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'^ Sburgr tgttur et fac et erit Bominus terum'' 












*' Surge Cgftnr ct fat: et rrit 9ominas ucnm.*' 

No. CXXX.— FEBRUARY, 1859. 

(new series^ no. xciv.) 


To the Editor of the Ecclesiologist, 

Greenhiihe, October, 1858. 
My dkar Mr. Editor, — In fulfilment of my promise, I will now en- 
deavour to arrange my notes of a tour to the land and home of Albert 
Durer, and his master, Wohlgemuth, whence I have just returned. 
Much of the ground I traversed haft been so thoroughly explored and 
illustrated by Mr. Webb, in his work on *' Continental Ecclesiology," 
as to leave little for a pilgrim in his wake to dilate upon ; nevertheless 
I am not apprehensive that my notices will be found entirely devoid 
of interest, because they principally relate to the remains of ancient 
pictorial Christian art in Southern Germany, a topic but incidentally 
treated in Mr. Webb's volume ; and about which I can speak witii 
some confidence, in consequence of my having fortunately had, as a 
travelling companion, a gentleman whose judgment on this subject has 
been formed, not alone from books, but by long experience and a care- 
ful, con amore, study of many of the finest early pictures, both abroad 
and at home. 

Journeying direct from Ostend to Cologne, we reached the " Rome 
of the North " before nightfall. The reports of the architect, Zwirner, 
periodically published in the Ecclesiologist, relieve me from the task 
of giving an account of the progress of the new works at the cathe- 
dral ; but I cannot help mentioning, with regret, that a considerable 
portion of the nave on either side of the great central area, has been 
encumbered by wooden platforms, on which costly oak open benches, 
high, massive, and decorated with carving, have been erected. The 
chapel of S. Agnes, in the retrochoir, contains the " Dom-bild," 
(formeriy in the chi^ of the town-hall,) the ckef-d'cntvre of the 
school of Cobgne, painted about 1450, by Stephen Lothener. In the 
chief compartment is pictured the Adoration of the Kings. The 


2 Some Notes of a Tour in Germany. 

Blessed Virgin with the Child in her arms is seated on a throne, and 
clothed in a dark-blue mantle, lined with ermine ; the two elder kings 
kneel on either side of her, and the younger one stands on her left 
hand. Their attendants, bearing gifts and emblazoned banners, wait 
around. Behind her float seven angels, on a gold background. On 
the right wing is S. Gkreon, in gilt armour and blue velvet surcoat, 
accompanied by his men-at-arms. On the left are S. Ursula, with a 
Pope, a Bishop, a Youth, and female companions. The back of the wings, 
when closed, contains the Annunciation. This grand triptych is alike 
distinguished for beauty and harmony of colour, and for its simple 
and solemn dignity of composition and arrangement, combined with 
elaborate finish in the details ; and to adopt the words of an eminent 
German art-critic, " a feeling of ideal grace and beauty is breathed 
over the whole work, and is just as conspicuous in the loveliness of 
the Virgin with the Divine Child, as in the serene dignity of the kings 
who worship, and the youthful fulness of form and tenderness of ex- 
pression in the holy virgins and the knights who accompany them."^ 

In the museum are two other works of great interest, ascribed to 
Stephen Lothener. One represents the Blessed Virgin with her Infant 
Son, seated in a flowery meadow in a bower of roses. In the sky 
above her the Almiobtt is pourtrayed as the *' Ancient of Days,*' and 
the Divine Dove hovers over her head. The other, the central portion 
of the great altar-picture, formerly in the church of S. Laurence in 
Cologne, represents the Doom. Our Saviour, blessing with His 
right hand, and unveiling the wound in His side to the condemned, 
sits on a rainbow between the kneeling figures of SS. Mary and 
John Baptist, surrounded by seraphs of intense blue, bearing the in- 
struments of the Passion. Below, in the centre, the dead are rising 
-from their graves. On the left of the spectator is the gate of heaven, 
a lofty tower of Pointed architecture with angelic warders. The train 
of the redeemed, escorted by angels, is entering the celestial portal, 
and welcomed by S. Peter and a choir of '* shining ones." On the 
right are the mouth of hell, Satan, and the reprobate, among whom 
a female, nude and bloated, is rather ofiensively prominent. This pic- 
ture, notwithstanding the powerful tone of its colouring, " fails,*' as 
has been remarked, "in that depth of character and earnest sub- 
limity which the scene demands." Its background has, unfortunately, 
been regilt' The museum contains several other important works by 
ancient German masters, but I had not leisure to make notes of them. 
In the baptistery of the church of S. Mary in Capitolio, is a panel 
picture assigned to Albert Diirer. It bears his monogram, and the 
date 1521, and if not by him, is, at all events, a good specimen of his 
school. On one side is the Decease of the Virgin, and on the reverse 
are the Apostles around her empty sepulchre. 

The railway-bridge, which is to supersede the steam ferry across 
the Rhine, wUl terminate in the Franken Platz, within a few hundred 

1 A small engraving of this pictnro will be found at p. 314, of ''The Early 
Flemiah Painters. By J. A. Crowe and G. B. CaYalcaselle." 8vo. 1857. 

' Mestn. Crowe tad Cavalcaielle ascribe this picture to an imitator of Stephen 

Some Notes of a Tour in Gemuay. p 

feet of the east end of the Dom, and its modem appearance will ill 
iccocd, I fear, with the hoary grandeur of the cathedral- choir. 

From Cologne we proceed^ by rail to Bonn, and thence up the 
Rhine to Cohlenz. On the north of the choir of the church of S. 
Castor in that city, ia a fine painting on a gold ground, mentioned 
by Mr. Webb, and attributed by Dr. Kugler to Meister Wilhelm of 
Cologne. It is of the year 1388. Its subject is the Crucifixion, 
with the Blessed Virgin and S. Peter standing on the left, SS. John 
Evangelist and Castor on the right, and Cuno, Archbishop of Treves* 
kneeimg at the foot of the cross. Half figures of our Loan, S. Mary, 
the Apostles, and other saints, are depict^ in panelling on the south 
aisle. The Liebfrauen-ldrche was crowded with worshippers at low 
mass, about eight a.m. ; not so the Lutheran church, which was fast 
closed, and hardly repaid one for the trouble of getting into it. A 
large crucifix, and four angels holding candles, stand on the commu- 
nion-table, open seats are fixed on platforms in the nave, and the mid- 
dle alley is filled with chairs, which (I may remark by the way) I 
found in no other church in Germany. Perhaps they are appropriated 
to the women, as I have learned is the case with those of the Cal- 
▼inittic church of S. Laurence, in Rotterdam, to which I alluded in 
the Ecdenologist^ vol. xiii. p. 358. The pulpit, on the north of the 
nave, has modem figures of our Loan and Saints, and a clumsy 
Pointed canopy of a light slate colour ; opposite to it is a raised seat 
or throne very similarly canopied. 

From Coblenz we traveUed by water to Mayence. In the Dom» 
about ten a.m., on Sunday, September 26th, I found a large congre- 
gation, collected in the aisles and open seats, (placed lengthwise, in 
triple row, down either side of the nave,) but leaving the wide central 
passage unoccupied. Mass, with musical accompaniment, was being 
solemnized by a single priest at the high altar ; and at its conclusion 
the people sang a hymn with great energy. Three persons commu- 
nicated at the sanctuary-rail, on which hung a white cloth. The 
hearty devotion of the| numerous worshippers, the vast Romanesque 
pile in which they were assembled, and especially the grand colossal 
upright effigies of the Archbishop Electors, affixed to the nave piers, 
combined to render the scene very religious and solemn. After Divine 
Service, I was indebted to the courtesy of one of the ecclesiastics of 
the cathedral for a view of the chalices, &c., preserved in the sacristy, 
and felt disappointed at learning that the " reliquary of wonderful 
beauty," mentioned by Mr. Webb, was no longer there. Over a con- 
iesnonal. in a chapel of the south aisle, a httle east of the pulpit, is 
a large triptych. The middle compartment contains figures, coloured 
and gilt, of the Bleaaed Virg^ being crowned by the FATHEa and the 
SoM, between Whom she is seated, and hovered over by the Holy 
I>ove. S. Paul stands on the right, and a Cardinal-Archbishop on the 
left, of the central group. On the front of the wings are paintings of 
the Apostles, siz on each side ; and on the back, of scenes in the life 
of oar Lomo. The Dom is receiving a partial restoration. In the in- 
terior were acafiblda at the east end of the nave, just short of the apse ; 
ftt the eait end of the south, and west end of the north aisle ; and 

4 Some Notes of a Tour in Germany. 

externally, round the north-eastern tower. The church of SS. Ste- 
phen and Mary Magdalen retains its high altar and four brazen pil- 
lars ; but every other fitting has been removed from the fabric, which 
was scaffolded throughout, encumbered with stones and rubbish, and 
undergoing, both internally and externally, a complete reparation. In 
the church of S. Quintin, not far from the east end of the north aisle, 
is a bas-relief in stone of the Agony, with the sleeping Apostles, finely 
designed in the manner of Albert Diirer ; on the wall of the south aisle 
is a Procession to Calvary, similarly carved, but in parts almost gro- 
tesque. A Pointed organ-case was in course of erection in a pagan 
western gallery. The church of S. Emmeran is a late apsidal build- 
ing, comprising a nave of five bays, north and south aisles, and a 
clerestory. The windows contain no tracery. The pulpit stands 
against the second pillar west of the apse on the north of the nave. It 
is ornamented with gilding and figures, in the style of the Renais- 
sance. There is a plain western gallery, upholding an organ in a 
tawdry case, partly painted in imitation of red curtains ! Its pipes, 
however, are left honestly of their natural colour. In a glazed cup- 
board, not over an altar, but in the comer of the east end of the north 
aisle, is a miserable doll-like figure of the Blessed Virgin with the 
Child, in blue satin bedecked with silver spangles and embroidery, 
lights, on a triangular frame, were burning before it. Outside the 
church, at its north-eastern end, is a Gethsemane. Our Loan kneel- 
ing among rock- work, is offered a chalice by an angel; behind is 
some wall-painting ; beneath, our Savioub is represented lying in the 
sepulchre. This erection in stone, apparently of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, is seen through an arch, and protected by lattice work in iron. 
The church of S. Ignatius is a pseudo- classical apsidal structure, gor- 
geously decorated with gilding and carving. Behind the high altar, 
which has a rich Renaissance baldachin, is a Deposition in white mar- 
ble, tinted from above. by a window of orange-coloured glass! There 
are three altars on the south, and two on the north of the apse. The 
central one on the south side oddly contrasts with the rest, being 
of Pointed design, and supporting an elaborate niche faced with glass, 
and containing a painted statue of the Blessed Virgin with the 
Child, over which is a lofty pinnacled canopy, ornamented with gold 
and colour. Geraniums, in garden-pots, were standing upon the 
super-altar and tabernacle. The Dedication crosses are painted on 
the walls of this church, and under each cross is a branch for lights. 

The observance of the Sunday at Mayence was edifying. Not a 
shop was open, and the whole population seemed to be either in the 
churches, or quietly promenading in the streets. 

To the interior of the minster, at Frankfort-on-the- Maine, our next 
halting place, I had opportunity only to make one hasty visit. It has 
been cleansed from whitewash, the galleries have been removed, and 
the monuments, capitals, bosses, and bas-reliefs, newly gilded and 
coloured. A rich Pointed organ case, with carved angels, &c., also 
gilded and painted, was in progress in the north aisle. A magnificent 
stone canopy hangs over an image of the Blessed Virgin in the south 
transept, near the fine relief of the Entombment. On the walls of 

Same Notes of a Tour in Germany. 6 

the choir are paintings, rather coarsely executed, and similar in sen- 
timent and in the soft expression of the heads, and shortness of the 
figures, to the school of Cologne, representing events in the life of 
S. Bartholomew, a scene from the Revelation, and our Loan's appear- 
SDce to S. Mary Magdalen after the Resurrection. Kugler alludes, 
in terms of admiration, to " a Head of CuaisT crowned with thorns, 
preserved on a panel of the Gothic stone seat, which stands against 
the wall of the choir.'* This picture escaped my notice. Of the 
shabbiness of the inside of the cathedral, animadverted on by Mr. 
Webb, no trace. I am glad to say, remains, unless the boarded flooring 
of the entire aisles and nave, below the transepts, deserves to be so 

In S. Leonardos church an altar has been erected at the east end 
of the south aisle, as recently as 1855. It is surmounted by a sort of 
reredos, containing in a niche, a painting by Steinle of the Blessed 
Virgin and Child, (with gilt nimbi,) over which is a Pointed pyra- 
midal canopy of uncoloured oak, containing a statuette of an angel 
among tabernacle work, and terminating at the vaulted roof. A hang- 
ing, woven like a Brussels carpet, clothes* the wall to some distance 
right and left of the reredos. It has a blue ground, upon which is a 
nondescript pattern in red and yellow, and is finished at bottom with 
a hinge of red, blue, and black worsted, interchanged. The chancel 
has been furnished with oak stalls and misereres, eleven on each side. 
The woodwork behind the seats is carved in tracery of Middle- Pointed 
design, and each panel has a different pattern. The front of the choir 
desks is also traceried. The stalls were put up in 1852, and as well as 
the canopy, &c., before described, are the work of one " H. T. Wild." 
The Frankfort churches are closed during the greater part of the 
day. I had some difiiculty in finding the sacristan of S. Leonard's ; 
and could not enter the minster (not knowing where to apply for ad- 
mission,) after an early hour in the morning. 

The Third-Pointed Synagogue, described by Mr. Webb, is no more, 
and in its place is being erected a pretentious brick building, with 
stone dressings and ornaments, in a style partaking both of the Moor- 
ish and Romanesque. 

In the collection of pictures belonging to Herr Bettman, the posses- 
sor of the Ariadne, are two pleasing interiors of churches by Morgen- 
stein ; also a Holy Family, poor and affected, by Cornelius ; and (No. 
1 07,) a carious little specimen of the school of Upper Germany, re- 
presenting the Annunciation on a gold ground, between SS. Catherine 
and Margaret. 

The Staedel Museum is rich in early Christian paintings, well- 
azranged, and in fine condition, which deserve to be better known in 
England. The following, by Italian masters, merit especial notice : — 
(6.) The Virgin and Child, enthroned under a canopy, with six an- 
gels on each tide, singing or adoring, by the Blessed Angelico. (2.) 
The Virgin and Child, enthroned between saints and angels, and wor- 
shipped by two devotees, who kneel in the foreground of the pic- 
taie ; a lair apeeimen of the Sienese school of the fourteenth century. 
(14 and 15.) The Aagel of the Annunciation and the Blessed Virgin ; 

6 Some Notes of a Tour in Germany. 

by Crevelli. (7.) The Crucifixion, a work of the second half of the 
fifteenth century, containing many figures ; angels (one of whom catches 
the sacred blood in a chalice,) in the sky, adoring ; the good and bad 
thieves, whose souls are respectively being borne away by an angel and 
a demon. On the cross, above the head of our Saviour, is a pelican 
in her piety* At its foot, in front, are the holy women, with the 
Virgin fainting ; and on its right side, soldiers casting lots for the 
seamless coat. (36.) A Virgin and Child, with S. John ; by Peru- 
gino. (3.) A beautiful Coronation of the Virgin, with a female saint 
on her right, and a bishop on her left hand ; three angels on either 
aide ; and angels, holding flowers, kneeling below. This picture is, 
unfortunately, hung too high. From the works of the Flemish and 
German masters, I will select the more remarkable : — (117.) A trip- 
tych, of the " School of Cologne," formerly ascribed to Schoreel. In 
tiie central division is the Deposition. Mount Calvary is pictured in 
the distance, and Judas hanging on a tree. S. Mary Magdalen kisses 
our LoBo's hand. Nicodemus (?) is giving the pincers to another 
person ; and the nails, stained with blood as if just removed, lie on the 
sepulchre on which our Saviour's sacred Body reclines. On the 
right wing S. Louis, (or, perhaps, S. Joseph of Arimathea,) bears the 
crown of thorns, the entombment being represented in the distance ; 
on the left are S. Veronica, whose countenance is marked with a " sub- 
dued expression of deep inward suffering;" and a landscape, with 
Jerusalem in the distance. (107.) OurLoRD crucified, between the 
Blessed Virgin and S. John, with many small male and female figures, 
some holding rosaries, kneeling below; attributed to the School of 
Upper Germany, of the sixteenth century. (64.) A fine specimen of 
John Van Eyck. The Virgin, nursing her Divine Son, sits beneath 
a tapestried canopy, on a throne of which the arms and back support 
■maU figures of lions. Her hair is long, and she wears a rich crimson 
robe, bordered with jewels. The Child holds an apple in His left hand, 
and two apples lie on the sill of a window on the left of the Virgin ; on 
the right is a recess containing shelves, of which the upper one sup- 
ports two glass bottles and a candlestick, and the lower a brazen 
vessel of water. (99.) The Mass of S. Gregory, by a Flemish artist 
of the fifteenth century. Here the altar has a foot-pace, and one candle- 
stick. A cardinal, behind the pontiff, carries his tiara. (69.) The 
Virgin with the Child enthroned, in front of a screen composed of 
light pillars, is a good picture of the school of Memling. (105.) A 
female saint, probably a portrait, on canvas, by Albert Diirer. Her 
long hair is marvellously painted, and a silver ornament on the brace- 
let of her right hand is minutely finished. (80.) The Virgin with the 
Child, and S. Anne» seated on a throne ; over them hovers the Dove, 
descending from the Eternal Fathbr. Females with children, meant 
to represent our Lord's relations, and other persons are grouped 
around. This is an important German work of the fifteenth century. 
(71.) A small Flemish triptych, also of the fifteenth century. In the 
central panel is the Blessed Virgin and Child ; on the right wing are 
half-length figures of S. George and a male — on the left, S. John and 
a.female — devotee. The motto en eepenmce is repeated several times 

Same Noie$ of a Tour in Germany. 7 

o& this pretty little picture. (65.) A choice example of Pieter Christ 
tophsen. The Virgin with the Child sits on a throne, omameoted 
with statuettes of Adam and Eve in niches ; and other figures, and 
with tapestry, as in the picture by Van Eyck, above described. On 
her right is S. Francis bearing a crucifix ; on her left, S. Jerome in 
crimson, holding a book in his left hand. Behind S. Francis is an 
open door, through which appears a landscape with water. On the 
lower step of the throne is inscribed, Petrus XPR. me fecit, 1417. 
(6^ 63.) The wings of the picture of the Last Judgment by Ste- 
phen Lothener, at Cologne. These contain a series of martyrdoms of 
the Apostles, on a gold ground, which have been called "a set of 
abominable scenes of butchery, each of which is more disgusting than 
the one preceding it." This criticism is too severe. It must, how- 
ever, be acknowledged that Stephen, like the Blessed Angelico, did 
not succeed in the delineation of subjects of human passion and vio- 
lence ; he excelled in representations of beauty and repose. (66.) The 
Virgin, clothed in a blue robe, with the Divine Infant in her arms, 
stands on steps beneath a tent, the sides of which are held back by 
angels. She is attended by SS. Peter, John Baptist, Cosmo, and 
Damian. There is a vase of flowers at the base of the steps, and 
flowers enamel the foreground. This is a fine picture by Rogier of 
Bruges, the pupil of John Van Eyck, and master of Memling. (67, 
68, 69.) Three small, beautiful, and highly-finished specimens of the 
School of Van Eyck, representing : — 1. The Birth of S. John Baptist ; 
2. The Baptism of Christ ; 3. The Delivery of S. John Baptist's Head 
to Herodias. Each of these subjects is contained in a Pointed arch, 
ornamented, between the mouldings, with groups of figures under 
canopies, painted to resemble stone. These pictures are very like six 
in the Berlin Museum, by Rogier Van der Weyden the elder ; described 
hy me in the Eeclesiologisi, vol. x. p. 372. (72.) A large triptych, 
assigned to the elder Van der Weyden. The central portion contains, 
in chiaroscuro, the Dead Christ in the arms of the Eternal Fathbb ; 
aainte, in glowing colours, are delineated on the wings. 

Leaving Frankfort, by the early morning train, we arrived at Nu- 
remberg between three and four p.m. When passing Wurzburg, I 
observed that the stately three- sided apsidal chancel of the Marien 
Kspelle there, was scaffolded as if under restoration. On a slight 
acquaintance, Nuremberg does not impress one with the feeling of its 
tntiqnity so forcibly at, e.g. the older part — (particularly the weather- 
stained, picturesque timber and plastered tenements of the Jews' quar- 
ter)— of Frankfort. The reason of this, I appr^nd, is that the houses 
in Nuremberg are, generally, high and massive, and strongly built of 
stone, open which, in so clear an atmosphere, even centuries have left 
bat few traces of decay. Being so remarkably well preserved, and 
having little beside the style of their architecture to mark . their age, 
they at first disappoint a traveller who comes prepared to find them 
wearing the dilapidated and time-wom appearance usually presented 
by the renunns of the domestic architecture of the Middle Ages. A 
very abort timo, however, is long enough to convince the antiquary, or 
vtHt. who Hagm among its streets and churches, that scarcely nq 

8 Some Notes of a Tour in Germany. 

other town in Europe retains so much of its Mediaeval character. Re- 
gild and colour (as has been done in numerous instances,) the canopied 
images affixed to the corners of the houses, and the countless vanes 
which creak on the turrets and gables ; fill the streets with people 
in the quaint costume of the fifteenth century ; man the old battle- 
ments with steel-clad warriors ; restore the ancient ritual to the sacred 
fabrics still rich in altars, roods, triptychs, statues, painted glass, and 
tapestry, and nothing more would be needed to reproduce, at least in 
outward semblance, the Nuremberg of Veit Stoss, Adam Kraft, Peter 
Vischer, Wohlgemuth, and, last and greatest, Albert Diirer, when the 
fame of its manufactures, arts, and arms, was spread abroad over every 
country of the civilized world. 

One of the most extraordinary books in existence is the renowned 
Chronicon Nurembergense, printed in Nuremberg, by Koberger, in 1493, 
on imperial folio paper, and illustrated with two thousand two hundred 
and fifty wood engravings, executed by Wohlgemuth and Pleydenwarff. 
Its author was Hartman Schedel, a physician of the above city, and it 
contains a history of the world from its creation to the close of the 
fifteenth century of the Christian era. The art-student, who wishes 
to acquire some knowledge of early German design, will do well to 
study the prints in this venerable volume ; but rudely magnificent as 
some of them doubtless are, they fail to give a just idea of the state of 
pictorial art as displayed in the panel pictures of the period to which 
they belong. As I shall have a good deal to say about Wohlgemuth's 
productions as a painter, some allusion to the foregoing unparalleled 
monument of his skill as a designer and engraver could hardly, with 
propriety, be omitted; and the rather, because two of its pages — 
the reverse of folio xcix, and the recto of folio c, are occupied by an 
immense woodcut of Nuremberg, as it appeared in 1493, and repre- 
senting its many-towered gates and walls, churches, castle, and the 
lofty stepped gables of its houses. At that time the city had a double 
cincture of walls, fortified with turrets as many as the days of the year 
in number, as appears from the following extract from the description 
which accompanies the engraving : " Habet quoque propugnacula mu- 
rum crassissimum et turres quinque et sexaginta supra trecentas." The 
writer next refers to a subject, upon which I have remarked above : 
" Estque edibus civium amplissimis et firmissimis exomata." The 
chronicler goes on to make mention of the " most famous parochial 
churches " of SS. Sebaldus and Laurence, and several other goodly 
ecclesiastical edifices, now, alas ! destroyed or desecrated, including 
two or more monasteries : " Monialesque sacr» virgines ad divam 
Catherinam et sanctam Claram duo monasteria habent. Cruciferi 
ordinis theutonicorum spaciosa urbis loca possident ; extat quoque in 
ea Carthusiense cenobium edificii magnificentia amplissimum et pul- 
cherrimum." The account concludes with an enumeration of some of 
the treasures of which Nuremberg was then the possessor, includ- 
ing the regalia of Charles the Great, the '* divinissima lancea quae 
Jhbsu Christi latus in cruce aperuit," portions of the true cross, " et 
aliis reliquiis toto orbe celebrandis.*' It may interest your readers to 
know, that the royal insignia of Charlemagne, with the lance and 

On, the Abuse of Polychrome. 9 

other reputed relics» (above celebrated.) which were brought by him 
from the Holy Land, are now at Vienna. 

And now reserving^, ^th your permission, my notes on the pictures. 
&c., in Nuremberg*, and on the remainder of my tour, to a future com- 
munication* I will aay no more than that I am, my dear Mr. Editor, 

Very sincerely yours, 

John Fullbr Russkll. 


Tb eke Editor of the EcclesiologisU 

Sir. — Will you permit me to make a few remarks on the " second" 
article of your •• Correspondent on Whitewash and Yellow Dab," as it 
perhaps **more than incidentally*' refers to my own in a former num- 
ber on the abuse of Polychrome. 

1 perfectly agree with your correspondent that " beauty of colour, 
composition, and form appear to be laid everywhere before man's eyes 
with a perfect unity of purpose to suggest to him ideas of life, and to 
relieve him from the dulness and deadness of mere material." I am 
only at issue with him as to the extent to which the combination and 
application of them should be carried. I am unwilling to take to 
myself the remarks which he proffers of deficiency of perception in 
colour merely because I do not advocate its extensive introduction into 
churches. He aays that he " cannot accept my axiom, too hastily 
assumed, that colour which is a necessity in nature is but an accident 
in art." 

In order to make my meaning clear, I should perhaps have said '* an 
accident in sculpture and architecture." With reference to the former 
we know not but that the Apollo Belviderc " might once" have been 
coloured, and might be coloured " again," if there was bad taste enough 
to perpetrate such an outrage ; but then as Hiram Powers, the Ameri- 
can sculptor, most truly says, '* he ceases to be a god, a spiritual embodi- 
ment, he steps down from his throne on high, and becomes man 
among men ; we touch him, talk to him, and handle him with fami- 
liarity. And if this is so with one statue, it would be so with all, 
were all equally perfect. When Sculpture calls upon her sister 
Painting for aid, she acknowledges her weakness, drops her chisel, 
takes ap the palette, and pursues a mongrel art, half sculpture, half 
painting." I think the most determined advocate of indiscriminate 
polychrome will hardly venture to gainsay the justice of this reasoning. 
It wiU prove at least that there is "no necessary connection" between 
coloration and ttatoary. The Apollo Belvidere is still the " admira- 
tion of the world," Uiough accidentally destitute of the addition of 

And now with respect to Architecture. How strikingly true is the 
aphorism, " JVrai enacts what the spirit dictates. It is the telegraph. 
•o to speak, ci the soul which created it." And who does not ke\ 
▼OL. jx. c 

10 On the Abuse of Polychrome. 

that it is truly the *' vehicle of expression" when he contemplates the 
magnificent churches with which England is gemmed everywhere. In 
speaking of them, one who has well studied the subject says, " Altitude, 
length, distance, space, are the elements we crave for putting together 
something which shall speak for us what we feel. Our sense of the 
gpreatness and glory of Him Whom we worship, and of the height to 
which even our limited faculties are capable of soaring in search of 
Him, is in a manner relieved by being allowed to utter itself, as it were, 
in things vast and high, in aisles that stretch away from, or vaults that 
soar above us. What a swelling and soaring anthem is to the heart 
and voice, that a cathedral is to the aspirations of the heart and the 
eye.'** I wish your correspondent would bear in mind that this elo- 
quent eulogy *" omits all mention of the polychrome,*' for which he is 
80 strenuous an advocate. Am 1 not then right in affirming that in 
church architecture, though coloration when sparingly and carefully 
used may heighten the beauty of particular parts, it is in truth but an 
accident ? 

Again your correspondent says, " When one speaks of architectural 
polychrome, there is another very great difficulty one has to contend 
with ; for people's ideas rush into the exaggeration of vermilion, cad- 
mium and ultramarine." Aod with very good reason, too, when expe- 
rience demonstrates that an excessive love of polychrome has always 
been followed by a degeneracy in taste. The late Thomas Hope, in his 
History of Architecture, speaking of the Byzantine style, says, " As, 
in Pagan Rome, the taste for beauty of form and outline declined, that 
for glare of colours and gilding increased." In fact they follow each 
other as naturally as effect follows cause. I must again repeat what 
Mr. Street says of S. Mark's, " The colour is so magnificent, that one 
troubles oneself but little about the architecture, and thinks only upon 
the expanse of gold and deep rich colour, all harmonized together into 
one glorious whole, — so that all architectural lines of moulding and the 
like are entirely lost, and nothing but a soft swelling and undulating 
sea of colour is perceived." If this is the language and taste of a pro- 
fessed architect conversant chiefly with " form," when there is no 
want of that skill and taste which comes from study, what will ensue 
if the polychromists carry out their ideas ? Vainly should we look, in 
the majority of our churches, for the taste which carefully and deli- 
cately manipulated the restored chapter- house at Salisbury. Nothing 
is easier than to daub a building with colour ; and if such is the case 
in France, we shall hardly escape it in England. 

The state of polychrome in the former country is not encouraging, 
more especially as the French are certainly not our inferiors in matters 
of taste. What does Mr. Street say of Notre Dame de Paris in 1 857 ? 
" I was more than disgusted to find how shamefully its interior has 
been treated. The groining cells papered with blue paper diapered 
with gilt bees ; the walls from one end to the other also papered with 
gaudy imitations of mediaeval stencilling, and the whole of the clere- 
story "wxn^oy/h pasted over with coloured cartoons on thin paper, by way 
of imitation of stained glass !" I do not say that Westminster Abbey 
^ Mr. P. Freeman on Cathedral Architecture. Ecclesiologist, Vol. XVII. 

Organs for Village Churches. 11 

will ever be treated in this way, but I am justified in believing that 
sach will be the decoration of many of our country churches, if the 
ferveDt polychromists are victorious. Such a plan has been proposed, 
and " without any. condemnation" at a meeting in Oxford some time 
since. And we have warnings also in the treatment of secular build- 
mgs. The eminent architect above quoted maintains that '* in Venice 
an old palace, between the badly restored Ca d'Oro and the Palazzo 
S^edo on the grand canal, has been restored and picked out with 
white and light green, and plastered and painted till almost its entire 
beauty has been destroyed !" Truly if the polychromists are not 
colour-blind, they may at least be said to be " blinded by colour." 

But even if churches could be most tastefully decorated in this way, 
it would be a valid objection that you would introduce something really 
dien to the impression which such buildings are " intended" to con- 
vey. Painting and gilding could never heighten the effects so graphi- 
cally described by Mr. Freeman. Paint the solemn and majestic choir 
of Canterbury, and you at once bring it down " from heaven to 

But your correspondent refers to the prophetic vision in the Scrip- 
tores. To which I might answer that the " sapphires and agates, and 
stones, with fair colours," can be no guide to us in ** matters of taste/' 
and were never intended to be so, inasmuch as they simply shadow 
forth a state of future bliss. The Saviour of the world retired to the 
'* lofty mountain" to pray, and the natural feelings would point to the 
"deep embowering forest," not unaptly compared to the Gothic 
church, as most suitable to the purposes of true devotion. In that, 
wdSy not diversity of colour predominates. 

In conclusion, am I presumptuous in saying, without reference to 
any individual, that to consider *« form the soul of art," as incomplete 
and imperfect without colour bodes no good, but rather harm, to the 
advancement of real taste amongst us ? 

The great masters of design said, perhaps with some exaggeration, 
•• Perfect your outline and put in what you please.'* The polychro- 
mists would bring us back to the taste of children, who always wish to 
" paint before they use the pencil." 

I remain. Sir, 

Yours truly, 
A Membbr of thb OxFoan Architectural Socibtt. 
December ^9th, 1 858. 


To the Editor of the Eeclesiologist. 

Mt dkar Mr. Editor. — I did not expect that I should have to address 
JOB and your readers again on this subject ; but since Mr. Baron, not 
coatent with defending himself, has added a somewhat unfair attack on 
tbe Hayward's Heath organ, besides several other inaccurate asfteitlont, 

12 Organs for Village Churches, 

I feel obliged to send a reply, trusting that from regard to truth and 
justice, rather than from any private feelings, you will give it insertion. 

That part of Mr. Baron's letter with which I have to do begins to- 
wards the bottom of page 300. He complains that in my June letter 
1 attributed to him *' ignorance and mistakes." Mistakes I certainly 
did attribute to Mr. Baron ; but I did not apply the word ignorance, 
or its adjective, to him. We are indeed all of us ignorant on many 
questions ; but I wish to avoid harsh words as much as possible, and it 
is only under special circumstances that ignorance deserves a public 
rebuke. I was anxious to say a few words in your June number on 
the subject treated of by Mr. Baron, because they might prevent several 
persons from giving orders for one- stop organs : I had not time then 
to give the reasons for my opinions. If any of your readers have taken 
my unsupported assertions for more than they were worth, and at the 
same time slighted my recommendation of Mr. Baron's work at the 
end of the June letter, I shall be truly sorry for having been even the 
innocent cause of so much mischief. The rule that " no one has a 
right to make the allegation of ignorances or mistakes in a published 
book, apart from the proof on which it rests," would make it the duty 
of every reviewer either to write a long notice of every carelessly 
written book that is sent to him, or not to give his opinion of it at all ; 
which, it seems to me, is a reductio ad ahsurdum. As to the charges 
against me of being *' lofty and patronising," " placing myself in the 
chair of authority," &c., I leave it to you and your readers to decide 
whether my tone of writing has been unsuited to my position and at- 
tainments. I shall be most ready to correct the fault, if it exists. 
With what grace charges of excessive self-confidence come from Mr. 
Baron, is another question. 

We come next to my three conclusions on the construction of small 
church- organs, quoted by Mr. Baron. There is not now sufficient 
difference between us on these points to make further discussion worth 
the while, even if I had more to say on them ; I will therefore only remark 
that I am much pleased at learning that Mr. Willis has taken up the 
manufacture of thase instruments, and that he has decided in favour uf 

Mr. Baron now gives us an extract from Hopkins on the Organ, en- 
livened with some running comments of his own. Mr. Hopkins says 
that the old system of English organ- playing, — meaning that which 
prevailed from 1 660 to about the end of the last century, — was very 
" light " and '* thin,'* compared with the modern ; and Mr. Baron evi- 
dently wishes to return to the older system. But, inasmuch as the 
period in question is now esteemed to have been the very worst through 
which English Church-music has passed, the quotation does not greatly 
strengthen Mr. Baron's position. As little to the purpose are his 
sneers at large organs in general, which I pass by, being sure that, 
whatever Mr. Baron may say against them, these wonderful instru- 
ments, if suitably placed and skilfully handled, will always be admired, 
in like manner as vast cathedrals and lofty mountains are admired. 
Our present concern is with organs for village and other smaU churches ; 
and I must now renew my controversy with Mr. Baron as to whether 

Organs for Village Churchei. 18 

they are best placed in or out of the cbancel. He chargee me with 
setting at nought early precedent : let U8 see what are the grounds for 
this charge. Dr. Rimbault, in his " History of the Organ." alleges 
lereral instances of organs in cathedrals and college chapels being 
placed on one side of the choir, generally on the north. I do not think 
there can be a better position in cathedrals. In college chapels a cen- 
tral position over the choir- screen may be preferable, for reasons into 
which it is not my present business to enter. The position on one 
ade of the choir was not, however, universal ; for the same author 
mentions an organ at Canterbury Cathedral which stood anciently 
in the south transept, and another at Rochester which stood in the 
north transept, both of them outside the choir. " As regards parish 
churches,'* writes Dr. Rimbault, " the common situation for the organ, 
both before and after the Reformation, was in the chancel.'* and he 
quotes two instances. But he adds in a note, *' Of course, other posi- 
tions were occasionally adopted,** and mentions two instances, copied 
from '* Jebb on the Choral Service." This author adds a third (not, 
indeed, parochial), that of Trinity College, Oxford. In two cases out 
of these three the organ was on the rood-loft or choir-screen ; in the 
other (the Beauchamp Chapel, at Warwick), it was over the west 
door. But even if the current of ancient precedent for placing organs 
in the chanceb of parish churches were stronger than it is, I might 
still apply to this question what you have re-asserted in your lai^t num- 
ber (p, 379), " that the real exigencies of the actual Anglican wor- 
ship ought to be the first consideration of Anglican ecclesiologists ;" 
and thence conclude that if an organ placed outside the chancel sup- 
ports the voices of the congregation better than one inside it, without 
being too far distant from the choir, it ought to be so placed. I hope 
I fully understand the value of a choir for leading a congregation ; but 
I happen also to know something about the power of a congregation to 
impede a choir. Imagine the situation of a choir-man, with a small 
organ on one side of him doing its best to keep him in time and tune, 
and on the other a large body of parish school- children doing their 
worst to pull him backwards in time and downwards in tune. But put 
the organ westward of the choir, and it will probably keep the chil- 
dren in better time and tune ; or, at any rate, it will prevent the choir- 
mao from being so annoyed by their defects. Mr. Hopkins is cer- 
tainly an authority in questions relating to organs ; but it appears that 
this musician, when writing the passage quoted by Mr. Baron in pages 
39^ 393, bad not in view the congregation's joining in the singing ; 
otherwise the comparison of a concert- room would be quite irrelevant. 
I think you will agree with me that every village church ought to 
have room in the chancel-stalls or seats for three men on each side, 
exdosive of the westernmost stalls, and of that occupied by the organ, 
if it be placed there. If the organ is to be small, and at a distance 
from the congregation, there is so much the more need of a full choir. 
There are doubtless many old village churches which have room for 
moie than four stalls on rach side, but there are also many that have 
not. I admit tfmt, as Mr. Baron says in reply to another of my objec- 
tioas. ** it would be easy to raise the organist a little higher, if thought 

14 Organs for ViUage Churches. 

desirable/' and this would give room for the bellows under the floor of 
the raised part. But I do not think this would be an improvement in 
respect of Uie seemliness of choral worship. With the body of the in- 
strument above him for a canopy, the organist would then present a 
complete parody of a bishop in his throne. 

With respect to the organ at S. Thomas's, Oxford, I am glad to find 
that it is more sensibly contrived than, judging from the grossly inac- 
curate representation, I had concluded it to be. I therefore retract 
the remarks in my last letter, as far as the actual organ at S. Thomas's 
is concerned. I still think, however, that a simpler arrangement of the 
grooves and pipes would have been far better. I am willing to give Mr. 
Baron all due credit for his new plans of pipe-arrangement. The best 
of them are unsatisfactory, only because all attempts at symmetrical 
arrangement must be so. I use the word symmetrical, not in its most 
genend sense, but in that which I believe is usual in treating of archi- 
tectural objects, namely, to denote that any two vertical sections, at 
equal distances right and left of the one through the centre, agree in 
every respect. It is essential to an organ -stop that no two of its pipes 
shall be of the same size,^ and therefore it is, I repeat, essentially an 
unsymmetrical object. It is easy to make the Atf pipe look, in front, like 
the A, and so on ; but things that are made to look like what they are 
not, are shams .^ Mr. Baron has some curious ideas in connection with 
this subject. " What right has your correspondent,'* he asks, " to 
call the Pan-pipe arrangement the natural order of the pipes ? It is 
their natural order as they stand ready for use, feet uppermost, in an 
organ-builder's shop, but not when planted on the sound-board of an 
organ." Now if one order be most agreeable to the nature of organ- 
pipes at one time, and a very different one at another, it is clear that 
their nature must have undergone a considerable change in the mean 
while. By what mysterious process is this transformation effected for 
the pipes of the Scudamore organs ? As it is perfectly incredible that 
simply turning them feet downward and planting them on the sound- 
board can produce it, I hope that Mr. Baron, if he writes again, will 
enlighten me and your other musical readers about this matter. But 
let us hear Mr. Baron's reasons for believing that " the Pan-pipe ar- 
rangement" ceases to be the natural order of the pipes when they are 
planted on the sound-board. '* In the first place," he says, " it cannot 
possibly be carried out, except in a mediaeval Regal." 'iliat it is im- 
possible to have the whole of the Open Diapason stop placed in a single 
Une, according to any arrangement, except in organs of very unusual 
width, or of very smsdl compass, is undeniable. But who wishes that the 
whole of that stop should be placed in a single line ? The question is not 
whether the whole stop shall be arranged in a single line or not, but in 

^ There are, indeed, some exceptions to this rnle, namely, in compound stops, 
and in the shrillest of the single stops ; but these exceptions do not affect the argu- 
ment, because the equal pipes of these stops cannot be symmetrically disposed. 

' To speak with exactness, the front of tlie A]t pipe would in that case be a sham, 
fo/ar OM it* length exceeded the true length qf the pipe. The case is quite similar 
to that of the high-pitched gables which, in some modem-Gothic conventicles and 
other bmldings, may be seen rearing tbemielves in front of a low-pitched roof. The 
gable is then a sham, eo/ar at ii herein pitch from the actual roqf. 

Organs for Village Churches. 15 

what order the pipes which are to be placed in a single line shall be 
arranged. Mr. Baron proceeds, — " In ail modern organs, it is a mere 
sham and pretence, as may be seen in the description of the Hay ward's 
Heath organ. • . .** How can a thing be a sham, when it does not 
pretend to be anything else than what it is ? The idea that the front 
pipes of that organ were intended to be taken for the whole stop, if 
this be Mr. Baron's meaning, is certainly one the credit of which, what- 
ever it may be worth, belongs to him alone. The rest of his criticism 
on the organ in question is in good keeping with the preceding bit. 
" The six tallest pipes are placed on a lower level facing west, which 
is a botch.*' If it was *' a botch " to place these pipes as near to their 
wind as the situation allowed, I should like to know what names should 
be applied to the practices of leaving them and others out altogether, 
or substituting stopped wooden pipes for them. See *' Scudamore 
Organs," pp. 37, 38. " The remaining 29 [28], from c^JJ to f^ [e»] alt., 
are stowed away we don't know where." I beg leave to inform Mr. 
Baron that the smaller pipes of organs are usually — I think I may say 
•inDayt — placed on the sound-board, over their wind, and that the de- 
signer of the Hayward*s Heath and Preston organs is not the person 
who would depart from so sensible and well established a practice. 
The next sentence I pass over, not knowing to what organ or organs it 
is meant to apply. I take, however, this occasion to explain the ra- 
tionale of front-pipes, believing that an explanation may be acceptable 
to some of your readers, who, like Mr. Baron, do not yet understand it. 
It is right to mention that I am here doing little more than putting Mr. 
Hopkins's information into a condensed form. In order that an organ 
may look like an organ, some of its pipes must be exposed to view ; 
and the next question is, which shall they be r For reasons which 
have frequently been stated, the Open Diapason pipes are usually placed 
in front of the other stops ; and the next choice lies between the bass 
and treble of this stop. The consideration that the bass-pipes are not 
only the most bulky, but also require most " speaking room," — that is, 
open space before their mouths, to allow the current of air to escape 
frieely, — is decisive in favour of the bass pipes standing outside. The 
treble-pipes can be placed closer behind the bass, without damage to 
tiie sound, than the bass-pipes can be placed behind the treble. Add 
to this, that removing the bass of the Open Diapason from the sound- 
board ^ves some valuable room for the bass of the other stops ; and 
that the sound of the treble-pipes can issue from their mouths freely 
enough through the triangular spaces left by the feet of the bass 
pipes ; whereas when the treble pipes are placed in front of the bass, 
t krge portion of the sound of the latter has to find its way through 
the narrow chinks left between the bodies of the former. Choirs, 
it is well known, are so arranged that the men may sing over the 
heads of the boys. In organs the contrary arrangement is prefer- 
tble with respect to the large and small pipes, because the mouths of 
organ-pipes are situate, not in the upper part of their bodies, but next 
to their feet. The fact that placing the largest metal-pipes in front 
gives dignity to the appearance of the organ, is an incidental advantage. 
Provided that the front pipes are cut down to their real length, and are 

16 Organs for Village Churches. 

arranged according to the order of their grooves, they cannot, with any 
justice, be accused of being " a sham." But let us attend to Mr. 
Baron*8 other objections against the semitonal arrangement. He pro- 
duces three — two mechanical, and one musical — not one of which 
proves anything, except that he is not very well up in '* Hopkins." 
In the first he confounds together the arrangement of all the pipes in 
one line, which is generally impracticable for the larger stops, with the 
arrangement of the grooves in the order of the semitones, which takes 
little or no more room than any other arrangement. The usual zigzag 
arrangement of the pipes on the sound-board will generally bring them 
within the reach of the fan-hnme movement in small organs without 
any crowding. The next mechanical objection, that " all the larger 
pipes being placed at one end of the sound-board, the weight would be 
very unequally distributed," is a stale and stupid one, which Mr. Hop- 
kins has already answered, (sec. 1167,) by remarking that the addi- 
tional weight is easily provided against by a stronger building-frame : 
but in fietct the frame must be very weak indeed not to be able to bear 
the weight of the bass-pipes at one end, especially when the largest 
metal-pipes are removed from the sound-board. An organ-frame is 
not like a boat, which requires its burden to be equally distributed : it 
is more similar to a four-legged dining-table, where no one, I suppose, 
would apprehend any danger from its happening to be laden with a 
round of beef at one end and only a couple of fowls at the other. As 
to the musical objection, that " the Pan-pipe arrangement is bad, be- 
cause the pipes when so arranged will be particularly liable to sym- 
pathise and spoil each other's speech," Mr. Baron does not favour 
us with his grounds for this assertion ; and I think it would be parti- 
cularly difficult to find any, as far as the manual stops of small or mo- 
derate-sized organs are concerned. If there were any reason in the 
objection, it would apply to most of the " Scudamore organs/' as well 
as to those all of whose pipes are arranged in the natural order ; since, 
even in the former, we find C G and C C)t pipes, or O and Git pipes, or 
some other two that differ only by a semitone, standing side by side. 
Perhaps Mr. Baron had an indistinct recollection of a passage in '* Hop- 
kins,*' (sec. 1201,) where that author states that " it does not answer 
to plant large-scale Bourdons semitonally." He adds, however, that 
the bad influence of one pipe upon its neighbour does not appear in 
small-scale stopped pipes ; and says nothing of its having been observed 
among the pipes from G G upwards. Now large-scale Bordone pipes 
are out of the question for small organs,^ and in organs of a moderate 

^ Mr. Hopkins, in a letter printed in the Guardian of January 6, goes so far as 
to propose a Bordone for an organ to contain only three other stops. Such an 
organ would furnish a very effectiTe accompaniment to the choir and congregation 
of a village diurch, and be incomparably preferable to an organ containing open 
diapason only, while its estimated cost is onlj £\0 more. But a Bordone of irery 
smali scale would be sufficient for such an organ. The C C C Stopt Diapason pipe 
of the PrMton organ is 5^ in. by 7^ in. in its internal dimensions ; and t^ese pipes, 
though placed semitonally, do not spoil one another's sound in the least, at the same 
time that they are quite sufieient to balanoe the other ten pipes which speak on 
ererv key of die great manmal, when all the stops and both couplers are drawn. A 
Bordone of still smaller sosle would, I think, be sufficient for Mr. Hopkins' four- 
stop oigan. 

The Homelling Cloth. 17 

m. would only be used for pedal pipes, which might, without any in- 
consistency, be differently arranged from the manual stops, supposing 
that there were a practical reason for doing so. If a heavier wind 
were used, the scale of the stop might be diminished, without render- 
ing the tone too weak ; and then this objection to the semitonal ar- 
nngement would Tanish completely. 

With respect to tbe question about harmoniums, I will only remark, 
that if it were certain that they teach men and boys to sing through 
their teeth, that w^ould be a serious objection to the use of those instru- 
ments. But inasmuch as some singers vnU commit the same fault, 
CTen though tbey have been taught with the help of an organ or piano- 
forte, it would require a large mass of observations to prove that har- 
moniums really have this property ; nor would the observations be 
worth much unless they were made by some cooler and more scientific 

ad than Mr. Baron's. 

The prices of organs similar to those at Hay ward's Heath and Preston - 
next-Wingham can be learnt from Mr. Eagles, John's Terrace, Hackney 
^ ,N.E. 

Yours, &c., 

S. S. G. 


To the Editor of the Ecclesiologist. 

Mt dbar Ma. Editob, — I want to put on record an odd and unex- 
pected proof of the existence of an old tradition and practice still, as I 
think, surviving, when, perhaps, its real and original purpose is forgotten. 
Every ritualist knows what the houselling cloth is — a cloth extended be- 
fore the comniunicants to catch any fragment of the consecrated bread. 
This houselling cloth is ordered in the Coronation office, and it is to be 
held by two bishops. It was, 1 believe, up to a comparatively recent 
period always used at the royal chapels : and there are churches in 
which, as we have lately been assured, its use survives. It is generally 
employed, at least I have often seen it, in France, where tbe altar- rails 
at covered with a white cloth. 

Now did you never observe a practice common, and in my days of 
rustic experience universal, in the country, for women always to carry 
their Prayer Books wrapped in a white handkerchief to church ? London 
female servants as a rule carry, or rather used to carry, for they are 
getting too fine now-a-days, their Prayer Books in their white handker- 
chief. Prayer Book and white handkerchief was the use of Sunday. 
On week-daya and in their best, there was no display of this white hand- 
kerchief ; on Sundays it was the rule. It was the outward sign of 
cfaiixch-going. I have long suspected that this invariable and anoma- 
loos white kerchief was the old houselling cloth : and I remember that 
in cooverMtion tins sospicion of mine was pronounced by you to be 
•t least a jnobaUe gueit. 

VOL. xz. ^ 

1 8 Architectural Notes in Prance, 

I have just got proof of it. I was called upon to-day in an official 
capacity to administer communion to a considerable number of old 
almsfolks in a church in the very heart of the city of London, the very 
last place where one would expect to find this old ritual tradition 
observed. One poor old woman, from Bristol, who communicated, 
when she knelt at the altar-steps, deliberately spread her white — or 
rather yellow-white — pocket-handkerchief all along the rails before 
communicating. I wish some of your country readers would, wlien 
they see the Sunday pocket-handkerchief, investigate this subject, and 
inquire whether in any place any knowledge of its meaning, or traces 
of this practice survive. 

Yours truly, 
London; Epiphany, 1859. W. S. 


It is unnecessary to say anything of the churches of Paris. They must 
be thoroughly well known to most of the readers of the Ecclesiologist, 
and it would be a presumption as well as a waste of time on my part 
to describe them. To those who have not carefully examined them, 
let me recommend M. F. de Guilhermy's " Description Archil ogique 
des Monuments de Paris,"^ as a very useful and trustworthy guide. 

The antiquarian and architectural riches of Paris are very far beyond 
anything of which we could ever boast in London. For beside such 
well-known examples as Notre Dame, the Sainte Chapelle, and S. 
Germain des Pr6s, there are numbers of smaller churches, very many 
of which are of very great interest. Moreover the churches of Paris 
afford examples of so many periods, that it is possible — beginning 
with the unique choir of S. Martin des Champs, the church of Mont« 
martre, and S. Germain des Pr6s. and going on to Notre Dame and the 
Sainte Chapelle — to trace out the gradual development of the system 
of architecture and sculpture, which in the last two buildings reached 
such perfection. 

Leaving Paris for Beauvais, the first station at which I stopped was 
risle Adam, from whence a walk of two or three miles by the banks of 
the Oise brought me to the fine village church of Champagne. This is 
very unlike an English village church in its general scheme, but full of 
interest. In plan it consists of a groined nave and aisles, of six bays, 
a central tower with a square chancel of one bay, and transepts with 
apsidal projections from their eastern walls. The date of the whole 
church (with the exception of the tower arches, which must have 
been either rebuilt or very much altered in the fifteenth century) is 
about the end of the tweLfth century. It is now undergoing repair 
at the joint expense of the Emperor and the Commune, but this is being 
done in so careless a manner that it is to be hoped it will not proceed 
further than is absolutely necessary for the security of the fabric. The 

> Published by Bance: Rue Bonaparte, 13. 

Architectural Notes in H'onee. 19 

western facade has a very singular doorway, the tympanum of which, 
ia pierced with a window of six cusps, whilst the abacus of the 
capitals is carried across the tympanum, and a square- headed door 
pierced below. Above is a large wheel window of twelve lights. The 
aisles are lighted with lancets, whilst the clerestory has a succession of 
circular windows, which internally form part of the same composition 
ai the triforium, the lower part being an unpierced arcade. The 
chancel ia lighted at the east with a circular window enclosed within a 
pointed arch, and on either side with Early Geometrical windows of 
two lights. The finest feature is the steeple, which rises in two stages 
above the roofs. The belfry stage is excessively lofty and elegant in 
ita proportions, having two windows of two lights in each face divided 
by a cluster of shafts, whilst other clusters of shafts at the angles of 
the tower run up to a rich corbel-table and cornice, under the eaves of 
the roof. The finish is a hipped saddle-back roof of steep pitch and 
covered with slate. 

Internally the most rare feature is a very light cusped stone arch of 
Flamboyant character, with pierced spandnls, which spans the western 
arch of the tower, and no doubt originally carried the Rood. The 
capitals in the nave are boldly carved, and carry the groining shafts, 
which are clusters of three. At the west end of the north aisle, and pro- 
jecting beyond the fii^ade of the church, is the ruin of a small gabled 
chapel, the object of which I did not understand. 

Altogether this church, owing to its fine character, and the retention 
of almost all its original features and proportions unaltered, deserves 
to be known and visited by all ecclesiologists, who travel along the 
Northern of France railway to Paris. A few miles farther on the left 
rises the fine church of S. Leu, which I have known for a long time, 
and which deserves, as I think, very much more notice and study than 
it appears to have received. The plan, situation, details, and style 
(early First- Pointed) are all alike of the best, and I know few, even 
among French churches, which impress me more strongly with the 
thorough goodness and nobility of their style. The east end of the 
cfaorch rises from the precipitous edge of a rock, which elevates the 
whole building finely above the level of the riant valley of the Oise. 
It was attached, I believe, to a Benedictine abbey, the other buildings 
of which are all in a most advanced state of decay. The church for- 
tunately, though much out of repair, and in some points altered into 
Flamboyant, is nevertheless sufficiently perfect for all purposes of 
ftady. It consists in plan of two western towers (the north-west 
tower being only in part built) then six bays of nave and aisles, three 
bays of choir, and an apse (circular on plan) of seven bays ; round 
the apse is the procession path, and four chapels, also circular on 
plan, lighted by two windows, so that one of the groining shafts 
is placed opposite the centre of the arch into each, and over the 
altars. In place of the fifth chapel on the north side, a circular 
recess is formed in the external wall of the procession path, so as 
to make space for an altar without forming a distinct chapel. I 
should be disposed to say that this was the original scheme of the 
church, afterwards altered and much improved by the substituliou of 

20 Architectural Notes in Finance. 

larger and more distinct chapels.^ The central chapel of the apse has 
the unusual feature of another chapel above it, on a level with the tri- 
forium, adding much to the picturesque effect of the east end. In 
addition to the western steeples there are gabled towers which rise 
above the aisles on each side of the choir, and the church is remarkable 
like the church at Mantes for the absence of transepts. Perhaps, as 
the internal length is not quite 200 feet, this is of some advantage to 
the general effect. A considerable change has at some time been 
effected in the external appearance of the east end, for on examination 
I found that each bay of the triforium was formerly lighted by two lancet 
windows between the clerestory and the roof over the aisles. My im- 
pression is, that this must have been altered when the chapels round 
the apse were erected and within a very short time of the original con- 
struction of the church ; but whatever the reason, the church has lost 
much by the alteration. The six bays of the nave appear to have been 
built after the west end and the choir. The latter has a noble very 
Early- Pointed doorway, rich in chevron ornament, and this seems to 
have had a porch gabled north and south between the towers so as not 
to interfere with the window in the west wall of the nave. The south- 
west tower and spire, though small in proportion to the height of the 
nave, are of elaborate character. All the arches are round, and there 
are two nearly similar stages for the belfry. The spire has large rolls 
at the angles and in the centre of each face (an arrangement seen at 
Chartres and Vend6me) but in addition it has the peculiarity of detached 
shafts, standing clear of the rolls on the spire and held by occasional 
bands. They have a certain kind of quaint picturesqueness of effect, 
but were never, I think, imitated elsewhere. The whole bkce of the 
spire is notched over with lines of chevroned scolloping. On entering 
the church the first thing that is remarked is the excessive width of the 
nave (36 feet between the columns) compared to that of the aisles 
(about 12 feet). The result is, that a grand unbroken area is obtained 
for worshippers, whilst the aisles appear to be simply passage-ways. 
The general proportion of the building is, however, rather too low in 
proportion for its great width. Almost all the arches throughout the 
church are, more or less, stilted, and with the best possible effect. When 
the eye is thoroughly accustomed to this it is curious to notice how un- 
satisfactory any other form of arch is. The fact is, that a curve which 
commences immediately from its marked point of support, is never so 
fine as where it rises even a few inches perpendicularly before it springs. 
The capitals throughout the church are finely carved, and those round 
the apse are of immense size, and crown circular shafts of very delicate 
proportions, much as at Mantes, and (though on a heavier scale) at 
Notre Dame, Paris. The construction of this part is of the very boldest 
character, and exemplifies in a very striking manner the extreme skill 
in construction to which the architects of the day had arrived. 

^ The chmpelt round the apse of Senlis Cathedral form an iatermediate liak be- 
tween the two plana at S. Len. Thev form exactly half a circle on plan, and have 
only two bays, one of which is lightea with a window. Externally they have stone 
rooft, finiihing under the triforium windows. These two churches should be studied 
sad oompmrtd together. 

Architectural Notes in Firance. 21 

Great effect ia produced by the profusion of chevron and nail-head 
ornament used on the exterior of the church ; a double course of the 
former of the very simplest kind forms the cornice under all the eaves, 
and is also used down the edges of all the flying buttresses. On the 
north side of the nave there still remains a portion of the cloisters, of 
fine early character ; two sides only remain, with a room of the same 
date with groining resting on detached shafts. Some remains of gate- 
ways in the old walls of the abbey are worth noticing, as also the old 
walla which surround the church, built for the most part against the 
rock un which it stands, with here and there very small openings, which 
make them look as though they were intended for defence. Whilst I 
was in the church some boys came to toll the passing* bell. They said 
that they always did so on Fridays, at three o'clock.^ 

1 saw nothing between S. Leu and Beauvais, though in the part of 
FraDce bordering on the Oise, I believe that every village would afford 
something worth seeing in its church. My time, however, was limited. 

As you reach Beauvais, the country changes ; there is a great deal 
of wood, a very scattered population, and but few churches. Of course 
the first object of every one at Beauvais is the cathedral ; a building 
from the study of which I derived less satisfaction than might be ex- 
pected. It is unpleasant to find an artist striving after more than 
be is really able to attain, and this was conspicuously the case with the 
architect of Beauvais. The church was consecrated in a.d. 1^72, and 
fell in A.D. 1284. In order to repair its defects the arches of the choir 
were subdivided, and from the great size of the columns, and the narrow 
span of the arches, the present effect is that of a church in which the 
arches have but little to do, and in which everything has been sacrificed 
to keep the building from falling again. Then when the roofs and 
passages about the building are mounted it is seen that the great object 
of the architect has been simply to obtain one grand effect — that of 
height and airiness, and that to this everything has been sacrificed : 
the details throughout being poor, coarse, and slovenly in their mode 
of execution. The whole gave me the impression of being the work of 
aa unsatisfactory architect, though at the same time it is impossible to 
deny the excessive grandeur of the vast dimensions of the interior so far 
as it is completed, or the beauty of arrangement which marked the original 
scheme of the ground-plan, unpractical and unstable as it was. It may 
be right, however, to attribute some of the failures, with M. Viollet Le 
Due, to the carelessness of workmen ; though no good architect allows 
himself to be so excused. 

It seems very like presumption to criticise such a building, yet I know 
not the use of architectural study if it is to be pursued with that blind 
faith, which obliges one to admire indiscriminately everything that was 
built in the thirteenth or fourteenth century. The mere fact that the 
main intention of the people of Beauvais was to build something finer 

' No one who visits 8. Lea ahoald omit to go also to Senlis. They will find a 
tower and spire of uniisiul — if not unique — beauty and elegance. There are two 
fine dawerated chardiest and other remains which, with the charming cathedral, make 
t tomi 0uemil€ not ensQy forgotten. It is a walk of about six miles only from S. 
Ub— paiBiig by ChntiUy. 

22 AreUiectwal Notes in Firanee. 

than their neighbours at Amiens is in itself suggestive ; and I am not 
surprised that a building erected on such terms is unworthy of its age. 
It is one of the very few buildings of the kind which impresses me in 
this way ; for usually the feeling derived from the study of mediaeval 
churches is one of respect for the absence of anything but the most 
thoroughly artistic feeling on the part of their builders. No doubt the 
architect of Amiens did his work in the best way he could, vrith little 
reference to what was being done by his neighbours ; and it is curious 
that the grand success which he achieved should have led, both at Beau- 
vais and (I think also) at Cologne, to unworthy and unsuccessful at- 
tempts at rivalry. I can quite see that a claim may be made for the 
architect of Beauvais, as a man of genius who was not quite so safe a 
constructor as his contemporaries, but who nevertheless conceived the 
grandest idea of his age, as far as size and height were concerned. I 
can only answer that this is not the character of a great architect, and 
would lead me to class him with the architect of the abbey of Fonthill, 
rather than with the architect of Amiens or Chartres. The first archi- 
tect of Beauvais was, however, a better architect, in some respects, than 
his successor ; for though his details (seen in the apse only) were not of 
the first order, those of the latter are about the worst I have ever met 
with in a French church of such pretensions. 

The glass in the clerestory windows has a band of figures and cano- 
pies crossing them at mid-height, with light glass above and below : 
this is an arrangement often met with, and generally productive of good 
effect, especially in windows of such great height. A museum attached 
to the west side of the north transept contains a few antiquities ; but 
the feature of most interest is a late, but good cloister, noticeable for the 
extreme delicacy of the shafts and piers between the trefoiled openings. 
In the museum is a fair embroidered mitre, which belonged to F. de 
Rochefoucald, Bishop of Beauvais, in 1792. 

The church of S. Etienne ^ is, after the cathedral, the great archi- 
tectural attraction of Beauvais. Its west front has a grand archtd 
doorway, with a sculptured tympanum, containing the Nativity, the 
Adoration of the Magi, and* the Coronation of the Blessed Virgin, and 
four rows of figures of angels and others in the arch. The jambs and 
central pier are completely denuded of all their shafts and statues, and 
the whole work is much mutilated in all its parts ; nevertheless, it is 
the best thing remaining in the city, as far as goodness of sculpture 
and detail can make a work good. The gable of this porch runs back 
into a triplet, and the main gable has a cusped circular window, now 
blocked up. The date of the whole front is early in the thirteenth 
century. On the north side of the nave there is a fine doorway, of 
very ornate Romanesque ; it has been carefully repaired. An arcade of 
semicircular arches above the doorway is diapered with a pattern sunk 
in the stone and marked at regular intervals by red tiles inlaid, and 

* I copied the following from the ** Tarif " of the seats in S. Etienne : — 
'* Une stalle haute par ann^, 8 fr. 
Une stalle basse „ 5 fr. 
Les deux premiers baucs k chaque cdt^ da choeiur, 8 fr. 
Les deux centres bancs derriere Pautel, 7 fr. 50 c." 

Architectural Notes in France. 28 

iboat two inches square. The effect is good, and it is, I suppose, a 
Rstoratioa. The circular window on the north side of the church is 
RDsrkable for the £gures sculptured outside its label : it is evidently 
a wheel of fortune window.^ The buttresses of the aisles are valuable 
examples of late Romanesque work. They have a fair projection, but 
are weathered off some five or six feet below the eaves* corbel- table; 
and from their summit in some cases one, and in others two. shafts 
rise to support the corbel- table. The choir is lofty Flamboyant work, 
bat ugly. The nave, of early Transition character, internally has very 
beavy groining-shafts, and the far from admirable peculiarity of a tri- 
foriuffi with arches formed of very flat segments of circles, and the 
ttiing under the clerestory rising in the same line, and forming, as it 
were, a label to the arch below. 

The gateway to the Bishop's palace, with its steep and picturesque 
roo£i ; the palace itself, with its valuable remains of Romanesque work 
at the back ; a portion of a Romanesque house near it ; and a fine four- 
teenth century gabled house in the Rue St. Veronique, with three 
Pointed and canopied windows in its first floor, are the principal fea- 
tures of interest after the cathedral and S. Etienne. There is, too, a 
great store of fine timber houses, one of which, in the Rue St. Thomas, 
is particularly noticeable for the elaborate filling in of encaustic tiles 
between all the timbers. 

From Beauvais I made an excursion of some ten or fifteen miles, to 
tee the Abbey Church of S. Germer. It is a church little known, I 
luspect, to most English tourists, but of very rare interest, and equal in 
icale to our churches of the first class.. The drive thither among woods 
and low undulating hills is pleasant. The church consists of a nave 
and aisles of eight bays, transepts, and an apse of seven sides, with an 
aisle, and two chapels on either side. The place of the central chapel 
at the east is occupied by a^ low passage of three bays, leading to a 
gnnd Lady chapel of four bays, with an apse of seven. The whole of 
the nawe and choir are of fine style, in transition from Romanesque to 
Pmnted. Externally, haidly any but round arches are seen, but 
btemally the main arches are Pointed. I know few things much 
Bore atriking than the treatment of the apse. The main arches have 
their aoffila composed of a very bold round member, with a large 
dkevron on each side ; and the effect of this, in connection with the 
acutely p<Mnted aiehes, is strikingly good.' Above this is the groined 
triforiom, opeaing to the church with an arcade of semicircular arches, 
subdivided into two, and supported on coupled detached shafta. Im- 
nediately under the rather plain clerestory windows is a corbel-table* 
sad in each bay square recesses, now blocked up, but which lode as 
thoQgh they had opened to the roof of the triforium. The groining- 
ribs of the apse are large, and profusely adorned with sculpture. The 
lisle round the apse is adl built on the curve (as is usually the case in 
early work), and the groining, constructed in the same way, has those 
aagraceful and difficult curves, which result from this arrangement, 

' See dw UbHCiBtiott of a WhMl oC Fortuie in *' £« Art$ Somptumru^*' Vol. 
IL, takn tnm a US. in Um BikU hmp., No. 6877. 
' This work reesHs to mind the work of the same character at Glastonbary. 

24 Architectural Notes in France, 

Very good low metal parcloses divide the choir from the aisles. In the 
nave some of the capitals appear to be of very early date, (especially 
along the north -wall, where the acanthus is ftedy used) ; the whole 
of the triforium is stopped up, but the design of this part of the church 
seems to have been similar to that of the choir, with the exception of 
the chevron round the arches. The groining, top, save of the two 
eastern bays of the nave, is of later date. At present the only steeple 
is an eighteenth century erection over the crossing; but there was 
evidently an intention originally to build two western towers. An 
altar, of the same date as the church which remains in it, is of much 
interest, as from its rather ornate character it seems probable that it 
was never intended to be covered with a cloth. It is figured at p. 180 
of M. de Caumont's Ab4c4daire, 

The exterior affords many features of interest. It is as I have said 
almost entirely round-arched, and the choir affords a good example of 
the triple division in height, rendered necessary by the groined trifo- 
rium and the projecting chapels of the apse. The clerestory and tri- 
forium are each lighted with one window in each bay, whilst the 
chapels have three windows, — a wide one in the centre, and much 
smaller one on each side. There are no flying buttresses to the clere- 
story, but small quasi- buttresses, formed of three quarters of a shaft, 
finished under the eaves with a conical capping. The eaves cornice 
all round the church, of intersecting round arches, resting on corbels, is 
so similar in its character to some of the work in the beautiful chapter- 
house of S. George de Boscherville, that I can hardly doubt that they 
were executed under the same influence, if not even by the same work- 

The feature, however, which lends the most interest to the building, 
and aids so much in its picturesque effect externally, is the grand Lady 
Chapel,^ said to have been built by the Abbot, Peter de Wesencourt, 
between the years 1259, and 1266. In plan, disposition and general 
arrangement it appears to be as nearly as possible identical with the 
destroyed Lady Chapel of S. Germain des Pr6s, at Paris, built by the 
celebrated Pierre de Montereau, between the years 1247 and 1255. 
Pierre de Montereau built also the Sainte Chapelle at Paris, between 
1241 and 1248, and died on the 17th March, 1266. A comparison of 
the design of these three buildings has induced me to believe that in 
this Lady Chapel of S. Gkrmer we have another genuine work of this 
great architect, for it was built before his death, and is identical in 
many of its features with work which we know to be his. The plan 
of all these buildings is identical.' They all had two staircase turrets 
and a large rose- window at the west end, a parapet above the rose- 
windoWy and a smaller rose in the otherwise plain gable. The de- 
sign of the window tracery, the gables over the windows, the detail 

> It is sometimes called alio the '* Sainie ChapeUe " of S. Grermer : I know not, 
however, on what groonds. M. Vwllet Le Doc does not mention it in his list of 
Saintes Chapelles. 

* There is some reason for bdieving that the Lady Chapel of S. Germain des Pr^ 
was groined with sexpartite vavltiog t if so, it differed from the other chapels in this 

Architectural Notes in France. 25 

of the staircase turrets, buttresses and parapets, are all so similar 
tbit my eug^«tion really scarcely admits of a doabt. The main dif- 
fercDces are, that at S. Germer the original western rose window is 
perfect, whiUt in the Ste. Chapelle it is a Flamboyant insertion, 
and that the chapel is of one story in place of two. In this last 
point, and in its complete separation from the church, it agrees en- 
tirely with the destroyed chapel at S. Germain des Pr^s. The pas- 
sage between the apse and the chapel is of three bays, with a doorway 
at the side, but, so far as I cuuld see, no trace of an entrance from the 
apse. It is groined : the windows (of four lights) are much elaborated 
^Ith mouldings, and have trefoiled inside arches : and an ascent of 
tix steps leads from it under a fine archway into the chapel. There is 
a north doorway in the chapel, and the whole is groined, llie dimen- 
sions appear, as nearly as I can mnke out, to be precisely the same as at 
S. Germain, but less than in the Ste. Chapelle, being about ^7 ft. in. 
in the clear between the groining shafts, and between 70 and 80 feet 
io length. The original altar of stone, supported on a trefoiled arcad- 
iog. remains fixed against the east wall. This is 6 ft. 5] in. long by 
3 ft. 3 in. high. In the museum, at the Hotel Cluny, at Paris, one of 
the most valuable relics is a stone retable, painted and gilded, formerly 
in this chapel. I have not its dimensions, but it is of much greater 
length than this altar, and I have no doubt, therefore, that the principal 
altar stood in its proper place under the chord of the apse, and that 
the retable belonged to it. This arrangement was not uncommon ; 
it was identical with that of the altars in the Ste. Chapelle ; the same 
arrangement existed originally at Amiens ; and we have an instance 
of it in Cn^rland in the choir of Arundel church. 

llic retable has subjects from the life of our Lord, and illustrative 
of the legend of S. Germer. In the centre is the Crucifixion, SS. 
Mary and John ; to the right of the Virgin is the Church, and to the 
Itft of S. John the Synagogue ; then come figures of SS. Peter and 
Paul, the Annunciation and Salutation, S. Ouen (uncle of S. Germer) 
healing a knight, a noble speaking to a pilgrim, and S. Germer asking 
Dagobert to allow him to leave the Court, in order to found his abbey, 
llie whole of the figures are painted and gilded in the most sumptuous 
and yet delicate fashion, and though much damaged, are still sufficiently 
perfect to be intelligible. 

M. de Caumont has given a drawing in the Ahicidaire ^ of what 
feems to be a remarkably fine shrine, of twelfth or thirteenth century 
character, still in the possession of the Commune of Coudray, S. 
Germer. I believe this is within a few miles of S. Germer, and it 
ooght not to be missed by ecclesiologists who take this route. It has 
so arcade of four trefoiled arches on each side, and one at each end, and 
1>S8 a steep roof with a fine open cresting at the ridge. 

Of the other buildings of the Abbey very slight traces now remain. 
Oope io the west end there is. however, a very simple gate house, and 
^ modem coni^entual buildings appear to be now used for a school. 
•operintended by nuns. 

S. Germer is certainly one of those churches which no ecclesiologist 

» P. 365. 


Sequentus Inedita, 

who goes to Beauvais should on any account miss seeing. Its rare 
scale, dignity, and architectural interest, and its secluded situation af- 
ford attractions of the highest kind, and I am confident that no one 
who takes my advice in this matter, will come back disappointed. 

Geobob Edmund Stbbbt. 


In continuing our extracts from the Sequentiarium and Hymnarium of 
S. Gall, we should lose more than half its value did we not copy its 
musical notation, its different readings of world-known melodies. We 
take them as they come, and we begin with the Conditor alme. 

Con - di - tor al me si - de - rum, E - ter - na lux ere - den - ti - um, 


Chris -te re-demp-tor om - ni-um. Ex - au - di pre-ces sup-pli-cum. 
The next is the Veni, Redetnptor, 

Ve - ni, Re-demp-tor gen - ti - um, Os - ten - de par-tum Vir - gi - nis : 

Mi-re-tur om - ne se-cu-lum: Ta-lis de-cet par-tus De-um. 

Passing over the Verbum supemum prodiens, Nee, the Vox clara, the 
Agnoscat omnCt the Christe Redemptor omnium, and the A solis ortu, 
as not remarkably differing from the Sarum melodies, we come to the 
Corde natus ex parentis. 

Cor-de na-tus ex Pa-ren-tis An-te mun-di ex-or-di-um: Al-pha et A 

cog-no-mi -na-tus, Ip-se fons et clau-su-la Om-ni-um quae sunt, fu-er-unt, 

Quae-que post fu - tu - ra sunt, Sae - cu - lo - rum sae - cu - lis. 
Next comes the Sanete Dei. 

Sanc-te De - i pre-d - o - se Pro - to-mar-tyr Ste-pha-ne: 

SequetUuB InediUt. 


Qui, TIT - tu - te ca - ri - ta - tis Cir - cum - ful - tus un - di - que. 

Do-nu-num pro i - ni - mi • co Ex - o - ras - ti po - pu - lo. 

This is another proof, were proof wanted, that this hymn is of three 
lines, and not, as Mone will have it, without any reason, of two. As 
Dr. Daniel very well ohserves, the additional Portuguese stanzas, dis- 
covered by Mr. Neale, at Lisbon, would amply show this. Notice also 
that the more difficult reading, Circumfultus, not Circumfulsua, is here 
adopted. Had we then been aware of this great authority, we should 
probably have given this reading in the Hymnal Noted. 

Then follows the hymn De Patre Verbum prodiens. As in Mone, 
III. 708. 

De Pa - tre Ver-bum pro - di - ens Cor-pus dc ma - tre in - du - ens. 

Jo-han-nis tes - ti - mo - ni - o. Hoc e - rat in prin - cip - i - o. 

The above melody is new to us. The next hymn has not, as far 
u we are aware, been printed ; we would refer it to the 8th, — or pos- 
sibly the 9th,— century. 

Gra-tu-le-tur or -bis to -tus Na - to Chris-to Do-mi - no: 

Qui pro ciil-p& Pro-to-plas-ti Car-nem nos-tram in-du-it : Ut sal-var-et 

qooa plas-ma-vit De - i Sa - pi - en - ti - a. 

Gratuktnr orbis totus 
Nato Cbristo Domino : 

Qai, pro eulpft Protoplasti, 
Camem nostram induit; 

Ut salvaret quos plasmavit 
Dei Sapientia. 

Vobnm Dei Caro factum 

Natdtar ex Virginc : 
Nod amiiii Deitatem, 

Formam Dei suscepit ; 
Ut peccatum de peccato 
Damnaret Omnipotens. 

Magnus^ nobis commendavit 
Per Johannem gratiam ; 

Baptizatus in Jordane 
Lavit mundi crimina : 

Ut credcntium purgaret 
Gentium piacula. 

^ We would rather read magnam. 



SequeniuB Inedita. 

Quem vox paterna vocavit, — 

' £cce meus Filius, 
In quo mihi complaciii, 

Coeli, terrse, DomiDum ;' 
Ipsi, gentes, obedite ; 

Gentesque subdimini/ 

Gloria eterao Patri, 

£t Agno mitissimo : 
Qui frequenter immolatur 

Permanetque integer : 
UnuB Deus in naturk 

Cum Sancto Spiramine. Amen. 

Then follows the hymn, without music, Quod chorus vatum : and 
then the following extraordinary composition. 

Lux maris gaude, coelesti digna Bic tuie testis legitur integritatis, 

Decore, quie Verbum Patris Altissimi Qui Christum Patris portat in ulnis ; 

Voce Angeli iussa protuiisti. Sine semine natum ex te Virgine : 
Ave I Ave f Cceh Mater gloriee I Ave t Ave t Rex eterne gloria; ! 

Tu, Lumen verum, Spiritu Sancto 

Gratiam ferens Isetitise pacis 
Visum prcesentasti hodie. 

Ave ! Ave ! Rex eterns gloris ! 

Quem senex ille Symeon cernens, 
lu came gratias Deo aeens. 
In temploprofert altari Regem regum. 
Ave! Ave! Coeli Mater glorise! 

Jam gemma vitae cum Symeone 
Precare ut Deus suam det gratiam 
Nobis omnibus, cunctisque fidelibus : 
Ave ! Ave ! Coeli Mater glorisc ! 

Sit tibi Patri Filio et Sancto 
Flatui decus laus honor et gloria : 
Spes Angelorum nuncet in perpetuum. 
Ave ! Ave ! Rex eternse glorite ! 


This is one of the curious examples of quasi- Sapphics which have 
their rise from S. Paulinus^ of Aquileia; and about which metricists 
dispute, whether they are indeed Sapphics with an additional syllable, 
or Iambic Trimeter catalectic. Some of the verses, however, seem cor- 
rupt, however read. 

After this we have the Dies absoluii pratereunt, and the Ex more 
docti mystico. 

£x mo - re doc - ti mys - ti - co Ser-vi-mus hoc je - ju - ui - um^ 

,«: ^ y^~ ^e^ _- ^ - 

De - no di - e - rum cir - cu - lo Duc-to qua - ter no - tis - si - mo. 

Next comes Audi, benigne Conditor, Here, instead of the usual 
reading, Sed parce confitentibus : Ad laudem tui nominis, — we have 
that of Cassander and others, Poenasque comparavimus, Sed cuncta qui 
solus potes. After this, without any noticeable difference, come — 

Salve, Crux Sancta, salve mundi 

Clarum decus jejunii. 
Jesu, quadragenarise. 
Summi largitor prsemii. 
Vexilla Regis prodeunt. 
Rex Christe, factor omnium. 
Vita Sanctorum, decus Angelo- 
Ad Cocnam Agni providi. 
Chorus novsB Jerusalem. 
Martyr egregie (of S. George.) 

Festum nunc celebre; magnaque 

Jesu, nostra redemptio. 
Veni Creator Spiritus. 
Beata nobis gaudia. 
Ut queant laxis. 
Aure& luce et decore roseo. 
Doctor egregie Paule, mores instrue. 

' In whatever sense we take this line, we sorely mast read Dominttf. 

SequentuB Inedita. 29 

In Nomine Domini, Amen. Incipiuat Tropi et Prose (juorundam bonorum 
Suictigftllensium, maxime Saneti Tutilonis, socii beatistimi Notkeri> cogno- 
mento Balbuli, monachi perdoctissimi, nepotisque Caroli Magni. 

[First are inserted : — 

Varii versus de Credo, 
Credo dat, in miss4, nisi regni,^ feria prima. 
Cruz et Maria habet hoc, et Apostolus omnis. 
Sed Cathedra' sola tibi sit excipienda. 
Non credit Michael, Confessor, Virgo, et Martyr. 
Excipe Patronos, altaria sancta beantes. 
Barnabe Credo^ caret, nee babet Baptista Johannes. 
Magdala cantatur : Marco,' Lucseque' negatur. 
Non habet hoe Michael : sed credunt Saneti Omnes. 

Alii versus. 
Crux, Virgo summis festis, et Apostolus omnis. 
Credo canunt : Cathedram toUas, oleumque Jubannis : 
Magdalseque datur : Marco, Lucseque negatur. 
Non habet hoc Michael, quod habent Saneti [tamen] Omnes. 
Non credit Angelas, Confessor, Virgo, Martyrque ; 
Nee non Baptista, nisi sit Dominicus ista. 
Atque prima feria Credo canis atque Marilu 

'iVu is probably a sufficient specimen of this wretched doggrel.] 
Then follow a collection of Sanctuses, with tropes ; which have not, 
uofurtunately, for the most part, been copied into our MS. 

Divinum mysterium, (Mo,ne i. 306.) 
J'he following, we believe, has not been published : — 

Sanctus : Fortis El et Eloy, Eloe tremende, 

Tu Kex exercituum Sabaoth, intende : 
Tu excelse eleyson, Elye timende. 

Sanctus : Adonai Domine, mire Dominator, 
Sadai omnipotens, et Deus Creator, 
Nomen Tetragrammaton tibi, Rerum Sator. 

Sanctus : Nobiscum Emmanuel, tu Sother, Salvator, 
In usya simplici trinus Operator, 
Qui in form& panis es forma et formator. 


Then follows a most valuable table : — 

In Nomine Jesu concordantisB et siniilitudines hujus librisequentiarum cum 
titolis super. Ceterum plures per se sunt notificatse et notificandie. 

[These titles are the names of the melodies to which the sequences 
are written : sometimes mere names, sometimes the hirmos, or pattern 
oa which the stanzas are modeUed. In our present state of knowledge 
all cannot be explained ] 

' The semst ci eonrw to, that the Credo to said every Sunday, except the office 
snglit be of some other solemnity, occurring on the Sunday. But what regni refers 
to, we oaimot even socas. 

' The Cned it bow aaad, acoording to Roman use, on both Cathedra of S. Peter. 

* 80 it to on 8. Barnabas. 


Sequentia Inedita. 

Dies sanctificatus,^ 
Natus ante aecula. 
Cbriste Sanctis spes. 

Eia recolamus. 
Eia fratres carissimi. 
Eia armoniis. 
Gaude Christi Sponsa. 
Celsa lux Syon. 
Dignis extollamus, 

Concentu populi. 
Solenni carmine. 
Uunc diem celebrat. 
Laudum quis carmina. 
Summis conatibus. 

Puella turbata, 
Cantemus cuncti. 
Eccc solennis diei. 
Scalam ad coelos. 
Cbristus hunc diem. 
Deus in tuk virtute. 

Amena etfdicula, 
Gaude semper virgo. 
Solennitatem hujus diei. 

Summi triumphum Regis. 
Summi prcDconem. 
Omnis devota mens. 

Virgo phrans. 
Use est solennitas. 
Quid sancta, tu, Virgo Mater. 

Vox exultationis. 
Omnes Sancti Serapbin. 
Agone triumphali. 
Lsetetur Ecclesia. 
Cbriste tui milites prseclari. 

Jobannes Jesu Cbristo. 
Lauren ti David. 
I^audantes triumpbantem. 
Ijsetare, tanta malis. 
Hac die veneranda. 
Superni Regis laudes. 

Sancti be! la. 
Prompta mente. 
Pangat bymnum. 
Laude dignum. 

Justus ut palma minor. 
Diiecte Domino Galle. 
Festa Stepbani. 
Salvete agni. 
Rex regnat Deus noster. 

Justus ut palma major. 
Sancti Baptistse. 
Tuba nostra vices. 
Cbristi Matrem colamus. 
Laus tibi, Cbriste, cui sapit. 

Hanc concordi. 
Usee Concordes nos. 
Laudes Domino concinamus. 
Petre summe Cbristi. 

Beatusque suffert. 
O Blasi. 
A Solis ortu. 

Duo tres, 
Tubam bellicosam. 

Agni Pascbaiis esu. 
Magnum te Micbaeiem. 

Laudes Salvatori voce. 

Ijux qua. 
Clare sanctorum senatus. 
Festa Cbristi omnis. 
Psallet Ecclesia. 
Patris laus. 

Beatus vir qui timet Dominum.^ 
Sacerdotem Cbristi Martinum. 

Diem festum Bartbolomsi. 
Laudes Cbristi. 
Victimas Pascbali. 
Virginis Marise. 

' We believe this title to be taken from the versicle that follows the Third Lesson 
on the Epiphany : Diet sanetifieatus illwrit nobis ^ &c.| the rhythm of which the 
sequences so named follow in their first troparia, 

^ From the celebrated musical school of Metx. 

* We know not what this is, unless it be the *' Melodnm dnlcedo resonet " of 
S. Pirmin*s day. 

* Le., PkrygO'Doraf or a mixture of the third and first tones. 

' This is clearly with reference to the 113th Psalm, on which the first troparion 
Js founded thus : 

The Direciorium Anglicanum. 31 

We will conclude our account of this very interesting book next 

In the meantime, we should be very much obliged for an answer to 
the following questions : — 

1. What missals (or sequentiaries) of a date prior to the Reformation 
are there in the library of Trinity College, Dublin, or in that of 
Armagh ? 

2. What sequences are there contained not given in the index to the 
fifth volume of DanieFs •• Thesaurus Hymnologicus ?" 


Directorium Anglicanum : being a Manual of Directions for the Right 
Celebration of the Holy Communion, for the saying of Matins and 
Evensong, and for the Decent and Orderly performance of all other 
Rites, Functions, Offices, and Ceremonies of the Church, according to 
ancient Usages of the Church of England, Edited by John Pubcuas, 
M.A., Christ's College, Cambridge. London : Masters. 

TuAT the Book of Common Prayer is in no sense a new composition, 
but a reformation and translation of the ancient service-books of the 
Church of England ; that its scanty and incomplete rubrics imply, for 
their proper interpretation and reconciliation, a certain traditional 
usage, (which, nevertheless, we know to have been interrupted at the 
time of the Great Rebellion, and never perfectly recovered ;) that, 
accordingly , the strict letter of the law, not merely ecclesiastical but 
civil, justifies a system of ritual far more elaborate than any which 
our most ardent revivalists have yet attempted, are facts well known 
at this time beyond the narrow circle of professed liturgical students, 
and have indeed been established beyond contradiction by the recent 
decisions of high authorities. There is ample scope, therefore, for the 
fllustration of the Prayer Book from the documents or prescriptions 
of the unreformed Offices ; and, besides the more theoretical works 
of Messrs. Procter, Freeman, and Lathbury, there is certainly room for 
»ome more practical essay, such as that of Mr. Purchas. We are not of 
those who have any fears or doubts as to the expediency, as well as the 
Intimacy, of an appeal to the ancient Service -Books of our National 
Church. We are persuaded, that the more people reverently and in- 
telligently study those venerable documents, the more they will under- 
stand and value what we now enjoy. And if the first impression 
upon the mind in some cases may be a sense of how much we may 
bave lost, the more lasting conclusion to a man who has learnt any- 
tluDg by reflection and experience will be a deep feeling of gratitude 

Beaiui vtr f«i timet DonUnum : 12 -f 12 = 24 : 
Sacerdotem Christi MartiDum : 1 1 -^ 13 = 24 : 

m nuuuUUiM ejus volet nimit, 
eanctm per orbem canit ecdesia. 

32 The Diredorium Anglicanvm. 

that 80 much has been preserved ; — preserved too, we may hope, for a 
longer and more vigorous future, by means of that wholesome disci- 
pline of the lopping and pruning of extremities and superfluous growth 
which the old trunk has undergone. It has often been urged in 
these pages thnt we owe it to the abbreviation and condensation of 
the ancient choir services, the structure and theory of those offices 
having been throughout most providentially preserved, that the present 
Church of England, with its daughter communities, alone among the 
Churches of Western Christendom, aflfords its lay members, in its 
matins and evensong, the privilege of sharing in the daily hour services 
of the Church Catholic. No one will accuse the Kcclesiologist of 
elevating these services to an} thing like an equality with the crowning 
act of divine worship, the Blessed Sacrament of the Altar. But they 
have their place and their value. And it argues, we think, some degree 
of prejudice, or, at least, some want of balance and dispassionateness, 
in Mr. Purchas' mind, that we find him not able to give the first place 
to the Holy Communion, without depreciating somewhat unduly the 
daily cycle of the Church's choral praise and prayer. 

The " Directorium Anglicanum,** as its name implies, is designed 
to be a practical treatise. The want of some such manual must often 
have been felt. And, indeed, more than one of the kind has been 
published. We have, for instance, before us a privately printed Com- 
munion Service, supplemented with rubrical directions, by one of the 
editors of the ** Visitatio Infirraorum;" which, though we should not 
always agree with it, is full of useful and instructive matter. The 
brief instructions prefixed to the " Churchman's Diary " may be men- 
tioned as the best compendium hitherto published, as to the right 
manner of celebrating divine service. 

The present •* Directorium ** is avowedly framed on the basis of 
the last-mentioned unpretending little manual. We confess that we 
are inclined to think that it would have been more judicious, in the 
present posture of things, to remain satisfied with that unobtrusive 
epitome. There is such a thing as proving too much ; and we can 
foresee possible results from this publication, which its excellent com- 
pilers Would be the first to regret. We fully believe that this book 
was meant to be of practical use among the friends of Catholic ritual : 
we only hope it may not prove to be of more use to our foes. The 
time seems to us to have not come, if ever it is to come, for such a 
treatise in the vernacular. There is much that it is most important 
for ecclesiastics to know about the ministrations of the sanctuary, 
which ought to be addressed ad clerum. There is much which might 
be said for the instruction of the faithful as to the rationale or the 
practice of the Church's offices, without going into particulars, which 
will excite a smile among many well-disposed persons, and will expose 
hcly things to fearful ridicule in hostile quarters. Readers of the 
*' Directorium Anglicanum ** will know to what we allude, without 
further explanation. We cannot but think that a sounder judgment 
would have kept back much that is here given to a scoffing and irre- 
ligious public. We are bidden to be " wise as serpents," and arc 
warned against throwing pearls before swine. 

The Direciorium Anfflicanum. 33 

Haviug said so much, not without regret, as to the impolicy of this 
pablicaUon, we may go on to give it the praise of containing a vast 
deal of curious and instructive matter on liturgical subjects. The 
same confusion, indeed, which we have aheady hinted at as prevailing 
io the author's mind as to the parties for whom his compilation is 
intended, obtains also in some measure as to his matter. We observe 
a singular mixture of mere antiquarianism and of practical common 
lease. But archaeological speculations are somewhat out of place in a 
hand-book : and equally impertinent would be rubrical directions in 
an essay by Martene, or Gueranger. What, for example, can be more 
saperfiuous than a description of the " Rational " among " the orna- 
ments of the minister '* — an ornament which Mr. Purchas admits to 
have been obsolete since the fourteenth century ? In like manner no 
one would expect to find in a manual for daily use in the sacristy, a do- 
cument so curious and valuable as the Form of Consecration or Dedica- 
tion of Churches and Chapels according to the use of the Church of 

As to the manner in which Mr. Purchas has solved the many ritual- 
iitic problems which his difficult task has presented to him, we have 
seldom found reason to dissent seriously from his conclusions. We 
cannot enter at length into the points of difference that may exist. 
The '* Directorium *' will be widely read, and will spread much useful 
information. Few, if any, will follow its directions implicitly, and 
each one will exercise his own judgment in acting upon Mr. Purchas' 
suggestions. But we must put on record our regret, that the old Bnglish 
use of Sarum has not been more religiously followed in the matter of 
precedent. It is, doubtless, a great temptation in liturgical matters to 
choose eclectically from differing rituals, and especially to borrow ex- 
planations or practices from modern Roman usage, where the ancient 
practice is obscure or doubtful. But we are satisfied that this is a wrong 
principle, and entirely evacuates our legal standing ground in matters 
of ritual. We inherit the old English traditions, and none other. We 
know that this rule has its perplexities, and that the unreformed use 
of Sarum is sometimes less convenient, as a precedent, than the re- 
formed Roman. But if we are to choose our models, it becomes a 
mere question of individual taste. The practical lesson to be drawn 
from the difficulties of the subject is one of cautious moderation which, 
in matters of ritual, most of us would do well to learn. 

This exhausts our depreciatory criticisms. If any one wants to find, 
m t convenient and condensed form, a quantity of information as to 
vestments, church fittings and decorations, practices, precedences, ges- 
tures, and in fact all the externals of divine worship — as well as a 
thoughtful rationale of the whole Prayer Book — let him consult Mr. 
Porchas. The work shows very extensive reading, great liturgical 
experience, and a religious spirit. The compiler has been aided in his 
tiik by some of our best ritualists, including Messrs. Chamberlain, 
Philip Freeman* and Neale. We do not suppose that all these autho- 
rities agree in sJl that is here stated or recommended. Such a volume 
*Qit of neceaeitjr* in the present state of liturgical studies and practice 
HKmg us, be tentatiTe and provisional. Let it receive a lenient yx^%* 

84 ViUard de Honnecourt and his Churches. 

ment, and a charitable construction. There are so many diversities 
of usage in our best churches* in the manner of performing divine 
service, that a manual of this sort can scarcely fail to be of use in 
tending to produce greater uniformity. If Catholic principles root 
and spread themselves among us, the best parts of this volume will do 
good in their day, and the doubtful parts will be forgotten. That such 
a work should have been compiled and published, is itself a testimony 
to a growing sense of the importance of the externals of the public 
worship of Almighty God. People feel their need of guidance, and Mr. 
Purchas* volume, if not always a thoroughly trustworthy guide, will, at 
any rate, put them on the right scent. The next generation will, pro- 
bably, be more ripe for such a manual than our own. And the volume 
before us, with many omissions, additions, and modifications, may not 
improbably claim the merit of being the first edition of the *' Directo- 
rium Anglicanum." 

In conclusion, a word of praise is due for the excellent getting up of 
the book, and for the spirited illustrations by Mr. J. W. Hallam. 


Thb editio princeps of '* Villard de Honnecourt," as Lassus denomi- 
nated him ; or *' Wilars de Honecort," as Mr. Burges, with an ac- 
curacy not unspiced with the sarcastic, prefers to name the Picard 
architect of the thirteenth century, has been for some little time before 
the world. Our readers, therefore, are probably aware that it consists 
of thirty-three surviving out of fifty-four sheets of square parchment, 
on which in those days, when pencils and note papers were yet undis- 
covered, the travelling artist jotted down on both sides and in pen and 
ink his sketches, much at hazard, and much as one of his living breth- 
ren would have done. This curious glimpse behind the scenes of six 
centuries back, after forming a portion of the library of St. Gene- 
vieve's, was transported into the (now) Imperial Library, at the com- 
mencement of the French Revolution, where it lay from time to time 
referred to, but never published until Lassus undertook the work at 
his own risk, although his premature death left the task of bringing 
it to final publication to M. Darcel. 

The work is of that quarto form somewhat affected by French eccle- 
siologists, and in the present instance very convenient. The various 
pages of the MS. are engraved in facsimile, and accompanied with 
explanatory text and numerous illustrations, some of which are en- 
graved on quarto sheets, and the rest inserted in the text as woodcuts ; 
besides which the work contains a preface and double prolegomena, by 
Lassus, on the Gothic revival generally in France, and on the Album 
itself; a short memoir of Lassus being prefixed by the actual editor. To 
the fiact that the work is poathumous is, we hope* due the blunder of 
placing Marburg in Styria. 


ViUard de Honnecourt and his Churehe$. 87 

Villard is a man, the knowledge of whose existence depends upon 
the fact of this work. His patronymic shows him to be a Picard. The 
cumulative evidence of his sketches show that he was working during 
the second quarter of the thirteenth century, when First was gradually 
growing into Middle- Pointed ; and they also prove that he went into 
Hungary, in which land Lassus considers it probable that he built the 
diarch of Cassovia. That the chevet of the cathedral of Cambrai, de- 
stroyed in the cataclysm of the Revolution, was also his work, is 
established by the evidence of his sketches. 

It is very plain that Villard was a clever, energetic artist, who went 
about the world with his eyes open and his pen in hand. The tower of 
LaoD was the most beautiful he had ever seen, and so he drew it ; the 
r(»e at Chartres struck his fancy, and so he gave it, as he thought, 
from memory, while really making a design of his own. He was en- 
gaged on Cambrai, so he took sketches at Rheims. A menagerie came 
in bis view, and he jotted down the strange beasts; a Pagan sepul* 
cbre struck his fancy, and his reminiscences of it appear strangely Go- 
thicised. A pavement he once saw in Hungary is recorded. Then he 
turned his attention to '* instrumenta,*' and we have a lettern which 
will doubtless be, ere long, reproduced, and a graceful suggestion for a 
stall end. Drawings of draped figures (wonderfully " classical ") and 
one from the nude are given ; mathematical tricks of the draughtsman 
occur, and several ingenious mechanical contrivances are shown. 

We could multiply the list of subjects till we had catalogued the 
contents of the book ; but we hurry on to that class of drawings which 
are to the professed ecclesiologist of the greatest interest, viz., certain 
plans of churches built or excogitated by Villard, of which, in all but 
one instance, the east end only is represented ; an interesting inci- 
dental proof of the importance which, in those days, was attached to 
sanctuary and chapel arrangement. 

Plate ^7 represents (together with a group of two wrestlers, designed 
with a good deal of rough energy) a small plan of an entire church, 
with square east end, under which is inscribed : 

^ Yesci une glize desquarie ki fu esg^rdec a faire en lordene d'Cistiaux. 
I.C. — " Voici one ^glise carr^ qui fut projett^ pour Tordre de Citeanx. 
" Here is a square-ended church, which was designed for the order of 

Alongside it comes the plan of the eastern portion of a church, thus 

d lesligement del chavet Medame Sainte Marie de Cambrai ansi com 
il tst de tierre. Avant en cest livre eu trouveres les monties dedeos et dehors 
ct tote le maniere des capeles et des plains pour autresi, et le maniere des ars 

** Here is the plan of the chevet of our Lady S. Mary of Cambrai, as it 
rises oat of the ground. Also earlier in this book you will find the internal 
IB^ external elevations, and all the arrangements of the chapels and walls, 
md the forms of the flying buttresses." 

representing a (constructional) choir of five bays, with double aisles ; 
t fiTe«b«jed ap0e» and single procession-path opening into ^ve chapels, 

38 Villard de Honnecourt and his Churches. 

of which the four smaller ones are semicircular, with five divisions, 
elongated westward into a shallow bay ; while the eastern one is com- 
posed of two bays and a rather more than semicircular apse of seven 

Plate 28 is devoted to a plan described as follows : 

" Istud presbyterium invenemnt Vlardus de Hunecort et Petras de Corbeia 
inter se disputando ;" 

and below : 

** Deseure est une glise a double charole k Vilars de Honecort trova et 
Pieres de Corbie ; 

** Above is a church with double aisles which Villard de Honnecourt and 
Peter of Corbie designed.'* 

It likewise includes another east end, of which we read : 

" Istud est Presbyterium Sci Pharaonis in Maus ;** 

and below: 

** Vesci lesligement de la glize de Miax de Saint Estienne. 
** Here is the plan of the church of S. Stephen at Meaux." 

We shall not describe the former of these plans, as we reproduce the 
greater portion of it, as well as that of the projected Cistercian church. 

The church at Meaux is shown by Lassus to be that of S. Stephen 
(the cathedral), still existing, although considerably altered in the later 
Middle Ages, and not S. Faro, which was rebuilt in 1751, but of which 
a plan still exists in the departmental archives at Melun, which is re- 
produced in the volume before us. It shows two bays of the eastern 
limb, the westward having double and the eastward single aisles, 
the latter bay vaulting into the apse, a five- sided apse, single proces- 
sion path, and three three-quarter circle chapels, so spaced as to leave a 
bay of the procession path between the central and each of the side ones. 

Plate 32 introduces us to 

"Istud est presbyterium beate Marie Vacellensis ecclesie ordinis Cister- 

In this plan we see an attempt to combine the " Meaux *' and the 
•• Peter de Corbie " plans. The apse is composed of seven bays, be- 
sides the one on the straight line ; ])arallel to that bay on each side 
is a square chapel of two bays from north to south beyond the aisle, 
the inner of these two bays opening into a semicircular chapel, which 
opens into the bay of the procession path, which is concentric with 
the first bay of the apse. The second and sixth bays of the path are 
chapelless, like the alternate bays at Meaux, while the three eastern 
bays have at the end a square chapel, and flanking it on each side a 
semicircular one. Vaucelles, as it is now called, is near Cambrai : its 
church was consecrated in 1235, and was still standing in 1718, when 
Martene and Durand visited it and speak of its magnificence. 

We therefore see five distinct types of church designed and mar- 

Villard de Honnecourt and his Churches. 39 

iballed as it were side by side by the same architect, as if to serve 
bis purpose as bis normal models. Of these the proposed Cisterciaa 
one, aod the cathedral of Cambrai, respectively embody io them most 
complete forms of what we are accustomed to regard as the character- 
iitic fiDglish and the characteristic French plan, while in that which 
resulted from Villard*s and Peter of Corbie's friendly disputation and 
in that of Vaucelles, we observe a feeble compromise between the two 
principles, and in S. Stephen*8, Meaux, a variation on the French 
model, perhaps conceived from motives of economy, and, but in its 
main feature, recalling forms which are seldom found in days posterior 
to the era of Romanesque. As Lassus points out the curious vaulting 
contrivances which the partnership church offers in its semicircular 
chapels, we refer our readers to his description. The " glize des- 
quarie " arrests our main interest from its singular resemblance to an 
English abbey church. If, as we may venture to assume, the most 
ea&ternly bay at all events was not intended to rise higher than the 
ground-story, we should have a building in which the foreign spirit 
was thoroughly evacuated in favour of a specially English arrangement, 
and this from the pen of an architect all whose other works bear the 
French impress. Whence comes this singularity ? 

lliis is a question which Lassus considered important enough to sub- 
mit to the opinion of several of his friends. He accordingly wrote 
in 1853. to M. de Montalembert, Mr. Parker, and M. Schaase, of 
Berlin, requesting their views upon the rationale of this form. M. de 
Montalembert's reply, founded upon an extensive study of our monastic 
churches, made in the interest of his yet unpublished history of Western 
Monachism, assumes that the square end wa« a Cistercian characte- 
ristic, without very clearly defining whether he intended to imply that 
it was a Cistercian invention. He calls attention to the fact that the 
church of S. Vincent and Anastasius at Rome, which was given to 
S. Bernard in 1140, and probably then rebuilt, had a square end and 
two chapels on each side — (the normal Cistercian form, as at Kirk- 
stall). Mr. Parker chiefly confines himself to rectifying the error of 
Lassus in supposing that the earliest existing monastic churches 
founded in England after the Conquest belonged to the Cistercians, 
quoting a dozen Cluniac abbeys between the time of William I. and 
tiie foundation of Waverley abbey. The solution of the architectural 
question was referred to Professor Willis, who of course demolished in a 
few lines the notion of the square end being a Cistercian invention — 
by examples of abbey churches as well known as Old Sarum, Ely 
—(as recast by Abbot Richard between 1000 and 1007) S. Frides- 
wide at Oxford, Romsey, S. Cross, and the crypt of York, all anterior 
to the foondation of the order of Citeaux. M. Schaase testifies to the 
prevalence of the square end in various forms in German Cistercian 
churches, and throws out a qusere whether Morimond, which was the 
mother chorch of most of the German filiations, exhibited this pecu- 
fiirity, a question which Lassus is unable to answer, the building 
having perished, and no plan existing. 

Ho one, it will be seen, has attempted to follow up the question, 
hm large to ainall churches, or alluded to the discovery which we owe 

40 Cottage Improvement. 

to Dr. Petrie, that the square end was the normal feature of the 
primitive Irish church, at a time when all the remaining west was imi- 
tating the ** trihuna'* of the secular Basilica. 

What inference then are we warranted to draw from the five plans of 
Villard, and specially from that of the " squared church? " The first is 
the somewhat commonplace one, that it furnishes one proof more of 
the predilection of the Cistercian order for that particular form, hut 
that it cannot be said to contribute any greater elucidations than we 
already possess of the origin of the difference. The second is, that it 
illustrates in a lively and unexpected manner that scriptural truth which 
forces itself upon ail students of philosophic history, that there is really 
" nothing new under the sun" — nothing new in the field of ethics. It 
seems that the architect of those ages of faith was very like the archi- 
tect of the nineteenth century in his way of doing business. We may 
have realised much and dreamed a good deal more about schools, and 
national varieties, and hieratic traditions, and yet after allowing to 
them all the whole value of which they are capable we peep round the 
curtain and discover the professional man of the great 1 3th century, 
with his note book in hand impartially satisfying his employer by the 
" French'* chevet, with its mystic apse and its radiating coronal of 
chapels, or else suiting the views of his English or his Cistercian patron 
with the plain square-ended church, while in his playful moments he 
solves his ecclesiological arguments with his friend Corbie by sketching 
a compromise plan. Had the " Album'' perished, but the cathedral 
of Cambrai survived, and the " glize disquarie" been reared in its vici- 
nity, what brilliant theories on schools of architects and foreign influ- 
ences might there not have been ventilated. 

We reserve the consideration of other questions of interest raised 
in the volume till a further opportunity. 


Thk improvement of the dwellings of the labouring poor, particularly 
when connected with that regard to architectural proportion, which is 
consistent with the extreme of cheapness not less than of costliness, is 
a topic which we consider to be fully within our scope : we have no 
hesitation therefore in announcing that we learn with satisfaction that 
a society for the express purpose of " cottage improvement" has been 
organized in London, and that Mr. Slater has placed his services at its 
disposal as honorary architect. We understand that the designs of a 
cheap pair of cottages with three bed- rooms apiece from his pencil 
are about to be published with ample descriptions, and that further plans, 
containing varying accommodation, will follow. We wish all success 
to 80 useful an undertaking. 




[Wi gladly publish the following circular which has reached us. It is 
accompamed by an en^aving, showing the rich octagonal Flamboyant 
lantern, with an ugly Renaissance dome above it. The line mentioned 
in the last paragraph but two of the circular divides the Flamboyant 
vork and the Renaissanoe addition. The last clause, as to the choice 
of style, is beyond measure astonishing. English architects who may 
be minded to compete must not forget the awkward precedent of 
LiUe.— Ed.] 


OB Bayeux. 

*' La Society Fran9aite d'Arcb^logie ouvre un concours pour le meilleur 
pra^ de ocMironnement de la tour centrale de la Cath^drale de Bayeux. 

" Les projets devront Stre adress^s, avant le 15 Mars, 1859, terme de rigueur, 
loit k M. Gaugain, tr^sorier de la Soci^t^, Rue de la Marine, No. 3, k Caen ; 
loit, k Bayeux, k M. Georges Villers, adjoint au maire de cette ville, com- 
missaire du concours. 

" Let projets seront examines par un Jury qui sera nomme ultdrieurement. 
Le meilleur projet obtiendra une nudaUle a or, Les deux projets qui seront 
dait^ immediatement apr^ obtiendront de« mddaiUes d'argent. Des m^- 
dailies de bronze pourront kite d^ern^ aux projets qui seraient distingu^ 
psr la Commission du concours. 

** Chaque projet se composera : 

'* D'un plan aux divers Stages du couronnement ; 

** jynne ^^vation g^om^trale du transept depuis le niveau du sol ; 

** D'une coupe sur I'ensemble de la tour. 

** Ces divers dessins seront ex^ut^ fi T^belle de 0,01 centimetre pour un 
metre ; ils devront ^re aocompagn^ de notes descriptives sur Tensemble du 
projet et les moyens d'execution, et d'un devis estimatif des ouvrsge^. 

" L'exposition aura lieu dans I'une des salles de rH6tel-de-Vil1e de Bayeux. 

" Ls tour, primitivement termin^e comme Tindique Tesquisse ci-jointe, a ^t^ 
^olie jusqu'^ la ligne que voici. 

** I] s'agit d'un projet de reconstruction de la partie d^truite. 

" La Soci^t^ laisse aux concurrents une enti^re liberty pour le choix du 


Tki Amdemt IMut^in uf the Ckdlican Church. Now first collected, &c. 
by O.H. FoBBBS. Part II. Burntisland. 1858. 

Wi know not why Mr. Neale's name, which appeared on the first 
fucicuhs of this work, is not mentioned in the second ; unless it be 
tint his share of the task did not include any portion of the second 

VOL BZ. o 

42 Neale's Greek Liturgies, 

part : for we are informed that he and Mr. Forbes are still continuing 
their labours in common. 

We can only repeat what we said of the first part, that this coUec- 
tion supplies a most important gap in ecclesiastical literature. Mr. 
Forbes's notes, in the present volume, need not fear comparison with 
Mabillon*s, with which they stand in conjunction. 
The work, we may remind our readers, consists : 

a. Of Mabillon's collection, 

/3. Of Mone*s Reichenau Palimpsest, 

7. Of the fragments published in Bunsen's Hippolytus, 

h. Of one fragment in Cardinal Mai's Nova Collectio, 
the whole illustrated with parallel passages from the Ambrosian and 
Mozarabic rites. The Petrine adulterations are also pointed out. The 
whole will conclude with a full Dissertation on the Gallican Liturgy. 

The work, judging from reviews, has achieved a very high repu- 
tation on the continent. We regret that, in England, the apathy in 
such studies has made it a heavy expense to Mr. Forbes, who is the 
spirited printer and publisher, as well as co -editor. This ought not 
to be ; and it is dishonourable to English theology that it should be. 


The Liturgies of S, James, S. Clement, S. Mark, S. Chrysostom, S. 
Basil. Edited by the Rev. J. M. Nbalb, M.A. London : J. T. 
Hayes. Paics Fivb Shillings. 

For five shillings, and in a compact little volume, the theological 
student can now procure these Liturgies ; the most important work 
connected with his studies, next to the Bible. Twenty years ago ti.ey 
could not have been bought for two pounds ; and till now they in- 
volved two volumes, and (we believe) twenty shillings. We can sym- 
pathize with Mr. Neale*s evident pleasure, as expressed in the Preface, 
at having found a publisher spirited enough to undertake the risk. 

There are scarcely any notes ; these are reserved for a cheap transla- 
tion, also in course of publication. We are truly glad that our advice 
as to this point has been followed. Our readers will not need to be 
told that Mr. Neale has performed his task thoroughly. He is, be- 
yond question, the most competent editor for such a work among 
English scholars. 

We are much gratified by hearing that an eminent English prelate 
was so anxious that these venerable Liturgies should be in the hands 
of all the clergy, as to offer to make good any pecuniary loss which 
might be the result of so cheap an edition. We are glad, however, 
that the publisher was able to assure the Bishop that his munificent 
offer would not be needed. 



llluitrated Old Testament History, Being a Series of Designs by an 
English Artist, about a.d. 1310; Drawn from a Manuscript in the 
Old Royal Collection, British Museum. By N. H. J. Wbstlakb. 
Part II. London : Masters. 

Iv this Second Part, which contains ten more plates of this valuable 
vork, the Biblical story is supplemented by various apocryphal le- 
gends. First we have the devil tempting Noah's wife to tell him 
ber husband'fi secret. There is great spirit in the groups. Noah is 
met affectionately by his wife at the door of his house ; and then she 
coaxingly gives him the draught which the tempter persuaded her to 
mix. Below Noah builds the ark, and is visited by an angel. The 
next plate, a full-sized one, shows Noah carrying one of his sons up a 
ladder and pitching him head -foremost into the ark. The artist how- 
ever could not draw the patriarch's head, and so has left it out altogether. 
The ark has towers and windows and a leaden roof, the rolls of which 
are set diagonally. Next comes the emission of the raven and the 
dove, with absurd additions to the story. The devil, for example, 
makes his escape from the ark through a hole in the hull, and the 
serpent stops the leak by putting his tail through it. Then follows a 
series of illustrations of the life of Abraham. His father makes images 
—of animals, and gives them to Abraham to sell. Abraham breaks 
them and rebukes his father's idolatry. Then he marries Sarah — who 
is drawn very gracefully. The Almighty appears to him from the 
clouds and gives him three cities. The patriarch and his wife sacrifice 
a nun and pray for children. Then Hagar comes on the stage. She 
quarrels with Sarah. The scene of her child dying in the desert is 
<irawD with much power and pathos. Finally we have God's promise 
of an heir by Sarah ; and a humorous scene in which the patriarch 
reiaoDs with his aged wife, who remains incredulous. 


BernUry m History, Poetry, and Romance. By Ellen J. Milunqton. 
London : Chapman and Hall. 1858. 

This is a very pleasant little volume, by an accomplished lady. It is 
not a mere dry heraldic manual, but an attempt to elucidate the sym- 
bolitiii and mystic meaning hidden under the quaint insignia of the 
•eieDce. Still it may serve as an introduction to the severer study of 
GwiOim. In sfnte, however, of the recent organization of a Bureau 
^ tides and armorial bearings in the French empire, and in spite also 

44 New Anglican Chants. 

of the notorious fondness for aristocratic blazons among our Republic 
can cousins beyond the Atlantic, we cannot sympathize with Miss 
Millington's aspirations after the rehabilitation of the Herald's College, 
nor express a hope that our kings-of-arms will hold visitations in our 
English counties. The gentle science has seen its day, and the tabards 
of pursuivants are likely enough to follow those of the beefeaters. 
Still there is no harm, and there may be much profit, in becoming 
acquainted with the principles of the study: and, as illustrative of 
ancient history, and as aiding architectural, archaeological, and genea- 
logical inquiries, there can be no question that heraldry is still of 
great importance. 

Miss Millington's little book is a perfect storehouse of chivalric 
anecdotes and stories of deeds of honour, gathered from a very exten- 
sive reading. She has laid the Old Testament and the classics under 
contribution, as well as the poems and chronicles and romances of the 
Middle Ages. It is impossible to open her pages at any place with- 
out finding something interesting and even instructive. She has 
thoroughly fulfilled the promise of her title-page, and has shown her 
readers the history, poetry, and romance of her favourite science. 
We need not say how poignant are her regrets at the Sultan's election 
into the Order of the Garter ; but we do not observe that she is aware 
of the knighthood previously conferred on the eminent Parsee, Sir 
Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy, of Bombay. That *' the claims of the knights " 
were ** ignored " when Malta was ceded to England is plainly a matter of 
disappointment and regret to our enthusiastic herald ; a reflection which 
will be some comfort, perhaps, to Mr. George Bowyer. Miss Milling- 
ton's evident sincerity adds no little to the freshness and charm of this 
little volume. At any rate we can thoroughly sympathise with her 
disgust at the vulgarity of most modem arms. Conceive, for in- 
stance, such a crest as the following : ** On a wreath a book erect gu, 
clasped and ornamented or ; thereon a silver penny, on which is written 
the Lord's Prayer ; on the top of the book a dove proper, in its beak a 
crowquill «a," 


Twenty-Five Chants, Single and Double. Composed by the Rev. E. T. 
Codd, M.A., Perpetual Curate of Cotes Heath, Staffordshire ; with 
Harmonies revised and arranged by Mr. J. J. Matthews, Cotes Hall. 
London ; Cocks and Co. Stafford : R. and W. Wright. 

It is a very easy thing to compose Anglican chants of some quality or 
another, and by chance an amateur of very moderate skill may some- 
times produce a good one ; but it is a much higher attainment to be able 
to discern when one's own productions are worth anything, and when not. 
Mr. Codd should have contented himself with publishing the chants 
numbered 2, 4, 1% 14, 19, and 23, or some of them, when a good 

Early Engtiib Missal at Malta. 45 

opportunity occurred, and have left the reet to sleep in his portfolio, or 
put them on the fire. It is difficult to imagine what his object could 
be in publishing ao many. We doubt whether there is any in- 
stance of a quarter of this number of chants by any one composer 
living after hina. We hope Mr. Codd does not intend to cram ajl his 
chants, or even half of them, down the throats of his own choir. Se- 
vera! of the chants, as one might expect, are made up of scraps of 
bown chants ; sometimes yaried a little, sometimes not, interwoven 
with bits that may be original. Nor has Mr. Matthews done his work 
of revising very well. For instance, Nos. 18 and ^4 begin with con- 
•ecQtive fifths between the bass and alto ; No. 10 ends precipitately, 
the bass and treble descending a fifth in octaves : and in No. 1 3 the 
frequent eicailar motion between the bass and treble produces an effect 
like that of a railway carriage that has got off the line. Mr. Matthews 
ihoald study vocal counterpoint thoroughly in Albrechteberger or some 
limilar treatise before be sends any more music to press. 


To the Editor of the Ecclesiologist. 

Sia, — ^There is in the Public Library of Malta an early English Missal, 
vbich I think deserves some notice. It is an unilluminated MS. on 
TeUum. with the date 1309 in a table at the end. The condition of 
the book is good, it being quite perfect. I purpose, as well as I can. 
from my somewhat imperfect notes, giving a description of the con- 
tents, and in one or two places making quotations. 

1. Calendar, 
Among the Saints occur : 

Non. Mar. S. John Beverley. 

XV. Kal. Jul. S. Botulph. 

VI. Non. Jun. S. Swithen (red). 

Pr. Id. Aug. S. Aldan. 

III. Id. Oct. S. Ositha. 

XV. Kal. Dec. 8. Hugo Ep. et Conf. 

2. Domintcalis, 

In Natali S. Thomse : 

Imir. Lsetabitur Justus in Dno et sperabit in eo et laudabuntur omnes 
recti corde. Psalm. Exaudi Deus orationem meam, &c. 

Oral, Infirmitatem nostram respice omnipotens Deus qusesumus quia 
poodos proprise actionis gravat : B. Thomse Martyris tui atque pontificis 
intercessio gloriosa nos protegat, per. 

Lectio libr. Sapient. Beatus is qui in sapientia morabitur .... here- 
ditabit ilium Dominus Deus noster. 

GnuL Posoisti Domine super caput ejus coronam de lapide pretioso. 
V. DsaidaiiUB «iitiiMS ejus tribuisti ei et voluntatem labiorum ejus uoa 

46 Early English Missal at Malta, 

fraudasti eum. V. Justus germinabit sicut lilium et florabit in seter- 
num ante Dominum. 

Sec. Johannem. In illo temp, dixit Jhs discipulis suis, Ego sum pastor 
bonus, &c. 

Offerior, Gloria et honore coronasti eum, et constituisti eum super 
opera manuum tuarum Dne. 

Secret. Accepta sit in coospectu tuo Dne nostra devotio et ejus fiat 
nobis supplicatione salutaris pro cujus sollemnitate defer tur, per. 

Commun. Qui vult venire post me abnegat semet ipsum et tollat 
crucem suam et sequatur me. 

Post'Communio. Spiritum nobis tuse, Domine, caritatis infunde ut 
quos coelesti pane satiasti intercedente B. Thoma martyre tuo atque 
pontifice tua facias pietate Concordes, per. 

3. Pre/ationes. 

De Nativit. Pro die Pentecost. 

De Epiphan. De Trinitate. 

De Quadrages. De Sea Maria. 

De Resurrect. De Apostolis. 

Pro die Ascensionis. Prefat. Communis. 

5, Canon. 

Te igitur, clementissime Pater, per Jesum Xtum filium tuum Do« 
minum nostrum supplices rogamus ac petimus uti accepta habeas 
et benedicas hsec 4^ dona, hsec ^ munera, hsec ^ sancta sacrificia 

In primis quae tibi offerimus. &c., to cultoribus, as in Rom. Mis. 
Memento Domine famulorum famularumque tuorum N. et N. atque 
omnium fidelium Xtianorum pro quibus tibi offerimus vel qui, &c., 
as in Rom. Mis. 

Communicantes, &c., as Rom. 

Hunc igitur oblat. do. 

Quam oblationem, do. 

Qui pridie qukm pateretur, &c., to ^Hoc est Corpus meum. (^Hic 
sacerdos elevet hostiam) and so on to In mei memoriam facietis {Hie 
sacerdos sursum elevet hrachia) [?] 

Unde et memores. &c. 

Supra quae hostiam immaculatam {Hie sacerdos inclinato cor- 

pore cancellatisque manibus dicat.) 

Memento Domine famulorum. &c. 

Nobis quoque peccatoribus, &c. 

Per quam hsec omnia, &c. 

Oremus preceptis salutaribus moniti, &c. 

Pater noster. 

Libera nos Domine, &c., per eundem d. n. L X. fi. t. q. t. v. & r. in u. 

sps. sci. ds. per om. 
Pax Domini, &c. 
Agnus Dei. 

> No distinction of character. ' Rubrics more modem. 

Early English Missal at Malta, 


Hsec sacTosancta commixtio corporis et sanguinis Domini nostri 
Jesa Xti sit mihi et omnibus sumentibus salus mentis et corporis* et 
ad Titam setemam capessendam prseparatio salutaris. Amen. 

Habete vincolam caritatis et ut apti sitis sacris roysteriis. 

Domine sancte. Pater omnipotens, asterne Deus, da mihi hoc corpus et 
sanguinem &lii tui Domini nostri Jesu Christi ita sumere ut merear per 
hoc remissionem peccatorum meorum accipere et tuo Sancto Spirit u 
repleri ; quia tu es Deus et prseter te non est alius, cujus regnum glo- 
liosum permanet in ssecula sseculorum. Amen. 

Dne Jesu Xte fili Dni vi^i, &Cm libera me obsecro per hoc .... 
lb omnibus malis et universis iniquitatibus et fac me tuis obedire man- 
d&tis et a te in perpetuum nunquam me permittas separari. Qui. 

Corpus Domini nostri Jesu Xti sit mihi indigno ad remedium sem- 
pitemum in vitam setemam. Amen. 

Sanguis Domini nostri Jesu Xti conservet me in vitam setemam. 

Corpus et Sanguis Domini Jesu Xti custodiat corpus meum et 
animam meam in vitam setemam. Amen. 

Placeat tibi, S. Trinitas, Deus, obsequium servitutis mese et prsesta 
ut hoc sacrificium quod oculis tuse majestatis indignus obtuli tibi sit 
acceptabile, mihique et omnibus pro quibus illud obtuli sit, te mise- 
nnte, propitiabile in vitam setemam, qui vivis et regnas per omnia 
sarcula sseculor. Amen. 

It will be observed that there are but few rubrics in the canon. 
Where there are any, they are all in a more recent hand, as are also the 

6. Sanctoralis. 

Only a part, for the rest see No. 15. This division may possibly 
be a mistake in my notes. 

7. Incipit Commune Sanctorum, SfC. 





^lissa de Trinitate Dom. dieb. 
Sc5 Spiritu. 
Sea cruce. 
Sea Maria in Sabb. 

„ in Advent, infra 
Nativ. Domini usque 
ad Purificationem. 
ad postulandam plaviam. 
postulandam serenita- 
de quacunqne tribulatione. 
pro mortaiitate. 
pnelatis vivis. 







• • 




iter agentibut. 

Missa pro amicis. 

ad postulandam gratiam 

Spirit us Sanctl. 
pro temptatione camis. 
amico vivente. 
•, aliqua petitione. 

Missa sacerdotis. 

contra tempestates. 
pro peste animalium. 
contra adversarios S. £c- 

pro rege. 

pro fidelibus defunctis. 
Communis pro defun. fa- 

pro episcopis et sacerdoti- 




I • 

f • 



48 Early English Missal at Malta. 

Miasa pro benefactoribus. MiMa Communis pro fidelibus de- 
,« quiescentibua in cceme- func. 

terio. M Communis in anniversario. 

M patre et matre. „ pro vivis et defunctis. 

«• femina. „ Communis. 

8. Ordo ad Matrimonium faciendum, 

Isl Rubric, Veniente itaque viro et muliere ad eccleaiam cum pro- 
pinquis et amicis suis, et ad ostium ecclesiee stantibus, sive extra fontes, 
inquirat primo sacerdos tam a viro quam a muliere, et etiam a circum- 
stantibus, utrum hsec conventio inter illos legitima fieri possit, ne scilicet 
consanguinitate aut aliqua spirituali copula juncti sint, vel vir cum 
muliere altera vel mulier cum altero viro pactum conjugale inierit. 
Quibus diligenter inquisitis interrogat bominem ilium ex nomine pro- 
prio ita " N. vis banc mulierem in legitimam uxorem suscipere. ita ut 
eam sicut Xtianus bomo debet sponsam suam in Dei fide et tua tam in- 
firmitate quam sanitate, velis custodire ?" Quo respondente " volo/' 
hoc ipsum inquirat a muliere utrum velit bominem ilium pro legitimo 
sponso eique per omnia ut supra dictum est fidem servare ? Qua respon- 
dente * * vq\o" juhente presbytero propinquis mulieris, accipiat eam per 
manum dextram et sic tradat bomini illi dicens " et ego supradicto 
pacto tibi eam in nomine Domini trado." Postea sponsus det ^onsse 
suse per cultellum dotem. Deinde ponatur annulus cum denariis des- 
ponsalibus super scutum, si pauperes sint super librum, et benedicatur 

After tbe blessing of tbe ring : — 

Tunc annulo benedicto et aqua benedicta asperso, sacerdos cum 
sponso ponat annulum in poUice sponsse dicens. " In nomine Patris 
postea in indice *' et Filii/' deinde in medio " et Spiritus Sci. Amen : 
ibique dimittetur, subjungatque sponsus, tenensque manum sponsse et 
dicens post sacerdotem, proprio eam nomine vocans " N. De isto annulo 
te sponso ; istura argentum tibi do et de memet ipso te bonoro et quam- 
diu vixeris et ego vixero* bonorabo et cum Dei adjutorio sustentabo." 

After tbe Benediction ; — 

Deus Abrabam, et Deus Isaac, et Deus Jacob ipse vos conjungat, &c. 

Debinc Sacerdos ducat eos aqua benedicta aspersos in ecclesiam vel 
in castelluniS portantes candelas in manibus suis, cantando bunc Psalm. 
Beati omnes, &c. 

Q. Ordo ad visitandum infirmum. 
In the Litany the following names occur : — 

S. George, S. Dunstan, 

S. Alban, S. Swithin, 

S. Edmund, S. Cutbbert, 

S. Oswald, S. Egidius, 

S. Thomas, S. Gtitblac. 
S. Audoen (Owen,) 

> [Probtbly a mistake for caneeUum, — Ed.] 

Early Englith Missal at Malta. 49 

10. Commendatio animarum. 

11. Ordo ad Catechumenum faciendum. 

Mascali ad dextram, feminse ad sinistrara sacerdotis extra ostium 
ecclesis consistant. 

13. Benedictiones, 

In die Pascbs. Ovonim. 
Benedict. Camium. 

Pere^noruro redeuntium. 

Pomorum (In Fest. S. Syxto.) 

Nov. Fnictuum 



Benedictio Armorum. 

This Service seems worth transcribing : — 
In primis dicantur P salmi subsequentes, interim ante alt are prostrato, 

Deus in adjutorium meum intende. Benedicamus Domino in omni 
tem{)ore. Ps. Judica Domine nocentes me. Ps. qui habitat in adjutorio. 
Ps. Quicanque vult. An. Ne reminiscaris Domine delicta nostra. 
Kyrie El. Pater noster. et ne nos. 

Ver. Diie non secundum. V. Domine ne memineris. V. Adjuva nos 
Deus. V. Salvum fac servum. 

V. Gsto ei Domine turns. 

V. Mitte ei auxilium. 

V. Dne exaudi orationem meam. 

V. Dnus vobiscum. 

Oratio, Omuipotens sempiterne Deus qui mundum ex informi ma- 
teria fecisti et unicum Filium, tibi coaeternum, pro generis humani re- 
demptione. Spiritu Sancto co-operante, incarnari atque de hoste antiquo 
triumphare fecisti. te suppliciter petimus, ut hoc scutum atque bacu- 
lum istum dextera potentise tuse benedicere digneris ut sint arma invin- 

cibilia atque triumphal! potenti4tu4^ victricia quatenus quicunque 

his armis pugnaverit, tua protectione muiiitus tam corporis quam ani- 
mae salutem perficiat atque tibi Creatori omnium gratias referat, qui 
viris et reg. 

Hie detur Scutum. 

Accipe hoc scutum ad tui corporis protectionem, in nomine Patris et 
Filii et Sancti Spiritus. Amen. 

Hie detur Baculus. 

Accipe hunc baculum ad hoc duellum praeparatum cum quo valeas 
tibi insurgentem terrere habeasque victoriam in Nom. Patr. et Filii et 
Spiritus Saocti. Amen. 

Orstio. Confortatiir et corroborator sustentatorque tuorum fidelium, 
Adoiuij indefideoSy iDterminabilis, Pater, seterne Deus, qui gentes 
atgoM regeaque fbrtet coram populo Israel destruxieti. quique puero 

I neve Is umoriL onitted here bcoause it is illegible in my notes. 
▼OIm zz. b 

60 Early Engluh Missal at Malta. 

too David de gigante te blasphemante atque in sua yirtute confidente 
triumphare conceasisti* te supplices exoramus, ut hunc famulom taum 
in te confidentem benedicere adjuvare, protegere, confortare et con- 
servare atque sanctorum angelorum tuorum prsesidio vallare digneris. 
Pnesta ei Domine fidem rectam, spem firmam, cordis fidnciam, cor- 
poris fortitudinem, omniumque membrorum valetudinem ; te adjuvante 
▼ictoriam capessere mereatur tibique Deo soli omnipotenti gratias et 
laudes referat per Dominum, &c. 

J\inc surgat et iterum dicat ei, 

Confortare et esto robustus, supera in Domino et fac bonitatem et 
noli oblivisci omnes retributiones ejus : ipse det tibi vitam et victoriam 
benedictionemque in saecula sseculorum. Amen. 

Benedicat te Deus Pater, custodiat te Jesns Christus, confortet 
te Spiritus Sanctus, prsestetque tibi victoriam, qui trinus et unus Deus 
vivit et regnat per omnia saecula -sseculor. Amen. 

14. In Agendis Mortuorum. 

15. In Natalibus Sanctorum ad Missam. 

Among others occur the days of 

S. Chad, S. Swithin, 

S. Cuthbert, S. Orimbald, 

S. Alphege, S. Sampson, 

S. John of Beverley, S. Oswald, 

S. Dunstan, S. Audoen, 

S. Augustine, S. Wilfrid, 

S. Botolph, S. Ositha, 

S. Edmund, S. Aeldrida. 
S. Etheldreda, 

I will conclude this long paper with one or two passages from these 
English Saints' days, the collects, &c., of which seem different from any 
hitherto found. 

S. Cuthbert : 

Omnipotens sempiteme Deus qui in mentis S. Cuthberti pontificis 
tui semper et ubique mirabilis, quaesumus clementiam tuam ut sicut ei 
eminentem gloriam contulisti, sic ad consequendam misericordiam tuam 
ejus nos fiEicias precibus adjuvari. 

Hsec tibi Domine quaesumus B. Cuthberti pontificis tui intercessione 
nunc grata reddatur oblatio, et per earn gloriosam nostrum famulatum 
purifica, per. 

P. Com. Deus qui nos sanctorum tuomm temporali tribuis oomme- 
moratione gaudere, praesta quaesumus ut B. Cuthberto interveniente 
in ea numeremur salutis sorte, in qu4 illi sunt gratia tua gloriosi. 

S. Alphege : 

Deus electorum, corona pontificum et victoria certantium, qui B. 
Alphegum et dignitate pontificatus et martyrii palma decorasti, con- 
cede propitiuarita nos apud te ejus intercessionibus adjuvari ut ei in 
etema beatitudine possimus adunari, per. 

Seerei» Mensis sacris quaesumus Domine hostiam sacnre digneris 

Ecdesiological Society, 51 

impoatam, ot interrentu archiprssolis et martyris Alphegi vitas nobis 
prospera presentis et gaudium futurse beatitudinis obtinent, per. 

S. John of Beverley : 

Deos qui presentem diem B. Job. confesaoria tui atque pontificia mi- 
gratione conscKsrasti, da Eccleaiae tuee digne de ejua aolemnitate gau- 
dere, ut apud misericordiam tuam exemplis ejua adjuvemur et meritia^ 
per, &c. 

Munera tni divini myaterii tibi Domine quseaumua B. Job. precibui 
pietati tus nos reddant acceptoa pro cujua aolemnitate feata cele- 

Sanctificati Domine aalutari myaterio quseaumua ut pro nobia B. 
iohannis confesaoria tui atque pontificia intercedat oratio cujua noa 
dooas patrocioio gubemari. 

TraDalation of S. S within t 

Deas qui jubar etberium, antiatitem Swythunum, modemo tempore 
(fignatua ea mundo revelare, auppliciter tuam imploramua omnipotentiam, 
qoatenua per glorioaa ipeiua aancti merita quern coruacare feciati aignia 
ouracuJorum« praebeaa nobia tibi aupplicantibua famulia omnium in- 
cremeata virtutum et aempitemse felicitada tripudium. 

I have now given aa fall account aa your apace will allow of this 
ttrly English Missal. Aa the Book itaelf ia not in England, I truat 
70a will pardon the length of these notea. 

Youra truly, 
J. G* J* 
October 4» 1 858. 


A Com MiTTBK Meeting was held on December 0, 1858: present, 
Mr. Beresford-Hope, M.P., (in the chair,) Mr. France, Mr. Goaling, 
the Rev. S. S. Greatheed, the Rev. T. Helmore, Mr. Styleman 
Lettrange, the Rev. H. L. Jenner, the Rev. W. Scott, and the Rev. 
B. Webb. 

The Rer. T. Hill, Rector of Holy Trinity, Minoriea, waa elected an 
Ofdxnary member. 

Mr. O. O. Scott met the committee, and received their congratu- 
htkms on hia appointment as architect of the new Foreign Office. The 
committee afterwards adopted the following reaolutiona : 

Resolved^ " That thia committee bega to offer Lord John Mannera the 
ezpressioa of its warmeat acknowledgmenta upon the wise and juat 
choice which be has made of Mr. Scott as the architect of the new 
Foreign Office. It feels convinced that the reault of this aelection 
will bt equally beneficial to art and to the public aervice, and honour- 
able to tiie minister to whom it ia due. 

" That this oommittee begs to offer its most sincere congratulations 
to O, O. 8ooCt» Esq., upon his appointment as architect of the new 
Fofdgii OfioB. T^ bmty of the designs upon which that aelectiou 

52 Ecclesiological Society. 

has been made, and Mr. Scott's acknowledged eminence, are guaran- 
tees of the success of the building ; and the committee feels the strongest 
assurance that its construction will form an epoch in the revivid of 
mediaeval art, and materially aid the cause to which Mr. Scott has so 
earnestly devoted his talents." 

The chairman reported that the Bishop of Montreal had informed 
him that he had ordered the east window and some other windows for 
bis cathedral from Messrs. Clayton and Bell. 

A letter was received from Mr. Clarke, the Secretary of the Archi- 
tectural Museum, informing the committee, that six candidates for the 
Ecclesiological Society's colour prize had sent in their coloured panels 
in competition. 

Mr. Bodley met the committee, and exhibited his designs for the 
new church of S. Michael and All Angels, Brighton ; for a new church 
at King's Stanley, Gloucestershire ; for the restoration of S. James, 
Bicknor, Kent ; and for a mortuary cross at East Grinsted. 

Mr. Burges met the committee, and exhibited a drawing of a 
sculptured diptych, which he is about to place in the crypt of S. Augus- 
tine's chapel, Canterbury. The relief represented the first preaching 
of S. Augustine ; and the names of students of the college who hive 
died in their missionary labours are to be inscribed below. Mr. 
Burges kindly undertook to prepare an illustration from the aH^j^m 
of Villard de Honnecourt, lor the next number of the EcclesiologUt, 

Mr. G. M. Hills favoured the committee with a sight of his elabo- 
rate plans and drawings of the ruined primitive churches in the Isle of 
Arran More, off Galway ; and also of the Cistercian abbey of Boyle, 
in Roscommon ; and of several Irish mediaeval castles. He was re- 
quested to prepare a paper on the island of Arran for the society's 

Mr. James Redfem exhibited to the committee some photographs 
of his plaster group, representing the Death of Abel, executed by him 
in Mr. Clayton's studio. 

The committee examined the designs for a new church at Llandogo, 
Monmouthshire ; for the restoration of Rockfield church, in the same 
county ; and for a new parsonage at Hentland, Herefordshire, all by 
Messrs. Prichard and Seddon, exhibited to them by the latter gentle- 
man. Mr. Seddon reported the progress of the works in Llandaff 

Mr. Slater and Mr. Skidmore explained the designs and tenders for 
a small iron church, designed by the former, and to be executed by 
the latter. Mr. Slater also reported progress in his church at S. 
Kitt's, and in the Stafford memorial in Limerick cathedral. He also 
mentioned that Kilmore cathedral was now in progress from his designs 
without modification. The committee inspected his drawings for the 
restoration of S. Mary, Finedon, Northamptonshire, and advised upon a 
difficult question connected with the restoration of the chapel-hall of 
S. John*s almshouses, Sherborne. 

Mr. W. M. Teulon met the committee, and exhibited his designs 
for new paraonages at Cockayne Hatley, Beds, and Guisbcnroughf 
; and also for a butcher's shop at Roasington, Yorkahire. 

Eeclesiological Society. 58 

Mr. Truefitt showed the committee his drawings for some altera- 
tiooB and mdditions to an Irviogite meeting-house in Islington. 

Mi. Withers exhibited his designs for new churches at Llanlawem, 
Pembrokeshire, and Llanvihangel-Penbedw, in the same county ; also 
for the restoration of S. Michael, Tremaen, Cardiganshire; and some 
excellent designs for a timber parsonage, to be built at Newcastle, 
Miramichi, New Brunswick, for the Rev. J. Hudson, a former corre- 
^odeot of the Bcclesiological Society. 

The committee further examined the designs, by Mr. Clarke, for 
new schools at Coggeshall, Essex, and for the internal restoration of 
Watton, Herts ; by Mr. Ferrey, for the restoration of S. John. Kirk 
Eaton, Yorkshire, and of Beaulieu abbey-church, Hants ; by Mr. Nor- 
ton, for a new church at Powerscourt, Ireland, and for some Late- 
Pointed additions to the chateau of a Russian nobleman at Keblas, in 
Li?onia ; by Mr. Street, for the rebuilding of S. Paul, Herne-hill, Surrey, 
for new schools, at Colnbrook, Bucks, for the restoration of Hanley 
Castle church. Worcestershire, and for the new churches of Far- 
lington. Hants, and Whitwell, Yorkshire ; by Mr. S. S. Teulon, for 
new schools at Stoke. Oxfordshire, Netherfield. Sussex, Rye Harbour, 
Suasex. and S. Thomas, Wells, Somersetshire, — ^for some large colle- 
giate schools at Wimbledon, Surrey — for some cottages at Netherfield 
— for the restoration of Sandringham church, Norfolk, Great Warley. 
Essex, Staplefield, Sussex, and Misterton, Leicestershire ; for the new 
cbarch (a fresh design) of S. Paul's, Hampstead, Middlesex, and the 
working drawings of Holy Trinity. Hastings, as completed with cer- 
tain alterations ; and by Mr. White for S. Petrock Minor, Cornwall, 
S. Mary. Little Baddow, Essex, and S. Mary, Wigginton, Herts. 

The committee also examined some sketches and cartoons by Messrs, 
O'Connor for the east window of S. Leonard, Pitcombe, Somersetshire, 
for a memorial window to the Duchess of Beaufort, at Bookham, Sur- 
rey, (under the direction of Mr. Butterfield,) and for a large Roman- 
esque window in Southwell minster, representing the parable of the 
Good Samaritan. 

Mr. Keith submitted a jewelled chalice, which he had in hand from 
Mr. Street's design. 

The arrival of a letter and a parcel of books from the Danish Church 
History Society, was announced, and various letters of acknowledg- 
ment were put in ; and among other letters, one asking the judgment 
of the cominittee on the controversy respecting the Worcester cemetery 

A fragmoat of an ancient chasuble, green embroidered with flowers, 
and with a medallion of the Crucifixion in the middle of a large cross, 
ssed to this day as the altar covering at Greinton church, Somerset- 
ihire. was forwarded by Mr. Dickinson for the inspection of the 

A tab-cominittee visited the Architectural Museum, after the adjourn- 
Bent of the oommittee, and unanimously adjudged the Eeclesiological 
Sodety'a colour prize to Mr. A. O. P. Harrison, of 337, Euston-road. 

54 Oxford Architectural Society. 

The first meeting for the season 1858-9 of the Eccleaidogical Motett 
Choir took place at S. Martin's Hall, on Thursday, December 9. The 
choir was numerous and efficient, and the room was nearly full. 

The great feature in the programme (which we subjoin) was the 
Mass by Felice Anerio, a work of no small beauty, hitherto almost un- 
known in this country, 


MoTBTT — " Rejoice in the Lord " . . . . Redford, 1543. 

Antiphon — " O Sapientia." 

MoTBTT — " Now it is high time *' . • • Eduardi Lupif 1550. 

Antiphon — '* O Adonai." 

Anthem—" O God, Thou art worthy " • • Rev, S, S, Greatheed. 

Antiphon — '* O Radix Jetse." 

MoTBTT — " If thou shalt confess." 

Antiphon — **0 Clavis David." 

Uymn — " Conditor Alme Siderum*' . . . . Hymnal Noted. 

Antiphon — " O Oricns." 

MissA Felice Anerio. 

Antiphon — "O Rex Gentium." 

Carol—" Ruyal Da^r "... Carole for Christmas-tide. 

Anthbm— " Blessed is the man" • • . Rev. Sir F, Ouseley. 

Antiphon — " O Emmanuel." 

Carol — " Earthly friends " . . Carols for Christmas-tide. 

Antiphon — ** O Virgo Virginum.** 

Akthbm — " Hosanna " Gibbons. 

The seven antiphons for the week before Christmas were given with 
great feeling, in harmony and unison. 


(The following report was not sent at the time.) 

A M BBTiiTG of this Society was held in the Society's rooms, Holywell, 
on Wednesday, May 26, 1858, the Rev. J. E. Millard, B.D.. of Mag- 
dalene College, in the chair. 

A. Hay, Esq., of Christ Church, was elected a member of the So- 

The chairman then called on Mr. Lowder for his paper on the Prin- 
ciples to be observed in building churches in the Tropics. 

" The subject of churches for tropical climates is one of Increasing 
interest ; the call for churches in climates not directly tropical, but yet 
possessing a climate akin in peculiarity to tropical regions, is making 
itself more and more heard. People are now making efforts for the 
erection of ftresh churches in India. Any remarks on the principles 
which are to guide us in these buildings, if not of themselves of any 
practical utility, yet are serviceable so Aur as they draw attention to the 

Oxford Architectural Society. 66 

"The present |Miper is confined to churches in the Tropics, and the 
TCfflarks refer chiefly to West India churches. The points which call 
for cuDsideration are those connected with the necessities of chmate, 
toch as the extreme heat, the comparatively uniform temperature, the 
violeat storms and rains. 

" For presenration against periodical hurricanes great strength is re- 
quisite, uid for the purpose of preserving a sufficient supply of cool 
air, means for excluding the sun*s glare, and for the admittance of cool 
draughts, are necessary. In the matter of materials, each locality must 
decide for itself, and in ornamental decoration the natural products of 
each country must he the guide. In tropical countries the palm tree 
is one which affords great opportunity as a subject to be used in deco- 

" Few mistakes can be more injurious for the growth of architecture 
io other regions, than those which arise from a desire to transplant 
Enghsh Pointed into foreign countries ; it cannot grow healthily, and 
&ts itself but awkwardly in many ways in which it has to accommodate 
itself. The spirit of Pointed architecture may yet direct ; it will take 
the materiab at hand and mould them to the requirements of the 
country. In this way Byzantine buildings may be proper models for 
many of the peculiar features of Tropical climates.*' 

Some suggestions were offered in reference to the construction of 
roofs and windows, &c., and a general scheme of a church adapted to 
those countries where hurricanes prevailed ; the necessity of having a 
cloister round churches generally in hot climates was insisted upon, and 
some remarks upon the value of furthering art in the countries them- 
selves, by educating the native workmen and encouraging them to rival, 
not to imitate, the best built edifices of foreign production. 

At the conclusion of the paper the chairman tendered the thanks of 
the society to Mr. Lowder for his interesting paper. He considered 
that the subject was one which was of great interest to the society 
itself, inasmuch as they themselves had, in designing a church in the 
East Indies some years ago, experienced many of the difficulties which 
had been pointed out, and which indeed had proved insuperable to the 
adoption of their plan. After a few remarks from Mr. Parker, and a 
very beautiful exhibition of seal impressions by Mr. Ready, sigillarist, 
which was highly approved by the society, the meeting adjourned. 

The third meeting of Michaelmas term was held in the Society's rooms 
OD Wednesday, December Ist, the Rev. S. W. Wayte, treasurer, in the 

Mr. J. H. Parker, F.S.A., was unanimously elected President in the 
room of the Rev. the Warden of New College, resigned. 

On taking the chair, the newly-elected President, in thanking the 
•odety for the honour done to him, pointed out in a few words the 
importsDee of retaining such a society in Oxford, whence so many 
yoong men go forth* who eventually, either as clergymen or landed 
profHrieton. bare great influence, if not personal responsibility, in the 
ptcKrvation^ rcatoration, and rebuilding of churches. The architect! 

66 Oxford Architectural Society. 

to a great exteut are governed by the taste of their employers, and 
therefore a knowledge of the correct principles of Grothic architecture 
imbibed at Oxford would stand by them in need in after years, and 
go far to prevent those errors of judgment which so constantly occur 
in dealing with our ancient edifices. The study of architecture, too, 
he considered, would materially assist many men in the study of his- 
tory, because almost each reign was as much marked by its buildings 
as by its events ; and the former appealing to the eye, must assist the 
memory in recalling the latter. He concluded by mentioning his 
having held, in conjunction with the present " Radcliffe Observer," 
the office of secretary during the first days of the existence of the 

Mr. G. Cuthbert, Christ Church, and Mr. £. S. Orindle, of Queen's 
College, were duly elected members of the society. 

Mr. Lowder, the secretary, in the name of the committee, congratu- 
lated the society and the country on the decision of the Oovemment to 
adopt a Gothic design for the new public offices at Westminster. It 
had been recently mentioned, as a proof that the Architectural Societies 
had done their work, that every church erected in England during the 
last year, is in the Gothic style. The new Museum, at Oxford, is a 
proof that it can be equally well adapted to any secular purpose, and 
now the selection of this style for the Government Offices goes far to 
complete the triumph of the old English style over the Palladian, which 
has so long been an intruder on our shores. 

Mr. JefTcock then read an interesting paper on the Abbeys of York- 
shire, of which the following is an epitome : 

After describing the physical configuration of the county, Mr. Jeff- 
cock pointed out that almost each dale had its abbey. " On the York- 
shire side of Teesdale, near Rokeby, is Egglestone Abbey ; in Swaledale 
is Easeby ; in Uredale is Jorvaulx ; in Skelldale is Fountains ; in 
Wharfdale is Bolton ; in Airedale is Kirkstall ; in the valley of the 
Rie is Rievaulx. In strange contrast to these denizens of the vale 
stands out the stupendous form of Whitby Abbey, overlooking west- 
ward the gorge of the Esk, and presenting its northern side to the sea. 
Besides these there are numerous others hardly inferior. Between the 
Conquest and 1st of Henry III. were founded or refounded 14 abbeys, 
44 priories, 7 alien priories, and 13 cells ; 3 prssceptories and 3 com- 
manderies in this county. After that time no houses for monks, nuns, 
or canons were built. This period synchronizes with that of the 
Crusades; the Crusaders left their property through their religious 
zeal, and to have prayers and masses said for them : perhaps, accord- 
ing to the adage ' Soon come, soon gone,* having obtained their estates 
in England at so cheap a bargain they may have felt a little nauseated 
with the glut of land. The monastery, by regular and diligent cul- 
tivation, turned the manor to better account than the warrior lord or 
ill -fed serf had inclination to do. That style of architecture where 
the Norman blends into the chaste Early English, or where the Early 
English stands out in all its beauty and purity, has perhaps more to 
do with the pleasure which the mined abbey calls up than either its 
vmieTable age or its fairy situaticm. Suppose for a moment the periods 

Exeter Diocesan Architectural Society. 57 

of architectural styles to have remained as now, but the era for building 
monasteries to have happened, not when it really did, but, say, a cen- 
tury before the Reformation. Instead of the pointed arch, the most 
graceful of Christian forms, we should have had the obtuse Tudor arch, 
with its perpendicular tracery ; and our abbeys would have been no 
grander than most of our parish churches. Roche, Fountains, and 
Kienalx, Whitby, Jorvaulx, and Kirkstall belong to this style. In 
many cases, as at Fountains and Kirkstall, Perpendicular additions have 
been made to Transition and Early English fabrics, as though a later 
architect could not throw himself back into the spirit of a former age. 
In art, creation and criticism rarely are found together. Homer could 
not point out the principles on which he wrote ; or Lionginus create an 
Oiad. This concerns the hopes of architecture at the present time. 
The present age is decidedly critical ; we are confessedly a restoring 
age ; our imitations are wonderful — they are models to the life ; but 
can we create the living form, or is it but the lifeless statue after all ? 
Before the Reformation there was creation, but no criticism ; last cen- 
tory Gothic had neither creation nor criticism in it ; we certainly have 
the latter — have we the former ? Our fathers had neither ; have we 
ix)tfa ? The parish church of Doncaster seems to discover the spirit of 
creatioD still inspiring our architect, and realising itself in the chaste 
forms of curve and arch as it did six centuries ago." After alluding 
to Wordsworth's lines on " the Strid " at Bolton, he concluded by 
quoting from Sir H. Ellis's letters a contemporary description of the 
aappression of Roche Abbey. 

Some tracings of the recently discovered paintings on the walls of 
CSudgrove church were exhibited in the course of the evening. They 
will remain hung up in the Society's rooms, for the inspection of mem< 
ben, until Wednesday next. 


A QUABTsmLT meeting of this society was held November 25, 1 858, at 
the College Hall, South Street ; and although the weather was unfa- 
vourable, the meeting was well attended. The Yen. Archdeacon 
Bartholomew presided. On the table were exhibited some beautiful 
|»ints which had been received from the Architectural Photographic 
Aasodation, in return for the annual subscription of this society ; and 
widi to mtich interest were these photographs regarded, that the sub- 
wanp&m to the association was ordered to be renewed, with a view to 
entitle the society to additional specimens which, it is expected, will be 
iboitiy leoeiTed. 

Lwiit.*Coloiiel Harding, one of the honorary secretaries of the 
aoeiety, fcad tbe feOowing report. 

"In preeentiiig the present quarterly report, your committee feel 
pitified ID being able to state that the principles they have pursued are 
■daqg inugiet . and tihe works which have been reported during l\\« 

58 Exeter Diocesan Architectural Society. 

last few months, either in the restoration of churches or the enrich- 
ment or improvement of the sacred edifice, have been neither few nor 

" Your committee have the satisfaction of stating that the society 
continues to receive additions to the subscription list ; and although 
they cannot congratulate the meeting in having received all the sup- 
port they might naturally have expected in carrying out the principles 
of so important and useful a society, they nevertheless feel satisfied 
that the labours of the few have been appreciated, and that its good 
effects are gradually extending throughout the diocese. 

" Your committee refer, with pleasure, to the movement that has 
been made consequent on the visit of one of our most valued mem- 
bers — our Curator — to the different local districts, for the purpose of 
collecting materials for the ' Rough Notes,' and their subsequent cir- 
culation ; and although that useful work has been brought to a close, 
your committee express an earnest hope that some zealous member in 
each district will point out, either to the curator or one of the secre- 
taries, the improvements and alterations which have been made since 
each paper has been in circulation, or point out any omissions which in 
so great an undertaking must naturally have occurred. Your com- 
mittee are desirous of drawing your attention to the pleasing fact, that 
since the last sheet, relating to the deaneries of Torrington and Hols- 
worthy, (No. 20,) has been in circulation, the agreeable information 
has been communicated that an opening service has been held at the 
church of S. Giles's, at Little Torrington, and a collection made 
towards defraying a deficiency in the expenses incurred, in the admira- 
ble restoration that has taken place in this little church ; and although 
much exertion was made, a debt of £100 remained, which the libe- 
rality of Mrs. Stevens, the owner of Cross, has kindly supplied. In 
the restoration of this small but interesting church, open seats and an 
open roof have replaced high and inconvenient pews and low ceilings, 
llie chancel has been entirely rebuilt by the Rev. G. De C. Guille ; 
a new arch to the sacrarium, of carved Hatherly stone, has been con- 
structed ; and the granite piers and arches cleansed from the load of 
white-wash which encumbered them. Another circumstance of a 
most pleasing character, in connection with this church, should not be 
omitted — namely, that the altar-table is the gift of Mr. Kilby, the 
coachman of Sir Trevor Wheeler, who has for many years been a resi- 
dent at Cross, which is situated within the parish of Little Torrington. 
In the church of Pyworthy, four new windows have been introduced : 
the partition in the church removed, and the font restored to its former 
site. Repairs have also been effected at Bridgerule; and at All 
Saints, Bradworthy, instructions have been given by a large landed 
proprietor for the insertion of a new three-light window, with an ap- 
propriate figure in each compartment, in stained glass. Neither should 
we omit the rebuilding of Creacombe church on an enlarged scale, the 
whole of which has been ably and liberally effected by the family of 

" Although the ably restored church of Clyst S. George has been 
already casually reverted to in a former report, your committee think 

Exeter Diocesan Architectural Society. 59 

it right to again draw your attention to it. With the exception of the 
tower and a part of the north wall, this sacred edifice has been entirely 
rebuilt, under the able superintendence of the present worthy rector, the 
Re?. H. T. EUacombe. High and ill- arranged pews have been replaced 
by bench ends, (all variously and richly carved,) and open sittings ; the 
windows and roof restored to their ancient character ; and the general 
arrangement ably performed and executed in excellent taste. Your 
committee refer to a letter from the late rector, the Rev. Wm. Rous 
Ellacombe, addressed to Mr. Stockdale, in which great stress is laid on 
the advantage of throwing out a south aisle, as the means of removing 
u inconvenient and always unsightly gallery ; but by the present ju- 
dicious arrangement much additional room has been gained, and the 
appearance greatly improved, without any extension of the building. 
Mr. BUacombe has recently introduced into his stone pulpit a revival 
of glass mosaic. The effect is extremely good and affords a great re- 
lief to the pulpit, enriching and warming the beautiful stone carving, 
aod producing an harmonious and yet sufficiently subdued appearance. 

" On the important subject of open pews, your committee would re- 
vert with satis^tion to the remarks made some years since, by one of 
their most able members, whose abilities, energies, and usefulness have 
been removed to a distant land, ' that when we consider how very diffi- 
cult it is to remove long established evils, and how hard to induce men 
to forego what they identify with their own just vested rights, and re- 
gard, however erroneously, as part and parcel of the system of the 
Church to which they belong, we must all concur in viewing the ques- 
tion as one of extreme difficulty ; yet, when we see that it has been 
adopted in so many instances, so as to become almost, if not quite, the 
Qnivenal plan in every new church, we may look with hope that, at no 
distant period, the practice of earlier days may be revived, and that 
doors, which were possibly occasionally found, even before the Refor- 
mation, but attained their full development during the Great Rebel- 
hen, may be again discontinued, and the evil which they occasion 

" Yoor committee would, in the next place, remark on the judicious 
and complete restoration which has taken place in Winnard's chapel, 
within this city, at the cost of its patron, Mark Kennaway, Esq. The 
windows have all been renewed, and the chancel-waU entirely rebuilt. 
The windows are filled with stained glass ; and the beautiful eastern 
one is the work of Hardman. 

" Yoor committee have hitherto refrained from reporting on another 
kmg desecrated building in the same immediate neighboiu*hood, the 
chapel of S. Mary Magdalen. This interesting little Early English 
bvulding had stood the brunt of centuries, and was fully capable of 
being easily restored. The first act of recent desecration was the re- 
moval of the bell (which occupied its original position, and had been 
wont to call the poor and afiUcted lasar-people to their house of prayer,) 
when it was earned to Hele*s charity school, where it remains. This 
•et was followed, the next year, by the total and reckless destruction 
of the wbc»le edifice ; a proceeding which was severely commented upon 
bf the ebmritj coamiiasioner, on his recent visit to Exeter. 

60 Exeter Diocesan Architectural Society. 

** Before your committee leave these subjects, they are desirous of 
recording the important fact that a new church is about to be erected 
at Harberton Ford, at the sole expense of Mrs. Anthony, whose libe- 
rality has been seconded by Chancellor Martin, in contributing a resi- 
dence for the clergyman, and a portion of the endowment from the 
parochial tithe. 

" Your committee are pleased in being able to state that a valuable 
collection of MSS. was recently presented to the library of the Archi- 
tectural Society, by Mr. Stockdale, which comprehends a history of the 
county of Devon, — various pedigrees of Devonshire families, — many 
original documents, — and an extensive correspondence, all of which are 
in . course of arrangement, and will be shortly placed before a sub- 
committee that has been appointed to consider in what way they can 
be most advantageously and usefully appropriated. 

" Your committee cannot avoid remarking on the interest attached to 
the last quarterly meeting, in the able exposition made by the Lord 
Bishop of Fredericton, on the state and prospects of his diocese. His 
lordship, among many other topics, dwelt on the increased desire 
among the Canadians to promote the erection of churches ; not the ^ 
simple buildings alone, but adorned and beautified, in order to show 
their veneration for the house of Goo. 

'* There is but one other subject yet untouched which your committee 
would wish, in conclusion, to remark upon, which is the important 
consideration of domestic, as well as ecclesiastical, architecture. An 
able paper has been read by Mr. Ash worth on the fine and interesting 
old manor house of Wear Qifford, in the north of Devon, which will 
be followed to-day by one on the ancient residence of Holcombe 
Court. Another friend and member, whose abilities your committee 
thankfully acknowledge, has promised to give the society a paper on 
Bradfield House, near Collumpton, which has been recently almost en- 
tirely restored. These are points of interest which show the value and 
usefulness of this society.'* 

W. Miles, Esq., having read the treasurer's report, which represented 
the society's funds to be in a satisfactory «tate, 

The Rev. J. B. Hughes, head master of Blundell's school, Tiverton, 
was then called upon for his paper on Huntsham church, a structure 
possessing peculiar interest to the members of the society, in conse- 
quence of its association with the venerated name of the late Arthur 
Troyte, Esq. 

Huntsham church, said Mr. Hughes, is situated in a picturesque 
valley, watered by the Lowman, about six and a half miles from Tiver- 
ton. The annals of the parish extend back as far as a.d. 1263, when 
the Puncharduns were parous, and the church itself was rebuilt a.d. 
1339, and a.d. 1430. At the time when the late Mr. Troyte became 
the patron of the living and the occupant of Huntsham Court, the 
little fabric was in a very dilapidated condition ; the exterior was over- 
grown with ivy, the interior was in a ruinous condition, and high deal 
pews concealed much of the remaining old bench ends. Mr. TVoyte*s 
first care was to select and cut some of the finest timber on the estate 
for the restoration of the church ; and while the oak was seasoning he 

Leteegtenkire Architectural and Arcfutologieal Society. 61 

himself to the erection of parochial schools, and to the im- 
proiiDg of the dwellings of the poor. Allusion was made to the late 
lamented Mr. Troyte^s experience in church restoration, it having 
been his privilege to have assisted in carrying out the improvements of 
four churches in Dorset and one ia Devonshire previously to the good 
vork at Unntsham. The churchyard was enlarged, and an oak lich- 
gate erected at the entrance. The diurch itself, originally consisting 
0/ nave, chancel, and tower, was now widened hy the addition of an 
aiale and vestry on the sosth side, and a small transept on the north. 
Mention was made of the correct ritual arrangements, the seating 
carred in oak« the windows with their very appropriate legends, the 
vork of Waiies, and the gift of Thomas Williams, fisq. The paper 
concluded with a touching description of the graves of those who had 
during life held the church in such high estimation, and whose resting 
places are simply marked by two small crosses, whilst the church and 
churchyard are their more appropriate monument. Many interesting 
sketches and illustrations enhanced the interest of Mr. Hughes' paper, 
which WAS foUowed by a description of the Manor House or court at 
Holcombe Rogus, by Mr. Ashworth. This edifice contains a noble 
hall, porch, tower, and many curious apartments, with rich decorations, 
and is reported to have heen erected by Sir Robert Bluett, in Henry the 
Seventh's time. It appears that his ancestor, John Bluett, Esq., first 
became possMsed of Holcombe Court by his marriage with Maud, 
daughter of John Cheseldon, Esq., early in the fifteenth century. 
Recently the estate and mansion has been purchased by the Rev. Wm. 
Rayer, of Tidcombe, Tiverton. Besides the mansion the church of 
Holcombe, containing several curious monuments of the Bluett family, 
was described, and various illustrations were exhibited, which bore 
eridence that Mr. Ashworth is a clever draughtsman as well as an able 
architect. Both papers will be recorded and illustrated in the Society's 



Tbi December meeting of this Society was held in the Town Hall, on 
the ^th, the Rev. R. Burnaby in the chair. 

After the exhibition and examination of numerous curiosities and 
antiquities, the Rev. J. M. Gresley read a paper on the Book of Com- 
mon Prayer. 

'• With the Restoration of King Charles II., the Prayer Book of the 
Church of England came again into use. Endeavours were made to 
form a union between the Church, which was now restored, and the 
Dissenters, who had been established in its place during the Oreat Re- 
bellion. For this purpose the King issued a Commission to an equal 
OQinber of divines of both parties, ' to advise upon and review the 
Buok of Commoo Prayer,' &c. . . . Union, however, was found to be 

62 Leicestershire Architectural and Archaolopical Sacieiff^ 

unattainable. It remained, therefore, for the divines of the Choi 
England to make only such alterations in the Prayer Book as d 
seem to them desirable, independently of other parties. Conseqw 
on the ^Ist of November following, the Upper House of the Con 
tion of Canterbury appointed* under Royal Licence, a committ 
proceed without loss of time to a revision of it ; and on the 2( 
December, the new book was adopted, and subscribed by the Clei 
both Houses of Convocation and of both Provinces. On the 2i 
February, 166% the House of Lords received, together with a 1 
message, an authentic copy of the corrected book confirmed und< 
great seal. The Act of Uniformity, which directed that it shot 
accepted and used throughout England, was passed by the Lor 
the 9th. and by the Commons on the 16th of April. 

" The original MS. of the Book of Common Prayer, which wi 
nexed to this Act, is not now to be found among the parliame 
records. . . . But although the MS. originally annexed to the i 
Uniformity cannot now be produced, there is a clause in the Act ' 
renders certain copies of the first printed books of equal authority 
the MS. itself. . . . 

" The corrected books thus authorised are known as the ' £ 
Books.* The copy deposited in the Tower of London was reprint 
1848, by Mr. Masters ; that for the Chancery in 1840, in three voli 
by the Ecclesiastical History Society, under the editorship of 4 
Stephens, barrister-at-law, who collated it with the Sealed Bool 
the King's Bench, Common Pleas, Exchequer, S. Paul's, Christ CI 
Ely, and the Tower, and also with the MS. book annexed to the 1 
miss of the Irish Act of Uniformity, passed in 1666. 

" As each of the Sealed Books is deserving of special attent 
have recently examined the copy deposited in the custody of the 
and Chapter of Lichfield, which I think has not hitherto bee 

" The volume is bound in rough calf, and has the words Lich 
Book stamped on one side near the top. The leaves are 15{-in 
by 9j- in. wide. The text has a ' meadow of margin ' of Sin. i 
fore-edge. The worm has rather damaged some of the early li 
After three fly-leaves comes the engraved title by Loggan ; then a 
leaf, A % containing ' The Contents of this Book.' Four loose 1 
also precede the Morning Prayer, which were evidently pasted in 
the book was bound. Tliere is a similar leaf, d 3, before that coi 
ing ' A Prayer that may be used,' &c. On comparing this book 
Mr. Stephens' collation of the Chancery Book, their similarity i 
dent ; excepting that in the Lichfield Book the sheet c of six lea 
followed by D, D 2, D 3, two unmarked leaves, and then the four 
have been inserted and are unmarked. The paper of the Lie 
book is remarkably good, and in better condition than that fc 

" At the foot of the last printed page of the book, which con< 
with the Ordinal, the commissioners who examined it have w 
' The Formes of I^yer for the V. of November, the XXX. of Jai 
and for the XXIX. of May, are to be printed at the end of this B 

LeieeBiershire Architectural and Archaological Society. 63 

They are not, however, added. Then follow (loose, but stitched to- 
gether with the same kind of green silk as the volume is stitched with) 
>ix printed and two unprinted pages. The first of these contains the 
declaration of the Archbishop and Bishops of the Province of Canter- 
bury that they have in Synod received and approved this book of public 
prayers, and have subscribed the same on the 20th day of December, 
A. 1601. The Archbishop's and 18 Bishops' names follow. 

" The 2nd page has the declaration of the Lower House of the Pro- 
vince that they have on the same day unanimously consented and sub- 
sciibed to the said book. The names of Henry Fern, Dean of Ely 
and Prolocutor, and of 14 other Deans, and of William Thomas, the 
Precentor of S. David's, follow. 

"The 3rd and 4th pages have the names of George Hall, Dean of Can- 
terbury, and of 30 Archdeacons, 23 Proctors of Diocesan Clergy, and 
16 Proctors of the Cathedral Chapters, in continuation of the list on 

*' The 5th page contains a declaration of the Archbishop and Bishops 
of the Pkt>vince of York, similar to that made by the Archbishop and 
Bishops of the Province of Canterbury, and on the same day. The 
names of the Archbishop and of the Bishops of Durham and Carlisle are 

" On page 6 is the declaration of consent and subscription of the 
Cleigy of the Lower House of the same Province, followed by six 
names, but whether Deans, Archdeacons, or Proctors is not stated, viz., 
Henr. Fern, Jo. Barwick, Rob. Hitch, Matt. Smalwood, Humphredus 
lioyd. And. Sandeland. 

" At the foot of the letterpress on this page are written the first thir- 
teen lines of the following certificate, and below them are the signatures 
and seals of the first three commissioners. 

" On page 7 is the concluding portion of the certificate, followed by 
Uie signatures and seals of the last four commissioners. 

" The 8th page is blank. 

*** We whose names are beer under written Commissioners amongst others 
motnted by our Soveraigne Lord Charles the Second by the Grace of God 
aia^ of Eoglmd Scotland, France, and Ireland, Defender of the Faith &c 
bj his Highness Letters Patents under the Great Scale of England bearing 
ate the fost day of November in the fourteenth year of his Raiene in pur- 
naDoe of a eertaine Act made in the Parliament begun and held at West- 
minsler the eighth day of May in the thirteenth year of the Raigne of our 
aaid Scyverame Lord King Charles the Second, and there continued untill the 
uneteenth £iy of May in the fourteenth year of his said Majesties Raigne, 
aod thenee prorogoed to the eighteenth of February then next following, en- 
tkoled Ad Act for the Uniformity of Publick Prayers and Administration of 
Saeraments and other Rites and Ceremonies, and for Establishing the Form 
of Maldng, OrdainiDg and Consecrating Bishops, Priests and Deacons in the 
Chovdi of England, do Certifie that we have Examined and Compared this 
Book with the Originall and we find it a true and perfect Copie. In witness 
whereof we have beer onto set our EUnds and Scales this tnirteenth day of 
Deeembor in the iiMirteenth year of the Raigne of our said Soveraigne Lord 
Kflig diaries the Second and in the year of our Lord Christ 1662. 

"'Joa-Haiiabaw, Dee. Cicestr., Rich. Chaworth, Qulielmua Paule, Dec. 

64 Leicestershire Architectural and Archaological Society. 

Lichfeild, Will. Brabourne, Mar. Frank, Archid. S. Alb., Geo. Stradling, Jo. 
Pritchett.' " 

[Of these signatures, and of the sedls which accompany them, Mr. 
Ghresley exhibited a print.] 

" The exemplification is suspended from the bottom of the back of 
the volume. The ends of the lengths of green silk with which the 
sheets were stitched for binding are there plaited together into a band 
three quarters of an inch wide, which is passed through the foot of the 
parchment, and then has the Great Seal of England upon it. Below 
the seal the silk band terminates in five tassels. The seal, which is of 
yellow wax, is preserved in a tin box. With the exception of three 
pieces chipped off the legend, the whole of it still remains, but cracked 
into four parts, which have been skilfully united. The engraved head- 
ing to the exemplification contains a portrait of King Charles II., 
«i£tatis suae 30, A°, 1660.' the Royal arms, English and Scottish 
crowns, roses and thistles, &c. 

" The exemplification recites that portion of the Act of Uniformity 
before quoted, and concludes thus : — 

" * Now know yee that Wee, according to the forme and effect of the said 
Act of Parliament, and in accomplishment of the intent thereof in thisbehalfe, 
have inspected the said examined copy of the said Act of Parliament and 
Booke aroreiaid, and have caused the same to bee hereunto annexed, and to 
be exemplified vnder the great Seale of England, att the request and proper 
costs and charges of the Deane and Chapter of St. Chad in Litchfeild. In 
witnes whereof Wee have caused these our letters to be made Patents. Witnes 
ourselfe att Westminster, the ffifth day of January, in the ffouerteenth yeare 
of our Raigne. 

" • Barker.' " 

" The following receipt is on a loose half-sheet of foolscap paper : — 

" ' Quinto Decimo die Maij, 
" ' Received of William Paule Doctor of Divinity the some of nine ^ 
pounds currant English money for the Booke of Co-en praver vnder the 

freat Seale of England, to remayne in the custodye of the said D'cor ^ 
*aule Deane of Lichfeild and the Chapter there as a Record according jg 
to the tenor of a late Act of Parliament — That is to say seaven pounds ' 
thereof for the fees of the great Seale and fortye shillings for Mr. Croke 
the Stasioner for the Booke I say Rec' 

•* * by me 

«'Tho Agar.'" 

It was unanimously resolved that his Ghrace the Duke of Rutland be 
requested to become patron of the Society, in conjunction with the 
Lord Bishop of Peterborough. 



S. Paul, Heme Hill. Surrey, — We have already mentioned that Mr. 
Street was eotrusted with the task of rebuilding this church after its 
destnictioQ by fire. He has finished the works most successfully. Of 
the original fabric, built ten or fifteen years ago, in poor Third-Pointed, 
tbe tower and spire were uninjured by the fire, and the outer shell also 
remained. Mr. Street, therefore, has been constrained to preserve the 
former proportions, with the exception of both widening and lengthen- 
bg the chancel and adding a chancel aisle. The chancel might well 
have been still longer ; but this did not rest with the architect. The 
tnmsformation of the old shell into a really good Geometrical Pointed 
building has been most ably managed. New windows of good detail 
lod proportion have been inserted in the aisles, and the clerestory is 
pierced in five couplets of quatrefoiled circles. Each pair is foliated in 
I different way, as in the Norfolk clerestories : — we should prefer uni- 
formity. The roofs are heightened, and have tile crestings. Not a 
little of the excellence of the external effect is due to the fact that Mr. 
Street is not afraid of blank wall, than which in due proportion nothing 
gives more character to a design. The east window, of five trefoiled 
lights with pierced and foliated circles above the outer couplets, and a 
large circle in the head, is well elevated in its gable: the east window 
of the new south chancel aisle affects an earlier type of Pointed. The 
vestry chimney, treated as a cylindrical shaft, is very pretty. Such 
walls as are new are faced with ashlar both internally and externally, 
loside the chancel arch is stately, with banded shafts of Devonshire 
marble. The east window also has marble shafts to its arch mould ; 
and the same material is extensively introduced in the constructional 
as well as decorative parts of the work : for example, in the internal 
arcades of the clerestories, the jambs of the chancel doors, and windows, 
&c.- The arcades are composed of five arches ; and the shafts are cy- 
lindrical, with courses of marble introduced. The new arrangements 
are correct ; the prayers being said in the stalled chancel, which is oc- 
cupied by the choir : and a new organ, by Holditch, occupies the 
added south chancel aisle. The new wood -work of roofs and seats is 
of sterling character, though the poppy-heads to the stalls are ragged 
io look : and we are much pleased with the freshness and vigour of 
the carving, executed from the architect's drawings by Mr. Earp. The 
reredos is very good, of alabaster, with angle shafts of green serpentine 
tod a rich cresting, inlaid with variegated circles and a large cross 
paU^, charged with annulets, in the centre. The font and pulpit are 
enriched with marbles, and the tile floor is very carefully designed. 
The east window is to be filled by Hardman with subjects from our 
Lord's life, the Crucifixion being in the middle : and the aisle windows 
with scenes from the lives of the Apostles. The gas-standards are 
wrought bj Mr. Debaofer from the architect's designs. 

8. , WkiiwM, Yorkshire.— ThiB is an excellent design by Mr. 

TOL. xz« JT 

66 New Churches. 

Street. There is a nave, 62 ft. 6 in. by 1 8 ft., with south-western 
porch, a chancel 29 ft. 9 in. by 17 ft., with a tower 19 ft. square, 
opening into it on its south side, and a sacristy at the north-east corner. 
The whole accommodation is for about 1 50 people : the nave has fixed 
benches ; the chancel has stalls, five on each side, with subsellae and 
desks. The pulpit stands at the north side of the chancel arch : and 
opposite to it — under the arch and connected with the south stalla — a 
reading-stall facing north and west. The sanctuary is well arranged. 
The organ stands under the tower on the south of the chancel. The 
materisd is Whitby stone ; the style a rich Geometrical Middle- Pointed. 
The east window is of three lights with three foliated circles in the 
head. The west window has four detached trefoiled lights under a 
circle, which is itself pierced with four cinqfoiled circles. We admire 
the arrangement of the strings and buttresses exceedingly. The tower 
is a good feature and well managed. The belfry windows are of two 
lights with a geometrically pierced circle of plate tracery above. We 
do not much like, however, the depression of the shaft of the monial 
to a lower level than the shafts of the jambs. Why this irregularity ? 
The low broach octagonal stone spire with its gable lights on the 
cardinal faces we think very good. We doubt whether the transverse 
gabling of the sacristy is to be recommended. The chimney, howeTer, in 
the north chancel wall — a banded column — is novel and striking. Gkriug 
inside, we find the chancel arch very effective. It springs from cor- 
belled shafts of coloured marble. The east window also has marble 
shafts to the hood moulding : the eastern wall is of ashlar, banded with 
coloured tiles ; and the reredos is a composition of tesserae, with shafts 
on each side supporting a rich cornice, and an ornate cross in the mid* 
die. The south-east window is depressed in its sill so as to form 
sedilia : its jambs are shafted. The tower arch is also a good archi- 
tectural feature. The chancel roof is arched to every third rafter. 
The principals of the nave roof are arched under the collar. The 
woodwork is all carefully designed. The pulpit is of stone, with in- 
laid circles of alabaster and Derbyshire spar. Its desk is carried in a 
shaft, the base of which is supported by a corbel of a crouching tur- 
baned figure. We do not read the symbolism of this ; and we should 
rather avoid the representation of so uncomfortable a posture. The 
font is enriched with inlaid discs of alabaster and marbles ; and it has 
marble shafts round the central stem. The cover is of wood, pyramidal 
in form. This is a very complete design throughout. 

8. ^ Farlington, Hants. — ^This church is about to be rebuilt by Mr. 

Street, none of the old features being retained except the west window 
and an arch and efiSgy at the south-east angle of the nave. We do not 
know that we have ever seen a better design than this for a small country 
church. Departing from the hackneyed type of such structures) Mr. 
Street has boldly carried his chancel (which is to be of a memorial cha- 
racter) to a great height, and groined it in chalk in two bold quadri- 
partite bays. The walls are of flint and stone. The effect of the 
lofty groined chancel is very foreign both externally and internally : 
but it is refreshingly original. The plan comprises an ample chancel of 
two bays 95 ft. by 15 ft« with a vestry at its north-west side, a nave 

New Churches. 67 

tepanted from m north aisle by an arcade of three, and with a kind of 
western narthex in which stands the font and into which opens the south 
porch. A umber belfry, surmounted by a spirelet, rests on the west 
gable. The style is an early form of Pointed, with plate tracery. The 
cyliodrical shafts of the nave arcade, and shafts of the chancel- arch, the 
viiidow jamb-ahafta, and the vaulting- shafts (which are banded) are all 
of marble. The north aisle has only one window, of three hghts with 
I large circle above, in a gabled dormer. The other windows, though 
ably designed, are somewhat eccentric. Upon the whole, however, we 
repeat our opinion that we have never seen a more vigorous and mas- 
terly desigpa. 

S, Michael and All Angels, Brighton, — We have to notice a remark- 
ably good design by Mr. Bodley for this church. The site is very 
ooofined, and very awkward : there being no possibility of getting a 
west door, or any other west window than a rose in the gable, and the 
•oath porch being of necessity nearer the east end than we like to see* 
The plan comprises a chancel, 30 ft. by 24 ft., a nave above 60 ft. by 
24 ft., an irregular north aisle to nave and chancel, the latter forming 
the sacristy and organ chamber, and a southern aisle neither reaching 
the eastern limits of the chancel nor the western boundary of the nave. 
The specialties of the design are the very unusual height of the whole 
building, and the strong Italianizing type of its Pointed style. The ar- 
nngementa are of the best kind. The chancel and sanctuary levels are 
very ably disposed, the altar standing on a total elevation of eight 
steps. We much like the projection of a solea, or single-step level, 
into the nave, for the pulpit and lettem : and the general arrangement 
of the ascent is excellent. A few benches will be placed at the east 
end of the nave, the rest of the area being occupied with chairs. Ar- 
chitecturally, the great loftiness of tlie nave and chancel, and the large 
proportions of the clerestory both to chancel and nave, are the most 
conspicuous features. The nave and chancel are of equal height (6Q ft. 
to the crest) divided by a single bell-cote of timber covered with a 
pyramidal leaden spire. We do not quite like the wooden columns 
which support the bell- cote. The chancel has a richer cresting and a 
carved cornice : and its clerestory windows— of two lights under large 
sexfoiled circles — are richer than the somewhat similar windows of the 
nave clerestory. The aisle is low in proportion to the nave, and has 
no windows except an octofoiled circle, to the west of the porch. The 
material is red brick, banded with white stone, and with inlayings of 
brick, carvings, coloured tiles, and marble. 

Inside the same general character prevails. The arcades are very 
broad* the arches springing from low richly capitalled cylindrical shafts. 
The chanoel arch has corbelled and shafted imposts. The arch open- 
ng into the organ chamber is discontinuous with voussoirs of coloured 
bi^ica. The clerestory windows are a very conspicuous feature. The 
CMt window, aet well up in the wall, is a composition of five lights, 
tile middle one bein^ trefoiled, the outer pairs being plain, with a plain 
ciide above each paift and a very large circle in the head. This circle 
\m a centnl qoatrefoiU set square, with a broad surrounding band 
fioMd bf tvdve dndea. Thia design is perhaps needleaaly atiff and 

68 New Churches, 

unflowiog : but we doubt not that it will be effective. The interior 
will be of coloured bricks with bands of ashlar ; and there will be a 
good deal of constructional polychrome. We hope the green voussoirs 
— after the example of All Saints, Margaret Street, — may be re- con- 
sidered, or better harmonized. The noble height of wall above the 
chancel arch and the west end under the rose demands, and will (we 
believe) receive, proper artistic decoration. We shall watch with in- 
terest the execution of a design which has pleased us much by its power 
and originality. The chancel, we may observe, will have a boarded 
arched roof which will be coloured. The general result will be one of 
great dignity, obtained by scale and good proportion and constructional 
colour, with simplicity of detail. 

S. , King's Stanley, Gloucester shire , — ^This is a design by Mr. 

Bodley, for a small church to hold about 200 people. The plan com- 
prises a nave, 52 ft. by 18, a chancel about 28 ft. long, ending in a five- 
sided apse, a north aisle — not reaching to the west end, a tower on the 
north of the chancel, and a south* west porch. The arrangements are 
thoroughly correct. The chancel has a low screen, and the sanctuary 
is well defined. There are stalliform benches with subsellse and desks 
on each side, wooden sedilia, sanctuary rails not meeting in the middle, 
the pulpit at the north of the chancel arch and a lettern in the nave. 
The lower stage of the tower, opening into the north aisle by a door, 
and into the chancel by a traceried arch and a door, contains a sa- 
cristy, screened off, and a detached spiral wooden staircase for mount- 
ing to the organ floor and the belfry stage. The style is early Pointed. 
The chancel arch is lofty and well proportioned, and has corbelled 
shafts at the impost. The arcade on the north side consists of two 
broad arches with continuous responds, but a cylindrical shaft between 
the two. The apse windows are single trefoiled lights with a circle in 
each head. They are well composed, with a rich carved stringcourse 
and a cornice. The aisle windows are of two lights, square- headed. 
The rerevaults are well treated, with more character than usual. The 
windows in the south wall of the nave are of three lights with geo- 
metrical tracery ; at the west end there are two tall trefoiled lights 
under a geometrical rose, and there is a sexfoiled circle at the west end 
of the aisle. We are glad to observe some sculpture in an arcade at the 
north* west of the nave, and also in a circular panel between the arches, 
and in the head of the opening to the organ chamber. But the carving 
does not go beyond floral ornamentation. The organ is well managed. 
The door from the chancel is treated, by shafts and cornice, like a base 
to the organ front, which projects slightly from the chancel wall, and 
is enclosed by triptych-like shutters. The nave roof is a simple one 
with arched rafters and moulded ties and kingposts : that of the chancel 
is boarded. We are always rather displeased with the effect of the 
horizontal line of roof in an apse that is not vaulted ; and we cannot 
but think the altar in this case too near the east wall, when that wall 
is merely a side of an apse. Externally this design has a good effiect. 
The tower is lofty and well-proportioned, with a gabled roof : recalling 
in its motif some of the Normandy examples. The belfry windows 
are very tall couplets with banded shafts between and a pierced 

New Churches. 69 

trueried circle in the head. In the south wall of the chancel externally 
a founder'ft tomb is introduced under an arch ; and a sculptured pan^ 
of the Resarrection is intended to he placed above it. We ohserve a 
jodicioos use of tw^o coloured stones in the voussoirs and the introduc- 
tion of coloured marbles in some of the internal arcades. The detail 
throughout is very carefully designed ; and the wood- work and iron- 
work are both satisfactory. 

Hohf Trimity, Htistings, — This remarkable church by Mr. Teulon 
ooght to be noticed after actual inspection. A striking perspective* 
with which the architect has favoured us, shows the chancel and tower 
u completed with some variations from the particulars given by us in 
former notices. The broad richly gabled apse, contrasting with the 
stepped gable of the nave, has a wonderfully foreign look. The nave 
in its turn is acutely gabled along its length over each window, and 
poeitively bristles with pinnacles and crockets. On the south of the 
chancel apse stands the tower — a stately square mass relieved by an 
octagonal angle staircase at the north-east corner and an elaborate door» 
with sculptured tympanum, on its eastern face. This tower is of good 
proportions and is judiciously buttressed. A very ornate clock, brack- 
eted out on metal-work, gives character to the view. The belfry 
windows are very suitable ; and the tower terminates in a dwarf octa- 
gonal lantern with angle pinnacles predominated over by the loftier 
Bpirelet that caps the staircase turret. The whole exhibits a growing 
mastery of the style and no little originality and freshness of architectural 
thought. We are especially glad to see the introduction of sculpture. 
The reredos of this church, for example, is decorated with bassi relievi 
of Scripture subjects. 

S. Poar/, Hampstead, — ^The design for this church, by Mr. S. S. 
Teulon, which we noticed formerly, has been set aside, owing to the 
want of funds, and the same architect has been commissioned to pro- 
vide a cheaper structure. The new design has been contracted for at 
£^,800 complete. The site is inconvenient, and the church will not 
orientate correctly. The plan comprises a nave about 61 ft. long by 
43 ft. wide, a chancel 21 ft. 6 in. broad, and 16 ft. long, ending in a 
lemicircular apse, with quasi- transepts to the chancel, in the southern 
of which is placed the organ, while the northern one is walled off for a 
vestry. A porch is engaged at the west end of the nave, and the two aisles 
extend westward, forming side porches. A western gallery occupies 
the upper floor of this western extension, and is approached by a de- 
tached spiral sturcase at the south-west angle. The chancel is pro- 
perly arranged, with a prayer-desk, forming the westernmost seat of 
the stalls* on the south side, and a lectern on the chancel screen at the 
same side. Opposite to this is the pulpit approached by steps from 
within the chancel. The altar stands forward from the east end, but 
not near enough to the chord of the apse. The material is brick, treated 
with much freedom and power. Internal buttresses of brick project 
horn die naTe walls, and carry transverse brick arches, very simply 
■onlded. Thus the area to be spanned by the roof is diminished to 
38 ft. 8 in* The oigaged western porch not only supports the gallery, 
hit it oankd up intmally to the roof^ in three archea below — aadxVxm 

70 New Churches, 

above — the gallery floor. The gable so formed is stepped externally, 
and the porches and western ends of the aisles are carried up — not 
without ingenuity — ^in a low belfry, capped by an octagonal spirelet. 
We see in this a true feeling of the Pointed style ; but in so small a 
building we should have desired an effect of greater simplicity of form. 
This is a church which we think will look better in its elevations than 
in actual perspective : but we hope some day to verify our prognostic 
cations by actual inspection. The west end, speaking as though it 
orientated rightly, is, we fear, too florid, and too much broken up for 
good efi^ect in so plain and cheap a church. But it is an interesting 
ex|)eriment of attempting good detail and arrangements in a very inex- 
pensive building. Such a neighbourhood, however, ought not to be 
satisfied with so humble a structure for the service of Goo. 

Beaulieu Abbey Church. — ^To this building, which is, as is well known, 
the ancient refectory of the abbey, a rectangular building in a severe 
First- Pointed style, Mr. Ferrey proposes to add a tower and spire at 
the north-west end. The new tower is, of course, in the same style, a 
little more enriched. The lower stage forms a porch. There are in 
ail four stages, the belfry one having a two-light window arcaded with 
two narrower lights. This stage is the most ornate : it is terminated 
by a plain parapet with a rich cornice ; and within the parapet there ii 
a low tiled pyramidal roof. We should have preferred, we think, a 
simpler design with fewer stages. 

5. Patrick, Pawerscourt, Wicklow. — A new church by Mr. Norton. 
The style is a somewhat severe First-Pointed. The ground-plan com- 
prises a broad nave ending — without chancel — in a three- sided apse. 
A tower adjoins the eastern part of the north wall ; opposite to which is a 
^juasi-transept. There is finally a south-west porch. The arrangement 
is defective, in that there is no chancel whatever. The apsidal sanc- 
tuary, raised on four steps, contains an altar on its footpace, a lettem, 
and a single stall-like seat on the south side. The pulpit is at the 
north end of the sanctuary steps. The lowest stage of the tower 
serves for vestry and organ : and some longitudinal seats are placed in 
the shallow south transept. Externally the forms are good, though 
the detail and tracery are of the simplest kind. The tower has a lofty 
lower stage, a belfry-stage well raised above the ridge of the nave roof, 
and a lofty octagonal broach spire, framed of timber. We never much 
admire an apse with a wooden roof : the horizontal wall-plates and the 
-comparatively low east window are features which make us regret the 
old-fashioned square-headed eastern gable. The material is granite. 
This design was unfortunately selected in preference to another by the 
same architect, — of more elaborate plan and generally more ornate 

8. David, UanUawem, Pembrokeshire, — ^The old church here is di- 
lapidated and almost roofless, and there has been no clergyman for 
many years. The parish appears to have a population of 1 23, and no 
income whatever. A new clergyman has been appointed : and makes 
an appeal for help under circumstances almost — we should hope — im^ 
•liaralleled. He says, " It is utterly denuded of internal fittings, and thoae 
who attend the tervice now held there since my institution in May last. 

New Churches. 71 

have nothings to rest themselves upon but the remains of the Com- 
flmnlon Table and rails. All the necessaries for the due celebration 
of Divine Service, snch as books, surplice, bell, and communion plate, 
m entirely wanting. The Holy Communion has not been known to 
be administered for twenty years, and the sacrament of Baptism not 
Mnce February lOth, a.d. 1837." For this neglected parish Mr. 
Withers has designed a small church to hold eighty-four persons, the 
contr&ct of which has been taken for £400. The material is the local 
itone, with Bath stone dressings. The style is a good but plain Geo- 
■etrical Pointed. The plan shows a parallelogram, 50 ft. long by 
17 ft. % in. hroad, divided internally into nave and chancel by its 
leTels, and externally by buttresses, with a good quadrilateral belfry- 
cote of wood, surmounted by a pyramidal capping ^nd a weathercock. 
There is a vestry at the north-east, and a porch at the south-west. 
The arrangement is very good, with stall -like benches and subsellae in 
the chancel, and a well defined sanctuary. The prayers are to be read 
from the westernmost stall on the south side, which has also a lettern, 
filing west. The pulpit is at the north of the chancel arch. To have 
given a good architectural character to so small and humble a building, 
sod yet to have avoided foppery or pretence, is no small credit to the 
trchiteet. The effect is obtained by good proportion and severe de- 
tail. It is a subject for congratulation that the church building and 
charch restoration of the remoter counties of the diocese of S. David's 
have fallen into such good hands as those of Mr. Withers. We hope 
that he will find opportunities of displaying his architectural skill in 
more conspicuous and more remunerative works than these small Welch 
churches can possibly be. 

S. Michael, Llanvihangel-Penbedw, Pembrokeshire, — This small ruin- 
ous church is to be rebuilt by Mr. Withers. It has nothing but 
chancel, nave, a quasi -transept on the north side, and a gabled tower. 
In the new design we find a chancel with a vestry on its north side, 
nave, south-western porch, and western tower, the old gabled type be- 
ng very properly retained. We much like the simple but sterling cha- 
rMter of the new work. The arrangements are very good : and the 
detail is decidedly above the average. The tower battens all the way 
np from the base to the gabled capping, and has no buttresses or 
•tringeourses. The east window — of three trefoiled lights, with two 
laall trefoiled circles in the head, all within a foliated hood — is well 
raised up, and there is a plain tile reredos below it. The belfry is 
reached by a vertical ladder placed within a recess in the tower wall. 

S. Dockoe, Uandogo, Monmouthshire, — A small new church, by 
Messrs. Pridiard and Seddon, the diocesan architects. The whole ac- 
oommodation is for M6 persons. The plan comprises a chancel with 
aorth-easfero vestry, nave, and two aisles,, south-western porch, and a 
dwarf porch at the west end of the nave. The arrangements are gene- 
rally correct, the prayers being said in the chancel within a low screen. 
Bat wt think the alleys in the aisles had better have been placed nearer 
the middle, and the children's seats are awkvrardly crowded at the 
west end of the nave and soath aisle. The style is Geometrical 
Foinied. The neve has arcades of three ;— the arches rather lofty, and 

72 New Schools. 

rising from slender cylindrical shafts. From each capital rises a wall- 
shaft ; the flowered capital of which supports a principal truss of the 
roof. The chancel arch is discontinuous, and its voussoirs are formed 
of coloured hricks. The east window is of three trefoiled lights, with 
a sexfoiled circle in the head. The west elevation contains a low shal- 
low porch with gahled roof ; ahove which are two windows, each of two 
trefoiled lights with a cinqfoiled circle in the head. Between these 
rises a wall-shaft, springing from the porch gahle, and helping to 8up« 
port a quadrangular open helfry turret, set obliquely. This turret is a 
good feature, but it seems, from its inadequate constructional support, 
somewhat top-heavy. 


Collegiate Schools, Wimbledon, Surrey, — ^This is a very large and im- 
posing group designed by Mr. Teulon. llie plan, which appears to be 
very judiciously distributed, comprises, we observe, classical and mathe- 
matical schoolrooms, with a junior school, school-library, head master's 
house, and rooms for the ushers. There is also a stately dining hall, a 
covered playground, and an infirmary. The hoys* bedrooms are not single 
cubicles, but each is meant to hold three beds. An excellent effect is 
produced by the simple and natural treatment of the elevations, result- 
ing from the honest development of the groundplan. The material is 
red brick : the style Pointed. I'he dining-hall, which has an embattled 
parapet, looks somewhat later in style than the rest of the design. The 
cost amounts to £9000. We miss a chapel, which should be indispen- 
sable in an establishment of this magnitude. 

S, Thomas, Wells, — These schools, by Mr. Teulon, are well planned. 
There is a boys* schoolroom 45 ft. by 20 ft., opening at right angles 
into a girls' schoolroom 40 ft. by W ft., with a class-room in each of 
the angles. Besides this there is a schoolroom for infants ; and houses 
both for master and mistress. 

Mr. Street has built a new school with a teacher*s house adjoining at 
Colnbrook, Bucks, There is an infants' schoolroom, 30 ft. by 18 ft. 
and a girls' schoolroom 33 ft. 6 in. by 17 ft. at right angles to it, with 
a class-room at one end. The class-room and the infants' schoolroom 
both have galleries. The fittings are all good, and in character. The 
teacher*s house has three bed-rooms, and is very conveniently planned. 
The material is brick, banded and ornamented in the arches, the win- 
dows being in wood. The chimneys are simple, assuming the columnar 
type, which is traditional in some stone districts ; the roofs are of alate, 
banded, and hipped. The absence of a bell-turret is a novelty, not 

Mr. Clarke has rebuilt, for Pembroke College, Sir Robert Hitcham's 
Schools at Great Coggeshall, Essex. They form a pleasing group, in 
red brick with red tiles, in a rather ornate and early Pointed style, as 
far as the windows are concerned; but with Tudor chimneya and 

New PanonageB, 4fc. 78 

Niaewhat poor hipknopt and barge-boards. We like the flowered 
tneery in the tyoapanain of the gable- window of the Bchoolroom. 

NetkirfiM^ Sussex. — Mr. Teulon has designed a schoolroom for this 
ptriih; a single apartment, 18 ft. by ^6 ft., with a class-room measuring 

17 ft. by 1 5 ft. The material brick, well treated with patterns and bands. 
A lidi-gate has also been added to the churchyard. This would hai^ 
bMi more successfol had it copied the old simple type. As it is, it has 
cross-gables which somewhat overweigh the design. In the same tiU 
^e are some successfol double cottages by the same architect. The 
three bedrooms in each are Fery cleverly managed, and the style is 

Rj/e Harbtmr, Sussex. — In connection with a church built here by 
him ia 1847, Mr. Teulon has now erected a good schoolroom, 30 ft. by 

18 ft., with a teacher's house attached. The latter seems overdone, 
considering its scale and destination, with oriels and gothic details. 

Mr. S. S. Teulon has designed a small school and school-house for 
^ H. Peyton, at Stoke, Ojp/ords/Ure. The schoolroom is 33 ft. 3 in. 
^ 16 ft., with aeparate entrances for boys and girls, a cloak-room, and 
coomuoication with the adjoining house. We obserre only one bed- 
chamber in the residence, which must be meant therefore merely for an 
viunarried school- mistress. The style is very simple but effective. It 
^ been found in practice that it is ineipedient for the offices for boys 
ttd girls to be in such close proximity as in this case. It is well to 
^^pvate them more effectually. 


CbcJboyae Hatiey, Bedfordshire, — Mr. W. M. Teulon has designed 
tconnderable bouse for this parish. Its cost will exceed £1000; the 
Qotmal white brick with dressings of Ancaster stone. The arrange- 
Beats are convenient, though the " study " is, as usual, somewhat in- 
•deqoate in point of dimenaioos : and in bouses of this size there is 
often an advantage in making the rooms en suite. The windows are 
iqoire-headed with wooden monials : but the stone-work adopts simple 
Pbinted fbrms. The haunches to the gables were better away, we 

Gmishoromgk^ Yorkshire, — ^For thb place the Ecclesiastical Commis- 
lioners have hoilt a panonage^hoose from the designs of Mr. W. M. 
Teuton. The matetial is brick, grey and red, and the cost approaehes 
£1.000. The style is the Litest Pointed. The gable of the south 
devation is finished with copings of moalded brick, and is stepped to- 
wards its apex, with rather meaningless knobs at the base. A hip- 
bob io hriek is also, surely, a solecism, as not being in any way suit- 
able to the eoostmction. The other gables ha^e barge-boards. The 
^fioes are conplele, and show much character. 

BmUtwmd P^nrnnfo^ Herefordshire.— k well arranged house, b^ 


74 Church Restorations. 

Messrs. Prichard and Seddon. The material stone* the style Pointed, 
with square-headed windows. The porch is almost too ecclesiastical 
in its character, but the chimneys are well treated. A French gabled 
roof over an attic story gives a picturesque exterior, and a verandah on 
the south side, supported by stone shafts, is a good thought, well 
worked out. 

Mr. W. M. Teulon has designed a by no means unsuccessful 
Butcher's Shop, for Rossington, in Yorkshire. The front and stall* 
board are picturesque, and there is a gabled roof with a cresting of 
iron- work. The latter might with advantage be less ecclesiastical, con- 
sidering its destination. We are glad to see Pointed features impressed 
on buildings for every-day use. 

Newcastle, Miramichi, New Brunswick. — Mr. Withers has de- 
signed an excellent timber house for our old and esteemed missionary 
correspondent, the Rev. J. Hudson. Instead of the usual weather- 
boarding covering the whole exterior, the constructional timbers are 
shown and coloured chocolate, while the interstices — made of weather- 
boarding — are coloured fawn, the roofs, also of wood, being painted 
green with brown stripes. Mr. Withers has given a great deal of 
Pointed character to his framework, and the general design is as able 
as it is picturesque. As a necessity in so severe a climate, there is a 
very deep cellar under the whole basement ; and the roofs, which are 
very steep for the snow, are so contrived as to have no flat gutters at 
all. We wonder that one large stove was not so contrived as to warm 
the whole of this compact house. The material is red pine, but the 
chimneys and cellar are of local brick. 

Mr. Norton has been commissioned by the Baron d'Uxkull to make 
important additions to his chateau, at Keblas, in Livonia. The style 
prescribed in this case is the late Tudor. Mr. Norton has improved it 
by sundry hints from French and Scotch domestic architecture ; and 
has succeeded in obtaining a very picturesque and imposing pile. 


S. Mary, Hanley Castle, Worcestershire, — ^This church has been 
thoroughly restored by Mr. Street. The plan comprises a chancel and 
nave, with a massive tower between the two, with aisles on the north 
side of equal length and breadth with the nave and chancel. The 
chancel, its aisle, and the tower are remarkably good imitations of 
Pointed work, built in the seventeenth century. The tower, in particu- 
lar, is of excellent design, and probably replaces an earlier one of the 
same character. Mr. Street has removed the galleries and seated the 
church with oak seats restored from the remaining old patterns. He 
has fenced the chancel with screens, stalled the lantern for the chorus 
cantorum, placing the organ and some seats for children in the north aisle 
corresponding to the lantern, and leaving the north chancel aisle free for 
a vestry. On the north sde is added a timber porch, and a atone one 
on the Boutb. The whole interior is floored with Minton^s tiies. The 

Church Restorations. 75 

reredos is composed of stone and marble, with an inlaid cross. The 
stalls are of good design : the pulpit of oak. The north aisle has been 
re-roofed, but the other roofis have been opened and repaired. The 
wmdowa of the chancel are all replaced by better designs, and will be 
filled with stained glass : subjects from the Passion in the chancel, the 
Twelve Apostles in the nave, and the Last Judgment in the west 

5. Peter, Sudbury, Suffolk. — :This very good specimen of a Third- 
Pomted town church has been most ably restored by Mr. Butterfield. 
The spacious nave— of five bays, besides the tower, which stands in- 
ternally, the aisles in their {Ran slanting inwards to accommodate the 
street — ^has been entirely stripped of seats or benches, and fitted with 
diairs, light moveable benches being ranged in the aisles. There is 
no attempt at oloration in this portion of the church, except upon the 
font, where some gold has been rather crudely applied, and on the (low- 
pitched) roof, where a gray colour has been applied, that of the sanc- 
tuary being blue. The motif of the arrangement of the chancel and 
its appurtenances is derived from the old woodwork ; out of which two 
chanoel-parcloses of good Suffolk Third-Pointed exist. The stalls 
and the subsellse have been designed in conformity with them, as well 
as the pulpit, which stands at the north-east angle of the nave ; por- 
tioQs (each of two bays) exist north and south, of the lower portion of 
the screen, and contain (after the custom of the eastern counties) whole- 
length figures of saints, which have been restored by Mr. Castell The 
distinguishing feature of the sanctuary is that (the vestry being in a 
crypt) an ancient staircase leads down to it to the left of the altar. 
The sedilia niches are filled up with wooden seats. The altar has a 
wooden super-altar with four circular openings pierced in it. The 
bwer portion of the east window (which is of five bays) is filled up. 
This is a device which we cannot approve. Granting that the light 
streamed down too close upon the altar, the right course was to have 
constructed a retable up to the required height, and not employed win- 
dow forms for opaque decorations. The fiUing-in is covered in each bay 
by a kind of chain of quatrefuils enclosing a large flower, in gold, the 
central bay representing a cross under a canopy, both of them some- 
what lacking in refinement, and the cross in particular being so broad 
m its upright stem as not to leave sufficient room for the arms. 
There is some further polychrome applied to the east wall. l*he re- 
nainder of the east window is filled with prophets by Mr. Hardman, 
who has also filled the east window of the south aisle, containing stand- 
ing figures of saints. On the whole, S. Peter, Sudbury, deserves a 
jdiice among the most successful of modern restorations. The original 
itructare is imius et in cute Third- Pointed, but it is of a good phase of 
its style, and Mr. Butterfield has thoroughly caught and followed up 
the spirit of the time. The experiment of seating a large area with 
chairs is artistically very good, and we understand that the moral re- 
sult has fully equalled the expectations of those who made the attempt. 

8. Gregory t Sudhury, is under restoration. The chancel is already 
diseneambered of the rubbish with which it used to be filled. 

AO 8mmi$, Smdtmry, is remarkable for a series of open seaU with 
veD cxeentcd bcodi-tnda, made by a self'taughi workman. 

76 Church Restorations. 

SS, Mary and Andrew, Walton, Herts. — ^This fine church has been re- 
stored by Mr. Clarke in a Tery excellent spirit. The chancel is stalled : 
but there is no screen, and a cumbrous reading-desk, facing north, adjoins 
the pulpit on the south side. For these arrangements the architect n 
doubtless not responsible. The general effect of the interior is stately 
and imposing. 

<S. James, Bicknor, Kent. — This is a Tery small church, eridently ctf 
Romanesque origin, but with First-Pointed insertions, in a state <tf de- 
cay and neglect which at this day is happily almost unparalleled. Mr. 
Bodley has in hand the interesting task of restoring it to something of 
its ancient decency and beauty. He very^isely perpetuates and re- 
vives every trace of the ancient structure, and the result is striking. 
Am admirable effect is produced by the addition of a very lofty cradled 
roof, which in the chancel is boarded. The chancel is marked by m 
low open screen of very unusual design — balustrade shafts sustaining 
a rail. For this crotchet the architect is not responsible. We cannot 
without regret chronicle the removal of an ancient though exceedingly 
rude high screen. Mr. Bodley has to some extent, however, preserved 
the tradition of it by his skilful treatment of an enriched tie-beam, mark- 
ing the chancel, llie reredos and east wall are to have tiles in patterns ; 
the little low south-western tower will receive a square pyramidal capping. 
Is the small circular window inserted at the west end of the south aisle 
quite in keeping with the simple stem character of the church ? Assist- 
ance in this interesting work of church restoration is much needed. The 
new rector, the Rev. Walter Blunt, has some claims on ecclesiologists. 

S. Kenelm, Rockfield, Monmouthshire. — This small church is to be 
nearly rebuilt by Messrs. Prichard and Seddou, who retain the western 
tower and the greater part of the chancel- walls. The new plan com- 
prises chancel, with vestry on the north-west side, nave and north aisle, 
western tower and south-west porch; the style is Flowing Middle- 
Pointed. The arcade is of three arches, with cylindrical shafts : the 
chancel arch is discontinuous. We observe a shallow arched recess in 
the north wall of the chancel, designed to hold an organ, and there is 
a rather large credence-niche to the north of the sanctuary. The roofe 
of both chancel and nave are coved and boarded. The tower ends in 
a rude wooden belfry of two stages. We do not think the new porch 
well proportioned ; and we think the contrasted angles of the nave and 
chancel gables might have been improved. 

S. Mary, Great Warley, Essex, — This miserably spoilt small church, 
with chancel, nave, western tower, bepewed and begalleried throughout; 
is to be restored by Mr. S. S. Teulon. He builds a new chancel, with a 
vestry on its north side, and a new south porch. The chancel is fur- 
nished with a longitudinal bench and subsellse on each side. A prayer- 
desk facing north with a lettern facing west is arranged under the 
chancel arch on the south side. The gallery is restricted to the tower, 
and is reached by a new external staircase on the south side. The 
wooden tower and spire are renewed in a very improved form, some of 
the old timber being used again. The new chancel is of brick, treated 
rightly, and the windows are composed and combined with much skill. 

8. John, Kirk Heaton, Yorkshire^ — Mr. Ferrey is restoring this 
church, adding to it a north aisle to nav«, a half aisle and a aaoritty to 

Ckwrch Restorations. 77 

tbe north of the chancel, and a south- west porch. The chancel receives 
two longitudinal henchea on each side. The westernmost seat of the 
foremost hench on the south side forms the reading-stall. It should 
have been the seat in the hench behind. The chancel-aisle is seated 
loDgitndinally. This aisle is of the same breadth as that of the nave, 
too broad perhapa for good proportion, but necessary in order to in- 
CRflie iccommodation. The style of the restorations and additions is 
a good Flowing Middle-Pointed, though the side windows are tame. 
Tbe vestry haa a pyramidal roof within a horizontal parapet. The aisle 
gable above it has a circular window. The chimney crowning this 
gible is scarcely to be approved of, inasmuch as its flues are not in 
nght. We presume that they run up in the thickness of the wall, 
oibraeing the circular gable window. 

8, , St^lefield^ iSitfier.— The chancel of this church has been re- 

aminged by Mr.Teulon, with the addition of an organ chamber and vestry 
at the north-west. The door of the vestry is somewhat inconvenient for 
the stalls, being at the extreme west end of the north wall. The pulpit 
ia tpproaiched through a door pierced in the pier. The stone coping of 
tiie gable of the added vestry is heavy in appearance ; and the organ 
itaelf is not very successfully designed. The chancel fittings are better. 
The east wall is panelled, and the reredos, of stone and marbles and 
mosaic work, is rich in effect. There is a legend, *' Jjoan, evermore 
give us this bread." A good piscina has been added, and metal altar- 
nils. The lettem is heavy. The stalls are short in proportion to the 
diancel. They have snbsellse which have metal desks. The stall-ends 
are carved with figures of the Evangelists. The chancel screen is of 
atone, low, richly carved, and with figures of angels on each side of 
where the gates ought to hang. There are no gates unfortunately ; and 
the rounding of the angles where the angels stand is not pleasant in 
ks cffiect from the nave. 

^. , Netherfield, Smsux. — ^To this church, of which the nave was 

restored two or three years ago, Mr. Teulon adds a tower and spire, 
with a reredos and new east window. The tower has its lowest stage 
flsade broader by numerous buttresses, with a general good effect. The 
bdfiry stage is narrower, and is capped by an octagonal broach-spire 
with four main spire lights and smaller lights on the oblique sides. The 
reredoa is an elaborate composition of stone, with enrichments of Devon- 
shire marble and mosaic tesselation. It has five panels, the middle one 
coatuning the holy monogram with a cross, and the side ones symbo- 
fical flowers and appropriate texts, — for instance, the rose, the lily, 
and the vine. The sides and crest have angels bearing labels. The 
general effect of this ornate reredos is singularly Jacobean, but its de- 
taib are of a far higher order. 

8. Mary, SandHmgham^ Norfolk, — Here Mr. Teulon enriches the 
chancel with elaborate new stalls of excellent design. The foliage is 
designed on natural types, e.g., the olive, the ranunculus, and the con- 
vohfvliia : and the ttdl-ends are carved with figures of the Archangels, 
Uriel being the foorth. 

8. LfoSardp Misiertm, Leicestershire. — A church, with nave and 
wlcs. Ml ai ptwa, a long chancel of Third-Pointed style, later than 
the nut of the atraotiire, wStb ma embattled panipet ; and a chaTacWc- 

78 Notices and Answers to Correspondents. 

istic low octagonal broach spire. Mr. Teulon adds an organ chamber 
and vestry on the north of the chancel; introduces stalls and subsellse, 
without desks ; places a reading-stall within the chancel on the south 
side; the pulpit being on the north and a lettem standing on the 
chancel step. Some children's seats are placed, facing north and souths 
at the eastern ends of the aisles. The reredos is composed of five 
niches with wings and carved angels on each side. Its type is later, 
we thought, than its detail. The arch into the organ chamber would 
be better without its foliation : but there is a happy thought in the stop- 
ping of the labels by carved angels. 

iS. Michael, Tremaen, Cardiganshire, — ^I'he shell of this church was 
built some years ago. but its chancel had received no fittings. These 
have now been provided by Mr. Withers. They comprise stalls and 
subsellae for the village choir, with a reader's stcJl on the south side, 
within the chancel. There is abo a lettern on a platform close to the 
reader's stall. 

Southwell Minster, — A large Romanesque window, the fourth of a 
series, has been filled with stained glass by Messrs. O'Connor. The 
subject is the parable of the Good Samaritan. The design seemed to 
us able ; but the style is by no means suitable to the early character of 
the architectural framework. 

iS. Leonard, Pitcombe, Somersetshire, — In this bhurch, lately restored 
by Mr. Street and noticed in these pages, Messrs. O'Connor have filled 
the east window with stained glass. There are three lights. In the 
middle one is the Crucifixion — very purely designed, though without 
much power. Below it is the patron- saint, S. Leonard. The dexter 
light has S. Mary Magdalene, the sinister one the Blessed Virgin hold- 
ing our Lord as an Infant — a very pretty group. We doubt whether 
this juxtaposition is iconologically correct. 

S. , Bookham, Surrey. — Messrs. O'Connor have erected in this 

church, under Mr. Butterfield's direction, a memorial east window to 
the Duchess of Beaufort. In the middle of the three lights is a figure 
of our Lord, as Risen, while in a medallion below there is the Cruci- 
fixion. On one side is S. Peter, and on the other the Three Maries, 
above (respectively) groups of the Nativity and of the Epiphany Ado- 

S. John, Bradworthy, Devon, — A memorial window is to be erected 
in this church by Mr. Beer, glass-painter, of Exeter. The three effigies 
are those of S. Peter, S. John the Evangelist, and S. James the Oreat; 
on a grisaille ground. 


OuB thanks are due for the courtesy which has forwarded to us the 
monthly parts for last year of Church Work: the Monthly Paper 
of the Guild of 8. Alban. (London, Hayes.) These papers give 
evidence of much earnest and self-denying work in various directions. 
The operatiouB of the S. Barnabas' Brotheriiood in conducting ChriatiaD 

Notices and Answers to Correspondents. 79 

funerals is perhaps the best known and most useful of the Guild's 
fanctions. At the meetings of the society various papers on ecclesio- 
logical subjects have been read. We wish all success to this energetic 
band of laymen. 

Our readers will do well to make acquaintance with Mr. Bbrbsfobd- 
Hope's Discourse on The Common Sense of Art (Murray) delivered as 
the inaugural Lecture of the Season at the Architectural Museum at 
South Kensington. It is a bold vindication of the right of the archi- 
tecture of the future to borrow eclectically the merits of every form of 
the building- art. In particular Mr. Hope insists that the capabilities 
of our own Flowing Middle- Pointed have not been sufficiently de- 
veloped : and he answers by anticipation the narrow views propounded 
by Mr. J. H. Parker, in a letter to the Gentleman's Magazine, as to 
tbe propriety of restricting the architecture of the new Public Offices 
to our English varieties. Mr. Street, in two excellent letters to the 
Bnlder, has more fully demolished Mr. Parker's position. 

We can say no more of The Graves of our Fathers, by C. H. 
Hale, (London : Hamilton, Adams & Co.) than that it is a compilation, 
by a somewhat unpractised hand, of a great number of facts as to the 
customs of various ages and countries connected with the burial of the 
dead. In no respect was this volume worth printing. 

A Word from a Goth, by Mr. G. J. Wjglby, (Dublin : Fowler) 
is a spirited reply, though in a somewhat stilted style, to the " Word to 
the Goths,'* by ' Romanus.' A controversy has been in progress 
amongst the Irish Roman Catholics as to the relative ''Catholicity" of the 
classical or Pointed styles. Dr. Newman's church at Dublin is in classi- 
cal architecture, and was criticized by ' Father Thomas* of S. George's, 
London. Romanus replied ; and was by some identified with Dr. 
Newman. The latter denied the imputation in a letter which went the 
round of the newspapers. Mr. Wigley, the architect of the latest 
Gothic church in Rome itself, has of course our sympathy. 

To the Editor of the EcclesiologUt, 

Sim, — I never recollect to have seen the following passages quoted : 
as they bear upon a coDtroverted question of the day, you may like to 
insert them. I saw the book from which they are taken a few days 
ago in the Britbh Museum Library. 

I remain, &c., 

T. C. C. W. D. S. 

The pamphlet is entitled — *• Articles to be enquired of in the Ordinary 
\lsitation of the Right Worshipfiill Mr. Doctor John Pearson, Arch- 
deacon of Suffolk, Anno Domini, 1638." 

*' Chap. V. CoDceming the Ministers, Preachers, and Lecturers. 

**\ doth he alwaies Preach standing, and in his Cassocke, and 

Gowne, not in a Cloake, and his Surplice on, and also his hood (if be be a 
Gradoatey) and with his head uncovered ?*' 

**b, /ton* Whether doth your Minister and Curate, at all times as well in 
P^eaebing or Reading the Homilies, as in reading the prayers and the Letany, 
iBd admnuiteniig the Holy Sacraments, soiemnization of marriage, burying o( 

80 Notices and Answers to Correspondents* 

the dead, churehing of women, and all other offices of the Church, duly ob* 
•erre the orders and rites prescribed without omission, alteration, or addition 
of any tliinff ? and doth he in performing all and every of these weare the 
Surplice duely, and never omit the wearing of the same, nor of his hood if he 
bee a Graduate ?" 

Mr. Truefitt must be credited with great ability for his transformation 
into his own peculiar type of Gothic of the Irvingite meeting-house at 
Islington. He has shown in this building, as in others, much con- 
structional skill, and the cost of the works is, as we have before had 
occasion to observe, extremely small. This economy combined with 
good architectural effect is obtained apparently by extreme simplicity of 
style. The forms are bold and sometimes stately ; but there is no or- 
nament and little or no moulding. The result is novel and generally 
effective. In this particular case the treatment of the western entrances, 
in connection with the difficulties of the site, is ingenious and success- 
ful : and there is to some extent an introduction of constructional poly- 
chrome. The same gentleman has built himself a Gothic house in 

Mr. Gordon M. Hills favoured the Ecclesiological Committee with a 
view of an interesting series of sketches made by him in the Isle of 
Arran. The island is full of small ancient churches of the Irish type, 
which Dr. Petrie has made familiar to us. Most of them are rectan- 
gles, little more than cells, e.g,^ 14 ft. 8 in. by 5 ft. 10 in., with the 
rudest window and door apertures, and prodigious splays. Nearly all 
are roofless and ruined. A single acute lancet often serves as the east 
window. Sometimes a number of these cells are grouped together 
within an inclosure. The windows were never glazed : and iu one in- 
stance the pivot-holes of the shutters are remaining. The solid altars 
remain in many instances ; and one church has a holy well. Mr. 
Hills also exhibited a ground plan of the fine Cistercian abbey of Boyle 
in Roscommon. The plan with its square east end, and square-ended 
transept-chapels, resembles Kirkstall. The nave arcades have eight 
arches. A gateway, the refectory, and the kitchen, remain of the con- 
ventual buildings. The same gentleman has made drawings of three 
medieeval Irish castles — ^Ballymote in Sligo, where there is a square 
donjon keep with circular turrets at the angle, one of which is a chapel ; 
Oranmore in Galway — a more complicated plan; and Annaghdown, 
also in Galway, little more than a square keep. 

It is with great pleasure that we announce that Mr. Digby Wyatt 
has been associated with Mr. Scott in the task of designing the new 
India Office, which is to adjoin the Foreign Office, and to harmonize 
generally with its style. We have great hopes that this union will re- 
sult in a further development of the capabilities of the Gothic style. 

Clericus asks whether gates are necessary for a low stone chancel- 
screen. We reply unhesitatingly that they are essential, and we refer 
him to our criticism of a restored church in Sussex in our present 

Received : — P. ; G. P. ; J. 



**i5nrge igitur et fac: ct txit Bomlnw tecum." 

No. CXXXL— APRIL, 1859. 

(new series, no. xcv.) 


^ Paper read before the Cambridge Architectural Society, 1858, by the 

Rev. G. Williams, B.D. 

NuUiT twelre months ago, I had the pleasure of exhibiting to the So- 
ciety a Tery beautiful coloured lithograph of the roof of 8. Michaers 
cliarcb, at Hildesheim, in the kingdom of Hanover, now in the course 
of careful restoration. I was then led to give a brief account of this 
interesting old town, and of its various ecclesiastical remains, which 
ire very numerous, owing to its former importance as an Episcopal 
See, and to the fact that several of its Bishops have been great 
pttroDs, not only of architecture, but of metallurgy and other me- 
ciuuiical arts, many remains of which are to be found in the sacristies 
of the cathedral and other churches of Hildesheim. 

In proceeding to give a more detailed, but still very imperfect, sketch 
of the venerable remains of this town, I shall follow the order of my 
jooraalt and beg you to accompany me to the various objects of inte- 
rest as I visited them. I have not the materials requisite to enable me 
to give yon any accurate idea of tlie buildings themselves ; for, as I 
{^ but a very hurried visit to a town which would fully occupy as 
niany days or weeks as I had hours to devote to it, my object will 
nther be to excite than to satisfy a longing for fuller information, in 
the hope that, should any member of our society, in the course of some 
\im^ Tacation, find himself within reach of Hildesheim, with a few 
leisure days at his disposal, he may be induced, both for his own im- 
provement and for our further information, to direct his study to the 
lich treasnres of mediaeval art of which it is the repository. 

The few hoors which I passed there would have been wholly lo8t 
Uftid such embarroB de richessee, had I not been so fortunate as to 
*<nire the kind services of a guide, competent before all others to 
Cnct ise to the objects of chief interest, and to give me the fullest in- 
^^nutioo coooeiiiiDg tbem. This was Dr. Kratz, to whom I must beg 

82 Ecclesiological Notes on Hildesheim. 

to introduce you, before we start on our expedition. His Majesty the 
King of Hanover, having heard that I was somewhat addicted to ar- 
chaeological research, had not only, with the greatest condescension, 
himself indicated to me the principal objects of antiquarian and his- 
torical interest in his capital and kingdom, but had also specially 
charged the chief commissioner, M.Teichman, to offer me every facility 
for visiting them. That very obliging and intelligent gentleman fully 
carried out the instructions of his Royal Master, and most ungrudg- 
ingly devoted his time to me in several visits to the Relic Chamber, or 
rather Chamber of Reliquaries at Hanover, of which I hope to give you 
some account on a future occasion. It was on one of these visits that 
I had the good fortune to fall in with Dr. Kratz, and to secure his good 
offices for my proposed visit to Hildesheim. 

A native of this city, in which also he received his education, the 
religio loci seems to have taken possession of him from his childhood ; 
his enthusiastic admiration for its venerable remains, and his ardent 
attachment to archaeological pursuits, has led him to devote the best 
years of his life to the illustration of the history and antiquities of his 
native town. The situation which he holds of Librarian of the Royal 
Library of Hildesheim somewhat facilitated his studies, which have not 
only not met with the encouragement which they deserve from the 
dignitaries of the cathedral, but have been considerably hindered and 
thwarted by the literary jealousy and sectarian prejudice from which 
Germany is not wholly free. Notwithstanding all discouragements, 
however, his exemplary perseverance has already well-nigh achieved a 
work which would do credit to the most distinguished antiquarian, and 
is every way worthy of the patronage of a sovereign so devoted to the 
arts as King George V. of Hanover. The drawing of the painted rool 
of S. Michael's, which I have the pleasure of exhibiting to you again 
this evening, — with permission of the Dean of Ely, to whom it non 
belongs, and who contemplates the reproduction of it in the nave of hii 
own glorious cathedral, — that drawing, I say, was made from the ori- 
ginal roof, well-nigh effaced by time and neglect, at the infinite laboui 
and pains of Dr. Kratz ; and it is chiefly from his drawings that Uu 
present accurate and careful restoration is being made. But this is hii 
smallest contribution to the literature of the antiquities of Hildesheim 
In 1840, he published the second and third parts of his work, entitlec 
" Der Dom zu Hildesheim,'* illustrated with carefully executed draw 
ings, to which I shall have frequent occasion to direct your attention 
in the course of this lecture. The first part of this interesting an( 
valuable work is not yet published. It will contain, I believe, an ar 
chitectural history of the cathedral and other ecclesiastical buildings o 
Hildesheim ; the second treats of its rich collection of works of ancien 
art ; and the third is devoted tb biographical memoirs of two of it 
most distinguished Prelates, the principal promoters of ecdesiology 
to whose liberal encouragement the town owes its celebrity as a store 
house of antiquarian treasures. 

If I have detained you too long from the proper subject of this papa 
I must crave your indulgence ; for I felt that I could not withhold thi 
small tribute of gratitude to that excellent man, both for his persona 

Ecdesioloffical Notes on Hildesheim. 88 

attentions to myself, and for his abundant and successful labours in 
that field in which this society is specially interested. 

I may mention that Hildesheim is only one half- hour south-east from 
Hanover, by rail, and that the Rheinischer Hof in the principal street 
offers good accommodation to the wayfarer. Dr. Kralz first conducted 
me to 

The cathedral, a fine spacious building, in the form of a basilica, 
consisting of nave and side aisles. It has, if I remember right, no 
proper choir, but a space at the east end of the nave, surrounded by 
ptrcloses, and raised over a crypt, presently to be noticed, is used as 
the chorus cantomm, as we discovered immediately on entering, for the 
Tespcrs were being sung at about two, p.m. 

The first object which attracted my admiration in the cathedral was 
a gigantic corona, suspended high up — much too high — in the clere- 
story of the nave : one of the most venerable and interesting monu- 
Djcnts of the cathedral. It was designed and partly executed by that 
remarkable man whose name is indissolubly associated with Hildes- 
heim, in a manner which will certainly warrant, if it does not demand, 
t brief notice of his life, so far as it is connected with this see, of which 
he was. perhaps, the most distinguished ornament. I shall therefore 
take the liberty of introducing, by way of episode, an abridged bio- 
graphical memoir of this prelate, who contributed more than any other 
public man of his time to commend the arts, heretofore practised chiefiy 
in the Bast, to the imitation of Western Europe, and is therefore fairly 
entided to a memorial in the annals of universal ecclesiolog^, especially 
in these notices of the antiquities of Hildesheim. 

fiemwardas, or Bemward, otherwise named Barward, descended 
from a noble family, was bom about the middle of the tenth century, 
in the castle of Sommers, a village situated at the distance of a German 
mile from Helmstadt, the parish church of which still bears the name 
of the native saint. His father was Count Diedrich. His mother's 
name has not been preserved ; but his maternal grandfather was Athel* 
bero. Count Palatine, and his maternal uncle was Folcmar, deacon of 
die cathedral of Hildesheim, and subsequently Bishop of Utrecht. 
This connection it was which, under Providence, gave the direction to 
the early education and life of Bernward ; while his fortunes were fur- 
ther fisvoared by the fact that his eldest brother. Count Tammo, was 
a favourite of the Emperor Otho III. Transferred from the care of his 
Bother at an early age, he remained under the guardianship of his 
onde at Hildesheim until the latter was raised to the episcopal dignity, 
when he commended his nephew to the care of Bishop Otwin, of 
Hildesheim, who entrusted him to the charge of the renowned scholar 
Thanymar, or Thanmar, director of the cathedral schools, and notary 
to the chapter, under whose instruction he not only made rapid pro- 
great in hit studies, but also acquired much experience in business. 
Amonjg the accomplishments acquired by his unwearied diligence and 
ippKcadoD are mentioned writing and illuminating, painting, metal- 
h^iy, aetting of jewels, architecture, &c., &c. Having completed his 
itndict, be tended his aged grandfather until his death, resisting the 
iolietetioti of his uncle, the Bishop of Utrecht, to accept the 

84a Ecclesioloffical Notes on Hildesheim. 

office of superior of the monastery of Deventry. On the death of hit 
grandfather in a.d. 987, he went to the Imperial Court, where he wai 
shortly afterwards appointed tutor to the future Emperor Otho III.» ii 
which office he continued seven years : and a book on geometry writtei 
for his distinguished pupil is still preserved among the archives of th* 
cathedral treasury. On the death of Bishop Gerdag, he was appointed 
Bishop of Hildesheim, and consecrated by Archbishop Willegis on th 
15th of January, a.d. 993. 

And here he commenced those elaborate works of art which I haT< 
undertaken to review, and which have made his episcopal city a museoo 
of his taste and skill. Amidst the active discharge of his spiritua 
functions he yet found time personally to superintend the variou 
ateliers of the numerous artizans whom he kept continually employed 
and now to his former acquirements he added the sciences of chemistr 
and medicine, the arts of mosaic work, sculpture, brassfounding, carving 
and framing ; and he is further mentioned as the first inventor of roofinj 
in tiles, as a precaution against the destructive fires that had before beei 
so prevalent in Germany. 

The destruction of the cathedral by fire (January 21, 1013) fur 
ntshed the indefatigable Bishop with the opportunity of displaying th* 
vast resources of his ingenuity in the restoration and decoration of th( 
fabric ; and the various articles of church furniture. &c., which I shal 
presently proceed to notice in detail, owe their origin to this fortu 
nate accident. But that I must confine my further remarks to hii 
strictly ecclesiological works in and about the cathedral, I migh 
tell how he enlarged its possessions, how he surrounded his epis 
copal city with walls and towers, forming a fortification unrivalled ii 
Saxony ; how he built a chapel for the preservation of a piece o 
the true cross, which his Imperial pupil presented him with at Rome 
deposited in a magnificent reliquary of his own designing ; and finall; 
how he founded and endowed a large Benedictine monastery of S 
Michael, the church of which has recently furnished a design for th 
painted roof of Ely Cathedral, considerably modified and improved, n< 
doubt, by the genius of Mr. Le Strange. To conclude this brief sketd 
of the life of S. Bern ward. He died seven years after the completioi 
of his monastery of S. Michael, on the 20th of November, 1022. Hi 
last words were, " Lord, into Thy hands I commend my spirit." H 
was buried in a stone sarcophagus prepared by himself, before the alta 
in the crypt of the conventual church of S. Michael. 

To return from this digression to the stupendous corona which sug 
gested it. It was fortunately undergoing repair, and a high laddei 
with a platform at the top, enabled me to make a close examination c 
it, in a very satisfactory manner. It is 22 ft. in diameter, and consist 
of a massive rim, supporting, at uniform intervals, twelve turrets altei 
nating with twelve niches. The whole design is intended to image th 
heavenly Jerusalem. The rim, which is of copper gilt, represents th 
walls of the city, and supports on its foliated rim seventy-two stand 
for candles ; the turrets, which are open on four sides, are the tower 
of the New Jerusalem, in each of which were formerly placed foa 
figures, representing the prophets, kings, and other worthies of tb 

Eeelesiological Notes on Hildesheim. 85 

Old Testament, and the various graces and virtues evangelical. The 
twelve Apostles of the New Testament were canopied over hy the 
twelve alternating niches. These figures were all in silver gilt, hut 
bare loDg since disappeared, having been plundered in the sack of the 
church by the Reformers about the year 1575. The names, however* 
engnved in Latin characters over the turrets and niches, serve to per- 
petuate a memorial of the elaborate arrangement of the subjects. On 
the upper plate of the encircling rim, 2 inches deep, are found the fol- 
lowing lines : — 


In virtvtb 8ua . 8oli8 Sol lvcet in ill a . 


On the lower plate of the rim, the following : — 

•f Mater jv8Titie . via vitb . gratia cvlpe . 

Da Pater eternb . Patris Vnicb . Spiritv8 alme . 











The Hezilo mentioned in this last inscription is the Bishop, under 
whom this great work, commenced by Bemwardus, was completed and 
suspended in the nave, where it still hangs. The cathedral, in fact, owes 
iti restoration to him, having been again burnt down in the time of his 
immediate predecessor. He was fourth in succession from Bern ward, 
and presided over the see from 1054 to 1079. In this interval a smaller 
eonma, of thirty-six lights, in imitation, no doubt, of those with which 
fiemward had enriched his monastic church of S. Michael, had been 
executed by Bishop Azelin, who presided a.d. 1044 — 1054. This still 
hangs in the choir of the cathedral, similar in its general character to 
tiiat in the nave, bat of smaller dimensions. It was formerly adorned 
with the twelve Apostles, and twenty-eight other figures in gold, as one 
of my aathorities states; but I rather incline to believe that they 
were brass, gilt. In any case, they were pillaged in 1546. 

Bat I most proceed to the bronze doors, at present standing at the 
west end of the nawe of the cathedral, under the organ gallery, — a 
work of eren greater interest than the corona. They are folding-doors. 
^ their dim^omoom aze as follows : 16 ft. 2 in. high, 3 ft. \0\ m. 

86 Ecclesioloyical Notes on Hildesheim. 

wide each, and 1^ In. thick. They are undoubtedly genuine works of 
Bernward, and are happily dated as follows : " Anno Dominice Incar- 
nationis MXV.» Bernwardus Eptscopus, Dive Memorie, has valvas 
fusiles, in faciem Angelici Templi ob monimentum sui fecit suspendi." 
The design and execution are equally elaborate. They represent, in 
sixteen subjects, Paradise lost, and Paradise regained : one door being 
devoted to the history of the Fall, the other to Redemption. The 
series, commencing at the top of the right hand door, as you face 
them, runs down that door, is then taken up at the bottom of the left 
hand door, and terminates at the top. The eight subjects from the 
Fall are — (I) the creation of Eve ; (2) Eve presented to Adam ; (3) the 
temptation ; (4) the curse ; (5) the expulsion from Eden ; (6) the effect 
of the curse — Adam labouring, Eve nursing ; (7) the offering of Gain 
and Abel ; (8) the death of Abel. The Gospel narrative is represented 
by — (1) the Annunciation ; (2) the Nativity ; (3) (he Adoration of the 
Magi ; (4) the Presentation ; (5) our Lord before Herod ; (6) the 
Crucifixion ; (7) the three Maries at the Sepulchre ; (8) the Resurrec- 
tion — our Lord and S. Mary Magdalene. 

This early monument of Christian art has altogether a Byzantine 
character, and occupies a place in the history of Christian art cor- 
responding in many respects with the Norman period of our own 
country, which is perpetuated in the conventional treatment of the 
forms of animate and inanimate nature in the Early Pointed style. 
But I must proceed with the cathedral, the antiquities of which are far 
from exhausted. 

As the vespers were being sung in the choir, and I was obliged to 
economise time, I proceeded with my guide to view the very curious 
cloistered court at the east end of the cathedral, which wears a most 
venerable aspect. The monastic buildings around this court for- 
merly belonged to the Jesuits, but are now occupied by the seminary. 
I cannot pretend to fix their date. They have, I should say, a Lom- 
bardic character; while a very beautiful little chapel, in the purest 
Early Pointed style, which stands in the middle of the quadrangle, 
just as the Late Perpendicular chantry, now used as a library, in 
the cloistered court at Winchester College, contrasts curiously with 
the surrounding architecture. This lady-chapel is neglected, and 
verging fast to ruin. Opening out of the cloisters is a chamber, sup- 
ported by low shafts, with quaint Byzantine capitals, filled with ancient 
stone cofiins, some of the lids of which are very elaborately carved. I 
had not time to examine them minutely ; they are some of them as 
early as the eleventh and twelfth centuries, many of them containing 
the remains of bishops and abbots of the church of Hildesheim ; and 
similar in character to the stone coffin of S. Bernward himself, which 
is still to be seen in the crypt of S. MichaeFs, — a drawing of which 
I am able to show you, although I was not so fortunate as to get a 
sight of the original. Round the head of the loculus runs the legend : 

•• Bernwardus Episcopus, Servus Servorum XPl" — leaving no room to 
doubt the authenticity of the tradition which ascribes it to him. The 
lid is very richly carved, and represents four angels in half length on 
one Me, and Bve on the other. The inscription, curiously arranged. 

Ecclesiologicd Notes on HUdesheim. 87 

ifi the passage from the Book of Job» familiar to us from our own 
Burial Service. •* ^ Scio enim quod Redemptor meua vivit, et in no- 
nsaima die de terra surrecturus sum, et rursum circumdabor pelle 
mea ; et in came mea videbo Dm Sal valorem meum. Quem visurus 
som ego ipse et oculi mei conspecturi sunt et non alium. Reposita est 
bee spes mea in sinu meo." One of the gabled ends of the coffin is 
decorated with a plain cross, the other with an Agnus. 

Returning from the cloister to the cathedral, I descended to the 
crjpt beneath the choir, where the knotty roots of a gigantic rose-tree, 
which covers the eastern apse of the church, are to be seen. It is said 
to be upwards of oae thousand years old. I must satisfy myself with 
barely mentioning the very ancient crucifix in the crypt, and the mys- 
terious Irmensula, (Irmensaiile), now called the column of the Blessed 
Virgin Mary, but formerly " Columna Arminii ;" a name of doubtful 
derivation to describe a column of questionable material, but supposed 
to have been originally connected with some form of idolatrous worship. 
It is now surmounted with a bronze image of the Virgin and Child, 
from whence it derives its modern name. Two magnificent shrines of 
silver-gilt, of very elaborate workmanship, both of the eleventh cen- 
tury, stand over the doors of the apse on either side of the high altar, 
of which you may form a faint idea from the sketches among Dr. 
Kntz*s illustrations. I must not dwell on them, nor on the frag- 
laent of the water-pot from Cana of Galilee, nor on the wonderful 
baptismal font of brass, which stands in the baptistery on the north 
side of the nave, for we have much to see after we leave the 

It was perhaps a fortunate circumstance for me, as my time was 
80 very limited, that the sacristan of the cathedral was absent from 
the town, and not expected back until the morrow. This was, how- 
ever, a great disappointment to Dr. Kratz, who was anxious to intro- 
duce me to the rich treasures of art which belong to this cathedral. 
They consist of splendid reliquaries of various dates; of pastoral 
staves — that of S. Bern ward and his successor S. Godehard among 
them, above all, of some very early and curious MSS. in elaborate 
cases. Among these, is the original work on Geometry, already 
mentioned ; a complete Bible ; three Evangelaria, and a Missal — all of 
S. Bemward, %,€,, of the early part of the eleventh century ; and two 
Evangelaria of Bishop Hezilo, of the latter part of the same century. 
All these I must leave for future and less hurried exploration. On 
leaving the cathedra], we find in the yard yet another grand work 
of Bemwardns, which demands a fuller notice. It is a reduced copy 
of Trajan's column which he had seen at Rome, and which had sug- 
gested to his pious mind, imbued as it was with the Holy Scriptures, 
an imitation in a Christian sense. It is now a ruin, having been most 
btrbaronaly mutilated and abused until quite recent times. The shaft 
however is nearly complete. It is 16 feet in height, executed in 
broose, formerly surmounted by a capital and a cross, the former 
% the latter 4 feet high, making in all 2*2 feet. It was originally 
cut fior the church of the Benedictine monastery of. S. Michael, in 
the oave of which it stood for several centuries. It represents tb« 

88 Ecclesiological Notes on Hildesheim. 

gospel history ia twenty«eight groups, commencing at the base and 
running on a spiral band to the summit. They run in the following 
order. (1) The baptism of our Lord in the river Jordan. (2) The 
Temptation. (3) The Call of SS. Simon and Andrew. (4) Call of SS. 
James and John. (5) The first miracle at Cana of Galilee. (6) The 
healing of the Leper. (7) The Choosing of the twelve apostles. (8) 
our LoKD talking with the Samaritan woman at Jacob's Well. (9) 
Healing of the nobleman's son. (10) Cure of the paralytic at Caper- 
naum. (11) Beheading of S. John Baptist. (12) Woman with the 
bloody issue healed. (13) Blind made to see. (14) The woman 
taken in adultery. (15) Raising of the widow's son at Nain. (16) 
The Transfiguration. (17) The man praying our Lord to heal his 
possessed son. (18) Parable of the rich man and Lazarus. (19) 
Lazarus in Abraham's bosom. (20) Jssus and Zacchseus. (21) 
Jesus cursing the barren fig-tree. (22) Blind Bartimseus and his 
companion healed. (23) Jssus walking on . the stormy sea. (24) 
Feeding tbe five thousand with five loaves and two fish. (25) Heal- 
ing the daughter of the Syrophcenician woman. (26) Jbsus calling 
Lazarus out from the grave. (27) Mary anointing Jssus at the table. 
(28) Our Lord's triumphant entry into Jerusalem. 

The treatment of these subjects though not, of course, in the highest 
style of art, is remarkably good for the period, and resembles very 
much that of the brazen doors. Dr. Kratz's drawing gives a very fair 
idea of the style. 

And here on leaving this most interesting cathedral and its works of 
mediaeval art, I must pay a just tribute to the discriminating zeal and 
munificence of the king of Prussia, who has collected in his museum of 
Christian art at Berlin exact facsimiles, in plaister casts, of all the 
most remarkable monuments of our faith in Germany, including the 
doors and column of Bernwardus. His forbearance is as admirable 
as his zeal. 

It deserves to be recorded as an example of the latter worthy of 
all commendation, as well as of more general imitation, that in his zeal 
for the collection x)f ancient monuments of Christian art, he is not 
unmindful of the possessory rights of the places where they are found, 
and of the additional interest which must always attach to them in 
the churches, &c., to which they properly belong. I was very much 
struck with this in the grand Schloss- chapel at Quedlinburgh, which 
is very rich in ecclesiastical works of art, now belonging absolutely 
to the Crown. Instead of transferring these bodily, as he might have 
done, to the museum at Berlin, I found there an artist who had been 
sent expressly to make exact copies of the enamels, &c., for the collec- 
tion in the capital, while the originals were to remain in their an- 
cient seat. The corona, doors, and column of Bernwardus, could 
never be half so interesting elsewhere as they are at Hildesheim. 

I must pass rapidly over the remaining objects of interest in thw 
curious old town, having devoted so much time to the cathedral and 
its treasures. 

On quitting the Close, Dr. Kratz conducted me first to the Lutheran 
church of S. Michael, which, you will remember, is that with the. 

Ecclenological Notes on Hildesheim. 89 

painted roof. It was originally built by Bernwardus, as the church of 
his Benedictine abbey, in the Lombardic style. It was burnt down 
MOD after it was built, and only the two westernmost columns on the 
north side of the nave, and the three westernmost towers, Mnth the 
north transept of the choir, were saved from destruction. A gallery 
in the north-west tarret is very peculiar. It was remarkable for hav- 
ing an apsidal termination at the west as well as at the ea^t end ; the 
latter has been long in ruins, the former is still used as the sanctuary. 
The church has been much tampered with from time to time, and the 
windows on the south side of the nave are very large, filled with pour 
geometrical tracery. Those on the north are probably original, and 
this side is quite Romanesque in its general character. It was a Ba- 
tilica with triple turrets, as well as an apse, at each end ; the side 
tonets rising from shallow transepts. The church was desecrated by 
the French during their occupation, and has since been used as a 
lunatic asylum. It was now being carefully restored under Mr. Hase, 
of Hanover, for the Lutheran Community, at the expense of the State. 
Hie restorations were commenced in 1854. 

We next visited the church of S. Mary Magdalene ; the fabric of which 
daimg no notice, hut the sacristy contains a beautiful cross, ascribed to 
S. Bemward, and a pair of small candlesticks, which are indisputably 
his. They are all figured in Dr. Kratz's book. The latter are com- 
posed of a mixture of silver and brass, an experiment in metallurgy 
on which the founder plumes himself in an inscription to this effect : 


VT . CBBNia . coNFLABB . JDBBBAT. They are beautifully worked, 
rery chaste in design, and resemble closely the stem of the cross in 
the reHc chamber at Hanover, but not at all the monstrance there 
ascribed to him. The cross, which is 20 in. by 16 in., is very superb, 
as rich as gold, and jewels, and gems can make it, well described by 
Thangmar, an ancient biographer of the Bishop, as " thecam clarissimis 
gemmis auroque purissimo lautissimam ." It was in fact designed as 
^e reliquary of the piece of the True Cross, which was given to him as 
a parting token by his imperial pupil. This precious fragment was 
encased in a square box, formed at the intersection of the cross, which 
bears upon its lid the form of a cross and the words Lignu Dni Di. 
The ground between the setting of the jewels is covered with a flow- 
ing arabesque pattern in gold filagree work, and many of the gems 
appear to be antiques, while some have a decidedly modern character. 
An iron spike at the bottom of the cross indicates that it was origi- 
Daily fixed in a stem or stand, probably for processional exhibition. 
There are in the sacristy some ancient iron candlesticks, of very good 
pattern. The wooden box in which the bones of the saint are now 
deposited, is modem and in wretched taste. 

While waiting for the keys at S. Mary Magdalene, I paid a hurried 
risit to the church of S. Godehard, some distance off. It is a magnifi- 
cent Lombardic church, but was much encumbered with scaffolding, as it 
was uodecgaiiig extensive repair, at the King's expense, as I understood, 
lor the worship of the Roman Catholics. It formerly belonged lo iVve 

90 Ecclesiological Notes on HUd^heim, 

Dominicans, with the monastery to which it was attached. The church 
and monastery of the Franciscans has been converted into a foundling 
hospital. But it was the sacristy of this church that my kind friend 
was most anxious to show me. We found it stuffed with a mass of 
rubbish, the tawdry ornaments of the modem church, removed hither 
for security during the restoration. But our visit was amply rewarded 
by the sight of a chalice and paten of exquisite pattern and workman- 
ship. The Yormer is of pure gold. The bowl is 3| in. high, and 
of very large diameter, and weighs about 1 1 ounces. Round it is 
represented the Last Supper, the figures being placed under cinqfoil 
canopies within round arches, supported by light shafts, which isolate 
each figure. Beneath the design the following inscription iu Gothic 
characters runs round the bowl i "*h Rex sedet in cena, turba cinctus 
duodena. Se tenet in manibus, se cibat ipse cibus.'* Thestandis 
3^ in. high, consisting of two principal members, the pedestal and the 
stem. The former is very elaborate, surrounded with seven medallions, 
united by a double band, engraved with subjects from the evangelical 
narrative: as (1.) The Annunciation, with the legend. "Ave gratia 
plena. Dominus." (^.) The Adoration of the Magi. (3.) The Pre- 
sentation. (4.) The Crucifixion, with the words. •' vere Filius." (5.) 
The Resurrection. (6.) The Ascension. (7.) The Descent of the 
Holt Ghost. These subjects are alternated with antique gems and 
precious stones. The stem consists almost entirely of a single topaz 
of twelve faces, resting on a tulip shaped hexagon, inscribed with 
Scripture subjects. The topaz weighs 1 5 oz., and measures 3 in. in 
diameter. 1 1 in. in height. The paten belongs to the same date aa the 
chalice, as is evidenced by the style of art and by the identity of the 
letters. It is also of pure gold, measures 8 in. in diameter, and weighs 
nearly 9 oz. The design is exquisitely arranged and executed : in 
the centre is an Agnus, with nimbus and banner, with blood streaming 
from its side into a chalice. Round this are the emblems of the four 
Evangelists disposed crosswise, alternating with winged angels with 
censers. Round the rim runs the legend : *' Victima que vicit, septem 
signacula solvit. Ut comedas pascha. scandes cenacula celsa.'* On the 
reverse of this paten is inscribed the monogram of the artist who de- 
signed it, whom I certainly understood from Dr. Kratz to be Ber- 
nardus, founder of this church of S. Godehard. Bishop of Hildesheim 
in the twelfth century (viz. from 1130 to 1153). not to be confounded 
with Bernwardus of the commencement of the preceding century. I 
was therefore surprised to find that in his book he ascribes the chalice 
and paten to Bernwardus, and can only presume that he has changed 
his opinion since the publication of his work, in 1840. Nor can I ima- 
gine that they do belong to the same artist or the same period as the 
works before descril)ed. There is, however, an old cocoa-nut cup set 
in silver, with a decidedly Byzantine character, ascribed with probably 
good reason to Bernwardus. There is also in this sacristy a superb 
monstrance in the best style of art of the fifteenth century, apoilt, so 
far as it can be, by a modem addition of wings and canopy, but even 
so contrasting advantageously with a very large and costly monstrance 
designed and executed altogether during tiie last century, which entirely 
Im^ea all attempt at description. 

Arehiieetural Notes in France. No, IIL 91 

I must here take leave for the present of the ecdesiological remains 
of Uildesheim, to which I feel that I have done very scanty justice. 
Bat in doing so it is some satisfaction to reflect that there is now 
withia half an hour's distance of this venerable episcopal city an eccle- 
siologi^t of tried and approved merit, who has both the knowledge to 
appreciate, and, I trust, the will, as I know he has the power, to do 
UDple justice to this rich mine of mediaeval art. To him I commend 
tbe farther prosecution of these very interesting researches which 1 
ittve to feebly inaugurated. 


Mt last letter finished at Beauvais, from whence I made my way to 
CoDpi^gne, where I found but little of much interest. The principal 
charch is in size, plan, and general design, decidedly conspicuous ; yet 
it is remarkable how little there is in it to detain an architect beyond 
the general effect. The bulk of the structure is of good uniform First- 
Pointed character. It consists of a nave and aisles (53 ft. in width) of 
NX bays, transepts, and an apsidal choir, the lower part of which has 
been modernized, and which has a very badly planned Flamboyant aisle 
nnind it; and there were intended to be two western towers. The 
fining of the nave is Flamboyant. The best feature is the apse» 
which has a glazed triforium of two lancet windows in each bay, and a 
clerestory of large single lancets. It is. I think, characteristic of many 
Prendh churches of this fine scale, that they afford much less matter for 
itndy and description than our own churches of one-fourth the size and 
petension. Their details are so uniform, and their planning so regu- 
lar, that a description of one bay is, in fact, a description of the whole 
chnrch, and there is nothing in the shape of monumental effigies, 
screens, brasses, or other similar relics, to give a special interest to each 
part of the building. When we lament the general scarcity of examples 
of groining in our English churches, we ought not to forget that it was, 
io part at least, to this that we may attribute the extraordinary variety 
of their character ; for it is undoubtedly very much more difficult to ob- 
tain those picturesquely irregular effects which charm us so justly in 
Eo^ish examples, when groined roofs are used, than when their place 
is taken by roofs of wood. The points of support must be much more 
eqoally spaced, the piers more regularly planned, and each portion 
more exactly a reproduction of every other portion ; and it has some- 
timet struck me as possible that we owe the much greater variety of 
desigos in the treatment even of our groining, as compared with the 
French, to the gpreat love of change and variety which our architects 
had imbibed in dealing so largely with wooden«roofed buildings. In 
this respect indeed, they sometimes ran into excesses for which they had 
■0 enaple* and happily* no imitators on the continent; but on tVia 
vUe^ wa luma aadaabtiedfy reuoa to be gnteM tot a feature \n out 

92 , ^chitectural Notes in France, No. IIL 


national art which helped to place it in so high a position when com- 
pared with that of other countries. 

Another church, dedicated to S. Antoine. is of large size and late 
Flamboyant style. It has a fine font, (now disused) of the same charac- 
ter and material as the well-known fonts at Winchester. East Meon« 
a(M Southampton ; the bowl of which is no less than 3 ft. in. square. 
The floor of the nave of this church is boarded, and fitted up with very 
smart chairs, whilst the aisles have tiled floors and common chairs, and 
there is a rail fixed between the columns to shut in the select occupants 
of the smart chairs. It is a mistake, tiierefore, to suppose that the intro- 
duction of chairs will necessarily secure the annihilation of the pew system. 
Here, too, 1 saw a '* manderoeut" of the Bishop of Beauvais, Senlis, 
and Noyon, dated Dec. 8th, 1856, ordering the adoption of the Roman 
liturgy, in place of the local uses, of which he says there were no less 
than nine in his diocese, so that it often happened that the same priest 
'* charg^ de deux paroisses, trouve dans I'Eglise ou il va c^l^brer une 
Premiere Messe une liturgie difF6rente de celle qui s'observe dans la 
paroisse ou il reside :'* — ** le chant, les c^r^monies, la couleur dea ome* 
mens, le^ usages, tout est chang^.*' The Bishop interdicted among 
others, the Missals of Beauvais, Noyon, Senlis, Amiens, Meaux, and 
Rouen, and his order took effect from Whitsunday, 1857. 

Of less distinctly ecclesiastical edifices Compidgne retains some re- 
mains. A cloister in the " Caserne S. Comeille*' is a good example. 
The arches have no tracery, and the piers have buttresses to resist the 
thrust of the groining. This is very simple but good work, though late 
in the fourteenth century. 'Ilie old Hotel-Dieu, too, has a characteristic 
gable end towards the street, divided by a central buttress, and with a 
pointed archway below and a large window above in each division. 

The very picturesque front of the Hotel de Ville has been recently 
very carefully restored, but so completely, that it looks almost like a 
new building. The eflFect of the front is very good, though the belfry 
tower rises awkwardly from behind the parapet of the building. There 
is an illustration of this building in M. Verdier's " Architecture CimU 
et Domestique," which will enable your readers to understand the cha- 
racter of this picturesque though late building better than any descrip- 
tion that I can give. The roof of the main building, as well as that of 
the turrets at the angles and the belfry, is covered with slate : and it is 
worth notice how much the effect of these roofs depends upon the 
thinness of the slate, its small size and the sharpness and neatness with 
which it is cut. Foreign slating is in truth just as good in its eflTecty 
as ours is generally bad and coarse. 

The Chateau of Pierrefonds ought to be visited from Compi^gne. 
The ruins must be interesting, and I believe the site is very picturesque. 
It is a fashionable place of resort, and at a distance of some three hours 
through the forest from Compi^gne. M. Viollet Le Duc*s description 
of the buildings is known probably to most of your readers. 

From Compi^gne I made my way to Soissons. It was here that on 
this journey I came first on the grand style which distinguishes the 
buildings of this part of France. Laon, chief in grandeur, both natural 
and architectural, Noyon, S. Quentin, Meaux, and Soissons, are mag- 

Architectural Notes in France. No. IIL 98 

nificent iUafttnttions of the main features of the style : whilst smaller 
ehoTcbes, remains of Abbeys, such as those of Ourscamp (uear Noyou) 
and Longpont (near SoissoDs). and of castles, such as Coucy le Chateau, 
esible us to appreciate all its varieties. It is to be hoped that the 
stream of English travellers will for the future set more in this direc- 
tkm than it has hitherto done, since it is now possible in g^ing to Stras- 
boaig to take the railway through this country to Rheims. and in so 
doing to make acquaintance with a group of churches, which impress 
DC more and nK)re each time that I see them. They are remarkable 
endence also of the wonderful vigour of the age in which they were 
built : for they are all of very nearly the same date — the end of the 
12th and early part of the 1 3th century, and conceived on the grandest 
ponible scale. Indeed, France, under Philip Augustus, affords a spec- 
tide such as perhaps no other country in the world can show. For if 
ve think of the wars which characterized his reign, it is almost incre- 
dible that it should nevertheless at the same time have been possible to 
foond such cathedrals as those of Paris, Bourges, Chartres, Amiens, 
Uon, Meaux, Soissons. Noyon, Rouen, Seez, Coutances, Bayeux : yet 
nch was the case, and some of them were completed in but a few years 
vith extraordinary energy. 

Few things are more impressive than the Cathedral of Laon, even in 
its prevent state : and what must it not have been with its central steeple 
isd the six towers and spires which once adorned its several fronts, 
riiiog, as they all did, from the summit of a mighty hill, seen on all 
ades for many a long mile by the dweUers in the plain which stretches 
svsy from its feet I And yet, magnificent as is the Cathedral of Laon, 
it is one only among many ; and such a city as Soissons, inferior as it 
ii in utuation. affords nevertheless in its architectural remains, matter 
of almost equal interest. 

Hie general view of Soissons, obtained from the distance, is striking 
only for its architectural character. Hie effect is mainly attributable 
to the &ct. that in addition to the cathedral, with its lofty south-west 
•leeple, the town also contains the west front, with two towers and 
ipiies of the mined Abbey of S. Jean des Vignes. It is to this ruin 
that the eye first turns in anticipation of discovering the famous cathe- 
dral of the dty : but a little acquaintance with the details of the two 
bnildiiigs. leaves no room to doubt that the cathedral, with its lonely 
steeple, is nevertheless by very much the most interesting and noble 
oample of art which the city contains. 

Let us at once, then, bend our steps thither. We shall find a 
diurch, the greater part of which dates probably from the end of the 
twelfth or the first years of the thirteenth century, whilst its plan is very 
renarkmble, and its detidls in some parts of exquisite beauty. In plan 
it conaiats of two western towers, (one of which only is built,) nave 
and Males of seven bays, transepts, (of which more presently.) a choir of 
five bays, and an apse of five sides ; chapels are obtained between the 
^ w il t J ff S Bfti of the choir, and the apae is surrounded by an aisle and five 
diapeb ; these chapels are circular in plan at the ground line, octa- 
gonal above, and are groined with a vault which covers the aisle also ; 
this b a node which is seldom satisfactory in execution, and a falling 

94 Architectural Notes in France. No. III. 

off from the structural truth of those plans in which the groining of 
each chapel is complete in itself, and distinct from that of the aisle. 
The south transept is finished with an apse, and has a small circular 
chapel of two stages in height attached on its south-eastern side. 
The north transept is square-ended and of later date. 

It is impossible to examine Soissons Cathedral without having recol- 
lections of several other churches forced upon the mind. At Noyon, for 
instance, we have a grand example of a church of the same date, both of 
the transepts of which are apsidal ; but the south transept of Soissona has 
a great advantage over its neighbour, in that it has an aisle round the 
transept opening with three arches, supported upon slender and lofty 
shafts, into each bay, both on the ground level and in the triforinm. 
Indeed there are few fairer works of the period than this south transept 
of Soissons ; for whether we regard its plan, general scheme, or detail 
of design and sculpture, all alike show the presence of a master hand in 
its conception and execution ; — the same hand, I suppose, as is seen at 
Noyon, but at a slightly later period. Then, again, a comparison of 
Soissons with Meaux will show so great a similarity of plan, dimen* 
aions, and design in their eastern apses, that it is difficult to avoid the 
conclusion that they were the works of the same man, and at about 
the same time. And each of these churches has nevertheless some one 
special feature of its own, wherein it is unique and unmatched ; Soissons 
has its exquisite south transept, Noyon its western porch, and Laon its 
cluster of steeples, by which every one who has seen them must 
especially have been struck. 

One of the features which most marks the churches of this school is 
the fourfold division in height of the main walls. There is first the 
arcade, then the triforium.^ (which is large, groined, and lighted with its 
own windows) then a blank arcade which is analogous to the triforia 
of our English churches, and lastly the clerestory. I cannot say that 
this arrangement is ever pleasing. The clerestory always looks dispro- 
portionately smaU and dwarfed, and the blank arcade below it rather 
unmeaning, whilst all the divisions have the appearance of being 
cramped and confined. At Soissons it occurs in the south tran- 
sept, but not in the nave — where we see the usual triple division. 
Some of the capitals here are well sculptured, though generally 
very simply, and in the transept they are ofcen held with iron ties (as 
in Italian examples) to resist the thrust of the groining. I should 
notice that the whole of the walling in this transept is circular on 
plan ; this is generally a mark of early date, and though it gave rise 
to some complexity in the arches and groining, it undoubtedly often 
produces a very charming effect. The windows of the three eastern 
chapels are fiill of richly-coloured early glass, rather rudely drawn and 
executed ; some of it, 1 suspect, came from the clerestory, the eastern 
portion of which is still full of similar glass. The clerestory has 

1 These groined triforia are called Tribunes by the French antiqaaries. At Moa- 
tierender, where both occur, the upper stage is more than usually similar to oar 
English triforia ; and in all these cases it woidd perhaps be best to accept the French 
terminology as being substantiaUy correct. The tribune is, in fact, a second sfei^ 
of the aisle. 

Arthitectvral Notes in France. No. IIL 95 

luige lancet windows and flying buttresses of two stages in height, 
with the arches supported upon detached shafts, and a passage behind 
the lower order on a level with the sill of the clerestory windows. 

On the exterior, one of the most noticeable features is that the ridge 
of the south transept roof rises no higher than the eaves of the rest of 
the charch. Yet such is the care with which the design is managed, 
that this smallness of scale is not noticed, until from a distance a gene- 
nd Tiew of the building is obtained, when it looks undoubtedly very 

From the cathedral one goes naturally to the ruined but still im- 
posing church of the great abbey of S. Jean des Vignes. The 
vest imat of this church is exactly in a line with that of the cathe- 
dnl, at a distance of about a furlong ; and standing on higher ground, 
lad still retaining its two towers and spires, it produces a greater 
fSttt in the general views of the city. It is now the centre of the 
ineoal, with powder-stores, piles of shot, and various other prepara- 
tioiu all around it. which afford subject for rather gloomy forebodings, 
incase Soissons should again suffer (as it has so often already suffered) 
the danger of a siege. The remains of the church are almost confined 
to the steeples and west front. The lower portions of these date 
torn the thirteenth century, but the upper portion is all of a very 
omate and rather late Middle- Pointed style, they are very pyramidal in 
their outline, and have a rather heavy arrangement of pinnacles at the 
hue of the spires. The belfry* window of the north- west tower has a very 
large stone crucifix contrived against its monial and tracery ; there is 
• canopy in the tympanum over the head of our Loan, and the tracery 
teems to have been designed with a special view to the introduction 
of the figure. The spires are crocketed on the angles, scalloped on 
the £ice, and pierced with alternate slits and quatrefoils. The sculp- 
tnre of this front is not of very good character. From the south of the 
•ootb-west tower extends a remarkably fine portion of the domestic 
buildings of the abbey, two stages in height, and eight bays in length. 
Its south end has the fovourite French arrangement of a central buttress 
between two large circular windows, with two lancet windows in the 
gable. On the west side each bay has a fine simple pointed window : 
whilat on the east side the lower part is concealed by the cloister, and 
the opper stage has a row of plain circular windows, similar to those at 
the south end. llie steep-pitched roof still remains, and the whole 
buiiding is a very fine relic, even amoug the relics of this kind in which 
France is so peculiarly rich. The remains of the cloister are in a very 
dilapidated state. Drawings which I had seen of it, had prepared me 
for earlier and better work than I found. I imagine that it is not earlier 
than circa a.o. I SCO. Hie sculptured foliage is in exact imitation of 
nature, very pretty, and no more. It is, however, singularly instruc* 
tive, as it illustmtes just the kind of work which our English carvers 
are most prone to introduce just now, and which is generally (as it 
is here,) very ineffective for want of due architectural subordination. 
The windows of this cloister are of four lights, with G^metricai 
tneerj ; bat the chief pecuUarity is the treiitment of the buttresses, 
vhieh are ngiilar on the face, and above the springing of the wiadowa 

96 Architectural Notes in France. No. III. 

crocketed on the angles. Had the sculpture been fifty years earlier 
in date, it would, I have no doubt, have been a singularly beautiful 
cloidter. A doorway which opened fix>m the cloister to the church is 
peculiarly flat in its mouldings and sculpture, but remarkable for the 
still existing traces of painting over its whole surface. The foundations 
of the east wall show that the church was not of any great length from 
east to west. 

The church of S. Leger is the finest edifice after these of which 
the city can now boast. Anywhere its transepts and choir would 
be of great interest for their early thirteenth century date, and their 
good architectural character. The church consists of a nave and 
aisles of six bays (of which the four western are in Renaissance), tran* 
septs of two bays in depth, and a choir without aisles, which has one 
bay of sexpartite groining, and an apse of seven sides. The detail is 
very much the same as in the cathedral. The clerestory windows in 
the apse are lancets, and in the rest of the church of two lights with 
tracery, consisting of a cusped circle within an enclosing arch. In 
these Soissonnais churches the label generally has a ball or four-leaved 
flower at intervals. There is a procession path or passage, with open- 
ings in the buttresses, round the church outside the clerestory win- 
dows, dividing the church very markedly into two divisions in height, 
and recalling to memory the very similar arrangement in the churdi 
of S. Elizabeth at Marburg, llie transept has fine angle pinnaoka, 
and a large three-light window with early tracery, whilst the cloister ii 
somewhat similar to that of S. Jean des Vignes. Stepped gables are 
a favourite feature here even in early work. The aisles of S. Lieger are 
so finished, as is also an early building by the side of the cathedral. 

The church of S. Pierre, which is desecrated, has a west front of 
much interest. It has a nave and aisles, three western doorways, 
(whereof the central is pointed, the others round,) and a single wide, 
round-arched window over each door. The detail is peculiar, — of late 
Komanesque character, and effective. Only two bays of the nave re- 
main. Tlie labels and string-courses have a bold dog-tooth enrichment, 
whilst the cornice above them is adorned with a regular acanthus-leaf. 
The shafts of the west door are fluted ; and in this, as in the quacfanple 
arrangement in height, which I have already noticed as a frequent cha- 
racteristic of the Soissonnais churches, I suspect we may trace the in- 
fluence of the grand church of S. Remi at Rheims. 

Of domestic buildings, there are but few traces in Soissons. The 
best are, a building near the west front of the cathedral, with stepped 
gables, central buttresses in the end, and good simple three-light windows 
in each bay ; — a house in the C16itre S. Gervais, near the north transept 
of the cathedral, with a steep unpierced gable and three two-light win- 
dows in the stage just below it, and an unpierced ground story ; — and 
an old hospital near the cathedral, of good early-pointed work, without 
groining, but with transverse arches from column to column,— the 
capitals being carved, and the arches quite square in section. 

From Soissons, an excursion ought to be made to the Abbey of 
Longpont.^ I was not aware at the time I was there that it w«a in 

' The abbey church of Longpont was dedicated hi a.d. 1227, hi the preaenee of 

Arekiiectural Notes in France. No. III. 97 

this neighbourhood, but I believe that it is only some eight or ten miles 
distant, and that the church is of rare interest and grandeur. I regret 
extremely my inability to give any notes of it. 

A walk of a mile across meadows, took me to the remains of the 
great Abbey of S. Medard. These are very slight, and consist of some 
remains of crypts, in which are preserved portions of buildings or monu- 
ments which have been dug up from time to time. An old view of 
S. Medard shows it surrounded by fortified walls, enclosing a vast 
range of buildings, and two or three churches. Of all this nothing 
DOW remains, beyond a modem house, converted into an asylum 
for deaf and dumb, in one portion of which remains an old vaulted 
apartment, now used as the chapel of the Institution. 

From Soissons, I made my way across country to Chateau Coucy.^ 

This is a well-known example of a thirteenth-century castle of the most 

atrnptoous kind : but it has suffered much from time, and is now in 

danger from another cause, for the Emperor has recently bought the 

place, and the castle court is full of workmen busily plying their tools, 

cotting out every defective stone in the great central keep, and putting 

it into a moat complete state of repair. Thus far, no serious harm has 

been done, but I trust that the restoration is not to go much farther, and 

that we are not to have the whole interior of the building finished in a 

ooDJectural restoration, on the strength of the very few relics which still 

remain. M. Viollet Le Due has described this castle at so much length 

m his article on military architecture, that I should not be justified in 

taking up apace with any further notice of it. I may observe, however, 

that die chapel was a small, nearly detached building, of two bays in 

length, as may be seen by the foundations ; and from the size of the 

bottresaes, it was no doubt groined : but I saw no sufi&cient evidence 

to justify M. Le Due's conjectural restoration of it. The interiors of 

some of the towers are interesting, as preserving extensive traces of 

the distemper paintings in diaper with which the walls of the principal 

8. LiMns. Its value as a dated example is therefore considerable, independently of 
Hi high ardiitectoral interest. 

I EngnerraiMl III., snrnamed le Grand, the founder of the present castle at 
Ceacy, was one of the meet remarkable and powerful Frenchmen of bia day. In 
AmU. 1200 he ravaged the domaina of the Archbuhop of Rheima, who appealed to 
lUHp Augustus for aid, and received for answer, " Je ne puis faire autre chose 

Cvoos que de prier le Sire de Coucy de ne point voua inquieter." Some yeara 
ba quarrelled with the Canona of Laon, and after apoiling them of their goods, 
•■nied away the Dean as a prisoner ; but in the end be waa excommunicated by the 
Fbpa tor this eaoapade, and was not released firom the ban for three or four yean. 
BetBfe his death in a.d. 1242 be bad been for some yeara one of S. Louia'a moat 
firitkfcl friends. It was tiiis Enguerrand who adopted the proud motto — 

'* Je ne aub Roi ne Due, 
Prince ne Comte ausn ; 
Je aula le Sire de Coud." 

Hb Mstory Is strildn^ lUiistratiTe of the life of the foremost men of bis day, who 
wwe VTrf|*K«»g cathe dr als and castles with such manrellona seal in the midst of in- 
Ivaal dt r rf ^ V" and sliilbt sacb as mast, it might have been thought, have entirely 
stooped an s mrt t worka. I saspeet it was this Enguerrand who, with three barons 
aadi^ty knights bdbind him, stood by S. Louia'a table when he feaated in great 
Ms at faaaiT. ia ▲.»• 1241. Jean Sire de Joinville gives an elaborate account 
if the faMt te Ml Hfli «f 8. Loaia. 

▼OL. zx. ^ 

98 Architectural Notes in France. No. HI. 

rooms were adorned ; and they are further remarkable for their wet 
scientific construction. Each stage is a hexagon, the groiaing piei 
coming over the points of the arches in the stage below. Tfa 
grandest feature in the chateau is, however, the great keep : thi 
is circular, about 80 or 90 feet in diameter by 170 feet in heigfa 
pierced with scarcely any openings, but marked near the summit by 
boldly- projecting course of corbels, on which, no doubt, a woode 
covered passage round the keep was supported, llie keep is divide 
into stages, all of which were groined, the groining springing in tfa 
lower stage from corbels carved exquisitely with figures and foliagi 
Almost every stone in this building has a mason^s mark visible on il 
face. It is difi^cult to ascertain exactly how this keep was roofed. M 
own impression was that some kind of steep roof rested on the summi 
of the walls, which are of enormous thickness, and finished with tb 
usual French sculptured eaves cornice ; but I state my opinion wit 
much hesitation, as it appears to differ from the conclusion at whio 
M. VioUet Le Due has arrived. The groining of the keep is now a 
destroyed, but it seems to have abutted in the centre against a circnk 
funnel drum or well, which afforded communication from the base t 
the summit ; and my idea is, that the roof was of steep pitch, not risin 
to a point over the centre of the keep, but spanning the space betwee 
this drum and the external face of the wall. In this way the eztemi 
appearance would be that of a truncated cone, with the ridge conoen 
trie with the circular face of the wall of the keep ; and the centn 
funnel would have afforded some amount of light and ventilation to th 
various stages of the keep, which, from the almost complete absence c 
external windows or openings of any kind, and the enormous thicknei 
of the external waUs, would have been otherwise scarcely inhabitahk 
It was not until after this view had been formed on the spot, that 1 sai 
a copy of an ancient view of Coucy, given by M. de Caumont in hi 
Ahicddaire Militaire, in which the roof is shown as a truncated coo€ 
with four lofty chimneys rising out of it ; whilst the four smaller tower 
have roofs rising to a sharp point.^ If your readers will turn to M 
Viollet Le Due's drawings (Dictionnaire^ vol. iii. pp. 115, 117), the; 
will see that he substitutes crocketed pinnacles for chimneys, and at 
Bumes that the roof only spanned the thickness of the walls, leavini 
the internal diameter of the tower to be roofed in the way in which i 
has just been restored under his direction, with a flat roof invisible froi 
the exterior. Grand as are the dimensions of the keep, it certainly n 
quires some marked roof to make its character distinctively Gothic 
The chateau occupies the extreme point of a hill, which on three aide 
descends precipitously to the valley below. At its angles are fou 
towers, circular without, and hexagonal within, to which I have alread 
referred ; whilst in the centre of the side towards the town rises th 
keep. At its base this is surrounded by a walled ditch, about twent 
feet in depth, which seems to have been originally surrounded by a bat 
tlemented wall. The chapel stood in the irregular court-yard, in tb 
moat sheltered position possible. The only entrance to the keep Wi 

^ This view is given, I believe, by Dooeroeau, hi his *' PAw wcdlmUt Ji Hmmi 
ie Frtme§.** I have not had any opportunity c^ ooBsoUing the origiaaL 

Architectural Notes m France. No. III. 99 

bj a small doorway, reached by a bridge across the ditch on the side 
towards the court. The sculpture oo this door, which had been much 
damaged, is now, I am sorry to say, being entirely renewed. It repre- 
sented the victory of £nguerrand II., Sire de Coucy, over a lion in 
the forest at Pr6montr6. The legend is that a lion was devastating 
the country, and that the peasantry ran to Enguerrand, who at once 
ondertook to attack him. Guided by a peasant through the wood to 
the spot, he came suddenly on the beast, and exclaimed to his guide, 
"Dieu m*aide ! c'est bien nn lion; mais tu me Tas de frksmontriy 
The lion was killed, carried back in triumph to Coucy, and by the aid 
of Engoerrand and the Bishop of Laon, the famous abbey of Prhnontr4 
was soon after founded upon the spot, where, down to the end of the 
ktt century, the monks remembered among their founders and bene- 
^tors the name of him whose sudden exclamation had given the name 
to their house and order. A series of putlog holes, winding round the 
tower in a regular ascent, marks, probably, the mode in which the mate- 
nak for the erection of the keep were carried up as the work progressed. 
They exist from the base to the summit, and could only have been 
Qsed for supports to a passage outside the walls ; and this would only 
have been required during the progress of the works. To the present 
day the French masons use similar inclined planes, in preference to 

The situation of this castle, on the summit of a narrow hill command- 
ing a magnificent prospect over a well- wooded country, up to the very 
walls of Noyon, is singularly fine. The old town of Coucy le Chateau 
is enclosed within a continuation of the outer walls of the castle, and has 
still all its old gateways nearly perfect. The gateway on the Laon road 
is very fine, the two others comparatively small. Upwards of thirty towers 
still remain in the external circuit of the walls. The church is of but 
little interest : the Sires of Coucy having apparently thought much more 
of their own princely residence than of the interests of the Church in the 
town just outside their castle walls. The central portion of the west 
froot has a grand doorway, a wide single-light window above, and in 
the gable an arcade, and a trefoiled rose window, — the whole being in 
kte Romanesque style, and earlier than any portion of the Castle. In 
the valley below, lies the unwalled village of Coucy la Ville, but I was 
mable to examine its church. 

From Coney, I made a considerable detour to visit the Abbey of 
Pfteontr^. The situation is very striking, in a narrow valley, closed 
in on all sides with steep, thickly- wooded hills, and with only a few 
dependent cottages leading up to the gate of the Abbey. This was the 
cftnef boose of the Fremonstratensian Order, which established as many 
■s tkirty.five houses in England. The abbots of the order were bound 
to aieet once a year at Pr^ontr^. and as there were as many as a 
thousand abbeys belonging to them, the wild valley must then have 
praamted a singolar contrast to its present deserted state. Until lately 
the liiiildings have been used as a glass manufactory : but they 
Wvt jotl been parcbased by the Bishop of Soissons (who seems to hal^ 
t great flhartt^ for piety and liberality amcmg the people) for an or- 
rhinigo I mm Aa mm wbo holds the post ol superior of the insd* 

100 Some Notes of a Tottr in Germany. 

tution, and obtained permission to search for remains of the old build- 
ings : she seemed much surprised at my demand, and with some reason, 
-as the only traces left of them are a portion of (1 think) a crypt under 
the church, which has fallen with its groining, and is left a confused 
mass of stones, just as it fell. On my way from Pr6montr^, I passed 
between Anizy le Chateau and Laon a very interesting example of a 
village church at (I believe) Chalvour. It is cruciform, with a good 
central gabled tower. The chancel has single lancet windows to the 
east and south, and the south transept a large boldly-cusped circular 
window, and a small projection on the east for the altar, also lighted 
with a circular window, llie chancel, tower, and transepts, are 
groined: the nave (with its aisles) is of inferior work. Altogether, 
this is a very characteristic thirteenth century church, of bold and 
vigorous character, and severely simple in all its details. 

An ascent of about two miles leads up the side of the mountain, on 
which Laon is perched, to the western extremity of the city. And 
here I must pause, trusting another time to say somewhat of the archi- 
tectural glories of the place> upon which I suppose I can scarcely des- 
cant too enthusiastically. 

Gboeob Edmund Stbbxt. 


To the Editor of the Ecclesiologist. 

Greenhithe, March, 1859. 

Mt DBAS Ma. Editob, — Within an hour of our arrival in Nurem- 
berg, we shaped our course towards the Morizkapelle, or chapel of 
S. Maurice, which stands on the north side of the Rathaus Platz, and 
groups well with the church of S. Sebaldus, and the other ancient 
buildings in its vicinity. It was erected by the family of Mendel in 
the early part of the fourteenth, desecrated at the religious revolution 
in the sixteenth century, restored by Heideloff, at the cost of the late 
King Louis of Bavaria, in 1829, and it now contains an interesting 
collection of one hundred and forty-one early pictures, principally be- 
longing to the schools of Lower and Upper Germany. Among these 
the following are, perhaps, most worthy of regard : — 

(6.) The Nativity of S. Mary, on a gold ground ; by a nameless 
Cologne painter of the fifteenth century, who, (from his principal 
work, a repre!>entation of the Passion in eight compartments, formerly 
in the possetrsiun of the late M. Lieversberg,) is usually designated as 
" the Master of the Passion.*' (18.) The Annunciation ; by the same 
artist. (12.) S. Stephen, borne to martyrdom; by Albert Altdor- 
fer, (b. 1488, d. 1538,) of Ratisbon. the best and most original pupil 
of Albert Durer. (15.) The Presentation, and (34,) the Adoration of 
the Kings; by a scholar of the Master of the Passion. (16.) The 
.Descent from the Cross; ascribed to Cornelius Engelbrechtaen* (b. 

Same Notes of a Tour in Germany, 101 

1468, d. 1533.) of Leyden, bat, in Dr. Waagen's opinion, agreeing 
in DO particular with the authentic works of that master. (23.) Hie 
Retarrectioo ; a fine picture, assigned to Memling, but by Measrs. 
Crowe and Cavalcaaelle to Dierick Stuerbout. (d. 1478,) of {Haarlem, 
bis contemporary and feUow pupil with him of the elder Van der Wey- 
den. (38.) S. Stephen standing as a prisoner before the High-Priest ; 
by Altdorfer. (41.) SS. John, Catherine, James, George, and Afra, 
aod (43,) SS. Peter, Paul, Maurice, Barbara, and Christina ; pictures 
OQ a gold ground ; by Cramer of Ulm, an artist who flourished about 
the close of the fifteenth century. (42.) S. Bridget kneeling before 
a crucifix, and (77,) S. Peter released from prison ; by Hans Scbauf- 
felein» (b. 1498, d. 1540,) of Nuremberg. (45.) SS. George and 
Sebald ; on the back of the panel are two scenes from the life of S. 
Vitus. (53.) SS. Catherine and Barbara; on the reverse, in the 
upper compartment, is S. Luke painting the Blessed Virgin with the 
C^old ; in the lower, S. Sebastian, pierced with arrows. (74.) SS. 
Rosalie and Margaret ; on the back are two scenes from the life of 
S. Vitus. (80.) SS. John the Baptist and Nicholas ; on the reverse, 
in the upper division, is our Loan appearing to S. Bernard ; in the 
lower, S. Christopher bearing the Divine Child through a river. 
The saints on the fore sides of the above four grand productions, 
(the largest works in the collection,) noble figures of life size, and 
painted on a blue ground — are by Michael Wohlgemuth, (b. 1434, 
d. 1519,) and doubtless belonged to one great triptych,^ of which the 
central compartment is wanting. (58.) S. Margaret, and (65,) S. 
Ursula, painted on a gold ground by Bartholomew Zeitbloom, who 
flourished between 1468 and 1507, an eminent artist of the School of 
Swabia. His pictures are usually dignified in conception, and forcible 
in expression. The character of his heads is serene and beautiful, 
and his colouring brilliant and powerful. The first of the above works 
has been injured by restoration ; the second is termed by Kugler, ** a 
simple and beautiful form of statue- like dignity ;" and the noble coun- 
tenance of S. Ursula is indicative of fervent piety. (64.) Our Loan 
being taken down from the cross in the arms of S. John, and mourned 
by His Blessed Mother, SS. Mary Magdalen, and Nicodemus ; behind 
is a mountainous landscape ; and below are the family of the Stifters. 
This fine picture was painted by Albert Diirer, between 1515 and 
1518, by order of the family of Holzschuher for the church of S. Se- 
bald. It is remarkably rich and brilliant iu colouring, but inferior in 
expression to an Ecce Homo, (102,) a half- figure, perfectly modelled, 
of the best time of the master, and, in the words of Lord Lindsay* 
"full of the deepest pathos and feeling.'* (57.) SS. Joachim and 
Anne ; (71.) SS. Benedict and Wilibald ; grand figures painted on 
two wings of a triptych ; and (139,) S. John the Evangelist: are by 
Hans von Kulmbach (d. 1 545,) the eldest and, with the exception of 
Altdorfer. the most eminent of Albert Durer's immediate pupils. (90.) 
A crowd of people drawing the body of S. Quirinus out of water ; by 
Altdorfer. "The thickly covered banks of the river," remarks Dr. 

> 8ddtDfaavsbe0Bpai]itadfail487forthehighaltu'oftheSchiisterkirche(atthe 
of tha imdlj of Ftefaigsdorfer. 

102 Same Notes of a Tour in Cremumy. 

Kngler, *'are another instance of his happy conception of nature. 
The light of the setting sun — a golden tint sarrounded by a circle 
of clouds, melting away with shades of red — is full of imagination." 
(105.) SS. Sebastian and Constantine the Qreat, beneath an arch 
with a landscape, signed and dated 1605, is a fine specimen of Hana 
Burgkmair (b. 1473. d. 1559.) of Augsburg, and one of the heads of 
the School of Swabia. (139.) The Blessed Virgin seated under a 
tree, and giving a bunch of grapes to the Child ; by the same artist, 
and dated 1510. Dr. Waagen observes, " the whole feeling of the pic- 
ture, especially the movement of the Virgin's left hand, is not unworthy 
of Raphael. The tender brownish hue of the flesh, the warm and 
juicy colouring of the drapery, and the fine execution of the landscape, 
remind me strongly of the wings of the Ghent altar-piece by the 
brothers Van Eyck." (110.) The Last Judgment ; a most elaborate 
composition by a pupil of Altdorfer. (1^6.) S. Mary with the Child, 
enthroned in a Pointed chapel, and dated 1499. This picture is attri<« 
buted by Dr. Waagen to Sigismund Holbein, brother of Hans Holbein 
the elder. (11^ and 116.) Allegorical representations of the Fall and 
Redemption of Man; by Lucas Cranach the elder, (b. 1515, d. 1586.) 
" In the former,'* remarks Lord Lindsay, " the Fall is represented in 
the background, while in front Adam is threatened by the Devil, and 
pierced by the spear of Death ; in the other the Crucifixion is the prin« 
cipal subject, the elevation of the Brazen Serpent in the Wildemeaib 
and the Conception, according to the Valentinian heresy, occupying^ 
the background, while, to the right, our Saviour stands in front dt 
His sepulchre, piercing the Serpent; and in the centre the Lamb 
stands on the globe, holding the banner of the cross, and the Holt 
Onoer descends as a Dove on Adam from the wound in our SATtoua't 

The Pfarrhof, or parsonage -house of S. Sebald's, near the west end 
of the chapel of S. Maurice, is remarkable for its beautiful oriel window, 
which, according to Mr. Fergusson, '* is as pleasing a feature as is to 
be found of its class in any part of Germany.*'^ This is corbelled 
out of a pentangular shaft, formerly enriched with statues in canopied 
niches, and has five sides with three traceried lights in each face ; an- 
gels in the spandrels, pinnacles at the angles, a carved cornice, and a 
steep tiled roof. Below the lights are five fine reliefs, supported at the 
corners by angels, and representing the Adoration of the Kings, the 
Coronation of the Blessed Virgin, and other sacred subjects. 

A few yards' south of the chapel of S. Maurice is the church of S. 
Sebaldus. Its custodians, like some of their fraternity nearer home, 
have converted it into a show place, and gone so far as to print a small 
handbill, describing, in questionable English, the most notable of its 
contents, which are ticketed and numbered like objects in an exhibi* 
tion ! For a description of the architecture of this stately fabric, tha 
reader is referred to Mr. Webb's volume.^ It will be my humbler aiin 

1 *< Sketches of the HUtory of ChrUtitxi Art" Vol. iii. p. 396. 
* " lUuatrated Handbook of Architecture," toL ii. p. 763, where a woodcat ol 
the aboTe window will be AhumL 
« <« Contmental Ecdedotogy," pp. 105, 6. 

S€nne Notes of a Tour in Crermany. 108 

to give some account of its art-treasures. The renowned shrine of S. 
Sebaid stands in the midst of the choir. It was cast by the most cele- 
brated of German sculptors, Peter Vischer (b. 1460, d. 1529), and his 
jive sons, between 1 505 and 1510. A fiill description of it is given in 
Wd Lindsay's *' Sketches of the History of Christian Art ;"^ and it is 
figured in Labarte^s *' Handbook of the Arts of the Middle Ages."' 
The oaken ark which contains the relics of the saint is encased in plates 
of silver, and raised on a bronze base or pedestal, faced with excellent 
reliefs of certain miracles wrought by him when on his return from 
Italy to Germany ; and is surmounted by a canopy having three pyra- 
nidkl structures of tabernacle work, and upheld by pillars, on the ex- 
toior sides of which, on brackets in niches, are dignified statuettes of 
^ twelve Apostles. Above the Apostles are twelve smaller figures of 
Fathers of the Church. A statue of S. Sebaid stands at the western 
e&d liacing the entrance to the choir ; and at the eastern extremity is one 
of the sculptor Vischer. The entire number of figures in this elaborate 
work is seventy-two, of which many— e. g., syrens holding candelabra 
at the angles, animals, cupids, mermen, and snails (which by a singular 
caprice are represented as uncomfortably supporting the entire fobric 
on their shells !) betray the debasing dnqud'Cento influence. 

Against a column immediately to the left of the shrine is a Proces- 
doQ to Calvary, by WohlgemuUi, dated 1485. The other paintings in 
S. Sebald's attributed to this master, are a Crucifixion, in a recess 
under the organ, and events from the life of S. Peter, in four compart- 
Aeots. in the choir. Not far from these is a picture of S. Mary with 
the Child, and S. Anne, as early as 1430 or 1440, painted in a style of 
transition between that of the fourteenth century and of Wohlgemuth. 
On the choir wall to the north of the high altar is a large painting in 
oil by Kulmbach. In its central compartment is the Blessed Virgin 
with the Child in her arms, seated on a throne, and attended by 8S. 
Catherine and Barbara, and angels bearing musical instruments. On 
the right wing are SS. John Baptist and Jerome ; on the left, SS. Peter 
and Laurence. The design of this work has been attributed to Albert 
IXiier, but Dr. Waagen ascribes it to Kulmbach himself, and considers 
the picture to be the chef-d'auore of the master. It seems faded, and 
■ight perhaps be improved by judicious cleaning. Near it is the com- 
memorative escutcheon of the Von Tucher family, ascribed to Holbein : 
below this is a wood carving, sud to be the work of Albert Durer in 
1513 ; and dose by hangs an '* ever-burning lamp," founded in 1320 
by the first fiaron of Tucher. On the column to the right of the 
pulpit is a good old repetition of the Deposition, by Albert Dilrer, in 
the chapel of 6. Maurice, but much dryer in colouring than the ori* 
gmiL In the western i^mo of the church are three early pictures by 
aa onknown aitistt representing the Flagellation, Mocking, and An- 
ttmciatiao. Here is also a triptych with painted wings, dated 1453. 
A hrtis font with atatues of the Evangelists at its base, whieh stands 
bdore it, ia irmnrkahlr both as being the first production of the foun- 
diies of Nmeoiberg. and having been used at the Baptism of Wenoes- 

1 VoL ii. p. MS. < P« 40. 

104 Some Notes of a Tour in Germany. 

Iau8, King of Bohemia, ia 1361. There were some indications of its 
being now made in some way to do duty as a stove ! I trust, however, 
that I was mistaken in so supposing. Over an altar in the nave is a 
picture of our Loed crucified between the Blessed Virgin and S. John, 
and SS. Catherine and Barbara. It is tolerably painted, and attri- 
buted, without reason, to Lucas Cranach. The admirable rood with 
SS. Mary and John is by Veit Stoss (b. 1447, d. 1542), who contri- 
buted his aid to the adornment of the churches of Nuremberg. The 
great sculptor, Adam Kraft, who deceased in 1507. has also decorated 
S. Sebald*s with several of his best works in stone, and of rare beauty. 
One of them, attached to an altar in the nave, and executed in 1496, 
represents our Savioue sinking beneath His Cross ; another, near the 
altar of S. Peter, in the choir, of the date 1501, pourtrays our Lord 
on the Mount of Olives ; a third, within a recess outride the eaatem 
apse, the Entombment, the Procession to Calvary, and the Resurrec- 
tion, carved in 1492 ; and a fourth, of the year 1485, on the exterior 
of the south wall of the choir, represents the Last Judgment. 

Our visits to S. Sebald*s, and the collection of pictures above de- 
scribed, occupied us so long, as to leave us only time to take a stroll 
by twilight in the streets adjacent before retiring to the Rothe Ross (a 
comfortable, ancient, and reasonable hotel) for the night. Early on the 
following morning I went to the Haupt Markt, or market-place which 
contains the Frauenkirche ; and the Schone Brunnen, or " Beautiful foun- 
tain,*' (too well known horn pictures and descriptions to need further 
mention,) and found it full of country-people, some of them in dresses 
of extraordinary quaintness, selling fruit, vegetables, &c., and present- 
ing a scene both lively and picturesque. Threading my way through 
the crowd, I entered the church, an architectural gem of the best period 
of German Pointed, and only at a comparatively recent date, after cen- 
turies of misappropriation, restored to its original use. 

In the middle of the choir stood a herse, covered with a black pall 
having a white cross, and standing between six unlighted tapers in tall 
silver candlesticks. On its top were a draped crucifix, between four 
candlesticks and tapers, and a small escutcheon in satin at the west 
end, representing a skull and cross bones. There were similar escut- 
cheons between the candlesticks on the high altar, which had a black 
frontal with a gold cross, and black curtains at the sides. 

In the apse on the north of the high altar is a picture pourtraying the 
Divine Child between His Blessed Mother and S. Elizabeth, who are 
seated on a throne, with angels holding drapery behind them, and two 
saints and two children in the foreground. Over the high altar is a large 
triptych, elaborately adorned with carving, which, it is said, was formerly 
in the church of the Carthusians. It comprises three central compart- 
ments, and two wings. On the former, beneath graceful tabernacle work, 
lue representations of our Lord on the Cross between SS. Mary and 
John,^ the Annunciation, and the Resurrection ; the left wing contains a 
male and female saint, with an angel floating between them ; the right, 
two hermit saints in long beards. The back^und of each sulyect is gilt, 

1 Lord Lindsay aspribcs this picture of the Cmoifixion to Wohlgematfa. 

Some Notes of a Tour in Germany. 105 

aod has a raised pattern ; and the pictures appear to be of the German 
Khool, of the end of the fourteenth or early part of the fifteenth cen- 
tary. Owing to my inability to examine them closely, I may, how- 
erer, err in this opinion, and also be incorrect in some of the details of 
the above description. Over an altar on the east wall of the north 
aisle is a triptych by Wohlgemuth, of great merit. In the middle 
dlTision, beneath a canopy in relief, is painted the Mass of S. Gregory. 
Hie altar in this picture is dressed with two candlesticks ; over it, on 
1 gold ground, are the instruments of the Passion ; upon it, and hang- 
ing over in front, is a plain corporal (half covering a gilt paten), on 
which is an overturned chalice. S. Gregory kneels in front of the 
tltar ; at his right are a cardinal bearing the tiara, S. Francis, and an- 
other monk holding a wheel : more in front is a deacon, vested in a 
dalmatic. At the left of S. Gregory are S. Catherine (?) with a sword, 
1 bishop kneeling and wearing a cope and mitre, a deacon in a dal- 
matic, and a male saint, perhaps S. Dominic, holding a lily in his right 
ind a book in his left hand. On the left wing is S. Laurence, and on 
the right S. Sebald, holding the model of a church, with tapestry behind 
each figure, on a blue ground. All the saints in this painting have gilt 
itm^'. Near it is a relief of the Coronation of the Blessed Virgin, en- 
riched with painting, and ascribed to Adam Kraft, to whom is also at- 
tributed a finely sculptured representation of the Adoration of S. Mary 
in the same church. At the east end of the south aisle, over an altar, 
is a triptych, of which the central compartment consists of the Blessed 
Virgin and Child, carved, coloured, and gilt ; with a statuette of our 
Blessed Loan in the tabernacle work above. The wings are painted, 
and have carved canopies. The left contains a saint grasping a triple 
cross and bell, with half-length figures of SS. Catherine, Dorothea, 
and Ursula beneath ; the right, a bishop blessing, with SS. Agnes, 
Margaret, and Barbara below. On the south wall, by the side of this 
picture, is another, (injured and poor,) in twelve divisions, dated 1512, 
and comprising scenes in the life of Christ, with S. Gregory's Mass in 
the midst. To the first northern pillar of the nave is affixed a painting 
of four Apostles, with the Nativity over them ; on the opposite column 
a picture of four Apostles ; and on the second pillars, north and south, 
are paintings of monkish saints, which, so far as their position per- 
mitted me to judge, are elevated in sentiment and expression. 

I have before me a curious engraving, published about a hundred 
years since, of the interior of this church when used by the Lutherans, 
from which it appears that, at that period, an arched rood-beam, sup- 
porting a crucifix, separated the nave from the chancel. The Com- 
manion Table was protected by a rail in front and at the sides ; its top 
wu covered with a white doth, (bordered by rich lace,) on which 
ttood two candlesticks. Behind it was a lofty Renaissance rere- 
dos, surmounted by figures, and containing, between pillars, paintings 
or relief of the Blessed Virgin and Child in glory, standing on the 
crescent; with saints and angels; and other sacred subjects. A few 
PKei before tbe Table was a prayer or litany desk. Over a heavy 
iMtd gmUerfg bracketed against the east wall of the south aisle, was 
t krge doable ofgaiif abuiidantly ornamented with carvings and with 

106 Swne Notes of a Tour m Gemumy. 

doors containing paintings of the Adoration of the Magi, and the Nati- 
vity. Pictures, and statues of S. Mary and other saints, under cano- 
pies, were affixed to the south-eastern pillar of the nave, and the piers 
at the entrance of the choir ; and the pulpit which abutted upon the 
north-eastern column of the nave had a tapestried hanging, and a 
sounding-board which sustained a pastoral staff, and at a short distance 
from which was an image of S. Christopher. 

After breakfast we proceeded to the Friedhof, or Cemetery, (situated 
about half a mile beyond the city wall, in a north- westernly direction,) 
which contains the grave of Albert Diirer. Distinguished by its unpre- 
tending appearance from the costly brass and bronze escutcheoned 
gravestones of the old civic nobility of Nuremberg which surround it, 
his monument bears the following epitaph : — 

" MB. AL. DU. 

" Quicquid Alberti Dureri mortale fuit sub hoc conditur tumulo. Emigra? it 
VIII idus Aprilis, mdxxviii." 

In the words of Longfellow ; — 

** Bmigraint is the inscription on the tombstone where he lies ; 
Dead he is not, — ^but departed, — for the artist never dies." 

Thank God, this saying is true, but in a higher and better sense, of all 
who sleep in Christ. 

The church of S. John is situated in this cemetery, and possesses a 
few interesting paintings. A large triptych with triple leaves, over 
the high altar, contains in its principal compartment statues by Veit 
Stoss, of the Blessed Virgin and SS. John Baptist and Evangelist, 
coloured and gilt. On its right wing are paintings by Wohlgemuth, 
of the Nativity, and S. Mary rising from her sepulchre and receiving 
a crown from the Almiohtt ; on its left, of the Annunciation, and S. 
Mary ascending the steps of the Temple. Below these is a sort of 
super-altar or tabernacle, with doors. Its central division is occupied 
by a picture of the Crucifixion on two panels, of which the upper one 
turns over, and exhibits on its reverse side half figures of our Blessed 
Saviour and saints. The right door has a picture of the Resurrection, 
with female devotees in a separate compartment below ; the left, of the 
Agony in the Garden, with male devotees beneath. At the eastern 
extremity of the north aisle is a triptych, also ascribed to Wohlge- 
muth, which comprises, in the principal division, the Crucifixion ; on 
the right wing, the Flagellation ; and on the left, our Lord before 
Pilate : the exterior of the doors is also painted with scenes in our 
LoRD*8 life — the Betrayal, Mocking, Entombment, &c. Against the 
north wall of the above aisle is a Doom, dryly painted on panel, and 
chiefly remarkable for a large group of nude figures of both sexes, 
standing in semicircle below the Throne of Judgment. Over an altar 
at the east end of the south aisle is a third triptych, with raised tracery 
in the head of each compartment. Its right and left wings are deco- 
rated respectively with pretty paintings of the Adoration of the Magi, 
and the Nativity, on gold backgrounds ; and in the middle panel is a 
Crucifixion, in a style very different fit>m, and later than* thftt of its 
comjmmon pictures, and not unlike Altdorfer's. 

Same Natetofa Tour in Germany. 107 

A drcolar mortuary chapel of the Holzschiiher family, in the same 
cemetery, u fumiahed with a large triptych of some antiquity, which 
comprises a carved central representation of the Resurrection; and 
paintings on each side of the doors. Its right wing contains our 
LoEO*s Appearance on Easter Day to S. Mary Magdalen, and on the 
referse, the Mater Dolorosa ; the left, the Descent into HeU ; and on 
the back, in bad condition, our SAVioua holding a scourge and sponge. 
In a recess to the south of the triptych, just described, is an Entomb- 
ment canred in stone by Adam Kraft in the year 1 507. 

Jost oatside the principal entrance to the Friedhof is a Calvary, 
with figures larger than life, the work of the above sculptor ; and 
thence, along the Seilers Gasse to the Thiergartner gate at regular 
dictances, are seven monuments technically called Stations, decorated 
with admirable reliefs, (but with one exception, marred by decay,) 
by the same artist, representing scenes in our Lord's dolorous pro- 
gress from Jerusalem to Golgotha. About midway between Nurem- 
berg and the cemetery, and between the Kreuz Gasse and Seilers 
Gasse, stands the church of the Holy Cross, to which we next di- 
rected our steps. When we entered, two females were tolling the 
sance-bells in the chancel; and a few minutes later a funeral pro- 
cession passed by the church on its way to the neighbouring burial- 
place. First came a troop of maidens in black dresses, and carrying 
large nosegays ; next, an acolyte bearing a processional cross ; next, a 
priest vested in alb and stole, supported by two other ecclesiastics, and 
a boy in a cassock, and a cotta or short surplice, swinging a censer : be- 
hind them came the corpse on a low bier draped in black, and drawn by 
horses, which was followed by three Lutheran ministers, two of whom 
wore birrettas ; one, a scuU-cap ; and all, black gowns and falling col- 
lars. After these, walked a large company of military and mourners 
in their ordinary clothing. We learned that the funeral was that of a 
Catholic banker, the person whose herse I had previously seen in the 
Fraueokirche. His wife, we heard, was a Lutheran ; to which fact is 
probably attributable the singular fraternization of Catholic clergymen 
and Proteatant ministers, apparently in their official capacity, in the 
mournful procession. 

The principal feature of interest in the church of S. Cross, is the 
grand triptych over the high altar. A rood, with SS. Mary and John, 
several angels, and the Blessed Virgin above, contained, (to borrow 
Mr. Webb*8 words,) *'in some very fine and lofty tabernacle woik/' 
sormoaota a carving of the Deposition by Veit Stoss. which is pro- 
tected by triple doors, adorned by paintings by Wohlgemuth. Those 
on the right wings represent the Resurrection, the Presentation, the 
Adoration of the Magi, the Blessed Virgin going up the steps of the 
Tempie, and the Decease of S. Mary ; those on the left, the Proces- 
sion to Calvary with our Lord fainting beneath the burden of the 
crow, SS. Anne and Joachim, the Birth of S. Mary, the Annunciation 
and the Nativity. On the doors of the super-altar are half figures 
of ourSAVioun and S. Mary. To the south of this gorgeous monument 
of Cbriatnuii nit» is another and much smaller triptych, comprising, in 
curving of the date 1476, the Mass of S. Gregory, and on the %u\)ex- 

108 Same Notes of a Tburnn Germany. 

altar or tabernacle, (which opens in the middle,) pictures, assigned to 
Wohlgemuth, of the Annunciation and the Nativity. 

The house of Albert Diirer is still in being. It is situated at the 
northern corner of the street which bears his name, near the Thier- 
gartner gate, and is a large square fabric of seven or eight stories, 
including those in the lofty slanting roof. The lower part of it it 
built of stone, and the upper in the style of the timber residences 
of the fifteenth century which are scattered over England. Mr. F. W. 
Fairholt ^ conjectures that in Diirer's time the house may have been 
connected with a small garden ; but its contiguity to the city wall, as 
well as the coeval character of the buildings which now closely sur- 
round it, discountenance such a supposition. Passing beneath a wide 
arched entrance, surmounted by a medallion of Albert Durer, and 
the door of which retains its ancient iron- work, the visitor enters a 
tolerably spacious hall, (the ceiling of which is upheld by a massite 
beam sustained in the centre by a huge pillar,) having a wide passage 
on the right side and a staircase on the other. The former leads to the 
artist's studio, a room of moderate size, and lighted by one broad semi- 
circular window placed high up in the wall. In the adjacent kitchen re- 
mains the original fire-place, with its large projecting hood. The roomi 
on the first story, which have been carefully renewed, as regards their 
doors and panelling, in the style of the sixteenth century, contain some 
modern pictures (the property of an art society which has laudably 
purchased and restored the mansion) so unworthy of their position 
beside two or three portraits, not unreasonably ascribed to Albert 
Diirer, that my friend restrained himself with some difficulty from 
inflicting upon them a summary ejectment. 

On a rocky eminence within about a stone*s-throw north of the 
home of Nuremberg's great painter towers the Reich veste, Burg, or 
Citadel, the residence of his imperial patrons and friends ; and now, 
occasionally, of the royal family of Bavaria. In the midst of its court* 

'* boand with many an iron band. 
Stands the mighty linden planted by Queen Cunigunde's hand," 

beneath whose branches the youths and maidens of Nuremberg were 
dancing on a wedding festival on the very day on which Ddrer*s father 
first came to reside in that city, almost five and twenty years before 
the birth of his illustrious son. This tree, of traditionary fame, and 
still verdant and vigorous, notwithstanding that its years may be 
counted by centuries, is surrounded at the foot by a low stone wall, 
which supports at its four angles colossal bronze statues, upholding 
standard lamps in their right hands. 

And here the length to which this communication has attained com* 
pels me abruptly to conclude, by subscribing myself, my dear Mr. 

Very sincerely yours, 

•John Fullbb RussbIiL. 

* See his interesting papers, illustrated with wood engravings, on *' Albert Doror, 
his works, his compatriots, and his times," in the first four nambers of the "Art 
Jaanul " of 1855. 



By William Buroxs, Esq. 

Thi chapter-houBe and cloisters at Salisbury are certainly not the least 
iDteresting portions of that very curious cathedral. Their architecture 
is Dot only more developed than that of the main church, but they con- 
tain one of the very few illustrations of English iconography which 
bare escaped the violence of the Puritan, or the more legal devastation 
of the early reformers. 

At present we have nothing to do with the cloisters beyond remark- 

mg that they were by no means well restored some years back, when 

the Purbeck shafts were replaced by common stone, to the no small 

detriment of the general eflPect; and that there are still some faint 

traces of the painted glass which once filled the tracery of the arcades. 

The chapter-house is a noble octagonal building, having an internal 

diameter of about 50 ft. Each side is occupied by a large window of 

four lights, with an arcade of seven bays below it : the vaulting -ribs 

fall upon a central pillar, and their filling in is composed of the same 

light concrete found throughout the cathedral. Whether there was or 

was not anciently a high pointed roof remains a disputed point. All 

we know is, that the present roof is modern, and that the poin^on has 

evidently formed part of an older roof contemporary with the building. 

The great defect of the structure is its want of boldness : the buttresses 

do not project far enough, and the small columns at the angles look 

flat, and resemble reeds. Altogether, the impression is left on the 

spectator that the architect, whoever he might have been, was by no 

means up to the mark of the designers of Westminster, Canterbury, or 


The late restoration by Mr. Clutton brought to light the curious 
fact that the hooks for the iron tie-bars had been inserted into the cap 
of the central pillar at the time of its construction. In all probability 
the iron ties (or perhaps wooden ones shod with iron) were removed 
when the building was thought to be properly consolidated, and the 
hooka being left for any future emergency, were again made use of by 
Sir Christopher Wren, in whose time the building was probably in 
much the same state of dilapidation as it was before the late restora- 
tion by Mr. Clutton. The fact was, that either from the action of the 
wind apon the high roof, or from some other cause, the building had 
got a twiat ; and it became necessary to take down and rebuild the 
central piUar, and to add considerably to the strength of some of the 
buttresses ; thereby very much improving the outside effect. The date of 
the building was partially fixed by the finding of sundry pennies of 
Edward I. in those parts of the foundations requiring under pinning. 

The extreme brevity of the account of the Salisbury sculptures in 
the very admirable work of Professor Cockerell upon the fa9ade of 
WeUs, must be my excuse for the present notice, as well as my desixe 

110 ne Iconography of the Ghiqiter-houie, Salisbury. 

to put on record the precise amount of mutilation and remains of 
colour to be seen previous to the late restoration ; since which time the 
majority of the groups have received a second painting by Mr. Hudson, 
^-certunly the artist most qualified for the work. 


On entering the vestibule our attention is at once arrested by the 
very beautiful doorway forming the entrance into the chapter-house. 
Curiously enough, there is no provision made for any door either here 
or at the arch between the cloisters and vestibule. It is true that the 
atone seats, &c., were cut away to the eastward of the cloister-arch, 
bat in such a manner as to make it very doubtful as to whether there 
was any doorway at all originally. It must remain a matter for con- 
jecture as to what subject filled the very curious niche over the door- 
way. Frequently we are assisted in investigations of this kind by the 
silhouette of the figures being preserved by the discontinuance of the 
painted background ; but unfortunately, in the present case, the whole 
of the background has been destroyed. In all probability, we should 
not be very far wrong if we assigned a group of the coronation of the 
Virgin to this place, inasmuch as in the Litany of the Blessed Virgin 
we find " S. Mater caritatis,*' " S. Mater misericordise,*' " S. Mater 
justitise," and so on. In the voussoirs of the arch are fourteen small 
niches, containing figures of the virtues trampling on the vices ; and 
I may here remark, that few subjects were greater favourites with the 
artists of the middle ages than the Psychomachia of Prudentius.^ Al- 
most every church of any importance had its virtues and its vicea re- 
presented either in stained glass, sculpture, or painting. Canterbury 
has them incised on the stone historiated pavement round the shrine of 
S. Thomas k Becket ; Chartres has them sculptured on the west portal 
of the north transept, but without the vices. They formed the deco- 
rations of the window-jambs in the painted chamber at Westminster ; 
and, indeed, so popular was the subject, that on the font of Chelmerton, 
Derbyshire, where funds were deficient to sculpture them, the initial 
letters take the place of the figures, but placed on opposite sidea, by 
way of antagonism. 

The following is a list of these figures, with such remains of colour 
as can be perceived at the present time.^ I should observe that the 
background is red, the bowtells on either side green, and the canopies 
white, shaded with yellow, the little sham windows being black. 

* The Psychomachia of Prudentias was an exceedingly popnlar book with ooi 
Saxon and Norman ancestors. The plot is the battle of the seven principal virtnei 
— Fides, Pudicitia, Patitntia, Humilitas, Sobrietas, Larg;ita8, and Concordia, — wit 
the seven corresponding vices, vix., Idolatria, Libido, Ira, Saperbia, Lnzaria, Avf 
ritia, Discordia. After the defeat and destmction of the vices, the virtues build 
splendid temple, where Wisdom is finally enthroned. In the Arundel Psalter — i 
English work of art, by the way — there is the Rota Altemationis, in the ooter rim 
which are forty-one circles, each filled with the name of a Virtne or Vice. 

3 1855. The whole of these notes were taken in that year : the restoratioB 
course involved the destruction of the remains of colour. Salisbury contains of 
treasures of iconography, — e.g., the signs of the xodiac and the labours of the y 
jMuntad OD the vaulting of the choir, but now whitewashed. 

The Iconography of the Chapier-house, Salisbury. Ill 

West door of chapter-house, sinister or south side, beginning at top : — 
1. A Virtue, armed with a rod, trampling on a Vice, also armed with 
a rod, which it is biting. 

The Virtue has face and hair painted yellow. The rod is green, with 
brown lines marking the sticks. The dress is yellow, powdered with 
chocolate lozenges. A chocolate line runs round the ends of the sleeves 
and the bottom of the dress, and also a double one round the neck. 

The Vice has yellow dress and yellow rod, with red or chocolate 
lines. The face of this figure is very perfect as regards the polychromy, 
which appears to have been thus applied : — the stone was first of idl 
covered with yeUow ochre, like the rest of the figure ; then a pinkish 
white colour was passed over it, and upon this the eyebrows and lines 
of the eyes were formed of reddish brown, while the eyeballs and teeth 
were gone over with opaque white ; black lines being used to indicate 
the pupils of the eyes and the teeth. 

2. A headless \^tue : green dress, probably with a yellow powder- 
ing, shoe black.^ 

The Vice holds a book, and wears a helmet : no colour on the dress» 
but I suspect it to have been white, with black powdering. 

3. A Virtue (Concordia ?) trampling on Vice (Discordia ?), who is cut- 
ting a man's throat : no colour. The Virtue points to the group with 
the right hand, and shades her eyes with the left. 

4. Virtue, with book, tramples upon a sleeping Vice. Virtue's dress 
white, powdered with black lozenges evoided. 

5. Virtue, much broken; green dress. The Vice is sitting, and 
holds up the right hand. The dress has perhaps been yellow, with a 
black powdering. 

6. Temperantia pours liquor down the throat of Ebrietas, who holds 
a jug. llie Virtue has had probably a yellow dress, and the Vice a 

7. Fortitodo, armed with a round shield and spear, tramples upon 
Formido, who cuts her own throat. No colour. 

Dexter or north side, beginning ^m top of arch : — 

1. The Virtue (Fides?) holds up both hands, and tramples on Vice 
(Infidelitas ?) whose hands are clasped one over the other. No colour. 

2. Virtue covers Vice with her cloak. The Vice embraces her knees 
with one hand, and stabs her with a sword held in the other.' No colour. 

3. A Virtue is hanging a Vice on a small gallows ; the Vice is pin- 
ioned and blindfolded, and has her tongue protruding. Virtue's dress 


4. Virtoe (Veritas?) pulls out Vice's (Mendacia?) tongue with 
fnooers: the virtue has yellow dress, powdered, with large, reddish 
puxple lozenges. 

6. Virtue holds a flower in her right hand, and a scourge in her left, 

I TUs wmf probably be FstieDtia and Ira, as Anger is represented in Pmden- 


•* Hirsvtas qnatieni galeato vertioe cristas." 

s TUs fi rAai*>fc Is takeo Arom Pnidentiiis. Discord, by stealth, wounds Concord ; 
AeislshniaBA Ulad W Mlh : whieh Isller incident may be represented by the 

112 The Iconography of the Chapter- house, Salisbury. 

with which ihe punishes ahalf-aaked Vice, who is also tormented hy a 
serpent. Dress of Virtue yellow or pink. 

6. Largitas pours heated coin from out of a heated ladle into the 
throat of Avaritia. Dress of Virtue, green; that of Vice, perhaps 

7. Virtue standing on the back of a Vice, who is on all fours. 
Dress of Vice, green. 

The absence of colour in several of these groups, and those the best 
of the eeries. is accounted for by the fact that casts were taken of them 
by the late Mr. Gottingham : tiiese casts are now in the Architectural 

The whole of these sculptures are of the very highest class of art, 
and infinitely superior to any of the work in the chapter- house : the 
only defect is the size of the heads. Probably this was intentional on 
the part of the artist. The intense life and movement of the figures is 
deserving of special study. 

The Intxbiob» 

The key to the whole scheme of the iconography of the chapter- 
house itself is the quatrefoil in the tympanum of the inside face of the 
entrance-arch. From the fact of the evangelistic emblems occupying 
the angles of this panel, we may well infer that it was adorned with 
a seated figure of our Lord. In the triangular spaces left by the smaller 
angles, and the circle containing the quatrefoil, were doubtless angels 
with censers, or instruments of music. Between the arch and the 
window above it are a series of arcades, some of which, if we may judge 
from the iron cramps still remaining, contained figures. What these 
figures were we have no means of ascertaining. At Westminster the 
Angelic Salutation occurs in a similar position. If, then, we imagine 
this subject to have obtained in the present intttance, we shall dispose 
of two of the four arcades available for sculpture ; and as the church of 
Sarum is under the invocation of S. Peter, we may, perhaps, devote 
these two under consideration to him and S. Paul. 

Around, and starting from the quatrefoil as a centre, run first a series 
of heads, representing the various conditions of life at the time the 
edifice was constructed. Thus we see the shaven monk, tlie in and 
out-door costume of the fine lady, the nun, the merchant, the sailor, 
the countryman, and many others. Then, above these, and filling in 
the spandrils of the arcade running below the windows, is the history 
of man, from the creation to the delivery of the Ten Commandments 
on Mount Sinai. It will thus be perceived that this series begins and 
ends with the ministrations of our Lord. 

The poem is now taken up by the stained glass. We have first the 
Angelic Liturgy in the quatrefoils of the windows, each of which con- 
tains an angel, who bears one of the objects used in the celebration of 
the Eucharist.^ So far all goes well ; but in the loop formed by the 
secondary angles and great circles of windows, where we might expect 

. ^ Ttn of tivss remain scattpred In the wegtqm windows of the nave and aisles of 

The Iconography of the Chapter-house, Salisbury. 113 

to find eight of the nine orders of angels (the remaining one, viz., the 
Thrones, heing put in the quatrefoil over the doorway), — and in the 
great circles themselves, where the rest of the heavenly hierarchy, or 
rather one of each order, would be placed, — we find an unmeaning 
collection of kings and bishops. Of these we have one large circle 
remaining in the west triplet of the nave : it contains a king and bishop 
under a double niche. Two other bishops belonging to the span- 
drils below the great circles are preserved in the same locality ; and 
another, representing a king, is to be found in the glazier's shop of the 
cathedral. Now in none of these is there any indication of a nimbus, 
nor does the formation of the lead induce us to suppose that any ever 
existed ; there is also an equal absence of any inscription. We are 
therefore driven to conjecture that they must be the portraits of the 
benefactors that '* ben portreid and paint, with gay, glittering glass," 
as Piers Ploughman observes, when enumerating the various means of 
obtaining the funds for church building in his days.^ 

Coats of arms, belonging respectively to (1) Henry III., (2) S.Louis, 
(3) Eleanor of Provence, (4) Plantagenet, Earl of Cornwall, (5) Clare. 
Earl of Gloucester, (6) Bigod, Earl of Norfolk, (7) Warren, and (8) 
another, which Mr. Winston^ thinks was Edmund Plantagenet, son of 
Richard, King of the Romans. Six of these are to be found in the 
triplet at the west end of the cathedral, as also the bordure of No. 8. 
As to No. 7, it has entirely disappeared, probably at the time when the 
remains of the old glass contained in the east window of the chapter- 
house were removed to the western triplet of the nave. 

The field of the windows was a very beautiful grisaille glass ; the 
mass of it was used to help fill up the city ditch, in the time of 
J. Wyatt. Esq. The east window was only dismounted about thirty 
years ago, and used to fill the east windows of the choir aisles. All 
the windows in the cathedral are secured by means of lockets to iron 
bars : these latter are fixed to wooden frames, placed on the outside ; 
tibe consequence was that the windows could be repaired or taken 
down without the introduction of ladders into the church. This was a 
CDOimon expedient of the thirteenth century ; it occurs at Canterbury, 
at Jesus College, Cambridge, and at the Temple, London : the wooden 
frames have been removed in the two last instances. 

The sculptures under consideration exhibit much the same degree of 
art as those few remaining at Westminster. The bodies are tall and 
diin, but the heads are very large in proportion ; (probably this was 
done to g^ve effect to them from below) ; the dresses are in small folds, 
and the features are more effective than delicate. The coloured ground 
of these sculptures is red and blue, counterchanged at each arcade. 
Mr. Hudson discovered that these backgrounds had been powdered 
with gilt-pointed quatrefoils. Light colours, such as pink, white, light 
pwple, yellow, and with occasional introductions of green ^ and red, 

' Dr. Rock, in his " Church of our Fathers," tells as that the obiU were read 
Ml ia the ebapter-botue. 

' See Uie SaLisbary volome of the Archseological Institute, for a very interesting 
•eeoont, by this gentleman, of the ancient glass remaining at Salisbury. 

' The frem OMd through the building was a very peculiar colour, most approach- 
iif the aiodcni graen veraiter, but more brilliant. 

TOJt. XX. Q 

114 The Architectural Exhibition. 

were employed for the figures. These last- mentioned were diapered 
with gold and white ; the former had only black or chocolate lines and 
powderings. The blank spaces between the apex of the arch and the 
figures was filled up by trees or houses painted on the ground. 

[We are obliged to postpone to our next number the Tabulated De- 
scriptions of the subjects round the arcades. With them we hope to 
give an illustration.] 


Hitherto the Architectural Exhibition has suffered under the draw- 
back of living in borrowed lodgings, and in consequence of this dis- 
advantage, it has had to offer itself to the public inspection at anjun- 
usual season. It has been the hothouse plant of winter, and not the 
hardy growth of spring. It was opened when many people were still 
in the country, and closed as soon as they came up to London. Hap- 
pily this evil is now corrected, for the creation of the Architectural 
Union Company, and the acquisition, by the governing body of that 
institution, of premises well situated in Conduit- Street, and with am- 
ple space behind, has permitted the erection of galleries specially 
adapted to the exhibition of architectural drawings. In this, accord- 
ingly, the Architectural Exhibition of the present year takes place ; 
and what is still more to the purpose, it has already opened ; and, best 
of all, it is to continue open for a considerable period, not closing till 
the last day of June. In the meanwhile the rival collection of the 
Royal Academy will come forward in competition for popular favour. 
Friendly as we have always been to the young institution; pleased 
as we have always expressed ourselves at the noble boldness which 
induced the architects of England to assert their own independence, 
we cannot but rejoice at the manly challenge which they have thus 
thrown down ; and we are sure that the good sense and generosity of 
the public will not cause them to repent of their boldness. For our 
own part, viewing the two exhibitions in the light of a tournament, 
we shall reserve our more special examination of the ecclesiological 
contents of the Architectural Exhibition till our next number, which 
will appear long before its period of closing. We shall then to the 
best of our power offer a comparative appreciation of the two collec- 
tions. In the meanwhile, however, we are bound to express our re- 
grets, that the school in whose success we have the greatest interest 
should not have pressed itself more actively to muster a strong display 
upon this most important recurrence of the Architectural Exhibition. 

Something, no doubt, may be said as to this being a year of recoil. 
The exhibitions for the three last years have been greatly fed by the 
Lille, the Constantinople, the Liverpool, and the Public Offices com- 
petitions. But surely an exhibition like the present one should not 
coldly set forth the bakemeats of competitions which have already been 
displayed to the public in their own place. As it is^— while Mr. Scott 

Mr. Jebb's Index of the Peierhouse Church Mutic. 115 

barely appears in two photographs and a print. Mr. Street in a 
new church at Westminster, which is too important to deal with on 
the present occasion, and in his Public Offices, Mr. Clarke in his 
charch at Hey wood, Mr. Burges in a photograph of sculpture, and a 
piquant piece of furniture, Mr. Teulon in some almshouses and a 
chapel, Mr. St. Aubyn in a lithographed church, Mr. Norton in a 
country house, Mr. White rather often, and Mr. Withers still more fre- 
quently, Mr. Goldie with some completeness, and Mr. Truefitt with 
his clever recast of the Irvingite chapel at Islington, and the unfor- 
tunately ingenious circus which he raised for Mr. Hampton — we miss 
the names of Mr. Brandon, Mr. Butterfield, Mr. Christian, Messrs. 
Dean and Woodward, Mr. Ferrey, Mr. Hardwick, Mr. Pearson, Messrs. 
Prichard and Seddon, Mr. Pugin, Mr. Slater, &c. , 

Before we quit the subject, we may in passing say that the subjects 
which cover the largest wall space are Mr. Owen Jones's large and 
tbowy Palace of the People, M us well Hill, and Mr. Pennethorne*s 
whole Iliad of .Public Offices, such as they would have been had a 
boontiful parliament and a Palmerstonian Treasury sacrificed the me- 
tropolis to his desires. The former, the rival Crystal Palace, is de- 
cidedly pretty. It is just the sort of second step which a man of Mr. 
Joneses fancy would take with the Paxtonian construction as his 
starting-point. But we do not yet endorse this marriage of iron and 
^ass, as the universal solvent by whose action the " architecture of 
the future'* is to come into being. Still less can we, speaking out now 
architecturally, recommend any of our friends, in their zeal for the im- 
provement of north London, to take shares in the Palace of the People, 
— until at least those of the Sydenham venture command a rather 
hitler value in the money market. Of Mr. Pennethorne*s cauchemare, 
all we can say is that it exceeds our most romantic conception of 
potential platitude. Ci git we trust, and we believe, may be written on 
the expansive frames which guard and surround his drawings. 



To the Editor of the Ecclesiologist. 

Sir. — At the request of the Committee of the Ecclesiological So- 
ciety, I hfve consented to the printing, in your publication, of an Index, 
with a PreCace, to a very curious and interesting collection of Anglican 
Church Music, prepared and presented by me to the Society of Peter- 
house, Cambridge, to which these documents belong. The College 
has also given its consent. Allow me now to say a few preparatory 
words, in hopes that the attention of ritualists and musicians may be 
called to a collection, which illustrates, I believe, more accurately than 
aoy reeovd now existing, the choral usages in Cambridge during the 
eslendiiig from the Reformation down to the temporary over- 

116 Mr. JebVs Index of the Peterhouse Church Music, 

throw of the monarchy in the seventeenth century. I am indebted to 
the kindness of the above-mentioned college for the use of these valuable 
relics in a late publication of mine ; the second volume of the " Choral 
Responses and Litanies," in which all the compositions for those parts of 
our cathedral services contained in this collection have been inserted ; 
and in the Preface I have made some remarks upon the information, 
known to but very few, which is afforded by them. They illustrate 
many particulars of choral usage now obsolete and all but forgotten, 
both at Cambridge and elsewhere, and contain fragments of some of 
our great composers not to be found elsewhere, besides other pieces by 
more obscure authors, which deserve to be rescued from oblivion. 
There is one fact to be collected from these volumes, all other record 
of which has I believe perished, but one which surely possesses some 
interest, and I hope may receive a fuller investigation than it has been 
in my power to make ; namely, that a Latin translation of our Prayer 
Book, and adapted at least partially to choral music, was used at some 
of the colleges at Cambridge, e.g.. Trinity, Peterhouse, and probably 
King's. This translation differs from any which I have seen, certainly 
from the forms published in Queen Elizabeth's time, and those ased at 
Oxford and at the meetings of the Convocation of Canterbury. The 
second part of the Index relates to a collection of hymns. Magnificats 
and Masses used apparently by the college at a time just preceding the 
Reformation, as is evident from the names of the composers. These 
may illustrate, I think, the origin of our cathedral services and sn- 
thems ; the latter I have no doubt being partly derived from the hymns, 
partly from the antiphons at commemoration, &c., of the unrefbrmed 

I must not however further anticipate the Preface to my Index. 
But 1 gladly take the opportunity of expressing a wish, that such of 
our cathedrals and colleges as possess ancient choral documents would 
each consent to a publication of an index of whatever belongs to their 
society, including an accurate statement of the parts, still extant, of 
each composition, and also of all the fragmentary pieces in their pos- 
session. This would not only materially illustrate the history of our 
ritual, but would aid towards recovering and completing much that is 
valuable. Already many accessions have been made to the stock of our 
ancient church music by the labours of those who have put together 
from distant sources the scattered remains of very noble and religious 
harmonies ; but much more, I am persuaded, yet remains to be done. If 
any such undertaking is ever likely to be realized, I shall be very will* 
ing to lend my assistance, such as it is, having already put together a 
good deal of information which may possibly be of use to those who 
would desire to engage in a work that has long been a desideratum. 

I remain, sir. 

Your obedient servant, 

JoBN Jbbb. 

Peterstow Rectory , Ross, 
^3rd March, 1 859. 



(From a Correspondent.) 

Amtb-Rbpoiimation Oftics-Books. 

Books of the Anglican Church, of which there must have heen 
ipies in manuscript in the year 1 530. and numerous editions. 
it totally disappeared, with the exception of the Uses of 
which there are several editions existing.) York, Hereford. 
'• Of the last no printed copy has been discovered. It 
irished like many others in the search made for snpersti- 
temp. King Edward VI. Mr. Maskell was in possession of 
belonging to the Rev. W. Blew, a folio on vellum, written 
about the year 1400. which he conjectured, on reasonable 
) be according to the above-mentioned Use. as it " varies " 
I of Sarum. York, or Hereford ; but in the Ordo Sponsa- 
sea*' with the Pontifical according to the Use of Bangor, still 
in the cathedral library there. There are, therefore, rea- 
>unds for supposing that it is the genuine Use of that church 
le. This is further strengthened by a note, in the hand- 
the age, at the end of the calendar, which certifies that the 
(iven by " S' Morrys Griffith Priest to the hye Alter of the 
burch of Oswestry, in the yere of our Lord God a thousand 
"ed fifty and foure." The locality here mentioned almost 
m that the volume belonged to a church in a part of the 
here the Use of Bangor was probably observed. 
lops were enjoined in a letter written by the Council, (dated 
)ec. ^, Regni tertio anno,) to command the clergy, each 
own diocese, to bring and deliver up to themselves or their 
all Antiphonals, Missals. Grayles, Processionals, Manuals. 
Pies. Portasies, Journals and Ordinals after the Use of 
Dcoln, or any other private Use ; and that you take the same 
I your hands, or into the hands of your deputy, and them 
It and abolish that they never after may serve, either to any 
m they were provided for. or be at any time a Lett to that 
uniform order, which by common consent is now set forth. 

r Injunctions we find devotional rhymes in English make 
anuice as a gradual substitute for the Latin. 

you shall every Sunday, at the time of your going about the 

1 holy water into three or four places where most audience and 

people is, for the declaration of the ceremonies, say distinctly and 

t jam parishioners may well hear and perceive the same, these 

■ber Christ's blood- shedding, by the which most holy sprinkling 
■Bs you have pardon.' 

like numner, before the dealing of the holy bread, these words : 
rmisr's Body this is a token Which on the cross for our sms wai 

118 Liitargical Notes and Illustrations. 

broken ; Wherefore of His death if you will be partakers, Of vice and sin you 
must be forsakers.' " 

These religious rhymes which succeeded the Latin, were probably 
in much use and account, from the fact of Queen Elizabeth availing 
herself of them " to express," or rather to *• conceal," her mode of be- 
lief respecting the Eucharist when examined before the commissioners : 
'* Christ was the Word that spake it,'* &c. 

Tbb Church Calendar. 

Our present Church Calendar appears to have been formed on the 
principle of distinguishing between Days of Obligation and Days of 
Devotion. After the Reformation, only the Feasts of Obligation were 
retained in the Church Service, such as those dedicated to the memory 
of our Lord, the Blessed Virgin, the Apostles, &c., the Baptist as the 
Precursor, and S. Stephen as the Proto-martyr ; S. Mark and S. Luke 
as Evangelists ; S. Paul and S. Barnabas on account of their extra- 
ordinary call i the Holy Innocents, the Feast of S. Michael and All 
Angels to remind us of the benefits received by their ministry, and 
All Saints as the memorial of all who have died in the true faith and 
fear of God. 

The principle of selection, however, with respect to the other names 
of saints found in the calendar, and usually printed in the Roman 
letter, is not so easy to be understood. Some of them are, indeed, 
such as have been long known and honoured in the English Church 
before the Reformation, and were peculiarly appropriated to it, as S. 
Alban the proto martyr of England, Venerable Bede, King Edward 
the Confessor, S. David Archbishop and patron saint of Wales* S. 
Boniface who, though more directly the apostle of Germany, was a 
native of Crediton in Devonshire, and S. Edmund, King of the East 
Angles and martyr ; others again were no doubt selected from t^eir 
acknowledged fame in the Universal Church, such as S. Ambrose, 
S. Augustine and S. Cyprian. 

There still remain some, whose names Wheatley supposed were 
retained for the sake of certain trades who kept their festivals, such 
as Bishop Blasius, patron of the woolcombers. But this will hardly 
account for the introduction of Prisca, Nicomede, and Enurchus. 

But it seems also difficult to account for the " omission ** of others, 
.such as S. Patricius or Patrick, who would so well have borne com- 
pany as the Apostle of Ireland with S. David the Apostle of Wales, 
or 8. Osmond, to whom the Church, both before and since the Reform- 
ation, is so much indebted for her liturgical services. — (Calendar of the 
English Church illustrated. 1851.) 

Use of the Latin Language since the Reformation. 

At the installation of a Dean in Salisbury Cathedral a Latin service 
is performed in the chapter-house by the canons and prebendaries ; and 
in Hereford Cathedral a Latin sermon is, or was accustomed to be, 
preached on a certain day, when the clergy alone attended. In Oxford, 
the Latin Litany and sermons at S. Mary's, at the commencement of 

LUurgieal Notes and Illustrations. 1 19 

are well known.' The former was publiahed in score by Dr. 
b. The nine o'clock evening prayers at Christ Church and Wor- 
' consist of selections from the Prayer- Book in that langaage. 
Cambridge it is certain, that before the Great Rebellion the ser- 
at Peter- House were in Latin, as there are four Latin Litanies 
XMemore, Ramsey, and Molle. The latter we are informed, in 
»f its part-books, was written " pro Collegio Sancti Petri " (Can- 
i and it may be fairly surmised that Ramsey's was written for 
7 College, and Loosemore's for King's, if they were not also in- 
d for use at S. Mary's before the University, as at Oxford. In 
.boTe- mentioned MS., besides a rich store of English composi- 
there are some fiill services in Latin by GKbbons and others. — 
f Choral Services. Vol. II. Preface. 

ere is an edition of the Common Prayer- Book in Latin verse, en- 
, *' Liturgia Sacra curru Thesbitico deportata, a Randolf Gilpin :" 
oco. 1657. l^mo. 

Chubch Music. 

the period of the Reformation the musical part of the Church 
ee was of the same nature in England as on the continent, i.e. 
Y antiphonal, in which the congregation bore little or no part. 
sr and Calvin, however, were both anxious that they should take 
ire in it, and for this purpose the former preferred the ancient 

Hymns, which he rendered into the vernacular tongue. Calvin, 
e contrary, preferred metrical translations from the Psalms, by 
t and Beza, which he took care should be set by the most ac- 
liahed musicians of his age, such as Goudimal, the master of 
trina and Bourgeois. The partiality of Queen Elizabeth for the 
lonal mode of service retained it in the Chapel Royal, and con- 
ntly also in the various cathedrals of the kingdom. 
e people in England, however, were accustomed to take their 
in the musical part of the services, even when the Offices were 
ated in Latin; for at the end of Heame's edition of Robert 
retbury, (p. 379,) we find an extract from Injunctions of the 
%ich bishop of Canterbury, (Cardinal Pole,) which plainly shows 
he people joined in the quire-song, in times preceding the Re- 
d Usages. " Item : the churchwardens of every parish, when 
e was accustomed to be sung, exhort all who can sing, and have 
eemstomed to sing in the quire in the time of schism, or be/ore, and 
irithdrawn themselves from singing ; and on refusal to present 
to the Ordinary or to the Chancellor." 
i learned author of the work on Oriental Liturgies, (Renaudot,) 

the Preface expressed the previdling sentiment of all persons of 
m our popular Psalmody. " Psalmos retinuerunt sed quos novo 
lo rjthmis plemmque inconcinnis deformaverunt." 

n is a sendee, " In Commeadationibas Benefactomm," ased in many ool- 
■^ in oar UniTenitiei, oonaiitiDg of a Latin Prayer of thanks for the 
^sbeaeraction ; and the 144th, 45th, and 46th Psalms in English. In 
■ College, Ojrfbrd, the 147th Psalm is added, and the 3rd chapter of the 
i«f 8oiraion« 

120 Ecclesiological Society. 

Nahum Tate has succeeded to an extent which defies all competition, 
in degrading the Psalms of David to the condition of being tolerated, 
and perhaps even admired by the most dull, gross, and anti-poetical ca- 
pacity. These were not easy tasks ; but Nahum Tate has enjoyed more 
than a century of honour for his labours ; and his '* new version " of 
the Psalms is still sung, (like the shepherd in Arcadia piped,) as if it 
would never be old. — (Knight's Shakspeare. Vol. I.) 


A CoMMiTTBB Meeting was held at Arklow House, on Feb. 15, 1859. 
Present : Mr. Beresford-Hope, M.P., in the chair ; Mr. Forbes. Sir 
John E. Harington, Rev. G. H. Hodson, Rev. W. Scott, Rev. B.Webb, 
and Rev. G. Williams. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. The fol- 
lowing answers to the resolutions passed at the last meeting were pre- 
sented : 

" Qfice of fVorks, fVkUehaU Place, 
"Dec. 16, 1858. 
" Sir, — I am directed by Lord John Manner* to acknowledge your letter 
of the Idtb, conveying the resolution adopted by the committee of the Ecde- 
siological Society on the 9th instant. 

" Bis Lordship desires me to request you to express to the committee the 
gratification he feels at receiving this testimony of their approval of the 
choice he has made with reference to the New Foreign Office, and of their 
appreciation of his anxiety to promote in this country the best principles of 

<< I have the honour to be, 

" Sir, your very faithful servant, 

" Brinslby Marlat. 
"TheRev. B.Webb." 

"20, Spring Gardens, London, S.fV., 
" December \5, ]S5S. 
" My dear Sir, — I most sincerely thank you for your letter communicadng 
to me the congratulatory resolution of the Committee of the Ecclesioloffical 
Society. I beg you to express to the committee my strong sense of the 
honour they have done me by that resolution, as well as my earnest hope 
that I may not be found wanting to an opportunity so noble and so important 
to the revival in which we are all labouring. 

'* I remain, with many thanks, 
" My dear Sir, 

" Your very faithful servant, 

" Gbo. Gilbbrt Scott. 
'* The Rev. Benjamin Webb." 

Letters of acknowledgment were received from the Surrey Archaeolo- 
gical Society ; and letters were read from W. W. E. Wynne, Esq., M.P., 
the Rev. H. L. Jenner, Rev. S. S. Greatheed, J. S. Walker, Esq., Rev. 
H. Philipps, G. F. Bodley, Esq.. B. Ferrey, Esq., G. M. Hills, Esq., J. 
Norton. Esq., W. Slater, Esq., J. P. St. Aubyn, Esq., S. S. Teulon, Esq., 
W. White, Esq., and R. J. Withers. Esq. 

Ecclesioloffical Society. 121 

The chairman annoanced that, in compliance with a request from 
the committee of the Architectural Museum, he had expressed the in- 
tention of the Ecclesiological Society to oflfer another Colour Prize for 
the present year. This was confirmed by the committee. 

The following letter was received from the Danish Church History 


Copenhagen, \6th October, 1858. 

"Gbntlkmbn, — It is now about six years since the Danish Church His- 
tory Society had the pleasure of opening a correspondence with you. The 
Eodetiological Society, which has objects so much in common with our own, 
tnswered in the spirit of Christian sympathy and brotherly kindness. It also 
forwarded us a valuable material present, a testimony of its own rich means 
IS of its generous wish to encourage our weaker efforts. 

" Since then we have continued our labours in the field of Christian archae- 
ology, endeavouring by word and writing to remove the minds of our country- 
mea from dwelling too eagerly on the momentary and the material, and re- 
curring to past times, to historical research, and to spiritual development, so 
that the Lord of Life may open the eyes of those who seek light in His 
light. We have also held annual meetings in different parts of Denmark, in 
one or other of the noble churches still left to us, thus instructed by Chris- 
tian monuments and the strong faith of our fathers. This activity has borne 
good fruits. May God still increase them ! 

" We trust that you will receive this communication with the same kindli- 
ness as our former one, — each such word of light being in fact a small link in 
that chain of ritual and unional tendencies and restorations which is happily 
strengthening among us. 

*' Allow us at the same time to present you with our small offering, all 
that we have published in the interval, namely : 

" Helv^. Den Danske Hirkes Historic efter Reformationen. 2e Vol. 
" Helv^. Den Danske Kirkes Historic til Reformationen. Vol. I. II. 
" Im. Barfod. Den falsterske Gejstligheds Personnlhistorie. 2e VoL 
" Kirkehistoriske Samlinger. 2e Part. (Vol. I.— HI.) 
"Ny Kirkehistoriske Samlinger. 1st Part. (Vol. I.— III.) 
" Henrik Susos GudeHg Visdomsbog, ved Brandt. 1 Vol. 
" Povel Eliesens Danske Skrifker, ved Secher. Ist Part. (Vol. I.— III.) 
" Cbristiero Pedersens Danske Skrifter. Vol. III. — ^V. 

" With every expression of good will, and of love to the cause of our 
eommon Redeemer, 

'* Yours very respectfully, 
" The committee : 

*' J. F. Fbnger, Lie. theol. and Pastor. 

"L. Hblweg, Philos. Dr. and Pastor in 

"Fb. Hammbrun, Dr. and Pastor in Co- 

" HoLOBR Fb. Rordam, Cand. theol. in Co- 

"Gborgb Stephens, Professor of Old Eng- 
hsh, and of the English Language and 
Literature, in the University of Cheaping- 

"C. J. Bbandt, Cand. theol." 

It ma agreed to preieot in return the Eccleriologist, in continuation, 


122 Ecclesiological Society. 

and the Reports of the Society, since the last communicatioii with 

The following letters from M. Christ. Hoist, of Christiania, were 
next read : 

** CArwfuinw, U 19 Novh., 1868. 
'* Monsieur le Secretaire, — J'aurai hien voulu presenter k votre illustre Soci^t^ 
un envoi plus riche ; mais les dessina, publics aux frais pubhc*, par rapport ^ 
la cath^drale de Trondhjem, ne sont pas encore acbev^s et le texte est encore 
sous la presse. J'espere toutefois, que le departement pour Tinstruction pub- 
lique va lui-m6me vous les envoyer, aiin d'obtenir sans doute I'opinion de It 
soci^t^ sur cet outrage, et je ne pourrai ainsi avoir le plaisir de faire cet envoi. 
S'il y avait quelque objet ou quelque ^crit par rapport k nos antiquity qui 
pourrait vous interesser, je me ferai un vrai plaisir de vous Toffiir, autant 
qu'il me soit possible. 

'* Avec la consideration la plus distingu^e, 

"Christ. Holrt.*' 

" Christiania, 19 Nov., 1858. 
'* Mr. le Bibliothecaire,— La Soci^t^ Royale des Sciences k Trondhjem m'a 
charg^ de transmettre h. votre illustre Soci^t^ les Merits suivants, en vous 
priant de vuuloir bien les accepter comme une marque de sa haute considera- 
tion. Savoir : 
" Rliiwer, Norske Mindesmaerker. 

"Christ. Holst. 
" k The Ecclesiological Society, London." 

It was agreed to return the society's thanks to the University of Chris- 
tiania and the Royal Society of Science at Trondhjem, and to present 
the Ecclesiologist in return. The books from Christiania are the 
"Foreningen til Norske Fortidsmindesmerkers Bevaring** for 1855, 
1856, and 1857, with the <* Norske Huus-Kalender '* for 1859. some 
numbers of the " Illustreret Ayhedsblad,*' and some lithographs of the 
celebrated timber structure, the Borgunds Kirke. 

A specimen of a French invention called Diaphanie — a transparent 
coloured paper in ecclesiastical patterns, intended to be applied to plain 
glass — was forwarded by Mr. Gordon ; who also mentioned the mag- 
nificent mediaeval collection of Senator Calemann, of Hanover, nearly 
as rich as that of the Hotel de Cluny in paintings, ecclesiastical ves- 
sels, mediaeval art-objects, books, MSS., autographs, seals, and em- 

Mr. Clayton met the committee, and exhibited the drawings, by 
himself and Mr. Bell, for one of the apse windows of Exeter College 
Chapel, Oxford ; for a memorial window to the late Baron Alderson, in 
S. Mary Magdalene, Munster Square; for the transept windows of the 
new church at Halifax ; for six single lights in the south transept of 
Westminster Abbey ; for the windows of S. Michael, Comhill ; for 
the apse of S. Mary, Stoke Newington ; for a memorial window at 
S. John, Bromsgrove, Worcestershire; for a new east window at 
Highnam, Gloucestershire ; and for windows at Hemel Hempstead, 
Scorborough, and a new church in Yorkshire. 

A conversation ensued upon the proposed east window for Montreal 
cathedral, in which it is proposed to place a standing figure of our 
LoBO ^tween the four Evangelists. The committee were anxious 

Eeclesiological Society. 128 

that oar Lord's figure should be markedly distinguished from the 
attendant saints. Mr. Clayton also mentioned a memorial window 
which Mr. W. V. Ellis, of Gloucester, is about to place in the south 
ai^Ie of that cathedral. The subject is to be historical, and is to com- 
memorate the entrance of Edward II. into Berkeley Castle, his murder, 
the demand of his body by the Abbat of Gloucester, the funeral pro- 
cession through the city, the burial of the king in the abbey, and the 
erection of his shrine. 

Mr. Clarke met the committee, and exhibited his designs for the im- 
portant new church of S. Luke, Heywood, Lancashire, and for the 
restoration of S. Peter's, Thanet. He also consulted the committee 
on the arrangement of the nave of Exeter cathedral for special services, 
and the following resolution was adopted by the committee : 

"The committee having inspected the designs for fitting up the 
nave of Exeter cathedral for service, submitted by Mr. Clarke, are 
strongly of opinion that the seats provided for the dignitaries and choir 
onght to be of a less cumbrous form. They would recommend metal 
desks. They also deprecate the complicated arrangement proposed 
for suspending the curtains across the transepts ; and recommend the 
employment of a simple horizontal rod, which might, if necessary, be 
sustained by rods or chains depending from the roof." 

Mr. Lavers met the committee, and exhibited the cartoons for some 
stained glass windows, in a somewhat archaic style of design, for Gulval 
church, Cornwall ; for a private chapel at Maidenhead ; and for a win- 
dow at S. Simon*s, Chelsea. From this design, which was composed 
of series of groups from our Lord's life, the central subject, repre- 
senting the Crucifixion, had been rejected. Mr. Lavers mentioned 
that a Pointed house and factory for himself and Mr. Barraud was now 
rising in Endell Street, from the designs of Mr. Withers. 

Mr. Surges met the committee, and reported progress at Constan- 
tinople, and in his design for a small new church at Nunkeeling. York- 
shire. He ofiered a paper on the Iconography of the restored Chapter 
House at Salisbury, for the Eccletiologist, 

The committee examined Mr. Norton's designs for the restoration 
of S. Matthew, Coates. Gloucestershire, and S. Martin, Fiddington, 
Somersetshire. Mr. Norton announced the preparation by the Arundel 
Society of a work on the Christian Mosaics at Rome. 

The committee examined Mr. St. Aubyn's designs for the restora- 
tioD of S. Martin, Camborne, Cornwall, and S. Mary, Huntingfield, 
Suffolk, and for a new school at Clay Hill, Middlesex. 

The committee also examined Mr. Hopkins' designs for a new 
timber school at Leigh, Worcestershire, and for an elaborate coped 
tomb at Sevem-Stoke, in the same county. 

A perspective drawing of a Middle-Pointed church, built at Newburgh, 
New York, for the Presbyterians, by Mr. F. C. Withers, was forwarded 
for inspection by the architect's brother, who expressed a hope that 
the boildiog, which was warmly commended in the United States, 
■nght before long become the property of the Church. Mr. F. C. 
Withen has been commissioned to design a cathedral church for an 
AlKiJeui didoeee. 

124 Oxford Architectural Society. 

A correspondence between Mr. F* H. Dickinson, the Rev. J. M. Neale, 
and the Rev. B. Webb, as to the publication of an Antiphonale, from the 
Sarum text, with illustrations from other uses, was mentioned : and in 
connection with some questions raised therein the Rev. G. Williams, by 
the permission of the college authorities, exhibited a MS. catalogue of 
ancient choir-books preserved in the library of S. Peter's college. Cam- 
bridge. The catalogue is made by the Rev. J. Jebb ; and contains a 
careful collation of the part-music, much of it unpublished, in use in 
the college chapel both before the Reformation and in the great ritual 
revival inaugurated by Bishop Cosins. It was agreed to request the 
college and Mr. Jebb to permit the publication of this catalogue in 
successive numbers of the Ecclesiologist, with a view to acquaint 
ritualists with this almost unexplored mine preserved at Cambridge. 

Engraving bills for the Ecclesiologist from Messrs. Jewitt, Hodgkin, 
and Utting were ordered to be paid ; and the committee adjourned. 


A MBBTTNO of this socicty was held on Wednesday, February 9th, the 
Rev. S. W. Wayte, B.D., Trinity College, in the chair. 

J. Bamaby, Esq. of Christ Church, was elected a member of the 

A letter was read from^ Mr. Haines, calling attention to the publi- 
cation of a complete list of English Brasses, which would shortly be 
out. Subscribers are invited to put down their names at the society's 
rooms, Holywell. 

Mr. John H. Parker presented a view of the interior of the large 
church in Gordon Square, London. 

Mr. James Parker read a paper on the " Study of English Domes- 
tic Architecture." He pointed out the great attention which had been 
paid to ecclesiastical architecture, while this had been neglected, and 
referred to the mistake which many made in supposing Gothic to be 
an ecclesiastical and not a national style ; as if, during the Middle 
Ages, there were two styles, one for churches and another for houses. 
He contended that the Gothic of the fourteenth and fifteenth century, 
in England, more completely met the requirements of that age than 
the architecture of the nineteenth century meets those of our own. 
He insisted on the necessity of careful study of old examples to under- 
stand the perfection of the Gothic as applied to our manor houses and 
castles — not simply as regards form and detail, but also plan and pur- 
pose, and especially in connection with the history of our country — 
and he showed how the student might fill in from other sources the 
bare outline, which is all that the ruined walls of our Middle-Age 
mansions afford us. He referred to the success which had attencted 
church restoration and church building through understanding the 
principles on which they were constructed, and maintained that the 
same result would follow as regards domestic buildings. He 

Mr, Parker on Domestic Architecture. 125 

the paucity of our domestic remains, when compared with ecclesiastical, 
aod explained the reaaon why England possesses so little town architec- 
tore in comparison with foreign countries ; but he protested against this 
being made the plea for the importation of foreign designs. He said, 
*' Because we have no town architecture to speak of remaining, we are 
apt to argue as if we never had any ; while, by adapting the country 
architecture to town purposes, which, without doubt, as towns grew 
up the Mediaeval architects did, we arrive at what was probably our 
town architecture ; by running over to Italy or other foreign coun- 
tries, we can only have what it was simply impossible for our town 
architecture ever to have been.** He illustrated his proposition by 
supposing that Walter de Merton had brought a design from Paris, on 
the plea that there was already a university there, or that William of 
Wjkeham, instead of New College cloister had sent for the plans of 
the Venetian palaces, which were then building on the edge of the 
Lagoon, or that William of Waynflete had copied the leaning tower of 
Pisa at the end of Magdalen Bridge ; and, in concluding, he said, 
— " Popularity may be gained for the moment by the architect who 
brings over a new design, as some speculator who imports some 
novelty, but whether our art will be beautified by the bare importation 
of foreign forms remains to be seen ; and although, like the modern 
drama, which has now almost lost its nationality by the introduction 
of everything French, for a time draws large houses, and the success- 
ful translator is welcomed as the great author of an original play, 
English art will never be really advanced one jot by the swamping of 
all national beauty in the gaudy display and meretricious colours of 
some Venetian beauty, and no architect's name will be honoured by 
posterity who. despising his own country's treasures because of the 
labour required in searching for them, goes to a foreign market and 
comes back laden with tinsel, and dazzles for a moment the eyes of the 
admiring and flattering crowd around him.** 

At the conclusion, the treasurer, Mr. Wayte, who took the chair in 
the absence of the president, moved a vote of thanks to Mr. Parker 
lor his very interesting and useful paper. 

Mr. Lowder drew attention to a portion of the paper where he be- 
fieved Mr. Parker had not, in his opinion, sufficiently distinguished 
between the ability of studying ancient houses for the purpose of em- 
bodying the principles of their erection in modern work, and the mere 
copying of plans and details. He felt sure that the nineteenth cen- 
tory must have its own peculiar arrangements, and that an attempt 
Id reproduce simply houses of the Middle Ages would lead to no be- 
neficial result. 

Mr. Parker agreed with these sentiments, but nevertheless thought 
that we might gain some advantage even from the old arrangements, 
such as the large central hall. 

Mr. Bruton urged as a plea the unwillingness now shown to go to 
•ay expense by persons who were building houses, and the small pro- 
portion of houses built by architects to those erected by builders, and 
the difficoldes which an architect who wished to employ the old Eng- 
Inh type had to undergo from the caprice of employers. 

126 Oxford Architectural Society. 

A conversation ensued, in which the usual unappropriateness of 
house fittings to the character of houses erected after ancient models, 
was discussed. It was urged that no detail of furniture was beneath 
an architect's notice, and attention was drawn to a very beautiful street 
lamp lately placed in the court-yard, in front of All Saints' church, 
Margaret Street. 

The meeting was then adjourned until Wednesday, the 16th of 
February, at eight o'clock, when a paper will be read by Mr. Growse, 
of Queen's, on " The Ecclesiastical Architecture of Sufiblk." Mem- 
bers are requested to attend. 

A meeting of this society was held at the society's rooms in Holy- 
well, on Wednesday, February 16, J. H, Parker, Esq.. president, in 
the chair. W. Fisher, Esq., architect, and C. E. Fisher, Esq., of 
Christ Church, were elected members of the society. 

A paper, by Mr. F. S. Growse, of Queen's College, was then read, 
on the '* Ecclesiastical Architecture of Suffolk." He began by de- 
fending the Perpendicular style, the prevalent one in that county, 
from the abuse so generally lavished upon it, pointing out its supe- 
riority in symbolism and in general convenience, especially for city 
churches. Professing himself an admirer of Perpendicular window 
tracery, he indicated how important it was to consider the character 
of the masonry employed for the wall in which the windows were 
set. For as the mathematical precision of Perpendicular work was a 
natural reaction upon the extravagancies of the later Flowing, its^merit 
could not be sufficiently appreciated except when brought into con- 
trast with the error against which it was a protest. Thus the rough- 
ness of the wall, combined with the exact finish of the windows, ex- 
hibited that happy union of utilitarianism and artistic elaboration 
which characterizes the Perpendicular above every other style. For 
the shell of the fabric where strength was the main requisite, smooth* 
ness and finish were disregarded ; in the more ornamental parts no 
labour was spared in producing a result that might please the eye. 
After remarking the happy effect produced by a judicious arrangement 
of the transoms in some examples from Suffolk churches, he proceeded 
to describe the ' peculiarities of the architecture in that county, pre- 
faced by the following remarks : — '* One of the greatest faults of mo- 
dem architects is, that they are too cosmopolitan. They disregard all 
old associations, and aim at a beauty which appeals only to the senses, 
not to the^ affections ; whereas of old every county had its peculiar 
type, now there is only one legitimate form which must everywhere 
be enforced without modification from locality or native material. And 
such is the very consistent practice of those who find a strong argu- 
ment for the exclusive revival of Decorated, in the fact that it wu 
the most universal of all styles. But I greatly fear that architecture* 
like everything else, the more universal it becomes, the less capable it 
is of exciting strong individual interest. The man who boasts of hit 
liberal and enlightened sentiments, may look forward with triumph 

Afr. Grawse on the Churches of Suffolk. 127 

to the day when provincial and national peculiarities shall all be lost, 
and the varying surface of character shall be reduced to one dead 
lerel, when every man's county shall be the world, and home a name 
that bears no meaning ; but I would rather be content to preserve the 
aocieot landmarks, and leave some record of the past, amidst the 
leTeiling torrents of the present. Already we see buildings rise around 
08 which bear the familiar name of Gothic, but in all else are foreign ; 
imitition, it seems, is no longer so. when the model is found not in 
England but on the continent. If there must be novelty in design, 
let it be procured by honest thought and the development of our here- 
ditary type, not by arbitrary naturalization. So long as England fol- 
lowed the dictates of its native taste, its architecture was divine ; so 
eooQ as it borrowed it fell. Italy, the fated sovereign of the world, 
baviog first enforced its way by arms, and then by superstition, in its 
third dynasty claimed the throne by virtue of the tiUe conferred by 
art, and &om the debasing influences of this latter rule we are but now 
recovering. And debasing, I say, it was, as every imitation must be. 
£ogland was the first to protest against the canons of Palladian art ; 
may it continue the reformatiop, trusting in its own resources, and 
not yield before the dogmatism and distorted representations of any 
author, however admirable may be his eloquence and genius." He 
then remarked on the propriety of always employing native material 
where possible, to which practice we were indebted for the beautiful 
flint panelling and the curious circular towers peculiar to the eastern 
counties; and after noting the elaborate character of many of the 
Suffolk porches, with a suggestion that the chamber above was occa- 
sionally employed for a prison, as appeared from an example at Bidle- 
atone, and glancing at the acknowledged excellence of the carved 
woodwork, he proceeded to criticise at some length the *' Ecclesiastical 
Topography of Suffolk," published in 1856, regretting that a work so 
very meagre in its amount of information should not at least have en- 
sured accuracy in those points which were mentioned. The rule of 
omission was so arbitrary, mistakes of all kinds were so frequent, that 
the book was neither of any interest to the cursory reader, nor of any 
value to the professed ecclesiologiat. After amply substantiating these 
objections* and noting the very inconsiderable number of fine Perpendi- 
cular towers in Suffolk, he concluded with the following remarks : — 
** So liberally has the piety of our forefathers provided for the religious 
wants of future generations, that, in whatever direction the wayfarer 
turns his steps, the first sign of the proximity of human habitations is the 
sight of the parish church. Planted, as it generally is, on the brow of 
some slight eminence, while the village nestles in the valley below ; it 
tells with most eloquent expression of gratitude and devotion for the 
rich ooro-lands and the teeming bams over which it rises, hallowing them 
with its presence, and often in the most retired hamlets scarcely to be 
distingoisbed from the lstter> save by the turret on the western gable, 
tnd the dark cedars, in whose religious shade it lies embosomed. Yet 
aoch as this picturesque situation adds to the beauty of the landscape, 
1 great] J teta that in another and more important point of view, it is a 
serious efiL Either the devotion of our ancestors was stronger than 

128 Oxford Architectural Society, 

own, or our bodily frame is weaker. A walk of half a mile from the 
village, up a steep ascent, to a cold and scantily-filled church, far too 
large for the actual requirements of its congregation, seems too severe 
a penance for modem Protestants. A dissenting chapel is at once 
built in the heart of the village, at the foot of the hill, and is rapidly 
filled, while the ancient place of worship is as rapidly deserted. Thus 
in scarcely any English county is dissent more rife than in Suffolk ; 
and I firmly believe that the fact I have mentioned is one of its con- 
current causes. It becomes, therefore, incumbent on modern archi- 
tects to pay more earnest attention than is often done to the personal 
comfort of the congregation." 

A discussion on the subject of the paper ensued, and on the want 
of applicability of Perpendicular windows to the requirements of 
stained glass, on account of the small divisions into which they were 
usually split up. Mr. Growse warmly defended the style for its effi- 
ciency for that purpose, and endeavoured to prove the earlier style 
less capable of accommodation. The chairman having expressed his 
thanks and that of the society to Mr. Growse, for his excellent paper 
on the Suffolk churches, and regretting that none of the members did 
devote themselves with the same energy to particular counties, the 
meeting was adjourned to Wednesday, the 23rd of February, at eight 
o'clock, when a paper will be read by the secretary, Mr. Lowder, upon 
" The proper Mode of Decorating and Furnishing Gothic Dwelling- 
Houses,*' when members are requested to attend. 

A meeting of this society was held on Wednesday, March % J.H. 
Parker, Esq., president, in the chair. H. S. Le Strange, Esq., of Chnit 
Church, and Mr. Joseph Plowman, were elected members of the society. 
The president then called upon the secretary to read his paper upon 
" A Visit to lona ; with some account of its History." 

Mr. Lightfoot stated the interest with which lona ought to be re- 
garded, not only by those who are members of the Scotch Bpiscopai 
Church, but also by those who, although living under the pale of 
another Church, yet owed no little to their sister in the north. loot 
was the chief seat of the horrors of Druidism previously to the coming 
of S. Columba, about a.d. 564, who established a college on the island 
for the education and general improvement of the people. After his 
death the foundation passed through several phases, and notwithstand- 
ing its isolated position acquired great wealth and increased in in- 
fluence up to the time of the Reformation. It continued under the 
influence of the Culdees until the beginning of the thirteenth century, 
when they were driven from this and certain other of their establish- 
ments by an invasion of clerics from the south, who acknowledged the 
authority of the Bishop of Rome, and brought into use the tonsure and 
other ecclesiastical customs hitherto unknown. A nunnery was esta- 
blished in the island about this time, and continued until a.d. 1543, 
when Anna Macdonald, the last prioress, died, to whom no suocesaor 
aeems to have been appointed. The religious establishment of looa was 

Cambridge Architectural Society^ 129 

altogether broken up by the act of the Scotch parliament passed in 1560, 
which alx>lLBhed reUgious houses. The island then passed into the hands 
o( the McLeans, but is now the property of the Duke of Argyll. The 
second part of the paper contained a description of the ruins of lona 
as at present existing ; the most ancient of thes^e is without doubt S. 
Oran's chapel, which contains features of early Norman of a very rude 
character, as well as the remains of some later work inserted within 
the huildlng. The chapel of the nunnery is the next in age, and 
although built almost entirely in the Norman style is clearly much 
later than S. Oran's chapel. The cathedral, however, is by far the 
most important huilding on the island, and bears marks of two distinct 
periods^ the tower and nave heing Norman work of the same date as 
the nunnery ; while the work east of the tower, as well as the tran- 
septs, are of a later kind. The carving on the Norman capitals is still 
slmrp, notwithstanding that it is entirely unprotected from the weather ; 
it is of a most grotesque description, and is of great interest to those 
fond of the curious. The altar, which was perfect in 1688, and was 
partly existing in 177^, has now entirely disappeared ; but, according 
to the accounts given of it by early travellers, it appears to have 
been made of white marhle, and was of great size and value. The 
crosses are a great feature in Zona, and hear a considerable resemblance 
to those in Ireland, especially those at Monaster- boice in Co. JiOuth ; 
lona is said at one time to have possessed as many as three hundred, 
bat most of them were destroyed by Puritan zeal, and now only some 
three or four remain. Sepulchral remains cover the i2*land, both in 
the shape of cairns, as well as stone monuments of all kinds ; which 
are accounted for from the fact, that lona from time immemorial has 
been considered sacred ground, so much so that numbers of kings 
both Scotch and Irish, and it is said even Norwegian, have been in- 
terred here, the last of whom is said to have been the famous Macbeth. 
Mr. Lightfoot related some other interesting facts with regard to lona, 
and concluded his paper by regretting the miserable state in which the 
present proprietor leaves the ruins. 

The president thanked the secretary for his interesting paper, afler 
which a conversation took place, when the meeting was adjourned to 
Tuesday, March 15. 


Tarn first meeting of the society for the Lent term was held on Thurs- 
day. February 10th, 1859. 

The Rev. G. Williams. King's College, vice-president, in the chair. 

Messrs. C. P. Pratt, Jesus Cc^ege, — Clowes, Trinity College, 
and T. F. Morton, Trinity College, were elected members of the 


The Rev. W. J. Beaumont, Trinity College, read an able and in- 
terestiDg paper, on ** The Temples of Nubia ;" upon which remarks of 

TOIm XX. » 

130 Cambridge ArchUeciural Society, 

some interest were made by Rev. G. Williams, King's College, and 
Rev. R. G. Peter, Jesus College, especially in reference to the use of 
these temples for purposes of public worship by the Nubian Christians. 

The second meeting for the term was held on February ^th, the 
Rev. O. £. Corrie, D.D., Master of Jesus College, president, in the 

The following gentlemen were elected members of the society: 
Rev. R. Goodwin, Clare College, (Vicar of Hildersham, Cambridge- 
shire,) Mr. H. Fetherston, Emmanuel College, and Mr. C. C. Towns- 
end, Trinity College. 

llie Rev. G. Williams, King's College, laid before the meeting the 
drawings of Mr. Caird's proposed church in Glasgow ; they were the 
exterior and interior perspectives. The church consists of nave, aisles, 
south-west tower, south porch, and presbytery in the place where a 
chancel would stand in an English church, but separated from the 
body of the church by a stone screen, and a curtain the whole height 
of the arch. Height for the clerestory is obtained by a succession 
of gables over the windows : though considered pleasing by most of 
the members, the exterior effect is better than the interior, for these 
gables cut up the woodwork of the roof, the scantlings of which are 
too small for effect, and cau ill afford tampering with. The church 
on the whole reflects great credit on its architect, Mr. Rochead, and is 
an example worthy the attention of Scotch church builders. The 
Rev. G. Williams then read a paper upon " The Vestments belonging 
to King's College at the time of its Foundation ;" during the progress 
of which an interesting discussion was carried on as to the meaning of 
several devices which are recorded to have been worked on these vest- 
ments, such a» '* roses and rotes," " pheasants and ducks," &c. 

Mr. Campion, of Queen's College, made some remarks upon the 
false application of the term super- altar, as used at the present time ; 
showing that the ancient super-altar was a moveable stand, whereon 
the sacred elements could be consecrated in other places than the 
church. He pointed out how careful we ought to be in adapting old 
phraseology to modern use. 

The third meeting for the term was held on Thursday, March 10th, 
the Rev. the president in the chair. 

Messrs. C. G. A. Birch, Trinity Hall, and H. Hanson, Trinity Col- 
lege, were elected members of the society. 

Mr. W. Maples, Clare College, read a paper on the church of SS. 
Mary and Nicholas, Spalding, Lincolnshire, remarkable as having east- 
em aisles to the transepts, and additional aisles to the nave, besides 
the ordinary north and south ones. 

The meeting was then adjourned to Thursday, March 24th. 




At a committee- meeting, held February 1 4, 1 869, the Rev. Lord Alwyne 
Comptou in the chair ; present, Rev. Chancellor Wales, W. Smyth, 
Ssq., Revds. H. J. Bigge. C. L. West, T. James, &c. ; Mr. Rands 
attended with the amended plans for S. Sepulchre's church, and the 
oommittee promised their co-operation when the work was brought 
forward. Also there were exhibited a design for a sundial, in the 
form of a LaUn cross, to be placed in the churchyard of Wicken ; 
drawings, by Lord Alwyne Compton, of tiles from an old caetle in 
the Tyrol, and of others, very rich in colour, from a church in Wilt- 
ikire. The sub-committee to co-operate with sub-committee of Edu- 
CitioQal Society for plan^ for Training School was reappointed, Mr. 
Bigge being added to the number. The following new members 
were then elected : — E. Browning, Esq., architect, Stamford ; David 
Watts Rosbell. Esq.. Biggin Hall, Oundie ; the Rev. T. W. Carr, Lod- 
dington ; and W. R. Roberts, Esq.. Great Easton. 

Aq amended set o^ plans for the rebuilding of Gilmorton church, 
by Mr. W. Smith, a member of the society, were exhibited and dis- 
eossed. Some alterations were suggested in the form of the area 
tad the arrangement of the seats. The plans for the restoration of 
Naseby church and the rebuilding of Hazlebeech church, both by Mr. 
W. Slater, were postponed. The secretary stated that the latter 
chorch particularly demanded the assistance of lovers of good archi- 
tectural design, as the authorities of the parish had undertaken the 
work on their own shoulders rather than allow an incorrect and in- 
convenient arrangement to be carried out by one who would have 
borne all the expense. Such spirited conduct deserved that public sup- 
port it would no doubt meet with. The secretary having stated that a new 
society was about to be formed in London, to be called " The Cottage 
Improvement Society,'* for the purpose of furnishing to its members 
good and cheap plans for labourers' dwellings, it was resolved* to sub- 
icribe to the same. Letters were read from Mr. Beam and Mr. Gue 
respecting the appointment of a joint committee of the society and the 
Agricultural Society of the county, for the purpose of offering a prize 
for the best cottage suited to this district. Opposition having been 
offered in Parliament to the Gothic style for the new Public Offices, 
the secretary was directed to take steps m support of the previous re- 
sdations of the society in favour of that style. It having been stated 
that the society had the opportunity of acquiring an interleaved copy 
of Bridge's Northamptonshire, with notes by the late Mr. Baker, at a 
reasonable price, the secretary was instructed to address a circular to 
members of the society, requesting special donations for the purchase 
of this valuable book. 

The appointment of sub-committees agreed to at the October meeting 
«M amuBged, and the following appointed : — " Church Music." Sir H. 

1<}2 Exeter Diocesan Architectural Society. 

Dryden,Sec.; ''Bells and Belfries," W.Maunsell, Esq., Sec; "Parochial 
and General Antiquities," Rev. A. W. Brown, Sec. ; " Warming and 
Lighting," Rev. H. J. Bigge, Sec; "Labourers' Cottages," Rev. T. 
James, Sec ; •• Pavements, Glass. &c," Lord A. Co'mpton, Sec. The 
secretary stated that he was permitted to say that, provided a suitable 
and permanent museum could be established in the town, Sir Henry 
Dryden was prepared to present his very valuable collection of local 
antiquities, many of which were in the museum of the late Mr. Baker, 
to such a public institution. Thereupon Mr. Chancellor Wales b1«o 
promised to give, in like manner, his collection of minerals, once in 
Mr. Baker's possession, and purchased at his sale by the late Dean of 
Peterborough. The committee expressed a strong opinion that such 
opportunities ought not to be allowed to slip by, and that means sboold 
be taken for bringing these most liberal offers before the town and 
county. The Rev. F. Lawson consulted the committee with reference 
to the shifting of a screen and a new organ for S. Peter's church. 


Thb eighteenth annual meeting of this society was held at the College 
Hall, on lliursday, March 3, 1859, the Venerable Archdeacon Bar- 
tholomew presiding. There was a very good attendance of members, 
and many ladies graced the meeting with their presence. 

The annual report, which was adopted, was read by Lieutenant- 
Colonel Harding, one of the honorary secretaries, and referred with 
satisfaction to the general working of the society, and claimed for it 
on the ground of extensive usefulness increased support. The plant 
of an honorary member, Mr. White, for the restoration and enlarge- 
ment of S. Giles, Sidmouth — a large and most comprehensive work. 
most zealously taken up by the Rev. Hans Hamilton, the rector, and 
a very influential committee — were exa ined. Restorations in variom 
parts of the diocese were recounted : amongst others, Crediton ; the 
chancel of Marwood, (rebuilt,) both under the direction of the society's 
architect, Mr. Hay ward ; Holcombe Rogus, Morthoe, and Combmartin. 

The adaptation of the nave of Exeter cathedral to large afternoon 
Sunday congregations, was alluded to with gratitude to the chapter, 
and the expression of the hope that it was the prelude to permanent 
arrangements which would combine the nave and choir. 

Thanks were awarded to the authors of papers read in the oourae 
of the year ; and to Mr. Stockdale, for the gift of his father*8 MS. 
collection of matter intended to have been worked up into a hiatory' of 
the county. All these documents have been arranged and catalogued 
with much care by Colonel Harding, and are accessible to all members. 

llie treasurer's report was satisfactory, showing the funds of the 
society to be in a solvent state ; and when the arrears of subscriptions 
are paid, a handsome balance will remain in the treasurer's bands* 

Leicestershire Architectural Society, 138 

P. C. Delagarde, Esq., read a very able and interestiDg paper on 
the present state of the High-street, in Exeter, contrasting it with its 
earlier style ; and describing, in graphic language, the degenerate 
taste which characterizes the present buildings. He was followed by 
J. P. St. Aubyn, Esq., who interested the meeting by a well- written 
paper on S. MichaeFs Mount, Cornwall, reviewing that celebrated 
building both in its early and present state. The plans and illustra- 
tions which accompanied the paper added much to its interest, particu- 
larly some well* executed water-colour sketches taken on the spot by 
Mr. Gendall, of Exeter, who kindly lent them for the occasion. 

The following officers were elected : — Patron : the Right Rev. the 
Lord Bishop of Exeter. President : the Right Hon. Sir J. Coleridge. 
Vice-Presidents: Hon. C. Trefusis, M.P.. Rev. Prebendary Wool- 
eombe, T. Newman, Esq., and Yen. Archdeacon Downall. Secreta* 
lies : lieutenant- Colonel Harding, and Rev. J. L. Fulford. Treasurer : 
W. Miles, Esq. Curator : T. O. Norris, Esq. Architect : J. Hay ward, 
£sq. Committee : J. Carew, Esq., W. B. Crabbe, Esq., P. C. Dela- 
garde, Esq.. Rev. H. T. Ellacombe, H. Ford, Esq., Rev. J. B. Hughes, 
H. James. Esq., Rev. W. T. A. Radford, E. Thorold, Esq., Rev. Mar- 
wood Tucker, Rev. C. C. Turner, and Rev. W. Wills. 

Thanks were voted to the chairman for his great kindness and atten- 
UoQ during the year, and the meeting separated. 


Tus Society met on February 28th, 1859, G. H. Nevinson, Esq., in 
tbe chair. 

Mr. Thompson exhibited a MS. on a sheet of parchment, recently 
pvchased at the sale of the effects of the Rev. J. G. Dimock, rector 
tf Uppingham. It appears to be the first skin of " The abstracte or 
Hrefe declaraticm of all and singular Lordshippis, manners, landes, tene- 
iKots, woodes, peraonagis, pencions, and all other possessions as well 
ipritiiall as temporall apperteignyng vnto the late attaynted monastery 
sif Colchester, surveined by Richard Pollerd and Thomas Moyle, esquires, 
gcserall snrveyers of the Kingis landes,*' &c., reference bein^ made to 
t book in which the particulars might be found. The last abbot of the 
"attaynted** monastery of S. John Baptist, at Colchester, was John 
Becfae» " of whom/' says Willis, " I know nothing farther, than that he 
VIS one of the three mitred Partiamentary Abbats (the two others being 
those o€ Olastonbory and Reading,) that had courage enough to main- 
tain lus eooacience. and run the last extremity, being neither to be pre- 
vailed upon by bribary, terror, or any dishonourable motive, to come 
into a surrender or sabscribe the king's supremacy : on which account 
being attainted of high treaspn, he suffered death at Colchester, and 
was hanged then D«ombcr I, 15S9.'* 

134 Leicestershire Archiiectwral Society. 

Mr. North exhibited a hitherto unnoticed local Token, and a small 
leaden Token. 

Mr. Neale read a paper on a likeness of Erasmus of Rotterdam, 
and on the Dunbar medal struck in commemoration of the victory 
gained at that place by Cromwell over the Scottish army commanded 
by General Leslie. 

Mr. Ooddard exhibited a spring padlock, of a globular form, about 
1^ inch in diameter, found at Graddesby. Also a bronze medallion, of 
an equestrian figure of King Charles I., surrounded by a border or 
frvLxne of flowers, &c. 

Mr. Oresley exhibited some specimens of English spurs, of which 
he read a description ; 

No. 1 is denominated a " prick spur," from its having a sharp point 
at the extremity of the neck instead of a rowel. It is of the earliest 
form known ; the arms and neck being straight. The spurs of the 
soldiers represented in the fiayeux Tapestry are of this description, 
and they continued of this form until the time of Henry II. ; but by 
the end of the reign of that King (1189) the depression of the arm, 
occasionally before seen, had become permanently settled. 

No. 2 is a very fine example of a spur of about the time of Richard II. 
The arms of it are strongly curved, and it has a foliated rowel of eight 

No. 3 is probably of the same reign, but later. 

No. 4 is similar in shape to the spurs shown on the brass of Sir 
Symon de Felbrigge (standard-bearer to Richard II.) in Felbrigg 
church, Suffolk (1417). The arms are straight for a little way from 
the neck, and then curve downwards. It has a star-shaped rowel of 
six points. 

No. 5 is a noble and beautiful spur, to which an interesting history 
belongs. Ralph, eldest son and heir of John Shirley, of Staunton 
Harold, was twenty-six years of age and upwards on the 31st of Oc- 
tober, 1487 (^ Hen. VII.) A few months previously we find him, 
with many other retainers of the house of Lancaster, following the 
standard of Henry VII., who had assembled his army at Kenilworth 
Castle, and marched through Coventry and Loughborough to Notting- 
ham, to suppress the insurrection raised by the followers of Lamb^ 
Simnel, headed by the Earl of Lincoln and the Viscount Lovall ; he 
was accordingly present at the battle of Stoke, fought June 16tb, 
1487, and was one of the fifty-two knights dubbed on the field. There 
appears no reason to doubt that the spur now exhibited is one of those 
stated by the writer of Harl. MS. 4928, p. 39. to have been worn by 
Sir Ralph Shirley, at the battle of Stoke, and then (in the time of 
Charles the First) *' conserved by the Shirleys.'* As one of Jack 
Cade's friends might say, — *' the spur is alive at this time to testify to 
the fact." I am enabled to exhibit it by the kindness of Sir Ralph's 
descendant, its present possessor, the Earl Ferrers. The neck of this 
spur, which slightly curves upwards, is about 3^ inches in length. The 
arms, curving downwards, are about 3^ inches. 

No. 6 is the neck of a spur of probably Henry VIII. 's time. 

No. 7 is the neck and mutilated arm of a brass spur of the tiflie of 
CbarleB L 

New Churches. 185 

• Thompson read the second part of his paper on the Jewry 
which he endeavoured to prove that the fragment of masonry 
bj that name waa originally the western entrance of Roman 
r, before the station was enlarged to meet the requirements of 
ihition. At a subsequent date (in the middle or latter part of 
ad century) the space between the western wall and the Soar 
bably covered with buildings, and then the western wall re- 
saving only the portion now remaining, which was incorporated 
rge edifice, of which the foundations have been discovered at 
times. Mr. Thompson entered very fully into his reasons for 
these conclusions. 

i resolved that Mr. Thompson's paper, with two illustrations, 
ed with the report of the society for 1858, and that Mr. 
laper, read at the last General Meeting, also accompany it, if 
I of the society shall be sufficient. 


— , Ilousham, Serayingham, Yorkshire, — ^This new church is 
from the designs of Mr. Street. The plan comprises a chancel 
dund- ended apsidal sanctuary, a vestry on its north-west side, 
rith a nartbex-like porch at die west end, and a tower engaged 
north side of the narthez. This is an admirable and novel 
id admits of great internal comfort in the nave, and of much 
whitectaral combination externally. The arrangement is ex- 
the chancel-levels being well contrived. There is a low screen, 
i-stalls, with subsellse, a pulpit at the north-east of the nave, 
ettem on the opposite side, and the organ under the archway 
; to the vestry. The font is at the extreme west end, on the 
and as you enter by the single west door. The altar stands at 
areme east end of the apse. We should have Uked better to 
een it advanced.. Externally the treatment is very good. The 
rj of white stone is relieved by bands of red. The window- 
r» of geometrical Middle- Pointed design, is good, and the string- 
I — as always in Mr. Street's designs — are well managed. The 
X is roofed with a lean-to, and is sustained by massive columns, 
orizontal architraves. Surely arches would have been better, 
I, or because, less novel. The small engaged tower is square, 
J splayed into an octagonal open lantern, formed of columns, with 
■lidal capping. A circular west window, above the lean-to roof 
ttuthex, is a good feature. Internally the chancel arch, which 
timioas at the impost, is cinq-foliated. The roof is of the circu- 
dk form. The apse- windows are combined by a foliated arcade 
id-ooaldings, sustained on detached shafts ; and a reredos is 
1 eonatmctionally by stilting the middle ones. The apse roof is 
d. The woodwork is simple but good ; and coloured marbles 
lodoced, thoogb sparingly, in the font and pulpit. 


136 New Schools. 

S, Luke, Heywaod, iMncashire. — Mr. Clarke has designed a large 
and important church for this manufacturing town. In order to accom- 
modate the site, he places the tower over the north porch. The plan 
contains a nave of 80 ft. hy 24 ft., with two broad aisles, and a south 
porch in addition to the tower-porch on the north side, and a chancel of 
about 40 ft. by 22 ft. 6 in., with aisles not quite reaching to the east 
end. the eastern half of that on the south side forming a vestry with an 
organ chamber above it. The arrangement is good, but somewhat 
crowded. The chancel has double stalls, and an ample sanctuary. A 
prayer-desk is placed, somewhat needlessly, at the westernmost end of 
the foremost line of stalls on the north side. I'he pulpit adjoins the 
southern jamb of the chancel-arch. The style is Geometrical Middle 
Pointed of an ornate kind. Externally the ample clerestory, high roofs, 
and lofty octagonal spire, arc effective. But we hope the haunchedgablet, 
some of the details of the buttresses, and the exterior of the oigtn- 
chamber, may be reconsidered. The latter, of two stories, might be much 
improved, by any treatment such as a pyramidal roof, which would make 
it more obviously an adjunct to the main design. The tower has 
great merits, but wants a few feet more height to clear the belfry stage 
of the crest of the nave roof. The arcading on its second stage some- 
what recalls an earlier style than the rest of the church. We note with 
pleasure the introduction of some panelled-sculptured heads in the east 
wall, and figures of the Evangelists on the oblique sides of the spire. 
But the latter are not sufficiently niched for their position, hitemally, 
we observe that use will be made of Derbyshire marbles. The reredot 
is an arcade. The chancel-roof is boarded, that of the nave being an 
open one with arched braces and hammer-beams. A church of this 
scale imperatively demands a vaulted roof for its proper effect. The 
chancel-screen, we should have said, is a low one of stone. Ought not 
such a screen to be of one height, rather than, as in this case, being 
stepped on each side to follow the levels of the stalls and subaelln ? 


Leigh, Worcealernhire, — Mr. W. J. Hopkins has designed a pictur- 
esque timber building for these schools. The plan comprises a school- 
room 42 ft. by 18 ft,, with a class-room, porch and cloak-room attached. 
The treatment is excellent ; the framework being visible, ao4 the win- 
dows being foliated between the upright timbers immediately under the 
eaves. The two stone chimneys show character, in spite of their great 
simplicity. At one gable there is a four-sided open bell- turret, capped 
with a quadrilateral pyramidal spirelet. This would have been better, 
perhaps, had it not projected outwards beyond the gable : the qiMsi- 
penthouse so formed below having no use. 

Clay Hill, Enfield, Middleaes, — This structure is designed by Mr. 
St. Aubyn. There is a single schoolroom 28 ft. by 15 ft., with a single 

Church Restorations. 187 

sqparate yards and offices, and a teacher's house attached. 
ifortunately, has only a single bed-chamher. The style is brick, 
in two colours, with wooden monials to the windows, and 
gables to the roof. 


'efer. Isle of Thanet. — ^This curious and interesting church is 
earranged by Mr. Clarke. At present it is in a specially mise- 
mdition, full of pews and galleries and staircases, some of the 
ong cut away bodily and a schoolroom formed out of the west 
tbe south aisle. Mr. Clarke proposes to gut it and fill it with 
a benches ; adding a chancel-arch, and reinstating the missing 
tween the chancel and its north aisle. The plan shows a very 
lanceU with a north aisle, the east end of which is the vestry, a 
^lapel to the chancel, nave and aisles, with a tower at the west 
' the north aisle. Some modern windows of a poor Gothic are 
irily retained. The Romanesque nave will look very well when 
rd and restored. The new chancel-arch is shafted in that elegant 
tional style common in East Kent, and an example of which 
in the easternmost nave respond on the north side in this very 
u We scarcely recommend the floriated chamfer introduced in 
di itself. A new parclose will separate the chancel from its 

Vary, Humtrngfield, Suffolk, — ^This church is being restored and 
bed by Mr. St. Aubyn : who, however, is not responsible for the 
d arrangements, which are of the most singular character. The 
d is of ample size. It is furnished with a long bench and sub- 
Ml each side, intended (we presume) for the use of a lay-impro- 
r. At the north side of the chancel-arch is a pulpit, and a desk 
te : and between them, extending into the nave — after the 
A of a chorus cantorum — are choir seats and subsellae, with metal 
The necessity for such a compromise in a ground plan of this 
cannot be enough regretted. The new seats and wood- work in 
d are good : though we must except the reading-desk, which is 
•sly encumbered with battlements and buttresses ; and it has the 
J oi open metal tracery in front 

)imrtm, Camborne ^ Cornwall, — ^This typal Cornish church, of three 
ll and equal low aisles, is about to be enlarged and rearranged by 
t. Aubyn. Unless he is compelled by the nature of the site, we 
I lisfe counselled an extension of the original church eastward or 
aid rather than the addition of a fourth aisle on the south side. 
nmtiiig this to be the only feasible plan, it has been here well 
1 out. The style is the usual late Third*Pointed of the district, 
bs foor-oentred arches and cradled roof. The roofs are all to be 
id, after the ori^nal fashion. The area is to be properly arranged, 
• ff h^«M^ distinguished ; but we observe the retention of one 
mr. The eastern end of the added aisle forms a vestry, which 

138 Church Restorations. 

has a very good chimney, that partly relieves the extreme monotoDy of 
the exterior. 

S. Matthew, Coates, Gloucestershire, — A little church with chancel, 
nave, south aisle, western tower, south-western porch, and a chapel 
on the north side of the nave. Mr. Norton enlarges this by adding a 
vestry on the north side of the chancel, and he renews the east window 
and chancel- arch, and rearranges the whole interior. The substitution 
of a wider chancel arch for the original Romanesque one is unavoidable. 
We are glad, however, that the old arch is reset in the north chancel 
wall opening into the vestry. By banishing the children to the tower 
much additional accommodation is obtained, though at the cost of their 
convenience. The chancel receives stalls, the westernmost on the 
south side being distinguished as the prayer-desk. There is a high 
chanceUscreen, though without gates ; a lettern stands on the chanceU 
Btep ; and the pulpit adjoins the north jamb of the chancel-arch. The 
new east window is of Flowing Middle-Pointed style. 

S, Martin, Fiddington, Somersetshire. — A very small church, with 
chancel, nave, and west tower. Mr. Norton has in hand its restora* 
tion, which will include the addition of a south porch and of a vestry 
to the north side of the chancel, and the rebuilding of the north wall 
of the nave. In so very small a building — only 43 feet long internally 
-—the making any distinction between the three seats on the south side 
of the chancel, by giving a larger desk to the *' reading-desk " is un- 
necessary. The new north wall is of somewhat better detail than the 
poor Third-Pointed of the original church. 

S. Bodvan, Llanaber, Merionethshire. — This very interesting specimen 
of a Welch First-Pointed church has been carefully restored, under the 
care of Mr. Philip Boyce. The works include a complete rebuilding of 
the west end, which, owing to its exposure to the sea, was in a most 
unsafe condition, and the renewal of many of the windows, besides thf 
re-arrangement of the whole interior. Mr. Boyce has judiciously re- 
produced and copied the stem severity of the original style, and has 
strengthened the west end by three massive buttressnes, which are pedi* 
mental- headed and splayed outwards at the base below the stringcoune* 
from which rise two slender lancets ; the whole west wall is battened 
at its lower part. The west gable terminates in a single beli-cote» of 
unpretending but suitable design. The church is remarkable for a very 
richly moulded south-west door : this is now protected by a new porch. 
This porch has a corbelled arch, which we do not much admire: aadis 
guarded by an iron gate, which is of very commonplace design. The 
clerestory is restored, and a curious double lancet-window, south-east 
of the chancel, has been renewed. The arrangements ar^ good, com- 
prising returned stalls, five on each side, and subsellse : with open seats 
in the nave, and chairs in the aisles. The funds, we are informed, are 
insufficient ; but the cost of so sound a restoration ought surely to be 
provided by some of the many visitors to the adjoining Barmouth, a fa- 
vourite place for university reading-parties. 

. Great S. Mary's, Cambridge, — We learn with satisfactioii that the 
restoration of this church is at last likely to proceed. The cost is esti- 
mated at about £3,000. 



Westminster Abbey, — Messrs. Clayton and Bell have in hand six 
military memorial windows for the north transept. Each window will 
ha?e the figure of a worthy of the Old Testament, with a group below» 
detcribiog some ecene of his life. The sketches exhibit great boldnesa 
and vigour of treatment and colouring : though in the figures of Joshuft 
ind Jonathan the * heater'-shields are almost too prominent. The 
figures are clothed in mail ; the tracery is of early character. 

S. Mary Magdaiene, Muniter Square. — A three-light window, the 
Cttteramoat one in the south aisle, is about to be filled by Messrs. 
Clayton and Bell with a memorial of the late Baron Alderson. The 
subject is the Resurrection. In the middle light our Lord is shown in 
a pointed aureole. His drapery requires reconsideration, we think ; 
ind the two soldiers at the foot would be better away. They recall un- 
pleasantly the mediaeval treatment of a Doctor crushing heretics. In 
the dexter light stand S. Peter and S. John the Evangelist; and in the 
UDister the three Maries. These are excellently designed. The 
colouring shows an excessive predominance of blue. 

S, Michael, Comhill. — The enrichments of this church are pro- 
gressing ; and Messrs. Clayton and Bell have in hand a series of 
windows in rich stained glass. The clerestory receives grisaille, but 
the aisle windows, of two large round-headed lights with a circle above, 
will have groups. We have seen with much pleasure the sketch for 
the " Advent" window. The chief groups are the Nativity and the 
Spiphany. The design is naturalistic, but not more than may be 
necessary for the style. 

Ejeeier College Chapel. — The apse windows are to be filled by Messrs. 
Ch^fton and Bell, with subjects of our Lobd*s Life and their types. 
Thos the Resurrection is paralleled by Joseph^s extraction from the pit. 
The design and grisaille are excellent. 

8. , Haley Hill, Hali/ar. — One of the transept windows — a 

fine eomposition of four lights with tracery — is filled with glass by 
Messrs. Clayton and Bell. The' subject is the Life of S. John the 
Bi^tist, admirably treated. 

8. Mary, Newington. — ^The five apse windows of this new church- 
each of two tiefoiled lights, with a sexfoiled circle in the head — are 
to be €lled with stained glass by Messrs. Clayton and Bell : the gene- 
ral subject will be the Te Deum. The angels* window is very beauti- 
fully treated, each light having two large groups. The grisaille is 
▼ery well managed, and the canopies are made as little obtrusive as 
possible. The circle above will have our Lord's Head in Majesty, 
adored by angels. 

S. John, Brcn u grove, Worcestershire. — Messrs. Clayton and Bell 
hoBfe jast fixed a stained glass window in the east end of the south 
nsle of this ehttrch. The fenestration is late Third- Pointed, of three 
cmqfiiiM ^glifil. Itt the middle one is a seated figure of our Lobd, 

140 Notices and Answers to Correspondents. 

with the legend, •• Come unto Me, all ye that labour/' &c. ; and in 
the side-lights are respectively groups of mothers bringing their chil- 
dren, and the sick brought by their friends. The treatment is new, 
and has great merits. 

Holy Innocents, Highnam, Gloucestershire. — A new east window for 
this church, by the same artists, contains nine groups from our Lord's 

S, Mary, Hemel- Hempstead, — Here Messrs. Clayton and Bell have 
erected a three-light memorial window, with nine groups of our Loan's 
Burial and Resurrection. The Crucifixion is, however, missing. 

S. Leonard, Scorborough, Yorkshire, — Here, in the east window, we 
have, by Messrs. Clayton and Bell, a seated Majesty, adored by che- 
rubim, in the sexfoiled circle in the head : and in the three lights the 
Nativity, Crucifixion, and Resurrection, with three smaller groups of 
the Annunciation, Last Supper, and Entombment. 

To the Editor of the Ecclesiologist, 


Sib, — In your notice of the contemplated restoration of S. James's, 
Bicknor, under the superintendence of my friend, Mr. Bodley, yoa 
state " The chancel is marked by a low open screen, of very unusual 
design ; balustrade shafts, sustaining a rail. For this crotchet the ar- 
chitect is not responsible. We cannot, without regret, chronicle the 
removal of an ancient though exceedingly rude high screen." 

I am too grateful to the Ecclesiological Society for the great amount 
of good which it has effected, to be in any degree callous to its obser- 
vations. As therefore, in this instance, your remarks are likely to im- 
pede the work I have in hand, I must venture to trouble you with an 
explanation. 1. As to ' the high screen :' it is not * ancient.' It is of 
the very worst character, the lower portion being of brick and plaster. 
It is incapable of restoration. It does not stand at the entrance of the 
chancel. 2. As to the proposed screen, it was necessary to have one to 
mark the chancel, there being no chancel-arch. A high screen would 
have been expensive — would not have been consistent with that very 
* skilful treatment* of the tie-beam for which you justly commend Mr. 
Bodley. It would not have compassed an object which I had in view^ 
that the officiatiuff Clergyman should throughout the Service be xntirxlt 
open to the Congregation ; experience having long ago taught me that 
this is the surest, if not the only way, of leading an uneducated con- 
gregation to Kneel, Hiis, then, was my * crotchet,* as you are pleased 
to odl it : and I cannot but think that there is nothing in which Blr« 

Notices and Answers to Correspondents. 141 

Bodlqr has shown more skill, snd taste, and judgment, than in the way 
in which he has met it ; and that his low stone screen* with coloured 
marble shafts will be one of the most beautiful features of the ' restora- 
tion,' and will mark the distinction of nave and chancel better than any 
bigh wooden screen could do, the former being of a more structural, the 
latter of a more/iir9it7acrtf-/tA;5 character. 

Hoping that yon will pardon this communication from one who was 
fighting against ' pews* and ' Church wardenisms' long before the Ec- 
deaiological or Cambridge Camden Society was in being, 

I am, sir. 

Your obliged servant, 
Waltkr Blunt, 
Rector of fiicknor, Kent. 
HolUngboMme Hill, 
March 1. 1859. 

[We fear that we must adhere to our opinion that to insist on the 
officiating clergyman being visible to his feet is ' a crotchet.' And, in 
these days, the fact of a high screen, which is all the more valuable for 
being * not ancient,' is worth perpetuating. — Eo.] 

The New Foreign Office, — It would be superfluous to do more at 
this juncture than simply to record that at the opening of the Session 
of Parliament an unhandsome attempt was made by Mr. Tite, aided by 
Lord Palmerston, to cancel Lord John Manners' selection of Mr. Scott 
for the new Foreign Office. There can be no objection to any gentle- 
men, who have a preference for Classical architecture, doing what they 
hklj can to exclude a Pointed design. But it is discreditable to have 
produced again all the stale arguments about excess of cost and defi- 
ciency of light and air, which were refuted, once and for ever, by Mr. 
Beresford- Hope's Select Committee. However, Mr. Scott defended 
himself ably, and obtained the powerful aid of '* Habitans in sicco ;*' 
and we have a strong persuasion that in spite of all intrigues we shall 
yet see the new Foreign Office built from his designs. 

The following Petition and Memorial are in course of signature. 
Names are received by the Secretaries of the Architectural Society of 
the Archdeaconry of Northampton : — 

"To the Honourable the Commons of the United Kingdom in Parliament as- 


''The Homble Petition of the undertigned, being Members of the Architec- 
tural Societv of the Archdeaconry of Northampton, 
*• Showet'b, 

'• That your Petitioners having understood that the selected design for 
the new Foreign Office has been objected to on the ground of its ' Gothic' 
style, beg your Honourable House not to reject it on that consideration ; but, 
believio|^, as they do, that the Gothic style is more national, snd appropriate 
to the site than anyother, and at least equally convenient and economical, beg 
Hoaomable House to oonfirm the decision in favour of the selected 

'Aidl yoor Psdtioiiera will ever pray» ftc.** 

142 Notices and Answers to Correspondents. 

^ Memorial to the Right Honourable Lord John Manners, First Comndssioner 
qfHer Majestj^s Works and Public Buildings. 

** My Lord, 

*' We, the undersigned, many of whom ere members of the Arcbitee- 
tnnd Society of the Archdeeconry of Northampton, beg to ex|ireBs oar satis- 
faction at the selection of a Gothic design for the new Public Offices ; being 
convinced that b^ a developement on the basis of the old architecture of the 
country there exists the best hope of onr Public Buildings being effectually 
improved in character, and made worthy of our advanced architectural know- 

** We also feel that in the plan of the elected Architect, Mr. G. G. Scott, 
we have every reason to expect a successfiil example of this developement, and 
the production of a building in our own country that may vie with those great 
designs of his abroad, which have already secured him a high European repu- 

'* We trust, therefore, that the recent discussions in which so much misap- 
prehension has been exhibited will not shake your determination to carry out 
the selected design, with such modifications as, on a review of the plan, may 
hfi deemed expedient. 

" March, 1859." 

In the churchyard of Sevenstoke, Worcestershire. Mr. Hopkins has 
placed a coped tomb of ornate design. The cross along the tomb is 
elaborate in form, and richly worked with ball-flower mouldings. At 
the angles are recessed arcuated panels, carved with kneeling angels. 
The only drawback to these seems to be that the angelic figures are 
cramped ungracefully within the curves of the fenestration. An upright 
cross of metal, with four richly floriated stays at right angles, the 
whole supporting a crown of thorns, was designed to atand upon, and 
intersect, the horizontal cross of the tomb. This has not been carried 
out. and we do not know that we regret the loss. We are not certain 
how the two distinct ideas would have succeeded in combination. 

The Arundel Society has undertaken to raise a special fund for the 
purpose of obtaining water-colour copies of the priceless, but perish- 
ing frescoes of the Italian churches. We can imagine few objects 
more important in the interests of Art than this. The scheme has oar 
best wishes : and we invite our readers to aid it by their contributions. 

Mr. F. C. Withers, who has emigrated to the United States, has 
built a very fair church at Newburgh. New York. The building was 
intended for the Presbyterian community, but it is hoped that ere long 
it may pass into other hands. A perspective view which we have seen, 
shows a geometrical Middle- Pointed design, comprising chancel, clere- 
storied nave and aisles, a tower and spire being engaged at the west end 
of the south aisle. The chancel seems too low for the nave : and the 
tower is decidedly too short, the belfry- stage scarcely rising above the 
nava-roof ridge. The broach spire is better. Some unexplained win- 
dows about the west end seem to indicate a gallery. The clerestory is 
a series of foliated circles. 

A person who has long been looldng ont in vain for a copy of the 
" History of Pews," (whiQh is quite out of print) hat begged in* 

Notices end Afuwert to Correspondents. 143 

qmre if any of our readers know of a copy of the Third Edition for 


A tpirited remonstrance, in which we thoroughly concur, has been 
addressed to the Lord Mayor of York, by the Secretary of the Lincoln- 
ihire Architectural Society* against the proposed demoHtion of the York 
Walmgate, one of the most perfect examples of a mediaeval barbican 
thtt has been handed down to us. We rejoice to hear that the Van- 
dalism is averted by a vote of the municipal body. 

A correspondent expresses anxiety to hear the report of the Sion 
College Committee as to the city churches. We hope it may soon be 
forthcoming, and we expect to find that it will be all that we can de- 


An attempt is making, which has our best sympathy, for restoring 
the little church of Bemerton, as a memorial of Oeorge Herbert. Se- 
parate funds are organized for specific gifts : such as, e. g., from chil- 
dren for a font, from clergymen for the altar plate. We should be glad 
to bear that a monumental efiigy of George Herbert were thought of. 

Our contemporary, the BuUder, has engraved the first prize design for 
Mr. Spurgeon's Tabernacle as voted by the competitors, and the one 
which is to be actually carried out. We doubt whether any more 
hideous buildings have ever been imagined than either one or the 
other of these promises to be. Art has never flourished genially 
among Nonconformists ; a fact for which some good reasons might, 
perhaps, be found, but into which we need not enter here. Still we 
were scarcely prepared, after all the parade of a competition, with a 
new scheme of adjudication by the competitors themselves, to expect 
so wretched a result as Mr. £. C. Robins' and Mr. Pocock's de- 
signs. It seems clear that the architects who accepted Mr. Spur- 
geon's invitation must have been, as a rule, among the least emi- 
nent in their profession ; or else that the absurd — but in this instance 
the happy — prohibition of the Pointed style, must have excluded horn 
the competition the best half of the rising " talent" of the day. If it be 
true, as was stated in some of the newspapers, that Mr. Spurgeon jus- 
tified the prohibition of Gothic, on the ground that a style which, by 
its colaosniation. would hinder a preacher from being seen or heard 
by his congregatioD, must of necessity have been invented by the Devil 
as a material obstacle to the flow of Divine grace, we can only say that 
the resnlt, as shown here, seems to demonstrate that that personage has 
a monopoly of good architecture, as well as " good tunes,'* and that 
Mr. Spurgeon might have followed Rowland Hill's example with 
advantage. The designs are to our eyes almost preternaturally bad. 
The conditions that were to be provided for were rather favour- 
able than otherwise. Any one who remembers the Baptisteries of 
Florence and Pisa might well have expected that a central font, and 
a vast auditorium would give scope to some magnificent architectural 
<»i^^m^ mt yiw»«^ e?en ib the style of the Pantheon. The Anabaptists, in 
daltinf one of the aacraments, have a far worthier idea to embody in 

144 Notices and Answers to Correspondents. 

their religious buildings than most sects of Nonconformists ; but the 
opportunity here has been quite thrown away. It were superflu- 
ous to criticise in detail Mr. Robins' design : its portico leading to 
nothing — its frightful pediment — its meaningless symbols — its array of 
Renaissance pots — its hideous fenestration. The idea of it is the 
Surrey Music Hall translated into stone, and with a portico added in- 
congruously at one end. But although Mr. Robins' design was se- 
lected by the competitors themselves, that by Mr. W. W. Pocock has 
been chosen by the committee. Mr. Pocock*8 design is illustrated by 
the Builder of March 26, in a plan and an elevation. A more tame 
or common-place composition than this we have never seen. Here 
there is a low kind of circular dome, rising somehow — for we see 
neither buttresses nor piers — from a parallelogram : and at each comer 
there is a low clumsy tower, with a portico at one end. 

A correspondent having visited Watchfield church — reviewed among 
our New Churches, in April, 1858 — confirms our architectural de- 
scription, but bewails the little use that is made of the building, and 
certain ritual irregularities which he discovered. We feel as strongly 
as ever we did the importance of churches being utilised, as well as 
built or restored. But in the present case, which is, we believe, a 
district chapel, it is most likely that the church can only be served 
occasionally by the clergy of the mother church. It may be wholljr 
impossible to erect Watchfield into a separate parish, with its com- 
plete ecclesiastical staff. 

Messrs. Williams and Norgate have issued the prospectus of a 
work, which will have a deep interest for all lovers of Ancient Christiaa 
Art. It is by M. J. A. Rambouz, Conservator of the Museum at 
Cologne, and is entitled. Illustrations of Ancient Christian Art ts 
Italy; Outline'Tracings of the Principal Frescoes from a.d. 1200 to 
1600; with an explanatory Text by the Author. The work will contain 
three hundred tinted plates, and be comprised in five volumes, answer- 
ing respectively to the following five periods : — I . Anterior to (Hotto ; 
2. Giotto, and his School ; 3. The Siena School, from Ouido da Siena 
to Duccio ; 4. Perugino, and the Umbrian School : and 5. The School 
of Perugino and Raphael. 

A very interesting prospectus has just reached us from a fiiend in 
Oermany. The Abb6 Bock, already most favourably known as a Me- 
diaeval antiquary, is about to publish a copiously illustrated deacript i oii 
of the treasury of the church of our Lady of Aix-la-Chapelle. Every 
one who knows anything of the value of the antiquities there pre- 
served, will look forward with eagerness to the appearance of M. Book'a 
promised work. 

Received :— Rev. W. H. Lyall.— J. R— P.— J. M. W. P. 



** Surge igftar ci fac: et crU 9om(iiii8 ucum." 

No. CXXXIL— JUNE, 1859. 

(new sebies^ no. xcvi.) 



'*Aichitect'8 Forty-second Report rbspbctino the Works at 

Cologne Cathedral. 

"Thi whole of the operations at the cathedral during the second half of the 

pnt year have, in pannance of the plan minutely described and justified in the 

w report bat one, been chiefly confined to the advancement of those parts of 

the building which belong to tne systems of buttresses. Little as the opera- 

tioas on particular parts of the building during the last year may have done 

to strike the eye» they nevertheless required a large expenditure of time and 

Krength on the part of practised hands. If, for instance, we contemplate the 

bold fiifing buttresses at the south transept gable, it will be easily perceived 

that toch complicated systems of construction involve a lengthy and laborious 

preparation oi the stones. The completion of the two upright buttresses in 

that place, eonnected with the terminations of the stair-turrets, demanded, in 

the course of the past year, the energies of all the inmates of a building shed. 

More than a hnndred larger and smaller pinnacles surround and crown the 

priacipal hoik of the abutments, diminishing upwards in separate stages, from 

vhidi the bold, strongly profiled, flying buttresses spring. On account of the 

frost, whieh set in veiy early, even in &e beginning of November, the already- 

wofkad stones conld not all of them be set up for the eastern buttress beside 

the sooth portal. In the course of the spring, therefore, and not sooner, will 

the sooth portal, upon the completion ot the systems of buttresses and the 

resBOfal or the scaffolding, stand forth in finished splendour. The stones for 

the creetioo of the remaining upright buttresses on the south side of the nave 

have been prepared. 

^'Otithe north tide of the cathedral, for the account of the Central Cathedral- 
hmUtmg AssoeiaiUm, the works at the northern transept-gable have not been 
advanced so fiur as those on the south side ; but, on the other hand, the eight 
piers of the fonr systems of buttresses against the nave have been carried up 
to a height of fifty-two feet above the roof of the aisle. The circumstance 
that the details on the north side of the cathedral are less richly developed, 
permitted the works in this part to be advanced more rapidly and at less ex- 
pense. We were consequent^ enabled, not only to purchase a large store of 
•looe ibr the conlinnation of the buttress-system on the north side, but also 
to eonqilet* the pnyvialoD of the scaffolding and transporting trucks that were 
jv WBttng* 

fOJt, XX. ^ 

146 Cologne Cathedral, 

" At the great northern tower the middle buttress on the north side has 
been built up to the height of the capitals of the windows, and the facing 
(brustung) of the window-pier, which was very much damaged, has been re- 
stored at a great expenditure of material. As far as the existing scaffolds 
afforded the means, the restoration of the north-eastern comer buttress of the 
north tower, adjoining the aisle, has likewise been undertaken. When the 
sacristan's house was pulled down in the year 1843, the profiles of the bat- 
tresses were found partly mutilated, partly overlaid with tile-work, and their 
now stand in need of an extensive restoration. The extreme richness of detail 
which marks the huge masses of the western towers, from their plinths upward 
(vom untersten Socket heginnendy) has hitherto allowed only a very moderate 
advance, in these parts of the building, as in others, to become visible during 
each successive year ; besides that the works in these parts are pnrposely 
carried on at a very moderate pace, in order to insure more rapid progress in 
the erection of the systems of buttresses. But we may look forward to the 
completion of the body of the church in a few years; and then, as we shall be 
able to apply all the building funds to the erection of the north tower, its ad- 
vancement will be materially accelerated ; and the eager wish to see, befwe 
long, one at least of the mighty western towers overtopping the vralls of the 
city of Cologne, may then ensure for the cathedral-works an active interest 
and contributions on the part of larger circles. 

" On the eastern side of the great south tower the restoration works have been 
brought nearly to completion. The integration of the defective ommments, 
an operation which has been, in part, very troublesome, while all the existiiig 
stone work has been, as far as possible, retained, affords withal a 4aftim 
towards estimating the cost of restoring all the outer surfaces of the touth 
tower, a process which will be undertaken as to those details which are most 
in danger of perishing, as soon as the body of the church has been comfiletfld. 

** Simultaneously with the provision of the roof and vaulting for the nave 
and transepts, the insertion of the great nave- window in enamelled fjlam 
is also an essential part of the operations for the years next succeeding* The 
cartoons for the upper mosaic lights, having been pirtially drawn at fiill watb, 
we were enabled, in the course of last year, to make a beginning by prepanac 
a specimen window, in order to obtain a criterion for carrying out the xeit of 
the stained-glass works. In connexion with making the approaches to the 
bridge from the city at the foot of the cathedral-choir, we have to look fomifd 
to the erection of a massive lining- wall, faced with free* stone, which muat be 
built within a few years in place of the earthen bank which has hitherto been 
left from motives of economy. The laying out of new streets in the imm^ 
diate neighbourhood of the cathedral, which has been proposed to be done at 
the same time, involves the relinquishment of the ground hitherto used as a 
carpenter's yard for the cathedral ; and the ereat value of the plots of ground, 
not built on, adjacent to the cathedral, will oppose great difficulties to the 
acquisition ojf a carpenter's yard equally well situated. 

" As the present time urges on the completion of the cathedral, internally 
and externally, after a course of years during which the advancement oi the 
building and the collection of funds have kept pace with each other, so also 
we may look forward to the immediate neighbourhood of the cathedral, 
according to the long cherished wishes of all friends and promoters of the 
works, being partially cleared of the unsightly surrounding buildings, through 
the completion of the standing bridge over the Rhine, and of the buildings 
connected with it. In consequence of the serious expenditure which mu^M 
incurred, during the years 1859 — 60, in the erection of the cathedral rocf^Bod 
the construction, in iron, of the central tower, it must be a principal object with tka 
building committee to procure the means for the unabated advancement of the 
stonemasons' work ; because a partial dismissal of the cathedral stonemasonSk 
skilled in their art by long practice, would exercise a lasting detrimental iaflo* 

The letmography of the Chapter -housey Salisbury, 147 

00 the perfonnances of the Cologne buildiDg-shed. The construction of 
N>f must now be taken in hand ; and in order to meet these expenses 
ut detracting from the progress of the stone work, an active sympathy on 
ut of the Cathedral-building Associations is much to be desired. 

Iter soch considerable sums have been devoted to the completion of the 
Jial» through the successful exertions of the associations and the libe- 
of the variout industrial companies, the Central Cathedral-buildine 
iation confidingly request the iron-works of the Rhenish provinces and 
phalia to lend a helping hand to the advancement of the national build- 
y nippl3ring the iron that will be required at as low a price as possible. 
ODstruction of the roof consists throughout of wrought and rolled iron ; 
hit material, which may now be procured at a moderate price, presents 
>?er, according to an accurate estimate, the advantage of a saving in cost 
opared with the scheme of a wooden roof, because the price of the latter 
iiu has risen considerably of late. The greater security, however, offered 
A a construction in iron, renders the use of that urgently necessary, 
iseparably connected with the roof, stands the project, approved by a 
me Cabinet Order of the 4th of April, 1 855, of erecting a central tower 
;tal; its form will be that of a fl^che, 100 feet high above the roof-prin- 
and about 360 feet above the ground, with a diameter of 24 feet. The 
lie construction is reouired in consequence of the slight bearing-power of 
mr great piers at the crossing, which, according to the Report of the 
. Technical Building Deputation, dated 29th June, 1853, was proved to 
uiBcient for the erection of a massive central tower. In like manner 
ite observations made, during the last year, on the displacements that 
)ceiirred to the four great piers of the crossing have shown that to load 
with a massive structure is altogether unallowable. Even if a perma- 
xmdition should be restored through the completion of the vaulting, still 
ut DOt attempt to put a greater load upon them, or we shall not be able 
ure their continuing to stand. At the same time this lighter metallic 
nction is considerably less expensive than one of stone. 
Im Cathedral-building Fund owes to the activitv and aid of the associa- 
md companies who are working for the completion of Cologne Cathedral, 

1 tome spontaneous gifts, the total contribution of 38,700 thalers, for the 
ear. With the addition of the yearly State-contribution of 50,000 thalers, 
f the Cathedral-rerenue and collections, there have been therefore on the 
about 95,000 thalers at disposal forthe purposes of the Cathedral- works 
B. Particular information respecting the application of the money to the 
s parts of the building will be imparted m the next report, after the 
ioo-protocol' is finished. 

"(Signed) Zwirnkk, 

" Cathedral Architect, &c. 
fme, 29th January, 1859." 



By Williau Buborb, Esq. 
(Continued from p, 114.) 

(allowing is a list of this very complete series of sculptures, 
Dg the state of the polychromy, and the extent of their mutila- 
befere the hite restoration. 

148 The Iconography of the Chapter-house, Sdubury. 

Subjects bound Aboades. 

NoBTH Aboadb. Qroundt blue. 


Tracet ^f Colowr, 




1. OoD creates the 
li^ht, ^>parentl7 a 

Chaos, with Ugare of 

a. Creatioii of the 



Almost en- 
tirely destroyed. 


Almost en- 
tirely destroyed. 


Head of 
man j ve»y 
short beaxd; 
hair con- 
fined with 
small cir- 

The wbote 
allUr looks 

NoBTH-wssTSBN Abcade.^ Ground, red. 

I. Creation of the 

8. Creation of the 
sun and moon. 

3. Creation of fishes 
and birds ; the birds 
are on the ri^hthand 
of God azkl the fishes 
on the left. 

4. Creation of 
beasts on the ri^ht 
hand and of Eve 
ftom* Adam's side on 
the lift hand of God. 

5. Goo rests on the 
seventh day. The 
Deity in an aureole,' 
a tree on cither side. 
He is blespiDC the 

The earth on which our 
Lord stands, yellow. 

The sky the ordinary 
light green, shaded with 
liAe; the earth is yellow, 
apparently with white 
high lights and shaded 
with red. 

Traces of light green 
near birds, also near 
fishes ; on the latter the 
green is somewhat dark- 
er ; trunks of trees yel- 

Not many traces of 
colour, but apparently 
the same system. 

Interior of aureole, a 
good decided blue, light 
green on foliage of one 
of the 


Very nearly de- 
stroyed; but the 
po»e of God ex- 


part of the 
is cut into the 
wall with excel- 
lent ellbct* 

The beasts are 
a cow and a 

Cloak of God, 
green; with two 
black lines on 
the border; tu- 
nic light pink, 
with black pow- 

head with 
wimple and 

Male head, 
hair thrown 
back and 
tongue out; 
very good. 

head with 

Male head, 
puffing out 
his right 
cheek; has 
hair covered 
with coif. 

on outer 
mould of the 
arcade, s 
lion ands 

light green; 
pnirito of 
brows nay; 
to mould. 

Hair |ci- 

Hair Tcl- 
low; and 
traces of 
Mack fines 

Hair yel- 
low; cotf^ 

1 The whole of the sculptures of the West and North-west Arcades had been ao destroyea 
that little more remained than the silhouettes of the figures ; they were conseqoentily rewwfcea 

* Adam has now been inserted on the right hand of our Lord. In the pveaent notfoe I 
merely state what was to be seen Iwfbire the restoration. 

* In Bibl. Reg. 9 B. VII. the Deity is represented in an aureole suntnmded hgr An^tif linfM 
instnanentB at music. 

7%e Iconography of the Chester-house, Sali$bwry. 149 


6. OoD shows 
Adam the tanee of 
;ood and eril; be- 
Jtind Adam is Ere; 
and behind bsr an- 
other tree, ptobtMj 
the tree of life. 

Traea qf eoimir. 

'. Adam and Eve 
Mdni^ of the tree of 
life; theSopentand 
Adam on the right of 
the tree, alao a tree 
on the rig^ and left. 

and Ere 

8. Adam 

tbrr percdre 
Dndlty; on tiie 
hand, i.e., 
the door. Goo speaks 
to tbcm from a cloud. 


Qoak of God, light 
freen, lined with light 
pink; between Eve and 
end of panel there are 
traces of bunches of 
leaves mi the groond; 
they have been probably 
gilt; tiiey cover the 
whole ground like apow- 

The trunks of trees are 
yellow ; and the serpent, 
a light green. 

The clouds from which 
Goo is issuing are blue, 
green, and yellow j the 
earth as usual; the nude 
parts are treated with a 
very slight tone of pink 
upon the stone itself. 



The trees grow 
up and cover 
their nakedness. 
Adam and Eve 
are more perfect 
than aiqr figures 
in tlUs arcade. 


Male head, 
drawing up 
his chin with 
an expres- 
sion of dis- 

Traces of 
light flesh- 
colour. lUs 

Male head, 
screwing up 
left cheek. 

Head de- 

Hair as 
usual, traces 
of colour in 
eyeballs, c^;> 

NoBTH AscADB. Ground,blue. 

1. The Expulsion. 

I. Adam working 
with a spade; Eve 



Angel's wings coloured 
pink, with feathers mark- 
ed in black. Angel's gar- 
ments probably white. 
Hie door of Paradise 
painted on the general 
ground : it is a yellow 
colourwith black foliated 
hinges ; the part of the 
doorway through which 
Adam and Eve are pass- 
ing is hollowed out from 
the wall surfl&ce, and fur- 
Uieron toward the east 
there has been a tree 
painted wiUiyellow trunk 
and green branches ¥rith 
black outline. 

Eve's drapery white 
witii blue ornaments ; 
distaff green. Beyond 
Adam is a thick circular 
bush painted, beyond that 
there are traces of an- 

Abel's garment green, 
and the lire red; the two 
upper douds ydlow, the 
lower green. Inside of 
Cain's tunic green ; out- 
side probably white or 
pink; hoee red; la-aces 
of a painted tree between 
this and the last group. 

Very imper- 
fect: figures all 

Adam destroy- 
ed : and Eve 
neu-ly so. Eve 
is only clothed 
firom waist, as 
also Adam; 
there are traces 
of something 
like a distaff. 

The fire has 
descended on 
Cain's offering, 
but has tumnl 
against him and 
bums him. Up- 
per part of both 
figures de- 

head; very 
good: evi- 
dently a fine 



The bands 
which go 
round the 
chin have, I 
think, been 
white; the 
cloth mclos- 
ing the hair, 
green, with 
black net. 
The band 
round the 
also white. 

,«^ leaves in the present as wdl as in several other instances to be 
■ -- of pointed quatrdbils, with which the ground was covered, and in 
aiceaidingly diapered the whole of the backgrounds in this manner. 

are mi entirely dUtorent allUr. 

Male head; 

Male head, 
perhaps a 
making gnri- 
maces ; no 

All the 
fhces are 
painted alike 
with yellow 
hair, and 
grevor black 
and pupils. 

150 The Iconography of the Chapter-house, Salisbyry. 


4. Murder of Abel. 1 

5. OoD sentences 
Cain. Abel*8 blood 
crying from the 
earth is represented 
by Abel buried in it 
up to his arm-pits 

6. God commands 
Noah to build the 
Ark ; he is at work 
with an anger. 

7. Noah enters the 
Ark at one end ; and 
at the other he re- 
ceives the dove with 
olive branch ; the 
raven is feedhig on 
the dead bodies. The 
upper part of the Ark 
is tenanted with birds 
and the lower witii 
beasts. Thelstbeast 
is like a giraflb or 
camel; the Snd a 
heifer j the 3rd an 
ibex; and the 4th a 

8. Noah prunes his 
vineyard; the vines 
are trained on a 
trellis in the Italian 

Traeet qf Cohmr. 

The upper range of 
douds are yellow; the 
next green; and the 
third light-red, almost 
piidc. A^l's dress green; 
and traces of red on his 
hose. Cain has a light- 
red g^arment ; a red coun- 
tryman's hat and yellow 
hair ; traces of a painted 
tree between this and the 
last group. Sundry lines 
below the clouds may be 
trees or forks of fire. 

God has red outer gar- 
ments, and a pink under 
dress. Abel a green dress. 
Cidn has a brownish red 
lining to upper garment ; 
and his lower one is 
green. The hair of figures 
» yellow ; and Cain*s hat 
red. A {Minted tree be- 
tween this sculpture and 
the last group, coloured 
as usual. Tiie nimbus 
of God was painted. 

Blue ground. Noah 
has a green dress, red 
hose, and black shoes. 
God has a flesh-coloured 
mantle. The Ark has 
been yellow ; and there 
appears to have been an 
interior of ditto. This is 
shown on the wall in a 
reddish chocolate colour 
with black lines. The 
Ark has the figurehead 
of a dog. 

Ground, blue ; sea, 
green with touches of 
yellow; body of Ark yel- 
low; roof green. The 
interior where the ani- 
mals are is black ; inside 
red. Noah in both cases 
has a green dress, red 
cap, and red bote. 

Noah has a red ci^ and 
dress, and black boots. 
Stalks of vine yellow; 
leaves green, and grapes 
red ; background blue. 


The upper part 
of Abel destroy, 
ed; also tiie legs, 
Cain. A hand 
comesout of the 
clouds and ttiere 
is a large tree be- 
hind Cain, which 
is coloured in 
the usual way.' 

wise perfect. 

In pretty good 
condition ; but 
the heads and 
arms mutilated. 

Very perfect. 
Dove broken, 
and parts of dead 
bodies. Noah's 
head quite per- 

Noah's face is 

Head of 
rustic, with 
country cap; 
no beard. 

Head of 
youth, with 
hair flowing 
back ; he is 
putting out 
his tongue. 
Very good 

Male head 
with short 
beard and 

Male head 
with pro- 
jecting chin ; 
marks of 

Head of a 
nun. In the 
capital be- 
low there is 
(1) a mon- 
key, and (S) 

an mi<ni»J 


The cap i« 
black ; but I 
think it 

Cap. red. 

band, yel- 

Hood, red- 
dish black; 
also dress; 
bands rottDd 
the neck snd 

1 In 9 B. VII. Cain slays his brother with a Jawbone of some animal. 
t The hand issuing firom the clouds which in No. 1 is extended, here appeura, flraai wfa«t rt- 
mains, to be doubled up, as if in the act of threatening : there is no nimbus in eitlier oaae. 

> It mav probably represent the half-buried body of Ab^ InSB.VII. awfaoteooanpaitineal 
is devoted to the sul^ect of Cain buying Abd. 
* The Ark is a boat supporting a structure with two tiers of circular ardies and an ImW- 
cated roof. There is a door-way at either end *, one ot\;heia\Aa & dooic with floriated Ungcs. 

7%« Iconography of the Chapter-house, Saliibury, 151 

NoBTH-EABT Aboade. Tht ground qfthia Arcade U red. 


I. The drunken- 
ness of aVoah. 

2. The bmildin^ of 
the Tower of Babel. 
Tbe tower oonsisto 
^ three stages : the 
npper one is un- 
fiaisbed. One mason 
hokb a plnmb-bob ; 
■inther carriea stone 
ot) his head ; and a 
third receiTes it; an- 
other is bewing atone 
*Hh an axe ; and 
ft flfth la carryinj^ 
(oiDething on his 
iind: these two lat- 
ter hare quite dia- 
*Ppeared. An in- 
ctSned piane with 
liieces acrooa ia used 

9. Alvaham im- 
fktns the three An. 
Ids to stop with him . 
He is on one Icnee, 
tad the Angels are 
(D albs with amice. 

4. Abraham waits 
OB the Angela at ta- 
ble; Sarah laogfaa 
from behind the door 
of tbe boose. One 
Angel has orertum- 
cd his cap, and talks 
with his companion : 
tke first one talks 
with Abraham; he 
has hia band cm a 

Traces of Colour. 

S. Destruction of 
Sodom and G<nnor- 

pdl melllhlling upon 
two peofde, one of 
whom is half burled 
in tibe ground. 

6. Lotdowtsflrom 
Sodom wta his two 
dtughUn. HiswifiD 
ii tamed into a polar 

Ham*8 c»p is jellow; 
outer garment green ; 
the iuner^probaUy white ; 
shoes black. The next 
brother has a blue cloak 
and flesh-coloured tunic. 
The 3rd, i.e., the one over 
Noahy a blue tunic and 
red cap. Noah, a green 
tonic ; the shoes of all 
the figures are black. 

The tower is coloured 
ydlow; with the stones 
marked in white lines. 
At all events the upper 
story was ao. Cavetto 
mould green. Inride of 
embrasures on upper 
story as well as sides of 
stones of unfinished work 
red. The mascm with 
square, has a green tunic, 
allso the one who carries 
the stone ; the one re- 
ceiving it a light pink 
tunic with red diaper. 

Tunic of Abraham, 
green; the cloak, flesh 
coloured, ist Angel has 
probably had a white 
tunic with red diaper: 
snd, flesh colour; and 
3rd, green; traces of blue 
onthe wixigs. 

Abraham, a green tu- 
nic, red cap, and white 
niykin; the roof of the 
house is green. Sam^ 
a light pink garment, 
ist Angel, blue tunic and 
green wings ; Snd Angel, 
green tunic; and 3rd, 
white, or light red. Ta- 
hie, green; and doth, 

RooCIa of the buildings 
and tbe cavetto, green ; 
very slight marin of 
green on some of the 
buildings, especially in 
the longtriplet of one of 
them, llie figures, both 
green dresses. 

Pillar of ault, white. 
lat daogliter, green tu- 
nie and white veil ; Snd 
daughter, donbtftad— per- 
li^^ yellow, or white. 
Lot's mress is green, with 
ft red cap. 


Head of Ham 
perfect ; the 
heads of the 
other two bro- 
thers and of 
Noah broken ; 
also sundry of 
the arms. 

Two of the 
heads pretty 
good ; the others 
broken away ; 
and two of the 
workmen en- 
tirely disap- 

head and hands 
gone; the hands 
of Angels are 
mutilated, as 
also their faces : 
otherwise quite 

Very perfect: 
AbrahJim's hand 
gone, also those 
of the two An- 
gels. The faces 
of Abraham and 
of the Angel 
with whom he Is 
conversing are 
mutilated ; the 
other two per- 

Quite perfect, 
except the noses 
of the figures. 


Very perfect, 
except Lot*s face 
and right hand, 
and Sml daugh- 
ter's two hands. 


Male head, 
bald; very 
short curly 
beard. This 
is very per- 

A queen 
with crown. 

head, with 
short, curly 

Male head, 
with short 
beard, and 
coif tied 
under his 
chin. The 
stone is 
much de- 

Male head, 
short beard 
and close 
fitting cap. 
Very good. 


The coif 
may have 
been white, 
or blaclc. 

The cap 
may have 
been white, 
or black. 

t The incttncd pUmes are still used in Constanttnople instead of ladden. 

152 Tke Iconography of the Chapter^house^ Salisbury. 


7' Abraham lead- 
ing the ass, which Is 
loaded with wood. 
Isaac is on its back. 

8. Abraham about 
to slay his Bon, an 
Angel and a ram. 

Trace» of Colour. 

The ass is yellow, the 
tonic of Isaac blue, and 
Abraham's green. 

The Angel had proba- 
bly a green dress ; Abra- 
hiun a green cloak, a 
blue under- gannent, and 
black shoes. 


head and arms 
gone} also 
Isaac's flice: 
otherwise quite 

Very imper- 
flBct ; the only 
perfect part is 
the lower part of 

head. Very 
good in- 

head, with 
long flowing 


East Aboade. The ground qfthii arcade ie blue. 

1. Blessing of Ja- 
cob ; Rebecca is list- 
ening at the door. 

S. Blessing of Esau 
—he is tnmmg away 
his head, and holding 
his dish with food 
untouched. There is 
no Rebecca here. 

3. Rebecca sends 
Jacob to Padan- 

4. Jacob takes the 
top off tiie well, to 
giye water to Ra- 
diel's cattle. She 
pohxts to the house. 
One beast is a camel : 
there are also two 
oxen and an ass 
whidi Rachel holds 
by a bridle. The 
camel has two yery 
small humps, and he 
is no larger than the 
other annuals. 

6. Rachel brings 
Jacob to her fliikther. 

Cavetto and bead of 
building above the door, 
green. Rebe<xa's tunic 
green, and doak red. 
Jacob's tunic white, or 
light yellow, ¥rith blue 
duper. Counterpane, 
green. Traces of blue 
on the tunic of Isaac ) 
and the dxtaperj at the 
head of the bed red. 

Esau, green tunic ; 
counterpane, yellow ; 
and the drapery at the 
head of the bed, red. 
The trefoiled head of the 
door, green ; the interior 
jamb of ditto, dark red. 
The tunic of Isaac, light 
red; pillow, green. 

The house coloured as 
usuaL Rebecca, a green 
tunic. Jacob's tunic has 
probaMr been red; it is 
now light red : the sack, 
yellow, and the tree as 
usual. There are traces 
of green and red between 
this and the last group. 

Jacob has a red tunic, 
green wallet, and belt ; 
and Rachel, a green 
dress. Tlie house has a 
green cupola, with, I 
think, black marks for 
tiles. The ass is yellow, 
and the bridle blue. Ra- 
cbsi has flowing hair. 

Rachel has had, I 
think, a white dress. 
Jacob's tunic, red, with 
green hose and green 
wallet. Laban, green 
tunic, with red hose. 
Hie house contains no 
trace of colour. Behind 
Rachel the background 
has certainly been pow- 
dered with leftvee. 

Rebecca's left 
arm perfect; all 
the heads and 
other arms brok- 
en: otherwise 

Heads and 
arms of both 
figures broken : 
otherwise per- 

Both heads 
gone, as well as 
Jacob's right 
hand: otherwise 

Both heads 
broken, and one 
of Rachel's 
arms; also the 
camel's head : 
otherwise the 
compartment is 
perfect. The 
figure of Jacob 
isTcry good. 

AU three of 
the beads gone, 
and Jacob and 
Laban's hands 
and arms: other- 
wise perfect. 


Male, with 
hood, short 
beard, and 
Very good 

Male head, 
with circlet 
round fiow- 

three faces, 

male head, 
hair, no 



J%e leonojfrtgtit/ of the Chapler-ktmte, SaUtbtay. 158 







pofcrt." "" 





ni> tKMltod 

•booldcn or 
both flmn 



wUtc dmci the nut, 

Head of a 

prlBrt, Willi 

SonrH-uiT i&aciSB. ArtdgnrndUlMimvodt. 

■ la 1 B. Vlt_ a«t te ate k lidT hMbI t7 tta ■"■ ■>"*<»»• 

■ ■ B. ¥11. ta* alB Mi adiKt AtUM bita UirM pDap* : In the 

*~1l J li Ihi ■pimil. Ill J " "" ^•" Dffu coattudbi 

•i ■«, htf Mt wMK hk knd domirBdi. 

the third, vat Un In 

154 The Iconography of the Chapter-houie, Salitbury. 


A. This is in two 
groaps :— ist, the se- 
neschal is Wf\nfs the 
price ; 2nd, the sene. 
schal on horsebaek, 
with Joseph behind 
him.i This latter is 
the suhject of our 

5. The brothers 
bring back the coat : 
two houses are re- 
presented here. A 
woman is behind Ja- 

6. Pharaoh seated, 
gives a stick into Jo- 
seph*s hand ; Joseph 
clasps the Kbig's 
right hand with his 
own. Behind him is 
the seneschal,* who 
has the same hood 
as In No. 4» but 
thrown back. 

7. Temptation of 
Joseph : Pharaoh's 
wife holds the conn- 
terpane of the bed ; 
Joseph turns his back 
on her, she catches 
hold of his mantle.3 

8. Joseph accused : 
a seatedf figure ctf 
Pharaoh, with one 
leg orer the other; 
the Queen with her 
knees bent, and Jo- 
seph t urning a way 
wnh outstretched 


ist flgoie (seneschal), 
yelloiw tonic, lined with 
green, light red hosen. 
2nd, brotiier, light Ver- 
million dress, lined with 
green ; black hose. 2nd 
seneschal in green tunic 
and hood. Joseph, white. 
Arson of saddle painted 
Mack ; horse, teown— 
traees of blue on it, pro- 
bably the shading for a 
white horse. 

ist house, green, and 
bead black, walls white, 
scored with dark black 
lines, shaded green at 
bottom and vellow at 
top. The roor has been 
white, shaded with blue i 
dormer gable, black. 2nd 
house, mould of arch, 
green; soffit and inside 
of house, black ; cavetto, 
green ; and inside of em- 
brasures, red. Jacob, 
blue tunic ; chair at back, 
yeUow, with half-inch 
green border. Leah, 
white dress, with two 
black lines round the 
neck ; band of head-dress 
going round the chin, 
blue. 1st brother, i.e., 
dexter, green tunic ; 2nd, 
yellow, or light red dress, 
very doubtftil ; 3rd, also 
doubtfol, perhaps green : 
the two first have black 

Merchant, graen tunic 
and hood, andblack hose. 
Joseph's tonic, yellow; 
Pharaoh's, blue ; drapeiy 
of seat, white; seat, 
green; drclet ot Pha- 
raoh's head, vellow, with 
pattern in red ; the castle 
as usual } cavetto, green i 
walls, shaded green be- 
low, yellow above, and 
white in the middle. 

Josefrii, blue tunic, 
green mantle, and Made 
hose. The la^y has per- 
haps a white tunic. The 
counterpane appears to 
have been originally 
green, and then re-paint- 
ed with blue and white. 

A blue garment and 
yellow cloak. Queen, 
white tunic, with red- 
dish brown lozenge- 
shape diaper ; cloak, 
green, with similar dia- 
per. Joseph, a green 


All the heads 
are gone, besides 
other mutila- 

All the heads 
are gone, except 
Leah's, which is 
defaced; a good 
many hands and 
legs off. 

Male head, 
short beani, 
a bandage 
foond fore- 
head tied 
on left side. 
I suspect 
this head Is 
meant for 


the bandi 
has been 
white; th 
blue on tl 

Pharaoh's arm 
and aU the heads 
broken: other- 
wise perfect. 

A good deal 
motilatedi the 
breast of the 
ladv, both heads, 
and one of Jo- 
seph's arms 

All the heads 
and nearly all 
the arms de- 

Male head, 
short beard, 
curly hair, 
and cap. 




»> M 

1 fl B. VII. " IcU est Joseph voida a senesdial de 
Em€ amene JoMph ao roy de Bgypte." 
' 2B. ViL " /(^ est Joseph p te aeui e an Hov de Bcyv^e per soon 
^ 2B, Vn. " Id U Rajne reqoeit Joseph eibe Mwa an^." 


7k lamojfr^pkj/ of the Ckapter-kome, Salkbury. 155 

South Abcade. Qrommd, Hue. 

e if less oolour on this than on any of the others. The reason is, that the 
J hare been easit^ and tliat ficom some reason they are much damper. 


cpli is put 
■on; be has 
tk his Isgsj 
e the butter 

lis is two 
— 1st, the 
hanff; his 
n tied be- 
I; loandbis 
i a pair ci 

t top orer 
shis pane; 
iB is his peel 
with a losf 
sods^ orer 
I. tod, the 
n his knees 


■acdi in the 

asleep; on 

(dexter) the 

DOd and se- 

(of com; 


Idne estinir 


andlnic lifts 
hands— pro- 
baraoh con- 
d the butler 

*wro eroops 
lst ,Joae phis 
d from pri- 
li the cnp- 
Bfls up bis 
i. And, Jo- 
leeis before 
, who pre- 
D witharod 

IVaess V^ Coloitr. 

Prison as usual. Isus- 
pect the head below has 
been rilt ; the keeper has, 
I think, had a wUte ta- 
nic, with black lines 
roand neek; Joseph, a 
green tonicr-^ds hands 
are rlssped. The inte- 
rior of the prison is rsd : 
no colour reaalns on 
other figures. 

I can detect no colour 
on this group, either on 
culprit or exectttianer. 

Butler, a green dress ; 
Pharaoh's, gold or yel- 
low; drapery of throne, 

Counterpane of Pha- 
raoh, red, lined with 
green, the tunic probably 
yellow; the spaces be- 
tween cattle, black or 

ist figure (dexter) white 
or yellow tunic ; tnd,red 
or yellow; ditto green 
hose and black uoes; 
Srd, green tunic. 

1st, the prison as usual, 
chamller of arch, green ; 
Interior, red. Joseph, a 
green tunic ; the cup- 
bearer, probably white, 
lined wHn green, and red 
hose. Snd, Joseph, green 
tunic ; Phsraoh, red or 
veUow dress and green 
hose. Panels of chair, 
green, with red borders. 
Tlie ground of srcadc 
between Joseph and Pha- 
raoh becoaies green ; the 
inside of niaraoh*s cloak 
k ptfoted white on the 

All the heads 
are broken, be- 
sides other da- 

Heads and srms 
of these sutijects 
all more or less 
destroyed and 
wise very per- 

Quite perfect. 

Heads; breast 
of lstfigve,and 
most of arms de- 

The heads are 
all mutilated ; 
but that of Pha- 
raoh is the most 
perfect; several 
of the arms are 
also gone. 

head, with 
hair, in a 
doth, which 
has the ends 
over cm top. 

Male head, 
with a short 


head, long 
hair, no 
beard, and 
laughing ex- 

head, with 
long curiy 
hair, and 
crown of 

Msle head, 
bald, long 
hair, and 

166 I%e Iconography of the Chi^ter-houte, SalMwy. 


8. Joseph 
with Bceptare in hand, 
presiding oyer the 
threehinir of the 
corn: one man la 
threshing the com, 
and the other throws 
straw into the mie.i 

7. Here are two 
groups: istftbebro- 
Uiers bring an ass 
with a sack on its 
back } one is holding 
open another sack, 
into which com is 
being poured. Snd, 
one of them is on his 
knees before a seated 
flgore of Joseph. 

8. Two gronps : — 
ist, the presentation 
of Bex^amin to Jo- 
seph; Snd,thecapis 
pat into his sack. 

Traett 0/ Coiowr, 

The Nile, green; the 
labourer has a green tu- 
nic ; and the thresher, 
white: Joseph's venr 
doubtful: lash of flail, 
red or gold. 

The Ass has been yel- 
low; the Snd figure op- 
posite sack, green tunic, 
as also the one holding 
sack ; the hosen are 
black ; the kneeling bro- 
ther has a green tunic ; 
—as to Joseph, it is im- 
possible to say. 

Inride of Joseph's robe, 
green; Bei^amm's tunic, 
green; figure putting cup 
mto sack, greeu) cup, 


ed; right hand of 
Joseph, and ob- 
ject at head of 
Nile destroyed — 
otherwise, pre^ 

All the heads 
except one are 
gone, ottierwise 
it is tolerably 
perfect ; Joseph's 
hand destroyed } 
and kneeling fi- 
gure's arms. 

Tluree of heads 
gone : otherwise 
pretty perfect. 

head, long 
hair, ending 
in cttris; 
fillet round 

head, with 
hood, partly 

with coif; 
a slit in the 
right side of 
ditto ; hair 
fiowing out. 

C e l ST. 



of pupllf 
light taiw 


This should be red ground, but it has nearly disappeared, if not quite. 

1. The cup found 
in Bei\j8xnin*8 sack; 
Joseph is seated. 

8. Two groups :— 
Ist, four or brethren 
on their knees before 
Joseph, who is seat- 
ed as usual; and, 
Joseph is fUling on 
Benjamin's neck. 

N.B. he has more 
the look of strangling 

3. Jacob and his 
ftimily, including his 
wife, going into E- 
gyptonfoot; Judah 
sent on before.* 

Ist figure (dexter) green 
tunic, with red dii4>er. 
and, red or gold tunic, 
(BeuJamin's.) 3rd, (a 
Serrant,) white tunic ; 
Joseph has blue tunic, 
with red inside ; a green 
splay to seat. 

1st brother (dexter), 
green tunic, tnd and 
srd doubtftal ; Joseph, 
blue tunic ; a gold staff, 
and green seat, with gold 
cavetto. and group, 
Beujamin, gold or red 
dress, and black hosen. 
Joseph, doubtful. 

1st figure, green tunic, 
and, green cap; tunic, 
doubtrol ; black hose ; 
the Lady has a wimple : 
I think she has had a 
green cloak. 4th, green 
cap ) tunic, doubtftil. 
5th, Jacob, doubtftd ; 
Judah hasa green tunic ; 
there are marics of leaves 
on the ground biqrond} 
as in other panels. 

Heads of Jo- 
seph and servant 
gone: otherwise 
quite perfect. 

All the heads, 
anda great ma- 
ny of the 

This is a veiry 
good group; on- 
ly 4th figure's 
head is pofect; 
one of Jacob's 
hands, and one 
of lady's muti- 

Male head 
of a beard- 
less priest. 

Male head, 
bald, with a 
▼eiy short 

Line of ly 
Uds marin 
with a re 
dish bm 

Male head, 
ayenr short 
beard, and 
coarse hair 
coming orer 

1 fl B. VII. Joseph communicates the intelligence that there is com In Egypt by tttrouli 
straw «qxm the river, whidi la thus c on veye d to the flUher, " com U est en soun dbastd." 

*2B, VII. AkklyisalBorepicse&tedlnthissnftdect: '* IcQ est Jacob e sa HBmme 
JSlTpAv « .KoMlpb lor lltz/' 

lemogr&pk^ cf the Chapier-hmue, Salisbury. 1 57 




i it 












3VaMi ^ CpIomt. 

1st flginnet doabtftil ; 
Snd, green tunic; 3rd, 
doabtfbl i 4th, green ta- 
nic} all the i«rt,doabC- 
fU. Of the upper heads 
of an, let has green cap. 
and tnd the same, srd 

cf central 

cf blue <m tunic 

No i4»parent colour. 

No I4»parent colour. 

No colour. Green 
with damp. 


This is in bad 
condition, from 
green streaks of 
rain; and it has 
been cast. This 
i^yplies to the 
whole (tf the two 
last arcades.— 
Faces are an mu- 
tilated: other- 
wise it istdera- 

All the heads 
and arms de- 
stroyed or mu- 
tilated. Stone 
generally in bad 
state, from the 

Upper part of 
Moses destroyed 
—and the whole 
of the flgrure of 

Good spirited 
group: heads de- 
stroyed or muti- 

Heads of men 
and horses, mu- 
tilated : other- 
wise perfect. 


Male head, 
and curiy 
hair, beard, 
and a fillet 
round head. 

IktflMe, and 
short curiy 
hair, no 

Male head, 
along beard, 
and a cap. 

Male head, 
a quantity of 
bushy hair 
turned back, 
no beard. 


with unbut- 
toned hood, 


This is a 
good head. 

South ov West Dooswat. Grtmnif, BAte. 



Moaes, ydlow tunic. ' 

1st figure, gireen. 

Both of these 
groups were en- 
ttarely destroyed. 

head, with 
the hair in 
cloth, and 
a drdet 

head, flow- 
inff hair, and 
circlet. A- 
bove, some- 
thing crimp- 
. ed, corerinc 

I I top of head. 

...^ l ea to i t d as the brethren implorinf: Joseph not to take yengcance on 
dwth ( but In that case there would oe onfy eleven male fifures, not 

haa a Wm-thMped sbield. 

158 The leonogropky of the C/ugi^er-howe, SaHtbury, 

It will be seen that several of the groups in the history of Joseph 
exhibit a very considerable deviation from the Scripture narrative ; and 
ns it happened to fall to my lot to give directions to Mr. Philip, the sculp- 
tor, respecting the restoration of this portion of the work, I was at 
first very considerably puzzled ; but remembering how Henry III. 
directed his book of the Gestes of the kings of Antioch to be famished 
to the artists employed on his chamber in the Tower for the purpose 
of guiding them in their work, it struck me that probably the same 
system had been carried out in the present instance, and that some 
contemporary illuminated MSS. might throw a little light upon the 
subject. Accordingly I went to the British Museum and examined 
Cotton. 2 B vii., commonly known as Queen Mary's Psalter. In the 
wonderful set of drawings it contains of the Bible History, I found the 
same variations regarding the story of Joseph, as in the sculptures at 
Salisbury. One group indeed, the Seneschal of the King of Egypt, with 
Joseph seated behind him, is identical both in the MS.^ and in the sculp- 
ture. It should also be observed that the MS. is English art,and not many 
years later in date than the Salisbury sculptures. But how to explain 
variations from the Scripture, such as these ? Joseph is sold to the 
Seneschal of the King of Egypt, not to the Ishmaelites ; the Senes- 
chal presents him to Pharaoh ; he is tempted by Pharaoh's Queen, 
not by Potiphar's wife ; and he lets his family know there is com in 
Egypt by throwing straw on the Nile, which flows past the castle of 
his father. &c. It would be a curious fact to ascertain the origin of all 
these variations; I have searched in vain in the Apocryphal work of 
the second century, called the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs,' 
which Matthew Paris tells us was translated in his time by Robert 
Grosseteste, Bishop of Lincoln.' There indeed Joseph does enter very 
largely into the details of this portion of his life for the purpose of 
exhorting his hearers to the practice of chastity and fraternal love ; bnt 
he is sold to the Ishmaelites who, after leaving him in charge of a mer- 
chant, eventually resell him to Potiphar. while it is Potiphar's wife 
Memphitica, not the Queen of Egypt, who persecutes him with her 
solicitations during seven long years, who mixes love potions in bii 
food, who offers even to break her idols, and finally threatens to 
kill herself. There is, likewise, no mention of throwing the straw on 
the river. Fabricius also gives another apocryphal narrative, which 
relates the manner in which Joseph during the first year of plenty 
married the beautiful Aseneth, daughter of Potipher,^ the priest of the 
sun. The story, which reads very like the legend of S. Barbara, ex- 
cept that everybody is made happy at the end, gives us most minute 

* Mr. Westlake is now publishing fac similes of this MS. Unfortimately the 
work is in lithography, and as but few copies (150) are being printed, and the 
stone nibbed down afterwards, the work is likely soon to be very scarce. The MS. 
was most useful in supplying any defoodve portions of the sculptures, particolaily 
in the costume. 

3 See Fabricius, Pseudo-Graphia Veteris Testamenti. 8vo. Ham. 1713-1723. voLii. 

' See Matthew Paris, sub anno 1252. Master John, of Basingstoke, archdeaooa 
of Leicester, heard of the work while at Athens, and upon his informatioa 
Grosseteste sent for it and made the translation. 

^ It b a disputed point as to whether this was Joseph's old master^ or a toteflf 
different person. 

The Iconography of the Chapter-house, Salisbury. 161 

etaOs concerning the lady and the wondrous tower in which she had 
ved all her life, but contains nothing relating to the points under 

I next tried the Speculum Historiale of Vincent de Beauvais, who 
t>te at the time Salisbury was in progress of construction, but he 
ts the matter very short, by referring us to the Scripture narrative for 
the particulars beyond the bare outline of the facts, and devotes one 
two chapters to the story of Aseneth. 

My own suspicion concerning these variations is that they must be 
igfat for in some contemporary author who made the story of Joseph 
a sort of romance, adapting and altering the incidents to the 
oners of his time ; and we should also remember that Froissart is 
re than suspected of embellbhing his history in a similar manner. 

The Poltchbomt. 

Two systems of Polychromy obtained during the middle ages ; viz. 
where the whole building was elaborately coloured. This was used 
ly for small buildings. 2. Where the roof and walls were sparingly 
corated ; the principal amount of colour being retained in the arcade 
Qning round the edifice. 

S. Stephen's chapel, Westminster, (now destroyed) ; the Sainte 
lapelle, at Paris, and the church at Assisi, in Italy, are examples of 
e former, while the Chapter House, at Ely, (commonly called the 
dj Chapel,) and that at Salisbury, among many others, illustrate the 

The colour began with the tile pavement, which was divided from 
) walls by the white colour of the stone benches. Then came the 
ade richly coloured, the Purbeck columns dividing a series of 
tains painted upon the walls. The colours of these last are very 
tbtful ; but the most probable supposition, and that most borne 
; by existing remains, would be to suppose them to have been 
k, diapered, edged with yellow, and lined with green. The caps of 
imns are gold, pricked out with colour. The abaci are in Pur- 
k marble. The colours of the mouldings of the arcades are counter- 
nged in each bay.^ The principal ones were powdered with various 
terns, such as lions, fleur-de-lys, the heraldic cinqfoil, &c. The 
» within the arches had the name of the prebend inscribed in a 
are frame within a circle, while the spandnls were filled in with 
poly chromed sculptures above-mentioned. It will be perceived 
; the greatest amount of colour is in the arcade ; from this it is 
led up to the groining by means of (I) the coloured parts of the 
■ille glass ; (2) the Purbeck shafts of the mullions and jambs ; and 
a red fillet on the principal mouldings. 

lie ribs of the vaulting have their mouldings divided by red hollows 
fiDeta ; and a nebula ornament of {he same colour occurs at the sides. 

[ ihoBld remark that every particle of gilding in the arcade had been aystemati- 
aeraped off, ao mndi ao, that one of the principal moulding* in every niche 
■tad no coloiir at all, except one or two minute spoU of a murrey colour. Mr. 
no, who baa ao ably fiifrmtftd the polychrome, haa reatored these mouldings 
anay. My owb opinion is, tbat they have been gilt, for surely there could have 
ao objeeC m ■i?rffr*"g off this colour more than any other. 

»&• XX* Y 

162 The Iconography of the Chapter-house, Salisbury, 

The main body of the vaulting is covered with red lines, not unlike an 
imitation of stone work.^ The bosses are gilt, relieved with red, 
and on each of the three sides is painted a mass of green and yellow 
foliage on a triangular dark-red ground. Mr. Hudson has used por- 
tions of blue in his restoration of these parts, as he found that colour in 
the same position in the vestibule, but I was not successful in finding 
any bl,ue when I coloured the tracings before the vaulting was scraped. 
The colouring of the vestibule has been almost a fac simile of the Chapter 
House, except that the painted foliage at the wall ribs is in red and green 
on a yellow ground. The tile pavement of the main building is divided 
into compartments by black borders running to the centre of each bay ; 
these compartments are again subdivided by black tiles into narrow pa- 
rallel spaces, and these again into lozenges squared in by the same means. 
The great majority of the tiles are made of the common red brick earth 
with an incised pattern, which was filled in with a yellow clay ; the whole 
was then burnt, and afterwards glazed with a yellow glaze ; the black 
tiles being simply the red clay over burned. The bosses being, but with 
one exception, composed of foliage and chimerical animals, offer nothing 
worthy of remark, except that to the north of the west doorway ; each 
of the three divisions into which it is separated by the ribs is occupied 
by a grotesque group of figures relating, I suspect, to some guild or 
trade who probably contributed to the building ; these are respectively 
the armourers, musicians, and the apothecaries. The figures, although 
similar in style to those below, exhibit a vast difi^erence in their execu- 
tion, inasmuch as every feature is marked and distorted in the strongest 
manner. Indeed, concerning one group, (viz., the musicians,) the 
less said the better, for the artist has by no means confined himself 
within the bounds of decency. 

The last thing to be noticed is the sculpture between the bases of 
the small columns of the central pillar. The restoration of this part 
must be considered as a guess, for the upper half of all these groups 
was completely destroyed. Judging from the frequent remains of an 
animal with a bushy tail, the artist would appear to have had the in- 
tention of iUustrating the popular romance of Reynard the Fox, or per- 
haps some of ^sop's fables ; but I rather incline to the former opinion. 
1, the fox disputes with the wolf. 
% he defies the wolf. 

3, he fights the wolf. 

4, is a cow. 

5, the fox visits the lion, who is sick in bed. 

6, the fox makes the wolf run away. 

7, is a dragon. 

8, is a lion. 

The Dean and Chapter, having had the good taste to preserve the old 
cap and base in the cloisters, any one will be enabled to judge for him- 
self what amount of authority thefte is for these restorations. 

W. Bu&GBS. 

' This in reality must be considered as a species of diaper, for althon^ in ill 
simplest form it resembles stone, yet it bears bat little resemblance to it in its other 



No. I. 

Index to Church of England Services and Anthems, of the time preceding 
the Great Rebellion, with a few compositions anterior to the Reformat 
tion, contained in part-books belonging to the Library of Peterhouse, 


This valuable collection, one of the fullest of the kind which has 
yet been discovered, possesses a peculiar interest » as illustrating the 
full choral service of the earlier part of the seventeenth century. 

It contains two distinct sets of part-books, neither of which is perfect. 
The first set consists of four volumes in small folio ; viz., the part- 
books of the Medius Cantoris, Contra Tenor Decani, Bassus Decani, and 
Bassns Cantoris, The binding is apparently of the age of King Charles I., 
of black leather, much worn, with the college arms and the designation 
of the several parts stamped on the upper cover of each volume. The 
second set is more complete, as it consists of seven volumes ; viz. the 
part-books of the Medius, Tenor, and Bassus, for each side, and the 
Contra Tenor Decani, These volumes are of the same size as those of 
the first set, but in more modem binding, probably of the last century, 
in rough calf, with the college arms on the upper cover of each volume, 
and in tolerably good condition. The cover, however, of the Bassus 
Cantoris has been torn off. Each set was probably made up into vo- 
lomes, and indexed, much about the same time, it would seem not 
long before the Great Rebellion; though the second set was after- 
wards rebound. While the handwriting and notation of some of the 
earlier pieces are older than the Reformation, none are of a later date 
than the period just mentioned. Both sets are evidently collections, 
ptrtly of loose scraps and partly of older fasciculi or volumes ; as ap- 
pears from the different sizes and qualities of the paper, and from the 
erasnres of former paginations or foliations in several places. The 
commencing leaves of the second set (which precede the regular folia- 
tion) belong to one of these older collections. An index is prefixed to 
each volume, for the most part in the same handwriting, and evidently 
made before the contents were completed. The arrangement of these 
indexes is very systematic, as will presently be shown ; but they are 
defective and incorrect. It appears from some memoranda, in hand- 
writing of the last century, and lying loose in several of the volumes, 
that the writer had begun a new index. These are found only in the 
Medims Cantoris, both the Tenors and the Bassus Cantoris part-books. 
In the flame handwriting there are a few erroneous designations pre- 
fixed to tome of the compositions, the authors of which are not named 
in aU of the part-books. 

It will flofficifiiidy appear from the following index, thai not a few 

164 Mr. Jebb's Catalogue of Ancient Chotr^books 

compositions of our distinguished masters, hitherto all but unknown, 
and some not yet discovered elsewhere, are extant here. 

After a very careful examination, the compiler thinks it clear that the 
collection was completed and put into shape while Dr. Cosin, the cele- 
brated Bishop of Durham, was Master of Peterhouse, for the following 
reasons : — 

1 . An English Litany, by MoUe, and a Latin Litany, by Dr. Child, 
were composed at Dr. Cosin's request, one of these while he was Vice- 
chancellor ; as appears by the evidence of these volumes. 

2. Accompanying this collection is a fine copy of the black-letter 
folio Prayer Book, printed by Barker in 1634, — the very year when 
Dr. Cosin entered upon his Mastership. This volume is interleaved 
with music paper in the places where the usages of the full choral ser- 
vice would so require ; and it contains selections from pieces in the 
part-books, and has one of the above-mentioned notices of Dr. Coain's 
superintendence. It seems not improbable that this eminent man, on 
his accession to the Mastership, carried on that work of adorning his 
chapel which his predecessor. Bishop Wren, had so nobly begun, and 
intended this volume to be one of a set which should present a model 
form of choral service for his college. 

At the same time it is doubtful whether this book was ever actually 
used in the service of the chapel. It contains the Medina Decani part 
only ; and it does not appear that books for the rest of the set were e?er 
furnished. There are some portions evidently unfinished ; and there 
are glaring errors in the wording of the Sursum Corda and Samctus} 
which a ritualist so eminent as Dr. Cosin would surely never have 
allowed, had the volume been submitted to his final revision, or brought 
into use. 

3. The compositions in these volumes consist not only of pieces by 
the principal musicians then at Cambridge and Ely, (as Loosemore, 
Ramsey, Molle, and Amner,) but by others connected with the cathe- 
drals of which Dr. Cosin was a member, namely, Durham and Peter- 

4. It seems very probable that a choral service had been used both 
before and ever since the Reformation in the neighbouring church of 
Little S. Mary, which the society of Peterhouse employed as their 
chapel till 1 632 ; and that some of the older Latin documents belonged 
to its choir, particularly the four part- books of unreformed services, 
&c., still belonging to the society, and to be noticed presently in the 
second index. But whether the choir was kept up continuously after 
the Reformation or not, at all events it would seem to have been it 
least reinforced on the building of the chapel in 1632, under the aus- 
pices of Bishop Wren, then Master ; and it is probable that he and 
Bishop Cosin encouraged the collection of materials for the service from 
the contemporary composers at Cambridge, and from other aources. 
This notion is consistent with a passage in ** Fuller's History of the 
University of Cambridge," under the date of 1633 — 4: "Nowbegtn 
the University to be much beautified in buildings, every college eiUier 

1 Viz., <* It is very meet and right so to do :'"* Lord God of Sadooik :** " AdI 
of the nu^etty of Thy glory ;" *' glory be to Thee, O LoaD, In tk9 Mgkett." 

at S. Peter's College, Cambridge. 165 

its akin, with the snake, or recovering its bill, like the eagle ; 
their courts, or at least their fronts and gate- houses, repaired 
>med. But the greatest alteration was in their chapels, most of 
>eing graced with the accession of organs." And we know 
iahop Cosin was a great promoter of the choral service at 

lia view be correct, then the black letter Prayer Book above- 
ned may be considered as a guide to the idea which an accom- 
l ritualist like Dr. Cosin entertained as to the requirements of the 
and service. This book contains a dupHcate, so fisu: as it goes, of 
N&» Decani part, belonging to the second set. (One or two 

however, are not extant in the latter.) It has the Preces^ (as 
raides and responses before the Psalms are technically called*) by 
s composers, in several sets ; the celebrated service in F by (Sib- 
far Morning and Evening Prayer, comprehending the Venite, as 
ittomary in the older services ; several sets of Responses (after 
reed,) and three Litanies ; the Kyrie and Creed in F by Gib- 

a Sanctus, with the preceding versicles, or Sursttm Corda, pro- 
by Amner ; and a Oloria in Excelsis, by Amner. It is to be re- 
d, that a blank music-leaf is inserted at the Offertory, which was 
>ly intended to be filled up, as we find an Offertory sentence 
imes set to music in old books ; in " Day's Morning and Evening 
'•'* (1560 and 1566.) for example. At the end of the volume is 
a translation of the Morning and Evening Service, (but not of 
ommunion. Litany, or Psalter,) interleaved with blank music- 
From this it appears that the Latin service was occasionally 
A the college. There are also two Latin Litanies, by MoUe and 
more ; and the former is expressly designated. Pro Coll. Sii, 
The version used for these Litanies differs from that still em- 
l at S. Mary*s, Christ Church, Oxford, from that daily repeated 

Sessions of the Convocation of the Province of Canterbury, and 
hose in the published translations of the Prayer Book. But no- 
of this version has yet been discovered beyond what can be col- 

from the suffrages in these musical adaptations ; as the words of 
tany are not given at full length. The translations also of the 
■ and Evensong differ from any now extant. 
. Clay, in his learned edition of the Liturgies, &c., set forth in the 
of Queen Elizabeth (Parker Soc. Publ. 1847), remarks that the 
Pkayer Book of Queen Elizabeth (1 560) *' was not received every- 
! with equal favour and respect. Strype, under the year 1568, 
sr» p. 269.) tells us, that ' most of the colleges ' in Cambridge 

not tolerate it, as being the Pope's dreggs ; and even that ' some 
rt of Bemet College went contemptuously from the Latin prayers, 
aster being the minister then that read the same.' " 
lether that antipathy was confined to the particular version here 
I of, or extended to the usage of the Latin language, is not clear. 

fonner, this may be the reason for the adoption of an indepen- 
BTBion at Cambridge. 

few Latin services in the part-books consist of the Te Deum, 
e« and (in one instance only) of the Kyrie and Creed. There 

166 Mr. Jebb's Catalogue of Ancient Chotr-booh 

are no evening services set to music ; whence it may be inferred that 
Latin was used occasionally only. But the same remark is applicable 
to at least one of these (Dr. Child's) which was made with respect to 
the black-letter Prayer Book. It is difficult to believe that the gross 
mistakes as to quantity which exist in that service wotdd have been 
tolerated by a learned society. The probability is, therefore, that this 
particular service was never actually revised or performed, and that its 
use was prevented by the troubles which fell upon the Church shordy 
after its composition. 

This Latin Te Deum by Dr. Child was composed /or the Right Wor- 
shipful Dr. Cosin. If this designation points to his Vice- chancellorship, 
its date was 1639. Perhaps it was connected with some solemn ser- 
vice at St. Mary's. It may be observed, that as there are in the collec- 
tion Latin Litanies by Ramsey, Organist of Trinity, by Loosemore. Or- 
ganist of King's, and by Molle, who seems to have been connected 
with Pcterhouse, these Litanies were probably used occasionally in the 
respective colleges of the composers ; and if so, it may be reasonably 
inferred that the Litanies used before the university were not less so- 
lemnly performed, but were sung in Latin, as is still the usage at Ox- 
ford, before every term. 

As to the English services, those for the evening are more numerous 
than for the morning. This may be accounted for by supposing, either 
that the choral service was then, as now at Trinity College, confined 
to surplice times* and thus the evening choral occasions would be nearly 
twice as frequent as the morning, or that the Matins on week-days 
were more simply performed than the Evensong. 

The hand writing of the pieces is very various. In the black letter 
Prayer Book the music is written in very remarkable characters, found 
also in some instances in the part-books, and in other MSS. of the 
seventeenth century, the notes being of a rhomboidal form, very bold 
and distinct. The words are written cursively, while in the part- 
books they are often in Gothic or Old English letters. All the parts 
of each composition are generally the work of the same scribe. Those 
of Bird, Tallis. and Taverner, appear to be contemporaneous with 
their authors; that of the latter, especially, is identical with what 
occurs in the Latin part-books which form the subject of the second 
Index here. 

Several of the MSS. appear to be autographs : especially the com- 
positions of John Amner, Organist of Ely, which are written for the 
most part with great clearness ; the words in a fair Italian hand, Hts 
name Jo, Amner, generally either precedes or follows, lliose of 
Loosemore, Ramsey, and Wilson, have also, for the most part, the 
signature, probably autograph, of their respective authors. The same 
may be remarked, in a few instances specified in the Index, of Batten, 
Child, Strogers, &c. 

In the original Indexes, the pieces are methodically distribated under 
distinct heads, thus : 

1 . Ad Domine labia, i.e. the Preces before the Psalms. 

2. Psalmi festivales, or the Psalms arranged like Canticles, Bodi as 

ai S. Peter's College, Cambridge. 167 

ve find in many of the older Sendees, used on great festivals ; a fea- 
ture now obsolete. 

3. The Veniie exultemus, arranged as the Canticles, to which the 
preceding remark is also applicable. 

4. Ad Dominus vobiscum, or the Responses after the Creed. 

5. Utanue, English and Latin. 

6. Full Services, subdivided into three heads of 

(1.) AdMatutinas: 

(2.) Ad Officium Altaris, i.e. Kyries and Creeds ; including also, 
in a few instances, the Glory before the Gospel, and an offertory 
sentence : and 

(3.) Ad Vespertinas. 

7. Verse Services, with the same threefold subdivision. 

8. /W7 Anthems, in three subdivisions : 

(1.) Of praise. (2.) Of prayer. (3.) Of penitence. 

9. Verse Anthems, similarly classed. 

10. Ad Sursum Corda, and 

11. Ad Gloria in Excelsis. 

There are however no settings of the Sursum Corda, except in the 
Utck-letter Prayer Book, and but few of the Sanctus and Gloria. 

12. Aniiphona Fesiivaks, being, for the most part, collects for the 
Orett Festivals. 

The same designations, as far as they are applicable, are observed 
in the black-letter Prayer Book. This distribution confirms the fact, 
of which however we have ample independent evidence, that the dis- 
tiaction between full and verse services and anthems, was coeval with 
the Reformation itself. 

It it obviously unnecessary to observe this minute classification in 
the following Index, as all practical advantage will be secured by a 
twofold diyision into Services and Anthems, under the head of each 

For the convenience of musical students and antiquarians, after 
emAk piece are given references to published works or MSS., in which 
the whole or any part or fragment of the composition may have been 
ootioed by the compiler ; where also necessary observations upon the 
piece itself are inserted. It is much to be wished, that additions to 
these notices may be made by persons conversant with old music, into 
whose hands these pages may fall. In many instances queries are 
ezpresced as to the identity of compositions in other collections with 
thoee at Peterhouse. To establish this, collation would have been 
necessary, which neither time nor opportunity allowed to the compiler. 
Any one versed in occupations of this kind, knows that it is not always 
easy to tell the key of a composition, until it be scored, especially in 
the old music, where the ancient modes still had influence, and where 
an the flats and sharps proper to the several keys are seldom expressed 
in the signature. Accuracy in this respect is therefore not warranted 
or pro fesac d. 

The foUowing are the abbreviations employed in the first of the 

.« W_J 

168 Mr. JeWs Catalogue of Ancient Choir^books 

md signifies the medius decani volume, 
mc .. medius cantoris volume. 


contra tenor decani Yolume. 
tenor decani volume. 
tenor cantoris volume. 
bassus decani volume. 
bassus cantoris volume. 

These abbreviations in Roman letters refer to the First Set ; in / 
to the Second ; while MD (in capitals) refer to the black-letter P 

The other abbreviations refer to the published works or MSS. s 
contain any parts of the several compositions. The asterisk * d 
nates printed books. 

1. Alto. An alto part-book of the seventeenth century, beloi 
to Mr. Joseph Warren. 
*2. Amner. Amner's Sacred Hymns, 1616. 
*3. Arnold. Arnold's Cathedral Music. 
*4. Bam. Barnard's Selected Church Music, 1 641 . 
5. Batt. An Organ Book, formerly belonging to Adrian Bi 
and now in Mr. Warren's possession. 
*Q. Boyce, Boyce's Cathedral Music. 

7. Chr. Ch. MSS. in the Library of Christchurch, Oxford. 
"^8. Chor. Resp. Choral Responses and Litanies, edited by the 

piler of these indexes. 
*9. Day. Morning and Evening Prayer, &c., printed by John 

10. Durh. MSS. in Durham Cathedral Library. 

11. Ely. MSS. in Ely Cathedral Library. 

12. Glouc. MSS. inserted in the second alto part-book of Bai 

in Gloucester Cathedral. 

1 3. Here/, MSS. inserted in the part-book of Barnard, belo; 

to Hereford Cathedral. 

14. Lamb. A MS. bass part-book, in the Lambeth Library, 

neously lettered Services and Anthems, by J^omas Mori 
the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. 

15. Lichf. MSS. inserted in the part-book of Barnard, belongi 

Lichfield Cathedral. 
*16. Rimb. Anth. Rimbault's Anthems of the Madrigalian 

printed for the Musical Antiquarian Society, 1845. 
*17. Rimb. Serv. Rimbault's Cathedral Music, 1843. 
18. 8. John's Ox. MS. bass part-book in the Library of S. J 
College, Oxford, of the seventeenth century. 
"^19. Tomk. Mnsica Deo Sacra, &c., by Thomas Tomkins, 1668. 
20. Tudw. The Tudway Collection, Harleian MSS. Brit. Mus. 
98 in the Catalogue of MS. Music, 1842. 

Other references speak for themselves. 

«l 8. Petards College, Cambridge. 16p 

nmt, JoHK. [Mas. B. Oxon. in 1613 : in 1610 appointed Master of 
tfaeCboristen and Organist of Bly : in 1615 published Sacred Hymne 
ofS, 4, 5, emd 6 parte for voicee and yiob: died in 1641.] 


1. Preces with Pialms, for Chriitmas Day at Evensong. mcL mc, cd. 

t<L tc. bd be. 

* Preoes in Cho. Resp. 

2. Do. Minister's Part and Dec terse, te. 

* Preeea in Cho. Resp. 

3. Preoes and Venite. md mc. ed id bd be. 

* Preees in Cho. Besp. 

4. Do. Minister's Part, and Dec. Terse, tc. 

* Preees in Cho. Besp. 

5. Serviee in D mi. Te D. Ben"*. Kyr. Cr. Msgn. N. Dim. mc cd. bd. 

be Tudw. EW Organ Book. In Batt. there is a Magn. and 
N. Dim. ^ if the same? 

6. KjT. in G maj. MD. 

7* Sarsnm Corda and Sanctus : anon3rmoas, bnt probably his. MD. 

* Cho. Besp. 

8. Gloria in Excekis, in D mi. mc cd. bd. be 

B. Verae Service : composed for Dr. Henry Cesar, Dean of Ely, (1616 

—1636) called Caesar's Service. Ven. Te D. Jub. Kyr. Cr. 

Ms«i. N. Dim. mc. cd. bd. be. 
Todw. Ely. There is a Service in Alto : which is not this. 


1. A stranger here, mc cd. 

* Amn. Ely Org. Book. 2 copies. 

2. Hear, O Lord, md mc. cd, id. tc. bd. be. 

3. Eaw doth the ctt^ remsin solitary, cd. bd. be. not in the usual 

hand, and no signature. 
^ Amner. 5 voc 

4. I will sinff onto the Lord, md mc. cd. td. te. bd. be. 

* Amn. Ely Organ Book.^ 

5. lift up your hc«ds. mc. cd. bd. be. 

6. Lord, I am not high minded, cd. bd. 
Tudw. Eljr Org. B. and score. 

7* O eome hither. 5 parts, md mc. cd. td bd 
Ely Org. B. 

8. O sing unto the Lord. 7 parts, md, cd. td. bd. be. 
Tndw. Ely Org. B. 

9. Ont of the den>. ed. bd. 

10. O ye little flock. 6 parU. md td. tc. bd be. 

* Amn. Ely Org. B. Batt. 

11. Eemember not,lLoRD. cd. bd. 

* Amn. Ely Org. B. and score. Tudw. 

12. Woe is mc mc cd. bd. be the bass is unfinished. 

* Amn. 

m, AnuAir. [Vicar Choral of S. PauFs, London, died 1 640.] 


1. litaay [cmmeously attributed to Bamsey in md"] md. cd. td. bd 

* dMT. Besp. 

^i^ XX. z 

170 Mr. JebVs Catalogue of Ancient Chatr-bookg 

2. Foarth Magn. and Niinc Dim. in 6 mi. tnd, mc* cd, id, tc. bd, h 

3. Christ Rising. [Easter Anthem, according to the Prayer Ba 

▼ersion before the hut review.] mc. cd. bd. be. 


1. Blessed are all those, bd. 

2. Deliver us, O Lord our God. -4 voe. mc. cd. md. ed, tc. bd. be. 

* Bam. • Boyce. 

3. Have mercy upon me, O God. 5 voc. mc. cd. bd. be. 

4. Hear my prayer, O God, and hide not Thvself. me. cd. bd. be. ^ 

Tudw. * Boyce, 5 parts. Ely Org. B. Lichfield, td. 

5. Hear my prayer, O Lord, and with Thine can. bd. 

6. Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God Almighty. In 6 parts. For Trinit; 

Sunday. mc. (3 copies) cd. (4 copies, one it verse and oa 
chorus) bd. (2 copies) be. (3 copies). 
7* I heard a voice. For Michaelmas Day. mc. cd. bd. 

8. Jesus said. For S. Peter's Day. mc. cd. bd. be. 

9. O how happy a thing it is. mc. cd. bd. be. 

10. O Lord, let me know mine end. mc. cd. be. md. 
IL O Lord, Thou hast searched. " For a tenor and bass." md. m 
ed. td. tc. bd. be. 
Batt Lichf. 1st cc. td. tc. bd. 

12. Out of the deep. For a tenor, md cd* td. bd. (2 copies ; one i 

chorus only.) 

* Bam. 

13. Ponder my words, md. mc. cd. td. tc. bd. (2 copies) be. 

14. Praise the Lord, O my soul. md. me. ed. td. tc. bd. be. 

15. Turn Thou us. For Ash Wednesday, mc. cd. bd. be. 

Bbck, Anthony. 

Anth. Who can tell how oft he offendeth? md. td. te. bd. be. 

BsNNBT, John. [An eminent composer of Madrigals, in the 1 6th cent 
Anth. O God of Gods. mc. cd. be. 

Bird, William. [The celebrated composer. Org. of Lincoln, i 
1567. Oentl. Chap. Roy. in 1560. Died in 1623.] 


1. Preces and Psalms for the Epiphany, mc. cd. bd. be. 

* Bam. 2nd Preces and Psalms. Durham, Epiph. S. John's Os 

1st Prec. and Ps. Lamb. Prec. only. * Chor. Resp. Pie 
only; vol. i. 4 parts ; vol. ii. 5 parts, with psalmody. 

2. Do. td. 

* Bam. 2nd Prec. somewhat different. * Chor. Resp. toL ii. 

3. Preces and Psalms for Ascension Day, at Evensong, md. od. bd. b 

The Preces are the same as the former. 

4. Preces. mc. cd. 

* Bam. 1st Preces, contra ten. cantoris. 

5. Preces and Responses, md. mc. ed. td. te. bd. MD. 

Chr. Ch. upper part and bass only. * Chor. Resp., vol. i. the ino 
parts supplied. 

6. Short Service, in D mi. Te D. Ben"*. Kyr. Or. Magn. N. Dii 

md. mc. ed. td. bd. be. 

* Bam. 1st Service ; has Venite. * Boyce, has no Venite ; tnd tl 

Kyrie and Creed are different, but agree widi thoae in Nfr 
mentioned below. .Tudw. .Batt. Great Service; has not 1U% 

tit S. Peter's CoUege, Cambridge. 171 

or Naoc D. S. John's Oxf. has 3 Senrioes: the Ist, a short 
Service ; 2ndy pricked Semibrief: 3rd, for a man alone. 
7- The same Service. Magn. and Nunc D. only. md. cd. td. bd, be. 

8. Sernee in F major. Te Deum, Ben". Magn. unfinished ; the bd. 

haa words of part of the Te D. only. md. cd. bd* 
Lamb. /or a man alone. 

9, £yr. and Creed in D mi. md. cd. td. tc. bd. be. 

* Boyce ; see No. 6, abo? e. 

10. The same Kyrie, with others, be. md. cd. td. bd, MD. erroneously 

aacribed to Tallis in md, 

11. Great Magn. and N. Dim. in C major, mc. cd. bd. be. cd. td. the 

two counter tenors differ. 

* Bam..Batt 

12. The same Magn. and N. Dim. mc bd. 

13. Latin Te Deum in D mi. No Jubilate, md. mc. cd. tc. bd. be. an 

adaptation of that in No. 6. No Jubilate or Ben**. 


1. Behold, I bring you glad tidings. JFbr Christmas Day. Bird^s Ne 

irascaris. cd. bd. 
(In Tudway, Boyce, and Bam. the adaptation of the Ne irascaris is 
to the words, O Lord, turn away Thy wrath.) 

2. Fac in Serro tuo. 5 toc. md. mc. td. bd. 

Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 5058. No. 178 in the Musical Catalogue. 

3. How long, O Lord. md. cd. td. 

4. Laetentur ceeli. 5 voc. md, mc. td. be. 

Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 5058. No. 178 in the Mus. Catal. 

5. O God, the proud are risen, mc. cd. bd. be. 

6. O how glorious art Thou. md. 

7. O Lord, give ear. mc cd. bd. be 

6. O Lord, make Thy servant Charles, mc. cd. bd. be. be. 

This was probably the Anthem sometimes used at the service 
before the Convocation of the Province of Canterbury at S. Paul's ; 
as in 1640 and 1661. See Syn. Aug. tn loc. 
9. Prevent us, O Lord. md. mc. cd, td. bd. be. Written in an Ita- 
lian hand. 

* Bam. 5 parts. Tndw. Lamb. 
10. Sing joyfully, mc. cd. bd. be. 

* &ra. 6 parts. * Boyce, 6 parts. Tudw. 

Bujrii. [Probably B. Blancks, mentioned by F. Meres, in his Pal' 
kdis TBtmia, 1598, in a list of famous English Musicians. Author 
(tf Psalm tunes in Este's collection; edited in 1844 by Dr. Rim- 
bault, for the Musical Antiquarian Society.] 

Magn. and Nunc D. mc cd. bd. be 

BoTCB Of BoTB, Thoma8. [Mu8. B. Oxon. in 1603.] 

1 . Short Service in A mi. Te D. Ben«*. Kyr. Creed. Magn. N. Dim. 

md. cd. bd. be. 
Lichf. Alto. Gloucester. Te De. Magn. and Nunc D. has second 
counter tenor. 

2. Latin Te D. in A mi. md. mc. cd. bd. be. 

BnL,JoHV. [Born in 1563. Mus. B. Oxon. in 1586. Mus. D. 
Cantab. Organiat to Q. Elizabeth. Was some time Commoner in 
te Vicar^a CoUflge at Hereford. Died in 1630.] 

172 Mr. JAVs Catalogue of Ancient Ckotr-booke 

Collect for the Epiphany. Anthem/or Twelfth Day. The Star Anthm 
Batt. called there alio The Star Anthem. Tudw. lichf. ten. dec 

Child, William. [Mua. B. Oxon. iiiyl631. Mus. D. Oxon. in 1663. 
Org. of Windsor. Died in 1696, aged 90.] 


1. ''Sharp Service" in D maj. Yen. Te D. Juh. Kyr. Cr. Magn. N. 

Dim. mc. cd. bd. be. 
This was the favourite Service of King Charles I. 
* Boyce; without the Venite. Tudw. Lichf.: noVenite; wanti 

the upper part. Hereford, has no Venite, Kyr. or Creed. 

2. Service in G maj. Benedicite, Jub. Kyr. Creed. Magn. N. Dim. 

mc. cd. bd. be. MD. Kyrie only. Written very fairly in a 

Gothic hand, with square notes. 


3. Sanctus and Gloria in Excelsis, in G. maj. 8 voc. mc. cd. bd. be. 

4. Latin Te D. and Jub. in A. maj. md. mc. cd. td. tc. bd. be. 

'* Made for the Right Worshipftil Dr. Cosin by Mr. Child," [i.e. in. 
1639, when Dr. Cosin was Vice-chancellor.] 

5. Part of the Burial Service. *' I am the Resumction," &c. smL 

mc. cd. td. tc. bd. be. 


1. Collect for All Saints' Day. mc. cd. bd. be. 

2. Bow down Thine ear. md. tc. bd. 

3. Give the king Thy judgments, mc. cd. bd. be. td. [Lamb. Bial 

quaere whether this at LambeUi may not be Weelkes'sor Wood- 

4. Hear, O my people, md. mc. td. (2 copies) tc. be. 

5. O Lord, wherefore art Thou absent ? md. mc. cd. td. tc. bd. 
The med. dec. is signed Wm. ChUd. 

6. O let my mouth, mc. cd. bd. be. cd. bd. 
The bd. and be. are signed iV. Child. 
Ely Score. 

7. O Lord, Thou hast searched, bd. 

8. Sing we merrily, mc. cd. bd. be. 
Tudw. • Boyce. 

9. Turn Thou us, good Lord. me. cd. bd. be. 

10. What shall I render. An Anthem of thanksgiving, md. me. cd. td. 
tc. bd. be. 

Crajtford, William. 


1. I will love Thee, O Lord. mc. cd. bd. be. 

2. The King shall rejoice : or, O Lord, make Thy servant Chaiki* 

Batt. where it is called, O Lord, make Thy servant. .Lieht 1 e. 
td. tc. bd. : the composer is called Cranfield, and James is sub- 
stituted for Charles in tc. Ascribed to Lamb,jnn. in tc only. 
. . Heref. where it is called, O Lord make Thy servant : md. 1 ea* 
2 cd. 1 ct. 2 ct. bd. (chorus only.) be. iJamb. haa Uie same 
title. The Peterh. MS. has the title O Lord, make 7% ser- 
vant Charles in most of the books, but conected in pencil ai 
above in the bd. 

Dbibing, Richard. [Mus. B. Oxon. in 1610: a Roman Gatiiolie: 

ai 8. Peier^g College, Cambridge. 178 

Organist to Q. Henrietta : of the Bering family in Kent : educated 
m Italy. Several of his oompoaitionB, cfaoefly secular, are extant.] 


1. Ckdlecl for Easter Dajr. me. cd. bd. be. 

In square Gothic handwritbg, and square notes. 

2. Lord, Thou art worthy, md. cd, ti, tc, bd. 

3. Therefore with Angels, md. ed, id. tc. bd. 



1. Jubilate in C maj. fiuL me. ed. td. tc. bd. be. 

2. Kyrie and Creed, in G mL me. ed. bd. be. md. mc, cd. td tc. bd. be, 

3. Kyrie as before, with oHiers. me. ed. td. MD. 

Erri, MicHABL. [\^car Choral of lichfield. Mus. B. lived in the 
early part of the 17th century.] 


Msgin. N. Dim. in D mL md, mc, ed, td, tc, bd. be. 
Lu£f. 1 tc td. tc. bd. be 


1. Blow out the trumpet, md. me. cd, td tc, bd be. 

* Rimb. Anth. 

2. Awake and stand up. md. me. cd. td tc, bd be, 

* Rimb. Anth. Lichf. td. tc. bd. 

3. clap your hands, md me, ed, td. tc. bd, be. 
lichf. cc. td. tc. 

Pauavt, Johv. [Organist of Saliabury, 1598. Of Christ Church in 
London ; as noted in Batten's Organ Book.] 

Short Serrioe. Ven. Te D. Jub. Kyr. [no creed] Magn. N. Dim. 
mc ed. bd. be bd be. MD. K3rrie only. Called Farrands 

in be In bd. "The creed to this is Mr ** The rest is 


Batt Magn. N. Dim. 

Pauuny, Richard. [Gentl. of the Ch. Royal in 1564. Master of 
the Children of the Chapel to Q. Elizab. Died in 1 580 or 1585.] 

Sendee in A mi. Te D. Jub. Kjrr. Cr. Magn. N. Dim. md me. cd. 

td The Magn. in cd is imperfect ; the Nunc D. torn out. 

* Boyoe : but in G mi. with some difference Tudw. A mi. 

Gloucester. Te D. Magn. Nunc D. 
Anthem : Call to remembrance me. cd. be bd. 
* Bam. * Boyce. 8. John's^ Oit 

FiiBAROBCo, Alfhoxso, jun. [Bom at Greenwich : son of Alphonso 
Ferrabosco, an eminent Italian musician. Published Ayres in 1609.] 

Sanctus. md 

Anthem. Hate ye no regard, me ed. bd. be. 
Batt. Lichf. 1 cd. tc. . . Lamb, anonymous, but probably of this 

Fioo, JoHir. 

Anth. Hear me, O Lord. mc. cd. be tc. be. 

The m. and e begin, Hide not Thy Face, 

174 Mr. JebVs Catalogue of Ancient Chok^ooke 

Obbbbs, John. 

Collect for S. John Evangelist's Day. md. mc. cd. td. te. bd. be. 
Signed Jo. Cteeres. 

Gibbons, Oblando. [Born at Cambridge. Mus. B. Oxon, in 1622. 
Org. Ch. Roy. in 1604. Died in 1625.] 


1. First Preces and Psalms. fPs. cxIt. 1 — 14.] me. cd. bd.bc Chr. 

Ch. 1st preces wants the upper part . . * Chor. Resp. toL iL 
Preces only. Lamb. 

2. Preces and Psalms. [Ps. cxIt. 15.] md, mc. cd. td. tc. hd. he 

MD. which has a second Gloria Patri. 

* Bam. 1st Preoea and Ps. . . Durb. Easter Day at Evensong. 

(Preces are the same.) . . Chr. Ch. 2nd preces. * Chor. Re^. 

Ereces only. 

3. Preces mc and Psalms. Easter Day at Evensong, mc. cd. Preces 

as No. 2. 

4. Venite in F belongs to the celebrated service in F, which follows 

here, md, mc, td. tc. hd. he. MD. 

* Bam. 

5. Short Service in F. Te D. Ben"" Kyr. Creed. Magn. N. Dim. md. 

[imperfect : begins at the Kyrie] mc, [there is another under 
Uie title of mc but is really a counter-tenor part, and the same 
as cd,"] cd, td. tc, [2 copies] hd, he. [2 copies.] MD. 

6. Kyrie ; same as in 5. md. cd, td, 3iD. 

7. Magn. and Nunc D. in F, a different service horn the former, mc 

cd. bd. be. 

* Bam. Second service of 5 parts . . Lamb. Long Magn. ou. if the 

same ? . . Batt. which has also a Te D. and Jub. . . S. John's* 

8. Latin Te Deum. F major. No Ben" or Jub. md. mc.* 

hd. he. An adaptation of the Te D. in No. 5. 


1. Behold, I bring you glad tidings. Anthem for Christmas Dqr. 

mc cd. bd. be 
Batt. Lamb. 

2. Behold, Thou hast made my days, mc cd. bd. be 

* Bam. Batt, (a tenor) . .Tudw. 

3. If ye be risen. For Easter Day. mc. cd. bd. be 
Batt. for 2 means . . Lichf. td. tc. Lambeth : no name 

4. This is the record of John. mc. md. [two copies : one ii chom 

only.] cd. td. tc bd. 
Batt. Lichf. td. . . Alto. 

5. We praise Thee, O Fathbr. Proper Preface for Easter Day. mti 

cd. bd. be . 
Batt. Lamb. 

6. Glorious and powerful God. cd. bd. md. mc. he. hd. 
Batt. Lichf. ta. tc Heref. md. and cd. te 

Gilbs, NA;rBAinBL. [Mns. B. Oxon. 1585. Mus. D. Oxen. 1622. 
Org. Ch. Royal and Windsor. Died 1633.] 


1. Service in C Te D. Jub. [no Kyr.] Creed. Dr. Gyk$ Me etnicf 
to the organ, mc cd. bd. be 

at 8. Petards College, dmibridge. 176 

Batt qti. the same 7 Second service hfts the Kyrie . . * Bam. has 

the Kyrie. Lamh. has the Kyrie. . . S. John's, Oxford. Short 

morning senrice : au. the same 7 The Kyrie differs in Batt. 

Bam. and Dr. Giles s autograph score. 

2. Magn. Nanc D. mc. cd. bd. be. md, (imperfect) md, differs from mc. 


1. GoUect for Whitsunday, mc. cd. bd. be. 

2. Have mercy. Ps. 51. cd. mc, tc. bd, be, 

3. He that hath My commandments, cd, td, bd. be, 

4. awe thanks unto the Lord, md, cd, td, 
* Sam. 5 parts . . Tudw . . Lamb. 

5. Out of the deep. mc. cd. bd. be. 

HuTH, JoHv. [Organiat of Rochester Cath. 1633.] 

Magn. and N. Dim. bd. md, mc, cd, td, tc, bd, be, 
Batt. ^ Day has a full m'. service by Heath, but qu. whether the 
same composer, as his book dates 1665. 

HuTov, John. [Mas. B. Cantab. 1626. Org. S. Marg. Westm. in 
1628. Died about 1657. CBHtd organist of Newark in lAchf.'] 


1. Call to remembrance, mc. cd. bd. be. 

2. Hear my cry, O God. mc. cd. bd. be. 
Lichf. te. be. 

3. Sweet Jbsus. 6 toc. mc. od. bd. be. 

The m. and b. hepn And so desermng death. The c. begins Ah 
woe i$me ., Lichf. td. bd. 


Anthem : O sing unto the Lord. 1632. mc. and be. mc. cd. bd. 

be. md. me, cd. td. be. 
There is a first and second c. part : both mc. correspond. Hinde's 

signat. me. and be. Lichf. td. tc. bd. 

HoopiE, Bdmukd. [Master of the Chor. and West. Abb. and org. C. 
Rojal in the time of K. James I. Died in 1621.] 


1. Magn. and N. Dim. in A major, mc. cd. (2 parts, different) bd. be. 
Batt. Terse, qa ? there is another evening service in Batt. *' flat, and 

last serfioe." 

2. Magn. and N. Dim. in D major, called JuU in med : great in b. c. 

mc. cd. bd. be. 
Lamb, with Var. Te D. Ben. Kyr. and Cr. 

3. Magn. and N. Dim. in C major, caUed fiOl rnhd.; called short, m 

C. T. De. 

4. flanctas and Glor. in C maj. cd. be, 

176 Mr. JebVs Catalogue of Ancient Chmr-books 


1. Collect for Cbristmai Day. me. cd. bd. be. 

2. Golleet for tbe Circame. mc. cd. bd. be. 

Botb these anth. are in iqaare notes and Gothie characters. Eithei 
one or the other is in Tudw. : but as both begin with the umi 
words, this requires a special reference. 

3. Behold, it is Christ, mc. cd. bd. be. md, mc. cd. td, 
* Bam. Tudw. Lamb. 

4. O God of gods. For the King's day. mc. cd. bd. be. te. 
Batt. Lamb. 

5. The Blessed Lamb. For Good Friday, me. cd. bd. be. 


Magn. Nunc D. to Derricks short service, me. cd. two copies, botl 
the same, bd. be. 

Hutchinson, John. [Called of York, in be. Organist of Durham ii 
the time of K. James I. Perhaps connected at one time with Soath 
well ; as his Anthem, Of mortal men, is called the Southwell Jnthem 
in be.'} 


L Behold, how good and joyful, md. cd. td. to. bd. Tudw. 

2. Hear my crying, O Goo. md. mc. td. tc. bd. be. in md. attribute 

to Mudd. No name in tc. and mc. Attributed to Hntchinsoi 
in the other parts. 

3. Lord, I am not high-minded, mc. (2 copies) tc. bd. be. begic 

Which are too high for me. 

4. O God, wherefore art Thou absent, md. qu 7 is this Hutdii 


5. Of mortal men. Southwell Anthem, md. mo. td. te. bd. be. 

6. Te that fear the Lord, mc ed. bd. be. 

Alto : which begins, He is their Helper, as does the mc in tk 
collection. In the Alto book, this direction occurs, ** If ft 
Freces and Fsalms, begin here. He is their helper j if for t 
Anthem, begin herci The Lord hath been nUndfil of us.** 

Jbffbribs or Jbffrbt [Matthbw ? Bither Vicar Choral of Wdli 
and Mas. B. Oxon. in 1595, or organist to King Charles I.] 

Anthem : Rejoice in the Lord. 6 voc cd. bd. mc. td. (2 parts, dil 
ferent) tc. be. 


Anthem : Christ rising. East. Anthem, md. mc. ed. td. te. bd. k 
Batt. 6 parts. 

Knioht, Robbbt. [In Day's Morning and Bvening Services there i 
an Bvening Service by Knygkt : bat no Christian name is giveo 
Thomas Knight is the author of a Latin Anthem in the Peterhons 
Latin Services. See the Index to them.] 

Latin Anthem : PkopCerea mKstum. 5 voc md. mc. td, bd. 

Anthem : Praise the Lord, O my soul. 4 voc,t€»bd. Tndv. 

at S. Peter's CoUege, Cambridge. 177 

Loosuco&E, Hbnrt. [Mu8. B. Cantab. 1640. Org. Kmg*8 Coll. 
Camb. and afterwards of Ely Cathedral.] 


1. Serrioe in D mi. Te D. Jub. Litany, Kyrie, Gloria tibi. Creed, 

Mag;n. Nunc Dim. mc. cd. bd. be. Probably autograph, and 

has the author's signature. 
Tndw. without the Litany. Lichf. no Litany, nor Gloria tibi. 1 cd. 

td. bd. Magn. and N. D. wanting in td. 
Litany, Ely, and *Chor. Res. vol. 1. 

2. Benedicite and Jub. 6 ma. mc. cd. bd. be. 

3. Latin Litany, in D mi. md. mc. cd. td, tc. bd. be. Has the author*8 

si^ature at the end. The second part, after the Kyrie, was 
evidently written, in all the parts, separately, and has a different 
signature, probably autograph. The first part has the same 
music as the English Litany mentioned in No. 1. 
^ Chor. Resp. vol. 2. 

4. Latin Litany in 6. mi. with latter suffrages. 
* Chor. Resp. vol. 2. 


1. Behold, it is Christ, md, me. cd. td. tc. bd. be. Signed with the 

author's name : mc, begins. Which was ordained. 

2. Behold, now praise the Lord. mc. ed. td. tc. In square notes. 

Signed, but not in the usual manner. 

3. Fret not thyself, md. mc. cd. td. te. bd. be. MD. 

4. O Goo, my heart is ready, mc. cd. bd. Square notes : the usual 


5. Praise the Lord. mc. cd. bd. be. Signed as usual. 
Lichf. 1 cd. be. 

6. Tell the daughter of Sion. 5 tocL mc. cd. bd. be. Signed as usual : 

m. begins. Behold thy King. 

7. Thou art worthy, O Lord, be. m. not signed, b. signed 

at nsual. c square notes, like those usual in MD., and not 
signed. In be Offertory written in pencil. 

8. To Jb8U8 Christ, mc. cd. bd. mc. ed. td. m. begins. Unto Him 

that loved us. be begins. And hath made us. 

9. Truly God is loring. md. mc. cd, td. bd, be. 

10. Turn Thee anin. mc. cd. bd. be. Signed, but qu. autograph ? 

11. Unto Thee mt I up. mc. cd. bd. be. m. is signed Henrie Loos- 

more, cd. is signed as usual, bd. square notes, as in MD., 
but not Gothic wtters. Signature as usual. 

Uroe, JoHir. [Robert Lagg was Mas. B. Oxon. 1638, and organist 
of S. John's College, Oxford.] 


1. Behold bow Bood and joyful, md. mc. cd. td. be. Tudw. 

2. Let my complaint, md. mc. cd. td. tc. bd. md. is signed. 

Maci, Tboxas. [Clerk of Trin. Coll. Camb. 1613. author of Musick's 
Monument, 1676.] 

AollieB: I heard a voice, mc cd. bd. be. mc. begins, AUelma, 

▼OL. XX. ii A 

178 Architectural Notes in France. No. IV. 

Marson, John. [Probably ought to be Mason, Sir John Mason is 
mentioned by Morley, and was Mus. B, Oxon. VM)8.3 


1. God ia our hope. bd. 

2. O clap your hands. mJ. cd. Signed. 

MoLLE, Hbnrt. [Apparently of the choir, and probably at one time 
Organist of Peterhouse, in the early part of the seventeenth century; 
a contemporary of Bishop Cosin, when Master.] 


1. Magn. and Nunc D. verse, in D mi. mc. cd. (2 copies) td. bd. be. 

mcU mc. cd, id. tc. bd, be. The two rood, parts are the samCi 
as are the altos and tenors. Tudw. 

2. Second Magn. and N. D. fall, in D mi. md. me, cd, (2 copies) 

td, to, bd. The two med. parts are the same, as also the two 
altos and two tenors. 
Tudw. in F, qu. if the same?. .N.B. Liohf. has in 1 cd. a Magn. sDd 
Nunc Dim. called Molde^s: not. the same as either of these. 

3. Litany, /or Dr. Cosin. md, mc. cd. td. tc, bd. be. MD. 

* Cbor. Resp. vol. ii. 

4. The singing part [or the minister's suffrages] of the same, td. 

In tc. there is a singing part of a Litany erroneously attributed 
to MoUe : it really belongs to Tomkins's Litany, which see. 

* Chor. Resp. vol. ii. 

5. Latin Litany and Suffrages, md. mc cd, td, tc, bd. be. MD., which 

last has this notice. Pro Coll. S, Petri. 

* Chor. Resp. vol. ii. 

6. Latin Te Deum in F maj. md. (2 copies) mc, cd. td, tc. bd. (2 

copies) be, 


Great and marvellous, mc, cd, bd, be. 

In an Italian hand, but not the same as in Amner's composi- 
tions. Square notes. 

(To be continued,) 


The two great architectural attractions of Laon are the cathedral an4 
its subordinate buildings, and the fine church of S. Martin. They are 
situated at the two extremities of the long narrow ridge on which the 
town is built, which towards the east falls precipitously on three 
sides almost from the very walls of the cathedral down to the broad 
vast plain which extends as far as the eye can reach, and from all parts 
of which the grand mass of the building, with its almost nnrhralled 
cluster of steeples » is seen standing — just as our own glorioua Lincoln 
— on the very spot of all others fitted for a diocesan throne. 

I know no church which is altogether more calculated to leave a 
lasting impression on the mind than the cathedral. What is wantmg 
in grace and delicacy is amply atoned for in force and majesty ; tod the 

Arekiieeiwral Notes in Finance. No. IV. 179 

oeM of the plan, the short period which seems to have elapsed 
its comroenceinent and completioa, and the almost entire ah- 
later additions or alterations, combine to make it in every re- 
the utmost value to the architectural student. The stem, 
lajesty of its art is just what we moderu men ought to en- 
bo impress ourselves with ; but whilst I believe that all students 
5 enormously benefited, they must not come here under the 
»n that they are to see work which is pretty and attractive in 
sense or degree as S. Oaen at Rouen, or Cologne Cathedral. 
1 this church has the remarkable peculiarity of a square east end, 
dsts of a nave and choir respectively of eleven and ten bays 
1, transepts with an eastern apsidal chapel to each, a small 
u the south side of the nave, and sacristies formed in the angles 
the transepts and choir. The groining is sexpartite in the prin- 
Its, and quadripartite in the aisles ; there is a large vaulted tri- 
ind the fourfold division in height to which 1 have already re- 
ft characteristic of many of the churches of this district. But 
noteworthy feature is that the three principal facades — on the 
rth, and south — were each intended to have two towers and 
hilst a lantern crowned the crossing. No less than four of 
vers and the lantern still remain, (though without their spires, 
I an engraving by Dusommerard,) as well as the lower portion 
hers. On the east and north the cathedral is enclosed with 
5 ranges of coseval buildings belonging to the Bishop's palace, 
I the small private chapel, to which I must recur again. 
\ hear what M. Viollet Le Due says about the characteristics of 
ledral of Laon i} — *' La cath^drale de Laon conserve quelque 
son origine d^mocratique ; elle n'a pas Taspect religieux des 
le Chartres, d* Amiens ou de Reims. De loin, elle paratt un 
plut6t qu'une ^glise ; sa nef est, comparativement auz nefs 
et mcme a celle de Noyon, basse ; sa physionomie ezt^rieure 
[ue pen brutale et sauvage ; et jusqu'k ces sculptures colossales 
ix« baufs, chevauz, qui semblent garder les sommets des tours 
ade, tout concourt k produire une impression d'effroi plut6t 
ntiment religieux, lorsqu'on gravit le plateau sur lequel elle 
On ne sent pas, en voyant Notre Dame de Laon. Tempreinte 
rilisation avanc^e et polic^e comme k Paris ou k Amiens ; Ik. 
rude, hardi : c*est le monument d*un peuple entreprenant, 
e et plein d*un mAle grandeur. Ce sont les m^mes hommes 
fetrouve it Coucy-le-chateau^-c*est une race de glints." 
iisposed to think that M. Le Due scarcely values the nrchi- 
»f Laon sufficiently highly, and that he is mistaken in his idea 
emocratic character imparted to it by the turbulence of the 
at the time of its erection. It appears to me that the pecu- 
' its character is derived much more from some connection 
trman art, and I believe that the churches throughout this 
Prance ahow many evidences of such a connection. The 
of the towers of L^on is very German ; I need hardly adduce 
I ftom the Rhine district, where, as we all know, the steeples 

' Diclionnaire, Vol. 11. p. 309. 

180 Architectural Notes in Prance. No. IV. 

are treated as so many great turrets, nearly similar in aize, hdght, 
and design, whilst the crossing is often marked by a low lantern. 
The grand cathedral at Toumai in this respect resembles very strongly 
that of Laon : and if we were coming from Germany into France, we 
might at Andemach, Coblentz, Treves, and Chalons sur Mame (in 
the church of Notre Dame), see a regular sequence of buildings 
by which we should arrive without any very gheat or sensible break 
at Laon. The groined triforium is another well known German 
feature, and though the apse is a very general termination to German 
churches, it is yet not impossible that its absence at Laon may be an 
evidence of Germanic origin, as we do meet there with some ex- 
amples of the same kind. In one particular feature I am able to 
trace a most singular coincidence with a German example, to which 
however I do not wish to attach very much weight, though it is un- 
doubtedly curious. The steeples at I^on are very fine compositions— I 
should hardly speak too strongly of the steeple of the south transept, 
were I to say that it is the best designed steeple in France, — marked by 
turrets at the angles, which are either octagonal or square in plan, 
with shafts at their angles and very beautiful in their effect. In the 
west front one of the stages has, in these open turrets, large figures 
of oxen and other animals looking out from between the shafts on 
the city roofs far away below, — a quunt conceit, which one woold 
suppose to be a purely personal and peculiar device, and of which 
nevertheless there is an almost exact repetition in the very similar 
steeples of the grand cathedral at Bamberg. 

My belief is, that as we can trace a stream of Italian art coming to 
the south and south-west of France, and thence working on to the 
north in gradual and steady development, so we may also see the same 
thing here. Italian art first spread down the Rhine, and thence spread 
right and left, and in these border provinces of France influenced to 
a greater extent than is generally supposed the French architects. 
On their part there was a peculiar skill and art displayed which soon 
enabled them to develope from the germ which they received ; bat the 
Romanesque work out of which they developed their buildings, was of 
a different order from that which was the ground- work on which the 
architects of Poitiers, Bourges, and Chartres had to work ; the latter 
having in Italy a Byzantine origin, whilst that of the Rhine churches 
was rather Romanesque. Something therefore of the magnificent cha- 
racter of the best early French Gothic is owing to Germany, and it 
was the situation of the Isle de France, the meeting point as it were of 
these two developments, which made it the centre from which the best 
Gothic architecture of the world naturally S])rung. But whatever waa 
the history of Laon Cathedral, no one can doubt the excessive grandeur 
of the result. No doubt the magnificence of the situation, whidi recalls 
forcibly some of the most interesting of Italian cities, such as Siena 
and Perugia, has something to do with the colouring of memories of 
Laon ; but in the church itself there is but one point on which it is 
possible to feel that there is any serious shortcoming, and this, as an 
Englishman, I am almost afraid to say is the absence of an eastern apse. 
It 18 only when one travels from church to church finished with apaidal 

Archiieciural Notes in France. No. IV. 181 

choirs, that the eye sees the whole ctU of the square east end as the 
termination of the vista in a large church. But there can be no doubt 
that there is less completeness and unity of effect, fewer fine effects 
of light and shade, and altogether less skill and architectural ingenuity 
in the English plan than in the other : and though I should be sorry to 
lee the apse commonly introduced in small churches, yet I think it for- 
tonate that attention has been a good deal drawn to this matter of late 
fears, and that men have not been slow to recognize the advantage of 
importing this one foreign practice at any rate into our own country. 
Both externally and internally the east end of Laon is deficient in effect, 
ind gives the impression of being low and awkward in proportion, 
rhere is an eastern triplet which comes down very near to the floor, and 
I large rose window over it ; an arcade of open arches, flanked on either 
lide by a pinnacle, conceals the lower part of the gable. This elevation 
is indeed the worst thing in the whole church, and contrasts unfavour- 
ibly with that of the north transept. This is perhaps a little later in 
date, and owes much to the irregularity of outline caused by the com- 
pletion of one only of its steeples. It has the peculiarity of two double 
doors ; and the large rose window composed of eight octofoiled circles 
inrrounding a ninth, is of rare beauty. It is to be prized the more, 
too, because in the fourteenth century there was a plan for its removal, 
of which we have curious evidence : one of the side jambs and part of 
the arch of a large Middle-Pointed window having been inserted by 
cutting away the wall close to a buttress in such a way as to disturb 
very little of the original work, and yet to afford us a very curious evi- 
dence of the way in which alterations of this kind were made by the 
medieval masons, without the introduction of a single shore or sup- 
port of any kind. Fortunately the alteration was stopped just where it 
ought to have been, after it had afforded evidence of the customs of the 
masons, but before it had destroyed a perfect First-Pointed fa9ade ; and 
I suppose that by this time we have outlived the rage for Middle- 
Pointed work so far that it would be difficult indeed to find any one so 
wrong-headed as not to be grateful for the stoppage of the alteration at 
the point at which we see it now. Of the western fa9ade I can say but 
little. It has been my fortune to see it twice, but an evil fate has so co- 
vered it with scaffolding at one time, and taken down and rebuilt so much 
■t another, that I have only been able to guess at its general effect. The 
vettem doorways are adorned with sculpture, and this is almost the 
MEdy place in the church in which figure sculpture still remains ; but 
the whole exterior of the church is remarkable for the fine architectural 
Bharacter of the sculpture of foliage, which is used with special lavish- 
Beta along almost all the stringcourses. I hardly know any finer work 
of its kind, but it is altogether conventional in its treatment, and er- 
ranged with very particular reference to architectural effect, the foliage 
in each bay being very nearly identical in its design. A peculiarity in 
the external effect of the church is the lighting of the triforium u ith 
Mparate windows, so that we have three heights of windows in the de- 
ration belonging to the usle, triforium, and clerestory. 

Of the vnrious steeples which adorn the church, and whose nhnrac- 
^ is geneimlly very similar, the most beautiful is i think that of Ui\t 

182 ArekUectural Notes in France. No. IV. 

south transept. The lower stages are lighted with couplets of lancets, 
and have buttresses at their angles ; above the roof line square pin- 
nacles are set diagonally at the angles, and in the topmost stage the 
tower is an octagon in plan with octagonal angle pinnacles resting on 
the square pinnacles below, and lighted by lancet windows of very 
light proportions. The octagonal pinnacles are composed entirely of 
shafts supporting arches, and are of two stages in height ; and within 
them are contrived some newel staircases of exquisite design. They 
consist of a series of delicate shafts — one on each step, and supporting 
another above : the capitals of these shafts are all well carved and 
with great variety : the effect of this winding cluster of shafts seen 
through and behind the shafts of the pinnacles, is a great lesson in the 
beauty of shafts and the value of scientific construction. Much of the 
beauty of the design is owing to the very light and airy character of 
these angle pinnacles, and it is much to be deplored that the spires 
shown in Dusommerard^s view no longer exist. 

The small cloister on the south side of the nave is one of the features 
to which it would be unpardonable not to refer. It forms only one side 
of the enclosure, the east and west ends being occupied by the chapter 
room and a groined chapel projecting from the south wall of the nave, 
whilst the wall of the aisle forms the north side. The merit of this 
cloister is, therefore, not its extent, but the beauty of its design. The 
windows are of two lights, and above these is a quatrefoil opening en- 
closed within a circular moulding, round which are pierced sixteen 
small circles. The tracery was glazed, though the lower part of the 
windows appears to have been always open as it is at present. The 
whole design is a very good example of plate tracery. The outer wall 
of the cloister abuts on the street, and though only pierced with smill 
square windows, is yet so skilfully buttressed and finished with a cor- 
nice so finely sculptured, as to be a very successful architectural fea- 
ture. At the angle of this wall near the south transept doorway, s 
buttress is brought out from the transept, and against it is placed stuid- 
iog on a corbel a grand angel under a canopy which now holds a sun- 
dial ; and though the dial is not old, I suppose, to judge by the position 
of the hand, that it takes the place of one coeval with the fabric. The 
angle of this buttress coming forward rather awkwardly in front of the 
door, is cut back in a very skilful manner, and has two recessed shafts 
with capitals and bases, affording a capital example of angle decoration. 

There is not much of which I need make special mention in the in- 
terior. The main columns are generally plain cylinders, with veiy 
large capitals from which the groining shafts rise ; these are banded 
very frequently in their height with bad effect. There is the fourfokl 
division in height to which I have already adverted, and considerable 
matter of study in the sculpture of the capitals which is however in 
some cases rather too rude and early in its character. 

There is some very fine early glass in the eastern windows of the 
choir. In the transept there are two arches across next the wall, sup- 
porting a floor on a level with and connecting the triforia, the spacious- 
ness of which is quite wonderful. They are groined throughout, and 
the views of the church obtained from them are very good. I found 

Arckiieetural Notes in France. No. IV. 188 

Kiddle- Pointed screens dividing the several hays of the triforium 
oaTe, and there was a good deal of 1 3th century glass lying on 
and about to nndergo restoration. Considerable alterations 
ade in the last century hy the insertion of chapels between the 
les of the choir, but these do not detract much from the general 
f the church, which exhibits a degree of general uniformity 
to be paralleled save at our own Salisbury, 
ink it admits of a fair doubt whether such a cluster of similar 
•teeples at regular intervals around one building, as we have 
Duld ever be perfectly satisfactory ; but of the beauty of their 
taken separately, there cannot be two opinions. It is possible 
the centnd lantern bad been carried up to a great height, what- 
tfect there b might have been rectified, but there is no sign of 
;h intention. 

:he east and north of the cathedral are very large remains of 
ga of the same date as the cathedral, and fairly perfect in their 
d effect. Towards the interior they all rest on op^en arcades, 
on the exterior the outline is well and picturesquely broken by 
I of turrets projecting from the walls of the great hall of the 
•aid to have been buUt by Bishop Garoier in a.d. 1^9. 
ffishop's Chapel, a groined building with nave and aisles, and 
■tages in height, still remains. It is of slightly earlier date than 
bedral, is covered with a roof of one span, and has a very small 
the east end. 

e seems to have been a communication directly from the 
• Palace to the eastern part of the cathedral ; and if the people 
Q were as turbulent as they are said to have been, the Bishops 
ise so to place their palace, and so to connect it with the cathe- 
to enable themselves to stand a siege if need be. 
r the cathedral, the church of S. Martin, at the opposite end of 
TS, is the principal architectural relic still left in Laon. Like 
liedral, it is remarkable for its square east end. It is cruciform 
, and consists of nave and aisles, choir without aisles, and tran- 
ritfa chapels on the east side. Two towers are placed in the 
between the transepts and nave. The general foundation of the 
B Romanesque work, but the choir and transepts are of a rather 
Barly I^rst-Pointed, much more German than French in its 
tr» and the western facade is one of the best examples that I 
i a Middle* Pointed front to a church of moderate pretensions. 
irlj-Pointed work at the east is remarkable for the very heavy 
er of its mouldings and string-courses, the use of both round 
Dted arches, and the very ingenious arrangement of the chapels 
east wall of the transept, and of the buttresses above them. 
dutfiels are formed under two bays of vaulting, so that the 
i; abaft and buttress come over the point of the arch. The 
ia well groined. The steeples are poor in character and rather 
leant, but they appear never to have been completed, and in the 
mrliood of the cathedral it was dangerous to venture upon any 
Moat careful and noble work. 
«nt front ia Tery ornate, and is marked chiefly by the fine 


184 All Saints', Margaret Street. 

octangular pinnacles at the angles of the clerestory and by the large 
sculpture of S. Martin in a quatrefoil which fills the gable. The 
three western doorways are composed of a succession of small reedy 
mouldings, and against the buttresses beyond the central doorway are 
figures of saints considerably mutilated. 

Almost the only other interesting church is a small building attached 
now to an educational institution for boys. A priest told me it had 
belonged to the Templars, and at any rate it is an octagonal building 
with a small chancel on its eastern side, and a smaller circular apse. 
At the west end there is a small porch. Hie whole is in a late Roman- 
esque style, and very small, the external measurement of each side of the 
octagon being only about eleven feet. 

Here and there are to be seen remains of houses and gateways, bat 
there is nothing of sufiicient interest to require a special note here, and 
the only other building I need mention is the very curious church at 
Vaux sous Laon, a village at the foot of the hill below the citadel and 
cathedral. This has a western porch or narthex, nave and aisles of five 
bays, transepts and low central steeple, and a choir and aisles of three 
bays, groined, and both loftier and wider than the nave. The east end 
is square, and has a triplet and a large rose window above, very similar 
in design to the east end of the cathedral. The columns are cylindrical, 
with simply carved caps of bold design. The choir is all First-Pointed, 
the nave of earlier date and much simpler character and not groined. 

I must conclude this brief notice of Laon and its buildings with joit 
mentioning two of the existing buildings in the neighbourhood which 
ought to be seen and examined. These are the magnificent granary of 
the abbey of Vauclair near Laon, and the still more interesting hos^tal 
for lepers of Tortoir : both of these are figured by M. Verdier in hii 
" Architecture Civile et Domestique," and appear to be of rare beanty 
and interest. 

Obobqb Edmund Stbut. 


Thb completion and consecration of this memorable church demands 
from us more than a mere passing notice. There has been no church 
built since the revival of ecclesiastical architecture among us in wlaA 
we have been more intimately concerned and more deeply interested 
than in this : and if we claim some trifling share of praise for its merits, 
we deserve some part of the blame for its defects. It is unfoftmiate 
for all parties, — for ourselves not less than for its distingoished arehi* 
tect, Mr. Butterfield, — that so long a time has imavoidably eknaed 
since the first conception of this design. It is not fair to criticiBe it as 
a work of to-day. All Saints* church was begun ten years ago* and 
if we would understand its true merits, and its historical impdrtaiioe 
in the eocktiological revival, we must bear this fiact conatantly in wad. 
Our readers scarcely need to be told that the erection of 

An Saints', Margaret Street. 185 

B8 this was a day-dream of ours from the firfit. The idea fruc« 
Other parties, interested in the old cbupei on the site of which 
• church now stands, had entertained a similar project. The 
I were merged into one ; and after many years we witness their 
lishment. Regrets are useless : but we can see now that the 
)f site, dictated chiefly by considerations of sentiment, was unfor- 
Great expense was incurred in obtaining the requisite ground : 
ar all the area is too small and otherwise inconvenient. Neigh- 
hnildings deprive the church altogether of an east window and 
lights to the north aisle : and the capacity of the interior is 
inadequate to the large congregations which its attractions will 
J to invite. The latter defect nothing can remedy : the former 
n neutralized hy the scope it has given to Mr. Dyce's pencil, 
e are few who will read these pages who are not perfectly fa- 
iith the actual building upon which we are commenting ; so 
is almost superfluous to put on record that its ground* plan con- 
a broad nave, with two aisles and arcades of three wide arches ; 
^aged tower occupying the most westernly bay of the south 
od being used, in its lowest stage, as a baptistery ; of a vaulted 
I, with chancel-aisles to its western part, and a sacristy on the 
ide. The most marked architectural characteristics within are 
leial force and power of the design ; the massive proportions of 
ails ; the great height of the nave, and the fine developement of 
restory ; the bold span of the chancel arch, the stately groining 
chance], and the open tracery which fills the side arches of the 
I. Doubtless some of these merits have been carried to excess. 
iage of capitals and string-courses — in violent reaction from the 
ess and prettiness of horrowed details — is often exaggerated in 
rM but honest originality. In some later churches we have 
a tendency to the opposite extreme of an excessive naturalism 
1 or folial ornamentation. The just mean would be something 
D this and Mr. Butterfield^s outspoken conventionalism. The 
sture of All Saints' answers to the earlier *'Pree-Hafiaelitism " 
lister art, before its truthful principles had been exaggerated 
eir opposite errors. And curiously enough there is here to be 
d the germ of the same dread of beauty, not to say the same 
ite preference of ugliness, which so characterises in fuller de- 
iient the later paintings of Mr. Miilais and his followers. But 
batements do not in any way diminish our general admiration 
manly and austere design which is embodied in this church. It 
that we should have among us monuments of the sterner and 
Puritanic developement of Christian art; for the tendencies 
day are uudeniahly overmuch in the contrary direction. There 
ay artists who can produce graceful and pleasing interiors : Mr. 
Ldd's praise is that in this impressive church, in spite of small- 
scale, he has approached to the sublime of architecture. 
, as to the exterior, his success is yet more unequivocal. The 
in and treatment of his material, red hrick banded with black, 
masterly. He was the first to show us that rod brick is the 
aiding material for London, and to prove to us that its use vi'a% 

B D 

186 AU Saints, Margaret Street. 

c ompatible with the highest flights of architectare. In the matter of 
b anding his red brick with black and other colours, we chiefly admire 
h}% moderation. His numerous imitators in this popular style of con- 
structional polychrome have often overlooked his example of discretion. 
The best feature of the exterior is beyond doubt the tower and spire. 
Tbe dignified proportions of the former, the admirable treatment of 
the enriched belfry- stage, and the striking outline of the lofty spire, 
have secured a host of admirers and have outlived the hostile criticism 
which was at first provoked by their novelty. In the houses attached 
to the church for the use of the clergy, Mr. Butterfield has been, we 
think, far less successful. 

Returning inside the church to consider its coloured decorations, 
which after all are the most striking feature of the interior, we are met 
by a host of difliculties. First of all however to note the points which 
deserve unqualified commendation. It is common enough now-a-dtyi 
to see polished granite, and our native marbles and alabaster, and 
Minton*s glazed and coloured tiles, used for constructional decoration. 
But almost the first example of this practice was set in All Saints' 
church. We owe a great deal to the precedent a£forded by Mr. But- 
terfield for the proper use of these materials. And never have thej 
been used more lavishly than in All Saints*. All the piers and jaml^ 
shafts are of Aberdeen granite or coloured marbles ; and nearly the 
whole chancel is walled and arcaded with polished alabaster. Then 
again the low chancel- screen and the pulpit are of pure white marble 
inlaid with coloured patterns. The nave walls are lined with glased 
bricks, disposed in patterns : and this too was a welcome novelty, when 
this church was first begun. The more recent decoration of parts of 
the interior, such as the basement of the tower, with incised pattens 
on the ashlar filled with coloured mastic, is a new process whidi we 
gladly welcome and in which we see the capability of much wider sp- 
plication. The pavement, of Minton's tiles, is most successful ; and 
we think the stencilling of the bold timber roof of the nave very sa- 
tisfactory. But we cannot extend our praise to the rest of the archi- 
tect's own share in colouring the interior. The patterns in the nave, 
and over the chancel arch, seem to us abrupt, and disproportionate, and 
ungainly. They are without flow or continuity : and the colooring 
throughout is fragmentary and crude. This too is a crying fisult in 
the inlaying of the pulpit and chancel-screen : and the green voussoirs 
of the arches, in connection with the succession of other bald colours, 
are to us very displeasing. And there are some incongruities to be 
observed ; such, for instance, as the comparatively rude brickwork of 
the nave edging itself up, so to say, among the more costly materials 
of the chancel. Lastly the grisaille of the clerestory, cold and flat 
and yet spotted with gaudy blots of colour, is surely in bad taste ab- 
solutely, as well as relatively to the rest of the interior. For the rest 
of the stained glass, by M. Alfred Gerente, is of the most oppoaifee 
character. The great west window in particular throws an oter- 
whelming flood of gorgeous green and gold light into the church. Of 
the design of M. Oerente's subjects — a Root of Jesse in the west 
window, and single figures of saints in those of the aialea — the JBbfifa- 

AU SmnUf, Margaret Street. 187 

il need not speak. It is archaic and conventional beyond de- 
3a; and *' antiqaation" has been adopted without stint. It is 
to be regretted that sach drawing should seem, from a variety 
!amatance», to have the degree of sanction which its presence in 
lorch extends to it. And as to the tone of colour, of which the 
rindow sets the pitch, opinions differ so much, and dogmatism is 
to much out of place in matters of which the eye is the ulti- 
jodge, that we will not attempt to decide the controversy to 
. as is well known, it has given rise. To our own mind, M. 
te'a colouring is harmonious and beautiful, though perhaps over 
nd luxuriant. The motif of the west window both in subject 
ilonr, is the Jesse window of Wells : and the French artist, we 
is not responsible for reproducing even too faithfully the faults, 
f be faults, of the original which was proposed to him, with the 
It of all parties concerned, for his guidance. More than this on 
BCt which has caused some misunderstandings we do not feel 
upon to say, holding as we do an opinion about half way be- 
the two extremes, and sympathising in some respects with both 

more sure of his principles than either of his colleagues, Mr. 
has frescoed the blank east wall of the church, and painted the 
ii the sanctuary and the groined roof of the chancel in a style 
, in our judgment, leaves nothing to be desired. There is no 
I in our Communion that can approach All Saints' in the dignity 
•uty of the adornment of its most sacred part. It must always 
retted that Christian sculpture has not been admitted to a share 
decoration of this costly shrine ; but at any rate Christian paint* 
8 lent its most effectual aid. It is a happy augury for the future 
ich a church as this has been imagined, completed, approved of, 
rmally consecrated by our ecclesiastical authorities to the service 
1 for Whose honour it has been intended. The ceremony of last 
lay* ccnnciding with the completion of the twentieth year of our 
ioe» sets the seal, in some feort, to the final triumph of the cause 
riatian art to which our labours have been devoted. If any one 
understand what has been effected for Christian art in England 
last quarter of a century, he should visit in succession first any 
I of that date, and then All Saints', 8. Marylebone. 
•objects of Mr.Dyce*s great altar piece— which it is surprising that 
has yet engraved — were painted in reverse order to their icono- 
aequence. The last painted is the most beautiful and touching 
whole. The architectural framework consists — as our readers 
«tly aware — of two arcades of panels* one above the other, each 
dng seven niches, the central ones being wider than the rest. 
the apringing of the vault, and separated from the arcades by a 
oomice, is a still wider field for pictorial design. The lower 
of panels contain a group of the Nativity between six of the 
ea; the upper one the Crucifixion between the other six Apos- 
bove all our Loan is represented enthroned with a hierarchy sur* 
■g Him. The last subject, inadequately seen in respect of light, 
■gvandlj treated ; the background is blue paling upwaxda. 'Vda 

188 AU Saints', Margaret Street. 

figures and groups below are backed by a rich dark diaper. Into tl 
twelve Apostolic figures Mr. Dyce has thrown a novelty and a distin 
tiveness, which is the highest praise, considering how the subject h 
been forestalled by some of his greatest predecessors. But the Cmc 
fixion and the Nativity deserve yet higher admiration. In the form 
our Lord's figure, drawn with great purity and the deepest reverenti 
feeling, is treated with the exactly right limit of conventionalism : tl 
weeping Mother and S. John stand on either side of the Cross. Sti 
more attractive perhaps is the lowest panel, in which the Blessed Vi 
gin holds her Divine Infant, and three angels behind a low wall star 
in adoring attendance. This group has been accused of a tendency I 
sentimentalism, but we cannot share the objection. There is indeed 
s|>eciai sweetness in this design, but no declination that we can pei 
ceive from a standard of the highest idealism. 

These beautiful frescoes do not suffer, it must be owned, from tk 
deeply tinted light of the French windows, to which probably the 
accomplished author conformed his work. Happily Mr. Dyce all 
undertook the {minting and gilding of the parts of the chancel whic 
immediately surround his pictures. Nothing can be better than tli 
Jesuit. The tone and feeling of these enrichments recall to us tli 
most successful of the polychromed interiors of Italian Pointed : ao< 
we must plead guilty to a wish that the whole interior had beei 
coloured by the same hand. 

Finally we have to notice the arrangements of the interior. These 
it need not be said, are admirable, though not faultless. The phii 
alabaster walling beneath the frescoes wants further architectural en 
richments ; and the metaL cross affixed to it just above the altar, t 
more conspicuous than graceful. But the levels of the sanctutrj 
&c., are well managed. The stalls, with subsellse, are low and thd 
ornamentation is not very effective, llieir stone flooring is a mistaki 
if only for acoustic reasons. The brass lettern is grandiose, and tfa 
metal parcloses are powerfully designed. The organ, divided into tm 
stands half in each chancel- aisle. It is played from the north side. C 
the pulpit we have spoken, so far as regards its inlaying. It is in deag 
rather awkwardly managed, being too irregular and angular in plan 
and it seems to want a plinth. The nave will be seated with moveab 
chairs ; a decision for which it is impossible to be too thankful. Tl 
font stands under the arch connecting the tower with the south aitl 
The cover, somewhat infelicitously composed of wood and brass, hi 
the appearance of too great heaviness in spite of its strong supports 1 
two pulleys. Upon the whole, however, we have never had occask 
to notice a more suitable and dignified adaptation to the Anglican ritQ 
than this magnificent church presents. 

We renew our congratulations to all the parties concerned in tl 
great work on the conclusion of their labours. They have all deaerft 
well of the cause of religious art. To ourselves it is a source of i 
small pride and satisfaction that one of our most valued coadjutors h 
not only contributed with his proverbial munificence to the funds of tl 
undertaking, but has been from first to last the originator, and advise 
snd the ultimately responsible director of the works. This ahouid 1 



The Second Choir Festival at Southwell Minster. 189 

reckoned as another claim which Mr. Beresford-Hope has fairly estab- 
lished OQ the gratitude of the Church of England. We do not say 
that All Saints', Margaret Street, is a perfect ' model-church.' We 
have not scrupled here, as always, to criticize freely. But we assert, 
without fear of contradiction, that our generation has seen no greater or 
more memorable work, or one more pregnant with important conse- 
qoeoces to the future of art in England. 



Wx have great satisfaction in reporting another successful meeting of 
the choirs of Nottinghamshire in Southwell Minster, on the ^2$th of 
April kst, — the very anniversary of the former one. 

it is not easy to exaggerate the value and imi)ortance of these choir 
festivals, or of the associations under whose auspices they are organ- 
ic, aad of whose activity and success they are the result, as well as 
I the test. It is to us a matter of no small surprise and regret that the 
ttcellent example of the midland counties has not, hitherto at least, 
l>een more extensively followed. We confess that we had hoped to be 
called upon to record other choir- meetings during the past year, besides 
those of Southwell, Ely, and Lichfield. We can scarcely imagine it 
possible that the numbers of clergymen from other dioceses, who have 
s*8isted at such ceremonials, should be content without endeavouring 
to introduce the like into their own neighbourhoods. Can there be 
inj truth in the statement so often made, that the cathedrals them- 
telres, which certainly ought to be foremost to encourage and foster 
aoy movement for the improvement of the music of the Church, are in 
fact, in one way or another, very frequently the main obstacles to choir 
festivals ; which, in most instances, can only be held in the mother 
church of the diocese ? We trust not. 

The last year's festival at Southwell, as our readers may recollect, 
was conspicuous for the employment of the Plain Song of the Church, 
to a degree till then unprecedented. The success of that experiment 
was so complete, that it was at once determined to repeat it, on a still 
more extended scale, at the next festival, — that, namely, which is 
the subject of our present notice. We could have wished that it had 
been found possible, this year, to adhere exclusively to the ancient 
music. Bat we fear it must he granted that a certain concession to 
tastes formed in the modern corrupt schools of Church music is, on 
such occasions as these, not only tolerable, but necessary. Still, we 
cannot help longing for the time, which we firmly believe must arrive 
sooner or later, when the vast superiority of the Ancient Church Tones 
over the aoomalous compositions called Anglican Chants, for the con- 
gregatkmal execution of Psalm and Canticle, shall be acknowledged 
and acted upon. 
The aervioes at Southwell this year, as last, were prefaced \x^ ^xl \m* 

190 The Second Choir Festival at Southwell Minster. 

posing procession of about ^60 choristers, lay clerks, and priests, all 
vested, and chanting *' Quam dilecta** to the 8th Tone, 2nd' ending. 
The procession moved in two columns from the chapter-house, down 
the north aisle of the nave ; and, wheeling round at the west end, pro- 
ceeded up the nave. The bishops (there were three present — Lincoln, 
Newfoundland, and Western New York) with their attendants, entered 
by the west door, and passed to the choir between the two lines drawn 
up {Decani on the north, Cantoris on the south, according to the use of 
Southwell, which is appropriately followed throughout the county) 
along the whole length of the nave. 

For the Morning Service, the arrangement of the Manual of Plain 
Song was used, and the effect was admirable. The responses, parti- 
cularly those of the Litany, were given with great accuracy and mas- 
siveness. The same may be said of the hymn. Chorus Nova HierU' 
salem, from the Hymnal Noted, wedded, however, to the melody of Ai 
Coenam Agni, 64". The Psalms and Canticles were sung with unfnil- 
ing precision, and with (an unusual attribute of parish choirs) no little 
refinement. We fancied, however, that the chanting was not quite so 
spirited as last year. We would suggest that, if it be found absolutely 
necessary to make a decided pause at every comma in the verses of the 
Psalms, about half of those points might be dispensed with, without 
the least detriment to the sense. May we also be allowed to represent 
to the very able organist of Southwell, whose apparent grasp of the 
principles of Gregorian music is, considering the school in which be 
was educated, very remarkable, that the temptation to vary the accom- 
panying harmonies of the Psalms almost ad infinitum, must not be en- 
tirely yielded to ? There should be, we think, a reason, to be foond 
in the words themselves, for every fresh combination of chords. 

The Communion Service, also from the Manual of Plain Song, was 
excellent, as far as the choirs were concerned; but we must again 
enter our respectful protest against the mode of celebrating the Holy 
Mysteries, adopted by the bishop of the diocese. Until our clergy, 
whether bbhops, priests, or deacons, are " mediocriter docti in pltmo 
cantu,^* however well-trained the choirs may be, the work of our dunral 
associations will be only half done. It is intolerable that, where such 
evident care has been taken, as at Southwell, that all the senricei 
should be worthily rendered, the chiefest of all, the Holy Sacrifice 
itself, should be marred by the unwillingness or incompetence of the 
celebrant — usually, of course, the principsd dignitary present — to redts 
the very easy Plain Song of the English Liturgy. 

The number of communicants was very large. Among the members 
of choirs present we were glad to observe numerous instances of un- 
affected devotion and reverence. On the other hand, the behaviour of 
a considerable portion was far from satisfactory. 

At Evensong, the Psalms and Canticles were extremely well song to 
Anglican chants, with an unvarying vocal harmony. The Preces were 
the same as in the morning. A hymn from Redhead's collection, and 
Tallis' canon in G for Bishop Ken's Evening Hymn, were snag* the 
one before, the other after, the sermon, which was delivered in die 
nave, the clergy and choirs standing in front of the pulpit. 

The Royal Academy and Architectural Exhibition. 191 

We mii«t not omit to mention the judicious selection* and fair (but 
not perfect) execution, of two well-known anthems, the one at morn- 
ing, the other at evening, prayer, — *' If Goo be for us/' by Pales- 
trina, and '* Sing to the 'Lord,*' better known as "The proud have 
iigged pita," by Dr. Tye. 

In concluding our notice of the second Southwell Choir Festival, we 
\Kg to offer our hearty congratulations to all who have been concerned 
in its organisation. It is no secret that the energetic Rector of South- 
ireU la the person to whom the choirs of Nottinghamshire are mainly 
ndebted for their efficiency. The appointment of a travelling choir- 
natter has been evidently of immense service. We would suggest that 
3ne» or perhaps two, of the resident clergy should undertake the office 
>f aaremonarius, for the sake of ensuring the due effect of the proces- 
uon, which forms too important an element in gatherings of this kind 
x> be left altogether to chance. 


Wm promised in our last number to offer a comparative review of the 
Bodeaiology contained in the Architectural Exhibition and in the Ar- 
efaitectural department of the Royal Academy's annual assemblage. 
[n the fulfilment of this task we find ourselves beset with the some- 
what whimsical difficulty of one element in the comparison having 
Bcariy attained its vanishing point. What may be in store for archi- 
tecture in the Royal Academy of the future we cannot guess, — whether 
die Conduit Street Grallery will hold its own in the race with the pluck to 
vhidi it owes establishment we can only hope ; but certain it is that 
Ilia year will not be the one to which the hiture historian of British 
mhitecture will turn back with thorough exultation. 

We will commence our survey with new churches, — not too curiously 
iOfcatigating whether the glowing paper indicates a building really to 
be oonatructed, or one of that airy class "' submitted in competition.'* 
One oi the most noticeable occurs early in the Royal Academy (1060), 
lad is entitled " Interior of a small church designed in the Early 
duistiaii style, and proposed to be erected in Yorkshire," by Mr. 
Sidney Smirke. It is absolutely and literally a small basilica, with 
two aiales, the altar placed on the chord of the apse — the walls 
bang covered with decorative painting, into which symbols are iutro- 
iooed* and the aisles divided from the nave by pillars of green marble 
nr tcagliola. We do not of course recommend or commend such an 
ibaiidoiiment of our distinctive northern and pointed traditions, never- 
dieleaa we indicate the attempted experiment with no unkindly feel- 
ingi. Mr. Street contributes very pretty sketches of two small churches. 
He is alio noticeable in the Architectural Exhibition for his intended 
sharch in Westminster, which we have described elsewhere, and for 
a lerj nch aeolptcured pulpit. Mr. Clarke curiously sends the in- 

192 Architecture at the Royal Academy 

terior of his church at Heywood to the Academy, and the exterior 
to the EzhibitioQ. The unfortunate (because violated) competitioo 
for the R. C. church of S. Peter and S. Paul at Cork, enriches the 
Royal Academy with the interior and exterior, both of Mr. Murray's 
(1062, 1100) and Mr. J. P. Joneses (1076, 1113) churches. In the 
former a not very successful attempt to combine the aisled and aa- 
ditorium systems is shown, involving in forms apparently derived 
from the trefoiled section, an extremely complicated roof. Mr. Jones's 
church is a starved cathedral, with double aisles and triforium, in 
a feeble kind of early continental Pointed, but with the inevitable 
English wooden roof to the nave, exhibiting externally some faint 
attempts at coloured effects with red brick. Mr. Goldie gives (R. A. 
1130; and 350, Architectural Exhibition,) the east end of his church 
at Scarborough, which has the peculiarity of having a windowless apse 
relieved by an external arcaded gallery. Hie steeple presenting a short 
spire, has a solid sea-side look about it ; but we must counsel Mr. 
(}^oldie not to repeat this t}'pe too often. It occurs again in his church 
of S. Patrick at Bandon (Arch. Ex. 35), which has moreover a three- 
sided apse rather deficient in character. 

Of the various churches shown in Conduit Street we only pretend 
to notice a few, and we will begin with a brown-looking model on the 
table, which seems to indicate a church wherein a straddling nave ia 
that no style of Italian which is so popular with conventicle builders, 
propped by a consumptive tower, effloresces eastward into a shallofr 
chancel and transepts weighted by a cupola on an octagonal tamboar, 
and propped by four more little — shall we call them towers ? each stuck 
into its own corner, and each capped by its own little capping. Inside, 
the straddling nave boasts of columns and aisles, and the whole seems 
fitted up in a style of chaste simplicity. The author of this " labour 
of an age in piled stones'' is •' W. Tite, Esq., M.P." The locale is 
Gerard's Cross, Bucks, and the building, which we hear is to hold 400 
persons, is not yet consecrated. It is something to be possessed of 
Mr. Tite's ideal of a village church. 

Mr. Collins's new church at Hooton Park, Cheshire (135 and 151) 
now being erected for R. C. Naylor to hold 200, is in an Italianising 
type of Romanesque. We should of course have preferred Pointed. 
But no cost seems to have been spared in the design, which we are glad 
to see includes in the plan (which rightly is given) an apse .wiih 
eastern aisle. The building is cruciform with a low octagonal lantern 
spire. The nave is of three bays, and all the pillars are red granite. 
llie least satisfactory feature is a low campanile attached by an open 
cloister to the south side. The material of the building is red and 
white sandstone. 

Mr. George's interior of a " cathedral " (1 124) must be noticed as t 
specimen of perverted taste; the style is Norman, with sprawling 
sprites of modem Italian feeling hitched into all possible spandrilt. 

Mr. Hellyer's new church at Kingsclere, Woodlands, Hants, (322) is 
a Middle- Pointed study, which would have been more in date some 
twelve years since. We should add five more to Messrs. VulUaaiy 
and Johnson's proposed new church at Rochester (337).-- Mr, Coe^ 

and ArehiteeitBral Exhibition, 1859. 198 

desigo of the church lately erected for the Bishop of Brechin at 

Dundee (Arch. £z. 301) exhibits the west end of a small building, 
with a north aiale and a small bell spirelet to the south. 

On the whole we think that among the new churches which the 
Architectural Exhibition contains, by no means the least creditable, is 
ooe of which all the designs (the plans inclusive) are honestly shown 
in a portfolio lying on the table, and which will accordingly, in all pro- 
bability, be overlooked by forty-nine out of every fifty visitors. The 
architect is Mr. Lewis, and the building is offered for the small sum 
of £3.000 to be erected at Clapham. The style is Early Middle- 
Pointed, and the plan is cruciform, with aisles somewhat, we fear, too 
long. The nave has five bays, and the chancel levels seem well 
managed, while the fittings are of a satisfactory character. We do 
not imagine that the steeple is included in the computation. 

Our readers will not have forgotten that more than civic act of perfidy 
by which the Town Council of Edinburgh strove year after year, until 
happily arrested by the heavier hand of the court of law, to break faith 
with Parliament and the public, and convert the means entrusted to 
them for the rebuilding of Trinity Ck>]lege Church to their own ends. 
In pursuance of this disreputable object, a competition was announced 
Uxt a new church " on the same model" as the old one, i.e. Oothic of 
some sort or other, suited to the ritual of the Kirk as viewed through 
Town Council spectacles. Several of the tangible results of this ela- 
borate mala fides hang on a screen in the Architectural Exhibition, and 
we are glad to see tibat, as a body, they are such as are truly con- 
gioous to a competition so engaged in. That by Mr. Goldie is the 
beat, but even that is flat and spiritless. Closely adjacent are some of 
the tenders for Mr. Spurgeon's non -Pointed tabernacle. 

We pass over sundry cemetery chapels in the Architectural Exhi- 
bition. The only one we can honestly praise is by Mr. Withers. 

Church restorations are, we are sorry to say, " conspicuous by their 
ibsence '* in both exhibitions. Indeed, we only find Mr. Slater's very 
effectiye uncoloured drawing of the choir of Sherborne (R. A. 1091), 
Id notice among larger works. Mr. Withers sends several of the parish 
efaorches which he has restored with his accustomed carefulness and 
|ood taste. 

Messrs. Prichard and Seddon present (R. A. 1050) their rehabilita- 
tion of Christchurch College. Brecon, as originally designed, with the 
ichool-house raised upon an open cloister. We sincerely regret that 
the judgments of the local authorities will probably necessitate the 
wppreaaion of the latter very telling feature. The design, by the same 
iffchitecta, for the Oothicising of Patington Park, Warwickshire, (R.A. 
1109.) appears to convert a substantial mansion into a most picturesque 
latline, without impairing its intrinsic comfort. 

We are gUul to see that, in his Public Rooms at Berkharosted, 
[Ajch. Ex. 3t23.) Mr. Lamb has not lapsed into his usual mannerism. 

lo Arch. Ex. 166 Mr. F. R. Wilson shows a very clever transforma- 
aoQ of aome rubhiahing old cottages and a granary into four residences 
if a sort of conventional but allowable Pointed, at Alnmouth by the 
M. in NorthnmberlAnd. 

▼Ol XX. «? c 

194 The Royal Academy and Architectural Exhibition. 

Among miscellaneous designs, a fountain at Oswestry strikes us as 
a feeble reminiscence of Mr. Barges' clever suggestion for a similar 
monument at Gloucester. In one respect, however, this design carries 
off the palm of originality ; for the architect has the quaint audacity, 
unknown to Greek or Goth, of introducing full-sized statues of naiads, 
as if paddling in the water. 

Mr. Goldie's altar in the R. C. church of S. Vincent, at Cork, (Arch. 
Ex. 334,) is a rich specimen of that modem developement of the re- 
table, with apparatus for Benediction, which the present Roman ritual 
has called forth. We doubt, however, the effect of the double scale of 
the larger figures in the niches brought into immediate juxtaposition 
with the smaller proportion of those in the groups. Mr. Goldie (Arcb. 
Ex. 649) gives some pretty studies inspired by Mr. Scott's work on 
Domestic Architecture. Mr. Shaw's two sketches for organs (Arcb. 
Ex. 153) are somewhat rich, and strongly remind us of Mr. Street's 
style. Mr. Blomfield's public drinking fountains (Arch. Ex. 56) are 

For what, if it were not so ridiculous, might be justly called pro- 
fanity, commend us to a sketch for a small Gothic villa, with farm 
premises adjacent, in the Architectural Exhibition. The premises are 
so grouped together as to mimic an early apsidal church. 

We have alluded to the series of competition desigpis for Trbitj 
Church, Edinburgh, in the Architectural Exhibition. On the same screen 
are hung sundry of the tenders made for the EUesmere memorial, in 
Jiancashire, — a memorial assuming the form of a tower. Grothic art is 
Gk>thic art ; it will, we believe, survive much ; and we ought, we sup- 
pose, to be glad at its most outri developements. Otherwise, we ooii* 
fess to no little dismay at this gaunt series of variations on the Italian 
Pointed campanile, and the baronial fortalice. 

Apropos of towers, we may note that Mr. Street contributes (Arch. 
Ex. 343,) a most carefiiUy executed coloured drawing, on a large 
scale, of the Campanile of Florence. We are glad to see the name of 
an architect of reputation attached to such a work. Mr. Goodchild 
gives us, in two perspective interiors (Arch. Ex. 328 and 329), Wren's 
first design for S. Paul's Cathedral, created from the model now in the 
Architectural Museum. The sight of these drawings makes na even 
more thankful than that model, that this design was not carried out. 
It appears to us to possess all the points in which the cathedral is now 
open to criticism, with a much smaller proportion of its redeeming 

Mr. Burges, with a happy versatility, appears in the centre of the 
Architectural Exhibition with a Gothic sideboard, profusely painted by 
Mr. Westlake with scenes from the French 13th century poem of the 
martyrdom of S. Bacchus, and heads in medallions symbolising various 
wines, — sherry, for example, as a fair, and port as a dark beanty ; 
champagne perhaps too coquettish, if the idea did not accord with the 
nature of that over-praised wine. A frame (120) gives us the repre- 
sentations of some other still more remarkable pieces of fomitore. 
designed by Mr. Barges, and richly decorated. 

As usual, Mr. Hardman and Mr. Hart display their adiievements ifl 

Ecclemlogical Society, 195 

netal work in the Architectural Exhibition ; and to our surprise we 
iod the Patent Wood-canring Company returned to life. In a small 
aitalogoe of their works which is appended to their stall, we find that 
iie wood earrings at S. Barnabas', Pimlico, emanated from their 

Numerous sketches of painted windows, chiefly by Messrs. Clayton 
ind Bell, Mr. Powell (representing Mr. Hardman), and Messrs. Lavers 
lod Barraud are to be found on the walls of the Architectural Exbi- 
)ition. To enter into an examination of them would carry us beyond 
imits. The sculpture room at the Royal Academy contains (1259) 
ifr. Philip's recumbent effigy of Queen Katherine Parr, executed for 
«r restored high tomb in the chapel of Sudeley Castle, Gloucestershire. 

We sincerely regret to have to part with the Architectural Exhibi- 
oof of the present year with such modified praise. But architecture 
tost continue to fail in its exhibitions so long as it continues its at- 
itupt to amuse the public by competing with the legitimate exhibitions 
f pictures through pretty drawings and smart frames. 


. CoMM nrsB Meeting was held at Arklqw House on Friday, May 6th, 
850: present, A.J. B. Beresford-Hope, Esq., in the chair; F. H. 
Kckinton, Esq., the Rev. S. S. Greatheed, the Rev. W. Scott, and the 
l«v. B. Webb, 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. The Rev. 
L H. Sperling, M.A., Rector of Wicken Bonant, Essex, and author of 
^edniological Walks in Middlesex, was elected an ordinary member. 
Ad afterwards added to the committee. 

A new number of the Dietsche Warande was received, and letters of 
Kknowledgment from the Surrey Archaeological Society. 

The committee approved of the selection by a sub-committee of a 
ast from one of the eight panels of a tomb in S. Giovanni, Verona, for 
the Bodesiological Society's prize of five guineas for coloured decora- 
ion in connection with the Architectural Museum. Mr. Beresford- 
Sope*s offer of an extra prize of three guineas, if any works should 
ippear deserving, was mentioned. The scheme of the Architectural 
llnsenm Prizes for the year, and the conditions, will be found below. 

Mr. Slater met the Committee and consulted it on a question of 
irest importance as to the proposed restoration of the choir of Chiches- 
ter cathedral. It appeared that a legacy of £2000 by the late Dean was 
to be Applied to the restoration of the choir ; and the question had arisen 
■ to the proper limits of the choir eastward and westward. The fol- 
lowing resolution was adopted : — 

«• This GomiDiitee having considered the plan of Chichester Cathedral in 
r wiKi l kw with Hr. Slaters report recommending the retention of the stalls 
■I their pNsest positkm onder the lantern, are decidedly of opinion that it 

: I 

196 EccUmlogical Society. 

would be mos^ ailvhable to retain the actual arraDgemetity not onlyofa 
archaeological but upon practical grounds. By ao doing they are of opinioii 
that the requisite arrangements for the peculiar uses of a Cathedral would be 
most completely secured, while the congregational accommodation imperatiYclj 
demanded would be most conveniently provided in the nave." 

Mr. Slater exhibited his further deaigbs for the reatoradon and re- 
arriangement bf S« Mary, Higbam Ferrers, for the new church of S. 
jMichael, ^azelbeech, Northamptonshire, for the restoration of All Saints, 
Nuseby, Northamptonshire ; and for a new school, with reading-roOka, 
&c., attached, for the pjonah of S. John Evangelist, S. Pancras, to be 
buijt in a court, leading out of Tottenham Court Road. 

M. Alfreid Oerente of Paris met the committee, and, in an account 
which he gave of ecclesioloeical urogresis. in France, ol^ehtioned that the 
Emperor bad promised thAt^^e war should not interfere with the ilk* 
mense public works now 'in hand. M. Oerente's great rose windoir 
for the south transept of Notre Dame of Pans was now ready, aad 
only waiting for the stonework to be renewed. He Imentioned the state 
of the works in the choir of Notre Dame, and as to its new spire ; and 
stated that the whole quartier of the CiU was in course of reconstmctioD 
by M. VioUet Leduc — but unfortunately in a Renaissance style. 

Mr. Truefitt met the committee and exhibited his designs for a new 
school at Aberpergwn, Glamorgai^shire,. and for the restoration of 
the curious little church of S. Andrew, Little Shelsley, Worcester- 
shire. The committee recommended strongly the retention of the high 
screen, returned from the chancel-screen, and marking off a chantry 
chapel at the eastern end of the nave on the south side. This rare 
arrangement is found also in the church of S. Mary, Fenny Bendeyf 
Derbyshire^ and has been preserved in that instance. It was ad- 
vised that the floor of this chantry should be furnished with moveable 

Mr. Seddon met the committee and exhibited an excellent drawing 
of the design, by Mr. Prichard and himself, for the thorough restoration 
of the west front of Llandaff cathedral. The northern tower is |o be 
completed with a rich open parapet after the type of the Somersetshire 
towers : the southern one will have a lofty octagonal spire. The com- 
mittee also examined Messrs. Prichard and Seddon*s successful compe- 
tition designs for the restoration and rebuilding of Brecon college ; and 
for a new school at Llandough, Glamorganshire ; and also two desiens, 
one more elaborate than the other, for a new church at Cardiff. Mr. 
Seddon also brought the designs for a new church at Newport, Mon« 

Mr. O. M. Hills met the committee and exhibited numerous illustra- 
tions of a paper on Boyle Abbey, which he had prepared for the Sede* 
Biologist, Of these the committee selected the ground plans of Boyk 
and Kilmallock abbeys, a panorama of Kilmallock, and a view of Adare 

Mr. Burges met the committee and kindly agreed to draw on wood 
as an illustration of his paper on the restoration of the Salisbury ehafiter- 
house one of the sculptured sobjects from the spandrels of thd'araiHle. 

Mr. Barraud met die committee and exhibited some cirf6oin»*'b>tie 

Eeclesioloffical Society. 197 

eiecuted by Mr. Laven and himself, for stained glass windows at 
Gnlval, Cornwall ; for the west window of S. Anne, Highgate Rise ; 
for a Romanesque window, with medallions and early mosaic borders, 
at Broomsbill, near Honiton ; and for a window, representing S. John 
the Baptist and the Resurrection, at Spettisbury, Dorsetshire. A me- 
morial window of two lights for Brimpton church, executed by Messrs. 
Lavert and Barraud from Mr. White's design, was also examined. 
Tbe subjects were the Resurrection and Ascension, and the committee 
remarked on tbe anatomy of the figures and on some of the symbolism 

Mr. Wbite met tbe committee and exhibited the designs for a 
Pointed bouse at Ingate^tone, Essex, for the rebuilding of S. Nicholas, 
Bidmontb, (of wbich be promised a lithograph for the Ecclesiologist) 
and for new acbools at Andover. He also showed a chalice and paten 
of latten silvered, which he had designed and had executed at a cost of 
toot more than tWenty-three shillings for use in poor colonial dioceses. 

The committee examined the drawings for a new church at Highgate, 
in tbe parish of Hawkhurst, Kent, kindly forwarded by Mr. Scott, 
A.R.A. ; and tbe designs for a new church at Barcombe, near Lewes, 
by Mr. Ferrey. 

They also examined the designs for a new church, of unusual 
artistic merit as respects its polychromatic decoration, by Mr. Street, 
intended to be built in the parish of S. John Evangelist, Westminster ; 
and drawings by the same architect of new churches at Cowley, Oxford- 
ifaire and in the parish of S. Giles, Oxford. 

Mr. Withers* designs for rebuilding the church of S. Helen, Little 
Cawtborpe, Lincolnshire; Mr. P. Boyce's for the restoration of Llanaber 
church, Merionethshire ; and Mr. W. M. Teulon's designs for new 
ichools at Llandilo were next inspected. 

Mr. S. S. Teolon sent his drawings for the following works, a ceme- 
tery chapel and lichgate for Marlborough ; a wooden and metal spire 
fo be added to his tower at Fosbury ; the restoration of S. Martin, Wel- 
tOD, Lincolnshire ; additions to S. Helen, Kirmington, Lincolnshire ; 
the rebuilding of the nave and tower of S. Bartholomew, Newington 
B^gpatb. Gloucestershire ; a drinking-fountain for the east end of the 
new cburch of Holy Trinity, Hastings ; a fountain for S. Chad's well in 
the quadrangle of Sbadwell Court, Norfolk ; some cottages built at 
Wimbledon by the Cottage Improvement Society ; a parsonage at 
Netherfield, Sussex ; a rectory at Birch, Essex ; a parsonage at Billing- 
loo, Beds ; additions to the vicarage at Couiscliffe, Durham ; a vicarage 
at Billingshurst, Sussex ; timber additions to a rectory at Mister- 
Ion ; and cartoons for stained glass windows and for fittings at Shad- 
well Court. 

From Messrs. Walton and Robson the Committee received the draw- 
ingaof tbe restoration of S. Botolpb's, Bossall, Yorkshire, and of a shop 
in Domestic Pointed for Durham : and also the elevation of the restora- 
tipo of tbe great central tower of Durham Cathedral. 

Some deaigna for organ-cases, for village churches, by Mr. Lewis 

Mr.- Kdtb aubiiiitCed a number of recent worka of church-plate, in- 

198 The Architectural Museum, 

eluding a chalice (designed by Mr. Street) in which the enamelling was 
more delicate than in most former instances. 

A grant of five pounds was made to the Rev. J. M. Neale in con- 
sideration of expenses incurred by him in his researches after Inedited 

The twentieth anniversary meeting was fixed for June 9l8t, at eight 
p.m., at the Architectural Museum, South Kensington; and it was 
agreed that the subject for discussion on that evening should be the 
proper arrangement of cathedrals, with especial reference to large 
occasional congregations. 

Letters were received from Messrs. Scott, A.R.A., C. B. AUeo, 
Ferrey, Withers, Kobson, Teulon, Lomaz, Clarke, the Rev. E. Half, 
the Rev. J. Jebb, the Rev. T. James (inclosing the Northamptoa- 
shire Society's Petitions about the style of the new Foreign Office), 
and Mr. G. J. R. Gordon. The latter gentleman, writing from Hanover, 
mentioned that the celebrated archaeologist the Abb^ Bock had informed 
him that he had found at Monte Casino an ancient wheel, round which 
was rolled a slip of parchment, painted with pictorial illustrations (of 
thirteenth century date) of the ExuUet jam angelica turba Cttlorum; 
during the singing of which in choir, a deacon, by turning the wheel 
set free the parchment which, being handed down to the people, in- 
formed them by the pictures of the subject of each verse. Was thii 
the origin of the Buddhist prayer- wheels, or on the other hand was it 
a kind of improvement upon that strange practice ? Mr. GordoB 
kindly undertook to give a notice of the Scandinavian Ecclesiological 
books lately forwarded to the Society. 

The Committee then adjourned to the 91st of June. 

The following circular has been issued : 

" 78, New Bond Strbbt, London. W. 
** 6th May, 1869. 
<' Dear Sir, 

"The Twentieth Anniversary Meeting of the Eccluio- 
LOGICAL Society will be held at the Architectural Museum, South Keaiiog- 
ton, on Tuesday, June 21st, at Eight o'clock, p.m. 

<*The Second and Third Meetings of the Ecclesiological MoteU Choir will 
be held on Tuesday, June 7tb, and Thursday, July 21st, at S. Martin's Hall. 

" Yours very faithfully, 

"BENJ^'WEBB.lxx^ q^^ 
"J. M. NEALE, J^^-^^cf- 

" Hon, Sec. for Musical Mattert!' 


*' prizes to art-students and artist- workmen. 1859. 

" Prizes for wood-carving. — The Committee of the Architectural Mnseaa 
offer to artist-workmen two Prises of £6. 5s. and £3. ds., as First and Seeoai 

Prizes, for the most meritorious specimens of carving in Wood, being tlie Ok- 
richment of a hollow moulding, not less than 18 inches long and ^->-- 

Oxford Architectural Society. 199 

\ either in Nstunlly or Conventiooally rendered foliage, with or without 
iml life. The work may be executed in either hard or soft wood at the 
cman pleaaea. 

Prizes for Coloured Decoration. — A Prize of Five Guineas it offered by 
Committee of the Ecclesiological Society (of London) throueh the Com- 
ee of the Architectural Museum, for the competitor who shall show him- 
most succeasful in colouring, according to his own judgment, a cast from 
nel (one of eight) from the side of a tomb in the Church of San Oioyanni, 
ram. It contains a draped female figure, turrounded with foliage on a flat 
ind in low-relief, and encloted in a narrow border. Mr. Beretford-Hopey 
*., will giTe Three Guineat in one or more extra prizes if any works appear 
yring of being so rewarded. This being specifically a colour prize, the 
e cftst for competitive coloration is proposed to all the competitors. The 
ididste may adopt that medium for applying his colours which he prefers, 

he is expected to treat the panel as forming a portion of an architectural 
ipoeition, and not as a cabinet piece. The original is in marble. 
* Casts from this panel will be supplied on appUcation to the Honorary 
•retsuT of the Architectural Museum at 5s. each at the Museum, or by pay- 
nt of 2s. extra for packing and case. Duplicate Casts will be allowed, 
e Committee of the Ecclesiological Society will themselves adjudicate. 
^ General Conditions. — All Specimens sent in competition for the Prizes 
isi be deposited in the Architectural Museum, free of cost, by the 1st of 
ieember, 1859, with the competitor's name and address, and those of his 
iployer (if any) attached. The^ will remain the property of the competitor 

Lis employer and will be exhibited in the Arcbitectuial Museum for one 
onth before the prizes are awarded, and also until after the day of presenta- 
VD if thought desirable. The Specimens must be removed at the expense of 
le respective competitors. The Prizes will not be awarded unless there ap- 
ear sufficient merit in any of the Specimens to entitle them to such distinc- 
on : but certificates of merit in addition to the prizes, will be given in such 
s as the Judges may consider deserving. 

" GEO. GILBERT SCOTT, A.R.A., Trbasurbr. 
"JOSEPH CLARKE, F.S.A., Hon. Sbc, 
** 13, Stratford Place, W., where communications should be addressed. 
March, 1859." 


i MiBTiiro of the Oxford Architectural Society was held at the So- 
iety's Rooms, Holywell, on Tuesday, March 22, at eight o'clock. 
lie President in the chair. 

The Secretary, in reading the Report, stated that the letter sent by 
im to the Lord Mayor of York had received a very courteous reply, 
qireasing his Lordship's thanks to the society for their interest in the 
resenration of the antiquities of his native city, and his own earnest 
nire that they should remain unimpaired. The Secretary felt happy 
> be able to inform the society that the proposition for the destruction 
f the Old Barbican, at the Walmgate Bar, York, had been negatived 
f twent]r*eight Totea of the York Council to eight. 

A TOte of thanks mm passed unanimously to the Lord Mayor of 
Mc ior hb care of the antiquities of his city, and for the letter re- 
RVad firooi Iuid* 

200 Oaford Architectwral Society, 

The discussion on the subject of the last meeting, which was ad- 
journed to the present meeting, was opened by the President, who 
stated that the object of the committee in proposing a discussion to- 
night, on the subject which Mr. Skidmore had brought before the so- 
ciety at the last meeting, was to enable the members to consider more 
in detail the various points which had been brought to their notice ; the 
subject was new to all of us, and one worthy of attention. He seemed 
to think that not unfrequently shrines were original models of churches, 
first made in metal, and then serving for the general idea of a church, 
He considered this not an improbable view, and one which was sop- 
ported by facts of which we were aware, namely, that metal workman* 
ship was in advance of stone. He regretted very much the impoesi- 
bility of Mr. Skidmore being present at this meeting, and he feared 
that without the iron models, which so lucidly explained Mr. Skid- 
more's arguments, members who had not been present at the last 
meeting would find difficulty in understanding the views which were to 
be examined to-night. 

Mr. Lfowder scarcely hoped to throw much new light on the subjeet; 
one to him, perhaps, more interesting than any other in architectural 
design, and one to which he had paid some attention. The views, be 
remarked, of Mr. Skidmore were so novel and yet so plausible, that 
though at first he disliked the notion of metal foliage being the model 
for stone, yet on considering the subject more carefully, he felt per- 
suaded that very much in this view was true. He did not confine his 
remarks to mediaeval work ; he would go back to the more andent 
styles of architecture, and he thought that we should discover that the 
carving of stone capitals would resolve itself into two classes — ^those of 
essentially stone character, and those which were derived from metal. 
Of the former were the Egyptian class of capitals, and the Grecian 
Doric ; of the latter, all capitals of the Corinthian type, and he begged 
attention to the circumstance that Corinthian brass or bronze was st 
one time the most famous in the world. Our earliest foliage followed 
the Corinthian type ; it then developed into the stiff-leaved foliage of 
the thirteenth century, deriving itself, if the views here put forward 
were correct, from the metal ornamentation in gold, silver, or copper; 
the feeling by which the architects were actuated being that of wuhing 
to represent in commoner materials the choice work of their noUeit 
metals. The next century imitated natural Ipaves, while the fifteenth 
conventionalised and stiffened them. He then referred to the more vo* 
propriate character of the lamina of metal to represent the delicacy and 
pliability of natural foliage, in comparison with the unbending oatora 
of stone, and alluded to a practice, which seemed natural, of a woik- 
man drawing from his breast his metal crucifix, and carving from it 
one in stone. In conclusion, he said that if the ,t)ieory Mr. Skidmoie 
advocated were true, it must bear sifting in every quarter, and Uib waa 
the duty of a society like our own. 

The Rev. J. Millard expressed his hesitation to accept »t,pr^ient t 
principle the apparent reality of which he could scarqely rtfuitfif becjanae 
he thought that if it were true it waa not a little homiliating and. de- 
structive to the principle in which the society commenced its ~^~" 

Oaeford Archiiectural Society, 201 

by asserting, namely, that each material was adequately and really 
treated by the ancient architects. He produced a sketch of a cross of 
i common character, which was certainly more of an iron construction 
iian a stone, and observed that there was great apparent probability in 
iie idea that the ancient builders took for their models the carvings in 
iredoas metals, but doubted that they went through so laborious a 
irocess as first making a model from nature in iron and then copying 
t in stone. 

After some remarks from the Rev. F. T. Simmons on the clever 
reatment of iron amongst the Russian serfs, and the general taste for 
letal decoration among uncivilised or only semicivilised nations, and a 
light conversation on the seveial topics brought forward, the President 
ijoumed the meeting till next term. 

The first Meeting for the Te^m was held in the society's rooms, 
dywell, on Wednesday, the l«th of May, at 9 o'clock. 
llie Treasurer, in the absence of the President, took the chair. The 
llowing gentlemen were elected : J. R. Stewart, Esq., Pembroke 
ill^e; A. Wilkinson, Esq., Christ Church; W. Thorold, Esq., 
uiat Church. 

The Secretary was glad to inform the society that some measures 
are taken for the preservation of the old gateway, the last remains of 
Mary's abbey, Reading, and that he was informed that efforts would 
made for its restoration. He was also requested to lay before the 
aety some encaustic tiles from the manufactory of Mr. Godwin, of 
igwardine, near Hereford. The tiles were of excellent manufacture, 
d one of them elicited attention from its very admirable imitation of 
sent tilea. Mr. Godwin received the thanks of the society for his 
saent : they were happy to have the opportunity of recommending 
n both for superior character of workmanship and reasonableness in 
ice. He then proceeded to show some copies of ancient mural 
lutings, found by hiss in Withington church, near Hereford, which 
xe of an interesting character, inasmuch as they exemplified a habit 
lich has shown itself elsewhere of painting over paintings already in 
istence ; in this case there were no less than three sets of paintings. 
The chairman then requested Mr. Lowder to read the paper which 
had promised for the evening on Hereford cathedral. 
Mr. Lowder, after handing round some sketches of various details 
lich he had made at Hereiford, proceeded to explain his object in 
i^ging this subject before the society. He considered that over and 
ore his own private interest ^nd study in this building, he was in- 
Ded to enter on the subject as one on which there bad been some 
a t ro v ersy of late, and some severe strictures by certain of the press. 
fiare noticing these he would sketch briefly the history of the build- 
\ itself. The mun portion of the two earliest churches in a.d. 825 
1 1012» were destroyed, and the earliest work which now exists was 
\ wodk of Bishop Losing, in 1079, and Raynelmus. in 1115, while 
hter Nonnan work belund the altar was that of De Vere in 1 136. 
b took in the nsTe, choir« and part behind the altar. The lady 
nn. XX. »» 

202 Oxford Architectural Society. 

chapel and crypt about 1^00. The lower portion of the central 
tower, perhaps, some twenty years later ; the upper portion quite t 
century later. He then noticed the tomb of Peter Aqnablanca, and 
dwelt at length on the splendid works in Bishop Cantilnpe*8 time, be- 
tween 1250 and 1958, including the north transept, the earlier portioo 
of the north porch, the clerestory of the choir, and a doorway on the 
south-east corner of the nave leading into the cloisters. He begged 
leave to differ with Mr. Britton and the Glossary on the date of the 
chapter-house, which they assign to this period, believing it to have 
been built quite seventy years later, the character of the remains bear- 
ing the marks of the Decorated style of Edward III. It appeared to 
him to be rather later than the eastern transepts, which take a middle 
place between Cantilupe and the middle of the fourteenth century. 
In the reign of Henry VI. Perpendicular additions were made, as John 
Stanbury's chantry chapel on the north side. Edmund Audley, Bishop 
of Hereford, built, in Henry the Seventh's reign, in the year 1492, a 
chantry on the south side of the lady chapel. About this period cone 
the main cloisters, and of a later style what are called the Bishop's 
cloisters. In 1530, Charles Booth added a supplementary porch to 
the then existing early one. This concluded the ancient history of the 
cathedral, and Mr. Lowder regretted that that of the modem part was 
anything but a gratifying task. He believed few churches had suffered 
so much from wanton barbarity and reckless restoration. First, the 
chapter- house suffered severely under the Cromwellians ; then came 
Bishop Bisse, who carried away large portions of it to repair hii 
palace. In 17S6, the west tower fell from neglect ; a large sum wai 
expended on the rebuilding, not of the tower, but of a hideous weal 
front by Wyatt, who curtailed the length of the nave 15 feet» built a 
new triforium and clerestory, destroyed the old groining, lowered the 
pitch of the roofs generally, and effected an amount of mischief whidi 
it would take three times the sum he expended on his trashy perfimn* 
ance to restore to its old condition. On this subject he fully agreed 
with Mr. Britton's strictures. Some time about 1830 the pinnacles of 
the tower were erected. In 1841 Mr. Gottingham commenced his 
work, not of restoration, but of pulling down and rebuilding. Hiii 
portion of the restoration Mr. Lowder severely criticised, ^e nave 
roof was coloured before the year 1850. Mr. Cottingham*8 works 
stopped about 1851. Mr. Liowder stated that his acquaintance witli 
the cathedral began in 1851. The present state, he remarked, oflered 
a contrast to the state it was then in. He then read an extract horn 
the leading article of the Builder of the beginning of April, in whidi 
he pointed out many misstatements of a very injurious character to 
Mr. Scott, under whose able superintendence the present worica aie 
being conducted; he specially referred to the imputation that the 
colouring of the nave roof and the tiles on the pavement were dona 
with his sanction. The more serious imputation of neglect to the dead 
he wished to show was equally unfounded. As secretary he felt bound 
to report to the society, if he had the opportunity, tiie proyeis d 
large works, and such surely was Hereford cathedral. After aome re- 
marks on these charges, he proceeded to state that he conridered the 

Northampton Architectural Society. 203 

t of the Builder^ in trying to leave the impression that the pre- 
storer was the author of his predecessor's mischiefs, was unfair, 
t was their duty to have drawn attention to the condition of the 
ral before, and not to hinder the work while conducted with the 
it care and skill by so trustworthy a person as Mr. Scott. 
chairman moved the thanks of the society to Mr. Lowder for 

Buckeridge, on behalf of Mr. Scott, thanked Mr. Lowder for 
e defence of him, which he was sure Mr. Scott would have done 
ad been present. 

meeting was then adjourned to Wednesday, June 1, at 9 

p.m. Members are requested to attend. 



wiTTBB meeting was held on Monday, April 1 1 . Lord A. Comp- 
the chair. The following new members were elected : Rev. 
ipher Smyth, Woodford, Rev. E. V. Buckle, Dallington. 
s for the new church of S. Mary's, Peterborough, by E. Chris- 
Ssq., were submitted for consideration. The committee con- 
I that it followed the type of a country rather than a town church, 
commended greater height to the walls, and windows of a less 
ic character. They strongly recommended increasing the width 
m the seats, which as at present drawn shows only 2 ft. 8 in. 
Mt to seat, a space which, with the slope given to the backs, 
admits of kneeUng. The church is so designed that a north aisle 
sreafter be added, if required. 

complete plans for Hazlebeach church, by Mr. W. Slater, were 
led. The committee still continued to consider this the far pre* 
plan to another arrangement which had been proposed, and fully 
ed of it, with some suggestions as to a few of the details, 
ottion of the plans for Loddington church, by Mr. J. H. Chris- 
idnding a new south porch, were again consMered. and the plan 
ed which grouped the children in one mass to the west of the font. 
Scott*s original plans for the proposed chapel of the Lunatic 
B were exhibited, and the secretary asked the advice of the com- 
on some points on which he had been requested to communicate 
Ir. Scott. 

fint of a series of plans for the " Cottage Improvement Society,'* 
t published, were exhibited and approved. This plan places one 
three bed-rooms on the ground floor. 

aeeretary stated that the memorial and petition, in favour of the 
■tyle for the new Public Offices, had been signed by upwards of 
nd members of the society, and that other societies were adopt- 
I aame conrse ; also, that hirther offers of contributions had been 
ihcNdd a poUic moseum be formed for the town and county \ also. 

204 New Churches. 

a notice from the Church Masic Committee, that a gathering of parish 
choirs WR8 contemplated, to be held at Peterborough, on the 30th of 

Mr. Elliott consulted the committee as to the chancel aisles of S. 
Giles' church. It was resolved to visit the church on the next com- 
fiiittee meeting. 

Mr. Butlin stated that a faculty had been obtained for the restoratioD 
and enlargement of S. Sepulchre's, and asked the committee for their 
assistance, which was readily promised ; and the secretary was desired 
to summon the old committee at the earliest advisable period. Mr. 
James stated that half of the choir roof of the cathedral was now ex- 
posed to view, and the effect of the colouring remarkably good. It hu 
been executed by Mr. Clayton, under Mr. Scott's superintendence. 

The reports for the year 1858 are expected to be soon ready. T^ 
librarian was directed to purchase several architectural works, and a 
special subscription was entered into to purchase the interleaved copy 
of Bridges, with Baker's notes, which had been offered to the society 
on very favourable terms; and the secretaries were directed to make 
application to members to assist in securing this valuable book for the 


8. — — , Hawkkurst, West Kent. — Mr. Scott has carried oat m the 
nave of this little village church, of which we have seen sketches taken 
from the north-east and north-west, the local type of a broad and low 
three-gabled structure, in a somewhat French form, of the style trail* 
sitional between First and Middle-Pointed, llie east window of the 
chancel, which is destitute of aisles, exhibits a three-light design, with 
rudimentary plate tracery of sexfoiled roses in the head. The cliara& 
teristic feature of the side of the chancel is the arcading, which miu 
continuously, only interrupted by the two windows, of two lights each, 
of which the more eastern is at the distance of one arcade from the east 
end, and the other at that of two from the other window, and from tht 
western termination of the chancel. The east windows of the aisles 
are of three lights, the central stilted. The north aisle resolves itsdf 
into four bays, with a porch — a stone one, with open al^ading — in 
the second bay from the west, and a two-light window with plate 
tracery in the others. At the west end the arcading is resumed in the 
two long two-light windows of the nave, spaced and flanked by single 
arcades. In the gable is a small circular window, with tracery designed 
upon S. Andrew's cross. The aisles have respectively a long two-light 
west window. The abaci of the shafts all through are square. T^ 
steeple, which stands to ^he north of the chancel, has in each hat tvo 
disconnected single lights in the belfry stage, surmounted fay thiee 
evenly spaced little circular openings. The spire itself is a brond and 
massive stone broach. This part of the composition rather lenii 
Surrey, We cannot speak positively of the south side, or of tlie inttf- 
Mud features. We congratulate Mt . ^^coXX otv VANm^ ^vea audi giaeeCal 

New Churches. 205 

expression to his idea. The church itself is, we hear, the fruit of dis- 
tinguished individual munificence. 

S. , Westminster, — We congratulate Mr. Street on having an 

opportunity of building in London itself a church of more than com- 
mon pretensions. The church is founded by the daughters of the late 
Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol, (who was a canon of Westminster,) 
and is situated in Garden Street, near the Vauxhall Bridge Road. In 
style, the design is of the same type as All Saints, Margaret Street, 
and Nlr. Street's own church at Boyn Hill. The plan is peculiar. 
There is a nave of 60 feet by 23 feet 3 in., separated by wide arcades of 
three arches from its aisles : a chancel, 36 feet 6 in., ending in a semi- 
circular apse ; aisles on each side of the chancel, leaving the sanctuary 
projecting, but treated as transepts, with two arcRes and a central pier : 
a vestry projecting northwards from the north transept; and at the 
north-west of the north aisle a detached campanile, serving as porch, 
and communicating with the church by a short open cloister. The 
plan exhibits great conveniency of arrangement, and the fittings are 
excellent. The font stands near the principal door : the pulpit against 
the north pier of the chancel-arch : the organ against the east wall in 
the north transept. The choir and sanctuary arrangements are admirable. 
Externally the material is red and black brick, with bands of Morpeth 
stone, voussoirs of coloured bricks, and marble shafts. The clerestory 
windows are large uniform lancets, grouped in three triplets : the aisle 
windows are a series of arcaded trefoil -headed lancets. The apse 
windows, however, are large compositions of two or three lights, with 
pierced circles in the head, of plate tracery, llie buttressing of the 
apse is most effective, and the treatment of the stringcourses, band- 
ings, &c., is excellent. The roofs are banded with tiles of greenish and 
blueish hue. The campanile is a very remarkable design : of red 
brick handed, and entirely without buttresses. The lowest stage is 
open on three sides, forming a porch, and is very massively treated. 
llie fourth side contains the belfry-staircase. The second stage, form^ 
ing a chamber internally, has on its three outer faces two tall narrow 
kncets, but a larger window in the east side, and sculptured panels 
north and east. The third story is loftier, and, according to the proper 
law of campaniles, more ornate than the lower ones : its lancets 
are three in number on each face. Still more lofty and elaborate 
is the belfry-stage itself, with two large adjacent trefoil-headed 
l^ts on each side, with central marble shaft, and rich canopies 
of brick. Above all there is a bold projecting cornice, enriched 
with moulded bricks, bands of colour, and even with medallions and 
globes of glass; and the roof, of timber, a low octagonal broached 
wfim with spirelets at the four angles, is very novel in its outline, 
bat a very happy combination of the Italian and Rhenish types of 
steeples. The west front of the church, which groups well with the 
cuopanile and the connecting cloister, presents a large composition of 
three two-light windows, and a noble wheel-window above, all in 
a large containing arch. The transepts are roofed with two low 
Handld tmiSTerse gables, which are thus judiciously kept below the 
level of the comioe of the chancel- wall. The interior is ^lychto- 
• BAtixed ^bamn^fbout with brick aad marble. The chanceV and %«»&• 

206 New Churches. 

tuary are groined, the ribs being of stone, the cells of brick, and the 
shafts of marble. The low screen, separating the chancel from the 
nave and transepts, is of ashlar. The nave roof is boarded. The 
fittings are simple, • and scarcely ornate enough for the church ; but 
happily the only seats are to be moveable chairs. This remarkable 
design must be noticed hereafter from actual inspection. 

8, , S. GUes^ Oxford. — ^This church is to be built from Mr. 

Street's designs. In the plan we have a groined chancel of two bays, 
ending in a semicircular apse ; a clerestoried nave and two aisles, the 
arcades comprising four arches ; quasi-transepts (square in plan) to the 
chancel ; and a vestry and south-west porch. The plan is compact 
and convenient ; but we hope these short transepts in place of aisles will 
not become too common. The style is very early Pointed. The ma- 
terial, stone, with coloured bands in the clerestory, and coloured 
voussoirs to the window- arches. The tower, ending in an octagonal 
broached spire, of stone, stands over the westernmost bay of the chan- 
cel. A curious, and almost too early feature, are four open pinnacle 
turrets on the cardinal sides with low cappings — Romanesque in 
character, but not in detail. At the south-east angle of the tower there 
is a conspicuous staircase turret, octagonal, capped with an octagonal 
spirelet. The roofs are of grey slates, with a ridge crest of red tile. 
The transept fa9ade8 have large rose windows with quadruplets of lan- 
cets beneath : the apse windows are of two lights with foliated circlei : 
the aisles have couplets of trefoiled lancets ; and the clerestory alter- 
nately small foliated circles and larger windows of two lights with 
tracery in the head. This we think the least successful part of the 
design. There is great originality in this church ; not the least re- 
markable feature internally being the fact that — the chancel being 
much narrower than the nave — the nave arcades abut eastward, not on 
the solid pier of the tower, but on the heading of a broad arch, occa- 
pying the west face of the transept. This is scarcely to be recom- 
mended for imitation — though it undoubtedly gives a picturesque in- 
ternal perspective. 

8. , Cowley, Oxfordshire, — Mr. Street is about to build a new 

church in this parish in early First-Pointed style. The plan shows a 
western tower, a clerestoried nave, and two aisles, the arcades being of 
three, and a south-western porch, a chancel ending in a semicircular 
apse, (groined in wood), and two transepts to the chancel, the north end 
of the one to the north being screened off for the vestry. The detail ia 
exceedingly good : and the wooden groining for the apse gets rid of our 
chief objection to that form of east end. llie chancel has a boarded 
roof, that of the nave being open. There is a massive sanctuary arch, 
necessitated by the timber vault of the apse. The tower haa an oc« 
tagonal broached spire. The tracery is good — of the plate character : 
and the whole exterior is picturesque and distinctive. This new church 
will stand about three quarters of a mile from the old one, the reatora- 
tion of whicli we have already noted. The latter will be used in foton 
as a district church. 

8. Mary, Barcombe, Sussex. — A small new church by Mr. Ferrey: 

with broad nave, two small transepts, — the northern one aenring at a 

veatry, the soathera one for acbooV c^aldien, — viid a. short chaoed 

New Churches, 207 

ee-sided apsidal Banctnary. The Btyle is very early Oeometrical- 
Ated ; — the material rubble, with quoins, dressings, bands, and cor- 
led cornice, of ashlar. A quadrilateral bell- turret, set obliquely, 
li a well managed fl^he, stands at the east end of the nave roof. The 
if IB not very successful, we think. An awkward angle is formed by 
i ridge of the chancel being so much lower than die nave, and so 
3rt in itself before it falls in the apse. But internally the effect of 
5 groined apse is good ; the vaulting shafts are of polished marble, 
le nave roof is of open timber. The west elevation shows a traceried 
idle above two wide-apart lancets. 

8. Nicholas, Sidmouth, — ^This church is about to be almost entirely 
boilt by Mr. White ; the porches are additions, and the whole east 
id is quite new. The plan as completed will contain chancel with 
w aisles, that on the north side serving as vestry — with the addition 

a transept-like addition on the same side for organ- chamber. &c., 
lofed with two low transverse roofs, in order not to rise above the 
Lves of the chancel ; — a clerestoried nave, with aisles and transepts, 
wo porches and a western tower. The area is large, and will accommo- 
Bte nearly 1000 persons. The arrangements are satisfactory. The 
reades, which have four arches besides those to the transepts, are good ; 
lie roofs are all of wood : and externally the aisle roofs are almost flat — 
f lead. The tracery is of good plate character : the larger windows 
1 the gables of the chancel and transepts having fine foliated circles in 
heir heads. The thing we least like in the design is the somewhat 
wkward treatment of the transeptal organ-chamber north of the chan- 
d. Its two low roofs, and the two adjacent windows divided by the 
tackpipe, are infelicitous. 

Cemetery Chapel, Marlborough. — Mr. S. S. Teulon has designed a cheap 
lemetery chapel and lich-gate for this place. The chapel is also to be 
ited for the inmates of the neighbouring union. We are truly glad to 
ee an altar provided, and we hear with great satisfaction that the interior 
rill be furnished with chairs, over and above a few benches required 
or mourners. The whole cost is not to exceed £475. The material 
I brick, banded : the style Middle-Pointed. The plan shows a nave 
rith a three-sided apse for the sanctuary. The apse windows are 
atber large circles set in arched heads. There is a porch in the mid- 
Ik of the south side. The lich-gate is of brick, rather ornate, but in 
;ood taste, with stepped gables. 

S. , Foslmry. — A new church was built here some time ago by Mr. 

L 8. Teulon, to the tower of which he now adds a timber spire covered 
rith metal. We are much pleased with the desigpa, in itself, which is 
erj rich and ornate, with bold crockets — made oif lead — and plentiful 
[ild^ng. The style, however, is perhaps a little coarse, as compared 
rith the tower. 

8. PeUr, Birch, Essex, — ^This church was built ten or twelve years 
igo, by Mr. 8. 8. Teulon, of flint with Caen stone dressings, in late 
Ifiddle-Pointed style, of a fair average character for that epoch of the 
evivaL The plan Yam chancel and a vestry on its north side, nave and 
wo aiidet, aonth-west porch, and a tower engaged at the west end of 
he north aisle. The tower is rather low with an octagonal broaeh 
fire of stone. 

208 New Churches. 

8, ' ', Cardiff. — ^A design by Messrs. Prichard and Seddon, of 
some architectural pretensions and with some remarkable features, was 
accepted for a new church at Cardiff, but afterwards materially mo- 
dified through want of funds. We are not sure that we wholly regret 
the supersession of a design which with some good points was somewhat 
needlesily eccentric. It was a cruciform church with a central tower 
very considerably narrower than the nave. In fact the aisles were 
nothing but ambulatories, the central nave being made of unusual 
breadth, for supposed congregational convenience. The effect, looking 
eastward from the west end, was that the lantern looked like the £ly 
octagon turned inside out : the broad nave was separated from its aisles 
by low couplets of shafts, forming ten bays, sustaining a huge clere- 
story of five bays (a good feature by itself for a town church, but here 
in excess of its supports), while eastward it was awkwardly contracted 
to the comparatively narrow breadth of the central tower. This large 
span of nave was further not roofed in a sharp gable externally, bat 
in a sort of hipped gable — far from pleasant to the eye. Internally it 
was to be spanned by large brick arches, like some of the great Italian 
churches, and to have a barrel roof of timber. Eastward the chancel 
was to be vaulted, of three bays with a three-sided apse ; and there 
were two transepts. The central tower and its spire were well treated ; 
and the whole design showed skill and power and fertility of resources* 
which may yet achieve great success. * 

iS. , Newport, Monmouthshire. — ^This church is designed by 

Messrs. Prichard and Seddon. The plan comprises a chancel with a 
vestry at its north-western end, a nave and south aisle, with an engaged 
tower at the west end of the latter, and a south chancel aisle for children. 
The style is developed Pointed, and some polychrome is introduced. 
The tower is slender, in excess ; but the octagonal broach spire is 
good, though the spire-lights set on the cardinal sides seem treated 
with rather too early a feeling. There is a western porch. 

A chapel is about to be built for Tunbridge School, from the designs 
of Messrs. Wadmore and Baker. We criticize it from a lithographed 
perspective view. The style is Geometrical- Pointed ; but it is not 
well worked out. There is no antechapel — the plan being a mere pa* 
rallelogram of six bays, with an excrescence (treated like a porch) on 
one side for the organ. There is something commonplace about the 
type of the windows and buttresses. There are angle pinnacles, which 
belong more properly to a later style : and at one comer there is an 
insufiicient octagonal turret, capped by a low bellcote to hold a single 
bell, and splayed awkwardly at the foot into a square basement, with 
an entrance door. A niche in this turret with a figure seema to be a 
redeeming feature. The roof is high and crested, and has gaUed 
crosses : the buttresses along the side rise above the pierced parapet 
into pyramidal heads, and have meaningless gurgoyles projecting from 
them. The intention is throughout far better than the execution. 
We congratulate the authorities on the idea of building a separate 
chapel for the school. The school at present occupies an intruaiye gal- 
lery in the north aisle of the parish church. 



Netherfieli^ Sumbcx. — By Mr. Teulon,— full of good pointa. The 
drawing- room has a lai^ projecting angular oriel, carried up into the 
floor above. The house is lai^e and well contrived ; and the style a 
decided Pointed. The cost is £1470. 

Birck, Em9€x. — ^A commodious brick house by Mr. S. S. Teulon. 
Character is given by the staircase being built in a circular turret 
ending in a bell-cote. There is also an angular oriel window, octago- 
nal in plan. This house costs £1160 ; the style being an unpretend- 
ing Pointed. 

Comisclife, Durham. — ^This house stands most picturesquely on the 
edge of a considerable precipice. Mr. S. S. Teulon has made additions 
to it, in admirable taste. He has boldly bracketed out a terrace on 
the face of the rock, and treated the design very spiritedly with much 
picturesque irregularity. 

BiUmgskurst, Sunex. — A smaller house, not to exceed £000, by 
Mr. S. S. Teulon : in brick, and of a quasi-Pointed style. The only 
feature calling for remark is an octagonal oriel turret. 

Mistertam^ JLeiee$ter$hire, — A timber porch and room over has been 
added by Atlr. Teuton. It is perhaps a little overdone, the projecting 
aogk in front, though not without precedent, being somewhat out of 
keeping with the rest. 


Bneom College. — ^Messrs. Prichard and Seddon deservedly won in 
competition the important work of the reconstruction of and additions 
to tl^ foundation. The old chapel, of very fine austere First-Pointed 
ityle, remains. The additions are large and highly decorative, but will 
probably be much modified in execution. The schools and residences 
•eem very judiciously planned : and we note a very satisfactory de- 
vdopement of ornate work in statuary and constructional polychrome, 
with multitudes of turrets, and cappings, and many- windowed oriels, 
and lugfa roofs, and ridge crestings. An arcaded covered playground 
is a good thought for a large school. 

LUmUlo, Caermarthenthhre. — ^This group is being built for Lord 
Dyoevor by Mr. W. M. Teulon. The plan is very unusual. The boys' 
and gills' schoolrooms are adjacent, under separate gables, each 34 ft. 
kmg by 18 ft. broad, and open into each other lengthwise, there being 
no intermediate wall, but the vaUey of the roofs being supported by four 
iron shafb. lliese apartments are separated by heavy curtains hung 
between the pillars : but, when these are withdrawn, form a very large 
and almost square room. An infants' schoolroom, furnished with a 
gallery, adjoins the girls' half, with cloak-rooms and a class-room. 
The boys Imve also a cloak-room, and a class-room is borrowed from 

▼OL. ZZ. B E 

210 New Schools. 

the ground-floor of an old house adjoining. This house is to be im- 
proved into keeping with the new school by the addition of a porch 
and the insertion of new windows. The material is the blue Lhmdilo 
flag with dressings of Bath stone : red sandstone is alternated with 
Bath in the voussoirs of the window-arches. The doors and porches 
are of oak : the school- fittings of deal stained. The style is a some- 
what indistinctive Pointed. The least happy part is the union between 
the two schools internally : iron uprights and iron horizontal girders 
are not aesthetically charming, and remind one of the dismal apartment 
in the Sanctuary, Westminster, in which the National Society holds its 

The Zetland Schools, Redcar. — Messrs. Walton and Robson have in 
hand the erection of these schools. They are separated by the Infants' 
School from the south wall of the churchyard ; and stand with the 
master's house attached in their own grounds. In plan we find in 
apartment 51 ft. 6 in. long by 20 ft. broad, opening at its west end 
into a transverse room 18ft. deep and ^ ft. 6 in. wide. Inwardly Hi 
eastern end on the south side projects as a class-room. The piacticil 
inconveniences of this arrangement are that there is but one entnnce 
for boys and girls, though there are, we are glad to see, separate eziti 
aud separate yards and oflices. But there are neither cloak-roomi nor 
lavatories provided. We are not fond of mixed schools on so large a 
scale as this. Architecturally the plan has been sacrificed to the d^ 
sire to make a south facade, in which the gable of the western tram- 
verse apartment should balance the gable of the eastern class-roooif 
with a common porch-entrance between them. But as these gablei are 
not in the same plane, this effect can never be satisfactorily presented 
to the eye. The natural irregularity of the plan would in practioe 
have worked out much better. The material is red brick, with dren- 
ings and bands of white stone. The style is a plain early-Pointed ; the 
windows being of two trefoiled lights with small quatrefoils in the head; 
and the gables having three tall unequal trefoiled lancets, irregolariy 
transomed, under a common discharging arch. The porch, bearing a 
dedicative inscription, is judiciously enriched. A very plain quadrila- 
teral belfry-turret, with broached spirelet, rises from the crest of the 
roof about the middle. The teacher's house is of the same style, and— • 
we are glad to see — has three bedrooms. 

Mr. Truefitt has designed a school-room for Aberpergum, Glamorpai^ 
shire. The room is 60 ft. by 20, divided by a curtain : and at right 
angles to the middle of one side there is a class-room, 14 feet aquare^ 
common to both halves, with a lobby on each side for the aepante 
entrance of boys and 'girls. The style is Pointed. The windows halt 
wooden arches and monials : and there is an elegant bellcote flankiDg 
the gable of the class-room. A master's house, with three bed cham- 
bers, adjoins the schoolroom. 

Llandough, Glamorganshire, — Designed by Messrs. Prichard aad 
Seddon, and built of stone. The style is First-Pointed, almost too ds* 
cided and elaborate for the size and destination of the building. It is a 
single small room with a small house attached. The achoohnoom ii 
lighted by a First- Pointed arcade of contiguous lancets richly moulded. 

Secular PahUed Works. 211 

An important and extensive group of schools, for boys, girls, and in- 
feats, with houses for a master and a mistress, for Andover, has been 
designed by Mr. White. The style is Pointed ; the material brick of 
two ooloars. There is a good slender bell-cote. 


Mr. White has designed a very picturesque Pointed house at True- 
loves, near Ingatestone, in Essex. The windows are low and ample — 
^tiat great denderaium in revived Secular Pointed. We observe a bold 
but not unsuccessful innovation in supporting a gabled projecting story 
an open porch on low thick marble shafts. 

Anything more wretched than the art of most of the drinking foun- 

that have as yet been erected cannot be conceived. We con- 

^xatnlate Mr. S. S. Teulon therefore on having done a much better 

Uiing in a fountun which he has designed for the east end of his church 

cif Holy Trinity, Hastings. The composition is rather, but not unduly, 

ftorid. There is a square basement, almost too large, but perhaps ne- 

oesaitated by the inscriptions of which it is the vehicle : on each side of it 

is bracketed out a bason, receiving a jet of water. Above all there is a 

licalptnred group of our Loan and the woman of Samaria, under an open 

oanopy, witii figures of angels at the comers. This is the right idea : and 

'Vte rgoice to see a new opening for Christian sculpture. The same archi- 

teet has designed for Shadwdl Court in Norfolk an excellent fountain 

£or the qnadrangle. The stream being derived from S. Chad's well, — 

whence the whole place derives its name, — a figure of that saintly 

Isishop ia placed under an open canopy. There are four spouts from 

lion-heada : and the wide bason is contained by a low well-moulded 

"Wall, leminding us of some of the fine Italian mediaeval fountains. 

For Shadwell Court Mr. Teulon has also designed some good stained 
^saa for the dining-hall. It represents eight periods of English his- 
tory, the Roman, Diinish, Saxon, Norman, Plantagenet, Tudor, Stuart, 
aod Hanoverian : which are each treated with certain striking historical 
aoenes, with differing foliage, &c. Among other works in the same 
snasion, the same architect has designed a glazed screen and side* 
hoard, between a drawing-room and a dark corridor — ^the glass being 
krge sheets of Chance's rolled glass, with linear drawings of scenes 
from the lifo of S. Edmund — ^the patron-saint of* East Anglia. These 
ivorks are very rich and in admirable taste. 

Mr. 8. S. Teulon has built at Wimbledon twenty-four excellent 
ud most unpretending cottages. They are of brick, with a little cha- 
ncter ^ven them by hipped gables. Each has three commodious bed- 
iQooia, and aufiknent and well-arranged ofiices. 

We have yen with mnch pleasure a photograph of a linendraper'a 
|^>-frallt, executed for Messrs. Shields and Co. of Durham, by Messrs. 

212 Ckurch Restorationt. 

Walton and Robson. The ground-floors of two very ordinary brick 
houses are treated with a Pointed stone cornice, and plinths, of good 
and modest detail, the uprights being of stone, moulded and cham- 
fered : the side doors are trefoil-headed. The window-space is ample: 
and the utility as well as beauty of the design deserves much oogi- 


Durham Cathedral — ^The great central tower, an elaborate TM- 
Pointed composition, has long been disfigured with cement. We re- 
joice that Messrs. Walton and Robson, a local firm, in connexion with 
Mr. Scott, have in hand a careful restoration of the buttresses of the 
lower stage and of the whole upper stage, including the windows iivi 

Queen's College Chapel, Cambridge. — ^We are very glad to be aUe to 
announce that Mr. Bodley is about to restore the chapel of Queen's 
College, Cambridge, — we need not say in a very satisfactory manner. 
The windows (some of which already contain inferior glass) are all to 
be gradually filled by Mr. Hardman, who has already two in hand, and 
who is likewise to fill the windows of the hall with armorial glass. 

S. Margaret, Wicken Bonant, Essex, — Chancel, nave, south porch, 
west tower. The architectural history of this church is this. A late 
Norman fabric of chancel, nave, and circular^ west tower. Cbanod 
rebuilt about a century later. The nave in part rebuilt in the Middk- 
Pointed period. After this no alteration took place, except perhaps in 
the porch, till the seventeenth century, when Theophilus Aylmer 
erected his high altar, as he calls it in the register book, and rtiied 
the sanctuary on three high steps, burying part of the sedile and 
bringing the floor to within four feet of the sill of the east window : — tUi 
sanctuary he fenced in with cumbrous twisted balusters. In the eiiiy 
part of the last century the tower either fell or was taken down, and 
three out of the five bells, which tradition assigns to it, were hong in 
a wooden cot over the west gable. Fifty years since two of these re- 
maining bells were sold to cover some repairs, which oonaisted of 
choking up the nave with six large pews. The rector at the same tine 
added another, extending across the chancel, and completely abutting 
out the altar. 

The chancel, of plain and good First-Pointed work, ia long and 
narrow, (30 ft. by 12 ft.) and rather lofty. It retains all its andeat 
features, eastern triplet, side lancets, priests' door, aedile, piadoit 
and aumbrie : in the south-west comer is a very beautiful hmcet win- 
dow with internal banding and shafts. The arrangement of tiie wii- 
dows is peculiar ; the sills are set lower as they advance eastward, the 
altar window being the lowest. There is a step down at the chaneel 

' At the rebuilding of the ndsfaboaring church of Arketden twa jeanaiaQS|lhe 
ibondatioiis of ■ very large Roimd tower were laid here. 

Church Restorations. 218 

i« and probably in former times another in the centre and a third at 
sanctuary. The only restoration needed in the chancel has been a 
r roof, the lowering of worthy Parson Aylmer's high altar, and pro- 

Vhe chancel-arch, of plain Middle- Pointed work, low and narrow, 
1 been so crushed by a settlement in the g^ble above, (from the 
oping out of the rood-stairs) that a new one was found necessary ; 
B has been carried out with increased height and width, some deta^s 
the old one being reproduced as its memorial. 
The nave has been entirely rebuilt on the old foundations, retaining 
o good Middle- Pointed windows, the only ancient features, and using 
sm as a guide for the style of the new work. The nave is fifty feet 
length, the door in the centre of the south side as before, retaining 
e old bases, and two windows on each side of two lights ; on the 
trth aide are two three-light windows. The porch, of stone, is also 
!W ; its predecessor, a mixture of wood and stone, retaining no archi- 
stural features. In taking down the old nave, a number of frag- 
ents of early lancet windows were found built up into the walls ; one 
ndow remained perfect in its original position, very small and high 
» in the wall, with some rude fresco colouring in the splays ; it had 
!ver been glazed, and showed fastenings for a wooden shutter. From 
e number of fragments of these windows, it is probable that there had 
en many of them set near together. In digging the foundations for 
e new tower, the remains of the former one were laid bare, together 
ith the bases of a very narrow arch ; the modem west wall of the 
.ve proved to be entirely made up of fragments of the old tower, all 
Transition Norman work ; many of these were put together, so that a 
Icrably perfect idea of the detail of the old work could be formed ; one 
Ifry window of two lights came together very perfectly. The new 
ver is square and without buttresses, fifty feet high, and capped by a 
me broach spire, which adds about thirty-five feet more, llie tower- 
di is narrow and lofty, west window of two lights, tower windows 
sfoiled slits, the belfry stage breaking out into double two-light win- 
(ws with areading. 

The massive Norman font, the only relic of the first church, has 
en preserved, fitted with a cover, and placed under the tower-arch. 
The ritual arrangements are these : the sanctuary is raised on one 
w step, (necessitated by the low level of the east window), and paved 
tfa Minton's tiles ; the altar, of carved oak, stands on a rich footpace, 
le sill of the east window has been raised by the insertion of a stone 
table with pierced tracery which, without concealing the First- 
anted work behind, adds dignity to the sanctuary, and links it with 
a more advanced architecture of the nave. The chancel is stalled, 
th returns against a high screen of oak of very rich detail, the work 
Rattee and Kett. Above the rood-beam rises a richly carved and 
nneed triangular canopy, ending in a floriated gilt cross — (this was 
ggested by a design in the JnstrumaUa.) Prayers are said from the 
BSlemmost stalls on dther side. A small organ is carried on stone 
sekcts on the north side : the key-board is reversed and brought down 
to the stalls. The four lancet windows contain the Evangdists and 

214 Church Restorations. 

four major propheto, two in each window. The south-west lancet hat 
a group of Chbist blessing little children, — a memorial to a child of 
the rector's. The east window is reserved for the crucifixion. An ele* 
gant stone pulpit from a design by Mr. Street occupies the north-eait 
comer of the nave : opposite is a lettem, and between them, Cactng east, 
a litany stool. A large space over the chancel-arch is relieved by 
Terrey's new stamped plaster on a red ground, llie nave is filled with 
low and moveable oak benches. Here are two painted windows,— one 
the sermon on the Mount, the other our Loan in the temple with the 
doctors. All the windows are by Mr. Lavers ; the remaining ones are, 
for the present, filled with quarries and grisaille. This interesting res- 
toration was conducted without professional aid by the rector, the Rev. 
J. H. Sperling. To less competent ecclesiologists, however, we should 
not recommend the adoption of this course. 

iS. Andrew, Little Shetstey, Worcestershire, — ^This small, bat interest- 
ing church, containing a Romanesque doorway, is to be restored and 
re-arranged by Mr. Truefitt. It contains only nave and chancel, the 
former very irregular in plan ; the design generally First-Pointed. 
The most curious feature is the original high chancel-screen, of 
fifteenth century work, which is further returned on the south side in 
the nave so as to enclose a square space, formerly used (no doubt) as a 
chantry chapel. This is of course now made a pew for the squire. 
We thoroughly agree with the architect in deprecating the destruction 
of this unusual arrangement. The area of the chantry might well be 
cleared of pews and furnished with chairs, and the screen preserved. 
A similar arrangement is to be found in the curious church of Fenny 
Bentley, near Ashbourne, Derbyshire. A moulded rood-beam also re- 
mains, quite detached from the high screen below. A very rich incised 
monumental cross remains in the chancel-floor : and the church possesses 
a silver chalice and paten, the latter with a foot, which being reversed 
serves as a handle to the lid of the chalice, dated 1576. The chorch 
has been much mutilated, and dormer windows and modem lights have 
been inserted. These Mr. Truefitt renews : and he translates a dia- 
racterless low square turret into a good design of the same tjrpe, with 
open panels and a good roof. He has boldly placed an open fireplioe 
in the wall under the east window. 

iS. Botolph, Bossall, Yorkshire, — ^This small but interesting chorch is 
undergoing a partial restoration under the superintendence of Messrs. 
Walton and Robson. The plan is cmciform, without aisles, and with 
a low square tower at the intersection. The tower piers and arches are 
of Transitional style, but the upper part is of early Middle-Pointed: 
the remainder of the church is mainly Transitional. The north txan* 
sept has been walled off from the church and suffered to fall into decay : 
and the nave has been shortened about a third owing to the dilapida- 
tion of its west end. The side windows, of good Romanesque charac- 
ter, have been miserably mutilated extemally. The roofs have been 

The architects propose to raise the roofs of the nave and sooth tnn^ 
sept to tiie dd weather moulds on the tower ; and to restore the windows 
aoooiding to the model of the ruinous (but onmutilated) windows in the 

Notices and Answers to Correspondents^ 215 

north transept. There is a fine Romanesque portal on the south side ; 
which, by rebuilding, restoring to the perpendicular, and supplying the 
missing shafts, can be well renewed. The new west end is to have two 
round-headed lights under a plain circle in the gable. We thiak this 
a very probable restoration, though the mouldings of the circle do not 
8eem quite in harmony with the simple character of the ancient work. 
This is a case in which moreover the local type of Romanesque, if 
there be one discoverable, should be borne in mind. We are glad that 
a work of so much interest is in reverent and trustworthy hands. 

S. Mary, Welton, Lincolnshire. — ^This is a curious church, with an 
apsidal east end, of three sides, each having a Third -Pointed window. 
It is probably the rebuilding of an original apse, but it is only a sanc- 
tuary, with no chancel whatever. Mr. S. S. Teuloa is restoring it with 
care and judgment. He forms a choir out of the easternmost of the 
four bays of the nave ; and much improves the outline of the tower. 


Thi Chetham Society of Manchester has published, under the com- 
petent editorial care of Mr. Thomas Jones, M.A., the Librarian, a 
Catalogue of the Collection of Tracts for and against Popery, (pub- 
fished in or about the reign of James II.) in the Chetham Library. 
This in fact is Peck's list of the Tracts in that controversy with con- 
nderable enlargements and improvement. Peck's Catalogue is now 
Tery scarce ; and the present editor has vastly added to it not merely 
horn his own researches but from the collections made by others, such 
as the Rev. J. T. Allen — an ex- Chetham Librarian, and the Rev. Dr. 
Todd of Dublin. Few people who have not looked into the subject are 
at all aware how fiercely the Roman controversy raged in England 
Qoder the last of the Stuarts. 

We hear with satisfieustion that a memorial window to the late 
Archdeacon of Rochester has been entrusted to Messrs. Clayton and 
Bell. The committee hope to raise £300; and propose to fill the 
three lancets in the north transept of the cathedral with scenes from 
the life of S. Stephen the proto-martyr. 

The meetings of the choirs of the Lichfield Diocesan Choral Associ- 
ation will this year be again held in the several districts, the restoration 
of the cathedral not being sufficiently advanced for a festival of the 
aggrq^ated choirs. 

We thank Mr. J. M. W. PuUen for his letter. He invites us to de- 
nounce more vigorously a custom which he asserts to be growing more 
common — the congregational use of properly stalled chancels. We do 
not yield to him in reprobation of this practice : but we still think that 
a stalled chancel, temporarily misused, but ready at any moment for its 
right use, is better than a chancel filled with pews or than no chancel 
at all« Correctiiig a clerical error in the notice of Boyn Hill church 
in our la«t volame, Mr. Pullen reminds us that the east and west mii« 

216 Notices and Answers to Correspondents, 

dow8 of that church are of five and fowr lights respectivelf. Into hu 
revival of the Shottesbrooke controversy we think it inexpedient to fol* 
low him. Our views are not substantially different : and we feel 
obliged to him for his courteous tone. 

Mr. Sedding addresses us on the style of music proper to be used ic 
the new church of All Saints, Margaret Street. He very nearly ex- 
presses our own views of what church music ought to be, as they have 
been set forth on several former occasions : and we think it therefore 
less necessary to enter upon the subject. But we thank him for hia 

A correspondent inform us that much activity in respect of church 
restoration has prevailed in the north of Italy. S. Antonio, Padua, hai 
been under extensive renovation. These works will probably be stopped 
by the war : and already several of the Venice churches have been oc- 
cupied for military or commissariat purposes. 

We understand that at Olveston church, Gloucestershire, there is an 
ancient fine linen cloth for the altar which must much resemble that 
noticed at page 192 of our eleventh volume as in use till the late 
restoration at Sheen church, Staffordshire. Like that it was only broad 
enough to cover the top of the altar, and not to hang over the front 
The Olveston cloth bears the date of 1602. 

The compiler of our SequentuB Inedita informs us that he has ob- 
tained a very interesting collection of new ones, partly from a MS. d 
the Benedictine House B. V. M. de Culiura Dei (N. D. de la Coutnie). 
partly from one originally belonging to the Oratory at Amiens, and 
partly from a very rare printed Missal (1484) of S. Brieuc. 

We hope, in our next number, to call attention to the very able re- 
port of the Committee of Sion College upon the vexed question of the 
City churches. We should be truly glad to see that question so satii- 
factorily solved. 

We are glad to add Ely to the number of cathedrals in which chonl 
festivals of parochial choirs have ^een held. The spectacle of its nave 
on May 25, filled with about 4,000 persons, is described as very 
striking. The choirs were placed in a sort of chorus cantorum under 
the lantern. 

A notice of Mr. Withers' excellent design for rebuilding the little 
church of S. Helen, Little Cawthorpe, Lincolnshire, is postponed tiU 
our next number, when it will appear with an illustration promised ts 
us by the architect. 

The subject of discussion at the anniversary meeting of the Eccte- 
siological Society on June 21st, will be the proper arrangement of cSf 
thedrals with reference to their occasional use by large congregatioiis. 

The Worcester Diocesan Architectural Society will hold its geneni 
meeting on June 7th, with an excursion to Wyre- Piddle and Choieli- 

Received: the Rev. Rowland Smith — the Rev. H. M. Rioe Am 
Ecdeaiologist — ^A. B. 




** %nx%t igitnr ct fac : ct txit BomfnoB tecum.** 


(new series, no. xcvii.) 



^BAT a complete reYolution in architectare was effected in Ireland in 
^twelfth oentory is beyond a doubt, and that it arose from the ex- 
*o>ple of the Cistercian abbeys is, I believe, equally certain. Great as 
*M their influence on the style of building wherever the monks of this 
^r settled, nowhere is it more distinctly seen than in Ireland. 

Before this period the churches were numerous, scarcely less so 1 
oooiider, than in times under the sway of Pointed architecture, and far 
tteeeding in number the buildings in use for religious service in our 
own days. The majority of these early churches were of diminutive 
fixt, were frequently of timber, and were many of them also wholly 
of stone, copered with high-pitched stone roofs. Very commonly they 
were witfaoat any distinction of nave and chancel, and very frequently 
too a chaneel has been added within this early period. The larger of 
the early chnrcfaes have not this distinction of the parts, and rarely 
does their extreme length amount to 70 feet. Aisles and their neces- 
sary arcades were unknown. 

The unquiet habits of the people had been little favourable to the 
developaieDt of architecture ; though in this respect I cannot discover 
that there was afterwards any change by which the Cbtercians could 
profit beyond the zeal and knowledge imported by their own order. 
The eccleaiaatical body had for 200 years been in a peculiarly dis- 
ordered conditiun. Hie primatial see of Armagh had become here- 
ditary in one family* and was held by a succession of laymen who 
absorbed the emoloments« and deputed the duties to a suffragan Bishop. 
laprofpement commenced mider Celsus, a member of this family, who 
stteeeeded to the primacy in 1105. He was, however, in holy orders, 
sad co oe eer a t e d to the see, although only 26 years of age. One object 
witii hifls was to terminate the hereditary possession by his own family 
ia the see. To efFeet this he^ nominated or recommended as his sue* 

218 Boyle Abbey and the Architecture 

cessor the celebrated S. Malachy, whose piety, as a youth in a school 
at Armagh, had attracted his notice. The Archbishop admitted bim 
in due time to the priesthood, and employed him frequently as bis es- 
teem for him increased into friendship and confidence. At the death 
of Celsus in 1 129, his intention as to his successor did not immediately 
take effect, but though the see of Armagh was then assumed according 
to previous custom by a relative of Celsus and held for five years, Ma- 
lachy stood so high in public esteem that on the decease of that per- 
sonage he« with but little opposition, succeeded to the chair of S. 
Patrick in 1134. To this prelate, whose memory is justly venerated 
for his pure piety and earnest zeal is owing the introduction of the 
Cistercian order into Ireland. The Cistercian rule founded at the end 
of the previous century was now rapidly acquiring influence under the 
protection of the great S. Bernard. Malachy visited him at Clairvaux, 
and afterwards sent some Irish monks to that abbey to be initiated into 
the practices of the order. On their return with some French brethren 
the first Irish Cistercian monastery was founded in 1142 at Mellifont, 
in the principality of Oriel. The remains of this monastery are still to 
be seen about four miles from Drogheda ; the church has disappeared, 
but the reare points of peculiar interest in the buildings which yet 
remain. As our present business is however chiefly with the churches. 
I shall not further notice these buildings here. 

S. Malachy, who had retired from the archiepiscopal see of Armagh 
in 1 1 37, to become Bishop only of Down, died on a visit at Clairvaux 
in 1148. In the same year a colony set out from Mellifont whidi 
locating itself for a short time at three different sites, finally in 1161 
settled on the spot where now stands Boyle Abbey, in the present 
county of Roscommon. 

Bishop Malachy has been supposed by some writers to have been 
one of the first to erect a stone church in Ireland. I cannot suppose 
that any person who has given attention to the subject holds that 
opinion now. It was founded on an often quoted .passage in the life 
of S. Malachy, written by his friend S. Bernard ; " Visum est Malt- 
chise debere construi in Benchor (Bangor, co. Down,) oratorium Upi- 
deum instar illorum quae in aliis regionibus extructa conspexerat. Et 
cum ccepisset jacere fundamenta indigenae quidam mirad sunt quod in 
terra ilia necdum ejusmodi sedificia invenirentur." Dr. Petrie has pointed 
out that this passage refers only to a change in the style of architecture 
and not to any novelty in the use of stone and mortar, and with the 
positive remains still existing of earlier stone churches this conclnaioB 
cannot be resisted. We know also from S. Bernard that Malachy had 
previously constructed a chapel of wood at the same place, which 
merely proves that both kinds of construction were in use. Is it not 
then more than probable that the novelty introduced on this occasioii 
is represented and handed down to us in the Cistercian style of build* 
ing ? One of the latest, and probably most sumptuous efforts of the 
native style is seen in the existing chapel of S. Cormac, on the rock of 
Cashel, consecrated in 1 1 34, the year of Malachy*8 accession to the 
primatial see. This building consists of a nave, about 33 ft. by 17 ft., 
ornamented with round-arched arcades or recesses in the aide waDi* 

of the Cistercian Abbeys of Ireland, 219 

from which rise attached columns, carrying plain hoop ribs supporting 
the cylindrical vault. The chancel is 13 ft. by 10 ft. 6 in., and is 
covered by a groined vault of one bay ; the altar stood in a small recess 
in the east end of the chancel. The chancel arch and arcades are de- 
corated with chevron ornaments and grotesque sculpture. Attached 
to the sides of the nave transeptwise are two slender square towers, 
ODe terminated with a pyramidal stone roof, the other with a square 
pvapet. The church is roofed with stone, raised to a very sharp pitch, 
^ has within both the nave and chancel roofs a habitable apartment. 
^ exterior is decorated with arcades. There were two entrances 
<uigmally to the church, one north the other south. The north one of 
neb and imposing design and deeply recessed. The church was dimly 
Qghted by a few round-headed loops, but no east window. I have 
^us recaUed its general features to contrast them with those of the 
Cistercian churches. 

Ware's list of the 43 Cistercian foundations in Ireland includes one at 
•^blin which preceded Mellifont, but which as Dublin was then under 
be archiepisco|)al rule of Canterbury, and not of the Irish primate, 
conclude to have been more English than Irish. Omitting this one, 
berefore we have 42 abbeys, all which sprung into existence between 
he foundation of Mellifont in 1142 and the year 1224 ; only two being 
f later date. The powerful effect which this rapid spread of the order 
urying their own style of architecture must have had is evident. In 
iigland the Cistercians had commenced in 1 1 28 and had acquired 
tNNit 70 foundations up to 1224, to which they added not more than 
:n afterwards, and those with only two exceptions within the 13th 
Atory. It will be interesting to notice presently the points of affinity 
itween the works of the order in the two islands. Records of the 
initruction of the Irish Cistercian buildings have not in many instances 
we to my knowledge, but of Boyle abbey it is known that though 
unded in 1 161 the church was not consecrated till 1218. 
The situation chosen for Boyle abbey can hardly be surpassed in 
«uty and interest, llie river Boyle in its course from Lough Gara 
' Lough Kee flows at this part in a deep valley from which woody 
ypes rise on the south to the open wide spreading pasture of the plains 
Boyle, then the territory of Moylurg, held by the Mac Dermots, 
rda of Moylurg, and petty sovereigns of the district ; their residence 
It then and long after on a castled rock in Lough Kee, close to the 
ore where is now the magnificent demesne of Rockingham. North 
the river rise more abruptly the Curlieu hills, more wild in aspect, 
eir surface strewn with masses of sandstone rock, through which the 
own heath struggles to light. Lough Kee dotted with islets, the 
posing woods and slopes of Rockingham, the quiet shady valley of 
e mbbey, and the bleak sides of the Curlieu hills unite most happily 
Uiancy with repose, and stem austerity with inviting shelter. 
In earlier times higher up the Boyle, about a mile, where now a 
iTeyard crowded with memorials overhangs on a lofty steep a small 
taract of the river there stood a monastery founded by S. Dachonna. 
le crumbling fragment of wall within the graveyard marks the site 
the church which succeeded the saint's establishment — called ori- 

220 Boyle Abbey and the Architecture 

ginally Eas-mic-neirc (the cataract of the sons of Eire) it came to be 
afterwards Eas-Ui-Fhloinn (the cataract of O'FlyDti) modernised into 
Assylin. When this ceased to be a monastery is, I believe, unknowo. 
In 1209 we read of one Flaherty O'Flynn Coarb (i.e., successor), of 
Dachonna, perhaps an ecclesiastic, though for that class the title was 
then fisdling into disuse, and was afterwards applied to the lay abbots 
or hereditary possessors of the church property. In 12^ Maelisa 
0*Flynn, prior of this place, died, and it is from this family that the 
modern name is derived. It appears that part of the property of the 
ancient monastery of Assylin was absorbed by Boyle Abbey, for ac- 
cording to Archdairs Monasticon, the latter was possessed (at the sup- 
pression) of the vicarage of Assylin, i.e., one fourth part of the tithes, 
and in a list of its lands appears "the quarter of Moc Moyne," the 
present name of the townland in which Assylin graveyard stands. 

Between these two monasteries, but close to the greater one, stands 
the town of Boyle, which owes its existence to the Cistercian monks 
and the cultivation and arts they introduced here. 

In the period of fifty-seven years which took place between the foun- 
dation of Boyle abbey and the consecration of the church in 1%18, it 
furnished a Bishop Florence to Elphin, who died in 1 1 95 ; and we ^ud 
one of the Lords of Moylurg, who died in 1197, taking orders in the 
monastery, so that it had probably risen into importance then. To' 
wards the end of this period also the sovereignty of Ireland passed 
from its native ruler to the king of England. A notice of a calamity 
which the Anglo-Norman invaders brought upon the abbey in 1901 » 
gives some idea of the extent of its buildings. In that year Willitm 
Burke, with some Irish allies, occupied the abbey as military quarters* 
and the king of Connaught coming to prevent their farther advance 
into his province, lay with an army in the vicinity, and daily skir- 
mishes took place between the forces, in one of which the kin^« 
Cathai Carragh O'Connor, was slain, after which Burke and his allied 
pursued their advance. During this occupation, " The hospital of 
the monks, the houses of the cloister, and every apartment throagb'- 
out the whole monastery *' was profaned by the soldiers, who *' left 
nothing in the monastery without breaking or burning, except the roof> 
of the houses only, and of these they broke and burned many . . . • 
they left no part of the monastery to the monks excepting only the 
d(irmitory and the house of the novices." Burke's soldiers worked 
fur two days in surrounding " the great house of the gueats '* with a 
cashel or stone wall. In all this there is no allusion to the church, 
und therefore I conclude that none existed then, although probably it 
was in progress. I much fear that Burke's stone wall may have robbed 
the unfinished pile of some of its parts ; so convenient a quarry would 
hardly have been neglected. Certainly this hostile invasion must have 
been one cause for the long time occupied before the building wai 
ready for consecration. The event shows how little favourable was 
the political state to the advancement of architecture. Again in the 
year 1235, Maurice Fitzgerald, Lord Justice of Ireland invaded Coo- 
naught, burned Iloscommon and the great church or cathedral at Bpbio, 
and on the night of Trinity Sunday his army sacked Boyle abbey, tp- 


"Details &oin Bajle AhLey 

fitrt at- Watt pari o£ Jfart: 
4.. Sa3f a^ ■ft'mn, Eaatrt^anA of Satt an, SohSi- itidt. 


FrEuidBcimihljey 111 Adare, (Vi T.i-nmHi-h- 

of the Cistercian Abbeys of Ireland. 221 

larently without the consent of the chiefs, who caused the spoil to he 

returned or paid for. In 1243 the abhey was again occupied by troops ; 

this time no violence is recorded. In 1284 the abbey was again spoiled, 

tliuugh the spoils were ret\imed. In 1300 the Burkes paid a hostile 

y\siu and in 1315, Felim O'Connor, King of Gonnaught» having joined 

the Earl of Ulster, who had just been alarmed by the landing of 

inward Bruce with the Scots in Ulster, Rory O'Connor pillaged Boyle 

abbey, and took advantage of the absence of Felim to commit other 

depredations. Rory O'Connor even assumed the sovereignty of Con- 

Qiught, but be was defeated and slain by Felim, who himself fell on 

the luth of August in the same year, being only twenty- three years 

old, in a battle at Athenry gained by the Burkes and Berminghams. 

io 1398 the abhey of Boyle was plundered of provisions and stores 

by the Lord of Moylurg, and the spoil was taken to his castle of the 

Koek in Luugh Kee, probably to prevent it falling into the hands of 

the Burices and their allies* then ravaging the district. Several in- 

iluiees occur of the connexion of the chieftains of Moylurg with the 

ibbey. In im a lady of this family died within Uie abbey walls. In 

1331 a Lord of Moylurg resigned his lordship and became a monk in 

thiiaiihty, and his ancceasor in the lordship died and was interred here 

ia 1130. In 1341 another of the family, a monk of the abbey, died. 

Semai of the Moylurg chieftains were afterwards interred here. In 

1444 tbe abbot of Boyle, with a number of the clergy of Connaught, 

loooiBpanied the Bishop of Elphin to Rome, and in 1 448 the abbot 

Cornelioa was promoted by the Pope to the see of Achonry. In 1 634 

I MacDennot, of the family of the Moylurg chieftains, was abbot of 

Boyle; and in 1560, when the abbey was suppressed by Elizabeth, 

mother of this family waa abbot. 

After the su|iprc8aion, when Elizabeth was making vigorous efforts 
U) reduce the Inth chieftains, the abbey buildings were the scene of 
violence. In 1603 Sir Richard Bingham, Governor of Connaught, 
made a stay here on hia return from an expedition against the O' Neils 
in Ulster, and two years after it was one of the places garrisoned by 
the same oflker to cheek the O^Donnels of 'r3rrconnell (Donegal), who 
nevertheless broke through his lines across the Boyle and ravaged as 
fiur south as Elphin. In 1696, 7, 9 military expeditions rested here, and 
in the last year Sir Conyers Clifford, Governor of Connaught, under 
the orders of the Earl of Essex, repaired to Roscommon, and there 
assembled the Eng^Ush and Irish forces and marched them to Boyle, 
arriving on the Sunday before Lammas. 0*Donnell, the coadjutor of 
the lebeUkms O'Neil, Earl of Tyrone, and himself created Earl of 
Tyiooaiiel, took up a position in the Curlieu Hills. On August the 
16th, Chffbrd marched out, intending to proceed north through the 
passes of Lough Kee and the Curlieus held by O'Donnell, whose scouts 
overlooking the abbey instantly informed him of the movement. 
O'Donuell hastened to meet the Queen's forces, which were driven 
back to the walls of the monastery, and Clifford himself killed on the 
noun tain side in endeavouring to check the flight of his men. Again 
in 160% the Queen's forces occupied the abbey, and in an encounter 
vith the brother of O'Donncll sustained another reverse. 

222 Boyle Abbey and the Architecture 

Such is the troubled history of this place, which, as we might expec 
has suffered severely from so many rude assaults and occupatioD) 
Fortunately the most important part, the abbey church, has retaine 
its walls except the outside of the nave aisles. 

The church, which stands north of the conventual buildings, i 
cruciform in plan, with a low square tower at the intersection. Rooo 
and pointed arches are blended in the work throughout, nowhere d 
we find the chevron and other enriched mouldings so usual in the sty] 
and age which produced S. Cormac's chapel. 

At Boyle abbey, the entire length within the walls is 181 ft. 8 in 
the extreme length being about 196 ft., of which the west end wa 
occupies a thickness of 8 ft. The breadth across the transepts is 79 f 
2 in., the depth of each transept being 27 ft. 6 in., whilst that of tfa 
chancel is only 25 ft. 8 in., so that the arms of the cross are 1 f) 
10 in. longer than the head. (Plan, see plate 1. Details, plate 2.) 

The chancel is 22 ft. 5 in. wide inside, and lighted only at the eai 
end, where is a simple but noble triplet of lancet windows. O 
the north side of the chancel is a piscina, and on the south side 
recess, probably for sedilia. The chancel is vaulted with a pointe 
continuous or barrel vault of rubble stone without ribs or shafts c 
any kind. The chancel arch, which is under the east side of the towei 
is pointed, and is of noble dimensions. It is of three plain squai 
orders. The inner one only projects in front of the chancel walk 
whilst the middle order fills up the space occasioned by the nave beiii 
21 in. wider than the chancel, and the outer order springs from th 
face of the side walls of the nave. The inner order is carried at eac 
side on a shaft 14 in. diameter, projecting not more than half its dii 
meter into the chancel. The middle order has the square jamb undc 
it cut into a slender shaft on the angle, and the outer one has a stmili 
shaft on the angle of the intersection of the east transept wall wit 
the arch of the transept or side wall of the tower: thiiB last shai 
being common to the outer order both of the chancel and transep 
arches. The caps to the chancel arches have the square abacas an 
scallop ribbed capital belonging to the round-arch period, in this case 
and generally throughout the church where they occur, cut on tlu 
surface in gentle reliefs into leaf- like forms. The arch rises to tbi 
full height of the chancel-vault ; whilst this arch is pointed, the otha 
three tower arches are semicircular, and of only two orders ; and ii 
the western one the inner order is made to spring from the face of tin 
side wall without being brought down to the ground at all. The opeo- 
ing for view eastwards therefore is here the full and uninterrapMi 
width of the nave, the chancel arch being as before pointed oat oolf 
reduced by one order to a width of twenty-one feet; and in the tnn- 
sept arches there is the same care to avoid obstruction to the view. Ii 
all these arches the same lofty proportion is observable as in tltf 
chancel arch. Each transept has on its eastern side two small chapels 
opening into the transepts by pointed arches, with plain archivolts. 1b 
both transepts a difference in dignity seems to have been marked be- 
tween the chapel next the chancel and the outer one, by giving to tlK 
piers and capitals of the first a style and finish after the oianner of the 

of the Cistercian Abbeys of Ireland, 223 

chancel pien, and allotting to the outer ones piers chamfered into a 
semioctagon form with plain caps. Each chapel is lighted over where 
the altar stood by a single window. The windows in the transepts 
are round- beaded, but in the north end between two such is a poioted 
door. The tower, which was of the same width as the nave aod tran- 
Kpt», rose one story above their roofs, and has lancet windows. The 
nave is 156 feet long, measured to the front of the chancel arch, and 
^4 ft. ^ in. wide in the clear. It had an aisle on each side, but both 
aides have been entirely removed, and their materials have been used 
to wall up and support with huge buttresses the north arcade, done it 
is supposed at the time or in consequence of the iujuries caused by 
the garrisons of Sir R. Biogham and Sir Conyers Clifford in Queen 
Elizabeth's time. Besides the transept arches, there is on each side 
ID arcade of eight arches, having between the responds seven piers on 
each aide, commencing with four cylindrical ones eastward 3 ft. 6 in. 
diameter, the three western being piers 3 ft. 6 in. thick (the thickness 
of the wall), and 4 ft. 10 io. longitudinally, besides a triple attached 
ahaft at each end to carry the inner rib of the arch. The style of 
these triple shafts is decidedly of the pointed period, and so is the 
Btoolding about the abaci of their caps ; but the sculpture of the caps, 
oo&sisting of foliage, figures, and Scripture subjects, is as decidedly in 
the manner of the round-arch period, which is also strongly marked 
in the cytindrical piers and their scalloped capitals. Higher up the 
tranation of styles is still more striking, for all the arches of the south 
ndt are semicircular, whilst all those of the north side are pointed. 
Above them again the clerestory on both sides has round-headed win- 
dows, and on the piers are triple shafts with their capitals which re- 
eeiTed the wall timbers of the roof, and are closely after the style of 
the triple shafts to the western piers of the arcades below. The arches 
of these lower arcades are of two orders chamfered. The end of the 
MQtli aisle opened to the transept with a round arch the width of the 
ttde, but the north aisle has only a small door opening from the tran- 
^. The west end of the nave is lighted by one lancet, the jambs 
haotifiilly moulded and shafted, the shafts divided by bands into 
several lengths in a manner very ])revalent in Ireland. It is seen in 
Kilkenny, at the cathedral of S. Canice, and very abundantly in 
Chriatchurch cathedral, Dublin. Beneath this window is the west door, 
^ pointed, of two orders, of deep mouldings. In the thickness of 
^t west wall a stair ascends intended for access to the side gutters of 
^ roof. The two buttresses which in the west elevation divided the 
^Te from the aisles, are 4 ft. 1 in. wide, and project only 1 ft. 7 in., but 
He moulded on the angle with an arrissed bead 2^ in.' diameter be- 
^^een two hollows. The whole of the dressings are wrought in a 
''^Qtiful and durable sandstone, being, notwithstanding the rough 

^lage and long exposure experienced, generally in very perfect con- 

The coDwentoal buildings were on the south side of the church, and 

the grouod about them bounded on the south and east by a bend of the 

Hfer Boyle, flowing in a shallow, rocky channel. 
Of this part of the abbey the remains are very imperfect, though at 

224 Boyle Abbey and the Architecture 

the first glance at them the impression is more favourable, as the wall 
which have been left standing retain their original altitude, and form 
complete enclosure of the cloister court. 

A range of building extended south from the south transept* ao 
had attached to its west side another parallel range, abutting againi 
the south aisle of the church. Of these, only the wall which divide 
the two ranges exists, straight with the west side of the transepts. I 
its lower part it contains a fireplace with a semicircular arch, of whic 
the masonry was reset a few years ago. The upper part of this wa 
is so clothed with ivy, as to make an examination of any features whk 
might indicate the uses of the apartments difficult. On the groan 
floor the sacristy remains next to the transept. Opposite, set back 
few inches from the west face of the church, extends the west bou 
dary of the cloister-court. The outer wall remains, and has the ei 
trance gateway in it, a Pointed arch of a single order, without chmmft 
or moulding to archivolt or jambs, except a chamfered hood-mod 
which is set up 1 6 inches from the soffit of the arch ; the arch beiii 
constructed in two rings of voussoirs, flush, in the same way as bcic 
arches are now made in bridges and such work. The gateway : 
7 ft. 6 in. wide, and within it, on the right or south, is the porter 
lodge, and on the left a staircase, which led to apartments over tfc 
gateway, which have disappeared. The gateway is not in the oenb 
of the side of the court, but nearer to the church. The other buUdinj 
which filled up this side are destroyed. The south side of the cloiata 
court is formed by what I suppose to have been the refectory to tfc 
east, and a kitchen to the west. If a refectory, it seems to have bee 
singularly wanting in light ; for although the walls seem perfect, tfc 
only window I could discover is a small lancet high np in the toot 
waU. There was a ground story and a floor above. The ground stor 
communicatee with the kitchen. The apartment, whatever its pni 
pose, was about 74 ft. long and 26 ft. wide. The kitchen is M)fi 
long, and the same width : it was perhaps not originally designed lb 
this use, as the fireplace and two ovens which exist do not bond to tk 
walls against which they are erected. The fireplace is 8 ft. 10 in. wide 
and 5 ft. 3 in. deep, and has a lofty Pointed arch in its front ; alongeid 
of it a similar opening, 5 ft. 8 in. wide, is formed ; the jamb between i 
and the fireplace is 4 ft. wide, and that on the other side 6 ft. 9 is 
wide. Each jamb contains an oven, the mouths opening opposite eid 
other under the arch. A circular turret which exists at the corner < 
the kitchen has been modernised ; its purpose is not very distinel 
No trace of the architecture of the cloister remains. 

Part of a terrace constructed on arches extends from the buildingi ei 
the east side of the cloister-court eastwards towards the river, and is fti 
to have terminated at a building which stood in the river called on th 
spot " the bath," which was taken down some years since. Perltfp 
" the bath " contained apparatus for raising water, and the terrace, i 
may be, was an aqueduct for the supply of the convent. 

With the sole exception of the added parts in the kitchen, the whofc 
of the remains are of the original foundation. 

The ritual arrangements within the abbey church of Boyle proviief 

f^the Ciitercian Abbeys of Ireland. 225 

£or five altara, viz.. four in the transept and chapelf, and the high 
iltar. The seats for the choir and clergy of the convent ocoupied pro- 
bably 80 much of the nave as has cylindrical columns to the arcades. 
Tit., four bays of the eastern part, by which in ritual the nave was ab- 
sorbed, and became choir. The whole space under the tower and in 
tbe transepts, comprising all the space immediately in front of the 
>ltirB. was thus left clear. This is the arrangement which, according 
to Vlollet le Due, existed at Clairvaux, and which seems well adapted 
to this church. I think the change from cylindrical columns to oblong 
pen with attached shafts distinctly marks the extent of the choir, the 
v»tward part providing for the lay brethren. It is probable that the 
buildiags abutting against the south transept contained the chapter- 
boose, library, parlour and noviciate, and dormitories in the upper part. 
The refectory I believe to have been in the existing building, at the 
south of the court, with cellars underneath. The western range con- 
tuned, perhaps, stores, with dormitories for the lay brethren iu the 
upper part. From the mention of " the great house of the guests^" 
which, in his fortification in 1201, William Burke surrounded by a 
stone wall, probably that building was detached to the westward ; and 
oear it, in all likelihood, stood tiie abbot's residence, the role of the 
order requiring his special attendance on the arrival of strangers, with 
whom he took his meals, and not with his subject brethren. The po- 
1^ of these buildings would therefore be near where the glebe house 
^ the parish is marked on tbe Ordnance map. Here too, probably. 
W tbe entrance to the abbey, through its external cincture of wall, 
vbich enclosed the whole abbey buildings. 

This wall of protection was used in France as well for the seclusion 
of the society within, as for security : on this last ground it was not 
ttii necessary in Ireland ; and that it could not have been neglected in 
tbii instance I think is clear, as the external entrances in the west end 
of the church, and the larger entrance to the cloister-oourt before de- 
*oibed, not to mention the small door north of the north transept, 
^oold have been otherwise entirely without protection. The mecha- 
BioiL industrial, and agricultural establishment, which the Cistercian 
^ required, lay probably still farther west. Eastward, the small 
*P>oe between the abbey and the river was laid out with gardens, and 
^ necessary reservoirs of water for the preservation and cultivation 
^ fiah : perhaps the conduit which I have supposed to be traceable in 
^ existing terrace at this part had some connection with these. 

Altogether, apart from the austere observances of the inmates., and 
^ the solemnities of the spot, the abbey must have possessed, in its 
b^ty and its orderly and complete arrangements, attractions pleasing 
^ the highest degree to imagine ; and its adaptation to the cultivation 
^ energetic mental and physical labour could not fail of useful in- 
"^ce, which must command the respect of reformers of every age. 

In Ireland the use of a square east end to the churdi seems to have 
^ as exclusively adopted as in England, and this is probably owing 
^^ English influence which followed the Anglo-Norman invasion, 
^^ether Malachy'a church at Mellifont followed the French type or 
^* udbrtoiuitely* DOthiDg remains to show ; but erected as it was by 


226 Boyle Abbey and the Architecture 

a direct importation from Clnirvaux, and this fact taken in conjunction 
with the record that Malachy's church had ten altars, it may be sop- 
posed that it did poescBi an apsidal termination, after its parent church. 
On this supposition it must have had two altars with their chapels 
in each transept, and an apse of five bays, or altar-chapels with the 
high altar in the centre. Its splendid prototype at Clairvaux had nine 
chapels in the apte. and two in each of the transepts. Although the 
apsidal termination is usual in the great churches in France, the fashion 
seems to have been by no means so fixed as was the one adopted in the 
British Islands. Citeaux itself had a square east end ; and Viollet le 
Due gives plans of two French abbeys with the square termination,— 
Vaux de Semay, founded in 1128, and Fontenay, near Mootbard, 
founded in 1119. The first has, however, apses in its transeptal 
chapels ; but the last is identical with Boyle throughout the plan, except 
that it has one bay less in the length of the nave. Is the occurrence of 
the English plan in this instance to be connected with the fact that the 
church at Fontenay was erected under the auspices of an English pre- 
late, Evrard, Bishop of Norwich ? It was not consecrated till 1 147. 
Both these churches, like Boyle, seem to be without side windows to 
the chancel, or as it was in fact, the chapel of the high altar. The first 
four daughters of Citeaux were La Fert^, founded in 1113, which was 
entirely demolished in 1567; Pontigny, founded in 1 1 1 4, which still 
exists ; Clairvaux, founded in 1115, destroyed during the eighteenth 
century ; and Morimond, founded in the same year as Clairvaux. Pon' 
tigny, like Clairvaux, has an apse, but of only seven chapels ; but the 
apse is separated by the length of thr6e bays from the intersection of 
the transepts, whereas at Clairvaux the chord of the apse was only one 
bay from the transepts. The great abbey of Clugny was building at 
this time, for the older establishment of the Clugniac monks, and bad 
an apse, with five smaller apses or chapels ; but its arrangements differ 
materially from the Cistercian plan. All the Cistercian churches just 
described were alike in possessing four transeptal chapels. According 
to the observations of Viollet le Due, this arrangement was the rule in 
all Cistercian churches; but I shall presently point out instances in 
which the transeptal chapels were more numerous. Of Morimond, 
the fourth daughter of Citeaux, I am not able to furnish any descrip- 
tion, nor am I aware whether it is now in existence or not. Althottgh 
founded in 1115, the site of the establishment having been changed 
the church was not built till after 1130, and the building of that period 
probably yielded to another, as it is recorded of the Abbot Cono in 
1^53 that he caused the church to be dedicated. I have called atten* 
tion to the efFect of English influence in the church at Fontenay, and 
now would point out the singular fact that the two establishments of 
Clairvaux and Pontigny, where no such influence is marked, were both 
founded under the presidency of S. Etienne (Stephen Harding) an Eng* 
lishman, then Abbot of Citeaux, by whose impulse the order first rose 
into greatness. 

I have thus alluded to these four churches because their fonna moft 
have influenced the arrangement of many others. Their abbots ImM 
•uperior rank in the order, although aubordinate to the pareat ehoicbi 

of the Cistercian Abbeys of Ireland. 227 

exeideing a somewhat independent authority in their own affiliations. 
Clainraux alone extended ita branches into the British Islands, and. it 
might have been supposed, would have been followed in so important 
a point as the plan of its church. Besides these four, Citeaux had 
twenty-two other monasteries of her own immediate foundation, some 
of which were in Enghind, but I am not able to point them out. 

That the Cistercian abbeys in the British Islands should have differed 
^m the great majority of those on the Continent in the form of their 
»tt end« must have happened from a habit of worship already strongly 
brmed here, which even the influence of the Cistercians could not 
ireak through. Whilst yielding to this habit, and adopting the square 
sast end with the high altar by itself, the number of the transeptal 
thapels was increased. In England there are frequently six of them, 
md sometimes in Ireland the same number is found. The features of 
iie following eight English examples may be noted in the order of their 
iates: — Fnmess abbey, in Yorkshire, founded in 1127, has six tran- 
leptal chapels ; and though the chancel or chapel of the high altar was 
rebuilt at a later period, it projects only one bay east of these chapels. 
At Rievaulx, Yorkshire, founded in 1131, the original Eastern termi- 
nation has been renewed in the Early Pointed period, and the usual 
contracted high altar chapel of the earlier age has been replaced by a 
mgnifioent First- Pointed choir of seven bays with aisles: the six 
tnnseptal chapels were rebuilt at the same time, but retail^ their ori- 
pnal disposition. At Fountains, also in Yorkshire, founded in 1132, 
we find again six transeptal chapels ; but the eastern termination has 
been replaced by a greatly extended work of later date, finished in 
W56. Roche abbey, also in Yorkshire, founded in 1 147, has only 
four transeptal chajiels, and retains its original east termination, pro- 
JtttiDg very little beyond them, only sufficient to admit of one small 
window on each side. It is very much less in its dimensions than 
cither of the preceding English churches, but still exceeds the church 
tt Boyle by 24 ft. in length. The nave has eight bays in both. In 
the general disposition the two plans are almost identical. Kirkstall, 
hmded in 1152, exceeds the last example by about 18 ft. in length, 
lliOQgh it has one bay less in the nave. It has six transeptal chapels, 
aul I chancel of the contracted t3rpe of the order, though a little longer 
thin St Roche abbey. The transition from the round to the pointed 
iRh it very marked in this instance. The great arcades have pointed 
•Rhes, carried by clustered shafts with scalloped capitals. The clere- 
itory baa round-headed windows, and the same form of windows is seen 
tbtMighout the church. Jervaulx, founded in 1156, exhibits an ad- 
HBce in the Pointed style, and a variation in the plan from the earlier 
chsrches. It has aisles to the chancel, with arcades of four bays, and 
ttefa transept has three eastern arches, one of which opens into the 
duukoel-aisle, and the other two to altar-chapels. It had four tran- 
leptal chapels. By land, though founded in 1143, was not built till 
>Aerll77. It is a perfect First- Pointed building, and in plan exhibits 
iistber step in advance of the last, having aisles to the chancel, which 
IR letanied acroas the east end behind the altar ; and the transepts 
livs not only the eastern aisles or chapels for two altars in each» but 

228 Boyle Abbey and the Architecture 

also western aisles. The last English example I shall Dotice is that d 
Netley abbeyt Hants, founded in 1230, being one of the latest pro- 
ductions of the Cistercian order in England. It belongs to the tran- 
sition from the Early to the Middle-Pointed, is of the smaller dass, 
being only about 30 ft. longer than Boyle ; has a nave of eight bayi 
and chancel of four bays, with side aisles ; and the transepts have twc 
eastern chapels each. 

Each of these churches had a large square central tower, and in eael 
case the tower piers were planned with the least possible projection 
The series shows the superiority of the English in size over the Irish 
and the variation of the arrangement for the high altar which aroM 
with Pointed architecture. The last point is not so distinctly brougfa 
out in the Irish examples which exist, although there is evidence ti 
show that it generally took place as the Pointed style was fully adopted 

Boyle abbey, though commenced after Jervaulx, in which the changi 
to the Pointed style and the variation from the original disposition o 
the Oistercian plan has been noticed, and though not completed til 
1218, when the perfect First- Pointed example of Byland must haw 
been finished, is in its general character earlier than Kirkstall the lates 
of the English cited, before a variation in the plan was attempted. 

Boyle abbey is one of the largest, if not the largest, Irish Cisterciai 
abbey in existence. Of the existing Cistercian abbeys in Ireland, Hoi] 
Cross, near Thurles, possesses much interest. It was founded in 1183 
The chancel and transepts though they retain the original disposi 
tion in plan have been greatly altered in the 14th or 15th centuries 
The nave retains its original features ; it has five bays, of which the 
eastern is divided off by a semicircular arch which spans the width d 
the nave ; ' this no doubt marks the point to which the stalls or choir* 
seats extended westward, allowing thus only one bay of the nave for the 
use of thos^' engaged in the ceremonial of the service. The transepti 
have each two eastern chapels vaulted, remarkable for their elabontc 
workmanship and for the spiral shafts of the screens between then. 
The chancel is short like Boyle, is vaulted with fan vaulting, ami 
lighted by a large eastern window of six lights with reticulated traoerj 
the heads of the lights cusped with trefoils, otherwise the traceiy > 
not cusped. The tower and also the north transept is vaulted. 

Dunbrody abbey, in the county of Wexford, was founded in tb( 
same year as Holy Cross, and though long before the completion o 
Boyle abbey, it is entirely a First- Pointed building. This is to b 
accounted for from its owing its erection to Harvey de Montmorency 
one of the companions in arms of the invader Strongbow who, no doobt 
had the assistance of English builders. It was a cell of Build was, ii 
Shropshire. Nevertheless, its style varies greatly from that of Bog 
land. The great arches have only a chamfer on the edge, and thei 
piers are quite square, even omitting the chamfer. The soffit of tin 
arch has a small rib carried on corbels or on short corbelled sbafb 
The chancel is 33 ft. wide and 36 ft. long, lighted by an eastern tripli 
lancet, and has space only for a single lancet in each aide. The towor 
which as nsual, stands at the intersection of the cross, is cairied oi 
Pcnnted arches like but loftier than those of the nave, and even pkincr, 

of the CUtercian Abbeys of Ireland. 229 

ud the rib of the loffit is omitted. The tower has a plain Pointed 
nalt. The transepts have each three eastern chapels vaulted. The 
oave hss five bays with Pointed arches before described. The two 
eaitem bays appear to have belonged to the choir» the extent uf which 
ii defined by the clerestory windows of the second bay, which have 
tD internal opening of richer character than the others. The clere- 
storj has double lancets with well moulded trefoiled curtain arches, 
iome of them carved with the dog-tootb, and the second one before 
referred to divided by a shaft into two openings internally as well as 

Hore abbey, at Cashell, though founded according to Ware in 11 73, 
did not, according to others, become Cistercian for near 100 years. It 
ku, howeveTj the two chapels to each transept, and the short chancel 
tif that order of First-Pointed architecture, 

Oraigne-ina-managh* in the county of Wexford, founded in 1307, 
Im three chapds to each transept ; the chancel is rather longer than 

Trntem, Wexford* founded in 1300, was greatly altered in 1445, 
ndsgain in more modern times, and retains but little of its primitive 

Jopoint abbey^oo. ^Ikenny, though a very important building, and 
ippsrently very perfect, I have not been within. Other Cistercian 
cbirches . remain more or less ruined and altered at Bective, Meath, 
iMmded 1146— 61. Baltinglass, Wicklow, 1148— 51, Shroul, Long- 
fcrd, 1150-^53. Odorney, Kerry, 1164. Knockmoy, Oalway, 
H80— go. Gray Abbey, co. Down, 1193. Corcumroe, Clfite, 1104. 
Kiloool, Upperary, 1300; and at a few other places. 

Haviag thus treated of the works of the Cistercians, it may be in- 
^pani what proportion did the work of the other monastic orders bear 
to theirs? 

Ware's list (probably incomplete) gives of tlie early monasteries 47 
bounded in the 6th century ; 94 in the 6th ; 36 in the 7th ; 3 in the 
^ ; 5 in the 0th ; none in the 10th ; and only 3 in the 1 1th ; com- 
l*itiog 187 in the whole. Of these, at the Cistercian period, a great 
*u&ber had fallen into decay, or their property had been assumed by 
^abbots or " corbes," or by " erenachs ;** the first of whom held the 
diOTch property absolutely, and the last from being wardens of the 
^boreh lands and assistants of the Archdeacons, who were administra- 
tor! of the church property, had usurped the possession, and were by 
bottom invested with it in hereditary succession by the Bit»hop. These 
ctrly monasteries followed the rules of their immediate founders till 
">ch time as the remnant of them were brought tinder the rule called 
^ 8. Augustine, and hence Ware has classed them all as Augus- 
^' Wm a; the number given includes also nunneries. In the 13th cen- 
|vy which gave birth to the Cistercian order here, new vigour was 
^^omd into this, and 36 monasteries were founded, besides 1 1 nun* 
*^ and 3 establishments of the branches of S. Victor and Premon- 
^ The 13th century saw 33 new foundations, besides 31 establish- 
ments of the two branches above-named and of Trinitarians, of Eremites, 
^ of Nona* The aaeoeeding three centuries brought not more than 1 8 

280 Boyle Abbey and the Architecture 

establishments of the rule and its branches into existence. The 
culations omit 11 foundations whose date is uncertain. Th< 
churches were small, of the kinds mentioned in commencing o< 
ject, and round them the monks lived in cells or huts of wood ox 
Instead of multiplying altars within the church, a separate chi 
chapel was raised for each, altar, and thus we often find several cli 
congregated together, and so likewise when the practice hai 
obtained it continued to be exercised, whilst at other places bu 
of far greater size am] magnificence were being erected. Thi: 
that we find associated with churches of the 7th, 8th, or 9th cer 
others as late as the 13th or 14th. In this manner the Augus 
handed down many peculiarities of Irish, architecture which 
otherwise have become obliterated. Of the abbeys founded in U 
century I have not all the information I could wish. I think tl 
hibited but little of . the Romanesque style, and although the Of 
retained the semicircular arch, the mouldings and style of fin 
proximate much more nearly to Pointed work. At Ballinatn 
Youghal, is the abbey of S. Molanfide, of very adcient foundatic 
re-built in the Early-Pointed period. . It has a chancel 75 ft. 
with a row of six lancet windows in the south side near the eas 
and another row of five lancets on the north side opposite the 
part of the south wall. There was a division between the na^ 
chancel, and the nave is 65 ft. by 25 ft.: 6 in. The ; conventual 
ings formed a quadrangle on the south. Athassel abbey was f( 
in 1200. The church is cruciform in plan; with north and 
aisles to nave, and eastern aisles or chapels to the transepts, and 
sive central tower. The chancel has a range of five lancet wind 
each side ; the east window is of three lights with tracery, anc 
later date. The conventual buildings lie to the south. The < 
is much larger than any other I shall have to refer to ; inde 
whole establishment is on a large scale. The cloister windo 
triplets of trefoil -headed lights. It formed a complete quad] 
The Pointed architecture of this example shows distinctly the st 
Augustinians had adopted whilst the Romanesque features of 
were still in progress. At Ballybeg, the abbey founded in 12 
nearly disappeared, but it still retains a few good features of 
Pointed work. 

The Benedictines began in Ireland in the twelfth century, in 
they erected five houses, and in succeeding centuries added onl] 
others. Their influence was therefore but small. 

The Dominicans began in the thirteenth century, in whlcl 
founded at least twenty-six establishments ; seven more were ad 
the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, and there are seven of unt 
date. One of the earliest of their buildings was the well known 
abbey at Kilkenny. At Roscommon, between 1253-9, was 
crated their abbey church of that place. It is 138 feet long 
the walls ; it had a north aisle at the western part, which has 
peared, and was lighted by a range of lancet windows, of whit 
remain on the south side near the west end, and there was ai 
range on the north side near the east end. It had no divisioa tx 

of the Cistercian Abbeys of Ireland. 231 

icbancel. The east and west ends have each of them noiv a fine window 
of late tracery ; but jambs of windows of lancet date can be observed in 
both walls. Kilmallock abbey (Plates 1 and 3), founded in 1^01. has a 
cbancel 66 it. long and 24 ft. wide, separated and almost shut off from 
the Dave by the piers of a lofty central tower, in which the east and 
west arches are only 7 ft. 6 in. wide. The tower is very slender, 
(tanding on the centre of these two east and west arches. The nave 
it 90 feet long, and had an aisle to the south. There is a south tran- 
lept, with a western aisle. The chancel has a range of six two-light 
vrndows in its south side, whilst the north has none. Eastwards are 
five beautifully moulded lancets. The cloister court and conventual 
bculdmgs lie to the north. Much of the work both in church and 
otber buildings, is of later date than the foundation. Sligo Abbey, 
tboogh an older foundation, was rebuilt in 1416. Of the first build- 
isg there are considerable remains. It had eight lancet windows in a 
range in its south wall in itfc eastern part ; in its later alterations a 
central tower was erected, taking in the western of these lancets and 
blocking up another. To the period of the rebuilding also belongs the 
beautiful cloister which exists on the north side of the church. Within 
the court it is 42 ft. by 60-}^ ft., and had an arcade of nineteen arches 
east and west, and sixteen arches north and south, after the manner 
of the cloisters in the South of France. The church had a south 
liile and south transept. 

The Franciscans had only one foundation in the twelfth century, 
bat added thirty -five in the thirteenth, seven in the fourteenth, thirty- 
three io the fifteenth, and eight later, besides twenty-eight to which 
no precise date is assigned, giving a total of 112. At Ardfert remains 
i^nch of the church erected in 1260, with five lancets in the east end, 
« range of nine lancets in the south side of the eastern part, with no 
windows in the north side, a south transept with western aisle, and a 
lonth aisle to the nave. The tower is at the west end. The cloister, 
^gh of the same kind, is less elegant than that of the Dominicans 
^ Sligo, and is also of later date : its openings present one of the few 
i&stances to be met with in Ireland of the '* Tudor *' arch, and here I 
believe it is formed from only three centres. An abbey founded in 1 302 
'^ains at Castledermot, with aisle and transept to the north, instead 
of as most usual to the south. Rosserick. founded late in the fourteenth 
^tnry ; Multifeman, rebuilt in 1460 ; Moyne, built in the same year ; 
Kilconnel, 1460 ; Adare, 1464 (Plate 4) ; all have the narrow, lofty, 
^tnd tower, upon narrow arches, which nearly shut off the nave 
^ the chancel, and which seems to have been the custom of this 
P^od. Moyne, Kilconnel, and Adare, present examples of the cloister 
of the same kind as at Sligo before referred to. At Moyne and Adare 
it ia on the north, and at Kilconnel on the south. At the first the 
'fcide has ten arches of about 3 feet span in each side of the qnad- 
'^le ; at the latter it forms a quadrangle only about 22 feet square ; 
^ Adare it is about 30 feet square. 

Besides these, the Carmelites in the thirteenth and two succeeding 
^KQtuies acquired sixteen establishments. Of their architecture I have 
^ had the opportanity of making any observation. 

232 Whitewash and Yellow Dab.—No. III. 

It appears then that in architecture the challenge thrown down by 
the Cistercians in Ireland in the twelfth century, was soon taken up by 
the Augustinians, who carried on the native style of art ; and that in 
the next century, when the Pointed style was introduced, the Cistercians 
almost ceased to build, and left the field open to the Augustinians. Do- 
minicans, and Franciscans, who pursued a manner of building common 
to all the orders throughout the lancet age. The fourteenth century 
added but little to the number of ecclesiastical monuments, but in the 
fifteenth the Franciscans were again active, and produced the alender, 
lofty central towers, of which a great many remain more than I have 
enumerated, and the small but picturesque cloisters I have described.^ 
This mode was also used at this time by the Augustinians and Do^^ 
minicans in several reconstructions ; but as the new establishments c ^ 
the Franciscans far exceeded the increase of the other two orders tc 
gether, I think we must yield to their energy the credit of originatin 
the peculiar and beautiful arrangements of the period. 

Gordon M. Hills. 




The subject of painting as accessory to architecture has been moet 
tenderly touched by every writer who has approached it — and perhaps 
all the more tenderly the more the writer knew about the matter. And 
no wonder. The subject is not simple, but expands with the stady of 
it. And I regret to be obliged to feel that there appears to be wanting 
in the technical preparation which most of our architects have receifed 
for their professional career, that element for want of which they are 
ever fighting and struggling with difificuUies. 

Our nation is now opening its eyes to what other nations have been 
wide awake to before us, viz., that art is a difificult and dignified intellec- 
tual pursuit ; and not what Englishmen have hitherto been inclined to 
consider it, a pretty plaything. 

Men have looked about for a profession ; they did not like the nivy* 
they don't like the army, and are perhaps too late for that and many other 
things ; but they don*t consider themselves too late to turn architects. 
They have had a gentleman's education, and the amount of good taste 
which is supposed to have been thus imbibed fortuitously, nobody 
knows bow, is supposed to be quite enough to start upon. After aO« 
there are but five quite distiuct orders of classical architecture ; Grothic 
may be soon learnt ; and for the rest, a fair connexion, and perhaps 
some genuine hard work for a year or so in an architect's office will aet 
them on their legs. And at the end of that time what have they dfJM* 
drawn hundreds of lines and arches, gables, roofs, and chimQeya* atovs" 
tions and sections of mouldings, to get out the sheet after aheet of piu* 

Whitewash and Yellow Dab.— No. III. 288 

and elevations, which a boBy architect has to supply to his customers, 
who are always in a hurry. 

But where has been the master to teach the real value of all these 
dry but precious details ; to help him over those first difiioolties in art 
which books cannot do — ^to show him, and not merely to tell him ? From 
books he may learn a great deal about proportion and the effect of con- 
tiist and repetition, the use and abuse of ornament, and the common 
£nt principles of light and shade. But who has taken the trouble to 
nggest to him what architecture really is and means ; and who has 
given him an idea of that most indispensable but ignored branch of his 
grand profession, the connexion between architecture and the sister 
stfts ? Alas ! men undertake that profession in nine cases out of ten 
trusting to luck, and making poor naked fancy do duty for what can 
only be done well by serious work, upon a good base of natural genius. 
These are busy bustling days, the master has no time, and the pupil 
little inclination for that quiet studious thought which is the necessary 
food for an artist. But that is no excuse. Everything great has been 
<)oQe in bustling times. Conceive the turmoil of an Italian republic in 
^hich those grand fellows lived, whose works are now our study, and 
who were then sitting at the feet of their respective Gamaliels ! 

Our English bustle has been for other purposes, but there is an 
awakening idea in all classes of our people that art is worth something 
iot its own sake, distinct from mere money-making. Art is glorious 
work — ^but only for those who have the heart for it. I wish there were 
tQ " ite missa est" for the rest. 

I have mentioned art education. I do not wish to make more of it 

than it deserves. You cannot find gold in all diggings — art cannot be 

tiughtin the common sense of teaching, its principles may, and its tech- 

Bicaiities ; but they only make the artificer not the artist. That little 

Monosyllable '* Art" implies more than can be put into words, for 

fould it have been so clothed, Art would not have been wanted. Art 

* the expression of a man's own thoughts, and the best art is the 

^eunt expression of those thoughts. But as they need be clear before 

^ can be well expressed, art education must be head work before it 

a band work. The hand needs education, and the eye too. But the 

^Cation of the eye is not attained by looking at things — the stupidest 

People have been looking at things all their lives — no, it is by clearing 

t man's thoughts, by training his reason, and I may surely say without 

^t, it is by the education of his heart, that the artist is made ; and 

b eye is educated by the process without his knowing it. It is in this 

ttat our leading architects shine out brilliantly from their contempo- 

i^ries. Their works show a definiteness of idea, an individuality and 

Garnets of purpose, while others exhibit little more than copyism and 

^Iperiment. The former have made their profession a matter of head and 

heart, the latter little more than a matter of pencils and Indian rubber. 

The aubject of colour applied to church architecture *' riles" some 

^BOple wonderfoUy. But their objections are quite comprehensible. I 

ilMgioe them to arise entirely from these two sources, a most reasonable 

4Bgut at the sho^ngly bad things they see done, and a total incapa^ 

«ity on their parte to invent anything better. 

TOL. XX. ii H 

234 Whitewash and Yellow Dab.— No. III. 

That pictorial repref entations have been approved and encouraged in 
our churches by theologians of all shades of opinion is a simple fact, as 
witness altar-pieces, windows, &c. This fact marks one line at least 
which divides us happily from those liberal-minded protestants, out of 
the pale of our Church, but altogether in that of whitewash, who allow 
coloured glass in geometrical patterns and twirligigs, but have a truly 
Mahomedan horror of a living form, or a symbol of sacred associatioD. 
They tolerate the true protesting polychrome of gold organ pipes and 
red calico, green altar cloth, (table cloth ?) chocolate tiles, and sham 
oak graining, but beyond this their nose sniffs popery in the smell of 

But let us rather take God's good gifts in good faith, and fear no 
evil ; man's wretched abuse of them is lamentable. But He Who 
created beauty and gave us the sense not only of its power but of its 
sanctity, may be glorified in it. Use it, then, to a high and holj par- 
pose, such as by the painter*s art to add to the solemnity of a sacred 
place ; to turn the wandering thoughts to seriousness ; to put before 
erring eyes forms which time and association have long hallowed ; to 
fill the vacant mind with subjects of solemn thought ; and further still, 
to arouse the deep feelings of religious emotion ; to check the levity of 
a young mind ; or to soothe with solemn recollections the thoughtful 
moments of one more matured. Such is within the province of Art, of 
sacred Art, Art as it should be, and, as I hope, will be applied to our 
sacred buildings. 

But how ? Art (with the exception of music) produces all its effects 
by means of forms and colours : and for these effects it is in architec- 
ture that there is the largest scope. I must not recur over and over 
again to arguments : I have stated them in my former letters. Taking 
it therefore for granted that the introduction of other forms than thort 
of the architectural carving, and other colours than those of the mat^ 
rials of a building, is desirable, it appears to me that there are two 
distinctly available means at hand, first, in the use of materials natu- 
rally or artificially coloured, and secondly, in the resources of the art of 
painting. Under the first head comes everything that architecture can 
require for its enrichment, marbles, coloured stones, metals, tiles, mo- 
saics, glass, drapery, embroidery, by which churches have been made 
treasure-houses of art. Why then look any further ? I can only an- 
swer, that it dug deep into the purse of Christendom to produce S. 
Peter's, and it took centuries of the wealth and devotion of Venice is 
the palmiest days of religious enthusiasm and self-sacrifice, to produce 
S. Mark's. We need something more within general reach : and the 
only resource left is in the art of Painting — an art which the canon of 
good taste in all ages of the world has sanctioned to architectural use* 

But how about authorities P The precedents of Christian art vary 
as much as the architecture or more. The same hands seem to have 
worked at glass, at wall painting, and in miniature illuminations; their 
family likeness is strong ; but each period had its speciality, and ewh 
kept to its own dodges. The question, then, for us is, what are «e to 
follow ? — or are we to follow at all } I have no doubt of the answer, bit 
J cannot put it in so few words. If we take an axiom in whicb sO 

Whitewash and Yellow Dab.— No. III. 286 

till agree, such as this, *' Colour properly used in architecture must be 
entirely subservient to architectural effect; the moment it becomes 
obtru»iye it is bad." What says precedent to that ? The fact is that 
colour has always been a difficulty. It is one of the rarest gifts — I 
mean the intelligent, not the mere ocular sense of it. Form has been 
maitered often ; but colour rarely. I believe the course of its use 
architecturally applied in Gothic work has been very much this. 
Romanesque (Norman) was in its plain massive forms a huge vehicle 
for colour. Pictorial art was in a fearful state of raw puerility in those 
days. Castles were painted on the fat pillars ; patterns and subjects 
went uncomfortably round comers ; and colours were dabbed about 
lUfflercifully. Artists had some grand ideas; but the principles of 
ivoportion and composition in the use of colour were not developed till 
long afterwards. A great stride was then made in the arts— a new 
^yle of architecture came into vogue, the First-Pointed : that, too, was 
otdoured all over. The characteristic of this great step was refinement. 
The colours used were tenderer and more broken ; and often so soft, so 
beautifully mellowed, that at a distance they looked like blended hues 
ladting into each other. Buildings were entirely covered on this 
principle of decoration. Diapers, scrollage, and pictorial subjects, 
cofered large wall spaces — imitative drapery, even imitative masonry 
abo, on large surfaces of wall and roof; and a reasonably symbolic 
coDTentionality of forms, which in the preceding age rejoiced in types 
frequently bordering on ugliness, now struck out in principles of real 
Wuty. Colour aj)plied to architecture had reached its climax of 
Rfinement at the beginning of the 14th century, after which came in 
the use of violent effects; bright raw red, their beloved minium, was 
Bled immoderately, shaft after shaft overlaid with it in gaudy proxi- 
juty ; red lines, red carved work, red everywhere. But colour blushed 
itielf into shame, as if gaudiness had brought its own cure by artists 
^ng themselves into a guild of total abstinence. People's eyes were 
I'earied, not by the use but by the corruption and abuse of what in nature 
n lovely and universal, and of what in art based upon that nature would 
w always lovely too if the same princifiles were followed. There was 
* loll. Then followed the days of higher art ; art more by principle, I 
*caQ, than by experiment, the origin of which it is hard to trace, 
^th of the Alps we know how art first broke away from the lethargy 
*lucb weighed heavily on everything, social, political, literary. We 
cm trace the influence of the Pisan school by its distinct mannerism 
^icolpture, as we can also trace Giottism in painting. But whence 
^ contemporary Gothic school of the early thirteenth century, with- 
"vt a trace of common origin with its sister arts in Italy ? whence the 
^quisitely studied beauty, the refined and holy feelings expressed in 
tone by the artists of Cbartres, of Salisbury, of Wells, and countless 
ther masterpieces of Northern art ? Of course there were bad and 
loodering artists — there are always — and when people speak of 
mintness and ugliness, gaudiness or vulgarity, they speak of the bad 
ttiata and not the good ones. But there was a poetry of intention 
KNit that entbosiastic age which must have produced some glorious 
•alts. We can see bat ftunt traces of them ; for, alas I few are the 

236 Whitewash and Yellow Dab.— No. III. 

remains which the excesses of a necessary reform, and the ▼iolence of 
puritanic hate» hare left us of the art of these interesting times. 

The polychrome of the succeeding century (the fifteenth), which in 
pictorial subjects was often very fine, soon became coarse and exces- 
siye, in its application to merely decorative purposes. Black came 
much into use, so that the shadows of architectural relief in carved 
work and mouldings were swamped by violent effects of most objec- 
tionable paint, extreme contrasts of white, black, vermilion, and dark 
green, in lines and '• spirals." and large spaces covered with colour un- 
relieved, testified the bad taste of the time. The ideal was rather gor- 
geousness than beauty in architectural decoration. Such, if I mistake 
not, were the general characteristics of an age which was certainly less 
aesthetic than the refined one which preceded it. It was the beginning 
of the end in the history of Gothic art. Science took the place ol 
Faith. Pride supervened upon humility. Reason asserted her ma- 
jesty, and Imagination, gone mad amid the surrounding Babel, broke 
forth with a power common to intellectual aberration and excitement, 
and at last fell exhausted and powerless before the cold rationalism oi 
the succeeding generation. But the fifteenth century had had its great 
artists and great works, works too most refined. The reredos of thf 
Lady chapel at Gloucester is a sufficient proof of what exquisite worki 
were done, where wealth combined with talent to stem the tendency to 
a coarse and vulgar taste in architectural matters. It would be hard to 
devise anything more refined than that fifteenth century specimen of 
architectural polychrome. But it is sadly ruined. After these timet, 
through the reigns of the later Tudors and Stuartf , colour applied to 
architecture was often used to make things lock as ugly as possible, 
till at last we come down to the days of our fathers, when the only 
colours used in churches were the dear old whitewash and yellow dab, 
in glorious relief, following the margins of arches and stringcourso ; 
or with the help of bands of lampblack framing the Ten Commaod- 
ments, the king's arms, or the squire's hatchment, with equal and 
undiscriminating devotion. Such, roughly sketched, appears to have 
been the course of the art of decorative polychrome as applied to 
Gothic churches. And after all our study of it, one huge difficulty 
stares us in the face — are we to follow the styles of polychrome, as we 
follow the styles of architecture upon which they were used ? 

In returning to former styles of architecture we are not menl§ 
amusmg ourselves. We adopt them seriously, because they are per- 
fectly matured forms of art, individually thought out, and then worked 
out. In employing those styles we are not merely adopting antiquated 
forms ; but we take what is thus ready to our hand, because it best 
expresses our thoughts. Pictorial art, on the contrary, was, during 
those periods, in a perpetual course of experiment. The great prinet- 
ples on which any claims to respect as a matured art must rest had not 
been struck out. Perspective, linear and aerial, was unknown. The 
light and shade of form was most imperfectly understood, and that of 
c^our atill leas : so that reflected lights, without which it is imposaiUe 
te give roundness, and cast shadow, without which it is impostMe 
to place any object firmly on another, were either ignored, or need so 

Whitewash and Yellow Dab.— No. III. 287 

tifflidly and rarely, as to be in moat cases of little value, and commonly 
omitted altogether. 

The lamp of originality in architecture had begun to grow dim, 
before the genius of painting came forth in its full- developed beauty. 
Here then is the difficulty. We have perfect styles of architecture, 
uul imperfect contemporary styles of painting. Are we, then, who 
bive a perfect art of painting within our power, to revert to imperfect 
vt, when we come to the practical application of painting to aichitec- 
toral purposes ? 

Now, Sir, it appears to me that there is one ground, and only one, 
upon which this question can be answered, and that is the ground of 
appropriateness. Art is good or bad just in proportion to its fulfilment 
of the purpose to which it is applied. Inappropriateness would mar 
uything. At the bottom of that lovely valley which slopes down 
from the Gothic walls of Alton Towers, has been placed a most per- 
fect (pecimen (and that a good-sized one) of a Chinese pagoda : the 
top of it is just like an old-fashioned parasol, from the ferule of which 
ijet of water flies into the air. and in its fall converts the pagoda into 
a huge umbrella. On the side of the valley, above it, is a pagan 
erection shading the bust of the perpetrator of this deed, and above 
lus head is written, " he made the desert smile '* — a result of which I 
^ve little doubt. 

In dealing with architecture we are dealing with what is entirely a 
feature of man's imagination. A painter's own genius may reign 
lopreme before a canvas in his own studio : but when he faces an 
architectural wall-space he stands in the presence of his master. If it 
be that of an Egyptian temple, let him go home, if he has not first 
otastered Egyptian art — if it be that of a Oothic church, let him do 

It 18 a very common but most unfortunate confusion of ideas, which 

^ofoonds a " style " with the mere accidents of success or failure of 

{dividual artists ; a result which is often most unhappy in the public 

P<lginent of Oothic art. Is Oothic art objected to because it is con- 

^tional ? I say all art is conventional, and styles of art are but 

>Titems of conventionality. And we are justified in reverting to any 

ooe such system for the identical reasons upon which it was itself 

indented, if by that means we can best attain our end. In Gothic art 

^ prevailhig spirit appears to me tu be this, that it had for its object 

lather to suggest ideas than to imitate things : and herein I trace a 

prineiple, of the particulars of which I must beg leave to address you 

toother time. 

In the theory of painting I conceive that by perfect art is meant that 
by which an idea is completely and satisfactorily conveyed. There are 
two, and as far as I know only two means of producing this result ; 
one by actual direct representation (the naturalism of modem art) ; the 
other by indirect representation (the suggestive symbolic method of 
early art). The former tends rather to reflect honour and glory on the 
•itist and his skill ; the latter sets in motion a train of thoughts in 
vhich the artist and his skill are lost. I conceive that there can be little 
doubt at to which approaches nearest to the spirit of the Christian ideal. 

238 Whitewash and Yellow Dab.— No. III. 

If therefore there be a system of pictorial art which is rather sugges- 
tive of thoughts than directly representative of things, in its modes of 
expression, I imagine that such would be more in harmony with the 
ideal of an architecture, such as the Gothic, which sprang from the 
deep yearnings of religious thought, and is its very embodiment — 
whereas, on the contrary, a style of more direct and material represen- 
tation, which every artificial appliance has brought to perfection, 
would be more appropriate with an architecture, such as the classical, 
whose principles are entirely free from any approach to symbolism, 
capable indeed of being very magnificent, very beautiful, but utterly 
unsuggestive of anything beyond the sphere of its own abstract self. 
This settles the question in my own mind. I must not trespass further 
upon you now. I must leave the subject of " imperfect art'* and sym- 
bolism as contrasted with naturalism for another letter. 

If you will allow me to address you once more, for the purpose of 
entering more into particulars, I trust thenceforward your pages will 
be what I hope all churches soon will be, free from *' whitewash and 
yellow dab." 

Yours very truly, 

T. G. P. 

Highnam, May 23, 1859. 

P.S. — I must keep controversy for a postscript. With your corres- 
pondent on the abuse of polychrome I lament that so beautiful an ap- 
plication to architectural purposes should have been so constantly sub- 
ject to the abuse of bad taste. He seems not to have borne in mind 
that while architecture was growing on from style to style as a perfect 
art, the art of painting was only growing up from infancy and was not 
matured till the spirit of architecture was exhausted. The erring taste 
of former days is no argument. Both arts are now matured ; our only 
difficulty is in their mutual application. Hence, and for other reasons, 
it is that I cry out for our architects to be better educated. Can your 
correspondent have ever seen the church of San Francesco at Assisi ? 
That has not an uncoloured square inch anywhere. But the result is 
not in anybody*8 opinion what he says would infallibly be the case with 
the choir of Canterbury, to " bring it down from heaven to earth." 
And the reason simply is, that it has been done properly. 

It is most grievous to see people constantly rushing into architectural 
polychrome — it is vanity, vanity, all vanity on their parts. The sub- 
ject is anything but simple and easy. It needs great observation, great 
artistic experience, and an element which is most rare, a fine eye and 
a fine comprehension of colour. No books, no theories of colours 
could ever make an artist. I re-echo your correspondent's " Caution' 
most loudly and cordially. He only tunes his trumpet to its abuse. 
But there is per contra a proper use of it, which if he would but allow, 
our trumpets would pretty nearly be in tune. 



*k offer no excuse to our readers for reprinting the main portion of 
ArcaUr which has been issued with the weighty name of Dr. Hook 
iched to it, detailing the steps which have been taken to engraft upon 
in Chandler's munificent bequest a fitting memorial of his long and 
Uiil vtewardship. Officially connected as that wise and good and 
ned naui was with our Society as one of its Vice-presidents, and 
MMudly attached as many of us were to him by friendship, more or 
^ intimate, we do not conceal the peculiar interest with which this 
inspires us ; — 

In the year 1847 a large and lubstantial Restoration of the Cathedral 
emnmcDced by the Dean and Chapter, and hsM been carried on from time 
inMy aa funds have been tupphed by public beneficence, almost to the pre- 
hear. In the appeal which was then made for assistance, the hope was 
rwmmrd that ultimately the choir mif^ht be restored, and a larger portion of 
BAlhednl rendered available for public worship. But the effort to carry 
tbcae objects was deliberately postponed, with these observations: — 'The 
n and Chapter feel the greatest reluctance to propose any definite plan for 
■toefation of the choir. This is a department of cathedral architecture in 
A modi information and experience are yet to be acquired. 
' The Dean and Chapter at present can do no more than express their 
conviction that the most magnificent church, which serves merely to 
the eye of taste, has entirely missed its proposed end and object. And 
will they rejoice, if, after tome longer time for observation, they shall 
to devise a plan, whereby, without violating the rules of architectural 
a larger portion of their fabric luay be made more directly available 
the great purpose for which every Church is designed— the worship of 
pgh^ God.' 

'The time would seem to have now arrived, when efforts might success- 
y be made to carry this design into execution. On the death of the late 
Mftf** Dean of Chichester, Dr. Ch andlkr, an earnest desire was expressed 
manjv both personal friends and others, to raise a Memorial worthy of 
adLnowledged merits and suitable to his known wishes ; and accordingly 
i. ICacting held at the Palace on the 16th of February last, the Lord Bishop 
Cbidieater in the chair, it was unanimously resolved,— * That in the opinion 
dua Meeting the best Memorial, and one specially accordant with the feel- 
a flf the late Dean, would be a restoration of the choir of the cathedral, 
h ice enlargement and better adaptation to the purposes of Divine worship.' 
* At the same Meeting it was made known that the late Dean had by his 
i haqneathed the sum of £2000 * in trust to the Dean of Chichester, the 
jhdaaaon of Chichester, and the Prebendary of Wittering, applicable in 
■Ib or in part, at their discretion, towards the decoration of the Cathedral, 
I tUmg of the Theological College, or the erection of a Church in Chi- 
HtaTpWith the expression of a hope that a sum might be raised to be applied 
m with it.' The trustees have since elected to apply the whole 
to the first of these purposes. 

Haover, it is at this time generally admitted that our venerable cathe- 
iIb auiy and ought to be made mure extensively useful for the celebration 
UviBe Service, and it is known that a desire prevails in this diocese that 
I Mother cfanreb should be rendered capable of affording to greater numbers 
liappOfftanities of united worship. Under these combined circumstances. 

240 Chichester Cathedral and Dean Chandler. 

•o farourahle to the completion of the original design of restoration, a con- 
mittee has been formed, consisting of many of the principal residents in the 
county and city, lay and clerical, and others ; and a plan has been prepared 
by Wdliam Slater, Esq., an eminent architect, and the successor of the late 
Mr. Carpenter (under whom the former improvements were effected) wbieh 
has received the sanction of the Dean and Chapter, and been approved by tbe 
acting Committee, as one which, while it will restore to the choir its origiasl 
features and proportions, and will not offend either against architectural pto- 
priety or the distinctive cathedral arrangement, will appropriate and adapt to 
increased congregations a much larger space of this sacred edifice. 

" By this plan it is intended to remove all the present modem ansuitaMe 
fittings of the choir,— pulpit, throne, altar-rail, pews, and galleries ; to td» 
down and carefully restore the existing stalls ; to provide new fronts and cb- 
risters' seats of suitable design ; to replace the stalls in their present positios, 
except the return stalls at the west-end of the choir, which, with the ofju 
and organ-screen, known as Bishop Arundel's shrine, are to be removed—tbe 
latter to be re-erected in another place. The present reredos or altar-scnen 
will be replaced by one of stone, in accordance with the style of the choir; a 
new pulpit and a throne of a more suitable character will be also erectei 
The arrangement of the sittings of the choir, the exact position of the or|^ 
and other matters of detail, are reserved for future consideration. 

" But, in order to make provision for larger congregations than can be at* 
commodated in the choir, such as assemble on Sundays and occasions of special 
interest, it is further proposed to adapt a great portion of the nave to the pB^ 
poses of Divine Worship, by furnishing it with sufficient and suitable sittiogii 
and placing the pulpit, already provided, in a position most convenient for 
hearing, thus rendenng the space also available for any other spiritual minii^ 
trations, similar to those which have been adopted in other cathedral churcbn. 
It is calculated that by this arrangement, sittings can be provided for more 
than »even hundred worshippers within these sacred walls. 

** With this statement, and the sketch and plan annexed to it, the C<M- 
mittee commend their scheme of restoration to public approval, relying for 
its completion, under the Divine blessing, on support from those who wddd 
raise a nt Memorial to the honoured name of Chandler, as well as from the 
diocese at large. They would appeal earnestly to such as wish to see develo|e4 
the primitive beauties of this venerable fabric, no less than to all who partab 
in the general wish for church extension, and desire that our ancient catk- 
drals may be made more available for the public worship of Almighty Goo. 

*' The work is estimated to cost six thousand pounds. It is purposed, if 
more convenient to the subscribers, that the larger payments may be spread 
over a space of three years. 

"Subscriptions will be received at the Banks of Messrs. Gruggen sad 
Comper, Chichester ; the London and County Banks at Chichester, BrightOi» 
and Hastings : by Messrs. Drummond, Charing Cross, London ; and by die 
Secretary, Rev. C. B. WoUaston, Felpham Rectory, Boguor." 

We have omitted the names of the Committee, but it iocludes suck 
as those of the Bishop, and Dean and Chapter of Chichester, and ihe 
two Archdeacons of the diocese, which show the general interest Ux 
in the work. 

Together with the circular a lithograph and plan of the restoicd 
cathedral are issued, which we are allowed to reproduce, and whieli 
will save us the necessity of a detailed description. It will be ob* 
served that the stalls are left in their original position in the lant^ 
This decision was arrived at aifter consideiable discussion, and we thiik 
wisely — for the space east of the lantern would not have been siiflMiiK 

WeMahfB lUmirated Old Testament History. 241 

for t dignified duMii* and sanctuary, while it would have been hardly 
poeaible to adapt the transept to congregational use. The Jube has to 
be removed, but its late date and the hopelessness of a good arrange- 
ment if it were allowed to continue reconcile us in this instance to a 
sacrifice against which in the case, for example, of Christchurch Priory 
church, where the conditions are wholly different, we felt bound to 
protest. We are glad to see that Mr. Slater travels out of the too 
hackneyed tjrpe of arcaded reredoses and introduces a more archaic treat- 
ment. The height of this reredos is, as all who are acquainted with 
Chichester cath^ral will remember, defined by the solid backing of the 
ancient reredos which still exists, and will of course be retained. 

It will be noticed that a simple pattern is shown in the central panel 
of the reredos, and that the choirscreen is left quite plain. We believe 
that the treatment of these two portions of the church are left purposely 
for further consideration. Whatever is however decided upon, we trust 
that the reredos will be composed with a view to the retention of the 
ancient levels and backing. Their removal is no way called for by the 
practical exigencies of the cathedral, and their annihilation or alteration 
would be to destroy an interesting landmark of ecclesiastical archi- 

The stalls it wiU be recollected are valuable relics of Third- Pointed 
woodwork. The Dean and Sub- dean's stalls, and the throne, as 
shown in the lithograph, are designed by Mr. Slater. We trust that 
the nave area will be seated with chairs. 

To revert to the memory of the late Dean, we cannpthelp leaijndioff .. 
oor friends that he was the founder of S. Andrew's chureh. W^IBKtBet; -. 
sad that All-Sunts' church owed the possibility of its existehbe to his f^^ 
kind and zealous offices. We may therefore venture to entertain the *- 
hope that Ais memorial will not be neglected by those who, while 
domg hoikw to the Dean of Chichester, desire to record the good deeds 
of the rector of All Souls'. The selection of his successor to the former 
office will be, we trust, an additional incentive to help a work which 
has such great human probabilities of being so well used. 


Ws welcome the appearance of eight more plates, K . ^"y tfti'Tirlu 
ihre, of Mr. Westlake's most interesting series of Scriptural ilmgns by 
m English artist of the early part of the fourteenth century from a 
Ifanoscript in the British Museum. Plates 20 and 21 are postponed 
(we onderatand) on account of their being injured at press. 

The first illustration represents Abraham on his sick bed despatching 
Ida " aeoeschal" to find a wife for Isaac. The next is the meeting 
with Rebecca, who is tending her sheep, dressed in wimple and coif. 
Then she and the steward ride away, each mounted on a camel — very 
esrionaly drawn. Then the steward hands her over to Isaac. The 
iMSt aeaae ia the birth of Baan and Jacob — most conventionally treated. 

▼OL. XX. II 

242 Mr. JebVs Catalogue of Ancient Choir-books 

Then a larger picture represents Isaac sending Esau for venison ud 
Rebecca instructing Jacob in his deceit. In the following one Isiic 
blesses Jacob, who has the skins of goats on his neck and hands; 
and Rebecca stands at the bed*s foot encouraging her younger son. 
This is very well drawn and composed. Below Esau brings his vem- 
son. Two crowded and spirited pictures next represent Joseph telling 
his dreams and the envy of his brethren ; and then his being seized by 
them and stripped and thrown into the well. Then the " seneschal 
of Egypt" mounted on a trotting- horse with a huge money-bag in hii 
hand buys Joseph ; and, in the next plate, puts him behind him oa 
his horse and carries him to Egypt. Meantime the brethren bring die 
coat of many colours to their father. Their hypocritical concern lod 
Jacob's grief are expressively given, Joseph is sold to the king d 
Egypt in the following plate. The king, crowned and carrying i 
sceptre, with a dove as its head, is seated in a chair of an interestmg 
and early Pointed style. Finally the king goes out hunting, with hoond 
and horn. The hare is admirably drawn, and the leash of honnds. 
Below the queen tempts Joseph, and being repulsed complains to i 
servant who comes in clothed in helmet and coat of mail and bearing! 
lance. Joseph is here represented as quite a young boy. 

The index, with the full readings of the Norman French descriptions 
and a translation, is not so far advanced as the plates. And Mr. West- 
lake in his third number gives a cancel of a former leaf which was not 
accurate. This publication is one of peculiar interest and deserro 
warm encouragement. 


( Continued /rom page \7%,) 

MoRLBT, Thomas. [Mus. B. Oxon. 1588. Gentleman of the Royal 
Chapel, till 1619.] 


1. Service in A min.. .Te D.. .Ben^. Ryr. Creed. Magn. Nunc Di** 

mc. cd. bd. be. mc, 

* Bam. with a Venite. . . Batt. with a Venite. . . Lamb. D mi. (jo- i^ 

the same 7 . . S. John's, Ozf. Morley's short service, ffiidai 
eemibrief : qu. if the same? 

2. Kyrie as above. MD. 

3. Magn. Nunc D. in G maj. md. mc. cd, id. (2 different parti) ^ 

(imperfect) bd. he, 

* Bam. service of 5 parts. Lamb. S. John's. Tudw. efeoiV 

service in D. qu. if the same 7 


1. How long., .mc. cd. be. mc. bd. 

2. Teach me Thy wajrs, O Lord. md. mc. cd. td. te. bd. be. WrillEi 

in the same Italian hand as most of Amner's eompositioiii. 

ai 8. Peter^s College, Cambridge. 348 

UDD, John. [Organist of Peterborough Cathedral, apparently from 
16S0 to 1620.] 


1. I will alway give thanki. md. mc. id. ie. bd. be. 
Lichf. td. ie. 

2. O clap your hands, nul. mc, td, tc. bd. be. 

3. Out of the deep. md. td. tc, bd, be. 
Batten, /or a camiuM, Lichf. td. tc. 

uiOT, John. [Mas. B. Oxon. 1586. Moa. D. Ozon. 16M. Or- 
giaist of Eton and Windsor.] 


1. Senrice in D mi. (in 4 parts, both m. being the lame) /or meanu, in 

D sol re. Te D. Ben"*. K. Creed, O^ertory in m. only. md. 
me. ed. td. te. bd, be. 

* Bam.^r«/ tetviee of 4, 5, and 6 parts ; with Venite. 

2. Serrice in C major. 3 parts, for men. Te D. Ben**. Magn. Nunc 

D. cd. bd. be. ed. td. te, bd, be, td. begins at Magn. The rest 
of this part is torn out. 

3. Senrice in D mi. 4 parts, for men. Te D. Ben"*. Kyr. Creed, cd. 

td, te, bd, be. 

4. Senrice in mi. Short service, 1 jUU. Te D. Jub. Kyr. Creed. 

mc. cd. bd. be. 
Alto...S. John's, Oxf. 

5. K^rie, as in No. 4. md. ed. td. bd. MD. 

6. Magn. and Nunc Dim., in medio ehori, in D mi. mc cd. (2 parts, 

different) bd. be 
7* Magn. and Nunc Dim., belongs to Pierson*s service, ta me<lk> ehori, 

in A mi. mc. cd. bd. be. 
8. Magn. and Nunc D. m Cfa. ut — C maj. md. mc. (both the same) 

ed, td. te. bd. 


1. Blessed is God in all His gifts. 4 voc. cd, td, te, bd, be. 

2. Give laud unto the Lord. md. mc. ed. td. te. bd. be. 

3. This is My commandment, ed, td, te. bd. be. 

^Utia, Hbjtbt. 


1. Preces and Pialms, East, day eyensong. mc cd. bd. be. 

* Choral Resp. toI. ii. Preces onl^. 

2. Kyrie and Creed, with Gloria tibi, in F maj. mc cd. bd. be 

In c the Gloria tibi is called by mistake, Gloria ta exeelsis. 


Lord, What is man 7 Signed H. P. md. mc. cd. td. tc. bd. be. 

ULBT, OsBBRT. [Id Sir F. A. G. Ouseley*8 MS. mentioned below, 
here is a note in the handwriting of Mr. Gwilt, the celebrated ar- 
Utect, stating that this senrice was composed in 1549 ; and attri- 
Qting the mention of Parsley to Morley, which the compiler haa 
oC been able to verify.] 

TeD. andBen**./a/. inF. md. mc. cd. td, bd. MS. belonging to the 
Re?. Sir Frederick A. G. Ouseley, Bart. 

•om, RoBBST. [Organist of Westminster Abbey : died in 1569. 
■Bed Mir. Pmnme afBtntm'. in aul.] 


S44 Mr. JebVs Catalogue of Ancient Choir-boob 


1. Semoe in D major. Te D. Ben**. Kyr. Creed. Magn. ] 
Not that which it in Barn, in F. S. John'a, Ozf. haa a 

2u. the same? Batt. haa a aenrice, Yen. Te D. Ben 
Ireed. Magp. and Nunc D. tn medio chori. 

2. Flat Serrice. Te D. Ben. tc. be. 
' Not in Bam. 


1. O bone Jbsu. (These are the Anthems for the scTen da] 
Chrtstmaa, commonly called the seTcn Os.) md. me. it 

2. Collect for the Quire, tc. be, 
*' Ever-Blessed Lord, Which hast chosen us among so 

sing Thy praises in the Sanctuary ; grant that with diligc 
rcTcrence we may attend our calling, and that the prayers vi 
daily made in Thy Name may come up into Thy P'resenc 
blessing may fall upon the present necessities of us all, to t 
of Thy noly Name, and for the benefit of our souls ; throug 
Christ our Lord. Amen." 

Patrick, Nathaniel. [So called in this collection, but Amoh 
nates him Richard, mentioning that he was Organist of West 
Abbey, and that the name of Richard Patrick appears in th< 
books for the first time in the year 1616 among the singing 
that Church, and continues there till 1624.] 

Service in G mi. Te D. Ben. Magn. Nunc Dim. 
Tudw. (qy.? Arnold.) 

PiABSoir, Person, or Pxbrson, Martin. [Mus. B. Oxon 
Master of the Choristers at S. Paul's : died in 1650.] 


1. Bow down Thine ear. mc. cd. bd. be. 

2. Blow up the trumpet, mc cd. bd. be. 

PoRTMAN, Richard. [Called William by Tudway. Orgi 
Westminster Abbey 1638-^2.] 

Service in G major. Yen. Te D. Ben"*. Kyr. Cr. Magn. 
md. mc. cd. td. tc. bd. be. In md. the Venite is en 
assigned to Wilson^ by a later hand, and in td. by an o^ 
be. is signed Richard Porman. Tudw. Lamb. S. 
Ozf., short service. 


1. Lord, who shall dwell, be. md. me. cd. td. tc. bd. be. 
Batt. Lamb. 

2. O Goo, my heart is ready, md. mc. cd. td. te. bd. be. 

Ramsey, Robert. [Mus. B. Camb., of Trin. Coll. as app 
these books. Tudway says that William Ramsey was Org 
Trin. Coll. Camb. in 1639, probably a mistake for Robert, as ' 
is not always correct in his names. Some of his compositi 
among the MSS. of the British Museum.] 


1. Service in D mi. Te De. Jub. Kyr. Gloria tibi. Creed. II 
Dim. Litany^ 4 parts, mc cd. bd. be. The Lttany 
mc. and be. mc. and be. have his signature. 


Mi 8. Peter^i College, Cambridge. 246 

Tndw. no litany, there oelled Jcim Ramsey. . .* Chor. Reap. vol. iL 

litaDV ODly. 
^^ The Litany in cd. fol. 167, is erraneoosly assigned to Ramsey. 

It is Looaemore's. 
3. Latin Litany in G mi. md. me. ed. td. te. bd. be. Signed with 

author's autograph. 
* Cho. Reap. voL ii. 

3. Latin Te D. and Jub. in F ma. md me, ed. td. te, bd be. Signed. 

Jub. has CoU, Trin, after his name. 

4. Another Latin Te D. and Jyb. in F ma. md me. ed td te. bd, be. 



1. CoUect for Trinity Snnday. me. td. bd. be. Signed. 

2. CoUect for the Purifieation. mc. ed. to. bd, be. In thia Index, ct 

assiffned to New Year's Day, by mistake, 
d. Collect for Christmas, cd. md ba, 
4, Collect for Easter Day. 5 toc mc. (2 copies) bd. 
b. Collect for Whitsunday, mc. cd. bd. be. te, bd. Signed. 

6. Collect for Ascension Day. mc. cd. (3 copies) bd. be. 

7. I heard a Toice from heayen. mc. 

8. My song shall be alway. cd. bd. be 

9. Collect for All Saints' Day. mc cd. bd. be. be. 

10. O Sapientia. 5 yoc bd. md (2 copies) mc, ed. td te, be, 

11. Collect for the Annunciation, oc. td 

UPHXID, John. [Mob. D. Oxon. 1554. Oentl. Ch. Royal in the 
tine of Edw. VI.] 

I S^^ yoii A i^w commandment ed td bd 

nra, Edward. [Organist of Durham, 1609-11.] 


1. Pkeeea, and Mond/s Psalms for Asc. Day at Matt. me. cd. bd. be 

Dnrh. the preces only, which are those still used on Sundays at 
Durham. * Chor. Resp. yoL i. Preces only. 

2. Preces and Paalm for All Samts* Day. The Preces as before* 


pndae Goo in Bn holinesiu mc. od. bd. be. te. (?) M. (T) 

on, Jomr. 

Te D. and Ben. in G min. mc cd. bd. be. Signaturct perhaps au- 

tn, SxiTBB, or Smtthb, William. [^Clericue. Organist of Dar- 
kan 158S-08, na nppeara by the Durham books.] 

1. Preeea and Psalms, Christmas Day at Matins, mc. cd. bd. be. MD. 

Dmfaam, with same title. * Chor. Resp. yol. L Preces only. 

2. Preeea and Ptalms, Christmas Day at Eyensong. The preces the 

same aa befbre. me. cd. bd. be. 
8. Piraeea and Pialma» Easter Day at Matins. The same preces. mc. 

td* bd . be . 
4. PinhB lor Whitaoadi^. me. 

246 Mr. JeW% Catalogue of Ancient Chohr-booh 

5. Prec and Pa. for Whitsunday at Matini. cd. bd. be. 

6. Psalms Easter D. at Evensong, bd. 

7* Preces and Answers. md» mc. ctL tcL tc. bd. be. MD. 
The Preces are the same as in No. 1. The Responses. are 
still used on Sundays at Durham ; but the inner parts di 

* Chor. Resp. toI. L, 4 parts as used at Durham. * Chor. 

Tol. u,, in six parts, i.e. including the inner parts both o 
ham and of this collection. 


1. If the Lord Himself, mc. cA, bd. be. 

2. I will wash my hands, mc. cd. bd. be. (Qu. 7 which of the S; 

Stbvxnson, Robxbt. [Mii8. B. Oxon. 1587. Mus. D. Oxon., 1 
Anth. When the Lord turned, mc. cd. bd. be. 

Stonard, William. [Mus. B. Oxoq. 1608. Org. Chr. Ch. O: 


1. Hear, O My people, md. mc, id, ic* bd, be. 

2. Sing unto God. [Galled in the Index to most of the parts, 

praises.'] md. id. te. bd. be. 

3. When the sorrows of helL md, bd. be, 
Batt. anonymous. 

Strogbrs, Nicholas. [Lived in the time of K. James I.] 


Venite. Te D. Ben. Kyr. Creed. Magn. Nunc D. mc cd. 1 
mc. te. (2 copies) be. The mc. has Kyrie and Creed 
tc. has no Venite, and is signed Nicholas Stro^ers. 

* Bam. Lamb. S. John's, Oxf. 


1. O God, be merciful unto us. mc. cd. bd. be. 

2. Domine, non est exaltatum. md, mc. id. bd. Signed N\ 


Tallis, Thomas. [The celebrated composer, Oentleman of the ( 
to K. Hy. VIII.. K. £dw. VI., Q. Mary, and Q. Eliz. Organ 
Queen Eliz.: died 1585.] 

1. Preces and Response, mc. cd. bd. be. 

* Bam. Preces the same, but responses differ... Chr. C 

sponses nearly the same. * Chor. Resp. vol. i. from Ct 
copy, wanting upper part. ^ Chor. Resp. vol. ii., fron 
Ch. and this collection, all the parts. Lamb. S. John*i 
and Psalms. 

2. Preces and Responses, mc. cd. td. bd. be. The preces diifb 

all others. Responses nearly coincide with Boyce and B 
^ Boyce. (Resp. only.) * Bam. (Resp. only.) ^ Chor. 
vol. ii. (Preces only.) 

3. Litany, md. cd. (two parts ; one is the na^M^ part or Min 

suffrages.) td, bd, MD. Differs from his ordinary Lit. 
harmonies and in hanng a transient modulation into A n 
Chr. Ch. not exactly the same. ^ Chor. Resp. voL i. (the ' 
Ch. copy.) 

* Chor. Resp. toI. ii. The above copy. 

ai S. Peier^s College, Cambridge. 247 

4. The celebrated aervice. Vetiite, Te D. Ben. Ky. Creed, Magn. 

Nunc D. md, me, (2 copies, one of which has not the Venite) 
ed. td, hd, be, (2 copies, one of which has not the Venite.) 

* Btrn. has Venite. ^ Boyce has not the Venite. Lamb, has 

the Venite. Tudw. (qu. 7 Venite.) S. John's, Oxf., short 

5. Kyrie as in No. 4. md. cd, td. MD, 

6. Suictus and Gloria, belongs to the above service, md* mc, cd, td, 

tc, bd, be, 

* Bam. Boyce. (Qu.? Tud. Lamb, and S. John's.) 


1. Arise, O Lord, md, cd, id. 

2. De Lament. Jeremis. md, td, bd. Evidently for the unreformed 

service. The title of the Lesson is set to music, as in the 
breviaries. It is in very old writing, apparently of Tallis's 
younger days. The second leaf is misplaced before the other. 
Brit. Mus. Add. MSS., 5058. Music Cat. No. 178. 

3. Discomfit them. md. (2 copies) mc, cd, (2 copies) td, (2 copies) tc, 

bd. be. (2 copies). 
Tudw. Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 5058. Music Cat. No. 178. The 
Editor's note is worth transcribing. " This Anthem, although 
it could not have been composed by Tallis on the subject of the 
Spanish Armada in 1588, be having died in 1585, might have 
been adapted to English words for that occasion. The whole 
of the preceding Anthems hy Tallis, and probably this one, 
were originally written in Latm." 

4. Hear the voice and prayer, bd. be. 

* Day. ♦ Arnold. 

5. O God, be merciful, md. td. bd. 

6. Verily, verily, I say unto you, Except ye eat the flesh, &c. mc. 

cd. bd. 

^A^UTBR,. JoHK. [Lived iQ the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. 
Mentioned by Morley. Compoaitiona of hie are in the Music School, 

1. Latin Gloria in Exc. Creed. Sanctus, and Agnus Dei. in G mi., for 

the unreformed service, td. tc. bd. At the end of td. FhUs of 
Taverner for UU. men and a child. In a very old hand. All 
the parts are in the Latin part-books at Peterhouse. See the 
Index to them. 

2. Gloria in Exc. Creed. Sanctus, Agnus. Latin, (qu ?) td. 

^omm, Thomab. [Mus. B. Oxon. 1607. Oentl. C. Royal. Or- 
limit of Worcester.] 


1. Preoei and Responses, mc. be. md. cd. td, bd, be. MD. 

The precea resemble those in his Mus, Deo Sacr,, but the Re- 
sponses are not there. 

* Tomk. (Precea only : not quite the same.) 

^ Cher. R«fl9., vol. 1. Preces from the Mm. Deo 8aer. Vol. ii. 
Pree. and Reap, firom the above MSS. S. John's Oxf., Preces 
and Psalms. 
S. Short Venite m C dmj. me. cd. bd. be. 

* ToBBk. 

248 Mr. JebVg Catalogue of Ancient Choir-boob 

3. Serrice in C maj. Te D. B"V Kyr. Cr. Magn. N. Dim. mc bd. 

be. wki. (impmeet). 

* Tomk...* Warren's edition of Boyoe. * Onseley'i lemeei. 

Lamb. S. John's, Oz. [Batten has a Qreai Service (T. D. and 
Jub.), and 2 Evening Senrices.] 

4. Kyrie, as in 3. md. cd. id, bd. 

5. Litany mc?. (2 parts separate) me. e<2. f (2. ^c. M. e(2. is ealled MoUe*! 

in the Index, by mistake; and id. is called Tallis's. fo. ii the 
nngvag^ or Minister's part, erroneously giren to MoUe. 

* Chor. Reip., toL ii. 

6. Ck>mmon Litany, md. mc. cd. id. bd. be. MD. The tenor ii the 

ordinary Litany. 

* Chor. Resp. toI. ii. 


1. Behold, the hour comcth. cd. id. bd. be. 

* Tomk. 

2. Blessed be the Lord God. mo. cd. bd. be. 

* Tomk. . . Batten. . . Lamb, no name. 

3. Give sentence, mc. cd. bd. be. 

* Tomk. . . Batten (2 basses). 

4. Ck>llect for Whitsunday, md. mc. cd. td. te. bd. be. Signed in nd. 

* Tomk. . . Batt. . . Lamb. 

5. Jk8U8 came : for S. Thomas's Day. be. md. mc. cd. td. to. be. 

* Tomk. . . Batt. 

6. My Belored spake, md. mc. cd. td. te. bd. be. 

* Tomk. Batt. Heref. md. 1 cd. 2 cd. 1 oe. 2cc. td. te. be. 

7. Anthem for All Saints' Day. mc cd. bd. bd. 

* Tomk. . . Batt 

8. O Lord, I hare loved, mo. cd. bd. be. mo. and be. signed. 

* Tomk. 

9. O pray for the peace, mc. cd. bd. be. 

* Tomk. Batt. 

10. Sing unto God. md. mo. cd. td. te. bd. be. 

* TV^mk. Batt. 

n. Thon art my King. mc. cd. be. te. be. 

* Tomk. . . Batt. Heref. md. 1 cd. td. tc. Lichf. td. te. bd. he 

12. Turn unto the Lord. md. cd. td. tc. bd. be. 
Batt. qu. 7 

Ttr. Chbi0tophbr. [Mob. Brc. Cantabr. 1536. Mua. D. Cantifar* 

1545. Organistto Q. Eliz., 1545.] 

Mani. and N. D. in G mi. mc. md. mc. cd. tc. bd. be. 
Tudw. • Rimb. Scrv. 


1. Miserere mei Dens, Ps. 67. td. bd. be. be. begins at Et «■*• 

alarum. Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 5059. Musie Gat. 179. 

2. Praise the LorDi ye children, mc. bd. be. 

Ward. Johw. [Lived in the early part of the acTcntecnth ccnttfT' 
Called a Gentiil Man, in Batten's Orpn Book. A oelebnted writer 
of Madrigals, which have been published.] 


1. I heard the voice of a mat mnltitada. md. ed,* ** 
begins HdUekfjahf Salvatum, 

^ 8. Peer's Colkge, Cambridge. 240 

2. Let God aiue. me. cd. bd. be. 
* Bun. Batten, for 2 basiet. 

ucK. [Probably Thomas Warwick, Organist of the Chapel 
fdi aod Westm. Abb. in the time of Charles I. (Hawhna) .'] 

Anthem. O God of my salyation. md. mc, cd. td. tc. bd. be. The 
part in me. is really a cootra tenor : that in be. it the m. 

JEKs, or WiLKBs. Thomas. [Mus. B. Ozon. 1603. Org. of 
nchester in 1697. Wood queries whether William Weelkes, 
s. B. Ozon. 1602, is not meant for the same person.] 


1. Magn. N. Dim. in A. mi. mc. cd. (2 parts, which diflfier) bd. be. 

tnc. tc. bd, 
Batt., fire parts. 

2. Kagn. N. D. in C major, 7 parts, mc. cd. (2 parts, which differ) 

Batt. with verses : has 3 others, Magn. and N. D. in medio chori. 


how amiable, cd. bd. 
n, Matthsw. [Mns. D. Ozon. 1629.] 


1. Behold now, praise the Lord. mc. cd. bd. be. mc. 

2. how glorious art Thou. md. mc. td. tc. bd. be. 

3. praise God in His holiness, mc. cd. bd. be. md. 
Tudw...Lichf. td. tc. 

(ursoH, Thomas, 
Two Kyries. be. 


1. Behold, O Lord. cd. bd. be. 

2. Blessed, O Lord. md. 

3. Hear my prayer, O Lord. me. cd. be. bd. the. td. tc. mc. and 

tc. hegm at Hold not Thy peace. 
Tudw. Batt. Lichf. cc. both t. bd. 

4. Help, Lord. me. cd. bd. 

5. Lord, I am not high-minded, md. Perhaps Hutchinson's : be- 

gins fVJdch are too high for me. 

6. Lord God of my salvation, cd. bd. be. 

ov, Thomas. [Called (in be.) Organista Petrensis, that is, of 
ohoase ; lived in the seventeenth century.] 


1. liagn. N. Dim. md. mc. cd. td, tc. bd. be. Signed, probably au- 


2. Magn. N. Dim. in C ma. mc. cd. bd. be. Signed. 

3. Venite in C major. Composed in 1636, ten. dec. Signed : erro- 

neoQslymawedaROfi.m some parts by a later hand. TN.B. med. 
dee. fol. Q. 6. and ten. can. fol. P. 4. erroneously assign a 
Yenite of Portman's to Wilson. See ante.] 

4. SaaelM. me. ed. bd. be. 

k XZ. KM 

250 Mr. JebVs Catalogue of Ancient Chotr-booh 

5. Latin Kyrie and Creed in F ma. md. (2 copiet) me. td. td. tc. hi. 

be. Signed. 

6. Kyrie. bd. 

7' Christ Rising. Easter Anthem, md. me. cd. tc. bd. be. 8igned. 


1. Collect for the Circumcision, me. td. bd. be. 

2. Behold, how good and joyful, me. td. te. bd. be. 

3. Behold now, praise the Lord. me. ed, td. te. bd. be. 

4. Blessed is the man that fesreth. me. ed. te. be. Signed. 

5. Lord, Thou art become gracious. Ps. for Ckr. Day. md. me. td. 

tc. bd, (2 copies.) Signed. 

6. Collect for S. John Evang. Day. me. ed. td. te. be. Signed. 

7. Prevent us, O Lord. ma. me. ed. td. bd. be. Signed. 

8. Thy mercy, O Lord. bd. be. 

9. Turn Thy face from my sins. bd. be. Signed. 

Woodson, Leonard. [Organist of Eton, and of the Choir of Windsor, 
before the Rebellion, as appears by Batten's Organ Book.] 

Anth. Give the King Thy judgments, mc. cd. be. (2 copies), bd. 
One of the bd. copies is singing part, i.e., the voice. Batt. 

Anonymous Sbrvicbs. 

1. Score of a Chant, cd. 2 copies td. te. bd. be. 

2. Six Psalm Chants, mc. (only 5 chants) cd. 6 chants. 

In mc. are the mean and tenor piarts ; in cc^. are the ooaDtff 
tenor and tenor ; no bass extant. Apparently in a more moden 
hand than the rest of the work. The medius and tenor are wiittfli 
in counterpoint. 

Only No. 5 appears to be extant in other collections. No. 2e. 
has the cadence of tone 8 in tenor. No. 5 has 2nd tone in teaff* 
No. 6, which has only counter tenor and tenor in second set, hn 
no apparent connection with any tone. 

3. Lincoln tune. md. me. cd. td. tc. bd. be. Unlike any chant ezttft' 

Appropriated to Nunc Dim. in me. and bd. in the others to Mig*' 
• Chor. Resp. Vol. ii. 

4. Apparently a Psalm tune. Med. and bass. me. 
6. Benedicite. Latin, me. cd. bd. be. 

6. Benedicite. Latin, md. me. ed. td. In the same handwriting v 

Laudate Dominum, mc. ; to be noticed under the head of snoiy' 
mons anthems. 

7. Kyrie after Commandments. 1 flat. md. 

8. Magn. N. Dim. td. te. 

9. Nunc D. fragm. me. 
10. Gloria Patri. fragm. cd. 

Anonymous Anthems. 

1. Ad te levavi. td. te. bd. bc.—td. has words only. 

2. Adesto nunc propitius. md. me. bd. . . 

3. Aspice Domine. 8 voc. med. is called triplex, md. mc. td, {^et^f 

tc. bd. (2 copies) be. 

[Are these two compositions? or is either the same as a Bof^ 
Domine in Mus. Cat. Brit. Mus. 178 or in 179, by Phillips f] 

4. Audite verbum Domini. Words only. bd. 

0. Cantemus Yirgini. md. mc. (2 copies) td. bd. 

6. Cceli enarrant. bd. 

7. Estote fortes in hello, td. bd. be. Ten. has title only. 


at 8. Peier^s College, Cambridge. 261 

8. Benedietiu e« Domioe. td, bd. be, — bd. ami be. have words only. 

9. GandeMDiM omnea. 8 voc. bd. qu. ? Bird, Add. MSS. Brit. llut. 

5058. Miu. Cat. No. 178. 

10. Hear my prayer, O Lord. Ps. 143^ for a bass. me. cd. bd. be. 

11. In manot tuaa. 5 parts. 2 trebles, md. me. id. bd. 

12. Laudate Dominum in Sanctis, bd. 

13. Lau d a te Dominum omnes eentes. mc, [2 parts, separate] ed. td. bd. 

One of the mc. [fol. iSj signed BAchard, the rest cut off. [Qu. 
Is this a Laudate Domine in Brit. Mus. Catal.» No. 178?] 

14. Let Thy merciful ears, te, bd. 

15. O Jerunlem* Jerusalem, me. cd. bd. mc. begins, Behold your house. 

16. Omnes gentes plaudite. td. bd. be. 

17. Quia disperiit. No words, md. mc. 

18. Tliis is the day which the Lord hath made. cd. td. tc. bd. be. 

19. Tu Lux pulchra. mc. 

20. A bass passage. No words, be. 

No. II. 

Index to Motets and Masses, and other Services belonging to the time 
ut before the Reformation, contained in part-books in the Library of 
?eterhouse, Cambridge, 

rhis collection is very fairly and legibly written, on good paper, in 
r Tolumes, small folio. Triplex, Contra Tenor, and Bassus, are written 
tfte parchment covera of three. The cover of the Medius, or more 
>perly the Tenor, is torn off. The Triplex is written for the most part 
the Treble cliff, but occasionally in one of the four C cliffs; The 
Bticm of the C varies often, in the signature of the Medius and Contra 
nor books, as in ancient Church Music. The notation is very clear, 
' notes lozenge-shaped, and intermixed not unfrequently with the an- 
Qt ligatures. A bcMiutifully written, though not complete. Index pre- 
h each volume, except the Triplex, which also wants twelve leaves, 
1 cads at folio 106. The collection consists of Masses, Magnificats, 
vins, and Motetts. The Hymns are chiefly addressed to the Virgin 
vy ; a striking evidence of the need of Reformation at that time. 
t Magnificats are analogous to our Services, and always begin upon 
) voids, Et exultavit Spiritus, indicating that the first hemistich was 
Qoed by the Cantor ; a custom observable in some of the old re- 
Bed Services ; as in Whitbroke's Service, in Day's Collection. 
Piom the fresh appearance of the pages it may be inferred that these 
h were but little used ; having probably been written but a short 
e before the Reformation. 

^a the following Index it is to be understood that all the four parts 
^ composition are extant, unless when noticed to the contrary. 

Kv» William. 

Gaode Viigo Mater Christi. 

1. Magniftfat. 

2. A Mass, (without a name, but probably Appleby's, as it follows his 


262 Mr. Jebb's Catalogue of Ancient Choir J>ook$ 

AsTow or Atstok, Hugh. [Organist to K. Hy. VIII. Some ^ 
of his are in the Music School, Oxford ; and in the MSS. Brit. 
Nos. 26 and 100.] 

1. Atc Maria dive matris. [2 copies of the hass.] 

2. Missa Te Deum. 

3. Are Maria Ancilla. Triplex and bassos wanting. \ j^^ ^ j^^ 

i S*5^^^i^ 5?^- ™E^'''' '^^' contia te 

6. O Baptists. Tnplex wantug. ; 

B&AMSTON. [Mentioned by Morley.] 
Marue Yirgini. 


Trinum regnum. 

Chambrblatnx, Arthur. 
Ave gratia plena. 

Dark, John. 


Edwards. [Richard Edwards, probably a relation, was master oi 
children in Qaeen Elizabeth's Chapel, and died in 1596.] 

Terrenum sitiens regnum. 

Er£ll, or Erlxy, Walt£r. 

Ave Tulnus. Triplex and medius are wanting. 

Fatrbfax, Robert. [Mus. D. Cantab, in 1 504. Mentioned by 
ley. Organist of S. Alban's. Some of his compositions are i 
Music School at Oxford, and in MSS. in the Brit. Mus.] 

1. O Maria Deo grata. Triplex is wanting. 

2. Maria plena virtute. Triplex ii wanting. 

3. Ave Dei Patris filium. 

4. Missa: rTecum principium.] 

5. Missa : 'O quam glorifica.] 

6. Missa: 'Albanui.J Brit. Mus. Harl. MSS. II, 586. M« 

No. 226. 

7. EtemK Laudis lilium. 

8. Magnificat. 

9. Lauda virum Alpha. Brit. Mui. Harl. MSS. 1709. Moi 

No. 62. 
10. Missa. 

Hunt, R. 

1. Stabat mater. Triplex is wanting. 

2. Are Maria mater. 

JoNTs, RoBRRT. [Mentioned by Morley. Some compositions < 
in Royal MSS. Brit. Mus. Mus. Cat. No. 28.] 

1. Missa. [8pes nostra.] 

2. Magnificat. 

at 8. Peter's College, Cambridge. 268 

Ail, William. [Works in the Music School at Oxford.] 
[Chriite Jesu.] 

riSHT, Thomas. 

Misia : [Lihen not.] 

BFOBD, Nicholas. [Mentioned by Morley. Some compositions of 
hii in British Mus. MSS. Mas. Cat. No. 62.] 

1. Salve Renna. WanU triplex. Brit. Mas. Mus. Cat. No. 62, has 

two of this title. 

2. Mitsa. Wants bastus. 

3. Domine Jesu Christe. 

4. Ave cujus Conceptio. 

5. Ave Maria anciUa. 

6. Missa rinclina Domine.] 

7. Miisa [Return MundiJ imperfect. 

pvs Italus. [Probably related to Thomas Lupo, one of the Court 
Musicians to K. James I. and K. Charles I. Tliere were many of 
he name of Lupo or Lupi in the sixteenth century ; but none Ita- 
isns, with perhaps the exception of Joseph Lupi, of whom there is 
composition in the British Museum. (Mus. Cat. No. 25.) The 
thers were Edward Lupi, a Portuguese, author of Masses, published 
t Antwerp in 1621 ; Didier Lupi, a Frenchman, author of Chansons 
^phituels, in 1548 (Burney) ; and Lupus Lupi, a Netherlander, in 
be time of the Emperor Charles V. (Bumey.) There was also a 
ohannes Lupus, of Antwerp, mentioned in a MS. Cat. of the Abbate 
isntini, various works of whom were published at Venice^ &c., 

1. Aspioe Domine. 
2.. Mitsa. 

ITTH, Edward. 

2. Totitts mundi Domine. Triplex and medius wanting. 

soH, JoBH, Cicestriensis. [Sir John Mason is mentioned by Mor- 
ey. Mus. B. Oxon. 1608.] 

1. O Rex gloriose. Triplex is wanting. 

2. Are Maria fait. Triplex is wanting. 

3. Ne nobis miseris. 

4. Qnales sumus. 

IBBCKB [John. Mus. D. Oxon. 1560. Organist of Windsor.] 
Ave Dei Patris Filia. 

iMAK [JoHir. Some of his compositions are in the Music School 
t Oxford.] 

Eoge dieta. Triplex is wanting. 
■nsmoKx [Jamxs. A secular Chaplain. Mus. B. Oxon. 1531.] 

254 Mr, JebVs Catalogue of Ancient Chotr-boob. 

Pashb or Patshb. [Mentioned by Morley.] 

1. Sancta Maria Mater. 

2. Magnificat. 

3. Magnificat. [Two copies of triplex and bassus.] 

PiooTT, Richard. [Mentioned by Morley. Some of his compofiitkn 
are in the Music School at Oxford.] 

1. Salve Regina. Triplex is wantine. 

2. Missa [Yeni Sanete Spiritus.l "^plex is wanting. 

3. Yidi aouam egredientem. [Without author^s name, but probilil 

by Pigott, as it follows a composition of his.] 

Stubmbs, Hugh. 

Exultet in h&c die. 

Talts, Thomas. [The celebrated musician.] 

1. Salve intemerata. 

2. Missa. [Salve intemerata.] 

3. Ave Rosa sine spinis. The triplex is wanting. 

4. Salve Annae muiieris Sanctissime. No part extant but the triple] 

Does this belong to the preceding? 

Tatbrnob or Tavbbkbb, John. [See Index No. I.] 

1. Sanete Deus. Triplex and bassus are wanting. 

2. Ave Dei Patris. 

3. Missa. [Tavemor.] 

4. Missa. [Mater ChrisU.] 

5. Mater Christi Sanctissima. 

6. O Christe Jesu. 
7* Gaude plurimum. 

8. Missa. [Small devotion. Query, In all devotion.] 

9. Magnificat. 

10. Fac nobis Dominum secundum. Triplex is wanting. 

11. Sub tnnm prsesidium. Triplex is wanting. 

Ttb, Db. Christophbb. [See Index No. I.] 

Whitbbokb. [A Service by one of this name in Day.] 
Sanete Deus. 


Te matrem. [Triplex only extant. The leaves are stuck togBther^ ti 
consequently very little is legible.] 



owing sequences are from a MS. Missal belonging to the 
House of N. D. de la CoUture (B. Culturd Dei) 
It is an admirably written folio of the fourteenth century, 
nred in the public library, now in the desecrated convent 
f. The sequence on S. Qermanus stands in the very first 
itoral Proses. 

XC. Db S. Gbrmano. 

dt triumphalis, 
o tjpatio, 
dam praestolatar 
una cum gaudio. 

nis Uberatmr 
iito eoronatur 
ptUB quod qiuerebat 
dt quod Ti&bat 
in enigmate. 

ins diem ittam 
Qum agonistam 
snt Dominnt : 
t in agone ; 
)ris» sed cotonte, 
lent terminus. 

labor, [et] certamen 
nnt : sed solamen, 
liesy ted pivmia 
le a te, Jesu Christe, 
M i F agonittiB; 
srunt netcia. 

lit^ O Germane, 

um illud mane 

non habet yesperum : 

Cessat lucta, cessai loctua ; 
Et ad urbem es prodoctus 
In qui nil eat nuaerum. 

In hae valle lacrymarum, 
In hoc loco tenebrarum, 

In h&c aolitudine, 
Suapirabaa et plorabaa, 
Et ad lucem aapirabaa 

Quee caret caligine. 

Inveniati fidum ducem 
Qui te dnzit ad hanc lucem, 

Dei Patria Unicum : 
Qui de pugnA redituro» 
Et ad Begnum profecturo 

Tibi dat yiaticum. 

Gaude, Pater, et exnlta, 
Quia mercea tua multa, 

Quia multa gloria; 
Coelnm tibi reaeratur; 
Te recepto ^loriatur 

Tota coeh curia. 

Inter cceli aenatorea 
Collocaria, ut exorea 

Chriatum, vivum Judicem : 
Proni tibi aupplicamua, 
Ne noatrarum aentiamus 

Hie culparum yindicem. 


In Fbsto S. Gbmdulphi, (d. ziiL mena. Nofembria.) 

Die aacro rcToIuto 
Quo de Vie volat Into 
Viator ad Patriam. 

gno Sacerdoti 
Ofdia et deroti 
lemna hoatiam ; 

frtma of the paraUa ia taken by the poet in a acnaa diAsrent from 
Mied to It by meduBTal writera. TSbay aee in it man'a reatoration to 
Maseei Ae nnderatanda it of the reat of Paradiae ; thefirat, that ia the 
if Usaaedneas, hi oontradiatlnotlon to the perfeot eonaifnanatimi and 
Mdy and ssal, of heaven. 


Sequeniue Inedita, 

SenruB pradeos in talentis, 
Miles fortis in tormentis, 

Puro gaudet pnemio : 
Serri Patris patrem* laudent 
Qui patroni tanto gaudeot 

L«ti patrocinio. 

Felix Pater Gendulphi genitot 
In Adi& fcecundi coelitua 

Semen vit® leminat : 
Marcent clau8« matris artus ; 
Quam recludent florent partus 

Florem sacrum germinat 

Florem fons baptismatis, 
Ros ngat karismatis, 

Sub Sixto Pootifice : 
Sub coelesti discipline 
Dote morum et doctrin& 

Dotatur mirifice. 

Mtu stupet morum pignus, 
Sacra sedi .... d^us 
SacrsB sedis apice r 

In pastorem sublimatur : 
Delegatur, operatur 

Salutem in gentibus ; 
Christo simul operante, 
£t sermonem oonfirmante 

Signia consequentibus. 

Arma poenitentium^ 
Saccum et siliceum 

Flagra gerit corporis : 
Pane ordeaceo, 
Potn vivit amneo, 

Sub deserto pectoris. 

Geminatnr spes corone : 
Verus Martyr in agone 
Perstat ad Martyrium : 

Judex SKvit ut infligat, 
Fornax furit, Christus rigat, 
Spondens vitse bravium. 

Judex plorat, — Pastor orat, 
£t torquentis in tormentis 

Yits reddit filium : 
Judex credit, — Pastor cedit,— 
GeUam ponit, et disponit 

Suum domicilium. 

Dum disponit officinam 
Hostis armat" spem Tulpinam 
.... saevit in gallinam 

Animal perfidie : 
Pater Tulpi comminatur, 
£t gallina reportatur : 
Yulpes luit, — morti datur, 

Ad fores ecclesisc. 

Sic a Tulpi spiritali, 
More vagos bestiali 
Suos solvat, et penali 

Camis k conta^o : 
Figuratur in gallinft 
Vaga caro incentiva, 
Quam seducit fraus yulpina 

Cum Tadllat ratio. 

Ergo tui custos horti, 
Qui gallinam datam morti 
Yits reddis manufoiti/ 
Sic nos rege, quod in grege 

Nil possit vulpecula. 
Esto pnesens, O PatronCt 
Desolatis in agone : 
Esto noster intercessor, 
Yere Martyr et Confessor, 

Per etema secula. Amen. 

' The poet is imitating— and not withont awkwardness — Adam of S. Yiclor^^ 

Servi emeu cmoem laadent. 
Qui per cmcem sibi gandent 
Yit« dari monera. 

' The latter half of tills apparently oormpt verse Is wanting. 
' To amend both metre and sense, I would rather propose — 

Dnm disponit officinam 
Hostis speciem Tulpinam 
Armat ; — ueswit in gallinam, &c., 

Le., tiie Enemy prmares a Tulphie phantasm to terriff the Samt. ' 

^ If the passage be not oormpt, me sense most be—*' Thou who dost nstoit* 
Bonl thit was dead "— L e. the sinner — " to its tme life, namely, the Loan." f* 
mifitrHi, as every one knows, is constantiy osed by medteval writers as syiMSM**' 
with Darid, and is hence applied to the Tine Dsrid, Chbist. 



A nmiio memorial to the great Dean of Ely has been found in the 
restoration and completion of the central lantern of the church he 
loYed 80 wiselj and so well. His friends and the dignitaries of the 
chTirch, headed by his successor, form the committee to carry it out» 
while of conrae the design is in Mr. Scott*s hands. The subscrip- 
tions hare already begun to come in. but for so great a work a con- 
udenble sum is needed. We shall hereafter recur to it in detail, but 
we cuQot let this number pass away without an announcement of the 


In our number for December, last year, we gave an account of a meet- 
ing of parish choirs belonging to the diocese of Lichfield in the church 
of S. Oswald. Ashbourne. The meeting of the same choirs for the 
eminent year took place on Thursday, the 7th of July. The music was 
^ follows : — ^Moming Prayer, Responses, Tallis ; (sung from the cheap» 
^Qt moorrect edition pubUshed by the Cheadle Association ;) Venite, 
Pvrant's single chant in F ; PssJms, 5th tone, 1st ending, and 8th 
^e, ht ending ; Te Deum and Benedictus, Gibbons in F ; Anthem, 
*' Bow Thine ear,'* by Byrd ; no Introit, but an Organ Voluntary in its 
P^ : the music of the Communion Service was entirely from Mar- 
°^ as given in Helmore^s Brief Directory ; two verses of the 149th 
'Wq, in Brady and Tate's Version, with Gloria Patri, were sung to 
the omal tune between the Nicene Creed and the sermon. The exe- 
^^n of the music was good upon the whole, being best in the Anthem 
^ the Communion Service : the defects in the chanting of the Psalms 
^^ SQch as might be expected, considering that the choirs had not 
'^'^cdsed together, and that there was no conductor. The same re- 
^^*k may be applied, though in a lower degree, to the Canticles ; and 
^'^ was some want of steadiness in time on the part of the young 
^'Kamsty who in other respects played admirably. There would have 
j^n litde more to wish for in the celebration of the Holy Communion, 
^t for the priest's part being said throughout in an unmusical manner, 
^^ for some irregularities of ritualism. The organ was played softly 
^I^Hng the delivery of the elements ; and we are glad to be able to say 
^^ no one remmned sittine, at least in the chanoel, while this took 

In the afkemoon service greater concession was made to the dege- 
^l^ate taste in Chorch-mnsic, which is now happily on the wane. The 
rj^^lma were song to a double chant in F by E^. Elvey, (not, indeed, a 
2^ OM of tia ktndO the Magmfie&t and Ntm^ DimUtis to Nares' Verse 
^^vviee in F. The Anthem was Croft's *' God is gone up." The 
* >«ena " W9n not mng by aolo voices, but in semi-chorus. Still we 

258 A New Church for the Scotch Kirk. 

must assert that it would have been better, in every way, if a full ser- 
vice had been chosen ; and with respect to the Anthem, a less showy 
one, which would have been suitable for each of the choirs to sing on 
ordinary Sundays, would have been far preferable. So much time need 
not then have been spent in " grinding " at the festival music, and 
what was so employed would be spent to better purpose. Besides, 
experience shows that simple music, when sung by an assemblage of 
rural choirs, is more effective than any of the opposite class. The 
93rd Psalm, metrical, was sung to the tune Rockingham, Just before 
the end of the service. Both this tune and the one sung in the morn- 
ing sounded about as well as possible, allowing for the commonplice 
harmony with which the Cheadle Association have clothed them. 


Mb. Caird's church, commonly known as the Park Church, Glasgow, 
from being situated in Kelvin Park, is a remarkable structure, is 
marking the progress of ecclesiastical architecture in the Scottish Pres- 
byterian Establishment. It has been erected for the admirers of that 
well-known royal preacher, by Mr. J. J. Rochead, of Glasgow. 

We have been favoured with a view of two prettily executed dnw« 
ings of the interior and exterior of this church, which enable os to 
furnish the following particulars. We use east and west in the de- 
scription simply in an arbitrary sense, to signify what would be eist 
and west in an English church, without pretending to determine tiie 

Externally, the building presents all the essential features of i 
Middle -Pointed church. A showy tower, 1 52 feet high, is attacked 
to what should be the south-east angle of a church, consisting of t 
nave with aisles, and a well developed chancel. The tower is reiDy 
a very creditable composition, if original; with an elaborate upper 
story, not we presume designed for bells, formed of double two- 
light windows with somewhat exaggerated tracery. The buttresMi 
decorated with niches, not intended for statues, are good, bat siff- 
mounted with pinnacles of an Early English type, not in keeping with 
the general architectural character of the church. The nave consisli 
of five ba3rs east of the tower, with a shallow porch on the south side 
in the centre bay. It is stated to be 35 feet in width, ezdnsive, we 
presume, of the aisles, and the total length is 1 30 feet, but whether 
this includes the sham chancel is not stated. The height of the roof 
of the nave is 71 feet, and a clerestory is produced by carrying oat 
gables in each bay, over the arches of the nave, the exterior tppetf- 
ance of which is not amiss, although the efiect of the panelling on the 
ceiling of the gables, internally, is heavy and Oppressive. But fcr this 
the open wooden roof would be tolerable. The nave arches are i^^ 
ported by single circular shafts with heavy foliated capitala. 

The drollest part of the building is the chancel : externally prcttf 

Ecelesiological Society. 259 

sQoughy with a Tery handsome east window of rich geometrical tracery. 
Eliere is an ambiguity about its size, for while our exterior riew presents 
3nly six lights, the interior view gives eight. A lean-to vestry is at- 
uiched to the south side of the chancel, which last is surmounted with a 
^ble cross, as is also the nave. The chancel, however, is a mere sham : 
the ritual of the Scottish Kirk not allowing any legitimate use for 
that essential portion of Catholic ecclesiastical edifices. The interior 
treatment of it is therefore peculiar. A low chancel screen of solid 
masonry isolates it completely from the church, lliis screen is re- 
lieved by an arcading of trefoil arches, in the middle of which, in the 
proper place for the altar, is a gigantic pulpit, fit emblem of the doc- 
trine of the Church which has substituted the ordinance of preaching 
for sacraments, the foolishness of man*s wisdom for Divine grace and 
power. Over the screen the whole of the east window is visible 
through the chancel arch, except when a vast crimson curtain hanging 
over it, for all the world like the stage at a theatre, is drawn, in order 
to make the chancel snug for the lay elders when assembled in pres- 
bytery — for the chancel is assigned to that base use. The nave is seated 
imlh open benches, like many of our modern English churches. 

On the whole, then, Mr. Caird*s Park church must be taken to indi- 
cate a very considerable developement of ecelesiological taste in Scot- 
land, as well as some progress in ecclesiastical architecture. It is not 
the fault of the architects that the theology of the Confession of West- 
minster has, by evacuating the vitality of the Christian faith, at the 
same time rendered correct ecclesiastical architecture an impossibility 
consistently with the theory of the Scottish Establishment. And if the 
public mind, consistent at least in its rigid formalism, will tolerate, as 
it seems, the form without the substance, we know not that we can 
blame Mr. Rochead or any other architect for attempting to produce 
some picturesque eflfect at the cost of reality : for indeed unless shams 
■re to be permitted in Scottish ecclesiastical architecture, the artist 
most abrogate his functions. When we remember that Mr. Spur- 
geon regards the noblest style of architecture that the devotion of 
Western Christendom has dedicated to the service of Qob as the pure 
invention of Satan, we may congratulate the architects and people of 
Scotland that there is still found among them encouragement for such 
eSbrti as those of Mr. Rochead, and admit that they are entitled to 
more credit and sympathy in Glasgow than corresponding essays would 
be in London. 


A Com MirrBB Meeting was held at Arklow House on Tuesday, June ^ 1 , 
\%5^ : present, Mr. Beresford-Hope, in the chair, Mr. France, Mr. 
Oosting, the Rer. S. S. Oreatheed, Sir John E. Harington, the Rev. 
T. Hehnore, the Rev. H. L. Jenner, Mr. Gambler Parry, the Rev. 
J. H. Speifing. the Rev. W. Scott, and the Rev. B. Webb. 
The ainntes of die> last meeting were read and confirmed. 

260 Eeelemhgieal Society. 

The following letter from the president was read, and taken into 
consideration : 

« KemerUm, Jume 20, \S59. 

" My dear Mr. Webh,^In ease I should be prerented to-morrow, as I im 
to-dsy, from going to town to attend the meetings of the eommittee and tlM 
society, 1 send you this to request that you will communicate to the eooi- 
mittee, and to the society, my resi^ation of the office of president. 

" I have but one resson for this step, one with which the committee hii 
been long acquainted — my unwillingness to hold in such a society an office is 
which I have nothing to do, and at any rate in which 1 do nothing. Tlie 
Twentieth Annivenary seems a fit oocasion for terminating a connectioB is 
which, for one hdf of that period, I hare had little opportunity of beiiigof 
any use. 

" The pressure of my duties in this parish and diocese has fior many jm 
made it impossible for me to give anjr attention to duties of inferior obligstioa ; 
and it will not be Uiought strange if my sympathies and labours have bees 
exerted exclusively where they Im more demands than they oould satisAT' 

'' It costs me a good deal to sever this tie ; but it is time that I shoula giie 
up msny, and there is none I can so properly begin with as this. There it 
no Society from whose members I could so much grieve to be parted sko- 

" Tours fidthfuUy and affectionately, 

** Thomai Tbobp. 

"TheRev. B.Webb." 

The committee adopted unanimously the following resolutions, which 
it was agreed to submit for adoption to the general meeting to be held 
the same evening : 

" Resolved, — ^The committee, having received with great regret the letter 
from the Archdeacon of Bristol, resigning his office ofpresident, desires tk 
secretary to communicate to him the deep tense which the committee eata** 
tains of his long and earnest services in the chair of this society, as well ss of 
the official and other interest which he has displayed, not only in the origiBsl 
formation of the society at Cambridge, but in the general prosress of cede* 
siological science ; and, by way of a very slight recognition of the late pi^ 
sident's services, the committee desires to recommend to the society that hi 
be appointed a patron of the Ecclesiological Society." 

'* Resolved, — That the committee, in recognition of the man^ aerviees is 
consistently and so actirely exhibited, not only towards this society from iti 
earliest days, but towards the general progress of ecclesiological seieaee^ hj 
Mr. Alexander Beresford-Hope, desires to recommend to the Society the tf' 
pointment of that gentleman as their president, in the room of the Aich- 
deacon of Bristol ; and the committee ventures to think that the concnmMi 
of the Twentieth Anniversary, and the consecration of All Saints', MaryleboMb 
is a very suitable opportuni^ for recognising the sense which the sode^ 
entertains of Mr. Beresford-Hope's msny and loyal services to the Chnrdi or 
England, and of their sympath^r with him and congratulations to him on tlo 
satisfsction which he must feel m the present progress of Church arduteetnc^ 
to which his own labours snd liberality have so Ivgely contributed.** 

The Bishop of Western New York was admitted as a patron. 

The following gentlemen were elected honorary members: — Sa 
Charles Barry, R.A., Herr V. Statz, of Cologne, and Charlea Kimp, 
JBsq., of Sydney, W. W. B. Wynne, Eaq., M.P., the Her. F. B. Mtr* 

T\oeniieik Afmwersary Meeting. 261 

B.A., of Rifle Terrace, Bapwater, and R. J. Jones, Esq., of Milton 
next Oraveeend, architect, were elected ordinary members, and Mr. 
Wynne was added to the Committee. 

The Annual Report of the Committee was considered and adopted, 
tod ^tke Music Report was also agreed upon. 

It was agreed to nominate the Revs. S. S. Greatheed, T. Helmore, 
H. L. Jenner, J. M. Neale, W. Scott, and B. Webb for the new com- 
mittee ; and W. Elliott, Esq., and A. W. Franks, Esq., for the new 

Letters were read from C. B. Allen, Esq., G. M. Hills, Esq., the 
Soirey Archssological Society, J. P. St. Aubyn, Esq., the Rev. J. Jones, 
R. J. Withers, Esiq., G. E. Street, Esq., and G. F. Bodley, Esq. 

Mr. Slater met the committee, and exhibited his designs for a new 
church at Tedworth, for the restoration of the church of Eastern 
If audit, and for the re-arrangement of the choir of Chichester cathe- 
draL The committee accepted the oflFer of his perspective view of the 
Chichester interior for the next EccleaiohgisL 

Sir John Harington exhibited the designs by Mr. Douglas for a new 
church at Over, Cheshire. 

Mr. Skidmore met the committee, and exhibited his amended designs 
and estimates for an inexpensive iron church, worked out in concert 
with the chairman and Mr. Slater. 

The committee examined Mr. St. Aub3m*s designs for the restora- 
tion of S. Mary, Callington, Cornwall ; Mr. Bodley's designs for the 
Diocesan Training college at Ripon ; Mr. Clarke's designs for Trinity 
church and schools at Bishop Stortford ; Mr. Hopkins' restoration of 
Upper Sapey, Herefordshire ; Mr. Withers' restorations of S. Cynnllo, 
littigoedmore, Cardiganshire, and S. John, Narraghmore, Ireland; 
Mr. Tenlon's designs for the restoration of Elm, Cambridgeshire, 
Newington Bagpath, Gloucestershire, and Sunbury, Middlesex; and 
BIr. Street's designs for a new church at Hollington, Staffordshire, and 
far ^be restoration of S. Michael Penkivel, Cornwall. 

The Twentieth Anniversary Meeting was held on Tuesday evening, 
Jane 31st, in the theatre of the South Kensington Museum. The 
president. Archdeacon Thorp, took the chair at eight o'clock. Among 
those present were — A. J. B. Beresford-Hope, Esq,, T. Gambier Parry, 
Bsq., Hogh Pksmell, Esq., Rev. W. Scott, Rev. B. Webb, Rev. H. L. 
Jenner, Rev. S. S. Ghreatheed, J. F. France, Esq., W. Dawson, Esq., 
Rcr. John Jebb, Rev. W. H. Lyall, G. E. Street, Esq., W. White, 
Baq.» the Rev. — White, J. P. St. Aubyn, Esq., J. Clarke, Esq., 
Rev. J. F. Russell, Rev. B. Worlledge, J. S. Walker, Esq., Rev. 
C. S. Caffin, W. Slater, Esq., O. Truefitt, Esq., F. Skidmore, Esq., 
H. Mathew, Beq. 

The Annual Report was read, as follows, by the Rev. B. Webb. 

" The eompletion of Uie twentieth year of the existence of this So- 
ciety eeiaeided with the completion and consecration of that most re- 
Molulilt ebsfch of inodem times, with the history of which our 

262 Ecclesioloffical Society. 

own history has been intimately connected, and in which the em- 
bodiment and the success of our principles find their best lUuttntiQiL 
If All Saints', Margaret Street, is not in all respects that 'model- 
church ' which was one of our earliest anticipations, it is at letst 
the nearest approach to that ideal which the ecclesiological mofenwnt 
has yet produced. And while we can point to that noble and do- 
numental building as being in some degree the crown and mateml 
result of our labours, we feel that our twenty years of existence ut 
Society have not been fruitless. What has been effected in this period 
by ourselves and our fellow-workers in the cause of church aidiitec- 
ture and its subsidiary arts may be measured by a comparison of this 
church with any of its predecessors of a quarter of a century ago. A 
success, which would once have been thought unattainable, has been 
reached. What may not be hoped for, if the future progress of ncnd 
art be at all commensurate with the past ? 

" The year that has gone by has been marked by the loss of two of 
our Episcopal Patrons ; the venerable Bishop of Bangor, and the a* 
cellent Bishop of New Jersey. We have to lament also the deeeaie of 
a Vice-President, the Dean of Chichester, who was for many yean i 
staunch friend of the Society. The death of the Dean of £ly ms i 
still more serious loss to the cause of ecclesiology. On the otjiff 
hand, the Bishop of Western New York has become a patron, sad 
one of our members. Archdeacon Abraham, has become a patron \ff 
virtue of his consecration to the See of Wellington : and a member, 
and former officer, of our Society, has succeeded to the Deanery of 
Ely. A valuable addition to our committee has been made in the pe^ 
son of the Rev. J. H. Sperling,, well known as a practical ecclesiologiiti 

" The proceedings of the Committee have been mainly confin^to 
the publication of the Ecclesiologist, and to the criticism of such design 
as have been laid before us. Papers and communications of gicit 
value have appeared in our journal in most of the departments of labour 
that fall within our province. Foreign architecture and art have bees 
more copiously illustrated than usual. In particular may be noticed 
the papers on Hildesheim, Oottland, Cologne, Dalmatia, and Blr* 
Street's series of letters on French Ecclesiology. On home sobjecti 
may be mentioned an able paper on the decoration of S. Paul's Catb^ 
dral, and Mr. Burges* essays on Altar-plate, and on the Iconography of 
the Chapter-house of Salisbury. Mr. Street's paper on the Fotue of 
Art in BngUnd, and a spirited controversy on Polychrome, mnat ili^ 
be specified. Among the most valuable Utnxgical contribntiona lie a 
treatise on the Presence of Non-Communicants during the oelebratioa 
of the Sacrament of the Altar, a reprint of the Sarum Servidom Indi* 
dendorum, and a continuation of the Sequentiae IneditSB. The latter 
series, which has attracted much attention among continental ritoalirtik 
will be further enriched by some acquisitions lately made by ita editor 
in a tour in Brittany, in aid of which research a small gimnt mi 
made by the Committee. Of ecclesiastical music more will be 
the Motett Report. But the deeply interesting and vftloaUe 
logue of the music preserved in the Library of S. Peter's CoUege» Oia* 
bridge, now in course of publication in our pages by thie lUv. Jobs 

Twentieth Anniversary Meeting. 268 

ebb, desenres notice here for its historical and archaeological, as well 
I artistic, importance. 

" The Committee has maintained friendly intercourse with the Oz- 
>rd, Cambridge. £xeter, Northamptonshire, and Worcestershire Ar- 
litectural Societies, with the Surrey and Leicestershire Archaeological 
ocietiea, and with the Architectural Museum. To the latter body, 
mjointly with the officers of the Committee of Council on Education, 
« are again indebted for our place of meeting this evening. At the 
ragresa of Architectural Societies held last year at Oxford, our Presi- 
eot» the Archdeacon of Bristol, one of our Vice-Presidents and a 
inner Secretary, Sir S. R. Gl3rnne, and a member of Committee, the 
[on. F. Lygon, M.P., represented our Society. With foreign eccle- 
iologiata oar intercourse has been confined to exchanges of publica- 
iooa with the Dietsche Warande, the Danish Church History Society, 
lie University of Christiania, and the Royal Society of Sciences of 
i'roodjbem ; and we have been favoured with communications from 
leiT Reichrnsperger. 

*' The Colour Prize offered last year by your Committee, in connection 
rith the Architectural Museum, was competed for by six artists. It 
raa adjudicated unanimously to Mr. Harrison. A similar prize of five 
loiinds has been offered for next year, on the same conditions. The 
abject is a panel of a tomb from the church of S. Giovanni, Verona. 
ynr Chairman of Committee has ofiered, in aid, a second prize of three 
Nmnds to be awarded to one or more competitors. 

'^ As to liturgical matters, the reprinting of the Sarum Missal, under 
he editorial care of a member of our Committee, makes slow but steady 
iragieaa. A project for the compilation of an Antiphonale, to comple- 
Bcnt the Hymnal, has been mooted. The completion of Mr. Neale's 
heap edition of the Greek Liturgies must be noticed, and the appear- 
iDoe of a second part of Mr. Forbes' Ancient Gallican Liturgies. A 
Ibtory of Altars, by Mr. Neale and Mr. Street, has been announced 
a onr pages. 

" In the department of Christian Painting, the Committee must put 
»n record their high sense of the value of the precedent set by Mr. 
)yoe's admirable freicoes in All Saints', Margaret Street. It was with 
aoch ntisCiction also that they saw Mr. Rossetti's sketch for a proposed 
riptjch for UandafF Cathedral. The Arundel Society continues with 
preat raccess its most valuable labours, and has entertained the project 
if pabtiahing a work on the Christian Mosaics of Rome. It is impossible 
o think of the contingenciea of the war now raging in Italy without 
fishing that another excellent scheme of this Society — of making ac- 
tuate copies of the many frescoes still preserved in less-known 
diarches — had been already carried out. Mr. Westlake's edition of a 
lerica of Scriptural lilastrations from an BngHsh MS. of the Thirteenth 
Centory most not be forgotten. 

" Of Christian seulptnre we have still, unfortunately, little or 
Bodiing to report. An alto relievo for the crypt of S. Augustine's 
ChapeC Oaoterbory, designed by Mr. Burges, and executed by Mr. 
Btyflei s, leprescnting the conversion of S. Ethelbert, is almost the only 
wsk whieh baa come before us. Mr. Philip's effigy of Dr. Mill is 

264 Ecelenoloffical Society. 

still unfinished : bat that of Qaeen Katherine Parr, for Sudeley caitle. 
by the same artist, is exhibited at the Royal Academy. 

" The Ladies* Bmbroidery Society have continued their oseful la- 
bours with undiminished zeal and ability* 

" We pass now to the consideration of several points of genenl 
importance, which have been discussed, or have approached tbdr 
solution, during the past year* 

" The question of the proper arrangement of the naves of cathednh 
for such large congregations as were attracted by the so-called speciil 
services, has been anxiously observed by your Committee. With re- 
ference to Bxeter Cathedral, they were consulted. The Committee, 
however, will not prejudice the discussion on this subject, announced 
for this evening, by any expression of opinion. They will only obsene, 
that the example set in S. Paul's and Westminster Abbey, of ming 
moveable chairs instead of benches, has been since followed in Att 
Saints,' Marylebone, and other churches. Your Committee is satiiM 
that this method of seating the area of churches of cathedral-size pos- 
sesses peculiar advantages, and it looks with much interest to the ex- 
periments which are being made in those of a less scale. 

" The migration of the Architectural Exhibition to the new Gallery 
in Conduit Street, is a matter of congratulation. As a consequence, 
the architectural branch of the Royal Academy Exhibition has been tlni 
year more unimportant than ever. It must be confessed, howerer, 
with great regret, that the general architectural show of the ycsr ii 
decidedly below the average. 

*' The question of competition has been ventilated with great profit 
during the year. The action of the Institute of British Architects, sod 
the Report of Mr. Beresford*Hope's Special Committee of the Hoaie 
of Commons on the Foreign Office Reconstruction, have probably kid 
the foundation for a much better arrangement in any ftiture pnbfie 
competitions. On the other hand, the competitive principle has failed 
conspicuously in more than one instance. The Spurgeon Tabemsde 
competition, for example, was as unsatisfactory in its conditions as its 
results ; and the Ellesmere Memorial competition, and one for a 
Roman Catholic Church at Cork, have been unsuccessful. However, 
the competition for the Manchester Assize Courts seems to have beea 
altogether better managed. On every ground your Committee rqoioef 
at the failure of the one for Trinity College church, Edinburgh ; aad 
it trusts that no further obstacles wUl be raised to the reoonstmctioi 
of the original church, as ordered by Parliament and recently eonfinacl 
by the Court of Session. 

** In iron church building the Committee hope to be soon able to 
report the completion of a cheap but effective model prepared by Hr. 
Skidmore under the superintendence of the Chairman of CoouDittMi 
and Mr. Slater. 

<* The question of the proposed destruction of a lai^ niimbar of 
the city churches, and the desecration and sale of their sitea, is ootiif 
great interest to this society. The whole matter was invostigafeed If 
a Committee of the Fellows of Sion College, under the chauemaMl^ 
of Mr. Scott, the President of the College, and a member of !!■ 

Twentieth Anniversary Meeting. 265 

Committee. The Report recommended a judicious compromise, by 
which a few, and those the more insignificant churches, would be sacri- 
ficed — the steeples in all cases being preserved, and the sites either 
left open, or used for parsonage houses. We have no hesitation in 
endorsing the moderate compromise here suggested as the best solution 
of an admitted difficulty ; though it is to be wished that means may be 
found for building the residence houses on other than the sites of 
diurches. It must be noted in this Report that it distinctly enunciates 
the principle that it is quite useless to attempt any improvement in the 
city churches without an entire re -arrangement of the interiors : and 
the Committee reprobate the great square Lx)ndon pews as the monster 
evil of the Church in the Metropolis. 

" We may now proceed to notice the more conspicuous architectural 
woika that have fallen under our notice. First we have to thank the 
fbUowing architects, alphabetically enumerated, to whose courtesy we 
owe the opportunity of seeing much of the artistic progress of the 
day. The committee have had the advantage of the co-operation of 
Messrs. Bodley, Boyce, Burges, Clarke, Douglas, Ferrey, Hills, Hop- 
kins, Nash, Norton, Robson, St. Aubyn, Scott, Seddon, Slater. Street, 

5. S. Teolon, W. M. Teulon, Truefitt. White, F. C. Withers, and R. 
J. Withers. To this list we must add the names of the following 
artbts, Messrs. Beer, Clayton and Bell, Gerente, Lavers and Barraud, 
tnd O'Connor, for stained glass ; and Messrs. Keith and Skidmore for 
metal work. 

" Of new works we must assign the first place to Mr. Butterfield's 
church of AU Saints', Marylebone, already referred to. That gentleman's 
Baliol College chapel, and parish church of S. John Evangelist, Hammer. 
imith, have also been noticed. Mr. Scott's great work at Doncaster, and 
hia churches of S. Mary, Stoke Newington, and S. Matthias, Richmond, 
ind his buildings at Exeter College, are of Ihe highest order. Mr. Street's 
design for a new church in the parish of S. John Evangelist, Westmin- 
ster, mod Mr. Bodley's design for S. Michael and All Angels, Brighton, 
ire both of singular merit. Mr. Slater's effective Kilmore cathedral, 
ind hia church of S. Peter, at Edinburgh, are in progress ; and Mr. 

6. S. Teulon's Holy Trinity, Hastings, and Mr. Crowther's S. Mary, 
Hulme, have been opened during the year. Mr. Clarke's large church 
tt Heywood will be shortly undertaken ; while Mr. Rohde Hawkins' 
chorch at Limehouse has been consecrated. The foundations for Mr. 
Bntterfield'a church, near Gray's Inn Lane, are already dug. Mr. 
Buigca's Memorial church at Constantinople, after undergoing some 
ttodifiemtions, has been actually put in hand. 

" Of church restorations the most remarkable are the following : 
The works at Lichfield and Peterborough cathedrals are advancing 
under Mr. Scott ; and he will soon proceed with one of the most in- 
teresting undertakings of the time — the restoration of the octagon of 
Ely cathedral as a memorial to Dean Peacock. The central tower of 
Darfaam cathedral is in hand under the care of Mr. Scott and Mr. Rob- 
eon. A monifioent bequest by the late Dean of Chichester, in aid of 
Ihe restoimtiim and re-arrangement of the choir of his cathedral, has 
Wen made the fonndatton of a subscription for the completion of that work 

V^v XX. M M 

236 Ecclesiological Society. 

as hie memorial : Mr. Slater is in charge of it. The same geatlemin 
has in hand the partial restoration of Lomehck cathedral, as a memorial 
to Mr. Stafford ; and his completion of Mr. Carpenter's noble un- 
dertaking at Sherborne minster must be chronicled as an event of the 
past year. Llandaff cathedral proceeds steadily under the care of 
Messrs. Prichard and Seddon. The thorough restoration and recon- 
struction of S. Michael, Cornhill, by Mr. Scott and Mr. Williams, will 
form, when completed, one of the most memorable works of the age. 
Its richness of fittings and decorations, and the use of sculpture in the 
doorway, deserve special commemoration. Mr. Rogers' elaborate aeries 
of wood carvings for the interior must be particularly noticed. We 
are glad to see so spirited a championship for benches in the contest 
between them and chairs. S. Alban's» Wood Street, one of Wren's 
Gothic churches, has also been restored by Mr. Scott. Mr. S. S. 
Teulon's elaborate refitting of Blenheim Palace chapel is another work 
of great importance ; and his re-construction of Sunbury church, Mid- 
dlesex,^ must not be forgotten. The restoration of S. Stephen's crypt, 
by Sir Charles Barry, as a chapel, is also a memorable work. Let 
us add to these the rebuilding of Wicken Bonant church, Eaaex— 
the work of an amateur. We hear with pleasure that Mr. Scott will 
proceed with the restoration of the Great and Little S. Mary's, at 
Cambridge, and Mr. Bodley with the chapel of Queen's College in 
that University. 

" Little has reached us during the year as to Ecclesiological progreis 
in the Colonies. Montreal Cathedral is advancing, and its stained 
glass has been ordered from Messrs. Clayton and Bell. Mr. Slater's 
church at S. Kitt's is finished. We have also seen a good design for 
a timber parsonage, by Mr. R. J. Withers, for Newcastle, Miranuchi-* 
for Mr. Hudson, an old correspondent of this Society. 

*' In foreign countries we hear of a Pointed Cathedral at Lintz, tod 
a new church at Aix-la-Chapelle, by M. Statz ; of a gocud Gothic chuck 
at Wijk Maastrecht ; and of an English church at Nice of some pre- 
tensions, by Mr. Smith. We observe, in a foreign paper, the accoont 
of the dedication of the choir-crypt of the cathedral at Lille. M. VioUeC 
le Due is re-erecting the fl^che at Notre Dame. In the United States 
Mr. F. C. Withers has introduced a much improved method of design. 

" Of miscellaneous designs the Committee may mention Mr. Scott's 
Crimean Column at Westminster (engraved in the EceUnologitt), tad 
Mr. Bodley *s Mortuary Cross, at East Griosted, with great commen- 
dation. The scafiblding for the former is already erect^, and we shall 
watch with interest, but without misgiving, the comparative effect of 
that monument and of the one in another style which is in coune of 
erection in Waterloo Place. 

" A monumental brass in Westminster Abbey, by Messrs. Hardmittf 
to the late Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol, is also observable. la 
church plate Mr. Keith has executed works from the designs of 
Mr. Butterfield and Mr. Street. Mr. White has procured the roana- 
facture of some very cheap latten plate, of good shape, for colonial oio» 
The publication announced by the Abb^ Bock — P^re Martin's worthy 
successor — of some of the treasures of Aix-la-Chapelle, will be of gi*** 
impoTtBRce for the revival of the goldsmith's art. 

Twentieth Anniversary Meeting, 267 

" Secular Pointed Architecture has made great progress during the 
fear. The selection of Mr. Scott's design for the Foreign Office, and 
3f his design in conjunction with Mr. Digby Wyatt for the India Office, 
are facts of the greatest moment. It is earnestly to be hoped that 
QOthiog will interfere with the execution of these projects. The 
Oxford Museum has reached completion. The selection of a Pointed 
deai^ for the Manchester Assize Courts is a most hopeful sign of the 
growing improvement of the public taste. Of large collegiate works 
the Committee would notice Mr. Bodley's Ripon Training College, 
Messrs. Prichard and Seddon's design for Brecon College, and Mr. 
S. S. Teulon's large schools at Wimbledon. Mr. Slater's S. John's 
•diools, Tottenham Court Road, likewise deserve notice. Several 
large mansions of Pointed design have come before the notice of your 
Committee, one example by Mr. Norton, being in Russia. Mr. S. S. 
Teolon has been the first to give a proper character to Drinking Foun- 
tains by his excellent design, in which statuary is introduced, at Has- 
tings. The Committee must also notice with approbation designs for 
dieap cottages, with sufficient bedroom accommodation, prepared by 
Mr. Slater and Mr. Teulon. There are as yet but few warehouses and 
>k)pe in any purely Pointed style. While the sumptuous character of 
iiew constructions in London and other great towns for commercial 
purposes denotes the growth of public taste, they have as yet unfor- 
tonately scarcely travelled out of the beaten track of Italian and Re« 

" In conclusion, your Committee see no reason for fearing that the 
'orther growth of art among us will be checked. They note with 
Hdsfaction not only the gradual addition of skilful artists to the num- 
icr of those whose combined exertions have already wrought so great a 
hange in English architecture, but the wide diffusion and growing in- 
Aence of better taste and more knowledge and love of true art in the 
oblie mind. In short there is every encouragement for further en- 
Hnroura and for good hopes of further success." 

Mr. Beresford-Hope, in moving the adoption of the report, remarked 
lat it was perhaps unusual that the adoption of the report which had 
i«t been read should be moved by one who was to some extent per- 
mally responsible for its contents ; but he might be allowed to break 
iitNigh the etiquette and conventional modesty which regulated such 
Atten, on an occasion like the present, which was the Twentieth An- 
Ivenary of the society. Insignificant as might be the space which 
le aociety occupied in the spectrum of society, it was, notwithstand- 
ig« large in the eyes of those who were interested in the subject of 
sdeuology : its growth, rise, and various fortunes had long occupied 
be dearest thoughts and called forth the most strenuous exertion on 
he part of its members ; it had even been the turning-point in many 
(f thdr careen. However small might be the gathering that evening, 
fc great work had been accomplished by the agency of the society, and 
Ant too not only for England, but for the Christian Church throughout 
Um world. Bearing in recollection the condition in which church ar- 
cUtectore was twenty-two years ago, he could not say that the p ms^ 

268 Ecclesiological Society, 

for the revival which had taken place was due exclasively, or efCQ 
primarily, to the society, for there had been previous to its existence 
persons who had been labouring to the same end ; but they would now 
admit that the standard which was held up even in those extremdj 
clever, biting, sarcastic articles, which appeared in the British Critk, 
was almost as bad and miserable as the existing style of church archi* 
tecture of that day which was therein criticised, which they so freely 
condemned. Contemporaneously too with this society, the work of Sir 
Charies Anderson, full of excellence and of good feeling, although be- 
hind the present day, had likewise appeared ; and he (Mr. Hope) 
would not deny how much they were indebted to the members of ib- 
other communion, nor what great advantages they had derived fron 
the enthusiasm, the hearty, zealous feeling of Mr. Pugin. He had been 
long enough in the grave for polemical feelings to have vanished awtf. 
and all could press forward to do justice to an honest, a true, a loving* 
and a loveable man. Whatever difference of opinion might have ex- 
isted between them and Pugin, they might not in the year 1850 shrink 
from an acknowledgment of the truth. With all those statemeotii 
however, which truth compelled him to make, he maintained that in tbe 
twenty years' existence of the Ecclesiological Society a great woik 
had been done, — a work which did not end in stone and mortar, bit 
which went into the absolute verities of the faith, to the deepest Mf 
ings and the most practical actions of the Christianas life, and Christia 
zeal ; to feelings which must be responded to, and must help in tbe 
developement of the moral fabric. Indeed, he was afraid that, if tbej 
had now any complaint to make, it was that they suffered from a pk- 
thora of success — they had really done so much that the society, wbcn 
it claimed the credit of originating a good work, failed to command at- 
tention, because it seemed to be singing an old song, of the truth of 
which everybody seemed to be now well assured. Let them look tt 
parish churches of the present day. Why, the very worst pnriih 
church that was now built, even one in the utmost spirit of suspidon, 
or ignorance, or of selfishness, or of purse- pride, — with the single ex- 
ception, perhaps, of Mr. Titers church, which they saw in the Ardn- 
tectural Exhibition, Conduit Street, — could not fail to be superior to 
any of those which were proposed by members of this society, or \/f 
good men who thought with them, at the outset of the movement. 
The architectural movement of the society was started in 1839f ttd 
they had to fight battles, not merely against ordinary opponents, bat 
even against such remarkable periodicals as the Christian R e m m 
branccTt which, if his memory served him rightly, was one of their noit 
strenuous, not to say bitter, opponents at that day. Look, again, 9t 
the cathedral movement. It was comparatively but a few yean igo 
since they had ventured to say, " Why not use the naves for tbe pB^ 
pose of public worship ? Surely they are not the verger's special pro- 
perty. Put chairs in the naves, sing the service in them, — yes, end 
put a pulpit in each of the naves.*' How much had been said agiintt 
their fanaticism, their dreaminess, their utter want of the slight'*' 
knowledge of the refinement of the age I Yet now. all shades end 
sectiona of Churchmen, high and low, broad and narrow, crowded ftr- 

Twentieth Anniversary Meeting. 269 

ard to U9e the naves of our cathedrals for public service. Exeter and 
PauI's, Cluchester and Westminster, one after another, — they were 
Uowing the example set. There were plenty of people to be found in 
e present day who claimed the credit for that of which some ten or 
reive years ago the members of the Ecclesiological Society, aud those 
[lo thought with them, were the first, and at the same time unrecog- 
sed apostles. In the colonies on every side cathedrals were con- 
rocted ; and as to Scotland, new cathedrals had been erected at Perth 
id at Cumbrae ; and even in the Established Church of Ireland, a 
thedral had been built on the strictest ecclesiastical principles in the 
oceae of Kilmore. He would not weary or insult the meeting by 
rtailing what the principles of the society had accomplished in parish 
iOTchea newly built or restored. Then, too, the Hymnal movement 
id progressed ; and as to their efforts in regard to the instruments of 
orahip, — for instance, church plate, — there was not a silversmith in 
le present day, dealing in such materials, who did not more or less 
anform to the ecclesiastical model. He was quite sure, from what 
ad taken place, that the career of the society during the twenty years 
f its existence, had been a great and signal success, the earnest and 
roof of which were to be found in the fact that many of those who 
ad started the movement were now distanced in the race. Those 
rho had originated anything great had never yet in this world received 
heir due share of credit ; but the future historian of the Church would, 
ome two hundred or three hundred years hence, perhaps, render due 
BStice to the ecclesiological movement. Mr. Beresford-Hope con- 
hided by moving the adoption of the report. 

The Rev. W. H. Lyall seconded the motion, which was carried 

The following report from the sub- committee for Music was read by 
he Rev. H. L. Jenner, and adopted. 

*'The Sub-committee for Music have but little to report respecting 
beir own labours during the past year. Since the completion of the 
lymnal Noted their operations have been chiefly confined to the prac- 
ieal exemplification of their principles by the public performances of 
heir Motett choir. These meetings have been regularly held. The 
boir, although it has suffered loss by the death or removal of members, 
ontinnes in a fair state of efficiency. Their performances have been 
rell attended, and the commendation of the audiences, as well as the 
iicss, has been freely bestowed. It is not to be expected that the 
lioCett meetings will ever be popular in the sense in which that epithet 
s affiled to the oratorios and secular concerts of the day. Still it is 
lot unreasonable to hope that the growing appreciation, among all 
4iises, of good music, (of the works, for example, of Handel, Bach, and 
Seelhoven,) may tend to draw attention to the pure and solemn school 
€ Church music, which this society has ever upheld. The compositions 
if P^Jettrina are not more strange to English ears at the present time, 
ban were the works of Sebastian Bach, a few years ago. The latter 
lave, by the force of their own intrinsic value, obtained a considerable 
lad iofifiasiiig share of public favour ; and there seems to be no reason 

270 Ecclesiological Society. 

why the great Italian master and his successors should not, in doe 
time, take the position to which their unrivalled merits so justly entitle 
them. It will be in no small degree due to the labours of our Amateur 
Motett Choir, if the trashy compositions too often heard in English 
churches, give place to the grand and devotional counterpoint of FUes- 
trina, Vittoria, and Di Lasso. 

" Perhaps, however, the most practically important branch of the 
Committee's musical operations consists in their illustrations and re- 
commendation of the brue congregational music, or Plain Song, of the 
Church. The programmes of their music meetings have always con- 
tained several specimens of Plain Song, and they are glad to report 
that throughout the kingdom, as well as in America and the Coloniei, 
there are unmistakeable signs that the minds of Churchmen are becom- 
ing alive to the claims of the ancient music, as adapted to the offices of 
our Communion. The chanting of the Psalms at the consecration of 
All Saints*, Margaret Street, may be adduced as a triumphant proof of 
the value of the ancient tones of the Church, in securing a full and 
sonorous flood of song in this portion of the service. We have scarcely 
ever heard anything that so nearly approached our idea of whit 
Psalmody ought to be. The immense power of the concentrated voices 
of some hundreds of men, to whom the Psalter Noted was evidently 
familiar, gave good promise that the ancient tones of the Psalter wiU, 
one day, again become, as they ought to be, the especial song, not of 
boys and women only, but of the clergy and laymen of our ordinary 
English congregations. 

'* The Choir Festivals that have been held since the last annivenary, 
are those of Ashbourne, Southwell, and Ely. At each of these 0^^ 
gorian music has been employed. At Southwell, especially, where 
alone the true office of these meetings of parish choirs, viz., the im- 
provement of the congregational music in parish churches, seemi to 
have been consistently kept in view, the result has been most grati- 
fying. Southwell, also, is one of the very few churches of capitulir 
dignity, in which Gregorian Psalmody, and the Motetts of the Paki- 
trina school, are constantly used in the ordinary offices. 

'* The special services, held at S. Paul's Cathedral and Westminster 
Abbey, must be cited as affording positive proof of the essentially popular 
character of the Choral Service, a position for which we in common with 
most writers on Church music have ever contended. The Committee 
are still of opinion that a more congregational type of music and of 
singing might have been chosen. The grandest effects of vocal oniMa 
accompanied by organ harmony might be produced on such occaiioiii; 
and this the Committee hold to be, under most circumstances, the mode 
of singing, where the people are expected to join. 

" The attention that has been paid to the subject of church oigani 
during the past year has been viewed by the Committee as a moat 
satisfactory indication of the progress of ecclesiastical music. Tbi 
Rev. J. Baron, of Upton Scudamore, may fairly claim the credit of 
inaug^urating a new era in organ building ; and this, not only by tbe 
enunciation of principles, in his work on Scudamore Organs, (some of 
which principles, however, have been shown in our journal to be antct*' 

Thventieth Anniversary Meeting. 271 

able,) bat also by directing the atteDtion of organists and organ-builders 
to the coBstruction of good and sufficient instruments at a low cost. 
Among the organs that have been erected since our last anniversary, 
nay be enumerated the magnificent instrument of four manuals by 
Hill, for All Saints*, Margaret Street ; a large and excellent one by 
the same builders for Ashbourne ; an admirable one of two manuals 
and pedal, for Preston- next- Wingham, designed by our treasurer, (the 
case by Mr. White,) and built by Mr. Eagles ; a smaller one for Ald- 
lidge, near Walsall, designed and built by the same persons, in which 
a considerable difficulty of position has been most skilfully overcome. 

" On the whole, the past year, if it has been characterized by less 
apparent activity on the part of the Committee, has yet been far from 
anfiroitfol in works based on the principles they have constantly main- 
tained — principles, which they have reason to hope and believe are 
making steady progress. There are few portions of the Church which 
liave not been already influenced by them, and the Committee do not 
doubt that at no distant period they will be found to have penetrated 
the whole." 

The Rev. S. S. Greatheed, the treasurer, read the audited statement 
of the society*s accounts, showing a balance in hand of £61. 9s. 

Some conversation took place on the expediency of distributing the 
Ecclenolagifi among the members, and on the advantage of a more 
central place for the annual meeting. 

The President then remarked that the present was an occasion and an 
epoch in the history of the society (of which they had been reminded 
by Mr. Beresford-Hope in his speech) which might, probably, justify 
him in making some observations to the audience at that stage of the 
proceedings. The society had now reached its twentieth anniversary 
under his presidency. He might have felt more acutely than most of 
them the observations which had been made by Mr. Beresford-Hope, 
simply because he was twenty years older than most of them. There 
was one observation which touched him particularly, and that was one 
having reference to the foundation of the society, which gave a higher 
value to the institution, in his opinion, than if they had met in the 
■tost important room of Exeter Hall, small as was their meeting at the 
preaent time. It was a great thing to preside, even for one meeting, 
over such a society ; its numbers certainly were few, and very different 
from the numbers at those energizing tiroes when its foundations were 
bid; but still it was a pride, and he felt it to be such, for him to oc- 
cupy the chair on that occasion. It was true that about twenty years 
ago three members of the society, still living, but only one of whom was 
at the preaent meeting, came and spread before him on his table at 
Trinity College a drawing from a brass, and asked him whether he would 
patronise and countenance, as their tutor, the existence of a society 
irhicb they intended to form, the object of which should be to visit 
ehureheSf to copy what they found there worthy of being copied, and for 
Undred pmpoaet. The original society was then founded, and by degrees 
proapered, ontil the movement assumed a higher shape, and trod upon 
the toea of those who had corns. Tlie president then proceeded to ^vvt 

272 Eccksiological Society. 

an account of the rise and progress of the Ecdesiological Society. Hie 
society afterwards took up its residence in London, and had there done its 
work in a much more effective manner than previously, Mr. Beresford- 
Hope, as chairman, heing particularly active in doing that great work, 
and in promoting art as well as administering to the spiritual life and 
devotion of the Church of England. During the whole period of the ex- 
istence of the society, he (the president) had been connected with it, 
and had sacrificed personal ease and professional advancement to pro- 
mote its success — he had been the comer- stone of it. He still enter- 
tained a high value of the great designs and great sympathies of the 
society, but he asked them to receive back from him the office whidi 
he had then the honour to fill of President of the institution. He 
could not do better than retire on that their twentieth annivenary, 
thanking them for their kindness on all occasions, and for the friend* 
ships he had formed during the time he had been connected with tlte 
society. It was not without strong personal dissatisfaction and sicri- 
fice he took the step of resigning his office of President of the society. 
The Rev. William Scott regretted that they were about to lose the 
aid of the president, who had most efficiently stood at their head for to 
many years ; and he believed that it had been a matter of self-deniilon 
his part that he had occupied the chair so long. He (Mr. Scott) vtf 
commissioned by the committee to propose a resolution having refer- 
ence to the occasion. The reverend gentleman then read the reso- 
lution, which acknowledged the long and earnest services of the ardi- 
deacon, as well as the interest displayed by him in the general progress 
of ecdesiological science ; and by way of a very slight recognition ^ 
his services, the committee begged to recommend an alteration in the 
rules of the society, with a view to the venerable archdeacon being tp- 
pointed a patron of the society. He was quite sure that, in proposing 
such a resolution, he was only expressing the unanimous opinion of 
the committee and of the members of the society, as well as of the 
Church of England generally, and of all who were interested in eccl^ 
siology throughout the world. He was not acquainted with the forma- 
tion of this society at Cambridge, because he had not the good fortone 
to be educated there ; but it was his good fortune to make his acquaint- 
ance with Cambridge in connection with this society, and the society 
had found for him the best friends he had, which he believed to be the 
case with many others. In a temporal sense, he believed the connec- 
tion of some of them with the society had rather operated against thea 
— it was a matter of little consequence whether they counted the cost 
or not ; but as they had been faithful to their duties in connection vith 
the society, according to the measure of ability which Qod had pf^ 
them, and according to the way in which they had discharged tbeff 
duties, they had had their reward, though it might be in a very indif- 
ferent way as to material things, but that was a matter of very litde 
consequence. This society had a most important bearing upon the 
promotion of art, especially painting, sculpture, and textile and een* 
nomic manufactures. They must not think that, because compantiveif 
few persons assembled at their anniversary meetings, they woe not 
doiDg a great work ; they were going on quietly, hut still they W0* 

Twentieth Anniversary Meeting. 278 

vctiDg a great work. He was sure that it would be in accordance 
th the feeling of the meeting if he nominated, as the future president 
the Ecclesiolog^cal Society, Mr. Beresford-Hope, an office for which 
at gentleman was eminently qualified, by his anxious desire for the 
proTement of church architecture, towards which aim, moreover, his 
V labours and liberality had largely contributed. 
The proposition that Mr. Beresford-Hope should be elected president 
the society was seconded by the Rev. W. H. Lyall, and carried una- 

The Venerable Archdeacon Thorp having vacated the chair, it was 
ken by the newly-elected president. Mr. Beresford-Hope, who ac« 
lowledged the compliment which had been paid to him, which he 
Jaed the more proceeding from a friend so cherished as Mr. Scott. 
e then proceeded to pass a eulogium upon the Archdeacon for his 
ist conduct as president, and his active and 2ealous services on behalf 
r the society. He should have wished from the bottom of his heart 
tuit they could have retained the services of the Archdeacon as their 
cetident. He had always admired the constitution of the society^ 
rbicb seemed to him to represent, in miniature, the British consti* 
ntion, placing the head of the body (the president) above petty re- 
ipoosibilities, and leaving thetn to his active minister^ \ but as it had 
Iwen otherwise determined, and as a more American fOrm of consti- 
totion had been adopted instead, they must bow to the decision. The 
moouncement made to the committee of the intended resignation of 
tbe Archdeacon had filled them with much concern and regret. He 
*M rare, however, that, although the Archdeacon was no longer their 
pRiideDt, they would all unatiimously elect him one of their patrons — 
ut office which had hitherto been filled only by bishops and university 
^^evn. And in breaking through the rule they showed a slight — a 
very slight — acknowledgment of their unspeakable gratitude to the 
A^tlideacon for all that he had done. Of their late president it might 
'^be said — 

•* Clsmm et venerabile nomen, 

Qui maltum nobis et nostrB proderat urbi." 

The (new) president then put the resolutioh, that the Archdeacon 
c elected a patron of the lociety, to the meeting, and it was carried 
Binimoasly by acclamation. He congratulated the Venerable the 
•ithdeaoon upon his election, as the first and only patron of the so- 
ctf who was not a bishop or an officer of the University of Cam* 


Ae Venerable the Archdeacon, in acknowledging the compliment, 

iMiked that much good had been derived in consequence of the so- 

ety being connected with young and rising architects at the time of 

I eitabli^ment. 

The president then proposed for re-election as the committee the 

Bowing gentlemen — the Revs. S. S. Qreatheed, T. Helmore, H. L. 

Uner, J. M. Neale. W. Scott, and B. Webb; and W. Elliott, Esq.. 

d A. W. Franks, Esq.. were elected auditors. 

The pnndent called the attention of the members present to an ivory 

TOL. zz. V H 

274 Eccle^iotogical Society. ^ 

diptych, and a triptych by Filippo Lippi, exhibited by Mr. Ghonbier 
Parry ; to a curious collection of Australian marbles, forwarded by Mr. 
C. Kemp, of Sydney, an honorary member ; and to some church pUte 
manufactured by Mr. Keith. A chalice, richly jewelled and set with 
cameos, attracted much attention. Some cheap latten church plite 
of appropriate design by Mr. White, intended for colonial uie, wu 
also exhibited. 

The president then introduced, as a subject for debate, the qnestioQ 
of the proper arrangement of cathedrals for special services, with eipe- 
cial reference to the advantages of moveable chairs. A member haviog 
begun the discussion by objecting to chairs altogether. 

The Rev. W. Scott replied by recommending that people should kneel 
on the floor, and not ** at half-cock " on prie-dieu chairs. He thought 
this would get rid of the necessity of turning the chairs at certain 
parts of the service. But the present amplitude of ladies' dresses wti 
a novel difficulty for any system of church arrangement. 

Mr. Street, complaining that prie-dieu chairs were often made too 
large, spoke forcibly against the practice of the Incorporated Choich 
Building Society, in refusing their grants when chairs instead of 
benches are introduced by architects. He argued strongly against thii 
regulation, and urged that a memorial upon the subject should be ad- 
dressed to the Incorporated Society by the Ecclesiological Committee. 
As a proof of the advantage of chairs over benches, he instanced the 
case of All Saints*, Margaret Street, where, during the crowded cer- 
vices that followed upon its consecration, 800 or 900 people were 
seated, instead of about 650, which would be the full accommodatioa 
of its area if benched. 

The president remarked that the London Diocesan Society had no sodi 
rule against chairs as that which Mr. Street had coroplHined of in the 
practice of the Incorporated Church Building Society. He argued thit 
the chairs in All Saints' were an experiment ; and stated that, while he 
thought chairs preferable for cathedral naves, lie was more doubtful 
about parochial churches. However, chairs were vastly more eco- 
nomical than benches ; and in All Saints' the area was chaired for 
£80, while benches, aU the lowest estimate, would have cost £300. 

Mr. White supported the president in thinking that benches might 
possibly be more suitable for small areas, though chairs would be better 
for large spaces. He pleaded, however, for a memorial against the 
rule of the Church Building Society, and contended that its grants 
should be proportioned to the actual area of the churches, and not to 
the number of seats. 

Archdeacon Thorp thought that the cheapness of chain was their 
greatest recommendation. But he confessed that he thought thea 
untidy, and had found in his experience that English people were (asi 
of fixing their places in church. 

Mr. Street argued that it was only with churs that worshippers cooU 
have full liberty of action, or that the whole area of a church, indoifing 
the alleys, could be filled on occasions of great crowding. He enlaige^ 
also on the aesthetic advantage of a free area, and drew a jnctorBrf * 
ehorch encumbered with unused pews. 

Tkceniieih Anniversary Meeting, 275 

The president thought that the cold of the pavement was an argu- 
ment that had been overlooked against the use of chairs ; and that the 
question of wooden versus stone or tile paving must form an element 
of consideration. 

Mr. J. S. Walker, representing the Worcestershire Architectural 
Society, gave an account of the arrangements of Worcester cathedral 
for the special services held in the nave. Objecting to them, he a4- 
vised that the organ and solid screen should be removed (as at Ely and 
Lichfield) and the choir and nave made available for simultaneous 

Archdeacon Thorp was of opinion that for Special Services Matins 
and Evensong should not be used, but the Litany, or some special 
Prayers : and for such short services that the congregation might stand 
in prayer and not kneel. 

The Rev. John Jebb, Proctor in Convocation for Hereford, a visitor, 
thought that people mi^t stand and kneel in such services, and dis- 
pense with seats altogether. He proceeded to condemn strongly the 
arrangements of S. Paul's Cathedral and Westminster Ahbey for the 
Special Services, arguing that naves were never intended for congre- 
gational use without the choir. He claimed that our cathedral churches 
should be used as wholes, both choir and nave being made available 
for common worship. Hence the close screen of Wren's choir at S. 
Paul's was to be condemned. 

The president explained that the principle adopted in the arrange- 
ment of S. Paurs was to interfere as little as possible with the existing 
arrangements, and to fit up merely in a temporary manner. As a 
member of the committee which had effected this, he felt bound to say 
that he thought, under existing circumstances, this was the wisest 
compromise ; and he pointed out the superiority of the present ar- 
rangements to those adopted during the special services in the nave in 
the Exhibition year. The surplus of money in hand was being devoted 
to gilding the lantern, a purely neutral object. On the other hand, 
the interior of Chichester cathedral, of which he exhibited an engraving, 
was to be arranged in a way, like Ely and^Lichfield, suitable for com- 
mon worship. 

The Rev. J. Jebb repeated his condemnation of the experiments in 
S. Pknrs. 

Mr. White expressed his agreement with the last speaker, and re- 
marked that the use of wooden tiles for the floors would meet the ob- 
jection to cold pavements made by a previous speaker. 

The Rev. B. Webb remarked on the distinction between the regular 
daily services of a comparatively small capitular body and the occa- 
sioiud crowded services of diocesan or general interest, and argued that 
a cathedral ought to have a permanent choir for the former, and a tem- 
porary arrangement, with a second altar and choir, for the latter. He 
referral to the arrangement of the great domed churches of S. Peter's, 
and the two at Florence, and contended that if S. Paul's were to be 
made available for collective worship the altar and choir should be 
bronglit down under the dome. 

The RtT. H. L. Jenner advocated the Spanish custom of having no 

276 EccUsiological Society, 

seats at all.^ Sermons would be shorter if the congregation stood. At 
Southwell minster, on occasion of the late choral festival, the oongre- 
gation stood in the nave while the Bishop preached. 

The Rev. J. Jebb admitted that the dome might probably be the 
right place for the altar and choir in S. Paul's. 

The Rev. White inquired at what period in the early^history o( 

the Church large churches were first used. 

The president referred to the size of the ancient Basilicas and summed 
up the discussion. He agreed that the distinction between the capi- 
tular and congregational services was important, and observed that 
much caution was necessary in our theory and practice as to cathedral 

The meeting separated about twenty minutes after eleveii. 

At a Committee Meeting held immediately after the Annivenary 
Meeting, the President in the chair, the former meipbers of the Com- 
mittee were all re-elected ; and the following officers were appointed: 
— Chairman, the Rev. W. Scott ; Treasurer, the Rev. S. S. 0^ea^ 
heed ; Secpretary, the Rev. B. Webb ; Secretary for Music, the Rev< 
H. L. Jenoer ; Precentor of the Motett Choir, the Rev. T. Helmoie. 
Archdeaeoa Thorp was also elected an honorary member of the com- 

• I 

Two public |n.eeting9 of the Ecclesiolpgical Motett Choir have been 
held since th(B appearance of our last number. The programmes ve 
give below : 

Tuesday, June 7, 

ANTHBM—'^The Son of Man" . • . Rev, S, S, Greatkeed. 

Processional — Psalm xxiv Psalter N^ied. 

MoTBTT — " Hear the voice and prayer " . . • . TallU' 
Dedication op a Church — rsalma Izxxiv., cxxii., exxxii., 

PsaUer Noiel 
Anthem—** ilow goodly" . Rev. Sir F, A. 6. Ouseley, Bart. 

Hymn— ''Blessed City, Heav'Dly Salem" . HynrntUNotel 

Anthem— '* Let mv soul bless Uoo" . Rev, S. S, Greeikeei. 

Hymn—" Come, Holy Qhost " . ... Hynmal Noted, 

Hymn— "The eternal gifts" Hymnal Naiel 

MissA — " Etema Christi munera " Palettmt> 

Thursday, July 21. 

Motett — " O Lord Qod of our salvation "... Pafeffnasi 

Hymn— " Te Deum " Ambrosiam Mehdj* 

(From the Lansdowne M8S, m the British Museum J 
Anthem — *' In My Father's house are many mansions " 


1 Oar contemportry, the " Baildflr," has given in a Isfce wamJb&t a Istttr fey 
Mr. Bonomi, snpporting this propositkmy and an iUnstraticm of the pn^v-enlife* 
■fsd bf tiie Copts when standing hi dmrcfa. — Bd. 

Oxford Architectural Society. 277 

w— " Te Dcum " Marbeck. 

(F\n>m the ab<me Ambrosian Melody.) 
BTT — ^' O pmie the Lord " . . , . Orlando di Lasao. 
IN— '^ Creator of the start of night " • . Hymnal Noted, 1 Qi- 
m — " Conditor alme aiderum " 

fVom TalestrinaU ** Hymmi totius anni,'* 1589. 

-" O Lord, my God '* Palestrina. 

" Beholfl, I bring you ^lad tidings " . . (jtovanni Croce, 

'* O beata gloriota Trinitas " .... Palestrina. 

*' Behold now, praise the Lord " • . Giovanni Croce. 

" Not unto OS, O Lord "... Orlando di Lasso. 


fivQ was held in the Society's rooms, Holywell, on Wednesday, 
5f at nine o'clock, the president in the chair. J. W. Gunther, 
if Queen's College^ was eletted a member. The president re- 
1 Mr. James Parker to read his p^iper on ** The Plans of Me- 

James Parker delivered a lecture upon " Plans of Castles and 
i during the Middle Agies." In ia previous paper he had pointed 
i mistake which he considered many persons made in consider- 
i Gothic to be so essentially an 'ecclesiastical style as to be un- 
to the wants of domestic life. H^ httd contended that a study 

existing remains of the dwellings of '[our ancestors would show 
roughout the middle ages the Gothic style met the wants and 
ments of each successive age to a remarkable degree. By way 
tration to this paper, he proceeded to trace the gradual develope- 
rhich might be observed in the plans of domestic buildings from 
les of the Normans to those of Queen Elizabeth, and to show, 
18 time would allow, the chief causes which seem to have guided 
reral changes of plan. In referring to the buildings of the 
m in this country, he considered that, in spite of their number 
tent, and probably at one time magnificence, they cannot be said 
t influenced any succeeding buildings, either as to design or plan, 
leem to have set a fashion rather than founded a style, which 
i died out when they left the country. After referring to the 
irhich the Romans probably copied from Italy, he observed that 
oection could be found between them and the large square keep- 

which the Norman barons introduced. This was a type stand- 

itaelf, and from that one type all the successive varieties of the 
ml houses of the country might be said to be derived, each 
f succeeding the former as circumstances necessitated, or change 
torn and habit called forth. He considered, first, how far the 
n caatle met the requirements of the Norman baron, chiefly with 

to hia safety and protection, and afterwards his comfort and 
Bents. As a fortress he showed that nothing could be more 
•ad perfect, and he then went on to show how the internal ar- 
met the requirement of a domestic habitation. As, how- 

278 O^ord Architectural Society. 

ever, the number of retainers of the baron increased, as in all proba- 
bility they did, and as the inconvenieDce and misery resulting from the 
close crowding together, not to say positive evil, we find at the dtwn 
of the thirteenth century not only that the bailey which had surrousded 
the keep was enlarged, but that the walls were provided with towen 
and buildings which were capable of accommodating the baron, his 
family, or his guests. This extension of the bailey was the first step 
towards the future developement. In order to exhibit more clearly the 
principle of developement, he referred to Kenilworth Castle, as one 
amongst many examples, and by a series of plans to show the castle in 
its several stages. He explained how the moated bailey gave way to 
one surrounded by a wall, along which were arranged the priociptl 
chambers. This was the. second stage. The third consisted in gather- 
ing together all these chambers into one group, the hall forming the 
centre. Tliis principle of developement would be found apparent in 
most of our castles if examined liistorically. and exhibited the history 
of the times. The first stage showed the domestic arrangements en- 
tirely subordinate to the military ; in the second the domestic and 
military were combined ; in the third the military were entirely snbor- 
dinate to the domestic. The same principle was also exhibited in 
castles built from the ground where no buildings before existed. He then 
proceeded to show what changes had in the meanwhile taken place oi 
the smaller buildings — the town houses and manor houses of the period. 
As examples of Norman town houses, he referred to the Jews' Home 
at Lincoln, and Mayre's Hall at Bury S. Edmund's ; as Norman manor 
houses, to Apple ton and Boothby Pagnell. As houses of later date, be 
exhibited and described the plans of Sutton Courtney and WaniveH 
Court. After describing the general plans of houses, both large and 
small, in the fifteenth century, he concluded by especial reference to 
the large dining hall, the decrease of which, in its proportion to the 
number and extent of other rooms, was the chief feature to be obserred 
in the change which took place towards the end of the fifteenth and 
during the sixteenth century. He briefly enumerated the vartom 
causes which led to this change. The college-hall he instanced as the 
nearest approach in form and arrangement, but the spirit of the old 
feudal hall was there wanting ; that seemed to have passed away with 
the system which gave it birth. 

At the conclusion of the paper, the secretary, Mr. Lowder, expresied 
his thanks to Mr. Parker for his paper, and thought that a connected 
description of the progress of ancient house -building, such as the 
society had just heard, was of great value, in giving a clear notion of 
many of the peculiarities of old houses and mansions. He referred to 
several buildings of interest, where much that Mr. Parker had touched 
on could be examined, such as Carew Castle, Pembrokeshire ; the Pa- 
lace, at Wells ; the Castle of Beverstone, in Gloucestershire, btult in 
the reign of Edward HI., by one of the Liords of Berkeley ; and Nan* 
ney Castle, in Somersetshire. 

Mr. Skidmore offered some remarks on the manner of finishing the 
round and octangular towers common in old castles, with pyramidal or 
conical roofs, covered with lead. He alluded to their destruction bam 

Oxford Architectural Society. 279 

the rapacity of those engaged in civil war at different periods, who 
atripped off the lead for the purposes of warfare ; in this way the ban- 
queting- hall of the palace of Wells lost its roof, and went to decay, 
and he supposed that in the same way most of such specimens have 
now vanished. 

The president, after some observations on the manner of dividing 
domestic chapels into an upper and lower story, while the sanctuary 
portion took op the whole height, instancing the remains at God- 
atow, near Oxford, adjourned the meeting until Wednesday evening, 
June 29. 

A meeting was held at the Society's rooms, Holywell, on Wednesday 
efvening, the 29th of June, at 9, p.m. ; Mr. J. H. Parker, president, in 
the chair. 

The following memben were elected: — J. W. P. Maxwell, Esq., 
Christ Church, and C. W. N. Ogiivie, Esq., Christ Church. 

The president then requested the secretary to read the paper fur- 
lushed by Mr. Buckler, architect, of Oxford, on the paintings lately 
discovered at Chalgrove church, in the county of Oxford. The paper 
was in the form of a communication addressed to the president. The 
following is a sketch of it. 

The recently discovered paintings in Chalgrove church demand the 
attention of the artist as well as of the eccleeiologist. The figures are 
of early character, and the head-dresses, the wimple, &c., point them 
out as works of the fourteenth century. The chancel in which these 
paintings exist is of the date above mentioned, and has windows of the 
character of that style on the north and south sides. These windows 
form breaks in the subject of the frescoes, and are themselves decorated 
in their splays by figures. On the north and east walls are a series of 
subjects taken from the events of our Blessed Lobo*s Passion, and are 
treated with delicacy and religious spirit. The north wall treats of the 
events of the Passion itself, including figures of S. Mary Magdalene, 
the Virgin Mary, S. John, and S. Peter in the act of cutting off the ear 
of Malchus, and of other of the Apostles ; there appears also the traitor 
Judas, and the reviling Jews, whose countenances are marked with 
great respectings of character, their noses being exceedingly crooked 
and beak-shaped. On the east wall our Loan is seen in the act of 
rising, soldiers appear in recumbent postures beneath some arcades of 
what is intended to be a representation of the sepulchre. The upper 
part of this figure is lost, as also is the case with the one in which our 
Loan is represented as ascending, the feet only being visible. The 
•oath side is decorated with traditionary subjects, chiefly relating to 
events connected with the lives of S. Mary and S. John. Mr. Buckler 
here qooted a series of legends translated from curious and interesting 
sources, which throw much light on this, perhaps the most obscure 
portion of the design« His paper was marked with great care and 
aeconcy of research, and was beautifully illustrated by an accompany- 
ing aketdi of hu own, and also by tome tracings which were taken on 
the spot by persons connected with Chalgrove church, and kindly lent 
for the evening's exhibition. 

280 Oa^ord Architectural Society, 

llie president moved a vote of thanks to Mr. Buckler for his cod- 
munication» in which he had succeeded in explaining the detuls of tkcte 
designs, a puzzle to most of those who had hitherto examined them. 

Mr. Freeman trusted that these paintings were not exposed merdf 
to he destroyed as soon as possible. Mr. Parker assured the meedng 
that steps had been taken for their preservation. 

After a slight discussion on the best mode of preserving old ftescoct, 
the meeting was adjourned till Saturday^ July % at two o*clock, being 
the annual meeting of the society. 

The Twenty-first Annual Meeting was held in the Society's rooim, 
Holywell, on Saturday, July % at two, p.m.^ the president, Mr. J. H. 
Parker, in the chair. 

After the election of the following members, C. H. Hall, Esq.. Chriit 
Church, and C. Marriott, Esq., Queen's College, the following report 
was read by the secretary, Mr. Lowder. 

"The committee heg to lay before the members of the society their 
report of the last year's proceedings at this their Twenty- first An- 
nual Meeting. They wish first of all to call attention to the preeeot 
condition of the society, and in doing so feel that they can congratulite 
the members generally on the increase of subscribers, and oh the pros- 
perous condition of the funds at the present time : the balance in band 
is such as to inspire good confidence for the future, iand the committee 
cannot do other than express its thanks to those who have the manag^ 
ment of the funds, and also to those gentlemen who have been iiistni* 
mental in forwarding the increase of subscribers, by not only taking* 
warm interest in the prosperity of the society itself, but have also es> 
erted themselves to make known the advantages to others. 

" The first event of this year*s business was the election of Mr. J. H. 
Parker to the office of president. The committee need not remind tbe 
members of the society of the claims which Mr. Parker has upon their 
thanks for the long-continued interest and support which he has alwtji 
given to all efforts for the improvemient and advance of Gothic arcbi- 
tecture, and especially to the efforts of the Oxford Architectural So- 
ciety : he has added to his former claims on our gratitude his diligent 
and efficient presidency of the past year. 

" In connection with Mr. Parker *s election, the committee record 
with pleasure the acceptance of the secretaryship by Mr. Laghtfoot, of 
Balliol College. 

" The committee, besides thanking the various ofiScers for their at- 
tention to the well-being of the society, owe a debt of gratitude to those 
gentlemen who have consented to read papers at the various meetingi; 
and though this is a customary vote of thanks, yet they desire tpeciiinj 
to mention some to whom they are indebted for information of a itrj 
valuable and interesting character. They wish particularly to refier to 
two papers by Mr. James Parker connected with the history and ii^ 
rangements of domestic and castellated buildings of the middle agei; 
to a paper by Mr. Skidmore on the application of metal- work to do- 
mestic architecture, and a very clever examination of the principki of 

Oxford Arehitectwral Society. 281 

ctriy eoDTeDtional foliage as connected with metal decoration ; to Mr. 
Orowae for his analysis of the churches of Suffolk ; and to Mr. Buckler 
for his eommnnication on the mural paintings in Chalgrove church, 
Oxfordshire. Other papers have been read by Mr. Lowder. Mr. Light- 
loot, &c. There have also been one or two discussions on subjects of 
irchitectural importance. The committee also desire to notice a work 
publithed under the auspices of the society, by the Rev. Herbert 
Haines, of Exeter College, entitled * A Manual of Brasses/ the pro- 
ipectas of which is now laid before the members. 

'* The chief works now in building which Oxford itself presents to 
the architectural student during the last year are referred to with plea- 
rare by the committee. The Oiford Museum, which has already been 
ilioded to with commendation at more than one previous annual 
■eeting, is now approaching its completion ; and though it is impos- 
libie, in a work where so much hitherto untrodden ground has to be 
nplored in the field of design, to eipect no faults, nothing unsatis- 
futory, yet as a whole the committee feel that they will receive the 
gnieral concurrence of the society in congratulating themselves and 
^ university on a building which has grappled with one of the hardest 
pvoUemB with which Gothic architecture has in modern times been 
Cilkd upon to deal. The committee would draw attention to the de- 
Cttitions in natural colour, the beautiful effect of the marble columns, 
to the improved iron work in the quadrangle, and to the exquisite 
^vkmanship in the carved capitals in the cloisters. At present they 
look with great interest and some little anxiety to the completion of 
^ polychromatic decorations in this building. Another great work, 
^ tlie eminent architect Mr. Scott, is one also to which attention haa 
ita heretofore directed, namely, the chapel of Exeter College, the 
*peedy completion of which may be with certainty looked forward to. 
fhe present is not an occasion to justify examination of details, beau- 
^ as they are, and fully calculated to preserve the high reputation of 
the architect for chasteness and elegance of design, llie committee 
feel themselves fully able to congratulate the society on such an addi* 
tion to the architectural beauties of Oxford. Among recent restora- 
tions may be mentioned that of Oriel College by Mr. Buckler, and the 
rchoilding of Wolvercot church by Mr. Buckeridge, a member of the 
committee of this society. The style chosen is an early one, and the 
dctaila, aa te as the present condition will admit of judgment, are 
vigoroiia aa good. The society will feel pleasure in learning that the 
libnurj of University College is entrusted to Mr. Scott ; that a new 
chmch in the vicinity of this town is to be built by Mr. Street ; while 
another church is also in contemplation. The committee also feel 
satiaiaetion in reporting that the restoration of Elsfield church by 
the aune architect is now completed, and will be opened on Thursday 
next by the Lord Bishop of Oxford. The committee, in adverting to 
the iron church just erected in the Cowley Eload, regard it as a supe- 
rior attenpt to many churches built of that material, at the same time 
regretting that meana had not been devised for the restoration of S. 
BarthdoiiMw'a Chapel to its original condition and use. They also 
wish to eipteaa their anxious deaire that attention should be iiaid to 
TOL* zx. o o 

282 Oxford Architectural Society. 

some of the smaller old churches in the neighbourhood of Oxford, the 
condition of which calls for amelioration ; and they take thi« oppor- 
tunity of noticing two in particular, — Binsey church and South 

** Nor has the society been inactive or forgetful in its duties of pre- 
serving ancient architectural remains which have from time to time 
been threatened with demolition. Two cases called for the interference 
of the society — the proposed destruction of the Walmgate Bar at Yoric, 
and the dangerous condition of the Abbey Gateway at Reading. In 
the former case a letter was sent to the Lord Mayor and Corporation 
of the City of York ; in the latter one was sent to the magistrates of 
Berkshire : the results have been satisfactory in both cases. 

" An equal interest in new. and especially large public buildings hu 
been taken by the committee, who appealed in behalf of Gothic archi- 
tecture for the new buildings in Westminster, and in behalf of Mr. 
Scott as the architect for them ; and at present there seem to be no 
grounds for supposing that any change in the architect will be made. 
The committee cannot but feel what vast importance to Gothic archi- 
tecture the erection of such a building by such an architect as Mr. 
Scott is likely to have. 

" Of great works beyond the limits of Oxford, the committee look 
with especial pleasure on the completion of All Saints' church, Mar- 
garet Street, by Mr. Butterfield : they consider its consecration as an 
era in modem church building, in that in it, perhaps more than in anj 
other modern church, is exemplified the great truth for which this and 
other kindred societies have for so many years struggled, namely, 'that 
nothing can be too costly for the service of Goo.' Here are the richest 
marbles and the noblest carvings, costly decorations without stint, with 
nothing spared to render it worthy its high object ; nor in an architec- 
tural point of view is its value inconsiderable, since it is one of the €nt 
Gothic churches which attempted to display in its construction the 
development of natural colour. Of restorations, the committee caD 
attention to that of Hereford CathedraL by Mr. Scott, in whom it fedi 
perfect confidence as to the success of that part of the cathedral mhoA 
he has undertaken. 

'* Nor are there wanting signs of progress in the general appiecii- 
tion of Gothic architecture : the judges in the Manchester coropetitioi 
have chosen a Gothic design for their Town Hall ; and though Itafiaa 
may still be seen adopted for large public buildings, yet there is entf 
hope that a love for that kind of architecture has passed away» tod 
that our own Pointed styles are the most popular, as well as the aoit 

" The committee, before concluding the report of their past jtv, 
cannot omit to call upon the members to bear in mind the n cce i m y 
support which a society of this kind requires ; and they also with to 
remind those to whom the communication has already been made li 
well as others who are unacquainted with it, of the propooal wiiidh 
the society has made to the University respecting their coUeetm of 
casts, brasses, seals, &c. : the committee regret that no deciaion hm •> 
yet been arrived at, and they therefore look to the memben with oon- 

Mr. Church on SolubU Glass. 283 

fideoce for their hearty tapport in preserviog the society's collection in 

'* Among many other useful studies in the furtherance of architectural 
knowledge, that to which attention is now chiefly called is polychromatic 
decoration, and it is one which requires, perhaps more than almost any 
at present, great discretion and talent : the committee therefore feel 
that they can put forward this study as one which will be of great ser- 
Tice to the cause this society has at heart. To this recommendation 
they add their earnest request, that all members should do their best to 
preserve such specimens of ancient pictorial art as fall under their 
notice ; and it is with an object of this kind in view that the committee 
have induced the lecturer of this afternoon to give to the society some 
valuable information for securing and furthering decorative art." 

The president then called upon A. Church. Esq., F.C.8., of Lincoln 
College, to read the paper which he had prepared for the meeting on 
the uses and advantages of soluble glass. 

The following is an abstract of Mr. Churches paper. 

Several methods for preparing soluble glass are employed. If fifteen 
parts of white sand, ten of carbonate of potash, or eight of carbonate 
«f soda be fused with one part of charcoal, a glass is obtained readily 
soluble in boiling water. For most purposes, a mixture of three parts 
of soda glass thus obtained, with one part of potash glass dissolved in 
a suitable quantity of distilled water answers best. 

The uses of water-glass are various, but chiefly valuable for the 
hardening of other materials, as building stone, plaster of Paris, white- 
wash, &c. ; but in colour decoration it is being applied either alone, 
or mixed with alum, as it produces a perfect preservative against attri- 
tion or the effects of weather in the case of paintings in fresco or dis- 
temper. An extract from a paper read by the Rev. John Barlow be- 
fore the Royal Institution, was quoted by Mr. Church, which entered 
into the method called Stereochrome practised in Germany, and em- 
ployed in the fresco paintings in the New Museum in Berlin. Besides 
the above uses, Mr. Church suggested the advantage with which it 
might be nsed in paintings on glass, terra-cotta, plaster of Paris, white- 
washed walls, marble ; he had himself made some experiments on 
earthenware also with success, and such was the hardness which the 
material gave to the coloured surface, that the most violent rubbing, 
and even adds could do little to affect it. For the decoration of brick 
mufmoe»p whitewashed ceilings, and plaster walls, Mr. Church recom- 
mended that the colours should be mixed with size and a little whiten- 
ing, and laid on as in distemper painting ; when dry, the painting to 
be syringed twice or thrice with water-glass. Water-glass seems 
likdy to offer a substitute for enamel when mixed in a concentrated 
state with oolours, and applied to brass, iron, &c. The manufacturer 
to whom Mr. Church referred for the specimens which he exhibited, 
was Mr. Collins, of Oxford Court, Cannon Street, who had already 
made aevenl hundred tons of soluble soda glass for home consumption. 
The lecturer kindly offered his assistance to every gentleman who might 
be anziona for further information on the subject. 

284 Exeter Diocesan Architectural Society, 

The president tendered the thanks of the society to Mr. Choidi fcr 
his paper, and made some remarks on the value which such a materiii 
would have in the preservation of frescoes abready existing : if he had 
known of it before, he should have preferred it to the mixture whieii 
he made use of for the preservation of the paintings in Chalgrofe 

Mr. Church, in answer to a question from the secretary respecting 
the colours which would stand the action of the water-glass, siud tbt 
the vermilion and cobalt, ultramarine, all the ochres, several yellowi, 
and several greens (with the exception of emerald green), the permt- 
nent Baryta white, and Mr. Perkins's new purple now in such conunoa 
use ; in fact, those colours chiefly which have a natural tendencj to 
fade, are affected by the soluble glass.^ 

The president then said a few words on the subject of the discoD- 
tinuance of the present room in which the society's meetings were 
held, and begged especially to assure the meeting that it wu not 
to be supposed that the society was to break up because it no longer 
used the present room, the lease of which was out at the end of 
the year, and the expense would be too great for the society to re- 
new it. He hoped that another room would be secured in Oxfbri 
Mr. Cox, of Trinity College, added some remarks as to the value of 
the society in a place like Oxford, and the meeting was adjourned. 


The Quarterly Meeting of this society was held at the College HiB, 
South Street, on Thursday, June 9th, 1859. The chair was taken bf 
the Right Hon. Sir J. T. Coleridge. There were many members tad 
visitors present ; amongst them the Prebendaries Domford and WooB- 
combe. Revs. J. L. Fulford, R. T. Radford, Messrs. J. Carew, C. Tucker. 
Harding, Hay ward, James, Miles, Norris, Ash worth. Wills, &c. 

llie secretary read the report, which stated that 

'* Since the annual meeting little has occurred in the proceedings of 
your committee which seems to call for any special notice. One set of 
plans has, however, been laid before us during the past quarter. Tlcf 
were plans for a new chapel of ease in the parish of Woolhrdiswortliyi 
near Bideford, by Mr. Gould, of Barnstaple. Your committee feel 
that less has been done of late years in church building restoratioiit i* 
fewer plans of intended works have been brought to the cognisanoe of 
your committee. 

" The restoration of Callington church, Cornwall, has been effsotiA 
under the direction of Mr. St. Aubyn, one of our honorary memben. 

** There has been one improvement accomplished, and that it tke 
correct ritual arrangement and use of the chancel. Clergy and choir ii 
the restored church at Callington are found in their pkm at the eeb- 

1 The friends of the Society will be glad to learn that the Atktmmm fan Mt^i 
July 2nd, contains a foil and interesting aocoont of the appUeation of 

Exeter Diocesan Architectural Society. 285 

adon of madns and evensong ; it will not, henceforth, be seen there 
ftt the clergy have no part or Bhare in the service of praise. Pews 
id galleries have disappeared, and with free seats a considerable gain 
ems to have been obtained, both as to the number of worshippers and 
eir comfort. 

" Your committee would remind our distant members that by one of 
or rules, recently amended, mediaeval domestic architecture forms one 

the objects of our inquiry and study. And your committee would 
;am ask members to look about them, and to inquire whether there 
e not some remains of ancient domestic work in their own neigh- 
»iirhoods. Drawings of such remains would both enrich our port- 
lie and tend to help on the desire for returning to the mediaeval cha- 
kcter in work for our own houses. 

'* We see the progress which ecclesiastical architecture has made 
nee the birthday of our society ; but we know not how great may 
e the revival in domestic work in a coming period of time. There 
re tokens which way the taste of the public begins to bear. When 
ddependents at Barnstaple adopt as their model for a school-house a 
ledueval town-house, having walls of red, and black, and yellow brick, 
wo-light lancet windows under a connecting arch, with trefoils in the 
jrmpanum, high-pitched roof, dormer windows, metal ridge crests, 
nd inscriptions in mediaeval letters. Churchmen surely have good hopes 
bat their domestic architecture will improve. 

" The consecration of All Saints', Margaret Street, in the diocese of 
iondon, architectural societies cannot allow to pass without notice, 
fhe church is indeed a design of some ten years since ; but no one can 
ee that church without feeling that a great progress has been made, 
hat ecclesiastical architecture has become a living art, that it can ex- 
iiess the genius of an architect of our own times, as well as declare 
hat which is far higher^ the glory of Goo, and the exalting principles 
if our holy faith. Much has been accomplished there, which may say 
o all, ' take courage.* 

*' The Art Exhibition of Barnstaple will, your committee think, have 
ts influence in the extension of those objects which have our care, 
rhcre was indeed but little mediaeval work, excepting the stand of Mr. 
Skidmore, of Coventry ; but that stand alone brought before the eyes 
if many examples of mediaeval metal work of modem manufacture, 
vho before knew not of its existence. A portion of the metal screens 
veently erected in Ely cathedral, door handles and hinges, plain 
xnroDK and standards, and some chalices and patens, were exhibited 
ff Mr. Skidmore/' 

The Rev. Mr. Radford suggested the propriety of a paper being sub- 
aitted, at another meeting, upon '* Cottages." 

Mr. Miles, the treasurer, sUted that he had £60 in the banker's 

The Rmr, H. Woollcombe submitted the plans of a proposed chapel 
of mat at Whiptoo, in the parish of Heavitree. 

Mr. T. O. Norria showed a memorial cross, manufactured of terra 

286 New Churches. 

Mr. C. Tucker presented the society with a copy of the Proceedings 
of the Annual Meeting of the Archaeological Society of Great Britain 
and the Western Counties, which was held in Bristol in 1851. The 
thanks of the meeting were awarded to the donor for his present. 

Mr. John Delagarde and Mr. J. T. King were elected members of 
the society by the last monthly committee. 

Colonel Harding then read a highly interesting paper upon "Tbe 
Effigies and High Tombs of Devon." 

Mr. £. Ashworth also read a very interesting paper upon *' Some 
of the Dartmoor Churches bordering upon Devon.*' It described t 
line of churches and old buildings through the granite district from 
Bickleigh on the Plym to the vale of Ashton. The principal objecti 
noticed were the villages of Meavy and Sheepstor ; the tower of 
Widdecombe-in-the-Moor; the rich pulpit and screen in the improted 
church at Holne ; the old manorial houses at Canonteign and Ashton, 
with delineations of some curious paintings on the screens at Ashton. 

Votes of thanks having been given to these gentlemen, and also to 
the chairman, the meeting separated. 


All Saints, Ridgemont, Bedfordshire, — ^This is a striking church, 
built three or four years ago by Mr. G. G. Scott. It comprises a 
chancel, with a south chancel-aisle and a vestry on its south side, a 
clerestoried nave with two aisles, a western tower, and a northern 
porch. The style is good early Pointed : the type that of a somewhat 
ornate village church. The windows, especially in the chancel, tre 
rather mean and ill- proportioned, that to the east end having only 
three lights. The arcades are of four arches, rising from clustered 
shafts. The roofs are open, and of inconsiderable scantlings; the 
aisles, which have lean-to roofs, being very low. There is, however, 
some fair carving of heads and foliage to the labels and caps ; and 
there is an introduction of colour, in patterns on the ceilings between 
the rafters, and in a somewhat excessive number of texts. The font — 
a very poor octagonal one, and without a cover — is hideously poly* 
chromed, in a most gaudy and coarse style. As to arrangements, the 
chancel and sanctuary levels are good, and there are longiitudiaal 
benches on each side ; but an open prayer-desk, facing north and west, 
stands outside the chancel, on the south side, under the arch. On 
the north side there is a good stone pulpit, with angle- shafts of marble. 
The greatest want is that of a reredos ; and the altar, though prapatf 
furnished with cross and candlesticks, lacks a super-altar. Tliere are 
moveable sanctuary rails, and moveable sedilia. The woodwoi^ is sll 
of stained deal, the seats being all open. The floor is of coloured tiles. 
The organ, appropriately designed, occupies the south chancd-aitk. 
The east and west windows have stained glass. Neither are very good. 
The former has a Majesty in the head, and rows of saints bdow : u 
ibe htter there are Moses and Aaxon. The tower is small in area, bat 

New Churches. 287 

Tery effective externally. It has a bold octagonal staircase turret at- 
tached to its north-east angle; a well- developed belfry- stage ; and a 
good octagonal stone spire, with shafted spire-lights on the four car- 
dinal sides, of a somewhat early type. The church is a very con- 
spicuous and beautiful object from the neighbourhood. The roofs are 
of deep-coloured tiles, with crestings ; and the arch-heads are all 
treated with voussoirs of alternate colours. Here, as elsewhere, we 
have been surprised to see Mr. Scott using the miserable common cir- 
cular stack- pipes, and painting them stone colour. 

S, , HoUingion, Checkley, Staffordshire, — A small country church 

by Mr. Street, it has a nave, circular-ended chancel, a vestry on its 
south side, and a south-western porch. The arrangements are tho- 
roughly good, except that the altar does not stand forward on the 
chord of the apse. There are stalls and subsellse, a low screen, and a 
pulpit on the north side of the chancel-arch. The style is a late First- 
Pointed. There is a good broad chancel-arch, with corbelled shafted 
imposts ; and the windows, which are very varied, have good mould- 
ings and rere- vaults. The nave-roof is an open one, with collars and 
arched braces : the chancel has a coved and boarded roof. Mr. Street 
has got over the difficulty of the lowness of the apse-roof by inserting 
in it a high gable with a good traceried window. We have never 
thought this a felicitous compromise : and, in this case, the contours 
are far from pleasing. The west gable, however, is very good. A cen- 
tral buttress, dividing two tall single lights, supports a single bellcote, 
which has much character. 

^. Alban, Baldwin Gardens, London, — Our readers will be glad to 
learn that this church, by Mr. Butter6eld, is already rising above the 

^. Helen, Little Cawthorpe, Lincolnshire, — This is a truly excellent 
design by Mr. Withers for cheaply rebuilding a small rural church. In 
the plan we find a chancel, 20 ft. 6 in., by 15 ft. S in. ; a nave, 29 ft. 3 in., 
by 17 ft. 6 in. ; a south-west porch ; and a vestry extending like an aisle 
on the north side of the chancel. The arrangements are thoroughly 
correct. The material is red- brick, with bands and patterns and voussoirs 
of black : the style early Greometrical Middle- Pointed. A good low 
timber belfry, with small shingled octagonal broach spirelet, rises from 
the western end of the nave roof. The window tracery is of good 
character. The woodwork is simple but in good taste. We see 
nothing to question but the patterns in two coloured bricks in the inter- 
nal wmllt, which look spotty ; but will be less so in execution than in 
the drawing. There is a very picturesque ascent by a steep flight of 
steps to the porch, the church standing on a steep bank. The re- 
building of this church is a work of no small difficulty in so poor a 
benefice. We commend the case to our readers, and give an illustra- 
tion in the hope of procuring some help from such as may be able to 
offer it. 

8, , 8o&ih Jedworth, Hants, — ^This church, undertaken by the 

late Mrs. Asaheton Smith as a memorial to her husband, is to be 
erected by Mr. Slater. The problem imposed upon him was to build 
at a moderate coat a chorch without aisles for a small agricultural 
pariah. He aocordiDgly dispensed with (the frippery of buUieiaea Vn 

288 New Churches. 

the nave, while he introduces character hy gproining the chancel ; and 
as pictorial polychrome was forbidden, a judicious ute is being made 
of coloured materials in the shafts and elsewhere. The nave is to 
be of three bays, and the chancel of two, and there will be a very fine 
tower crowned by a broach. The vestry to the north has a hipped 
roof. We think that the effect of the groining, which is in itself 
bold, would be enhanced by a slight addition of elevation to the whole 
structure, and we should also recommend a coved roof for the nave, 
and the side windows being placed high and invested with something 
of the character of those of a clerestory. The belfry story of the 
tower rises well above the roof line. The ritual arrangements are not 
shown, but the chancel rises on a single step, and the sanctuary on 
two more, the bold transverse rib with its triple shafts having the effect 
of a sanctuary arch. The footpace is elevated on another step. We 
understand that the general type adopted is that found in the district 
about Marlborough. 

^. , Lyndhurst, Hants. — A thorough re-casting of an old chorch, 

to hold 683 persons, by Mr. White. The plan, when completed, will 
comprise a nave 72 ft. long, of five bays, with aisles (the eastern bays 
of which form quasi- transepts), and a tower engaged at the west eod of 
the north aisle, north and south porches, a chancel 29 ft. long, with 
chancel aisles, and a projecting sanctuary, having a vestry on its noith 
side. There is much merit in the design, but it is deformed by great 
eccentricities. In particular the east window, of seven lights, alter- 
nately broad and narro^jr, with a large circle in the head, is thoroughly 
indefensible. It is a mere capriccio, and is impure in style. Another 
novelty is the forming the piers of groups of detached thin marble 
shafts, without bands. Instead of a clerestory, there is a pair of im- 
mense dormer windows on each side, of seven lights each with a host 
of geometrical figures, very crudely combined, in the heads. On the 
other hand, much of the detail is good and spirited, and particularly 
the richly- moulded west door. We regret to see a thoughtful design 
spoilt by affectation of singularity. Ilie work is at present only par- 
tially carried out ; and we should prefer noticing it in greater delul 
when it is completed. 

S, , Windmill Street, London. — We are glad to announce that a 

church of a satisfactory character is about to be erected in Windnill 
Street, (at the top of the Haymarket,) by Mr. R. Brandon, for the use 
of an outlying district of S. James's. From a photograph of the western 
elevation, we perceive that the style will be combined of First sod 
Middle-Pointed. The triple recessed portico is well managed, althoogh 
we fear it presages a g^allery. We should recommend a reconsideni* 
tion of the haunches and flanking pinnacles, which are evidendy 
founded on Grantham, but are hardly applicable on so small a scale. 
The tower and spire, which stand back at the south-east comer of the 
church, exhibit a successful study of early French forms. We believe 
that the difiiculties of site will necessitate a somewhat bold adi^^tatkn 
of an apsidal east end. We shall watch the progress of this ehnich 
with interest. 

288 New Churches. 

the nave, while he introduces character by gproining the chancel; tnd 
as pictorial polychrome was forbidden, a judicious use is being made 
of coloured materials in the shafts and elsewhere. The nave uto 
be of three bays, and the chancel of two, and there will be a very fine 
tower crowned by a broach. The vestry to the north has a hipped 
roof. We think that the effect of the groining, which is in itself 
bold, would be enhanced by a slight addition of elevation to the whole 
structure, and we should also recommend a coved roof for the nave, 
and the side windows being placed high and invested with something 
of the character of those of a clerestory. The belfry story of the 
tower rises well above the roof line. The ritual arrangements are not 
shown, but the chancel rises on a single step, and the sanctuary on 
two more, the bold transverse rib with its triple shafts having the effect 
of a sanctuary arch. The footpace is elevated on another step. We 
understand that the general type adopted is that found in the distnct 
about Marlborough. 

^. , Lyndhurst, Hants. — A thorough re-casting of an old cborcfa, 

to hold 683 persons, by Mr. White. The plan, when completed, vill 
comprise a nave 72 ft. long, of five bays, with aisles (the eastern bayi 
of which form quasi- transepts), and a tower engaged at the west end of 
the north aisle, north and south porches, a chancel M ft. long, with 
chancel aisles, and a projecting sanctuary, having a vestry on its north 
side. There is much merit in the design, but it is deformed by great 
eccentricities. In particular the east window, of seven lights, alter- 
nately broad and narro^jr, with a large circle in the head, is thoroughly 
indefensible. It is a mere capriccio, and is impure in style. Another 
novelty is the forming the piers of groups of detached thin marble 
shafts, without bands. Instead of a clerestory, there is a pair of in* 
mense dormer windows on each side, of seven lights each with a host 
of geometrical figures, very crudely combined, in the heads. On the 
other hand, much of the detail is good and spirited, and particularly 
the richly- moulded west door. We regret to see a thoughtful design 
spoilt by affectation of singularity. The work is at present only par- 
tially carried out ; and we should prefer noticing it in greater detail 
when it is completed. 

<S. , Windmill Street, London. — We are glad to announce that a 

church of a satisfactory character is about to be erected in Windmill 
Street, (at the top of the Haymarket,) by Mr. R. Brandon, for the use 
of an outlying district of S. James's. From a photograph of the westen 
elevation, we perceive that the style will be combined of First and 
Middle-Pointed. The triple recessed portico is well managed, althoogh 
we fear it presages a g^ery. We should recommend a reconsidera* 
tion of the haunches and flanking pinnacles, which are evidendy 
founded on Grantham, but are hardly applicable on so small a scale. 
The tower and spire, which stand back at the south-east comer of the 
church, exhibit a successful study of early French forms. We believe 
that the difiiculties of site will necessitate a somewhat bold adaptation 
of an apsidal east end. We shall watch the progress of this church 
with interest. 







male IVaimng-'Coliege at Ripon, an important work by 
ey, fully maintains his reputation, both in grouping and 
buildings form a quadrangle, 1 55 feet east and west by 
north and south, with a well -arranged internal cloister, 
nd eastern limbs contain the college proper, domestic 
I the remainder. The upper story, of course, is chiefly 
mitories. The oratory, 48 ft. by 20 ft., is well placed 
;r the library and music-school, and is lighted by a large 
% which, together with several others, are deserving of 
aise. The oratory is reached by an external newell stair 
er. A bold gable is carried up over the entrance gate- 
itaina the servants' sleeping apartments. The practising 
t one hundred children stands detached a little westward 

^ancras^ London, — Parochial Schools, for 1000 children, 
dimensions, and possessing noticeable architectural cha- 
^, the fruit of great private munificence, for the above dis- 
Dmediately adjoining the Tottenham Court Road, from the 
ider the superintendence of Mr. Slater. An idea of the 
lilding may be formed from the fact that in one portion, 
^tic included, the structure rises to the height of six stories. 
3ms, a boys' room 70 ft. 3 in. by 30 ft., a girls' of similar 
id an infant schoolroom 63 ft. 4 in. by 29 ft. 3 in. are 
on each other, and class-rooms, residences, committee- 
vered cloistered play-ground are all provided, while pro- 

in the upper portion for a reading and coffee-room for 
id the basement is fitted up as an industrial department 
ising schools of cooking, washing, &c. A louvre, and 
!t with conical roof contribute character to the pile, 
* the advantage of two distinct entrances. The material 
kith stone dressings. We shall revert at greater length 
I when we notice them from the actual construction. 

also building schools of a simple character at Tidebrook, 
feple Lang/ord. 


)f Great Bedwyn, Wilis, has been almost entirely rebuilt 
"etilon. The cottages are of different sizes, and all of 
without undue effort at a picturesque appearance. 
MTl, built originally by Mr. Blore for Sir R. J. Buxton, 
; extensively and sumptuously enlarged by Mr. S. S. 
B of the additions are in the highest degree stately and 
[n particular we may notice the large court-yard ad)oia^ 

p p 

290 Church Restorations. 

ing the mansion, in the middle of which stands the S. Chad's Well, 
which we noticed in our last number. Around it are a multitude of 
apartments, for every imaginable purpose, including gate-houses, and a 
game- room, built of the local flints, like a round tower with a coDical 
roof. The whole detail is very rich of its kind ; and there is an amazing 
deal of happy symbolism in the ornamentation, in legends, earrings, 
&c., armorial, historical, and religious. 


S, Michael, Penkivel, Cornwall, — This church, which is perhaps the 
most interesting one in all Cornwall, is about to be restored for l/x^ 
Falmouth by Mr. Street. It is of uniform Middle -Pointed date, cruci- 
form, the four arms being of almost equal length, with a western tower. 
The latter, owing to its ruinous condition, must be rebuilt, stone by 
stone. This is most important, from the fact that it retains an old 
chantry with its altar, in its second stage. Mr. Street described this 
tower-chapel and the whole church some years ago in the Exeter Ar- 
chitectural Society's Transactions : and we rejoice that so delicate a 
task as its restoration has fallen into his hands. The room over the 
south porch is also rebuilt. We thoroughly approve of the details of 
this interesting work. The low leaded spire, and the leaded octagonal 
capping to the turret-staircase, are most effective, the lead being laid 
on diagonally. Good tracery is inserted in all the windows, and the 
roofs are renewed. The arrangements are correct : only one hundred 
and fifty seats being required. The chancel receives stalls, and the 
pulpit stands on the south side of the chancel-arch upon a projecting 
solea. Seats in the nave, and a few — facing eastward — ^at the west 
side of each transept, suffice. There is a good reredos, and the sanc- 
tuary walls are treated with an incised pattern very effectively. We 
have seldom seen a better restoration. 

5. , Wavendon, Bucks. — A good village church, very thoroughly 

restored by Mr. Butterfield. The tower, affecting the square, solid 
type of the neighbourhood, has not been touched, but tbe rest of the 
church has been remodelled. The high lead roof of the clerestoried 
nave, and the lead lean-to's of the nave, are very conspicuous. The 
chancel has only a tiled roof. The interior, which has suffered froa 
damp, is excellently treated. The nave, which is rather narrow, hti 
nothing but chairs, some benches being placed in the aisles. The 
chancel has a low stone screen, with metal gates, stalls, and subaellttf 
and a well-defined sanctuary. An organ*chamber and vestry are en- 
tered by an open arch on the north side ; and an unglazed window of 
three lights in the north wall admits tlie sound. The windows are of 
grisaille or of stained glass, of various degrees of excellence. There ii 
a good deal of colour in the roofs, and some on the chancel-icnen. 
The latter is applied without any delicacy or harmony. There is no 
reredos ; but the altar, sumptuously vested, has cross and candieiticb* 
The worst feature in an excellent restoration is the treatment of tiw 

Church Restorations, 291 

chancel-roof in two ways, in order to develope the sanctuary. The 
church3rard cross occupies its right place. 

S. , Millbrook, Bedfordshire. — This church, very prettily situated 

on the steep side of a deep valley, has been substantially restored by 
Mr. Batterfield. It has a square solid embattled tower, a nave and its 
arcades of late Middle- Pointed, a chancel and nave aisles of Third- 
Pointed.' The outside has been carefully pointed and repaired. To 
the inside little has been done. But the nave is full of some old dark 
oak open seats with carved ends. The chancel was difficult enough to 
restore ; for it has on its south side three busts, on detached low 
[X)lumns, with flagrant Whig inscriptions ; — two of them, Lord and Lady 
Holland, outside the altar rails, and the third, to one of the Fox family, 
within. However, Mr. Butterfield has improved the levels, and intro- 
duced some longitudinal seats. There is a prayer-desk, facing two 
vajTs, on the north side of the chancel-arch. A small vestry is screened 
off at the east end of the north aisle. A new south-western porch 
baa been added. Nothing has been attempted in this restoration but 
general decency and sound repair. 

S. Mary, Callington, Cornwall. — This church, consecrated on August 
31, 1438, has lately been effectively restored under the care of Mr. 
St. Aubyn. It is an imposing building, of Cornish Third-Pointed style, 
Bonstmcted of large blocks of granite. The whole interior has been 
freed from pews and galleries, and furnished with open seats. The 
chancel has been fitted with stalls and subsellse for the use of the choir. 
[n the middle of its floor is the brass of Sir Nicholas Assheton, the 
founder of the church. Before his time Callington (which is one of 
the boroughs disfranchised by the Reform Bill,) was subject to the 
neighbooring church of South Hill. The plan of the church comprises 
I nave and aisles, a short chancel with a north chancel- aisle, western 
lower, and south-west porch. The arcades, of five arches on the 
lorth aide* and four arches on the south, are uniform, as is usual in 
^omiah Pointed. Mr. St. Aubyn has taken advantage of this, and 
Bade the chancel out of the two easternmost bays : placing his stalls in 
oe and leaving the other for a sanctuary. There are parcloses behind 
he atalla, and a low screen. There is a clerestory to this church, a 
neat onasoal Cornish feature. This has been reopened, the ait^les 
letng supplied with flat roofs in order to show it. It is said that 
iioatwithiel boasts the only other clerestory in the county. The res- 
oration ia both architecturally and ritually in good taste : and we 
imeh like the unpretending style of the woodwork. Besides the un- 
mial architectural features already mentioned in this church, there is 
la eaatern window to the tower in the middle stage below the belfry 
tage. The east window is remarkably large and fine. Much remains 
D be done in the restoration of the exterior, but the good feeling shown 
litherto by the inhabitants gives every reason to hope that before long 
bia intereating church will be brought back to something like its ori- 
(iiial perfection. 

8. • Sidbmy, Dewm. — The restoration of the early chancel of 

he cbnreh of tbia village, standing on the river from which Sidmouth 
■ket ita omnie, ia in Mr. White's hands, and includes a new roof and 

292 Church Reatorations. 

new east window of the simplest form in the old arch» composed of three 
foliated unintersecting lights, llie ritualism is correct, stall-like seats 
with subsellse, side prayer-desk to north, projecting, we are sorry to 
see, somewhat into the nave, and pulpit and lettem to the south. A 
single-light Romanesque window on each side of the chancel shows its 
antiquity, in spite of later alterations. 

S, Michael, Bradden, Northamptonshire, — ^This little church, which 
is in Mr. White's hands, has been almost rebuilt. The plan b of the 
simplest — a west tower, nave and aisles of three bays, south poreb, 
and chancel. The restoration comprehends new seating and correct 
choral arrangements, the desk being placed under the chancel arch to 
the north. There are single stall-like seats and subsellse. The pulpit 
(Stands against the north chancel pier. The levels are a step at the 
chancel arch, two at the sanctuary, and a double footpace. The esit 
window is of two lights only, and exhibits Mr. White's favourite plite 
tracery. In the aisles are retained some original late Middle •Pointed 
windows. The sacristy to the north is an addition, while the prieit'i 
door is retained, which seems a surplusage. The nave roof retiioi 
its original low pitch. On the whole this seems a simple and pleanng 
village church, 

Si(^. Peter and Paul, Aldwinkle, Northamptonshire. — ^This chorcfa, 
consisting of a clerestoried nave and aisles of four bays, a chancel of 
three bays, an ancient vestry at right angles to the chaqcel, and western 
spire with broach, is of Middle-Pointed date, except the east window 
and a few other Third-Pointed insertions. It is under restoratioo bj 
Mr. Slater, llie chancel roof is to be replaced in oak. Hie pecu- 
liarity which this roof shares with that of the chancel at HigbiB 
Ferrers is, that although of so early a date it is of a low pitch. The 
windows are to be made good, and the nave reseated. A stall-like 
bench of oak is to be placed to the south of the chancel, an origins! 
bench-table of stone being retained to the north. We cannot kaie 
this church without calling attention to the curious transomed two- 
light Middle -Pointed " l)chnoscopic ** window at the south-west angle 
of the chancel. 

All Saints, Naseby, Northamptonshire. — This church, so interesting 
from historical associations, is under restoration by Mr. Slater. The 
church consists of a nave and north and south aisles of four bays, 
north and south porches, western tower, and the incomplete stomp of 
a spire. The date of arcades, aisles, and lower stage of tower ii 
Middle-Pointed, while the clerestory is of the third age. The chancel 
was rebuilt about thirty-five years ago in true Churchwarden taste, and 
reduced in length. The most remarkable architectural featnre aboat 
the church is the north arcade, of which the pillars, qoatreHail in 
section, are actually stilted up upon a circular plinth four feet Ugiu 
The details of the two- light windows are simple but good Middle- 
Pointed. The upper part of the tower is Middle-Pointed, and, ss 
we said, the spire, which is crocketed, was never completed. Vaiiooi 
theories are assigned for this anomaly, of which the most probable 
is that the walls, which are almost in a dangerous state, coold not 
bear any additional weight. The restorations include new nA 

Church Restorations. 293 

new seating of a satisfiictorj description, and new walls to the south 
side. The chancel is seated stallwise: the prayer-desk, which is 
just in the nave to the south, having desks facing north and west. 
The pulpit is against the north chancel- pier. The font is to the 
left of the southern entrance. The tower heing so much out of 
repair will be rebuilt, and it is hoped that the spire may be completed. 
A curious relic of Naseby's historical days is found in the bells, which 
were recast a short time before the battle, one being inscribed *' God 
save the King." 

88. Pster and Paul, Kettermg, Northamptonshire. — This fine church 
is of Third-Pointed character, except the east and south windows of 
the chancel, which are of Early Middle- Pointed. The tower and spire 
are among our most beautiful parochial specimens. The interior of 
the church ia still sadly disfigured by high pews, and west and side 
galleries, although some improvements have been lately effected by the 
rector under Mr. Slater's superintendence in the chancel, where new 
oak seats have been placed, and are occupied by the choir. The organ, 
which waa in the west gallery, blocking up the tower arch, has been 
removed into the south chancel aisle. The chancel is lighted by brass 
gas standards by Mr. Skidmore. The square pews have been removed 
from the north chancel aisle, and moveable seats placed there for the 
children. It is now proposed to erect a stone reredos in place of the 
present unsightly and commonplace oak panelling of some sixty years 
back. Still however the pews and galleries disfigure the nave, and 
the tower-arch is still blocked up. 

8. Michael^ Hazelbeech, Northamptonshire. — ^The church consists of a 
nave smd elerestoried aisles of three bays, and a western tower, llie 
arcades, which are well proportioned, being of Early Middle- Pointed, 
the clerestory is late, and the roof Third- Pointed. The windows 
throughout the church are mostly Perpendicular insertions. The tower 
has richly crocketed sngle-turrets, and a low pyramidal capping is to 
be introdaced. The chancel was rebuilt about fourteen years ago. 
The walla and the north arcade are so much out of repair as to require 
rebuilding, all the old masonry being used. New oak roofs and new 
oak aea^g are also introduced, the present old seats being preserved. 
The rich Jacobean pulpit has been refitted on a stone baee, new rails 
having been felicitously introduced, and will be retained. An iron 
grille of good seventeenth century work remains, separating the nave 
from the chancel. The architect employed is Mr. Slater. 

8, Mmy, Fmedon, Northamptonshh^, — ^This large cruciform church 
is oomposied of a nave and aisles of four bays, groined south porch, 
tnuiaepta, western tower, and spire. The style is fine First-Pointed, 
with Aiiddle-Pointed insertions, and Perpendicular alterations. The 
drarch ia internally remarkable for a stone chancel- screen, now some- 
what mutilated, and a pierced stone arch of double curvature, concave 
on the upper part, thrown across the nave to the west of the lantera 
for eooatiiicdcmal aafety. The restoration of this church has devolved 
OD Mr. Sbter. The richly carved seats of the fifteenth century are to 
be made good, and the chancel is to be seated staliwiae with returua, 
the pr«ycr*desk being in the nave aoathward, with the pulpit against 

294 Church Restorations, 

the north chancel-pier. The lettem, of brass, is by Mr. Potter. The 
chancel was. it may be noted, formerly groined. A reredos of alabaster 
is about to be erected in the chancel, having a carving of the Nativitj 
in the centre panel. Externally the church exhibits a pleasing con- 
trast of colour from the two varieties of stone employed. Those who 
desire a fuller description of this important church will find it in the 
" Churches of Northamptonshire." 

S, , Elm, Cambridgeshire, — ^This large and fine church it in 

process of partial restoration by Mr. S. S. Teulon. Only the eastern 
portion of the nave and its aisles is required for the population. Under 
these circumstances we regret the "free" benches — ominous word- 
marked in the plan as facing north and south at the east ends of the 
aisles. A prayer-desk is placed, most needlessly, adjoining the sooth 
pier of the chancel-arch, but in the nave. A new north porch is added, 
and the south aisle is rebuilt : and the angle- turrets of the fine Pint- 
Pointed tower receive p3rramidal caps. The nave roof, a hammer- 
beam one, with two collars, the former being embattled, is restored 
with open tracery between the collars, which we do not greatly ad- 

8, Michael, Upper Sapey, Herefordshire, has been placed by Sir 
Thomas Winnington, Bart, in the hands of Mr. W. J. Hopkins, of 
Worcester, for restoration. The old church, miserably decayed through 
damp, consists of a chancel and nave of Romanesque date, with Fint^ 
Pointed insertions, to which a modem bell-cote and porch have been 
added. Mr. Hopkins preserves ancient features as far as practicable, 
and proposes to add a new south porch and small rubble tower, the 
belfry stage of which breaks out into timber and carries a shingkd 
broach spire. The old Norman chancel arch is transferred to the 
tower. There is no indication of an east window having ever existed. 
A Middle-Pointed one of three lights is now provided. The chancel 
correctly arranged in itself is somewhat short in proportion to the nave. 
A low wooden screen is thrown across the arch, and the prayers said 
from the westernmost stall on either side. The present Jacobean pulpiti 
mounted on a new stone base, resumes its old position. On the whole 
this is a simple and judicious restoration at a comparatively small 

8, John, Narraghmore, Kildare, — Mr. Withers has undertaken the 
remodelling of the exterior of the nave of this frightful modem church* 
The chancel has been already rebuilt in a fair First- Pointed style. The 
material is granite, which affects the nature of the detail throughout. 
The addition of a south porch, buttresses, and a western bell-cote sap- 
ported on a flying buttress, and the insertion of good plate-traeery 
windows in the walls, are all very effectively arranged. And the ia* 
temal arrangements are very good ; a reading-desk, outude the 
chancel- arch, being placed on a kind of solea, which really forms a 
westward extension of the chancel. 

8. Cyntdlo, Llangoedmore, Cardiganshire, — This miserable bamlike 

structure, rebuilt about thirty years ago on the old foundations, by the 

aid of a grant from the Church Building Society, is about to be trtnt* 

formed to a more decent appearance by Mr. Withers. The present 

BtTQcture boB a nave and chancel, the latter quite as long aa the fonier, 

Notices and Answers to Correspondents, 295 

rith hideous tnrreta between the two, and on the west gable. That 
>uch a pewed interior could ever haye passed the ordeal of the Church 
iailding Society is amazing. The process adopted by Mr. Withers is 
Dgenious and satisfactory. He guts the whole church, replaces all 
he windows and doors with good Pointed insertions, adds buttresses, 
idds copings, crosses to the gables, repaves the interior, with new 
teats, &c., and a little colour at the east end. A new vestry is added 
o the north side of the chancel. The chancel receives stalls and sub- 
sellse : a reading-desk is ingeniously fitted in under the chancel- arch, 
iie level of the chancel being extended westward. Under very diffi- 
:ult circumstances we think this restoration very cleverly managed, 
rhe absurd turrets are temporarily retained to please the parishioners. 
S. Helen, Kirmingion, Lincolnshire. — In this church, which formerly 
had aisles, (the arcades on each side — of excellent Middle-Pointed detail 
— ^remaining embedded in modern walling), Mr. S. S. Teulon reproduces 
the north aisle, with the addition of an organ chamber and sacristy. 
It is a pity that the south aisle was not also thrown out again. The 
new organ>chamber is treated like a quasi-transept. 

S, Bartholomew, Newington Bagpath, Gloucesterhire, — Mr.S. S. Teulon 
leboilt some time since the chancel of this church. He now rebuilds 
the nave and tower. The style is a bold Middle-Pointed. The nave 
Itts aisles, which are all under one large roof of broad span, with a 
krge dormer window, as a clerestory, on each side. The toWer is a 
W square massy one with a dwarf pyramidal capping. We should 
^h it another stage. The tower internally is seated for children — 
^ arrangement which we seldom much approve of. 

Graffham, Sussex. — Mr. Street has designed a very good lychgate 
^r this church. It follows the old simple timber type, and has a tiled 
"oof, with a moulded stone crest, and a metal cross on the gable. The 
giUes are well moulded. 


We have seen a sketch for the three -light east window of Newington 
Bagpath church, Gloucestershire, by Mr. Wilmshurst. In the middle 
light there is the Resurrection — rather weakly and academically de- 
signed, lo the dexter light there is the Temptation — a subject rather 
painfully treated, the devil being represented with wings, horns, and 
doven feet. In the other light there is the Agony ; and in a large 
sexfoil in the head there is a group of the three women and the angel 
at the Sepulchre. Here, too, the drawing lacks severity. 


Tbb orgm in King*s College chapel, Cambridge, has been taken 
down, in order to be rebuilt on an enlarged and improved plan by 
MoMTS. HiU. The instrument had been built by Avery eax\y Vcl V!i^^ 

296 Notices and Answers to Correspondents. 

present century, and had since undergone some slight alteratioos. It 
consisted, like most English cathedral organs, of a Great and Choir 
Manual, each extending from GO to f ^, and a Swell of onlj tbne 
octaves, to which had been added a remarkable patchwork of pedil 
pipes. The compass of each Manual is now to be from C C to g*, tbit 
of the Pedal from C C C to tenor f, and the number of stops will be 
increased to about forty, six or seven of which will be on the Pedal, 
one of them a 3^ ft. Open Diapason. Almost all the existing stopi 
are to be incorporated in the new organ. We hope to give a particular 
description when the work is finished, which will not be till about 
Christmas ; though it is intended that part of the org^n shall be ready 
for use in October. The present case, which dates from 1607, is to be 
retained, being enlarged in a manner that will not alter its appeanuKe 
as seen from east or west. This rebuilding of the organ wUl be tbe 
second great improvement which the Provost and Fellows of Kiogs 
College have made in the choral service of their chapel ; the first being 
the substitution of a musical for an undefinable polytonic recitation by 
the priest of the versicles and prayers in the daily service. We hope 
that a third improvement will be effected before long, namely, a tho- 
rough reformation with respect to the music in use. 

It is worth mentioning that an account-book preserved in the college 
has been found to contain all the details of expenditure in building the 
organ of 1 607. We hope to be able to print this very curious does- 
ment in our next number. 

We propose in our next number to review several of the most pro- 
minent churches in and about London which have been recently ereded. 
We shall also give, illustrated by a plan, (due to the courtesy of 
M. Alberdingk Thijm,) a description of a church for Holland of moie 
than average merit, which M. Cuypers is erecting at Alckmaar, in the 
province of North Holland. 

An account of the new organ of All Saints', Margaret Street, and 
notices of the Norwegian Government's splendid volume on Trondjbeffl 
Cathedral, and of the interesting publication, by the Surtees Sodety. 
of the Fabric Rolls of York Minster, are unavoidably postponed. 

We postpone also to our next number a correspondent's letter oo 
the western towers of Llandaff cathedral. 

The Guild of S. Alban^s have published a Burial Report of the 
Brotherhood of S. Barnabas. This practical eflfort deserves warm 
support and encouragement. 

We are also glad to announce the formation of a London Committee 
which promises a vigorous assault on the Pew System. 

Received : — Mr. Davies. — M. N. — An Ecclesiologist. 

Erratum : In our last number, in a notice of Mr. Thiefitt'a reitoii* 
tion of Little Shelsley church, Worcestershire, east was printed fof 
west, as the situation of the fireplace. • 




%u,tqt igiutr ft Ut : et txit Bowfaitti uotw.*' 

No. CXXXIV.— OCTOBER, 1859. 

(new series, no. xcviii.) 


Iv die Public Library at Amiens is a most valuable fwted Sequen- 
tiiry, written on thick paper in small quarto, and containing 217 
(s 4S4) pages. The epigraph at the end is ** Oulielmos Level : orate 
pro eo: 1572." He was a member of the Oratory at Amiens. I know 
BO MS. which would be better worth reprinting than this. Besides a 
collection of the best and commonest sequences, there are a large 
Biaber which I believe to have been Level's own. They are clearly 
^ late, — plainly by the same writer, — made, in every instance, with 
tbe greatest exactness, tuper some well-known melody (an exactness to 
^Hiich medisBval writers did not tie themselves down), — and I have 
sever leen any one of them elsewhere. Some of them are very beautiful : 
I ihall give eight as specimens. For one or two of these I could almost 
diiiii a place in the very first class of sequences : none of them appear 
te rink lower than the second. 

XCII. In Nativitatb D. N. J. C. 

In Natsli Salyatoris Visitarit quos amavit ; 

Angdorom nostra choris Noaque rite revocarit 

SuoeiDat conditio : Qntia, non meritum. 

Annonia diversorum r n ' 

8ie in nnum redsctoram Infinitus et immensus, 

Dalds est oonneetio. Q»«™ "on capit alius sensus. 

Nee loconim spatia, 

Felix dies hodiemos. Ex etemo temporalis. 

In ono Patri oo-etemos Ex immense fit locsli^ 

Nsseitnr ex '^^rgine : Ut restanret omnia* 

Felix diesy et jucundus ; 

DhisCnri saodet mundos ^on peccatam, sed peccatt 

Yen Smis lamme. Formam samens, vetustati 

Not » se oontempearat : 

Ne jpamt Imniio lens Immortalis se mortali* 

BtiliiMpisieM niiifc Dsii8« Spiritslis eorporali, 

" Uwjfintan % Naiora oonfederat* 

Q a 


Sequeniue InediUt. 

Sic concumtiit in pertoiuB 
SiogaUuris unione 

y4nrbuBi, QATO, spiritnt, 
tJt Mttura non mtiletur» 
Nee penooa geminetur, 

Sed lit nnm penitua. 

TanUe rei Sacramentam 
Latet hottem ftnuMeirtiMii $ 
Fallitur malitia : 

CmcQM Hottia non pnen^ 
Qaod tub mole carnii agtt 
Dei Sapienlia. 

Jen neater talBtarii, 
Qai pradenter operarii 

SaJutii myatenum. 
Hit qui colunt hunc natilcB 
Da talutem temporalemi 

Da perenne gandinm 1 

3[CIlI. In Pbsto Epiphanijb. 

MaffDom nobis gaadiomt 

Virso, contnlitti, 
Cum Dei Arehangelo, 

Sancta, eredidiati 
Qaod deberta 4eri 

Mater Jetu Chriiti ; 
De fiicto non dubitans 

Bfochim itiqaititili. 

iHienia laactiwiBinm, 

Sancta, gennitti; 
Etpattoret gandii 

'^tet lialmiilti : 
ninnn dtuCfinintiiiiif 

teiMa, emisiati ; 
jBI eitanti fopido 


6 Maria, gratdari 
^Reua ttoueiy onani bMmmm 

Cmb 4 Ma^ adorari 
Ipenm oemis, et donari 

Munere tam Tario. 


StelU notat nnitatem, 
Myrrba, camii veritaten, 

£t thus eit oratio : 
Anrum monatrat Deitatem, 
n^eqob Aegei Trinitatem 

In tanto negotio. 

O Mariav ateUa nuuidL 
Apeccato aimae mondi 

rer te, elemeoe et pia: 
fit ▼Utntibos fSecondi 
i46ti teciiu et jneundii 

Nottm aalM ae ¥iak 

Domina dnkisdma. 

Mater orfmanoriiniy 
Ve ooUandat ewia 

Omnium Thrweram : 
Tn M enim per • • -• # 

RMina eoBlomm : ^ 
Poet nane yitam not joi^ 

Choris Angelorum. 

XCIV. In Fbsto CiRCUMciaioNia. 
{From tkt tame book.) 

hMi *virtQt 'grMtim» 

Qom Deum efereumeMit : 
Nomen ei ei)BUouBi> 
Nonen Dt lalvMewtty 

QMd-M OeMi, Indidit 

^Ott^n, 'rtOoi homiidy 
IVomttif i|ttod oa Doitdtii 

ob eterno nknoiBatf 
Dttdttm Mittri numinia 
Socy et opotmo Vifgfaui 

AngiMb AsttimiBnt* 

Tu naquaa Tim Zabdi» 
Tn peecatum inenlit 

Nomen tacrumt euperMi 

Qnod dealt in konuMa 
Sunpla IM 'Kotttee 

Chiod ett lalntiiBraii 

MoettJH <e> ioiitaiiii 

Annt ttttiie) iiitto 
Date,Jeni»piiBiiilMi^ Amen. 

XCy* In BOOBir Fbsto. 

In exerini Cttiitiir 

Ntto Regi gloria t 
Per quem lemB redditnr 

Et oGilo ooDcoriift » 
Jure diet eolitnr 

Chneti natalitia : 
Quonaacente natdtnr 

NofK Jiegisgtvtb. 

Mediator nobis dalus 

In aalntie pretinni» 
Non natuTK, ted reatot 

Eflbgit eonaortinm : 
Non amittit elaritatem 

Stella ftindens radians ; 
Nee Maria casdtatem 

Pariendo Fi^m. 

Quid de mopte lapit ovena 
Sine manua niii Jeaui 

Qni de regom lioB^ 
Sine camia opefe 
De came pnerpenB 

Frooeant Ti^gineft? 


Radix David tjpnm geaaity 
Virga, Matria qum prooeaait 

£l regali aemine : 
Floe eat Faer nftbia natua, 
Jure flori comparatua 

Fne mirft dolcedine. 

In prvaept vaohnalw- 
Cuina orlna oelebratar 

C«Bleali pwMoaio; 
Coeli ctvea jubilant^ 
Dumpaataeea vigikuit 

Sub noctia ailentiob 

CuneU la«idea iatooant 
Super partHB Viifiniai 

Lex et PialoH conaaaant 
ProphetaMiA paginuk 

Angelorum et Paajtomoi 
Stellc aimul et Ma^rum 

CoQoordaat indicia,) 
Regea cumint Orientia 
Ad pr»iepe Yi^gieatiay 



Viiga Jeaaa ionit t 
Kadi¥ nvnuDt TU^ga floNMy 
Vngo pMwrt SaiYBtoraBy 

Sicut Lex pffweinuit. 

Jean, Puer inunortalia, 
Ex etemo temporalia, 
Noa ab btyua Titw malia 

Tu potiNiter eruei; 
Tu poat Titam bane nioptalBrnt 
Sire mortem bane Titaknp^ 
Yitam nobia immortalam 

Clementer reatitue- Amen. 

XCYI. Ik FxaTO AacKRaiONia, 
(fVoM tht $ame book.) 

Bfwiia 0Oida Miblefcuiiia» 
Et iiHMiplniBi paiaovanraa 

Libertati captua ikim i 
Orbia t^rrie mtnlat<ir i 

Dalci kmdet harmoniA, 

Nam lafivnva tptXmtnfg 
FimiBaw fiawam? 
GnMia cum fioloiiA & 

Qaiudit coeir curia. 

Ticior iiif|nt« anivwtiur^ 
Planetua Suvtria commiiatur; 

Conraaurgnnt omnll^i 
Re^ MBda oepulatiur & 
ScanditQadfii eMUnlwr 

In patemA^oriL 

r-..„ ef thM «M«t the extran&elyli^ epoeb at wMeh tbe attneaea 
!• ii Mw»a*by#na in the aame Mrtra ht «to BpO^anj/wbidi 


SequeniuB Inediia. 

O qui csntm AngekNram, 
Que sunt festo lupernorum 

In coeli palatio f 
Quo Regina, ** coeli porta. 
Per quam mundo lux est ofta»' 

Ccanitur cum Filio. 

Pie Jefu> forma mores ; 
Pdle pestea et langoorcs; 
Nos ndere ggbU flotes 

Da post hsec exilia : 
Dnlcis Jesu, supplieamw 
Ut te iBti Tideamnsy 
Cnm Marii gaudeamus 

£t Sanctis ia Patril Aacs. 

XCYII. In Fbbto Trambfiouiutionis. 

{From the same book.) 

I^tabnndi jubilemus, 
£t deTote celebremns 

Hkc sacra solcmnia : 
Ad honorem snmmi Dei 
Hujus laudes nunc diei 

Personet Ecclesia. 

In hac Christus die festi 
Sum dedit manifesta 

Glorie indicia ; 
Ut hoc possit enarrari. 
Hie nos suo salutari 

Repleat et grati& I 

Christus ergo, Deus fortis, 
YitK dator, Victor mortis, 
Yerus Sol Justitin, 
Quam assumpsit camem de Virgine» 
TVansformatus in Tabor culmine, 
Glorificat hodie. 

O quam felix sors bonorum I 
Talis enim beatorum 
Erit Resurrectio : 
Sicnt fuleet sol plenus luminis, 
Fulsit Tultus Dei et hominis, 
Teste Evangelio. 

Candor quoque sacrse vestis 
Deitatis fiiit testis, 

Et futurss gloriK : 
Mirus honor et sublimis ! 
Mira, Dens, tuae nimis 

Virtus est potentiie I 

Cumque Christus, Virtus Dei, 
Petro, natis ZebedaBi 

Majestatis gloriam 
Demonstravit manifeste, 
Ecce Tident, Lucft teste, 

Moysen et Heliam. 

Hoc habemus ex Mattheo^ 
Quod Ibquentes eraot Deo 
^ PatrkFiKo: 

Vere sanctum, Tcre dignam, 
Loqui Deo, et benignum ; 
Plenum omni gaudio I 

Hujus magna laus diei 
Qu» sacratur Toce Dei 

Honor est ezimius : 
Nubes illos obumbraTit,— 
Et Vox Patris proclamsrit,— 

' Hie est meus Filius.' 

Huius vocem exandite ; 
Habet enim verbum vitc 

Verbo potens omnia: 
Hie est Christus, Rex cnnetofWi* 
Mundi Salus, Lux SanctonuBi 

Lux illustrans omnia. 

Hie est Verbum IVitris— Veita 
Per quem perdit jus aeerimB 

Quod in nobis habnit 
Hostis nequam. Serpens dtm. 
Qui, fundendo suum nms, 

EvsB nobis nocnit. 

Moriendo nos sanaTit 
Qui suigendo reparant 
Vitam Christus, et damnarit 

Mortis magisterium : 
Hie est Christus, Paz etcns, 
Ima jungens et mpenu^ 
Cui de ccelo vox Paleraa 

Confert testimonium. 

Cujus sono sunt tnrbati 
Patres illi tres fMrscAiti, 
Et in terrft sunt proslnti 

Quando tox emittitur: 
Sui]^t tandem, inauflnti 
Sibi Chriitoy aed intante 
Ciicumspeetanti am 

Jenia aoliia eemkar* 

Tke Orgun at AU Samt^, Margaret Street. 801 

hoc oelariy Chrittiu, Splendor Dei Patrii, 

I pcnniat enurui^ Preee Swiete nub Matrit 
we vite Repmtory Not k moite liberet. 

^tito Wiunphttor, xibi. PatcF, tibi, Nmte, 
forte victAwinjeret ; Xibi, Sencte Spiritiw. 

m die Jaude dignft, gj^ ^J^^, ,ummA majettate 
I tot nncta flmit ngna, Laiu et honor debitui. Amen. 


r aocoiint of this splendid instrument may not be uninteresting 
r of oar readers, 

church where no cost has been spared to secilre the best of 
ing attainable for the construction, ornamentation, and ritual 
7 of the building, it was to be expected that no parsimony 
be allowed to stint the musical provision for the due perform- 

tiie Divine Service with an accompanying instrument in keep- 
li the elaborate expenditure of skill in the other arts. The art 
ngan-builder would not be expected to be less called into play 
lat of the architect, the painter, and the cunning workman in 
nd iron, alabaster and marble. Accordingly the organ was 
I and arranged at an early period of the building, although the 
ant of funds which for so long a time delayed the completion 
church prevented the actual order being given for its erection 

year. The Rev. Thomas Helmore, Honorary Precentor of the 
dlo^cal Motett Choir, was requested to undertake the oversight 
work ; and the well-known firm of Hill and Son, 261, Euston 
ivere employed by him to build the instrument in the most com- 
iid finished manner, with every suitable appliance of the present 
: the art, and on as grand a scale as the space allowed by the 
:tiiral arrangements would allow. 

main object of the plan of the organ now to be described has 
le attainment of the greatest possible variety and beauty of tone, 
T with sufiicient depth and power fiilly to sustain (without over« 
ig it) the entire chorus of choir and cong^gation which may at 
DC, under the most favourable circumstances, be expected to 
lieir voices in the psalms and hymns and spiritual songs of the 
U while at the same time the antiphonal character of the singing 
be aided and brought out, with more than ordinary prominence, 

unusual advantage of a local arrangement, and a consequent 
eqinally antiphonal in the organ itself. 

m are accordingly three organs combined in one massive pile of 
nd supporting woodwork on each side of the chancel, i. e., in 
itli and south chapeb formed by the ends of the aisles, which 
■•d two or three steps above the level of the floor of the nave, 
wned off (as most of our readers are aware) from the chancel, 
M fillad vith open tracery above and light metal work below. 

bt yememhered diat there is a small east window in each oC 

aOS Tkg OrffMm ai AU SimU^, Marfan^ OruHi 

these, and Um hoBt ai tke otgan on each aidt wasfanaAlo<ba kept 
hack 8o 8a< t» Itaife the tracery and jamht of tfaaas: m view r aai it ii 
in Bome meaanre- to he regretted that greater depth froor the waUi 
could not have heen aeooi edv aa the stops are crowiled hiconfcoientlj 
for purposes of tuning. 

The manuals or fingen>hoards are four in nmnher^iand are placed ao 
ar to give the usuaT arrangement of Swell at the top. Great in the next 
helow, and Choir in the third row ; to which is added a aecond CSMr 
organ helow. The Tariona organs played hy these four seta of kejs 
are placed as follows : — On the south side, the Sioeli and the SaUk 
Choir I the raannaki d these heing^ respectively the kigbasa and the 
lowest of the four finger-hoards. On the north side is the Ghreat organ, 
togethfiff with the North Choir. Thece ara two safes ef pedal pycad 
one on each side of the church, of 16 feet seale ; that on the nestb hsinir 
of wQoit and the aoath metmL Tlieae are played l^ two oolevea and a 
half of Oeraaan pedala. The oiganiat aits on the north aide^ wilk kia. 
fMe towafda the aouth, the actiyon of the north ofgjsns heing vevenad* 
The meohaaical diffionltiea of iiniting into one instrument tke tm 
oolleetions of pipes separated hy the entire hceadth of the ehmcW e 
distance of about 60 feet, have heen overcome \xf the buildera with 
even more than their wonted d(ill. 

** Tke unprecedented distance of the offgana ea the aoetk fron tbosa 
of the north side neeesaitated a gteat amoumt of horizontal friotioe 
and inertia. This was, however, overoome by the use of e fian oC 
anspending the trackers, and the use of the pneuomtie lever, ao that the 
aoi^ organa, though played on the north aide of the i^aao^ at e di^ 
taace requiring 80 It. of vertical and korizontat action ta e soli^ 
answer aa promptly to the touch of the organist aa that of the ergaaa 
immediately behind him.**^ 

The communicatioo between the opposite adea is below the ioor rf 
the chancel, where the vaolted foundationa of the building, with tbak 
archea and massive piers^ afford an^pie room for the tiadien (st 
wooden lines, by which the keys of the inatniment open the pallilb 
and thua admit the wind to the pipes,) for the wind-tnurics, and for die 
draw-atop action, conneeting the south organ with the varieoa parts si 
the instrument on the north. 

The bellows are placed on each side immediately above tke ftoet of 
the chapels ; the feedera, which are worked by two handlea> ead ie« 
qnire two blowers, are on the south side only. These, aa well aa tka 
aystem of pneumatic bellows^ conveyancing [Hpea, and the rcat of the 
machinery not in the vaults, are hidden from view by maaaive osk 
casiog, Mmply carved in harmony with the chareh from Mr. Batter* 
field's designs, and reaching six or seven feet from the floor, aa high aa 
the impost upon which the great pedal pipea and the real of the apeak- 
ing parts of the organ are aupported. 

The estimated cost of the whole was £U60. of which £60 wsa 
allowed for the easea and carving,' leaving the aetnal coal of the 

> Soe tiie ArfAfcr of July 3. 1859. 

silMaotodaoatoftheMisj^lMi so tfast^ iacMfe[« the voodUwarmhs Mril 
esil fl the eiim km bssa j^lftK^ 

n» Otj/m at AU SakM', Mmyarei Sire^^ 


llMlnuMBt ituft 41<im. The number of itops Gfft the o|^Dtfte iSdea 
^ Am 4k0nk an ^qml, aaok 'on tbe voi^tli being in genend tn- 
•weptd % >m qnga epop ding itop <m the vooth, but of diffBrent cli». 
VMUriof tioM nod sede. The «oale of the instrument is from C C G 
•ti y la sho «nd ell the eteps nre entire, — ^iiO., eoimd to each -of 
•the flfty^4eiur keys ^ the t/Mtmh, vrhkh. iill extend from C C to/in 
-siu llMnie tre five ^^tope in -eaoAi of tke ehoir oigttne, nhie €or the 
front evgnn, <niue lor the sweN, ondtw^ forthe pod^. llierenreolso 
Sto cooplers, and fire oomposMop {«dah« oOfB^ewell podal» one for the 
n e p Kinto Mrell of the Vok l^mann etop, and one for the tremnlant. 
The ttinnber of pipee is Ijn ; nnd uptrorde of twoflsiJee of tredker ave 
need in Ae netioa of th^e^mth^iigan. The front pipes ave^of ■spotted 
^neinl,-^i.e., a mistuve of «qnal penrtioBS -of tin and lead. Tbeie Is 
^lAso n^uT'prsportkm'OftiA in all the metal pipes. 

The "whole of the worknimu^ is of n "wety eupeiior kind, and tftie 
fafis of llie inetnunealt bear proof of en honetft nnd aealous endeavoor 
<on the part nit the builders to make the ini^tniment "trerthy of the 
(ehnveh in which it etands, «nd of the senriee to which it b dedicated. 

The foUowing ^ n listof tiie stops {— 

MamuU (Qreat Organ J 

'8 Open TOwMion S ft. 

3 Stopped llispason .... B ft. tone 

4 OctoTe 4 ft. 

6 Twelfth 3ft. 

6 Fifteenth 2 ft. 

7 Foil Miztnre, 3 ranks 

8 Wald Flnte 4 ft. 

9 Poaaone 8 ft. 

BecomiMmmud (Nm^ Choir.J 

1 Conetlimbn ... 
• flnopped Ihapaeon 
JOdMn ......... 

4 NsaonFfaiAe 

4 Y4U, ffowan^ . . . 


8 ft. tone 

Pedal CCC to F. 
IBA Base Wood 16 ft. 

Fourth Manual (SweUmg Organ J 

1 Bourdon 16 ft. tone 

2 Open DiajDMoa 8 ft. 

3 Stopped Oivpasdn S ft. tone 




Octere 4 ft. 

Twelfth 3 ft. 

Fifteenth 2 ft. 

Mixture, 2 ranks 

Cornopean 8 ft. 

Oboe.... 8ft- 

Ffrtf Manual CSoufh Choir.) 

1 Dulrianm 8 ft. 

2 Stopped Diapason 8 ft tone 

3 Octave 4 ft. 

4 Snabe Fhite 4 ft. 

5 Cormome 8 ft, 

1 Open Diapason Hetal.. 16 ft. 


I North to South Choir. 

5 Swell to Great. 
J Offeatto Fedsl. 
4 fineU to Pisdal. 

.6 North <}hoir to FediL 

6 South Choir to PedaL 

WW9 i/seipoiiiioii 1 "Nieif ■ 


Three lor te QMatOfiSii. 

304 Ecclegfastical Vestments, ^c, in King's College, Cambridge, 

The pipes of the Posaune (or Trampet) Btop project horiasontillf 
from the front of the north organ in a sort of £ui-like arrangement, the 
larger pipes being at the outer sides, and the smaller in the middle* 

The Vox humana, though extending (as will be seen by the register 
of its scale) to the lowest note on the manuals, is placed as a doaUe, 
beginning at C, the octave above the lowest note on the key-boards. 
This arrangement is considered by the best authorities more confe- 
nient, as enabling the player, in using this Solo stop, to accompany ob 
the other manuals with greater ease and comfort. 

We have only to add, that competent judges have pronounced t 
most favourable opinion of this instrument; some not hesitatiag to 
pronounce it one of the most perfect church organs in this country. 
Although by no means so large an instrument as many which might be 
mentioned, it has a variety of effect and a volume of most exquisite 
tone which are adequate to the comparatively small church in wUch it 
is placed. Each system of organs on the north and the south has its 
own *' individuality of tone, and when both are combined, the effect 
in the nave is. that of perfect unity ; so that it is not possible for an 
auditor to detect any disruption of the volume of sound/' 


By the Rxv. Gsobge Williams, B.D., Senior Fellow. 

No. I. 

" What can a man do that cometh after the king ?" — ^is old Poller's 
plea in excuse for the fewness of the benefeustors, and the small* 
ness of benefactions to King Henry VI.'s truly royal foundation at 
Cambridge : which he thinks was caused " partly from the complete- 
ness thereof at its first erection : partly from men's modesty, that their 
meanness might not mingle itself with princely magnificence." 

This and the following papers will show that, as regards the cdebn- 
tion of the Divine Worship in the Collegiate Church, the appointmenti 
were designed on a scale commensurate with the g^randeur of the bidU^ 
ing, and that the architect's disdain of the " lore of nicely f^limla**^ 
less or more," was equally shared by all who were engaged in diis 
great undertaking. 

I purpose to give extracts from some original inventories still exist- 
ing among our muniments ; the earliest almost coeval with tiie fooDda- 
tion, the latest of the reign of Philip and Mary, which will show hov 
exceedingly rich our Collegiate Church was in all that appertained t» 
the Divine Service. 

There are certain circumstances connected with the vestmentit bocte 
and ornaments, which invest their history with more than oomaoB 
interest ; and I have lately, throogfa the kindness of Mr. T. Dafai 

in the Fifteenth Century. 806 

Hardy of the Record Office, come into poBsessioa of a cnrioua docu- 
ment, which may enable us to trace aome of them to their original 

The first document here published, is a petition of the Provosts and 
Fellows of the two Colleges Royal of Eton and Cambridge, addressed 
to thdr Founder, praying him to sanction certain measures for fur- 
nishing the Colleges, not only with books for the Divine Service, but 
also with vestments and ornaments. Among other stringent measures 
for the accomplishment of this purpose, they request in particular, that 
they may have the preoption " of all maner bokes, omementes, and 
other necessaries, as now late were perteynyng to the Duke of Glou- 

The following is the petition, now in the volume of autographs in 
the Record Office : — 

From thb ''Royal Lbttbrs" latbly in tbb Towbb. 

Memorandum quod ista billa liberata fuit Cancellario 
Anglise apud Westmonasterium xxj. die Mareij Anno 
H. vj** xxv*" ezequenda. 

Unto the kinge our Soveraigne Lorde. 
Betechith mekely Eoure humble and trewe Orators The Provoates and Felowes 
of youre Two Colages Roiall of Eton and Cambrigge That for as moche as 
thei ben of zour Royall Fundacion nowe late fownded and newe growyng 
And at yate not so sufficyauntely stored in suche thinges as in verre trouthe o7 
necessete and honeste moste nedes he-had as bokes for divine service and . . . 
for theire lybraryes and their Studyes ve8t3rmentes and other Onournementes ; 
Whiche thinges'may not be had with owte great and diligente labour be loDge 
proceste and right besy Inquisicion. Please it to youre moat noble grace to 
yeve io speciall commaundement and charge to maister Richard Chestre oon 
of youre chapellajrnet that he take to hym suche men as shall be seen to hym 
expedient and profitable and in especiall John Pye youre Stacioner of London 
and other suche as ben connyngand have undirstonding in suche matiers chan- 
iog hem and everich of hem to he assistant and helping hym with alle here diu- 
gence alte alle suche tymes as then shalle be required be the seid maister 
Biefaard for to laboure effectually inquere and dihgently inserche in allplaee 
that ben under voure obeysaunse to gete knowkche where suche ookes 
Onourmentes and other necessaries for your seid Colages may be founden to 
selle Grauntyng unto the forsaid maister Richard youre full noble lettres 
paCentz to be made in due fourme undir zoure grete Seall for to make suche 
Bdces and omementes where ever thei be founden to selle and make theym 
to be lawfully and resonably be praysed be men of eode conscience And that 
doon It be lefuH to hym to bye tsdke and receive aUe suche goods afore eny 
other man For the expedicion and profite of youre seid Colaees Satisfying to 
the owners of suche godes suche pris as thei may resonably accorde and 
anee Soo that he may have the ferste choise of alle suche goodea afore eny 
other man and in especiall of all maner Bokes omementes and other neces- 
nries as nowe late were perteynyng to the Duke of Gloucestre And of your 
habondannt ^race like it you to charge streitely the seid maister Richard that 
he doo aUe his diligence and cesse not But alwey contvnewe his laboure unto 
mdie tyne that lonre seid oolage* be sufficiently stuAd of snehe bokes and 
Bfffisiaricii as is afore rehersid Taking the forseid maister Richard his services 
ad theyai that bene assistannt and helpars to hym in this ocenpadon unto 
VOL. xz. R B 

806 Ecclesiastical Vestments^ ^c, in Kin^s College^ Cambridge^ 

xoure graciouse proteccion dariDg the tyme of hit labour for your aeid colaget 
And we shall ever pray God for you. 
To oure ChauDceller of Ingland. 

It would appear from this, that the Protector Humphrey, the unde 
of King Henry VI., had been a diligent collector, not only of books, 
as is well known, but aldo of ecclesiastical furniture and Testments ; 
and this theory is confirmed by the fact that " this Mecenas of hii 
age ** had established in imitation, as it would seem, of the rojral ward- 
robe^ and in its immediate neighbourhood, a private wardrobe of bb 
own, which probably served as the library and museum of his valuable 
collection of ecclesiological treasures. A point of so much antiquarian 
interest will excuse a digression for its fuller investigation. 

The date of the above-cited joint petition of the two Ck>llege8 is 
not given, but the endorsement fixes it to some short time before the 
20th of March, a.d. 1447. Before this, however, the spoils of the 
good Duke had been disposed of, in part, immediately after his death, 
and the King's College, at Cambridge, had obtained a share of them. 
The dates assigned to his murder fluctuate between February S3 and 
24. 1447, during the session of the Parliament of Bury S. Edmund's 
(25 Henry VI.) ; but this event must have taken place at least a daj 
or two before the 23rd, as there are letters patent by the king, of thit 
very date, granting to the Provost and scholars " omnia ilia hospitiom, 
mansionses, domos. edificia, terras et tenementa, cum gardinis, et 
omnibus suis pertinentiis, que Humfridus dux Oloucestrie defimctas 
habuit et tenuit in parochia Sancti Andree in Warda de Baynardes- 
castell in civitate nostra Londonii,*' &c. : and this grant, with others, 
was confirmed by Act of the same Parliament at Bury,^ and a royal 
letter was forthwith addressed to the Sheriffs of London, commanding 
them to give effect to the grant. I transcribe a copy preserved in oar 

By the Ring. 
Trusty and welbeloved we grete you wel and for asmoch as we have yeren 
and graunted unto oure College Koyal of oure Ladv and Saint Nichobi 
withine oure Universitie of Cambrigge the place called the Due of Gloaeeitret 
Wardrobe withine the Worde of Baynardescastel de London We wol aod 

Ereye you that unto the Provost of the same oure College or to such as in 
is name shall come to take possession of the same, ye wol at the reverence 
of us and contemplacion of this oure writing shewe your good wil and aa- 
sistence in caas env persons wold attempte ageinst oure sayd graunt whieb 
we can not be thinke that eny man wold do. 

'* Yeven at Bury the xxv* day of Fevrier 
" To the Sbirefs of oure Cite of London." 

This wardrobe of Duke Humphrey must not be confounded inA 
the royal wardrobe in the same ward, from which the parish and chinch 
derived the name of S. Andrew's by the Wardrobe, which they idD 
retain, having been long since united with S. Anne's^ Blaeknck 
That royal wardrobe occupied a plot of ground immediately contigaoai 

^ Rot Pari. Vol. v. p. 132, where the letters patent are recited. 

fit the Fifteenth Century, 807 

to S. Andrew's church on the north, while the Duke's wardrobe was on 
the river not far from Baynard*8 Castle. 

This site, now one of the most valuable properties of the college, 
still stands in the college books as ** Gardrobe Duke Humphrey." 
Part of the site was formerly used as a lodging for the Provost of 
King's, during his visits to London, or on his way to and from the 
Eton election. This tenement is styled in our books " Oardrobe 
College House," and a small annual payment is made to the Provost by 
way of compensation for his interest in this property, under the head 
^ loco Gardrobe." 

Strangely enough, it had served a like purpose upwards of a cen- 
tury before ; as deeds preserved in our archives enable me to identify 
it with a tenement described in the Inquisition of the property of the 
alien priories, a.o. 1324, as a certain hospice belonging to the prior of 
Ogboum, " in Warda de Baynardes castell, ubi facit moram cum fuerit 
in civitate predicta.*' This property, which had once belonged to 
one Roger le Taylur, Purchaser of the Wardrobe to Eling Henry I., 
was afterwards bequeathed by John Mansel to his niece Amabilia de 
Ripun, who granted it to Thomas de la Leye and William his brother, 
in A.D. 1367, and subsequently released all her right and claim in it to 
the Abbot of Bee Hellwyn, or Bekherlwyn, in Normandy, in a.d. 1286. 
In these deeds it is described as " totum ilium tenementum cum domi- 
bus superedificatis, Cayo, (Quay) et omnibus aliis suis pertinenciis.**^ 
The alien priory of Ogboum, Wilts, was a dependency of Bee, and 
this accounts for the occupation of the tenement by the Prior of Og- 
boum in 1 334 ; and it is a curious fieu^t that, while the valuable 
manors and hereditaments of Ogboum Priory, — which, having been 
granted to John, afterwrds Duke of Bedford, in a.o. 1413, on the 
sappression of the alien priories by Henry V., had reverted to the 
crown on the death of the Duke in 1435, — were granted by the founder 
to the college as part of its original endowment, this London messuage 
came to it, not as part of the Ogboum estates, but through an inde- 
pendent channel, having been alienated from the priory in the in- 
terim. The following outline of its history will serve to correct 
several errors of Stowe, and may prove otherwise historically interest- 
ing: — 

In 1376 the Dominicans, who came to London in 1331» and first 
settled in Holborn, received from Robert Kilwardby, Archbishop of 
Canterbury, formerly for eleven years provincial of the Order, in 
Bngland, and afterwards Cardinal, two lanes contiguous to his place 
of Baynard's Castle, and the tower of Montfichet, granted by the 
Mayor and Barons of London for the enlargement of his place afore- 
said, which now became the property of the Dominicans^ within the 
precinct of Blackfriars, on which they have indelibly stamped their 
name. Baynard's Castle had been origmally built by a follower of the 
Conqueror, epamymui of the fortress, and had passed to the ^mily of 
FitEwmtenin 1108, of whom apparently the Archbishop purchased it. 

* Colkai AidiivQt. 

t Commn Ubsr Albas, p. 137, with Rot. Chart. 7 Edw. I. n. 36, & 9 Edw. 
I. a« 86; nd 11 Rie. 11. n. 24. 

808 Eccletiastical Vestments, Sfc, in King's CoUege, Cambnige, 

In 1 352 Peter de Sancto Stephano, then Prior of Ogboom, genenl 
and special proctor of the Abbot of Bee, in his name surrendered to 
the King the messuage called Ogboum. situated between the man- 
sion of the Dominicans and the Thames, which was forthwith granted 
to them by the crown, for the purpose of enlarging their premises.^ 

Whether this property passed out of the hands of the Dominicans by 
sale, or exchange, I cannot find, nor does Stowe help me, but according 
to him Baynard's Castle was rebuilt in 14^8 by Duke Humphrey, after 
it had been destroyed by fire,^ and on his attainder it was forfeit to tbe 
crown, who retained possession of the castle, but granted the adjoining 
messuage, called the Wardrobe, to the College, as was above stated; 
and thus the London hospice of the Prior of Ogbourn once more owned 
the same landlords as the bulk of the estates of that priory, after it bad 
been divorced from them for nearly a century. 

It would however appear, that the pertinences of the wardrobe, 
granted as above, did not convey the books and ornaments coveted bj 
the two colleges, or the joint petition above recited would have been 
unnecessary. I must therefore advert to certain arrangements made 
for the disposition of the Duke*s personal property, just a month after 
the real estate had been granted by the founder to King's College. A 
commission issued by the king, dated Canterbury, ^th of Marcb, 
1447,' sets forth that the Archbishop of Canterbury had committed to 
the king the administration and disposition of the goods and chatteli 
which formerly belonged to Humphrey, late Duke of Gloucester, who 
died intestate, and the king deputed certain commissioners to act in 
his behalf, without rendering any account. The commissioners were 
Sir James Fernys, Lord Say, Sir Thomas Stanley, Controller of the 
Household, Mr. John Somerset, and Mr. Richard Chestre. Now John 
Somerset had been one of the most active agents of the king in found- 
ing his college at Cambridge, which he is said to have been the first to 
suggest ; while Mr. Richard Chestre is the very person mentioned in 
the joint petition of the two colleges as the fouader*s chaplain best 
qualified to act as purveyor for the desired ornaments. Thus their 
interests in the goods and chattels of the Duke were sufficiently secored 
by the presence of these two friends in the commission. 

I cannot doubt then that some of the costly church furniture, books 
and vestments, which appear in these inventories, came from the col- 
lection of the murdered Duke, and this may aid in the elucidatioa of 
the devices and emblems which will be brought under notice in tbeie 
papers. I shall hereafter trace the jewels still further back. 

But in addition to the vestments of Duke Humphrey's wardrobe^ 
transferred to the Collegiate Churches of Eton and King's, we know 
also of a magnificent suit of white, ordered expressly fur the two col- 
leges, by John Langton, sometime Master of Pembroke College, Cam- 
bndge (1428—1447) and Chancellor of the University (1436—1443) 
promoted in 1447 to the See of S. David's, but died a fortnight after 

1 College Ar€hi?e8, compared with Abbrev. Rotnl. 26 Edw. III. Ro. 14. 

* Sunrey of London, book i. p. 61. But the Doke was not attahitsd. 

* Rymor's Foedera. Vol. li. p. 160. 

in the Fifteenth Century. 809 

^nsecration. He seems to have enjoyed much of the confidence 
ur royal Founder, and was commissioned by him, as we learn 

extant documents, to defray all the building and other expenses, 
ected with the college. Among other things, the costly vestments 
hite. which occur first in the following inventory, were ordered 
im, as Will appear by comparing the description of the articles 
sined in the inventory, with the items of Robert Coksale*s bill, 
h was furnished to the king after the death of Bishop Langton, 
inting to no less n sum than £^1. 10«. 3d., an enormous amount 
rding to the value of money in those days, when a Fellow could be 

fed for eighteen pence a week, and respectably maintained on a 
nd of £4 per annum. 

lis petition and bill have been before published in the Archaologia 
. xvi. pp. 6 — 8), but as this work is not generally accessible, and no 
mt of the vestments of the Collegiate Church would be complete 
>ut it, I shall here reprint it from a transcript of the original, for 
h also 1 am indebted to the courtesy and kindness of Mr. T. Duf- 
lardy. This is also in the volume of autographs. 

From tub *' Royal Letters " lately in the Tower. 

MemoraDdum quod ista peticio zxj die Augnsti hberata 
fuit CaneellariG Aoglice ad exequendum. 
To the kyng our Soverayn Lord. 

beih mekely youre humble Oratoure Robert Coktale vettiment maker 
ore Cite of London. That where as maister John Langton late Bisshop 
int David did your seid .Oratoure to make certayn vettimentes of white 
ik of diverges sortcs rycbely embrowedered aswell for your Colage 
i of Our Lady of Eton as for your Colage Royall of our Lady and Saint 
IS of Cambrygge for the which vestimentes there is due unto your said 
or ocxlj. h' xixs. iij d. as it appereth more clerly by a scedule of parcelles 
I bill annexed, of the which scedule the seid Bysshop hadde the double 
re shewed it uoto your highneste for the payment of the seid some 
f as yit he in no wise may have no payment. And in case the seid 
leotes shuld been dehvered fro your seid Oratour, which as yit been in 
pyng without payment for the same it shuld be to his utter aestruccion 
ndoyng That it myght please you therfor of your most speciall grace to 
re tliise premisses and also how that your seid Oratour is gretely endetted 
srses persones for the grete part of the stuf for the seid vestimentes and 
ant unto your seid Oratour for his more suertie by your lettres patentes 
s his heirs executours or assignes may have and kepe the seid vestimentes 
lie tyme that your seid Oratour hu heirs executours or assignes been 
syed content or agreed for the seid vestimentes of the seid some of 
* six a. iij.d. without any intemipcion lette or disturbaunce of you or 
of your officers or ministres or eltes of any other persone whatsomever. 
i aball pray God for you. 

The king graunted this bills at Newbury the xix dav of 
Aoust The yere of his regno xxv, present my lord 
Bisshop of Sarum and my k>rd Say. 


810 Ecclesiasiical Vestments^ S^c, in King's College^ CambriJge, 

id otbere staff of ^ 

wdnd with H. & I viij d. 
rffirays rich prii J 

First for the enbrovvdyng golde silke and othere staff of ' 
ij copis, chetibill & ij tonykel 

For cambriee of white damaske embrowdrid 
M. closed to gedvr and clothis with orffirayi 

Item the lynyng of the same v. peces and iij yer Jis of 7 •• ?•• ^ 
bokeram, pris the pece iiij s. Summa, . . • j ' 

Item xxij yerdys of rede Tarteryn pris ye yerde ii s. yiij d. Iviij s. ?iij d. 

Item xiiij unces hem lace and fryshice, pris the unce» 7 _ • . 
xviij d. Summa, 3 ^ ' 

Item ▼. uncis and j quarter frenge pris the unoe xvi^ ^* ^ vi' i xi d. 
Summa, jJ*^ 

Item iij fyne aubis, pris the pes vj s. Summa, . XTiij s. 

Item for halovryn^ of the same, .... xviij d. 

Item V yerdys of sirecloth, pris the yerde xij d. Sm* y s. 

Item for makyng of the same sute with ij copis chesibill 7 

and ij tonykelis^ pris total ^ xx . 

Summa, iiij^ xj li. xij d. 

Item for a sute of white cloth of gold of sipris for Cam-\ 
brige with vi copis chesibill and ij tonykelis» with ij I y i., • 
auterclothis and the Frontell with stoles Fanuns and ) '^* V 
parrores and vij peyre parrores for Children viij peces [ ^"^ ' 
cloth a golde of sipris with Feysaunts and doks pris J 
the pece, ▼ li. iij s. iiij d. Sm* .... 

Item for the orffrays to the same sute j pece and ij yerdjrs, 1 viij U. 1 1. 
pris the pece, Ti li. Sm* i vij d. ob. 

Item for Unyng to the same sute Ixvij yerdys bokeram^ 7 xxxix i. 
pris the yerde vij d. Sm* . . . * . . . 3 j d. 

Item xxiij unces and iij quarter hemlace and Fryslace 7 zxxv i. 
prys the unce xviij d. Sm* . . . . i vij d. oh. 

Item vij unces Frenge to the Frontell and the tonykelys, 7 - - -: j 
pris the unce xviij d. Sm* . • • . . 3 * ^ ' 

Item iij aubis For men pris thepece iiij s. viij d. Sm* xiiij s. 

Item vij aubis for children, pris the pece ij s. viij d. Sm* xvuj s. fii) (^ 

Item xiij yerdis of sireclotb, pris the yerd xij d. Sm* xiij s. 

Item for r3'nges to the auterclothis, pris ... iij d. 

Item for makyng of the same sute with vij copis chesi- 
bill and ij tonykelis and ij auterclothis and the Fron- 
tell and childre parrores, pris to . . . 

Summa Iviij li. viij s. v d. 

Item, fur the embrovvd^ng golde silke and stuffe of ij '\ 

copis chesibill and ij tonekelys ffor Eton of white I iuj** iij'' TJ * 
damaske like to the sute of Cambrigge with riche orff- i viij d. 
rays, prys, J 

Item to the lynyng of the same sute v peces & iij yerdis 7 •• . j:: ^ 
of rede bokeram, pris the pece iiij s. Sm* . • J ^ ^ 

Item xxij yerdys of double tarteryn,pris the yerd iiij s. Sm* iiij li. viig t. 

Item xiii unces hemlace and Fryshelace pris the unce ^ ^.i . 
xviij d. Sm* i ^ ' 

Item V unces and j quarter Frenge, pris the unce xviij d. Sm* vij s. xj d. 

Item iij ffjrne aubis pris the pece vj s. Sm% . . xviij s. 

Item V yerdvs of Syrecloth^ pris the yerd xij d. Sm* ▼ s. 

Item for halvv3mg of the same, pris • . xviij d. 

Item for makyng of the same sute with ij copis chesibill 7 .. . 

& ij tonykelys, pris to } 

Sm* iiij** xij li. x s. iiij d. 
Summa totalis ccxj li. xix s. iij d. 
To onre Chancellor of Englonde* 

on- > xl s. 

in the Fifteenth Century. 811 

The following ia the earliest inventory, unfortunately without date, 
it ascertained, by internal evidence, to hare been written in August, 
.D. 1453. The second was taken on the 16th of July, ^Ist Henry 
II., Aj). 1506. The third is dated 16th of July, ^Ist Henry VIII., 
1529] though the " octavi" being written over an erasure, leads me to 
upect that this is only a corrected or fair copy of the preceding, 
lie fourth, between 1528 and 1538. The fifth, in 1545. The sixth, 
iogust 16, 2nd of Mary (a.d. 1554). These will be noticed in the 
»cxt paper. ♦ 

Fvnt a seute of white Bamasq enbrowded with rotez and rouses in vestimwt 
which is xiii coopes wherof tber beth vi orfreyes enbrowded with aitwtifiii 
ymigery and ii oitreyez of ye same vi emperled and vii orfreyes of 
tissue crimysn i chesible ii tunycles with orfreyz enbrowded ii auter- 
dotbes i siloure for the high aalter of the same. Upon which siloure is 
enbrowded this word Dini et mon droit, iii aubes iii amytes with 
paroures stoles & phanons accordyin^ for the same, iii tunicles for 
childre with orphrevz [enbrowded vi aubez, vi amytes for childre I?^^ -i 
with paroures accordyng for the same.] "^ 

Item Aulter clothes of white cloth of gold course with fesauntes and dukkes 
for the ii side aulters, i coope of white cloth of ^Id with squyrell 
and lyons th*orfrey enbrowded with ymagery, and hi pair of curteyns 
of white tartren. 

Item i seute of white damasq richely enbrouded with cloudes, handes, 
& daisees with ii coopes of the same. 

Item i seute of white cloth of gold with fesauntes & duckes with vi 
coopes of the same. 

Item a seute of white cloth of gold course with fesauntes & duckes In 
which is xii coopes th'orfrevs of reed cloth of gold i chesible ii tunycles 
tb'or^yes of reed cloth of gold ii aulters clothes for the high aulter 
of ye same white cloth of gold iii aubez iii amites for men with 
parourez stoles and phanons accordjmg for the same. Item iii tuniclez 
for childre tb'orfreyes of reed cloth of gold vii aubes vii amytes for 
childre with parours accordyng for the same. 

Item i coope enbrowded upon fustian with moch gold and ymagery 
th'orfrey of gold enbrowded. 

Item a seute of white & reed cloth of gold of cypres with rosez of sold 
in which is vi coopes i chesible ii tuniclei, tb'orfreyez of blewe cloth 
of gold with Fesauntes and duckes, vi aulter clothes i silour for the 
high aulter of the same white & reed cloth of gold iii aubes iii 
amytes with parours stolez and fanons according for the same seute. 

Item a chesible of white bawdkyn, th'orfrey of blewe cloth of gold 
with fesauntes and squyrell i aube i amyte with parours stole & phanon 
aecording for the same. 

Item iii chesibles of bustian th'orfrez of raied riban of threed iii aubes 
iii amites with parours stoles & phanons accordyng for the same, viii 
anlter cloths of lynen cloth with reed crossz iii pair curte;^ns & 
i vail of the same i painted cloth to hange tofore the Crucifix ii 
baners of the same with figures of the passion for Lenton. 

Item i sndarie of white tartren raied. 

Item zv tuaillez for th'attlters and vii wasshing tuaillez over ii tuaillez 
that beth at London in the Provost logging and othir ii tuaillez that 
beth in Seint Johnes chirch. 

Item i vestimeDt and ii dalmatiqs of bustian with iii aubez with also ^J|^y^.^ 
paraan and orfreys of dim. soy and also a coope with an awbe for a 
child of the Mane sute. 

312 Ecclesiasiical Vestments, i^., in King's College, Cambridge, 


lofia, fte. 


Item a Testiment off whyght damask with orfret of red velwet with flower 

ymbroderd and ipankeld ex dono Magistri Aihwell. 
Item a westment of whyght damaske with bokes and tcbalessii the orfrei 

off purpull sarsnet ex dono Magistri Dooget prepositi. 
Item li vestements off white satayne off Burggea with red orfwais off t&e 

same stuffe with albis stoles and phanons to the same for the lowe 

awtors off the gyfte of Magistri R Yowng. 
Item a sndary of white sarcenett stroked with gold of the gift of Mr. 

John Argenteio. 

First a seute of blewe Telowet in which is ii coopes i chesible ii tunidei 
ii aulter clothes & i silour for the high aulter enbrowded with 
Antilopes and this word Dieu et mon droit & with brome brtnchi 
h th*orfreyez of the said coopes chesible & tunicles richely enbrowded 
with ymasery emperled the frontel of the high aulter enbrowded with 
crownes brome coddes & this word Dieu et mon droit iii aubei iii 
amites with paronrs stoles & phanons according for the same and i ptir 
curteyns of blewe tartren. 

Item iv coopes of blewe tyssue with orfreyes of ymagery emperled. fi 
Aubes vi amites for childer with parours according for the same. 

Item i seute of blewe damasq cloth of gold with facons. In which is 
vi coopes i chesible ii tunicles i coope for a child with orphreres of 
purple tissue ii aulter clothes ii quissions of the same blewe cloth of 
gold iii aubes iii amites for men vi aubes vi amites for childre with 
paroures stoles & phanons according for the same seute and ii pair of 
curteyns of blewe tartren. 

Item i seute of blewe cloth of gold with lyons in which is v coopei 
i chesible ii tunicles with orphreys of reed cloth of gold with white 
dogges & lyons of gold ii aulter clothes of the same blewe cloth of 

gold iii tunicles for childre of blewe cloth of j^ld with duckes tnd 
oures th'orfreyes of the said reed cloth of gold iii aubes iii amytei for 

men with paroures stolez and phanons according for ye same. 
Item a seute of blewe cloth of gold with squyrell. In which is iv coopei 

i chesible ii tunicles th'orfreyes of reed cloth of gold with fscoos it 

aulter clothes for the side aulters of the same blewe cloth of ftold i 

coope of blewe cloth of gold with floures and [sic] of gold th'orfrey of 

the same reed cloth of gold iii aubes iii amytez tor childre parourei 

stoles & phanons according for the same. 
Item i chesible of blewe & grene cloth of gold th'orfrey of reed cloth of 

gold with lyons and dogges i aube i amyte with paronrs stole & 

phanon accordyng for the same. 
Item ii sudaries of blewe tartren. 
Item i chesible off blewe sarsnet ymbroderd & spangyld th'oifreT of 

red sarsnet i aube i amite with parours stole & phanon aoeordyng 

for the same ex dono Mr Rokdyff. 
Item iy autur olothys of blewe worsted ymbroderd ii chesibfis off 

blew saten of brigis ii aubis ii amys with parours stolis& phanons sMX*- 

dyng for the same ii curtens off blew sarsnet ii corprotcasii itofke ex 

dono Mr. Benett. 
Item \y copes of blew velwet with flowers and Angells with TestBKOt: 

Decon and Subdecon of the same ex dono W. Regnold* 

nMI ooimlR. 

First a seute of reed cloth of gold with ftu^ons and briddet of cold In wbidi 
is vi coopes j chesible ii tunicles w* orphreyea enbrowded w* jfifffXJ 
ii aulterclothes for the high anlter of the same reed doCh of gold ^j tobcs 
iij amites for men vi aubes vi amites for childre widi pnioon mts ft 

m the Fifteenth Century. 818 

phaBont aeoordyng for the tame. And iij pair of curteyna of reed 

Item j aettte of reed elooth of sold with fesaimtet and ducket In which it 

▼j Goopet j cheiihle ij tuniclet thorfreyet of blewe cloth of gold with 

lyont dogget & other briddis of gold Ti aulterclothet of the tame reed 

cloth of gold iij aubez iij amitet for men iiij aubet iiij amitet for cbildre 

with parourea itolet & pbanont accordyng for the tame and iij pair of 

curteynt of reed tartren. 
Item V coopet of reed Telowet doth of gold thorfireyet enbrowded with 

Item f tudarie of reed tartren rayed. 
Item J chetible of reed cloth of ^Id thorfrey of blewe cloth of gold with 

leret of gold j aube j amyte with parouret ttole & pbanon accordying 

for ye tame. -^ ^ 

Item iiij chetiblet of reed bawdkyn thorfreyi of blac velowet upon 

tatyn iiij aabez iiij amitet with parouret ttolet & fanont accordyng 

for the tame. 
Item iij dalmatiquet of reed with aubet amytet ttolet & phanont and iiij 

aaba for childre with paroort accordyng to the tame, for lenton. 
Item ij tonidet for childre of reed & white cloth of ^Id with briddet of 

gold thorfreyet of reed and grene cloth of gold iiij aubet iiij amytet 

tor ehildre with parourt acco^yng for the tame. 
Item a clothe of ettate to here over the tacrament of reed dooth of gold 

with grehondet. 

Fint j teute of blac Tclowet in which it iij coopet j chetible g tuniclet Vertimfln 
with orfreyet of grene velowet enbrowded with tterret and buttrefleehet '^^sra* 
ii aulterclothet of the tame blac velowed for the high aulter iiij aulter- 
clothet of olde blac velowet for the tyde aultert iij aubet m amytet for 
men iiij aubet iiij amitet for cbildre with parourt ttolez & fanont accor- 
dyng for the tame and j pair corteynt of blac tartren for the high 

Item j chenble of blac cloth of gold with dogget & briddet thorfrey of 
reed velowet enbrowded with ymagery and flouredelucet of gold j aube 
j amvte parourt ttole & phanon accordyng for the tame the which 
ebedble cam from Cartey, and nowe hit it at London in the provott 

Item TJ ferial aulterclothet of grene tartren rayed & iij pair corte^^nt aua oma. 

of grene tartren the wheche were dely?ered Botky for to be occupied menta fto 

in teint Johnt chirch. 
Item ther it in the Tcttiarie xri banert of tartren. 
Item ther it vij corporattet whereof ther beth v in ve vettiarie and one 

at k>ndon and an other in teint Johnet chirche. And alto t corporat- 

catet wherof ther it iij in the vettiarie and j at london and an other in 

aeint Johnet chirch. 
Item ther it in the Tettiarie iij pylowet & ij qwyttiont of tarteyn doth. 
Item iij chetiblet of dimtoy thorfreyet one of hem of reed cloth of gold 

with dogffet & ij of theym of blewe & white iij aubet iij amytet pa- 
rourea ttolet & phanont accordyng for the tame. 
Item j aengyl vettment of dothe of gold of Inke with pocokket browght [Addi- 

fro karaay. *»o°^l 

Item n aulterdothez old embrowded with gold richely for the high aulter 

of the Inmget yift the xzxvij yeer of hit Resne 
Item ferial Tettimentet v of grene dymytoy witn orfreyei reed. 
Item iiij pair anlterdothes ttejrned. 
Item Bj tuperaltariez. 
Ilm ni piulya of diverte tuttet ij pecit or remnaanttet and an old pall 

inraajiit Johnya bedd. 

TOL. zi. B 8 

814 Ecclesiastical Vestments, ^c, in King's College, Cambridge, 

The date of the seventh inventory is April 1 570, by Roger Goad^ 
Provost, and " at the time of his first coming to the provostship'*' 
In this interval the doom of all the ecclesiastical vestments and fur* 
niture had been fixed, and he was put in to execute it. The narrative 
may be briefly given, and will serve to introduce another docomeDt 
which was promised at the conclusion of the last number of the 

In the year 1565, Nov. 27, certain accusations against the then 
Provost of the college. Dr. Philip Baker, were presented to the Visitor 
by certain of the college, among which the following is to my purpose. 
*' Item, that by his permission, himself being witting and willioge 
thereunto, ther is laid upp a numbre of copes, vestementes, crosse, can* 
dellstickes, and such like baggage, and also masse bookes, with other 
blasphemouse bookes used in the time of poperie, which ar buryed in 
a comer above ground, against another day.'*^ These the Provost suc- 
ceeded in preserving until the year 1569, when the charges against 
him were renewed with better effect. The first specific count in this 
indictment is as follows : '* Item, that as at the first he refused, so ever 
since he hath contemptuously neglected my lords injunctions, and 
contrarie to his order taken therein kepeth still to the great ofiienie & 
greef of the godly, and the infamie of our college, a great heap of 
popish pelfe, as masse bookes, legends, cowchers, pixes and paxes, and 
the brazen roode itself ; neither will he be perswaded, either by prirate 
intreatie or publick admonition to make them awaie. Item, thatwheras 
by statute, one of the Fellows shoulde keepe the key of the veatrie, 
where these reliques above mentioned are reserved, and yeld an ae- 
compte yerely of his office to the provost and fellowes, he, to the ende 
the said popish trashe male remaine safe and untowched to serve for a 
daye, kepeth the key in his own hands, not suffiing anie of the com- 
panie to be privie to ought that is done there.'*^ This complaint, ad- 
dressed to Cecil, the Chief Secretary, took effect, Provost Baker was 
deprived, and Dr. Roger Goad was appointed in his stead. He had 
not presided long before he became the object of " contumelioiis and 
slanderous speeches,*' to which he replied in several papers ; among 
these is one, apparently of the year 1576> entitled, '* Myne aunswer to 
the complaynaunts 25 new articles,** &c. of which the 14th and 15tli 
are as follows : *' 14 K my lord of £lye*s flat comaundement openly 
in our chappie . . . charging mee to make away the oi^;auie8 maye 
stand for my reason, then I hope I have both reason and warraimtfor 
my doing in that behalf. Wheruppon I willed the bursera to ad 
them to the most benefit they could for the College. • . . They can- 
not be ignoraunt that the copes I found at my coming to be pravoat 
were sould awaye, and the monnye trulye convertyd to the coUedgeusei 
being bestowed upon a new library and the furnishing therof wiCli 
bookes, as appeareth at home by an accompt perused and examined hf 
the seniours. Where they jest at my devocion in making away this 
kynd of stuff, they manifestly show that either ther devocion is topo^ 

1 Lansdowne MSS. in British Museum. No. 8. Art. 53, dted by Ifr. II s j pdW 
in his edition of the King's and Eton Collegei Statatoa, p. Sia 
s Harleisn MSS., No. 7031, p. 5, dted, as above, p. 14. 

A Hreneh Report on Art. 815 

, or ther eurping thm without any cause, proceedeth of evill will 

W9 not been able to reeorer the memorandum referred to by 
t Goad, nor to ascertain what sum was realised by this sale of the 
nts, &c., as there is no notice of the transaction iu the yearly 
t books of the College. It is only clear that a clean sweep was 
t this time of all the curious works of ecclesiastical art belong- 
iie College. 


re received from M. Reichensperger a copy of an article which 

bad printed in an Aix-la-ChapeUe newspaper. The article is 
, «• A French Report on Art/* (Bin FranzOsischer Kunstberiehi,) 

object is to show the inaccuracy with which M. Didron's An^ 
rchdologiques are edited, at least in some instances. It appears 
St August, M. Didron made an artistic tour in the Rhenish pro- 

and, among other churches, visited the cathedral at Aiz. M. 
Qsperger naturally expected, as the fruit of this visit, some fur- 
iigbtenment on certain difficult questions : for instance, whether 
diseval cope preserved there is a coronation mantle ; whether it 
a to the thirteenth century ; and whether it is contemporaneous 
be royal sceptre also preserved there. But M. Didron had no 
ir any such disquisitions, nor did he even trouble himself to make 
of the objects which chiefly excited his admiration. He gives, 
, a list of twenty-five of the most remarkable objects, but this 
ms out to have been merely copied from an old guide-book, and 
ises several articles which have been lost these seventy years, 
it gives incorrect descriptions of others which are still in the ca- 
1» and takes no notice of many very curious and valuable objects. 
' is this the only slip which M. Didron has made of late. After 
^ Aiz, he visited some other cities not very far distant, one of 

was Munster. Here he found a compatriot of his, an eccle- 
, apparently, whom he represents as residing there in order to 
olate " the Germans with the taste of the thirteenth century, 
achensperger thinks that the idea of performing such an opera- 
it the cathedral city of fiishop Georg Muller is very much like 
r carrying coals to Newcastle.^ However, with the help of this 
I gentleman, M. Didron made what he considers a grand disco* 
namely, that in the back of the high altar there was a long- 
ten treasure of fifty-two artistic objects, in gold, silver, bronze, 
fte« M. Reichensperger, on the other hand, brings forward a 
Bqpectable witness to prove that this altar-shrine was regularly 
lor the inspection of worshippers on Sundays and holidays. 

r nsdsn may compare Mr. Street's acoount of his visit to Muniter, (in onr 
iw 18&&,) which, as &r as it goes, certainly accords with M. Reichenaper- 

816 Notes on some Mural Drawings 

We must, of course, give credit to local testimony such as diat of 
M. Reichensperger. It is no wonder that M. Didron should hare fery 
little time for editing the Jnntdes ; but he should not undertake more 
than he can do well. 



By J, W. Clabk, M.A., Trinity College. 

The mural drawings, which are represented in outline on the acoon- 
panying page, were discovered upon the south wall of Hardwick 
church, in August, 1858. The village is situated at a distance of 
about five miles west of Cambridge, on the edge of a rising ground, m 
that the spire of its church is visible for many miles. Of its history 
little of interest has come down to us. The manor of Hardwick wu 
given to the monks of Ely by Duke Brithnoth, so far back as 991 i.d^ 
in return for the sumptuous hospitality with which they entertained 
him and his army when marching into Essex against the Danes. In 
A.n. 1600 it was alienated with other lands, and became the propertj 
of the crown. Finally, Bishop Wren gave it after the Restoration to 
Pembroke College, to enable them to keep in repair the new ditpd 
which he had built at his own cost.^ 

The first mention of a church in the parish is in the xeiga of 
Edward I.; but no particulars are given .^ In the Archdiaconal Viii- 
tations made in the course of the 14th century, there b this entij 
made referring to Hardwick Church. 

Omamenta sunt hec. Duo Missalia sufficientia iii. Antiphonarii, iL 
Ghradalia, ii Legende, Manuale, Troparium, Missale vetns, duo Psalteria, 
iii paria vestimentorum cum pertinenciis [above in a later hand, nnooi 
novum principale cum toto apparatu] ii Rochete, ii Superpellida, ii 
Calices boni, Crismatorium, ii phiale, Turibulum,^ [Lucema, iiii Cmoes, 
velum templi, vi vexilla, i Portiforium, i Ordinale, i Antiphonarinm de 
dono magistri Thomse de Hales, pixis ebumea pro corpore Chiisti, nut 
capa chori.]^ 

In the inventory of Church goods taken in the reign of Edward VU 
it possessed at least one cross, with candlesticks, plate, and yestmenti.' 

> 1 am indebted for these facts to Bentham's Ely, pp. 84, 196» 201 ; the libff 
Eliensia, book iL, chap. 62 ; and Carter's Cambridgeshire, p. 206. 

' Baker's MSS., zxviii., p. 196. Inquis. tempore Ed. I. Hardwick. Janftom 
dicnnt qaod epus Eliefi. tenet in Dnico unnm mesoag., &c. Et est Patronni seeii 
cjusdem Tille, &c. Item Rector Ecclie predict, tenet unnm MesnKg et 40 aenii tcfit 
de dono Antecessor ejusdem EpL 

' In a later hand. 

^ From a MS. in the Library of Gonville and Cains Coll., No. 304. TheSsriM 
entries are made in 1306, the latest probablj in 1360. 

• Chambers' Strictures on Dr. Lnihington's Judgment. Lond., 1856. ip- 

m Hariunck Churchy Cambridgeshire. 817 

1644, Mr. Mapletoft, the parson thereof, was by Manchester's war- 
t ejected, as a man devoted to many superstitious ceremonies. It 
I not spared by Will Dowsing, in his raid upon the churches of 
abridgeshire and Suffolk. He tells us in his Journal that " We 
ointed ten superstitious pictures, and a cross on the church, to be 
en down, and the steps to be levelled." Perhaps the words " super- 
Lous pictures '* refer to these drawings ; or ** taken down '* may mean 
ered with whitewash. 

rhe church is dedicated to S. Mary, and is a very small and unpre- 
ding edifice. It was built originally in the Decorated style, but 
Y a few fragments now remain, built into the more modern Perpen- 
liar building. It has a chancel, nave, west tower, spire, south 
ch, and a modem north door. The chancel is Perpendicular, with 
lecorated window on the south side : the other windows are Perpen- 
alar. There is a plain piscina. The nave is also Perpendicular, 
h a good plain open timber roof. The font is plain, octagonal, cup- 
ped : the tower arch lofty Perpendicular, and the tower and spire 
the same style. 

i^arions indications of former richness are scattered about the church : 
fragments of stained glass, and some good quarries, in the windows, 
ioobean rood-screen, and a few open seats. The font also was found 
be richly carved, when the rude masonry, by which its base was 
icealed, had been removed. 

Nearly all our Cambridgeshire churches could once boast of mural 
ntings. It certainly gives us an exalted notion of the care our fore- 
lers bestowed upon the places in which they worshipped, to find 
t the poorest, shabbiest church was once rich with colour, and 
^t with gold. That such was the case here became evident last 
nmer, when, as the nave roof required substantial repairs, and a 
w pulpit, and new open seats were to be erected, the walls were 
imed to receive another coat of whitewash. As a preliminary step 
J were scraped, and so the drawings were laid bare. Mr. Williams 

heard of the discovery, and informed me of it. We paid several 
its to the church, when I made tracings of the most interesting por- 
u of the paintings, and he took notes. We also employed a person 
take an accurate drawing of the whole south wall, in order to record 

disposition of the pictures. From this the accompanying outline 

1 been reduced. I regret to state that the Rector has since thought 
right to obliterate them wholly, under an impression of their 
Bgfatliness, so that the result of our work remains the sole record of 
•e very curious drawings. 

rhey occupy nearly the whole of the south waU, extending quite 
9 the south-west angle, and possibly into the south-east also, but 
Jung could there be discovered. There were traces of colour on the 
Da north and south of the tower arch, but no figures were visible. 
er the north door, extending down its western side, was the usual 
■ntic figure of S. Christopher, but as it differed in no respect from 
many representations of that saint already known, it was not 
nght iieoeaaary to copy it. I may remark, by the way, that a very 
bet S. Chriatq>her was found a few years ago in Milton church. 

818 Notes on some Mural Drawings 

and carefully preserved. Whether there were ever any frescoes in the 
other portions of the north side or not, it was not possible to discover. 

The great interest of the drawings is their entirely distinctive cha- 
racter. They record no well-known history, but rather, I imagine, 
illustrate some local legend. But I have really no suggestion to offer 
respecting their subject that appears to me at all satufactory. and 1 
must content myself with accurately describing them. This I hope to 
do, thanks to Mr. Williams's very copious notes. 

They are divided into four groups by the architectural arrangemesti, 
as also by the figures mounted on animals. There seem, however, to 
be six scenes, two being nearly obliterated above the door. In three 
of them the same cripple, evidently a negro, occurs, ministered to 
by the same female figure. It appears not unreasonable to oonclode 
that he would appear in the others, and that it is his burial that ia 
represented in the last of the series. 

The figures riding I conjecture to be no more than messengers, iQcfa 
as occur in the middle lights of all the windows in King's Cdk^ 
Chapel. Why they should be clad in such varied garments, and 
mounted so strangely and so uncomfortably, I cannot say, unless it be 
for variety^s sake. In the stained glass of King's the messengen are 
most different : we find angels and men of various countenances and 
in various attitudes. Unfortunately we could in no case make out etena 
word of the writing inscribed upon the scrolls they bear. It seemed 
provokingly distinct, but was in reality only provokingly illegible. I 
cannot even be sure whether it is English or Latin. We once thought 
we had detected the word " the,'* but we should be sorry to vooch for 
the correctness of that supposition. 

I will now describe the groups in order, beginning with the easternmost 
The numbers of the paragraphs correspond with those on the pictorea. 

I. Lower Compartment. — ^A king riding on a lion passant over conven- 
tional grass. His hair and beard are slightly tinged with yellow : bii 
crown of a reddish brown or black colour, which occurs very fre* 
quently. It seems to be the remains of gold. His tunic, over which 
falls a deep white collar, is of the same colour, bordered round the 
bottom with white. His girdle, and the sword which he carries in hii 
right hand, are of yellow. Over the forequarters of the lion is one of 
the circular crosses which seem to have been originally in each con- 
partment. Their colour was scarlet, bordered with gold, the outline of 
the cross pat6 being picked out in black. They seem, from the waj 
in which they obliterate a portion of each design, to have been added 
afterwards ; but the reason of their position is only one of the nsny 
mysteries about these drawings. Over the king's head is a scroQ in- 
scribed with a legend, unfortunately illegible. 

Upper Compartment. — Here the male and female figure make their 
first appearance. He is evidently a negro, with yellow hair» and as yal 
without a beard. He is clothed in a long pale yellow tunic, with \os% 
sleeves fitting tightly round his wrists. Under his right arm he holds |Mft 
of a crutch, painted yellow. Towards him is advancing a lady, dad xs s 
full g^wn, coloured rather a deeper yellow than the man's tunic. Oi 
her head she wears a kerchief, arranged like those of the Bc%iss 

in Hariwick Church, Cambriigeihire. 819 

§onin de Charity. In her left hand she carries a yellow box ; in her 
ight somethiog in shape like a mermaid's looking-glass, of the same 
x>lour, with a white disc in the centre. 

II. Lower Compartment. — A similar plot of conventional grass, over 
vhich two figures are riding, and meeting each other.^ That on the 
ight of the spectator rides a pig. He is clad in a light-green tunic 
^ with a brown girdle, which his right hand clasps. His left holds 
I sword up to his head. The figure on the left, mounted on a nonde- 
icript animal — passant, with snout in air — that may be a dog, but 
vhose colour, a sort of reddish brown, would better suit a deer, wears 
I yellow tunic, with a white girdle and border. On the skirt are two 
-ows of writing on scrolls, quite illegible. He has his hands crossed. 
Both figures have auburn ringlets, and wear head-dresses very much 
ike a modem hat in shape. Over the head of each is a scroll. 

Upper Compartment, — ^The male and female figure of the last picture 
)ccur in rather different attitudes and dresses. He has a thick beard and 
moustache ; wears peaked yellow shoes on his feet ; and having broken 
bis right leg since we saw him last, supports it on the crutch, which, 
irith wonderful foresight, he was then carrying. In addition he wears 
I wooden leg, doubtless of the original type, shaped like a mushroom. 
Ihe lady has on the same head-dress, but has changed her yellow 
sown for a brown one. In her left hand she holds a pitcher, and with 
ler right extends a cup to the cripple. 

III., IV. These two small groups have suffiercd more than any of the 
ithers. In fact it is difficult to make anything out of them. One can 
aly see that they relate to the same persons as the former two. Above 
tie door is the same male figure, naked save for a white cloth about his 
lins, and supporting himself by both hands with his crutch, which he 
as planted in the ground before him. He is kneeling before what 
Kiks at first sight like a curtain falling over a pole, but which I take to 
e in reality the same female figure as before, extending a robe to the 
iked beggar. 

* [1 ba:ve no doabt that this reprefents the legend of S .Cyriacas. Charlemagne, 
lUing a tjnod of Biahopi at Paris, had a dream : — He thought he was hunting, 
hflB a boar mshed out of the forest, and placed him in great danger. On this 
ipf red, a naked child — some saj, youth — and said, " I will deliver jou on one 
ndition." "What is it?" **That you clothe me." The Emperor threw his 
iMttie (I have generally, in the churches of the Nivemois, seen this green) — 
MUid the diild. He seised Charlemagne's sword, leaped on the boar'e back, and 
Htroyed him. The Emperor asks the Synod, ** What does this mean ?*' Says 
. Jerome, Bishop of Nerers, '' I will tell you. My cathedral is dedicated to S. Cy- 
■eas : it is in rmos: he calls you to cover him by building it up." Which was 
one. And the capitular arms to this day have a child riding on a boar, I take it, 
MO that Lower Compartment 1 shows Charlemagne, going out to hunt : — Lower 
!oMpartmeBt 2, this legend. As to Lower Compartment 6, it is very curious 
hat in the second pier, south side, of the nave of Nevers, date drc. 1490 — ^is 
Bodier child riding a goat, (the beard very prominent,) and met, not by a calf, but 
f a hippogriff. Tliis, the meaning of which is unknown, can hardly be a mere 
siwidiiiui with Hardwiek. It woidd be well to inquire, if any chapel or altar were 
aiioifd in that church to S. Cyriac. It should be remembered, too, that one of 
ha c ha rches at Swaffham actui^y hoe this dedication. 

The abote legend is related by Michel Cotignon. in his Catalogue hietorial dee 
de Neoere, and by the Abb6 Crosnier in his Momognqthie, p. 19.—/. M, N,] 

320 Notes on some Mural Drawings. 

Rather higher up, to the right, are traces of a yellow coyedid, be- 
side which, on the right, kneels the lady, dressed as in Group II. 
With her right hand she seems to be smoothing the coyerlid, as doei a 
second figure on the left, of whom nothing is visible save one hand, 
and the top of a cap with the faint outline of a face beneath it. 

V. Lower Compartment, — Conventional grass as before, with two 
figures riding on nearly obliterated animals. They are similar in dress 
and appearance to those in Group II. He on the right is drioldog 
from a large glass goblet. Over their heads are the usual illegible 

Upper Compartment, — ^A bed covered with a dark brown quilt, over 
which a white sheet is folded. In the bed lies a man, who by his dark 
and bearded countenance, the only part of him visible, seems to be tiie 
negro of the former groups. He is tended by the lady, dressed exactly 
as in Group I. In her left hand she carries a bowl, out of which ibe 
is feeding the sick man by the help of a spoon. 

VI. Lower Compartment, — Two men riding on animak. The one 
on the left is mounted upon a goat, which is stopping suddenly, with 
its forefeet thrust into the ground, and its head thrown up, so that its 
horns almost touch its back — very spirited and well drawn. His rider 
wears a yellow tunic, with a brown belt, and white collar, cuffs, and 
border round the bottom ; dark brown hose, and a green Flemish cap, 
complete his costume. His hands are outspread, as though to welcome 
the cavalier who meets him, riding on a calf. His dress is the same ts 
that of the other, differing only in the colour of his tunic, which is 
green ; and of his cap, which is brown. His right hand is raised to 
his ear. Over both are scrolls with illegible inscriptions, and betweea 
them the traces of a crimson cross. 

Upper Compartment, — A group of six figures, three males and three 
females, one standing over a corpse, already laid in the cofiin. At tbe 
head is a priest, with a book in his hand. He is " in pontificalibos," tbe 
fringe of the stole dark, the rest of the dress white. His hair is 
yellow, with the tonsure very distinct. On his right, next the corpse, 
is a male figure, with yellow hair, clad in a light green dress. Hit 
hands are outstretched in amazement. On the right of this figure is a 
female, whom I take to be the lady of the preceding groups, at lesit 
she is habited exactly in the same style, with hands joined in the atti- 
tude of prayer. In the second row, on the priest's left, next tbe 
church, is a female, of whom nothing but the face, and head-dresi of 
similar character with the lady's, are seen. To her right is another 
female, whose head comes between the priest and the figure in grecsi 
and points to a cross on the breast of the corpse. To the right agiis 
tands a man with yellow hair. 

To the right of this group is the church. We see four rouad- 
headed windows on the south side, and the west door. In the vest 
gable hangs a bell. The tUing is well done in red. 

With regard to the date of these drawings, I think that they may be 
referred to the end of the fifteenth or beginning of the sizteentli en* 
tury. The costume is like what we find in known examplea of tin art 
of that period. I would here again refer to the windowa in Ki^'i 

leven corporal works of mercy — the seventh picture having 
»yed, or not recovered from beneath the whitewash. To 
ibjects in the order in which they are above described, I 
dfy them as follows : — 1 . Feeding the hungry. 2. Giving 
3 thirsty. 3. Clothing the naked. 4. [Too much defaced 
gible.] 5. Visiting the sick. 6. Burying the dead. 
swer figures I have nothing to say, except that I am dis- 
ibt whether they have any connection with the upper series, 
fr. Clark^s parallel from the windows of our collegiate 
certainly very hnppy, and the arrangement of figures and 
the ** Biblia Pauperum," from which probably that of the 
borrowed, is even more to the purpose. 

G. W. 
allege, Cambridge. 




OT* as distinct from mere church building, is not only 
own, bat actually advancing in that congeries of town and 
eh in its largpest sense makes up London. Having already 
il Saints*, Margaret Street, we wiU not again allude to it, 
r atart in the suburb of Stoke Newington, In this quarter, 
tarkable for Mr. Butterfield*8 church of S. Matthias, a still 
las risen, from the designs of Mr. Scott, the church of S. 
laciog the old parish church, which is still standing in imme- 
pity. The building, which measures internally about 1 60 
th, conaistB of a western (unfinished) steeple, nave, and aisles 


322 New Churches in and near London. 

the chancel and apse being likewise of two lights. The nave (rHuI 
are circular, with elaborate foliaged capitals. The lantern is destitate 
of a western arch, the roof being tied by a somewhat heavy arrange- 
ment of woodwork, while across each transept an arch is thrown in 
continuation of the arcade, the superimposed wall terminating in t 
horizontal line at the rising of the roof and bearing a somewhat mas* 
sive wooden screen, which fills up the pedimental spac6. This ar- 
rangement, as it will be observed, is borrowed from Italian examples, 
although existing rudimentally in such churches as Tideswell, hot we 
are unable to consider it successful as compared with the usual northern 
way of dealing with the lantern space, tending as it does to minimise 
the cruciform appearance of the interior. The pillars of the chancel 
arcade on each side are double, being coupled transversely, with rich 
capitals ; while the soffits of the arches are flat, and decorated with basts 
of angels in relief enclosed in frames of that form which is described by 
superimposing a lozenge on a quatrefoil. We need not say that the effect 
of this treatment is very rich. As a building, this church, with theex« 
ception of the lantern arrangement, deserves great credit. But the fit- 
tings are not as yet on a par with the fabric. The apsidal sanctuary, with 
its plain windows, and its homely table, devoid of reredos or sedilii, is 
an inadequate termination to the long vista. We hear however of elabo- 
rate decorations being in contemplation, and we hope that they will soon 
become an accomplished fact. A needless prayer-desk stands at the 
north-west angle of the chancel, which is of course seated stallwise, 
the temporary pulpit being placed on the other side. The seats are of 
uniform design, but we much regret to say that doors are not absent 

The font of stone, but equipped with white marble angels, by Mr. 
Westmacott, is not a successful composition. A commencement of 
painted glass by Messrs. Clayton and Bell has been made in a few of 
the windows. The vestry stands at the south side of the chaocd. 
Externally the absence of a fleche at the lantern is felt. With fittingi 
adequate to its structural claims, this church might become one of 
the most noticeable which has been produced since the revival, while 
even in its present aspect we can most sincerely congratulate Mr. Scott 
on having carried such a work to its present architectural complete* 

If we proceed to the south-east to Bow common we reach the chnrdi 
of S. Paul, Limehouse, built by Mr. Rohde Hawkins, for Mr. Cotton, 
which we described at length from the architect's drawing^ at the 373rd 
page of our volume for 1856. We could not then dwell upon the 
polychrome with which the interior has been liberally decorated. As 
a whole the effect is rich and religious, although it needs painted gliii 
to qualify the tone ; for as yet there is none except a grisaille west 
window. The foliated decoration of the nave spandrils is more ioo- 
cessful than the somewhat heavier painting of the sanctuary, caotMag 
of powderings, some of them on a mulberry ground. The reredos is 
the S. Dunstan pattern from Canterbury, in tiles coloured and gilt* 
while over the altar projects an alabaster cross with four equal ams. 
The credence is a large shelf projecting on the north ude supported 
by angels as corbels. The pulpit is of ^abaster, covered with gmp* 

New Churches in and near London, 823 

not sufficiently careful in execution. The organ at the east end of the 
north aisle is profusely coloured. To the west of it a chamber thrown 
back opens into the aisle as a species of tribune, originally built, we 
believe, for the instrument. We are sorry to observe that the iron 
crown round the spire, which the drawings showed, has been omitted in 

Taming to a western suburb we find the church of S. John the 
Evamgeliit, Hammersmith, consecrated in the course of the last summer, 
and erected by Mr. Butterfield. In this building we find the peculiar 
stjle of the architect characteristically apparent. The plan is very 
simple, consisting of a clerestoried nave and aisles of four bays, besides 
a smaUer bay to the east, chancel, with aisles of one bay, and sanctuary. 
There is, moreover, a species of western porch or narthex stretching 
icroas the church, which is well contrived with two external doors, and 
one internal west door placed centrically so as to exclude draughts from 
the interior ; there is, moreover, a south door, but no porch. The ma- 
terial is yellow brick, too thinly banded with red, and developing under the 
east window into a species of lofty skeleton arcading of the latter mate- 
rial which had better have been omitted. The interior honestly shows 
its brick material. The nave pillars are circular with moulded capitals ; 
the chancel arch being moulded with three rather acutely pointed bow- 
tells. The east window of three lights has plate tracery ; so has the 
west window of the same number of lights, of which the central one 
only is trefoiled. The aisle windows of two lights are unfoliated. The 
clerestory (which, as usual with Mr. Butterfield, is lofty and dignified,) 
is composed of coupled windows, each of two lights. The nave roof trusses 
are alternately foliated and filled up with solid wood panelling, a device 
which we cannot praise. A cornice in the chancel composed of bricks 
placed angle-wise, as in old-fashioned houses of the 17th century, is 
happily introduced. There are two steps at the chancel arch ; two 
More with a wide interval in the sanctuary and a footpace. The deco- 
xatton of the reredos in its attempt to combine simplicity and effect 
proves a failure. We are sorry to see in it mastic inlaying imitated by 
mere painting. The sanctuary roof, which is boarded, is decorated with 
a powdering of wheels and stars, on a cold and inefiective grey-blue 
ground* The sedilia are of the type which is so favourite with Mr. But- 
terfield, a single arch enclosing wooden seats. The chancel is seated stall- 
wise* The pulpit, of wood, stands on a stone base at its north-west angle. 
The organ is placed at the east end of the south chancel aisle. The 
seats are all open. There is not even a bell gable ; but the bell, when 
we saw the church, hung in a temporary framework so near the ground 
against the vestry (which by the way stands to the north) as to be 
liable to be struck by any passenger. We hardly think this a happy 
position for the transmission of sound. The steeple will rise, we be- 
lieve, whenever built, against the south aisle. We have criticised the 
efanreh freely, and so we may more readily express our conviction that 
it will fdllj maintain Mr. Butterfield*s well-earned reputation. 

A ranvkable contrast to the grave severity of the church we have 
jast desoribed is to be found in that of S. Simon, Upper Chelsea, just 
sreeted kj Mr« Pocock. From the antecedent characteristics of the 

324 New Churches in and near London. 

Bchool under whose influence this church has heen built, nothing in the 
shape of ecclesiological deyelopement might have been anticipated, and 
yet the whole power of its architect seems to have been directed to 
showing in how eccentric a manner the typal Gothic church could be 
developed into newer forms of an ecclesiastical character. How far thiB 
ambitioTis project has proved successful is another matter. Outside 
the outline is startling enough, for in lieu of the usual double height 
of nave and chancel, there are evident three heights, the third tod 
lowest one serving as chancel, and the intermediate one, flanked by 
large gabled chapel-like aisles, being merely a playful way of giving 
variety to the nave. The material is mainly brick, aiming at poly- 
chromatic effect. The west window is of two lights, and arose above it 
is set externally in a square frame of close masonry, enriched with 
diaper; and there is a buttress carrying a niche running up from the porch. 
Upon the gable rises a lofty double bell-cot. The prtt-nave is of four 
bays, with circular shafts, the clerestory being composed of wiodows 
whose form can only be described as a trefoil with split cusps. Thea 
comes the first arch borne on corbels, and the post-nave, which fbllowt, 
and is destitute of clerestory, is of two bays, the intervening pillar being 
of marble upon a stilted base, and the spandril pierced with a huge qoi- 
trefoil, while the chapel-like aisles (containing galleries) are divided froa 
the lean-to aisles of theprse-nave by heavy angular constructive screen- 
work, of stone. The font in the prse-nave is of a quatrefoil section. The 
pulpit, of stone (distinguished by the tenuity of its marble nook-shafti) 
stands at the north angle of the chancel arch proper, being approached 
by an artful arrangement of steps, and a moveable prayer-desk vn 
placed, when we saw the church, at the opposite angle in a slant or til 
media direction, looking north-west. The organ is placed on the south 
of the sanctuary opening into the church. There is one step at the 
chancel arch, and tMTo more at the sanctuary. The reredoe is arcMled, 
and inlaid with tiles, and over it rises a Middle- Pointed east window 
of five lights, but with blank tracery, the openings (with one ei- 
ception,) which should have been glazed, being insteul filled with 
carved foliage. What is glass in the window is painted by MeMTi. 
Lavers and fiarraud. The aisle windows are mostly lancets. Thcfe 
are numerous other eccentricities about the church, inside and ovt, 
which we do not feel ourselves called upon to describe. We have said 
enough to show how abnormal the structure is. It is at all events, 
however, a sign of ecclesiological progress, when we see Low Church 
influence developing in forms such as those to which we have called 

On the Surrey side of the river, a hideous chapel of ease was buflt 
years ago in Camber well, and called Camden Chapel, embodying 
every conceivable architectural and ritual shortcoming. During tiie 
ministry of Mr. Melvill chanceMess transepts were thrown oat st 
the end, which increased the accommodation without enhancing the 
beauty of the pile, which had then assumed the plan of a pcfftentous 
T- In the time of his successor and the present incumbent, Mr. D. 
Moore, a further enlargement became necessary on the oonsecratioB* s 
few years sbce, of the building by the strange dedication of 

New Churches in and near London. 325 

'AMTck. A cbancel was accordingly projected, and Mr. Moore, with a 
ourage for which we cannot too strongly praise him, determined that 
ills portion of the church should he as perfect as his opportunities 
Ho wed. Because the nave was frightful there was no reason that the 
liancel should not be beautiful and decorous. There was every 
active to make such a beginning of better things as might not impro- 
ably lead to the rebuilding or the recasting of the old disgustful mass. 
*he work was accordingly placed in Mr. Scott's hands, and he having 

deal with so special a case, and to tie his chancel to a building 
rhose only architectural fact was that it possessed round-headed win- 
lows, boldly discarded the English tradition, and took up instead that 
peculiar phase of the mediaeval art of Italy in which Romanesque was 
pasting into Pointed. Churches such as S. Fermo at Verona gave him 
the idea of producing the effect of length by successive semicircular 
srches, spanning the structure and rising from circular pillars^ Three 
of these arches accordingly recede behind each other in Camden Church, 
with, it must be confessed, very small intervening space, but with a pic- 
toresqueoess of effect which forbids our being critical. In the two most 
veitem the pillars are plain, and the arches of two orders, with square 
uiiies, are simply built of two hues of stone placed alternately. In 
tbe most eastern, however, the pillars are adorned with a most graceful 
twiaing pattern, and the arches are profusely embossed. In all, the abaci, 
ve need hardly say, are square, and the capitals corinthianize. Be- 
yond, a semicircular apse forms the sanctuary, with a semi-domical roof 
<ielicately picked out with gold. The windows of the apse, five in 
uunber, and each of two lights with trefoiled heads, are set in a bold 
ucading, and they, as well as the windows of similar pattern in the re- 
gaining chancel, are rendered peculiarly effective by being slightly 
krsesboed. All the windows of the sanctuary are filled with painted 
glass, mostly by Mr. Ward, the central one having been superintended 
hj Mr. Ruskin. The sanctuary rises on four steps, the chancel proper 
oa two. The prayer-desk, which has not been yet discarded, facing 
north and west, stands at the south-east angle, the pulpit at the 
XMth-east, carved in wood, and over-minutely reproducing forms of 
strlj French Pointed, which are too heavy for the material. The 
ihanoel is filled with longitudinal seats, which are unfortunately de- 
oted to merely congregational uses. The font. too. stands in front 

1 the chancel, llie galleried nave has not even a central passage, 
nd although the formerly flat roof has been raised to correspond in 
leight with the chancel (of which the roof is of proper pitch, and is, 
re should have said, of open timber work between the arches) yet 
he resultant effect is simply that of an inverted swimming bath. It 
I a pity that the material adopted in the new work is Kentish rag, 
01 brick. This may throw an obstacle in the way of what might 
thcrwiae not be a difiicult work, recasting the nave and transepts 
richotit polling down the walls, which are of the ordinary London mate- 
lal. Their ^ry breadth would add to the facility of the operation, while 
he diftmngf at which the church stands from the road would render a 
pcatern otenaion an easy matter. When we say western, we speak 
ccksidogically, for the church stands north and south, with the altar 

326 8. Lawrence Church, Alkmaar. 

to the former point. We take blame to ourselves for not haying soooe 
noticed so able and interesting a work. 

Not very far from Camden church stands the church of S. PosTj 
Heme Hill, rebuilt after a fire, by Mr. Street, of which we gave a ful 
description in our number for February in the present year. Persona 
inspection confirms the good opinion we formed of this church from tb 
designs. The marble reredos, with its bold projecting reliefs of th 
Evangelists' heads, its arrangement of natural colours and the coront 
of outstanding balls of Derbyshire spar round the central cross, is a trul 
artistic conception. The capitals of the nave pillars, carved by Mi 
Earp, are equally creditable to architect and carver. Among them, on 
of the north side, composed of dogs boldly projecting with half bodia 
carries ofi^ the palm for originality and spirit. Only we must ezce; 
from our commendation the marble coursing of these pillars. They ar 
composed of white stone, with one course of dark marble over the biM 
and one immediately under the capital. A visitor compared these pO 
lars to men with nothing on but boots and stocks. Green and duI 
berry are used with admirable effect in the tiled chancel floor. Tli 
old tower and steeple are preserved, but the new tower-arch with it 
quaint responds, heals the discrepancy inside. No painted glass hi 
yet been put up in this church. Those who are curious in ecclesiologict 
antiquities may recollect that in the first of those articles in which w( 
ever *' lumped" London churches, entitled "Transitional Churches in anii 
about London," which appeared at the commencement of 1845, wegan 
a description of the original S. Paul's church, built by Mr. Alexaoder: 
a building profusely poly chromed, and highly creditable, oonsidensg 
its time, to the incumbent, Mr. Anderson, to whom is likewise due tk 
reconstructed church. 

We reserve for another occasi(m the description of Mr. Scott'i 
church for the use of Woolwich arsenal, in which he has boldly carrier 
out an iron interior adapted to galleries. The Ecclesiological move 
ment is still kept in progress by Mr. Butterfield's church of S. Albsi 
Baldwin Gardens, erected for Mr. Hubbard, which the strike fovw 
just rising from the ground, and by that proposed church due to Mi 
Brandon in Windmill Street, of which we gave a short notice in os 
last number. 


Thb Dietsche Warande not long since contained a plan and descriptio 
of the new (Roman Catholic) church of S. Lawrence which U 
Cuypers is about to build in the picturesque city of Alkmaar, i 
the province of the Netherlands, called North Holland.^ The kiiid 
ness of M. Alberdingk Thijm enables us to reproduce the plan. A 

' The word Holland, as applied to any bat the two provinces of North and 8Ml 
Holland, is unknown in the Netherlands themselTea. There nefer wasa^Un 
dom of Holland" except in the time of Loois Bonaparte. 

828 The Restoration of the Lantern 

our readers will perceive the church is of the German type, in which 
the apse, pare and simple, occurs instead of the aisled " cheyet** (to 
adopt Mr. Fergusson's nomenclature) of France. In following thif* 
plan M. Cuypers of course consulted convenience, as the chevet veiy 
frequently occurs in old Dutch churches, such as those of Amsterdam. 
Haarlem, Lieyden, &c. The choir, we hear, will have a triforium, and 
is to he groined as well as the aisles, the nave being covered with a 
timber roof. The four pillars of the lantern are named in hoDoor 
of the Evangelists, and the twelve remaining pillars commemorate the 
apostles, but whether they are respectively to have their statues or 
symbols is not quite clear. The baptistery, it will be observed, stands 
at the west end of the north aisle, the corresponding bay of the 9oach 
being the mortuary chapel ; the confessionals are placed right and left 
of the transept doors. The altar had better be pushed forward, eo as 
to occupy the chord of the apse. In other respects this plan explains 
itself. The tower is to grow into an octagon, bearing a spire. This - 
chyrch will evidently be a great improvement upon the one at Over- t 
veen, near Haarlem, which we described in a former number. Another ! 
church, of a satisfactory description, is in progress of construction at | 
Fogelensang, not far from the latter city, under the care of its eode- 
Biological cut6. Dr. Borret. 



Bt the kindness of the Dean of Ely and the architect we pres