved to the Company, was thrown free and open to every 
body; at which time not only the inhabitants there residing spread themselves far 
and wide, but even new Colonists came thither from Fatherland; and the neighbor- 
ing English, both from Virginia and New England repaired to us. So that in place 
of seven Bouweries, full thirty were planted, and full one hundred more expected 
in a short time from the plantations which were taken up; insomuch that there 
was every appearance that provisions might be furnished in two or three years for 
ten thousand men. — Col. Doc. N. Y. i. 149. Copied from Wassenaar's Description of 
the First Settlement of New Netherland. 

Council Minute, that Rev. E. Bogardus refused to receive an admonition in writing 
sent him by Dir. Kleft. 

23rd March 1645. 
The Honorable Director William Kieft has, by approval of the Council, sent an 
admonition in writing, dated 23 March to the minister Bogardus, which he would 
not receive or open, and the paper is returned by the court messenger. — Col. Does. 
N. Y. xiv. 59. 

. OF THE State of i^^Ew Yoek. 189 

Classis of Amsterdam. 

Acts of the Deputies. 

Acta of the General Coetus in the West Indies. 

1645, June 26th. 
The Acta have also arrived from the General Coetus last held 
in Brazil. These having been read in the Assembly, the foUomng 
things are to be noted : 

1. Articles 2, 3, 4, 7. That several persons of various nation- 
alities have presented themselves ad examen preparatorium, that 
they may be admitted ad propositiones publicas; as Englishmen, 

etc., and others. From this, not without reason, disorder 

in the church is to be apprehended. 

2. Article 14. To send the Acta of their Classis to all 
churches (Classes?) and SjTiods; and to request the Acta from 
such in return; and also to correspond with all the churches. 
This they wish to have communicated to the XIX. 

3. Article 20, Of children baptized by Siecken-Troosters. 

4. Article 21. Of ministers and Siecken-Troosters; also to 
send a French minister, xx. 141. 

Report to the Assembly of the XIX. 

1645, July 24th. 
At the resumption of the preceding Acta, report was ren- 
dered by Mourcourtius and Prudentius. In compliance with 
the commission laid upon them by the Rev. Classis, they 
had appeared before the Assembly of the XIX at the West 
India House, (on Rapenburg; building still standing;) and re- 
quested for the churches of Brazil seven ministers and a few 
Siecken-Troosters. In regard tO' this request the Hon. Directors 
desired to see the said request put in writing. This the Brethren 
did, and received as a reply, that the Assembly of the XIX have 
referred this request, by means of a circular letter, to the next 
meeting of the XIX, in Zeela.nd. xx. 141. 


190 Ecclesiastical Records 

Extract about Indian Affairs for the Synod. 

1645, July 24th. 

Further, it was resolved to ascertain from the Classis how far 
the Deputies should go, in laying Indian affairs before the Synod. 
Meantime the Rev. Mourcourtius was directed to make a short 
extract (memorandum) thereof, for the consideration of the next 
meeting of the Classis. 

Extract of the East and West India affairs since the last Synod 
at Alkmaar, 1644 xx. 141. 

Synod of Nokth Holland, at Haarlem. 

1645, Aug. 8 et seq. 
Art. 20. East and West India Affairs. 

Regarding the 28th Article referring to the East and West 
India Affairs : Inasmuch as the Rev. Synods of Gelderland, 
Utrecht and Overyssel have not yet accepted the Plan as to this 
business; therefore after an exhibition of the difficulties which 
arise from disagreement on this matter, it was resolved, in order 
to secure some good result, earnestly to request the Rev. Cor^ 
respondents to make the said Plan acceptable to their principals. 
At the same time it was resolved to order the Rev. Deputati of 
our Synod to insist earnestly that the objecting Synods accept 
this Plan. 

The question having been put, whether the Classes where there 
are Chambers did not have something to report about the state 
of the churches in the East and West Indies, the Rev. Delegates 
from the Classis of Amsterdam read this following: 

Extracts concerning the state of the churches in the East and 
West Indies, as this has been made known to us since the last 
Synod held at Alkmaer, 1644. 

1. Of the East Indies. 
(Four pages, relating to Batavia, Coromandel; and Formosa, 
where fifty nine hundred had been baptized, etc.) 

OF THE State of ITew Yoke. 191 

2. Of the West Indies. 

From the churches of the West Indies we have nothing in par- 
ticular, except that the instruction of the Brazilians progresses 
very well; that they have found a school teacher for the Negros, 
of whom they have good hopes of success. 

That also some children of the Tapoyers will be brought to 
the Aldeen, to be educated, even as the same have requested. 

But they complain much of the scarcity of ministers, inasmuch 
as Jacobus Cralingius has died there, and many others have re- 
cently left for the Fatherland, namely: Bev. Joachim Soler, 
Franciscus Planter, Rev. Kettelius. These are on the point of 
being followed by still others. Wherefore those few who are still 
there, must in the meantime scatter themselves, and repair to the 
other places to help supply them, not without injury to their own 
churches. They have need of at least seven more ministers in 
other places, which they name. 

For which reason they also earnestly request that at the earliest 
opportunity some good and pious ministers may be sent to them, 
as otherwise they would have to take up with the material which 
they have there. These are mostly of foreign nations, English, 
Spanish, and such others as present themselves. Work has begun 
with some of these, to promote them in time to the ministry; but 
from them it is to be feared that nothing but great disorder in 
the church will come. 

The Classis of Amsterdam has made an effort with the Directors 
of the West India Company, to get them to send ministers and 
Siekentroosters thither. They have also pressed this matter upon 
the Assembly of the XIX, lately met at Amsterdam, and earnestly 
recommended the request of the churches of Brazil. Thereupon 
they received for an answer, that said Assembly had admonished 
those Chambers which were behind hand, to send tlieir preachers; 
and further had referred this request as one of the points, in the 
notice for the next meeting of the XIX to be held in Zeeland. 



19S! Ecclesiastical Records 

And so also not more than one siekentrooster has been sent to 
Guinea, namely, Jacob Cornelissen. 

Th§ Rev. Brethren of the Classis of Hoorn reported nothing 
more than that Rev. Sixtus u- Besten was sent out as minister to 
the East Indies. 

The Rev. Brethren of the Classis of Enckhuysen also reported 

that there were sent out to the East Indies, Rev. Isaac Schipio 

as preacher, and John Pietersen as siekentrooster; and to Guinea, 

Albers Elbersen, and Adrian Lourentse Kuysterman, as sieken- 


Art. 52. Plan of the Synod of England. 

It appears from the Acta of the Synod of South Holland, that 
the Rev. Synod of England had agreed upon a certain Plan of 
Church Government, practically the same in most points as that 
of the Reformed Church of this country, and has laid the same 
before the Parliament of England, with the request for the ap- 
proval thereof. 

This was heard by the entire Assembly with great gladness and 
with singular satisfaction, with the assurance that between the 
English Church and our Church there should be effected a similar 
form of government.* 

Council Minute. Proclamation to be issued ordering a Day of Thanksgiving to be 
observed on account of the Peace •with the Indians. 

The 31st of August (1645). 

It has been resolved in Council, to Issue a proclamation for a day of general 
thanksgiving, which shall take place on the 6th of September next in all the Dutch 
and English churches within the limits of New Netherkind. The proclamation reads 
as follows. 

As it has pleased the Almighty God in his infinite mercy and clemency in addition 
to many previous blessings, to allow us to obtain the long desired peace with the 
savages, we have found it necessary to announce it to all the people of New Nether- 
land, in order that in all places, where Dutch and English churches are established, 
the Almighty God may be especially thanked, lauded and blessed next Wednesday. 
the 6th of September, the text taken to be appropriate and the sermon applicable 
thereto. You will please to announce this matter to the congregation next Sunday, 
that they may know it. — Col. Docs. N. Y. xiil. 19. 

* This refers to the great Westminster Assembly and the adoption of Presby- 
terianism by the Commonwealth under Cromwell. 

OF THE State of i^ew York. 193 

Proceedings of the Assembly of the XIX, in Regard to New 


1645, Sept. 21. 

Extracts from the Kesolutions of tlie Assembly of the XIX. of the 
West India Company, holden at Middleburg, from the 9th of 
September to the 16th of October, 1645, as far as they relate 
to the affairs of New Netherland. 

Ttiesday, the 21st September, 1645. 

The opinion of the before mentioned deputies being heard, it 
is, after divers discourses between the members from Amsterdam 
and other Chambers, concluded and resolved; inasmuch as some 
Clergymen are about to return home from Brazil, that they be 
permitted to return, and that the number of those who shall re- 
main there be limited to nine persons, to wit: one for each ninth 
part, to be distributed by the President and Supreme Council 
among the principal places where the hearers are most numerous, 
and their services shall be most advantageous. 

And that the smaller places shall be served by precentors, com- 
forters of the sick, and schoolmasters, who shall offer up public 
prayers, read aloud from the old and new testament, from printed 
sermons; and tune the psalms. 

But inasmuch as the Amsterdam Chamber maintains, at its 
charge, seven of the aforesaid clergymen, besides one in Curacao, 
one in New Netherland and one in Loando, making ten in all; 
on the other hand, Zealand and the Maese have only one; Zealand 
and North Holland is to send one, and Stadt en Landen"'*' hath sent 
one by the last ship; it is resolved that the Supreme Government 
in Brazil shall be bound herein to make an equal re-partition of 
those who are to remain in the service or are sent out, in order that 


* In 15&4, Prince Maurice reduced the city of Gronlngen and united the Omme- 
landen, or surrounding rural dlatrlcta, to It as one province. Martinet. Beschryvlng 
der Nederlanden, 11, 148. The province of Gronlngen was hence sometimes called 
"Stadt en Landen "; city and country. — Ed. 


194 Ecclesiastical Records 


thus the nine parts hereafter to be borne by the members, be 

equally charged. — Col. Doc. ]Sr. Y. i. 163-4. 

Classis of Amsterdam. 

Acts of the Deputies. Commission of Classis to the Deputies. 

1646, May 28th. 

Inasmuch as at the last Classis the Deputies ad res Indicas were 
commissioned to consider the desolate state of the churches in 
Brazil, and to give information of the same to the Hon. Directors; 
it was resolved, that inasmuch as the XIX do not assemble here, 
but at The Hague, to refer this matter again to Classis, and to 
ask in what manner the Deputies shall act in this business, xx. 
152, 153. 

Minister to New Netherland. 

Whereas the Brethren Deputies, charged with calling a minister 
to New Netherland, had, to this end, written to Eev. Aemilius 
van der Poel and Eev. Nicholas Ketelius, and requested that they 
would either personally appear here, to speak with them orally; 
or to make kno^\'n to us their disposition in writing before June 
11; and inasmuch as neither they themselves nor any communi- 
cations from them have been received; it was resolved, since there 
is need of haste in the matter, to write once more to one of them, 
and to request a speedy reply. The clerk will do this. xx. 153. 

Extracts from the Acta of the Classis of Brazil. 

Whereas the Brethren Deputies have shown to our Classis their 
extracts from the Acta of the Classis of Brazil, and have asked 
advice, as to whether, and how, this same matter shall be laid 
before, (lit. remonstrated to; but this has not that force, as in 
English), the Messrs XIX; the Classis recommends this to the 
discretion of the Deputies. ' They, in order to ward off their 
have noted down what affairs ought to be laid before 

OF THE State of New Yoke. 195 

the XIX, aJid have written to the churches, and having considered 
the said extracts, they have 

1. Resolved: As to the setting aside of the Conunissariefi 
of the church of Brazil, to stir them up (animate them) to oppose 
their money 

2. As to the licensing of the Jews: About this much com- 
plaint has been made in Brazil; that the XIX shall be requested 

— inasmuch as Judaism is in direct conflict with Christianity and 
therefore can particularly hinder the course of the Gospel there 

— that the Hon. Directors would seriously heed such complaints 
and not permit them such liberty. 

3. As to the boldness of the Papists: the session resolved to me- 
morialize the XIX earnestly, and to give them to understand that it 
gi-ieves us to hear that liberty has been heretofore granted them, al- 
though under some limitation; but misfortunes have arisen there- 
from. Therefore their Honors may deduce that the Papacy is not 
to be limited; and they are to be requested to deprive them of 
such liberty hereafter. 

4. As to the correspondence with all the Synods of the Prov- 
inces: They are seriously to advise the Messrs. XIX against this. 

5. As they complain that no answer has been written them, 
in regard to those baptized by Siecken-Troosters — how this should 
be regarded: the resolution of Synod shall be forwarded to them. 

6. Inasmuch as such sad betrayals have revealed themselves 
in the West Indies: That this be laid before the Messrs. XIX, 
and they be asked, in accordance with the desire of the church 
there, that henceforth no high officials be appointed for the civil 
government there, except such as are of the Reformed Religion, 
and also church members, 

7. As to gentlemen restoring the state there: That all Popery 
be turned out. 

8. To maintain capable schoolmasters and schooknistressee, 
for the very young (young youth) who now run idle in many 




9. In the union of the Classes : to seek help of the XIX. 

10. As they complain that for five years no ministers have 
been sent them : they shall be told who is to blame therefor. 

11. Our request of the Messrs. XIX for six or seven minisr- 
ters, to be renewed. 

12. To Art. 52 : that we have received their Acta of the year 
'44, (1644,) through Rev. Kesterius. 

13. As the Classis has granted them the Acta of the year 
1640 and subsequent years: These shall be sent to them, pro- 
vided the company will bear the expense, which shall be asked of 

it— XX. 153, 154. 

New Netherland. 

1646, June 5th. 

The Rev. Deputati ad res Indicas reported, that the Directors 
of the West India Company have need of a minister and school- 
master in ISTew Netherland; also another minister was needed in 
Brazil. And whereas Revs. Cornelius van der Poel and Nicolas 
Ketelius have come home from that locality, it was resolved to 
make an effort to induce them to go thither (to New Netherland). 
For this business the said Rev. Deputati ad res Indicas, were 
authorized, iv. 389 ; xxxix. 140. 


Summons to the Rev. E. Bogardus to appear before the Council and answer charges 
against him, and f'^rther proceedings. [June 11, 1646.] 

In the name of the Lord, Amen. Anno 1646 in New Netherland. 
The Hon. Director and Council to the Reverend Everardus Bogardus, minister here. 
Although we are informed of your proceedings in the time of the Honorable 
Wouter van Twiller, the former Director, and were also warned to be on our guard, 
yet were we unwilling to pay any attention thereto, believing that no man that 
preached the Word of the Lord would so far forget himself, notwithstanding we 
have letters in your own hand, among others, one dated 17th June 1634, wherein 
you do not appear to be moved by the spirit of the Lord, but on the contrary by a 
feeling becoming heathens, let alone Christians, much less a preacher of the Gospel. 
You there berate your magistrate, placed over you by God, as a child of the Devil, 
an Incarnate villain, whose buck goats are better than he, and promise him that 
you would so pitch into him from the pulpit on the following Sunday, that both you 
and his bulwarks would tremble. And many other such like insults, which we re- 
frain from mentioning, out of the respect we entertain for that gentleman. 

OF THE State of New York. 197 

You have Indulged no less In scattering abuse during our admlnlBtratlon. Scarcely 
a person in the entire land have you spared; not even your own vclfe, or her sister, 
particularly when you were in good company and jolly. Still mixing up your human 
passion with the chain of truth, which has continued from time to time, you asso- 
ciated with the greatest criminals In the country, taking their part and defending 
them. You refused to obey the order to administer the Sacrament of the Lord and 
did not dare to partake of it yourself. And in order that you may not plead igno- 
rance, a few out of many Instances shall be cited for you, as follows: 

On the 25th of September 16.39, having celebrated the Lord's Supper, observing 
afterwards in the evening a bright fire In the Director's house, whilst you were at 
Jacob van Curler's, being thoroughly drunk, you grossly abused the Director and 
Jochlm Pietersen, with whom you were angry, because the Director had asked 
something of you for said Jochlm Pietersen which you refused. (See aflBdavit in 
our possession.) 

Since that time many acts have been committed by you, which no clergyman 
would think of doing. In the hope that you would at least demean yourself in your 
oflBce in a christianlike manner, we have over looked those things until March 1643, 
when one Maryn Adrlaensen came into the Director's room with predetermined pur- 
pose to murder him. He was prevented and put in irons. Taking up the criminal's 
cause, you drew up his writings and defended him. He, notwithstanding, was sent 
to Holland In chains against your will. Whereupon you fulminated terribly for 
about fourteen days and desecrated even the puplt by your passion. In what man- 
ner you conducted yourself every evening during this time is known to your imme- 
diate neighbors. Finally, you made up friends with the Director, and things became 

In the year 1644, one Laurens Corneiissen being here — a man who committed 
perjury; once openly took a false oath and was guilty of theft — he Immediately 
found a patron In you, because he bespattered the Director with lies and you were 
daily making good cheer with him. In the summer of the same year, when min- 
ister Douthey administered the Lord's Supper in the morning, you came drunk into 
the pulpit in the afternoon; also on the Friday before Christmas of the same year, 
when you preached the sermon calling to repentance. 

In the beginning of the year 1645, being at supper at the Fiscal's where you ar- 
rived drunk, you commenced as is your custom, to scold your deacons and the Secre- 
tary, abusing among the rest deacon Oloff Stevensen as a thief, although he did 
not utter an ill word against you; whereupon the Director, being present, suggested 
to you in a kind manner, that it was not the place to use such language. As you 
did not desist, the Director finally said, that when you were drunk, you did nothlhg 
but abuse, and that you had been drunk on Friday when you went into the pulpit; 
that it did not become a minister to lead such a life, and to give scandal to the 
worthy congregation. 

Some days after, the Director not being able to attend church in consequence of 
indisposition, to wit on the 22ud January 1645, you abused him violently from the 
pulpit, saying " What else are the greatest In the land but vessels of wrath and 
fountains of evil, etc. Men aim at nothing but to rob one another of his property, 
to dismiss, banish and transport ". For this reason the Director absented himself 
from church, in order to avoid greater scandal; as he will maintain that he never 
coveted any man's property, or took it away, or acted unjustly, or banished any 
one who had not deserved three times severer punishment. Whomever he dis- 
missed was discharged because such was his prerogative, and he will vindicate hl9 
act In the proper quarter. It is none of your business. 



198 Ecclesiastical Records 

On the 21st March 1645, being at a wedding feast at Adam Brouwer's and pretty 
drunk, you commenced scolding the Fiscal and Secretary then present, censuring 
also the Director not a little, giving as your reason that he had called your wife a 

, though he said there that it was not true and that he never entertained such 

a thought, and It never could be proved. Wherefore on the 23rd March, we being 
moved by motives of mercy, and on account of the respect attached to your office 
Instead of prosecuting you, sent you a Christian admonition under seal, which you 
twice refused to receive. (See Report of the Messenger.) 

You administered the Lord's Supper at Easter and Whitsuntide without partak- 
ing of it yourself, setting yourself as a partisan; assuming that the Director had 
sent the Yoncker* and one lottho, meaning Lysbet the midwife, to you in order to 
seek a reconciliation, but that you would think twice before making peace with him; 
using similar language also to the Yoncker and Anthony de Hooges, as shall appear 
by credible witnesses. At the making of the peace, many words and means were 
used to break it off. Good effect was expected from the order which was sent to 
you to offer up prayers to the Lord, but instead of a prayer, people heard an in- 
vective, the tendency whereof was of dangerous consequences. Peace being con- 
cluded with the Indians, an extract from the order of the Lords States was sent 
to your Reverence, to return thanks to God on the 6th of September therefor. Your 
Reverence preached well and gave a good sermon, but throughout not a word was 
uttered about the peace, and though the day was appointed specially for that pur- 
pose, you offered no thanks to God for it, as the other clergymen who dwell within 
our limits have done with great zeal. By this, people can estimate your disposition 
towards the Company, by whom you are paid, and the welfare of the country; 
which disposition is also manifested by favoring those who have grossly defrauded 
and injured the Company; the conventicles and gatherings held and still daily con- 
tinued in reference thereto. 

On the 22nd of December, you said publicly, in the course of the sermon on re- 
pentance, that you have frequently administered the Lord's Supper, without par- 
taking of it yourself, and wished that those who are the cause of the trouble were 
dismissed, and when families are visited, they cannot give a reason, why they ab- 
sent themselves. Your bad tongue is in our opinion, the sole cause, and your stiff- 
neckedness, and those who encourage you in your evil course, the cause of its con- 
tinuance. We know no one but only you who has refused to make peace. When 
you make a visitation you do not enquire the reason of such absence if it be 

On the 24th of the same month, you remarked in your sermon, that in Africa, in 
consequence of the excessive heat, different wild animals copulate together, whereby 
many monsters are generated. But in this temperate climate, you knew not, you 
said, whence these monsters of men proceeded. They are the mighty but they 
ought to be made unmighty, who have many fathers and place their trust in the 
arm of the flesh, and not in the Lord. 

Children can tell to whom you here alluded. These and many similar sermons 
which you have often preached, have obliged us to remain away from church. 

Seeing that all this tends to the general ruin of the land, both in ecclesiastical 
and civil matters, to the disparagement of authority which your Reverence is bound 
by duty and also by your oath to support; to the stirring up of mutiny among the 
people, already split into factions; to schism and contention in the church, created 
by novel and unheard of customs, and to rendering us contemptible in the eyes of 
our neighbors, which things cannot be tolerated, when justice is accustomed to be 
maintained, therefore our bounden duty obliges us to provide therein, and by virtue 

• Adrian van der Donck. 

OF THE State of New York. 199 

of our commission from their High Mightinesses, His Highness, and the Lords 
Directors of the Incorporated West India Company, to proceed against you for- 
mally; and in order that the same may be done more regularly, we have commanded 
th.Tt a copy of this our Acte be delivered to you, to be answered in fourteen days, 
protesting that your Reverence shall be treated in as Christian and civil a manner 
as our conscience and the welfare of Church and State will permit. The 2nd of 
January 1646. 

1646, 4th of January. 

We have seen the writing dated third January last sent us by Bverardus Bogardus 
through the messenger, and found it futile and absurd and not an answer to the 
extract dated 2nd of January 1646, sent to said Bogardus. It is therefore ordered 
that said Bogardus shall give a pertinent answer to the contents of said extract, 
either affirmatively or negatively within the time therein mentioned, on pain of 
being prosecuted in court as a rebel and contumacious. 

Thus done in Council at Fort Amsterdam in New Netherland on the above date. 

On the l&L*i of January. 

We have seen a certain writing of Domine Bogardus sent us by the messenger, 
full of vain subterfuge, calumny, insult and profanation of God's holy word, to the 
disparagement of justice and his lawful superior, which he uses, as is his custom, 
to vent his passion and to cover up the truth, and is in no wise an answer to our 
charges and order sent him on the 2nd and 4th of January last. Therefore we order 
him a second time to answer it formally within fourteen days either negatively or 
afBrmatively on pain as above. 

On the first of February Anno 1646. 

Having seen the slanderous writing of Domine Bogardus purporting to be an an- 
swer to our charges, wherein he afiirms some and denies other points thereof, and 
demands proof. 

Ordered that the Fiscal shall give said Bogardus satisfaction as his party. 

On the 8th of March, 1646. 

Having seen the answer of Everardus Bogardus, minister, dated 8th of March, 
Ordered, if he has anything more to allege either against the witnesses or other- 
wise in the remainder of the suit, that he produce it within eight days, and at the 
same time specify the reason which the Honorable Director and Council gave him 
for abusing tliem from the chair of truth, and refusing to obey their order; In de- 
fault whereof the buit shall be proceeded with to proof, notwithstanding his subter- 
fuges. The 8th of March 1646. 

Whereas Domine Bogardus has not yet answered the papers sent to him on the 
8th of February, he is hereby ordered to answer them by the next court day, and 
show cause why he has calumniated the Magistrate from the Chair of Truth, and 
in his writing. 

Having seen the wriiing u;;tod the 15th of March 1640 sent b.v the messenger 
from Everardus Bogardus, minister, it is for the second time ordered that Deft, 
shall declare at the next session whether he has any more objections against the 
evidence and other points of the suit, and any other cause why he has calumniated 
the Director and Council in the Chair of Truth, and neglected their order. In 
default, the suit shall be despatched. 

Everardus Bogardus, minister, has delivered in Court an answer to the resolution 
of the 15th of March and previous dates, wherein he declares that he will not at 
present proceed further or deeper in the case, or with the evidence or remainder 
of the suit; and whereas he, Bogardus, has challenged the Director and Council as 
judges, although we, by virtue of the commission granted us by their High Mighti- 
nesses, his Highness, and the Honorable Lords Directors, are fully qualil3od to de- 



200 Ecclesiastical Records 

cide the case, as It concerns our oflBce and the authority of our superiors vested in 
us, Yet in order to obviate all occasion of scandal, we are willing to place our claim 
In the hands of impartial judges of the reformed religion, such as Domine Johannes 
Megapolensis, Mr. Douthey, both ministers, and two or three impartial members of 
this Province, provided Bogardus shall submit his case, as we do, to their judg- 
ment, and that he, in the meanwhile, shall not privately or publicly, directly or 
Indirectly, by abuse or calumny offend the Director and Council; and if, meanwhile, 
another Director and other Councillors arrive here, we are content to place the 
matter in their hands. On which he is ordered to communicate his resolution on 
the 12th of April next. 
Dated 22nd of March 1646 in Council in New Amsterdam. 

12 April Anno 1646. 

Having seen the answer of Everardue Bogardus, minister, dated the 12th of 

April, delivered In writing, whereby he refuses the civil offer made him on the 22nd 

of March last by the Director and Council, to submit the suit against him to two 

Reformed ministers and some impartial members of this country, but appeals to 

the coming of a new Director and Council; and whereas it Is uncertain what time a 

new Director will arrive; we cannot consequently neglect putting a stop to the 

disorder and scandals which have prevailed hitherto, but are resolved to proceed 

with the suit; we therefore order that an answer to his last writing delivered to 

us shall be sent to him, Domine Bogardus, within eight days, to be by him replied 

to for the last time on the 2eth of this month, in default whereof the case shall be 


nth of June. 

Whereas Oloff Stevensen, deacon and commissary of cargoes and the store, has 
presented a petition to us wherein he requests that four arbitrators may be named 
by us who might decide the difficulty which he has with Domine Everardus Bogar- 
dus, minister here, to which said Bogardus also consents, (see his writing delivered 
to us by him, Oloff): Therefore we do not object so to do, and hereby nominate 
Domine Megapolensis, Mr. de Hooges, Yoncker Adrlaen Verdonck and Laurens van 
Heusden, commissary, whom we amicably request, authorize and empower to de- 
cide and settle the aforesaid question as far as in their power lies, reserving the 
action which the Fiscal may have against Oloff Stevensen. 

Thus done in Fort Amsterdam the 11th of June Anno 1646. 

The Honorable Director and Council to you. Reverend Bogardus, minister here. 

Although the offer we have made your Reverence to submit our case to arbitra- 
tion, as you have requested, sufficiently proves the justice of our proceedings and 
the inclination we have for peace, as your refusal establishes the contrary; never- 
theless the respect we bear the dignity of the ministry, and the desire for your 
Reverence's welfare prompt [us] once more to seek it, seeing the opportunity that 
now presents itself on the part of those whom we had nominated thereto; From the 
ministers, Domine Johannes Megapolensis and Mr. Douthey, and such other Impar- 
tial members as you yourself will be willing to select; protesting in case of refusal 
that we shall proceed to judgment. And in order that we may with more fervour 
pray God in the midst of the congregation that He would dispose you and our hearts 
to a Christian concord, we request Domine Megapolensis may preach next Sunday, 
as has been always his custom, and being here make us partakers of the gifts with 
which God has blessed him. Your Reverence will please to gratify us so far in 
this matter as that we may hear him on that occasion. Relying thereon, and not 
doubting that your Reverence will have any objection to it seeing the justice of our 
request, we shall await your Reverence's immediate answer thereto, and on the 
preceding matter next Thursday, being the 14th of June. — Col. Docs. N. Y. xlv. 
69, 70, 71, 72, 73. 

OF THE State of New York. 201 

Classis of Amsterdam. 

Acts of the Deputies. 

1646, June 12th. 
Rev. Henry Rntelius in the Chair. 

The committee charged with calling a pastor for ]^ew I^ether- 
land, had written, for this purpose, to Rev. Cornelius Vander 
Poel, and Rev. Nicholas Ketelius. They requested their Rever- 
ences either to appear here in person to confer with us by word 
of mouth, or to make known their inclination in writing by June 
11th. But they did not arrive nor did any letter. It was there- 
fore resolved, since the matter is of a pressing nature, again to 
write to them, and to request a speedy reply. This the Clerk 
will do. XX. 163. 

Remonstrance [Memorial] to the XIX. 

Rev. Bantius was directed to draft these matters into a Remon- 
strance to be sent to the Hon. Messrs. XIX ; also to draft a let- 
ter to be sent to the churches in Brazil, xx. 154. 

John Walraven. 

1646, June 25th. 

John Walraven who was to be recommended as schoolmaster 
and voorleser to New Netherland appeared: The brethren, who 
presented him, related the experience which befell them before 
the Directors, namely; that the Directors, besides taking little 
pleasure in his writing, denied (lit. ignored) that they had given 
a commission to call a schoolmaster who should at the same time 
be a voorleser. Thereupon we reminded them, that Isaac van 
Beeck had recommended us thus to do. They then gave the 
affair again in commission to certain gentlemen of their Assembly. 
These informed us, in reply, that they were not accustomed to pay 
n schoolmaster; but if he wished to journey thither as Siecken- 
Trooster and voorleser and precentor in the church, that they 
would accept him as such. They would then consent also to 



202 Ecclesiastical Records 

maintain a school, and would give for this thirty six florins per 
month; and that he would have to get along on this. This being 
put before him, he declared that he was satisfied therewith, and 
woidd go thither in such capacity. Thereupon the Assembly 
resolved to examine him. In this examination, he bore himself 
in such fashion that the Assembly judged him to be fit to be em- 
ployed in said capacity, in the said locality. The Rev. Presi- 
dent and Clerk were thereupon commissioned to recommend him 
to the Messrs. Directors accordingly, xx. 154, 155. 

1646, June 25th. 
Rev. John Bantius in the Chair. 

The brethren. Revs. Cornelius Vander Poel and Nicholas Ke- 
telius appeared, in response to the letters addressed to them asking 
them whether they felt inclined to go as preachers to ISTew aSTether- 
land. Rev. Mr. Ketelius declared that he had a call to Moort in 
the Classis of the Gouw, and thanked the brethren for their kind 
interest. Rev, Mr. Vander Poel also declared that a call was 
opened to him, which he would lay before the Classis of Gor- 
chon on Monday, 25th inst. He did not know for a certainty, 
whether it would be approved; but if there were any difficulty 
in the matter, he would accept a call to ISTew Netherland. He 
also requested the brethren to wait for him until he had been 
before the Classis, and received this decision. As he has only 
partially engaged himself in this call, he would let us know the 
result by Tuesday or Wednesday, either by word of mouth, or 
by letter. His request was granted. The meeting also resolved, 
that should he appear in order to accept this call, the clerk, and 
the Rev. Mr. Rutelius shall request their Excellencies, the Di- 
rectors, to call him ; but in case he fail to appear. Rev. Mr. Cantius 
shall have an interview with John Hormansen van Til, at Wesop, 
who had previously requested to be examined and admitted to 
licensure by our Classis, and to ascertain if he were willing to go 
to New Netherland as pastor. Upon this we will take action 
hereafter, xx. 155. 

OF THE State of Xew York. 203 


ISTew ISTetherland. 

(1646, July 9.) 

The Rev. Depiitati ad res Indieas reported that the two breth- 
ren, Keteliiis and van der Poel have been called to churches here 
in this country, and that they cannot be made available for the 
church in Brazil or ISTew Netherland. xxxix. 141. 

Remonstrances to the XIX. 

1646, July 9th. 

A remonstrance [or Memorial] had been written on account 
of the distresses in the Church in the West Indies. It had been 
handed in to the Directors of the Assembly of the XIX, when 
convened in Zeeland. There had also been a communication sent 
to the church of Zeeland. iv. 391. 

Remonstrance to the XIX, (or to the Executive Committee of 
the West India Company; by the Classis of Amsterdam.) 

1646, July 9. 

Honorable, Wise, Prudent and Very (Estimable) Gentlemen : — 

Inasmuch as the Classis of Amsterdam has hitherto adjudged 
what is proper for the propagation of the Gospel and the salvation 
of men, not only in her own home districts, but also among the 
blind heathen, in lands under the jurisdiction of your Company, 
seeking to build them up in sound doctrine and in truth: and 
ever desirous to show also all due respect to your Honors : So that 
same Classis in more recent times, is still seeking these same ends 
in conjunction with your Company. Therefore, for the glory of 
God, and with the most cordial good wishes for the prosperity of 
your Company, she cannot neglect to make known to your Assem- 
bly (of the XIX) those things which (being detrimental?) she 
would rather have done by word of mouth. Nevertheless, because 
of distance, she finds herself compelled to do the same in writing, 
through her Deputies. The business consists principally of the 
following items: 


204 Ecclesiastical Eecoeds 

I. First of all, we do not doubt but that it is well known to you, 
how vigorously the churches in Brazil, both in their Acts and in 
their letters, as well as the Classis of Amsterdam through her 
Deputies, have hitherto complained of the licenses (for trade) 
granted by you to the Jews, who are the sworn enemies of our 
Lord Jesus Christ. "We perceive from the last Acts of (the Classis 
of) Brazil, in Article nineteen, if we understand it correctly, that 
no improvement, in regard to said licenses, has taken place; but 
in addition thereto — and which fact grieves us not a little — it 
has never hitherto been thought improper by the Hon. Company, 
to grant to the Jews such liberty. And we conclude therefrom, 
even as we also can gather from a certain concert (plan) concocted 
by the Committee of the XIX, Art. 1041, that the Jews have also 
been allowed the free exercise of their religion in Brazil, although 
under some limitations. We submit to your consideration how 
injurious such liberty granted to them, is to the Christian Re- 
ligion. For what else can the heathen, and the newly converted 
Christians in those regions conclude therefrom, than that our 
continued zeal for the doctrine and the glory of our Savior (is 
not sincere ?) ; besides, that Christianity and Judaism are not so 
incompatible and antagonistic to each other as would appear from 
the reading of the New Testament. Do we unite ourselves for 
gome temporary gain, with such a sect, which so completely scorns 
and slanders the Christian Religion ? and do we grant them free- 
dom ? What ! shall we keep silent on such a matter ? Can your 
Hon. Company expect it ? Does it not appear from the teaching 
of our Redeemer, Matt. 6:33, where He commands us to seek 
first the kingdom of God and his righteousness, and then promises 
us that all other things shall be added unto us — (that such union 
is wrong?) 

So also no pains have hitherto been spared either by ourselves 
or by the churches of Brazil, to show your Estimables what mani- 
fold acts of insolence spring up from your licensing Papists (to 
trade in Brazil ?) ; and what great misfortunes may be expected 

OF THE State of !N^e"w Yokk. 205 

therefrom. We learn not only that such licenses still exist, but we 
understand also, with pain of heart, from Art. 20, that the Hon. 
XIX have resolved that Papists shall continue to enjoy the exer- 
cise of their religion, as guaranteed to them by the compact. We 
consider that the connivance (by the authorities here) at the as- 
sembling of Papists here in Holland, to be the reason of their 
perseverance in their blindness. Therefore, we are of opinion, 
Hon. Gentlemen, and all pious ministers who have returned from 
Brazil agree with us therein, that by these grants of freedom to 
the Papists there, the door of their conversion has been closed. 
He who builds up with one hand and breaks down with the other, 
makes all his labor and expense come to naught. Let no one 
hold such opinion at his peril. Let it be your aim to stand for the 
exercise of no other religion (than the Reformed). All experience 
teaches the danger of allowing liberty to Papists. What concord 
hath Christ with Belial ? There can be as little agreement between 
them as between light and darkness; and we hold it as certain 
that unless your Assembly, (of the XIX), first and last, strive 
earnestly for the true God and against all the idolatries of the 
Papacy, God will arouse himself for the vindication of his own 
glory, and do battle for the same, and not to our profit. 

That your Estimables should imagine that you can keep their 
insolence within due bounds by placing some limitations on them 
(is a great mistake). Experience has already and for a long 
time, taught us, that the Papacy cares not for limitations, and 
keeps compacts made with it only so far as it suits them to main- 
tain them ; and all this is done under the pretext that faith need not 
be kept with heretics. 

If now your Estimables will please to take some notice of their 
own plans (concepts) for the year 1641, and what was considered 
satisfactory to them then ; they will discover from the Acts of 
the churches of Brazil, and especially from Art. 105 of the year 
1644, and from the Acts of some preceding years, what is the 
basis of these Articles, and that the most important ones of them 


206 Ecclesiastical Records 

have for a long time been disregarded by the Papists. And inas- 
much as, only recently, it was made as clear as day, how little 
one can depend on compacts made with Papists : — We trust that 
your Estimables, taking notice of their faithlessness, treacheiry, 
perjury, riot and the murders committed by them, will deny them 
in the future, all liberty, even in new territories which you con- 
quer. Also that you will take heed with more Christian zeal to 
the twelve grievances of the churches of Brazil, which are to be 
found in Article 42. And besides all this, in the execution of 
these things, take into proper consideration what is requested of 
the same (churches in Brazil,) which are to be found in Article 37. 
Por we judge that by these two suggestions, misfortunes experi- 
enced can be remedied, and future evils averted. 

II. In the second place, your Estimables are not unaware how 
earnestly the churches of Brazil complain of the great scarcity 
of ministers among them. Prom this circumstance they are still 
suffering, having obtained no redress to their complaints. The 
Gentlemen of the churches of Amsterdam have indicated to us, 
from time to time, that they were not at fault, but had at their 
charges a greater number of ministers than they needed to take, 
according to a certain equalization made among the (five) Cham- 
bers (of the West India Company). Furthermore the lack is 
becoming more severely felt. Furthermore, they show in Article 
49, that besides the English minister, and two ministers among 
the Brazilians there, jSTetherland ministers should re- 
main there ; yet of these, two were thinking of departing with the 
fleet, as appears from Art. 58. 

Your Estimables can and fairness, appreciate this 

complaint, to wit: That it is not possible for so few ministers to 
take care of so many places. Therefore we request with them, 
and in their behalf, that they may be provided as speedily as 
possible with a sufficient number of ministers, according to their 
request in Art. 61 ; and especially, that they may not be compelled, 
from the very necessity of the case, to make proponents and min- 

OP THE State of New Yoke. 20T 

isters for themselves. For this appears to have been done, ac- 
cording to Articles 1, 4, 44. For your Estimables can easily under- 
stand, that they are obliged there to take what they can. get, and 
not what they wish. 

We would also urge your Estimables to consider whether Guinea, 
where Meyndert Hendrickse occupies the pastorate, and has made 
a good beginning of a (congregation?) ought (not?) to be pro- 
vided once more with a good minister ? Besides there is the addi- 
tional request in Art. 45, in reference to schoolmasters and school- 
mistresses, for the instruction of youth in the principal localities. 

III. Thirdly, we cannot keep silence in regard to the govern- 
ment of the churches in Brazil. Those churches formerly requested 
from the Hon. XIX, and secured the right to divide the Classis 
into two Classes, with the ultimate design of forming a Synod 
with these two Classes. We cheerfully confess, Honorable Gen- 
tlemen, that we were not able to guess what object they had in 
view with such a plan ; much less could we see what apprehension 
(benefit?) they could hope therefrom. But we could easily see 
that instead, only discord and alienations would arise therefrom. 
And now they themselves begin to fear these same things. They 
are therefore themselves making request to restore their Assembly 
back into a single Classis, which is to be the highest ecclesiastical 
Assembly in Brazil. See Arts. Y, 8, 49. We trust that your Esti- 
mables will not deny them so small a matter as this. It will pro- 
duce no injustice, but promote better order, closer union among 
the ministers there, and fewer difficulties for your Hon. Com- 

Of a like nature is their request, to be allowed to correspond 
with all the different Provincial Synods in this country (Hol- 
land;) offering to send their (Ecclesiastical) Acts to all these 
Synods, upon condition of receiving copies of theirs in return. 
This action was taken in 1644, Art. 14. But such a course is 
not necessary, and would certainly be productive of harm. We 

208 Ecclesiastical Records 

have, therefore, for important reasons, strongly advised against 
such permission, as appears from Art. 24. 

But inasmuch as, according to Art. 52, it appears that they 
are determined to keep this matter open, (lit. to leave it in statu) 
until the decision of the Hon. XIX, shall reach them: There- 
fore it is our loving request, that your Estimables will he pleased 
to allow the former custom to continue, namely ; that the churches 
of your conquered territories, shall correspond only with those 
Classes, within whose boundaries the Chambers of the Companies 
are located ; for with such they are in closest communication, both 
as to order, and church government. For out of such a widely 
extended correspondence, nothing else could result than estrange- 
ment in different matters, and very tardy help for the churches. 
For gifts which are provided by many, would be slower than those 
which are provided by a few. 

And whereas it is sufficiently plain from their Ecclesiastical 
Acts, that they are now mostly inclined to correspondence with 
a single Synod (to correspondence on a single footing) ; and in- 
asmuch as, in Art. 63, they make request only for the Acts of the 
Synod of JSTorth Holland from 1640 to the present time (1046) ; 
and, inasmuch as, before 1640, the Acts of that Synod (of North 
Holland) were sent them, through the favor of your Estimables: 
So we request that the same may thus be continued to be sent, and 
which will furnish them all good aid in reference to matters of 
church government. 

IsTow all these things. Estimable, Wise and Prudent Gentlemen, 
which are also especially important, we feel that we must make 
known to your Estimables, in accordance with our commission. 
We lay them before your Estimables by these presents. This is 
done from a just zeal for the glory of God, and a sincere desire 
for the prosperity of your Hon. Company. We trust that your 
Estimables will regard them in no other light, and will receive 
them in the fear of the Lord; and that you will render your de- 
cision thereon, unto the glory of God's Holy l^ame and the best 

or THE State of jSTew York. 209 

interests of his Cliurch. We respectfully request that your Esti- 
mables will let the churches of Brazil know of your reply, long 
desired by them. 

Trusting to such a result, (lit., leaving ourselves to this), we, 
in the meantime, wish your Estimables the spirit of wisdom and 
prudence and courage in your burdensome and anxious affairs. 
We pray God to frustrate all evil machinations against your Hon. 
Company, and follow up your good decision with his pure and 
rich blessings; and that you may be a Wise Counselor for great 
success and prosperity, to the glory of his great ISTame, through 
Jesus Christ, iv. 391 ; xxxix. 141-143. 

Commission of Petek Stuyvesant as Director General of 
ISTew ISTethbrland. 

1646, July 28. 

From the Commissie-book of the States General in the Royal Ar- 
chives at the Hague. Commission for Petrus Stuyvesant as 
Director on the Coast of ISTew JSTetherland, as well as the Island 
of Curacoa, and the places thereupon depending. 

The States General of the United Netherlands to all those to 
whom these Presents shall come, or who shall hear them read, 
Health. BE IT KNOWN: Whereas We have deemed it ad- 
visable for the advancement of the affairs of the General Incor- 
porated West India Company, not only to maintain the trade and 
population on the coast of New Netherland and the places situate 
thereabout; also, the Islands Curacoa, Beimaire, Aruba and their 
dependencies, which have hitherto been encouraged thither from 
this country; but also to make new treaties and alliances with 
foreign princes and to inflict as much injury as possible on the 
enemy in his forts and strongholds, as well by sea as by land ; 
for which purposes it becomes necessary to appoint a person Di- 
rector; We, therefore, confiding in the probity and experience of 
Petrus Stuyvesant, formerly entrusted with Our affairs in, and 
the government of, the aforesaid Island of Curacoa and the places 


210 Ecclesiastical Records 

thereon depending, We, being well pleased with his services there, 
have commissioned and appointed, and by these presents do com- 
mission and appoint the said Petrus Stuyvesant, Director in the 
aforesaid countries of New !N^etherland, and the places thereunto 
adjoining, together with the aforementioned Islands of Curacoa, 
Beunaire, Aruba, and their dependencies; to administer, with 
the Council as well now as hereafter appointed with him, the 
said office of Director, both on water and on land, and in said 
quality, to attend carefully to the advancement, promotion and 
preservation of friendship, alliances, trade and commerce ; to di- 
rect all matters appertaining to traffic and war, and to maintain, 
in all things there, good order for the service of the United ITeth- 
erlands and the General West India Company; to establish regu- 
larity for the safeguard of the places and forts therein ; to admin- 
ister law and justice as well civil as criminal; and, moreover, to 
perfonn all that concerns his office and duties in accordance with 
the Charter, and the general and particular instructions herewith 
given, and to be hereafter given him, as a good and faithful 
Director is bound and obliged, by his oath in Our hands to do; 
Which done. We, therefore, order and command all other officers, 
common soldiers, together with the inhabitants and natives resid- 
ing in the aforesaid places as subjects, and all whom it may con- 
cern, to acknowledge, respect and obey the said Petrus Stuyvesant 
as Our Director in the countries and places of New Netherland, 
and in the Islands of Curacao, Beunaire, Aruba, and their de- 
pendencies, and to afford all help, countenance and assistance in 
the performance of these things, as We have found the same to be 
for the advantage of the Company. Done in Our Assembly at 
the Hague, on the xxviii. July, 1646. — Col. Docs. i. 178. 

Acts of the Classis of Amsteedam. 


1646. There were read by Rev. Mourcourtius the extracts re- 
garding the affairs of the East and West Indian Churches, which 

OF THE State of New York. 211 

will be exhibited at the next meeting of Synod, iv. 394; xxxix. 

Acts of the Deputies. 

Rev. Simon Welmerdonckius in the Chair. 

1646, July 28th. 

Whereas the two ministers, Revs. Ketelius and Van der Poel, 
have declined accepting the proposed calls to I^ew IsTetherland, 
both having received calls in this country, and have returned 
their thanks to our Assembly; and as it has been understood from 
their Excellencies, the Directors, that they will inquire of Rev. 
Mr. Bogardus, who is still over there, whether he is not vailing 
to remain: therefore the Assembly postpones this subject for the 
present, xx. 157. 

Synod of ISTgrth Holland, at Amsterdam. 
Art. 22. Plan as to East and West India Affairs. 

1646, Aug. 7 et seq. 

Regarding Art. 20 (1645), touching the Plan as to the East 
and West India Affairs: It is understood that the Rev. Synod 
of Gelderland does not as yet accept that Plan; the Synod of 
Utrecht accepts it, with the reservation that they may retain the 
privilege of themselves directly presenting and recommending 
ministers and siekentroosters to the Messrs. Directors. Those 
of the Synod of Friesland, who heretofore were in harmony with 
us, or at least acquiesced, now put forward the same obstacle as 
those of the Synod of Utrecht. The Rev. Synod of Overyssel 
persists in its former complaint, with especial protest against 
all misfortunes which might arise on this account. Those of 
the Synods of Groningen and Ommelanden, agreed before to the 
Plan, and hold to it yet. Whereupon it was resolved to take up 
this whole subject ad notam, and to inform the several Classes of 
our Synod thereof, in order to see what further action must be 
had in this matter; meantime the Rev. Deputati of our S}Tiod shall 


212 Ecclesiastical Records 

also commimicate tlie same to the Eev. Deputati of South Hol- 
land; and the Rev, Brethren ad correspondentias shall be charged 
on this point to insist with all earnestness before the Synods ob- 
jecting, and seek to induce them vnih good arguments, so that 
by all means the proposed Plan may be accepted by all. 

Article 23. 

Arrived there (Brazil) Rev. Henricus Hermannius, minister 
of Greuningen. Siekentroosters sent: Abraham Henrixse Duy- 
senpoort, to Brazil; John Walraven, as siekentrooster and school 
master to New Netherland. 

Those of Hoom had nothing to report at present. 

Those of Enkhuysen had only this; that by their Rev. Classis 
had been sent during the current year, as Krankenbesoeker, to 
Brazil, Eranciscus Henrixsen Huppelen. 

ISTew ISTetherlaxd, Coverhstg the Years 1641-1646. 

[This covers six years in the latter part of the ministry of Rev. Everardua 
Bogardus, 1633-1647. — From the Journal of New Netherland.] 

There is first given a description of the country, as to its location, geographical 
features, climate, animals, and native inhabitants. Concerning the natives, the 
following is said: 

" The Indians are of ordinary stature, strong and broad shouldered; olive color, 
light and nimble of foot, subtle in disposition, of few words, which they previously 
well consider; hypocritical, treacherous, vindictive, brave and pertinacious in self 
defense; in time of need, resolute to die. They seem to despise all the torments 
that can be Inflicted on them, and do not utter a single moan; they go almost 
naked, except a flap which hangs before their nakedness; and on their shoulders 
a deer skin, or a mantle, a fathom square, of woven turkey feathers, or of peltrlea 
sewed together; they make use now generally of blue or red (duffels), in conse- 
quence of the frequent visits of the Christians. In winter they make shoes of 
deer skin, manufactured after their fashion. Except their chiefs, they have gen- 
erally but one wife whom they frequently change according to caprice; she must 
do all the work, plant corn and cut wood, and attend to whatever else is to be 
done. The Indians are divided Into various nations. They differ even in language, 
which would be altogether too long to be related in this brief space. They dwell 
together, mostly from friendship, in tribes commanded by a chief, who Is the 
General, and usually called Sackema; he does not possess much authority and 
but little distinction, unless in their dances and other ceremonies. They have 
hardly any knowledge of God; no Divine Worship, no law, no justice; the strongest 
does what he pleases, and the young men are masters. Their weapons are the 
bow and arrow, in the use of which they are wonderful adepts. Hunting and 
flshiug, in addition to the maize which the women plant, furnish them food." 

Then follows a General Review of the Dutch Colony from 1623-1641; by whom,. 
and how, it was peopled. 

OF THE State of Xew Yoek. 213 

" The subjects of the Lords States General, had frequented this country a long 
time ago, solely for the purpose of the fur trade. Since the year 1623, the In- 
corporated West India Company caused four forts to be erected, two on the River 
Mauritius, and one on each side of the others; the largest, which their Honors 
named New Amsterdam, stands on the point formed by the Mauritius and the 
other river already mentioned; six and thirty (Dutch) miles higher up, is another 
fort called Orange; that on the South river is named Nassau w; and that on the 
Fresh r'ver, the Good Hope; in which the Company hath since continually main- 
tained garrisons. In the beginning, their Honors sent thither a certain number 
of settlers, and caused to be erected at great expense, three saw mills, which never 
realized any profit of consequence, on account of their great charge; a great deal 
<of money was also expended for the advancement of the country, but it never 
began to be settled until every one was permitted to trade with the Indians, inas- 
much as, up to that time, no one calculated to remain there longer than the ex- 
piration of his bounden time, and therefore did not apply himself to agriculture; 
yea, even the Colonic of Renselaerswyck was of little consequence. But as soon 
as the ti'ade was opened, many servants who had prospered under the Company 
applied for their discharge, built houses and formed plantations, spread themselves 
far and wide, each seeking the best land, and to be nearest to the Indians, in order 
thus to trade with them advantageously; others bought sloops with which to sell 
goods at the north and at the south, and as the Directors gave free passage from 
Holland thither, that also caused many to come. On the other hand, the English 
came both from Virginia and New England, on account of the good opportunity 
to plant tobacco here; first, divers servants, whose time had expired; afterwards, 
families, and finally, entire colonies, having been forced to quit that place. In 
order to enjoy freedom of conscience, and to escape from the insupportable gov- 
ernment of New England; and because many more commodities were to be ob- 
tained here and there; so that in place of seven bouweries and two and three 
plantations which were here, thirty bouweries were to be seen as well cultivated 
and stocked as in Europe, (and) one hundred plantations which, In two or three 
(years) would become regular bouweries; for after the tobacco was out of the 
ground, corn was planted there without ploughing, and the winter was employed 
preparing new lands. The English colonies had settled under us by patent on 
equal terms with the others. Each of these was In appearance not less than one 
hundred families strong, exclusive of the Colonic of Reusseiaerswyck, which is 
prospering, with that of Myndert Meyndcrtsz and Cornells Melyn, who began first. 
Also the village of New Amsterdam around the fort, one hundred families, so fhat 
there was appearance of producing supplies in a year for fourteen thousand souls, 
without straightening the country, and had there not been a want of laborers or 
farm servants, twice as much could be raised, considering that fifty lasts of rye 
and fifty lasts of peas were still remaining around the fort, after a large quantity 
had been burnt and destroyed by the Indians, who in a short time quickly brought 
this country to nought and had well nigh destroyed this bright hope, in the manner 

Then comes an account of the Causes and Consequences of the New Netherland 
War; pages, 181-8. (For this, see also O'Callaghan and Brodhead.) A series of 
papers followed this, marked from A to R, relating to the condition of New 
Netherland, 1643-1G47. Among these occur several series of questions, under M., 
addressed to different officials, about the origin of the War. The following were 
addressed to Domlne Bogardus: 

Interrogatories for the Reverend Everardus Bogardue, Minister of the flock of 
Jesus Christ here on the Manhatans. p. 200. 

Article 1. 

Was not your Reverence in the room with the late Director General Kleft when 
the three men, namely, Maryn Adriaensen, Jan Claessen Daom, and Abram 


214 Ecclesiastical Records 

Planck, presented their petition respecting the demand for the war against the 

Article 2. 
Is the conversation between Mr. Kieft and the three men on that occasion still 
fresh In your Reverence's memory? 

Article 3. 
Can he, the witness, conscientiously and solemnly declare before God, verbally 
or In writing, all that then transpired in the room, between these five persons, 
respecting the War? — Doc. Hist. N. Y. iv. 4-11; Col. Docs. N. Y. i. 179-188. 

Order Directing the Rev. Everardus Bogardus to deliver to the Council a Bill of 
Exchange, given by the Swedish Governor at the South River for goods sold 
there by one Sandelyn contrary to Law. Sept. 21, 1646. 

Whereas the Honorable Director General and Council of New Netherland have 
received certain Information, that Jacob Evertsen Sandelyn, master of the Ship 
" Scotch Dutchman " has, without order and commission from the Incorporated 
West India Company, Department of Amsterdam, come into the South River of 
New Netherland with the aforesaid ship and there sold a parcel of duffel cloth 
and other goods to the Swedish Governor, for which he has received from said 
Governor a bill of exchange amounting to the sum of twenty five hundred guilders, 
which bill of exchange and letter of advice have been handed by Laurens Laurensen 
from Vleckeren to Everardus Bogardus, minister here, to be transmitted to Holland 
and whereas this tends to the great prejudice of the Company and the serious 
injury of this country. We therefore hereby order said Bogardus to deliver up 
immediately into our hands the abovementioned bill handed him by Laurens 
Laurensen or to declare into whose hands he has delivered it. In default thereof 
said Bogardus shall be held responsible for all damages and losses, which the 
Honorable Company shall suffer hereby and be considered an accessory of those, 
who endeavour to defraud the Honorable Company of its revenue and seek to ruin 
the country. 

Thus done in Council in Fort Amsterdam In New Netherland, the 21st of Sep- 
tember Anno 1646.— Col. Docs. N. Y. xil. 26, 27. 


1646, May 16. 

Father Jogues remained but a few months in his native country. On his return 
to Canada, he was commissioned by the Governor of that province to proceed to 
the Mohawks, to congratulate that tribe on the conclusion of a recently negotr&ted 
treaty. He sat out with some Indians for the scene of his former sufferings in com- 
pany with Sleur Bourdon, royal engineer, and arrived on the festival of Corpus 
Christi, at Lake Andiatorocte, to which, in honor of the day, he gave the name of 
the Lake of the Blessed Sacrament. Embarking, soon after, on the waters of 
Ologue, (" called by the Dutch the River Mauritius,") they at length arrived at 
Fort Orange, June 4, where they were most hospitibly received, and after a short 
sojourn proceeded to Oneugioure. the first castle of the Mohawks. Presents were 
here exchanged in ratification of the peace; the French received every assurance 
of future welcome, and took their leave June 16, much gratified at the friendly 
manner In which they had been treated. 

Encouraged now by the hope that a way was at length open for the light of 
Christianity. Jogues again returned to the Mohawk country. Superstition, the hand- 
maid of ignorance, was busy in the meantime arousing the prejudice of the savages 
against him. At his departure in June he left with his hosts, as a guarantee of his 
return, a small box containing some necessaries for which he should have occasion. 

/-''// 4 1 

Fathku Isaac Jogues. 



TlLOaN FOU^;D^T10^i3. 

OF THE State of New York. 215 

sickness unfortunately broke out during his absence among the tribe, and the worm 
destroyed their harvest. They became now convinced that he had left the Evil One 
in that box, and on his re-appearance among them, they stripped him of his clothing, 
Oct. 17, beat him with heavy clubs, and, as he was entering a wigwam to supper, 
he was treacherously felled with an axe, his head cut off and stuck on the palisades, 
and his sainted body flung into the river, Oct. 18. The Mohawk country is known 
since In Catholic annals as " The Mission of the Martyrs."* — O'Callaghan, ii. 299, 

Note of Hand to the Deacons of the Church of Rensselaerswyck, Anno 1647. 

I, the undersigned, Anthonie de Hooges, have, on the part of the Noble Patroon 
of the Colonie Rensselaerswyck, borrowed from the Diaconie of the aforesaid 
place, for the term of one year, to be repaid in cash, at the option of the lenders, 
with ten per cent interest per annum, the sum of three hundred guilders in seawan, 
whereof one hundred and twenty is in ordinary seawan, promising thankfully to 
produce at the aforesaid time, in stated specie aforesaid, to the Diaconie of the 
aforesaid place. In testimony whereof, have I subscribed this Acte with mine 
own hand. Actum R. Wyck, 9tb May, 1647.— O'Caliaghan's History of New 
Netherland, Vol. i. 471. 

♦ Relation, 1645-6., 59; lb. 1647., 6, 7, 125, 127, 128; Creuxius, 457. Father Jogneft* 
Missal, Ritual, and a few of his clothes, were afterwards presented by the savages 
to the Rev. Mr. Megapolensie. 



216 Ecclesiastical Records 


May 11, 1647 — 1664, Sept. 5. 

Resignation of Rev. Evekaedus Bogakdus. 

Note of Valentine on Bogardus. — Everardus Bogardus, domine, the first estab- 
lished clergyman In this city, arrived here in 1633. A church, constructed of wood, 
was erected for him on the present north side of Pearl street, between Whitehall 
and Broad streets. This edifice being exposed to an assault, should the Indians 
surprise the community while at their devotions, was abandoned in the time of the 
Indian War of 1642, at which time a church was erected within the walls of the 
fort, where Domine Bogardus afterwards officiated. He married in this city the 
widow of Roelof Jansen, one of the earliest settlers. This lady owned, in right of 
her former husband, a farm on the North river, in the neigljborhood of the present 
Canal street, containing sixty two acres, which had been granted to Mr. Jansen Jn 
1638. At the time of her marriage to Domine Bogardus she had four children, and 
by Domine Bogardus she had also four children. This farm was, in the year 1671, 
conveyed by the heirs, with the exception of one of her sons, Cornelius, to Governor 
Lovelace, and became afterwards the property of Trinity Church. Her son Cor- 
nelius, not having joined in the conveyance, his heirs claim one eighth interest In 
this valuable property, which has been the subject of litigation for many years, and 
is well known as the "Anneke Jans' suit ". The residence of Domine Bogardus in 
this city was on the present V/hitehall street, east side, between Bridge and Stone 
streets. Having embarked on board the ship Princess in the year 1647, on a visit 
to his fatherland, the vessel was cast away on the English coast, and Mr. Bogardus, 
with more than eighty others, perished. He was succeeded in the pastoral charge of 
the Dutch congregation in this city by the Rev. Johannes Backerus. It was to be re- 
marked that the original name of the family was Bogart or Bogaert, the termina- 
tion us, assumed by him being then a common custom among clergymen and other 
professors of learning, as giving a classical distinction to the ordinary name. The 
name of his successor was originally " Backer ", or it would be called In English, 
the Rev. John Baker. Subsequently, in this city, the Rev. Messrs. Megapolensis, 
Drlseius, Sellnus and others, held the pastoral charge of the congregation. — Valen- 
tine's New York, pp. 131-133. 


Note of O'Callaghan on the times. — " Where the shepherd errs the sheep 
go astray." Drunkenness and broils were of common occurrence. The people were 
" without discipline, and approaching to a savage state." " A fourth part of the 
city of New Amsterdam consisted of grogshops and houses where nothing Is to be 
got but tobacco and beer." Religion and education felt the baneful effects of these 
evil influences. The church which had been commenced in 1642, remained still un- 
finished, as if the country were without timber or a sawmill. The Director General 
being distressed for money, applied to his own use the fines and forfeitures which 
had been appropriated to aid the completion of this sacred edifice.* 

In the meanwhile no efforts were made to convert the heathen, between whom 
and the settlers an unlicensed intercourse generally prevailed. And, though a col- 
lege had been founded in Massachusetts some nine years before, the authorities of 

• Alb. Rec. 11.. 160, 190, 262, 369; Iv., 1; vil., 2S, 29, 38, 300. Van der Donck's Ver- 
toogh, c. xi. Wei is waer dat den Directeur Kieft, verlegen synde om gelt, in syn 
buys hadde hangen een bos, daer de Dlakenen een sleutel van hadden, daerln alle 
cle'yne breuken en boeten, die op de rechtdagen voor vielen gesteken waren; met 
kennisse van de diaconen heeft geopent, en 't ^'elt dat een moye somme was, op 
intresr genomen. — Van Tienhoveu Cort Bericht. 

OF THE State of ISTew York. 217 

New Netherland made little or no effort, up to this time, to establish a common 
primary school In any part of this country. Some subscriptions had been entered 
into by the commonalty for the purpose of erecting a school-house In New Amster- 
dam, but their funds were also misappropriated, and this laudable undertaking 
failed in consequence. 

Such was the state of disorganization into which the public affairs had fallen, 
when General Petrus Stuyvesant assumed the government of New Netherland. — 
O'Callaghau's History of New Netherland, Vol. 1. 395, 396. 

Death of Rev. Everardus Bogardus. 


Having thus triumphed, and achieved what he considered ample vengeance over 
his enemies, Kleft prepared to depart for Fatherland. The Rev. Everardus Bogar- 
dus had already resigned his office as pastor of New Anasterdam, and had obtained 
permission to return home, and Fiscal Van der Huyghens was about to accompany 
his late chief. They embarlied in the Princess, Kleft taking with him specimens 
of his tested minerals, and a cargo estimated at twenty thousand pounds. On the 
passage home, the mariners mistook the channel, entered the Severn, and were cast 
away on the coast of Wales, near Swansea. Eighty one souls, men, women, and 
children, perished in that unfortunate vessel, and of the cargo nothing was saved 
but a few furs. " I told Wlliem Kieft," said De Vries, in 1643, " that I doubted 
not that vengeance for the Innocent blood which he had shed in his murderings, 
would, sooner or later, come on his head." This prophecy was fulfllleu with awful 
precision, overwhelming alike friend and foe, the innocent and the guilty. Kleft, 
Van der Huyghens, and Bogardus perished in this dreadful shipwreck; the last 
mentioned leaving a widow and a large family to lament his loss. 

A misfortune so terrible, might be expected to have excited sympathy and sorrow 
In all hearts. But strange as it may seem, all looked upon Kieft's death as an act 
of retributive justice. In New England, it was considered " that the solemn provi- 
dence of God had appeared therein, to bear witness against those who had so many 
years injured his own people in those parts, which some could not pass by without 
due acknowledgment and observation." He sunk into his watery grave, unlamented 
even by those in whose service he had passed ten years, who now were of opinion, 
that it had been better had he been obliged, by himself or his friends, to Justify 
h!s conduct. 

The vacancy created in the ministry, by the retirement of Domine Bogardus, wa3 
flUed by the appointment of the Rev. Johannes Backerus, formerly pastor at Cura- 
coa. The salary of this clergyman was one hundred guilders per month, and two 
hundred guilders per annum for board, a stipend equal to five hundred and sixty 
dollars. With all this he was still unwilling to remain. He had, therefore, the 
promise that another minister should be appointed in his place, if his Indisposition 
to remain In the county continued. But If the Director should not deem his removal 
advisable, then his allowance for board was to be increased. — O'Callaghan's His- 
tory of New Netherland, Vol. 11. 34, 35, 36. 

Note on Annetje Jans, widow of domine Bogardus. — Annetje Jans, widow of 
Domine Bogardus, survived her husband nearly sixteen years. She died In Bever- 
wyck, in 1663. She had by her first marriage, Sarah RoeloCfsen, (who married Sur- 
geon Hans Kierstede;) Catrlna Roeloffsen, (who married Johannes Van Burgh;) 
Fytje Roeloffsen, (who married Pieter Hartgers;) and one son, Jan, unmarried 
at his mother's death. By her second husband, she had Willem, Cornells, 
Jonas, and Pieter Bogardus. All her property real and personal, was by 
will, (dated 29th January, 1663, and of record In the original Dutch in Albany,) 
divided equally among her children, on condition that the four first named should 
receive one thousand guilders from the proceeds of the farm which she owned on 
the North River, Manhattan Island. This farm, called " the Domlne's Bowerv." 
contained sixty two acres, and was granted originally to Roeloff Jansen, in 1636, 



218 Ecclesiastical Recoeds 

conflriued to his widow and heirs in 1654, and again to the latter, in 1667. On the 
9th March, 1671, Wlllem Bogardus, for himself and brothers, Jan and Jonas, and 
two of Annetje Jans' sons-in-law, (acting in right of their wives, and by assignment 
of Peter Bogardus,) conveyed this Bowery to Col. Francis Lovelace, then Governor 
of New York, from whom, it is inferred, the title passed to the Duke of York and 
the Crown, after which, it formed part of what was, successively, called " the 
Duke's Farm," " the King's Farm," and " the Queen's Farm." In the year 1705, 
this last was conveyed by Letters Patent, under the great seal of the province, to 
the Corporation of Trinity Church, New York, in whose possession it has since, for 
the most part, been. The Bogardus Farm, or the Domine's Bowery, extended from 
a line a little south of the present Warren Street, forming an irregular triangle, 
having its base on the River, running, however, along Broadway, only from Warren 
to Duane. Cornells Bogardus, third son of Annetje Jans, not having been a party 
to the conveyance to Governor Lovelace, his heirs claim a share of this extensive 
property; the prosecution of which has formed t&e subject of various, though un- 
successful suits In Chancery against the Church. (Paige's Chan. Reports, iv. 178; 
Opinion of the Hon. Vice Chan. Sanford in re Bogardus et al. vs. Trinity Church; 
New York, 1847, 8vo. pp. 40.) The Rev. Domine Bogardus held a tract of land also 
on the north side of Mespath's Kill, L. I., which went by the name of " Domine's 
Hook." The heirs sold this farm in 1668, to one John Sharp, for seven thousand 
nine hundred and fifty guilders. — O'Callaghan's History of New Netherland, Vol. 
il. 35. 

Synod of North Holland, at Hoorn. 

Art. 17. East and West India Affairs. 

1647, Aug. 12 et seq. 

Regarding tlie twenty second article, (1646) reciting at leng-th 
the Plan as to the East and West Indian Affairs, as well as the 
acceptance of it by other corresponding Synods, it was under- 
stood after an elaborate explanation (openinge) that we will for 
reasons abide by the said Plan. Meantime we will try to induce 
all the objecting Synods to accept of the said Plan, at some time 
or other. 

(The following item relating to Brazil is important because 
about this time (1647) Dutch authority and colonizing was break- 
ing up there, by reason of Portugal's restoration as an independ- 
ent Kingdom ; and the scattering of churches and preachers must 
have had a bearing on ecclesiastical events in New Netherland.) 

Art. 39. West Indies. 

Extracts from a letter from Brazil, June 10th, 1646. 

They complain greatly of the great burdens and anxiety which 
they have suffered during this revolt, (the return of the Portu- 
guese to power.) 

OF THE State of Xew York. 219 

Thej show by what sort of management they have acquitted 
themselves in the support of poor and ailing persons. They 
request also that some aid be given to the poor Bra2dlians, who 
gave them good assistance during this war: and that a collection 
should be taken up for that purpose, to be sent over at the earliest 
opportunity, in order to recompense the loyalty of the Brazilians, 
to encourage them in the faith, and to keep them friendly. They 
request grave (deftige) ministers, particularly, to be employed 
in the church on the SeciCe. 

They have united their two Classes into one, and request the 
approval thereof by the gentlemen of the Nineteen. 

This past year, on account of the troubles, neither ministers nor 
siekentroosters have been sent thither. 

Art. 41. Rev. Grasmeer; Graftdyck. 
Rev. William Grasmeer, minister at Graftdyck, with his elder, 
showed the pressing necessity for the building of their preach- 
ing-houses or churches, in two distant neighborhoods. He re- 
quests of this Synod favor and recommendation to the several 
Classes for the furtherance of so pious a work. At the same 
time a statement was made as to the special work of edification 
there^, through the blessing of the Lord, in a very zealous, al- 
though a newly organized church. Also its condition of poverty, 
but none the less its liberality towards the said work were also 
learned; and also that the churches of the Classis of Alkmaer, 
to which it belongs, has generously contributed their share. 
Wherefore it was unanimously agreed by the several Classes to 
recommend this request favorably, to each church within its o^vn 
bounds, and as far as in them lies, to facilitate it. 

Classis of Amsterdam. 
Acts of the Deputies. Points for Remonstrance [or Memorial.] 

1647, Sept. 16th. 
The points were read which will be laid before the Assemblies 
of the XVIT and XIX. The matter shall be attended to by Rev. 
Wilmerdonck and the Clerk. 



220 Ecclesiastical Eecoeds 

The points to form the basis of Eemonstrance to the East 
India Company, or the XVII, are as follows: 


Whereas the lack of ministers in the East Indies is great, and 
next year six are about to depart thence, whose years of engageh 
ment have expired: It is therefore requested by the Classis of 
Amsterdam in the name of the Churches in the East Indies, that 
a good and sufficient number of ministers may still be sent thither, 
who could serve the churches in the Indies unto their further up- 
building in Christianity. 


And in order the better to induce the ministers who have some 
inclination to go thither, it is requested in the name of our 
Classis: That the widows of ministers who die in the employ of 
the Messrs. Directors may be provided with a certain amount 
of salary during their condition as widows. 


Inasmuch as nothing is more favorable to edification among 
populations of foreign tongues, than that ministers make rather 
a prolonged stay in foreign lands, in order not only that they 
may learn the languages, but may perform evident and recog- 
nizable good ser\dces among them: We therefore suggest to 
the Hon. Gentlemen, whether the best means thereunto be not 
these: That the ministers in the East Indies be given such 
salaries that they would not only be glad to stay there for five 
years, but even for ten years, or more; that thus they might joy- 
fully and eagerly perform the duties of their office there. Such 
salary (inducements?) we judge to consist not only in this, that 
they are honorably recognized, in accordance with the admonition 
of Paul in 1 Thess. 5:12; "We besceech you, brethren, to know 
(recognize) them which labor among you, and are over you in 
the Lord, and admonish you; and to esteem them very highly in 

OF THE State of E^ew Yoek. 221 

love for their work's sake"; but, in addition, that they shall not 
be compelled to adjust themselves to another form of church 
government than that which they have here in this country. 
For they should be one with us, as in doctrines so in government. 
And, finally, that they be not disappointed in the expectation of 
those conditions, which, besides the building up of the Church 
of God, have invited them thither; namely, that they shall find 
yonder a free dwelling, or at least sufficient housing, monthly 
payments, and all such things as make their salary full and 


The Rev. Vertrecht, minister at Banda, exhibits the hope of 
edification among the people of the newly discovered islands to 
the east and south of Banda. Request is accordingly made that 
religion may be planted there, and that Rev. Vertrecht be em- 
ployed for the furtherance of that important work. 


The Consistory of Batavia complains of the great necessities 
of the poor there, and requests that the legacies made for the 
poor at Batavia may be exhibited, (spread out) and that they 
may come safely to hand. 


Requests are to be made for some books which may be useful 
in the churches and schools; indicating also the list (register) to 
be sent over: 

Also certain books which might be printed, or be reprinted, 
as follows: 

1. Some Psalms in Malay; some in Portuguese, as arranged by 
Abraham Rogerin, sent over in the year 1644. 

2. The question book of Aldegonde, and the Small Cate- 
chism; to which were added by Mr. Biers the passages in the 
scriptures, translated into Portuguese, sent over in Anno 1645. 

3. The Malay Postilla, entitled " Amput Bias ", sent over in 

164 r 


222 Ecclesiastical Eecoeds 

4. That the " Dictionariiim Danskar " be reprinted; and that 
Rev. Hurmius be requested to add some " vocabula " to it. 


That Rev. Cornelius Geeftdoop, proponent in Sacred Theology, 
is inclined to employ his gifts in the service of God's Church 
in the East Indies; but as he is rather young yet, and ought to 
have some more study for preaching, the Hon. Messrs. Directors 
are to be asked, if for a year or two he may not enjoy some sub- 
sidy, so as to carry his studies to further increase and maturity 
and then let him be employed as minister in the East Indies, xx. 
183, 185. 

Points for the West India Company, the XIX. 

The following are the points, which shall be made the basis 
of a remonstrance (or Memorial) to the West India Company. 


Inasmuch as the number of ministers in Brazil, both by reason 
of death and of departure to the Fatherland, has greatly de- 
creased; and also many of the Siecken-Troosters have gone away; 
that request be made for a larger number of ministers, and five 
or six more good men as Krankbezoekers. 


That in the Classis of Brazil, which now by order of the 
Assembly of the XIX is no longer to be called a Synod, but only 
a Classis, the session of " Politicals " therein may cease, in ac- 
cordance with the practice of all the Classes in the Fatherland; 
and that this continue until the churches increase, and are divided 
into several Classes, and a Synod be organized out of these: in 
this Synod, then, even as in the home country the High Author- 
ity (civil power) may have its seat. 


As correspondence with all the Synods is impracticable, and 
the Classis of Brazil now judges, Art. 9, session 3, that it would 

OF THE State of 'N'ew York. 223 

be harmful to its churches; request is to be made not to accede 
to such a proposal of correspondence. 


Eequest is to be made that the Acta of the jSTorth Holland 
Synod, from the year 1640 down, as desired by the Kev. Breth- 
ren in Brazil, be copied, and sent to them, at the charges of the 


That the Jews be checked in their insolence, and the Papists 
in their liberty; referring to the 2nd Article, session 7, and the 
3rd Article, session 9. 


That the church on the Recife, [Part of the Capital of Brazil,] 
has need of an English preacher, unless the brethren of Zeeland 
have already provided for this: request is also made for a preacher, 
who can officiate in the German and French languages. 


Rev. James Burg, minister at San Paulo Loando, asks for his 
dismissal because the years of his engagement have expired. 
This has been granted him by the Classis. The Hon. Gentlemen 
are requested to consent to the looking out for another minister 
in his place who may be sent thither. 


Also that Guinea, where now for three years no minister has 
been, may be provided with a good minister. 


That the Brazilians, faithful servants of the Company, be given 
money, (subsidized,) and be offered the helping hand, both by 
the Company, and by the other Classes, in their necessities and 
impoverished nakedness, xx. 185, 186. 



224 Ecclesiastical Records 

Election" of the IsTine Representatives. 
Extract from Stiiyresant's Charter as to Religions. 

1647, Sept. 22. 

" Whereas, We desire nothing more than that the government of New Nether- 
land, entrusted to our care, and principaily New Amsterdam, our capital and 
residence, might continue and increase in good order, justice and police, population, 
prosperity and mutual harmony, and be provided with strong fortifications, a 
church, a school, trading place, harbor and similar highly necessary public edifices 
and improvements, for which end We are desirous of obtaining the assistance of 
our whole commonalty, as nothing is better adapted to promote their own welfare 
and comfort, and as such is required in every well regulated government. 

I. As good and faithful Interlocutors and Trustees of the Commonalty, they 
shall endeavor to exert themselves to promote the honor of God, and the welfare 
of our dear Fatherland, to the best advantage of the Company, and the prosperity 
of our good citizens; to the preservation of the pure Reformed Religion as it here, 
and in the Churches of the Netherlands, is inculcated. — O'Callaghan's History of 
New Netherland, Vol. ii. 37, 38. 

Memorial to the XIX. 

1647, Oct. 28th. 

These points which are memorialized to the Assembly of the 
XIX, and the resolutions required; also those things which are 
resolved by both the East and West India Companies, — are to 
be taken in copies. These are to be inserted in the Classical 
book, and the principal points shall be annexed to the East and 
West India letters, xx. 191. 

Improvements Suggested as to Church and School. 


Having thus organized this popular body, with a view to exercise a more 
powerful influence over the inhabitants, whose co-operation he required in carry- 
ing out the orders of his superiors, Director Stuyvesant lost no time In calling 
their special attention to the condition of the fort and of the church, to the state 
of public education in New Amsterdam, as well as to the mean appearance of the 
city itself. The greater part of the houses were built of wood and covered with 
straw; many of the chimnies were also of wood, all of which circumstances con- 
tributed greatly to endanger the public safety. The education of the children had 
of late been neglected altogether, and owing to the want of proper accommoda- 
tions, no school had been kept for three months. 

The " Nine Men," representing Manhattan, Breukelen, Amersfoort, and Pavonia, 
were therefore summoned to deliberate with the Director General, on these various 
and important questions. 

He (Stuyvesant) communicated, 'at the same time, his consent to defray, on be- 
half of the Company, a portion of the expenses, necessary for the encouragement 

OF THE State of ISTew Yoek. 225 

of education, and to continue such assistance in future, " to promote tlie glorious 
worlj." Meanwhile, he Informed them, that a convenient place for a school house 
and dwelling for the Schoolmaster, would be provided for the winter, either in one 
of the out-houses belonging to the Fiscal's department, which the Director Gen- 
eral would prefer, or any other suitable place that the deacons of the church 
might approve. He recommended them to make proper regulations for the pre- 
vention of flres, and reverted particularly to the necessity of completing the 
church, which Kieft had commenced five years before, and which remained still 

The arrangements for public education and for completing the church met with 
no objection, but the plan for repairing the fortifications was absolutely con- 
demned. — O'Callaghan's History of New Netherland, Vol. 11. 41, 42. 

Classis of Amsterdam. 

Acta of the Deputies. Henrj Dries (Drisius). 

1647, Oct. 28tli. 

Henry Dries* having good witness among the brethren, whereof 
he shall bring evidence, read and sang, and gave the brethren 
complete satisfaction therein. They are therefore disposed to 
advance him, at his request, in the capacity of Krankbezoeker; 
but inasmuch as at present he intends to take a voyage, he shall 
be attended to on his return, in the future, xx. 191. 

Letters to the East and "West Indies. 

1647, Nov. 26th. 

The letters to be sent to the East and West Indies were read; 
one to the Consistory at Bata via; onetoBanda; one to Amboyna; 
and also a letter to Brazil. These w^ere all approved by the 
brethren, xx. 192. 

Rev. Simon Welmerdonckius in the Chair. 

1648, Jan. 27th. 

Rev. John Megapolensis, Jr., pastor at Rentselaerswyck in 
New Netherland, requests his dismissal: the brethren in the city 
will confer Avith the executors of Rentselaer, and his widow. 
XX. 193. 

* Probably a relative of Rev. Samuel Drisius of New York. 

226 Ecclesiastical Records 

Adrian Cornelisse; (John Backerus.) 

1648,* Jan. 27tb. 

Adrian Cornelisse — the brother of Rev. John Backerus who 
has been minister at Curacoa and who has now arrived with 
Director Stujvesant in jSTew ISTetherland — makes known that his 
brother has written for his dismissaL The letters, however, had 
been delayed on account of the ship-wreck. He now presents 
himself in the name of his brother, to ask for his dismissaL He 
was answered, that so far as lieth in us, we shall seek to procure 
his dismissal. We hope to succeed, especially as it is understood 
that the Messrs. Directors are much inclined to call Rev. John 
Megapolensis from Rensselaerswyck in IsTew ISTetherland, (to Man- 
hattan). This shall be made known to Classis, and its advice 
sought. XX. 193. 

Ordee of Council ox an Application of the Town of Flush- 
ing FOR A Minister. 

On the first of February, 1648. 

William Harck, Sheriff at Flushing, and his associates, appeared in Council and 
request that the Honorable Director General and Council would favor them with 
a pious, learned and reformed minister; and then order that each inhabitant should 
contribute to such godly work according to his ability, and that an end be put to 
the present differences in a manner, that shall promote peace, quietness and 
unanimity in said town, and that they jointly may live under the protection of 
their High Mightinesses, his Highness of Orange, the Honorable Lords Directors, 
and the present administration here. 

Thomas Sael, John Laurence and William Turner, the opposite party, thereto 
delegated by the remainder of their side, request the same as the sheriff and hla 
associates abovementioned have asked. 

The above parties having been heard in Council and the justness of their re- 
quest being seen, the Honorable Director General and Council resolve to enact 
such order on their application and request as shall be found to promote peace, 
union and tranquility both in ecclesiastical and civil affairs. — Col. Docs. N. Y. 
xlv. 82. 

• This was the year and the month of the Peace of Westphalia, and the end of 
" The Eighty Years War ". Bogardus left Manhattan with Kieft, in 1647, and 
this vessel was lost off the coast of Wales. These letters seem to have been on 
this ship. John Backerus has generally been known heretofore, without the 
middle name of Cornelius but these many notes show, that Cornelius was his 
father's name, and therefore, according to custom, his middle name. 

OF THE State of ISTew York. 227 

Acts of the Classis of Amsterdam. 

Backerus requests to East Indies. — Letter from ]^ew 

JSTetherland. Rev. Megapolensis. 

1648, Feb. 10th. 
There was also read to the meeting hj the Kev. Deputies, a 
letter which had arrived from 'New JSTetherland, from John Mega- 
polensis, minister at Rensselaer's "Wyck. He requested two 
things : 

1. His dismission, as his term of six years will soon have ex- 

2. The procurement of another capable person in his place. 
Three matters were left in the charge of the Rev. Deputies to 

further, so far as lay in their power, in the best manner possible: 

1. To request a dismission of Rev. Backerus. 

2. That Rev. Megapolensis be transferred to Manhattan. 

3. That John Hermanren of Til (Thiel, in Gelderland) be 
sounded in regard to his going to Rensselaer's Wyck. They 
should first confer carefully on this matter with the patroons (of 
Rensselaer's Wyck) regarding the salary, and the whole business. 
V. 67; xxxix. 177.* 

Rev, Peter "Wittenwrougel in the Chair. 

1648, Feb. 24th. 
The Rev. President reported that the widow Rentselaer and 
the executors had been consulted in reference to the case of Meg- 
apolensis; but there seemed little likelihood that another pastor 
would be settled there. They must first receive communications 
from the Colony, and this would be too much trouble to the afore- 
said widow. XX. 194. 


* Last extract from Vol. xxxlx. 


228 Ecclesiastical Records 

Rev. John Van Sauen in the Chair. 

1648, April 7th [or 27]. 

The clerk reported that at the instance of Classis, he had writ- 
ten to Rev. John Megapolensis, pastor in the colony of Renselaers- 
wyck, and that he would copy the letter and place it in the minute 
book. XX. 198. 

1648, April 7th. 

Rev. (John) Megapolensis, pastor at Renselaer'swyck, having 
requested his dismission, to return to his Fatherland, the Rev. 
Brethren, Deputati ad res Indicas, will seek to encourage him to 
remain; and in case of failure, to secure the appointment, if pos- 
sible, of another in his place, xxvi. 1. 

(This and several subsequent items of the Acts of the Classis 
proper, were entered by mistake in the Volumes of Correspond- 
ence, which begin with Vol. xxvi. The Acts of the Classis are in 
Vols, i-xviii. Vol. xix. consists of Extracts from the Acts of the 
Classis, 1655-1705. Vols, xx-xxv. are the Acts of the Deputies.) 

Letter written to Rev. John Megapolensis.* 

1648, April 7th. 

The clerk represented that in compliance with the direction of 
Classis, he had written to Rev. John Megapolensis, minister in 
the colony of Rensselaerswyck. The letter shall be copied and 
spread in the Book (of Correspondencie) of Classis (Vol. xxvi.) 
XX. 198. 

Directors in Holland to Peter Stuyvesant; the Ship 
" Princess " Lost With Dir. Kieft and Domine Bogardus 
ON" Board; Church Matters; .... 

Duplicate. 1G4S April 7th. 
Honorable, Dear and Faithful Friends. 
By the ship " de Valckenler " we have duly received two of your letters, the 
last dated the 6th of October of 1-ast year, the first having no date, the originals 
of which had been sent by the ship " The Princess ". We notice by your last 
letter, that this ship had left your coast about the 16th of August, but we did 
not receive your letters, sent by the same, as it was wrecked in the Channel on 
the 27th of September, and eighty one souls, men, women and children were lost, 

♦"Megapolensis" Is the Greclzed form of " Mekkelenburg ", a town In 
Germany — not " Mechelen " in Belgium. Mekkelen z= Mega, burg = polls; hence 
" Megapolensis ". 

OF THE State of IjTew Yoek. 229 

among them the former Director, William Kleft, Domine Bogardus,* and Fiscal 
van der Hoyckens; of her cargo nothing has-been saved except a lot of peltries, 
part of which has been stolen, and what floated on the strand has been sold for 
2sh. 6d. the piece and later for Ish. English money. The skipper remained there 
skulking about so long, that it created suspicion; it seems, that thieves are always 
connected with such misfortunes; the Lord may comfort the sufferers. 


How very Inopportune the mishap of the " Princess " has come, especially as 
regards your request, will be stated hereafter; we shall first reply to your report 
on the state of our conquests, in which you complain, that the people are grown 
very wild and loose in their morals. It seems to have principally been caused by 
the weakness of the late Director, and the neglect of his duties by the preacher. 
We expect your Honor will amend all this; but a tree grown too high, and too 
luxuriantly, must be trimmed carefully, and bent by a tender hand, giving it a 
good shape. 

It is true, that people are busy at the Hague before their High. Might, to bring 
about a general reform for all the colonies of this Company, and New Netherland 
will not be forgotten; a provisional resolution has already been passed, that all 
colonists there shall be allowed to ship their own products, as flour, fishes, meat, 
bacon, peas, beans and everything else, in their own, or chartered, bottoms to 
Brazil and Angola; that the ships returning may take freight from Brazil; but 
those coming back from Angola are to bring Negroes to be employed in farming. 
This resolution will show your Honor, that we too have the right to send a ship 
to Angola with an assortment of provisions and bring back negroes. Your Honor 
will therefore please to take quickly advantage of it with the provisions, which 
you report to have in abundance. 

We were sorry to learn of the great disorder, which your Honor has found there 
In Church matters, principally caused by Domine Bogardus. The proverb " Where 
the shepherd errs, the sheep go astray " fitly applies to this case. He, with 
others, has beeu relieved from rendering his account, while In the meantime the 
church remains in a troubled state and unprovided; although your Honor has pro- 
visionally allowed Domine Backer, formerly preacher at Curacao, to remain there 
some time. As he, however, has previously received his letter dismlssory from the 
Classis, he cannot be held there against his will. We shall look out here for a 
man fit to attend to the church there. Your Honor believes, that the congregation 
would be well satisfied with Domine Megapolensis, preacher at Rensselaerwyck, 
without stating, whether he can obtain his letter of dismissal from there without 
trouble; also whether he cannot work there with as good results, as in the church 
at New Amsterdam. We expect to receive on this point a more detailed report 
in your next, according to which we shall act. It must also be considered, that 
this plan cannot be well carried out without the consent of the Colonists. 

The erection of a church building has really been necessary, but we notice also 
that it has been very expensive: the Colony cannot yet bear such expenses. 

Commending you herewith to God's protection we remain. 
Honorable Dear and Faithful Sir, 
Your Honor's true friend, 

The Directors of the West India Company, 

Department of Amsterdam. J. Specx. 

David van Baerle. 
Amsterdam April 7th, 1G4S. 

— Col. Docs. N. Y. xiv. 82, 83, 84, 87. 

• A somewhat leugthv sketch of Bev. Everardus Bogardus written by D. T. Val- 
entine Is found in his " Manual of the Common Council of New York " for the year 
18G3, pages 595-608, embracing some of the documents herein given. 


230 Ecclesiastical Records 

Classis of Amstbedam. 

Acts of the Deputies, and their Correspondence. — The Classis of 
Amsterdam to Rev. John Megapolensis, April 8th, 1648. 
xxvi. page 1. 

Rev. Wise, etc. 

Your communication came duly to hand a few weeks since. 
It was agreeable to hear of your good health. We hope that 
the good God may yet spare you many years for the service of 
his church, which we desire to have built up and extended in all 
quarters of the world. 

You have labored faithfully in that colony of ISTew ISTetherland, 
which has thus far been under your supervision. ISTow that the 
years of your compact are drawing to a close, you request your 

We have considered your request as just and reasonable, and 
have therefore, at different times conferred with the testamentary 
guardians of the family of the deceased (sterfhuis) Patroon, re- 
questing them to be pleased to give us authority to look about for 
another qualified person, who may succeed you in the capacity of 
pastor and minister of the divine word. We have urged this 
upon many, since it would be deplorable in itself, and prejudicial 
to the glory of Grod, as well as injurious to the people, if such a 
number of people should be left without a pastor. 

But inasmuch as the partners in this colony could not agree 
with the guardians of the family of the deceased Patroon, and 
were at variance among themselves, we could not reach any result. 
Some time ago they sent a certain person to the colony, upon 
whom large powers of direction in the church were conferred. 
They desire first to be better informed as to the state of affairs 
before they determine to send another pastor. 

OF THE State of JSTew York. 231 

In the meantime we shall not be negligent in securing your 
object. We doubt not but that the guardians of the house of the 
Messrs. Renselaer, will inform you more particularly. 

The brethren of Classis wish that you would continue there 
until some one succeeds you; otherwise what you have built up 
may easily be broken down; and the church there, which is now 
enjoying reasonable growth, as we have learned with satisfaction 
and joy from your letter, would become demoralized, to the detri- 
ment of Grod's glory and the injury of the colony. And inasmuch 
as the compact expires in August, it will perhaps be only a matter 
of a few months. 

Domine Backerus, who is at present supplying the Manhattans 
in the place of Kev. Bogardus, who sadly perished by shipwreck 
on his passage, as also some of your relatives, much to our sorrow, 
would also like very much to return home, as we learn from his 
friends, although his own letters have not yet reached us. But 
not knowing the state of that church exactly, we have not been 
able to dispose of that business. We shall, however, await fur- 
ther advices thence. 

"We wish that his Excellency could be informed of this," when 
opportunity offers, as we have scarcely the time to send you even 
these few lines ; for the vessel got ready to sail without our knowl- 
edge, and the bearer of this is waiting to depart. Having no 
other business to present, I will close by committing you to God 
and the word of his grace. We desire that he may bless your 
labors more and more to the winning of many souls. With our 
hearty respect, we are and remain. 

Your Friends to command, and Brethren, the Bespc- 
tive Members of the Rev. Classis of Amsterdam. 

In the name of all 

B. Wittenwrongel. 


232 Ecclesiastical Recoeds 

John Bakkerus. 

1648, June 29th. 
A letter was read from Rev, John Backenis, of iS'ew iN'ether- 
land. This explained that he had received his dismissal from 
the chnrch at Ciiracoa, and had, against his intention and inclina- 
tion, been forced to remain with the people of 'New ISTetherland. 
This was because Rev. Bogardus was about to sail for the Father- 
land, with Director Kieft for important reasons, namely, to seek 
to terminate their disputes of long standing, by both appearing 
before the Directors. Inasmuch as the said minister (Bogardus) 
was wi-ecked on this voyage, he (Backerus) now requested, that 
as soon as possible another good minister might be sent in his 
place. It was resolved to communicate the above mentioned 
letter to the Rev. Classis.* xx. 200. 

St^stod of iSToRTH Holland, at Enckhuyzen. 
Art. 19. East and West India Affairs. 

1648, Au^. 11 et seq. 
Regarding Art. 17 (1647) relating to the Plan about the East 
and West India affairs : It is understood that the said Plan will 
be adhered to. It is also found that the same Plan had been ac- 
cepted by all the corresponding Synods excepting that of Utrecht, 
as appears ex actis Synodi Ultrajectina, 1647. Therefore our 
correspondent, who shall go thither, shall put forth every amicable 
endeavor and inducement to persuade the said Rev. Synod like- 
wise to accept the Plan even as the others have done. 

Extracts from Minutes of other Synods. 
Extracts from the Acts of the Synod of Gelderland and Zut- 
phen, held at Arnhem in September, 1647. 

As to East and West India Affairs, the Plan of the Synods of 
Holland are accepted provisionally. 

• Backerus was, therefore, only a temporary supply of the church of New 

OF THE State of i^EW York. 233 


Classis of Amsterdam. 

Correspondence from America. Rev. John Backerus to the Classis 
of Amsterdam, August 15th, 1648, and September 2nd, 1648. 

Reverend, Pious and Learned Brethren in Christ; Increase of 
Honor, Piety and the Blessing of God be your reward : — 

Whereas I have not yet received an answer to my former re- 
quest from your Reverences, I continue to write on the same 
subject. ^ 

I would have preferred to pay a visit to the Rev. Brethren, in- 
stead of again greeting you by this dumb messenger. I have no 
doubt, it might have been done ere now, as in answer to my wi'it- 
ten request, I received permission to return to the Fatherland, if 
I had not changed my mind. But upon my arrival in 'New [N'ether- 
land from Curacoa, I heard a different song, and to which I had 
to listen. In a short time, and much to my regret, I had to ob- 
serve with my own eyes, that none of the officers here would come 
to church, when our brother Domine Everardus Bogardus preached. 
For there were such important questions and differences between 
our said brother, on one side, and his Honor, General William 
Kieft, with certain officials on the other, that there was a mutual 
aversion. Inasmuch as this disagreeable dispute had grown to 
such dimensions that it reached even to the borders of Holland, 
we were unable to reconcile the parties or sm.oothe over matters. 
Therefore, and probably also for other reasons, our brother, Do- 
mine Bogardus, wished to go to Holland with Director William 
Kieft, (for the settlement of these matters). Upon his request for 
this object, he received much quicker permission than he expected 
from his Honor, General Stuyvesant, because as I suppose, the 
latter was not favorable to the former. Matters being in this con- 
dition, I had to give up my own plans. After loo'king more 
closely into the affairs, I had to sacrifice all my own intentions. 
Necessity compelled me not to leave the congregation without a 
pastor. I therefore took our brother's place, but I cannot conceal 


234 Ecclesiastical Eecoeds 

from the Rev. Brethren, that I hope, it will not be for longer than 
the coming summer ; for then the place will again be vacant and 
the congregation will be at liberty to choose another pastor. It 
is somewhat different with the people here, from what it was in 
Curacoa. In severing my connection at Curacoa, and removing, 
only about six or seven church members remained behind, the 
others having already left before, or leaving with me. As to 
others, not known to be members, there are few, who, in my opin- 
ion, are inclined to our religion, or to hearing the Holy Gos- 
pel as taught here and in the churches of jSTetherland as well as 
elsewhere. For that reason, and also because an able reader for 
the people of our nationality, and a schoolteacher for the natives 
of the country, were left there, I could the more easily, and with- 
out conscientious scruples, remove. Especially could I do so, be- 
cause I trust the Hon. Directors, upon a request by the Classis, 
can easily send another good preacher there, if the community 
should increase in numbers, and if the natives should acquire a 
little more knowledge ; and especially if the Word and the Admin- 
istration of the Sacraments should become necessary there, from 
the desires of the people for the same. 

But here (in E'ew IN'etherland) where there is already a goodly 
number of people, and who also daily increase, the harvest will be 
much greater, and the service and work of a preacher is much 
more necessary. Therefore I was not able to leave this place so 
easily with a free and untroubled (conscience) nor would I like to 
do it, at all until this congregation had first been provided with 
another able and God fearing teacher. 

I therefore humbly, but not the less urgently, request your Rev- 
erences to do your best, to induce the Hon. Directors to send an- 
other good preacher here as soon as possible, at least by next 
summer, and discharge me from my long service. In order, that 
the Rev. Brethren may properly consider my request, and obtain 
this desired end, I woiUd like you to remember, that I have al- 
ready served the Hon. Directors continuously for fifty seven 

OF THE State of iN'EW Yokk. 235 

montlis, I may say now, for sixty seven months; although the 
term, fixed by my agreement, has long since expired. 

That I had this place allotted to me, and remained here, as I 
said before, for the service of this congregation, was against my 
inclination. I am silent about other matters, which I prefer to 
tell the brethren personally; (but I cannot stay) partly, because 
as matters stand here, I find it impossible to live in comfort with 
my family in this place with the meagre addition of two hundred 
florins for board money; for I require for my table and clothing 
all my monthly pay besides ; partly, because I do not wish to re- 
main longer, even if I receive enough more that I could live upon 
it; but I wish to be transferred from here to a place in Holland, 
wherever the Lord may please to call me. 

This is a copy of my former letters, one of which I sent to your 
Reverences by the ship " Princess " ; the other by way of Vir- 
ginia. I now think best to add the following lines: — 

Your Reverences must understand that I persevere in my re- 
quest as urgently as before. I have no doubt they will boldly de- 
mand from the Hon. Directors my discharge in the spring; and 
if, against my expectations, the Hon. Directors do not consent 
to it, then I request you to submit, in my name, to their Honors, 
that next summer I have been in their service for seven consecu- 
tive years, although my contract was only for four; and that, if 
they will not send anybody to relieve me, after having received 
this notice from me and warning, as is proved by their letter to 
our Director, it is then my intention and determination not to 
remain here any longer. I shall then consider that I have good 
reason for leaving their service and discharging myself, although 
I should not like to leave here under such circumstances. I hope, 
it will not have to be done thus. Having looked about for another 
preacher as a substitute during three years there can be no doubt, 
that he may be expected next spring. I shall therefore, prepare 
myself accordingly, and then be ready to depart for the Father- 


236 Ecclesiastical Records 

My wife would have gone home with the wife of the preacher 
at Fort Orange, (Megapolensis,) but as she is near her delivery 
of a child, we thought it unadvisable, and resolved to go together 
next summer. I have informed the Hon. Directors of this resolu- 
tion, adding that I did not consider it contrary to the rules or 
unreasonable, as their Honors themselves must admit; knowing 
as they do, that at that time, I shall have served them seven con- 
secutive years, although engaged for only four. Therefore they 
have no right to keep me here longer, against my will and reso- 
lution, and much to my disadvantage. 

The congregation here numbers about one hundred and seventy 
members. Most of them are very ignorant in regard to true 
religion, and very much given to drink. To this they are led by 
the seventeen tap-houses here. What bad fruits result therefrom, 
your Reverences will easily understand. You will also learn 
more in detail from ike bearer hereof, Master Jan Stevensen. 
If you could obtain from the Hon. Directors an order for closing 
these places, except three or four, I have no doubt, the source of 
much evil and great offense would be removed. 

The Rev. Brethren are requested to take care, that a pastor be 
sent to this congregation. He must be allowed full liberty in de- 
nouncing sin, for which he will find the way already prepared, 
and he must do his duties with the good example of a decent life 

It will also be very necessary for the Rev. Brethren, to send 
over with such a preacher a good schoolmaster. He should not 
only know how to read, write and cipher, but should also be a 
man of pious life, and decent habits. He should have a good 
knowledge of the principal points of our Faith, and set a holy 
example to the children. In order to best help the church of God 
here, and to resist a bad world, I think, we must begin with the 
children; for many of the older people are so far depraved, that 
they are now ashamed to learn anything good. 

OF THE State of I^ew York. 237 


Herewith closing Reverend, Honorable, Pious and Learned 
Classis, I commend your Reverences, with my humble salutations, 
to the grace of the Most High. May He bless you with an in- 
crease of your congregations,* 

Your faithful servant, 

Joannis Backerus, 
At Manhatans Teacher of the Gospel, 

in I^ew^N^etherland 
Sept. 2nd Anno 1648. 

Master Jan Stevensen, who has served the Company here as a 
faithful schoolmaster and reader for six or seven consecutive 
years, and is now leaving for home, has been informed by the 
Director and Council, that he must pay his own fare. If this 
is 80 imderstood in Holland, then the poor man will retain but little 
of his salary ; for the fare for his passage would swallow up most 
of it. Considering this fact, will not your Reverences please to 
assist him with the Directors, that he may be exempted from this 

Correspondence from America. Rev. John Megapolensis to Classis 

of Amsterdam. 

Aug. 25th, 1648. 

Reverend, Godly and Learned Fathers and Brethren in Christ. 
The Grace of God be multiplied unto you : — 

After the Lord God was pleased to cut short the thread of life 
of Domine Bogardus by shipwreck, (1647), who was late preacher 
at the Manhattans in New !N"etherland, his widow came here to 
Fort Orange, in the colony of Rensselaerswyck, to reside and make 
her living. She has nine living children, some by a former hus- 
band and some by Domine Bogardus, and is also deeply in debt. 
She has, however, no way to liquidate her debts, nor means for her 
own subsistence, unless the West India Company pay her the ar- 

• Repeated corrections lu the origlnnl hnve made portions of this letter very 

238 Ecclesiastical Eecoeds 


rears of salary due her husband. Domine Bogardus repeatedly 

asserted that a higher salary was promised him, before leaving 

Holland, than he ever received here. I shall, therefore, in order 

to explain this, repeat, to the best of my recollection, what I have 

heard from him. 

It is now about two years since I was called upon by Director- 
General William Kieft, to settle the difficulties between said Kieft 
and Domine Bogardus. I attempted several times to smoothe the 
differences which had arisen here, but all in vain. Domine Bo- 
gardus asserted that it could not be done here, but that the matter 
ought to be laid before the Hon. Directors ; or even if it could be 
determined here, he would, nevertheless, be obliged to go home, 
in order to demand, before his death, the salary promised him, 
for the maintenance and support of his family. For if he himself 
did not ask for it during the life time of those who knew about 
it, it would be difficult to succeed through others. 

For salary was promised to him as to other preachers in the 
service of the Company, not by the Hon. Directors, but by the Rev. 
Classis, or at least by the Deputies of the same; among these he 
mentioned, if I am not mistaken, Domine Badius. He had urged 
him to go to ITew ITetherland, and had promised to arrange with 
the Company, that he should have a salary, the same as other 
preachers in the service of the Company. ISFevertheless, he had 
been paid for a considerable time only 46 guilders per month, 
with 150 guilders extra per year, for board money. He asserted 
that according to the promise made to him, there is still due him a 
considerable sum for salary and board money. This is in sub- 
stance what he told me about it, as far as I can remember ; and 
if it be true, there ought to be in existence a written and signed 
document to that effect, or at least a memorandum thereof by 
some of the Rev. Deputies. 

Annetje Bogardus, widow of Domine Bogardus, on the supposi- 
tion that this is correct, has requested me to write to the Rev. 
Classis, in her name and in her behalf, in order that the Rev. 

OF THE State of JSTew York. 239 

Classis, or the Deputies thereof, might, for the sake of a preacher's 
widow, petition the Company for the money due her, to be paid to 
her or her attorney, to enable her to pay her debts and support 
her family. 

Last year I wrote to my Lord Patroon, and to the Kev. Dep- 
uties for my discharge, and that some one else should be appointed 
in my place^ But I have learned by a letter from Domine Wit- 
tenwrongel, that I must have patience and remain here until the 
summer of this year. I have therefore repeated my request in 
letters to the Patroons and to the Kev. Deputies, as I herewith 
do again, that another teacher be sent in the first ships to take my 
place ; or at least that I should have permission to return home. 
For as my term has expired, and my wife and children have all 
returned to the Fatherland, I do not intend to remain here any 
longer than the coming summer, when the ships return to Europe. 

I think that I have remained at my station here in this wild 
country (long enough,) and have had troubles and difficulties 
enough. Another who may succeed me will find it better and more 
comfortable. In conclusion, I commend you all to God and to the 
word of his grace. Pemember me in your prayers. 

Yours obediently, 
Aug. 25th, 1648. Joannes Megapolensis. 

Pev. Backerus. 

1648, Sept. 14th. 

A certain letter was read from Pev. Backerus, written in ISTew 
ITetherland, in which he asks that he may be relieved from his 
charge there, towards spring, and another minister, by that time, 
be provided in liis place. The matter was referred to the Rev. 
Brethren Deputati ad res Indicas. v. 99. 

Pev. Megapolensis. 

1648, Sept. 14th. 

A certain letter was read from Pev. Megapolensis, minister at 
Rensselaer's Wyck, in which he makes known his willingness to 
remain there for the present year, but intends to leave for the 


240 Ecclesiastical 'Recoeds 

Fatherland in the spring. He asks that by that time another 
minister may be provided in his stead. It was resolved to commit 
the procuring of the same to the Rev. Brethren Deputati ad res 
Indicas, who shall also confer with the patrons of that church 
on this matter, v. 100. 

Matters Memorialized to the XIX. 

1648, Sept. 28th. 

It was reported that just as the Assembly of the XIX was 
about to adjourn, and our regular sessions were about to begin, 
that Rev. Eleazar Zwalmius,* together with the clerk, had laid 
before the said Assembly certain matters, which in compliance 
Avith resolution of Classis, were to be proposed to it, as follows: 

1. That the Siecken-Troosters, located at forts where there 
are children, ought to be obligated to keep school; provided that 
they might enjoy some compensation therefor from the Company. 

2. That some more ministers ought to be sent thither. 

3. That no men and women should be sent thither, as mar- 
ried, unless their marriage was beyond dispute or legal proofs 
were exhibited. In default of such evidences, many disorders had 
crept in, which were very objectionable in the place, and after- 

4. That the gentlemen would be pleased to grant, that the copy 
of one Synodical Acta be sent, at the expense of the Company, to 
the brethren in Brazil. 

To this was added at the same time, the following requests, 
on the strength of what Rev. Grebius had exhibited to the said 
brethren who had come from Brazil with the last ships: 

1. Approbation of the repeal of the previous resolution, 
adopted by the XIX, regarding the abolition of the sittings of 
civilians in the Classis of Brazil; and that this be announced to 
the Highest Officials there, inasmuch as they have not yet been 
willing to give this up. 

• Rev. Eleazar Swalmius was called from Schiedam to Amsterdam in 1621, and 
died on June 4, 1652. 

OF THE State of ISTew York. 241 

2. That a larger number of Siecken-Troosters, as well as of 
ministers, be granted; as at the forts Altena, d'Avogades, de Bar- 
ettes, there are none, and but one in the army. xx. 206, 207. 

Written to the Brethren of Zeeland. 

1648, Sept. 28th. 

The Clerk also reported, that, in compliance with the resolu- 
tion of Classis, he had written to the Committee in Zeeland, on 
Indian Affairs, (as follows): That inasmuch as the XVII were 
now assembled at Middelburg, the Rev. Brethren (of Zeeland) 
would be pleased, for the good of the churches of the East Indies, 
to memorialize them regarding the following matters: 

1. That a goodly number of laborers for the ser^dce of the 
churches of the Indies should again, and newly, be granted; in- 
asmuch as, over and above the re-partition made last year by the 
Messrs. Directors, there ought to be more ministers, especially 
at Batavia, Tayowae, and other places; and especially, because, 
since that time, six ministers have died. 

2. That in the future ministers ought to be established at 
Batavia; and that this Consistory, in the matter of the sending 
out of the ministers, ought to have more authority and power. 
For it is intolerable that the Lord General there, should arro- 
gate that power exclusively to himself. 

3. That the Portuguese services in the said community of 
Batavia should be continued, as well as the Malay services; for 
it has always been observed that this service has been attended 
Avith much more fruit and edification; and it would be entirely 
unreasonable that so many native Christians should be forced to 
miss the food of their souls. 

4. That the Diaconate should have its portion of the fines 
which are imposed by the sentences of tlie courts, after the man- 
ner of this country. 




242 Ecclesiastical Eecokds 

All these matters, in accordance with the considerations of Rev. 
John Rogerius, which have been handed in to the Classis, are 
extensively elucidated for the said brethren of Zeelandt, and 
clothed with reasons, xx. 207. 

1648, Oct. 5th. 

A certain letter from Rev. Backerus (was read) written in ISTew 
Netherland, in which he requests to be released from his service 
there by the spring, and that another pastor be then appointed to 
fill his place. The matter is referred to the brethren Deputati 
ad res Indicas. 

A letter from the Rev. Megapolensis, pastor at Renselaers- 
wyck was read, in which he informs us that he will remain there 
during the present year, but intends to return to the Fatherland 
next spring. He requests also that by that time another pastor 
be obtained for his place. 

Resolved. That Ave commit the case of this business to the Rev. 
Deputati ad res Indicas, who will also speak concerning this mat- 
ter with the patroons of the Colony. 

XXVI. 15.— See Col. Hist. i. 308, 310, 317. 

Pieter Vander Linden.* 

1648, Oct. 26. 

At the meeting it was considered very necessary that another 
suitable person should be appointed (pre-centor) in place of Jan 
Stevensen. It was learned that, for the present, no more suitable 
person could be found on the Island of Manhattans to perform 
the duties of Reader, etc., than Pieter Vander Linden. They 
have, therefore, appointed the said Pieter Vander Linden at an 
annual salary of one himdred and fifty guilders, until another 
qualified person should be sent out from Holland. 

* Peter Vander Linden and wife arrived at Manhattan, 1639. He was a sur- 
geon and quite a prominent man in the colony, and was owner of considerable real 
estate. In 1647, he sold his plantation on Manhattan Island, on the old Vraackill. 
It extended along the East River 300 paces. Probably domine Benjamin Van der 
Linde, 1748-17S8, was a descendant. 

OF THE State of Kew York. 243 

Another Translation in Dunshee, 20. 

Matters about which to Memorialize the XIX. 

1648, Oct. 26th. 

It is laid to onr charge to advance before the XIX these fol- 
lowing matters: 

1. That the former resolution of the XIX, regarding the aboli- 
tion of the session of civilians in the Classis of Brazil, may be 
carried into effect (may be followed up) and the chief govern- 
ment may be addressed. 

2. That regulations may be made for the instruction of 
Negroes, upon the basis projected by the Classis of Brazil. 

3. To hand in to the XIX the petition of the ministers at the 
Recife, and to recommend the contents of the same. 

Further we are charged to write to the Classes of Alkmaar and 
of Edam, to thank them in the name of the Consistory at the 
Recife for the linen sent over for the benefit of the Brazilians. 

XX. 208. 

1648, Oct. 26th. 
Rev. John Van Sauen in the Chair. 

The letter of Rev. John Megapolensis, pastor in the colony of 
Rentselaerswyck, dated Aug. 15th, 1648, was opened. In it he 
renews the request that another might succeed in his charge, as 
he could remain there no longer than the next summer. His 
wife and children had already departed to the Fatherland. He 
recommends the case of the widow of the Rev. Mr. Bogardus, 
late pastor at the Manhattans in New Netherland in the service 
of the West India Company; that the Director's be urged, in her 
name, to make settlement and payment of that which the com- 
pany owes her husband, that she may be supported therefrom, and 
satisfy her creditors. It was resolved to communicate this letter 
to the Classis. 

A letter was also read from Rev. John Backerus, formerly 
pastor in Curacoa, and now detained at the Manhattans, because 
of the death of the Rev. Mr. Bogardus requesting permission 



244 Ecclesiastical Eecokds 

that he may administer there the ordinances of the word. He 
also renewed his previous request that the Directors grant him 
his dismission, and that another may be sent in his place. Since 
it was also in the highest degree necessary that a Visitor of the 
Sick and a schoolmaster he sent to that place, the meeting 
resolved to communicate this writing to the Classis, 

The objections of the XIX will be treated of in a few points, 
in writing, and will be conveyed to them, and earnestly enforced 
by the clerk and Rev. Mr. Lullinus. xx. 208. 

1648, Nov. 2nd. 
In an Order from the Council in Fort Amsterdam, respecting repairs of Fort 
Orange; Domlne Megapolensls is mentioned as ttie agent and attorney of Jonao 
Bronck.— Col. Docs. N. Y. xlv. 102. 

DiBECTORS TO Peter Stuyvesant : 

Preachers ; 

Among many letters mentioned, the Directors allude to three letters from Domlne 
Backeriup, dated August 7th and September 2nd and 22nd, 1&48. 

The request of Domlne Backerus, made in several of his letters, has been ap- 
proved as reasonable by the Classis and we were therefore obliged to grant It. 
We should have been more inconvenienced by it, if we had not entertained the hope, 
that perhaps the preacher from Rensselaerswyck, Domlne Megapolensls, could be 
persuaded by fair offers to remain there a few years longer. We consent to it very 
willingly on account of the good character given him by your Honor. It is true, 
his wife has arrived here, it being the intention, that he should soon follow her 
and It seems, that his presence in person is required here for the liquidation of an 
estate, in which he appears to be much interested nevertheless we have held tire- 
some conferences with his wife, and it seems, that she could be persuaded to return 
thither to her husband, if she were assured, that she would not incur his displeasure. 
After having overcome his objections we hope to induce her to consent to our plan 
and we shall then consider his salary, which we expect to make satisfactory to him. 
You will therefore on receipt of this letter try to persuade him, to comply with the 
requirements of God's Church and his community, the more so, as it is to be feared, 
that we may not be able for some time to provide this church with a minister: thl« 
measure is therefore the most advisable. 

We shall also look out now for a good school teacher and gather information con- 
cerning the man living in Harlem, whom you propose. 

Your Honor's appointment of Roeloff Jansen as Receiver-General at a yearly 
■alary of four hundred and eighty florins without rations induces us to believe, that 
you must have a good knowledge of his honest j': on that understanding we approve 
of it herewith, although in our straightened circumstances all possible retrench- 
ments should be made, for which reason we have here discharged all subaltern offi- 
cers, and we believe from information received, that there too are more than enough 
ofiQcers; all unnecessary oflBcers should therefore be discharged, we cannot afford to 
keep them. 

Although It is without precedent, that this Department has ever been godfather of 
any children, having, when invited, always refused It for certain good reasons; yet 
the Board grants herewith your Honor's request, expecting to be informed of the 

OF THE State of New York. 245 

child's name, to have it properly registered, that the Company, when in a better 
financial condition, may be reminded to reciprocate this honor by a keepsake. Mean 
while we shall pray to God, that He may let grow up this child, born in New Nether- 
land, to His glory and to his parents' happiness. — Col. Docs. N. Y. xlv. 102, 108, 

Classis of Amsteedam. 
Acts of the Deputies. (The Assembly of the XIX.) 

Report of what is determined, in reference to ecclesiastical 
matters, by the XIX, 

To write to the churches of the other (four) Chambers (of the 
"West India Company) that the ministers and siecken-troosters 
who are needed for the churches of Brazil, and for whom they 
(the other four Chambers) are responsible, should be sent. 

1648, Nov. 30th. 

The brethren — who were directed to memorialize the Assem- 
bly of the XIX, upon those ecclesiastical points concerning which 
the Olaeais of Brazil had asked our aid — reported on their com- 
mission. They also read an extract from the resolution of the 
Hon. XIX upon said points. It was resolved to communicate 
the said extract to the Rev. Classis. In the meantime, inas- 
much as it appears from the resolutions of the XIX in reference 
to the increase of the number of ministers and siecken-troostera 
in Brazil, that the sending of more ministers and siecken-trooe- 
ters lies to the charge of the Chambers of the Meuse, West Fries- 
land, and the North Quarter,* it was resolved to write to the 
ministers of the respective localities, in order that they may urge 
this matter upon the Messrs. Directors. Also, the last letters 
sent to us, of the Classis of Brazil, of the Consistory at the Recife, 
and of the ministers of the said church shall be answered. There 
shall also be sent over the letter of the XIX to the chief govern- 
ment there, touching the sitting of civilians, (in ecclesiastical 
bodies), which havo been abolished there, by the same. xx. 209, 

• Amsterdam and Zeeland or Mlddleburg were the other two Chamben, making 
Ave In all. 


246 EccLESiASTiCAii Eecokds 

1648, Nov. 30th. 
Rev. Eliazor Swalmius in the Chair. 

It was resolved to institute all proper endeavors to procure 
pastors for Loando and 'New Netherland. Also if an opportunity 
occur to write to Loando. The communication from the pastor 
settled there will be answered, xx. 210. 

Letter from Rev. Megapolensis. 

1648, Dec. 7th. 

Rev. Deputati ad res Indicas read a letter from Rev. Mega- 
polensis, in which he makes known the distressing condition of 
the widow of Rev. Bogardus. She is burdened with a large 
family, and cannot decently maintain herself. He makes request 
in behalf of said widow, that the Rev. Classis will be pleased to 
intercede with the worthy Directors, that the arrears of salary 
which are still due her late husband, may be paid to her. He 
mentions also in the same letter his intention of coming to Patria 
in the spring. He asks that the Rev. Assembly will please to see 
to it that another minister be sent to supply his place, v. 107, 
108 ; xxvi. 20. 

1648, Dec. 7th. 

Letter from Rev. John Backerus. 

There was also read a letter from Rev. John Backerus, pastor 
in New Netherland, in which he seeks his dismission that he may 
return home at once. He presents for this various reasons. To 
this end, he also requests that the Rev. Assembly would be 
pleased, at the earliest opportunity, to see that another pastor be 
sent thither, and also a good experienced schoolmaster, whose 
services are very much needed at that place, v. 108 ; xxvi. 20. 

Sending Pastors to New Netherland. 

All this has been referred to the Rev. Brethren ad res Indicas. 
They, meantime, have informed the Rev. Assembly that there 
are three pastors now needed, one for New Netherland, one for 

OF THE State of 'Nbw York. 247 


St. Paul de Loando, and one for Muscovy. They requested the 
Rev. Brethren to seek out suitable persons to be sent to these 
places, xxvi. 20, 21. 

1648, Dec. 28th. 
Rev. Mr. Lullius in the Chair. 

A letter from Rev. John Backerus, pastor at Manhattans in 
l^ew Netherland, dated Sept. 22nd, 1648, was opened. In this 
he urged his former request. In reporting the condition of 
the church, he repeats his complaints about the great number 
of inns. A letter was also read, accompanying the above, from 
the elders and deacons of the same church, which also consented 
to the dismissal of their present pastor. They earnestly re- 
quested that an old, experienced, and godly minister might be 
sent to them, lest their congregation, already in great confusion 
by reason of the death of their late pastor, (Bogardus) should 
dwindle away altogether. They also declare that they stand in 
great need of an experienced schoolmaster, since there was an 
increasing number of young persons, in order that they might 
be reared under better discipline. To this end they make men- 
tion of Samuel Bayart, book-keeper and teacher of French and 
German at Bergen-of-Zoom, and of Daniel Samuels, also teacher 
of French and German at Ilaerlem; with the understanding that 
should either of these, or some one else of equal qualification, 
be induced to go thither, efforts would be made to provide a 
proper support for the same, in addition to the Company's sal- 
ary. Resolved, that we communicate the above correspondence 
to the next meeting of the Classis. 

Each of the brethren was again requested to look around 
earnestly for qualified preachers to be sent to 'New !N'etherland 
and to Loando St. Paulo, xx. 210. 


248 Ecclesiastical Records 

Extract from a Lease of Van Rensselaer, Jan. 14, 1649, for the 
old Indian maize lands at the Catskills, rented to Jan Dirck- 
sen of Bremen. 

" The tenant is to read a sermon or portion of Scripture every 
Sunday and High Festival to the Christians in the neighborhood, 
and to sing one or more Psalms, before and after prayers, agree- 
ably to the customs of the Church of Holland ". 

1649, Jan. 25th. 
Rev. Eliazur Swalmius in the Chair. 

The brethren are still charged to look about for a qualified 
person to be sent as pastor to ISTew IS[etherland. Since Loando 
St. Paulo has been taken by the Portugnese, it will not be neces- 
sary to trouble ourselves any longer about supplying that place. 
XX. 211. 

1649, March 15th. 
Rev, Megapolensis. 

Rev, William Grasmeer, pastor at Grafdyck, with his mother- 
in-law, the vdfe of Rev. Megapolensis, were admitted, and at 
once made a request; viz.: Inasmuch as his father-in-law has 
more than fulfilled 1;he time of his ministrations in ISTew Nether- 
land, ha\dng been there now over seven years, that the Rev. 
Assembly be pleased to direct that he be honorably discharged 
from service there, and that another pastor take his place. 

The Rev. Deputati at res Indicas then reported on this sub- 
ject. They informed the Rev. Assembly that they had con- 
ferred with the Patroons of that place wdth regard to this matter, 
and they had declared that they would prefer to retain him there 
for some time to come. 

Since, however, the letters of the Rev. Megapolensis, and the 
presence now of his Avife and son-in-law manifested gTcat dis- 
satisfaction; therefore it was determined that the Rev. Deputies 
above mentioned shall confer still further with the Patroons, 
and at the next meeting of the Classis, two weeks from to-day. 

OF THE State of Kew York. 249 

they shall inform the Kev. Assembly concerning this matter. 
Due consideration shall then be given to it. xxvi. 33 ; v. 113, 


1649, Maroh 29th. 

In regard to the case of Rev. Megapolensis, the Rev. Depu- 
tati ad res Indicas reported, that they had conferred about his 
church with the Patroons of that place. These had told them 
that they would gladly have seen Rev. Megapoleneia to have re- 
mained there a while longer, but having understood his disin- 
clination to do so, they would not keep him there against his 
will. They would permit him to come over to Patria, in order 
to confer with him, and to ascertain whether he might not have 
a desire therefor. At any rate they would like to confer with 
him before another preacher should be sent in his place. 

Meantime they would gladly see Rev. Megapolensis make 
some arrangements before his departure for the continuance of 
some form of service, such as the reading of some chapters of 
God's Word, or some good homilies (postilla). 

The Rev. Assembly having heard this report, resolved to grant 
the Rev. Megapolensis his dismission, and the Rev. Deputies 
aforesaid shall inform him of the same. They shall also inform 
him of the good feeling that exists and the desire of the Pa- 
trons. This action was announced to the Rev. Grasmeer. v. 116 ; 
xsvi. 36. 

1649, April 13th. 
Rev. Eliazur Swalmius in the Chair. 

It was resolved to answer at the earliest opportunity the let- 
ters to jSTew Netherland, one from the pastor, and one from the 
consistory, as al&o the communication of the Rev. John Mega- 
polensis. XX. 214. 



250 Ecclesiastical Records 

Acts of the Deputies and their Correspondence. 

1649, April 26th. 
Rev. Swalmius in the Chair. 

The letters from New ISTetherland have been answered by 
Rev. Wittenwrongel. xx. 215. 

These letters are as follows: xxvi. 38, 39. The Classis of 
Amsterdam to Rev. John Backeriis, ]^ew IsTetherland, April 26th, 

Rev. Wise, Most Provident and Godly Brother: — 

Your Reverence's communications have reached us safely. 
From these we understand your great desire to be released from 
your service in the church of ISTew lietherland. 

We can see, indeed, that for this you have urgent and mighty 
reasons. But it grieves us that we have not yet been able to find 
a suitable person to succeed you, and to take charge of the ser- 
vice in so demoralized a church, and we fear that we shall not 
succeed very soon. The reason is, on account of the impover- 
ished condition of the Company. Hence there is but little de- 
sire either on the part of experienced pastors or candidates to 
undertake so long a journey. We shall not neglect, however, 
to use all efforts, until we suc-ceed in finding an energetic 

Meanwhile we thank you for the representation of the condi- 
tion of the church in your province. We shall neglect no effort 
to advance her prosperity with the Hon. Directors, and we shall 
take into serious consideration what has been so earnestly com- 
mended to us, both in your communication, and in that of the 
Rev. Consistory, viz., to search out an experienced schoolmaster 
as well as pastor. The prosperity of the church is in the highest 
degree dependent on the proper training of the tender youth. 

These and other matters we shall present at the meeting of 
the Hon. XIX, and seek to advance them with all possible Zeal. 
We shall then acquaint you with the result, and also hope at 

OF THE State of New Yoke. 251 

that time to answer the conunimication of your Eev. Consistory 
at greater length. 

Closing herewith, we commend you to God and the word of 
his grace. With our hearty greetings to you and the worthy 
brethren of the consistory, we are and remain, 
Your fellow-brethren to command, 

The Deputati ad res Indicas, etc. 
April 26, 1649. P. Jacobus Beth. 

The Classis of Amsterdam to Rev. John Megapolensis, in jSTew 
ISTetherland, April 26th, 1649. xxvi. 38. 

The Peace of Christ. 

Rev., Wise, Provident, Highly Learned and Godly co-laborer 
and Brother in the Harvest of the Lord: — 

Your Reverence's communication of July 26th, 1648, came 
safely to hand. Prom this we understand that you continue 
urgently to insist upon your dismission from the service at 

We have not omitted to recommend your case to the Hon. 
Patroons, inasmuch as your time has now expired, and to request 
their permission for us to look about for another pastor, to 
succeed you in your place. 

But although we have found that the said Patroons do not 
any longer wish to render your dismissal difficult, as you vnW 
have learned from their writings; nevertheless they are reluctant 
to send another pastor before they have conferred with you con- 
cerning the matter after your arrival here. You also know 
full well that the differences existing between the Patroons and 
the other partners, occasion great difficulties in this business. 
Hence the Rev. Classis, having duly considered the matter, and 
having imderstood from your communication, as also from the 
oral statement of your mfe, that you are fully determined to 
leave your service at Rensselaerswyck, is unwilling to make your 
dismissal more difficult, but cheerfully grant your request; only 



252 Ecclesiastical Reoobds 

tliej ask jou to be pleased at your departure to establish some 
fixed order, that some form of worship maj be kept up, with 
the reading of God's word, the singing of Psalms, the reading 
of some edifying sermons, etc., so that the church do not at 
once become demoralized, and the good work begun there, and 
advanced by your diligence, decline. 

Meantime trusting that we shall be authorized by the Patroons 
to look about for another pastor, we herewith close, commend- 
ing you to God and the word of his grace. "With our hearty re- 
spects, we are and remain, 

Your brethren to command, 

April 26, 1649. The Deputati ad res Indicas, etc. 

Minute of a Visit of the Directoe-General to Rev. Mr. 
Backeeius, to Poebid Him to Read, oe to Allow to be 
Read, Any Political "Weitings in the Chuech. 

This day underwritten tlie Director-General went in person to the house of the 
minister Baekerius, and there, in his capacity as Director, told the minister not to 
read himself, or have read by any of the Church officers, from the pulpit or else- 
where in the Church, at the request of any of the inhabitants, any writing, petition 
or proposal having relation to the municipal or general government, whether gen- 
eral or in particular, before and until such writing shall be signed by the Director 
himself, or by the Secretary, by order of the Director and Council; but this is not to 
apply to ecclesiastical affairs which are left at the full disposal of said ministert 
and Consistory. Therein he shall be at liberty to order, agreeably to church ordi- 
nances and the duty of a godly minister, wherein said Director General offers him 
all aid and assistance as far as this concerns him as Chief Magistrate of the country. 

This done in the presence of Councillor La Montague and Secretary TIenhoven, 
this 8th of May, 1G49.— Col. Doce. N. Y. xlv. 114. 

O'Callaghan's remark thereon: 1G49. And so fearful still were the authorltle* 
that means would be found to communicate, during divine service, with the people, 
that " the Director General went in person to Domine Backerus, and told him that 
he ehould not be permitted, at the request of any individuals, to read from the pulpit 
to the congregation, under any pretence, either by himself or any of the deacons, 
any propositions whatsoever, appertaining to the police or general government, be- 
fore such writings had been signed by the secretary by order of the Director, or by 
the Director and Council." 

These measures had the effect only of hastening the departure of the clergyman 
from New Amsterdam, and of urging the opposition more strongly in their course. 
The Rev. Mr. Backerus requested his dismissal shortly after. He retsrned to Hol- 
land to swell the number of complaints against General Stuyvesant; and Adrlaen 
van der Donok, Jacob van Couwenhoven. and Jan Evertsen Bout followed. In th« 
course of the succeeding month, as agents for the coloniBtB. — O'Callaghan'B Hlitory 
of N«w Nctherland, Vol. 11. 94. 

OF THE State of ISTew York. 253 

Classis of Amsterdam. 

Acts of the Deputies. Gideon Schaats, Schoolmaster at Beest. 

1649, June 28th. 

Gideon Schaats, schoolmaster at Beest,* appeared with very 
good testimonial from the Classis of Bueren. He asked to go, 
in the capacity of siecken-trooster to the East Indies. But in- 
asmuch as, with the permission of the Classis, he had for some 
time exercised himself in " proponeren " (exercises preparatory to 
the ministry), and has good hope of being admitted to the prepara- 
tory examination at the next Synod of South Holland, he was 
informed that he was provisionally accepted by us as " Recom- 
mended " ; and that in the meantime he must seek to push his 
desires in the said Synod, xx. 216. 

Permit to Rev. Johannes Backeeus, Minister of New Am- 
sterdam, TO Resign His Office and Return to Holland. 

Johannes Backerlus, minister in this city New Amsterdam, appeared before the 
Council and requested his dismission, In order that he may return to Fatherland; 
therefore the Honorable Director General and Council, having considered the 
urgent request, cannot refuse said Backerlus his dismission; the said Director and 
Council have accordingly granted him leave to depart for Fatherland. 

This 6th of July, 1649. 

Col. Docs. N. Y. liv. 115. 

Resolution. To retain and engage Rev. Johannes Megapoleusls as minister of 
the Church at New Amsterdam. 

Aug. 2, 1649. 

WheresB Domino Johannes Backerlus on his urgent petition, and, as he declares 
with the consent of the Classis, wherein the despatches of the Honorable Directors 
concur, has received from us license and dismission, in order to depart with the 
flrBt ehipe for Fatherland; and In the meantime this congregation would remain 
destitute of spiritual nourishment, namely the preaching of the Holy Gospel, and 
the lawful participation of the Blessed Sacrament; Therefore we, the Director 
and Conncil, wishing to promote as far as we are able, the honor of God. the 
welfare and salvation of men, cannot consent that this congregation ought or 
can remain bereft of a pastor: Wherefore, on the Instructions from the Honor- 
able Lords Directors, we have resolved, as we do hereby resolve, earnestly and 
urgently to solicit and entreat the Reverend Domlne Johannes Megapolensis, late 
minister In Rensselaerswyck, who having obtained his dismission there. Is now 
here and prepared to depart with the first ships for Fatherland, and seriously 
and urgently to Inquire If he could not be induced by persuasive reasons, for 
the honor of God, the advancement of his Church, and the salvation of men to 
supply here the service of the Word and the adndnlBtration of the Holy Sacra- 
ment. His Reverence has, as we are already informed, no weighty reasons to 

* Beest, a Tillage of over twenty four hundred population. In Gelderland. 



254 Ecclesiastical Records 

decline our Invitation. Meanwhile the extreme need of the church work impera- 
tively demands, that at least one clergyman remain in this province among the 
Dutch people, both for this capital and Renselaer's Colony, were it only for 
administering Baptism to the children who are commonly presented here every 
Sunday at the Manhattans for baptism alone, sometimes one, sometimes two, 
yea even three and four together. Therefore, we excusing his reasons, cannot 
accept them at this time, but do hereby resolve, if possible, to endeavor to retain 
him blanda vl et quasi nolens volens, and we shall try to justify him to the best 
of our ability both to the Reverend Classis and the Patroon from whom he has 
already received his dismission and settlement of account. Such we resolve, to 
be most necessary for the honor of God, the service of his Church, and the salva- 
tion of the people. 

Thus done in our Council this 2nd of August; present — The Honorable Director 
General, Petrus Stuyvesant, L. van Dlncklage, H. van Dyck, La Montague, and 
Brian Nuton. — Col. Docs. N. Y. xiv. 116. 

Departure of Domine Backerus, and Settlement of Dominb 
Megapolensis at ISTew Amsterdam. 

August, 1649. 

By the departure of the Rev. Mr. Backerus, New Amsterdam wa§ now without 
a clergyman. The Rev. Mr. Megapolehsis having received his dismission from the 
colony of Rensselaerswyck, " was about to return to Fatherland, in the first sailing 
ship," and thus the Dutch colonists were to be deprived of the solacing comfort 
of a Christian ministry. To prevent this misfortune, the Director requested Doctor 
Megapolensis, " for the honor of God, for the increase of the church, and the 
interest of men," to remain in the country for a time at least. 

This invitation was at first declined. His wife had preceded him to Holland, 
and he was also anxious to follow her, as his presence was necessary in that 
country, for the liquidation of an estate in which he was interested. But his 
stay was still urged, in pursuance to instructions from the Chamber at Amsterdam, 
" if it were only for the instruction of the children, who are every Sunday pre- 
sented at the Manhattans for baptism — sometimes one — sometimes two — yae, 
sometimes three and four together;" Otherwise, it was apprehended that the Church 
would be a long time without a minister. His objections were at length overruled, 
and the Council having resolved to retain him, blanda vl, et quasi nolens, volens," 
he was installed minister of the church of New Amsterdam, at a salary of twelve 
hundred guilders, or four hundred and eighty dollars, per annum.* — O'Callaghan's 
History of New Netherland, Vol. 97. 

Remonstrance of the People of New j^etherland to the 

States General. 

[See Jan. 27, 1650, and Ap. 20, 1650, and InTov. 29, 1650.] 

(Abstract and Extracts.) 

1649, July 28. 

[This represents the condition of affairs just at the time that Domine John 
Backerus left New Amsterdam for Holland, and Domine John Megapolensis left 
Fort Orange and settled at New Amsterdam. We are concerned principally with 
what relates to the Church history, in order to make more intelligible, or to con- 
firm, the documents recently received (1898) from Amsterdam.] 

* Alb. Rec. Iv., 16, 17, 23; vii., 229, 230, 251-256. Rev. Mr. Megapolensis was au- 
thor of a tract on the Mohawk Indians, entitled Kort Ontwerp Van de Mahakuase 
Indlanen in N. Nederlandt, haer Lant, Stature, Dracht, Manieren en Magistraten, 

OF THE State of jSTew York. 255 

The following reference is given concerning the discovery of the country, 
page 275. 

" Among all the enterprising people in the world, who search for foreign coun- 
tries, navigable waters and trade, those who bear the name of Netherlanders 
will very easily be able to hold their rank among the foremost, as is sufficiently 
known to all those who have in any wise saluted the threshold of history. It 
will, in like manner, be also, confirmed by our following Relation; for in the year 
of Christ 1609, was the country, of which we now propose to speak, first found 
and discovered at the expense of the General Bast India Company — though direct- 
ing their aim and design elsewhere — by the ship de Halve Mane, whereof Henry 
Hudson was master and factor. It was afterwards named New Netherland by 
our people, and that very justly, for it was first discovered, and taken possession 
of, by Netherlanders and at their expense, so that even at the present day, the 
natives of the country, (who are so old as to remember the event) testify, that on 
seeing the Dutch ships on their first coming here, they knew not what to make 
of them, and could not comprehend, whether they came down from Heaven or 
whether they were Devils. Some among them, on Its first approach, even imagined 
It to be a fish, or some sea monster, so that strange rumor concerning it flew 
throughout the whole country. We have heard the Indians also frequently say, 
that they knew of no other world or people previous to the arrival of the Nether- 
landers here. For these reasons, therefore, and on account of the similarity of 
Climate, Situation and fertility, this place is rightly called New Netherland. It 
Is situate along the North Coast of America, in the latitude of 38, 39, 40, 41, 42 
degrees, or thereabouts. It Is bounded on the North Bast side by New England, 
on the South West by Virginia; the coast trends mostly South West and North 
East, and is washed by the Ocean; on the North runs the river of Canada, a 
great way off in the interior; the North West side is partly still unknown ". 

Then an elaborate description is given of the climate, the geography, the topog- 
raphy, the soil, the forests, the fruits and vegetation, the animals, domestic and 
wild, the foMi, the flsh, the reptiles, mediciual plants, the minerals, clays, etc. 
pp. 275-280. 

Then follows a description of the Indians, their deliberation of speech, their 
Btolldity, their art of healing wounds, their clothing of skins, their currency of 
wampum, the painting of their bodies, their boats, Instability of the marriage rela- 
tion, the occupations of the men and women, respectively, their huts, etc. 

The following Is given of their religious ideas, their idea of justice, etc., pp. 

" They are divided Into various tribes and languages. Each tribe usually dwells 
together, and there is one among them who Is chief; but he does not possess 
much power or distinction, except in their dances and In time of war. Some have 
scarcely any knowledge of God; others very little. Nevertheless, they relate very 
strange fables of the Deity. In general, they have a great dread of the Devil, 
who gives them wonderful trouble; some converse freely on the subject and allow 
themselves to be strangely Imposed upon by him; but their devils, they say will 
not have anything to do with the Dutch. Scarcely a word is heard here of any 
ghost or such like. Offerings are sometimes made to them, but with little 
ceremony. They believe, also. In an Immortality of the soul; have, likewise, some 
knowledge of the Sun, Moon aud Stars, many of which they even know how to 
name; they are passable judges of the weather. There Is scarcely any law or 
justice among them, except sometimes in war matters, and then very little. The 
next of kin Is the avenger; the youngest are the most daring, who mostly do as 
they like. Their weapons used to be a war club and the bow and arrow, which 
they know how to use with wonderful skill. Now, those residing near, or trading 
considerably with the Christians, make use of firelocks and hatchets, which they 

beschreven In 't jaer 1644, of which a translation is to be found in Haz. State Pap. 
I., 517. He wrote, shortly after, a religious treatise, entitled " Bxauiiuatiou and 
Confession for the benefit of those who are Inclined to approach the Table of the 
Lord," which he transmitted, by his wife, to the Directors in Amsterdam, for pub- 
lication. It was placed in the hands of the Classis of that city to be printed. Mrs. 
M. returned to her husband In the Falconer, in 1650. 



256 EcoLESiASTiOAL Recoeds 

obtain in barter. They are excessively fond of guns; spare no expense on tbem, 
and are so expert with them that, in this respect, they excell many Christians. 
Their fare, or food, is poor and gross, for they drink water, having no other beverage; 
they eat the flesh of all sorts of game that the country supplies: even badgers, 
dogs, eagles, and similar trash, which Christians in no way regard; these they 
cook and use uncleansed and undressed. Moreover, all sorts of flsh; likewise, 
•nakes, frogs, and such like, which they usually cook with the offals and entrails. 
They know, also, how to preserve fish and meat for the winter in order then to 
cook them with Indian meal. They make their bread, but of very indifferent 
quality, of maize, which they also cook whole, or broken in wooden mortars. The 
women likewise perform this labor and make a pap or porridge; called by some, 
Sapsls, by others, Duundare, which is their daily food; they mis this, also, 
thoroughly with little beans, of different colors, raised by themselves; this Is 
••teemed by them rather as a dainty, than as a dally dish ". 

The writer then proceeds to state the real causes of the Decline of New Nether- 
land, pages 29.5-303. He anticipated that these reasons would irritate very many. 
The government of New Netherland had been very bad. It was administered 
first by the West India Company In Holland; and secondly by their Director 
Generals in this country. 

The Plans proposed in Holland were wrong. They governed only for their own 
profit, and not for the best interests of the Colony. Yet New Netherland is 
superior to, and more convenient than New England. But while the Directors 
sought to seize large tracts of land, they did not proceed to colonize. Yet they 
Bought to control all its trade. There was much smuggling. " Meanwhile the 
Christians were treated almost like Indians in the purchase of necessaries which 
they cannot do without; this causes great complaint, distress and poverty ". The 
merchants sell their goods at a hundred per cent advance, and petty traders stfll 
further advance the cost. Liquors especially are advanced more than two hundred 
per cent. This drives the people away. The Directors in this country play the 
absolute master. Director Kleft boasted that he was Sovereign. Stuyvesant also 
denies the right of appeal, applying to himself the maxim " The Prince is above 
the law ". 

Illustrations of this Arbitrary Power of the Directors, that an Opinion may be 
formed of the Lion by his Paw. pp. 299-300. 

" Casting our eye, then, over Director Kieft's administration, we come first to the 
Church, and we shall speak, after that, of the public property, both ecclesiastical 
and civil. But as this man is now dead, and some of his proceedings and acts arc 
freely discussed by Jochem Pieterss Cuyter and Cornells Molyn, we shall dispose of 
this point as curtly as we possibly can. 

" Previous to Director Kieft's bringing the unnecessary war upon the country, his 
principal aim and object were to take good care of himself, and to leave behind him 
a great name, but without any expense either to himself or the Company; for he 
had never yet done anything remarkable for the country by which it was improved. 
With that view he considered the erection of a Church very necessary, being a 
public work, the rather as it was in contemplation at that time to build a place of 
worship in Renselaerswyck. Bearing this in mind, he communicated his views to 
the church-masters, of whom he himself was one, who readily approved of and 
praised the project. The place where it should stand was then discussed. The 
Director wished, and insisted that it should be located in the Fort, where It was 
erected In spite of the others. And truly, the location Is as suitable as a fifth 
wheel to a coach; for, besides being small, the Fort lies on a point, which would be 
of mote importance In case of population; the Church, which ought to be owned by 
the people who defrayed the expense of Its construction, intercepts and turns aside 
the Southeast wind from the gristmill which stands In that vicinity; and this Is also 
one of the causes why a scarcity of bread prevails frequently In summer for want of 

OF THE State of Xew Yoek. 257 

grinding. But this Is not the sole cause; for the mill Is neglected, and having been 
leaky moat of the time. It has become decayed and somewhat rotten, so that It can- 
not now work with any more than two arms, and has gone on thus for all of five 

" But, returning to the Church from which the gristmill has for a moment diverted 
us; the Director concluded, then, to have one built and on the spot which he pre- 
ferred. He lacked money; and where was it to be got? It happened, about this 
time, that Everardus Bogardus, the clergyman, gave in marriage a daughter, by his 
first wife. The Director thought this a good time for his purpose, and set to work 
after the fourth or fifth drink; and he himself setting a liberal example, let the wed- 
ding guests sign whatever they were disposed to give towards the Church. Each, 
then, with a light head, subscribed away at a handsome rate, one competing with 
the other; and although some heartily repented it when their senses came back, they 
were obliged, neverthiess, to pay; nothing could avail against It. The Church, then, 
was located in the Fort, In opposition to every one's opinion. The honor and own- 
ership of that work must be inferred from the inscription, which. In our opinion, is 
somewhat ambiguous, and reads thus: Anno, 1642. Willem Kleft, Directeur Gen- 
erael, heeft de gemeente desen temple doen bouwen. (William Kieft, Director Gen- 
eral, has caused the commonalty to build this temple.) But laying that aside, the 
people, nevertheless, paid for the Church. 

" It is now our time to speak of the Church property, and to do the truth no vio- 
lence, we are not aware that there ever has been any, or that the Church hath any 
revenue, except what is given to it. Neithe.- the Company nor the Director ever 
took the least pains or trouble to obtain or provide any. 

" The plate has been a long time passed around for a common school which has 
been built with words; for, as yet, the first stone Is not laid; some materials have 
only been provided. However, the money given for the purpose hath all disap- 
peared and is mostly spent, so that it falls somewhat short; and nothing permanent 
has as yet been effected for this purpose. 

" The Poor, who, however, are best provided for, have nothing except what is col- 
lected in the Church, in addition to a few fines and voluntary offerings from the 
Inhabitants; but a considerable portion of the money is in the hands of the Com- 
pany, who took it, from time to time, and retained it. They have long promised to 
pay interest, but notwithstanding all that is done In the matter, neither principal nor 
Interest can be obtained from them. 

" There is, occasionally, a fiying report of an hospital and of asylums for orphans 
and for old men, etc., but as yet not a sign of an attempt, order or regulation has 
been made about them. From all these, then, it is sufficiently apparent, that 
scarcely any proper care or diligence has been used by the Company or its ofllcers, 
for any ecclesiastical property; and, as far as can be ascertained, nothing in the 
least has been done from the beginning up to the present time, but on the contrary, 
every care and pains have been taken to attach minions closely, or to make new 
ones, as we shall hereafter show In Its own time, and now proceed and see, what 
have been the public resources of the government up to the time of our departure, 
so that it may bo manifest what pains and diligence the Directors have used and 
exercised in this particular ". 


Allusions are then again made to the many evils of Kleft's administration, and 
that he had done nothing for the people except to build the Church; that Stuyvesant 
had done nothing yet for the people except to repair the Church, the Remonstrance 
thus proceeds: 

" But 60 It was; a thousand ways were sought to shear the sheep before the wool 
had grown. Thus, in regard to public works, ihere Is little dlDference between Di- 
rector Kleft and Director Stuyvesant; for after the erection of the Church, the 
former became negligent and Instituted personal actions against whomsoever he had 
a prejudice. The latter hath had much better and more opportunities to assist the 
people than his predecessor; for he ha^ no war. He differs from him also, being 



258 Ecclesiastical Records 

more active and malignant in looking up causes of prosecution against his inno- 
cent opponents, than ever his predecessor had been: " Page 303. 

After these references to Kieft's conduct in civil and ecclesiastical matters, the 
■veriter turns to the Council Chamber. His arbitrary character is still further ex- 
hibited in this respect. His persecutions of Rev. Francis Doughty are then thus 
exhibited: pages 305-6. 

" At this point we are met by one Franciscus Douthy, an English clergyman here, 
and one Arnoldus van Hardenbergh, a free merchant, also of this place; but as this 
will probably come before your High Mightinesses in full session, in the cases in 
which they appear, we shall give merely a summary of them. This clergyman, 
Franciscus Douthy, came to New England at the commencement of the troubles in 
England, in order to escape them, and found that he had got out of the frying pau 
into the fire. He betook himself, in consequence, under the protection of the Neth- 
erlanders, in order that he may, according to the Dutch reformation, enjoy freedom 
of conscience, which he unexpectedly missed in New England; and the Director 
granted and conveyed to him an absolute patent, with manorial privileges. He added 
some families now to his settlement, in the course of one year; but the war break- 
ing out, they were all driven off their lands, with the loss of some people, and the 
destruction of many cattle, of almost all their houses, and whatever they had; they 
returned a while after that, and having consumed more than they knew how to 
obtain, they came to the Manathans, whither all the refugees at that time fled, and 
Master Douthy was minister there. 

" After the flame of war had died away, and peace had been concluded, in such a 
manner, however, that no one had much reliance on it, some returned again to their 
land. The Director would fain see this man go back to his land, in order that every- 
thing should have the appearance of being arranged, but as peace was doubtful, and 
Master Douthy had no means to begin with, he was not in a hurry; he went, how- 
ever, sometime after, and resided there half a year, and he again removed, as it was 
seized; for in the hope that some others would establish a village there, a suit was 
instituted against the Minister, and carried so far, that the land was confiscated. 
Master Douthy finding himself aggrieved, appealed from the judgment. The Direc- 
tor answered, there was no appeal from his decision which must be final, and in con- 
sequence of his remark, sentenced the Minister to be imprisoned for the space of 
twenty four hours, and then pay twenty five guilders. We have always considered 
this act tyrannical, and regarded it as an instance of sovereignty. 

" In the beginning, also, when Director Kieft was still here, the English Clergy- 
man (Doughty) requested permission to depart to the Islands or to Netherland, as 
he had lived and labored a long while without proper maintenance, and as his 
land was now confiscated; but he always received an unfavorable answer and was 
threatened with this and that. Finally, it came to pass that he may depart on con- 
dition of promising under his hand that, wherever he should go, he would not men- 
tion, nor complain of the manner he was treated here in New Netherland by Direc- 
tor Kieft or Stuyvesant. This the man himself declares. Mr. Dlnklagen and Com- 
mander Looper, who were then members of the Council, also vouch for its truth. 
If the Directors can now justify it to their own consciences, 'tis a wonder what 
they will then do with such certificates; and many other things of a similar char- 
acter have occurred, but very secretly." 

" Although we are satisfied and fully aware, that, as respects public reforms, we 
are but as children, and that your High Mightinesses are fully competent in the 
case, yet we beseech you to pardon and excuse us, if we, according to our humble 
conception thereof, make a few suggestions in addition to what we have already 
considered, in our petition to your High Mightinesses, to be necessary. 

OF THE State of ISTew York. 259 

" In our opinion this country will never flourish under the Honorable Company's 
government; on the contrary 'twill waste and decay in Itself, unless the Company be. 
In consequence, reformed. It would, therefore, be better and more advantageous 
for the country and themselves were they rid of it and the remnant of their prop- 
erty transported hence. 

" To speak specifically: care ought to be taken of the public property, both ecclesi- 
astical and civil, which in the beginning can illy be spared or dispensed with. It is 
doubtful but Divine Worship must be entirely intermitted in consequence of the 
Clergyman's departure, (Backerus) and the Company's inability. There ought to be 
also a Public school provided with at least two good teachers, so that the youth. 
In so wild a country, where there are so many dissolute people, may, first of all, be 
well instructed and indoctrinated not only in reading and writing, but also in the 
knowledge and fear of the Lord. Now, the school Is kept very irregularly, by this 
one or that, according to his fancy, as long as he thinks proper. There ought to be, 
likewise. Asylums for aged men, for orphans, and similar institutions. The clergy- 
man who now returns home, could give fuller Information on the subject. The coun- 
try must also be provided with moral, honorable and intelligent rulers who are not 
very indigent nor yet very covetous: A covetous ruler makes poor subjects, and the 
mode in which the country is now governed, is a great afllictlon and not to be tol- 
erated; for no one is unmolested nor secure in his property any longer than the 
Director pleases, who is generally very prone to confiscation. And though men 
act fairly and give him his due, yet it is necessary still to continue to please him. 
If one would have quietness. Good population should follow good government, as 
we have demonstrated, according to our ability, in our petition. And although free 
passage and the fitting out of ships, were such requisites, would, at first, cause ex- 
pense, yet when the result is considered, such an outlay would be immeasurably well 
employed, if farmers and laborers with other people in straightened circumstances, 
of whom Fatherland has plenty to spare, were by that means introduced with what 
little they may have, into the country. We hope it would then prosper, especially 
had It, what we consider to be the mother of population, good Privileges and Ex- 
emptions, which could encourage the inhabitants; attract navigation and profitable 
trade, and with pleasantness, convenience, salubrity and productiveness of the coun- 
try, allure everyone hither. If a boundary were added in the protection, to what 
has already been done, then with God's help everything, would, in human proba- 
bility, go well, and New Netherland could be, in a short time, a brave place, able, 
also, to be of service to the Netherland State, to richly repay expended outlays 
and to thank her benefactors. 

" High and Mighty Lords! We have taken the liberty to write this Remonstrance, 
and to submit the case as we have done, through love of the truth, and because we 
have felt bound to do so by our oath and conscience. It is true that all of us, either 
together or individually, have not seen, heard or had a knowledge of the entire con- 
tents in every particular; nevertheless it contains nothing but what some among us 
well know to be true and credible. We all know the greatest part of it to be truth; 
some are acquainted with the remainder of it, and have also heard it from trust- 
worthy persons, and sincerely believe it to be wholly true. We hope your High 
Mightinesses will pardon our presumption, and be Indulgent to our plainness of 
style, composition and method. In conclusion, we commit your High Mightinesses"^ 
persons, deliberations and measures with your people both at home and abroad, 
together with all friends of New Netherland, to the merciful guidance and protection 
of the Most High, whom we supplicate to grant prosperity to your High Mighti- 
nesses in time and eternity. AMKN. 

Done this XXVIII July, In New Netherland, 1G49. 

" (Signed) Adriaeu van der Donck, Augustyn Ilarman, Arnoldus van Harden- 
bergh, Jacob van Couwenhoven, Oloff Stevens, (beside whose name Is written) " un- 
der protest. Obliged to sign as to the Heer Kieft's administration ". Mlchiel Janss, 
Thomas Hall, Elbert Elberts, Govert Lokermans, Hendrlck Hcndrixs Kip and Jan 
Everts Bout. 

" (Underneath stood) 


260 Ecclesiastical Recoeds ' 

After collating with the Original Remonstrance dated and subscribed as above, 
this Is found to agree with It, at the Hague the 13th October 1649 by me. 

(Signed) D. V. Schelluyne, Not. Pub. 

1649."— Col. Docs. N. Y. 1. 271-318. 

This whole Remonstrance was referred to a Committee. See their Digest, Jan 27, 

The Petition accompanying this Remonstrance may be seen in Col. Docs. N. Y. 1. 
259--261. The eleven signatures to It were probably all members of the Dutch 
Church. Among other Items mentioned as causes of the low condition of the coun- 
try Is: " 5th the loss of the Princess ". She carried much wealth besides Director 
Kleft and Domlne Bogardus. 

Synod of jSToeth Holland, at Edam. 

' Art. 15. Plan for East and West India Affairs. 

1649, Aug. 9 et seq. 

Regarding Art. 19, (1648), concerning tte Plan about East 
and West India affairs : It was learned from the Rev. Corre- 
spondent to Utrecht, where the proposed Plan had not jet been 
accepted, that this matter had been referred back to the several 
Classes, to bring in their resolutions at the ensuing Synod. This 
vnll be awaited. Meantime our correspondent who shall attend 
that Synod, shall use all diligence to move the said Rev. Synod 
to the acceptance of the Plan mentioned. 

■ Art. 28. East and West India Affairs. 

Concerning East and West India affairs: After the question 
was put to the Classes what had occurred within their respective 
bounds, the Rev. Deputies (delegates) from the Classis of Am- 
sterdam handed over the followine; extracts from letters: 

Article 30. 

Rev. Backerius, minister in ISTew ISTetherland, requested, per 
letter, to be released, from his office there by spring, and that an- 
other be sent in his place; for the congregation there consists of 
one hundred and seventy members. Besides a capable school- 
master is in the highest degree necessary there. 

OF THE State of I^ew York. 261 


Article 31. 

Kev. Megapolensis, minister at Kensselaerwyck, also makes 

known that lie intends to depart again for the Fatherland in the 

spring. He requests that by that time another be sent in his 

stead. .-...•. ' 

Article 32. 

Extract from the Acts of the Synod of Utrecht held in Au- 
gust and September, 1648. ! 

Eegarding the direction of the East and West India Churches: 
The advices of the respective Classes, to be introduced into Synod, 
are awaited. 

Art. 36. Ecclesiastical Changes. 

Among the Classical changes reported to Synod this year, ap- 
pears the following item: Classis of Alkmaar: Eev. John Nieu- 
wenhuysen of Wyck-op-zee, goes to Aelsmeer. j 

Classis of Amsterdam. 
Acts of the Deputies. Rev. John Megapolensis. 

1649, Oct. 25th. 

A letter was read from Eev. John Megapolensis in Kew aSTeth- 
erland; and one from Rev. Bullans in Muscovy. These will be 
laid before Classis. xx. 227. 

Correspondence from America. Rev. Peter Stuyvesant, elder 
in the church of iS'ew Amsterdam, to the Classis of Amsterdam, 
August, 1649. 

Reverend, Yer^^ Learned and Honorable Gentlemen, Beloved and 
Dear Brethren in Christ: 

Yery Reverend Fathers: — 

My last letter, ^vl'itten at the request of the joint Consistory, 
was dated on the 11th of Sept. 1648, about eleven months ago. 

262 Ecclesiastical Records 

The safe arrival of the ship by which it was seat, leads us to 
hope, that the letter was received by you. In it we exhibited to 
you the condition of the Church here, to the best of our knowl- 
edge. We refer you to that, that we may not trouble you, in 
your honorable and difficult, but God pleasing duties, with a twice 
told tale. We can thus determine, especially, because upon his 
own urgent request, our late teacher and brother in Christ, 
Domine John Backer, quicker in his speach than with his pen, 
is about going over (to Holland) and will relate our present con- 
dition. His departure would more greatly grieve us and many 
others, considering the necessity of divine service here, if the 
Rev. Domine Johannis Megapolensis, late preacher in Rens- 
selaer's Colony, had not set the honor of God, the service of the 
Church, and the saving of human souls, above his own very im- 
portant business, and his reasons for removal. But he allowed 
himself to be persuaded by our urgent requests and conclusive 
reasons, to take upon himself, for the present, the Church ser- 
vice here. Knowing the actual needs of the Church and fearing, 
in view of the poverty of the Hon. Company, that Ave might not 
easily obtain another able teacher from home, we made use of as 
persuasive arguments as possible, and inductive reasons, taking 
great trouble to keep him here. We prayed God, that we might 
succeed, for the honor of liis holy name, the advantage of his 
■Church, the increase of (Christian) knowledge with salvation, and 
for our mutual peace and harmony. We hope also, that he may 
with God's favor, serve this feeble lukewarm, and faint hearted 
congregation for a long time. But the contrary is to be feared, 
unless the Rev. Classis consent to it, and also the lioble and Hon. 
Directors obtain permission therefrom, and indemnification from 
his former patrons, the trustees of the Colony (of Rensselaers- 
vryck;) and unless he can have assurance concerning his salary, 
and provision be made for sending over his wife and children. 
We have thought it necessary most humbly to communicate all 
this to the Rev. Classis, that the Committee on Indian Affairs 
may be authorized and ordered to promote all these matters. 

OF THE State of JSTew York. 263 


Otherwise the delay in his Reverence's removal would incon- 
venience the congregation too much, and almost deprive them of 
the hope of ever being again supplied with a minister of such 
eloquence, eminence and fitness, in teaching and life; but all three 
of these virtues with many others are very much needed in the 
church here. 

Besides the foregoing, we must again trouble your Reverence 
Math a second request, which we have heretofore presented to you. 
We need a pious and diligent schoolmaster and precentor. A 
year has now passed since we were deprived of such help. By 
this our young people have gone backward, even to grow wild 
quae nihil agendo male agere discit. In view of the fact that a 
good schoolmaster is not less needed here, than a good preacher, 
as we have above explained in detail to your Reverences and to 
the Hon. Directors, we rely upon your usual excellent facilities 
and pious zeal for securing the one, and a favorable decision in 
the other. We hope, that in a short time we shall have occasion 
to thank you for both. In the meantime, we and many others 
pray God for your well being, and for your growth in his holy 
grace. Herewith closing, w^e commend your Reverences to God, 
tlie Father, to our Lord Jesus Christ, and to the communion of 
the Holy Ghost, remaining, 

Very Reverend Fathers and Beloved Brethren, 
Tour affectionate servant, 
P. Stuyvesant. 
Oct. 1649. 

Rev. John Backerus. 

1649, Nov. 1st. 

Rev. John Backerus having come as minister from New Neth- 
ei'land, exhibited his credentials to the Classis, and requested 
therewith to be admitted here in this country ad publicas con- 
dones, and to be aided by the Classis in securing his compensa- 
tion from the West India Company. His credentials being good, 
his last request was granted. As regards the former, he was re- 


264 Ecclesiastical Records 

ferred to the Synod, in accordance with Synodical injunction. 
V. 138 ; xxvi. 52. 

Ministers at the Eecife.* 

1649, K'ov. 9-30th. 

It was resolved to renew before the Hon. Directors of the West 
India Companj the request of the ministers at the Eecife, in re- 
gard to an increase of their salaries; inasmuch as all things had 
become dear, on account of the long continued siege; and the 
ordinary salary did no longer suffice, xx. 228. 

Acts of the Deputies. 

1649, Dec. 27th. 

A letter from Eev. Mr. Megapolensis, pastor in Xew ISTether- 
land was read in which he states the reasons why he remained 
iit Manhattan, although he intended to have gone to the Father- 
land upon receiving his dismissal. He also requests that another 
minister be sent to Rensselaerswi^ck in his stead. The brethren 
resolved to wait upon the Messrs. Directors about this matter, 
and to request them to confirm the Rev. Mr. Megapolensis in his 
charge, and to furnish his Reverence A^-ith an honorable stipend; 
also to recommend to the guardian of the Rentselaer wards, to 
be pleased to send another minister to that colony. In addition 
it was resolved to write to Rev. Mr. Megapolensis, and to inform 
him of our full approval of his determination to remain, xx. 
229. (See Col. Hist. K Y. i. 389, 431.) 

The Classis to the Rev. John Megapolensis, written to ISTew Neth- 
erland, Jan. 10th, 1650. xxvi. 61. 

Reverend, Godly, and Highly Learned Ministerial Brother, and 
co-laborer in the Work of the Lord : — 

We received your communication of Aug. 18, 1649. It was 
all the more pleasant to us, because it informed us, that although 

* This was the lower part of Mauritzstad, the capital of Dutch Brazil. It was 
built on the reef. Rev. J. T. Polhemus, afterward of Brooklyn was in Brazil 1635-54. 

OF THE State of New Yokk. 265 


on your v:aj to the Fatherland, you did finally resolve, at the 
urgent request of the General, the Council and the People, on 
the Manhattan, to remain there in the service of the West India 
Company: and this you did, because otherwise all 'New Nether- 
land would necessarily be deprived of the pure worship of God, 
on account of the departure of Rev. John Cornelisson Backer, 
who is yet without charge. This was truly a sufficient reason^ 
and justly influenced you to remain. 

We commend your excellent zeal in this matter, and have ac- 
cordingly requested from the Hon. Directors of the West India 
Company their approbation of your act, and a fair remuneration 
for you. They have acceded to both requests. They declare that 
they are willing to give you such remuneration as they have been 
accustomed to give their pastors. 

The bearer of this, William Vestensz of Haerlem, goes as Com- 
forter of the Sick, and schoolmaster, at the request of the Hon. 
Director Stuyvesant, and the church of Manhattan, and with the 
approval of the Hon. Directors of the West India Company. The 
said Hon. Directors also mentioned two others, so as to secure one 
of them, but they have not appeared, and we do not know their 
residence, else we might have corresponded with them. William 
Vestensz is an excellent God fearing man. We trust that he may 
be acceptable, and do good service. 

It is further proper for you to know that we have conferred 
with the guardians of the Renselaer children, and have requested 
that they would be pleased to send another pastor in your place 
to the Eenselaer colony. We have also published that the whole 
church there earnestly desires this. The guardians say that they 
were satisfied with your services. They wished that you had come 
hither, as they Avould have been inclined to make a new contract 
with you, that you might have returned thither and continued your 
services there. But inasmuch as it pleased you to remain in the 
service of the West India Company at Manhattan, they are in- 
clined to send over another suitable person. They must now, first 
ascertain, however, where the salary for a pastor is to come from, 

266 Ecclesiastical Records 


and to that end tliej have written to their agent there. Mean- 
while we shall not neglect to urge them to send a suitable person 
to the Renselaer colonies by the first opportunity. 

In closing we send you our friendly greetings. Please con- 
vey such greetings also to the Hon. Director Stuyvesant. We 
commend you to God's gracious protection, while we remain, 

Your affectionate Fellow-brethren, the Committee on East and 
West Indian Church Affairs. In behalf of the Classis of Am- 

Done at Eleazar Swalminus, Pres. of the Assembly. 

Amsterdam Eredericus Kesslerus, Sec. of the Deputies. 

Jan. 10, 1650. 

Report of Committee on the Remonstrance. Digest and 
1650 Extract, Relating to the Church. 

.Digest of Excesses and ISTeglect of I^ew l^etherland under the 
West India Company. Exhibited, January 27th, 1650, to the 
meeting of the Deputies of their High Mightinesses, and given to 
the Directors. (1642-50.) 

Of the Church; Ecclesiastical Property and Benevolent Institutions. 

12. Contrary to the advice of the Churchmasters and the sound opinion of others, 
the Church was located in the Fort, which is exceedingly small; so that the Church 
occupies almost one fourth part of it; moreover shutting off the southeast wind from 
the Mill; Director Kieft's will and pleasure herein must be obeyed. 

13. The Church was built by a collection among the People, and the Directors will 
have it the property of the Company. 

14. No care or attention has hitherto been paid to secure or obtain Ecclesiastical 
property, or to select anything for the purpose. 

15. A plate has long been going around for a School, but the money has been di- 
verted; some few materials have been bought for it, but the first stone is yet to be 

16. The poor's money is mostly in the hands of the Company, who have paid 
neither principal nor interest. 

17. There was indeed a flying report about an orphan-house, hospital and asylum 
for the aged, but it amounted to nothing. 

18. The Directors have made no effort to convert to Christianity either the Indians, 
or the Blacks or Slaves, owned by the Company there. 

21. The unjust proceedings of the Directors against Francis Douthey the Minister, 
■who, because he appealed from Kieft's unrighteous sentence, was put in prison and 
obliged to pay a fine of twenty five guilders before he could be set at liberty. 

34. Francis Douthey, an English Clergyman, was subjected to an utterly unjust 
condition before he was allowed to depart — never to mention how illegally he had 

OF THE State of N^ew York. 267 

been treated in New Netherland; and because he would not execute an obligation 
to tliat effect, he would not be permitted to leave. 

Col. Docs. N. Y. i. 335. See also pp. 299, 300, 305-6; 311. 


Answer of the West India Company to the Remonstrance from New Netherland, 
made to the States General; January 31st, 1650. 

12. The Church was erected, for satisfactory reasons, in the fort. 

13. It cost much more than eight thousand guilders whereof it cannot be proved 
that the people paid eight hundred; the collection taken up by subscription, hath 
realized the least. 

14. We request that they declare what they understand by ecclesiastical property. 

15. The Director hath not the administration of the money that was taken up on 
the plate; but Jacob Couwenhoven, who is one of the petitioners, hath kept account 
•of it in his quality of Churchmasters. 

16. 'Tis acknowledged that the Company is indebted to the Deaconry, nine or ten 
hundred guilders, according to the tenor of the obligation thereof drawn up in New 
Netherland Anno 1649. The first interest thereupon will fall due Anno 1650. 

17. The Company's circumstances admitted of the building neither of an hospital 
nor orphan asylum, which are not very necessary there as yet. 

18. Everj' one conversant with the Indians in, and around New Netherland, will be 

able to say, that it is morally impossible to convert the adults to the Christian faith. 

Besides, 'tis a Minister's business to apply himself to that, and the Director's duty 

to assist him therein. 

Col. Docs. N. Y. i. 340. 

21. liespecting this Article, we refer to the sentence. 

34. (Rev.) Francis Douthey being indebted to the Company about eleven hundred 
guilders, petitioned, in New Netherland, for permission to depart. The Director and 
Council are willing to allow him to do so, but think they ought first of all be paid; 
his incapacity so to do, was the reason why he was not allowed to depart, and it 
must be proved that the Director required from him any obligation under his hand. 
— Col. Docs. N. Y. 1. 341. 

Furtiier Extracts from the Reply to the Report of Com- 
mittee on the Remonstrance. 

The Director never had anything to do with the property of the church. A 
subscription was entered into in Kleffs time to aid in the erection of that build- 
ing, which, however, was not paid. " The Company paid the workmen." The 
consistory was satisfied at the time that it should be located in the fort; but 
these people considered the Company's fort not worthy the honor of a church. 
It is true the new schoolhouse had not been built, but this was not the fault of 
the Director, who is busy collecting materials, but of the churchmasters, who had 
charge of the funds which the commonalty subscribed. In the meanwhile, a place 
for ihe school had been provided and held. Other teachers keep school in hired 
houses, so that the youth are furnished with the means of education, according 
to the circumstances of the country. 'Tls true there is no Latin school nor 
academy; those of the commonalty who require such, can look to it and supply 
the funds. The deacons are accountable for what concerns the poor. They can 
tell where the money is gone, and who have had It from time to time on interest. 
The Director never administered these funds. Director Kleft borrowed all the 
small fines and penalties imposed by the court, and placed in the poor's box. 
" He opened the box with the consent of the deacons, and took the contents " 
on interest. The sum was of small amount. 


268 Ecclesiastical Eecords 

It Is true that there are no duties either on exports or imports in the latter 
plantations, but the property of each inhabitant is assessed, and he is obliged to 
pay according to his means. In this way he is taxed to build and support 
churches and schools; to maintain preachers and schoolmasters; to erect public 
buildings in cities and villages; to construct and repair all highways and bridges; 


What more frivolous request could be made than that the Company should quit 
the country. At its own charge that body has conveyed people and cattle thither, 
erecting forts, and assisted many poor emigrants from Holland with provisions 
and clothing. And now that some have " a little more than they can consume In 
a day," they ungratefully wish to be relieved from the authority of their bene- 
factors, even without paying them, if they could. They further demand that pro- 
vision be made for the support of religion and the diffusion of education, and for 
the erection of asylums and hospitals. If they be such friends to religion, educa- 
tion and charity as they pretend, let them be leaders in a subscription to such 
laudable undertakings, and not complain as they did when asked to contribute for 
the church and school-house. " Had the Director demanded a collection for an 
orphan asylum and hospital, what an outcry would not have been raised." The 
vacancy created by the departure of the Rev. Mr. Backerus is filled " by a learned 
and holy minister, who needs no interpreter when defending the Reformed rellgioa 
against the preachers of our neighbors, the English Brownlsts." 

Classis of Amsterdam. 

Acts of the Deputies. 

1650, Jan. 31st. 

The Eev. President Swalmiiis, and the clerk, reported in ref- 
erence to their commission that they recommended to the Messrs. 
Directors of the West India Company, William Vestens of Haer- 
lem, for schoolmaster and Visitor of the Sick in New Netherland, 
and that he has been accepted by the above named gentlemen, 
and will be sent at the earliest opportunity. 

Moreover they report that Rev. Mr. Megapolensis had taken 
leave of Eensselaerswyck, and has entered the sendee of the Com- 
pany in Xew ISTetherland, (ISTew Amsterdam) at the request of the 
General and of the congregation there; that he desires the Di- 
rectors to give him their approval, and that they should promise 
to provide him with an honorable salary. 

Further, that they (the Deputies) had reiterated the petition 
of the ministers in regard to an increase of their salaries, and that 
the Directors had agreed to give the same in charge of a commit- 
tee; that this committee would proceed in a few days to the Hague 

OF THE State of Xew Yoke. 269 

to deliberate on the matter ^\'it]i the other committees from the 
respective chambers, seeing it %vas a petition of a general nature. 
Finally, (they report), that they had conferred ^vith the guard- 
ians of the Rensselaer wards, and that they had requested them 
to be kind enough to send another minister in place of Kev. Mr. 
Megapolensis, to Rensselaerswyck. They had indeed manifested 
a willingness to do this, but as they could not very well supply 
the means of support, they would first write to ISTew Xetherland. 
XX. 230. 

DiRECTOES IN Holland to Stuyvesant : Rev. 

Megapolensis Schoolmaster Sent Out: Remonstrance 
FROM New Netherland : 


The recommendation of the Rev. Domine Megapolensis has in so far been at- 
tended by us, that we have paid to his wife six hundred florins as six months 
salary: as to how she has been treated by the heirs of van Renselaer on account 
of his services in their district, and which he will learn from his wife, we prefer 
to say nothing about it. 

At your request we have engaged a schoolmaster, who is to serve also as com- 
forter of the sick. He is considered as an honest and pious man and will come 
over by the first chance. 

Your apprehensions concerning Domine Baclkerus, the preacher, have, as you 
expected, been verified. He has made common cause with the complainants, come 
from your parts, silly people — at least the majority of them — who have been 
badly misli-d by a few seditious persons, like Cornelius Melyn, Adrian van der 
Donck and some others. These men seem to leave nothing untried, to upset every 
kind of government, pretending that they suflerod under too heavy a yoke. 
Wouter van Twiller confirms them in this opinion and alms at the command of the 
whole North River: he admits publicly, that he does not Intend to allow any one 
to navigate the river for the purpose of trade, and says, he will resist any one 
coming there or to Itensselaerswyck; maintaining besides, fhat Fort Orangs is built 
upon the soil of Reusselaerswyck and that therefore the Company has no right 
to let houses be built or private parties trade there. He forgets, that this fort 
was erected fifteen years before Rensselaerswyck was ever mentioned, that it has 
been always garrisoned by the Company's men, and that a trading house has 
been kept there for the account of the Company until the year lt>44. The trade In 
peltries was exclusively reserved until then for the Company and it should remain 
so, were the Company In the condition to keep their storehouses well provided 
with the right goods: we hope that in good time we shall find means, to exclude 
from this trade all these impertinent fellows; we are justified in using our right, 
which this ungrateful customer, who, so to say, has sucked his welfare from the 
breasts of the Company, now tries to abuse. The traders generally have already 
complained to us and ask In the enclosed document to be maintained in their 
trade.— Col. Docs. N. Y. xiv. 117, 119, 120. 
February IG, 1650. 


2T0 Ecclesiastical Records 

' ' ■ • 1650, March 4. 

Information respecting New Netherland. 

After describing ttie land, and speaking of ttie proper cattle for the locality,^ 
and the diflferent classes of artizans needed, with farmers, etc. (Col. Docs. N. Y. 
i. 356-371.) we lind the following: 

" A clergyman, comforter of the sick, or precentor, who could also act as 
schoolmaster ". — Col. Docs. N. Y. i. 370. 

Report of the Committee of the States General on the Affairs of New Netherland. 


Provisional Order respecting the Government, Preservation and Peopling of New 

After lengthy conferences with the Directors of the West India Company, a 
Report was adopted. — See Col. Docs. N. Y. i. 387-391: 

In reference to Religion. 

New Netherland being at present provided with only one clergyman, orders shall 
be given forthwith for the immediate calling and support of at least three preach- 
ers; one to attend to Divine Service at Renselaer's Colonic; the second in and 
about the city of New Amsterdam, and the third in the distant places; and the 
Commonalty shall be also obliged to have the youth instructed by good school- 
masters. — Col. Docs. N. Y. i. 389. 

The Amsterdam Chamber made several " observations " on the said report. In 
reference to Religion: 

1650, April, 11: 

6. Those of the Colonic of Rensselaers-Wyck must pay their own clergyman, 
and are busy inquiring for a person. New Amsterdam is provided, and none is 
yet required in the out-lying places. [See Way 24, 1650.] — Col. Docs. N. Y. i. 392. 

Acts of the Classis of Amsterdam. 

Rev. David Roderen; Casp. Carpentier. 

1650, March 7th. 

The Consistory of Amsterdam represented that they had heard 
Rev. David Roderen, formerly a candidate of the Classis, and 
now dwelling at Amsterdam; and Rev. Caspanis de Carpentier, 
at present, minister at Amersfoort, as ministers (candidates) for 
the service of their congi-egation. They had also received the 
approval of their noble magistrates, and now they requested that 
the Classis would also approve the same. So be it. The Classis 
having given heed unto this request, do also, in the fear of the 
Lord, approve the election and calls of these two individuals, and 
wish the blessing of the Lord upon the church of Amsterdam, 
unto the consummation of the same. v. 143. 

OF THE State of ISTew Yokk. 271 

Acts of the Deputies. 

Rev. Megapolensis. 

1650, Mar. 7th. 

The Rev. Deputies reported to the Classis of Amsterdam, that 
Rev. Megapolensis, at the urgent request of the Director and peo- 
ple of ISTew Ketherland, has bound himself anew to the service 
of the Company, and requested the approval of his course and a 
proper salary. Both requests have been granted by the Com- 

They further reported that William Vestens, a schoolmaster 
from TIaerlem, has been sent thither; also that they have con- 
ferred with the guardians of the Renselaer children, and have 
requested them to send another pastor to Rensselaerswyck in place 
of Megapolensis. They were inclined to do this, but they said 
that they must first write, and receive an answer thence, 
xxvi. 63. 

Rev. John Backerus. 

1650, April 4th. 

Rev. John Backerus, late pastor in Curacoa, and in Kew Neth- 
erland, informs us that the Classis of Alckmaer has charged him 
to present his certificate of dismissal from the churches he has 
served. He requests therefore from this Classis a certificate that 
he has returned from those regions in accordance with the con- 
sent, and to the satisfaction of the people. He desires also a 
testimonial as to the result of his examination before this Classis. 

The Classis grants both these requests, and orders the secre- 
tary to give him a proper testimonial. This was done. (See Col. 
Docs. K Y. i. 431.) xxvi. 64. 

Rev. William Grasmeer. 

The Rev. Dcputati ad res Indicas represent, that Rev. William 
Grasmeer, pastor at Grafdyck in the Classis of Alckmaer, being 
under Classical censure, has deserted his post, without the knowl- 

272 Ecclesiastical Eecoeds 

edge of tke Classis, and is intending to journey to New Nether- 

They therefore inquire, whether the Patroons of Rensselaers- 
w;)^ck, present in this city, and also the church of Manhatan in 
New Netherland ought not to be warned against him in that he 
will arrive there without an ecclesiastical certificate? Otherwise 
they may put too great confidence in him, and cause offence and 
disquietude in the church there. 

It is deemed proper to do this, in the name of the Classis, 
through the Deputati ad res Indicas. xxvi. 64. 

1650, April 4th. 

The Rev. Deputati ad res Indicas represent, that William Gras- 
meer, a minister in the Classis of Alkmaer, at Grafdyck, being 
under censure of Classis, has left his charge without the knowl- 
edge of Classis, with the intention of journeying in New Nether- 
land. They ask in reference to this matter, whether the Patroons 
of Rensselaer's wyck, who are here in town, and the church in 
New Netherland, (at Rensselaer's wyck) ought not to be warned 
against him, since he will arrive there without any ecclesiastical 
endorsement. Thus they will not put too much confidence in him, 
lest he cause some offence or disturbance in the church there. It 
was judged to be proper thus to do. This vnll be done in the 
name of the Classis by the Deputies ad res Indicas. v. 151. 

Acts of the Deputies and their Correspondence. 

l*he Classis of Amsterdam to Rev. Consistory of the Reformed 
Church at Manhattan, in New Netherland, regarding Rev. 
William Grasmeer. xxvi. 64. 

Reverend, Godly, Highly Learned, Provident, Most Discreet, and 
Beloved Fellow-Brethren in the Lord: — 

Whereas we understand that Rev. William Grasmeer, pastor at 
Grafdyck, being under censure of the Rev. Classis of Alckmaer, 
has left his church, and is said to be determined to depart to New 

OF THE State of IsTew York. 273 

[N'etlierlaiid, without, however, being first reconciled to his wife, 
and tlie aforementioned Classis, and also goes thither without our 
permission: — We therefore deem it necessary to acquaint your 
Eev. Body with these things, and to warn you that you do not 
allow him to ofiiciate in any of the duties of the ministerial office, 
if perchance he should so desire, until he shall have rendered satis- 
faction to the Classis of Alckmaer, and be lawfully called to such 
service. A contrary course would be in violation of the order of 
the Synod, and cause great offence here. 

We trust that you -VAall not show yourselves recalcitrant in this 
matter. We remain. Reverend and Much Beloved Fellow-Breth- 

Your Reverences' devoted to command. In the name of the 
Classis of Amsterdam, the Committee on Ecclesiastical Af- 
fairs in the East and West Indies. 

Eleazar Swalminus. 
Eredericus Kesslerus, 
Given in our Sec. of the Deputies. 

Classical Meeting, Johannes Rulitius, Co-deputatus. 

April 4, 1650. Philips Metzu, Elder. 

The Grasmeer Case, 1650, April 11th. Rev. Frederick Kes- 
lerus in the Chair. 

A certain communication from this meeting, wa-itten by the or- 
der of the Classis, to the consistory of Manhattan in New ISTeth- 
erland, was read. Therein they are warned not to permit Rev. 
William Grasmeer, pastor at Grafdyck, which belongs to the 
Classis of Alckmaer, to preach or to administer any church ordi- 
nance. He is intending to go there; but he is under censure of 
said Classis, having left his congregation without their knowledge. 

The Rev. President informed the meeting that on April 7, two 

Deputies of the Classis of Alckmaer, viz. Rev. Mr. Kn\-f and 

Rev. Mr. Mensevoet, had had an intendew vdih him and Rev. Mr. 

Rultius, and had explained to them what had been done in their 

Classis, in reference to the above mentioned William Grasmeer; 

274 Ecclesiastical Eecorbs 

he has "been suspended from the performance of ministerial func- 
tions by their Classis, in confirmation Avhereof, they furnished a 
copy of said action from their Classical record; that he had also 
left his congregation without the knowledge of the Classis, or 
without giving any satisfaction to the same. They therefore re- 
quested in the name of their Classis, as well as in the name of our 
own, that timely warning be given to the consistory at Manhattan, 
not to permit said Grasmeer to preach or perform any church 
ordinance until he be reconciled to the Classis of Alckmaer, and 
shall have given satisfaction to the same. 

The Brethren Deputies from Alckmaer were also infonned that 
our Classis had already taken action in this case, and our letter 
to the consistory at Manhattan, was read to their Reverences. 
The said Deputies were satisfied therewith, and thanked our Classis 
for their vigilance, xx. 234. 

1650, April 16th. 

Copy of the resolution of the Rev. Classis of Alckmaer, concern- 
ing Rev. William Grasmeer. xxvi. 65. 

Rev. William Grasmeer: — You are hereby cited to appear im- 
mediately upon receipt hereof, before our Classical Assembly, to 
give reasons for the abandonment of your church, to the end that 
all action in the matter henceforth, may tend to God's glory and 
the best welfare of this Church. In default of your appearance, 
the Classis will treat you as a deserter who abandons his church 
in violation of proper order. 

It is also understood that you have lightly presumed to preach, 
at Koedyck, or elsewhere. This is emphatically forbidden you 
until you have made satisfaction to the Classis. 

Expecting that obedience which you owe to the Classis, be com- 
mended to God. 

In the name, and by order of all, 

Nicholas Rensius, 

April 16, 1650. Sec. protem of Classis. 

OF THE State of New York. 275 

Grasmeer's Answer. XXVI. 65. 

This being immediately received, he responded: Xo one can 
prove that I have abandoned my church. I can prove the con- 
trary by the testimony of the church; but that I have separated 
from them is known to all unprejudiced parties. 

And what should I do before you? Already you show, by 
forbidding me to preach, what you mean to do, did I come. There- 
fore I propose not to appear before you. 

Do and act in such a way that you may be able to vindicate 
yourselves before God and unprejudiced parties. Farewell. 

William Grasmeer, Pastor. 

Rev. Casp. de Carpentier. 

1650, April 19th. 

Rev. Casparus Cai*pentier,* who has been called and installed 
as a minister in the Church of Amsterdam, having shown proper 
and excellent certificates as to doctrine and life, both from the 
Classis, and from the church of Amersfoort, was also welcomed, 
congratulated and accepted as a member of our Classis. v. 152. 

Directors to Stuyvesant : Result of the Remoiststrance 
[of July 28, 1649] from Xew Xethebland : Rev. Mega- 
poLENSis' Tract on Confession: Schoolmaster 

1650, April 20th. 
Honorable, Worthy, Pious, Faithful. 

Our last letters were of the IGth of February and 24th of March; in the former 
we told you, how the Deputies, who had come here from New Netherland, by all 
imaj^inablo means, many of which were to work indirectly, had known to give 
to llieir propositions such an appearance, that a number of mature minds have 
been deceived. Their undertaking then, assuming a look of danger for your repu- 

♦ Casparus de Carpentier was called from the church of Amersfoort to be one 
of the collegiate ministers of the church of Amsterdam on April 17th 1650, being 
the 48th minister called to that church. He died on May 12, 1667. He wa3| 
probably the father of Rev. Casparus Carpentier, mentioned In a letter of Mega- 
polcnsis and Drisius, Aug. 5, 1657, who settled at New Amstel, Del. He Is again 
referred to in a letter of Oct. 10, 1688. This Carpentier was a brother-in-law of 
Jean Paul Jacques, Commandant at Fort Casimir Delaware. See Doc. Hist. N. Y. 
iii. 69-72, 4to ed.; Murphy's Anthology, lOSj Spottswood's Historical Sermon, New- 
Castle, Del. 185'J. Dr. Spottswood says: " In 1684 there died in this town a 
French clergyman. It is presumed he was one of the exiled Huguenots." 

276 Ecclesiastical Eecoeds 

tation, the interest of the Company and especially this Department of Amsterdam, 
we were compelled to communicate with the Magistrates of this city, who have 
In so far countenanced our complaints, that they showed themselves inclined, to 
uphold our privileges. Very iiliely a great explosion would have been the result, 
if it had not been prevented by the careful management of the honorable Deputies 
from their High: Might:, who have discovered means, by which they expect to. 
satisfy provisionally either side. A copy of their resolves goes herewith; you 
may judge by it, how much trouble we have had and how dangerous it is to 
draw upon yourself the wrath of a growing community. We must suppose, that 
you have trusted too much to some of these ringleaders or become too intimate 
with them: now, that their ingratitude and treachery have come to light, you must 
Still act with the cunning of a fox and treat them In regard to the past conform- 
ably with the abovementioned resolutions, to prevent that a new mistake may not 
make matters worse, than the first one did, and that we may not be troubled any 
more by such contemptuous bickerings; the more so, as the Company is already 
sufficiently embarrassed. 

The wife of Domine Megapolensis will tell you herself, what satisfaction we 
have given her at your request: We shall consult with the deputed brethren of the 
Reverend Classls in regard to the printing of the Domine's manuscript on Con- 
fession* and Inform you of their opinion. 

The Schoolmaster,! for whom you asked, goes out with this ship: God grant, 
that he may confirm the good character, which he has borne here, and continue 
for a long time in the edification of the youths. — Coi. Docs. N. Y. xiv. 122, 123. 

Freedoms and Exemptons Granted by the West India Com- 
pany TO All Going to IsTew ]^etherland: So Ear as Re- 
• LATEs to Education, Religion, etc. [See March 4, 1650.] 

1650, May 24. 

" The Patroons and Colonists shall also particularly endeavor to devise, In the 
speediest manner, some means among themselves, whereby they will be able to 
support a clergyman and schoolmaster, that the service of God and zeal for 
religion may not grow cool among them, and they shall provide at first for a 
Comforter of the Sick there ". 

" The Company reserves for itself all great and small tithes, all waifs and 
estrays, the right of establishing mints, highways and forts, declaring war and 

making peace, all wildernesses, planting cities, towns, and churches, etc 

saving whatever is heretofore granted to the patroons, in the matter of high, 
middle, and low jurisdiction ". — Col. Docs. N. Y. i. 405. 

Van Rensselaer Papers. Proceedings of the Court at 
Rensselaerswyck, Page 61. 

Extract from a certain document: 

The son-in-law of Megapolensis is also coming over, who has 
been a preacher here and has been forbidden to preach by the 

* The full title of this work was " Examination and Confession for the benefit of 
those, who are Inclined to approach the Lord's Table." 

t Willem Verstins, [Vestensz.,] who taught school in New Amsterdam till 1655, 
when he resigned to return to Holland. 

OF THE State of I^ew York. 277 


Classis of Alckmaer. If he should try to perform some church 

service in the Colony or to obtain any engagement there, then 

charge Director Stichtenhorst not to engage him nor tolerate him 

in the Colony. We shall write to him ourselves, about it, if the 

time will allow. As we have been requested to do so by the 

Deputies of the Classis of Amsterdam, we order the Director and 

Council of our Colony to obey this direction implicitly. His 

name is William Grasmeer. The letter was signed; Wouter van 

Twiller, and addressed to Gerrit Vasterick (a member of the 

Council of the Colony), who read it to us, when I wrote it down, 

August 4, 1650. A. de Ilooges, Secretary. 

Synod of I^orth Holland, 1650, at Alckmaer. 

1650, Aug. 6 et seq. 
Art. 1. Eev. John Backerus. j 

Eev. John Backerus being present, made the following state- 
ment: That as a minister in the West Indies, by order of the 
Classis of Amsterdam he had now for a long time served the 
church of 'New ISTetherland ; and that having now again returned 
to the Fatherland by order of the same Classis, he requested that 
the Rev. Synod would hold him as " recommended," so that he 
may be promoted to the service of the Church in vacant places. 
To this end he handed over various certificates, which were found 
to be very praiseworthy. It was also heard in addition that the 
Rev. delegates from Amsterdam had been directed to recom- 
mend the said Rev. Backenis to the Rev. Synod. The said 
request was therefore granted; except that being a layman (laicus) 
he shall let his gifts be heard before this Assembly to-morrow 
at eight o'clock. This was accordingly done the next day, and 
the Rev. Assembly was content with his gifts. 

Art. 18. Plan for the East and West India Affairs. 
Regarding Art. 15, (1649) treating of the Plan for the East 
and West India Affairs: It was learned from the report of the 


278 Ecclesiastical Records 

Rev. Correspondent from Utrecht, that the said Synod has con- 
formed to the resolution of the Synod of South Holland, held at 
Delft in the year 1648. 

Art. 30. East and West India Affairs. 

Regarding Art. 28, (1649), of the East and West India AfPair: 
After the question was put to the Classes what had occurred 
among them — the Rev. Deputies from the Classis of Amster- 
dam handed in the following extracts from the Indian letters: 

(Here follows thirteen pages referring exclusively to churches 
in the East Indies and Brazil.) 

From the Classis of Amsterdam: sent to the East Indies: 

Sent to ISTew N^etherland:* Rev. John Megapolensis, of Rens- 
selaerswyck in the Manhatans, William Vestersse (Yestens) of 
Harlem, for siekentrooster and school-master. Come from West 
JLndia; Rev. John Backerus. 

Stuyvesant's Refusal to Reform the Governme^^t. 

A reform in the government of New Netherland was proposed in Holland on 
account of a Remonstrance sent over from New Netherland, in July, 1649. The 
" Nine Men ", who had been elected to be Advisers of the Governor and Council 
now urged Stuyvesant to proclaim the new Provisional Order, but he refused 
for certain reasons, and at the same time shipped provisions to Curacoa, although 
the supply was scanty in New Netherland. The " Nine " protested. Stuyvesant 
then deprived them of the special pew in the Church, which the Cousistoi-y had 
appropriated to their use. — Brodhead's N. Y. i. 517, 518; compare 506, 507, 512,, 
.and 474, 4S8-9, etc. 

"The following are the official extracts. Extract of the Journal 
\ept by order of the Commonalty to wliich they refer in letter 
to us. 

4 July, 1650. 

:Friends report and complain that they have not only not been recognized by 
'the Director and Council during the absence of the delegates, but that contumely 
and reproaches have been cast on them by the Director, from whom they were 

•This should read: Changes in New Netherland; Megapolensis, of Reusselaer- 
wyck, to Manhatans, etc. 

OF THE State of I^ew York. 279 

obliged also to listen to divers calumnies, insults and contumelious words; they 
also complain that the Director was pleased on the 3rd of April last, with a view 
to insult and affront the Select men, to cause the benches in their pew in the 
Church to be torn up, and to take possession of it himself. 

About this time the Fiscal received a settlement of his share of the confisca- 
tions, and being referred therewith to the Directors, he showed it to the Com- 
monalty and reported also abroad, among others to OlofE Stevense and Schelluyne, 
that the Director swallows everything; that he will prove him a perjured villain 
and that he hath robbed the Company of fully one hundred thousand guilders. — 
Col. Docs. N. Y. i. 446-7. 

Copy of an extract from the Register of the resolutions of the 
Select men of New Amsterdam, Manhattans, the 29th August 

Honorable Gentlemen. — Whereas the High and Mighty Lords States General of 
the United Netherlands, by letters delivered to the Director General hath caused 
the benches in the Select men's pew in the Church, which was conferred on us 
by his honor and the churchwardens, to be torn up, and took possession theteof 
himself, to the derogation, derision and contumely of our Board; which, though it 
concerns not us individually, but regards the Board, who represent the people, 
therefore, are we necessitated under protest, to declare such derogation and af- 
fronts unjustifiable and unauthorized. Done at the meeting of the Select men, in 
New Amsterdam, Manhattans, New Netherland, the 29th August, 1650. 

(Signed) Olof Steveusse. 

Beneath was, ' 

By order of the Select men In New Amsterdam. 

(Signed) D. van Schelluyne. — Col. Docs. N. Y. i. 448-9. 

Acts of the Classis of Amsterdam. 
Request of Rev. J, Backerus. 

1650, Aug. 8th. 

J. Backerus, lately minister on Curacoa and Manhattan, (Man- 
hatans,) in a letter, thanks the Rev. Classis for the favorable cer- 
tificates granted him. He requests that the Rev. Assembly will 
charge their delegates, who shall go to the next Synod, to give 
favorable testimonials concerning him. The Assembly answers 

fiat. V. 132. 

Schoolmaster at Fort Orange. 


The local atithorlties were now earnestly besought to provide the inhabitants 
with a proper schoolmaster. " Perceiving how necessary such a person was to 
the establishnient of a well constitiitod republic," a committee was appointed to 
build a school house and to collect funds for defraying whatever expenses might 
be incurred. Andries Jansz. was appointed Sept. 9, to take charge of this institu- 
tion in the course of the following year, and received a present, on entering on 
the discharge of his duties, of twenty dollars. — O'Callaghan's History of New 
Netherland, Vol. 11. 161, 162. ; 

280 Ecclesiastical Records 

Classis of Amsterdam. 

Acts of the Deputies. 

(Walraven; Backerus.) 

1650, Sept. 12th. 

Extract from a letter from the Island of Ciiracoa written by 
the siecken-trooster, John Walraven, while at Fort Amsterdam, 
July 8th, 1649. 

1. He makes known that at the request of the minister, the 
Rev. John Backerus, and also of the Grovernor, on account of the 
departure of the said minister, (Backerus), he had been forced 
to remain there, that the place might not remain altogether with- 
out Christian services. But this tended evidently to his injury. 
For in accordance with his instructions, received from us, he had 
been ordered to jSTew Netherland in order to exercise there, at 
the same time the profession of schoolmaster. This would have 
been to his evident profit. 

2. Since Rev. Backerus left, many children of Christians have 
remained unbaptized, both of the Indians and of the jSTetherland- 
ers. These were being taught by him, and by the school-master, 
John Galiaert, in the Christian Religion. The parents were very 
uneasy about their children remaining without baptism, and they 
longed greatly for a minister. 

3. Four months ago there arrived there a French minister 
of the name of Charles de Rochefort, who had been settled for 
five years in the Cortaeren. Having been requested so to do, 
he administered Holy Baptism to several persons, both infants 
and adults. The said minister had sent over a certified state- 
ment of these acts written in Latin, in the letter of the said 
siecken-trooster. He declared therein that upon the insistent 
urging of the Hon. Governor, Lucas Rotenburg, he had baptized 
on February 14, 1649, fiiteen children, Indians and Dutch. 
Again, on February 20th of the same year, twelve adult persons. 

OF THE State of !N'ew Yoke. 281 

all blacks or negroes, after they had been reasonably well 
instructed in the Christian doctrine, and who had good testimony 
as to their knowledge and life. All of these received Holy Bap- 
tism in the Assembly of the Believers, called together especially 
for that purpose, in the manner customary in our church. The 
names of all these children, as well as of the adults are given; 
and also those of their parents. 

4. He further says, that in the year 1648 there was such a 
pestilential sickness there, that almost the entire garrison was 
exterminated; also most of the brethren-in-religion; so that not 
more than six or seven remained, besides some Englishmen; as 
for the rest, the most of them were Lutherans. 

5. He complains that poverty is constantly suffered there; and 
inasmuch as the time of his engagement "v\dll expire a year from 
now, he requests to be released from that place. — xx. 249, 250. 

Drawn up by the Eev. Classis, and approved by the Admiralty 

College, at Amsterdam, on !N'ov. 28, 1650. [See June 7, 

Form of acceptance and instruction for Siecken-Troosters and 

Voorlesers (Comforters of the Sick and Readers), on Ships of 


"Whereas for the advancement of God's glory and the salvation 
of men, it is proper and necessary that the Ships of "War should 
be provided with capable and pious Siecken-Troosters: and inas- 
much as ]!T. jST has offered his services in such capacity: 

Therefore, the Classis of Amsterdam, after previous infomiation, 
and upon the testimony of others, has inquired into the fitness 
of the said person, and found this to be such, that they have in 
the fear of the Lord, adjudged him qualified to perform the said 
duties: Whereupon he has been accepted for the said office, by 
the Estimable and Mighty Messrs. of the College of the Admiralty. 
And in order that he may be known in sucli capacity by every one 



282 Ecclesiastical Records 

whom it concerns, and that he may know how he is to conduct 
himself in this his office, this Letter of Instruction is given unto 
him, and in compliance therewith he is ordered to maintain the 
following points in all particulars. 

1. He is to teach, admonish and comfort, out of God's Word, 
the sick and the ill, each one as circumstances may require and 
as opportunity permits, 

2. On occasion, or on so-called occasion, he is to read certain 
chapters from God's Word, or he may read some good sermons 
from Treadels Bullundi Bethillie; or John Bulens Catechismus 
Ursini; or any discussion instituted by some minister of the true 
Christian Reformed Church; and to comment on the same briefly 
to the people; and to begin and end all such exercise with prayer. 

3. Every morning and evening to lead and serve the people, 
regularly assembled, ^vith prayers. 

4. To instruct diligently in j^rivate, and at every good oppor- 
tunity, out of the Word of God, the minds of those ignorant in 
the faith; to exhort sinners to repentance, and abandonment of 
sins, and to cease only with proper representations of God's fear- 
ful judgments, warning them faithfully of their danger of per- 
dition. He is especially in all possible and proper ways, to 
oppose cursing and swearing, and the light use of the precious 
name of the Lord, as well as indecent and obscene words; also to 
comfort and strengthen the little ones in the faith, or the dis- 
couraged ones, as circumstances may require. 

And even as the said N. jST. in compliance with these instruc- 
tions, is ordered to conduct himself in this his office, without 
ever arrogating to himself, under any pretext whatever, an^-thing 
beyond the same, and which properly belongs to the office of a 
minister: and as he on his part has voluntarily promised to regu- 
late himself thereby, and to go before young and old with pious 
and honorable lessons, and thus to walk worthily in this his 
calling and office: Therefore are these open letters of Instruc- 

OF THE State of ISTew York. 283 


tion given him upon his intended voyage, to strengthen him 

therewith wherever it may be necessary. 

Thus done at Amsterdam on 

In the name and by order of the Classis of Amsterdam. — xxxix. 

15, IG. 

1650, Nov. 28th. 

Acts of the Classis of xYlckmaer, about Eev. William Grasmeer. 

Art. 46. 

Upon the reading of this 46th article, the Rev. Deputati ad 
res Indicas represent, that Eev. William Grasmeer, formerly 
pastor at Grafdyck, has been on account of his evil and offensive 
life, excommunicated by the Classis of Alckmaer. This act has 
also been approved by the Eev. Synod of JSTorth Holland, lately 
in session at Alckmaer. IsTevertheless he went to New iSTether- 
land, and became pastor at Eensselaerswyck, where the pastorship 
was vacant, notwithstanding the earnest warning concerning him, 
given to the Directors and the church of said colony, by the 
Patroons, through the Classis. He accomplished his object by 
means of tAvo certificates. The one was given him by his elders 
and deacons at Grafdyck, in which the proceedings against him 
by the Classis of Alckmaer are basely railed at, and he, on the 
other hand, most highly lauded; the other was granted him at 
his departure by Eev. John Knyf, pastor at Alckmaer. A copy 
of this was sent to the Patroon of said colony from Eensselaers- 
wyck, and delivered to the aforementioned Deputies, and has 
been read before this Assembly. 

The brethren of the Classis are amazed at the aforesaid cer- 
tificates, and grieved that so offensive a pei*son should, in such 
a manner, and so hastily, be inducted into the Holy Service of 
the church. It is thought proper, therefore, to announce at the 
earliest moment, to the Classis of Alckmaer, what we have heard 
concerning the said Grasmeer, and to transmit with it a copy of 
said certificates. At the same time we request that the Eev. 


284 Ecclesiastical Records 

Classis of Alckmaer will comiminicate to its as soon as possible 
their opinion, "witli a definite statement of tliis whole matter, viz., 
especially how said Grasmeer had conducted himself in his church; 
how he has treated his wife; and what is the exact cause of the 
excommunication, which has taken place ; — to the end that we, 
being thus armed with more power, may labor to prevent so offen- 
sive a person from entering the Holy Service of the Church, 
xxvi. 93. 

Extracts Relating to the Church, from Secretary Yan 

Tienhoven's Answer to the Remonstrance of July 28, 

1649, FROM ISTew jSTetherland. [See also Jan. 27, 1650, and 

Apr. 20, 1650.] 

1650, ^^ov. 29. 

The Directors have never had any administration of, nor concerned themselves 
with ecclesiastical property; 'tis also denied and cannot be proved, that any of the 
inhabitants of New Netherland have, either voluntarily nor when requested, con- 
tributed or given anything for the building of an Asylum for orphans, or for the 
aged. 'Tis true that the Church in the fort was built in Willem Kieffs time, and a 
subscription list was signed which amounted to fl. 1800. The accounts of most of 
the subscribers were debited accordingly, but they have not yet paid the money. 
Meanwhile the Company disbursed the funds, so that it was not the Commonalty 
(some few excepted) but the Company that paid the workmen. If the people re- 
quired institutions as above stated, they must contribute towards them as is the 
custom in this country; and were there Asylums for orphans and the aged there, 
revenues would be necessary, not only to keep the houses in repair, but to support 
the orphans and the aged people. 

The Remonstrants will, if any one can, be likely to prove that money, or real or 
personal property has been bestowed by will or donation, by any living person, for 
such or any other public works; but there is no instance of the kind in New Nether- 
land; and the charge is uttered or written through passion. W'hen the Church, 
which is in the fort, was proposed to be built, the Church-Masters were content; 
but it is these people who make a to-do, because they consider the Company's fort 
not worthy the honor of a Church. Before the Church was erected, the grist-mill 
could not work with a southeast wind, because the wind from that quarter was shut 
off by the walls of the fort. 

Although the new School-house, towards which the Commonalty contributed some- 
thing, has not been yet built, it is not the Director, but the Church-Masters, who 
have charge of the funds. The Director is busy providing materials. Meanwhile 
a place has been selected for a school, of which Jan Cornelissen has charge. The 
other teachers keep school in hired houses, so that the youth are not in want of 
schools to the extent of the circumstances of the country. 'Tis true there is no 
Latin school nor academy; if the Commonalty require such, they can apply for it 
and furnish the necessary funds. 

As regards the deacons' or Poor-fund, the deacons are accountable for that, and 
are the persons of whom inquiry should be made as to where the money is invested 
which they have, from time to time placed at interest; and as the Director never 

OF THE State of Xew York. 285 

had charge of It, such not being usual, the deacons, and not the Directors, are re- 
sponsible for it. 'Tis, indeed, true that Director Kieft, being at a loss for money, 
had a box suspended in his house; of that box the deacons had one key, and all the 
small fines and penalties which were levied on court days, were deposited in It. 
He opened it with the knowledge of the deacons, and took, on interest, the money, 
which amounted to a handsome sum. — Col. Docs. N. Y. i. 42S-4. See also Dunshee, 


No other internal taxes have been Imposed, up to the present time, on the Com- 
monalty, except the excise already mentioned, unless the voluntary offering which 
was applied two years ago to the erection of the Church, be accounted a tax, of 
which Jacob Couwenhoven, also one of the Church-Masters, will have to render an 

In New England there Is no impost or duty on Imports or Exports, but every one 
Is assessed by the local Government according to his means, and must pay to the 
extent of his property and as the magistrates tax him, for 

Building and repairing of Churches; 

Support of Ministers; 

Erection of Schools and Salary of Teachers; 

The question is, are the Company or the Directors obliged to have constructed 
any buildings for the people out of the duties paid by the trader In New Netheriand 
on export goods, particularly as their High Mightinesses granted those duties to the 
Company to facilitate garrisons, and the payment of expenses attendant thereupon, 
and not for building Hospitals and Orphan Asylums, Churches and School-houses for 
the people. 

Francis Douthay, Adriaen van der Donck's father-in-law and an English Minister, 
was granted a colonie at Mespacht, not for himself alone as Patroon, but for him 
and his associates whose Agent he was, and who at the time were residing at 
Rhode Island and at Cahanock and other places. Mr. Smith was one of the leaders 
of these people, for said Minister had scarcely any means of himself to build a hut, 
let alone to plant a colonie at his own expense. He was merely to be employed as 
a clergyman by his associates who were to prepare a bouwerie for him in that colo- 
nie, in return for which he should discharge the duty of preacher among them, and 
live on the proceeds of the bonwerie. 

Coming to live at the Manhataus during the war, he was permitted to ofllciate as 
Minister for the English in and around that place, who were bound to maintain him 
without either the Director or Company being liable to any charge therefor. And as 
the English did not afford him a sufBcient support, two collections wore taken up 
among the Dutch and English, on which he lived at the Manhataus. 

The Mespacht Colonie was never confiscated; that is proved by the actual resi- 
dence on it of the owners, who had an interest in It as well as Douthey; but as the 
latter wished to obstruct its settlement and to permit no one to build in the colonie 
unless on paying him a certain sum down for each morgon of land, and a yearly 
Bum in addition in the nature of ground rent, and endeavored thus to convert it Into 
a domain, against which those Interested in the Colonie, especially Mr. Smith com- 
plained, the Director and Council finally concluded that the copartners should enter 
on their property, and the bouwerie and lauds in the possession of Douthay be re- 
served to him, so that he hath suffered no Injury or loss thereby. This I could 
prove, wore it not that the documents are in New Netheriand and not here. 

Francis Douthay,* the English Minister, hath never been employed by the Com- 
pany, wherefore it owes him nothing; but his English congregation is bound to pay 

■ ( 

* Rev. Francis Doughty emigrated to Massachusetts In 1637. He was driven from 
that state because of his practice of infant baptism. He found refuge with the 


286 Ecclesiastical Records 

him, as can be proved in New Netherland. The Company has advanced to the said 
Minister from time to time, in goods and necessaries, to the amount of about fl. 1100., 
as the colonial account books might show; this he has not yet paid, and he com- 
plains because he is unwilling to pay. I know not whether the Director hath re- 
quired a promise from Douthay. 

On the 2nd point they say: that provision ought to be made for ecclesiastical and 
municipal property, divine service, and for an asylum for orphans and aged people. 
If they are such patriots as they appear to be, let them be leaders in generous con- 
tributions for such laudable objects, and not complain when the Directors requested 
a collection towards the erection of a Church and School. What complaints would 
there be, were the Director to demand a collection for an asylum for aged people 
and orphans. Divine service will not be interrupted, by the absence of Domine 
Johannes Backerus, who, however, has been there only twenty seven months. The 
place is again supplied with a learned and godly clergyman, who requires no inter- 
preter when defending the Reformed Religion against any minister of our neighbors, 
the English Brownists.— Col. Docs. N. Y. i. 424-431. 

Acts of the Classis of Amsterdam. 


William Grasmeer. 
1651 1651, Jan. 2nd. 

There was also read a communication from the Rev. Classis of 
Alkmaer, regarding the case of William Grasmeer. Therein said 
Classis informs us that she abides, as yet, by the censure and 
deposition (deportment) of the aforesaid Grasmeer; and declares 
that the certificate of the Consistory of Grafdyck was secured by 
sinister means, and the said Consistory has been compelled to 
make confession of guilt for the granting thereof. And as 
regards the certificate by Rev. Knierus, such was obtained by a 
trick, and under promise that proper satisfaction would be given 
to Classis; but Grasmeer did previously deceive Rev. Knierus, 
as he says, in this matter. The brethren of Classis enjoin Rev. 
Deputies ad res Indicas again to warn the Patroons and the 
church of Rensselaer's wyck against this reprehensible person, 
and to communicate the entire circumstances of his deposition, 
(deportment), and all that has occurred thus far in connection 

Dutch and was the first Presbyterian minister that preached in the City of New 
York. This he did from 1643-48. He was driven further south and found' refuge in 
Maryland. No Presbyterian Church was organized in New York until 1717. Before 
the latter date, however, companies of pious Presbyterians were settling in the city 
and vicinity, and would assemble as opportunity permitted for religious worship. 

OF THE State of New York. 287 


therewith; at the same time they must address an admonition to 
Grasmeer himself, to abandon so unlawful a course, and to give 
proper satisfaction (confession or reparation?) to the Rev. Synod 
(Classis?) of Alkmaer, and to the Synod (of North Holland.) 
And inasmuch as the Patroons of the said Wyck (village), might 
be perhaps inclined to send an honest, lawful minister to New 
Netherland, (Rensselaer's wyck,) who could counteract the influ- 
ence of the said Grasmeer in a proper and decent fashion; there^ 
fore the Rev. Deputies are particularly charged to put forth all 
possible endeavors to that end. 

It was also resolved to write to the Classis of Alkmaer against 
their summer meeting, and inform them that our Classis is dis- 
pleased with the action of Rev. Knierus, in that having been 
himself appointed with another minister, to warn us against 
Grasmeer, he made no mention of having given any certificate. 

V. 198; xxvi. 96. 

1651, Jan. 20th. 

Rev. Wm. Grasmere; Rev. Jacobus Beth. — Caitechism composed 
by Rev. Megapolensis, Jr. 

Further the Rev. Deputati ad res Indicas report: — 

1. Whereas the Classis has charged them to exclude William 
Grasmeer from Rensselaerswyck, by sending over a godly min- 
ister, they have found such a one in the person of Rev. Jacobus 
Beth, who has heretofore made request to be sent as pastor to the 
East Indies: 

2. That the Hon. Directors of the West India Company would 
be glad to see the catechism composed by Megapolensis, Jr., 
approved by the Rev. Classis, that it may be printed and sent to 

Answer; The Assembly has no objection to the first; but as 
concerns the said catechism, the Assembly judges that it would 
be more edifying to send thither instead a goodly nmnber of the 
Netherland catechisms, and the Compendiums of the same, 
xxvi. 97. 


288 Ecclesiastical Eecoeds 

The Classis of Amsterdam to Rev. William Grasmeer in the Col- 
ony of Eensselaerswyck, Feb. 20th, 1651. xxvi. 97-99. 

"Worthy Brother, William Grasmeer: — 

"With great grief we have learned that jou presented yourself 
for admission to the Holy Service of the church in the Colony 
of RensselaerswAxk, Yoii also so far succeeded, that on the 
strength of certain solicited and extorted certificates, you found 
enough favor -with the church, to he accepted as their pastor. 
You did not, however, pay proper attention to the communications 
despatched to you, not only by the Classis, but by the Patroon 
of said colony, to warn you against this step. We anticipated 
such irregularity at your departure, and then admonished you 
that you should not depart and desert your office, without proper 
satisfaction to the Classis of Alckmaer. 

On this occasion, indeed, your offence is the greater; for while 
you were still under the censure of the said Classis, and being yet 
unreconciled with your wife, (from whom you have been now 
long separated, living even in a separate house), you have dared 
to officiate in the Holy Ministry. You should first have purged 
yourself of all the heavy charges which the said Classis has 
against you. Moreover you have given no heed to their reiterated 
citations. You have been therefore suspended by them from 
the Holy Service of the church, until you render satisfaction to 
the said Classis. 

Also the Christian Synod (of Xorth Holland) has confirmed 
your suspension. I Avill let you hear the very words of the act: 
" Having considered this matter " (the Synod has) " approved the 
proceedings against you by the Classis of Alckmaer, by a unani- 
mous vote, namely, of all the Hon. lords, commissioners, and all 
the correspondents; and is of the opinion that there has been 
none other than ex officio action ". 

Therefore do we now most earnestly exhort and command you 
to desist from the Holy Service of the church in the colony of 

or THE State of New York. 289 

Rensselaerswyck, until you shall have first returned to the 
Fatherland, and have purged yourself. 

You must first give satisfaction to the said Classis, and secure 
release from the suspension pronounced upon you, which has also 
been ratified by the Synod. 

We can not, and we will not, allow all ecclesiastical order to 
be violated, by tolerating you in this service. Neither will the 
Hon. Patroon suffer you to continue in the said ministry of his 

Therefore we shall expect you cheerfully and willingly to gov- 
ern yourself according to the good pleasure of the Classis of 
Amsterdam. We act in this matter with the full approbation of 
the Hon. Patroon of the said colony. We act thus that your 
offence may not be rendered still worse. We shall not lack means, 
in case of disobedience, to oppose your irregularities with vigor 
and effect. 

Having no other business we close. We commend you to God 
and his grace, that he may direct you in such a manner, that you 
may have an eye only to his honor, your own prosperity, the edi- 
fication of God's Church and the preservation of her good order. 

Yours affectionately, 
The Committee of the Classis of Amsterdam. 
Peter Wittenrongel. 

Ecc. Amst. loco scriba 
Matthias Meursius. 

Peb. 20th, 1651. 

1651, Feb. 20th. 

Letter to the church and people of the colony of Rensselaerswyck, 
in New Netherland. xxvi. 99-101. 

Honorable, Discreet, and Godly Brethren: — 

Prom your letter to the Patroon of the colony of Rensselaers- 
wyck, in which you are inhabitants, we have learned how Rev. 

William Grasmeer, fomierly pastor in the Westerbuyrt of Graf- 



Ecclesiastical Eecoeds 


dyck lias been honored by yon, ba^dng been invited to officiate 
in the boly service of the church. This, was done on the strength 
of two certificates, one from his consistory, and the other from 
Eev. Johannes Knyff. 

We perceive in yonr condnct, yonr zeal to establish the service 
of the divine word among yon, and we rejoice in this. Indeed, 
it cannot well be otherwise, than that they, who have had a 
real taste of the preaching of the Holy Gospel, and the nse of 
the Holy Ordinances of God, shonld retain the desire to be edi- 
fied and strengthened by the same means, even by the seiwice m 
their most holv faith; and yonr zeal is the more commendable 
from this fact, that yon have yonrselves willing to mam- - 
tain divine worship at yonr ow expense. May the good God 
grant that this zeal may increase more and more, to the advance- 
ment of trne godliness and spiritual growth in yonr chnrch. 

Bnt it has srieved ns sorely that yon have cast yonr eyes upon 
a nerson so unworthy; for by his evil condnct he has unfitted him- 
self for so hallowed a service. We heartily wish that onr warn- 
ings, which we sent yon in good conscience, and only to preserve 
sound order in God's Church, had been better heeded. Then 
would von never have come to this, to desire such a pei-son as 
vour p^astor. Yet we perceive that you have been drawn mto 
your course by some persons in a sinister way, and we assure our- 
selves that upon obtaining an accurate report of the circumstances 
connected with this person, you will no longer tolerate hnn m yonr 

Tou will see from the decisive acts of the last Synod, wlucli .^-e 
herewith- append, that the said Eev. Grasmeer being grultv of 
domestic quarreling, abandonment of his wife, drunkenness, and, 
other ^-eat faults, has not only been suspended by the Class.s of 
AlcWer from his ministry, hut also, since he has treated said 
censure with contempt and disgraceful insult, and has contmued 
without legal dismission from his church, that he has been de- 

OF THE State of ISTew York. 291 

posed from all ecclesiastical fimctions. You will also under- 
stand, inasmuch as said deposition lias been approved by the Rev. 
Synod, that it would be nothing else than a notorious infraction 
of all lawful order, yea, an open violation of ecclesiastical dis- 
cipline, should you determine to retain such a person among you 
in the holy service of the church. 

In regard to his certificates, with which he has shamefully 
abused your confidence, be pleased to know that the certificate 
of the consistory of Grafdyck was dictated by the said Grasmeer 
himself. The style of this, in exaltation of himself, is so extrava- 
gant, and so slanderous in reference to the entire Classis, that 
it is a very shame, and is loathsome in the judgment of all fair- 
minded persons. 

Moreover this testimonial was granted by the said consistory 
in simplicity, and upon the importunity of the said Grasmeer, 
and against the order, and without the knowledge of the Rev. 
Classis. Therefore also the said certificate has been rejected and 
condemned by the Rev. Classis, and even the aforesaid consistory 
has been declared censurable therein. They were, de facto, cited 
before the Classis of Alckmaer, and severely censured. They 
have also acknowledged their guilt in the giving of said certificate, 
and have prayed for forgiveness. 

In regard to the particular certificate of Rev. Ivnyif, for which 
he has been called to account before Classis; the same Classis 
declares that this was obtained from him through the false rep- 
resentations of Grasmeer, and under pretended sacred promises 
that he would obey the Rev. Classis in all things; that he would 
first confess his guilt and render full satisfaction before his de- 
parture, etc.; that the said Grasmeer deceived Rev. Knyff with 
cunning, and instead of giving satisfaction to the Classis at his 
departure, he loaded her with a deceitful libel, and thus departed. 

These matters being duly considered by you, will enable you to 
perceive that we have great reasons to urge, and which we do 


292 Ecclesiastical Records 

with the full approbation of the Patroon of the colony of Rens- 
selaerswyck, the removal from your midst of so irregular a per- 
son from the holy service of the church; and we earnestly request 
you herewith to separate yourselves immediately from such a 
minister. For he is deposed from the right to perform any church 
ministrations, and possesses no right whatever to preach God's 
word among you, or to administer the sacraments. Act ye accord- 
ingly, so that all things may be done decently and in order in the 
house of God, that all confusion may be warded off from the 
churches, and good discipline may be exercised and maintained, 
in conformity to the word of God. 

We had hoped also at this time to send you a devout, learned, 
and godly minister, %vith the approbation and permission of the 
Patroon of the colony of which you are inhabitants, but the de- 
parture of the vessels has been too sudden; but we doubt not we 
shall be able to do so with vessels soon following. 

We earnestly request you to be satisfied with our action, and 
to depend on our promise. Place the said Grasmeer one side, 
and exhort him to return to the Fatherland by the first oppor- 
tunity, that he may purge himself according to the Order of the 
Church, and give the proper satisfaction to the oft-mentioned 
Classis of Alckmaer; also that he may be released of his censure 
and deposition, and discharged. Thus may he yet be authorized 
to edify the chiu'ch of God, with his talents, among you or in this 
land. We heartily wish this, desiring nothing but his salvation. 
But so long as he is not absolved from said deposition, neither we 
nor the Patroon of the colony will permit him to continue among 
you in the sacred church service. We will use every means in our 
power, in case he does not willingly desist, to remove him. We 
will do this that God's holy name be not blasphemed, your church 
demoralized, and the good order and discipline of the church be 
trampled under foot. 

Confidently relying upon the hope that your church will gladly 

OF THE State of 'N'ew York. 293 

and willingly regnlate itself according to this our writing, we close, 
commending you, etc., etc. 

Thus done in the name and at the request of the Eev. Classis 
of Amsterdam, by the Committee on Foreign Ecclesiastical Af- 

Peter Wittenrongel, Ecc. Amstal. 

Matthias Meursius, Loco Scriba. 

1651, Feb. 20th. 

Letter to the Rev. Consistory on the Manhatan in ISTew jSTether- 

land. xxvi. 102. 

Keverend, Highly Learned, Most Provident and Godly 
Brethren : — 

Inasmuch as the committee of the Eev. Classis of Alckmaer 
has informed us that the Eev. Grasmeer has forsaken his church 
at Grafdyck, contrary to all order, and without the knowledge 
of said Classis; and, although under censure, on account of do- 
mestic quarrels, desertion of his wife, drunkenness and other 
great scandals, has proceeded to jSTew IS'etherland, without mak- 
ing any proper satisfaction to the said Classis; therefore we 
desire to warn you, lest so irregiilar a person be admitted to 
the ministerial office in or about your region; and that diligence 
should be used to cause him to return to the Fatherland and be 
reconciled with the said Classis, and be relieved of his censure. 

Nevertheless we have understood, to our gTcat sorrow, that 
matters have been so managed, contrary to our warning, that 
he has been advanced in due form to the sacred churcli service 
in the colony of Eenselaerswyck. But this is a notable infrac- 
tion and open violation of all church order and ecclesiastical 
discipline. For Eev. William Grasmeer has been formally de- 
posed from all church ministrations by the said Classis, and the 
said deposition has been fully ratified by the last Synod of North 
Holland, as you may see from the appended acts on the reverse 

294 Ecclesiastical Eecoeds 

side (of this letter). Hence we could not remain inactive; but 
in order to secure the performance of everything decently and 
in order, in th.e liouse of God, and to prevent all confusion, and 
that good discipline, conformably to God's word, may be exer- 
cised and maintained, we have been obliged- to secure the re- 
moval of Eev. Grasmeer from the sacred church service, until 
he return to the Fatherland and be properly released from his 

To this end we have, by order of our Classis, and with the 
approval and concurrence of the Patroon, written not only to 
the forementioned Grasmeer, but also to the members of the 
church, and to the inhabitants of the colony of Renselaerswyck, 
upon this subject. We have promised that we would send them, 
by the next ships, a learned and devout minister. "We repeat 
our communication to you, that it may please you, as being the 
nearest, to lend us a helping hand, in order that said irregularity 
may be withstood, and the good order of the church and the 
custom of good discipline may remain in exercise. To this you 
may contribute much, because your Kev. pastor and teacher, 
(Megapolensis), is the father-in-law of said Grasmeer. We be- 
lieve that he would not strengthen or nourish such irregularities. 
But if herein, any action should be taken against the good ob- 
jects had in view by the Synod, the Patroon would not lack 
other means to oppose such confusion and disorder. But we 
would rather that everji;liing were adjusted quietly. This will 
be done if the said Grasmeer T^dll listen to good council, and 
even yet become inclined to follow it. He ought not, indeed, 
to have taken passage from here, about which we earnestly cau- 
tioned him, before his case in the Qlassis had been disposed of; 
but now, that a formal deposition has taken place, he is not to 
be recognized, unless he first return, and place himself properly 
before the Classis and Synod for justification. 

And in order that, meanwhile, no one's confidence may be 

OF THE State of ISTew York. 29 o 

abused by the certificates wluch he has been able to produce, be 
pleased to understand as regards the certificate of the consist- 
ory of Grafdyck, that the same was dictated by the said Gras- 
meer himself, and that in so extravagant a style of self exalta- 
tion, wdth slander of the Rev. Classis, that it is a shame before 
all fair minded and imjDartial men. It was also told us by the 
Classis of Alckmaer, that this certificate vas granted by the 
members of his consistory against the order and approbation of 
the Classis, which therefore censured and condemned the said 
testimonial. The consistory was also declared censurable in re- 
gard thereto. The members were thereupon cited de facto be- 
fore the Classis, and were severely censured. They acknowl- 
edged their guilt in the matter, and prayed for forgiveness. 

In regard to the particular certificate of Rev. Knyfi : this 
too the Eev. Classis of Alckmaer declares to have been given 
through false representations of Grasmeer; and as it ought not 
to have been given, therefore, although given, it cannot stand 
against the sentence of the whole Classis; which was also fully 
ratified by the last Synod. 

Wherefore in closing you will perceive that the said Gras- 
meer must remain deposed from the ministerial office, and all 
church service depending thereupon, so long as he does not give 
full satisfaction to the Rev. Classis of Alckmaer. In conclusion, 
we offer our services to the advancement of all things that con- 
cern the sacred church service among you. 

Praying that our mutual cooperation in the maintenance of 
the good order and discipline of our church may increase more 
and more, we commend you to God. 

Thus done by order of the Rev. Classis of Amsterdam, and in 
the name of all by the Committee ad res Indicas, your obedient 
and affectionate brethren. 

Peter Wittenwrongel, Ecc. Amstel. 

loco scriba. 
Matthias Meursius, Ecc. Sloterdicangs. 



296 Ecclesiastical Records 


March 21, 1651. 

Honorable, Worthy, Pious, Faithful! We cannot say anything about the copies 
called for by Domine Megapolensis, except that we delivered to the Reverend Classls 
the manuscript of his " Examination or Confession for the benefit of those, who 
are inclined to approach the Lord's Table ", that it may be printed: although we 
have called upon the Reverend Brethren several times, we have as yet received no 
other reply, as that they would take this matter into serious consideration. Mean- 
while the Almighty has been pleased to remove Domine Kesselerus, a member of 
the commission, from this vale of misery; this is likely to retard the matter some' 
what, but we shall not cease to push it. This department has resolved to release 
you from your private engagement with Domine Megapolensis and to charge Itself 
with his yearly salary, hoping that with the Lord's blessing these lands will shortly 
be in so flourishing a condition, that all the expenses for them may be paid out of 
their revenues, and that in time also a part of the moneys disbursed by us may be 
refunded. With this view we recommend you seriously to make all possible efforts 
in collecting old debts due to the Company and the tithes from such pieces of land, 
which are now subject to them; so that we may be relieved from the municipal ex- 
penses.— Col. Docs. N. Y. xiv. 131, 134. 

Acts of the Classis of Amsterdam. 

1651, Aug. Tth. 
Case of Eev. Grasmeer, now Pastor in New JSTetherland. 

Attention was called to the affair of the deposition of Rev. 
Grasmeer: Resolved, That the delegates who go to the Synod 
shall at the reading of this Act, verbally explain how this person 
has succeeded in intruding himself as pastor in New Nether- 
land, in the colony of Renselaerswyck, and what certificates he 
produced for that purpose. Also what has been done by this 
Classis towards his ejection. 

The Deputati ad res Indicas are charged to prepare the exx 
tracts from the India letters, so that they may be presented in 
the Synod in the usual order, xxvi. 109. 

Synod of North Holland, 1651, at Haarlem. 

1651, Aug. 15 et seq. 
Art. 22. East and West India Affairs. 
This Article refers exclusively to the East Indies and Brazil. 

OF THE State of 'N'ew York. 297 

Art. 27. The Case of Gra^meer. 

Four persons appeared from Amsterdam, characterizing them- 
selves to be good friends of Eev. William Grasmeer, a deposed 
minister of Graftdyck, and who had gone to New Netherland. 
See Art. 46, (1650.) After the presentation of certain argu- 
ments, they requested, that the call made upon him to the sacred 
ministry at Fort Orange in the Colony of Rensselaer^vyck might 
take its course, and that the interdict of the Eev. Classis of Alk- 
maer in that regard, made heretofore, might be relaxed and sus- 
pended. The Christian Synod, having become more clearly 
acquainted with the circumstances, both of this call and of the 
interdict thereof, from the delegates of the respective Classes 
of Amsterdam and Alkmaer, declares that the above private re- 
quests can not be entertained by it, until the Rev. Classis of 
Alkmaer be given proper satisfaction by Rev. Grasmeer, in con- 
formity with what was resolved on in reference to his case last 
year, in Article 46, at the Synod, at Alkmaer. 

Classis of Amsterdam. 

Acts of the Deputies. John Bakkerus. 

1651, August 28th. 

Rev. John Rulitus makes known, that it was recommended 
to him by the Synod, that Rev. John Bakkerus, heretofore a 
minister in the West Indies, should be sent now to the East 
Indies. He lives in the Hugo Waard (a lake filled in, in 1631,) 
under the jurisdiction of Cud Niedorp (about seven or eight 
English miles N.E. of Alkmaar), in the Classis of Alkmaar. — 
XX. 286. 

1651, Sept. 4th. 

Rev. John Backerus having come within, announces his in- 
clination of sailing as minister to the East Indies; to this end 
he exhibited his testimonials, which were found to be laudable. 
Whereupon the Brethren — notwithstanding the fact that the 



298 Ecclesiastical Records 

said Backerus is an unlettered (uneducated) person, and that 
the churches of East India and the Messrs. Directors would 
rather see educated persons admitted to the ministry of the East 
Indian Churches; nevertheless considering the very praiseworthy 
testimonials of his faithful ministrations rendered in the 
churches of the West Indies, and his pious conduct since his 
return from Brazil; and also the earnest recommendation of the 
last Synod of ISTorth Holland, and particularly the great lack of 
preachers in the East Indies, and that the Messieurs Directors 
now desire a person who has previously been in actual service; — 
have resolved to enjoin the Deputies on Indian affairs to recom- 
mend this person to the Messieurs Directors in the most suitr- 
able manner, and to appoint him in preference to any others. — 
V. 230. 

1651, Sept. 11th. 

It was resolved to present to the Chamber of Amsterdam the 
person of John Bakkerus, to be sent out as a minister. At 
the same time to ask how many ministers and ziecken-troosters 
the Messrs. Directors might need, by writer, xx. 287. 

Report from the Deputies ad res Indicas concerning what was 
accomplished by them with the Assembly of the XVII, 

1651, Oct. 2nd. 

The Deputati ad res Indicas reported to the Assembly that 
in accordance with the resolution of the Classis they had pre- 
sented to the Messrs. Directors Rev. John Backerus, in order 
that he might be sent as minister to the East Indies, but that 
they (the Directors) had made objections to treat with him, 
(Backerus,) inasmuch as they claimed not to have had time 
enough to make inquiries in regard to him. They declared that 
for the present they could get along ^\-ith a Comforter of the 
Sick. v. 232^. 

OF THE State of New Yoek. 299 

Acts of the Deputies. John Bakkerus. 

1651, Oct. both. 

Rev. Rulitus and Rev. Meursius report that they had intro- 
duced John Bakkerus to the Messrs. Directors. They had re- 
ceived as reply, that they (the Directors) must make further in- 
quiries about him, as they must be perfectly sure (at rest) about 
the ministers who are sent out. It was therefore resolved to 
lay this before the Classis in order to ascertain what shall be 
further done with him. — xx. 289, 290. 

Ministers for East India. 

1651, ISTov. 6th. 

Came within Rev. John Backerus rene\ving his request to be 
sent as minister to the East Indies. Thereupon the Deputies 
ad causas Indicas reported that, in accordance with the resolu- 
tion of the Classis, they had presented the said person to the 
Messrs. Directors. They had received for answer that these 
gentlemen must have more time to make inquiries about the said 
person, before they could accept him, and that therefore they 
would for this time content themselves with the Comforter of 
the Sick, Henry Hendricksen on the ship Despatch, (Depeche); 
at the same time they asked the advice of Classis how they were 
to conduct themselves in reference to the next equipment, for 
which but one minister will be required. For besides the above 
mentioned Rev. Backerus, and the candidate Rev. John Wess- 
laer, there have presented themselves for the service of the 
church in the East Indies, Rev. Tiberius a Ravesteyn and Rev. 
Gualterius (Walter) Peigenina, both ministers in active service. 
The former is at 't Zion in Friesland, and the latter at Ommeren 
in the Betuiva (Gelderland). The (Classical) Assembly re- 
solved that for the present they will first present the said Rev. 
John Backerus. In case he should not be accepted they will 
then recommend in the best tenns possible the candidate Rev. 
John Wesslaer, since he manifests a particular inclination to 



300 Ecclesiastical Records 

serve the churches of India. Subsequently, the furtherance of 
the said ministers shall be attended to as opportunity offers. — v. 

John Bakkerus. 

1651, Xov. 13th. 

It was resolved, in compliance with the order of Classis, to 
present again the person of Rev. John Bakker to the Messrs. 
Directors; and in case of refusal, to present Rev. John van 
der Staart. This will be done this evening. — xx. 290. 

Council Minutes Chuech Property ; Surgeons ; 


Monday, the 12th of February 1652 at Fort Amsterdam, present the Director Gen- 
eral, La Montagne and Brian Newton. 

The Deacons of the Church request by a petition that the money due for the pur- 
chased land may be set off against the Honorable Company to the amount of One 
thousand eight hundred and fifty florins. 

The Council decree: iJat the offset. 

Domlne Johannes Megapolensis requests, that Anna Smlts, an Anabaptist, should 
be restrained from using slanderous and calumniatin'g expressions against God'» 
Word and his servants. 

The Director General and Council direct, that Anna Smits shall appear on the 
following Wednesday at the school of David Provoost, where the nine men usually 
meet and that the Director and Council together with the Complainant and the 
consistory shall assemble there also, to hear what the said Anna Smlts has to say 
against the teachings of the complainant. 

.Adrian van Tienhoven, Samuel Megapolensis and Jan de la Montague request per- 
mission to erect a pew in the Church of this place, which 

The General and Council resolve to take into consideration. — Col. Docs. N. Y. 
xiv. 155, 156. 

Acts of the Classis of Amsterdam. 
(A minister) Also for the Colony at Rensselaerswyck. 

1652, Feb. 12th. 

And whereas the Patroons and the congregation (community) 
participant in the Colony of Rensselaerswyck would also like to 
have a minister in the same Colony, and if possible a person 
of some years, and who has some knowledge of medicine, the 
several brethren and members of the Classis are recommended 
to look about for a suitable person, — v. 235| ; xxvi. 121. 

OF THE State of ^ew York. 301 

Rev. William Grasmeer. 

1652, Feb. 12tli. 

Stood within Rev. William Grasmeer, who arrived in these 
provinces from New l^etherland with the last ships. He said 
that at the request of his mother, (who had come from her 
own quarters in the Fatherland in order to persuade him to the 
said journey,) he had made up his mind to leave his charge at 
Graftdyk, with the consent of his people but as no full Classis 
was going to be held there at that time, he had not been able 
to obtain a proper dismission from the same, nor to take with 
him a full certificate. He had therefore contented himself with 
private testimonials from his church and from one of the minis- 
ters of Alkmaer. Afterward some brethren, although he did 
not know from what motive this had been done, and notwith- 
standing they had agreed to excuse him, had gone to work to 
bring objections and accusations against him before the Classis 
of Amsterdam. To such an extent had this been done that 
the same had been pleased to warn the Church and the Colony 
of Rensselaerswyck against him; yea, after he had been accepted 
in the same, as their minister, for some months, to notify that 
church that they should not recognize him in the capacity of 
minister, until he should have returned to the Fatherland, and 
should have given proper satisfaction to the Classis of Alkmaer. 

At the first writing, indeed he had not been able to make up 
his mind to do this; but finally on the last communication of 
this Classis, he had determined to present himself before the 
Classis of Alkmaer, who had placed him under its censure. He 
did not wish to say much about this censure, one way or the 
other, inasmuch as there was a mutual agreement, and there was 
no wish to blacken his character. He had therefore reconciled 
himself with the Classis in that regard, having been relieved 
from the censure by a regular Act of the said Classis; even as 
he had also shown his testimonials, both of the church of Rensse- 
laerswyck as well as of New Amsterdam in New Netherland, 


302 Ecclesiastical Recokds 

which were praiseworthy. He now requests the good favor of 
this Assembly, and to be recommended to the Messrs. Directors 
of the TVest India Company, that he might be appointed as sec- 
ond minister at the said Xew Amsterdam. 

The Assembly, surprised in the highest measure at this sud- 
den reconciliation in so serious and important a matter, and 
aware of his well known deposition (de-portment) in the Classis 
of Alkmaer, resolved to inform said Grasmeer, that this Assem- 
bly takes it in e\dl part, that in the face of our warning, he al- 
lowed himself to intrude into the service at Kensselaerswyck. As 
regards his request, this Assembly can in no sense accede to it 
until he shall have been released from deposition, (de-portment) 
by the Synod of North Holland; and until it appears how mat- 
ters now stand between himself and his wife. The Deputati 
ad causas Indicas shall convey to the Messrs. Directors the opin- 
ion (mind) of this Assembly. — v. 235^; xxvi. 120-1. 

To send a Minister to !N"ew Netherland. 

1652, Feb. 12th. 

Whereas the Messrs. Directors of the West India Company 
had infoiTaed the Deputies ad causas Indicas, that they would 
like to have a second minister in the church of New Amsterdam, 
in Xew Netherland, and, if possible, one who might also be able 
to preach in English and whereas the meeting was informed 
that there is at Leyden one Rev. Samuel Dries, (Drisius,) late 
minister in England, who is said to be able to preach in both 
Dutch and English; therefore the Deputies ad causas Indicas are 
authorized to make inquiries about him, and to ascertain if the 
said person would be inclined to accept said appointment. — v. 
235i; xxvi. 120-1. 

OF THE State of New York. 303 

Affidavit of the Rev. Wilhelmus Grasmeee, that Cornelis 
Melyn Incited the Ntack and Other Indians Against 
Director Stuyvesant, etc. 

To-day, the 14th day of February Anno 1652 appeared before me Hendrick Schaeff, 
Notary Public, admitted by the Court of Holland and residing at Amsterdam, and 
before the undersigned witnesses, the Rev. Wilhelmus Grasmeer, lately a minister 
of the Gospel in New Netherland, whence he returned last November in the ship 
" Hoff van Cleoff "; who being in this city, deposes and says, at the request of the 
Directors of the Privileged West India Company, that a long time after Cornells 
Melyn, a freeman of jNew Netherland, whom witness knows well, had arrived in 
New Netherland in the ship " Nieu Nederlantsche Fortuyn ", on her last voyage, he, 
witness, had heard the Manhattans Indians of New Netherland, living at Nayack, 
a place on Long Island directly opposite Staten Island, frequently say, that the said 
Cornells Mclyn had made them believe and declared to them, Director Petrus Stuy- 
vesant would, as soon as he had built a wall around Fort Amsterdam, come to kill 
them, namely the savages, whereupon the said savages fled and came armed to 
Gravesend, which belongs under the jurisdiction of the aforesaid Company; etc. etc. 
— Col. Docs. N. Y. siv. 160. 

Classis of Amsterdam. 

Acts of the Deputies. 

1652, Feb. 26tli. 
Eev. John Riditiiis in the Chair. 

Eev. Samuel Driesch, (Drisius,) formerly pastor in England, 
but educated bv German parents, and in the German tongue, 
appeared and declared his readiness to be employed as minister 
in Kew jSTetherland. And inasmuch as the Messrs. Directors 
have greatly desired a minister who besides preaching in Dutch, 
could also preach in English, it was determined to make trial 
next Monday how they like his German (Dutch?) pronunciation. 
After ascertaining the facts they will further negotiate -^-ith 
his Reverence. — xx. 291. 

1652, March 11th. 

Rev. Matthias Meursius in the Chair. 

In accordance with previous resolution, trial was made last 
Monday of the gifts, bestowed by God, upon Rev. Samuel 
Driesch (Drisius,) for preaching in Dutch. These were found 
not only sufficient, but also very agreeable and edifying, and to 
the great satisfaction of the brethren. Therefore his Reverence 



304 Ecclesiastical Records 

is judged to be a right desirable person to serve the church of 
God in New l^etherland. For this he has also declared his "will- 
ingness. As two vessels are about to depart, it is found neces- 
sary to call a meeting of Classis for next Monday, March 18th. 
— XX. 293. 

1652, March 18th. 

The Deputati ad causas Indicas make known to the Assembly 
several matters: xxxvi. 122, 

1. That Samuel Dries (Drisius) had appeared before them, 
and had informed them of his inclination to serve the church of 
ISTew Amsterdam in K^ew ISTetherland; that he had also given 
such proof of his ability, and of his acquaintance with the Dutch 
language, that all the brethren were fully satisfied therewith. 

2. That they have (notified) the Hon. Directors of the East 
India Company on certain matters. (These sixteen lines omitted). 

3. That there had also been before them a certain Rev. John 
Olx, candidate in the Classis of Hoorn, who has offered his ser- 
vices as pastor in the colony of Renselaerwyck in l!^ew N^ether- 
land; but inasmuch as there are certain evil reports concerning 
him, they refer his case to the Classis. Meanwhile they had 
resolved to make inquiries concerning him. They herewith pre- 
sented what information they had received on the matter from 
the Classis of Hoorn, in the shape of extracts from their pro- 
ceedings, from time to time, concerning the case of said John 
Olx. Erom these it appeared that he had not only conducted 
himself offensively at Leyden; and had been a member of the 
church only six months before he was preparatorily examined 
in the Ommelanden, (neighborhood) ; but also after he had been 
accepted, as " Recommended ", by the Classis of Hoorn, he had 
occasioned such scandal by his manner of life, in the church of 
Hoorn, that he had been suspended by the same, as well as by 
the Classis, for a time, and declared ineligible to the ministerial 
office. ISTevertheless, on the 4th of December, 1651, he had 
been released from his censure, and restored to his former 

OF THE State of jSTew York. 305 

The Assembly resolved, primarily, to consider these two sub- 
jects, in their respective order. 

As regards the first: Since Rev. Samuel Dries (Drisius), was 
at the door, it was resolved to admit him. He informed the As- 
sembly of his inclination for the said journey, and presented a 
commendatory testimonial of the entire consistory of the Eng- 
lish church in this city, (Amsterdam.) It relates both to his 
Kfe and church services in England, speaking highly of them. 
With this the brethren were fully satisfied, and the Deputies 
are charged to negotiate with the Hon. Directors, and to pro- 
mote the said person as speedily as possible. 

As regards the second: (Nothing is given. It probably re- 
lated to the notification of the West India Company:) 

And as regards the third: There also now entered, the 
said Rev. John Olx, candidate in the Classis of Hoorn. He pre- 
sented a Classical testimonial of his examination in the West 
Ommeland, (neighborhood), and one from the Rev. Roylandus, 
secretary of the Classis of Hoorn. He requested the favor of 
this Assembly to be sent as pastor to the colony of Rense- 

The Assembly, taking into consideration his former offensive 
deportment, for which he was brought under severe censure, 
both by the church of Hoorn and the Classis, as mentioned 
above; and also that the testimonials which he exhibits ooncernN 
ing his present deportment are very sober and meagre : there- 
fore it is resolved to reject him, and to tell him roundly, that 
the Assembly has no satisfaction in him, and can, at the present, 

give him no hope that they will advance him, according to his 

Rev. John Episcopius. 

And since it has also been mentioned that there is at Eraneker, 

a very able student. Rev. John Episcopius of Campen, of whom 

the chief professor, Rev. John Cloppenburg speaks very highly; 

and inasmuch as hope is given concerning him, that he might 




306 Ecclesiastical Records 

be induced to this journey; therefore the Assembly authorizes 
the Deputati ad causas Indicas to recommend him, in case there 
be no other material, to the Patroon and the Co-partners of the 
colony of Eenselaerswyck. In case they take pleasure therein, 
the Deputati shall summon him from Franeker, against the next 
ordinary meeting of the Classis, there to exhibit his testimonials, 
and to have himself in readiness, if possible, for his examina- 
tion at that time; for the next departure of the vessels is now 
near at hand. 

Rev. Samuel Dries. William Grasmeer. 

The Deputati ad causas Indicas report, that the said Rev. 
Samuel Dries, on the recommendation of the Classis, has been 
accepted by the Hon. Directors of the West India Company as 
second pastor at Xew Amsterdam in iSTew ISTetherland. 

That they had also promised to heed the warning of the Clas- 
sis against Rev. William Grasmeer. — xxvi. 122-125 ; v. 236-237. 

William Yestens. 

1652, April 2nd. 

Rev. Wittenwrongel read a certain letter from William Yes- 
tens, Comforter of the Sick at ISTew Amsterdam, in which he re- 
quests compensation for his office as sexton, which he exercises 
there; and that this may be recommended to the Hon. Directors 
of the West India Company. 

Resolved, To charge the Deputati ad res Indicas with the ad- 
justment of this matter. 

The Deputati ad res Indicas also announce that they have 
presented Rev. Episcopius to the Patroons of RenselaersA\'yck, to 
be sent hither as pastor. The said Patroons desire first to con- 
fer with him concerning the salary contract. 

Resolved That after the making of the contract the Rev. Depu- 
ties shall confer mth them, and act pro re nata; and that a 
meeting of the Classis shall be called. The Rev. President, Scri- 
verius, shall examine him. — xxvi. 122. 

OF THE State of JSTew York. 307 

DiREOTOES TO Stuyvesant ; IvTew Amsterdam In- 
corporated ; Eevs, Drisius and Grasmeer. 


1652, 4th April. 

We also agree with your proposition to establish there (New Amsterdam) a 
pablic school and believe a beginning might be made with one Bchoolmaster* 
(hypodldasculum), who could be engaged at a yearly salary of two hundred to two 
hundred and fifty guilders. We recommend for this position Jan de la Montagnie,* 
whom we have provisionally appointed to it and you may use the building of the 
City Tavern, if you find it suitable. 

At your urgent request for another preacher, whom you desire, if possible, to 
preach in the English language, we have made every effort; and at last, as If 
sent by the Lord, Domine Samuel Dries, a bachelor of about forty years, haa 
made his appearance, who on account of the perturbances in England, where he 
had been preaching, being born of Dutch parents, has retreated from there. He 
has the reputation of being a very pious man and possessed of great gifts; is 
able to preach in both languages, English and Dutch, and if necessary even in 
French. He Is said to be of a very peaceful disposition and agreeable conversa- 
tion, so that we are confident, the community will be pleased with him and that 
he will be a great instrument for the propagating of God's hold word and glory; 
also a fit assistant to the old gentleman, Domine Megapolensis. We have allowed 
him a salary of one hundred florins per month, and two hundred and fifty florins 
a year for subsistence; and as he is unmarried, we have thought it might not be 
inconvenient, if he boarded with Johan de la Montagnie; but we do not wish to 
press such an arrangement upon either, and propose it only from pure affection. 

As you now will have learned, that we do our very best to promote the spiritual 
and temporal welfare of New Netherland, we urge you most earnestly to use 
all proper and suitable measures in endeavoring to And means for defraying a 
part of all these extraordinary expenses: we think the community, whom we try 
to accommodate in everything, should make an effort to assist their ministers and 
supply their wants; for if everything were to remain upon our shoulders, we might 
at last find the burden too heavy. 

Upon your recommendation we had an eye upon Domine Grasmeer, but found 
his affairs with the Reverend Synod so far from being settled, that he cannot sail 
this year: it is true, the charges against him have been satisfactorily disposed of 
by the Classle of Alckmaer; but the Synod had to approve of this decision, and 
it will not sit until next August: then the time to sail this year will have passed; 
the good man is much inconvenienced by it, but it Is considered best for him, 
on all sides, that he should submit la everything to the ordinances of the Church 
of this country; and as God is a God of order, we doubt not that he will take 
care of him and all pious people. — Col. Docs. N. Y. xiv. 165, 169, 173, 174. 

The following reminiscences. Illustrative of things as they were, are deemed 
worthy of insertion. The quaint and elliptical language in which the latter Is 
given, is characteristic of the author, Judge Benson. In his memoir, read before 
the New York Historical Society in 1816, speaking of John De La Montague, 
ordinarily pronounced, Jan Montague, sexton of the old Dutch church in Garden 
street, he says: " I saw him at the house of my parents; I In my earliest youth, 
he approaching to fourscore. He was on his way to collect the Domlne's gelt; 
for the Dutch always took care the stipend to the minister should be competent, 
that so he never might be straitened ' to desire a gift.' He told me his father and 
grandfather before him (the names of all three Individuals may be found in the 
old Directories), the latter probably the same as mentioned in the records, ' Jan 
De La Montague, Schoolmaster, with two hundred and fifty guilders salary,' had 

* The City Tavern occupied what is now 71, 73 Pearl st. For view, see Valentine's 
Manual, 1852, 378, 403, 


308 Ecclesiastical Records 

been the sexton of the congregation; so that, as I have it from the relation of 
others, the successive incumbents, having been as well of the same Christian as 
surname, the name had, as it were, become the name of the office, like Der, 
Keyser, the Caesar, the Emperor; and, accordingly, when the English, having 
built a church, had also a sexton, the Dutch children, and not Impossible some 
adults, called him, ' De Engelishe Jan Montague.' He told me his grandfather 
was the sexton when the church was within the fort. On his (the third Jan's) 
death, the Consistory appointed his son Jan, who remained sexton till the dis- 
persion of the congregation on the invasion of the city, 1776." — Dunshee's Hist, 
of School, 24. 

1652, April 4. 

Supplies of ammunition were sent out for distribution " at a decent price " to 
the inhabitants; the establishment of a public school was assented to, and the 
city tavern was to be appropriated to a school-house " if the same were prac- 
ticable; " the Rev. Samuel Drisius, a clergyman of piety and parts, qualified to 
preach in English, French and Dutch, was sent out to assist " that worthy old 
servant, the Rev. Megapolensis."' 

Domine Drisius, (or Dries,) was at this time about forty years of age, and 
unmarried. He had sojourned some time in England, which country he had now 
quitted, in consequence of its disturbed state. His salary was fixed at one 
thousand four hundred and fifty guilders, or five hundred and eighty dollars. He 
subsequently married Lysbeth Juriaensen, (daughter of skipper Juriaen Andriessen 
and Jannetin Jans,) widow of Isaac Greveraet. " Elisabeth Drisius," and " Mother 
Drisius," are both mentioned in a tax list of the city of New York for 1677. — 
O'Callaghan's History of New Netherland, Vol. ii. 191. 

Classis of Amsterdam. 

Acts of the Deputies. 

1652, April 15th. 
Hev. Herman Lanoyzius in the Chair. 

Rev. John Episcopius, who, mth the approval of the Hon. 
Patroons and Co-Directors, had been requested to fill the pastorate 
of Renselaerswyck, reported himself. He said that, in view of 
the dubious condition of affairs between England and this coun- 
try, (Holland), his Reverence, at the instance of his friends, 
would pray to be excused from said undertaking. 

Also, inasmuch as good testimonials have been presented con- 
cerning Gideon Schaets, schoolmaster at Beest and a German 
clerk, who has fulfilled the order of the Synod, and declared his 
mllingness to accept the call from Renselaerswyck; therefore it 
was resolved to introduce him to the Rev. Classis. The Classis 
has given permission to treat with him concerning the said call. 
This he has accepted in the fear of the Lord. He was then im- 
mediately examined by the Classis, and has been sent thither 
with the call and proper credentials. — xx. 295. 

OF THE State of 'N:ew Yokk. 30 'J 

Rev. Gideon Schaats. 

1652, May 6tli. 

The Rev. Deputati ad res Indicas having also "been ordered 
to look about for a fit person to be sent to Eensselaerswyck, did 
propose Rev. Gideon Schaats, schoolmaster at Beest, and Candi- 
date in Sacred Theology. He appeared before the Classis, and 
after he had exhibited credentials both from the Classis and 
from the church, made a short exposition (sermon) on Matt. 
11:28, which so pleased the Assembly that it was resolved to 
proceed to his examination. This was conducted by the Rev. 
President. Therein he gave sufficient satisfaction to the Rev. 
Assembly, to be sent as minister to Rensselaerswyck. Accord- 
ingly he was ordained by the President to the ministry of God, 
with the laying on of hands. He also signed the acts of the 
Formulae of Concord in the faith. — v. 241 ; xxvi. 126. 

The Rev. Gideon Schaets' Contract. 

1652, May 8. 

This gentleman, tlje second clergyman in Albany, was born in 1G07. He was 
originally engaged as minister of the Colonie of Rensselaerswyck, but in 1657 he 
was appointed, " at the request of the inhabitants of Fort Orange and Beverwyck," 
minister of the latter place, at a salary of twelve hundred guilders, to be collected 
for the greatest part from the inhabitants." The following is a copy of the con- 
tract under which he first came to this country: — 

We, Johan van Rensselaer Patroou and Co-director of the Colony of Rensselaers- 
wyck in New Netherland, having seen and examined the Actes granted by the 
Venerable Classis of Amsterdam to Domine Gideon Schaets, so have we invited 
and accepted the said Gideon Schaets as preacher in our aforesaid Colonie, there 
to perform Divine Service in quality aforesaid: — 

To use all Christian zeal there to bring up both the Heathen and their children 
in the Christian Religion. 

To teach all the Catechism there, and instruct the People in the Holy Scriptures, 
and to pay attention to the office of Schoolmaster for old and young. 

And further, to do everything fitting and becoming a public, honest and Holy 
Teacher, for the advancement of Divine service and church exercise among the 
young and old. 

And, in case his Reverence should take any of the Heathen children there to 
board and to educate, he shall be indemnified therefor as the Commissioners there 
shall think proper. 

And he is accepted and engaged for the period of three years, commencing when 
his Rcverenci? shall have arrived thither in the Colonic Rensselaerswyck, in the 
ship the Flower of Geider, his passage and board being free; and he shall enjoy 
for his salary, yearly, the sum of eight hundred guilders, which shall be paid to 
his Reverence there through the Patroon's and Co-directors' Commissioners; and 
in case of prolongation, the salary and allowance shall be Increased in such manner 
as the parties there shall mutually agree upon. 


310 Ecclesiastical Records 

And as a donation, and in confirmation of liis reciprocal engagement, one hundred 
guilders are now presented to the Domine. 

And in addition, the sum of three hundred guilders to be deducted from the first 
earned wages in the Colonie, which moneys he hereby doth acknowledge to have 
received, acquitting thereof the Patroon and Co-directors. 

Finally, should the Domine require any money to the amount of one hundred 
guilders to be paid yearly here, and to be deducted there, the said payment, on 
advice from the Commissaries there, shall be made here to the order of the- 
aforesaid Domine. 

Whereupon, the call, acceptance, and agreement are concluded, each promising 
on his side with God's help to observe and follow the same, which each has 
promised, and in testimony thereof have both signed this. In Amsterdam, this 
eighth of May XVI hundred two and fifty. Was subscribed, Johah van Rensselaer, 
Toussaint Mussart, for the Co-directors; Gideon Schaets, called minister to Rens- 
selaerswyck. Under which stood. Concordat haec copia cum suo originall quod 
attestor, and was subscribed, J. van de Ven, Not. pub. 

After collation, the above was found to agree with the copy of the original, 
which witnesseth 

D. V. Hamel, Secretarius of the Colonie Rensselaerswyck. — O'Callaghan's His- 
tory of New Netherland, Vol. 11., 567. 

Instructions of Patroon Van Rensselaer, Concerning Re- 

Jan Baptiste van Rensselaer succeeded Van Slechtenhorst as Director, and Garrit 
Swart was appointed Sheriff or Schout-fiscaal of Rensselaerswyck in his place. 
Provision was made at the same time for the regular preaching of the Gospel, 
and the conversion of the heathen, by the appointment of the Rev. Gideon Schaats 
as minister of the colony, at a salary of eight hundred guilders, or three hundred 
and twenty dollars per annum. This stipend was afterwards raised to one thou- 
sand, and then to thirteen hundred guilders. 

1652, May 8. 

Instructions drawn up by Johan van Rensselaer, Patroon and Co-director of the 
colonie called Rensselaerswyck, for Gerrit Swart as OflBcer of the said Colonic, 
iu'coriliui; to which lie shall, in all good faith, regulate himself. 

Ha\ing arrived with -tJod's help at the Island of Manhattan, he shall proceed by 
the first'.v 1o the Colonie, and report himself to Jan Baptist van lieus- 
si'laer, and make known unto hhn his quality, by exhibition of his Comnii.s.siuu ami 

He jsliall, nbove all thiug-i, t:4ke cire that Dlvlue worship shall be iii.iiiitained in 
8ai<l Coliiiiic, conforniiilily Id the Reformed Religion of this couniry, as tlie s.-imc 
i.s piildicly ini ght In these Uni.ed I'rovinees. 

]I(> ehall. ill like manner, i)ay attention that the Lord's day, the S"abli:ith of the 
New 'retit-Miiient. be pmperly respected both by the observance of hearing tin- Holy 
Word, as well as the prevenlinj; all unnecessary and daily labor on said day. 

And wheieas. it is a scandal, that the Christians should minj^le themselves un- 
lawfully with the wives or daughters of Heathens, the Otticer shall lalioi- to put 
in exv'cutiim the placards and ordinances enacted or to be enacted airulnst llu? 
!-;uiii', and .strictly enact the fines imposed thereby, without any dlssiuiuluiiuu. — 
0'CaIlaj;hat.s History of New Netherland, Vol. li., 1S4, jt>.j. 

OF THE State of ISTew York. 311 

The Mirage Seen, During the ISTegotiations Between the 
Republics of England and Holland, ]VIay 29, 1652. 

-yi*\--\fi, ; ' ' ; 1652. 

Whilst these negotiations were going on, " signs and wonders in the heavens " 
portended the approach of events which were about to convulse the world. Hostile 
fleets appeared over the horizon drawn up in hostile array, and next engaged in 
close combat, to the great terror and astonishment of the humble fishermen who 
witnessed the phenomenon, whilst pursuing their laborious vocations off the coast 
of Holland. Men's minds had hardly ceased to dwell on this singular apparition,* 
when intelligence arrived that in vindication of the Dutch flag and the freedom of 
the seas, an engagement had taken place in the straits of Dover, between the 
Dutch and English fleets, the former under Van Tromp, and the latter under Blake. 


Synod of ]SForth Holland, at Amsterdam. 

1652, Aug. 12 et seq. 

Art. 29. Ecclesiastical Changes. 

(Here folloAvs the names of the ministers who have died in the 
East Indies, or were sent thither, or have returned thence:) 

Sent thither: Rev. John Backerus. 

Sent to New ISTetherland : To Amsterdam, Rev. Samuel Dries 

To Rensselaerwyck, Rev. Gideon Schaats. 

* The following account of this singular mirage, is taken from Aitz. iii., 710. 
" With the rising of the sun, the pilot first pi-rceived an appeaniiiee like that of a 
table-lnnd about a man's height above llie horizon. A lar^o body of foot eoldiera 
and cavalry seemed to him coniiag from ovt of the north, or uotli-'eiist. At sight of 
this he called his crew and boys, saying, Hcmaik this mlr.-K-lr of God. 'I'lie whole 
then in appeariiuce vanished. Next appeared a fleet of ships :ij;iimst lln- clear !»ky, 
on the same side, coming from tlK» north, sonii* the nial'ts.-iil half up. <> hers in full 
pail, others reefed; amongst the rest was a l.ii-ge ship which l)iiuii'di:iffly lost i.s 
topmast, but shortly afterwards another was ringed. This shij) st-eiutMl so near, 
that its flag lay over our ves-iel. It was a flag of thnv cc-'ors, oi- a |iii rice's flag. 
Shortly after a powerfrl fleet of varinis sizes :ii)pe.ircd at ihe same lu-lglil. coming 
from the .^outh-east. Both fle-.-is seenied siviling lowai-ilx ■•:! -li ...bc-. ( i.niiiii; to- 
gether, a thick mis*" -like smoke arose, as if they were 'g'ninL' one n.,:; 'ii.«.i the oth'T, 
whicli clouded the pi.e.iomeiu-n. 'I'liis dark ui'si •! f' ••■wi i- I ■; clisi|>|M .ir-'"!. : tnl then 
ilie first vessels were again seen so clear ami perfect, tlnit all liieir ei,ii..i;re .and 
blocks eoul'l be perceived. Tins lasted an lio, r. Afii-rwanls nil the vessels disap- 
peared as if they had sunk. I'.ut n little farther aw'iv. :ill the shijis a^;nii showed 
themselvea so clear, yen. so perfect in all respects, tlmt ii seemed ;is If tliey sliouM 
lieave on our board. 'I'li'Mi apDeared a vrcat armed shij) tbit seemed to touch ih(» 
ground, and l;iy with its hcMd in the \v;i;er. !>iit the stern si ncU In t ln' air. an! 
Jiiiother sliiji seemed t(» siiil by. 'I liis dghl continued during three Inens. .inil crea'el 
euch terror iiiilong the ci-ew, tli.-it they could luil e:it. they were so nii'cli rri;;li eiieil: 
so tlim the sfeersninn 'ook m book in tiis hnml. c-illf'd the Ciirisiiau Sp;i t ..;irt. aiii 
began to from It. for the t ncoiiMgement of himself juid men. In i be eiisi north- 
oust appe-ired a great Hon. remaining on iht> iiorlli siile it ilie \e.ssels. Aliont tJi«* 
same (.pmricr nppeared some striinge bensis. -ill of wh'cli turned iiro ships. ISut 
though the slii[>s t.Mi'i'd or trrtied. tiie lion ki-pl sie.idv to Mie iio'-l li. and so re. 
mnitiod dur'n,' the whole sl.'.'li', about two or tliree hours.'* '''his mirage ;ippenre<l 
about the White W;iter. twehe (Dnich) miles e(r tlic Wait. Tlie weatlit'- wis clear 
PTinslilne. nn(^ the nrM-ti'-nl.irs r"-e iiHesKMi 1m- the whole of the crew. — U'CMllng'.uin'< 
History of New Netherlaud, Vol. II. ^O'J. liiW. 


312 Ecclesiastic Ai. Records 

Article 34. 

Page 16 — Regarding Article 27, (1651), concerning Rev. Wil- 
liam Grasmeer: The Rev. Synod having understood the pro- 
cedures and Acts of the Rev. Classis of Alkmaer, with reference 
to the said Grasmeer, who has now arrived in the Fatherland, 
from New Netherland; and considering especially how he has 
been reconciled on certain conditions with the said Classis: and 
the Rev. Synod observing from the foregoing Acta of the Synod 
at Alkmaer Anno 1650, Art. 46, that his person and case were 
referred to Synod: Resolves to smnmon Rev. Grasmeer, who is 
now abiding at Hoom, to appear at Amsterdam on Monday next, 
August 19, in order that the Rev. Synod — before which he will 
have to appear — may decide as to the propriety of his admission 
to the ministry of the churches, which has been already granted 
to him by the Rev. Classis of Alkmaer: even as heretofore it de- 
cided in regard to his deposition effected by the Rev. Classis of 
Alkmaer, and which was referred by and thro the same Classis 
to the Rev. Synod. 

Article 39. 
Rev, William Grasmeer appeared. It was proposed to him — 
whether indeed he had true sorrow and repentance for his sins, 
and for the painful scandals which had been brought on God's 
Church, and for which he had been lawfully deposed. His mis- 
deeds and offences were placed duly before him by the Rev. 
President. He did in part, deny them in the face of all the facts ; 
and as for the rest, he covered them up with groundless excuses, 
evasions, and glossings over; and on the whole made so meager 
and hesitating a confession, that the Rev. Synod resolved that he 
should have time for further reflection; with the admonition to 
confess his sins unfeignedly and without any reser^^ation ; and to 
promise in this Synod, and in the presence of the Lord, to conduct 
himself in the future as his Christian profession ajid the sacred 
ministry demands. 

OF THE State of j^ew York. 313 

Art. 40. Eev. William Grasmeer. 

Kev. Grasmeer, appeared the next day. Upon further reflec- 
tions and by a more salutary explanation of himself, he openly 
confessed before the Synod that he was rightfully deposed by th© 
Eev. Classis of Alkmaer for his scandals and sins, as specified in 
Article 46, of the Synod of Alkmaer, in 1650; and as laid be- 
fore him by the Classis of Alkmaer in the reconciliation, and as 
here in this Synod specifically stated. He accordingly acknowl- 
edged that the approval of that deposition by the Synod, rested 
on good grounds. And inasmuch as he had deplored the said 
sins with all sincerity before the Rev. Classis of Alkmaer; 
and had protested that they grieved him from the heart; and 
thereupon had been reconciled with that Classis; he now requests 
that the Kev. Synod would ratify his readmission to the ministry, 
already granted him by the Classis, on the strength of a hearty 
acknowledgment of the said sins. He also promised that he would 
always speak in honor of the Rev. Synod and the Rev. Classis of 
Alkmaer in reference to the procedures taken against him, and 
that henceforth he would conduct himself as becomes a pious and 
godly minister, walking worthy of the Gospel, and the sacred 
ministry. The Christian Synod having heard this later and specific 
confession of his sins, his promise of improvement; and also from 
the brethren at Hoorn, where he is stopping, that he has conducted 
himself properly since his reconciliation with the Classis of Alk- 
maer so far as they know; concludes that the said Rev. Grasmeer 
be placed again in a condition to receive a call; and consequently 
give him permission publicly to preach before the people wher- 
ever he is lawfully invited, and can be heard to edification, in con- 
formity with the resolution of the Rev. Classis of Alkmaer which 
was now publicly read. For this Rev. Grasmeer thanked the 
Synod, after an earnest address made to him by the President. 



314 Ecclesiastical Records 

Founding of ISTewtown and Flatbush, L. I. 


Two settlements were commenced on Long Island in the course of this year. One 
of these was located immediately east of the old established plantation of Mespath, 
in contradistinction to which, it was familiarly called " the New Town," though its 
legal appellation was Middleburg. The Indian title to the lands composing the 
town was not extinguished until some years subsequent to this date. A church was 
erected here previous to 1655. 

The other was situate in the " Vlaclse-bos," or Flatbush, between Breukelen and 
Amersfoort, and received from Director Stuyvesant the name of Middelwout. 
Though endowed, at its foundation, with over a dozen parcels of land for the sup- 
port of religion and schools, its progress was much impeded in its infancy. The 
Indians had not been paid for their property, and in their displeasure threatened 
to burn the bouweries of the early pioneers. Payment was promised, " but nothing 
came of it." The inhabitants continued in constant danger, and " the village did 
not thrive." These and other difficulties aljout Indian claims, superadded to the 
war with England, produced a good deal of confusion and discontent, and laid the 
foundation of another appeal ere long to the authorities in Holland. — O'Callaghan's 
History of New Netherland, Vol. ii. 194-195. 

Court Minutes of jSTew Amsterdam — Prater at the Open- 
ing OF THE Court. 

Feb. 6; 1653. 
The first entry in the records of the magistrates of this city is a prayer, which, 
having been inserted at length in their minutes, is supposed to have been designed 
by them to go down to posterity, and Is therefore given in full: 

" O God of Gods, and Lord of Lords, Heavenly and most Merciful Father! We 
thank thee that thou hast not only created us in thine own image, but that thou 
hast received us as thy children and guests when we were lost; and in addition to 
all this, it has pleased thee to place us in the government of thy people in this 

" O Lord, our God, we, thy wretched creatures, acknowledge that we are not 
worthy of this honor, and that we liave neither strength nor sufficiency to discharge 
the trust committed to us, without thine assistance. 

" We beseech thee, O foun .-lin of all gijud gifts, qualify ua l»y tliy grace, that 
we may, with fidelity and right i'(nisiiess, serve In our respective offices. To this euJ 
enlighten our darkened uiidersiandings. tliat we miy lie aide to tlistingulsii the 
right from the wrong; the truth from falsehood, and that we uirty give pure and 
uncorrupted decisions: h<i\iiig au eye upon thy word, a .sure giilde, giving to the 
simple wisdom and knowledge. Let thy law be a light unto our feet and a lamp 
to our path, so that we tuny never turn away from the path of righteousness. 
Deeply impress on all our minds tiiat we are not accountable nuto men but uuto 
(Jod. who seeth and beareth .ill things. Let all respci-t of persons be far removed 
friMii lis, that we may award justice unto the rich and the poor, unto friends and 
fueinies alike: to resiileuts ami to stranger.s, according to the law of truth; and 
thiit not line of lis may swer\e iherffroin. And since gifts do liiind the eyes of 
the wise. aiKl ilestroy the heart. tlKTi-forc keep our hearts aright, (.ir.-int unto us, 
also, tli.-if w<> may not rashly prejiidg" aiiv oiie. williout a f:)!r liearing, hut that 
ve p.'Hii'titly hear thi- parlies, and give tlietii lime and opportiiuiry for defending 
themselTeii; iu all tlilugB louklii^ iiji t» tUet- ami t<> thy word for counsel amd 

•• <Jrariort«iy incline our hearts, that we exen-lsi- the power which thou given 
IIS, to the gener.-il good of the community, and lo the maintenance of the church, 
that we uiay be praised by theui that Uo well, nud u terror to evil-doers. 

OF THE State of IN'ew York. 315 

" Incline, also, the hearts of the subjects unto due obedience, so that through 
their respect and obedience our burdens may be made the lighter. 

" Thou knowest, Oh Lord, that the wicked and ungodly do generally contemn and 
transgress thine ordinances, therefore clothe us with strength, courage, fortitude 
and promptitude, that we may, with proper earnestness and zeal, be steadfast unto 
the death against all sinners and evil-doers. 

" Oh, good and gracious God, command thy blessing upon all our adopted resolu- 
tions, that they may be rendered effectual, and redound to the honor of thy great 
and holy name, to the greatest good of the trusts committed to us and to our 

'■ Hear and answer us. Oh gracious God, in these our petitions, and in all that 
thou seest we need, through the merits of Jesus Christ thy beloved son, in whose 
name we conclude our prayer." — Valentine's New York, pp. 55, 56, 57. 

Another Translation in Records of New Amsterdam, Vol. i, 48, 49. 

Father Poncet's Capture. — Visits Fort Orange. — Returns 
TO Quebec, 1C53, Aug.-Oct. 

AVar now interrupted all peaceful relations between the French, 
and the Iroquois, and the persecution ceased in the Mohawk 
country solely through lack of fuel, when the savages of that 
quarter made another incursion into the heart of Canada, and 
captured Father Joseph Poncet, Aug. 20, 1653, who happened 
to be abroad " endeavoring to get some persons to cut the harvest 
of a poor widow." Hurrying the Missionary away, with other 
unfortunate persons who fell into their hands, they stripped the 
captives and forced them to run the gauntlet through half a hun- 
dred armed savages, then mounted them on a lofty scaffold and 
obliged them to sing. Yet uncertain of his fate, a woman asked 
that Ver child be permitted to cut off one of the Father's fingers. 
The inyov was granted, and whilst the young barbarian was prac- 
ticing this early lesson in cruelty, Poncet manifested his resigna- 
tion by chanting sacred songs. For two days and three nights was 
he doomed to additional tortures, whilst one of his companions 
was roasted alive before his eyes, Sept. 8, 1G53. But Pro^ddenco not its servants. He was adopted by an old crone be- 
longing to one of the castles, and a messenger arri\ ed a few day.s 
after with intelligence that their warriors v.erc on the eve of 
concliidirg a peace with the Governor of Cannda, who insisted as 
a preliminary that " the black gown " should be restored. Father 
Poncet now foinul liIs tit nation wonderfully improved. He was 



316 Ecclesiastical Records 

immediately conveyed to Fort Orange to be supplied with cloth- 
ing and proper surgical attendance. Here he was presented to 
Commissary Dyckman, Sept. 20, 1653, who, notwithstanding M. 
de Lauzon, the French Governor, had written recommending the 
Father to that officer's attention, received him coldly;. and he 
was about to lie down supperless on the bare boards, having no 
bed, when " a worthy old Walloon " invited him into his house 
and treated him with the kindest hospitality. Other settlers fur- 
nished him with clothes, whilst a Scotch matron, " who was al- 
ways kind to the French," sent a surgeon to dress his wounds. 
During his sojourn, Poncet was still alive to the duties of his call- 
ing. Having discovered two Catholics among the settlers — one 
a Brussels merchant, the other a young Frenchman who acted as 
interpreter to the settlement — he administered to them the con- 
solations of religion, and then prepared for his return. On the 
day of his departure, his generous Dutch friends crowded around 
him with presents, and expressed the warmest regret at his leav- 
ing them. He cheered them with the promise that he should re»- 
tum again in the course of the ensuing summer, and consented 
to accept only an overcoat, a pair of moccassins, and a pair of 
shoes, with a blanket " to serve him as a bed on the road." A 
few fish were all his stock of provisions, and with these he set 
out for home, where he arrived in the course of the following 
month, Oct. 3, 1653. His journey to the Mohawk country had 
been by the Kichelieu River and Lake Champlain. On his ref- 
turn he was conducted by way of the Oswego to Lake Ontario, 
and thence down the St. Lawrence to Quebec. It is more than 
probable he was the first white man that traversed that region. 
A peace was now solemnly concluded between the Mohawks and 
the French, the latter leaving two of their countrymen hostages 
for its faithful observance. 

OF THE State of Kew Yoek. 31 < 


Classis of Amsterdam. 

Correspondence from America. — There is an abstract of this 
letter in Vol. 26, p. 146, made by the Deputies. 

Eevs. Megapolensis and Drisins to the Classis of Amsterdam, 

Oct. 6, 1653. 

Reverend, Pions and Learned Fathers in Christ: — 

We acknowledge with grateful hearts the favor of God, the 
good will of the Directors, and the zealous care of your Reverend 
body, for the defence, and maintenance of the Ref onued Religion 
in this foreign land, which is under the privileged government 
of the Honorable Company, and which has obligated the Governor 
by oath, in their commission to him, to permit no other religion 
than the Reformed. 

We have hitherto enjoyed the full benefit of our religion in 
this province. But recently, on the 4th of October last, it hap- 
pened that certain Lutheran residents here, prepared and pre- 
sented a certain request to our Governor, (asking for) permis- 
sion to call a Lutheran Minister out of Holland, and also to or- 
ganize separately and publicly a congregation and church. This 
would tend to the injury of our church, the diminution of hearers 
of the Word of God, and the increase of dissensions, of which 
we have had a sufficiency for years past. It would also pave the 
way for other sects, so that in time our place would become a 
receptacle for all sorts of heretics and fanatics. 

Observe that these petitioners have not only tmce before made 
this request of our Governor, but have also addressed letters to 
their Hight Mightinesses, the States of Holland, and to the Hon. 
Directors of the West India Company. Therefore it is our humble 
and earnest request, that your Rev. body will use your influence 
with the Hon. Directors, of the Company, that they may so pro- 
vide and determine, that the project of our Lutheran friends may 
be rejected, and thus the welfare, prosperity and edification of 
the church in this place, may be promoted. For as long as no 


318 Ecclesiastical Records 

other religion tlian the Eeformed has been publicly allowed, all 
who wish to engage in public worship come to our service. By 
this means it has happened that several, among whom are some 
of the principal Lutherans, have made a profession of religion, 
and united with us in the Lord's Supper, We have communicated 
these matters to the Hon. Directors (Heeren majores), in whom 
we have the greatest confidence, but we request your Rev. body 
occasionally to refresh their memories, lest through want of proper 
attention to the subject, the requested permission should be given. 
Our Governor here is zealous for the Reformed Religion, and 
would rather relinquish his office than grant permission in this 
matter, since it is contrary to the first article of his commission, 
which was confirmed by him with an oath, not to permit any other 
than the Reformed doctrine. 

Finally, we commend your Rev. body to the gracious protection 
of the Most Lligh, whose blessing both you and we need for suc- 
cess in our sacred office. 

Your Reverences' Obedient, 

Johannes Megapolensis, V. D. M. 
!N'ew Amsterdam, Samuel Drisius, V. D. M. 

Oct. 6, 1653. 

Deduction Made by the Directok General and Council, Re- 
garding THE Remonstrance of the 11th of December 
(1653, Signed by the Burgomasters and Schepens of This 
City and Some En'glishmen. 

The third point. 

The English do not only enjoy the right of nominating their own Magistrates, 
but some of them also usurp the election and appointment of such Magistrates, as 
they please, without regard to their religion. Some, especially the people of 
Gravesend, elect libertines and Anabaptists, which is decidedly against the laws of 
the Netherlands.*— Col. Docs. N. Y. xiv. 233, 235. 

* The West India Company had begun to become alarmed at dangers which 
threatened New Netherland from New England. The boundary line was in dispute. 
Stuyvesant was compelled, though unwillingly, to listen to the advice of the prin- 
cipal citizens, and give up part of the revenue from the excise, but insisted that 
the city government should support the two clergymen, the schoolmasters and the 
secretary. But the Burgomasters and Schepens demanded that the whole city reve- 
nue should be surrendered into their hands, or they would resign. After much 
debate, Stuyvesant surrendered to them the excise on liquor upon condition that 
the Burgomasters and Schepens should furnish subsidies for the maintenance of 
the City work, and for civil and ecclesiastical affairs. — Brodhead's N. Y. i. 567-8. 

OF THE State of j^ew York. 31i) 

CoMMissioisr OF Rev. Samuex. Dmsms as Diplomatic Agent to 
BE S^NT to Virginia. 

Petrus Stuyvesant, on behalf of their Noble High Mightinesses, the Lorfls-States- 
General of the United Netherlands, and the Noble Lords-Directors of the Privi- 
leged West India Company, Director-General of New Netherland, Curacao, 
Bonayro, Aruba and dependencies, with the High Council; December 16, 1653. 

To all who may read this, or hear it read, Greeting: 

Know ye, that for the purpose of promoting a general peace and the welfare of 
both nations, we have in May last past deputed, commissioned and sent our extra- 
ordinary agents, the Honorable Cornells van Tienhoven, Councillor and Fiscal of 
New Netherland, and Arent van Hattem, Burgomaster of this City, to the Very 
Honorable Richard Bennett, Governor and Captain General of Virginia and his 
Council of State, in order to covenant and conclude with them a close and firm 
alliance, correspondence and commerce between their and this our Government, 
without regard to the undesired and unexpected bloody differences, arisen to our 
great regret between their and our nation in Europe, as their credentials and com- 
missions have further informed the said Honorable Governor and Council. How- 
ever the said Honorable Governor, and the Council of State in Virginia, found 
themselves at that time unauthorized, to give a conclusive answer to the proposi- 
tions made by our then agents, before they, as they honestly and frankly stated In 
their reply, had first submitted them to, and advised thereupon with their superiors, 
the Government of England, which they intended and agreed to do by the first 
opportunity. If this has been done agreeably to their sincere Intention, we trust, 
that the said Honorable Governor and Council of State received some time ago an 
answer from their superiors, or may be in daily expectation of it. 

Therefore the Director-General and Council of New Netherland have resolved, for 
the promotion of so laudable an object as the continuation of peace, increase of 
commerce and cultivation of correspondence between siTch old friends, neighbors 
and co-religionists living in such distant countries, to send once more an authorized 
and suitable person thither, to remind the said Honorable Governor and Council of 
Virginia of our former good intentions, which we .still have, and our proposlMons, 
and to iearn their reply. We have hereto requested, also authorized and commis- 
sioned, the Reverend and Very Learned Mr. Samuel Driesius. Minister of the Gospel 
in the City of New Amsterdam; and, fully relying upon his ability, wisdom and 
experience, we have directed him, as by this our open letter and commission we 
direct and empower him, to go to Virginia and address himself there to the said 
Honorable Governor, Richard Bennett, and his Council, In order to receive, in his 
quality as our embassador, from the said Governor and Council, an answer to our 
former propositions, and to learn what reply was given by their superiors upon the 
matter submitted. If the said Honorable Governor and Cohncll should not yet have 
received it, then he is to propose and ask for a provisional conMmmtlon of the com- 
merce and intercourse between the two places, a free pass or safeguard, signed by 
the Honorable Governor, for some of their merchants and yachts, to pay and col- 
lect debts among inhabitants of Virginia; as we on our side have given and are still 
willing to give, passes to come and go, to the ships and yachts coming to us from 
Virginia. All this to be only provisionally, until on either side we shall have re- 
ceived orders to the contrary from our superiors, aud countermanded the provisional 
passes, of which such ships and yachts might be informed six or eight days before- 
hand; that thus private losses, general injury and further difTerences between na- 
tion and nation might be prevented. If this cannot be obtained, then he shall ask 
for a free pass for one ship to bring back our envoy free and unmolested by the 
Parliament ships. 


320 Ecclesiastical Records 


We further promise by this our open letter and commission, to ratify and carry 
out all that may be covenanted and concluded in this matter between the said 
Honorable Governor, his Council, and our present envoy, Domlne Samuel Drisius. 
Done at New Amsterdam In New Netherland, the 16th of December 1653. 

P. StuyveScint. 
By order. 

Cornells van Ruyven, 

Secretary. — Col. Docs. N. Y. xiv. 241, 242. 

At the close of this year, " the Reverend and very learned Samuel Drisius, min- 
ister of the Gospel In the city of New Amsterdam," was sent to renew the former 
proposals to Gov. Bennett, and to conclude with him a commercial treaty, including 
a power to the merchants of New Netherland to collect debts due them in Virginia. 
Should these be accepted, the Director General pledged himself to ratify whatever 
hla plenipotentiary might agree to, provided, however, that six or eight days notice 
may be given of any intention to revoke such agreement as may be concluded, " so 
as to prevent losses and animosities between nation and nation.' This mission 
proved entirely successful.* — O'Callaghan, ii. 235. 

Classis of Amsterdam. 

Acts of the Deputies. 
1654 1654, Jan. 1st. 

Eequest to the Hon. XIX, to prevent Lutheran Preaching and 
Public Assemblies in Xew Netherland, with Answer thereto. 

Concerning the complaint of the church in New Netherland: 
The Lutherans there have desired to call a pastor from Holland, 
and organize public assemblies, (congregations.) They have re- 
quested consent thereto by letters to the Hon. XIX, as also to 
the Hon. States of Holland, as appears from the extracts, (folio 
146) of their letter sent to our Classis. They request that our 
Classis would help to prevent this, with all earnestness, before 
the Hon. Directors of the West India Company, as it would be a 
circumstance very injurious to the Refonned doctrine there. 

This complaint was presented by the Deputati ad res Indicas 
to the Hon. Directors. They have responded that they were in- 
clined to oppose the plan of the Lutherans; that they, with the 
church in New Netherland, believe that such permission would 
be very injurious. They also declare their fear that other evil 
consequences might result; that the Mennonites, as well as the 

• Domlne Drisius's commission is in Alb. Rec. ix., 59. It embodies the statements 
In the text. It is rather singular that none of the historians of Virginia, (at least, 
so far as our research has gone,) gives any particulars of these early embassies. 

OF THE State of Xew York. 321 

English Independents, who are numerous there, might seek to 
introduce like public assemblies. 

And as the Deputies represented that the Lutherans had not 
only made known their request to the Hon. Directors, but also 
to the Hon. States of Holland, and that it was to be feared that 
they might grant their petition; they reply thereto, that they 
would take care in this matter ; that in case the Hon. States should 
incline thereto, they would give opposing reasons; that they would 
bind themselves to resist the request of the Lutherans, and would 
notify the Deputati ad res Indicas, that they might transmit (such 
information) to the church in New iSTetherland, in the city of iSTew 
Amsterdam. — xxvi. 148. 

Father Le Moyne, Feb. 5,-Aug. 16, 1654. Discovers the Salt 


The friendship exhibited at this period by the savages covered, however, a deeper 
policy than the mere desire for peace. Their continual ■wars had thinned their 
ranks, and they were desirous to obtain the removal of the Hurons to their country 
to supply the places of those they had lost. This motive alone had Induced them 
to restore Poncet. But this policy was not confined to the Mohawks. The Onon- 
dagoes had suffered also from their contests with the Chats or Cat Indians, and 
wished to embody the Hurons among their tribe. They were likewise anxious to 
be independent of the Mohawks, at whose hands they experienced considerable 111 
treatment in their passage through the lower country to the Dutch. They calcu- 
lated that they could secure this by uniting themselves more closely with the 
French, whom they wished to build them a fort, where their wives and children 
might retire in time of danger. To accomplish all these purposes, they now visited 
Canada, Feb. 5, 1654, and solicited the Governor of that country to send, as a pre- 
liminary, a Jesuit Father among them. Simon Le Moyne, a missionary of much 
experience, who had already passed eighteen years among the Indians, was accord- 
ingly allowed to accompany them. He had not been gone many days, when a depu- 
tation of the Kayingehagas, or Mohawks strengthened with letters from the Dutch 
of Beverwyck, arrived July 4, 1654, to make a similar request. They were exceed- 
ingly disappointed when they learned that the Onondagoes had forestalled them. 
" We of the Five Nations have but one cabin," said their orator; " we make but 
one fire, and have always dwelt under the same roof. Is It not then by the door 
that the house should be entered, and not by the chimney and roof, unless you be 
a thief and desire to surprise the Inmates? You do not enter by the door, which 
Is on the first floor. We, Mohawks, are that door. You enter by the roof and 
chimney, for you begin with the Onondagoes. Are you not afraid that the smoke 
will blind you, as our fire Is still burning? Do you not fear to fall from the top 
to the bottom, having nothing solid to rest your feet on? " Means were taken to 
pacify them, and they retired for a season to their homes. 

Father Le Moyne was, meanwhile, far on his Journey to the country of the Onon- 
dagoes. He sojourned among that tribe some ten days, and crowned his mission, 
on the 16th of August, 16.')4, by the discovery of the rich and exhaust loss Salt 
Springs for which that district has been so long and so Justly celebrated. — O'Cnl- 
laghan's History of New Netherland, Vol. 11. 209-303. 



322 Ecclesiastical Records 

Classis of Amsterdam. 

Acts of the Deputies. 

1654, Feb. 23rd. 

The request of the church of New Amsterdam in New Nether- 
land, recorded on folio 148, has been granted by the Hons. Lords, 
Directors of the West India Company. They resolved, Feb. 23, 
1654, not to permit any Lutheran pastors there, nor any other 
public worship than that of the true Reformed ; and to transmit 
this, their resolution, at the first opportunity to their Governor, 
and to announce the same to the Church. 

At the same time they declare, that if a suitable person could 
be found, willing to go to New Netherland, and there take charge 
of public worship upon a certain island,* they will also consent 
thereto, and that they had appropriated sLx hundred guilders as 
annual salary. They request the Classis of Amsterdam to look 
about and discover whether a suitable person could not be found 
for this service, and to make the same known to them.— xxvi. 

The Classis of Amsterdam to Revs. John Megapolensis and 
Samuel Dries (Drisius), Pastors in New Netherland; written 
and transmitted Feb. 26, 1654. For resolution of the XIX, 
see above. — xxvi. 158. 
Reverend, Godly, Highly Learned, Brethren:— 

Your letter of Oct. 6, 1653, came safely to hand. From it 
we learn with great joy that God the Lord has hitherto blessed 
your labors in his vineyard, so that the saving doctrine of the 
Holy Gospel grows and increases daily not only among the Dutch 
and other Europeans, but also among the blind heathen, whom 
God has heretofore suffered to walk in their own ways of errors. 
We learn also from your letter that the Lutherans are very 
restless; that they hinder the pure doctrine a nd obstruct its 

(»This reference is to Long Island, where no Dutch churches were as yet 

OF THE State of New York. 3213 

course, requesting permission to hold public divine services for 
themselves, and to that end, that they may have a Lutheran pas- 
tor from Holland; also that they have transmitted their request 
to the Hon. XIX, and to the States of Holland. 

This gi-ieves us. But you have acted very well and prudently 
in that you have not only attempted to hinder their purpose 
through your Hon. Governor, but have also transmitted to the 
Hon. Directors your complaint, (asking them) not to grant their 
request. At the same time you have requested our Classis to 
lend you their helping hand. This we have willingly undertaken. 
We immediately charged our Deputati ad res Indicas to make 
known your necessaiy and just request, with your annexed rea- 
sons, to the Hon. Lords Directors, and to request favorable ac- 
tion thereon. This was done, and we have received a favorable 
answer concerning it, viz., that they would consider the request, 
which -was also made known to them by yourselves, and would 
reply to us. 

This they have done. They have notified us that they have 
refused the request of the Lutherans in every particular, and 
have resolved to tolerate no other (public) exercise of divine 
worship in New JSTetherland except that of the true Eeformed 
Religion. They would also transmit their action to their Gov- 
ernor, by the first vessels, and have the same promulgated there. 
Hence we do not doubt but that the Reformed Doctrines will 
remain unembarrassed, and be maintained without being hin- 
dered by the Lutherans, and other erring spirits. May the mer- 
ciful God grant to them his grace, and graciously bless you and 
your services, to the honor of his name, and the propagation of 
the true worship. 

Thus done at Amsterdam, Yeh. 26, (N.S.) 1654, in the name 
and by the order of the Classis of Amsterdam. Written and 
signed by 

(In the volumes of Correspondence of the Classis, 26-32, the 
names of the writers are frequently omitted). 



324 Ecclesiastical Records 

To send a Preacher to 'New j^etherland. 

1654, March 2nd. 

Inasmuch as the Messrs. Directors of the West India Com- 
pany ordered the Deputati ad res Indicas to seek a candidate 
who is willing to sail as minister to New l^etherland, and prom- 
ise to give him a salary of six hundred guilders, ($240.) and 
some perquisites (privileges) besides, the brethren were asked if 
they happened to know of any such candidate. Inasmuch 
as at present no one was found, it remains further recommended 
to these Brethren to bear the subject in mind. — v. 319. 

Directors to Stuyvesant : Church Affairs. 

Honorable, Worshipful, Pious, Dear, Faithful. 

We hav<; decided absolutely to deny the request made by some of our inh'abitants, 
adherents of the Augsburg confession, for a preacher and free exercise of their 
religion, pursuant to the custom hitherto observed by us and the East India Com- 
pany, on account of the consequences arising therefrom; and we recommend to you 
also not to receive any similar petitions, but rather to turn them off in the most 
civil and least offensive way, and to employ all possible but moderate means in 
order to Induce them to listen, and finally join the Reformed Church, and thus 
live in greater love and harmony among themselves. 

We have been pleased to see the zeal of several of our Inhabitants of a new 
village on Long Island for the Reformed religion; and that it may not cool, we 
have resolved, upon this representation, to contribute, in the beginning, six hun- 
dred florins yearly, and are looking about here for a fit and pious teacher or 
minister: we have also notified the Reverend Classis here, so that you and the 
people may expect him by the first opportunity. We are hereby reminded, that 
now and then complaints are made to us, of the inconveniences and troubles to 
which Domines Johannis Megapolensis and Samuel Drislus are unreasonably ex- 
posed there by the Irregular and scanty payment of their respective salaries. We 
are astonished to hear, that even the former has to claim an arrear of several 
thousand guilders, although you had made a special agreement with him, that his 
"salary should be paid there; while the other has been sent to you on the same 
condition: as this has always been your proposition, based upon so good and fair 
reasons, and was really necessary, as stated before, it surprises us, that you take 
no better care to place these men above want. To prevent this in future, we 
deem it requisite to charge you, herewith, and seriously recommend, that you 
satisfy the demands of these persons as best you can, there, so that no further 
complaints are made to us. March 12, 1654. — Col. Docs. N. Y. xiv. 250, 252, 253. 

OF THE State of New Yokk. 325 

■ Classis of Amsterdam. 

Acts of the Deputies. — William Vestensz. 

1654, May llth. 

Eev. WittenwTongel mentions that he has received word from 
William Vestensz, in which he complains of slow payments. He 
requests, through the intervention of the Classis, some compen- 
sation for his four years' administration of the office of sexton; 
also that another be sent in his place, and he, upon his return, be 
transferred, as Visitor of the Sick, to the East Indies. This is 
referred to the Rev. Deputati ad res Indicas. xxvi. 169. 

Ministers' Salaries. 
; 1654, June 1. 

The Fiscal is ordered and commanded to notify and Inform Burgomasters and 
Schepens, that the ministers have applied to us, by petition, for their accrued 
salaries; and as a half-year's allowance has matured and become due since the' 
excise has been drawn by the Burgomasters and Schepens; Burgomasters and 
Schepens will therefore please to furnish the accrued half-year's salary out of the 
receipt, according to promise. Done In the Session of the Hon. Director General 
and Supreme Council of New Netherland, in New Amsterdam, June 1st 1654. 

Agrees with Register of Resolutions. 

Cor. Van Ruyven, Sec. 
— Records New Amsterdam, i. 206. Col. Docs. N. Y. xiv. 268-9. 

Director-Generae to the Burgomasters etc. 

OF Kew Amsterdam, Pay the Ministers' 

Salaries, etc. 


To the Worshipful Burgomasters and Schepens of New Amsterdam: Today we 
take God and our consciences, your Worships and other reuptable citizens, as 
witnesses, that we have now, and before this, repeatedly, reminded your Worships 
of the precarious situation; and requested to think of assistance and means. Your 
Worships' word and promise were good enough, and, influenced by them, we let 
your Worships have provisionally the Tavern keepers' Excise on the distinct 
promise, that your Worships would then provide moans and take care, that the 
ministers of the Gospel should be paid their salaries. 

New Amsterdam, June 8th, 1654. — Col. Docs. N. Y. xiv. 271. 272. 


These propositions did not satisfy the Director General. The promise to com- 
plete the fort, after the city had been secured, was not redeemed. The monies 
already borrowed were expended in defending the city, and not in repairing the 
fort. Those who advanced that loan were urgent for its payment. The Burgo- 
masters and Schepens had received the excise, but had not furnished the sub- 

326 Ecclesiastical Records 

Bldles which they had so solemnly promised, and now presumed to fix their quota 
at three thousand guilders, when it was notorious that they had collected more 
than that sum. They had not contributed a farthing towards repairing the public 
works, yet they pretended, " very abusively," to give good example. As they 
had now failed in their duty, and had not paid the clergymen, schoolmaster nor 
beadle, the Director and Council reclaimed the excise, and farmed It out. " Both 
the gospel ministers " were paid, and the whole subject was again referred to the 
Lords Patroons in Holland for their decision. The Amsterdam Directors were not 
in the best of humor on receiving intelligence of the obstinacy of the city fathers. 
They immediately instructed Stuyvesant to use his authority to enforce the orders 
he had already received, " so that these men may no longer indulge in the visionary 
dream that contributions cannot be levied without their consent." — O'Cailaghan'B 
History of New Netherland, Vol. 11. 269, 270. 

Classis of Amsterdam. 
Correspondence from America. 

1654, July 15tli. 
Revs. Megapolensis and Drisius to the Classis of Amsterdam. 
Reverend, Pious, Very Learned Fathers and Brethren in Christ : 

Your letter of 26th of February of this year (1654) is most 
acceptable. We understand from it, that our request that you 
would aid us as far as practicable in the matter of the Lutherans 
here, has been considered by you, and that through your repre- 
sentations, the Lutheran request before the Hon. Directors, 
(Heeren majores) has been rejected. Thus also the way for 
other sectaries is closed up. By this a great service has been 
rendered to our church, for which our thanks are due. 

In addition to this, you make mention in your letter, that you 
have gathered from our letters, that the knowledge of the Gos- 
pel is making great progress among the Indians here. Speak- 
ing with all deference, we do not know or think that we have 
furnished any such intelligence in our letters. We greatly wish 
indeed, that such were the state of things among the Indians, 
but as yet, there is little appearance of it. It is indeed true 
that a sachem of the Indians has sojourned for a length of time 
among us at the Manhattans, who was diligent in learning to 
read and write, which he learned to do tolerably well. He was 
also instructed in the principal grounds of the christian faith. 

OF THE State of Kew York. 327 

and publicly joined in recitations on the catechism by christian 
children. We gave him a Bible that he might peruse it and 
teach his own countrymen from it. We hoped that in due time 
he might be the instrument of accomplishing considerable good 
among the Indians. But we acknowledge that he has only the 
bare knowledge of the truth, without the practice of godliness. 
He is greatly inclined to drunkenness, and indeed, is not better 
than other Indians. We do not indeed expect much fruit of 
religion among these barbarous nations, until they are brought 
under the government of Euorpeans, as these latter increase in 
numbers. Finally, we commend you to the care and protection 
of tlie Most High. Pray also for his blessing on our ministry. 

Johannes Megapolensis. 
Samuel Drisius. 
XcAV Amsterdam, July 25, 1654. 

To the Worshipful, Worthy, Dear, Faithful, The Schont, Burgomasters and 
Schepens of the City of New Amsterdam, with Proclamation. (Peace between 
the Republics of England and Holland.) 

1654, July 18. City Hall. Saturday. 
On the date hereof, Burgomasters and Schepeus of the city of New Amsterdam, 
in conformity with the following letter, cause to be published and affixed at the 
City Hall, after the usual preliminary ringing of the bell, the (Proclamation) of 
Peace, which has been concluded between the Ilepublics of England and Holland, 
according to the printed copy. 

The Director General and Supreme Council of New Netherland: 
Worshipful, Worthy, Dear, Particular: — 

This serves to convey the Proclamation of Peace, Union and Confederation 
made and concluded on the 15th of April last (1654), at Westminster, between 
Messrs. the Commissioners of the Lord I'rotector of the Republic of England, 
Scotland and Ireland on the one part, and the Ambassadors of their Noble, High 
and Mighty the Lords States General of the United Netherlands on the other part. 
Which I'roclamation sent us by their said Noble High Mightinesses, we have 
thought proper to communicate hereby to Your Worships, charging and command- 
ing you, to cause the said Proclamation of I'eace, Union and Confederation, to be 
published and affixed, where it is customary to be done; and the contents 
thereof; according to its form and tenor, you are to have observed and obeyed 
in good faith by all who are or may be placed under you. Wherewith ending, we 
commend Your Worships to the gracious protection of the Most High. New 
Amsterdam, in New Netherland, this 17th day of July, Anno 1654. 

P. Stuyvesant. 

By Order of the Director General and Supreme Council. 

Corn, van Ruyven, Sec. — Records New Amsterdam, 1. 215. 



328 Ecclesiastical Records 

1654, Aug. 24th. 

Catharine Polhemus, wife of the minister recently in Brazil re- 
quests the assistance of the Brethren, the Deputies, to procure her 
the money, which her husband, Kev. Mr. Polhemus, had earned. 
Her request was received, and Rev. Langelius will inquire of 
book-keeper Schaef, what the prospect is of her being paid. XX. 
314.— See also Doc. Hist. X. Y. iii. TO. 

CouKT Minutes of Xew Amsteedam. 

Support of the Church, etc., in New Amsterdam. 

1654, August 24. 

The Burgomasters and Schepens of the City of New Amsterdam all due rever- 
ence and respect represent: 

That on the 21st of July being assembled collegialiter at the invitation of the 
Honorable Director General, his Honor did in the presence of two ministers. 
Dominies Megapolensis and Driesius, call their attention to the letter of the 
Directors of the Chamber of Amsterdam, the Lords and Patroons of this Province 
of New Netherland, and to their request, and therefore being admonished to think 
no more of all that had ever passed heretofore and to live in future in all friend- 
ship, which was mutually promised. At the same time the Honorable General 
delivered to the Burgomasters and Schepens a despatch sent by the Honorable 
Lords to the Burgomasters and Schepens, according to which we are determined 
to regulate ourselves and to obey all that is therein mentioned. 

Therefore the Director General and Supreme Council have been pleased by a 
certain writing dated the 4th of August, delivered to us, partially to reprove us 
for certain omissions and to urge upon us the great necessity to devise some ways 
and means, to support and maintain the civil and ecclesiastical service and the 
Military, who have come in the ships from Fatherland and are still expected to 
arrive in others, and to make provision for the payment of the quota of all the 
money taken up for the making of the public walls and works, etc.; in addition 
thereto that the Burgomasters and Schepens had obtained last year the receipt of 
the Tapsters' Excise from the Director General and Council on the condition, that 
the Church expenses be paid out of it and that the Burgomasters and Schepens 
should furnish something else as a supplement thereto. 

Whereupon Burgomasters and Schepens of the City of New Amsterdam who 
consider nothing else, but the welfare, union and advantage of this City and their 
Superiors of this Province, in order then first to put everything on a solid founda- 
tion, have as precursors offered as their quota the sum of three thousand guilders, 
as appears by Resolution of the 10th of August, transmitted to the Director Gen- 
eral, and the other Courts contributing in proportion, they maintain, that the 
borrowed moneys and incurred debts can be paid off. 

And whereas it has been decided by the Honorable Directors as Lords and 
Patroons of this Province, as appears from the 4th Article of the despatch sent 
to the Burgomasters and Schepens, that the excise shall be paid into our Treasury 
and be there received; Therefore we do, by these presents; offer to take upon us 
to support henceforth at the expense of this City of New Amsterdam: 

Of the Church — One of tlie Ministers, one Precentor, being at the same time 
Schoolmaster, one Dogwhipper (Beadle). — Early Records of New Amsterdam, 
Vol. i. 232. 

OF THE State of IS^ew Yoek. 329 

Burgomasters and Schepens to the Directok 

AND Council: Salaries of the Ministers, The Church Of- 
ficers^ Aug. 31, 1654. 

To the Noble, Very Worshipful, Honorable Director-General and High Council of 
New Netherland: 

The Burgomasters and Schepens of the City of New Amsterdam show with due 
reverence and submission. 

On the 20th of July, while in session, they were summoned before the Honorable 
Director-General, when his Honor in presence of two ministers, Domine Mega- 
poleusis and Drlesius, communicated to them the letter from the Noble Lords- 
Directors, Department of Amsterdam, Lords and Patroons of this Province of 
New Netherland, and what their Noble "Worships demanded. His Honor thereupon 
admonished them not to remember what had passed before, but to live henceforth 
in harmony, which was promised by both sides. Then the Honorable Director- 
General delivered to the Burgomasters and Schepens the letter addressed to them 
by the Noble Lords-Directors, by which we are willing to govern ourselves, fol- 
lowing the directions contained therein. 

Now the Honorable General and High Council have been pleased to censure us 
in a memorial sent us on the 4th August concerning some omissions and to lay 
before us the great necessity of providing a revenue, by which the civil administra- 
tion, the church and the military (arrived by the last ships and to be expected 
In the following ones) might be supported and maintained; also to determine our 
quota of the amounts to be paid for the loan, for the building of the walls and 
breastworks around the City, and to remember, besides, that the Burgomasters 
and Schepens had obtained last year the revenues from the Tavernlieepers' Excise 
under condition, that the expenses of the ecclesiastical establishment should be 
paid therefrom, and that the Burgomasters and Schepens should maiie good the 
deficit from other resources. 


Whereas the Xoble Lords Directors, as Lords and Patroons of this Province have 
consented, that the Excise shall be paid into the City's Treasury, as the 4th article 
of their letter to the Burgomasters and Schepens shows: 

Therefore we agree and engage ourselves on behalf of this City of New Amster- 
dam to pay for the ecclesiastical establishment the salaries of 

One of the preachers; 

One precentor, who is to be schoolmaster at the same time; etc., etc. — Col. 
Docs. N. y. xiv. 288, 289. 

Answer of the Director General and Council to the Letter 
OF the Burgomasters, etc., Dated August 31 (1654), Re- 
ferring it to the Home Authorities. 

As the Burgomasters and Schepens do not fulfill their promise and carry out the 
conditions, to provide for some other revenue hi place of the Taverukeepers' Ex- 
cise, and as they have failed to let out the same for the purpose of paying the 
salaries of the clergymen and placing them above want; the Director General and 
Council are compelled to lot out the said Excise to the highest bidder in con- 
formity with their resolution of the 13th of August last past, and to employ the 
proceeds in promptly providing for the support of the clergy. By these means 
the Burgomasters and Scliopens will be excused and delivered from carrying out 
their offer, to support at their expense, one clergyman, one schoolmaster, and one 


330 Ecclesiastical Records 

beadle; the intentions and order of the Lords Directors will be executed, the jus 
patrouatus will be preserved, and both the clergymen paid and placed above want. 

Given at New Amsterdam in New Netherland September 16, 1654. 

P. Stuyvesant.— Col. Docs. N. Y. xiv. 291, 293. 

Order on a Petition from the Court of Midwout and Ames- 
FOORT Respecting Church Matters. 

The Magistrates of Midwout and Amesfoort presented to the Council a petition, 
which is copied into the Book of Petitions, and to which the following answer was 

It is resolved upon the petition of the Court of Midwout and Amesfoort, first 
concerning the proposition to continue the teacher; that they must proceed in this 
matter according to the rules of the Church, and await the answer of the Lords 
Directors to the request made by the said Court or its deputies. Meanwhile the 
Director General and Council are satisfied, that the present teacher, Domine 
Polhemius, attend to the divine service among them, until further orders shall 
have been received from the Fatherland; and they also consent, that he shall 
receive for his ministrations a proper and fair remuneration in conformity with 
the teachings of the Apostle Paul, " that he, who serves at the alter, shall live 
by it ". 

Thus done etc. New Amsterdam, Oct. 13, 1654.— Col. Docs. N. Y. xiv. 294. 

!N'ote ON Church at Midwout and Domine Polhemus. 


Hitherto, however, the Dutch towns on Long Island had neither clergyman nor 
church, and the inhabitants, of necessity, attended divine worship at New Amster- 
dam. The Reverend Johannes Theodorus Polhemus, who had been previously 
minister at Itamarca in Brazil, having now arrived in the province, received a call 
from Midwout, where a small cruciform church, some sixty feet by twenty eight, 
was soon after erected by general subscription. It was the first Dutch church on 
Long Island: the congregation was composed of the adjoining towns, and here 
divine service was performed every Sunday morning; the afternoon sermon being 
preached alternately at Breukelen and Amersfoort.* 

* N. A. Rec; Alb. Rec. iv., 179; ix., 238, 302; x., 332. Domine Polhemus was 
joined by his wife, Catherine, in 1656. He had two children Theodorus and Daniel, 
from whom have descended all those of the name in this country. By the arrival 
of the Rev. Mr. Selyns, in 1660, Breukelen was separated from the church of Flat- 
bush. In 1665, the congregation of Amersfoort demanded to be put on an equal 
footing with that of Flatbush, in respect to church service, and that Mr. Polhemus 
should preach each alternate Sunday forenoon to them, for which they would pay 
him four hundred guilders a year. " light money," being the same as he got from 
Flatbush. The latter congregation objected to this arrangement, and persisted in 
retaining the Domine at four hundred guilders per annum, " wampum currency." 
This caused his Reverence to appeal to Gov. Nicolls, who decided that each church 
should have equal attendance, that is, morning and evening service on alternate 
Sabbaths, for which Amersfoort (now Flattlands) should pay a sum equal to what 
it agreed to give the Company for tenths, and Midwout four hundred florins a year, 
until her tenths would be due, when these were to be appropriated as those of Flatt- 
lands. Midwout (or Flatbush) would not agree to this, and a sharp letter (June lst> 
came in consequence from the Governor's secretary. This was submitted to the 
congregation on the 18th, who resolved unanimously to content themselves with a 
Precentor, (voorleezer,) as the congregation was still weak. On the following day 
a resolution to the same effect was passed at a meeting of the constables, magls 
trates and consistory of the villages of Amersfoort and Midwout, and Domine Pol- 
hemus was dismissed. (Flatbush Rec.) He died 9th June. 1676, " the worthy and 
beloved pastor " of the church of Brooklyn, whereby (the Records of that church 
say) the congregation was " deprived of his pious instructions, godly example, and 
edifying preaching, especially in the administration of the Holy Sacrament of the 
Lord's Supper." — O'Callaghan's History of New Netherland, Vol. ii., 272. 

OF THE State of jSTew York. \ 331 

Classis of Amsterdam. 

Acts of the Deputies, and their Correspondence. 

1654, I^ov. 11th. 

The Classis of Amsterdam to the Ministers in ISTew N"etherland. 

XXVI. 174. 

Eeverend, Godly and Highly Learned Brethren, the Ministers of 
the Divine Word of the Church in New ISTetherland : — 

The Hon, Directors of the West India Company have requested 
us to look about for a suitable person to be sent as pastor to 
ISTew Xetherland. We have already given diligence to find such 
a person, but objection is made to the meagreness of the salary- 
for only six hundred guilders are promised. If now the salary 
could be increased and brought up to twelve hundred, or even 
one thousand guilders, we might hope to send a suitable person; 
but no one desires to undertake such a journey on so small a 
salary. There is also a certain William Vestensz, Visitor of the 
Sick, in New Netherland, who has discharged the office of sexton 
for four years and who has not been compensated therefor. 
Worthy Brethren, we unite with him in kindly requesting you, 
to be pleased so to manage that he may receive some compensa- 
tion therefor. 

William Vestensz also requests, since he intends to return, that 
some one else be sent in his place. We are not unwilling to 
look about for a substitute. 

Herewith closing, we commend you, Reverend, godly and 
highly learned gentlemen, to the protection of the Most High, 
and pray God that he may bless your labors. 

In great haste, Amsterdam, Nov. 11, 1654. In the name of 
the Classis, Your obedient, 

Simon Wilmirdonx, 
Minister of the Gospel in Amsterdam. 

(1654, Dec. 13. Robert Livingston, born at Ancram, Scot- 
land. — Doc. Hist. iii. 434.) 


332 -' • ' Ecclesiastical Recokds 



A vote having been taken on the request of the commissaries of the village of 
Mldwout to have a Church built there and accommodation for the minister; it was 
r«solved to prepare and build in the village of Mldwout a house of about sixty or 
•ixty five feet in length, twenty eight feet in width and twelve or fourteen feet 
high under the crossbeams, with an extension in the rear, where a chamber may 
be partitioned off for the preacher; while the divine service can for the present be 
held In the front part, until we have more funds and the material necessary for a 
Church has been collected. Then this building shall be used for a parsonage and 

To promote this worli the Rev. Domine Megapolensis, Minister of the Gospel in 
the City of New Amsterdam, Jan Snediger and Jan Strycker are hereby appointed 
and authorized to make public and private contracts, as they may deem it most 
useful and advantageous for the community. 

Thus done etc. New Amsterdam December 17, 1654. — Col. Docs. N. Y. xiv. 310. 

Acts of the Classis of x\msterdam. 

Herm. Blom. 
1555 1655, Jan. 4th. 

Rev. Rudolphus vander Meer, Hermannus Blom, Theodore 
Sas, Paul Broeckhuysen, John a Bnrem, (or Burnm), having 
handed in their credentials, beg to be received, as recommended. 
The credentials having been approved, and the propositions 
treated by them, having been heard with pleasure, their request 
is granted upon their signing the Formulae. — v. 359. 

Rev. Polhemus. 

Rev. Langelius informs us that he has understood that the 
Rev. Polhemus has arrived in !N^ew Xetherland, and that he 
(Langelius) has been requested by the wife (of Polhemus) to 
assist her in obtaining his arrearages of salary; also that intel- 
ligence has been received here; that the church there was seek- 
ing the Directors' approbation, of the call made upon him; 
meanwhile, they were already employing him. 

The Assembly resolved that the Rev. Deputies assist the 
wife of Rev. Polhemus, and that they also seek to obtain from 
the Directors the approbation of his call, (to Long Island.) — 
V. 360; xxvi. 175. 

OF THE State of !N^ew Yokk. 333 

William Yestiensz. 

1655 — January 26. 

" William Verstius, [Vestlensz.] Schoolmaster and Chorister In this city, solicited 
the Council by a petition, as he had completed his service; and whereas there were 
now several persons fully competent to acquit themselves in this charge, that he 
might be favored with his dismission, and permitted to return to Holland in the 
first ship." — Dunshee, 22. 

Council Minute. Domine Polhemlus asks for pecuniary assistance. Aid asked for 
building a Church at Midwout, Long Island. 

Tuesday the 9th of February (1655). 

Before the Board appeared Domine Polhemlus, provisional preacher in the village 
of Midwout, who asked pecuniary help producing a letter from the Honorable Gen- 
eral, which read as follows: 

Copy. His Honor the Fiscal will please to assist and accommodate during my 
absence the bearer hereof, Domine Polhemlus, In some matters required by him, 
with wampum and also five or six pounds of powder. Done at New Amsterdam, 
the 15th of November, 1654. Signed P. Stuyvesant. 

Being asked several times, how he might be accommodated and assisted now, he 
answered he would ask for no more than the Honorable Council was willing to give. 
The Council replied, that he had already received considerable sums and there was 
still some to be paid for his account to the merchants. He answered, that he 
would be satisfied to have thirty florins In wampum now. Their Honors directed 
the Receiver to give him that amount If feasible. 

At the request of the Commissaries of Midwout for assistance by the inhabitants 
of Breukelen and Amesfoort in cutting and hewing timber to erect a building for 
the exercise of divine service, for which they received the permission by a resolu- 
tion of their Honors, the Director General and Council in 1654, it was, upon the 
vote being taken, resolved that after the celebration of the Lord's Supper now at 
hand, a committee of the High Council shall go there with Domine Megapolensis. 

Done at Amsterdam in New Nctherland, date as above. — Col. Docs. N. Y. xiv. 
311, 312. 

Council Minute. Report of Domine Megapolensis on the 
Building of a Chuech in Midwout, L. I. 

2nd of March (1655). 

Before the Board appeared the Reverend Domine Johannes Megapolensis, minis- 
ter of the Gospel in the City of New Amsterdam In New Netherland, as representa- 
tive of the Inhabitants of the village of Midwout, who showed, that the people of Mid- 
wout had received from their Honors, the Director General and Council, permission 
to erect a meeting house and make it in quarters for the preacher and that whereas 
such a work must cost a considerable sum, the people of Midwout aforesaid have 
asked the inhabitants of Breukelen and Amesfoort for assistance, promising to do 
the same for them under similar circumstances; that the latter pretended to be 
willing to contribute to the meeting house, but said In regard to the preacher's 
quarters, that if the people of Midwout desired them, they could make them them- 
selves. He requested directions as to what he should do and the Honorable High 
Council replied, that the resolution of the 9th of February 1655 should be carried 

Done at New Amsterdam in New Netherland, date as above. — Col. Docs. N. Y. 
xiv. 312. 


334 Ecclesiastical Records 

Classis of Amsterdam. 

Acts of the Deputies. 

1655, March 8th. 

Rev. Herman Langelius in the Chair. XX. 315. 
The report, in the name of the Classis, of the Rev. Lange- 
lius, concerning the vnie of Rev. Polhemus. 

1. On account, received nothing as yet; on loan, two hundred 
guilders, (florins). 

2. The request for the approbation (by the Directors) of Pol- 
hemus, as minister in New Netherland. Thus far, no answer; 
had heard certain rumors, to judge from the Classical record, 
not found to his disadvantage. 

3. William Yestens, Comforter of the Sick, and Schoolmaster 
at Manhattan, requests by letter, as before, an increase of salary 
on account of his burdensome family. 

Correspondence from America. 

1655, March 18th. 

Rev. John Megapolensis to the Classis of Amsterdam. 

Reverendissimi Domini, Fratres in Christo, Synergi obser- 
vandi : — 

I feel it my duty, to answer the letter of your Reverences, 
dated the 11th of November, (1654.) 

We have cause to be grateful to the Lords-Directors and to 
your Reverences for the care and trouble taken to procure for 
the Dutch on Long Island a good clergyman, even though it 
has not yet resulted in anything. Meanwhile, God has lead 
Domine Joannes Polhemius from Brazil, over the Carribean 
Islands, to this place. He has for the present gone to Long 
Island, to a village called Midwout, which is somewhat the Medi- 
tullium of the other villages, to wit, Breuckelen, Amersfoort 
and Gravesend. There he has preached for the accommodation 

OF THE State of !N^ew York. 335 


of the inhabitants on Sundays during the winter, and has ad- 
ministered the sacraments, to the satisfaction of all, as Director 
Stuyvesant has undoubtedly infonued the Lords-Directors. 

As to William Vestiens, who has been schoolmaster and sex- 
ton here, I could neither do much, nor say much, in his favor, 
to the Council, because for some years past they were not satis- 
fied or pleased with his services. Thereupon when he asked for 
an increase of salary last year, he received the answer, that if 
the service did not suit him, he might ask for his discharge. 
Only lately I have been before the Council on his account, and 
spoken about it, in consequence of your letter, but they told me 
that he had fulfilled his duties only so-so (taliter qualiter) and 
that he did little enough for his salary. Some Jews came from 
Holland last summer, in order to trade. Later a few Jews came 
upon the same ship as De Polheymius; they were healthy, but 
poor. It would have been proper, that they should have been, 
supported by their owti people, but they have been at our charge, 
so that we have had to spend several hundred guilders for their 
support. They came several times to my house, weeping and be- 
moaning their misery. If I directed them to the Jewish mer- 
chants, they said, that they would not even lend them a few sti- 
vers. Some more have come from Holland this spring. They 
report that still more of the same lot would follow, and then they 
would build here a synagogue. This causes among the congre- 
gation here a great deal of complaint and murmuring. These 
people, have no other God than the unrighteous Mammon, and no 
other aim than to get possession of christian proi>erty, and to 
win all other merchants by drawing all trade towards themselves. 
Therefore we request your Reverences to obtain from the Lords- 
Directors, that these godless rascals, who are of no benefit to the 
country, but look at everything for their o\\'n profit, may be sent 
away from here. For as we have here Papists, Mennonites and 
Lutherans among the Dutch ; also many Puritans or Independents, 
and many Atheists and various other servants of Baal among the 


336 Ecclesiastical Records 

English under this Government, who conceal themselves under 
the name of Christians; it would create a still greater confusion^ 
if the obstinate and immovable Jews came to settle here. Closing 
I commend your Reverences with your families to the protection 
of God, who will bless us and all of you in the service of the di- 
vine word. 

Your obedient 

Johan. Megapolensis. 

Amsterdam in jSTew Xetherland the 18th of March, 1655. 

Addressed to the Reverend, Pious and very Learned Deputies ad 
res Ecclesiasticas Indicas, in the Classis of Amsterdam. 


1655, Mar. 22nd. 

The Rev. Deputies report that they have secured for the wife 
of the Rev. Polhemus assistance from the Directors of the West 
India Company, to the amount of one hundred guilders, not on 
salary, but as a loan. But with respect to the approbation of the 
call of Rev. Polhemus, they had received answer, that that mat- 
ter was not so urgent; that they had also learned something dam- 
aging to him, and therefore requested the Rev. Deputies to as- 
certain if aught of this had been brought before the Classis. 
XXYI. 1Y7. 

(Vol. xxvi. is the first of the volumes of the Correspondence; 
but contains, at first, sometimes, a few items of the Acts of the 

Harmanus Van Hoboocken. 

1655, March 23. 

Whereas, William Vestiens, Chorister and Schoolmaster of this 
city (New Amsterdam) has earnestly and repeatedly sought per- 
mission to return to the Eatherland, his request is hereby granted. 
Therefore the Honorable gentlemen of the High Council, with the 
consent of the Rev. Consistory of this city, have appointed Har- 
manus Van Hoboocken as Chorister and Schoolmaster of this city 

Asropt, LEtnx a-:d 


OF THE State of ISTew York. 337 


at thirt;}' '^\e guilders per month, and one hundred guilders extra, 
per year, for expenses. He promises to conduct himself diligently 
and faithfully according to the instructions given, or which may 
be given him hereafter. 

Nicasius De Sille. 

Done in Amsterdam, in 'New Netherlands, March 23, 1655.^ — 
Dunshee's School, 23. 

Affairs of Rev. Polhemius. 

1655, March 23rd. 

The Rev. Deputies report that they have secured aid for the 
"wife of Rev. Polhemius so far that she has been assisted by the 
Directors of the West India Company to the amount of one hun- 
dred guilders, not on account of his salary, but as a loan. In re- 
gard to the approval of (the call on) Rev. Polhemius, they (the 
Deputies) had been answered that this matter needed no great 
haste; that they had learned of something detrimental to him, and 
to this end (the Directors) requested that Rev. Deputies would 
inquire if anything of that nature had come to the knowledge of 
the Classis. v. 367. 


1655, April 5th. 

The wife of Rev. Polhemius makes known to the meeting, that 
her husband had requested in letters, that she, with her children, 
should come to him to New Netherland. Having arrived there, 
he had great hope of being called to the service of a church in 
that locality. She requested the advice of this Assembly as to 
what she should do in the premises. Whereupon the Rev. Depu- 
tati ad causas, reported that the Messrs. Directors of the West 
India Company had written to the Governor asking his position, 
in reference to this call. To this inquiry no answer had yet come. 
Therefore this Assembly cannot yet advise her to address herself 
to that journey, until further information is received. And 


338 Ecclesiastical Records 

whereas, in the meantime, she and her four children are plunged 
(lit. stuck fast) in the utmost poverty, it was resolved that the 
Deputies shall do their utmost to obtain something for her sup- 
port from the Worthy Directors. The Classis assigned for her 
immediate need the sum of a hundred guilders. — v. 371; xix. 1. 

Director in Holland to Stijyvesant : Jews : 

26th of April 1655. 
Honorable, Prudent, Pious, Dear, Faithful: 

We would have lilted to agree to your wishes and request, that the new territories 
should not be further invaded by people of the Jewish race, for we foresee from 
such immigration the same difficulties, which you fear; but after having further 
weighed and considered this matter, we observe, that it would be unreasonable and 
unfair, especially because of the considerable loss, sustained by the Jews In the . 
taking of Brasil and also because of the large amount of capital, which they have 
invested in shares of this Company. After many consultations we have decided and 
resolved upon a certain petition made by said Portuguese Jews, that they shall 
have permission to sail to and trade in New Netherland and to live and remain 
there, provided the poor among them shall not become a burden to the Company or 
the community, but be supported by their own nation. You will govern yourself 

The preacher Polhemus, arrived there from Brasil, has informed us by letter of 
his willingness to remain in New Netherland and take charge of the congregation 
at Midwout. If you think he is wanted there and the said Polhemius is found to 
lead an irreproachable life, we have no objection to his becoming minister there 
provisionally and until our further order at a salary already provided for by the 
congregation, without becoming a burden to the Company. — Col. Docs. N. Y. xiv. 
315, 317. 

Acts of the Classis of Amsterdam. 

William Vestiens. 

1655, June 14th. 

William Vestiens, returning home, from E'ew Netherland, and 
having been a Visitor of the Sick there, asks that he may be sent 
in the same capacity to the East Indies. His church credentials 
having been read, his request is recommended to the Deputies ad 
res Indicas. Also his request of the Messrs. Directors of the 
West India Company, that he may receive some recognition for 
the services of sexton, done by him for some time, (is recom- 
mended.) — V. 378. 

OF THE State of New Yoke. 339 

Okder on a Petition of the Magistrates of Midwout and 
Amesfoort for Assistance in Maintaining Their Minister. 

Tuesday, 15th of June, 1655. 

After reading the petition of the Magistrates of Midwout and Amesfoort showing 
that for the accommodation of Domlne Polhemius, their present Minister, they had 
erected a convenient dwelling and also allotted to him a parcel of land and asking 
that, as they were still very poor, they might receive assistance by voluntary con- 

It was resolved to consider the petitioners' request, when the building is com- 
pleted, the land fenced in and the account of expenditures for the same presented 
to the Council. Date as above. — Col. Docs. N. Y. xiv. 327. 

Synod of North Holland, at Edam. 

1655, Aug. 17 et seq. 

Art. 42. Rev. Polhemius and his wife. 

Regarding Article 48, treating of Rev. Polhemius and his wife : 
The Rev. Deputati relate that after many difficulties he had ar- 
rived in New Netherland, and had been recommended by them 
and by the Deputies of Amsterdam to the Messrs. Directors (of 
the West India Company), so that, so far as they could effect it, 
he be employed in the Sacred Ministry there. They had also prom- 
ised to make inquiries about him, and to aid as much as possible 
towards his employment. They also made known to the said Di- 
rectors the distress of his wife, who is now^ at xA.mstcrdam. She 
asks for the arrears of her husband's salary, but could obtain 
nothing; except that one hundred guilders had been given her 
by them. All the Classes also have done their part, except Haar- 
lem, which remained in statu, because they had not heard about 
her. Regarding the church of Moordrecht, Edam excuses itself; 
Hoorn has done its share; the other Classes remain in statu. 



340 Ecclesiastical Recoeds 

Kesolution" to Exempt the Jews from Military Service. 

August 28, 1655. 

The Captains and officers of the trainbands of this City having asked the Director 
General and Council, whether the Jewish people, who reside in this City, should 
also train and mount guard with the Citizens* bands, this was taken in considera- 
tion and deliberated upon: first the disgust and unwillingness of these trainbands 
to be fellow-soldiers with the aforesaid nation and to be on guard with them in 
the same guard house and on the other side, that the said nation was not admitted 
or counted among the citizens, as regards trainbands or common citizens' guards 
neither in the illustrious City of Amsterdam nor (to our knowledge) in any city in 
Netherland; but in order that the said nation may honestly be taxed for their free- 
dom in that respect, it is directed by the Director General and Council, to prevent 
further discontent, that the aforesaid nation shall, according to the usages of the 
renowned City of Amsterdam, remain exempt from the general training and guard 
duty, on condition that each male person over sixteen and under sixty years con- 
tribute for the aforesaid freedom towards the relief of the general municipal taxes 
sixty five stivers* every month and the military council of the citizens is hereby 
authorized and charged to carry this into effect until our further orders and to 
collect pursuant to the above the aforesaid contribution once in every month and 
in case of refusal to collect it by legal process. Thus done in Council at Fort Am- 
sterdam, on the day as above. (It was signed). 

P. Stuyvesant, 
Nicasius De Sille, 
Cornelis Von Tienhoven. 
— Col. Docs. N. Y. xll. 96. 

Expulsion of Swedish Ministers from Delaware. 

1655, Sept. 25. 

Immediately after the surrender of Fort Christina, Stuyvesant offered, in compli- 
ance with hia instructions, to restore the place to Rysingh, on honorable and fair 
conditions, and made him, accordingly, a tender of the keys, but these the Swede 
refused. The matter was no longer within his province, and he preferred to abide 
by the capitulation. A proclamation was, thereupon. Issued, ordering all who 
wished to remain in the country to take the oath of allegiance. Twenty persons 
gave in their adhesion. Two out of three of the Swedish clergymen, then on the 
river, were summarily expelled the country; the third was saved from similar 11! 
treatment solely by intelligence that the Manhattans and adjoining settlements were 
a prey to all the horrors of an Indian foray. — O'Callaghan's History of New Nether- 
land, Vol. li., 289. 

Eather Le Moyne AT Beverwyck. 

1655, September. 
Shortly after the installation of the new Vice Director [John de Decker,] Father 
Le Moyne took occasion to pay his respects to the Dutch at Beverwyck. He was 
received with much respect by the Hollanders; and the Mohawks whom he visited 
for the purpose of concluding a treaty, on the part of the French, evinced more 
than ordinary gratification at seeing him. But the Father had not well left the 
country when a body of one hundred of these Indians presented themselves at Fort 
Orange. They were on the eve of setting forth on a war excursion against the 
Canada Indians, and fearing " that the French had poisoned the ears of their Dutch 
brothers against them," now asked the latter to remain neuter. — O'Callaghan's 
History of New Netherland, Vol. ii., 306. 

• One stiver — Two cents. 

OF THE State of New Yoek. 341 

Court Minutes of New Amsterdam. 

1655, Oct. 11th. 
For the greater security of the City of Amsterdam, there was a large voluntary 
subscription and taxation. In this list, which covers five and a half pages, and 
which represents, in some sense, the aliiiity of the several inhabitants, we find the 
foiiowing: — 

Peter Stuyvesant fl. 150. 

Domlne Megapolensis, 50. 

Domine Drisius, 50. 

Cornelius Steenwycli, 100. 

Isaac Kip, 20. 

Hendrick Kip, 25. 

Warner Wessels, 25. 

Pieter Jacobszen Marius, 20. 

The total amounted to six thousand three hundred and five florins or two thou- 
sand five hundred and twenty-two dollars. — Records of New Amsterdam, 1. 366-375. 

Religious Condition of New York, 1656. 

" Until 1654 the ecclesiastical policy of the government of New Netherland had 
not, practically, departed from that of the Fatherland, where, notwithstanding the 
establishment of a National Reformed Church, we have seen that all other sects 
were tolerated, and allowed the use of their several forms of worship. The West 
India Company recognized the authority of the established Church of Holland over 
their colonial possessions: and the specific care of the Transatlantic churches was 
early entrusted, by the Synod of North Holland to the Classis of Amsterdam. By 
that Body ail the colonial clergy were approved and commissioned. With its com- 
mittee Ad res exteras, they maintained a constant correspondence. The Classis of 
Amsterdam was, in fact, the Metropolitan of New Netherland. For more than a 
century its ecclesiastical supremacy was affectionately acknowledged; and long after 
the capitulation of the province to England, the power of ordination to the Min- 
istry, in the American Branch of the Reformed Dutch Church, remained in the 
governing Classis in Holland, or was exercised only by its special permission ". 

" The clergymen commissioned by the Classis of Amsterdam were, of course, Cal- 
viulsts. They were generally men of high scholarship and thoroughly theological 
training; for the people, who at Leyden preferred a university to a fair, insisted 
upon an educated ministry. 

" The colonial clergy had much to do, and peculiar dlfiiculties to encounter. A 
lax morality, produced by the system of government and the circumstances of the 
province, undoubtedly prevailed among many of the New Netherland colonists. It 
was difficult to administer the offices of religion to scattered farmers and Isolated 
traders. It was still more difficult to teach the Word to the savages. Yet, Mega- 
polensis, contemporaneously with Jogues, had attempted to Instruct the Mohawks 
several years before Eliot had begun his missionary labors near Watortown aad 
Dorchester. At Manhattan, too, the work was tried, but with very indllforont suc- 
cess. The Dutch colonists themselves gladly listened to the Gospel which they had 
heard in the Fatherland; and churches were built, partly by voluntary contributions 
of the commonalties, at Manhattan, Beverwyck, and Midwout. To these churches 
the country-people made toilsome journeys, to bring their children to baptism, to 
hear the words of the preacher, and to join in that simple but majestic music which 
they had first sung far across the sea, where the loud chorus overpowers the 
diapasons of Haerlam and Amsterdam ". — Brodhead's N. Y. 1. 614-615. 

" In the beginning of 1656, there were four Reformed Dutch Clergymen in New 

"V-Netherland. Megapolensis and Drisius were colleagues at New Amsterdam; Schaats 

Vninistered at Beverwyck; and Polhemus had the joint charge of Breuckelcn, Mid- 



342 Ecclesiastical Records 

wout and Amersfoort. Besides his regular services at New Amsterdam, Drisius 
occasionally visited Staten Island, where a number of Vandois or Waldenses sooq 
settled themselves; and his knowledge of the French language enabled him to preach 
satisfactorily to these faithful men, who fled to Holland and to America from the 
tyranny of their despotic sovereign. — Brodhead, i. GlS^v 

Early in 1656, [March] Megapolensis and Drisius complained to the Director that 
unqualified persons were preaching and holding conventicles at Middleburg, from 
which nothing could be expected but discord, confusion, and disorder in Church 
and State. Stuyvesant was himself a zealous son of the Church. He was an over 
strict constructionist, and loved the display of arbitrary power. A proclamation, 
assuming " to promote the glory of God, the increase of the Reformed religion, and 
the peace and harmony of the Country ", soon appeared, forbidding preachers " not 
having been called thereto by ecclesiastical or temporal authority ", from holding 
conventicles not in harmony with the established religion as set forth by the Synod 
of Dort, " and here, in this land, and in the Fatherland, and in other Reformed 
Churches observed and followed ". Every unlicensed preacher who should violate 
this ordinance was subjected to a penalty of one hundred pounds Flemish; and 
every person who should attend such prohibited meetings became liable to a penalty 
of twenty five pounds. The ordinance, however, expressly disclaimed " any preju- 
dice to any patent heretofore given, any lording over the conscience, or any pro- 
hibition of the reading of God's holy word, and the domestic praying and worship 
of each one in his family ". — Brodhead's N. Y. i. 617. 

Order o:n^ a Petition of the Clergy Against Conventicles 
AND Preaching by" Unqualified Persons at Newtown, Long 


January loth, 1656. 

Present in Council their Honors, the Director General Petrus Stuyvesant, Messrs. 
Nicasius de Sille and La Montague and the Fiscal Cornells van Tienhoven. 

After having read the petition of the preachers of this City of Amsterdam, 
hereafter following, the following order was made: 

Concerning the conventicles and the assuming to teach the Gospel by unquali- 
fied persons, placats shall be issued against them; as to the last, the petitioners 
are requested to proceed to Middleburgh when convenient, to inquire with the 
advice of the Magistrates and some of the best informed inhabitants for a person 
fit to act as reader there: after which, their petition shall be taken into further 
consideration. Done in Council, date as above. 

P. Stuyvesant. 
N. de Sille, La Montague. 
To their Noble Honors, the Director General and Council of New 
Copy. Netherland. 

Show with due reverence the preachers in this City, that they have been in- 
formed by several persons living at Middleburgh in this Province, that since the 
removal and during the absence of Mr. Moore, lately preacher there, some in- 
habitants of that place and unqualified persons have ventured to hold conventicles 
and gatherings and assumed to teach the Gospel, from which nothing but quarrels, 
confusion and disorders may be expected In Church and communalty not only in 
that place, but also, by giving a bad example. In other places of this Province. 

They request therefore, that some provision be made by your Honors' authority 
and during Mr. Moore's absence some suitable person be appointed, who b.y reading 
the Bible and some other e4ifying and orthodox work on Sunday would continue 
among the Inhabitants the forms of religious worship, until your Honors should 
make other provisions. Which doing etc. 

Johannes Megapolensis 
Samuel Drisius. 
— Col. Docs. N. Y. xiv. 336, 337. 

OF THE State of Kew York. 343 

Court Minutes of New Amsterdam. 
'New Graveyard. Board of Churchinasters appointed. 

1656, January 24. 

Whereas the Honorable General has had It proposed to him, that It Is highly 
necessary to divide the Old Graveyard, vphich is wholly in ruins, into lots to be 
built upon, and to make another Graveyard south of the Fort, and to remove the 
houses standing there, on a valuation, what resolution should be taken thereupon?* 

The Burgomasters and Schepens decide on the 

1st. That it is highly necessary to establish a Graveyard at another suitable 
place, or to put it into good order where it now is: but that it is not, at present, 
advisable to throw down the houses, south of the Fort and to locate it there. But 
it was considered, that it would be better, west of the Fort, in the neighborhood 
of the Windmill, where there is a good hill clear of timber. 

2nd. Whereas the Church in the Fort is more and more out of repair, without 
anything having been done to it, and the Honorable General is at present the only 
Churchmaster; if it be not advisable that a new Churchmaster be appointed and 
the Honorable General discharged? 

On the second was decided 

That four persons be proposed by the Burgomasters to the Honorable General 
and Council, to select and commission two therefrom as Churchmasters. — Records 
of New Amsterdam, Vol. ii. pp. 24, 25. 

Action of the Director and Council on Conventicles. 

1656, Feb. 1. 

The Director General and Council have been credibly informed, 
that not only conventicles and meetings have been held here and 
there in this Province, but also that unqualified persons presume 
in such meetings to act as teachers, in interpreting and expound- 
ing God's Holy Word, without ecclesiastical or secular authority. 
This is contrary to the general rules, political and ecclesiastical 
of our Fatherland; and besides, such gatherings lead to trouble, 
heresies and schisms. 

Therefore, to prevent this, the Director General and Council 
strictly forbid all such public or private conventicles and meet- 
ings, except the usual and authorized ones, where God's Word, 
according to the Reformed and established custom, is preached 
and taught in meetings held for the religious service of the Re- 
formed Church, conformably to the Synod of Dort, which is to 
.^ . « 

* The Old Graveyard was on the West side of Broadway, a short distance north 
of the present Morris Street. It covered one hundred feet square, and in 1G65, as 
will appear in a later volume, It is represented as in a shamefully dilapidated 

344 Ecclesiastical Recoeds 

be followed here, as in the Fatherland, and in the other Eeformed 
Churches of Europe ; under a fine of one hundred pounds Flemish, 
($240.), to be paid by all who, in such public or private meet- 
ings, except at the usual authorized gatherings on Sundays or 
other days, presume to exercise, without due qualification, the 
duties of a preacher, reader or chorister; and each man or woman, 
married or unmarried, who is found at such a meeting, shall pay 
a fine of twenty five pounds Flemish, ($60.) 

The Director General and Council, however, do not hereby in- 
tend to force the consciences of any, to the prejudice of formerly 
given patents, or to forbid the preaching of God's Holy Word, 
the use of Family Prayers, and divine services in the family ; but 
only all public and private conventicles and gatherings, be they 
in public or private houses, except the already mentioned usual, 
and authorized religious services of the Eeformed. And that 
this order may be the better observed, and nobody plead ignorance 
thereof, the Director General and Council direct and charge their 
Fiscal, and the inferior Magistrates and Schouts, to publish the 
same everywhere in this Province, and to prosecute transgressors ; 
inasmuch as we have so decreed this, for the honor of God, the 
advancement of the Eeformed services, and the quiet, ' unity and 
welfare of the country generally. 

Thus done, etc., February 1, 1656. 

ISTew Chtjech at Foet Oeange. 


The church erected in 1643 had long since become inadequate to the accommoda- 
tion of the community, and it had been determined in the course of the preceding 
year to erect a new building. To assist this good worls, the Patroon and co- 
directors subscribed, Feb. 18, one thousand guilders, or four hundred dollars, and 
fffteen hundred guilders were appropriated from the fines imposed by the court 
at Fort Orange. A site, at the junction of what is now State street and Broad- 
way, was selected, and in the early part of the summer, Rutger Jacobsen, one of 
the magistrates, laid the corner-stone of the sacred edifice, in the presence of the 
authorities, both of the town and colonie, and of the assembled inhabitants, June 2. 
A temporary pulpit was, at first, erected for the use of the minister, but the 
settlers subscribed twenty five beavers to purchase a more splendid one in Holland. 
The Chamber at Amsterdam added seventy five guilders to this sum, for " the 
beavers were greatly damaged; " and " with a view to Inspire the congregation 
with more ardent zeal," presented them in the course of the next year with a 
bell " to adorn their newly constructed little church." — O'Callaghau's History of 
New Netherland, Vol. ii., 307. 

OF THE State of Xew York. 34 



Petition of the IIagisteates of Midwottt and Amesfoort 
FOR Authority to Take up a Collection for the Support 
OF Their Minister. 

Tuesday, 15th of February, 1656. 
To the Noble, Very Worshipful, their Honors the Director General and High 
Council of New Netherland. 

Show with due respect and reverence the Magistrates of Midwout and Amesfoort 
upon Long Island in New Netherland, that they have adopted a resolution for the 
common welfare, as they think, to tal<e up a voluntary collection In the villages of 
Breuckelen, Midwout and Amesfoort and depending places for the support of a 
Minister or teacher, to which they believe many are willing to contribute; but as 
they have no authority to do it without having first Informed their Noble Worships 
the Council of New Netherland, the aforesaid Magistrates request hereto your 
Worships' approbation and favorable order, that they may carry out their well 
meant project and resolution; the Magistrates aforesaid engaging themselves to 
give to your Worships or to your Worships' delegates a full and true account and 
statement of the moneys received, if it is necessary and they are called upon to 
do so. Which doing etc. 

The Magistrates of Midwout, Amesfoort and adjacent places. 

By their order 

Peter Tonnenian as Secretary. 

Done 8th of February 1656.— Col. Docs. N. Y. xiv. 337. 

Court Minutes of I^ew Amsterdam. 
Harmen van Hoboocken, Schoolmaster. 

1656, February 21. 

Endorsement on the petition of Harmen van Hooboocken, Schoolmaster. The 
Schout having exhibited, in conformity to instructions from the Honorable Di- 
rector General and Council, the request of the Schoolmaster, Harmen van 
Hooboocken, in Court, they endorsed — Said Schoolmaster shall communicate to 
the Burgomasters and Schepens, what he is allowed for each child per quarter, 
pursuant to instructions from the General and Council, which being done, further 
order shall be taken on petitioner's request. — Records of New Amsterdam, Vol. il. 
p. 39. 

Petition of the Magistrates of Brooklyn, that the Min- 
ister OF Midwout Preach Alternately in Brooklyn. 

, February 25, 1656. 

To their Honors the Director General and Council of New Netherland. 

Show with due reverence the Committee of the Schepens of the village of 
Breuckelen and depending places, that they have learned and see, that the people 
of Midwout, belonging in their, the petitioners', jurisdiction, are going about tak- 
ing subscriptions or a collection for the support of the Minister in tlie said village 
of Midwout; and as the Rev. Domine Johannes I'olhemius is performing the duties 
of his charge only at Midwout, the inhabitants of Breuckelen and adjacent places 
are disinclined to subscribe or promise anytliing for the support of a minister, 
whose services they do (not) enjoy. The petitioners therefore respectfully request, 
that the said Domine Johannes Polhemius ofliciate for the present alternately at 


346 ' Ecclesiastical Records 

Midwout and Breuckelen (which he appears willing to do); then they are willing 
to contribute to his support according to their means; or else that they and the 
inhabitants of Breuckelen and the adjacent places may be excused from con- 
tributing to the support of a Minister, whose services do not benefit them. 
Awaiting your Honors' favorable decision we are and remain, 

Your Honors obedient servants 

Joris Dircksen, 
Albert Cornelissen, 
The mark X of Joresey Rapailje. 

The foregoing petition having been read in Council and a vote taken thereon, It 
was resolved to decide as follows: 

The Director General and Council of New Netherland have no objection against 
Domine Johannes Polhemius officiating alternately at both places, wind and weather 

Done in Council, date as above. — Col. Docs. N. Y. xiv. 338. 

Court Minutes of New Amsterdam. 

1656, February 28. 

To the Honorable Director General and Council of New Netherland residing In 
Fort Amsterdam. 

The Burgomasters of this City of Amsterdam respectfully represent, that the 
Church requires some necessary repairs; and whereas some Churchmasters have 
either left or died, therefore the Honorable Director General is requested in his 
capacity, to attend to the said Church; in order, however, to relieve the Honorable 
Director General of trouble, and to forward the repairs of the Church, the Burgo- 
masters respectfully request, that your Honors would be pleased to appoint Church- 


The Heer Nicasius d' Silla and Govert Loockermans are elected for this year 

Churchmasters, to enter on first of March of this year. Dated xii Feb. 1656. 

Amsterdam in New Netherland. Was subscribed. 

P. Stuyvesant. 

By order of the Honorable Director and General and Supreme Council of New 

Signed C. v. Ruyven, Secretary. 

— Records of New Amsterdam, Vol. li, pp. 50, 51. 

Council Minute. Application from the Magistrates of Mid- 
wout for Assistance to Pay" Their Minister, and Answer 
of the Council. 

The Schepens of the village of Midwout appeared before the Council and 
demonstrated, that the subscription obtained for the support of their present 
Minister Domine Johannes Polhemius amounting to six hundred guilders was only 
a voluntary contribution and that they could not rely upon it every year, as the 
inhabitants of the said village, who had settled there only lately and were still 
without means, would find it a heavy tax and burden upon themselves to con- 
ti'ibute so much every year. Now as the said Domine had requested, that they 
should not only pay him the arrears, but also give him henceforth a fixed salary 
or else he would remove as soon as an opportunity offered, they ask for advice, 
what to do and how much the Director General and Council would contribute for 
the minister's support in the name of the Honorable Company. 

OF THE State of New York. 347 

The answer of Director General and Council is: They authorize the said 
Schepens to make a contract with the said Domine Polhemius, provided that they 
take care to fulfill the engagements they make and collect the means thereto from 
the community, as the Company has had many and heavy expenses for years, 
without receiving any assistance. Besides seven hundred guilders have already 
been advanced to the said Domine Polhemius for account of the Company during 
the eighteen months of his residence here and considering the present troubles and 
scarcity of funds in the Company's treasury, they cannot promise or consent to 
do so in the future. This may serve for their government. Date as above (March 
28, 1656).— Col. Docs. N. Y. xlv. 345. 

Council, Minute Resolution to Offer fob 

Sale the House and Lot Called the Old Church, on the 
East River, New Amsterdam 

i April 4th, 1656. 


Resolved, that on Saturday, the 8th of April, the house, lot and buildings thereon 
called the Old Church and formerly tenanted by Captain Newton, situate and 
lying on the East River in the alley running between it and Fiscal Tlenhoven's 
house, opposite the house of Sr. Hendrick Kip be sold at public auction to the 
highest bidder.— Col. Docs. N. Y. xiv. 346. 

Classis of Amsterdam. 

1656, April 18th. 

Acts of the Deputies. Rev. Heydanus in the Chair. 

Rev. Langelius presented a little catechetical book, (written 
by Rev. Mr. Megapolensis), for revision and printing. The Rev. 
Meeting approved the reading of the book, but did not take the 
indorsement of it upon themselves, but referred it to the Classis. 
— XX. 353. 

Catechism Book of Rev. J. Megapolensis. 

1656, May 1st. 

The Deputati ad causas Indicas reported, that there had come 
to their hands a certain little Catechism Book, which had been 
heretofore prepared and published by Rev. John Megapolensis, 
minister in New Netherland, at (New) Amsterdam, and which 
it is sought, to reprint. The Assembly thinks it advisable that 
an effort be made to prevent this undertaking. Therefore the 
Deputati ad res Indicas shall wait upon the Directors in reference 
to this matter; shall write to the same effect, in a friendly man- 


348 Ecclesiastical Records 

ner, to the Rev. Brethren in New lietherland, requesting them 
to be kind enough to maintain henceforth in this, and in all other 
matters that come up, good and christianlike correspondence, 
such as has been customary hitherto, vi. 13 ; xix. 13. 

Acts of the Deputies and their Correspondence. 1656, May 12. 

The Classis of Amsterdam to Rev. Consistory in Xew Nether- 
land. XX. 357-360. 

May 26, 1656. 

Reverend, Godly, Wise and Learned Brethren: — 

For some time past we have been learning with much satisfac- 
tion, through the verbal statements of many who came to us from 
New Netherland, that the church there, although small, is in a 
good and peaceful condition; also that the extension of Christ's 
Kingdom among the blind heathen is taken to heart, although 
not accompanied with that success that could be wished. -While 
we give thanks to the Almighty for his grace, and commend the 
zeal of the brethren, we would have preferred to learn the situa- 
tion of the church from letters of your o^vn, especially in matters 
of importance. But no letters from you have come to hand since 
your last, under date of October 6, 1653. After the receipt of 
that letter, we wrote to you in two letters, dated respectively 
February 26 and November 11, 1654, what efforts had been 
made by the Hon. Directors, and ^\'ith what good results. Since 
then either you have not written, or else our letters did not come 
to your hands. From this we conclude that the Lutherans must 
have abandoned their intention of procuring a minister of their 
persuasion. Our Rev. Classis, indeed, looked upon this matter 
as an affair of great consequence; for the Mennonists and English 
Independents, of whom there is said to be not a few there, might 
have been led to undertake the same thing in their turn, and 
would probably have attempted to introduce public gatherings. 
In fact we are informed that even the Jews have made request 
of the Hon. Governor, and have also attempted in that country 


OF THE State or ISTew Yoek. 349 


to erect a synagogue for the exercise of their blasphemous religion. 
Out of all these things, indeed, there would have arisen a very 
Babel. One cannot contemplate, without great emotion of soul, 
how greatly a pastor's labor would have been increased under 
such circumstances, and beset with obstacles, and what difficulties 
would have arisen to interfere with their good and holy efforts 
for the extension of the cause of Christ. The Hon. Directors 
appear to have acted in this matter in a very Christian manner. 
Let us then — we here in this country and you there — employ 
all diligence to frustrate all such plans, that the wolves may be 
warded off from the tender lambs of Christ. 

There came to hand lately a certain catechism drawm up by 
Kev. John Megapolensis, with request for our approval, and that 
it be prepared for printing. The Rev. Classis resolved, in con- 
formity with their action of January 30, 1651, in reference to 
this and like matters, that although the diligence of his Rever- 
ence is to be commended, yet that it is inadvisable to permit the 
printing, much more the introduction of the same for the instruc- 
tion of youth. Such a course Avould war against the general 
order and usacre of our church, both in this coimtrv and in distant 
churches, planted by and dependent on us. In these churches 
no other catechisms besides the Heidelberg and the Compendium 
of the same, called the Short Inquiry, is in use in the catechetical 
sermons, catechetical classes and schools. 

Dear Brethren, the general Formula, the doctrines which are 
good, tried, and established by long practice, to which old and 
young have everywhere become accustomed, and which have been 
used with much edification, should not be lightly changed. Hence 
also this matter belongs to the order and laws of the jSTational 
Synod, and which no Particular Synod, much less a Classis or 
Consistory, may alter. We leave it to your own forecast to 
decide, whether other churches, should such a practice be per- 
mitted, would not likewise assume the same liberty, and not only 
use other catechisms, but different ones at different times in the 

350 Ecclesiastical Records 


same place? I^either would this liberty be limited to this one 
matter of the Catechism. It would also extend to other matters, 
either of a similar or of a different nature. Out of this, what 
sad disputes, schisms, and all manner of confusions, would arise. 
Beloved, let us ever maintain unity, not only in the doctrine of 
truth, but also in the Formula of the same, as well as in those 
things which pertain to Order. Thus will the unity of the spirit, 
in the bond of peace, be promoted. 

We wrote you on JSTovember 11, 1654, concerning the proposal 
of sending a minister to Long Island. As we understand it, he 
was to receive six hundred guilders salary, by voluntary contri- 
butions of the inhabitants, who would bind themselves to furnish, 
each one, his share. We have indeed looked about for such a 
good minister, but the proposed sum of money was considered 
altogether too moderate, especially since he had a pretty large 
family. The Rev, Classis has therefore been unable to secure 
anyone. The Rev. Brethren then requested that an effort be 
made to raise the sum to twelve hundred or at least one thousand 
guilders, but nothing subsequently was accomplished, so far as 
we know. We have heard, however, that Rev. Mr. Polhemus has 
undertaken the charge there, having come from Brazil. He lost 
his charge there by reason of the sad failure of the Company. 
We would like to know how this arrangement is working. Those 
coming from that place, (Long Island), with whom we have con- 
versed, tell us that there are not a few members of the church 
there; and they also declare that his Reverence is recognized by 
all as the regular minister; that he performs all the functions of 
a pastor; and sometimes preaches at New Amsterdam, as well as 
at Midwout, (Flatbush), and that his labors are appreciated, and 
are not without fruit. We request, however, further informa- 
tion about all these things. 

As far as we are concerned, we have nothing against his Rev- 
erence being and remaining pastor there according to (Church) 
Order. The Rev. Mr. Polhemus has written to his wife that he 

OF THE State of New York, 351 

is inclined to remain there. He says that he can get along with 
the salary, and will continue his labors there, and directs her and 
the children to come over. We have not wished to dissuade her 
from this journey to her husband, but have rather sought to help 
her designs with the Hon. Directors. She is a very worthy 
matron, and has a great desire to join her husband. She has 
struggled along here in poverty and great straits, and has always 
conducted herself modestly and piously. 

We greatly desire, moreover, to learn how matters stand in 
the church in Renselaerswyck on the south river; [this must be 
a mistake in one word or the other. Either south river must 
be read north river, or else New Amstel should be read in 
place of Renselaerswyck] and if there be any other churches 
thereabout; what schoolmasters are there, and what they are 
doing ; what efforts towards the conversion of the heathen, whether 
adults or children, are made, or ought to be made, or might be 
made; in particular, what wants the Eev. Brethren would wish 
to have supplied in the way of Catechisms and Compendiums. 
Perhaps ere long, a wide door will open for the spread of the 
Gospel among the heathen. To this end you and we should use 
all diligence, trusting that our labor will not be in vain in the 

William Vestens, having come over to us, has, at his own 

request, departed as Visitor of the Sick to the East Indies, with 

the vessels which sailed in December last. Nothing else remain.-, 

except our greeting and committing you to God. Signed this 

26th of May, 1656, by 
J. Heydamus. 

Oasparus de Carpentier. 

(Megapolensis. Polhemus.) 

1656, June 13th. 

Rev. Heydanus reports that he went to see the Messrs. Directors 
of the West India Company, and made known to them the Reso- 


352 Ecclesiastical Recoeos 

lution of Classis in regard to the Catechising-book of Kev. Mega- 
polensis, -whicli re&olution suited them. Item: that the "wife 
of Rev. Polhemus was pennitted to leave, to join her husband 
on Long Island in New JSTetherland, and that aid was promised 
her; and that she had received this to some extent. — xx. 357. 

A letter written in the name of the Classis to the Eev. Con- 
sistory in 'New IN'etherland, which will be delivered bj 'Rex. 
Heydanus, and reads as follows : 

See letter above dated May 26, 1656.— xx. 357-360. 

DiEECTOKS TO Stuyvesant : Jews ; Lutherans ; 

; . The 14th of June 1656. 

Honorable, Vigorous, Pious, Dear, Faithful: We have seen and heard with dis- 
pleasure, that against our orders of the 15th of February 1655, issued at the 
request of the Jewish or Portuguese nation, you have forbidden them to trade to 
Fort Orange and the South River; also the purchase of real estate, which is 
granted to them without dilHculty here In this country; and we wish it had not- 
been done and that you had obeyed our orders, which you must always execute 
punctually and with more respect: Jews or Portuguese people however shall not 
be employed in any public service, (to which neither are they admitted in this 
city), nor allowed to have open retail shops; but they may quietly and peacefully 
carry on their business as before, and exercise in all quietness their religion 
within their houses, for which end they must without doubt endeavor to build 
their houses close together in a convenient place on one or the other side of New 
Amsterdam, — at their own choice — as they have done here. 

We would also have been better pleased. If you had not published the placat 
against the Lutherans, a copy of which you sent us, and committed them to 
prison, for it has always been our intention, to treat them quietly and leniently. 
Hereafter you will therefore not publish such or similar placats without our 
knowledge, but you must pass it over quietly and let them have free religious 
exercises In their houses.* 

The wife of Domine Polhemius goes over in the ship " Gulden Otter"; we gave 
her permission, as to all other private parties, to go there as cabin passengers, the 
Company paying the fare for her and her children on condition, that the amount 
shall be deducted from the salary earned by her husband in Brazil. — Col. Docs. 
N. Y. xiv. 350, 351, 352. • 

* This paragraph is also in the volumes of Classis of Amsterdam, Vol xx, 372-3. 
It is found in many histories pertaining to New York, under several different 

OF THK State of Xew York. 353 

Papers Regarding the Dispute Between the Director-Gen- 

1656, June 20. 

Remonstrance made by Jean Baptist van Rensselaer, Director of the Colony of 
Rensselaerswyck situate on the North River of New Netherland, to his Noble 
Honor, General Petrus Stuyvesant and the High Council of New Netherland. 


As to the orders received by your Honors in regard to the tenths (tithes, for 
Church support) from the bouweries in our Colony, that is altogether contrary to 
the privileges, declared legal by the Honorable Company and the Assembly of the 
xix, and also of the 6th Article of high and low jurisdiction. — Col. Docs. N. Y. 
xiv. 355, 356. 

Action on Van Rensselaer's Remonstrance, so far as tithes are concerned. 

The remonstrance made by Jan Baptist van Rensselaer, who calles himself Di- 
rector of the Colony of Rensselaerswyck on the North River of New Netherland, 
to their Honors, General Petrus Stuyvesant and the Council of New Netherland, 
was received and read. 

Upon this we answer in the first place, that the Director General and Council 
have no knowledge of his appointment as Director of the Colony etc., of which 
nevertheless they ought to have been informed pursuant to the 9th and 28th 
articles of the exemptions. 

Inasmuch, however, as the remonstrant at the end of his protest shows the 
burdens to be borne by the Patroons in supporting their servants and officers, in 
which we suppose the officers of the Church are included, for whom apparently 
the tithes are ordered to be gathered and set aside in the old testament, the 
Director and Council provisionally and until further order consent In this point 
to the prayer of the remonstrant so far, that this question of the tithes shall once 
more be referred to our superiors in the Fatherland: save that an agreement be 
made with him in regard to the tithes demanded for this year, principally in order 
to meet possible exceptions made by others and if our superiors in the Fatherland 
or arbitrators appointed by them decide, that neither the Colony of Rensselaers- 
wyck nor any of its bouweries Is subject to tithing, then the Director General 
and Council engage to refund the sums agreed upon as tithes. 1656, June 27. — 
Col. Docs. N. Y. xiv. 359. See 435. 

Order in Favor of the Waldenses. 

165G, June 30. 

Burgomasters and Regents of Amsterdam, hereby authorize the 
Commissioners of the Exchange Bank in the said city, to give 
and pay to Mr. John van Berckel, Receiver-General of Holland 
and West Friesland, the sum of seventeen thousand, five hundred 
and sixty six guilders, eleven stivers and eight pence, say 
fl. 17,566 :11 :8, which sum, on producing receipt therefor, shall 
be allowed said Commissioners in rendering their account of the 
moneys collected within this city for and on the behalf of the Wal- 
denses. Done the 30th June, 1656.— Col. Docs. K Y. i. 618. 


354 Ecclesiastical Records 

Waldenses and Huguenots emigrate to the South River, 1656- 
1663. Population, 1664. 

In 1656 and 1663 a large body of Waldenses and other colonists, with some 
orphans, were sent to the South River by the City of Amsterdam; and a consider- 
able number of Huguenots, originally from Rochelle, arrived in the country in the 
course of the latter year, in addition to those who, for similar reasons, had already 
emigrated from Savoy and settled on Staten Island. 

From these and natural causes the population of the province quintupled in 
seventeen years. At the commencement of Stuyvesant's administration, the num- 
ber of persons capable of bearing arms is stated to have been between two hun- 
dred and fifty and three hundred, in and around the capital. Including Rensselaers- 
wyck, this would give a population of two thousand souls. In 1664, the number 
is estimated at " full ten thousand." New Amsterdam contained, in 1656, when 
first surveyed by Capt. de Koninck, one hundred and twenty houses, and one 
thousand souls. The former increased In 1660, when a map of the capital was 
made, to over three hundred and fifty, whilst the population augmented, in 1664, 
to fifteen hundred. Of these, not quite two hundred and fifty were male adults; 
the balance, between twelve and thirteen hundred, consisted of women, and chil- 
dren below eighteen years of age. — O'Callaghan's History of New Netherland, Vol. 
ii., 540. 

Classis of Amsterdam. 

Acts of the Deputies. 

1656, July 10th. 
Rev. Mr. Schoonhovius in the Chair. 

Since it is understood that the Lutherans have again requested 
of the Directors here the privilege of the puhlic exercise of their 
religion in New ISTetherland, in conformity with the custom in this 
country; and since this has heen granted to them there, as well 
as to all other sects, even' as it is in this country; therefore the 
Rev. Meeting has resolved to make this fact known to the Rev. 
Classis. — XX. 361. 

Lutheran Worship in New Netherland. 

1656, Aug. 7th. 

The Deputati ad res Indicas made known to the Rev. Classis 
that they had learned that the Directors of the West India Com- 
pany had given consent to the public exercise of the Lutheran 
Religion (worship) in New Netherland. The Rev. Classis is 
grieved thereat, and finds it necessary at the earliest opportunity, 
even this very day, to wait upon the Directors in regard to this 
matter. Having learned from them the exact (entire) situation 

OF THE State of Xew Yokk. 355 

of affairs they will take such, further action to-morrow as the 
case may demand. — vi. 20; xix. 14. 

Lutheran Worship in New Netherland. 

1656, Aug. 8th. 

As regards the permission of public Lutheran Worship in New 
Netherland, the Brethren the committee ad causas Indicas report, 
that they had spoken thereupon with some of the Directors. They 
said that they knew not of any such complete toleration of the 
Lutherans there, but neither did they know what more there might 
be of such designs. The Kev. Classis finds it advisable and re- 
solves that this matter be more carefully watched and inquired 
into, and, if possible prevented, vi. 25, 26. — xix. 15. 

Court ^Mixutes of New Amsterdam. — The Old Church Lot. 

1656, August 15. 

Pleter Jacobsen Marius appears in Court requesting that the Bailiff be authorized 
to levy execution on the judgement against Jacob van Couwenhoven, inasmuch as 
he, otherwise knows not when he shall obtain his own. Whereupon, J. v. Couwen- 
hoven being called into Court, appearing requested, as he was an old Burgher, that 
execution may not yet be proceeded with; saying that he had already given the 
deed of his house and lot on the Strand* to the Bailiff to be sold, as security. 

Synod of North Holland, at Alckmaee. ' ~ ^ 

1656, Aug. 15 et seq. 
Article 32. 

Preachers recently ordained for the service of the Churches in 
the East Indie&r 

In New Netherland the ministers are as follows :* At New 
Amsterdam, Eev. John Megapolensis, Kev. Samuel Drisius; At 

Rensselaerswyck, Eev. Gideon Schaats. 

I — ..^ ^ _____^ 

• This was first known as the " Old Churoh Lot ", — a wooden ohtirch having been 
built on it as early as 16,33. It was situate on the North side of the present Pearl 
St., about sixty or eighty feet East of WliitdiMll. The lot together with the old 
Church having been purchased by .Tacoli AN'oliiliciiscn van Couwenhoven April 8, 
1656, was confirmed to him by patent of J\nic 'Mk s;ime year, and pursuant to the 
order in this case again sold, Isaac de Foreest becoming the purchaser September 
8, 1656. The latter, having built on the lot a house, " which Is an ornament to the 
City," obtained in 1664 the grant of the lane adjoining to build a woodshed etc. 
Calendar of Dutch MSS., p. :».'{; Valentine, Manual, 1861, p. 589. It subsequently 
became the property of Allard Anthony. — Records of New Amsterdam, VoL 11. 
pp. 153, 154. 

• It will be noticed that the name of Rev. J. T. Polhemus is not mentioned, al- 
though he had been officiating on Long Island for two years, but only In an In- 
formal way. 



356 Ecclesiastical Records 

Dbaft of Conditions Offered by City of Amsterdam to 
Emigrants, to the South (Delaware) River. 


As to Religion: 

* * * 

7. Said City (of Amsterdam) shall cause to be erected about the Market or in a 
more convenient place, a public building suitable for Divine service; item, also a 
house for a School which can liiiCwise be occupied by the person who will hereafter 
be Sexton, Psalmsetter and Schoolmaster; the City shall, besides, have a house 
built for the Minister. 

8. The City aforesaid shall provisionally provide and pay the salary of a Minister 
and Schoolmaster, unless their High Mightinesses or the Company think otherwise. 

— Col. Docs. N. Y. i. 620. 

Conditions Offered by the City of Amsterdam to Settlers 
ON the Delaware River. 

1656, Aug. 12. 

7. The City of Amsterdam shall send thither a proper person for Schoolmaster, 
who shall also read the Holy Scriptures and set the Psalms. 

8. The City of Amsterdam shall provisionally and until further opportunity pro- 
yide the salary of said Schoolmaster. — Col. Docs. N. Y. i. 631. 

1656, August 2/12. 

Resolution of the States General on these conditions. To be investigated. — Col. 
Docs. N. Y. i. GS'l, 

165G, August 6/16. 

Report of the Committee of the States General on the same. — Col. Docs. N. Y. i. 

Their High Mightinesses have thanked the Committee for the trouble they have 
taken, confirmed the report and ratified the agreement entered into respecting the 
population. But when there are two hundred families or thereabouts, a preacher 
and consistory shall be installed without any expense to the Company (generaliteit). 

— Col. Col. Docs. N. Y. i. 637. 

Ratification of Report by the States General, 

1656, Aug. 16. 

Which being considered, their High Mightinesses have thanked the Gentlemen of 
the Committee for the trouble they have taken, and it is further Resolved and con- 
cluded, hereby to approve and ratify the aforesaid agreement or conditions entered 
into by the abovementioned Chamber with the Burgomasters of Amsterdam, all 
nevertheless saving and without prejudice to the right, jurisdiction and possession 
of the Colonies heretofore given out in the aforesaid countries and of the property 
purchased in said district; with this understanding also, tliat whensoever there 
«hall be in that place two hundred families or thereabouts, a preacher and con- 
sistory shall be Installed there without any expense to the Company. And all this 
saving also the division of the districts which may be made among the respective 
Chambers. It is hereby recommended to the aforesaid Chamber at Amsterdam so 
to moderate the public duties that the population there may be encouraged, aud not 
obstructed.— Col. Docs. N. Y. i. 637. 

OF THE State of Xew York. 357 

Acts of the Classis of Amsterdam. 

New Netherland. 

1656, Oct. 3rd. 

In the matter of the Lutheran meeting in New Netherland, it 
was reported in the Rev. Classis, that there was reason to appre- 
hend that there, as well as in all the colonies pnblic worship bj 
Lutherans would be permitted ; and whereas it haS' been deter- 
mined to establish other rules and regulations, in which the Wor- 
shipful Magistracy of Amsterdam shall have a hand ; that some 
of the Noble Mightinesses (Officially of Amsterdam) together 
with some Directors of the West India Company were delegated 
for the particular purpose, that all sorts of persuasions might be 
permitted to exercise their special forms of worship; The Kev. 
Classis is grieved to learn of such a circumstance, and finds it 
highly necessary to give careful heed to this matter. Therefore 
the Directors and their Noble Mightinesses (the Officials of Am- 
sterdam), and especially their committee on this subject, shall be 
waited on, and the injuriousness of this general permission of all 
sorts of persuasions shall be earnestly deprecated, stating that first 
of all, and above all, the Church and the glory of God should be 
cared for, etc. This matter remains recommended to the Deputies 
ad causas Indicas. vi. 33 ; xix. 25. 

Eesolution of the States General on Mr. van der Capelle's 


Wednesday, the 4th October, 1656. 

Read at tlie meotinR a certain Remonstrance of J. Hendrlck van der Capelle to 
Ryssel, Lord of Essel and Hasselt, Bnrgomaster of the City of Zutphen, Ordinary 
Deputy in their High Mightinesses' Assembly, requesting that a Commission be 
issued for a proper person of the Reformed Religion, which he would send as Com- 
mander to his people of Staten Island in New Netherland, as was granted last year, 
1655, to Messrs. Adriaen and Cornells Lampsins for the Island of Tobago and St. 
Martin. Which being considered, it is resolved and concluded to refer the petition 
aforesaid to the Directors of the West India Company here, for advice. 



358 Ecc'i.F.siA.STiCAL Records 

Resolution of the Assembly of the XIX. on Mr. van der Capelle's Petition. — Ex- 
tract from the resolutions of the Committee of the respective Chamljers of the 
Incorporated West India Company, representing the Assembly of the XIX., 
holden at the Hague. 

Thursday, the 5th of October, 1656. 
Read at the meeting a certain petition presented by Mr. Hendrick van der Capelle 
thro Ryssel, Lord, etc., to their High Mightinesses, together with their High Mighti- 
nesses' postll thereon, dated 4th of October, 1656, that the Directors in attendance, 
from the respective Chambers representing the Assembly of the XIX., may furnish 
their advice on the said opinion presented as above. 

It is resolved and concluded, that the petition concerns exclusively the Chamber 
of Amsterdam with which the said gentlemen hath specially contracted; that the 
Directors of said Chamber in attendance are earnestly requested, as well out of 
respect for the case as for his Honor, to bring this petition before the Chamber of 
Amsterdam, and to second and recommend it, in the most favorable manner, which, 
also, they have undertaken to do on the earliest opportunity. Agrees with the 

Register aforesaid. 

(Signed) L. van Seventer, 16.36. 

— Col. Docs. N. Y. i. 640. 

Resolution of the States General. 

Thursday, the 5th of October, 1656. 
Read at the meeting a certain Resolution of the attending Committee of the 
Directors of the West India Company representing the Assembly of the Nineteen 
of this day's date, in substance that Mr. Van der Capelle to Ryssei's remonstrance 
presented yesterday, to obtain a Commission for a Commander to be sent by him 
to his people of Staten Island in New Netheland concerning exclusively the Chamber 
of Amsterdam, with which that Gentleman had specially contracted, and conse- 
quently they the Directors in attendance had earnestly requested said Chamber to 
bring, out of respect for the case and his Honor's person, the petition before said 
Chamber of Amsterdam and to recommend it most favorably; which they have 
undertaken to do at the earliest opportunity. Whereupon no resolution is adopted. 
— Col. Docs. N. Y. i. 641. 

Court Minutes of I^ew Amsterdam. 

Repairs of the Church. 

1656, October 9. 

Evert Duycking requests by petition to be informed, from whom he is to receive 
payment for the glass, which he put In the Church for Schout, Burgomasters and 
Schepens, demanding two and a half beavers for each. Whereupon the Court 
decides, that petitioner shall go to each one, for whom the glass was, for his 
payment either in trade or as he can agree for the same. — Records of New 
Amsterdam, Vol. ii. p. 183. 

Petition of the Lutherans to the Governor and Council, 
TO BE Permitted to Enjoy Their Own Public Worshir, 
Oct. 24, 1656. 

To the ]^oble, Very Worshipful, the Honorable Director-General 
and High Council of Kew Netherland: 
"We the united adherents of the Unaltered Augsburg Confession 

residing here in ISTew Netherland, with all respect, do show, that 

OF THE State of jSTew York. 359 

"we have obediently acted upon your Honors prohibitive order, 
published by edict, and have not gathered anywhere to hold divine 
services with reading and singing- ; nevertheless our friends in the 
Fatherland, acting in our behalf, have petitioned the jSToble, Hon- 
orable Lords Directors of the West India Company, our Patroons, 
in reference to this matter. Upon their petition, they have ob- 
tained from their Lordships, as they report to us, in a full meet- 
ing, a resolution and decree that the doctrines of the Unaltered 
Augsburg Confession should be tolerated in the West Indies and 
TvTew ISTetherland under their jurisdiction, in the same manner 
as in the Fatherland under its praiseworthy government. 

We turn therefore to your Xoble Honors, your Worships, know- 
ing us to be humble and obedient subjects, and pray, that hence- 
forth we may not be hindered in our services. These with God's 
blessing we intend to celebrate, with prayer, reading and singing, 
until, as we hope and expect, a qualified person shall come next 
spring from the Fatherland to be our minister and teacher, and 
remain here as such. We are your Honors humble and faithful 
subjects, who await your favorable answer. 

Amsterdam in 'New ISTetherland 
this 24th of October 1G5G. 

Another translation in O'Callaghan, ii. 320. 

After the question had been considered the followmg answer 
was made: 

This will be sent to tlie Lords Directors of the Privileged West 
India Coiiii)any by the first ships, and llioir further orders' re- 
quested. Meanwhile the Director-General and Council persist in 
the above mentioned order and placat, issued and several times 
renewed, against conventicles and public gatherings, except those 
for the divine service of the here prevailing Reformed Church. 
ISTeithcr the petitioners nor anybody else shall meanwhile suffer 
for this belief, nor be prevented each in his family, from reading 
prayers, thanksgivings and singing according to their faith. 



360 Ecclesiastical Records 

Done at the meeting of the Director-General and Council, held 
at Fort Amsterdam in New ISTetherland, the 24th of October 1656. 

After comparison with the original petition and the order 

thereon, this has been fonnd to agi'ee therewith. 

Cornelius van Ruyven, Secretary. 

8/8 1657. 
Lutherans in Xew Netherland. 

1656, mv. 7th. 

The same Revs. Deputies did also report concerning their er- 
rand and business with the Messrs. Directors of the West India 
Company, as well as with the gentlemen appointed a committee 
on behalf of the city of Amsterdam ; that having wished them 
God's blessing in reference to this affair, they had spoken to them 
about the Lutherans and others in New IsTetherland ; but from 
all the circumstances, they could only learn that this affair is 
still unsettled, and the settlement a good way off ; (lit. raw and far 
to be sought.) That nothing may be neglected (wasted) in this 
matter, the Rev. Brethren, the Deputies are enjoined to be vigi- 
lant in every particular, vi. 39. 

Court Minutes of New Amsterdam. 

Harmen van Hoboocken. Rent Allowed for a School. 

1656, November 7, [or Sept. 7?] 

To the Honorable Lords Burgomasters and Schepens of the City of New Amster- 
dam. Harmen van Hoboken, Schoolmaster of this City, respectfully requests that 
your Honours would be pleased to grant him the hall and the side room for the 
use of the school and as a dwelling, Inasmuch as he, the petitioner, does not know 
how to manage for the proper accommodation of the children during winter, for 
they much require a place adapted for fire and to be warmed, for which their 
present tenement is wholly unfit. He, the petitioner, burthened with a wife and 
children is greatly in need of a dwelling for them; and his wife is expected from 
hour to hour to be confined, so that he anticipates great inconvenience, not know- 
ing how to manage for the accommodation of the school children; and if your 
Honors cannot find any, he, the petitioner, requests your Honors to be pleased to 
allow him the rent of the back room which Geurt Coerten at present occupies, 
which he, petitioner, would freely accept for the present, as he is unable to pay 
so heavy a rent as a whole house amounts to. He therefore applies to your 
Honours, expecting hereupon your Honors favorable endorsement. Was subscribed. 

Your Honors Servant, 

Harm: van Hoboken.* 

• There is a place in the southwestern part of Holland called Hoboocken, and a 
large Dutch family called by the name of Van Hoboocken. The name of this school- 

OF THE State of ISTew York. 361 

Dated 4 Nov. 1656. 

Whereas the City Hall of this City, the hall and little room whereof the peti- 
tioner now requests for a school and dwelling, are not at present in repair, and 
are, moreover, required for other purposes the same cannot be allowed him; but 
in order that the youth, who are here quite ntimerous, may have the means of 
instruction as far as possible and as the circumstances of the City permit, the 
petitioner, for want of other lodgings, is allowed to rent the said house for a 
school, for which one hundred guilders shall be paid him yearly on a/c of the City 
for the present and until further order. Done in Court this 4th November 1656. 
At Amsterdam in New Netherland. 

Allard Anthony, 
Oloff Stevenseu, 
Jacob Strycker, 
J. Vinje, 
Will. Beeckman, 
Hendrick Kip. 
— Records of New Amsterdam, Vol. ii. pp. 219, 220. Abridged in Dunshee, 26. 

Sentence of William Hallett, of Flushing, for Allowing 

Baptist Conventicles in His House ; and of William 

Wickendam for Officiating as Minister of the Gospel 

AT Flushing. 

[Nov. 8, 11; 1656.] 

Whereas William Hallett, born in Dorsetshire, in England, about forty years old, 
a resident of the village of Flushing, and now a prisoner, has had the audacity to 
call and allow to be called conventicles and gatherings at his house, and to permit 
there, in contemptuous disobedience of published and several times renewed placats 
of the Director General and Council of New Netherland, an exegesis and inter- 
pretation of God's Holy Word, as he confesses; the administration and service of 
the sacraments by one William Wickendam, while the latter, as he ought to have 
known, had neither by ecclesiastical nor secular authority been called or appointed 
thereto; and whereas he with several others has been present at and listened to 
this exegesis and interpretation and after hearing it has with others from the 
hands of the said William Wickendam received the bread in the form and manner, 
in which the sacrament of the Lord's Supper is usually celebrated and given; all 
of which is in direct contradiction with the general political and ecclesiastical 
rules of our Fatherland, and especially contrary to the said placats of the Di- 
rector General and Council, which he as Schout in the aforesaid village was bound 
to uphold and strictly enforce; which, however, he has not only failed to do, but 
himself has trangressed and disobeyed. 

Therefore the Director General and Council of the New Netherlands, in pur- 
suance of the tenor of the said placats, first dismiss the said William Hallett from 
his office as Schout in the said village of Vllssingen; and furthermore condemn him 
to a double fine, to wit, fifty pounds Flemish, because being Schout and executive 
officer, he should have prevented these proceedings and enforced the placats of the 
Director General and Council; ho Is also banished from this Province of New 
Netherland, and shall be detained In prison, until the said fine with the costs and 
mises of law incurred in this case have been paid. 

master naturally suggests the thought that the city of Hobokeu, N. J., obtained Its 
name from him. But Winfield, in his history of Hudson County, N. J., claims for 
It an Indian origin, especially since the deed to Michael Pauw, dated as earl.v as 
July 12, 16;^0, for I'avonla describes the land as that which is called Hobocan-Hack- 
ingh, and says Hobocan means a tobacco-pipe. — Winfield, 13-15. 


362 Ecclesiastical Records 

Thus decreed and sentenced in Council of Director General and Council at Fort 
Amsterdam in New Nettierland tlie 8th of November 1656. 

Whereas William Wicliendam, a native of Oxfordshire In England, forty two 
years old, now a prisoner, has had the audacity to call to and hold conventicles 
and gatherings; and in disobedience of published and repeatedly renewed placats 
of the Director General and Council of New Netherland has, as he himself con- 
fesses, usurped the office of Minister of the Gospel in expounding and interpreting 
God's Holy Word and administering and officiating in the Sacraments of Baptism 
and the Lord's Supper, without being called or appointed thereto by any ecclesi- 
astical rules of our Fatherland; and especially to the said placats of the Director 
General and Council, expressly forbidding all such conventicles and gatherings, 
public or private, except the usual meetings, which are not only lawfully permitted, 
but also based upon God's Word and ordered for the service of God, if they are 
held, conform to the Synod of Dort here, in our Fatherland and in other Churches 
of the Reformed Faith in Europe. 

Therefore the said William Wickendam, in pursuance of the said placats, is 
condemned to a fine of one hundred pounds Flemish and is banished from this 
Province of New Netherland; but to remain in prison, until the said fine with the 
costs and mises of law, incurred in his case, shall have been paid. 

Thus decreed and sentenced in Council, etc., the 8th of November 1656. 

Whereas the Director General and Council have been credibly informed and told, 
that the aforesaid William Wickendam is a very poor man with a wife and several 
children, and a cobbler by trade, to which he does not properly attend, so that 
nothing can be obtained from him. 

Therefore the Director General and Council have remitted the aforesaid fine of 
six hundred florins and allowed him to remove, on condition, that if he is caught 
here again, he must pay it. 

November 11th, 1656.— Col. Docs. N. Y. xiv. 369, 370. 

Letter from Domine Polhemius to Director Stuyvesant ; 
Complaining that His House is Kot Inhabitable. 

Noble Sir, Honorable General in New Netherland. 

1 am compelled to respectfully complain to your honor, that I must see the 
planks, given by your honor out of compassion and presented to the community 
here to finish my house against this cold winter, being taken and lost this way 
or that; for instance two M-ere lost on the way here by having been left on the 
beach in nobody's care: after having been brought into the village without my 
knowledge, twenty four were delivered to Jan Eversen Meyer; six were put down 
at the Church for benches; of the balance sixty nine were taken away with the 
consent of Jan Snedicker and Jan Strycker; seventeen carried to Thomas Swart- 
wout and his brother Aldert Swartwout to dry malt; so that my house remains 
open as it was and I with my wife and children must live and sleep on the bare 
ground and in the cold. They say, there is no carpenter here, that I should 
procure one to have the work done. In order not to make my situation worse by 
keeping silence, I write this to your Honor. 

In haste. 

Your Honor's obedient servant, 

Joh. Th. Polheym. 

Midwout, the 14th of December 1656. 

To his Honor, General P. Stuy vesant, at New Amsterdam. — Col. Docs. N. Y. xiv. 
370, 371. 

OF THE State of Xew York. 3C»o 

Extract from a Letter of the Directors to Stuyvesaxt : 
Settlers to Dwell in Villages ; Delegations to New Eng- 
land; Tenths; Eensselaerswyck; Revenues; Fkenchmen 
Among the Indians. 


The report made to you there, that some Frenchmen with a Jesuit from Canada 
have come into the country of the aforesaid Seunequons, and began to malse a 
settlement there, was not agreeable news lo us, for it can only be to the disad- 
vantage of our Province and the inhabitants. However we have not as yet deemed 
It advisable to come to a final resolution in this matter, as being premature and 
the matter perhaps of small consequence only, until we are better informed about 
It; we desire you to make a close investigation and report the result of it to us. 
while you must take care and make arrangements for the security of Fort Orange, 
that no mishap befall us there. 

We should have sent you, as requested by the inhabitants of Fort Orange and 
Beverwyck, the little bell for their new church; also two others for the villages 
of Hempstead and Midwout, but as they could not be found ready made and the 
time for making them is too short, you will have to wait till the spring. 

December 19, 1656.— Col. Docs. N. Y. xlv. 371, 374. 

Letter from Dir. Stuyvesant to the Magistrates of Mid- 
wout About the Minister's House. 

Honorable, Dear, Faithful. When with you in Breuckelen at the house of 
Albert Cornelissen it was agreed in parting, by mutual consent and approbation of 
yourselves and the other delegates from the villages of Breuckelen and Amesfoort. 
that you should together make an estimate of the funds, out of which the preacher. 
Domine Polheym, was to be paid and placed above want and report it to us and 
the Council within eight days. As this time has passed and we are not yet in 
formed of the result, we have deemed it necessary to remind you of it through thi' 
Schout and this open letter, that you fulfill your promise; else we shall lie com- 
pelled by our official position and duties to take steps and give such orders and 
provide for such means, that the Minister be duly paid and placed above want. 
The said Domine I'olheym, who was tlien present, complained further of the un- 
inhabitable state and inconvenience of his dwelling house, which has as yet neither 
ceiling or waliiscotting, so that he and his family are compelled to sleep on the 
floor. The winter being imminent, this la unlieaiable and improper, and in order 
to remedy It we sent you for the ceiling and walnscottlng of the house one hun- 
dred hemlock planks, which parties deputed by you received and carried to my 
brother's-in-law Backer's house. I am however credlltly Informed now, that the 
said boards have not been used for the purpose Intended by us, but that the Com 
missaries dispose of thf>m privately according to tlieir pleasure; for Instance, so 
I am told, twenty four have been given to the hired man of Jan Evertsen; six 
ordered to be cut. up for benches, seventeen given by Jan Snedicker to the Swart 
wouts, so that the boards dlsni)pear here and there, while nothing whatever is 
done to finish the Minister's house, which is most urgent to do, the winter being 
80 near at hand. We command therefore lierewlth, that the Ijoards be brought 
together again upon receipt hereof, and put to tlieir proper use and to no other. 

364 Ecclesiastical Records 

as we have ordered. If you fail herein, we shall take proper measures: where- 
upon relying, we commend you all with the usual greetings to God's protection, 
and remain, 

P. Stuyvesant. 

Done at Amsterdam in New Netherland the 21st of December, 1656.— Col. Docs. 
N. Y. sir. 376. i . . i 

Petition of Domine Polhemius for an Advance of His Salary 
TO Enable Him to Pay for a Parcel of Land. 

To their Noble Honors, Petrus Stuyvesant, Director General and Council of New 
Netherland: Shows with due reverence Johannes Theod. Polheym, preacher, that 
he, the petitioner, has some time ago bought from Cornells Aerssen a parcel of 
land lying in the village of Midwout, to better provide thereby for himself and his 
family, hoping, when the time for payment came, to be in a condition to pay for 
it: but as the petitioner has been disappointed in this hope, because his salary is 
not paid as he expected, and as a payment of one hundred florins has become 
due, the petitioner finds himself compelled, nay, forced to turn respectfully to your 
Honors and to request, that your Honors will be pleased to pay for his account, 
debiting the same for it, so much to Cornells Aerssen. Awaiting a favorable 
decision he commends your Honors to God's protection and remain. 

Your Honors servant. 

Job. Th. Polheym. 

December 21st, 1656.— Col. Docs. N. Y. xiv. 377. 

Journal. — Of Brian ISTuton, Capt. Lieutenant ; Cornelis 


Appointed by the Heer Director-General Stuy^vesant to 
GO IN A Boat a Second Time to Oost-Dorp. 

; Anno 1656, 29th December. 

Having received our instructions from the Heer General we rowed out with the 
boat of the Honorable Company's ship from before Fort Amsterdam on the 30 
ditto, about seven o'clock in the morning to proceed on our Journey to Oostdorp, 
accompanied by Claes Bordingh as pilot, as the Company's Skipper was never 
through Hell-gate, and the Skipper of the Company's bark and a sailor to row us 

On our arrival at John Lords we communicated to him the object of our Journey, 
and requested him to have the Inhabitants summoned in the morning at daylight 
by an Indian. He answered us — 'Tis our Sabbath morning; the Inhabitants will 
not come. We asked him to learn the opinions of the principal settlers at once, 
as we could explain our business in half an hour, without hindering their service. 
Which he proceeded to do. But brought us for answer, No — that they were Id 
no way so inclined. Although we would fain reach home by Sunday noon, we were 
obliged to remain there until Monday, as they would not be prevailed on to 
assemble on Sunday. 

31st ditto. Sunday. 

Went to examine the village somewhat. It is a very stony place, thickly covered 
with trees. At noon were Invited to dine at Mr. Newmans. After dinner Corneljs 
Tan Ruyven went to the house where they assemble on Sundays, to observe their 
mode of worship, as they have not as yet any clergyman. There I found a gather- 

OF THE State of I^ew York. 


ing of about fifteen men ten or twelve women. Mr. Baly made a prayer, which 
being concluded, one Robbert Basset read a sermon from a printed Book composed 
and published by an English Minister in England. After the reading Mr. Baly 
made another prayer and they sung a Psalm and separated. In the evening we 
were invited to supper to Robbert Basset's, and having talien our leave we went 
to sleep at John Lord's house: neither he nor any of the members of his family 
came home this night, which much surprised us. — Doc. Hist. N. Y. iii. 557, 558. 


This first January Anno 1657: In east towne in the New Netherlands. 

Wee hose hands are under writen do promes to oune the governor of the manatas 
as our governor and obay all his magastrates and lawes that are made acordin to 
god so long as we live in his Jurisdiction. 

Robbert Basset 

George X Reith 

John Finch 
John Wilson 
Richard Horton 
Thomas Taylor 

Hendrick X Cornelyssen 

Thamis Martin 

Nick Lookerly 
John Quimble 
Josiah Gilber 
Obodiah Gilbert 
Jonathan Llockwood 

Robert X Meacker 
Jeffrey X Fferris 
— Doc. Hist. N. Y. iii. 559. 

Petition of the Magistrates of Midwout for Power to 
Make an Assessment to Pay Their Minister, to Farm the 
Excise, etc., and Order Thereon. 

To their Noble Honors, Director General Petrus Stuyvesant and the Council of 
New Netherland. Show with great humility and due respect the delegated Schepens 
of the jurisdiction of Midwout, that pursuant to the resolution, adopted by the 
Honorable Director General Petrus Stuyvesant after consultation with and with 
the assent of the Courts of Brouckelen, Midwout and Amesfoort on the 29th of 
December 1G5G last past, the inhabitants of Midwout were to contribute to tlie 
yearly salary, promised to the Reverend pastor, Domine J. Theodorus I'olhemius, 
four hundred florins, those of Breuckelen three hundred Uorius and Amesfoort a 
like sum of three hundred florins. That after several meetings, they could find no 
other way, than to impose upon each lot and parcel of land, of which there are 
about forty in Midwout, a tax of ten Ilorins yearly is proportioned. This tax of 
ten florins yearly for every lot proportionally would make up the sum of four 
hundred florins, which we of the Court of Midwout have promised in presence of 
the Honorable Director General to contribute to the yearly pay of the said Domine 
Polhomius. But as every one of the Inhabitants and neighbors has not the same 
amount of property, one having less, the other more, we must and cannot tax all 
alike, but each in proportion to his property and real estate. If wo receive your 
Honors' approbation to such a cotizatlon and tax up to four hundred florins for 
the yearly pay of the said Domine Polhemius, we promise to levy it directly and 
continue in it, each according to his ability and to make the assessment con- 
scientiously, provided we are supported by your Honors against unwilling parties, 
which we hope will not make any opposition. We promise also, to take oare and 
pay attention, that at the expiration of each six months the salary then due shall 
be paid to Domine Polhemius and we think, that the said Domine Polhemius might 
be satisfied with it. 

January 13, 1G57.— Col. Docs. N. Y. xlv. 379, 3S0. 


366 Ecclesiastical Kecords 

Petition of the Magistrates of Amesfoort, Praying Con- 
firmation OF AN Assessment for the Minister's Salary; 

[Jan. 13, 1657.] 

To their Noble Honors, Petrus Stuyvesant, Director General and the Council of 
New Netherland: Show respectfully and with due reverence, the delegated Schepens 
of the Tillage of Amesfoort, as well in their official capacity as individually, that 
pursuant to the resolution, adopted in the presence of the Honorable Director Gen- 
eral, Petrus Stuyvesant, on the 29th of December 1656, last past, after conferring 
with, and with the consent of, the Courts of Breuckelen, Midwout and Amesfoort, 
we considered it determined, that we of the jurisdiction of the said village of 
Amesfoort should in proportion to our neighbors of the villages and jurisdictions 
of Breuckelen and Midwout find and raise as our quota of the annual salary and 
pay promised to the Reverend preacher Domine J. Theodorus Polhemius the sum 
of three hundred guilders. After several considerations and deliberations, con- 
ferring also with the congregation and inhabitants, under correction, we have, in 
order to raise the aforesaid three hundred florins in the easiest way, appraised 
and assessed the property of each person conscientiously and to the best of our 
knowledge and made the cotisation and taxlevy, here below given in detail, which 
with what some parties from Gravesend have voluntarily promised to contribute, 
will make up the sum of three hundred florins. When we shall have received your 
Honors' approbation we promise to carry it out, hoping for your Honors" assistance 
against a few, say two or three, evil minded persons, who might oppose and resist 
our good intention and project. 

The persons assessed and provisionally taxed for the contribution of the said 
three hundred florins are the following: 

Peter Classen promises to pay 20 florins 

Marten Jansen likewise 20 

Elbert Elbertsen is taxed 32 

Joris Jacobsen 20 

Cornells Dircksen 20 

Jan Leyck 16 

Albert Bestevaer's farmer 20 

Hendrick Pietersen 10 

Peter Roeloffsen 10 

Hendrick Cornelissen 10 

Hans Jansen 16 

Jan Claesen 16 

Cornelis Antonisen 10 

RpelofC Cornelissen 10 

Jacob Pietersen 6 

Peter Cornelissen 16 

Harpert Claesen 15 

267 florins 

Commending ourselves to your Honors' good favor, we, the Magistrates of Ames- 
foort, await most humbly your Honors' favorable decree, which doing etc. 
Your Honors' humble and obedient servants. 
The Magistrates of Amesfoort 
By Order 

Peter Tonneman, Secretary. 

OF THE State of Xew York. 367 

On the 13th of January, 1657, at Amesfoort on Long Island, In New Netherland. 

Having received and read the foregoing petition of the Court of Amesfoort, dated 
the 13th of the month of January, the E>irector Genera) and Council of New 
Netherland find the request therein contained to be just, and therefore the said 
Magistrates of Amesfoort are authorized to carry out their tax levy and to proceed 
legally against renitent parties. 

Done at Fort Amsterdam in New Netherland, the IGth of January 1657. — Col. 
Docs. N. Y. xiv. 378, 379. 

Petition of the IVIagistkates of Brooklyn Against the As- 
sessment FOR the Minister's Salary and Objecting to the 
Appointment of Rev. Polhemius. 

I [Jan. 16, 1657.] 

Noble, Very Worshipful, Very Learned, Wise and Prudent, Honorable Director 
General in New Netherland etc. Very Worshipful Sir: 

Pursuant to the resolution adopted by your Honor on the 29th of November 
(sic:) last past at Breuckelen in our meeting, the delegates from Midwout and 
Amesfoort being present, Midwout was to contribute to the yearly salary of the 
Rev. Domine Polhemius four hundred florins, Breuckelen three hundred florins and 
Amesfoort three hundred florins which we then thought a heavy tax and took in 
consideration to inform and submit to your Honor our decision after having made 
our calculation. Now we, your Honor's humble servants, the Magistrates of 
Breuckelen, report and sul)niit to your Honor the Impossibility to contribute yearly 
three hundred guilders, because this sum cannot well be collected from a weak and 
impoverished community, many members of which have suffered great losses and 
damages in the times of war through surprises by the Indians and otherwise, 
which have disabled them. With the best they can do, some will not be able to 
raise what they would like to contril>ute; nor has the said Domine Polhemius ever 
been called or engaged by us as pastor, but he has intruded here against our 
wishes, desiring to preach in the public street in the open air; on account of 
which the house of the Schepen Joris Dircksen here in Breuckelen was provision- 
ally given him to avoid giving offence to any one. The burghers and inhabitants 
of Breuckelen generally and the neighbors say, that for such meager and unsatis- 
factory service as they have had hitherto, even if they could, they would not 
resolve to contribute anything, for during the two weeks he comes here only for 
a quarter of an hour on Sunday afternoon, gives us only a prayer instead of a 
sermon, from which we learn and understand little and when we think, that the 
prayer or sermon, whatever It be called, is beginning, it is already over, so that 
he gives small edification to the congregation. It has happened to us only on the 
Sunday before Christmas, the 24th of December last, that in place of a sermon, 
which we had expected to have, we had to listen to a prayer so short, that it 
was over, l)efore we had collected our thought; it was also nearly evening, before 
he. Polhemius. came over, so that he had really not much time and was compelled 
to break off and leave hastily to return liome, and this was all the edification — 
little enough — which we have had during the Christmas holidays. We maintain 
therefore, that we shall enjoy the same, if not more edification by appointing 
some one of our midst to read a sermon from a book of homilies (buys postille) 
every Sunday, than we have hitherto received by the sermon or prayer of said 
Domine Polhemius. 

We do not Intend, however, by this our request and remonstrance anything 
to the dishonor of the said Polhemius or to the injury of his good reputation, 
but say only, that his great age Is the cause of all and that his faculties are 
evidently not what they were formerly; we see also, that Polhemius Is not deficient 
in good will, but as he has not been called by us, we cannot conclude to con- 
tribute to his support aside from our inability already explained and submitted 
to your Honor. Although we, the Magistrates of Breuckelen, have resolved to 


368 Ecclesiastical Records 

contribute to the salary of the said Polhemius, the congregation here cannot come 
to such a resolution, as there are many, who cannot make any contribution anfl 
whom it would be more necessary to support; there are besides many bouweries 
unoccupied and vacant, for instance that of Mr. Paulis, the one of Frericlt 
Lubbertsen on the strand, while a very simple and poor man lives on his other 
bouwery, who is also unable to give anything, and Lodwyck lives upon the Poor 
Bouwery while his lot is vacant, the same as Peter Cornelissen's, Elbert Elbert- 
sen's, the land of Black Hans, Grabiels land, Peter Mallemocque, Peter Manist, 
Jean Martyn and others more of whom there is quite a number. From the fore- 
going your Honor may well consider and conclude, what can be raised and given 
here and although every one shall be assessed by us and put on the tax list, 
nobody will be able to resolve to contribute anything for such slender services, 
as we have hitherto enjoyed. We finally submit with due respect, that whereas 
the people of Mldwout have engaged Polhemius alone without our knowledge or 
consent, we are very willing and well satisfied, that the Midwout people shall 
enjoy the services of Domine Polhemius alone, if the Domine wishes again tQ 
perform the service and prayer instead of a service as formerly, we shall not 
be bound by it to anything, except to what from inclination and free and un- 
biased will may be added to his salary, as several among us here are well inclined 
to him, although we do not enjoy his, Polhemius', services. Closing herewith we 
commend your Honor to the gracious protection of the Almighty and wish a 
Happy New Year besides a prosperous and blessed administration until the end, 
and commending ourselves to your Honor's good favor we are and remain 
Your Honorable Worship's humble servants The Magistrates of Breuckelen, 

Albert Cornelissen, 
Joris Dircke, 
Willem Bredenbent. 
B.v their order, 

Peter Touneman, Secretary. 

Breuckelen, January 1657. 

After having read the foregoing letter the following answer was made: 
Mr. Tonneman is hereby commissioned by the Director General and Council to 
remind the people of Breuckelen once more to fulfill their obligation and promise 
concerning the salary of their pastor, Domine Polhemius, else the Director General 
and Council will give such orders and make such dispositions as are necessary. 
Date as above (16th of January 1657.) — Col. Docs. N. I. xiv. 380, 381, 382. 

Letter of the Magistrates of Brooklyn to the Director 
AND Council About the Salary of Their Minister. 

Noble, Worshipful, Honorable, Very Learned, Wise and Prudent, your Honors 
the Director General and Council of New Netherland. Gentlemen: We respect- 
fully submit as our answer to the decision made by your Honors on the 16th of 
January of this year 1657, by which we were to find means to supply the amount 
of three hundred florins yearly for the salary, promised without our consent and 
knowledge by the people of Midwout and Amesfoort to the Rev. Domine Pol- 
hemius, that we of the Court of Breuckelen do not know, that we have ever- 
promised or agreed to pay anything, but requested only time to gather informa- 
tion and make a calculation, whether it was feasible and means might be found; 
that we fear and apprehend, .it cannot be done in so weak and impoverished' 
a congregation, as ours and the neighborhood. It was not our intention or wish, 
to be constrained thereto by the Director General and Council and therefore, 
not desiring to oppose the Director and Council herein, we liave resolved at 
last to collect and contribute the said three hundred florins, how or where ever 
we might be able to collect it, on condition that from the expiration of the 
first year of Domine Polhemius' engagement, which la on the 7th of April 1657, 

OF THE State of New York. 369 

we shall be excused for this and the following years, unless in the meantime we 
should hear of improvements and favorable changes (God grant it) here in this 
country and the Fatherland, as we hope, when we shall make a proper agree- 
ment with Domine Polhemius and promise to fulfill our former conditions, to 
which we have bound ourselves, but we cannot engage ourselves for subsequent 
and more years as above stated. 

Closing herewith we commend your Honors to the gracious protection of God 
wishing a prosperous and happy administration until the end and commend our- 
selves to your Honors' good favors, with which we are and remain. 
Your Honors' humble servants, the Schepens of the Court of Breuckelen. 

Albert Cornelissen. 
' Joris Dircksen, 

The mark X of Jooris Rapallhe, 

' William Bredenbent. 

By their order, 

Peter Tonneman, Secretary. 

(January, 1657.) — Col. Docs. N. Y. xlv. 382, 383. 

Petition of Inhabitants of Middleborougii (Newtown) L. 
I. , About the House Built for Their Pastor. Order of 
THE Director Thereon. 

To the honorable gouernor worthie ser we whose names are underwritten 
desire to make our humble requests knowen, in respect to the house bulded here 
by the towne of Midleburrough for publicke use for a minister for continewance 
and some of the towne hath given it away to mr more for his owne proprietie; 
and his afEer him wherein we thinke we are wronged and the towne left destitute 
if mr more please to leave us or if he should die for we know men are mortal 
we are to seke both for minister and house to entertaine him into therefore we 
doe humbly entreat your Honor that you would be pleased to take it into con- 
sideration and accordingly Judge the equitie of the thing and the damage that 
may ensew; thus leaning you to God and his grace we rest. 

John Burroughes. 

The mark IL of John Laiton 

The mark UP of Robert Pudington 

Francis Swaine 
The mark of Thomas Horulsh 

The mark E of Nlkles Carter 
Samuell Coe. 
Janeuaries the 22nd (sic.) 1G57.— Col. Docs. N. Y. xlv. 383. 

Anno 1657, 25 January. 
Answer to the foregoing writing. 

Whereas Wee ware informed that the house off the Minister (being blld for 
a publicq use and successively for the Ministerlj:) by soni off the Inhabitance off 
the Towne off Midilleborch was disposed off, and given unto Meester More, for 
his private use, it beciugh soo, as wee doe not hope, or thluke, then this are to 
require the Magistraats off the said Towne, to make their appljrance before us, 
for to give information and reasons, uppon wath Grounds, and Wherefore it was 
done alsoo; In the mayntyme the Magistraats are required and ordered to pro- 
ceed no further against the bearer John Layton. Soe after mee Love ij rest. 

i Your friend and Gouvnernr. 

Fort Amsterdam in Now Netherlaud. — Col. Docs. N. Y. xlv. 384. 




370 Ecclesiastical Records 

Classis of Amsterdam. 
Acts of the Deputies and their Correspondence. 

Feb. ? 1657. 
The Classis of Amsterdam to the Church of ISTew Amsterdam, 
Feb. 15, 1657. (According to Dr. Thos. De Witt, Dec. 15, 1656). 
Eeferred to in letter of Megapolensis and Drisius of Aug. 5, 1657. 

Acts of the Deputies. 

(Gouwester. New ISTetherland.) 

1657, Feb. 12th. 

Jacob Pietersen Gouwester, living in the Boomdwars straat, 
next to the King Solomon (straat) desired to go to the East Indies 
or to New Netherland. He gave good satisfaction in everything. 
XX. 368. 

Correspondence from America. 

1657, March 6. 
Rev. John Megapolensis to the Classis of Amsterdam. 

March 6th, 1657. 
Administeative Minutes of New Amsterdam. 

Election of a Church Master. 

1657, March 8. 

Whereas according to extracts from the Resolves of the Honorable Director 
General and Council of New Netherland dated 6th March of this year Pietcr 
Tonneman is elected from those nominated by Burgomasters and Churchmasters 
in place of the retiring Nicasius de Silla, the said Tonneman is therefore hereby 
requested and authorized to attend to and fill the said office of Churchmaster for 
the ensuing year with Govert Loockermans. Done this 8th March 1657, at the 
Court of Burgomasters of this City of Amsterdam in New Netherland. — Records 
of New Amsterdam, vol. vii. p. 142. 

Administrative Minutes of New Amsterdam. 

Accounts of Churchmasters. 

1657, March 9. 

Whereas one Churchmaster is retired and another having been appointed In 
his stead, it is customary according to the practice of our Fatherland, that a/c 
be rendered of their administration; Burgomasters have resolved to communicate 
it to the Honorable General, to know whether a/c shall be rendered to his Honor, 
or to the Burgomasters. — Records of New Amsterdam, vol. vii. p. 144. 

OF THE State of New York. 371 

Resolutions of the Common Council of the City of Amster- 
dam Respecting ISTew Amstel, Delaware. 

1657, March 9. 

The Directors of the new Colonic In New Netherland have stated, through the 
Burgomasters, that they had collected about three hundred Colonists, and there- 
fore requested permission to engage a Minister, and to employ one of the city's 
ships for their conveyance, and for the advancement of everything, to be allowed 
to raise the sum of thirty six thousand guilders. Which, being considered, it 
is resolved that the city's ship called de Wage be employed for that purpose, a 
Minister engaged, and the aforesaid sum of thirty six thousand guilders borrowed 
by them either from the Orphans Chamber or the Exchange Bank, according as 
the Burgomasters deem proper. It is, also, further resolved that the Treasurers 
be requested to pay attention to the employment of this and the foregoing 
moneys, and to keep the account of the one and the other. — Col. Docs. N. T. 

Acts of the Classis of Amsterdam. 

Xew Colon}^ in ISTew jSTetherland. — Call of a Minister to Js'ew 


1657, March 19th. 

In pursuance of the request (lit. ontwriting) of this Classis, 
Rev. Depntati ad caiisas Indicas have rendered a report and ac- 
count (opening) of the entire situation of the Church of the New 
Colony (on the Delaware) in New Netherland; that other relig- 
ions, and especially the Lutheran, have crept in there, and what 
efforts they had made about this affair in respect to the Burgo- 
masters and the committee of the Directors ad hanc causam; and 
that finally, after all their efforts they had secured consent to call 
a competent and ordained minister and to send him to those 

The Rev. Assembly took this matter into serious consideration 
and exercise, in the fear of the Lord, as to what person would 
best be invited and called for this purpose. After mature con- 
sideration of ever^' point, it was resolved to find out (to cast the 
eye upon) some ordained minister. The Rev. Assembly at length 
let its eye fall -with favor upon the Rev. Nicholas Mullerius. He 
was waited on, (saluted) and spoken to as to his inclination. He 
declared himself disinclined to undertake such a call and journey. 



372 EccLESiASTicAi- Records 

The Eev. Assembly then suffered its thoughts to turn towards 
other candidates. Having invited several to appear before them, 
who also came, and after calling upon the name of the Lord, the 
Eev. Everardus Welius was finally called. The call having been 
accepted by him, his examination was set for the lOth of April. 
He will expound (preach) Psalm 127. verse 1. vi. 39-40. xix. 


The Lutherans in New Netherland. 

1657, March 19th. 
Whereas the Lutherans in New Amsterdam, and principally 
in New Netherland, are strengthening themselves and are putting 
forth every effort to establish their position (lit. foot), and Forms 
of worship, therefore did the Eev. Deputati ad causas Indicas re- 
port their heavy hearted considerations thereon to the Assembly. 
They request advice as to what is to be done in the matter, in 
order to counteract this approaching evil. The Eev. Assembly 
deems it in the highest degree necessary to watch against this 
thing; and that the worthy burgomasters of the city of Amster- 
dam as well as the committee of the Directors of this New Colony 
shall be very earnestly addressed, and also waited on by the Eev. 
Deputati ad causas Indicas, and shall seek to persuade them with 
all serious argl^ments on the subject in order to check at the be- 
ginning this toleration of all sorts of religions, and especially of 
the Lutherans, lest God's Church come to suffer more and more 
injury as time goes on. v. 41 ; xix. 42. 

Letter from the Directors to Stutvesant : Wampum ; Cur- 
rency; Eensselaerwtck ; Negroes; Cultivation of Sile:- 
woRMs; Lutherans. The Currency.* 

Duplicate. Tfie 7th of April 1657. 
We send herewith the small bell, which the inhabitants of Fort Orange and 
the village of Beverwyck requested for their newly built little Church; as the 
twenty five beavers, brought over by Dirck Jansen Croon to pay for making a 

•Wampum, peage, wampumpeage or sewant were the names given to the 
Indians- currency which the Dutch found in use among the aborigines, when 
they came to settle on the Hudson. Wampum was black and white perforated 


OF THE State of New York. 373 

pulpit, have arrived much damaged and therefore the proceeds therefrom were 
not sufficient; we have at his request advanced for this purpose the sum of 
seventy five florins as an encouragement to the community there. As to the 
other two hells for the villages of Mldwout and Hemstead, we shall have them 
made here also and send them to you by the first ships, when ready. 


We have by no means the Intention, to grant to the Lutherans any more* 
liberty regarding the exercise of their religion, than stated in our letter of June 
14, 1656, by which we still stand.— Col. Docs. N. Y. xlv. 386, 387, 388. 

Administrative Minutes of New Amsterdam. f. 

Oath of Burghers. 

1657, April 9. 

Follows the Oath taken by the Burghers; drawn up by the Right Honorable 
General and Council. 

I, N. N., promise and swear in the presence of Almighty God to be true and 
faithful to the sovereignty of the Noble, High Mighty Lords States General of 
the United Netherlands and Supreme Jurisdiction of the Honorable Lords Di- 
rectors of the Privileged West India Company as Lords and Patroous of tlila 
New Nerherland Province, their Director General and Council already appointed 
or hereafter to be appointed; and to shew in the first place them, the Burgo- 
masters and Rulers of this City, present and future, all respect and reverence 
and to obey them In all honest and Just matters as a faithful subject and good 
Burgher Is bound to do, as long as I shall continue In this Province. So Truly 
Help me God Almighty. — Records of New Amsterdam, vol. Til. p. 154. 

Acts of the Classis of Amsterdam. 

Everardus Welius. 

1657, April 10th. 

The candidate Everardus Welius having expounded the text 
Psalm 127:1, was then examined on the principal heads of the 
Christian religion. He gave the Assembly excellent satisfaction 
in both. They therefore gladly permitted him to be invested 
with the Sacred Ministry, in that New Colony in New Nether- 
beads from three sixteenth to three eighth of an Inch In length and one eighth 
In thickness. The Qunhang or Wh<>lk (Buccltnnn undatuni). a shollflsli formerly 
nbdiinding on the coast of Long Island, but now rather rare, furnished the 
material, from which the black (In reality It was dark purple), and more valu- 
able, also called Suckauhock, was made. The white beads were made from 
another shellfish, called Meteauhock. Periwinkle (Turbo llttoreua, Lin.) and 
were more strictly the wampum. Isaac de liazleres. Treasurer of New Nether- 
laud In 1027, Introduced wampum In the New England Colonies, much to the 
disgust of the Inhabitants, who declared It the " Devil's work and money ". 
See In Laws of New Netherlaud the Ordinances rel. to wampum. — B. Fernow. 


374 Ecclesiastical Records 

land, (Delaware,) which is under the jurisdiction of the city of 
Amsterdam. Unto this field he was elected by the Classis, with 
the approval of the Worthy Burgomasters. He was also ordained 
to the office with the laying on of hands in the presence of the 
Assembly, and the rich blessing of the Lord was invoked upon 
him. — vi. 44. 

' Lutherans and Sects in I^ew ]!*^etlierland. 

1657, April 10th. 

Eev. Deputati ad causas Indicas report that they have fulfilled 
their commission of opposing the free and public exercise of wor- 
ship by the sects, and in particular, by the Lutherans in New 
Netherland, both in respect of the Messrs. Directors and the Wor- 
shipful Burgomasters of Amsterdam, and the Directors of the 
New Colony. It wa& found that not only have requests to that 
end been addressed to the Directors, but that a resolution has 
already been adopted, tending to permit free worship of the sects, 
by connivance; but that they had employed all diligence and 
labor to induce the gentlemen, by many arguments, and powerful 
motives, never to consent to the permission by connivance, or in 
any other way. This had borne some fruit, but not so perfectly 
that it should heal together out of existence. However it was 
resolved by the Directors to abide by the resolution of the pre- 
ceding year. The Lutherans are to be permitted quietly to have 
their exercises at their own houses; a copy of which resolutions 
were copied by the brethren ad causas Indicas. In conformity 
with this resolution, the gentlemen have written to ISTew Nethcr- 
land. As regards the Burgomasters in particular, they showed 
hesitation in expelling the minister which the Lutherans had there 
(in Amsterdam) ; but upon the urgent request of the Rev. Breth- 
ren, accompanied with powerful arguments, they had taken the 
subject under advisement, and w^ould give heed thereto at the 
proper time. Now inasmuch as all these things are fraught with 
anxious considerations, and do not place the Assembly completely 

OF THE State of New York. 375 

at tteir ease, it was further resolved that every endeavor should 
be made to prevent these evils, both with regard to the Burgo- 
masters and the Directors, as well as the Commissioners of the 
JSTew Colony (on the Delaware.) It was also resolved to encourage 
the Rev. Consistory in !N"ew ISTetherland, (ISTew Amsterdam,) to 
continue in their good zeal, to check these evils in every possible 
way. The Rev. Heydanas and the Deputati ad causas Indicas 
shall attend to these matters. — vi. 45. 

Administrative Minutes of J^Tew Amsterdam. 

Petition of Jews denied. 

The 11th April, 1657. 

Jacob Cohin Hendricus, a Jew, appears in the Court of Burgomasters; request- 
ing permission to bake and sell bread within this City, as other bakers, but 
with closed door. Which being deliberated on, 'tis decreed, as this is directly 
contrary to the privilege granted by the Honorable Director General and Council 
to the Burghery of this City and also against the orders given by the Honorable 
Lords Majores, the petitioners request cannot be granted. 


Asser Levy, a Jew, appears in Court; requests to be admitted a Burgher; 
claims that such ought not be refused him, as he keeps watch and ward (tocht 
en wacht) like other Burghers; shewing a Burgher certificate from the City of 
Amsterdam, that the Jew Is Burgher there. Which being deliberated on, tis 
decreed as before that it cannot be allowed, and he shall apply to the Director 
General and Council. — Records of New Amsterdam, vol. vii. p. 154. 

Vice Director Alrichs to the Commissioners of the Colonie 
ON THE Delaware. 

1657, April 13. 

I also fully hope, and have placed my entire reliance on a Clergyman coming 
over in the first ship, so that all our work may begin in the fear of the Lord, 
and obtain the blessing of the Almighty; that those who have little knowledge or 
lisht may not become backsliders; and those who are still weak In the faith 
may be further strengthened. A learned and aged man who hath good gifts and 
is well acquainted and conversant with Church government, would be of much 
use there. This should not be deferred, as it is a scandal not to have either' 
Church or Minister there, whenever any of the neighboring people, and even of 
those who intend to settle, come. I, therefore, request that this may be taken 
into the greatest consideration, with an effort to accomplish It most speedily. — 
Col. Docs. N. Y. 11. 7. 


376 Ecclesiastical Recoeds 

Classis of Amsterdam. 

Acts of the Deputies. 

1657, April 23rd. 
Rev. Schoonhovius in the Chair. 

The Commissioners of the new colonies in behalf of the city 
of Amsterdam, have satisfied Rev. Mr. Welius concerning the 
conditions, and a call will be placed in his hands as soon as pos- 
sible, according to the custom in vogue in such matters 

The Brethren have reported their several endeavors with the 
Messrs. Directors in relation to the strife among the sects, es- 
pecially the Lutherans. They have at last received as answer that 
the old resolution should remain in force, in accordance with what 
the Messrs. Directors had before written to the General, and the 
Council of Xew Netherland. It was judged expedient to tran- 
scribe verbatim in the journal the extracts from that communica- 
tion, which the Brethren requested permission to make. 

Extract from the communication in behalf of the West India 
Company, to the Governor, Peter Stuyvesant, and the Council in 
New Netherland, June 14, 1656. See this elsewhere. — xx. 

Rev. Welius. 

1657, May 7th. 

The Deputies report that Rev. Welius is contented with his 
salary. What remains yet to be done in this matter, the brethren 
shall further perform. Instructions shall be given him. The or- 
ganization (placing) of the Consistory in the Xew Colony remains 
commended to his prudence. All this shall be communicated to 
him, on the part of this Assembly, vi. 47 ; xix. 43, 

Acts of the Deputies. 
(Ilermanus Blom, declines the chaplaincy.) 

1657, May 7th. 

In compliance with the Resolution of Classis, the lioble Mighti- 
nesses (Admiralty Board?) at Amsterdam, have been spoken to 

OF THE State of New Yokk. 377 

about the salary of the proponents, who should go to sea with 
Mr. Tromp. Their Noble Mightinesses had said, that when a 
good person had been found for the said service, they would 
come to an agreement about the conditions. Thereupon the As- 
sembly busied itself to select someone from the proponents here- 
tofore sent. The lawful election fell upon Eev. Hermanns Blom, 
whom the brethren presented to their Noble Mightinesses; but 
the conditions submitted by their Mightinesses were not accept- 
able to Eev. Blom, as they promised him but thirty guilders 
($12.) per month. Therefore this good work, so well begun, has 
hitherto proved without fruit. — xx. 373. 

Lutherans and Sects in New Netherland and the Colony. 

1657, May 7th. 

The Deputati ad causas Indicas, laboring in compliance with 
their instructions to oppose the Lutherans in New IS^ etherland, 
and on the South (the Delaware) Eiver have learned that in 
the treaty made with the Swedes in the New Colony, it was stipu- 
lated and consented to by the (New Netherland) Colonies that a 
Lutheran minister might abide there. There was also sent to 
the North Eiver, (the Hudson) a Lutheran minister named John 
Earnest Gutwasser (Goedwasser.) It was judged by the Assem- 
bly that if it (free worship) were granted to the Swedes; on ac- 
count of the contrast, it could hardly be disallowed to the (Dutch) 
Lutherans (in New Amsterdam.) But inasmuch as it is understood 
that the Swedes have mostly gone away, further efforts should be 
made (to induce) the Burgomasters to oppose the Lutherans and 
other sects (in New Amsterdam;) and that they should be re- 
quested to recommend this matter to Director Aldrix (Aldrich) 
in their letters, even as it shall be urged upon the Directors (of 
the West India Company) that in their district, which had been 
hitherto, by their good care, Avell managed, the Lutherans shall 
not be permitted any permission freely to exercise their forms 
of worship, vi. 48, 49 ; xix. 44. 



378 Ecclesiastical Records 

Acts of the Deputies and their Oorrespondence. 

1657, May 7th. 
Rev. Mr. Winckelius in the Chair, xx. 373-377. 

The Classis of Amsterdam to the Consistory of 'New !N"etherland, 
Sent with Rev. Everardus Welius. 

May 25th, 1657. 

Reverend, Very Learned, Godly and Well Beloved Brethren iii 
Christ Jesus: 

We cannot allow the excellent opportunity which is offered 
us to pass, without sending this communication to you. The 
Hon. Mayor of this city (Amsterdam) as well as the Hon. Com- 
missioners of the affairs of the new colony (ISTew Amstel) planted 
on the South River in Xew ITetherland, have approved, in accord- 
ance with the published conditions concerning the same, (Art. 7, 
of the previous year,) the sending provisionally, to that place, 
of a schoolmaster, Avho will also visit the sick, and publicly read 
God's Word, and sing the Psalms. Accordingly we have sought 
out, for this purpose, a worthy man, named Evert Pieterson. He 
has been examined in all the above named particulars, and is con- 
sidered properly qualified. He therefore undertook his journey 
thither, (March 9, 1657,) in the fear of the Lord. We doubt not 
but that he has already arrived, and has edified many. By him 
a certain letter was sent over to your Reverences, in which we 
gave account of those things which we judged necessary to com- 
municate to you. (See Col. Docs. l^. Y. ii. 4-22, 48-74.) 

The Gospel door seems ever to be opening more widely. Sev- 
eral families are about to remove hence, being willing to be 
transported thither. Who knows what the Lord God purposes 
in respect to the extension of his kingdom, and the conversion of 
the heathen. Indeed this good work has been so greatly taken 
to heart here, that it has been deemed necessary to send a lawful 
minister there, to institute religious meetings in which God's 

OF THE State of !N^ew Yoek. 379 


"Word may be preached with soundness, the sacraments adminis- 
tered according to Christ's ordinances, and God's name publicly 
honored. Accordingly the Rev. Classis has been occupied in 
choosing one from among the recommended candidates, to go 
over in the capacity of minister. The lawful choice has fallen 
upon Rev. Everardus Welius, a young man deserving of much 
praise in many respects. For he is such a one in life, in study, 
in gifts, in conversation, that we expect nothing else than to hear, 
in due time, that he fills his office with fruitfulness, under God's 
blessing and grace. Therefore also he has been ordained to his 
office, after a proper final examination, by the laying on of hands 
in the Classical Assembly. 

We request, in case he should stop over in passing, in your 
localities, (New Amsterdam), that you will treat him with 
brotherly consideration, and assist him in everything wherein he 
may have need of your services. We hope that the Lord of the 
harvest will make him a useful and successful laborer in the har- 
vest which is yet to be gathered there; that he will increasingly 
endue him with strength of body and of soul; for surely his 
Reverence will, especially at first, find trouble enough to fashion 
everything into a well ordered form of church government. To 
this end, indeed, a friendly correspondence between him and you, 
so far as possible, -svill not be unserviceable to him. And the 
work of the ministry will be very difficult, since there are already 
there, and in time more people will oome, of all manner of per- 
nicious persuasions. Every one can therefore, easily perceive 
how much diligence and labor are required to prevent false opin- 
ions and foul heresies from becoming prejudicial to the puro 

In order also, that divers sects, in that colony, may not be able 
to lift their heads, we have earnestly urged upon the Mayor 
and Commissioners here (at Amsterdam) that their Honors 
should do something to establish some (ecclesiastical) Order, in' 
opposition to general license. They have given us quite a satis- 

380 Ecclesiastical Kecoeds 

factory answer, namely, that they could not force the consciences 
of men, which indeed, we had expressly stated we did not wish; 
but they said, that should information arrive that the sects car- 
ried on their exercises of religion (in public) then they would 
look to it to prevent such a thing, after examination of the facts. 

We have requested your Reverences to inform us from time to 
time, by writing, concerning the condition of affairs in the church 
over which the Holy Ghost has made you overseers. We hear 
indeed one thing and another, through different private sources. 
But meantime we are awaiting agreeable letters directly from you ; 
but now for years we have received no answers to our communi- 
cations. This circumstance makes us somewhat fearful lest this 
friendly correspondence should gradually cease. This we hope 
not to see. 

Meanwhile, as regards your church, we did not sit still in the 
matter of the Lutheran controversy, of which frequent mention 
has been made in our former letters; but so far as was prac- 
ticable, we have held a watchful eye upon it. It was rumored 
that they had again petitioned the Directors to be permitted to 
enjoy, in that land, freedom in the public exercises of their 
religion. But their request was not granted. After they had 
repeatedly pressed their suit, the said gentlemen dismissed them, 
finally, with the answer, that their petition should be presented 
rather to the States-General than to them. We were further 
informed that the Directors had examined the list of persons 
who had journeyed thither, and had found among the number, 
the name of one John Ernest Goedwater, (Gutwasser,) who for 
all we know, was examined by the Lutheran church here, ordained 
as preacher, and sent over there in that capacity. This is indeed 
a matter of great importance, which might most signally hinder 
the progress of the truth. Therefore the Eev. Brethren, the 
Deputies of the Olassis, have been occupied since last year, in 
seeking to stop the growth of this evil. They have diligently 
plied the Directors with persuasive arguments, and have perse- 

OF THE State of New York, 381 

vered, until the above mentioned gentlemen resolved to abide 
by the old resolution, in conformity with what they had previously 
written to the General and his Council in that place. Of this 
writing an extract was asked and granted. In this we observe 
that the Lutherans were permitted the free exercise of their relig- 
ion in their own houses. We cannot interpret this in any other 
way than that every one must have the freedom to serve God 
quietly within his dwelling, in such a manner as his religion may 
prescribe, without instituting any public gatherings or conven- 
ticles. When this interpretation is recognized, our complaints 
will cease. 

It therefore remains to you, worthy brethren, to be vigilant, 
lest your congregation, which we learn is at present in a good 
and encouraging condition, suffer from the liberty which the 
sects may assume. But should it happen that this evil is not 
remedied to your satisfaction, although we hope it may be other- 
wise, if we can serve you in any way, we gladly offer a helping 
hand, in the name of the Classis, whenever our body is furnished 
by your Reverences with proper information." This we will use 
as occasion permits. 

Herewith we conclude. Meanwhile we hope that the Lord 
God may long bless you in your duties, and may preserve you 
in good health, to the honor of his Holy Name, to the signal edi- 
fication of your congregation, and to your temporal welfai'e and 
eternal salvation. 


Caspar de Carpentier 

Actum Amsterdam, Abraham Roeloff 

May 25, 1657. Conrad Schoonhoven. 

Vice Director Ai.riciis to the Burgomasters of Amsterdam. 

1G57. May 25. 
And, as there was scarcely any storehouse, I have been obliged to fix some- 
thing tent fashion, to preserve the goods which, iu such a manner or with such 
covering, are not sufficiently protected from rain, rotting, etc. Therefore, neces- 
saries are required to be sent hither for a large storehouse; also suitable boats 

382 Ecclesiastical Records 

and a Minister, all which are of the greatest necessity. As there was no powder- 
house here, I have had a cellar constructed under the walls, so that the powder 
may be preserved in a sure place which is beyond danger. Meanwhile, the ship 
Bever, has been discharged within ten allowed days. — Col. Docs. N. Y. li. 9. 

Vice Dieectoe Alkichs to the Commissionees of the Colony 
ON THE Delaware. 

1657, May 7. 
Honorable, Worshipful, Wise, Right Prudent Gentlemen: — 

My last to your Honors was dated the 8th instant, whereunto I refer; never- 
theless, I am under the necessity to repeat here, and again herein respectfully 
to request you to be pleased, should you not have already sent out the materials 
necessary for a suitable warehouse, as well two carpenters at least, who, without 
whom we cannot get along, and the requisite boat and clergyman, no longer to 
postpone forwarding them, for, in consequence of the heavy rain that frequently 
falls here in great quantities, which will leak through any old sails, there is im- 
minent danger that whatever is dry or susceptible of damage, will be spoiled. — 
Col. Docs. N. Y. ii. 18. 

Acts of the Classis of Amsterdam. 
Lutherans in IS^ew Xetherland. 

1657, June 5th. 

About the restraint of the Lutherans and other sects in I^ew 
ISTetherland and the New Colony (on the Delaware), the gentle- 
men were waited on, and this business was earnestly recommended 
to them. They promised to be on their guard against their 
exercising public worship, and not permit it, but endeavor to 
prevent it. — v. 55; xix. 45. 

Correspondence from America. 

1657, June 27th. 
Eev. Gideon Schaats to Eev. Domine Laurentius. 
The Peace of Christ ! 

Very Dear Father and Brother in Christ, Domine Laurentius : — 
In the beginning of November, last year, (1656,) in conjunc- 
tion with Domine Megapolensis, I wrote to you at the request 
of the Rev. Classis, concerning the state of the church in general, 
in this country, and in particular about myself, ^^^th the design 

OF THE State of 'Nbw Yokk. 383 

of having the same communicated to the Rev. Brethren. But 
as we have leai-ned that the ship " Otter ", by which we sent our 
letters, was lost on the coast of England, and as we have received 
no answers to them, we now repeat the information. 

About the church and congregation here : Much could be said 
of the indiscreet walk of many. There are many hearers, but 
not much saving fruit. The place increases, but when the wind 
is from the South, the people, who carry on trade, by which this 
place alone exists, pass away like grass growing on the (meadow.) 

We have here about one hundred and thirty members, most 
of whom I found here. I think that I have received about thirty. 
May God sanctify them ! But we have been also considerably 
deceived by certain, ones, so that on account of their inconsistent 
walk, although mth but little assistance, I have been obliged 
to suspend them from the Lord's Table. The people are rather 
reckless; many remain away from the Lord's Table for a kernel 
of oats, (the slightest reason); disputes often arise on account of 
trade. But they ought never to be left without a preacher, as 
there are sometimes between three and four hundred at church, 
notmthstanding the distance some have to travel; and if they 
were all well inclined, there might be an audience of six hundred, 
besides the merchants, who frequent the place during the sum- 
mer; but the taverns and villainous houses have many visitors. 
The colonists have not more than fourteen or fifteen country 
places (farms); the Company has around the fort a "Factory" 
village of one hundred and twenty houses, if not more, and oth- 
ers are springing up daily; a small new church has been located 
in the heart of this village, Beaverwyck, where by God's grace 
I now preach. But inasmuch as most of the people are under 
the Company, Rensselaer neither will nor can continue me after 
my term expires. This, according to the last agreement made, 
will be on the 24:th of July, 1657. [A marginal note in the 
same hand writing says : This contract was made on the 20th 



384 Ecclesiastical Records 

of September 1656 or thereabouts, at which time he was already 
intending to resign.] Then I shall be free from my duties here. 
I wrote about this in my last letter. This matter gives me a 
great deal to think about, and the uncertainties cause me much 
trouble. I am free from van Rensselaer, or will be; but not a 
word was said by the officers of the Company about my salary, 
before I received my discharge. No preacher has ever yet been 
appointed here by the Company, and the Company says that the 
congregation must pay the preacher. But they (the people?) pre- 
fer to gamble away, or lose in bets, a ton of beer at twenty 
three or twenty four guilders, or some other liquor. I will say 
nothing against the better class; but of these there are too few 
to make up the salary. The Company's people are not very 
liberal, as may be seen in the case of Domine Polheymius, 
preacher at Flatbush, whom the poor farmers pay a scanty salary. 
On the whole, frequently I do not know what to do; nor can I 
tell what my final resolutions shall be. Perhaps when I am 
free, I shall be pleased to make use of that freedom in the com- 
ing spring, 1658, and travel vsdth my children to the Fatherland. 
Here they learn nothing but rudeness, instead of useful things. 
This journey is desirable especially for my sons, each of whom 
is fit now to undertake something to his liking. In the mean- 
while, and at the request of the Consistory here, I shall not 
cease to do my duty, until the time that you and the Kev. 
Brethren can do something for me in this matter. If the Com- 
pany, which made the first beginnings at this place, would also 
make a beginning in the appointment of a preacher, then let 
them also provide for him, as they do for the preacher at New 
Amsterdam. The work here is very hard for one minister, while 
they have two at the Manhattans; and because above the Mi- 
nades such a dearth is felt; for victuals are three times more 
easily procured at the Minades, as the English live in that neigh- 
borhood, and they are also on the sea. The salary of the old 

OF THE State of I^ew York. 385 

preacher there who keeps house is- two thousand guilders in- 
cluding his house rent; and besides he has free fuel, which here 
we have not. Fire wood costs us about two hundred guilders, 
for which the price at the Minades is hardly one hundred and 
fifty. This is because of the difficulty in hauling it from the 
woods. ISTeither is there any house for the preacher here. All 
the houses are occupied, so that there are none to rent. Every- 
body must build for himself, and at great expense, for every- 
thing is four times as dear as in the Fatherland; as for example 
carpenters wages, and everything pertaining to building. The 
houses here cost a great deal. A decent domicile cannot be rented 
for less than four hundred to four hundred and fifty guilders, 
while Eensselaer will not allow me more than two hundred guild- 
ers for rent; and the congregation is not willing to build me a 
house. But a Poor-house has been established here, and, God 
be praised, as there are yet very few poor people here, I have 
made arrangements with the deacons, and lived therein until now. 
The Brethren must therefore take care, that no preacher is sent 
here, and that I am not ordered to remain here, without being 
decently treated, as other ministers are. Nevertheless, I fare so 
well, that I would not care to leave my congregation, if I had 
only means to send my sons, one after the other, to the Father- 
land. But I am already very much behind. I might indeed sell 
all my movable property, which I brought here, and then all 
would go well, if I could immediately start on my travels; and 
if my wife, who has not yet succumbed, had traded a little more, 
mthout which we would have been still more miserable. I often 
take my God as witness, that we have never lived luxuriously, 
and I do not wish to. We have lived more simply than any 
other minister, and yet how different is my condition, in this re- 
spect, from the common inhabitants here. I thank God for what 
he gives; only I find myself conscientiously compelled to write 
this, that the dear Brethren might see to it, that no other brother 



386 Ecclesiastical Records 

be misled into these parts, as I have been. The Rensselaers 
knew, that the ministers were not to be returned home at their 
own expense, but that was concealed from me in my contract. It 
was mentioned in the contract of the other minister, (Megapolen- 
sis), made by the late pious Kilian van Eensselaer, vnth several 
other conditions favorable to him, but too long to repeat here. 
I have myself read them in the contract. I had forgotten to 
say, that there is no prelector nor precentor here, which duties I 
have had to fill. All this is information for the Brethren, for 
them to act upon. At the request of the Classis I communicate 
this to you, hoping that you ^^^.ll inform them thereof. In clos- 
ing, I commend you and your dear vnfe and children, with the 
best wishes of my family, to the grace of God, and remain, this 
27th of June, 1657, of Your Reverence, the humble colaborer 
in the work of God. 

Gideon Schaats, 

Pastor at Rensselaerswyck. 

Petition of the Revs. Megapolensis and Drisius to the BtTBr 


July 6, 1657. 

To the Hon. Burgomasters and Schepens of the city of Am- 
sterdam, New l^etherland : — 
The ministers of this city, with all due respect, desire to send 
in this, their remonstrance. They have understood that there 
has arrived by the ship " De Molen ", a Lutheran minister; that 
he designs settling, in his official capacity, in this important place; 
that it is evidently their intention, if they obtain a foothold 
in this place, to extend themselves, which they may then do 
the more easily, to other parts of this province. In our opinion 
this must operate injuriously to the policy of the government, 
as well as of the Reformed Religion, unless it be successfully 
opposed at the beginning. For 

OF THE State of JSTew Yoek. 387 

1. The Lutherans and their adherents have been forbidden 
heretofore, to hold their separate conventicles, altho' they have 
repeatedly solicited this privilege of the Hon. Directors in vain. 
They nevertheless obstinately and perseveringly persist in prose- 
cuting their object against the known and declared will of the 
government of this place. If they should gain this object, they 
would doubtless attempt to proceed further. 

2. We feel sure that great contention and discord will develope 
therefrom, not only among the inhabitants and citizens in gen- 
eral, but also in families, of which we have had proofs and com- 
plaints during the past year. For example, some husbands have 
forced their wives to leave their own church, and attend their 

3. Large numbers of Lutherans have been found in the East 
Indies, and also, formerly, in Brazil, but we do not know that 
the public exercise of their religion was ever allowed them; 
doubtless because strife in religious matters would produce con- 
fusion in political affairs, 

4. Thus, also, the number of hearers in our (Reformed) church 
would be perceptibly diminished. Many of that persuasion have 
continued attentive hearers among us, and several have united 
themselves with our church. These would separate themselves 
from us, if separate worship, according to the Lutheran form, 
should be allowed. 

5. The treasury of our deacons, (the poor fund) would be con- 
siderably diminished, and become unable to sustain the burdens 
it has hitherto borne. It is known to your Hon. Body that there 
is no other means provided for the support of the poor, save what 
is collected in the church. This is given to widows, orphans, 
and to all who make suitable application whatever may be theii' 
religious persuasion. This could not be done imder any other 

6. If the Lutherans should be indulged in the exercise of their 
(public) worship, the Papist, Mennonites and others, would soon 
make similar claims. Thus we would soon become a Babel of 



388 Ecclesiastical Records 

confusion, instead of remaining a united and peaceful people. 
Indeed it would prove a plan of Satan to smotlier this infant, 
rising congregation, almost in its birth, or at least to obstruct 
the march of truth in its progress. 

"We therefore request your Hon. Body earnestly to consider 
the measure referred to, as injurious to the political as well as to 
the religious interests of this place; and, following in the foot- 
steps of your predecessors in authority in this city, as well as 
in the Province at large, "^dll take measures to arrest the evil 
ready to creep in, and prevent it according to your best ability. 
So doing, etc. Your Honors' Obedient 

John Megapolensis. 
July 6, (12) 165Y. Samuel Drisius. 

Endorsed on this letter is the following : — 

The Burgomasters and Schepens having read the request herein 

presented, by the ministers of the Holy Gospel, return thanks 

to them for their care in this matter. They refer them to the 

request of their Honors on this subject, heretofore made to the 

Government, and the reply thereto, which are hereunto annexed. 

By the order of the Burgomasters and Schepens, 

Timotheus Gabry, Secretary. 
August 13, 165T, 

at the City Hall, in 

Amsterdam, ISTew ISTetherland. 

Repoet of the Mayor and Aldermen of New Amsterdam 

TJpoN the Petition of the Ministers Against Allowing 

Lutheran Services. 

1657, July 14th. 

To the ISToble, Honorable Director-General and the Honorable 
Council of New Netherland: — 
With all due respect, the Burgomasters and Schepens of this 
city show, that the ministers of the Gospel here appeared yester- 

OF THE State of New Yoke. 389 

day before us with, the annexed petition, concerning the arrival 
of a Lutheran preacher, who had come by the ship " Goude Meu- 
len " (Golden Mills). They allege several reasons and motives, 
why the spread of that doctrine ought to be prevented here. 
These having been taken into consideration by us, the aforesaid 
Lutheran preacher, named Johannes Ernestus Goetwater was sum- 
moned before us. We asked him, witk what intentions he had 
come to this country. He thereupon frankly answered, he bad 
been sent on behalf of their Consistory, to occupy the position 
of a preacher here, as far as it would be allowed. He also 
trusted that a letter of permit would come by the ship " Waegh " 
(Balance), giving them freedom of religion as in the Fatherland; 
also that the Directors (of the West India Company) had this 
matter under consideration, about which, a resolution should fol- 
low at the next opportunity; and that he had writings from the 
Lutheran Consistory of Amsterdam, to be delivered to their 
congregation here. 

When we deliberated on all this, we could not believe that the 
Hon. Directors would tolerate in this place any other doctrine, 
than the true Eeformed Religion. This is fully sustained by 
the oath, which your Honors administered to us upon our enter- 
ing upon our duties, and which the Honorable, the Lords-Pa- 
troons, approved. By this we bound ourselves under oath to help 
maintain the true Reformed Religion, and to suffer no other 
religion or sects. Therefore we have charged the said Goet- 
waeter, not to hold public or private exercise in this city, and 
not to deliver to the congregation, as he called it, the letters 
from the (Lutheran) Consistory (at Amsterdam) until further 
orders. As this is a matter which concerns not only this place, 
but the whole Province, we address ourselves further to your 
Honors, and request that measures may be found, by which, the 
true Reformed Religion will be maintained, and all other sects 
excluded, that the blessing of the Lord may increase in its flow 




upon us. Thus all our good inliabitants will feel obliged to skow 
their gratitude to your Honors, for doing this, etc. 
By order of the Hon, Burgomasters and Schepens, 
Timotheus Gabry, 
Secretary of Amsterdam, in ISTew Netherland. 

Received the report by the Burgomasters and Schepens of this 
city, accompanying the petition of the ministers. 

The Director-General and Council are well pleased with the 
zeal and desire, shown by the Burgomasters and Schepens of this 
city for supporting the Reformed doctrine and excluding schisma- 
tics, and praise them therefor. The Director-General and Council 
agree in every particular with the report. They request and 
order the Burgomasters and the Schepens of this city, as well as 
all other inferior Courts, that the orders and edicts formerly 
issued and repeatedly published against this thing; and especially 
the order, repeated on the first of February, Anno 1656, shall 
be retained and enforced strictly. We consider this to be neces- 
sary for the maintenance and conservation not only of the Re- 
formed divine service, but also of political and civil peace, quiet- 
ness and harmony. Thus done at the meeting of the Honorable 
Director-General and Council, held at Fort Amsterdam in ISTew 
Xetherland, the 14th of July, Anno 1657. 

Signed by order of the jSToble, Honorable 

Director-General and Council, 

C. van Ruyven, Secretary. 
Report of the 

Burgomasters and Schepens 

of Amsterdam, to Director-General 

and Council about maintaining the Reformed Religion, 

with (exclusion of sects.) 

OF THE State of New York. 391 

Gov. Stuyvesant to the Magisteaats off Heemstead. 

17 July, 1657. 
Lovlnge Frindes — Before ml departure from you I was In hoopes; off a good act 
amongst you both in settlingh off mister denton's continuance according to agree- 
ment off the tents for the present year: Butt Beeinge in hest Back and ready for 
mi returne; Both were Broocli off By sum turbelent Spirits iff in the neme off the 
whole or any is yet ignorant; but not satisfeyt therefore you may be pleased to 
understand by these presents that wee are yett expected the tenths uppon the field 
for the year present and accordanse to the value off them for the yeare past this 
therefore Is ordered by these present that before the gatheringe off the crop you 
shall give tymly noticij that we may send a men for the such or watt is the patrons 
due, and for the ministry: You al doe know that Mister Robert fordim sum tymes 
minister of the town off heemsted; did leave the plaeic and alsoo the exercys of 
the ministery without our wish or knowledge and for no little reasons therefore wee 
ken not admitt him in such a mennor of comminge againe. Soe after my servls 
recommendinge you all unto the proteckcon off the Almeytig I rest. 

Answer to the above. 
Right Wortschlpfull — Yours wee have received bearing date the 17th Jully 
wheare in wee understand you are unsatisfied heering summe speeches from sume 
pitlur (i. e. private) man or men not being imployed by the towne nor by thee 
knowledg or consent nether doe the towne owne what they have said wee hoope 
according to the agreement made for a hundredth skeepell of wheeat for the tentes 
you will be content the which the towne agreed with you and are willing to per- 
forme, our desiers are to Imbrace Mr. dentons ministrie if God be pleased to con- 
tinue hime amongst us and as for yoursellfe we have had sufficient experience of 
your willingnesse and doubt not but you are the same by your late free and noble 
profer. Soe hoping will not take any exceptions against the whoolle for sume p'tillr 
Estrauigant speches for soe it will sumtimes fall out wheare a generall voat is woe 
have sent Mr. Simons the hearer heare of hee shall further informe your woorshipe 
soo not further to truble your woorschepe att present wee remaine yours in all ser- 
vice to command according to our power 

Richard Gildeersleue, in the name and 

behaulfe of the towne of Hempsteed, 
this 25th of July, 1657. 

" To the Right Worschipfull peeter Stiuasnt Gouernor Generall of the new 
Netherlandes at his house foort amsterdame thesse present." — Doc. Hist. 
N. Y. iii. lis. 

Gov. Stuyvesaxt's Reply. 

Lovinge fricndos: — 

Your letter sent by Mr. Semlns and his information have given us full satisfaction 
so that wee sal rest in your promise off hundert schcpels oft' Weat for the tentes 
for the present yeare — about the contlnuancy off mister denton amongst you wee 
sal use al endevors we ken iff hee ken nott bee persuaded: you must locke for an- 
other Abel and Godly man weerunto we on our seydo sal contribu what Is in our 
power — soo etc. 

Heemsteid sent the 29th of July ady lGo7.— Doc. Hist. X. Y. Hi. 119. 



392 Ecclesiastical Recosds 

Classis of Amsterdam. 

Correspondence from America. 

1657, July 31st. 

J. T. Polhemus to the Classis of Amsterdam. 

Reverend, Learned and Esteemed Gentlemen, the Preachers of 
the Classis of Amsterdam, and dearly beloved Brethren in 
the Lord: — 

With respectful salutations and hearty thanks for all the favors 
shown to my wife in my absence, I am glad to inform you here- 
with, that she arrived here safely and in good health on the dth 
of September. For this the good God be praised above all, and 
then your Reverences, who have helped her. I wrote to you, to 
her, and to others, in the year 1655, and am very sorry to learn, 
that these letters have been kept back. But as I requested then, 
so I entreat your Reverences now, that you will not interpret, 
to my disadvantage, the circumstance that I had not written 
sooner. The reason was, that I was uncertain about my remain- 
ing here, and I was in doubt, whether I should not carry my 
news myself. I had no idea, that there could be any dissatis- 
faction with myself or my service. I also sent over my dismissal 
(from Brazil) and my testimonials. ISTow, Reverend Brethren, 
please not to give too much credence to backbiters; they are but 
human. With God's help I shall give satisfaction to those who 
watch here, as well as to your Reverences and to all pious people. 
May the merciful God help us all. Herewith I commend your 
Reverences, collectively and individually, to God's Almighty 

Your Reverences faithful and sincere servant, 

J. T. Polhemus. 
Midwout in ISTew I^Tetherland, 

Ultimo July, 1657. 

OF THE State of I^ew Yoek. 393 

Correspondence from Anaerica. 

1657, Aug. Sth. 

Eevs. J. Megapolensis and S. Drisius to the Classis of Amsterdam. 

P. S. Aug. 14. 

Eeverend, Pious and Learned Gentlemen, Fathers and Brethren 
in Christ Jesus : — 

The letters of your Eeverences, of the 13th of June 1656, and 
of the 15th of October of the same year have been received. We 
were rejoiced to learn of the fatherly affection and care which 
you show for the welfare of this growing congregation. We also 
learned thereby of the trouble, you have taken with the Lords Di- 
rectors, to prevent the evils threatened to our congregation by 
the creeping in of erroneous spirits; and of your Reverences' de- 
sire, to be informed of the condition of the churches in this coun- 

We answered you in the autumn of the year 1656, and ex- 
plained all things in detail. To this we have as yet received no 
reply, and are therefore in doubt, whether our letters reached 
you. This present letter must therefore serve the same end. 

The Lutherans here pretended, last year, that they had obtained 
the consent of the Lords Directors, to call a Lutheran Pastor 
from Holland. They therefore requested the Hon. Director and 
the Council, that they should have permission, meanwhile, to hold 
their conventicles to prepare the way for their expected and com- 
ing pastor. Although they began to urge this rather saucily, we, 
nevertheless, animated and encouraged by your letters, hoped for 
the best, yet feared the worst, which has indeed come to pass. 
For although we could not have believed that such permission had 
been given by the Lords Directors, there nevertheless arrived here, 
with the ship " Meulen. " (The ^lill) in July last, a Lutheran 
preacher Joannes Ernestus Goetwater, to the great joy of the 
Lutherans, but to the special displeasure and uneasiness of the 



394 Ecclesiastical Records 

congregation in this place ; yea, even the whole country including 
the English, were displeased. 

"We addressed ourselves, therefore, to his Honor, the Director- 
General, the Burgomasters and Schepens (Aldermen) of this 
place, and presented the enclosed petition. As a result thereof, 
the Lutheran pastor was siunmoned before their Honors and 
asked, with what intentions he had come here, and what com- 
mission and credentials he possessed. He answered, that he had 
come to serve here as a Lutheran preacher, but that he had no 
other commission, than a letter from the Lutheran Consistory at 
Amsterdam to the Lutheran congregation here. He was then 
informed by the Hon. authorities here, that he must abstain from, 
all church services, and from the holding of any meetings, and 
not even deliver the letter, which he brought from the Lutherans 
at Amsterdam without further orders ; but that he must regu- 
late himself by the edicts of this Province against private con- 
venticles. He promised to do this, adding, however, that with the 
next ships he expected further orders and his regular commis- 
sion. In the meantime, however, we had the snake in our bosom. 
We would have been glad if the authorities here had opend that 
letter of the Lutheran Consistoiy, to learn therefrom the secret 
of his mission, but as yet they have not been willing to do this. 

We then demanded that our authorities here should send back 
the Lutheran preacher, who had come without the consent of the 
Lords Directors, in the same ship in which he had come, in order 
to put a stop to this work, which they evidently intended to prose- 
cute with a hard Lutheran head, in spite of and against the will 
of our magistrates; for we suspect that this one has come over to 
see whether he can pass, and be allowed to remain here, and thus 
to lay the foundation for further efforts ; but we do not yet know 
what we can accomplish. 

Domine Gideon Schaats wrote to you last year about the con- 
gregation at Rensselaerswyck or Beverwyck, as he intends to do 

OF THE State of ^N^ew York. 395 

again. We know nothing othemvise than that the congregation 
there is in a good condition; that it is growing vigorously, so that 
it is almost as strong as we are here at the Manhatans. They 
built last year a handsome parsonage. On the South River, mat- 
ters relating to religion and the church have hitherto progressed 
very unsatisfactorily; first because we had there only one little 
fort, and in it a single Commissary, with ten to twenty men, all 
in the Company's service, merely for trading with the Indians. 
Secondly: In the year 1651 Fort jSTassau was abandoned and 
razed, and another, called Fort Casemier, was erected, lower down 
and nearer to the seaboard. This was provided with a stronger 
garrison, and was reinforced by several freemen, who lived near it. 

But the Swedes, increasing there in numbers, troubled and 
annoyed our people daily. After they had taken Fort Casemier 
from us, they annoyed our countrymen so exceedingly, that the 
South River was abandoned by them. However in the year 1655 
our people recovered Fort Casemier, and now it is held by a suf- 
ficiently strong garrison, including several freemen, Avho also have 
dwellings about. One was then appointed, to read to them on. 
Sundays, from the Postilla. This is continued to this day. The 
Lutheran preacher (Peter Iljort) who was there was returned to 

Two miles from Forst Casemier, up the river, is another Fort, 
called Christina. This was also taken by our people, at the same 
time, and the preacher there (Xertunius) was sent away, mth 
the Swedish garrison. 

But because many Swedes and Fins, at least two hundred, live 
above Fort Christina, two or three miles further up the river, the 
Swedish Governor made a condition in his capitulation, that they 
might retain one Lutheran preacher, (Lokenius) to teach these 
people in their language. This was granted then the more easily. 
First, because new troubles had broken out at Manhattan with 
the Indian, it was desirable to shorten proceedings here and re- 



396 Ecclesiastical Records 

turn to the Manhattans to put things in order there. Secondly 
because there was no Reformed preacher here, nor any who 
understood their language, to be located there. 

This Lutheran preacher (Lokenius) is a man of impious and 
scandalous habits, a wild, drunken, unmannerly clown, more in- 
clined to look into the wine can than into the Bible. He would 
prefer drinking brandy two hours to preaching one ; and when the 
sap is in the wood his hands itch and he wants to fight whomso- 
ever he meets. The Commandant at Fort Casimir, Jean Paulus 
Jacquet, brother-in-law of Domine Casparus Carpentier, told us, 
that during last spring this preacher was tippling with a smith, 
and while yet over their brandy they came to fisticuffs, and beat 
each others heads black and blue; yea, that the smith tore all 
the clothing from the preachers body, so that this godly minister 
escaped in primitive nakedness, and although so poorly clothed, 
yet sought quarrels with others. Sed hoc parergiocos. 

On Long Island there are seven villages, belonging to this 
Province, of which three, Breuckelen, (Brooklyn) Amesfoort, 
(Flatlands,) and Midwout (Flatbush) are inhabited by Dutch peo- 
ple, who formerly used to come here (to ISTew Amsterdam) to 
communion and other services to their great inconvenience. Some 
had to travel for three hours to reach this place. Therefore, 
when Domine Polheymus arrived here from Brazil, they called 
him as preacher, which the Director-General and Council con- 

The four other \allages on Long Island, viz., Gravensand, 
(Gravesend,) Middelburgh, (ISTewtOMm,) Ylissingen, (Flushing,) 
and Heemstede are inhabited by Englishmen. The people of 
Gravensand are considered Mennonites. The majority of them 
reject the baptism of infants, the observance of the Sabbath, the 
office of preacher, and any teachers of God's word. They say 
that thereby all sorts of contentions have come into the world. 
Whenever they meet, one or the other reads something to them. 

OF THE State of ]^ew Yoek, 397 

At Vlissingen, they formerly had a Presbyterian mmister 
(Doughty) who was in agreement mth our own church. But at 
present, many of them have become imbued with divers opinions 
and it is with them " quot homines tot sententiae." They began 
to absent themselves from the sermon and would not pay the 
preacher the salai-y promised to him. He was therefore obliged 
to leave the place and go to the English Virginias. They have 
now been without a preacher for several years. Last year a 
troublesome fellow, a cobbler from Ehode Island in JSTew Eng- 
land, came there saying, he had a commission from Christ. He 
began to preach at Vlissingen and then went with the people into 
the river and baptized them. When this became known here, the 
Eiscal went there, brought him to this place, and he was banished 
from the Province. 

At Middelburgh, alias E'ewtown, they are mostly Independents 
and have a man, called Joannes Moor of the same way of think- 
ing, who preaches there, but does not serve the sacraments. He 
says, he was licensed in ISTew England to preach, but not author- 
ized to administer the sacraments. He has thus continued for 
some years. Some of the inhabitants of this village are Presby- 
terians, but they cannot be supplied by a Presbyterian preacher. 
Indeed, we do not know that there are any preachers of this de- 
nomination to be found among any of the English of New Eng- 

At Heemstede, about seven Dutch miles (twenty one English 
miles) from here, there live some Independents. There are also 
many of our own church, and some Presbyterians. They have a 
Presb}i;erian preacher, Richard Denton, a pious, godly and 
learned man, who is in agreement with our church in everything. 
The Independents of the place listen attentively to his sermons; 
but when he began to baptize the children of parents, who are 
not members of the church, they rushed out of the church. 

On the west shore of the East River, about one mile beyond 



398 Ecclesiastic Ai. Records 

Hellgate, as we call it, and opposite Flushing, is another English 
village, called Oostdorp, which was begun two years ago. The in- 
habitants of this place are also Puritans or Independents. !N^either 
have they a preacher, but they hold meetings on Sunday, and 
read a sermon of some English 'UT-iter, and have a prayer. 

About eighteen (Dutch) miles (fifty four English miles) up the 
l^orth River, half way between the Manhattans and Rensselaer 
or Beverwyck, lies a place, called by the Dutch Esopus or Sypous, 
and by the Indians, Atharhacton. It is an exceedingly fine coun- 
try there. Thereupon some Dutch families settled there who are 
doing very well. They hold Sunday meetings and then one or 
the other of them reads from the Postilla. 

Such is the condition of the church in our Province. To this 
we must add, that, as far as we know, not one of all these places, 
Dutch or English has a schoolmaster, except the Manhattans, 
Beverwyck, and now also Eort Casimir on the South River. And 
although some parents try to give their children some instruction, 
the success is far from satisfactory, and we can expect nothing 
else than young men of foolish and undisciplined minds. We see 
at present no way of improving this state of affairs ; first, because 
some of the villages are just starting, and have no means, the 
people having come half naked and poor from Holland, to pay a 
preacher and schoolmaster ; secondly, because there are few quali- 
fied persons here who can or will teach. 

We can say but little of the conversion of the heathens or In- 
dians here, and see no way to accomplish it, until they are sub- 
dued by the numbers and power of our people, and reduced to 
some sort of civilization; and also unless our people set them a 
better example, than they have done heretofore. 

We have had an Indian here vdth us for about two years. He 
can read and write Dutch very well. We have instructed him in 
the fundamental principles of our religion, and he answers pub- 
licly in church, and can repeat the Commandments. We have 

OP THE State of Kew Yokk. 399 


given him a Bible, hoping he might do some good among the In- 
dians, but it all resulted in nothing. He took to drinking brandy, 
he pawned the Bible, and turned into a regular beast, doing more 
harm than good among the Indians. 

Closing we commend your Reverences to the gracious protec- 
tion of the Almighty, whom we pray to bless you in the Sacred 
Ministry. Vestri et officio et afFectu, 

Johannes Megapolensis. 

Samuel Drissius. 
Amsterdam, in ISTew ISTetherland, 
the 5th of August, 1657. 

(Compare this translation with one found in Doc. Hist. N. Y. 
iii. 69-72; 4to ed.) 

[The following Postscript to the above letter, nine days after, 
is not given in Documentary History. It is as follows : — ] 

Reverend, Pious, Very Learned Fathers and Brethren in Christ : — 
Just after closing our recent letter of August 5th, it happened 
that on Augiist 6tli (or 12th) a ship came from the sea to this 
place, and approached the Fort, having no flag flying from the 
topmast, nor from any other place on the ship; only from the fore- 
mast a small burgee floated to indicate the \\'ind. We could not 
decide whether she was Dutch, French, or English. They fired 
no salute before the fort, as is usual with ships on their arrival. 
When the Fiscal went on board, they tendered him no honor or 
respect. When the master of the ship came on shore and appeared 
before the Director-General, he rendered him no respect, but stood 
still with his hat firm on his head, as if a goat. The Director- 
General could with difficulty get a word from any of them. Ho 
only learned that they had come from London in about eight 
weeks. When asked as to the condition of Holland, France, etc., 
hardly a word could l)e drawn from them. xVt last information 
was gained that it was a ship ^nth Quakers on board. The fol- 
lowing morning early they hoisted anchor and sailed eastward, to- 

400 Ecclesiastical Records 


wards Hellgatej as we call it, in the direction of jSTew England. 
We suppose they went to Ehode Island; for that is the receptacle 
of all sorts of riff-raff people, and is nothing else than the sewer^ 
(latrina) of JSTew England. All the cranks of iSTew England retire 
thither. "We suppose they will settle there, as they are not tol- 
erated by the Independents in any other place. Last year there 
also arrived at Boston, in l^ew England, several of these Quakers^ 
but they were immediately put in prison and then sent back in the 
same ship. Probably fearing the same thing, these Quakers came 
this way, and then passed on. But they did not pass from us so 
hastily, as not to leave some evidences of their having been here,, 
for they left behind two strong young women. As soon as the 
ship had fairly departed, these began to quake and go into a 
frenzy, and cry out loudly in the middle of the street, that men 
should repent, for the day of judgment was at hand. Our people 
not knowing what was the matter, ran to and fro, while one cried 
" Eire ", and another something else. The Fiscal, with an ac- 
companying officer, seized them both by the head, and led them 
to prison. On their way to jail, they continued to cry out and 
pray according to their manner, and continued to do the same 
when in prison. We perceive from this circumstance that the 
devil is the same everywhere. The same instruments which he 
uses to disturb the churches in Europe, he employs here in Amer- 
ica. We trust that our God will baffle the designs of the devil^ 
and preserve us in the truth, and bring to nothing these machina- 
tions of Satan. Einally, we commend your Reverences to the pro- 
tection of the Moat, High, while we beseech him to bless us all in 
the ministry, to the edification of his church. 

Your dutiful servants, 
Joannes Megapolensis. 
Samuel Drisius. 
Amsterdam, in New Netherland, 
August 14th, 1657. 

or THE State of New Yoek. 401 

1657, Aug. 10. 

Evert Pietersen, Schoolmaster at South Kiver, Delaware, to the 
Commissioiiers in Fort Amstel, South Eiver, 'New ISTether- 

We arrived here on April 25th (1657). I find twenty fami- 
lies, mostly Swedes. ]^ot more than five or six families belong to 
our nation. I have already begun to keep school, and have twenty 
five children, etc. 

Your Honor's most obedient servant, 

Evert Pietersen. 

1657, Aug. 12th. 

Evert Pietersen to the Reverend, Learned, Pious Domine Hendric 
Ruileus, minister of Jesus Christ in the flourishing congrega- 
tion of the City of Amsterdam. 

Domine Hendric Euileus : 
Emanuel ! 

Reverend Brother in Christ Jesus. Wishing you all bodily 
and spiritual blessing in Jesus Christ, I hope this will find you 
and your family in good health. I thank the Lord heartily for 
my own health. We have received very joyful news by the ships 
which have arrived from the Fatherland at the Manhattans, or at 
New Amstel. We learn " De Wagh " is coming with a galiot, 
bringing about four hundred people, among whom is the preacher, 
called Johannis (Everardus?) Weelius, and also ray son, Arent 
E^ertsen, a miller who comes over as super cargo. It makes me 
very glad, to see my children thus prospering. My son Jan Evert- 
sen, goes daily to the office of the Director to write, for which he 
receives his thanks. He is on the road to success. We look with 
longing for the arrival of this ship " De Wagh " and trust that 
under Divine Providence, we shall soon hear of her arrival. If 
any mishap should befnll her, wo would suffer n groat famine this 




winter. I must further tell you, that I am engaged in keeping 
school, with twenty five children in it; but I have no paper nor 
pens for the use of the children, nor slates and pencils. As soon 
as winter begins and they can no longer work on the soil, old and 
young will come to school, and learn to read, write (and cipher). 
But I have nothing, from which to teach them. To keep school 
here, is something of a novelty, as it has not been done before. 
The books mentioned on the enclosed memorandum, please to take 
care that they be sent by the first ship, for I am especially in need 
of them. Please to speak to van Beeck, as to the price at which 
I am to sell them. Let the paper and books be packed separately, 
for if they get into the Directors hands, we cannot get them. 
I must also respectfully request you, to be kind enough to go with 
my wife to van Beeck, and ask him to help her to get one hun- 
dred and fifty guilders of my already earned wages, and which 
must now stand to my credit; for I receive forty guilders per 
month. This will assist her in making provision for the winter, 
by buying meats, bacon, turf and wood. Otherwise she could not 
get along decently with the children, but would perish in sorrow. 
I have also written to van Beeck, that our steward, Cors. Jansen, 
has robbed the magazine. He was caught at it by the soldiers and 
banished from the river for twenty one years, and neither he nor 
his children may enter into any public service. I expect a letter 
from you next spring, with information in it of what our colonists 
write home, as great complaints are heard here against our Di- 
rector. He does not observe the ninth and twenty fifth articles; 
for the colonists are obliged to buy everything at fixed prices, wljen 
they need anything. They are also put on rations ; seven pounds 
of bread ; four of wheat, two cups (pints) of ground barley ; one 
cup of peas, one pound of codfish, per week; a child on half ra- 
tions ; one quart of oil, half a pint of vinegar ; but the men, who 
go to work in the woods daily, cannot live on this. Hence there is 
a great deal of murmuring. One has written this, and another 



that, to their friends at home. So much discontent has been cre- 
ated, that about thirty families, living at the Manhattans, who were 
ready to come here to the South Eiver, have remained in their 
places, because of the ill-intentioned writing from here, that the 
people suffered hunger. I fear that such rumors circulating in 
the Fatherland, will stay this good work. Write me also of the 
war between the Swedes and Danes, and send a part of the 
Gazettes, that I may have something else to read. Herewith clos- 
ing and commending you to God's protection I salute you, with 
your dear wife and children, most heartily. Please to send the 
enclosed letter to my wife. 

Your friend, 

Mr. Evert Pietersen. 
Dated the 12th of Augiist, 1657, 
at Fort New Amstel, on the South Eiver 
in New Netherland. 

Synod of North Holland, at Haarlem. 

1657, Aug. 13 et seq. 
Art. 2. Register. 

According to Article 55, of the preceding Synod: This speaks 
of the well known Register-book, and refers to the inserting of 
resolutions and apostillen in the Acta of Synod. 

After this, it was resolved to hold this matter in abeyance, until 
the respective Classes could bring in resolutions on that point to 
this Synod at the beginning thereof. These having been read, 
it was found that the Classes, by a majority of votes, declared 
that henceforth the Register-book, as begun two years ago, (1655), 
shall remain in esse; and that only the summaries of the Remon- 
strances (Memorials) and Petitions shall be inserted in the Acta 
of Synod ; but the resolutions and apostillen in plena forma. 


404 Ecclesiastical Records 

Article 35. 

Extracts concerning the state of the Indian and other foreign 
churches, handed in to the Rev. Synod, and read by the Rev. 
Classis of Amsterdam: 

The Lutherans in ISTew ISTetherland, having attempted the pub- 
lic exercises of their religion, have been opposed therein with good 
endeavors, and not without fair success. 

Sent to 'New ISTetherland as a minister. Rev. Everardus Welius^ 
in April 1657; as siekentrooster and school-master, Aert Pieter- 
sen, in December 1658 (1656?) 

Sent as siekentrooster to the East Indies, in October 1656, 
John Walraven. 

Father Simon Le Moyne. 

, 1657, Aug. 26. 

This Missionary, Pere Le Moyne,* had followed some Christian Hurons into 
the Mohawk territory, and took occasion soon after to visit New Amsterdam, 
for the purpose of affording spiritual comfort to the Catholics residing in that 
city, as well as to some French sailors who had recently arrived with a prize 
at that port. The Dutch, always alive to the extension of their commerce, 
seized the occasion of this visit to demand permission to visit the St. Lawrence 
for the purpose of trade, and solicit Le Moyne to represent their wishes to the 
Governor of Canada. The Jesuit's representations were crowned with success. 
The Canadian Governor consented that New Netherland vessels should hence- 
forward resort to Quebec, on the same terms as French ships, with this reserve, 
however, that the Dutch should not participate in the Indian trade, nor be 

* " This Simon Le Moyne has been with Indians from the Indian country several 
times at Fort Orange. At last he came here to the Jilauhattans, without doubt, 
on account of tlie Papists residing here, and especially for the accommodatioa 
of the French sailors, who are Papists, and who have arrived here with a good 
prize." Rev. Domine Megapolensis to the Classis of Amsterdam. On his return 
to Fort Orange, the Jesuit wrote three essays: 1. On the Succession of the 
Popes; 2. On the Council; 3. On Heretics; which he sent to Rev. Mr. Megapo- 
lensis with a letter commending them to his study, adding. " that Christ hanging 
on the wood of the cross was still ready to receive his repentance," (or conver- 
sion.) The Dutch Domine sent an answer by a yacht then on the eve of sailing 
from New Amsterdam for Canada. But the vessel was lost, and so Pere Le 
Moyne never received this reply to his " Catalogos." [See letter of Megapolensis 
to Classis, Sept. 28, 1658, and also his reply to Le Moyne, a copy of which he 
made and sent to Holland and is now in the Archives of General Synod — nine 
closely written pages.] See letter of September 28, 1658. 

OF THE State of I^ew York. 405 

allowed the public exercise of their relation in that country. As this proviso 
was merely a counterpart of the rules which the Dutch themselves prescribed 
In their province, they did not object; on the contrary, they hastened to talie 
advantage of the " happy and fortunate," circumstances, and prepared to " plough 
with their craft " the waters of the St. Lawrence. — O'Callaghan's History of 
New Netherland, vol. 11., 363. 

Acts of the Classis of Amsterdam. 

Rev. Henr. Selyns. 

1657, Sept. 3rd. 

Rev. Henricus Seljns asks that he may be examined prepara- 
toir (for licensure) This was granted him upon his praiseworthy 
credentials ecclesiastical as well as academic. — vi. 74. 

Rev. Henr. Selyns. 

1657, Oct. 2nd. 

Rev. Henricus Selyns having made his exposition, (preached 
his sermon) on John 5 :39, Search the scriptures, etc. and hav- 
ing then been examined in the principal articles of the Christian 
Reformed Religion, gave such very great satisfaction to the Assem- 
bly, both by his preaching and by his answers to the questions of 
the Rev. Examiner, that he was admitted to the public ministry 
(preaching) after the signing of the Acta (the Formulae) re- 
quired. — vi. 79. 

Petition of the Lutherans to the Governor and Council of 
ITew ^NTetherland, Oct, 10, 1657. 

To the ISToble Honorable Director-General, and the Council of New 
N'etherland : — 
With all due respect, we, the adherents of the Unaltered Augs- 
burg Confession, here in New Netherland, and under the judisdic- 
tion of the Lords Principals of the West India Company, hereby 
show, that the Burgomasters of this City of Amsterdam in New 
Netherland, have received an order from your Honors, first, by 
the City Messenger Gysbert op Dyck, and shortly after by the 
Honorable Fiscal, Nicasius de Sille, to the Rev. Master in The- 


406 Ecclesiastical Records 

ologj, Johannis Ernestus Gutwasser, that lie must and shall de- 
part in the ship, the "Waag", (the Balance), now ready to sail. 
Wherefore, in paying our respects to your Honors, we beg to say 
that in accordance with your Honors orders and public announce- 
ments he has behaved as an honest man, and has never refused 
obedience to your orders and edicts, but has always given good heed 
to them; and we too, have behaved quietly and obediently, while 
we expect from higher authority, the toleration of our religion — 
that of the Unaltered Augsburg Confession, To this result we 
still look forward after receipt of another letter to us. 

We humbly supplicate your Honors, that the sudden orders, 
the one by the City Messenger, and the other by the Fiscal, to 
Domine Johannis Ernestus Goetwasser, may be revoked by your 
Honors, until we receive further orders from their High Mighti- 
nesses, our sovereigns, and from the Noble Lord Directors of the 
Privileged West India Company. Remaining your Honors' faith- 
ful and watchful (servants) and good Christians, all adherents 
of the Unaltered Augsburg Confession, and having been admitted 
into New Netherland, we, in the absence of the others, have signed 
this petition: Mattheus Capito, Christian Niesen, Harmen Edu- 
warsen, Hans Dreper, Lourens Andriesen, Luycas Dircksen, XX 
Jan Jansen, XX Jochem Beeckman, Andries Rees, Luycas Elder- 
sen, Harmen Jansen, Jan Cornelisse, Davidt Wessels, Hans Sille- 
javck, Hendrick Hendricksen, XX Meyndert Barentsen, Harmen 
Smeeman, Cristian Barentsen, George Hanel, Pieter Jansen, XX 
Winckelhoeck, Claes de Wit, XX Jacob Elders, Hendrick Wil- 
lemee. We await your Honors favorable decision. Amsterdam, 
in New Netherland, this 10th day of October, Anno 1657. 

As answer this may serve: that the Director-General and the 
Council do not recognize the Unaltered Augsburg Confession, 
much less any of the adherents of it. They confirm, therefore, 
hereby, their order and resolution of the 4th of September, sent 
to Johannis Ernestus Goetwasser, who calls himself a Lutheran 

OF THE State of ]^ew York. 407 


preacher, at Amsterdam, in 'New ISTetherland. Since that order, 
five or six weeks ago, two ships have sailed, on board of one of 
which the said Goesswater was ordered to depart. x\s he has 
treated the order of this Provincial Government with contempt, 
he is hereby once again commanded to leave with one of the ships 
now ready to sail. The Director-General and Council consider 
this necessary for the glory of God, for the success of the Re- 
formed Religion, and the common quiet, peace and harmony of 
this Province. Thus done at the meeting of the Honorable Di- 
rector-General and the Council, held at Fort Amsterdam in New 
ISTetherland on the 16th of October 165Y. By order of the Hon. 
Director-General and Council aforesaid. 

C. V. Ruyven, Secretary. 

Having compared the foregoing petition and order, it is found 


C. V. Ruyven, Secretary. 

Rev. J. H. Gutwasser, Lutheran Minister^ to the Governor 

AND Council. 

1657, Oct. 15th. 

To the jSToble, Honorable Director-General and the Honorable 
Council of New Netherland : — 
In answer to the repeated verbal and written denunciations or 
orders to me, to depart from here within three times twenty four 
hours, I wish humbly to submit to your Honors for your favor- 
able hearing and decision, a very few points, as follows : 

1. That I do not deny your Honors' declaration, as expressed, 
that I desire to be free from charges of disobedience. 

2. But also I do not consent to defend myself in such a troubled 
state of conscience. 

3. Therefore I would like to know, why this order has been 
issued against me. 

4. For I have exhibited my passports, and therewith the per- 
mission of the Lords Directors, who promise me still other favors. 


403 Ecci^siASTiCAL Records 

5. The special permission from your Honors, to live here, as a 
free student is nowhere canceled. 

6. What has been asked, is, will and shall be mediis lieites via 
consessa et at competentis personas, also done here. 

Y. I have behaved myself here in such a way that I cannot be 
accused of Crimen Laesae Majestatis. 

8. ISTeither shall any evil be done by me hereafter. 

9. While I am waiting for further orders from Holland, ac- 
cording to promise. 

10. I find myself worried about my affairs ; for I cannot wisely 
handle my property, scattered here and there, in obedience to your 
sudden order. I am also of opinion, that much depends on my 
reputation and habits (fama et vita), which would be endangered 
by the order given me, and which your Honors must also consider. 

I desire to inform your Honors, as to my humble opinions on 
few points; Your Honors will please to consider justly the fore- 
going points, and not carry out their unexpected sentence against 
me. Awaiting your Honors' favorable decision, 
Amsterdam in l^ew !N^etherland, the 15th of October 1657. 

Your IToble Honors, 

John Ernestus Gutwasser. 

The foregoing request was handed in to the meeting of Di- 
rector-General and Council and having been read, the following 
decision was given. 

The petitioner, who forgets himself and the truth, is reminded, 
that the order for his departure was served upon him five or six 
weeks ago, and sent in writing. Since that time two ships have 
sailed. In one of these he ought to have left, according to order, 
but the petitioner has neglected to do this, in contempt of the 
government. He is once more commanded to obey said order by 
going in one of the two ships about to sail; especially as the Di- 
rector-General and Council consider it necessary for the honor of 
God, the advancement of the Reformed Religion, and the common 

OF THE State of JSTew Yoke. 409 

quietness, peace and harmony of this place. Thus done at Fort 
Amsterdam in !N"ew jSTetherland, the 16th of October, Anno 1657. 
By order of the Honorable Director-General and Council; 

C. V. Kuyven, Secretary. 

Correspondence from America. 

165Y, Oct. 25th. 

Eevs. Megapolensis and Drisius to the Clas