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ttkttit aR^eDieto, 



VOL. V. PART I. 



rjtOM JANirdar, to june, i»w, inclusive. 



«■ Bw jywfwrOuni- bM' tow upiTM w«f hma^ tm itft^mir ■norw laOiMr 
fhoumnr fii*r» uwifBaut Mn^n^M nMvMAii mvr* «fir>* ti ZKAEKTIKOM 
fAM^HM ^^. ClFM. AblX. S/npM. £if. I. 



LONDON: 

1^iit>4 for XJMfCMAN, BUKST. REES, AMD ORME, PATER MOSTSa-TtOW. 

r,o,i,,-,-,ih,.GoOglc 



CONTENTS OF' tiSt.' V. PART I, 



, Ponoi • iff? K> 



Aceonnt'Of the Ute Mr 
Cilpin^ UooimMM of AbutioD 
Jwies'j £M«]r QD tbo Life BDd Writing* 

oTHi- Abrahan Booth r - 3S:) 

MevUey'* Monoinof Br. ?alqp S'iS 

M>^eiri of Rev. W, HmlMmarct 4B6 

Hilner** Life of Wllibm Ilu»*i4 9H9 

Piout Remairu of thp RW. J. McwJr 4»0 

Sti^lei'iLifeof Daitd BKbcrd - 95 

.WIiiUk«r'» Life of Sar'.t Xeot • OUS 

BICTIOMfklE). 

%icirlter'i Bdinl"ir<l' Encyckipwaia St9 

Britiih EneyclopiFiJm - - , SW 

){cl!&buixh MriOnl Dii^tiobuy • 310 

EncydupwJia Brvtaonic* - JSO 

■ F.n.-relopK(!ia tondineiBut - ' 5i9 

F.ui:vel6pirdia Pntbeiiaia, - '519 

Enfi<i!il'a Nvw Encyc'opaedii, • 5)3 

Eagliih KoLfelapmAia - - 54t 

Gowl^d Orcgofy't Pantc^gla >' 519 
Gregory 1 EKctioaaT; of Arts and 



MA+K« Millet' ■ 

ilf'ii DoArine af'(rittre<!i'^>i] ^n^ 



Sablne'iPriuiicalMathEm^tciaq.' 



JaniflMnl mymalofilcnl DicUoiMiy 

of tbe SooC'ish Lanjuaje 
PjtctMs'i New Diviroaary af the Ea- 

gliib 1»ngiia.%t ... 
lUe^ New Cycbpcdia 



Atimfrnns:! Eleutcnt* of tbe Latjn 

T«ieue - . - 
Blair's Oiapiiinar of Natural and Kx- 

perimcnlat Phitowipliir 
Broadhurst'n Allvlre lo Young lM\t* 
Brona'bEteaiEiiUof. Cuglidi Kduo- 



Chambeni's IntrAluctioii to AiKhDe. 

FuTaaaS's Practical Surveyor 
C:oa>r1ri'sMrs. U-ii^fstetNStlioul . 

Uoycc'f Practical Arttbnciic 
Hey to DUto .... 

J*i>i>r'i Circle of the A'rt# i^id Sd- 



Aoconnt oC Jamaica wmI Mi IniwU- 

jQ4l'i ae«i{rA]itiy Bn4 Anti^aitiM of ' 
Ithaca . - ,- . - CI, 

•nef 'Nai:«(if( pftlie-IlaptiiitUiitiQn 

Hittory of France, -■.-.'. 
£9Utbc;r'*Cl'~n>'>><:I« "f tb^ Ciil Rodri- 
' ' fo Diac, ' trailiilalbd f^m tbe Spa- 

VButbah^' Uinativri of .the Siege of 

Zara^oia - . ' . ^ . • 
Inlr tir Mcekt pfBuicAnoMi, with 
..ux^andprtceauncwd - . 10£, 1 



AMifgooKnt of V«uQjt'« 'E«Wf OS. I 
IIiiBiaiiity to Aninala. -.,■ - VIS 

Addres] bi CkrHtiaah afbxbg DftyiC ■■■ ., 
ptametiBg tbu EdncBltOH «f YMtb .SH 

Blair'i tllDUb/tta CowHleralMB tf'< ■ 

VaccinatioD, k,f. ~ ,^ . '- ^tn 
'B'iDth'a UtraduotiuB to-^ 4p4ytf> 
d.w cal Uictiooary iif the Eo^tb iiaob 
5W gu.«« . , - ... MB 
H9 Bttm^'i'SgKCimciH qf En^h SrMt: 
553 .Writcra.fmin the Earliest Ti««ato 
HI IheCloie of ttv nth£««tury ■■ 5» 
519 Davit'* laaiiii? into tbe SyaiiiCaiiM 

Md TTeafupqt ot(JM>ti« - ^^' 

5JS reDdont pisluguu na Xh)queac« IHt 
Terqaniiet'i ScgoMny «f tb* Uuiian 

Hik'^ . - - .,,/.. n* 

Furtuoe's TaMet of the HRtioovt Lib 

AMoitiei ^ - . - -fas 

Hiitb Church Chiiint eipo^, ii'n3 Uie 

FrotefUQt Dinealen, .fllvtbodUti. 

&C. viiKlicati.'d i by a LavmnQ - TiH 
HietiiBorc" Statement uf bbjccUuns ' 

lothe Bin for prebeatiag iLe Sprvad 

of the Inf^^oD tty the SmalLPox' IM 
I. ' ■ " ■ Miirray'a An»wcr Id . JJ»4 
LcUer to tbe Bisliap of Lunihu - ' '9S 
Ijjcas'9 Travdi of fbussnius • 5B3 
MenairiDf an American LtMiy^ WMr' ' 

Sketches of Mnnwrs •») SoMieiy 165 
J>ublic Diapotatioa 9I' the Mufctttt of ' 

tlie Cottege lit Flirt WillitB ■ -' '^V» 
Puritawtn KtrirtA, . • . • >85 
Sc*tt Wariog'i Knudrki oa B*m><r'«' '' 

Slid Nares** Safmnw; iu;. ■■ - ■ tit 
Bta;<r of tVa EstlllGshed Clilin^i, - 5» 
Thouaa'a - tjuiccuni* oa Snbrecta 

chicdr nbtJDS to the £ttnl>lilhed 

Reli^aa indtbrOerg/ - - 353 
Wenningtou'i L«*nre» of • I*n*eii- 

tor le his Pupil^ . . - tB8 
Trial iif LItiii. Col. Mnrli^ctiB,' hj a 

Gebcnl Court Martial - . STS 

VhilotoBhical TransactiuDs uf the 

RoyalSodety 1807. Part I. • U 
^-^1807, Part U. - lae 

-1808, Part L 313, 43* 

I80S, PartU. - - 511 

Bakeiell's Obaenalionsgii'tha Inln. 

cnce of Soil and Clioiata oil Wodi 
' >»llhNolesbyLon)SiaM>Hlt: - ^3 
Cood'n Aimivtinarj Ontlion- im tbe 

IjtriKture and Phr><o^y of Planta, SSI 

1 Culour 



- -COjKTB/^/PS; 



ABei*MBaItod«,Ml«cWfMmi»e«T'i""^' " the lo'tiMr. EtBHian ■- 2*. BM, 3(9 

A fncljcql picture </ Anwic^ - - Sit BWil wiiAmit iBWKatioo, or lh» P*«- ' 

M^n t>ni:<lc Ani<ifpW«t 'r, - SW . . Feiit^ SUM of KcHglM ami Monli 

CaknpWin OfttcaiB of Wyntnini • irt voaiidwed - - - - - M'r 

Cifpli<lhll>ril and Scotch tttiiewer* <1KI Anmti. 

Cv«uce'i'!Pn<nil - : -HI Barro»'tSe»noMl»fbl>»th«|Inli»«;ty 

T}i««ii'i MiKiIlBiieoniPortry - - 119 ■ « Oxfcril.mitliiiTramliirliWuif tW 

Bi'flu'nf'KMinMM'rtiMrl " - - ^»g Seriitix* into tKe OiinltKl bni- 

iee'ieti^ilK^faii!4Mfoiii> from 'the < F'l'IM . •. . . ■ 26Z 

irtJrrek AuHran. , Pnrt' I. ftc!l««1 aiB BedJomo-a TwtMjr ShvN lH»co«ir«ti 

KajM'ifttnir^lil^ aTerOi' ''■ - 4eS Vul. Itf. - - - - - - 3T5 

ini>'*T«o'HritB(Mk>i^O«ld's ITe- BofitiH'i FuoenlSen^OD.'lV Ufeiod 

t m Ufg rt irft Mngliah VwtB - .ISI . Drith oTa ArttUn • . - 4ai 

yiagriftmitttk, ■hUTcticPoeai - 3Ri Coapcr'i Prailictl and Familial Str- 

■ *V'tf»WarTtor'i-RetnrB ' - - '214 moot r. • ■ - 36» 

" ' ■ ■ ■' -■ Duill^'a GcriDOii ptearhn] b«fure th« 



D Verse 
byM'Owtaii - -' : -: - - 
VattMi b; tlie Rev OcOtge Ctabbe ■ 
IMi^DM tf BebBrt Buuis • 
Saven-^ PAmbs* - - - 
Tse Panily KMdK) - > 

Kliaittdc«ttaii - - - ; 

^Ibcr Boy, • Potm- - - - : 
Tie MomliiW - . -. '■ ' - : 
Woed-B raeaii on Varinnt Sdt^ects I 
■W«i*<7> Cliiirt*-Y»r(r ^,- -. - I 
, rntrrici *i4 rsuTiCfi. lcu^oiiv- 
Cembor'ii' Iv^uihr into tb*9uM (if Na- 
tional SdtNMuNfp, M <onn<!cu4 
Viih tile PregrtA uf Vealtb anil Po- 
pulation - ' - 
Ciiitane';'! Ct>a<:i^ Viev, ot tb« Cou- 
. MitlrtionarKivIdivI -' - - - 
^14>tatifi*a Arconiun of N'stknisl Qv . ~ 
■ fcncli - -. - - - -. 



■nat!fK.y. ' 
Aa litrMnetKni tt> the hlirir irftbe 

Holy Spriirttiret ■ .. - - ]92 

Can^t'* Wallu sf iMfnliMK*. - 9^ 
Patwi^ Cciwrtl and Sam of Uu Pmu ^ 

phaein itfktiuft tqthc CtMv m tmm 

aftNH«><K3»tJlidab kndl<n*l - SIS 
Mi«an'»3'liOHitib> M Prnfriwi-)' - 363 
jjulbait> VMBioESt atmm lt«Hp>HM - 

Opofkina of Ma man ontfueot l^ur- 
' tira ur tm BrftitU CMstiMi.Cburch e$l> 
7athtnr/LhcE»el>9hCltHKh, vol. U. 116 

' ImpoTTttUt OinyJer n H—i 'atiri rmal (a 

. • d.ie!aKui*l<«l Friiule . luTilid - 97 
ImpTqr«dV(Mi«BDt 1b.« Suit Tttt*- ' < 

> , ■- a», 43«, S3B 



393 ttte Oriental I^iigHajn 
3)5-1. Naadebourck'* FuiMtat SefflMn - 4 
9ftl Hunt! Semion Ml the Po««r of Ood, . 
5S7 pr<'*«hc4 before ihf Uampslure A>- 
38.5 , wei-tion ,- ... .- .- 
193 Kant.'tiStfniont>«frntlwfa>rrr>ltyi>[ 
5B7 Ot(biil,uDt1icI>utyao4£]i|ieiliciu]r 
SSiJ af .ti'si»latin{ tlia SCTipturei, iwo 

* , theeurruit t-oTiiuage* iiftbeEalt - ! 
PJey'*.^rnitn* .- • - 
'PiliMr'a ApuBtolical DlrrctioDi i^ 

itlM-ctiiig Fomalc XdQcailoa ] < 

PaiMAi'iFBtt SttuMMi, at trtHii ', ■ 

lleptoa'i SAilMV on the Woifca of Cr<- ' 

■lion,' preached iur tiit Boytcan 

'5e*iiK>Tii aad other tTMntirsfi, hf the 
bt^Kev. SaiMUFlLa>i»s(aii, wf BMc- 



SnUh*! Ctatfc at tb« Ord'naHMi at 
iilf. BidKip, kt Rlngwooii, Hunt'. 
Tith UiB Introductory A<MreM Md 

■ CMifkcbti -..--< 

'Steiekdiiff'* Etaa Pi«llEt, *c. A Ser. 
.....-.■».«.&..j'^* Ak^'jndb-h-.. 1..- 



Uiefas Chi 

SyilnefSmi 



%ap«l in the !ta«ay - - . 
itn'iTwoVoliuBei Bf.Srt-. 



le£ue*..>ntb«TfdUi 



Botrinaf tSe 
Lcifrto »'¥j*'' 
' ufCiiriMiaet^ 

< ofS . PnufitihU lleiudpliuD of tbo 
■-Rlttlniran"-' - - - . 
Rjaii'i' ADa)y>i*«f'^'«''l'> "'Eirataof 

theProl)«(BntBib(e" • 
Styl-^'> Vindioatfeii nf tke Dadirp and 

Effuclof Kiatlttiloal Pniehing - 
Snodaj -Papers, •Wri.-.ft.-d X" YoiiMi 
The IqiuBiMeot' VligiM »nnplrBe<l 

intbc Kiatory of HauDah MkI Sain^^ 



SK 



Wnn{;hlim'ii SerwiA boCMatlia Uni* 
vink; at Cuabtidga ott tbetVant* 
Ution of the &ti^uiM into tb* 



Ide MS 

Tdnwei Colloetia&far'the Oitorf of 
tbelVxn " " ' 



•■ Vt QranUiani, ' 
irbMcKtMta - MS 



Can's CaWoaiari Skelchei, ot • T«)t 

thrtM^b SeDtUod in KO? - • a»t 
Oau'l ' Jonnial of the "n andt of f 
' Corps Of Qitearery.fiMitlieMasith r ' 
of the Mimorl ttnM|b H» ItttcriDr v 
Par» of North AmcriM • - lOT 
Porlrr'n TnTelline Skelebei !a Sauia 
• tixlSwetei, iBin)6.-^IM ' VT3,i7t 

■ ^ v: ^""" '.o." , . : 



THE 

ECLECTIC REVIEW, 

For JANUARY, 1809. 



An, I. Strmeiu, M itverai SulyecU, by the ^le Rer. WiUiam Palest 
I). D. Subdean of Uncola, and Kector of Biihopsweanaouth. Sto. 
pp. 548. Price lOs. 6d. Longsnaa and Co. 1808. 



,W^ 



TK regard this book in the light of an invitation to at- 
tend the fiineral <^ one (^ die most powerful advocates 
that ever defended the best cause. And if our regret were 
to he in proportion either to the value of the life which has 
terminated, or to the consideration of how many ii^stances of 
such talent so happily applied may he expected hereafter, it 
would be scarcely less deep than that which we feel for the 
loss of our most valued friends. But the regret is not re- 
quired to correspond to this latter conuderation ; because the 
Christian woiid doe» not absolutely need a numerous succes- 
sion of -such' men. It has been the enviable lot- of here and 
there a favoured individual, to do some oue important thing 
so well, that it shall never need to be done again : and we 
regard Dr. Paley's writings on the Evidences of diristlanity 
as of so signally decisive a character, that we could be con« 
tent to let them stand as the essence and the close of the 
gresCt argument, on the part of its believers ; and sbouM feel 
no despondency or chagrin, if we could be pn^betically cet-> 
tified that suoa an efi^ient Christian reasoner would never 
h^ic^brward arise. We should consider the grand fortress 
of proof as now raised and finished, — the intellectual capitol 
' of that empire which is destined to leave the widest bounda- 
rie* attained by the Roman very far hehind. 

It- would seem that the infidels, notwithstanding their per- 
severance * in their ^tal perversity, do yet nearly coincide in 
tbid opinion of Dr. Paley's writings ; as none of th«n hav« 
presumed to attempt a formal reniution. They Are willing 
to enjoy their ingenuity of cavilling and misrepresenting', 
fteir exeinptaon from the restraints of religion, and their 
tivnsidnt impunity, under the ignonuniou* and alarmine con- 
YouV. . B 



. D3i'i--.-rll>/GOOglC 



S- Paley'a Sermons. 

dition of conceding, that they have no reply to a remon- 
strant who tells 'Atem. that their speculations are fal^e, that 
their moral principles are corrupt, and tliat their prospects 
are melancholy, — who calmly proves to them that certain de- 
clarations and requisitions nave been made by the Governor 
of the world, ana that, if they choose to repel and ridicule 
them, they are indeed quite at liberty to do it, but must 
make up their minds to abide the consequences, which con- 
sequences are most distinctly foreshewn in those declarations. 



With respect to those persons whose judgements are unde- 
ided on the grand inquiry, whether Christianity is of divine 
authority or not, we would earnestly press on their minds 



the question, whether they really care, and are in earnest o 
the subject ; whether they value their spiritual nature enough 
to deem it worth while to attain^ by a serious investigation, 
a determinate conclusion oil the claims of a religion which 
at once declares that spiritual nature to be immortal, and 
affirms itself to offer the only means for its perpetual happi- 
ness. If they really do not care enough about this tran- 
Ecendant subject, to desire above all things on earth a just 
and final determination of tlieir judgements upon it, we can 
only deplore that any thing so precious as a mind should 
have been committed to such cruelly thoughtless possessors. 
We can only repeat some useless expressions of amazement 
to see a rational being holding itself in such contempt \ and 
' predict a period when itself will be still much more amazed 
tX the remembrance how many thousand insignificant ques- 
tions ^und their turn to be considered and decided, while 
the one, involving infinite consequences^ was reserved to be 
determined by the event, — too late therefore to have an aus- 
picious influence on that event, which was the grand ol^ect, 
for the sake of which it ought to have been deternuned be- 
fore all other questions. If, cm the contrary, a strong soli- 
citude is felt to put an end, in tlie shortest time possible, to 
all doubts respecting the authority of the Christian religion, 
the very first cUtty, next to that of implpring sincerity and 
Uliunination from Heaven, is to study the works of this au- 
thor- It is in^iossible to hear, with the slightest degree of 
respect or patience^ the expressions of doubt or' anxiety 
about the truth of Christianity, from any one who can delay 
a 'week to obtain the celebrated View of its Evidences, or 
fail to read it through 4gain and again. It is of no use to 
say what would be our opinion of the moral and intellectual 
state of his mind, if after this he remained still undecided, . 

It is not perhaps to be required, as a general rule,, that a 
man who extends his investigations round the whole bor- 
der and circumference, if we may so express it, of ^ great 



.dtyGooglc. 



sjrstem of trath; constructing defensive uguments, and plant' 
ing ' armed watch' at every point c^en to attack or actually 
attacked, and every where looking out to a great distance 
to ascertain from what quarter and in whfet direction an 
enemy may come, should carefully and separately examine 
ail the interior parts of this system. It were too much to 
insist that the military guardian of a whole country, whtf 
takes the charge of its thousand miles of frontier, should ac- 

3uaint himself with the rural and local economy of its several 
istricts, or cultivate himself some particular piece of its 
ground. He might tel! us, it is enough that, while hia talents 
and exertions are maintaining the general security, tliere is 
happy scope given for the good management of all the af- 
fairs in detail, by men, whose cares are not forced to such 
a painful expansion. A man who sedulously and ably per- 
forms, for «11 other Christian students and teachers, the great 
office of bringing into their hands, from an immensely exten- 
sive field of inquiries, all the most decisive proofs of the 
divine origin and authority of the system, may well demand 
that they m return should furnish lo him more accurate in- 
vestigations of its component parts than his extended la- 
bours will have allowed him to prosecute or finish, instead 
of invidiously sc rutin iz in g,«nd exposing the defects of his 
knowledge in the detail. . To have exhibited what will hk 
appealed to, for ages to come, as a most luminous concen- 
tration of evidence, in proof ttiat divines have really a di- 
rect revelatioa trom God to explain and discriminate into 
a system of particular doctrines, is a much more difficult and 
important service, than, assuming this great general truth, 
it would be to give the clearest elucidation of one, or two, or 
ten of those doctrines. And besides, the o&er studies pro- 
secuted by Dr. Paley, with a direct view, as it is fair to in- 
fer from their ultimate application, of vindicating the first 
principle of all religion, the belief of a God, were of a na- 
ture to absorb long spaces of his life, as tbev extended to 
very wide and scientific departments of knowledge. 

From the consideration of studies extended over such ample 
and various ground, and yet'all made to conduce to the ad- 
vancement of religion, we should think it uncandid to exact 
from this distinguished author a minute precision throughout 
the whole list of theological questions. It is trUe, indeei^ that 
the importance of religion, as a whole, must consist in the 
aggregate importance of all its parts : hut we are not mak- 
ing any contrast, or referring to any proportion of impor- 
tance, "between die aggregate and the separate parts ; we 
are merely pointing to the much more extended scope, and 
B3 



r,o,i,,-,-,ih,.GoOglc 



4> . Viiey's ^rmoMS. 

the much severer prosess, of the great general argument, as 
confpa^ed with the argument on any specific Christian doc- 
trine. This specific argument requires of course but one do- 
cument, of which it assumes the validity, but to the establish- 
mfcnt of which validity so 'many other documents, and so 
many niethods of investigation, were antecedently required. 

Nevertheless, on first hearing of the publication of ser- 
mons of Dr. Paley, we thought it not improbable that he 
might occasionally have exerted the whole force of his en- 
riched and penetrating mind on £ome selected pmnt of Cbris- 
Uan doctrine or morals ; and wer6 prepared to expect a num- 
ber of elaborate, and therefore important, dissertanons. We 
were not apprized that the volume would chiefly consist of 
the very short and hastily written discourses which were com- 
posed in ^e ordinary course of his professional services. The 
^rtness indeed of some of them is tantalizing and-vexadous. 
When an important subject has been concisely laid forth, 
when two or three wews of it have been vety transiently 
unfolded, when some most striking argument appears to be 
just; opening, of which we earnestly wish for an ample illus- 
traUon, then, even just then, comes the twelfth or the ^ir- 
teenth page, and suddenly puts aB end to the reasoning Mid' 
the discourse, leaving us to a montecation rather similar to 
wfiat we. recollect to have felt on being obliged to shut up a 
volume of prints of the structures of Balbec, *hen we had 
looked dirough about half tlie series, or on being suddenly 
ctilled away from a philosophical lecture, when the most co- 
- nous experiments were gtjing to be made in illustration of an 
interesting proposition. Several of the subjects are indeed 
prolonged to two or three sermons, but we end almost all of 
them with an impression of the incompleteness of the dis- 
cussion, from the narrowness of the allotted space. But for 
aome rather unceremonious addresses on some rather uncour- 
teous subjects, we mast be led to entertain a lofty idea of 
.Dt. Ppley's auditory ; for bow important must have been the 
employinents witii which their time vras acciistomed to be 
occupied, whep such a preacher could seldoni pi-esume to 
trespass beyond fifteen minutes ! But vrith regard to coifgre- 
gations in ffeneral, it is surely very fair to observe htnv use- 
less such (fiscourses must be. ■ If even Dr. Paley, with his 
admirable power of compressioo and lucid statement, is quite 
unable in such a contracted space to do jnstfce to the oare 
afgim^nt of a subject,-^to say nothing of those mbdes of re- 
presenting and enforciiig it, which are requisite to sfecore for 
it a place in the imagination under tlie form of sdme strik- 
ing figure or scene, or to make it iriipressive on the Him- ' 
jcience and affectionsj—what can be expected fiom «acb » 



'sr,o,i,;c,ih,.Gopglc 



Paley's^ Sfrnions. ■ , 

diminutive shred of the compoBition of ordinary performers 
of the-sacred services ? We siiould uadoubtedty be among 
tlie most vociferous to protest against a return towaid tfie 
triple liour-glass discourses of the venerable puritan and an- 
cient Scotch presbyterian times ; but really human creatures 
must be prodigiously changed since that period, if about -a 
tenth part of the same instruction be now sufficient to expel 
their ignorance and their vices. 

No reader of Dr. Paley's former works will open his ser- 
mons with any expectation of what we usually call eloquence. 
A mind, predetermined peitiaps by its original structure, and 
therefore accustomed from early youth to se^k the ralionaie, 
as it used to be termed, of every subject, would ccgpe to 
have little esteem for the lighter matters of imagery and sen- 
timent. Its attention would instantly fix on the h?r^ and 
supporting parts of all doctrines and systems, as the eye of 
John Hunter almost involuntarily examined the anatomical 
structure of all animal fonns that came in his view, often 
quite forgetting aH the beauties of complexion, colour, or 
gloss, ana perhaps sometimes regarding even the most orna- 
mental appearances of Uie superficial substance at but dis- 
agreeable obstmctions to his desired research into the con- 
formation of the bones. Such a mind views all subjects as 
placed in a state of controversy by opposite-propositions and 
argumentations ; and regards it as the noblest, indeed the 
only noble intellectual achievement, to carry a question 
through the conflict of advise argumejtts, and in tlie result 
to establish some one thing a^ true, consolidating its proofs 
^y a demolition of all that opposes ; and therefore this ar- 
gumentative mind makes little use or account of any- forces 
'but the rigid ones of the understanding, leaving evefy thing 
that relates to defloration and attraction to the taste aud 
fancy of orators and poets. If a builder of ships of war hap- 
pens to walk through a forest, he will take little notice of 
trees recommended by taper elegance on the one side of his 
path, or by beautifijl fohage and blossoms oa the other ; it 
IS Uie oak that his eye naturally searches for, and Exes on 
ivith the most interest ; and even in looking at that, he dbes 
not care about the rich mass of green shade, the fine coi)- 
toui- of its form, or the wreaths of woodbine that may be 
climbing and. flowering round its stem; he is - thinking pre- 
cisely of tiie timber, which is to brave storms and artillery. 

The compoMtions before ns are devoid of all ornament, and 
evidently did not receive therordinary jlinishing of an author. 
The Jjitif uage is sometimes quite homely, sometimes inac- 
GUffite, and but h^rely any where attains a tolerable degree of 
.BQatoesti.it is as ixfx fmm T»iiegat«d colouriqg «8 lA» 



ih,Googlc 



6 Pftley'B Sermons. 

winter aky, while the author's imagination is as 8ub.dtied as 

the principle of vegetation appears just now in the middle of 
December. The train of thought, as far as it is carried, is 
a most simple exercise of intellect, very briefly analysing, 
occasionally with a slight use of the forms of logical process, 
and generally with admirable discrimination, some specu- 
lative or moral principle in the theory of religion, wiUi the 
intermixture of a few plain reflections of a practical tendency. 
The passions are no further attempted to be moved, than 
OS that effect may be produced by a short and very cool and 
sober statement of what is deemed the most important con- 
sideration involved in the subject. And we will acknowledge 
that the grave stillness of manner, and. the extreme simplicity 
of expression, with which solemn considerations are pre- 
sented, h&ve sometimes, on us, the, ettect of makinc them 
more impressive, than perhaps, we should have felt ^em as 
exhibited in oratorio language. For instances, we should , 
refer, among other sermons, to* those on the ' Neglect of 
Warnings,' and the ' Terrors of the Lord.' There are certain 
classes of thoughts which are expressed by almost all writers 
in language of ajjparent emotion, and by many with strong 
figures, and urgent appeals and inculcations : when such mo- 
mentous thougiits are uttered in a jierfectly calm manner, 

'they come to us, partly by contrast with their usual im- 
passioned mode of oeing communicated, with a certain air of 
novelty, which more forcibly arrests and fixes our attention; 
we are- made to look the subject more directly in the face, 

'in consequence of meeting it thus divested of its usual array of 
authority, and yet bearing an aspeit of the highest authority 
still. It is useful for ns now and then >to be made to feel, 
what an imperative (guality religious trutli possesses essen- 
tially, and can therefore evince without the aid of raised and 
ardent language. Part of this authoritative effect of serious 
truths coolly expressed, may also be owing to the very manner 
of the person thus expressing thejn. Provided he is be- 
lieved to be a wise and pious man, his thus refusing to come 

<tnto a state of sympathy with us, and gravely placing solemn 

■ truth before us as a being without passions, gives us, at 
times, an impression as if he were a monitor of a. superior 
order to ourselves, whose objetft in addressing us is to exe- 
cute a serious commission to which he is appointed, leaving 
us to regard or to slight, at our choice, what he was sent by a 
higher- authority to say to lis. And besides, when important 
truths are declared in a maimer totally unimpassioned, he 
who utters them appears by this calm inanner to place an 
entire reliance on the force of the truth itself, feelmg it of 

' foo solejnn and peremptory a character to ne^ the ^^i 9f 

. Coos;[e 



Paley's Sermons. t 

n and ritetoTic to enable it to ^mmand our utmost at- 
tention. No writer, howevn*, whose manner of treating af- 
fecting subjects is so still and cold, can ever make this kind 
of impression, unless that manner be also distinguished by 
a deep and invariable gravity ; arid this quality prevails in 
the greatest degree throughout these sermons. The homeli- 
ness of phrase ^ich we have noticed does indeed much de- 
tract from the dignity of the discourses ; but the seriousness 
is never interrupted ; we do not recollect one sentence that 
appears adapted or intended to amuse. The single idea of an 
amusing nature, excited in perusing this whole volume, has 
been that of the damp and mortification which will fall on 
the spirits of any gay fashionable triSers, that may look into 
these sermons from complaisance to the celebrated name of 
the author. Perhaps indeed we should not talk of being 
amused at the mortification which indicates stich an unhappy 
state of mind ; certainly we should be glad for any of them 
suddenly to become so altered, as to be interested rather 
than repelled by the seriousness ; but we fear it will be the 
lot of very few persons to pass from diversions and gay society 
to the reading of such passages as the following, widi any 
otfier sentiment than disgust and recoil. 

'_ ' Whenever therefore we are dnving on in tlie career of worldly prospe- 
ri^; meedngwith lucces^ after aucceu ; feitonBte, rich, sod floiuiihing; 
, when vnrj thing appears to thrire and imile irouhd ui : but eotueioKit 
in the nam time, but Ittde heeded and attended to; the juiucCi the in- 
tegrity, the vpri^tnet* of our wavi, seldom weighed and tcnitinixed by 
<u i reCgion very much, or enurely perfaapa, out of th^ queation with ui i 
toothed aad booyed up with that telf-i^^uKi which aucceu naturally 
begets : in this no very uncommon state of soul, it will be well if we 
hnr our Saviour'a voice aakiog ua, what does all this prosperity rignify^f 
if it do not Ind to heaven, what ia it worth { when the scene i* ahilted, if 
nothing but death and darkneai remain behind ; much more, if God Al- 
mighty be all this while offended by oor forgetHiloeit both of his mercies 
sod his laws, our neglect of hia lervica, our indevotion, our thoughtleiincM, 
our diaobedience, our love of the wodd to the exi^uaion of alTconridoa- 
tion of Him f if we be assured, and if in realitf it be the case, that hia 
<Bspkasare shall in&Uibly oveitalw us at our death, what, in truth, under 



all this i^pearuce of adnotage, arc we getting or gaining ? The world 
msy aanise at with names and terms of feliquti<Mi, with their praises or 
tbeir eavy ; but wherein are we the better in the amount and result of suk- 



ttantial happiness 1 we have got our aim, and what ia the end of it i Death 
ii' prepariog to level us wiui the poorest of mankind ; and after that, a 
feuM looking for and expectauon of judgement ; no wellJbunded hopes 
of happiness beyond the grave i and we drawing sensibly nearer to uiat 
{tave every year. This ii the sum of the account.' p. 488. 

In speaking of the effect which we have felt in reading 
parts of these Krmon^ from the cool and somewhat austere 

r,o,i,,-,-,ih,.GoOglc 



* Pali's Sermons. 

mtnrier in wWcK the most interesting snhjects are presentwli 
we have described something different from the ustial cottne 
of our experience : .from oiir manner of accounting for it, we 
*8ll not be misunderstood to approve, in general, of so cold 
a manner of exhibiting die subjects oF ^upreoie Lconse. 
i^ience ; for popular addreeses we condemn it totally. FrDm 
the causes just spetjfiea, taken with our previous respect fiw 
Dr. Paley, vrith the frequent proofs of the samejigoraus in- 
tellect in this volume, with the cixxjumstance that we read the 
•ermons instead of hearing them, and with the consideration 
mat the author is no more, we have been considerably in^ . 
teti'sted and moved hy several passages winch maioitain.a 
singular composure of manner in referring to'the^ood teod 
e^iT of eternity;' but the general rule for prea^ers will 
fclways continue to be, that since the instractor and th* 
tiersons instructed have just the aame nHxoentous interest 
m the concerns of religion, 'he ought to eslitbit and en- 
force with the utmost zeal, what they ought to receive with 
WW deepest emotion, of conscience- ■and the mint earnest 
H»lrirationB for the divine mercy, Notwithstandii^ the mi. 
riousnesfi of these sermons, and notwithstanding he may 
disapprove, on account of its formality, the meUiod of al- 
ways closing religious dtsboarseH by a mstinct appli,catton of 
Rie subject to the conscience and the passions, every pious 
•wader will :feel a great deiiciency of the requisite zeal, 
xMi the -part of the preacher, in the Shortened and inanimate 
concluBions of these discotirsps. It vill be felt as if the 
t^hristian advocate cared not how soon or how taiiiely he 
/lismissed his subject, as if he dismissed it without having 
•become more partial to it ^hile unfolding and rfecommend- 
ing it, as if he had no teodcocy tn fall into a prolonged 
.expostulation in its favour, as if he hfad no expectation that 
his discourse should produce any effect, and a£ if he felt 
iiut little of either sadness or indignation to think it would 

'Diere will )3e considerable cnriosity, and even anxiety, 
■in the relisious public, to learij the a«act character of Dr. 
Paley's religions opinions ; and each of the chief opposed 
classPs-of the believers in Christianity would be ^Iftd to lind 
cause to assume so eminent a reasoner atf according speci- 
fically with their views. As fer as we can, judge, he is not 
Jo be fully appropriatecl by any one of these classes, ft is evi- 
dent that his judgenjent was in a state of indecision re- 
lative to sevonu impoFtaat questions ; and that candour mu^ 
suggest, as we have suggested, the magnitud'e of his labours, 
m ujfi investigation ot the great basis and authority afre- 
ligion in geijeral, in excuse for his -not having 'devt>ted a 



Paley'a SemmB. , 9 

competent share of attention to the detenniiiatina of ^« 
speci&c principles, -die tfited in the inspired book which he so 
powa-fnUy derended. 

It would be more easy perhaps to say what this most able 
inc]airer's opinions were not, than precisely what they were. 
His ideas of the person of Christ are no where attempted 
to be ibrraally explained, and are but very slightly unfolded 
even by passing intimations. As distinct a passage as any 
wo Tecollect, is the fullo.wing. 

'- In the mean time, from the whole of tbeie declsratiopa and of thit 
4iscDBsioa, we collect, that Jctua Cbriat, ascended into the heaveDi, it, at 
-diis day, a great efficient Beipg io tbe unirerae, invested by hit Father 
with A high authority, whi«Ui be exerciser, and will coDtinue to exir- 
ate, to tbe H)d of the world.' p. 348. 

To l4iia vfe may add two other citations. 

< That a peraan of a nature difiereitt from ill other men ; nay uperior. 
For 80 he IS diatincdy describedto be, to all created beiogi, whether 
meo di- aogela ; united with the Deity aa no other penon is unitedt 
that such a penon should come down from heaven, aod luSer upon 
earth the pains of an excruciatiag death, and that these bit eubmiMiaai 
and oifTemigs should avail, and produce a greU effect in the procure- 
Dient of the future aalvation of mankind, cannot but excite wonder.' 
P- 28$, 

' That a great and happy Being should voluntarily enter the world 
. jn a mean and low condition, and humble hiratflf to a death upon the 
cross, that is, be executed as a malefactor, in order, by whatever means 
it was done, to promote the attainment of talvation to mankind, was . 
a theme they (the apostles) dwelt upon with the warmest thankful- 
ness.' p. 490. 

With regard to the death. of Christ, he expresses strongly 
his impression of the mysteriousness both of the appoint- 
ment itself, and of tlie manner in which that sacrifice pro- 
duces its appointed effect; hut he fully asserts that it wa.'; 
really and strictly a sacrifice, tliat it is constituted a part of 
the economy of human redemptionj and that, though in some 
inexpUcable manner, it is efbc^acious toward that great ob- 
ject. How much we regret that the sermon written to assert 
this greit doctrine, which we regard as absolutely of the 
esseijce «f the Christian religion, should have hceu confined 
f:o ten pages ! We could not hut be much gratified to fin<t 
the recpected author decidedly avowini; this faith; but it is 

E sinful to observe his apparent retuctance'to dwell on it even 
ing enough to illustrate ita evidence. He says, ' we have 
be^M^ U9 a doctrine of a very peculiar, perhaps Tmay say, 
of a very unexpected kind,' and this its pecuHarity and 
stmngenesB would seem to bave caused him an irksome 
feelmg id advwitung it. He ^seems to h^ve quita forgotten. 



.dt'yGoogIc 



^*> Paiey'a Sermons. y 

tibat exactly in proportion to the degree in wbidi it b of 
a peculiar and imexpected nature, the proof of its trudi 
ought to have been laboured and complete ; whereas he ap- 
pears to have been haunted by some uncomplacent feeling, 
which precipitated him through a scanty though appropriate 
selection of scriptural authorities, connected by short reason- 
ings, and followed by a general conclusion, to escape from 
the subject as soon as possible by a suggestion or two con- 
cerning the moral influence -which such a doctrine claims 
' and is adapted to have on our feelings. 'It was only,! he 
. says, ' for a moral purpose that the thing was reveaied at 
all ;' and that purpose is a sense of gratitude and obliga- 
tion :' a position which we do not perfectly understand. We 
should have thought that the purpose for which that sacred 
economy was revealed, must be exactly parallel to that fov 
which it was appointed. If it was appointed as a grand ex- 
pedient for saving men, the leading purpose of itsbeing-re- 
Tealed must be, that men may so understand it, adopt it, 
' and confide in it, as to be saved. 

The serriion which follows the one on the efficacy of the 
death of Christ, is designed to prove, that all need a Re- 
deemer ; and this is done in a plain and rather forcible man- 
ner, by displaying the imperfect state of the human charac- 
ter, even in good men, and representing what a slender claim 
could b^ founded on such deficient virtues. But though it 
must, on the whole, be allowed,- that the Doctor is notvery 
much a Batterer of his species, we think that, in unfolding die 
culpable state of the human chanLcter^ he does not go to die 
depth and basis of the evil. He seems to regard moral ' de- 
fect, or sin, rather as accidental to individual men, than as 
radical in the nature of man ; and therefore that necessity of 
a Redeemer, which is primarily to be inferred from the in- 
spired declarations respecting the melancholy moral coniU- 
tion of our very nature, is inferred solely from an enumera- 
tion of actual sins and sinners. According to our view of the 
doctrine of the New Testament, it is not precisely and merely 
because men bate been guilty of a certain number of spe- 
cific sins, of omission and commission, that they need a 
Redeemer, (and, on this hypothesis, some men much more 
than others, as having been guilty of more and greater sins] ; 
but more comprehensively and abstractedly, because they 
' are in that radically corrupt state of moral being, of which 
these specific evils are but the indications and natural results. 
Kor does our author appear to entertain such an estimate of 
the operation and awards of the divine law of perfection, an 
to make the inference firom this quarter, as to ,.tbe necessity 
of a. Redeemer, so absolute and awful as it seems to be.made 



Paley's Sermms. it 

in the New Testament; for though he Judges that on the 
ground of this law a man could not, by his best efforts, liave 
merited the vast and endless felicity designated by the term 
Heaven, he is hy no means disposed to pronounce that such 
a man miglit not have merited on that ground some measure 
of happiness ; much less that the imperfect obedience would 
have .merited punishment. The necessity of a Redeemer 
that is here insisted on, is therefore of a very modtfieJ kind. 

To avoid admitting the appointment of a Redeemer as an 
entirely/ new economy of the moral relations of men vtith • 
their Almighty Governor, in regard to the terms of their 
acceptance, our author briefly proposes a theory, which makes 
the death of Christ the cause, and virtue, holiness, or ' a good 
life,' the condition, of salvation. 

< We must bear in mind tnu in the buuncss of tdntion there are na- 
turally and properly two things, viz. the caiue, and the condiuon ; and 
that these two things are difiFereat. We should see better the propriety 
of this distinction, if we would allow ourselves to consider well wiat 
talvaiitm it .* what the being saved means. It is nothing leas than, after - 
this life is ended,' being placed in a sute of happiness exceedingly great, 
todi in degree and duration, &c.' 

After displaying the magnificence of this prospect, he pro- 
ceeds. 

* will any one then contend, that salvation in this sense, and to this 
extent ; that heaven, eternal li&, glory, honour, immortality ; that a hap- 
piness, such that there i& no way of d'Sscribing it, but by saying that it 
surpasses human comprehension ; will any one contend, that this is no 
more than what virtue deserves, what in ita owQ proper natorp, and by • 
its own merit, it is entitled to look forward to, and to receive i The 
greatest virtue that man ever attained to, has no such pretensions. 1"he 
best good action that man ever performed, has no claim to ihia extent, 
or any thing like it. It is out of all calculation, and comparison, and pro- 
portion, above and more than any human works can possibly deserve. To 
what then are we to ascribe it, that codeavoura after virtue should pro- 
cure, and that they will in fact procure, to those who sincerely exert 
^em, sucb immense blessings ? To what but to the voluntary bounty of 
AimightyGod, who in his inexpressible good pleasure hath appointed it 
80 to be ? I'he benignity of God towards man hath made him this m- 
cnnceivably advantageous offer. But a most kind offer may still be a con- 
ditional offer. And this, thoagh an infinitely gracious and beneficial 
oSer, is still a conditional offer, and the performance of the conditions is 
as necessary, as if it had been an ofier of mere retribution. 
, '.Some who allow the necessiur of good works to salratton, are not 
willing that they should be called conditions of salvation. But this, I 
^ink, is a diatinctioii too refined for common Christian apprehension, [f 
they be necessary to salvadon, they are conditions of salvadon, so far 
?» I can see. , 

* The cause of salvation is the free f/Wt the free gifl, the love and 
mercy of God^ That alone is the stource, and fountain, and cause of 
wlratioD, from which all o«r hc^ of attuning to it are derived. . To 



jS Paley's Sermons. 

aaue, is not in ouraelvei, nor in any thing we do, or cando, but in^odi 
in his good will and pleasure. Therefore, whatever ibell have moved and 
excited and conciliated that geod will and pleasure, so as to liave pro- 
cured that offer to be made, or shall have formed aoy part or portion of 
the motiTe from which it was madci may most truly and properly be. said 
to be eiGcadoQi in human idvation. Ihis efficacy is in Scripture ascribed 
a the death of Chrnt. It is attnbuted in a variety of ways of expres- 
■icw. He is a sacrifice, an oSetitig to Godi a propitiation, the preci<Mis 
•acnfice fonordained, the ' Lamb slain from the foundation of the wArldi 
the rl^mb whicb takedi away the iin of the world }' we are * washed 
ip bis blood,' we are 'justified by his Uoodi' we ate ' savtid fro^ wrath 
^ough him,' tec. &c< 

* Still it is true that a man will not obtain what is offi^red, unless he 
comply with the terms } so far his compliance is a condition of his hmf 
piness.' But the grand thing is the offer being made atalf. That'i^ 
thegrannd and ongin of the whole. That, is the caujc' pp. 313, SI*, 
S15, Stc. ' 

The Doctor 'liimself is fully awace t'hat this view of tlie 
subject, DOtwithstaading every precaution in the statement, 
every admonition of unwortniness, evei^' representation of 
the magnitude of the promised felicity, and every eulogiuQi 
of the generosity of the divine Benefftctor, will yet have ii 
strong tendency, as the human mind is constituted, to che- 
rish notions of high desert after all. He has ta1<en pain^ 
and made a very plausible representation of a parallercase, 
to prevent this obvious consequence,. But we thmk it would 
so infallibly result, as to destroy that estimate of theChris^ 
■ tian economy as a system of pure absolute mercy, which is 
so often expressed in the New Testament, and to preclude 
that feeling of boundless obligation which animated the. gra^ 
titude and devotion of the apostles. 

In the way of shewing the incorrectness of the UteoFy, it 
will be enough just to notice the very imperfect conception 
. and definition of salvation with which it sets out. If anyone 
thing be evident in the New Testament, it would seem to 
be, tliat salvation, as tli ere described, does not consist solely 
in a final preservation from punishment and attainment of 
the heavenly felicity, but includes essentially that sanctified 
state of the mind and character, which forms a prepara-i 
tion for that final happiness. This^ purified stale, we apprer 
' hend, is represented not as a mere antecedent circumslance 
of salvation, but as a part of its very essence. But it would 
be strangely incorrect to call that a condition of 'Salvation, 
*bich is an essential part of it. 

Again, the Christian Scriptures state, Tve should think, 
with the utmost distinctness, that the sanctity of mind which 
is the operating principle in all practical Christian virtue^ and 
butfor which not one act of trtje Christian virtue woiild ever" ■ 
^e performed, is just as. nruch a'ffee .gift of the divide msxcj^' 

,- ■ . . Coosjic . 



Palefi Sermota. 4S 

ftnd jast as impossible to' have been otherwise <Atatned, as 
that final felicity which is the compietion of salvation ; but it 
would be strange to call that a condition, of which the sub- 
atance is to be ejlected by the very Being who prescribes it.' 
There are in the' volume several sermons on toe influences 
of the Holy Spirit ; but they do not lay down a very defined 
doctrine on the sulgect. In some passages the preacher seema 
very anxious to avoid repi'esenting those influences as of purely 
arbitrary operatioRf oh the part of the Diviiie Being, and to 
mairitadn that tbey are determined toward tbeir object by some 
favourable predisposition in that object ; or that t'ney are not 
dften granted till after tbey are requested. In other pas- 
sage!^ the theory of the ditine operations on the mind ap- 
pears to us to go very nearly the whole length of the doc- 
trine denominated Calvinistie, particularly when the Boctor 
adverts to the sudden conversion of very wicked men. On 
this topic he ^leaks in much stronger terms than are pro- 
bably ever heard from the greater number of the pulpits of 
our established church ; in such terms, indeed, aa from any 
Qther man would be deemed most methodisdcal and fanatical. 
He expresses (and every page of the bot^ bears the moftt 
perfect marks of sincerity) hisdriight and bis thai^fiilness 
to Heaven, on account of those instanced of' a sadden change 
of mind and character; — in consequence perb^s of hearing a 
iermon, or reading a passage of the bibi^ or hearing sotnQ 
casual dbservationy — which many official divines are attempting 
to s«6ut, in language fk ridicule or rancour, as the ft-eaks or 
fancies of a perntcioua enthusiasm. The Doctor bad too- 
much of the spirit of a true philosopher, to r^ect an im- 
portant 9lass of facts iu Jbrming his theory ; and too little of 
the bigot, to be indignant that notorious sinners should become 
devout Christians and virtuous citizens, because they became 
S6 in the mode apt) the precincts of Methodism. For ttiis 
contempt of the ignotairt, bigoted, and irreligious rant which 
prevailed around himr we honour him too much, to he wil- 
ling to inake any of the remarks which we intended on some 
parts of his sermon on * The Doctrine of Conversion,' fonnd^ 
ed on that expression of our Lord, 'I am coDoe not to call 
the righteous, but sinners,, to repentaiice ;' on which he ob- 
serves, 'A appears from tl^se worda, that our Saviour, in bis 
preaching^ held in view the chancter and spirituri situation 
of the persons whom he addres«ed ; and the infSerences wbicll 
^sisteq among them in these respects : and that be bad a re- 
^rdto these coDsideratioas, more especially In the preachUig 
of repentance and conversion.' (p. 116.) We would only jflsi 
«• ask, Wba weietliie fk:(A!M>^. BOf^i^S "^^ Lord's ffearers? the 
Scribes, Pharisees, aftd itUfew ? OrWerethey tfie Sadduceesr 
Or were they the puhUcant and sinn«« ? Plainly who an4 



14 Philosophical Transaelions. 

where were they ? Can any thing, be more evident, than that 
it was of the very essence of our Lord's mission and ministiy 
to adjudge them all unrighteous, absolutely every one, ex- 
cepting those who were become his converts and disciples r 
Could any of his hearers reject him and be righteous ? But 
it is plain that the epithet was not in this instance applied by / 
him to his converts arfd disciples, as it had been absurd to 
say, 'It is not my object to convert those whom I have al- 
ready converted.' If therefore the term was applied to any 
class of his hearers, it must be to those who rejected him. 
And how could it be applied to them ? How but eviden^ 
in the sense in which the text has been so often explained, 
as a severe irony on the proud self-righteo\is Pharisees ? Or^ 
auch a mode of expression he thought inconsistent with the 
solemn simplicity of our lord's character, the passage may 
be interpreted fis this simple proposition, — that it was becatae 
these persons, in whose company he was so often found, were 
«inners, that he frequented their company ; that to be in the 
society of sinners was the sole object of bis sojoarning on 
earth, for that, if men had been righteous, they woBW not 
have needed a Saviour. 

As the sermons are nearly forty, we do not pve all their 
titles. A considerable proportion are entirely practical. A 
very able one, on the ' Destruction of the Canaanites*,' ought 
to uave been four times its present length. 

It would be ridiculous in us to affect to recommend a vo- 
lume written by Dr. Paley. It will be extensively read ; its 
readers will receive many useful and striking thoughts; and 
we earnestly wish they may study the New Testament enough, 
to be saved frofn any injurious impression of what we cannot 
allow ourselves to regard as unimportant errors. 

Art. II. PhilotofiUeal Tramatlioni of the Royal Saeiety of LonJont for 
the Year 1807. Fart I. 4to. pp. 132 and S6. Price lOi. Nicol. 

IT is unnecessary to enumerate the causes which have scr 
long delayed our inte^ided critiques of the successive vo- 
lumes of the Transactions of the Royal Society of London. 
In consequence of the arrangennents we have" now imtde, we 
trust that no such omission will occur in future ; and we 
propose giving an account of one Part of these Transac- 
tions in each of our following numbers, till we have over- 
taken and described the P&rt last published. 

In the half volume now b^re us, there are six papers ; 
which we shall desci^be in their order. 

* A good lununary of the argumepts on thit subject will be ibiud is a 
receat Number of the <* Pagd^pof" Ait, Canaaata. 



,, Google 



JPhUMephical Tramactvms. is 

I, The Bdkerian Lecture, on some Ckemical Agencies ^ 
EUctricity. By Humphry DaVy, Esq. F.R, S. M.R.I. A. Read 
Nov. 20, 1806. 

This most interestiag aod valuable memoir, occupjring J>6 
pages, is divided into ten sections. 1. An introduction, io 
wbch Mr. Davy points oat some errors of other inquirers, 
and shews by miat means tbey have been misled. 2. On the. 
changes produced by Electricity in Water. 3. On the Agen- 
cies of Electricity in the decomposition of various com- 
pounds. 4. On the transfer of certain of the constituent 
parts of bodies by the action of Electricity. S. On the pas- 
sage of acids, alkalies, and other substances, through various 
attracting chemical menstrua, by means of Electricity. 6. 
Some general observations on these phenomena, and on the 
mode of decomposition and transition. 7. On. the general 
principles of the chemical changes produced by Electricity. 
8. On the relations between the electrical energies of bo- 
dies, and their chemical aiEnities. 9. On tlie'mode of ac- 
tion in the Pile of Volta, with experimental elucidations. 
10. General illustrations and applications of the foregoing 
facts and' principles. 

We cannot pretend, in the narrow limits we are com- 
pelled to assign ourselves, to follow the Professor through 
the whole train of his reasonings and experiments. It must 
suffice to state generally, that as, in tlie Voltaic contacts of 
metals, copper and zinc appear in opposite states, so Mr. 
Davy finds that acids and alkalies possess naturally, wiUi 
regard to each other and the metals, the potver of affording 
opposite electricities ; being, as this acute philosopher ex- 
presses it, in states of negative and positive electftcal ener- 
gies ; and are, of consequence, attracted by bodies i^ con- 
traiT states: Conformably with' this, he finds that a decom- 
position of many bodies, particularly by those containing al- 
Kalies, acids, alkaline earths, and metallic oxydes, is effected 
by the Voltaic circuit; all acid matter arranging itself about 
the positive point, and the alkaline matters and the oxides 
round the negative point: the acids and their bases being 
thus separated, even in their stony neutral compounds. By 
means of these attracting and repelling powers of the differ- 
ent electricities, acid and alkaline matters are transported, 
even through menstrua, for which they have a strong aitntc-' 
turn. On the principles deduced irom his accurate and inge- 
nious experiments, Mr. Davy satisfactorily explains several' 
curious chemical and Galvanic facts ; such as the decompo- 
sition of muriat of soda between the plates ; the appearance' 
of acids and of alkaline or metallic bases, at the different 
poles of the pile ; the separation of water' into oxygen and 



,,-crlh,GOOglC 



16 PMofophtcai Trimmclms. 

hydrogen;' aud' the obtaining of atM-aad of alkali from 
water which is apiparently pore. The \aXXts part of the pa- 
per consists of ti series of detached remarks, Ruggested by 
' (^ whole iiiquiiy ; and from this we ^aO exUmct a few para- 
graphs. J. 

'Many applications of the generd facti and priDctnlet n> the pro- 
ttwei of ahemittry, both in art and in mnire, will readily auggem tbeni' 
aehet to the philosophical enquirtr. 

< They ofe- reiy eaiy mechoda of separating acid anddkaline matter^ 
ivbeo thejr exist in .combination, either tt^ether or aepartteljr, in minerala ; 
and the deetrical powers of deconlpoaiuon aiay be eaaijy employed \a 
aoimal and vegetable analyua. 

' A piece- ^ muscular fidre, of two inches long and half an inch io 
diameter, after being electrified by the power of 150 for five days, be- 
came perfectly dry and hard, and left on incineration no saline matter. 
PotaBli, soda, ammonia, lime, and okide of iron were evolved from it on 
the negadfe side, and the three common mineral acids and the phosphono- 
acid, were given out on the poiitire side. 

' * A laurel leaf treated in the same manner, appeared as if it had 
been exposed to a heat of 500* or GOKf Fahrenheit, and wa* brown aad 
|nrcfaed. Green colourii^ matter, with resin, alkaJ^ add lime, appeared 
m the negative vessel ; and the positive vessel contained a clear Avidf 
which had the siaell of pe^ch Uossoms ; and wUcfaj when neutralized 
by potaahi ^ve a blue-green precipitate to solutioD of ralpfaate oS iron j 
■0 diat it contained vegetable prussic acid. 

' A small plant of mint, in a state of healthy vegetadon, was made the 
medium of connection in 'tl^ battery, its extremides .being in contact 
with pure Water ; the process was carried on far ten minutes i potash and 
lime Were fbmid in the negatively electrified water, and acid matter io 
the positively electrified water, which occanoned a precipitate in aola*, 
tinns c^ munate of barytes, nitrate of silver, and muriate of Kme. Thtf 
jdant recovered after the process : but a similar one, that had been elec- 
trified for four hour* with like results, faded and died. The facta ' shew 
that the electrical powers of decompoaiticm act even apoo living vm- 
table matter t and there are some ^ssnomena which aeem- to prove that 
they operate likewise upon living aoimd systems. When the fingers, 
after ha^ng been carefiilly washed with pure water, are brought in con- 
tact with ^is fluid in the positive part of the circuit, acid matter is ra- 
pidly developed, having the characters of a mixture of muriadc, phos. 
phoric, and sulphuric acids; and if a similar trial be made in the nega- 
uve part, fixed alkaline matter is as ^ickly exhibited. 

• The acid and'alkaline castes produced upoti the tongue, in Galvanic 
experiments^ seem (b depend upon the decomposition of the saline mat- 
ter contained in the' litriog animal ssbstance, and pediaps io the saliva; 

< As acid and albdine tubsiaDces are capable of being sepaimted from 
Umw ooBbioBtiooB in iiviag systems by electrical powers, theie is evny 
reason to believe that by cotiverae ate^iods they may be likewise intn*. 
doced into the animal nconomyt, or made to pass through the uimal 
organs : and the «anw thing msy be suji^osed of metallic oxides ; and 
tliese ideas oaght to lead to sow s^w uncstigMtOM ia mediciDe isd 
phyiiolo^, , 

r,on,-,Mh,.GDOglc 



. PhilQKphkal Transdcliiins. tf 

Mtlft not improbable tbu die electrical decompoutitMi of the neutr^ 
•alu in dilFereat cbkb piay admit of cccoaomicai uses. Well burned 
charcoal and plumbago, or charcoal and iron, might be made the exci- 
ting powers.; aod Guch an arrangement if erected upon ia extentiVe scale, 
neutrosaline matter being employed in every leriea, would, there is ereiy 
reason to believe, produce large quanciuea of acids and alkalies with very 
little trouble or expence.' pp. 51 — 5Ai, 

AUqg^ther, the researches described in this paper furni^ 
some of the most striking results, aiid suggest some of tlije 
most interesting topics of inquiry, that liave flowed from 
■clieniical experiments, since the inti'odiiction of the new no- 
iDencLature. Indeed, the very ingenious and scientitic Pro- 
fessor has already pursued his owu course of argumentatio;i 
and experiment with, singular success ; as we shall have oc- 
casion to describe more fully, in noticing his next comraq- 
uication to the Royal Society. At present, we have only to 
add, tliat a trih'ute of respect has been paid Mr. Davy o;i 
this occasion, by the author of a late splendid work, in which 
.the apparatus employed ii^ these experiments is placed as a . 
new constellation, between Pegasus and the Eagle : and far- 
tJier, that the Professor has been honoured with the priz?, ^ 
allotted by Bonaparte to the author of any discovery relating 
to Galvanism, which may constitute an important tera in tlie 
science. 

II. On the Precession of the Eauincres. By 'the Rev. Abram 
Robertson, M. A, F.R.S. Savilian Professor of Geometry in 
the Universi^ of Oxford. Read Dec. I8, 1806. 

The phenomenon of the precession of the Equinoxes, which 
is one of tlie most important consequences of the theory of 
gravitation, and furnishes one of the strongest proofs of the 
truth of the Newtonian Philosophy, has exercised the powers 
of the greatest mathematicians and philosophers of the . 
eighteenth century ; yet has presented a difficulty, which till 
very lately has proved insuperable. ' To describe the general 
causes of this and other connected phenomena is sufficiently 
easy ; but to go through the minutice of the reasoning, and 
complete the computation, has been found difficult indeed. 
If the earth were exactly spherical, the particles of matter 
situated on different sides of its centre would be equally at- 
tracted by the sun, and there would not result any libratory 
motion about that centre. But the earth being formed pro- 
tubeniting toward the equatorial regions, in order to prevent 
the evils that would otherwise arise from the rotatory motion*, 
the equality of balance is destroyed. The particles compo- 
sing the protuberance may be considered either as a kind of 

" ' « See Eel. Iliv. Vol.iii. p. 1102. ' 

Vol, T. C 

Doili--,-,VhvGOOglC 



i 



IS Phibmphieal Transactiuu. 

meniscus embraeing the globe, or as s congeries' ef little 
moons fixed in union one to another and to the terrestridl 
sphere. Now each of these would experience inequalities 
analogous to those of the real moon ; that is to say, its nodes 
■woul»I retrograde with respect to the ecliptic, by the action 
of the sun. But these particles, adhering to the terrestritil 
;lobe, cannot have such a motion without first separating 
.rom it; they therefore tend to force, it along with them in 
^e retrogradat^on ; and though their motion, communicated 
to so huge a mass, is considerably weakened, yet it is not en- 
tirely insensible. The entire mass, therefore, yields as it 
were little by tittle, and the equator of the earth retrogrades 
slowly over the ecliptic, thus producing the precession of tht 
tquinojccs. The moon acting upon the earth by its attract 
tion in like manner ivith the sun, will of course occasion ana- 
logous motions ; and the comparatire minuteness of its mass 
is even more than compensated by itji proximity. But as its 
positions with respect to the earth are incessantly changing, 
the effects which tncnce result are equally variable. H^nco 
the action of the moon is not limited, as is that of the sun, 
to produce a motion in the equinoxes ; it principally causes 
the obliquity/ of tlie ecliptic to vary, and produces the nuta- 
tion of the eaTtKs axis: and these inequalities, which are pe- 
culiarly due to it, have periods which depend upon its mo- 
tions. The mean value of the precession being the result of 
the ioint actions of the sun and moon, while the nutation is 
produced chiefly by that of the moon ; these phenomena be- 
come interesting, not only on their own accoimt, but because 
tlie ascertaining of their magnitudes furnishes a method of 
measuring the comparative magnitudes of the sun and moon. 
Fur these reasons, the determination of the precession has 
becoine a most important problem in physical astronomy. The 
method of solution was first sketched by Newton himself; 
and though, a« his candid commentator Daniel Bernoulli re- 
marks, " ne saw, through a veil, what others could hardly dis- 
cover mth a microscope in the light of the meridian sun," 
!■ Ij i.u_» 1 V-J *_ii i-i :_ u:_ 



yet 



t was soon discovered that he had fallen into error in his 



....estigalionson this subject. Mr. Landeir, in the firstvolui 
of his " Memoirs," has the honour of Imving first detected 
the source of Newton's mistake, by discovering that when a 
rigid annulu* revolves with two motions, one in its own plane, 
and the other round one of its diameters, half the motive 
force acting upon the ring is counteracted by the centrifugal 
force arising imia the compound motion, and half only is 
efficacions in accelerating, tlie'plane of the aimulus round 
its diameter. Mr. L. howmer, fli^ not expressly demonstrate 
this : hut it has b'jcn done very elegantly by Dr, Brinkley, ip 



I, Google 



Philotophieal TrdmiutiW. 19 

t>r. M. Yotuig^s< valuable meinw jon tbis intricate subjebt io 
vol. vit. of the Irish Transactions. 

- There still, however, remained something to accomplish ; 
Tiz. to exhibit Uie solution of the problem in a form suited 
to the comprehension of those win were moderately versed 
io the geometrical and fluxional branches of science ; and 
this is now attempted by Dr. Robertson, in a way that doe;s 
liim much credit. He considerably simplifies the process of 
investigation, by stating, on the most perspicuous asd un- 
exceptionable principles, the primary properties of cpmpound 
rotatory motion. He then states the circumstances to which 
.the earth is subject, as to the production of the pteccicion 
of the equinoxes. 

< At the vernal ec[uinox, for initaoce. a itraight line drawa from the . 
centre of the ino to tbat of the earth it in the plane of the eqoator, vaA 
therefore, as egual portions of ifae protuberant matter of the earth are aboTc 
.and below the ecliptic, the attractive power of the sun hat no teadeacy to 
alter the position of the equator. But, in consequence o£ the «arth't mo- 
tion in its orbit, it very toon after the equinox preientta different poaitioa 
of the equator to the tun. T^e equilibrium of the protuberant paru of the 
earth, above and below the ecliptic, and towards the tun, it then done 
away, and the attraction of the tun on that side, where the ^atest quantity 
ofprotubenintmatteriR,lendtto bringdown tbe^ equator into the ecliptic* 
or to cause the earth to revolve about a diameter of the equator. This 
attractive inBuence of the sun gradually increases a little till the tummeT wlt< 
ticcf it then i^radually decreases in the tame degree till the autumnal eijiu* 
mox> iiriien it vanithet. From the autumnal equinox to the winter solstice 
it again gradually increates a little ; and it then rraduatly decreasei in thr 
tame degree till the vernal e^quinox, when it again vanithei. This recur- 
rence and continuance of sction-is annually repeated. 

* Similar ohservauons apply to the attraction of the moon on the protube- 
rant parti of the earth. When a straight line drawn from her centre to 
that of the earth it' in the plane of the equator, the attractive influence of 
the moon hat no tendency to change the potitiou of the equator, but in 
other situations, the attraction' of the moon tends to bring tne equator of 
the earth into the plane of the moon's orbit, or cause the earth to mov» 
'round a diameter of the equator. The recurrences of the raoon't action 
•B the protuberant parte of the earth, and the times of tbdr continuing, ats 
repeated ev«ry month. 

. 'llieieeffinkt of theson andmoon are to be considered leparateln ; and 
for the reatotis already stated, each of the acdons, comlwed with , the di- 
amal rerdution of the earth, maybe considered as a particular ease of com- 
]K>und rotatory motion. It is needless, however, after investigating the 
^ects of the suo't action, and expressing them in general formmse, to 'go 
«ver the same itepa lor ascertaining thote of themoon.' pp. 64, 65. 
._ TJiii passive is introducttjry to the only Very difficult part 
in die inquiry, that is, the determiuBtlou of the momentary 
attera^n of the position of the earth's axis, -The Doctor then 
.oombines the sun's dis^urbiug force on the whole idass of tbs 
earth, tbe sun's centrt{>etel force on the' earth in its orbit^ 
and the ceotripetal force of the earth on a body suppo5«;d to 
C2 



go PhUosopbicd Transactions', 

tGVtA'n M thfe equator in the space of a diurnal revolution:, 
and thas obtains an expression for the force causin? pr^ 
cession. This is tbe greatest nicety in the' whole solution; 
it required the most Bkil), and is treated with much perspicuity 
and comparative simplicity. The quantity of annual pre- 
cession is then *' calculated in the usual way, and also that of 
nutation, as far as they are produced by the disturbing force 
of the sun." Dr. Robertson's results are 1" 27"' for the nuta- 
tion caused by the action of the suti in a quarter of a year, 
and 21". 0336 for the annual precession caused by the sun's 
disturbing force. These results agree nearly with those of 
Vince, aad others, who have given the. best solutions to the 
problem. 

•We have dwelt tbe loi^r upon this article, on account' of 
its importance, and because it nas been much misrepresented 
by some other critics. We wQuld beg lo suggest to the 
learned Professor, the propriety of completing the investi- 
gation, with a like regard to simplicity, taking the moon's 
iBotion, and ail the principal sources of irregularity, into the 
account; and publishing the whole in a separate work. The 

{irincipal difilculty, is how surmounted; and the remaining 
abour will be greatly facilitated, by recollecting, with regard 
to diiference of density, and variations of solidity and fluiditvi 
the remarkable theoreoi of Laplace, that " Whatever be the 
jaw of the depth of tbe sea, and the figure of the spheroid 
■which h surrounds, the phenomena of precession and nuta- 
tion are the sanu as if the sea formed one solid mass mth that 
spheroid" ~ 

III. An Account of two Gkildren, hem •with Cataracts in their 
Eyes, to shew that their Sight was obscured in very different De- 
grees ; with E±perimenls to determine the proportional Know- 
ledge <^ Objects acquired by them iminedtately after the Cataracts 
were remmed. By Everard Home, Esq, F. It. S. Read Jan. 15, 
1807. 

The two cases, here described, occurred under Mr. Home in 
St. George'i Hospital, in the year 1806. Mr. H. has related 
them, because he thinks they serve to explain the reason of the 
dilFerence between the celebrated observations of Mr. Chesel- 
den, in the Phil. Trans.. 1728, and those of Mr. Ware, in 
l80i. The conclusions drawn by Mr. Home, are as below : 

* That, where tbe eye before the cataract ii remored) hfs only 
been c^iable of discerning light, without being able to distiaguiaii 
coloun, object* after ita removal will .eeem to touch the eye, and 
there will be no knowledge of their outlines, which conlinns the ob- 
•ervatioai made by Mr. Chescldem: 

* ThM, ^riiere the eye has prerionslr dininguiahed coloors, there' mo.it 
idao be an imperfect knowledge of diataocei, but not of oatline,^ «4tich 
however will afterwarda be rery toea acquired) sa happened in Mb 

■ .. ■ Google 



. Thihaophkal Transaelions. %i 

Warb's ca*«. This is proved by the hiitory of the first btrj io the 
jireieot Paper, who before tlie operation had no knowledge of colours 
or diGUnces, but after It, when his eye had only arriyed at the same 
state, that the second boy's Was in before the operwon^lie had leamt' 
that the object* were at a distance, and of different colours s that irtien 
a child hat acquired a new seneei nothing but great pain or abso- 
tute coercion, will prcventhini from making useof it. ... 

'Id a practical view, dieae cases confirm'erery thing, that t as faeea 
•tated by Mr. Pott and Mr. Ware, ib proof of cacaracts in chiU. 
drefl being generally soft, and Id Javourof couchisg, ae beiog the opera- 
tion best adapted for remOTing thrai. They alao lead us to a conclusion 
of no amall importaoce, which has not before been adverted t'o ; that, 
when the cataract has assumed a fluid form, the capsiiie, which ii nam-' 
rally a tjiin transparent membrane, has to resist the pressure of thii 
fluid, which like every other diseased accumulation ie liable to increase, 
and distend it, and therefore the capsule is rendered thicker and more 
opaqne io its substance, like th^ coatt of encysted tumours in general. ■ 

* As such a change is liable to take place, the earlier the operatiiin it 
performed in all children, who have cataracts coiofJetely formed, thei' 
greater ia their chance of having distinct risioD after the ogrxv^on.' pp. 
91,92. 

IV. Obseroations on the Structure <^ the different Cavities- 
'O^ieh eanstitute the Stomach of the Whale, arnipitred veith those.- 
^ rumixating Animals, xpitk a Fiew to ascertain the Situation, 
of the digestive Organ. By Evera'rd Home, Esq. F. R. S, 
Reail Feb. 12, 1807. 

These obserVatiiivis are intended to shew, ttiat the stomach 
of the whale fBmis A Fink in the grsdtttion tovrani the sto- . 
maclts of truly carnivorous animals. The whal« examined by 
Mr, Hume Was thrown Upon^ the Sussex, -coast,, in August, 
1806, and was brought to shore alive hy tb^ Wonbiiig fisher- 
men. It had a stoniach with four cavities, of Which the iirst 
appeared peculiarly adapted to the solution of bones. JVIr. 
Hunter, it seer^is, thought the second caritv to be the true 
digesting stomachy but Mr. Home concluded that in this 
animal,' " frdm the peculiarities of its etoaomy, and. tb; na. 
lure of the food, not oaly a cuticular stomach is necessary, 
hut also two glandular ones, in which it undergoes changes 

frepaf^ory to its' being cpmerted into qhyle :° ,so tiat, in 
is opinion, cbylification is, completed in the /eurih cavity. 
In oiir opinion , the examination of more sttt^eqtt, ' io different 
circumstances', is necessary to determine the point. . This 
paper is illustrated by two: admirable engravings, by Basire. 
IV.- On the Formation of the ^rk^ Trees. .By T. A. 
. Knight, Esq. F.R.S. Read feb. 19, 1807. ", ; 

Matpigfai BUfnssad that the cortioal substafid^,Vi>ct] is an- 
nually generated, derives. its origin from the olii^ribai;^;' the 
interior part of the new formed substance being anpually trans- 
muted into alburnum, or sap-wood i; whilethe texteripc part, 
becomipg dry, forms the outward covering, or<coMex^ Hales, 



j« Phtlosophied Transaetwnt. 

on the contrary, contended that the bark is derived from the aU 
burnum, and that it does not undergo any stihsequent transforr 
mation. Mr. Knight's experiments tend to sliew ihat neither of 
these opinions is perfectly correct ; but they do not furnisbu^ 
ivithany explication which is satisfactory. He thinks it probar 
ble, however, ' that a pulpous organisable mass^rst derives itS| 
natter either from the bark or the alburnum; and that this 
matter subsequently forms the new layer of bark.' 

This communication seems, altogether, much fitter as tfae- 
^ubject of a letter from one friend to another, or as an es* 
say ill a magazine, than as a niempir to be published in the 
Transactions of a learned Philosophical Society. 

Vr. An Investigation of the general Term of aa important 
Series in the Inverse Method of finite pifferejices. By the Rer/ 
John Brinkley. D.D.F.R.S. Sic. Read Feb. 20, ,1807. 

The object of this curious p^ei canoat be better stated 
than in Dr. Briukley's own language 

' llie theorems relative to fiaite difierenui, givni by M. LAsxAtfcS 
in the Berlin Memoirs for 1772, have much engaged the attention oE 
itiatbematidaos. M- LAPtAca has been particularly tucccfaful in hia in- 
vestigations rekpecd^g ^em ; yet an iip^ortaQC difEcidty remiHned, U) 
radeavour to surmount which i« the principal object pf thU Pa^i:> fhc 
tfteoTerps alluded.to may be tbui (tatefl. 

• let u represent any fiinctioa of *'. Let *+.Af f+2A^ 
tc-\-Sh, &c. be auccesoiTe values of x, a^d Vt u> b&c. cbr^ 
retponding saccestive values of v. . Let A'wrepnaeot th^ 
IEtsi term of thfc.'vth ord^r of difiereoces of the quaofid^s b, 
a, K&c, Aqd let also Snu represent thf Grsf terqi of f serii;^ 

of quantitieii of which the first term of the mh oider of dif* 
ferences ■■ (k Tl)«n (< repictenting the terwi l-f. !.(..'- 4> 

Th+,Sic.) ■■' ■■ ■ ■ / " ■ "■* ■ 

■pa vff -ii 

J.A>««=(e* — l)-,a. S«i»«(** — I) Morided th« 

ih II' 

in the expsaaioD of (f* — !)•> i*,- ii ftc.lwsubKitvtedftr 
( -r) ^ I 'r-J ^^i '*<>d provided that in tjie ex^aauoo of 

{«* ~I)T^, fl.->Hnt fl.' we , &c. be niMtued lor 

r,on,-,Mh,.GoOglc 



Philosophical Transactions. S3 

*TheM theorcRii, which M.LagriDge h«l not drauntitratcd except 

by indnctioa, have since been accurately inveitigated in diflereat ways 

ay M. Laplace, and alio by M. ArbogaiL 

< The expanded fonnula ibr S'u, qt, more accurately i^luog, the 

natural »eriei for S-b is of the fbnn 



* The coelGdeotl », ft, y, Sec. are readily obtained by equatioDi of 
relattoR, which were first given by I^grange. But to com^ Ute the so- 
lution it is obviously necessary to obtain the law of proereision, and be 
able to aKenain any coefficieoi indepeDdent of the prece&g ones. This 
lias not hitheno been done, as far at I know> except in the case of a^l.' 

To facilitate the investigation of these and other lubordi* 
nate theoreoia, kicluded in the memoir, Dr. Brinkley intro- 
duces a new notation, by which some very complex expres- 
sions are avoided. He has undoubtedly conquered t!i^ diOl* 
culty with which many preceding analysu have so unsuc^ 
eesst'ully contended : but we think it was possible to have 
giren more perspicuity to the disquisition. We have a very 
liigh respect, however, for the abilities of this miithematician ; 
and earnestly wish that, insiead of communicating insulated 
memoirs on kindred subjects, to different Philosophical So- 
cieties, he would Boon favour the public with the important 
publication to which he adverts in the following passage; as 
sucli an underuking baa been long a desideratum. 

* The important naes to be deriTed from finding fluxions per saltttffl 
in the reduction of analytical fiinctioM, and from the converse, induced 
me to draw up a particular work on that tobject. Its publicadon has hi> 
therto been delayed by my unwillingness to offer a fluxional notation dif- 
ferent from either that of Newton or Leibnitz, each of which is very in- 
convenient as hj ai regards the spplicadon c^ the theor^s for findipj; 
liuUons/n-/j£iun,' p.121. 

This part of the Transactions terminates with the Meteoro- 
logical Journal, kept at the apartments of the ^^4l Society, 
for the year 1806. None of the results are sumciently re- 
markable to need 'recording here. . The variation of the mag- 
netic needle for June 1806, is slated tobe24°8'6: so that 
it is obviq)i»ly vacillating about a limit; ^e variatioQ being ia 
July, 1802, 24' 6'; July 18D3, S4» 7*9; July 1804, 24" 8' 4; 
and July 1885, 24<t 7' 8. We may add that the observations 
at Paris, for » period of twelve years, favour a similar con-n 
elusion. 



t, Google 



( 84. ) . . 

Art. in. Tht Nno Tetianunt, in an Improved ffrtion, nftoa lie Bath of , 

jfrckiiriofl Neiucomc't New Tratulation ', with a Corrected T^t, 

and Notes, Critical and Explanatory. 12mb. pp. 646. Price *8. 
■ royal 8vo, I6s. Johnson, &c. 1808. 
Art. IV. A Neiai TetlamerU ; or the New Covenant, aecarSpf; to Laie, 

Paul, and John. Putilislieii in C^pnformity to t}ie Plan gf'riM Jite Rer. 

EdwaM Evansoo, A.M. 12mo.pp. 383. Price Ss. 6d. Johnson, 1808. 

Y^'E intend to discuss the merits of these works in one cri- . 

tique, as they are closeiy allied hy their avowed desifrn, 
ind.by many features of their execution ^nd character ; and 
as our obsei-vations on the general subject of the criticism Mid 
translation of the Holy Scriptures must, of course, be appii- 
«able to both. The party which, with exemplary modesty^ 
and logical justice, assumes the title of * Rational ' and ' Unj-" 
tarian,' has within a short period put on appearances of Zeal- 
and ftrdoar remarkably the reverse of that c^ihparative torpor 
for which it was formerly djstinp:uisbed. The more elaborate 
and important of the two books before us^ the ' Improved 
Versionif is one of the symptoms of this change of character. 
The fact of such a change, with its origin, circumstaDces, and 
probable effects, we view withoiitF' dismay : we even consider 
it Bs promising eminent advantage ^ ^e cause , of genuine- 
Christianity. 

. The friends of that reli^ioiis system which we regard €W 
toimded in the perfect attributes and government of GoA, and 
a» delivered by his inspired messengers, havcbeen too inatten- 
tive tfl some of the means c£ educing and confirming its doC* 
. trines. Occupied, certainly to niuch better purpose, in bearing 
the -fruits. of failh, the works 'ofeTang^ical benevc^ence and 
practical holiness, they have. Hot sujljciently adverted to the 
necessity of Critical Philology, aji object o!f great, though of 
^bcHrdin&te importance, for the students and advocates of 
dtTiHe truth ; the objects are by no means incompatible, 'and 
fitten^n tcone neithet requires nor justifies rieglect of the 
other, Of this neglect, however, a very different cass of men,' 
addicted to study opspeciiiation, and adversaries of sentiments 
which we deem scripturally pure,Jiave carefully availed them- 
sejTes; and hawe empioyed their more abundant leilure in 
acquiring, and partially applying, the great resources of scrip- 
tural orittcisin. Hence ttie cause of etror' has often enioyed 
a triumph to which it had no legitimate claim ; and that of re- 
Viaaled trmh l^as bBenunconsciomlj' betrayed by incompetent 
or injudicious defenders. WS trust, that the augmented 
efforts of its opponent^ will -urgently stimulate its^ friends, 
i'he result of accurate research and impartial couoltision,' 
^rnishedby pompetent lemming, judiciously employed, and 



h,Googlc 



2^ew Versions of the New Testament. 25 

iccompanied by candour and integrity of spirit, cannot but 
be higmy-favourable to the advancement of scriptural Itnbw- 
ledcje. To accomplish this desirable purpose, let them can- 
didly acknowledge, and cordially imitate, — above all, let them ^ 
worn to depreciate — the laudable researches of those, in whom 
they are compelled to behold so much that demands condem- 
nation or regret. It was one ofthe resolutions of the admira7 
hie President Edwards, thankfully to accept of light or instruc- \ 
lion from any quarter, though it were from a child or an ";' 
enemy, 

' Search the Scriptures,' is a command which every Christiao' 
miist feel it a most important duty and advantage to obey. 
It cannot therefore be. unworthy of his attention, to procure 
the most correct text of the sacred books ; that is, the most 
^ithful and perfect report of i^at the Redeemer taught, and 
what his prophets and apostles and evanj^elists committed to 
writing ? — But are we not already possessed of this perfect 
report ? Are not our common printed editions, whether of 
the original scriptures or of translations, worthy in all cases 
whatever of entire and unlimited confidence ? It has. often 
■been said, and very justly, that there is no copy of the Scriji- 
turesexisting from which an honest inquirer might not learji ^ 
enough to ensure his eternal felicity. But the question befone ^^ 
us is a very different one. ' The resolution of it, to any toler- 
able scholar, would be easy, though in some respects it may be 
delicate. The uhreasonaole rage for innovation, in certain 
half-formed critics, but finished dogmatists, has established in 
many sober and pioua minds a strong and jealous prejudice 
against all proposals of envpndation. It has even been taken 
for granted by some; witJi equal absurdity and injustice, that 
decisions or_even doubts against the perfect purity of the 
received text, are a mark of disaffection to the orthodox faith: 
thus rqioglipg questions of mere intellectual and- almost m^ 
chanical disquisition, with thaK too well known compound 
of violent human pasBious, the odium-theohgicum. 

Before we propose an opinion on the merits and demerits 
of the books on our table, we shall as briefly as possible \ 
discuss the important previous question which we have just 
stated. It-has two parts : the first relates to the character and 
authority of -our current Translation ,- the second, to the state 
of the original Text, 

I, Is the authorized Version of the Holy Scriptures (usually 
called King James's, and which has been in general use in the- 
Bntish nation since the year 1 6 U} so far a just and accurate 
representation of the Divine Originals, as to render imprac- 
ticable, or, at least, unnecessary,, any attempt to produce. » 
more perfect translation ? 



r,o,i,,-crih,.GDOglc 



4 



W Nei>..Ternons ef the New TfftamerH. 

It mi^ht iUustntte the lubject, were we to extend our remfiilu 
to the history and character of the German^ Dutch, French, 
Welch, and other modem translations of the Bible; butouf 
necessary limits prohibit so wide a range. 

Our Anglo-Saxon ancestors, there is reason to betiev^ 
possessed at least two versions of the divine word ; tte first 
made by the Venet^able £ede, who died A. D. 734, and ano- 
tlier, in part, or perhaps wholly, by the. illustrious band of our 
patriot king, j^lfrcd. After the Norman conquest, there were 
?everd partial translation^ into English, of the Psalms, Gos- 
pels, and Epistles. In the fourteenth century, I^u/i/f translated 
the whole Bible, The New Testament of this translation was 
often transcribed and widely circulated. Even now, fair manu- 
scripts of it are not very uncommon*. The art of printing had 
not the hfinour of producing an English edition pr the Scrip- 
tures till 1526, when the New Testament, translated by the 
iftartyr Tyndale, was printed in Germany, but it is not certainly 
ascertained whether at Antwerp, Cologne, or Hamburgh. la 
the forty-two subsequent years, there were no fewer than jfte 
New Versions : — Coverdale's, Cranmer's, Tavemjer's, that by 
the English exiles at Geae^'a, and Archbishop ' Parkei^^ 
usually called the Bishops' Bible, because it was the joint 

Iiroduction of the worthy Metropolitan and eight other pre- 
ates, with five inferior dignitaries. From 1568 to 1613, this 
last translation was used, by royal authority, in the churches : 
but the Genevan was more popul^r^ ^d Itaore generally read 
in private. 

In 1 604, James T. issued hi; commission to fifty-four learned 
men +, for a Ncv) Translation ; which, having wen executed 
in the spsL-e ai three years, wi(li much diligence and ability, 
was printed in 1611, * By his Majesty's special Cflmiuand,* 

* Few of our readen perfaapa are aware, that this Tcnnable vertioti 
bat been printed ; an ediuon in folio, coDtittiiie we believe of ooljr ZiO 
cqiies, was completed ia ITSl, under the care of the Rer. Mr. Ijewii, (^ 
Margate, *ho prefixed to it a valuable History of the tcveral tranilaboni 
of the ScriptureB into English, whether in MS. or print. This diueHation 
v/u afterwards published separately ia 8to. with maoy improreineiits. 

■t We are persuaded that we shall not c^nl, in givbg along note, 
for dv puipose of funishiDg a list of those veDerable men, to whom 
the British nation \^ uoder such ^reat obligatioDs, but whose names are 
known to so few. — They were distributed into Six Classes, aad WOR 
to meet for coofercDce, fkc. at the places mentioned below. 

O, I. At Westminiter. — ^From GeneiU to 2 IGnn. 

Sr. Lancelot Andrews, B. of Winchester ; Dr. John Overall, B. of 
Norwich i Dr. de Saravia, Preb. of Camerhury ; Dr. Rich. Clarke i 
Dr. John Layfield j Dr. XJirigfa ; Mr. Burleigh Stretford ; Mr.KiiiM 
Suaiex Mr. ThonifM>i> Qare i aad Mr. Bedwell.. 



'"r,o,i,,-cdtyGoOglc ■ 



New Versimt of the JVcw Ti;ttament. %i 

ftpd has ever since continued m general use. To this, which 
is commoirty called the 'Authorized Version, our question 
r.e)a^s ; ana it obviously includes some subordinate inquiries. 

1. Were the Hebrew 'ind Greek languages, considered 
increly a« languages, a^aW/ iiiiderslood by the Teamed in 1607 
4s they are now in 1 809 f 

Certainly not. The highest da^ee of the knowledge of >" 
the Hebrew tongue then possessed] was drawn solely from thp ' 
^bbinical sources, and these but imperfectly explored. Every 
prientalist noyi knows that Hebrew and ChaLdee can be under- 
stood but very insufficiently, without the light cast upon them • 
^y the Arabic. Vet this important light bad scarcely downed, 
at the commencement of tne 19tb century. It woidd filt a. 
vcdume to give the barest sketch of the treasures vitli which 
the study of the Old Testament Unjruage lias been enriched, 
hy the Buxtorfs, the Cappells, Erpeniys, De Uieu, James 
AUing, pooock, Lightfool, C^tell, Hyde, and pre-eminently- 
Schuttens And his school. But these treasures lay deep in the 

CI. II. At Canit»idge.— ^roia 1 Cirani to the Soitg ofSeiamm. 

Mr. Edyr. LtvelT^, Heb. Pr^f. i I^. KichaHRos ; Mr. Chadntoa ; 

Mr, Dillingharti ; Mr> HarnMD ; Dr. Andrews : Mr. bpalding j and 

Kf. Biage, . , 

CI. III. At Oxfonl.— The PrafAtli, and £wi ^ 



Dr. Hardioge, Hcb. Prof. { Dr. Reinoldi ; Dr. HolUodj Dr. Ki%t 
Mr- SmlUt Hercforil ; Mr. Brett ; and Mr. Fairdoagh. 

CI. IV, At Cgajbridge.— The Afiocryfiha. 

Dr. IWrii Or. Br^thwaite; Dr. Radclife i Mr. Warde, of 

£iiun. CcA.; Mr. pownes ; Kfr- Boia ; and Mr, Warde, of King'i ColL 

CI. V. At Ox&rdi— The Goiptb, Ad*, and S^wlalioa. 

Dr. Tho. Ravis, B . of Glountter ; Dr. Geo. Abbott, At^. of Canter. 
itaj; Dr. James Montague, B. of Bath and Wells; Dr. Giles 'Dioiiipu^ 
B. of Gloucetier} Sir Henry Savilet Dr. Perin; Dr. Kaveu; Mr. 
Hatmer. 
• CI. VI. At Westmini(er— The E/ihlU/. 

Dr. Wm. Barlow, B. of Rochester ; Dr. Hutchinson { Dr. ^ttnoer t 
^r. Fenioat Mr. RabbeU; Mr. Sanderson ; and Mr. Dakini. 

To those who afterward* filled epftcopal mci, m bare annexed dxir 
ifit^qunU promotions i though none o£ them were Bishops at the (fate of 
the CommissipD. The above number, fony-aeven, must be Increaaed tw 
HveD more ; wjbo, from death or other causes, failed to perform their 

Srta, or elpe were overseers, to assist in inspecting and finally determining. 
r. Andrews, Dr. Bilion, afterwards B. of Winchester, and Dr. Miles 
Smith, afterwiirds B. of Gloucester, revised the whole, and wrote the 
Dedication. The Preface is attributed to Miles Smith. Thongh tl* Com. 
Hussion was dated 1601 (lui^. Aptil or Ifiay) the work Wit not begun tiB 
'1606> or the begisomg of 1m)7. 



r,o,i,,-cdtyGoOglc 



i9 New Versioni of the 'Jffeo! Testaminl. 

ihine, unseen and perhaps scai*cely conceived of, wheii out' 
Bible vftfsion was published, 

■ In a veiy considerable, tfaoaebnot in an ei^ual, degree,' 
similar a'ccessions have been made to' the Slock of Greek phi- 
lolojiy. Budteus, Serranus, Xylander, Canter, and the great* 
Henry Stephenif, had already enriched it witb their labours. 
But no competent judge will deny, that the knowledge of 
Greek literature, in -all its departments, is indebted for the' 
amplest additions, in extent, precision, and method, to the 
researches and discoveries of Casaobon, Scaliger, Salniasius,' 
Stanley, Bentley, Hemsferhusiiis, D'Orvilie, Ruhnkenius, 
—4- Toup, Reiske, and the admirable but unhappy Porson. To 
this list, contracted as \ve have made it, it is no more than our 
, doty to add the Author of the * Doctrine of the Greek 
■ ' Article*.' The instances, then, in which the advances of the 
last two centuries in Greek philology have illustrated - the 
language and the meaning of the New Testament, are innu- 
merable, and extremely important. 

We have reason therefore to assert, that the' Hebrew phd 

, ( Greek langtiRges, extensively considered, were by no meajis 

so w^ll imderstood by the scholars of King James's leign/ 

. / as they may be and are now by scholars of equal talent and 

' dilig.en«e. 

2. Was the peculiar phraseology of the scriptural writers, 

e'specially -in application to the New Testament, properly 

known and attended to, as it has been in more recent unies ? 

• ./ . Calvin,, Beza, Castellio, and Joseph Medc, had some just 

. I - views of the idiom which is peculiar to the Scriptures, and 

#htch has given so marked and unique a character to tbe 

Alexandrine Old Testament, to the Apocrypha, and in the 

most especial and interesting respect of all, to the New Teslia- 

Hient. But they rather employed their discoveries fur tbe' 

. etucidation of theological dimculties and the symbols of 

prophecy, than attempted to form them into a body of oAn- 

sistent principles. It is "necessary to remark, that King 

\i James's translators' were grossly inattentive to the rendering 

f* of idioniatical eJjpressions by equipollent English phrases; 

considering the knowledge which even then was. accessible. 

but it must be confessed, that the means were not fully devo- 

' loped of pursuing this sutiject to its j»roper estent. The vain 

and injudicious Heinsius, by his ExircUatioYies Sa'crte, called oirt, 

Jn 16+3, the mighty Salmasius in his Commentarius de Lingua 

Helle nutica, sna the facetious author cff, the Fumis Lingua 

HeUenistica. Our learned, countrjman Gataker contributed 

l9.rgely to the discovery and confirmation of just principles, 

^^ • See Ed. Rer. Vol- IV. pp. 671, 767, 869. ~~~ 



h,Googlc 



New Versions of the Nex Tntamoit. 2* 

both in basis and in superstnicture, on the Style of tbe N^w 
Testament. The Dutch and German philologists of the eigb~ 
teeoth century have vigorously earned forwards their dis. 
quisitioRs en this important topic, bishly to the satisfaction 
<n biblical students. Some of them, it is true, have latterly 
displayed ao equal want of sense and of piety, in the ridiculous 
length to which they have forced acme of their conclusions; 
but the principles are not less valuable for having been abused. 
The very extravagance itself furnishes at once the motive 
and the means of restoring the investigation to the course, 
which good leamingand a little sound juogement may, without 
much perplexity, discover. 

There is, besides, another department of biblical criticispr, 
of which our Translators scarcely ever thought. We meaii 
the elucidation of Scriptural phraseology, by the numerous 
facts furnished by Travels in Palestine, Syria, Egypt, &c. 
and by the attention paid, within the last thirty years to the 
history, laws, religions, and customs of the Asiatic nations. 
The collections of Hartner,* and the fragments appended to . 
the recent Edition of Calmet, are convincing; proofs that' the / 
instrumental means for understanding, ana consequently for 
translating the Sacred Scriptures, are incomparably more 
abundant at present than they were two hundred years ago. ' 

3. Were the means and opportunities, which King James's 
Translators actually possessed, employed in the best onA fairest 
manner for the improvement ana perfection of their great 
work ? , 

This InquiiT, also, we fear that we cannot answer in the 
affirmative. On looking over the list of translators, we feel 
some surprize that so few names occur that have the reputa- 
tion of illustrious sholarship. There are symptoms, too many 
and too unequivocal, of an unworthy party spirit in the selec- 
tion of persons, and in the arrangenpents prescribed. It was 
avowedly a leading object with the King, when he resolved on 
■the measure, to make .the new version an instrument of oppo- 
sition to the Puritans, a body to whom the religious and i; 
political happiness of Britain is under indelible' obligations. '* 
Hugh "Broughton, though accused of visionary notions, and 
of a warmth and haughtiness of disposition which persecution 
is apt to engender in an ardent mind, was in all probability 
the most profound Hebrew and Rabbiuical schoW in Christen- 
dom; he possessed a surprizingly extensive and accurate 
knowledge of Greek ; henad already distinguished himself 
by numerous and leAmed publications on Biblical Criticism: 
be. made an offer of his services to the King, but it was 

« S«e the Review of Dr, A. OvkVa fidtboo «f Hwiner'rObKrva- 
liao^ Vol. IV. p. JKM. 

Do,l,.cdtyGoOglc 



' • »• Nao Vershm '^ tU New Tesfament, , 

toetfted with cometnptiious iliaregard, — for ' be wa$ liuspfiet^ 

' ' itf Puritanism, and was odious to the cruel and oppresdve 

Archbishop Bancroft. The tliird of the Injunctions, which 

his Majesty dictated to the translators^ indicates the unfair 

ftpiritof which we comiplaiD : and there is evidence enough 
that the known predilections and the positive commands of 
the Royal Critic were dutifully honoured. 

4. Bid the translators Use a becoming care and precision 
in the selection of English words and phrases ; so that thetr 
terms should oTiginal^> and still, notwilhstaDding the lapse 
of two cei^turics, suggest the most pivper and Jdithful idea- 
of the original } 

It would be absurd to expect that any tiansktors could raise 
on impregnable rampart against the gradual wearings and 
^ ianovB^ons which time ancT usage effect in all spoken lan- 
1 Cnages. The only method of obviating this inconvenience 
ist to apply a timely and temperate revision, as it may become 
necesaajry. But we should most strongly deprecate the re- 
bqovbI of those venerable archaisms which add a solemn dig-* 
tiity to the vernacular Scriptures, except only where their re- 
tendon leads to an erroneous construction. That many suefa 
instances do exist, is unquestionable. They produce, in soroe 
cases, a perplexing ambi^itj'; and, in some others, they 
Sv can scarcely fail to suggest a wrong idea to the plain English 
' reader. ' 

For example : To * take account of,* is now universally 
undierstood to denote the taking of a list, iurentory, or de- 
scrJptien ; but it is used in the sense of settling actaants, Matt, 
xviii. 2ii * Worship',, a word now restrained to ihe giving o( 
divine honours, is frequent!;^ used to denote respectful civiiity 
af behaviour. — The verb 'deliver' in several places occurs, in an 
ttcceptatioQ the very reverse of its constant use at present. 
How few among the poor and uninformed can be pres'umc;d 
to understand the following words, when they meet with them 
in tbeir Bibles, in the significations which we have annexed, 
but which are undoubtecily the meaning of the translators: 
— * Living' for Propert}/, — * Notable' for JVoton'o«j, — ' Pro- 
verbs*, for Parables, — ' Lewdness' for Misckieiousnessr~~ 
* Plague' for Sickness of any kind, — ' Bishopric' (Acts i. 20.) 
for Ojficef — ' Easter' for the Passover, — * Carriages' forBurtkens, 
— • I'o occupy' for To tradr^ — ' Doubtful' for Anxious ,- &c. 
&c. 

The translators have evidently studied to commit one fauU> 
si^ that no little one. When a word is repeated in the same 
context, tJiey hare often exercised a systematical ingenuity in 
vatying the translation of that word. This practice- is net 
merely censurable for its puerility, but' it leads to serioufc 



r,o,i,,-crih,.GoOglC- 



-f 



iVe» renioM if t^ ifnn Teskmtm^ ft 

«U«. The English read« feels warranted, or even cocQpellw^ \y 
to make a dUtmctioD in the seose, where he finds one in the 
phrase. It is to be feared that the mass of. common readem 
»re not seldom perplexed to find out the imagined diiference 
between Justification by faith, and Justification through faith ; V 
Rom. iii..30j between Living and Idvely, 1 Pet. ii. 4,5; 
between H^ ts a debtor and ffe is euUty, Mau. zxiii. 16, l8 ; 
between the Sider of the feast,.an(r the Gooernor of the feast, 
John ii. 9. It is ever likely to enter the minds of the unlearned* 
Uhat Areopagia -and Mats^ Hill (Acts xvii. 19, 22.) are one 
and the sanie place ? or that the original word for ' wondered^ 
ill Acts vtii, 13. is the very sairie wbich'had just before (vt. 9 
and 11.) been rendered ' befixitchedf 

Most . of these examples we have extracted from Dr. ^ 
^ymonds's Observations, (4to. Cambridge, 1789) where a list V 
may be found, much more ample than we could wish, of .- 
Words and Expressions .Vnmeaning, Equivocal, Vulgar^ 
Harsh, Obsolete, and Ungrammatical ; and all within the 
confined range of the Four Gospels and the Acts. 

It has often been observed that the supplementary words 
of the tcanslatOTs, distinguished by bdng. priuted in. Italics, are ^ " 
in many instances needless and mjurious to the sense. But '*' 
it is not so generally known, that in tbe sueceBsive editions 
of the Bible the number of those supplementary words has 
been umtmrrantablT/ and surreptitiousn/. increased to a large ^■;. 
amount. 

Tliat such blemishes <hou1d disfigure that translation of the 
best and most important of volumes, which has been and stili is 
nore read by thousaads of the pious, than any othei' version, 
ancient or modern ; that they should be acknowledged, by alt 
competent judges, t6 exist; that they should have been so 
long and so often complained of; and yet, that there has 
been no great "public act, from high and unimpeachable 
authorily, for removing them, we are constrained to view as 
a disgrace to our national literature. We do not wish ~ 
to see our common vevsioD,- now become venerable by age 
and prescription, superseded by another entirely new; every 
desirable purpose would be satisfactorily attained by a/aitfifm 
and well-conaucled Revision. Whether there is much ground 
for expecting that our wishes, in this respect, will be realized, 
we cannot pretend to decide ; but we know that they are sup-« 
ported by the wisest and best of our countrymen, as well 
contemporary as deceased. Two testimonies of this kind aro 
M) much in point, and so truly express our own views, that we 
think it right to adduce them. We refer to the honest Bishop 
I'isher, waose sentiments were adopted and contitmcd by one 



iVCoogIc 



93 3fnD Feriims.^ ^ Jhfew' TeskimenL 

of the Fathers of our Protestant Church ; and to a well knawa 
scholar and divine, who was a shining ornament of the modeni 
episcopal bench. 

• lo this point it 1^ convenient to cfaiiBtder die judgement that Xohnt 
tonce Bishop of Rocheater, Was in, who thus wrote : " It is not nokDown, 
but that many tiin^ have been more dUigently discussed, and more ' 
clearly uoderstanded, by the Wits of these Utter days, as well concerning 
the Gospels, as other Scriptures, than in old time diey were. The caufle 
whereof iS) for that to the old men the . ioe was not broken ; or fqr that 
their age wfs not pifficient exquisitely to expend the whole main sea (£ 
the Scriptures, or else for that, in this large field of theScriptutes, a man 
may gather some ears untouched after the harveatmen, how diligent soever 
they Were. For there be yet in the gospels yety many dark' places, v^udi 
without all doubt to the posterity shall be made much more open. For why 
•hould we despair herein, seeing the gospel was delivered to this in^nt ? — 
Who can doubt, but that suchthings as remain yet unknown in the Oospd 
■haU be hereafter made open to'the utter wits of^our posterity, to their clear 
understanding ?" Archbishop Parjter, Fref. to his fiible ) 1568. p. 5. 

' As the style of our Vulgar Translauon is not only excellent in itself, 
but has taken possession of our ear ai^d of our taste, to have endeavonred 
to varv from it, with no oth^ design than that of giving something sew 
insteaa of it, would have been to diagnst the reader. — Whenever it shall 
be thought ' printer to set forth the Holy. Scriptures, for the 'public ue 
of our Church, CO better advant^e.than at tixy appear in the. present 
JEogH»h Translation, the expediency of wl^ch [" a nawary wBrk," say* 
the excellent prelate, p-.lxix,] grpws every day more and more evident, a 
Revision or Correction may perhaps be more advisable, than to attempt 
eo entirely new one. For as to the style and Janguage-it-admits but of 
little improvement j but, in respect of me jense and the accuracy of inter- 
pretation, the improvements of which it is capable are great and number- 
less."— Bishop Zoto/ A'j Isaiah, Pref, Diss. p. Ixxii. 

We are now conducted to a still more ihiportant investiga- 
tion. Whether the preceding remarks on the Translation be well 
founded, or nol^ it becomes the judicious Christian to ask. 
What was the basis on which the translators rested? Had 
they before them a Te:^^ so cautiously and carefully ascer- 
tained, as to deserve admission, as an Authentic Copy of the 
writings which came from the hands of the holy prophets, 
apostles, and evangelists ? 

II. The question therefore is, whether that Scriptural Teztj in 
which the Christian world has generally acquiesced for the last 
two centuries, and which is the basis of the English und of 
most other modern established versions, has just claims to be 
esteemed so perfect, as that all endeavours to render it mort: 
exact md/ail^ul are superfluous, orat least are to be regarded 
j^nlv as .critical niceties and learned ainasements? 

Whoever has transcribed a writing of moderate length, can- 
■ot but be aware of the difficulty, or rather the moral impossi- 



Do,l,,-.-,ll>;GOOglC 



iVew Versions ^ the New Testanttnt. 33 

bilitjr, of precluding omissions of words, or traiHposilions, or 
redundances, or other inadvertent mistakes. And if the ori- 
^nal to be copied be worn with age or defaced by accident, 
if the ink be pale or faded, if the hand-writine be not familiar, 
.or if the work be in a foreign language ; the task is more 
difficult, and the chances of error are multiplied. Let the 
supposition be carried on. In a longer or shorter period of 
time, the original writing is tost. But various transcripts of 
it had been taken. Copies of copies, therefore, go on to be 
multiplied, in diB'erent countries, through a course-of ye^ift 
and Qenturies, and by copyists of every Qualification and dis- 
qualification, the learned, attentive, ana conscientious, and 
tlie ignorant, mercenary, basty, and blundering; moreover, 
motives of passion, party, and interest, perrert the integrity 
' of some transcribers, ana warp the indgement of more ; so that 
in certain critical points ana turning passages, where a very 
slight change of strokes would effect the purpose, their 
transcripts are made to speak a ^vourite languaqe. 

Let any Aian of plain sense say what should be done, iit a 
case [ike tbis, and after. the lapse of one or two thonsand 
year^ to produce a true copy of the authentic document. He 
'would give such advice as the following : " Collect all the 
copies you can. Become versed in the forms of handwriting 
of different -ages. Ascertain, of each individual copv, the 
date, coiaUry, and character of execution, that is, what marks 
jt bears of accuracy, or of careless and hireline haste, — of 
strict fidelity, or of being garbled and interpolated, — wiiat 

fieculiarities it possesses, and whether its characteristic pecu- 
iarities are fairly attributable to design, or to c i re un) stances 
above the knowledge and contronl of the copyist. Class^y 
your whole collection, according to the distinct channels of 
derivation through wluch each copy can be traced by legiti- 
mate evidence. Study the laws and operations of the mind : 
place yourself in the circumstances of each writer, and realize 
the influences to which he was exposed^aod the advantages 
which he enjoyed. Perhaps also, there may exist certain very 
ancient translations o( this work: And are no tother authors 
ejit&nt, of an antiquity equal to or far surpassing your best 
and oldeiit copies,. who bs.ve- quoted this writing? Neglect 
not to investig&te these sources of informafion. Thiis fur. 
nished, proceed to your task. Compare your documents. 
Note their differences. Examine the authorities for every dif- 
ferent reading. Ascertain their manifest, or probable, ciik.w.t. 
And decide, by those fair rules of mural evidence which 
approve themselves to the common sense of mankind. In 
tbi« careful manner, go through the whole work : and the 
lesnlt will be, if not an absolutely perfect copv of the ori- 
Voi- V. D 



Do,i,,-c,ih,.Googlc 



New VeniMstfthe Nae Testament. 

inal, yet as nearly sex a» circumstances admit*; nor, when yoa 

ave performed all this, with the requisite pains and (ideli^) 

will it be reasonable to apprehetid that any material error will 



cin 
".hai 



■ Lastly, let it he supposed that this has been performed : 
-bnt, after the lapse of fifty or a hundred years, more manu- 
eccipt copies, and Some of them very om, are brought tQ 
light; and certain ancient translations, whose existence was 
-before unknown, are ^scovered. The art of making a just 
«ise of these materials is also considerably advanced. What 
foUows, but that the wllole process, to a certain point at least} 
tainst he repeated I . , - 

Now eveiy part of this scries of suppositions has been 
'. literally realized ' with respect to the Holy Sciiptures, and 
other ancient writinn;s. Within forty years after that atigust 
-EBra, the inTentidn of printing, the presses established in the- 
great cities of Germany and Italy had sent forth editions ef~^ 
3)e most admired of the Latin Classics, and £ome of the 
Christian Fathers. These first editions were, in general, 
printed from single manuscripts, or at best from the collation 
_i " of a small number, and those neither very ancient nor correct, 
j^ 'hut such as came most readily to hand. Indeed the fountains 
of manuscript authority were hut beginning to be' opened; 
and even the birth of the Art of Criticism, in ascertaining the 
genuine' text of ancient wrrtings, cannot be dated earlier than 
toe sixteenth century, nor its inaturin before the middle, or 
rather the end, of the eighteenth. Fully acknowledging the ' 
Taluable labours and great merits of the earlier editois 
during almost three hundred years, we must also admit that the 
texts of Homer, of the three tragedians, of Athensus, of 
-4^ Cicero, of Virgil, of Horace, have.not, till our own days, been 
' brought to the probably perfect state in which the best and 
latest editions exhibit them. Some recent editors have, indeed, ' 
heen too ready to admit alterations in the received tCxt : 
■but the evil has speedily wrought its own cure; and the 
-temerity of rash innovators has been suitably chastised by 
" ', tcrittcs of cooler judgement, and of equal or superior learn- 

ing. Such, in the advanced State of literary^ttTiticism to which 
the worM has arrived, cannot fail to be the issue ; and this 
fact deserves the observation of the serious but unlearned 
- ' Christian. He has no ground of anxiety for the inviolability 
/ -^ ; of the Divine Word." Modern corruptions of the test or the 
'~T traiiislaiioii, whether from misuke Or design, carmot maintain 

■ One obaervntion v/iU chew bow much the, correcueis of a teit d«<i 

; ; penda on ibe collation of MSS : the moat perfect text we bsTo, perhaps, 

**""''■ of any dafisic, is that of Terence, whieli V* b^en fonned from a more exr 

' tensive collation of MSS, thai; any othgrj the moat iaacc urate,, and im- 

' perfect ii that of Patciculus, or of HeVychiiu, -eKh of wriiich' has. bfe% 

— i- •imid on the authority of a,«»(yj!f MS. 



Nem Fertunu of i&e New Testmnent. 35 

tiieir ground. Their detection is ensured by the number, tht . ' 
divers sects and sentiments, and the rivalry, of schoiHrs, -f^ 
ct'aks, and divines. The danger is much greater, that ancient 
corrupt readings (which, in the long night of the middle 
ages, were easily admitted, and have how obtained a spOL-iotu 
sanction from age and seeming authority) should olude th» 
powers of critical discernnient, 

What, then, is the just statement of facts concerning tua 
commonly-received GreekText of the New Testament *( ' 

This question may be brit-fly and, pere|jicu(jiisly' answered. 

Erasmus bad the honour of first giving to the world a 
printed edition of the Greek Testament, at Basil, fiom the 
press of Frobenius,'15l6, in folio. It waa executed with a 
most indecent haste. " PrEecipitutum fuit," the editor him- 
self acknowledged, " veriiw quam editum." Hence this and 
the subsequent editions of Erasmus, 1515 and 1522, are de* 
formed by egregious errors. He had the use of but very few 
lass, and bone of them o- the highest order. It is a curious 
fact, that, for his first edition, be had only one MS. of (tie 
book of Revelation, and tbat. mutilated m several places; 
' Erasmus, therefore, filled 'ip the chasms with /ii's own tramlo' 
tions trom the Latin ! — yet of this be has not admonished 
hi^ readers. 

At Alcalat near Madrid, in 1522, ^as published Cardi- 
nal Ximenes^s celebrated Polyghtl, the fourth volume v>^ 

' • We Bay, of the Nem Testament only, lor the saka of o»rrowing ths 
field of disq'jiaitioo. If is self-evident that the facts must be similar 
with regard to the Old Testamint, only in a stilj higher. degree. The 
earliest books of the O. 1\ have had to pass through _^/eR centuries, 
asd the latest through Jsar centuries,' of longer exposure to the same 
general causes of mistake from llie eyes and hands of copyists. In ad- 
dition to theie, wa ha»e far greater reason to siispect distgntd alterations, \' 
than in any part of the Niin Testament. The coodutt of tlie .Teurish 
jaWjia to our Lord and his primitive followers, is a sufEciect demonwra- 
tion that they felt no boads of restraint from piety or conscience. During , t 
the firn three centuries afterwards, Scarcely any of the ChristianB under- { " 

stood Hebrew ; so tbat they could be no check upon wilful alterations by 
the malignant aad restless Jews, contrived to darken the evidences of 
Christianity from the 0. T- and to cast a slur on the veracity of Chrrst 
and the apostles in their quotations from it. . This importiint charge . , 
has been completely established by Dr. Kennicotl, in his Uitiertalians eit 
lie State of the Hebrew Text, 2 vols. Svo. fiattim ; and in his folio Dhttr- ■' 
laJio Gencral«, } 21 — 24, and 63 — 87. The mere English reader may 
find himself some specimens of these designed alterations, if he will 
compare many of -the passages cited by the apostles out of the Prophet* i 
.withthe same passages as they stand in the Authori/.ed Version of th* '' 
,0. T. See also Bishop Loioih'i excellent account of the State of the 
HfiiKV Tex^ in his Prtl. Dhi. to hdA, p. 56— el. 

t The itoroan "C«a(t/irfiwt, whence the edicioa is t:allcd thcComplii. - . 
■tensian,' 

D2 



~f 



S6 Nett Fersiont of the Nea Teitament. 

which, contained Ihe Greek Testament. The printing of 
tl)is princ^ work had been finished in 1317, and the N. T. 
in 1M4. Toe text bad been drawn from sources quite inde- 

Eendent of. those accessible to Erasmus; but, the editors 
aving never thought of describing, or even specifying, what 
MSS. they collated, it is impossible iioiv to determine whether 
they yet exist, or were amonij those destroyed by the rocket^ 
joiaker in 1749. (See Eel. Rev. vol. i. p."854.)— If they are 
extant in any of the European libraries, it is more than pro'' 
bable that they are included in subsequent collations. The 
inquiry, therefore, after the MS. authorities of this edition, can 
only be answered by inferences from its internal evidence ; and- 
tbese furnish proofs that the sources were very modern. 

.Erasmus republished bis Testament in 1527, and again in , 
^^35, with some alterations, from the edition of Alcala, princi- 
paily in thehook of Revelation. 

The next who deserved the name of an editor of the Greek 
Testament, was the laborious and learned Robert Stephens. 
His first edition (Paris, 15+6, 12mo.) differs from the Com- 
plutensian in A8I instances, eitclusive of the Revelation. In 
those instances he adopts the readings of Erasmils, with few 
exceptions, among which are 37 from manuscript authority. 
He closely follows Erasmus, by far the worst guide, in the 
Revelation. The second ed. (Par. 154'9, ISmo.) departs in 67 
instances from the text of the first, but witfiout assigning 
-any reasons for the alterations. His third and most splendid 
edition (Par. 1550, folio,) differs from the two preceding 
ones in 284 places, and almost invariably follows Erasmus^ 
fifth edition, 1533; except that in the Revelation he fte- 
rjnently prefers the Complutensian readings to the Erasmiaiv 

Theodore Beza's editions are the next in critical chrono- 
logy ; and of them the besfis that of 1682, Geneva, folio. 
His test differs from the third edition of R. Stephens in 
about 50 places. He possessed indeed some great advan- 
tages over all his predecessors: but his principles of criti* 
rism were so systematically erroneous, as to lead him to tlie 
jiiost arbitrary and improper use of the means which he en- 
joyetl- iu his 'JVoles he. disapproved many readings, wliich 
suii he nermitted t6 ciontinue in the text; while, in the al- 
terations' which he introduced, he was manifestly governed by 
TffEire predilection, often rejecting the strongest authprities, 
and resting on the weakest, and sometimes following Ms own 
ionji-ctiires, without any authority at all. 

Xn i%lA, tiOHK': unkiiown editor published at the press of. 
the Eizevirs, Ainstt-rdam, a small edition of the Greek Tes- 
tiuncnt, beii,ig the text of 11. Stephens, ISSO, but altered in 
aiiout ii hundred phiccs, partly by the adoption of Beza'« 
/■(iadiii(is, and' partly by aibifrary suhsiitulioTis of the edittr*^. 



New Vermmof the New Testdmefti. S7 

Sd tattle are tbe a^rs of men conducted by reason, that this 
edition, recommended only by the cdebrity and handsome 
wM'kmanship of the printer, soon grew into fashion, acquired 
the title of the Received Text, and has been copied in all the 
common editions ever since. ' 

The last century, however, has witnessed the auspicious pro- 
gress of Biblical Criticism, The I-ondon Poiygloct bad led 
the way; and at Oxford, in 1707, Dr. Mill published bis most 
splendid and admirable edition, enriched with his valuable 
firoUgomena, and a noble collection of readings from manu- 
scripts, the ancient versions, and the citations of tbe Fathers. 
He adopted the text of R. Stephens, of 1S51. Bcngdms 
went farther, and publi^ed a text partially improved, byal- 
terations made on the authority of readings which he found in 
the previously printed editions, especially in the Book of^ 
Revelation; with a select collection of various readings: 
Tubingen, 1134, 4to, It was a maxim with him not to 
admit a single reading into his text, that had not appeared 
before in a printed copy ! Wetslein published his inestimable ' 
(ROfk, of truly Herculean labour, in two folio volumes, at ^m- 
Bt^rdam, nsi ; with ample Prolegomena replete with im^ 
portant information, a vase collection of various readings, and 
notes chiefly pbilological. From an excess of caution, be 
adopted the Elzevirian text. England had the honour of 
producing the &ivt printed copy of the New Testament, that 
exhibitea a- text formed "by rational and Careful criticism^ 
on a proper use of sufficient sources of evidence and ao- 
thority. This was edited in 2 vols. 12mo, 1763, by ihe learned- 
printer, Mr. Bowyer, who received into his text the readings 
which Wetstein, on the evidence of MSS., had inserted in his 
margin. We are obliged to pass by the critical editions of 
Mattt^i, Alter, and Bircb, to save the patience of our readers. 
Tbe last and most important present to sacred literature^ is 
the edition 'of the Greek Testament hy Dr. I. I. Griesbdch, 
first published at Halle in Saxony, in ]775a!7d 1777; and, 
in a second and most carefully perfected edition, at Hall'e 
in 1796 and 1806, 2 volutiies, 8vo. The Prolegomena are a 
trpasureof scriptural information and criticism. The text is 
formed by the unremitting and patient labours of the excel- 
lent critic, its editor, from a scrutinizing and cautious use 
of all the proper means. From the constant habit of using 
the last edition, we confidently advance our opinion, that thg 
vonstilntjon of the text in general proceeds upon a strictly 
upright and judicious application of tbe unimpeachable laws 
of tair criticism. In a word, we do not hesitate to say, that 
no. man, in tbe present day, can justify himself to his con- 
science or to 'the public, as a satisfactory interpreter of the" 
ikriptaies and « competent defender, of Cnristiau Truth; wfaq 



4- 



..,Coo>^[c 



3»" New Versions of the New Testament. 

dees not, if he hn» it in Ms power, regularly cnnsiilt Mill, 

Wctstein, and Griesbach, or at any rate one of tba latter 

tuvo. 

We have felt much difficirity in compressing, witbin Our 
Confined bounds, tbis^ necessary detail, Ouriiiduigent readers 
will 1^o^v revert fo the inq'nii-y which enjoined upon us this 
excursion ; namely, Did Ving James's translators positess, as the 
Wsis of their Version, a text of ihe New Testament well as- 
certained to be eract' and authentic? The reply is obvious. 
At their time, and in thoir circumstances, the thing ■inas im- 
possible.* The i-esiiltof our whole disquiFiiion' we shall pre- 
sent in a few short propositions. 

J. Our translators could not use the common or received text; 
for that was not constituted till near thirteen year.^ afterwards. 
Ko inau thefeforfc can contend for the purity of both tho 
ordinary Greek text, and the text used by our venerable 
translators. ' '' 

2. We have no information, and at this distance of time it 
■JB hopeless to expect it, as to what edition was employed by 
them. Possibly the translators of the different books might 
Oot be uniform in this respect. From the troublesome ope- 
ration of comparison, we hnd that in many instances they 
have rejected good readings of the Complutensian edition, 
and have preferred readings "of inferior authority, irorti Ste- 
phens and Bezn. Sometimes they have given the better read- 
ing in the margin : and we have -found a single instanbe of 
their adopting a good Complutensian readings in opposition 
tp that which had more generally obtained. But it appears 
that they have, upon the whole, too implicitly ^adhered to the ■ 
texts of Stephens and Beza. i 

3. The unlearned Christian Tias no ground of alarm nbnnt 
- the certainty of the Scriptures and the security of Divine 

Truth. Even from the most corrupt text, and the most fanky 
versioD, that are known to exiit, the facts, the doctrines, and 

■ the duties of Christianity, may be proved ; though under 
some disadvantages. On this subject we may add the testi- 
mony of D)'. Bentley ; " Not frighted therefore with the pre- 

. sent 30,000 (readings collected oy Dr, Mill) I, for my part, 
and, as I believe, many others, wonld liot lament, if, out 
of the old MSS. yet untouched, 10,000 more were: faithfully 
collected; some of which, without' question, would render 
the text more beautiful, just, and exacf, though of no con- 
seqaence to the main' of religion, nay, perhaps, wholly sy-' 
.nnitymousin (he view of cooimon reader*, and quite inseu- 
sihk in any modern version." [Phileleuth. Lipstensts.) The 
sole object of fiiir criticism is to restore the text toits origin 
pal purity, as it came from the tiundsof the inspired waiters. 
(JciUaUirs and c(|>tof& 9ro do more infallibly than printers bd^ 

.'' ;., Google 



Nao f^e^sions ^ tht Sfae TestamaU. 39 

pubtisben ; but , tl^ir ^ucce^ive labours have been a Mties of 
«pproxi[nati:ms to perfection : and we have much probable 
reason for the opinion, that by tbe important labours qf 
Griesbach the great object is jufw neprl^ attained, and tJiat 
no emendations of consequence remain yet to be made. The 
libraries of Euiope liave been explorea with the utmost dili- 
gence and repeated labour: but though msny new docu- 
ments have been brought to light, during the last thirty yeaft, 
they have authorized no change of importance, while they 
bavc confirmed the decisions wliich modern criticism had pre- 
viously pronounced. The fail of the Turkish empire, and 
the collation of the Hebrew and Syciac MSS. said to exist in 
India, will unquestionably give some interesting results ; but 
they can scarcely be any other than corroborative of what is al- 
ready established; at least with regard to the iVcnt Testament. 

4t. The authorized English version, notwith»tanding the im- 
jwrfections which vre have freely, but, we hope, candidly meri*- 
tioned, considering the infancy of critical knowledge at the 
time, is a very respectable ami faithful representation of tbe 
text on wbich it was founded. 

6. The Gre^ l^xt of Griesbach's last, edition has a' just 
title, above every other yet published, to be received as a 
alaitdard text. 

e. It », highly desirable that tbe fruits of sacred criticism^ 
produced' ky the arduous toils of illmitrious scholars througU 
so long a course of years, should be laid open to universal 
tfse. For this purpose^ », revision of the established transla- 
tion, transfusiug into it the increased purity of the original 
text, would be the most obnous, easy, and generally ac-' 
ceptable method. 

One of the' volumes before us purports to be such a work, 
' and claims our regard as ad ' Improved Version' of the tievr 
Testament. The validity of its claims, it is our duty to iexa- 
mine. To say that we shall discover in iWa strong bias of 
party principle, and that our. decision will in many other 
rejects be unfavourable, would be perhaps improperly to 
anticipate the result of an examination, which we shall en- 
deavour to discharge with a conseientious regard to truth and 
justice. 

The particular object? of our attention will be,— the text 
adopted as the basis of the version, — the divisions and punc- 
tuation,~-the mode of rendering idiomntical and peculiar ex- 
pressions, — the style in general, — the <legree of integrity, or 
the deficiency of it, which marks the esecutlon,— 4na tlie 
character of the notes. 

A kw remarks will then suffice . on the mutilated New 
Testajnent, fonned on the plan of the latu Mr. Evanson. 
(Toittentiuued-J ... 

r,o,i,,-cdtyGoOgl*C 



( " ) 

Art.V, Poemt. hj the Rer. George Crabbe, LL.B. 8ro. pp. 256. TbirJ 

. Edition. Pnce iOf. 6d. Hatcliard. 1808. 
^J'EXT to tbe inconceivable variety of forms and substances 
_ that constitute the material universe, there is nothing in 
nature more wontlerfiil than t^e diversity aaiong things of tho 
same species. Perhaps no two blades ot grasfi,,no two grains 
of corn, were ever entirely ajrke. The leaf of an oak is a fami^ 
liar object, of elegant and simple construction : nevertheless 
we may almost safely affirm, that since the creation no two oak. 
leaves ever so itearty resembled each other, that they could 
not easily have been discriminated on cotni^rison. To themjnd 
even of an archangel it might be impossible to form an inteU 
ligible idea of the sum of such leaver that have been produced 
in the world, wer(: their number recortled before him \ yet lac 
more difficult of comprehension is the fact which we assume, 
and which we believe, that each unit of that sum would repte- 
seot a Certain leaf which had been marked by some peculiarity 
that distinguished it from all the rest. If in so small a compass, 
and so slight a subject, there be an endless diversity of cha- 
racter (for shape, size, and Colour may be said to cfaarac- 
terise foliage), of far greater variation from one general standard 
must the human countenance be snsceptible, since it is com. 
posed of muny features, the meatiest of wbieh is incomparably 
more curiously designed and more exquisitely wrought thai) 
the leaf of a tree, faces are often so palpably akin, that 
they at all times remind us the one o^ the other, and occa- 
sionally mislead US with respect to persons of whom we have 
,4n imperfect knowledge; hut assuredly there were nev^ two 
vis^es sa equal (to use a geometrical termj, that if placed 
together, and examine<l by an eye connected with an intellect 
above an ideot's, they would not have been found dissimilar in 
every line. The mind of man is inSnitciy more complex tban 
his countenance, and capable, therefore, of moditication in an 
infinitely higher degree. It is the noWest work on earth of that 
Being who made all things according to his own pleasure, 
and who made every species, not only more generally distinct 
from the other, but more individually distinguishable, as they 
rose in dignity in the order of creation. Two plants of the 
same kind are inore unlike each other than two pieces of clay, 
two animals than two plants; two minds than two animals. 

Now every thing in nature which can be perceived by our 
senses, is necessarily circumscribed within a line of impassable 
variation that determines its period, its form, and its dimen- 
sions. It is physically impossible for an acorn to increaie to 
the size of a gourd, for a butterfly to live a hundred year«. 
Of fofahumUa bod^ to grow in the shape of a tree, j bottb?. 



i,,-c,it,Googlc 



Crabbe's Poems. M 

.mind, iyirestricted by time, and aniiinited to space, seeins 
capable of iofiuite expansion, and everlasting improvement ■:— 
consequently, as the proportion of individual distinction ii 
enlarged according to the ascending rank of the spt'ci^s in the 
scale of creation, human minds must be inore diversified than 
all the visible forms and substances in the universe, being 8o 
transcendantly exalted above them in tbek nature and by their 
powers. 

We mean to make the application of these remarks to tba 
beUes lelirea only; though they would lead us through many 
a fair field of knonledget and light us through many a dark 
maze of speculatioti. If all the objects in nature are thus 
peipetually varying amidst the harmonious and unbroken unt. 
formity or the wh(Se, and if the mind of every man living be 
modified so differently from the mind of every other, that h« 
sees all things from a particular point of view, and, receive? 
impresUons from thera that are entirely his own j then are 
the glories of nature inexhaustible in themselves, as the 
subjects of contemplation, and they are illustrated beyond mea< 
iure, as subjects of description, by their phases being changed . 
to every eye and every ioteitect. We cannot, theretore, listen 
with patience to that idle and false perversion of a scripture 
phrase, which is the common cant, and common cry, of 
superficial critics ; ^ There is nothing ritw under the sun!* 
Every thing under the sun is new> the sun himself never 
rose twice on the same object ; the same object never affected 
two imaginations alike. Immutability belongs to God alone; 
it is his owu. indivisible, uncommunicated attribute, — the per- 
fection of Deity : all that his power has created to adorn and 
animate the earth, his providence is continually changing, dis- 
■olving, renewing : ' they shall perish, but Thou ahalt endure : 
as a vesture shaltvThou cban^ them, and tl>ey shall be 
changed : but Thon art the samt, and Thy years have no end !* 
He, therefore, who would delight the world as a Poet, must 
first learn to look at Nature with bis own eyes, and he will. soon 
discover wonders and beauties in her aspect, of which be was 
never aware, while he squinted at her throu^ * the spectacles 
of books,' and beheld nothing but tawdry, indistinct, and muti- 
lated distortions of her simple ftnd exquisite charms. i>ut he 
Biust not only see, he must feel, and ubove all, he must. think, 
for himself, with anperverted susceptibility of heart, and un- 
shaken independence of sOul: — then, and not till then, what 
he hits seen, and felt, and thought, and thoroughly compi'e- 
hended, he may publish to the world; for he, and he only, 
who undersUnds himself and bis subject, can make, his. readers 
Dnderstaiid either. It is an animating tiuth, that every man of 
jKHBeverin^ obwrruiDii, bowevef hamble hi» genius, ornarrow 



r,o,i,,-cdtyGoOglc 



4s Crabbe's Ftems. 

his scope of inquiry may be, when lie tells what be kiviws, 
divulges something which others do not Icdow ; the muttitiide 
of his thoughts must of necessity be so familiar to every one, 
that (bey can pretend to no particular distinction ; but there 
will be such a family likeness among them, that none wHl 
neem spurious; all will be recognized as his legitimate off- 
spring ; and a few at least will be so full of the spirit of their 
parent, that it will be self-uvident that no other man but bim> 
self could have given tbem birth. IF every poet would thus 
aim at orlgiitalitv, and instead of mere cross-readings of mo* 
mory-:— the bulk of ordinary poetry is nothing else — would ^ 
commuaicate the lessons of liis understanding and experience, 
learned by heart, and not by rote ; though we will not under- 
take to say that there would he less frivolity foisted upon the 
public, we are sure there vvould be less dulness. In an author'* 
works we should at any rate have the substance of his own 
conceptions, instead of the shadows of other people's, falling 
across his pages, as tJiey flitted through his bmiti j and we 
should see the distinct image of Nature herself reflected from ^ 
the mirror of bis individual mind, in place of a rorsefsbl^ 
copy of discordant features, made up from a thousand 
wretched portraits of her in common -place-books. Every to'- 
hime thi^s cHrtously composed might add something to the 

Sublic stock of ideas, — to that treasury of knowledge which 
as been accumulating since the creation, and which is the 
richest inheritance. of the posterity of Adam ; for in it \m 
included all the truth that has been discovered on earth, or 
revealed from heaven, in all agek and among all nations. i , 

We have been. led into this perplexed lucubration, through 
ivhic|i we fear that few of our readers will-follow us patiently, 
if they follow us at all, by the conviction left on our minda 
from the perusal of the volume before us, that every man of 
moderate talents may step forth as an origin aP writer, in any- 
path of elegant literature to which his taste iiicliues hiui^ 
if he will courageously exercise his powers on those subjects 
that are most frequently within bis view, and of which be has. 
the opportunity of acquiring the greatest knowledge. Of tlita 
noble and stlccessful daring Mr. Crabbe is a sigital example. 
li\i poetical qualifications are considerably limited : fancy, 
ferrour, grace, and feeling, he has only iji a low degree ; his 
talents are chiefly of the middle order, but they are admirable 
in their kind, and he employs tbeni to the utmost advantage. 
Strengda, spirit, trnthj aud discrimination, are conspicuous ii^ 
all his pieces; his peasantTcharacters are drawn with Dutch 
drollery, and his village-pictures finished with Flemish minute- 
ness. His diction is copious and energetic, though frequently 
bard aud-prosatc ; it renjarkably abouDOs with autiUieses^ catcli- 



r,o,i,,-cdtyGoOglc 



Crabbe's /WtW. 4« 

words, and other proilucts of artifice and labour. His verse i« 
fiueni, but exceedinftly monotonous; the pnuse in bisberoic 
measuce fiilling sometimes through ten coupiets in a jiag'e after 
tbe fourth and fifth syllables :.bnt he often strikes out single 
lines of perfect excellence, sententious as proverbs,' and pointed 
like epi<,Tams. A vein of pecniiar English humour runs 
ibrough his details; a bitter pleasantry, amoody wit, a sarcastic 
Sadness, that seems at once to frown and smile, to scorn and 
pity. He is a poet half way between Pope and Goldsmith ; but 
he wants the taste of the one, and the tenderness of the other; 
/ we are often reminded of each, yet he never seems the servile 
imitator of either, while his style and his si^jects, especially in 
facetious description, occasionally elevate him to an equality 
with both. He sometimes borrows phrases, and even whole 
lines, from other authors; and as he does this from indolence 
not from necessityj he deserves the discredit which such obli:;a- 
[ions throw upon his pages. One of his most masterly sketch e»^ 
in the Parish Register, that of the old blind Landlord, i^i 
, mined at the contusion by the quotation of a line from the 
Night Thoughts, the substance of which the author had pre- 
viously paraphrased in the context. No themes tiavebeen more 
backnied in rhyme than the delights of villages, and the 
peace and innocence of country people ; but as all the vilia^es- 
of former bards had been situated in Arcadia, Mr. Crahbe bad 
nothing todobirtto look at home, in his own parishes, (the' 
one near a smuggling creek on the sea-coast, and the other 
taoaof; the flats of Leicestershirej) to become the most original 
poet that ever sang of village Life and manners. 

Id the prefece to this collection of his new and republished 

faems, Mr.Crabbe brings such critical recommendations in his 
and, as ought perhaps to silence anonymous Reviewers.- 
WhaC caTi tee say to ' His Grace the late Duke afSuflavd, The 
Right Honowrahle the Lord Tlmrlow, Dr. Saviuel Johnson, Mr. 
Burke, fht Right Hoiiourabte Charles Jamei Fqx, Henrif 
Richard Lord Holland, The Reverend Richard Turner,' Kc. 
if«.* Triily we can do neither more nor less than make our 
boty,.and retire in mute astonishment to find a poet in so much 
good company. However, we anV/whisper one surly hint iij 
his ear, as be shews us to the door,—?' Mr. C. , you are- much 
too obsequious to great f oiks not tq provoke the spleen of little 
ones.' But if Mr. Crafabe is a willow in his Pieiace, he is an 
oak in ' the Village.' This is his masteri-piece. It was published 
more than twenty years ago ; the beiit parts of it are familiar 
to most readers of poetical miscellanies, having been frequently 
reprinted. 

This Piece ought to have concluded about the I06th lineof 
llieiiecoodPart: but Mr.C, not content with being the Censor 



.dtyGoogIc' 



44 €rabbe'a' Poems. 

of the Poor, most uiiseasonnbly becomes the Panegyrist oF ihe 
Rich i at the end of ' the Vill^ffe' he has lighted a great bon- 
fire of adulation to t)Te Rutland famiiy, and though he dances 
ftbout it with abhudant grate and gravity, we cannot help 
thinking that be onglit to have chosen another time and place 
for demonstrations of gratitude to his manificent patrons.— 

• The Newspaper,^ and ' The Library^ are also republications 
«f Ringular ingenuiiji which, however, require no .particular 
notice from irs. 

' The FaThh Begtster,' a new Poem, like, the hook from 
which it borrows its title and its subject, is divided into three v 
parts. Baptisms, Marriages, and Burials. We will quote a 
few of the last lines -firsi, as a simple summary of the Village 
Life. 

• Here, with'sn infant joyfii! sponsors come, 

Tfaen bear the MW-maJe Chrulian to iu hornet 

■A. iew sbort years, and we behold him staud 

To ask a blessing, with his bride in hand : 

A few< atili seeiniDg shorter, and we hear 

His widow weeping, at her husband's bier.' p. 132. S 

-The plan of this poem has simplicity, and perhaps nothing 
else, to recommend it; but the execution is intitled to very 
bigb praise ; though there are some languid and heavy para- 
graphs, the humour and satire are well supported to the con- 
clusion. Each part consists of a preamble, and a series of 
characters. Fn^m the general introduction, under the bead of 

* Baptism,' we extract the following picture of the reprobate 
end of the village; it is drawn with tremendous truth, and 
loathsome fidelity; but it is equal to any passage in the 
Tolume, and displays Mr. Crabbe's peculiar taleiit'in iti. ut- 
most force. 

' • Fair scenes of peace ! ye might detain us long. 
But Vice and Misery now demand the song; 
And turn our view from dwellings simply neat„ 
To this infected' row, we term our street. 

* Here, in cabal, a disputatious crew 
Each evening foeet } the sot, the cheat, the shrew j 
-Riots are hightly heard, the cune, the cries 
Of beaten wife, perverse in her replies ; 
Wbile shiieking children hold each threat'oiog hsadt 
And sometimes life and sometimes food demand : 
Soys in iheir first stol'n rags, to swesr begin. 
And girls, who knew not sex, are tkiU'd id gint 
Snarers and smuglers here their gaiu divide, 
Ensnaring females here their victims hide; 
And here is oi!e, the Sybil of the Row, 
Who knows all secret^, or affecli to know; 
.Seeding their fate, to her the simple ran. 
To ber ihe guilty,' thrirs awhile to «huQ ; 



;., Google 



'Crabbe's Poefiis. ♦jf 

MUtreu of worthiesi artt, deprar'd in wil), *' 

Her care unb)«t and unrepaid her skill, 
Slare to the tribct to whose command she stoop*,. 
And poorer ihao the poorest ra^d she dupe«> 

' Between die p>ad-way and the w'alU, ofTence 
lovades all eyes and strikes on erery sense ; 
There lie, obsceoei at every open door, 
He^g from the hearth sod sweepings Armt the floor; 
And dajr by day the mingled masses groWi 
As sinks are disembogu'd and gutters flow. 

• There hungry dogs from hungry children steal,. 
There pigs and chickens qiurrel for a meal ; 
There dropsied infanta wall, without redress. 

And all is want and woe and wretchedness: 
Yet should tliese boys with bodies bronz.'d and baret 
High-iwoln and bard outlive that lack of car^— 
Foic'd on some ftinn the. unexerted strength. 
Though loth to action, is compell'd at length, ., 
When warm'd by health, as serpents in the. spring. 
Aside their slough of indolence they fling. 

• Yet ere they go, a greater ctII eonJea— 
See crowded beds in those contiguous rooms; 

Beds but ill parted, by a paltry screen, ' / 

Or paper'd lath or curtain, diopt between; 
Dai^hters and soqs to yon compartments creep. 
And parents here, beside tbeir Children sleep; ' ■ . 

Ye who have powei^ these thaughtleis people p»t, 
. Hot let the Ear be first to- taint the heart.' pp. io—^,,. . 

• Here are no wheels for either wool or flax, 
But packs of cards, made up of sundry packs ; 
Here is no clock, nor will they turn the glass,' 

And see how^ swift th' important momenta pass ; . ' 

There are no books, but ballads on the wait. 

Are some abusive, and indecent all ; 

Pistols are here, unpaiHd; with nets and hooks, 

Of every kind, for rivers, poxi Ji, and brooks ; 

An ample flask that nightly rovers fill. 

With recent poison from the Dutchman's still; 

A box irf" tools with wires of vaiious size, 1 

Frocks, wigs, and hats, for dght or day disguise, > 

An4 bludgeons scout to gain or guard a prize. J 

' To every house belongs 3 apace of ground, 
Ofcijualsize once fenc'd with paling roundj 
That paling now by slothful waste destroy'd, 
Dead Gorse and stumps of Elder fill the void ; 
Save in the center-spot, whose walla of clay 
Hide sots and striplings at iheir drink and play ; 
Within, a board, beneath a til'd retreat. 
Allures [he bubble and maintains the cheat ; 
Where heavy ale in spoti like varnish shows, '■ - 
Where chalky tallies yet remain in rows ; 



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49 Crabbe's Poems. 

"Black pipes and broken jug> the seats 6tS\e, 
The walliand wiodowi, rhyn^-8 andreck'tiings tUcJ 
Frin» of the mcancM kind diagrace the door, 
V^^d cardi in cur«es torn, lie tra|;ineDta on the floor. 
' Here Im« pow lard, th' inhuman Cocker brings, 
Arms hji hard heel, and dipt hit goWcn wiflgij 
' With Bpky food, th' impatimt apirit itxi%i 
fkftA sbnuu and curses as the baule bleeds : 
Struck through the brain, deprirM cf both his eye«» 
The vanquish'd bird must combat till he dies; 
Must fainiJj peck at his viciorioua foe, ' ■ 
AnA reel and stagger at e&ch leeble blow ; 
"When fali'n, the savage grasps hie dabbj^ plumei, 
His btood-naia'd arms, for ouier deaths i^sDmies ; 
, And damns the Craven-fowl, thailost his stake. 
And only bled and perish'd for his sa|te.' pp. 43, 44. 
We carniot atFord another extract from this part. The cruel 
case uf the Miller's Daughter, and the magnificent fortune of 
Sir Richard Monday, the parish foutidliiig, cannot fail to 
attract partjcuiar attention. \ 

The ' Marriage' department of this poem will probably be 
found the most emertaiiiing to most readers ; but we have o:<\y 
room Lo find fank. How could so correct a writer as Mr. 
Crabhe fall into such a breach of graminar as appears in this 
«ouplet ? 

. ^ __ < Like Lovdace, Am thy coat Jufihy'd, 

-Aad^i/'the Aiare prepar'd to catch tbe^ntaid.' f. 80, 

We will, hojverer, make one whimsical quotation from the 

next page. After celebrating the marriage of the 'Squire and 

the Lady, he tiius mentions the subscription of their names, 

f nd others, in his original Parish Register : 

* How fair these names, how iTi\)ch unlike they Joolc 
To all the blurr'd subsciiptions In my book i 
The bridegroom's letters standi in row above, 
Tapering yet stout like pine-trees io his giove j 
While free and'iine, the bride's appear. below. 
As light and slender as her Jasmines grow; 
Mark now id what confusion, stoop or stand. 
The crooked scrolls of many a clownish hand. 
Now out, now in, they drapp, they fall, they rise, 
Like raw recruits drawn forth for exercise j 
Ere yet relbrm'd and modeli'd by the dril), 
' The free- born legs stand striding as they will. 
' Much have [tried to guide the fist along. 
But stilt the blunderers plac'd their blottings wrong s 
Behold these marks untouih ! how stmnge that hien. 
Who guide the plough, should fail to guide the pen ; 
ForhaJf a mile, the furrows eren lie; . 
Fo^haU'aninch, Ac letten stand awiy.' p. 81. 



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Cr&bbeS Poems. 47 

Here we cut short the description of tlicse unmanageable 
fistii, as the author ought to have dotit; ; buc the thought was 
s<i good, that he could not resist the temptation of spoiling 
it in six more lines.' — In this part, if we pardon ihe wedding 
scene, we must condemn the t/>ree simiies of ' Old Hodg^ 
and his ' Dame :' they are as sickening as the subject, on whicb 
the author seems to dwell with detestable delight. — The story 
of Pbcebe Dawson deserves the applause which has been be- 
stowed upon it by former critics: but the most affectiirg cir- 
cumstance connected with it, we leuvn from the preface,—- it 
was read to the late Mr. Fox on his death-bed, and was the last 
composition of the kind ' that engaged and amused the ca- 
pacious, the candid, the benevolent mind of this great man.' 

The third part, ' Burials,' is, in our estimation, the most 
curious ai\d valuable. The portraits are painted from life in 
death ; wh^ mart appears what he is. And how does he gene- 
rally appear iu this Christian land? Let us- hear a .miuist*. 
•f die Church, who has had long and ample experience. 

• What I behoM, are feverich it» of strife, ^ 

Twixt fears of dying and desire of life ; 
Those earthly hopes, that to the last endure: 
Tliose fears, that hopes superior fail to cure ; 
At besti that sad submission tosthedoom, ^ 

That, turning from the danger, lets it come. 

Sick lies the man, b'wilder'di lost, afraid. 
His spirits vanquiih'd and his strength decay'd j 
Np hope the friend, the nurse, the doctor, iead-*-. 
■ •* Call then a priest, and lit him for his md [ 
A pi;iest is callM, 'tis now, alas ! too late, , 
Death eaters with him, U the cottage gate ; - 

Or time allow'd— he goes, asaiir'd to find. 
The self-eommeDdiog, all-confiding mindf 
And agha to hear, what wc may justly call, 
DaOh't eemmoB'/ilaee, the train of thought ia all. 

" True, I'm a sinner," feebdy he begins^ 
•' But trtiBt in Mercy, to forgive my sins ;" 
(Such cool confession no past Crimea excite I 
Such cldm on rbercy, as a sinner's Right !] 
■* I know, mankind are frail, that God is good, 
f And, Done have liv'd, Bs wisdom wilts the^ should t 
*< We're sorely tempted, in a world like this, 
*' All men have done, and' I, like ail, amiss ; 
•■ But no#, if spar'd, it is my fidl intent, - - 

" To think about beginning to repent: 
" Wrongs against me, I pardon, great and small, 
" And if I die, I die in peace with all." 
* Hii merits thus and not his sins confeat, 
He speaks his hopes, and leaves to henv'n the rest.* pp. 96, 97>- 
Wc are eomnelled reluctantly to paas over^this striking 
jtscripti"", witbout euCciing intu a minute eKaciinaticn uf 

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48 , Crabbe's Poem. 

its parts, a!] of which a.re most fearfully interesttog. In tbe 
whole cpursc of our reading, we never met with a phrase 
that chilled us with such horror, as one that occurs in the 16th 
Jine — ' J^eath's common-place P And is there indeed a com- 
mon-place train of tliniight in death? and is this which our 
anthor l)us ^iven, the faithful expression of it ? There is, and 
this is the failliful expression of it ! What reader will not ex- 
claim, ' JVho then can be saved * ?' or rather, ' How shall a« 
escape t?* We live but from pulse to pulse, from breath to 
breath ; our time is only a series of momentB ; one of these will 
be the last ; — eternity is bound np in it ! ought not all the rest 
to be employed in pi-eparing to meet it? that when Death 
shall break the seal of that moment, we may be ready to sei^e 
the prize of immortjdity, which, missed then, is lost for ever ! 
Tnere is an inimitable conversatioD-scene in Cowper's poem 
on Hope, beginning, 

< Adieu, VinoM cne«, en yet he tips 
* The purple bumper trembling at his llpi," Jtc. 
by~which it would appear, that such, sentiments as Mr. Crabbe 
hears from the lips of dying men, are equally the common- 
place train of thought aniong the living. It will be well worth 
the reader's white to compare the two passages together : and 
he will at the same time discover the difference and re- 
semblance between tbe two poets, each in his happiest vein. 
In the lines succeeding the above quotation, p. 98, — in the 
' character of his favourite Isaac Asbford, p. 1 13,-^ia his Youth 
from Cambridge, p. 130, — and in his Sir Eastace (^rey, p. 232, 
Mr. Crabbe takes special care to mark his abhorrence of 
sectaries aod enthusiasts. We will only make one remark on 
this : were he better acquainted with those v'hom he despises 
and repro lates, he would find less of ' Death's common-place,' 
and mo:e of ' the joy that springs from pardoning love' (p. 98) 
among them, in their last hours, than he finds in his poetical 
parish ; — for wc trust that in his rectorial parish, his precepts 
B,nd example, his fervid zeal aod holy fiiithfulness, induce 
many, if not all, of his Bock, to choose ' the narrow way* 
that leads to etertial life. 

That all our extracts from this singular poem may not be 
coarse and gloomy, we will copy the conclusion of Istac 
Ashford's character, which is very natural, and mournfully 
pleasing. 

' At length, he fbund> when kevimty yean were hm, 
Hii streogth departnl and his labour done ; 
His hoDest fame he yet reuid'd ; no more ; 
His wife was buried, and his ctiUdren poor ; 

• Luke sriii. 2G.' f Heb. ii..3. . 



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Crahbe's Poettii. *' 

r *f tlfa« dwn a (park of — »ay not disconteot-^ ■ 

Struck OD his miodt and thus he gave it reut : — '■ 

** Kind are your lawit ('Ob not to be denied,) 
" That in yon houee, for riiiu'd age, provide, ' 
*' And jut^ aa iind ; wbcn yoiag, we gi»e you ^i 
. , ^ " And then for cemfbrta in our weakoeu call,— 
** Why thea this pro)Kl reluctance to be fed, 
** Tojoinyoui pooii aod eat the paiisb-bread J 
" Bot yet I linger, loath with bim to liRi , 

•• Wlo, while he feeds me, ii aa loath to gife j 
** He wh«, by contract, all ytiur paupers took, 
*■ And goagea stomachs, with an anxiotiB look } . 
' ^ On soma old master, I could well depend ; 

■* See him with joy, and thank him is a fricfid ; 
* ** Sat ill on him, vho doles the day's supply, 

■■ And cooDta our chances, viiko at night may die : . . 
" \«. help me, heaven I to mowB my lot, '»■ Taia ; 
*■ Mise it It astwchcHM, but to sostain." 

* Such were his thou^Ud aod so resign'd he grew} 
llaily he pUc'd the workhouse in his view ^— 
Bu,came not tltePe, fo^pidden WM hit fate. 
He droM'd expiring, at bis 'cottage>gate. 

*i fittl lits absence m the hours of prayer, 
And newhii teat, and ^gh for Isaac there; 
I see no iqme thoae ^lUte locks tUnly spread ; 
Stoood the bdd pofidi of that bsnotti'd bead t 
Ifo niore that aweiol ^Booe, m plajfiil wi^ 
, Compell'd to kneel anil tremble at the iq^ht t . 
. ^^»ld his fingers aU in dread ^ while, ' 
, ful Miater AtHFokp Boi^n'ji Ij) a smile; 
No more that me^, that suppliant look in prqreTt 
Nor that.pore Faith, that gave it force— «e there :--- . 
Biit he is blest, and I lament no more, 
A wise good Man conteDted to be poor.' {ip. 113> ll^v 
Tbe poem of Sir Eiaface Grey presents a dreadful dc* 
lioeauoD of ^ha woes and wanderings oi a distracted mind. 
Tber^ afe sQfu very fine ttrokes of nature and truth in it| 
that di^pl^y ^s author's piof^npd ,luiowledge of the huqiao 
heart i^ its uDoouve^ted stsu& Of conversioa he manifests 
his i^orance oply^ or else, if be knows what it is, he does not 
tell. Tbe change wroi^ht in the mind of tbe insane ^a 
Eustace, by * a metkodif^.c^i^ wbeii ' a sober and rational con* 
version could 'not have haj^ened' to bini, is either ,tba 
greatest miracle or the ereat^t absi^dity tbat we ever read 
of even ia! rerse. We have not roai« to ezpi>se the eon* 
tradictioB involved in this mon^rous story. 

*,Tjie Hall of Justice' is a tale of excessive horror andabo- 
mioadoD} .there is a great deal of, vigour, but very Uttl« 
poetry in it. We I^ava tbe few other pieces to their fortuDs. 
. V0I.V..; , ... ,^, % ... 

. DoilUdtyGoOgIC 



[ JO ) 
An. VI. ^a /agulrjf into tie Slate of Nal'iv'a} Suiiulenef, of ctmtrtd 
milk Ike Pragmx of .fV'obk m/ Pohulation. By W^T. Comber. 
8vo. pp. 389. Prices*. Cadel! and Bariej, 1806. 

'J'HE laws of production, and'theTiiles wbichought to di- 
rect comniei^e, in regard to (he means of subsistence, 
form a part of poljticDl economj, whirfi fewer persons as yee 
understand, than almost any other 'branch of tliat important 
science. The great doctrine of freedom is now tolerably well 
comprehended, in all other departments of tradfe; itw aflowed 
that the natural ^u4 ^beuelicent effects .of competition neces- 
sarily establish things on the best pa^s^ble fouitd^Uon ; and 
that all interference on (he pert of .goveromeniU tends only 
to disorder and jnjujy. Butitais idoolrtne !i» iby nO.means uni- 
versally or generally admitted, Jiii«ganl to >the ineeitB of snb- 
sistence. Tfaereare «Dme4trikiAgaf>paami1ceG,Mhich at first 
view seem to distinguish the Bieansor subsistence from ordi« 
nary c<mimodities, and to constitutetiiefn a species by them- 
selves. It is not a matter qf choij^e, ^^l'^\h the coij^umer of 
this species of Gommodities, whether be Shrill. buy theim or not. v 
A certain portion ,ofih!eipi,em>j^t'hflye, am;! I»e *^ill give all 
that he possesses in ^e w^^d r^*h^r,taan (lot pb^ftin it. Of 
all other comino^ijicfi ,* rman iji ^n ^ gi'^j^t ,ait;a>ure, the 
master of his pw« ds-'WHwI. JtJ^^BLjr ,)je<ffilJlH«it9f>urchase 
any given qHan*it,yilp'to.^ ie^Bta«M*'»ucMI»M>t'«»f l^rice. but 
there is a point- ad .whioh iie wiH atop. ;No stK^ .point how- - 
f^ver exists in regaid to itbe-neoessarieiof'tife; -and conse- 
quently no limit is set^tb'if^ possible af>gment«tion of their 
price. Further ; ■jn-all other conpnoditiea, the dem^jid of the 
consumer admits "of a ceitain de}<K-, 'He , can po^Uione his ' 
•atisfactSqn ; ,if he is ijf ppinlAn thjt.the {iri|C,e is unreasonably 
high, and tliat tfj* dealers will) if he exercise alittle patience, 
be soon obliged to .moderate iheir demands, 'be Vertiains»for 
■ season his impdlse Irfboyj ahd'hy tbis- mean* afford^tkne 
for(!ompetitit«i''toprodq^e' its eflfects,' andredacfe ;tbe^«t)Hi-' 
modity wiiic4ibe.w!irits-» ilS'daeind iwrtiiTalprite,. As -to . 
*he necessaries of 'life, ' howtvef, the -p^te is .totally different. 
Here *he deinanid pf-the consum^admiisftf'ijo- fieljiy;' he . 
eaniH)therepoBtpbn.elris.gTatifi?ivtion inliopeff thattiie price 
will-fall. Iri this -sJtuatipp the' na^ursleflfectsof.campefttioH 
may 'be anticipated } 'prices-may'riseto any extriviganice 
Mrtiad thejust' arid iiecessary'pOiBt, snd one pirt '<of tjte 
community ;may t^sperniciouiny preyvpon tiie^fest. Nor 
is this all ; the effects attending^ a failure pf sijpply in Ae 
liece»?aries- of ^tfcj-are amoijg me most drtadfisj which c^n 
•tladi humaii sotricty. 'When otber connnqditiesy'eveit tbose 
tphich are most highly ■uscfiif, become deficient, igconve'^ 
aience, more or less, is tbe oiriy consequence; Wbea-breail 

l", i.,Coos;[e 



Comber's Inquiry concerning yal.'onal Suhltlence. 5! 

becomes deHcieot, the people i^urt die ; society losbs iu 
members:' misery, excruciaung' to behold, bverspveads the 
community. Other efFecis succeed. A body of men, de*" 
perate for want of food, is a troop of wild beasts- . By what 
terrors can you restrain men from seizing whatever they he- 
hold, who are pushed forward upon you hy the " Itihg of 
terrors" himself in his most terrifie shupe ? Society is now 
torn up frem the foundation, auaicby succeeds, the law of 
the stroflgew only prevails, and men tear each other to pieces.. 
The view of these dreadful consequences has tended, 
greatly to embarrass the thoughts of ordinary flien on this 
subject; and has very eeiierally impressed the opinipn, that a 
concern of l^is unspeakable importance ought not to Ije lelt 
to itseif, <»■ tp.the course of nature, which they atf very apt 
to F^ard aa ch^e ; but that it ought to form ?. very parti- 
cular papt of the care of government, and .be put under re- 
gulationg which may ex^ude the poasibilily of sucji direful 
events. ' , ■ 

/ Since the publication of the work of Adam Sinttl^ ivho 
made no exception of the necessiirieB of life fi:pni hi^cneral 
rule of freedom in regard to the production and traffic pf ail 
coqmiQdities, this has beep regarded: by many persons as 
one of the ftoints on which hp .^rr^d. JQiur leglslatuie iUave 
proceeded upon fHxi^ snppositipo, #nd i^n^er the ipfiue[ic£ of 
the landed nobility and gentry, wj^o, pt^^wninate in .oi\r le- 
gislative body, i»av6 made rgguiatipn^j ostensibly, 3nd no • 
doubt AntentionaUy, fpf ti)e ifiore ^cni;e supply of tlie n^-i 
cewaries.of life,, but iujea\ity,4nd n>aiiy would sav quite as 
intfn^onaUy: on the p^ rt of die t^dhol^^i^i ^^ enhance th^ 
price (rf the necessaries of Alfe, ;Wid:^e rept ctf Jan4- ^ . ■ ■. 
The question (tf policy, tji^refpre, existing on this su,bject» 
haa reea^ined ^iM^cided- The philosophers, on the one hand,^ 
have instated on the dpctrine of freedonfij they .have main- 
tained that the evila which are {Lpprehended, and which' i^- 
fofd the pretext for legislative 9i^oiousnes9 and mercenary, 
interferefioe, .can oqly ftndjtheir re^il, or at le^t tieir best, 
security, in l^tfreedoin whipb vulgar iears aiid vulgar in- 
terests wiould iuptiir. The legislators, on the Qther hand^ 
have stigmatised aU this as n^re ^>eGn]ation ; assuring us- 
that we were very muob indebted -to them for taking so. 
mueb better. «a^ of us, than they would have don^ j>^ .ii^.'en-; 
ing to the- pbilosophe^ni. 

Since the puhUcatiqn of the .celebrated work of Mr. Mai- 
thus, io Much BHch W9ndei>f(jd coa^iIkuoiu w^e drawn .from 
the acknovdo^ed relation between population and tlie means . 
of subsifltenut, snoiher ques^on has ^isen .in regard to the ' 
laws of production concerning this peculiar class of commo- 
Ea 



...Google 



52 Comber's Inquiry co/iceming National Subsistence. 

dities. As the population of any countiy can never multi- 
ply beyond its command of the means oi subsistence, is it 
not true likewise, that its command of the means of sub- 
sistence is dependent upon its population ? that the more its 
population increases, me more of the means of subsistence 
It will, by neces&ity, command? that production, in short, 
no less depends upon man, than man depends upon con- 
sumption ? 

These two undecided questions, both difficult, both in- 
volving lon"^ and subtle inquifies, our author has contem- 
plated as standing in need of investigation and solution ; he 
lias betaken himself to the arduous task with much zeal, 
and witb talents and knowledge considerably beyond me- 
diocrity. It has unfortunately proved, however, a task be- 
yond his strength. Neither should he be discouraged with 
Oiis sentence, narsh as, to an author, it may seem. They 
are questions which require thematurest acquaintance wim 

' political economy- ; and it was 1^ no means possible that a 
leanier. as Mt. Comber appears evidently to be, though a 
learhw whom we would much more willingly stimulate than \ 
deter, shot^d find his way unerringly through their intricate 
mazes. We strongly suspect, indeed, that he was not suffi- 
ciently aware of the separation of the two questions. His 
discussions relate to both ; but the two are confounded toge- 
dier, and the observations which relate to the one are per- 
petually mixed with those which relate to the other. 

The author has set oat with a design which tended greatly 
to bewilder him. He proposed to give a historical account 
of the state of this country, in regard to the means of sub^ 
siatence, from the earliest to the present times ; and to mix 
the speculative discussions with the historical details ; expect- 
ing, as it should seem, that they would throw light upon 
one another. But the consequence, as might have been 
easily foreseen, has been directly tlie reverse. As every 

. question was undecided, and one doubtful proposition could 
only b& brought to illustrate another, they have mutually sha- 
ded instead of illuminating each other ; and the result is, 
confusion and obscurity. Had the speculative questions^ been 
first ascertained, a historical detail of the phenomena of pro- 
visions in this country, well illustrated at every step, by an 
apphcation of the general principles, might liave been in 
the highest degree useful, and might, better than almost iuiy 
other scheme of persuasion, have succeeded in removing pre- 
judices, and gaining converts to rational doctrines. But if 
the author expecte<^ from a knowledge of the historical facts, 
to derive lights. for the solution of , the speculative questions, 
' tie most have proceeded upon a very eironeous idea of the 



r,o,i,,-,-.,ih,.GoOglc 



Comber's Inquiry eoncerning National Suhistenee, 55 

laws of philosophising. This wou!d have been to proceed bj. 
the method ot induction, a method so highly satisfactory in 
all subjects to which it is applicable. But in order to rise 
ii-atn particular facts to general lavra, a niuttttude of instancea 
must be observed and scrutinized. In this case, however^ 
the train of facts in regard to one nation is, properly speak- 
ing, but a single instance ; and affords, by no meatls, a suf- 
ticient foundation on which to builj inauctiye conclaaions 
so extremely general and comprehensive. 

The author shortly states his object in the begianiQ^ of 
his preface. . 

< The change of cyttenii by which additional limitatioiii were inipo- 
oed' on the imparutioD of graiA, after the late tcarcitiet, in 1804} and 
the comparativdy trifling enect which the almon total interruption that' 
subsequendy iooIe place in our foreign suppliet, produced) with retpect to 
the fiufficiencj; of bread com, induced some ooubu of the lelidity of' - 
'those reaaonings which from the preceding scarcitie), infetred an increaa- 
log dependence on cah«',cDuntnei for a considerable portion of our na- 
tional subsistence. 
/ ' The impeifect solution of these doubts, which thftworlu of theore- 
tical writers afforded, ted the audior to search for the jirinciple by which . 
the production of food proportions itself to the population, in an ezanri- 
nation of the actual progress of the country itself. This sabject is in- 
deed incidentally touched upon by erer^ writer on polidcal economjr; 
bu( the author is not aware, that a distinct view of the progicsf of this 
increase, combined with an analysis of the causes wluchhave retarded or ' 
accelerated it, has yet been present to the public. 

* In the opinion of some, perhaps, this basis may not be toficiendy 
broad for the estUilishment of general prindples ( but the coincidences 
which present themselves in the state of society, in those CDuatiies who* 
the agricultural systnn, under different modifications, at pcesent exiitSi 
confirm the results which dow from our historical review. 

■ If this detail should be considered by some too diiiite and ge> 
DCTal, he must observe; that the connexion, thou^ not always imme- 
diate, will. It is hoped, generally be found necesiary ( and he even fiat- ' 
ters himself, that die sketch here presented, however imperfect, may not 
be totally without interest, as exhibiting tfae princ^ features of our 
commerual progress ; and may, prombly, leave a more diniact im- 
pression on the mind, than those collections of mere chronokigica] 
facts and documents, which form almoK the 9aly histories of the ear» 
lier periods of BritiAb commerce.' 

Another passage occurs, in the introduction, where a con- 
densed view is exhibited of the whole of the author's doc^ 
trines. As this ailbrds, not only an outline of the inquiry, 
but a more accurate display of tnat particular point of view 
under which the author contemplated bis subject, Uud any 
description which any other writer could give, nothing cut 
be so iastcuctire as the inspection of the passage itseln 



.dtyGoogIc 



54 Comlier's Inquiiy concerning National SubsUletice. 

' The subsistence of a na^ooi on which the extent of her popalatJOA 
depends, ariKB from the same causes whibh promote her general pros- 
perity, The opiniona of those writers who would found it on that iO' 
dustry alafle ^hich is entployed in the Cnltivatioti of the aoil, have alreadjT 
been exploded in theory by'0r, Sthith ; bat the same doctrine's have been 
r^ved by Mr. Malthus^ in his Ess»y on Fopulationi who, artwng on 
those exploded principles, has iirferred that the commerciat poputadtHi of 
a country, not only may exceed thet Jnst proportion to the agridiltura], 
which ie essential to the strength of a'natioo and the stabihty «f her 
wealth, but that both the one and the other are in this couotry actuiifl<r 
threatened from this gaose at present. 

' The only satisfactory niode of examining thetnith of these doctrinei 
is, by entering; into an analysis of the circumstanpes, which have actually 
attended the progicia of the country in wealth ,-populiition, and agnculcurct 
t>y which alone we can discover the conne^n which extKa between the 
causes, through the agency of \^ich these efTects have been prodnced. 

• Under die appropriation of hmdij which ajAea^ eyen to hare preceded 
agricoltureitv^,. the soil, in the earliest periods) was eultirited rather to 
gratify the anbiciootor the lunaryof a few, ihartto promotie the geileral 
bappinessofdie many ; and thk state of Iwmiyandptiverty, with the ac- 
iKompanying circumstances of war, desolation, and famine, chararteriifed' 
the purely agricukunl' state e£ tecieiy, in thl^, ^d ilt- s^ the ren df Eu- 
rope. 

' Inprnpoftion as property becaitw dfnded^ iaduat^ increased; and 
that demand which was sccompaaied' by an abHHy to aitoKf an eqinvalen^ 
stimulated to an increased production of Aearticle» of subiisten^. But 
the laws which were repeatedly enacted tO- fbt^ m increased praductios' 
of the meana of gubsistence in the absence of such ati effectual dentand, de- 
monstrate, by the evideoce which tfiey thwnselrcs' bear of the starving state 
of the people, lUuing an unexampled cotHiRuanc^ of moderate prices, die 
litter inefficacy of mere agriculturt! popolstion, tfr occasion an' adequate 
produAciiui of ^ meMBiof sabaiwence. 

.' KuLwben, by the <Kunbiiti<^ of property aiid- the iilcrea»e of iher- 
cantile capital, dte sLill asd' iodiAtry of the people in producing articllEt 
of coovcnieace, and use were gradually erfcitej, flie equivalent iljey 
were thus' entibted. t^sSocd^ stimulated to die increased production of 
subsistence and the produce of agiicolture ^^s increased durirtg a time that 
the commercial po|4ulation'wa4i[)ci^^!ng beybild the propotuon ofthose 
employed in agriculnorei 

* It ishigblyprobablfl that itfiis disproportion has been inbreasilig to 
the present rfayi btit it is very demonSrahle that the pwlnce of agticiDcuro 
has heei augmented ip ■» ftill grtatfer prbporttiin. If other pronfii were 
Wanting, the incrcasid consumption of every class would of itwlf he de- ' 
cisjyc. . The scarcities' of grain, , kawfiter, and- tiie large importatioB^ 
which have been found necessary,' in coaseqpenee, have given some coun- 
tenance to the opinion of a population increasing beyond the means of sut>- 
sistcricci But it must b^ obvious that this arose in a.greaijneaMue fr^n 
faihires of our crop,. We ahallfiiid these casualties to nave occm'red very 
fi'eqoendyin ewry period o'foiir history. Whether this fickleni-ss of oup 
climate arisen fromoiir josd^r shnution, nordiern latitude, or.boih ; or from 
the compar«iTely'lih[n(ed:e)cteiii-of t#ritory,>hich ^<rcra' more exteaVirq 



ih,Googlc 



Comber's Ififuir^ tmcettmg Naiioml Suisistetue. 5$ 

ttpet^aa to the catueg of oniavourable seaiODt, it will be round to hare been a 
Tcry powerfbl aa<f general csuse of scarcity ani! high prices of grain la thii 
tOHDUy. In theearher periods of oar history, tlieae scarcitiei frequently pro- 
cfucedabtoJuteiaiuiDe, with the conComitantt of diseaw and pestilence. In 
modeni times they no longer exhibit these dreadful featuret,but tR?y produce 
veryseriout derangements in the order of society. Their immediate efiectt 
in enhancing the expences.or retrenching ilie comforts of indii iduali, during.' 
their actual continuance, are the leastoftheevils they produce in amanuiac- 
turing and commercial oacioo. Grain, though an object of minor importance 
to the higher and middling orders, forms a very important part of the subw 
listence of the lower. Any sudden and considerable enhancement of price^ 
adds greatly to the nomber of those who are supported t^ the connnunity.' 
flKtenaiTe unportatioos of grain too, under the enhancement of price which 
always attends scarciciet, not. only occasions a loss to the nation, butaffecttf 
die balance oftrade,andthev<ilueofourmanev in our exchanges with other 
counbid. The competition too, which the sudden demand creates, both ia 
the employment of ships aitdcapitalr enhances suU farther the price of 
an our imports. The. small proportioi) which ttiese iraportations, after all* 
hoKta the increase in the agricultural produce of the kingdom, forbids our 
referring, them taany inadequacy in the country to support her present po' 
pubticn, and the experience of the two last years demonstrates Uie general 
■ufEciency of our agricultural produce. But the necessity o( those impc»ta- 
tioas ii to be attributed, in addition to the failure ofourcrOps, to the tendency 
of the legislative regulations to discoor^e die fonnation of stocks in the 
country. Such has been the legislative interference from the earliest pe- 
riods of our history j. and there seems lUtle reason to doubt that the jealousy 
wilfa which die government regarded the intcrventioa of the dealer be- 
tween tbe.grvwcr and consumer of grain, by occasioning the produce of 
each harvest to be consumed within the year, contributed gready to the 
fluctuatioDs of price and the Bcarcitiei Which to the earlyperiods were, of 
nich frequent occurrence.' pp. 10— 14^ 

* As the bounty on exportstion waa-ih reality itidf » booM to the 
fend-owoer, the subsequent regulatioot were calculated to secsre to hitn 
the supply of the home market. Though it was pmeoded that such 
encouragements were necessary to secure an adequate growth of grain 
in the country, and to prevent our becoming dependant on foreign coun- 
tries for supplies, yet we have never been informed how the foreign 
competition should in any case prevent the lands of the country from be- 
ing cultivated. — Such competition would indeed hfiVe reduced the prices 
of grain, and consequently the profits of the Jarmtr and the rent of the 
tantSord, but the lands Would still have been cuhivated, though they 
might indeed have beeh worse coltivated, and have produced less. But 
3 nearer examination suggeiD another reason fen- pi^enting the con- 
enneace of the foreign grower, namely, die competition in the employ- 
ment of laodfor the purposes of grazing, aristngfrom theincreased,opn- 
lence of the labouring orders; and which, under the disadvantages to 
which the cultivlbon oS gifeio is subject, would endanger the su{^ant- 
ing of tillage i;Aogether, if the admiauon of foreign grain into our nur- 
keu were pAfecdy free. 

'.nie regulations, however, mode with a. view to protect theEnghsh 
grower, thottgh' they HaTC occadMed' an enhahccUicOt.af 4lie prices of 



,,-,-,ih,Googlc 



56 Comber's Inquirff coneemivg Nation^ Suhddenee. 
rraiR, have been inadequacy to the total exclnsion of the foreigner { and in 
meirtendeacy to discount the formatioa of stacks, whidi arethe nmic 
natara] remedy against the inequality of te^aans, have aggravated the 
dtaadvaiiCagei under whicb forogo imporudons have been made. 

< In the nicceMive enhancement too. of the import tatei it may be 
greatly questioned, whether the interest of the land-owner has not been 
more consulted than the security of the country. It is at least certain 
that there are bounds in a maaufacturing, and commercial nation, to the 
nrfaancemeot of the price of articles of sabaistence, beyond frtuch a fUr« 
ther rise might prove dattgerouB to the competition pf our bdostry in fb- 

' ingn markets. Th» our arrival at this pomt hai beeh protracted by the 
improvements m our national indastry, the increase of our capital, and the 
peculiar circumstances of the moment, cannot tfe doubted; bat it isevt* 
dent the interests of the other members of the community are incompatible 
with an indeJinite rise in the rent of land, to be supported by tl)? progres- 
^ve enhancement of the import rate. 

< That difference which at present. exists between our prices and those 
of the com growing countries, and the manner in which, by the present 
lesulations, our ports open to importation ; as it effisceually prevents ^e 
hoidiDg of considerable stocks of En^Iisb wheat &om one barreat to aoo- 
ther, is one great canse of the fluctuations of our prices ; and combined 
with the disproportion which exists between our consumption and the ge- 
neral stocks in those countries, has occauoned tbosc cnormoiis enhancer 
mentB of price which we have lately witnessed. 

* When the consumption of a country gready exceeds the general pro- 



duce of the neighbouring countries' of exportation-, it is from her own pro- 
duce alone that a. stock can be formed, at all adequate to her probable 
wants on the faihire of her own growth. The surplus of the whole world 
would afford small relief to such a population as that of China. 

' It is therefore the obstacles, which, in our present system, oppose 
themselves to the forming of stocks, and not the inadequacy of our growth) 
which form the principal difHculues of our present situatiou. The author 
h^s attempted to point out tho^ obstacles, and has ventuijed t* suggest 
•ome means of remolding theA. pp. 16.— I9i 

In pui'suing bis inquiry, the autbor begins at a period sufH- 
ciently remote, that of our Saxon ancestors ; the effects of 
whose pastoral and martial character, upon the state of subsisE- 
ence in the nation, are traced downwards to tbe era of the 
Norman conqnest. The succeeding period differed from that 
of the Saxons, in many respects; but as &r as regarded the 
means of subsistence, the change was not mat'eriBl. By the 
establishment however of the feudal system^ atid by the wars 
between the houses of York and Lancaster, efiiects of const., 
derable importance were produced, which tbe author is at 
pains to ascertain. 

Thus fer the inquiry is extremely vagnff «nd genera). 
The author conclude^s, witb sufficient probability, or rather 
certainty, firomthe wretched state of society and govemment,' 
that industry (favall thistime at a low ebb in the ciauntry ; ah^ 

Do,l,,-crltvGOOglC 



Comber's Inquiry (oneertmiff Nattmat Suhsislewe- SI 

Iience he infers that it must have been in a miserable state 
with regard to the means of subsistence. But there are very few 
tustorical facts which bear directly upon the questiou. OF 
this, however, the author has not been sufficiently aware ; for 
he seems to have imagined that be liad already obtained evi- 
dence to establish the favourite proposition of the book ; — that 
the plentiful supply of subsistence, in any country, 13 not de- 
pendent upon the state of industry, in regard to land solely, 
put upon the state of industry, in general, including ar*^ and 
nianuiactures, as the first object, rather than the second. Thus 
he tells ns, 

f In glanctng the eye orcr the long period of foar centuries, from 
the conquest to the' reign of Henry Vll. we are astonished at th« miall 
progress of the coutitry m knowledge, industry, and population. Though' 
some circumstances which were cxtraoeoiu and incidental, had a li- 
mited efiect in retarding this adraocement, yet the great, leading, and 
Eirmanent dwtacles to the improMment of the country, and the ame- 
oraiion of the condition of the people, arose from the agricultural state 
of society. The degradatiDa and vassalage of the people which accompa- 
wed this state, may be traced to that ^propriation of land which pre- 
ceded the cultivation of the soik The uniTenality of this state of deprea. 
•ion in ewery country during the preraleqce of the agricultural system, 
seems to characterize it as the necessary and inevitaUe consec^ucnce of 
that confined direction of the industry of a natt(»i , 

* The re-action of the causes and effects which arise in auch a state of 
society, upon each other, have the most poweriiil inflnence in perpetuating 
its cootiDoance ; and it is so hi from containing in itself the* seeds of a na- 
pail and necessary tendency to amelioiation, that' the emergence of a 
nation from tuch a state of batbarism, even wiien suiroubded with civi- 
(ized nations in an enlightened age, is so gradual 4s scarcely to bf percep- 
tiWe. 

' Whatever, therefiire, the importance of that species of industry 
which is applied to the cnltifatioD of the scul, may be in a physical and 
riMotute sense, we are compelled to deny its efGoicy a* a source of rjches 
or a Ause of civilization. Regarded even as a means of subsistence, it 
i^ not always a certain resource ; and, unaided by ans and the industry de- 
pendent on them, an nnfruitfiil source of population. Independent of the 
Bmited produce of labour arising from this confined exertion of the 
Wnan powers, the tendency of such a state of society to generate con- 
stant wars, is itacif a poweni)] means of represung population. But it 
would be equally repugnant to facts and to reason, to attnkite such a recur. 
rence of war to a want of mbustence, either permanent or casual. The limit 
to population in such a state of soeietyi arises from the reaction ofmoral' 
causes, and not from a pbyvcal ioc^acity of the counOy to afibrd the 
neans of suhnatence. 

' Th> CfMnions of thoae, dwefere, who conceive the population of a 
vwntry ti» be limited merely bya want of the means of subsistence, ap. 
[tear equally repugnant to expetience, with- those who represent a^cul> 
aire as a« inexhaustible soorce gf populstioo ai wdl as riches, l^e er- 
mt of bothai^esr to arise froB BrmookiBig thu constant existence of 



.dtyGoogIc 



SS- Comht^h Inquiry c'oneetmng National Subsistence. 

\ii%t pri^rieuri^g, which is the inseparable attendant of a state purely 
agricuitur^ and the jealoiiB^ with which thegrawthofthe middle order is 
Kgarded. Whenever lands become divided, and- their trans&reilce facili- 
tated in any eoantry, it soon resigns the character of agricultural, anj, 
Ey exhibiting an increased produce of the soil amidst arts and manufac- 
tures, deition'sirates that the importance of this specie! of industry. iB not' 
absolute and exclusive, but collateral and relati^'e to the other great cniscl^ 
(]f the wealth, proaperity, and power of a nadoD.' pp. 8^^-841 
\ There is one or two expressions irt this passage, the abstifdi-^ 
^y of which deserves a more particular notice. ' Whafevef the' 
importance of that species of industry, which is applied to 
the cultivation of the soil, may be in a physical and absolute 
Sense, we are compelled to deny its efficacy as a soorde of 
riches, or a catise of civjli^iion.' It is not very easy, Bert, 
^s on many other occasions, to discover acciifately what is tlffr 
author's meaning. That the species of industry, applied to 
the cultivation of the soil, should be efficacious in a physical 
and absolute sense, and yet not efHcacious as a source of riches, 
appears to us a Contradiction in terms ; for we cannot suppose 
the author's' hfead was still bewildered vrith the old*heory about 
money, and that, in' Bpeaking-of richeB, he' regarded it as no- 
thing' bub ^oM and- silvei".' But even" inlhis view, we do nob 
<mderstand hoW manufactiiring industry is more ptodnctivs of 
liches than agricuhure; as the weaver no more prdducea 
cold, than thehusbaildbian. If *e must hold' to this sense, 
ffierefore, vve must res;al■(^llo i/ld'ostry as productiveof riches 
tut that which is emploved in gold and silver minfes. This is 
certainly not what Mr. Comberineant, Euttbus it fares with 
the mati who undertakes to write on % very difficult subject, 
ivhile his ideas are yet far from clear, and his power ol'de- 
.tecting aniueaning phraseology is stUl' extremely imperfe()t->— 
'RegsKlod even ss a means of subsistence, it (diat ■peeii^s' 
flf industry which is applied to the cultivation of the soilj- 
is nbt alwaj-s a' certain resource; and wnaidfed Ity aiSs irtd-etifr 
ilidustry dbpendeilt ort them, au uhfruitt^i soUfce df pOputti.- 
tion.' This IS one of tlie most reiWarkabie'^feeliBeilS'miich vr* 
fiave ihet with, of a maii aimino; to espft-ss a sCHsfe' iVhich' 
fie Has not fully comprehended ; setting dow'n words wBeri the" 
thoughtjs not yet reat'yj and tmpositig upou' himself by 
phrases wliicbhave no meanin?. Mr. G. has oh^r^ed thatagri- 
culture has no where greatly, nourisbed,. whene other species oS- 
industry hxre notTSl^nie same tiutey been caivied tc^ gv«at per- 
fection. The. various species of indu.stry, including;, si^iculw- 
VBve among thto rtsK, owt^ tHieii> pros^ity to the smne cait's^s, 
and i^s* artd ftilP ttieeSia-. B^iti'tdbeS rtoPhew&efollWv, t*fi» 
KgVitultore is ntat a eertarin'soufte of 'pft^dlntioH ; fori^'iWt- 
qntstitinablj is: Wbe'revii' torn" is produced by Ituman'lieihg^ 



r,o,i,,-,-,ih,.GoOglc 



Comber's Inquiry concerning National Subsistence. $9 

' there will human beings be found to consume it, unless when 
*ome unnatural cause piievents the natural consequence. 
When he says that agriculture, uhaided by arts and the itidus. 
try dependeot on them, is an uutVuitAil source of population, 
it seems impossible to uneterstatid what he means. At those 
rude periods of our liistofy, whlcb he chaFacterizes as the pe- 
riods devoid of arts, does be^eau to say' tka^t agriculture dkj 
not suppurt popnlat'iotl ? Tbtit is impossible. If he mearw 
that it supported a very scanty population; this is true. But 
to what tvas it oiving ? Not to the state of the arts, but to the 
«tate of agricultute ; and had 1 he agriculture been good, it 
Would have supported a greater population in proportion to 
the w^nt of arts. 

, By the establishment of security, and the dissolution of the 
feudal system, a new order of things sprung up under the Tu- 
dors. ' The conversion of l^ud to thegrowth.ofraw produce an 
an object of commerce,' is the circumstance winch Mr. C. 
holds up to view as the principal feature of this period. Un- 
der the rtagna of theStnarts, another phenomenon took place. 
Grain waa exponed ta foreign markets so reguhirly, as to be- 
come the system of the country. These topics form the sub- 
ject 6f the third and fourth chapters. From the .Hevoiution, s 
new scheme of management was adopted. Asa boon to the 
landboVders, a bounty was granted for the sake of forcing ex- 
portation, ^]d for thus keeping the price of corn aiid the rent 
of land alnays bigj)- The circumstances atlending this sys- 
tem, froro the revolution to the beginning of the reign of his 
preaent Majesty, are detailed in the fifth chapter. From this 
part of the wovk we can quote a passage which exhibits the 
author to much greater advaatage, than the extract on whidi 
we lastanimadvereed. 

' But aliiiost the fi^t act of the legislature, after the revolutloni Var 
U> ^Dt a' bounty of 5i. od the exportation cf every quart^c of wheat, 
when the prices should not exceed 48j. .per qiuTter, and proportiooate' 
sums on other grain ; an'd when it exceeded that price, allvwing e^or- ' 
taboR witlioiit-bocuty. 

' No other reason is auignedfbr graatin^ ifaii bounty, than the geo^. 
ral advuntagea ansiag from exportatioQ. It it not even assertedr thA the 
prices ia othn' countiies had declined, or that we h;id become excluded 
from the foreign markets, by the competitioa of other growing eountricii 
It waa a mere gratuitous bonOs for doing that which it was otherwise suffi- , 
ciendy the interest of the land-owner to do. If it can be considered ai 
aiiy thihg but a bribe to the landed interest, who alone could support the 
pew oiVlerof thinW ; theoniy apology that seems to of&r itsdr is, that 
tHeexjiottation of *ool-warprobibtlied in the Mme fcsmon ; and this bo- 
nns nilg^ be considered' a* a compromise Ac tfie probable declin* of 
lWwi,.iHiich lAat: XgukttOn- might occuion. &» the mow fayourdik 
riev of the ongia gf die nMstors, we caanot but rqgard itj^i tfaerafolt 



i,Googlc 



60 Comber^s Inqidry concerning National Sitisistence.' 

of a convention' between tbc gorenimeDt and the landed iDtereit, to i^eh 
the commercial body, though materially afiected by it, ivere not par- 

^ ■ The enactiDK part of this bill is con^ktely reinigflant to the pream- 
ble, for ID atatmg. that the ezportatton of coni is adTaotageoui to a 
conntiy, when the price ii at a low nte, it extenib thig encoura^emeac 
to a very high price, and one hi tact winch had onljr occurred -ooce, and 
that dun ^g the great dearth, in J67^ and 1675, itnce the restoration. 

■ The actual price at the dme of passing thii act, was only half that of 
the rate fixed in thf act, and the ^ruwen* price, or that at which a fiumer 
would contract to drIiTer a quantity, was, according to the calculation of. 
Gregory King, 28/, per quarter ; it was eridently intended, therefore, to' 
operate as a permaDent and constant bonus on the growth of corn. But 
thia was not the only act made for the interest of the land owner ; (or in' 
ordr-r to promote the consumption of com, a general licence for distilling 
•pirits and low wiqes from raalt was also granted i and beer, ale, t7der, 
and mum, were allowed to be exported, paying only Is. pertun; and beef, 
nutton, and pork, were "exportable without duty. 

' If we can suppose the landed interest to have, imagined that, be* 
cause they consented to allow the wool to remain in the country in order 
to promote manufacturing industry and afford employment to commercial 
capital, that therefore . they were enutled to an indemnity on the other 
produce of their lands ; such a measure could be considered in no other ' 
light than as a tax on the people for the privilege of exercising their 
t^ents, and would demonstrate how tenaciouiily the landowners retain the 
idea <£ their being the natural lords and masters of the couotiy. 

' However Bpeciously this law has been coloured l^ attnbutingto its 
prelectors profound andextendet^viewBof policy i it is too obviously di- 
rected to promote the iiterests of a particular class, to allow us to aUribute its 
origin to any better motives ; more particularly as this presumption is con- 
finned by all the csnctmiitant circumstances. But, notwithstanding thia 
was most decidedly the ot^ct of the law, we shall have reason tocoa- 
dude, in tracing its operation and effects, that though it proved injurion^ 
to the commerce and i^ianufactures of the kingdom, it did not benefit the 
land-o\«'ner, but proved in i^ consetjuences a bonus rather to the fordgii 
consumer than the English grower.' pp. 132—135. 

During the reign of George tbe Third, the historioBl-in-- 
quiry is more complicated, and'several chapters are asaigoed 
to it. The first portion extends from the cotnmeacemeQt of 
the reign to the conaolidation of the com laws in 1791. In this 
period the exportation of corn declined, whilej as the Author 
shews us, an increase took place in the produce of apiculture, 
as well as of manufactures and trade. In the period which 
intervened between, the consolidation act, and the year 1803, 
the reader is called iipon to contemplate the circumstances 
attending the occasional bounties, and the progressive rise 
in the pnce of previnons. The oext subject of coDsideration 
is the imposition of the new restrictioos by the act of 1804; the - 
grounds of which, or the pretexts on which it wu foundad, ar» . 



Do,i™ityGoOglc 



G^Vs Antiquities^ Ithaca. 6V 

examined, its inefficiency in excluding the foreign grower is 
proved, aud a method is pointed out hy which Mr. Comber 
thinks that object mieht be really accomphshed. These topics 
are handled iu the sixth, seventh, eighth, and ninth chap- 
ters. 

The historical inquiry being thu&linished, it is followed by a 
description ofthepresentitateut'the country, and a glimpse into 
futurity. We are now, according to Mr. Comber, in morefavour- 
able circumstances than ever. This conclusion seems to be 
adopted, cbieDy, because it is in unison with the author's doc- 
trine, that when a country advances in arts and manufactures, she ' 
advances, paripassu, in a liber&i supply of the necessaries of 
life. Now Great Britain is at present farther advanced than 
ever in arts and manufactures, therefore is she better supplied 
with provisions. 2uod tral demonstrandum. 

The legislative regulations of the country, hawever, which 
Mr. Comber's ^ood sense,, and his more than ordinary infor- 
mation, enableliim to see through pretty clearly, leiul him to 
apprehend'considerableinconveniences for the future, while 
our laws prevent the fbrmation of those stocks and supplies 
which the natural course of things would otherwise proviae as 
a security against deficient crops. The situation of Europe, 
portentous as it seems, in his account forebodes no peculiar 
scenes of evil to this country, with regard to the necessaries o^ 
life. 

The legislature has sometimes had recoirse to the suspen- 
sion of distilling from grain during seasons of scarcity. Tha 
author, iu the conclusion of his work, examines this resource, 
aud justly describes it as a very inefficient expedient. 

On the whole, though we luve been somewhat severe upon 
this work, we do not regard it as devoid of utility. It is of some 
importance to contemplate, in one view, the historical facts 
connected with the means of subsbtence in our country, from 
the earliest to the latest period of our history ; and though the 
author is not a master of his subject, those must be very welt 
actjuainted with it indeed^ who wilt find nothing in his book 
. to instruct them. 

Art. Vll.TieGKg^afiAtf MdAiaimntieief /tiara, dedioatedhyVeimt- 
rioD to the King. By WilliBni G^ Fm}. M.A. F. R. S. F. S. A. aad 
Member of tbe Society of CileUanti. royal 410. pp. 119. Price 
3. 12a. 6d. hoogaaa and Co. 
'T'HE desire to discover what is secret and obscure, is, like 
other inherent propensities of our nature, sometimes in- 
dulged to excess, or directed to improper fihject9< The mental 
power ^tnd activi^ which may be successfully employed iir 



ih,Googlc 



fe ■ Gdl's Antiquities of Ithaca, 

elucidating soipeJiigHy impprtanl departmentof Art andSci- , 
enoe, or iii .developiijg tniths closely connected with the well- 
bt'ing of man, sometimes exhausts itself in inmiiries concern- 
ing subiects which, if they could be exhibited in the light" of 
day, ivould,h?ve iiejther beauty nor excellence to recommend 
Aem to our regard. If one could be divested of the re- 
membrance that it was a waste of time and intellect, nnn<^ 
entertainment might be derived froni watching the operation 
€if this principle, when it takes possession of a mind not 
, careful to distinguish pursuits which are trifling and useless 
from such as are dignified in their nature aiid beneficial in 
thfeir effects. It leads many men, if we may so speak, to divfe 
to the bottom of the ocean, for the sake of a pebble. ' 

It appears to us to T)e a palversion of our natural inqui-' 
sjtiveness, when we pry curiously into diings because rfiey 
are obscure, and pass over vhat is clear and obvious. We. 
have often been a little surprised ■ at some of our literary 
acqjiaintance, who, in exploring the antiquities of an ancient 
catiiedral, or a juined abbey, would pay no attention to the ■ 
pJain ana entire inscriptions of the place, bnt choose to fix 
their stand before some mouldering stonp, which bore the 
appearance of having been once lettered, but which it is 
pow absolutely imp<tssible to read ; and they would delight 
themselves in filling up broken sentences, or attempting tQ 
decypher ipnutilated characters, jvhich the hand of tipie baA 
c6p,yerted into.' purfe hieroglj-phics. But while they have 
teen occopied with these' enchanting puzzles withont the 
least'use, one.. or two of the partj', who could not cope with ■ 
them in iTltelfe'ctiial ' vigor, liav^ acquired a tolerable ktiow-' 
ledge 'of ' Ifie history ot the spot. Certain men seeni to be 
in lovij with xiisi', andmutilation, and decay. They prefer 
a cojn because u is oxydated, ai^d a figure because it has 
lost a riose, and a' monument because'it is half cmmbled 
ij)i6 dust. They are literally .foud of obscurity in their ,re-' 
searches^,' like the bird of night', who would raflier look out 
into the darkness of the nocturnal sky, from an ivy-mantled 
tower, than soar towards the sun. Tliey willeven search for 
difficulties, and indulge a|i (innatjiral exultation' when truths, 
whicli w^re sup'p.tKefl to , (}e jwell 'tmderstood, are by some' 
Qontrivaope !:hro]W9 into tlie d&tk. Our,re8^.erB mii>t be well 
aware that this -perversion of an useful principle Of wr ndf^re 
doep not confine itself to coins, statues, and tomb-stones^ 
Every topic gf Art or Scjencfi which is liable to question 
Vid disputation, it pursues as lawful prey. How then could 
^utiecit puesy, esc^e, which has so many references to 
obsolete customs, annihilated combinations of thought, ijb-^ 
scure individuals^ and uncertain places ? For many centauries, 

. , Google 



Cell's /t^ifuities if Ithuca. 69 

the scene of die exploits celebrated in the Itisul was r.^ne- 
rally supposed to be known. Alexandef tkonglrt he knew 
where .to find .the to.mb qf AchiUeg, and conentdated lii( 
shade on, the fume ^ich 'Homer had bestojves. Antimnus 
cquld jvithout hesitation detennipe (he aite of ancient Troy, 
in order to ere<;t another. magnificent ci^ as its j'cjireaen.ta* 
tiTe.. Horace, .in di^suadin^' Au^stus (rom roiwiJding the 
town t9 which the Romans -traced riieir ■orig:m, would hara 
exulted in being able-tp s^y,' ■" Its place -if, iwt to bp found.f 
It vas reserved for modem 'fvnips, effiectaillty to deprive cbp 
traveller of the pleasure of ■conteinplatiiwr &potB xeadered 
interesting by delightful' recoilecyofis, and to confine his 
enjoyment, even when on the shores of Asia and among 
tbelonian isles, as mnch to tl^ unreal picttireof the Muse's 
painting, as if 'he had remained in' the we^tofl Europe.' We 
need not remind our classical readersj of the")ceen disputes 
which have lately been agitated re^ecti»g' the sosues de- 
scribed in die Jtiad. Nobpdy knows,- now/ where the lies, 
inander and Simois flowed, or where the Grecian caatp w»s 
pitched, or even wherp Troy itsrff st(»d. In truth, wc muac 
call this die icon ^ge of criticism. The sceptical starit, whioh 
bcean by quesiioniHg' maxims of pohtice, aoii Jdoctiines c^ 
religion, has jnsinnaieff itself into every' bean ch of liters-^ 
tlire; and one effectof itahusy mterference'ifrtorobithemoiili 
interesting scenes of o^r earth of all theiracquiredand ex- ' 
trinsic fascination, and, as it were by a ktii^;bt'« dtsench anting 
horn, to sterilize a paradise, and demolish a inasnihceiil: 
palace. I^rom the*IIia4) tije transition is easy -to -the Odyssey. 
For spme time past, inquiries .ha«e been set on foot, rs^ect- 
ing the places aescribed in the latter poem. And the con- 
sequence already produced is ^ considerable degree of donbli 
with regjard to th^r sitoa^ipn. The final result will be a 
deternrined denial of their existence. !t will noon be ^is-J 
coTere<f, that tiie/e w^s no such island as Ithaca-; and then, by 
the most fjecessary pf all inferences, that there was no pout of 
Phprcys^ no Ppp> ^Koras, or fount of Arethusa, no gBrdett > 
of Laertes, or ji^lace pf Ulysses. J.et thUB much be re- 
aia^ked op the 'spirit ^nd result of modem researches into 
Son^ branches of ancient literature. We now proceed to the 
wor^ bsfoce us. Mr. OcH .felt a strong disposition to believe 
that tI)e,deBcription of pjaces, in Hom^r, were tiot the inspired 
ongiSL^ls.of a orejitive Mum, but tbp correet and sober imita-i 
tipna ,pt specific arclietypes \^ nature.- Hence be-undettot^ 
a.voyag$,for the purpose of examining the Ttoadj and jmh- 
4)],<;e^t(}.c ' T^oppgraphy of TProy,'— Hehaslateiy visited -the 
^jdj^rraneari again, tot the p'lrrposeof^espioriflg the -anti-' . 
'^uittes of llhaca, and pvovii^ thai the author of the Odywey 



ih,Google 



64 Oetl'a JnHjtaties ^IthaetL 

was cooTerssUiC with the scenery of diat isiaad^ and depicted 
it in his poem. It is only with the antiquities of Ithaca that 
we have any concern at present. 

The general question, whether the island, described undei* 
^s name by Homer, be any part of. the material world, wq 
consider to oe interesting and important to those only who . 
visit the East. It is allowed, the pleasures of travellers must 
be infinitely enhanced, when they combine, with the emotions 
raised by the actual beau^ of the scenes themselves, a 
thousand glowing remembrances which restore for a moment 
the enthusiasm of youthful adrniration and the more sober 
and chastened joys of riper taste. Tbey find the scenery of 
nature enriched and deconUed with beauties and enehant- 
menu, far beyond what colour, magnitude, form, and motion 
can bestow. But to the multitude of scholars, who must rest 
contented with what linowledge of the Mediterranean and 
the shores of Asia a chart will supply* the question whether 
Ithaca exists or not, is almost indifTerent. The pleasure 
which any one receives from the loc^ descriptions of Homer, 
arises purely from their resemblance to general nature. If 
he has seen mountains, and rocks, and clear springs' issuing 
trom the sides of. hills, he is qualified to hear with delight 
^le Muse who celebrates these grand or soothing scene^. The 
descripUon of the garden of Eden in Paradise Lost, or of thft, 
island of Pleasure in the Faery Queen, imparts delight, though 
it \aa DO exact jnodel in nature ; und perhaps in an equal 
degree with those descriptions which are faithful copies of 
well known scenes. Nor is the present question of any import* 
ance in elucidating ancient geography. For when we have con* 
verted the Poets, into Topographers as mucn as we please, 
the relative situation of places, so far as, their painting ha^ 
exhibited ' them, will remain among the obscurest inquiries 
of literature. Soon after Sir Thomas More published his 
Utopia, a learned Frenchman found out. its situation in th^ 
map of the t^orld ; and being engaged at that time in pre- 
paring a tractate on Geography, be delineated the newly 
discovered country about 53 degrees north latitudej and 63 west 
longitude. The same gentleman would probably have availed 
himself of the travels of Mr. Lemuel Gulliver, if they ha^ 
been extant. And if he had undertaken to construct a charf 
of the ancient world, he might with the same felicity hav^ 
chosen, for his authority and guide, the voyages of Ulysses, 
related in the Odyssey, and the wander'mgs of to is the' Pronfie- 
theus Cliained of .fschylus. This uncertaintv as to places 
does not in the least invalidate the authority ,o{'^Homer m liis 
pictures of ancient manners, or his references to traditiohal 
events. The fiction of pUce's and personages is perfectly 



ih,Googlc 



Gell's Antiquities of Ithaca. 65 

recohcilalile with acpurate descriptions of .human 6hanicter 
and the celebration of real exploits. But although this ques- 
tion of the situation or existence of Ithaca is hut little interest- 
ing to those «vho design not to visit the foni^n isles, our office 
compels ns to Weigh the evidence adduced by Mr. Gell, 
and to state biir opinion 6f the cause. 

It is rather a disadvantage in the inquiry, that Ithaca and 
its scenery are mentiiined out rarely hy Homer, The Bard, 
it seems, wished to write a poem which might comprehend 
most of the mawellouS recitals brought home by men who 
had visited distant parts. And he iustly imagined that the 
return of Ulysses from' Troy, would furnish hirii with a con- 
venient vehicle for the Communication of this Lind of enter-' 
tainbient and instruction to his contemporaries. The proceed- 
ings of the suitors, and the greater part of the circumstances 
wfich happened in Ithaca, may projjerty be considered as a' , 

subordinate appendage to assist the tnain purpose of the 
poet. As the Odyssey chiefly consists of relations concerning 
^ ether parts of the world, the kingdom of Uljsses is there- 
fore but seldom brought into notice. When it is desciibed, 
however, we " meet wiih so much apparent precision, and 
features so discriminative seem to be pourtrayed, that the 
scholar may easily be le4 to believe that he knows exactly 
where to look for it, and that he should recognize it the 
moment it was seen. Homer has mentioned its relative situa- 
tion to other' islands, described its general and (Characteristic 
appearance, and painted some singular and permanent scenes 
belonging to it. We will, without entering into detail more 
Aan appears absolutely necessary, beg the attention of our 
readers'to each of those particulars ; and as we go along we 
shall compare the, descriptions of Ae Poet, with the communi- 
cations which Mr. Gell has made respecting the Island which * 
he affirms t;o be the Ithaca of Homer. 

Wysses, giving an account of himself to Alcinous, Od. is, 
21, describes the relative situation of his country as follows. 

Another ciircumBUnoe is mwitioned, Od. iv. 844,'of some im- 
portSDce to the present branch of the inquiry: . 

. ' " lAtatrir/iit iMxniTi Sa/teisTt woHTvAoiinm; 

ToLV. _ F 

r,o,i,,-,-,ih,.GoOglc 



t6 Gell*8 AntiptUi€s ^lihaca. 

"Now it » most mortifjriDg to the scholar* wliO s«U up the ' 
' Mediterr&nean with me pteasing confidence that he shall 
succe^ in his researches, to find no island in such a sitiiation. 
A reference to the map shews that Cepballonia is the most ' 
western of the cluster of islands in that quarter. In this, 
difficulty Mr. Gell avails himself of the easy resource of 
amending the passage which describes the situation of Ithaca. 
If his hypothesis cannot be reconciled to the Poet, the Foefr 
must bend to his hypothesis. If the mountain will not come . 
' to Mabomel^ Mahomet will go to the mountait. The, learned- 
Bryant leads ^e way in this violation of the text.. la- 
exchange (ox, "'at ii t" miuBi r^; nt r mXinrt," be propOSeS' " 

*'Minaf axvfii." But this alteration is of no service : it is not 
sufficiently violent ; only a part of the difficulty is removed' 
by it. What is the use of shewing, that Same was not east 
of Ithaca, unless the expression can be disposed of wUch in- 
forms, us that Tthaca was west, of ^ame ? The beginning of. 
the line HfSt {o^, which relates to the_ island of Ulysses, 
requires alferatioo as much as the latter part, which refers- 
to the neighboring islands, in order to accommodate the 
passage toaii. Gelfs and the learned Bryant's wishes. The 
reader will of course remember that if tMs licence of emen- 
dation be allowed, any difficulty may be removed, and any 
hypothesis established, ^ir Geo. Wheeler, wlw has writteo 
on this subject, affirms the jock of Aotaco to be Ithaca, without- 
any regard to this difficulty in the poem, and only because 
Strabo's description of the ma^itude of that island does not 
agree with the ritodern Theaki. M- Chevalier, who some 
lime ago published an account of. Ithaca, did not disturb 
himself with these repugnancies ; but assuming the pleasant 
persuasion that Theaki was t^ disputed land, he proceeds 
with FrancogaJlican gaiety and ease to the description of its 
towns, its Heligbtfill prospects, and interesdng scenes, widuiut 
ever-having touched at one of its ports, . ' . • 

The mention of Asteris by the poet contributes to thrsvr 
a thicker darkness over this part of the subject. The most 
indefatigable search has not succeeded in finding it. Here 
Mr. Gefl shall be hetird'for himself 

■ There would be lUtle difficulty .in determining whether Homer took 
bit idea of Asteris from the rock of Datcallio, or from the promontorv 
afChelia, did the vord Nwn; admit of the interpretatioo penianila, ai wnl 
as island ~-Thts, howler, though adiiiittcd io coraponua wordsi does not 
seem coDSBtent witli the tvcdred opinioii of the bett icholan- I^iny, 
rpeaking of Aaterii, t^ that it kj off. Ithaca, io the open Bca; ]wt 
Homer deicribei it *• b the chaimel, and there is no iiland off Ithaca in 
ihe opeo sea. Id fact, all the accounts of that author, whether re- 
btiog. U the jcec^raphy « aatiual CBtioiiUei ef Itliaca, are entirely fa- 



h,Googlc 



Cell's Antiquities of likata. 61 

Woiu.' Chelia Kenit to derive its name either fitus ZnXx or xim, a 
point ninnitig into the bm ; — luch in efl^t is the Datuw of the [dure. 1 
M endent that there It a good port on the lef^ of the cape, ud there ii alto 
an inlet at the inhmas,' which joidi Chelia Same on the right. Thew 
are amply mfficieot. for tHe purpOMi' of ^ sukon, and no place cocld 
faare be«i m well clKuen fbr-the ipterception of a vetsel nturnii^ fron 
PjrbH. 

* It u not abioIutel7 imposiible that some phyiical change may htv^ 
jmoed Chelia to the strare of Satnci either by aa accumolation of miA, or 
by the shock of eanhquakei : yet this \» cairying cooJFcture radier to* 
&. It is united to CephaUooiai t)y low land ; but' it would be absurd 
to iinagine that a city ever stood on that iithinua, as it would have been 
close to Same. The point of Chelia siretches frona Same about halfway 
acroM the channel, towards Ithaca, and the Ofdiaaiy passage to Ce- 
phalkmia is from Aito to that promontory. ' Homer seems to allude ti> 
tlut utmtioB of Aneris, ia the speech of Minerra to Telemachui, where 
that goddess informs the prince, that the miton lie io-ambush at the 
ferry betweea Ithaca and the nig^ Same. Now the situatioa of Suae 
and Itbaca beio^ luiown, the position of Aitcrii might be vacav tamif 
.detemined ^ while ^ examination of the present ?ppearaic( of the omiw- 
try will enable the reader to ibrm an opinion ob the suli^t^t.' ^ 63 — 85. 
This, tbea, is tbe plain sutement, which is doubtless suffi- 
ciently discouraging. Homer declares Ithaca to be the mogt 
.-western of the Ionian isles, and affirma that Asteris, a small 
island with -a good port, lies between it and Same. Now 
the Modem Ithuca Is east of Same, and Asteris is not to 
faie fisuadi In '^tte' of these inconsistences, Mr. Gell persists 
ia believing Theaki to be the Itbaua of Homer; and goes 
on to pariicularize' and depict its scenery, as the certain 
archetypes df the poet's, description. 

The general and 'Characteristic' appearance' of Theaki - 
agrees with tbe expressions of the Odyssey respecting Ithaca. 
It is Tocky, barren, and mountainous, abounding in trees 
end shrubs, and uniaTourable to the growth and use of horses. 
Bui this coincidence loses its effect,l)ecause it is not the only 
island in this part of the world distinguished by a similar 
appearaRee. Aotaco is of the same rocky irregular aspect ; 
and Sir Geo. Wheeler, for this reason, and bi;cause it is of ' 
inferior size, contends that it is tbe Ithaca of tbe poet. We 
may therefore dispatch this part of the cause with the bri^ 
mention already made. 

If, then, no argument can be educed from the general ap- 
pearance of the island, and if there bean irreconcilable dif- 
ference between the relative situation of the poetic Ithacaj 
and tbe real Theaki; is it not useless and nugatory to enter . 
into a minute examination of the smaller parts, and discri' - 
minative scenery of the latter? or can a multitude of inci' 
' dental resemblances, in tbe face of the country, ovftrbalancc 
F2 



,,-,-,ih,Googlc 



ftS GeU'B Antiquiliet of Ilhaca. 

the obj^tioji, that.Tli^aki is rot west of Same, and that ther« 
is no Asteris betweeii the two islands f . 

The incidental resemblances tthicii Mr, G. saw, or thought 
he saw, were -so iiumeroi)s and striking, that no doubt Is left 
in his own mind of the identity of the Modern and Ancient 
Jthaca. In his opinion it seems more probable that the 
difficult passages should be corrupted, than that Tl>eaki 
should" not be the island of Ulysses, when its scenery so 
tflosely corresponds to the descriptions iii the Odyssey. 1c 
Vould be a very grievous fault indeed, if Mr. G, had con- 
spired with the Irarned Brjant lo purloin a part of the conse- 
crated text of the Father of Poetry, without some cogent 
reason for thfe sacrilege ; or to incrust his precious metal 
.with their alloy, without some powerful plea for the pro- ■ 
■fanation. Whether such coincidences are pointed out and 
substantiated, as nill justify the supposition that tlie passages 
'inqt)estion are corr.upted, will be seen as we proceed. 7he '^ 
classffcal reader, we hope, will not be unwilling to see the 
■description of the poet brought into comparison with Mr. 
GelPs survey of some of the scertes of Theaki. We wish 
the author bad arranged the parts of his performance from 
;tbe. journey of Ulysses, raUief than his own ,tour of the 
.island. So convinced are we of the superiority of this method, 
€or placing th6 present question in the most luminous view, 
•that we have transposed the diH^erent scenes described in 4he 
present work, and thrown them into the order suggested 
by the poem. 

When Ulysses is bronght by the Phseacians to the shores 
of Ithaca, he is landed jn the port of Phorcys, which the 
'poet describes at large. That we may not disfigure pur 
,ptges. with long.Gre^k <;itatibris, and protract the limits of 
.our. critique too fap, we request the reader to give himself 
.tEe troiible ^o ttim to Od. xiii. 96, *o{xwo( $■ ti( m Xtf"if, &c. 
Let him -then compare with iliat descriptioir the following 
'.account of Dexia. 

' To avoid tlie fati^es of a Iqd^ walk, we took a boat to coovey ua 
■from Bailii to the ruins pf a citadel now called Aito, or Palaio Castro, 
suppoied by the iclifibitfiacs to have beep the residence of Ulyeaes. Wc 
jiassed the pretty islet of St. P^atocratera, and soon arrived, at the pro- 
jecting promontoiies, which form the entrance of that division of the 
.gulph called Bathi. On the right lay the little rock of Cazurbo, situated 
.at the mouth of uootlicr ialet, now distinguished by the name of DcJcta, a 
woi'd significant of its position on the right h^ad of those who enter the 
port of Bathi. ■ . ; .^ 

• The shore rf Delia nearly resemblps in diape the figure of a horse- 
shoe,, its Eoulhem extiemity terminating in a rock of come form, whi<di 
Aividf* it from B2thi.- Tlitfri^tin^ toik o» the aorth of the enCrBoo* 



i,Googlc 



Cell's Antiquities of fllmca. (,§ 

cxUiliiutheTMtigesofacave of considfrabie magnitude, in the formatloa 
of which ait has been called in to assist the ordinsir^ operation! of natart. 
Fran) this cave the interior of the port of Dexia prescnti a beach con- 
■ittiiig; of sand and pebbles, and aloping so gradually, into the aea that 
boats may be drawn upon the land without difficulty, a circumstance the 
more remarkable, as a sandy shore is rarely to he found in Ithaca> At 
the head of the port are a few cultirated terraces and vineyards, spotted 
with olive and almond trees. The cave has now lost its cOTering, the 
stones lying COD veniently for the use of the masona employed in building 
the towU) and I should have quitted the island without seeing it, as do : 
one imagined we could wish to see its remains, if one uf the persons who 
had been active in its demoiiiion had not fortunately heard of our anxietj 
to discover 3 cavern near Bathi. 

* The old people recollect the roof perfect, iind many about the age 
of twenty-five rcraember it only half destroyed. 

* TTie rubbish occasioned by the removal of the covering has over- 
■preadandfille^-up the whole area of the cave to suchadegrec that itt ■ 
depth cannot be ascertained without digging; but the pavement mutt 
have been nearly on a lerd with-the surface of the sea. Its length is at 
least sixty &et, and its breadth exceeds thirty. I'he sides have been 
bewn and rendered perpendicular with soaie labour. It is close to the' 
sea, being only separated by that portion of rock which served to support 
the roof when it was endjv. On the, left of the edtrance from the soutfa* 
at which commences the sandy beach, is a niche, which on being cleared 
from the soil and stones, presented a species of basin, resembling those 
which are usually found in the walls of old churches in England. The re 
is another ol" similar construction near the centre of the ^ame side, ajjd 
above both are certain small channels cut in the rock, which have serve d 
for the passage of water into the basins, and some are in consequence 
encrusted with stalactites, \rtiile .others, where the water no longer trickles, 
are tenanted hy bees. 

.* The cave has been entered from the north as well as'from the 
southern extiemiw ; the former was, however, smaiier tJian the lattel, 
and must have a^brded rather an tRconvenient descent to the cavern. It 
is now called by the people of the island tic Aijiac to irarj^Brin, or the cxte 
Dexia. They are entirely unable to account for its formation, jinA. ' 



the destruction of its roof by the Greeks, who entertain the most profound 
veoeratioii evea for the vestiges of a church, is a moat decisive proof thaj 
it never. served for the celebration of christian ceremonies.' pp. 40— ,t3. 
It is obvious that some objections to the identity of I^exia 
and the port of Phorcys will present themselves, i^irabo 
denies tliut Ithaca contained any spot which exactly corfes^ 
ponded to Homer's description. It may also be asserted, 
Uiat a port with a lofty precipice in the back ground, and 
an excavated thoroughfare through the rock to the upper 
surface, is a scene so common, that a poet nisy describe it 
without designing a specific harbour. An English sailor will 
ioform us u several similar spots ^ound . our own sb,ores; 
and some geographers affirm tliat there is such an one. neat 
Cape Cartmge, oo the African coast. It is ccrtaip ^jat ^I^e 



10 CilBtnce^ Viem of the Constitution. <^Enghmd. 

port into which, the ship of Mnees is driTen after ^e stoim 
in the Tuscan sea, is the veiy counterpart of the port of 
PhorCys. Virgil's description is , evidently an elegaDt version 
of the passage in'Homer. The Mantuan poet must ther^re 
hare considered the description of the port of Pltorcys of 
a general, nature, in which he mightwith pnapriety- imitate 
bit Duiter ; or he knew there was a similar harbour on the. 
Afiicon coast : of which Suppositions the one goes to destroy 
the evidence of Mr. Getl, and the other to inralidtte it by 
admitting a plurality of similar scenes, and rendering the 
appropriation of the passage in question to a specific ^>ot 
j^portionably difficult and uncertain. 

(TalttimhiJe^MtiktiitKtNwmbir.) 

Xrt< yUl. A tmatt yUw pf. ihe ConrtihUioa at Em^a)uli By Oec^e 
CutUDce. Dedicated by Pcnni»icia to Williani Wllbertbrce, E»q. 
:M,F.foK the County of York. ISmo. pp. 471. Price 6«.bdi.'Kidder-. 
iniiiKer,Gower ; LoDgmao and Co. Hatt^hard. 180& 
TT were surely to be wished, that every man had a competent 
^ -acquaiQ lance with the laws and constitution of the country 
to which he belongs. Patriotism is a blind and irrational im- 
pulse, unless it b founded on a knowledge of the blessings we 
■re called to secure, and the privileges we propose to defend. . 
. In a ^rannical state, it is natural for the ruling power to 
icberish political ignorance, which can alone reconcile wen - 
to the tame surrender of their natural rights. - The difFusion 
of light And knowledge is very -unfavourable to ill<^unded 
pretensions of eveiy sort,- but to none more than the encroach- 
ineats of arbitrary power and lawless violence. The more we 
, explore the recesses of a dungeon, the less likely are we to be 
reconciled to take up our residence in it- But the venerable 
fabric of the British constitution, our hereditary mansion, 
whether ^t be tried, by the criterion of convenience or- of 
beauty, of ;ancient prescription or of practical utility, wiH bear 
Jbe most rigid examination ; and the more it is contemplated. 
Will be thfe more admired. , . 

The Romans were so conscious of -the importance of impart- 
ing to the rising generation an early knowledge of their laws 
and constitution, that the contents of the tW' Ire tables were 
committed to Tnempry, and formed one of the first elements of 
public instructioii. Thpy were sensible that what lays hold of. 
the mind at so early a {period, is not only likely to be long reT 
nembered, but is allnost sure to command veneration and 
fespect. We are not aware that similar attempts have been 
inaaeto render the British youth acquainted with the principle 
of bar admirable constitution, not inferior surely to that of the 
SciD^D rcpabiic j-^td^ct iu the system of fqu<:atioD, which 



r;o,i,,-,-,ih,.GoOglc 



Custsnce*8 Fi€X efihe-Qmstiiuiion of Eng&md. Tt 

the circumstances of the present'crisis loutfly call apon usto 
snpplyi When our existence as an independent nation is 
^reateoed, when unexampled sacrifices must be made, and 
perhaps the utmost efforts of patience' aijd of persevering 
eourage exerted for our preservation, an attachment, to that 
coBstitation, which is the basts of all out pro^erity, cannot 
be too Kealously promoted, or too deeply felt. It is a just 
9Tii enlightened estimate of the invaluable blessings that 
constitution secures, which alone can ma^e us sustain our 
present burdens without repining, as well as prepare us for 
greater privations and severer struggles. For this reason, we 
cannot but took upon the performance before us as a most 
reasonable publication. One cause of the attention of youlh 
being; so little directed to our national laws aqd constitution, 
in schools, is probably the want of suitable books. Wd hav* 
an abundance (^ learned and able writers on these subjects; 
but few, if any; that are quite adapted to the purpose We 
■are now speaking of. Mitlai's is a very profound and ori- 
ginal work ; but it lupposes a great deal of previous know- 
ledge, without which it can be scarcely understood, and is 
in every view better adapted to aid the researches of an anti- 
quary, or the speculations of a philosopher, than to answer the 
■end of an efemefitary treatise. De Lolme's performanc? may 
be deemed more suitable ; yet, able and ingenious as it is, 
it Uboui^-under some essential deficiencies, considered in the 
light of an elementary work. There ia in it a spirit of re- 
fined speculation, an- eagerness to detect and display latent 
■unthoUghtxif excellences, in the frame of government, which 
is very remote from the simplicity requisite in the lessons of 
.youth. Of Biackitone's Gommentaries it would be presump- 
.tuoua in us to attempr an eulogium,. aftei* Sir Wm. Jones 
has pronounced it to be the most becud^ul outline that 
"was ever given of any science. \ Nothing can exceed the ~ 
-luminous arrangement, the vast comprehension, and we may ' 
venture to add from the best authoritlesj the legal accuracy 
ef this wonderful performance, which, iu style and coibposi- 
.tioh, is distin^vshed by an unaffected grace, a majestto 
simplicity, which can only be eclipsed hy tb^ splendour of 
its higher qualities. Admirable, however, as these commen- 
■taries are, .U is obvious that they are much too voluminous- 
-and elaborate to answer the purpose of an introduction 
to the study of the 'English cpnstitutiQn. 'We do therefore 
-voDSt sincerelv congratulate the .public on the appearance 
•of a vrork, wnicfa we can safely recommend as well fitted to 
aupplr a chasm in oiiT Bystem of pubUc instruttion. The 
bom oefore us is, in every view, well adapted for the at- 
■stmctioa of'^youtbi the clear and aocorst* iofgrnutaoafb 



r,o,i,,-cdtyG.OOglc 



12 Custaace's Heut ttf the ConstiiiUion ofEngUni. 

conve;^s upen a most important subject, and the trqiy Chris*' 
tian tincture of its t^iaxims knd principles, are well calcu- 
\xiqA to enlarge the unUerstaniling and improve the heart. 
We beg li^ave particularly to reconiniend it tu the attentioit 
of schools, in which, we conceive, a general 'ac(|uaiutance with 
the laws and constitution of the country might 1>e cultivated 
with mudi advantage, as rorming a proper prep^ation for 
the active scenes of Iffe. Legal provisions for the security of " 
the best temporal interests of mankind, are the result of so 
much collective wisdom and experience, and arc so con- 
iihually conversant with human affairs, that we know no study 
more adapted to invigorate the understandiug, and at the 
same time to give a practical turn. to its speculatioDs.. The 
close cohesion of its parts tends to make the mind severely 

'argumentative, while its continual relation to the, state of 
society and its successive revolutions, fences it in on the side 

'of metaphysical abstraction and useless theories. VVbat we 
look upon (for tlie reasons already mentioned) to be a most wte- 
fui and interesting study at all times, we would earnestly re- 
commend as an indispensable duty at the present crisis. 

Of the merits of the work before us the public ma^ fpnn 
some Judgement, when we inform tbem that it contains what- 

' ever M most interesting to the general reader in BlackstCtne, 
together with much useful informaticin deriyed from Professor 

' Christian, De I^lme, and various bt;her eminent authors. Some 
tvill be ready to accuse the writer of having carried i^is- par- 

' tiality toward whatever is established too far : nor tl^re we 
say the charge is entirely unfounded. We ar^ not dii^pqsed, 
however, to be severe upoti him on this account. We wiiK 
to see the minds of, our youth preoccupied with a strong 

'bias in favour of our national institu,tions. We would vyish to 

'.see ^h em animated by a warm and generous, enthusiasm, and 
to defer the business of detecting faults, and exposing imper- 
fections, to a future period.. Let us .only be allowed to i^- 
niark, that this pehey should be temperately employed: lest 
"the mind should suffer a revulsion, and pass, perhaps ijathef 

'abruptly, from implicit admiration to the contrary eictreme ; 
lest, indignant at having been misled, it sobstitute general 
censure for undiscinguishing applause. 

We wish oiir author had, in common with Blackstone, ex- 

'pressed his disapprobation of the severity of the criminal code. 
The muluplicity of capital punishments we shall always con- 
sider as a reproach to the English nation, though, numerous 
as they are, thfey beat iio proportion to what they would be," 
were tbo law permitted to, take its course. The olfemfes 
deemrid-capital by the common law are few ; the sanguinary 
complexion of the criminal law, as it now stands, has arisen 



.dtyGooglc^ 



Custance's Vkoi offhi Const imion <^ Englatid. •JS 

from thu injadidous tampering of thfe legudatore.: To U3 it 
wpears evident, tliat the ceftainlTf of punishment will restrain 
onendeK more than its severitj' ; and that, when men ere 
tempted to transgress, th«y do not weigh the emolument they 
had in view, against the penalty awarded by law, but simply 
the probability of detection ftnd punishment, Against that of 
impunity. Let the punishments be moderate, and this will be 
the most effectual means of rendering them ccrUin. While 
nothing can expeed the trial by jurj', and the dignified im- 
partiality with which justice is administered, we are compelled 
to look upon the criminal cpde with very diil'ui'cnt emotionsi 
and earnestly to wish it were carefully revised, and made mofe 
}iumane, simple, and precise. 

Aslittlc can we concur with the author before us, in the de- 
fence he sets up of the donation of pensions and sinecures, 
where there are no pretensions of personal merit or honriurnbla 
services. Standing quite aloof from party politics, we must 
affirm, that to whatever extent such a practice exists, cx;:ctly 
in the saqiejiroportidn is it a ?ource of public calamity .ind 
tliBgracp. To look at it, as our author does, only in a pecu- 
niary view, is ip neglpct tjie pnnciiwl consideration. It is not 
hierely or 'chiefly aa a waste of pu)>lip money, that the piranting 
of stjieciires an cf pensions toth^ tindeserriog ought to be coa- 
irfemned; tb^ venality and corruptiqn it indicates and pro> 
duces ijs ]t$ worst feature, and an mlallibl^ symptom of a de- 
cliniug state. With these exceptions, we have accompanied 
(he author with almost uninterrupted pleasure, and have been 
hi^ly gratified with the good sense, the extensive informa- 
■ tion, and the ijnaffettea piety he displays throughout tbo , 
.work. Though a firm and steiwly churchman htmsdf, he 
manifests a truly Christian spirit toward the protcstant dis- 
senters ^ apd is so far from looking with an evil eye on the 
large toleration they enjoy, that he contemplates \Vith evi- 
dent satisfaction the laws on which that toleration is founded. 

Of the style of this work, it is bnt justice to say, that, 
Mvithoul: aspiring to any high degree of ornament, it is pure^ 
perspicuous, anil correct, well suited to the subject on which it 
IS employed. ' 

Asa fair specimen of Mr.C.^s manner of thinking, we beg 
leave to lay before our readers the following just and ap- 
|Hopriate remarks on duelting. 

' ' Deliljerate dutUiag falls under the head of txfireii maSee ; and the 
lair of England has justly fixed the crime and pufiishmeat o£ murder 
upon \io0t the principal and accessariet of this nuxt unchriBtiaa practice. 
'Nothing ihgre is necessary with us tp check this dsriog violation of all 
law, than the aanje firmoesB and integrity in the trial of duellista vllich 
SO eminently distinguish ao Eoglish juiy ^n all Other occasions. 



.dtyGoogIc 



74 JorsoM's DiaseftaiidHs on the Font and Cthur of Man. 

. * ^eriuuw it viU be ukei, vAat m mat »f Awmw- to da, if tbej mut 
jiM>s|^al to die pUtol osd the nrord ? Tbe aiwwer ii obrioui : if one 
jmfZaMn hu o&nded anotbert he cannot gire a moie indi^utable proof 
of KeciviDe coiraget^han by iBakiag a fradt admowlFd^eiBent of hii iwAu 
KidaitiDgfordTeDeuoftDe^miiirapai^. On theoiher handiifibehMe 
received ao mmat, he ought freely to fbigive, m be hope* to be fergnen 
of God. Aad if either of the party aggraTate the matter by tewliag 
% challeage to fight, the other miut not be « partaker i^-hii sin, if he 
woiild they God rather than man. 

< Stiltj h will be Kud that a milhafyoT naval man, at leait._ muU not 
dediae a challeage if he would maintain the character of a man of 
cdur^. But ia it not insulting the loyalty and good kdm of the brave 
'^ieaaera of onr lawi, to imagine that they oT all meo must Tiolate tbeih 
to preserre thnr honour [ nnce the King haa cxpmdy forbidden any 
joihtary nan to send a .challenge to light a doe), )q>on pain of bnng 
caahiend if an officer; and orsuSenog coipora! puniihment if s sor- 
.commtuioned officer, or private «ddier. Nor ought any officer or soldier 
.to uplH^d another for refiiaing a challenge, whom hia M^ny pouttrely 
.dcdaiea At coatiden as having only acted in obedience to hii royal 
.crderi:, and full^ acquits of any disgrace that may he attached U? faja 
conduct*! Beaidei, wbat'^ neceuary connection is there betw^n the 
fbolhardiness of one who riiques the eternal perdition of his neighbour 
utd of himself in an unlawful combat, and' the patriotic bravery of bm - 
.^o,wheo July calls, boldly engages the enemy of his Iciilg and country. 
-None' will dispute the courage of the excelleat Colonel Oartliner, who 
was slam at the battle of Preston Pans, iit the r^ellion in 1715. Yet' 
.lie once refbted a challenge with this dtgnified remark : « I fear sinoingt 
thoogh I.do not fear fighting f." The &ct is, that fighting a'duel'ia- 
.M farfrom-beiog apro^of a man's potsetung irw couragei' .that it'i> 
.«! infallible mark of his cowar£ee. For he ia ioflueqced 1^ <* th^ fear 
-.»f man," whqse praise herloveth more than the praise of God' 

Art IX. jfaihrafiolopa ! Of Duiertatioiu en tie Fom and CHow of 
with incidental " ' ■ ^ t. . _.• »*^ ^ .. . 



Man; with incidental Remarks. By T. JarroM, M. D. Member- 
he Literary and Philotophitd Society, Mand: 
c 1/. 1/. bda. Cadell and Co. Burditc 1808. 



BEFORE we enter on the examiliation of this Ijook, we 
have to, apologize for neglecting a former' work ;t oi Ut« 
same benevolent and ingenious author, whidh we have 
hitherto delayed to notice, with the intention of considering 
. it at some future time with several other publications in a 
general discussion ai Mr. Malthus's theory concerning popu- 
Ution. In the-mean while, we c«n, venture to reconimefld 
it to the ^rusai of o;ir readers^ as, a work of ^cellebt 

■ • ' See Articles rf War, Sec.'?. '. 

^ < See Oodridge's Life of Cohmel -Gardtner, an lotereaeb^ |Kece' rf 
'fiiogtaphy. worthy the penlsal of every (rffieer in the army add naTy.* 
- % Duttrtalimt on Mm: 'bans m AnaweT to llir. Mahhiu'l £n>T t» 
FopulaMBi 8fOs lOi, 6d,- Sune FuUrdMn. 

r,3n--MM/G00glc 



JarrsUt** Dissertattmf oa, the Fermand Cokvr of iftm. 1$ 

ioteiition, and coiuider&ble iogenai^, dtou^ by do means 
o( unimpeschable correctness. Dr. J. again appCBra before 
the public witb an equallv commendable design : * to retnore 
eTeiy.i]D)parraR;te(l prejudice against the person of the negro.* 
Tbe question, respecting the-rank of the African in the crea- 
tion, IS not, the less important at tbe present period, when^the 
British legislature has, at length, ventured to concede to him 
some of the rights of humanity. . For after sU the attention 
which his cause has excited, all the exertions to alleviate 
his condition, all the heait-felt joy that has been felt at a 
prospect of his emerging from the abject state in which other 
men have placed him; should it he proved, that be is merely' 
an anthropomorphoas brute, or but a different species uf 
Man, (which pur self-lore must immediately pronounce in^ 
ferior) instead of having approved ourselves tbe friends of 
humanity, we bare been insulting it, by introducing into our 
VQciety an ambitious inferior, or a dangerous rival. If t^e 
Negro be of a different genus, only a well-shaped Oraa 
Outahg, we have as unquestionable a right, by tbe original 
grant of our. common Maker, (Cfenesis ix.) to assert a proper^ 
iji him, and reader him subservient to our wants, as we.h^ve 
to domesticafe tbe Horse or the Camel. If he be a collateral 
species of our own genus, prudence calls upon us, as we 
value ou" own supenority, to keep him in subjection j lest 
be -aerre us in the same «vay as in many piaoes tbe Norwe- 
gian Rat has served the British. Unless we are convinced 
ol the identity of our own species with his ; — that is, that t^e 
' progeny of die Negro may i}\ a series of years lose the parant's 
chsracteristic colour and features, and tbe progeny of the 
European assume them; — we dmnot with justice and safetyf 
it alight be jdausibly urged, admit him to tbe po^sessitji^. of 
equal righ^ with ourselves. Since the shortness of ourliyes 
prevents the decision of the question by direct experiments, 
we must endeavour to solve ii, fay an examination of Man in 
his present state. Biumeubach, in his Fragments, disprove 
the idea that Negroes are inferior in mental abilities aqd 
reason; and Dr. J. in the work before us undertakes to 
prove, not only that the digerence, ju form and colour, i^ the 
consequence of extraneous causes, but that their form and 
colburare in , many respects ^yen superior to our own. 

We wish it were, in our power to compliment Dr. Jarroldon 
^e perspicuity and phili^sopbical strictness of his reasonings; 
quanfications so necegsfiry in a su^ect of sucji intricacy, 
and whi<^ ,he ocfuqionalfy displays to considerable extent. 
But we aire too fr^uently obliged to apply to him the very 
accusation be preferred iumself,. on a former occasion, against 

fMw celebimteo w^it^r wluna Iw oppt)«e4. * THsjeseArti^h.of 



i-h,Googlc 



t6 JarroWi Dusd'talions on the Form ^nd 0olo tflfMan. 

the philosopher extractinp truth from doubtful evidence does 
not appear; in the placid of it, I fancy I am reading the speech 
of a pleader, who is endeavooring to say all that is farourable 
of his friends, and all that is discreditable of his antagonists.* 
(Dissftrt. p. 120.) Dr. J. is thoroughly convinced of the 
justice and importance of the cause he is pleading, and so will 
the greater number of his readers be ; hnt few, we apprehend, 
will thii)k either liis demonstrations of the positions whicb he 
jmlges necessary in order to establish it, sul^ciently cogent ;' 
or the inferences, which he draws from fa:ct8, so slrictlyde- , 
dncible from them, as tiiey ought to be in a professedly arga- 
mentative work. In its present state, there is so much Tagtte- 
ness and inaccuracy which may be confuted or ejfposed by 
any one who undertakes to answer' him, that we fear he'Iias 
rather fint arms into the hdnds of his opponents, than reduced 
ihem to submifsioD. If be is i-anqmshed, (to continiie a figure 
too famiKar in the present stato-bf tiie world,) it will not be 
hy an attack ou his eentre, butty harrassing his outposts, and - 
catting off his detached parties. The justice of these i-emarks 
will appear from the subsequent extracts ; and we mention 
them, not to prepossess any of our readers against the per- 
ibrniance,but lest they should be induced, by a disfippointment 
in their expectations of correctness and perfection in parts of 
it, to condemn the vfhole ; and because we are persuaded, tbat 
if Dr. J. had bestowed that care and judgement in digesting 
bis materials and compressing his arguments, which the pub- 
lic has a right to expect from bis abilities, his work, though 
less in size, woold have been fiir snperior in classical merit. 

In the Introductory Section, after a few observations on the 
utility of the study of man, Dr. J. metitions the aim of his dis- 
sertation : to examine, independently of the light afforded by 
I^elation on the subject, whether the existing difference of 
the individuals of tbe human race be specific, ormerply owing " 
to. circumstances. He then commences his consideration of 
one of the principal hypotheses ■ to the contrary, that of Gra- 
iiation, as advanced more particularly by Mr. White,' in his 
'Account of the ref^ular Gi-adation, &c. ;' and continues it 
ihrongh the first p^rt. of his work. This doctrine, as h« 
ebsmres, has at .ail times been made an excuse for the impo- 
sition of slavery ; the aboriginal inhabitants of America were 
branded as an inferior race of beings, enslaved, and in fact 
exterminated; tne calumny has since been transferred to the 
unhappy Africas, who succeeded to their bonds. What else, 
indeed, could have given the conquerors of antiquity tins 
semblance of justice in their conduct toward foreign itatione, 
but attaching tbe idea of inferiority as men to their genera] 
Rppellation ai barbariamf. The Ph(£tuciiiD,'pfobably, wouM 



Do,i,,-.-,ii,,.Googlc 



JaiTold's Dissertaliont «ntke Form and Colour -of Man ■ 71 

excuse himself for iiijuii/ig one of our ancestors, with th« 
words. He is only a Britou, But as tliis plea is not very 
pliilosophica.1, arid as it will serve Jbr the Negro, or any ofher 
race, as well as against him, the refiiieineut of tht! presettt 
age has called in more plausible arguments. The hypothesis 
of the existence of a cfuiin, in the productions ot" nature, 
affords hy analogy the supposition, that in Aoilie instance 
the human race also is connected with the brute creation. 
Tbis whole theory, therefore, i)r. J. strenuously opposes ; and 
indeed, in the strictest sense of the word, it cannot possibl* 
exist. Were the different species of the creatino connected 
hy imperceptible intcrmetliate sliades, the very term species must, 
be exploded, 

, • U" we withdraw our attention from the nature of things, and from tho»e 
subjects of which we can comprehend so Uttle, and apply it to such ft* 
are mote within the range of our capacities, we may, with the gradatiouitti 
trace a scale in every order and department of nature. Commence at taj 
point, and the chain rapidly advances; -from the least ponderous body* 
trata the purest ether to the hcavieat metal, there are innumerable iiiter- 
mediate .'mks; one substiince is a little heavier, has a rather greater 
speciCd gravity than another. The same chain holds good in the appear* 
«nce of bodies, and in the diepositions and projicruities of animals : a horw 
prefers being fed with oats, a cow' is less partial to chat grain, a liieea 
lees so still, a hog' turns it over wth his snout, and if it takes a mouthful 
it chews it with evident disgust, and is long before it deases to swallow it. 
-OUwr animal* separate the husk fi'ora the flour, apd eat oiily the latter ; 
aai some animals da nist use this vegetatdc in aay state.' p. 41. 

We may pi'odnce systems in which man shall stand next to 
the ape, the swine, the elephant, or the plucked fowl; bnV 
-these are not the arrangements oif tiatuie. In order to study 
her works, a/e find it expedient to place them in a line; but 
it is' not to be suppnsed that a Being, powerful enough to 
create; could be restricted by any such arrangement The 
more *e examine what are looked upon as connecting link^ 
the more we find, that they belong decidedly to one or tlj« 
cTther division. Whaies anii dolphins have been esteemed fishes, 
zoophytes plants, and ihe fungi animal productions ; but they 
can as little be deemed intermediate iri the chain of organize.d 
beings, as the Geor'ginm Sidus a medium between fixed 
sters and {planets, because herescfmbles the former in his ap' 
pearancci and was at first esteemed one. Whatever chain 
tancy may picture in the productions of nature, man is as se* 
cure, bythe characteristic of reason, from the intrusion of tjie 
ape, as the fixed stars, by their unborrowed light, trom the in- 
trusion of a planet. But Dr. J. thinks the dignity of man se* 
flously cndangereij, by admitting the mere idea of a grada- 
tion ; and requires that it be proved to exist throughout alf 
tbe other.productioBS of nature, before any connexion> by&n 



.dtyCoOglc 



. 78 Jarroid's Dissertations m'ihe Form and Colmt ^Man. 

of his animal part, with the tinite, be argued from analog. 
He therefor^ occupies the four first sections of bis woijk, mth 
consideriqg the imaginary giadatJions between the different 
kingdoms^ of nature, and aUproviQg their existence.. 

If there be a gradation of perfection, he contends, there 
must be a Wnk, nol only in the diSerent classes, but amcMig 
the species. If this be supposed to be the case anione ani- 
mals in some instances, (though by tar the greater number of 
' these appear to have equal rights to preemiijence,) to .wliich 
of the minerals shall we assign the preference^ 

< Which of the treu of the fbreit i* the inferior... would bow to tb* 
other } and ou^t a p!aiit of wheat to be conndered u beoeith tbem I 
Hat not every vegnaMe a right to daijn pre-eimiience,...fbr usefulneH, 
far beauty, or for hardtOMi i One grows where another canflot, asotbcr 
growl more luxuriantly.' p. 15. 

The gradation from a mineral to a vegetable, is so untena* 
bl«, asto need little refutation. 

■ The law by which the iocrease of miocrab is accoiii[^ihed is j^op«r 
only to raineralt ; it it that of aifiDity and not of awimtlatioD : hence the 
two luDgdoRM are not only ^pt dinnct, but at the remotnt distance. It . 
ii in vain to talk of kiodred, if the prindi^ of exiitence be different^ 
J. 18. 
' Iii considering the connexion between vegetables and ani- 
mals, Dr. J. endeavours to prove, that the motion of plants, 
resembling muscular ^irntaoility, is the consequence of in- 
creased or diminished strength, Occasioned by internal cause*, 
which they can neitKer seek for nor prevent ; and he suggests^ 
that the accommodation of plants to )he seasons .of dittercut 
climates, is merely owing to the different effect of solar heaC 
in different countries. Here, by the way, the Doctor asserts, 
that " a muscle can only act, when it has passed over a joint, 
and is attached to two bones ;" how does he account for the 
motion of the heart, or the actions of other muscles of tbe 
trunk, which pass over no joint? Speaking of the ascentof 
the^ap, he says ; 

< Could we discover the ptioeiple bo which sap rifei, it might be of ii^ 
cdculablcutilityin thebusiocHof life,...atid why 'tnay we not discover 
it i It it Dot railed by a miracle, but by Qie uie of natyrai mean*. To 
leara what these are, it not, 1 apprehend, a study beyond the human capa- 
dty. The circulation of the blood was as little knowii, and presented as 
many dHficolties, till Dr. itarvey inverndgated the subject and made it easy 
of comp'T<riiennon': tbe dncoveiy was tut of yester;day. To-elevate wa- 
ter) without die coinplicated and expentivemachiDery now in use, might 
be one con»ec[sence of a kiioft ledge of the principle we Rave been ipeaK- 
mg of) and thus a new and extenrive field of iatereating mvettigatioD, 
amofipracticalvtiiity, bespeak to tctence; But thAugh the tut^ect' U 
ftt enveloped ia dukaest we kaov ejwwgh to be confideat that Uw princi^ 



i,,-c,it,Googlc 



3arr(^d^»Jiiatertaiimonth£ Fprmmid Cclowr ^Mm. 79 
pk wluch movea the in^ and drcnlaiei tbe blood, ii not the uom.* 

We confesB that our .hopes, of its being thus applicable, 
even should it be diBcor'erea, are very slender indeed! Wav- 
ing however these coosiderations, he lays the ptincipal stress' 
of his ai^ument upon the following reasoning : 

* A cbmn impliu )»agi<Mttom aad as an aaimal ii iitdiipQtaUf adnnctd 
beyond a vegetable, thepoiitt of nniOD must be between tliemcMtctnnpIete' 
andperiect TevnaUeaodtbe matt iuignificant and doubtfiil animal. A 
polypua bean ulis character i it wa« lon^ lupposed to be a plant, but now 
li placed in the rank of animali, and u tud to catch ana deroui. fiies, 
wUch ii conchuTc aa to the luAgdoai to whidi it bdongs. Let u* take 
it, with all our ignorance reipecUng it, a« the lowest of anunali | and ■« all, 
ammah are luperior to vegetaUe>> the next link consequemlj is the most 
perfitct of that order, and which is more to than an oak 1 But it ia tmljr. 
ridiculoui to tpeak of thcK being united aa pans of a chain. An ojiter' 
baa no affinity to a cedar, or a grasshopper to any other tree, and theyare 
the moat fit and apposite links that I can ditcorer,... There camwt be a - 
scale of progression, if the nwit comriete and perfiict of one ordn" does 
nm bear a resemblaDce to the least petlect of the order next abore it. A 
Chain anpposes a connexioB and reiendilaiice, but no animal in the cnatioil ' 
ooinesponds to a forest tree.' p. S?- 

In refuting the idea of a connexion between man, and the 
Uiile, the question, whether Ttastm and iTOtmct be radiisdijr' 
distinct, is discussed at some length. 

* "Cm it be ascertained that there exists a real diitiaction bet w ee n I^ 
stinct and reason? It can. Were it not so, it would be in vain to contend 
fat nan's inmonality, or the meanest animal would have an equal dain). 
To mia QBiy in d^ree ii scarcely worth contendingJor': the di&rence, 
iatM'dar ts be vklned, must be essential. Tbeoneisnoti.caanotbe, a. part 
or-pnpntyof theotiwr^ Reason is the glory that encircleaaBOt be may 
dimita-lnstae, oraddtoitsbri^ness: bittisMinctis without glory, it le- 
ceires not bMar, nor snfiera ihatne. Reaaon presents the boiiiaB raw at 
the footstool of theii Maker, to adore and wmrahip: ham; it is ma^ Ucl^ 
eatf hi( greatest honor : hot intbna grovela in the dust t it soaranobi|per'. 
thaa the wants of the body. . .it is a provisioa to pieserve life. 

* 1 iriih not to pass by, or to detract from, the endowments of animals; 
J would not rob them of the smallest gift to place it on the head of man ■ 
the huinan race would be degraded by their htghint endowments. I allqiw 
all that is asked for them,, ..memory, contrivance, (breught; and I allow' 
ttefiastinct admits of improvement, by the use of these endowments. 

< Wberedun, itmaybe aikod, ii the distinctioD, where the seporadng 
wait, between iKStinct and reason ? It ia here : it is in the object on wUai ' 
the capacity girra can be employed. The mote that dwa a liole to bide it-' 
s^, discharges the higben duties of iu nature, and dinlayt the utmost sa-. - 
ncity of iostioct ; butmuierects analtar to hiiGod.' pp..33i 34. 

Dr. Jurold treats this part of his subject, if not with all' .■ 
the precisiDa (tf the daqiauioiiata philosophwr, with aU. tfa*': 



.dtyCoOglc 



80 Jfth-old*9 pissetlatleni dn Ike Forth and Colour <^Mari. 

■ ivanntJi «lHch is due to so Hitere^ting a topic ; and draws, 
&om the inflate perfection of instinct, and the imp^rfeciiOn 
of teason, a powerful argument for the presumption of a future 
state. We were rather suiprised, ttiat among the- various dis- 
tinctions between the two lie has not meniioiied the formation 
or invention of. speech, (lo^uelaj wbicb reason has enabled 
nail to derelope out of the voice, (vox) which he has in com- 
mon witli the Brute. 

In tiie fourth sebtion^ imjtled, 'An inquiry into -the rela- 
tion, the. parts- which compose the world, and its iniiabitants, 
bear to each other,* our author sums up the arguments iigainst 
the system of gradation ; and, ctassine the method of God in . 
treating' the world among those subjects which are beyond 
our comprehension, insists strbnely upon the pernicious con- 
Bequetices of aiming at unattainaDie knowledge. 

In the following section, he resumes the position, that the 
iimian race is of ojie species'; and produces a number of cir-. 
cumstarfces, in which nil periods and nations coincide. MeDr 
tioning afterwards the diversity of colour, he thinks the difTer- 
eoce of complexion an, indication, that we might expect tlie 
darkest shade, or black ; and though the colour of the Negr& 
be so permanent in the individual, yet ^hat its being eritir^y 
obliterated by iotermairiages, without an effort of nature t* 
preserve it, proves it to be not inherently implatitcd in his 
irajne, bnt the eft'ect of, circumstances. Analogy from expe- 
riments on plants, 'however, greatly lessens the etreagth of 
this conclusion: indeed Dr. J. aismisses it with the fol- 
lowing questiqnj " '. 

' AUawSn^, if itbe proved, diat U«ck is a colour nataral to Man^ and 
that it existsindependent of external circuBifiancrs, would'Cven'thiaaAKHiiit ' 
to a fiill and complete demonstration,- that there was a ditftrence oF«pKtet > 
between periods of opposite cokiur i Amoog animals, colour ia not cod> ' 
ndered as idating to die species, why then should it be4a the-humaDraee^* 
p. 31. ■ ..... 

He.then proceeds to examine the difference injbnn, whiqh 
occupies the remaiuing twelve sections of ihe 5rst part; de-^ 
fertinff the consideration of the causes that occasion the co- 
Ipur of the skin. .,,-■. 

The nieasur^nents of. Negroes and Egropeans by. Mr. 
White, in order to prove that the ulna in the former is longler 
in proportion than in the latter, are amply discussed in the" 
sixth section : and Dr. J., adds the measurements of 32 odier 
pecsons,'princii)a]ly North Britons, of several apes^ and of a 
few antique statues. Reducing the length of the ulna to a de. ■ 
ciuai of the whole height, we have, obtained the foHowing re- 
mfit^l vhi^b we ftpgrenead will convey a clearer idea of tbor 



.dtyGoogIc 



^tchei' s^'Diclionah/ oftkc English Language. ' Sv 

aim and importance, than the tables of actual lenglli inserted; 
by Dr. Jartold^ , -, 

Oreatest . Least Mean 
Whke's laNepocs ,18085 ,16287 ,17lt. . , 

12-Europeans ,15943 ,14869 ,U24 ,. . 

■- Jarrold's 32 dirto ,17543 ,15463 ,166 . 

Josser Gibbon t . ■ ,3324 :..■■; 

'. Jocko ■ i^^^ ;2I138 

Antinoua ' ,17361 

Apollo Belvedere ■ " ,17378 

This greater lengfh of the African uhia, Dr. J. accounts for, 
by remarking, that under the torrid zone, the period of ado-, 
lescence, at which ' the arms commence a more rapid growth,' 
which continues till the fabric is completed,' begins earlier' 
than in tern pirate clitnates, thougli it continues as long. — We 
believe be has inade a mistake, ill asserti:ig, ' that the hume- 
rus of the monkey is twice the length of that of a man, esti- 
iDating; according to' the height of the body.' In the Jocko, 
and lessor Gibbon, the only two in wiiich the entire length is ' 
mentioned, the humerus is ,2804'8 and ,23077 of ^he whole 
height; while the shortest human humerus in hi? 32 measure- 
mciits is ,1944, or about two thirds of that length. ' 

fTo he concluded ia thc_ nexl Number. J 

Art. X. ^ nfai DUuonary e^ ihe Sagiiih Langtuge: by Joha Pytcties, 

Esq. late Meinber of ParliaraeDt for the Borough of Sudbniy. Fart. t. 

up. folio, 1^. 28. Price 9s. 6d. Flullipi, 1806! 
A LIVING language is eBsentially changeable; and the 
utility of works that are dcsignen to restrict its metamor- 
phoses, can tmly be partial and temporary. We are therefore 
by no means adverse to the project of a new" English Dictio- 
nary, aldioOgh we have repeatedly expressed our resentment ■ 
of the rutlfe'and indecent censlires which modern pretenders* 
IQ lexicograpfay have lavished on that of Johnson, Having 
leng been hacknoyed in the ways of men, we have learned 
shrewdly to saspect the character of any berson, and of any 
book, whose merit requires to be evinced by the depreciation 
of others. Consequently, the fallowing passage in Mr. P.'s . 
preface ha« produced an effect on our expectations from his 
woric, very aitferent from that whicli he probably wished it to 
impress on his readers. 

' Doctor Johnson's Dictionary (though it has eoqe claim to origlnaKtV . 
and supremacy J^ ia a deftxtive, a irecierous,^ and an ill-ar/RDgcd composi- ' 
ti»B I ' 

Deferm'd, unfinisb'd, sent before its time 
- - into tbii brratbhiK WDfid, scarce half made up. Siatti/itfr. ■ 

VouV. G 



r,o,i,,-cdtyGoOglc 



82 PjrtoheB*! Dictionary cf Ae Englith Language, 

< Like a lUge-wiggoii upset, tyaj nuteiial that hu been packed anil 
Ibadedi h fouad to be dtiplac«d, diqoistrd or shattered. It la ao abun- 
dint accuntulabon of every error in literature, and not among the mriadt of 
books \n pablicattim cat be foood One, io which so little merit, comfersatei 
fi>r 10' much iapittiiy, aadextraneoiu matter. It ii a hiil^hm vithow 
I «hlch a ' " ■ " ' " 



a Way-tatrk, into «hlch as bKm at we eater, we find DiHwlret misled, 
hampered^ nimfi^ and Jost. It b. the prudnetieti of a g/rtM, bat an ill- 
rcgiuated inindi and the nunner of it dazzles, rather thai i^bma; 
«id teadiei at to admire, rather than to cxHi^ireteDd the Eogliah Lao- 
guage. It was undeitaken taMjt it was compiled nnder an i] 

a^oIatioD) and pressed to a coaclutioD by the ' 

cSsl Jterd of mcroviary Publishers.' p. 4< 
; Our author proceeds to' point out a variehr of defects ii^ ' 
Johnson's performance, nnaer the hesds tjf Strictures on liis ' 
dejimtiani, on what is here termed his treatment pf wbrds, on" 
hjs citations, ancjon hisr^wwirA-j. To the greater part of these, 
instances, we thipk Mr. P.'s objections reasonable, to others 
frivolous : but we can assure him, that our experience in lite- 
rature does not .encourage us to expect any work of equal ' 
niagnitude and difl!icu%, lA which a much greater numbea- of! 
errors may not be detected by any one who baa just t^ent'. 
enough fof the search, aad'wbo ^11 undertake the invidious 
trouble. 

Some peculiarities of ■ Mr. P.'s orthography and style, are 
obvious in the short quotation which we have given. He has . 
not' intimated his-wosens for diSering in these reapebts frinn. 
estabUsfaed costonv; a difieot of fondescenston at wU«h 
' we certainly do not. repine.. Let tbe reasons, or ev«i tiie 
pro{)ri«ty, b( the orthography, be .what they msy, we totvlly 
dis^prove the intnMluetion of it into extracts from other- 
writers. Mr. P.'s intention seems to have been imifonnly 
to reduce double into single s ; for waiit, epparefidvy of con- 
tidoing tint om single s has nsually (and always wiien final) 
the-Bousd-of z. ,All other doable letters he appearB to retain ; 
for althoiugh he writes abhoraU voA ablwrible, it ia evidently ■ 
heiiwxe hff Av^ekkXt^tea abhore for Mor. Thkt he does not 
cvcwnd his p^uliaiities. tm etymology, is deraonstrated by 
his substitution of > for ,y, in sympathy, &c. We have ^ready, . 
in our remarks on- Mr. Webster's Anglo-Amencan Diction- 
aCT*, exjiresied our dis^probation of ^l deviations, in works 
of -this kind, from that orthography which has Itmg been 
established by our best writers. If the justnesb of this ojHnion 
be evident, it will be so. much the less necessaiv to waste anj^ 
time in criticizing such deviations as those of Mr. Pytches. . 
The principal purpose of a vernacular dictionary, in o«c , 
judgement, is that of eshibitiog -the beat authorioerl forms, 

- ■'"" » 'Vol. IIL p. 44. ■ ■'■■ V' . 



ih,Gotiglc 



Pytcl^es'fi Dktionari/ ^ the EngUA Ijo^grngf. n 

. end Hgnifi.cationB, of words tltat ^-e cocn^Qtily used in wrkiof 
or in conversation. The loform^on which si«y ih(;rdw be 
ioiparted by persons of the tnost exteufiye rewUitg^ find Ql tbf 
nKut T^ionalui^ polil^e colloquial intercourw, to othCirfwit^ 
want t}f£^e ^dy^tages, tends to purify tho langMge of books 
andpf discourse from.Tulgaiit}' and birbajisma; and tQ bi«iiu« 
^fy ,it with perspicuity and precision. 

The qiost eftectual mode of accoatpliihiog this iiQporUOl 
pprpoae, we apprehend to be, thatoi excluding, f;:Qai dicv 
. tiousries i}esi^ed for general use, all mirds tbat cannot mt^ 
pTQprif^y be introduced in writing or Qonveniug nn general 
si4ye<tts..r At present our triply proper and uaeml words are 
bu^t^ und^ alqad of barbaraus, obscure, unutnal, or t£cb> 
i^iqal .'terms, '»ii\v^ enhance the price of a good dictionaty^ • 
render its si^eiocoitivenient, and make its use very difiicvU,tf 
nQtfrui^eas. Towurd-catcbef«, wboKiqiMzetbata dictwnaiT 
sbou}.d,expIain to them every term that occutv io eyeiy book 
tjiftt Jtwp .beeupcinted in their lan|fuage, and everyipbiam 
that ttiey bear m>Hi all closes qf our nungled comiQiuiit^, 
we wiH j4$t.giTe a" avsurance tbn their ejcpectatioDs never 
can be fulfilled. Attempts to gratify ao ^umeaspnable a with 
only render dictionB;neB qearly usel^s to all SQits of re«4sn- 
We hope that they will be supplied with »epaiyte c<iff^41a- 
tioos of obsolete and jvovincial terms, ibat may gR^MJy 
facilitate blac)[4etter readiog. We hope Miat onr (^yclofie- 
(|>aA oi^ rather some, work appropriated to the ex^ness put-- 
pe^, .1^1 ai^ord a Qollectipn pf scientific technical tene* 
alphabetically arranged, accurately defined, and farailiaitlir 
explained. We hope that English Dictiouarie* will th^ 
deserve that title, by exhibiting a genuine picture of tfal' 
liviDg .language, undisguised and unincumbei^ by ioav* ' 
toerwie words w^uqb are no more English tbikii fney h» 
AnWc. • 

Qae «ffectual ine^d of iocreasing the pooderosi^, aof 
diminishing ibe utility, of a diptionary, is, to muitwiy the 
sigm&cat^ons of evei^ term to the utmau degree .wat iv 
Twious positions and cppnectiona in langui^ . can rondw 

Etauaible. Into this mistake, Johnson unfortuiMtely fell: 
ut,l^ progress in it falls very far ^oit of Mr.P.'s. wW 
shall come after a philologist that has dis^oveted y»r^ di6> 
ferent significations of t^ letter A 1 To enable our.ieaden 
to judge of, the e^ent to which sach aieaaings stay ho' 
ioTented, we adjoin a list of those which our author has 
assigned to the Verb Abandon i each of which is duiv ill^it^ 
tfated vad sanctioned by example^. ' To desert, tp toi^kev 
tp leave, to quit, to withdraw nptp* to throw by, tp lay asid«^ 
4Q fettgpj.t^ jfiiWiSf. M> 4is»«^pue. .to *j«fit £(Qm a:tepdiNli9e!». 

. , ;., Google 



•4 , ^yicha^i Dktionaiy (^ ihe Stiglish Latiguage. 

to.nefflect, to leave fo tbance, to quit, to part from, to let go; 
■witft'A^, with /row, -ffitb ^, vntb out of, with to, with to se- 
pJiMted ihBd^"ertent^y by a preposition' — No one will be sur- 
pritei}, that in this Rianuer Mr. P. has filled eighteen pages 
tvith words ihat do not extend beyond four of Johnson's first 
edition. I'his formidable enlargement, it must not be denied, 
is owing in a coiisideiable measure to the introduction of 
•eretal words not admitted by the great lexicographer. An 
enfimeration of them will enable our readers to estimate the 
vast cfbligaiionB, which our literature has incurred, to the dili- 
■ffence and hdeltty of Mr. Pytches, They are, ^ane (the 
»e«rd of barley, oats, " eared ry, and some kind of weat") 
Aaronical, Ab (Hebrew) Aback (Noun and Interj,) Abacot, 
Abacted, AbactM-major, Ahada, Abadddn, Abaft, (Prtp.) 
Abail, Abandot), (Noun) Abandoner, Abantian, Abaptiston, 
Abash (Verb neuter}, Abaslier, Abashment, Abate (Nmn} 
Abatable, Abaw, Abbatess, Abbathy, Abbatical, Abbreviate 
(Nounjy Abbreviative, Abbrevia lively, A,B, C. (Adjective) 
Abcdar-mn (Adj.) Abderian, Abdicaler, AbdmninaLring, Ab- 
ducer, Abear, Abearing, 'To bring-abed, to-be-brovght-ahed,- 
Abeg, Abeie-Treir, Aher, Abet ('AVw7i^, Abhorentiy, Abhore- 
fiilness, AbhoribJe, Abid (V. A. and V. N). 

On the last word, the author says, that Dr. Johnson deter- 
i^ined it to Have no compounded preterit. On the contrary, 
Johnson's words are, " To abide, v. n. I abode or abid ;" and 
he adduces an example of abid in the active seg;9e. Hb real 
&uk was that of confounding the active and neuter senses un- 
^r one bead. 

■ We have narrowly escaped augmenting the preoeding list' 
T»y several words wnicli we did not recognise under the dis- 
guise of. Mr. P.'s unacconntable orthography ; but we found, 
j«Bt in time, that the only secure way of discriminating a new 
word from an oid one, was to restrict our attention to those 
terots which the aiitborhas, very judiciously, distinguished by 
an asterisk. These, with two or three exceptions only, we 
regard is nothing better than mere incumbrances on tiis work- 
lb the samenwnner, especially with a liberal -use of compoiwd 
nouns and verbs, it will be easy, and even necessary for him, 
iri order (o be consistent, to swell hw dictionary not to four vo- 
lumes-only, as he announces, but to fifty. 

* In his' title {lage, Mr. P. professes, that " the words are col- 
lected from the purest ?ouPces, exemplified by elegant and 
Sfilendid specimens of composition, and supported by autho- 
rities of th*' gratest reputation and weight." That hardly any 
of those lerniswhieh the author lias r.ewly -introduced can 
liave these recommendatiohs, wiiriie obvious to «veiy student 
•t' our lapgHagej-fplMta.thK Jidt'of rtfem vrtuvh we have giveiu 

r,o,:,,-,Mh,CoOg[c 



Pytches's Dictionary of the Englfih I,angiiejge "Js 

Id order, therefore, to reader complete justice- to Mr- P.'s 
tvork, we hope that our readers will excuse vs for extmcuiig 
one of bis arricles, in which he had an ample choice of sources, 
ipecimens, and fiuthoritiea. 

* • To abase, v. a. (B<«r.(, Gr.) , 

I. To humble t to lower ; to bring down. 

If *e beotewi^'iKsigli tomooM; and if we be bigh, we wtepSor feato! b^fijis." 
Korlh'i Dvd. of Pmca.2i\. 
How is the jrale oppTEKwrt pridt oiot'ri f 
How were hii Irm^i, half were bi< uryrli^'d I 

. BUtdniiTift Elhn, Bk. 1. 
1 will enTt the liumbk, anit abatt those wba are high. EieiitL 21. E6. 

If the prince's power hf from God as weX b9 thepope'^: if thn pope'spower cdD' 
cemiiigjurisdictioa be natural as well asltbe prrnee'i, if thty Hoti, both fmin gne 
origiDil, if they have so'small dilfereiice, whatmeaat you tbenliy Bucb od:QU9 oom- 
parisons, so hishljr and so ambitiously to advance the one, and so ilisdainrully aid 
•coniftilly to a/iiut the other. ' Bp, JevePi Dtftntc tflht (Xarch. IJB. 

% To leuen the dignity and influence of any thing. 

Hath she forgot already that brave prince 

Edward, her Icrd, whom 1 some three mouths fince 

Stabh'd in my angr; maud at Tenksbury ? 

And will she yet abate her eyes on tne, 

That cropp'd the golden prime of this iiwe^ prince 7 

Shak. RKkardJiTd. A. l.S.S. . 
Acbittes' deeds, the deedB of Pelaus do aiou. 

GabBng't OM, 15. 1« . 
The gods do not their care eioM 
To men of yuur inferior place ) 
They give ao leisDw to their eye. 
To >ee wbere socb men live or dy, 

Garga' Laetat'i PkmtnUt. ]4(. 
S. Xo hend down ; to sink ; to rail. . . ; 

Her gracious wDTdi their rancour did appall, , 

And lanli so deep into their broiling breit«, 

That down they lettheir cruel weapoDiMI, ... 

And lowly did oAafetheir loity cretta 

To her fail premnce, and discreet bebats. 

' Sfmufi F.Sh.2.3, 32. 
He like adogms led in capiireeate,' 

And didbis hedfor baabfulnra oinar, t . 

As loth to tee, or t« be seen at aU. . 

SptnirrU F. Sn. 6. 8. 5. 

Fn heraldry we <ay the wings of an eagle are ahatfd whtn the^ are 
closedi or when the tops hang toward the point of the shield. 

4. Tobnmble; to teidfy a tense of humiliation. 

When Barid makes b.s most solemn acki>awled|eiBentB to.God for hi« grate mer- 
cies to bim, bow dotb be aiait himself bcfoce bim i — Who am I.i and wbat ii nj 
people f liSoitorfi SermoTii. 

5. To cast down }■ to depress. 

Whentbeasieiof MBHnuium areboond toajonnKy! tliey MMbT#kM so &M, 
tbat tfaey seem rather to By than ran, but bang ovcrweiried, they are to-atatnl tint 
tbey sead forth tean. TtpiU'i 2iaidmptdi. 2i. 

Yet all these ship-wrecks nought avail. 
Their cvurage to abatt, or qaail. ■ > , ' ■ 

Oorf^ latm't ftgnaka. 116. 
6. Toreducefron»ahigherlo»lowerltate. 

Silver is known to be of such nature, that it will not be wrcnght with the hanuner, 
beftM tlw silireTHBith bas Aattd it with oopptr. A'tof* Atnahf. 4. 



Do,l,.cdtyGQOglc 



|< PyteWs Dieii^ruryof the JPitglisA Language. 

_ % Wift*«. :' 

, LithiiU nnt (bOK any lignof prMe and arroguicy u tho be disdained tbmi, but 
^iUieribK^'ttiteninby Aonng, tuliinitfiiTg' and yteldln; a little la theiA in: ),;, 
MiriMT itreaene Mmielf fram evrj. Dr. HcUand', Ftul. ISanU. 163. 

Jfo man arer farad tb« none for aiamg blmaelf to lui Ood, 

Bp. HdTt fTorjli. 1201. 

Tb* e«tue«bT IdidotawinridflDyourill^ and infinnii? obh, uienhamejrou 
km bwm. ' Tddf OH tkrffan^iinwqf fnosRU. 496.' 

ttom tie aathot's derrtation of this word, he is evidently 
!u deficient u Johnaon- was, in acqunintMice >vith the ancient 
pritish diid^Ms, ffbencc tiHmen>ii» terms of oui* langitaqe have 
QfiBinated. The verb abase comes from the adjective iasey 
iv&icb we doubtieii have received from the Welch (or Cornish) 
^as, of tiAiilor lignification. It ii cominan (both in its simple 
and Conipdunded states) to Sevftnt'l remaining dialects of the 
ancient Iberian Uhguage, usualTy, hut absiudly, deiioininate<l 
the Celtic. Thence.it descendecltb.t'ie French, Spanish,. tnd 
Jtsliaii tongues, all ot which are strongly impr.gnated with 
l^e Iberian. Thg low Latin alsji, from which Jo^mstin derives 
the word, was always G-iMyc. The sourci: to which Mr P. has 
referred it j is of All the most remote, and the Tno^t unlikely to 
hk tlfflt froftt which we received . it. The Greeks, however, 
pHght obtein the word from the Phenictan or Ge'tuliun proge- 
nitors of the ancient Iberians. 

How few of the authorities eitC;'! cm tlfis occa^on by Mr. P. 
answer to the characters given in iji& title pajje, js too evident 
tb reqatfe any ctnAment. Excepting perbips Tillotson, 
there is n^t 6ne ^hose sole au^hdrity would rtrfoer ff^y-ward 
current in modem composition. Johnson's q[uotations' are 
better selected, from Sidney, Diyden, the Bible^ ainl Locke. 

Mr. P., notwithstanding .the mrequiVocal aftpeaiances of 

tpgmatism wliich w« faive lioticferf, hte ■ prudently expressed 
is desire, that remarks on the parts which may be published 
9» sposioieiM should be communicated to liia), before the " 

fubic^iption copies are sent to the press. We fear that there is 
iule pr^ability of his work undergoing so complete a reform, 
aswtiuto iotitle itto public ^iiroDation. 6ur strictures bam 
regarded thegeijeraj au^ of |esico«rapfiy, , rather, than so 
lK^)dess fri obfeet as the correction of ftfr. P.'s perfortmiriiek 
Hb apbfeatt tbijs a? IiSTtf a Taist deal to (cam, and nrtbtopily 
its mifCD to un)eam, in order to qualify him for the dimcalt 
\aA. wbtdt ^ ba* presfimed to undertake. If oiir remarks, 
Mtiiitfastandipg, shbllinany degite avail toward the correMoih' 
aitd i^pruvcmbnt of his work, should he persist in iht pithlica- 
tiomrfii, we shali CQiisider it as some compens^ion for the 
'^iaaa%Mey he lUitnftosed upon us, of reprobating the welU 
meant iabours of B[ttndivMi^tjn^Vp6gard to ^ iirteresis 
effhetfubKc. 



r,o,i,,-,-,ih,.GoOglc 



Gtlpin'a Monwiitm^ parental Affeaion. 



An. XL J MsHu^itia^Pamitl J0K6em la vicar MduiL Sm. PBf 
'B. Wroc&wdine, Stlop.l »«. np, 180 



ihe Rev. Joahua Gilpin, 

price 9t, 6d. Ijatchtrd, I80S. 



Asadracriptian oTthf extTiordtnat^ tal«>ts"aiKj»tilImoreexiraordinaiy 
" ' ;s of a youth, who in hia wveniecnth yeai silently anitted 



WITH n4 rdwrtmce, we yieU lo a Muejef pnaww i« ittimaw 
only a narrow ipsce on oar page* to thii miw^y imwwriS 
work; and we thouid cemialy not be ntitfipd to divDin it ^itSoS 
extraction largely from it* eoDtenu, but for llie penuaaioii that it will 
toon be id the hands of nearly alt who inmct our account of it. To 
a conuderaWe class of reader* il will ated no othtr reconnDendation, 
than our aisaraoce, that it is one of the mofi, affecting puMicatlons wp 
have ever read, and that it will affbrf the most refined gratification to 
those in whwn religion hai added, to feefipgs natuTiUy susceptible, a 
■olemttity and teodemeM peculituly h" ""■" r r 

Asaoescrip*'"" ^if .►.--».«,.»*...-. 

a world which wai oDCOoscioui of its low, for a happier region and 
tnore congenial society, it present* aft ot^ect which few will cootetmUte 
■without fielin^ of (wnsivenest and sorrow. But ai a « moounienl of 
j»arentJ affection," as w/itten by a father worthy gf soch a son, and io 
a «yle worthy of such a subject, it hat clainu to a tribute of tyrapa- 
thy which scarcely aoy other work poiUd solicit, and which none tat 
the moat iiardeoed of stupid or vidou* creatures would hare the power 
or the inclination to deny. It i| in this view, and fqr this reason, that 
It will njake even a .detjer impression on 'the mind, than the interestjuff 
KoriOT of Kirke White and Elizabeth Smith.* On the teaumony, pa? 
tial, it may be «aid, but undoubtedly sincere, of his exceilept father, 
there is reason to believe that his character would suffer little i(i any res- 
J»ect from a comparison with either of tho»e lamented young pergODs ; 
while he appears to have possessed a mildoess, a teodeniess, a delicacy <^ 
»ou!, _mere ejtqnisitdiy angelical, than almost any other hiinjan tiaav' 
whose qualities have been exhibited to msnkkd. But still, it is tKe/atier, 
rather than the son, liiat mo« dnplj affecta.ui j in eveiy pqge rf hi* 
narrative we feel his heart beating for this " dear and oply so^ tivoush 
>1I our ^s ; apd our attention is ad magically Sxe^ ,to thf . siiWcet hv 

an iiresiBtihle charm of ivmnathv. rhar m. An „^i C . .' _' 



an ihesistible chann of sympathy, that we do not, for spme tune, 
'~-'- to objerve as a curious fact, how a mind of natyjal Vigour may [; 
ided into grandeur and kindled into , brilliancy by the prdour o 



action and the excitement of grief. We are ^moft certain that H& 
jffij^in -would not oa any other sul^ect, "or previously to tfie at 
Bjchon which be deplores, have been ableio produce those vivid colours 
cf fmaginatioD, and those affecting itnAos of genuine padios and unstudied 
•ublimity, which adorn dtia beautifid memdjr. We shall ooly permit 
ounelveB to add, that the excellent principles on education and othe* 
•uW^u, the admirable features of voung Gilpin's character, and the - 
•oftening solemnizing tendency of the whole performance, -adapt it no ' 
iess to impart benefit than to aferd delight ; while it communicates the 
"joy of grirf," ■ it will cherish that . inestimaWe- Beiwftiility which 
alone is capable ofUstingit, and will happily direct the attention, as 
Mr. Gilpin observes, in a pathetic dedication to his Parishioners, « to 

• See lid. Rev. Vol. IV. 193, 82?. 

Doiii--,-',ii*.Googlc 



88 ' C^tpin's Menummt ^partnUi 'Affection, 

the uiUCTUinty of Uf^ the loTeliDesB pf earijr' piety, and the bIet*«lii«M ' 
offlying in the fa*onr of God," ,' 

Sonib of the finen passages are only to' be properly relisbed in cod- 
nection with the circuiDBtnces and persona to which they refer ; we 
'sbaUtheKforequote bnt one paragraph,: whlchtJoesnot puticalarlyoe^d 
exphnatibn or comment aa a specimen Of the style. — 

< By the advice of many who anxiously sought our relicF, we onCe 
more changed the scene amoflg our cODoexiong in the neighbour- 
hood. This moveniflit. however, afforded our dear son no other 3.i' 
Tantaffe, than that of receiving the last attentions of his surrounding 
friends, who met us at every place with tokens of their sympathizine 
'regard — wherevel- we journeyed, he was still making his paaaage ihrough 
the valley 6f the ihadovi ef Jeath, Through this dark and soli- 
tary region every man must necessarily pass : but the pssage admits 
of a wonderful variety- Some men are hurried down this valley with 
a ra^^dity, which will not allow them to mark the terrific fvmiture 
of the place; while others are led through it with slow and solemd 
steps — multitudes tread this road under the torpors of a itupid insen- 
•ibiliiy; and manr niih along it amid ^ the turtulence . of a raving delf- 
liura- — some few favoured inoividuals are allowed to pass this way in 
3 state of complete, recollection and compoGUrc i and sometimes an ex- 
traordinary personage is carried through ii in a kind of holy triumph. 
Our dear son went down into t!iia desolate miley without disduietudej 
and vialieJ deliberately through it without apprehension. We attended 
his steps from the beginning to the end of this painful journey, with- 
out ever withdrawing ourselves from hia aide. We observed the 
changes that took place at every stage, we marked every turn of hi» 
countenance, and caught every expression that fell from" Lis lips. But, 
while we were solicitous to sustain his weakness and to smooth his 
path, we found hipj in eircumstaoces rather to afford, than to require^ 
'support. An invisible arm sustained his soul, and supplied his wants. 
He neither ielt any distress, nor f^aTtd any coil ; for God was with 
himj even He -who givelh tongs in lite nighi and he •whe turneth lie sha- 
dow of. death into ike morning. Though he was fully sensible where- 
to his steps were tending, yet he went cheerfully forwards, neither 
fainting at the uneasiness of tlie way, nor casting one wishful glance 
behina. He surveyed the shadowy scenes n round him without any 
cooStematiOD) and met every threatening appearance with an undisturb- 
ed serenity; discovering nothing but secunty and order, wbeie Others 
have found conillcts and terrors, perplexity and amazement. ' His 
faith and his patience unweariedly performed tl'eir proper work, ihit 
alleviating present, pressures, and timt unveiling future glories. Neither 
' Inward decays, nor outward accidents, could mterrupt the regular ex- 
ercise of these graces; 'and under their prevailing influence he meekly 
triumphed over all oppoBition — This was 'the Lord's doing and tl Wdj, 
marvclloBt in our eyn,' 127 — 131. 

The meiancboly etent took place iq September 1806. 



.dtyGoogIc 



■ jdyce^ Prpttiial yttitkmti^.. «» 

an^ples under |ach Rulp.) ffor tlw, JU«e pf^Schotils. Bythe.RcT. J. 

Joyce. Authotjqf, ikf Sci*6ufi.c .Cli4k>gufE,u!cc. b.i^ ISnio, [ip. riii. 

252,Priee3s.6d,R.Phillip).,LoBdoD„1808. ■ ■_ , . 
'IVH'^'l'l aQMher ,bopkt of Arithmetic 1. And i« it !□ Vain, l[)$i). that 
we Jure so oftt;n cijed .uut, 7W<!( ad; i^'jniM qitefi^iiniprum iiirerum ! 
We are the raoi-e di^lie^neaed at the .aptKafance of tins booki bccaute 
It coioet jroma p^ qiiacTer, and is pefhspa only the lirtl-of ap jnaumcT' 
able shoal. Treatises of Arithmetic cennponlif spring from the dciine 
felt by a country ichoalmaBTer M comMenCe author i ^Ht Ciiis-workj wc 
ahould conjecture, originates in the wish of a bookseller to tr-y the effect 
of snch a thio?). aaa ipeculatioo. Mt' Joyce is an. ingenious^ aod donbt- 
kss an industrious man ; so industriouS) indeed, that we wonder how any 
being who has notat many heads and hands as Uriartu*, antj U manyeyMi 
as /irgus, can get through the business he accumpliibes. Ue^hasjudici-. 
ously abridged Paley's Evidences of Christianity, and Smitli's Wealth of 
Kations; he h.ie published eii^ht incerestiegliule volumes. called 'Scien- 
tific Dialogues' on the rubjects ;of Natural Philosopity and Chemistry ; he 
has the repuiatipn oi being the principal cofopiler lit Itua EncyclopSMJias* 
c(»t)pleted (under othernames) m the course of the Inst three years ; and 
besides this, he teaches youth on ijie common week 'days, and a coogf*- 
gation 09 Sund^s ! Most of the performances in which Mr. J, h-jM been 
concerned, have been so executed as to sbew the cori«ctnes» cf tiis judge- 
ment, though not the depth of bis knowledge': the little pi^ce before us 
oocwithstanding it relates 10 so humble a topic, is, wi:^ think, the worst' 
executed of any; thing we have seen from the s»me author. The book 
niakefl a ne^t appearance, and will therefore, probably take; but it is far 
ioferior to many other candidates for public favour 00 the same .topic. 

Someumes the definitiooj are incorrect ; if muitipticadon be, a« this au- 
^wr tplla us, "» short method of addition," and division "ashortme- 
t]>od of Dcfibrming subtraction," how comes it that multiplying^ by^, 
makes jt2r/x, aoddividios t ''X I niake^ the reiuh grtaieri directly contra- 
— to the natur.e. of addition aad subtraction i The definiuons nianifcstly; 
»o/.apply.tO the cases of fractions. As many of the teachers of arith- 
ii)etjc want instructing in this respect, perhaps our better informed readerl 
will pard <n us if we here give definitions of multiplication and division, 
universally applicable to all (juantities. ' Multiplication is the linding '3 ' 
magoittide which has, to the multiplicand, the proportion of the multipTler 
to unity ;' and * Qlvision is the converge of multiplication and denotes, 
1st. the finding a magnitude which has to the dividend (he proportion 
of the divisor to unify, Zndlw. The finding what abstract number has 
to unity 'the proportion of thedividfnd to a homo^jeneous magnitude, the 
divisor.'' Again, in DaodcCim^s, the rules for <^er^tion are perspicnoue 
enough : but the pupil is no where shewn what th^' various denominations 
in liie result reai/v arc, though this information' is absolutely necessary. 
to preserve him irom the grusseat errors So likewise the pupil may err 
in ibltowing the rule in Aot6 p. ill, since he is oni gu.irded a^4inst ap- 
plying it to ntiJe«f/ nAcfm/s. Farther: the definition of Arithmetical Pro- 
grefsion 'is exhibited in bad grammar : tlte rule* in Geometrical Prngres- 
1190 are defecUTCf ^aajfeS iaeivariU,' and obst^ed hy the useless 



i: 



Do,i,,-,-,ih,.Googlc 



90 Jt>yve*a J^raaket Ji-^imttie* 

iMraducttwofalgfbniEalsyniboIii Vear'utttettamjexflmtalMeetMitSt-' 
meticil aed geometTical means. Wc baw dw to renulL that Mme of 
the exanple* are >idIm£B(»«> nek as ex. 1 1 . |p. S9 ; and ifaat u [»gei 
vi.47tWa2S€, dwaiwior poinCs hu reader lotbecMl ofthevohaoe for 
ublei, specimens, tec. whkb aK notthne tobe feuad. 

To cwnpeatate forUtew inaccaraciet and iaid«eneBcieff, Ur. Joyce 
hu given jatt m moch Of tbc dOctrioe cf ehaooet u it of ao mt } aod 
table* of k^vithmt of juM such a dimisutiTC liw at renders ibem uofit , 
for aB;r beoeficial pur^M. He atto pestm definttioiN, nlet, aad entm- ' 
plet, relatjre 10 logaiiihnu; in -which he t^a m (p. 154) the index 
ihonld be mmi S, when it ihoidd be mimit 2 : at p. 156, rule it. ia de- 
ftctiTe, ai there are no directicmi for working negatire iadicei : and at . 
p. 161 . ex. 4. the 'remilt is ngkt iy tkance, there bein^ a conipeautioB' 
of equal aad contrary erron. We odd that Mr. J. i(not,aa be »eent'to 
Atu, the tint vho has introdnced logarnhma into > Byttem of Anth-' 
netic: it w» done nearly 30 yeari agobyKeitli. 

The beat executed part of thii work, ia our eatHttation » that which m 
htet to Interest, Annultiea, SurriTor^^ &c. where Mr. Joveeacknow- 
ledgethii oUigatioDs to Mr. J. J. GreIher,of the Royal Exchange Aain-' 
ranee Office. We di^ terminate tbe preaent article, with two nctncts 
from thia part of the peiibrniance, which will jrobaUy cdaveyintereadog' 
iirfbnnMioa tb n»ny of onr younger readen. ' 

* By law, more than 5 per cent, cannot be received at intereat of mo* 
Bey in thia country ; thoogh at Tarknu perioda of onr hiatoey difier-' 
ent ratei <tf intereit htre been allowed, aa will be eridefit iirt« the ft^- 
loiriiig table. 

' In 13S5 5tV per cent per annum wbb given asii)tereat.in ISTOte I8OT 
45/| in 14fi2^to 1470 15/; in 1545 it waa restnccedto JO/ihi 162S re- 
duced to 8/i in 1645 to 1660 6/; in 1660 to 1690 ?/. 6it. Qdi it 1690 to 
1697 7/. lOr ; in 1697 to 1706 6/; in 1714 to the ^KteM tine SI. 

* in many parts of the world a much higher me (^intcreeCia given i 
and alto in the colonies, belonging to this cooBOy. In India, far inmu>c«i 
13 per cent, is the k^ interest (at money ; ami in tbe Englirf) aettle- 
ments in New South Wales, the rate of interest ia fixed at 8 per ee«.* - 

* I shall in this note gire.the price of ttocks for one day, and an ex- ■ 
plaaition, so at to render the iniormadoD, m Utis head, contained iS die 
p^ra, inteQigible to the yosngeat reader. 

PaicB OF Stocks— Feb. 2tk 



Bank Stock 22$ 
India Stock— 
3 per Cent. Red. 62 ^ 63 J 63 
3 per Cent. Cons. ^\\ 
.4 per Cent Cons. 80| 81^ 
5 per Cent Navy 951 96{ 96 
Banit X/>Dg Ana. 17f 18 

1. Bank Stock226 : that is, 8S8/. muttbe ^ven <>n that day to pur- 
chase lOW. of tliat siofk, the annual interest of ^is is aboutO or II 
perc^L 

2. India Stock— t nose aS tlus stock wiit told on die day. 

3. 3 per Cent. Red, 621, 63;, 63. Tbe price Of this nocK fluctnated 
lBthecouneitfthcday}itbegttiat6S^wQV. 17s.'SUl|it roM to63f, ' 



Omnium 14 
India Bonds 2i. cGs. 
Imp. Ann. 8 )-l6 
Ex. fiiUsl).dis.li.pre. 
8 per Cent. Imp. 62^ 
Lottery Tickets 18/. 
Cons, for Feb. i'^ 



r,ort,,-,-,ih,.GoOglc 



. Joyce's Ag/. 9i 

•r 63LSi,6J. i and n^en the market, as if. ii caUeii ckued, the valiv 
dF lUO/. Jd dw 3 I>>:r Cent. iteduccdwuB 63/ exactly. 

4. $perCem.<.oDi.6iJ}.i,i. Thu stock fluctoated as the latt, tIz. 
fVora 62iL 7i. 6^. to 6 J/ 1 .'/. &/. and then back to 62/, I Ot. The rewoa 
of this ttock being oT lew value on this day Uian the 3 per Cent. Rer 
duced, is that more interest is due upon the former than do the latter t 
that is, half year's in erest is due at Lady Day on the Reduced, but tb«. 
half year's imert'st on the Consols I's rot due tili. Midsummer. 

S- i per Cent. Cons., S pi.! Cent. Navy } and 3 per Cent Imp., wiU 
be understood from what ius been said, 

6. riank Long Ann. iVj to l8. This refers to certain annukiei 
granted for a term of years ; the market price of which on this day wai 
17 1^ to 18 years, that is, if I wish to purchase 50/. per annum of these 
Aiuuities, I must ac the lowest price pay 5ljl, X I7J, or 893/. 15r., and 
at the highest 50 X 18 or 900/.: and for this 89^/ ljj.,w900/^ I 
should be entitled to 50/. per annum for about 53 years ; the time when 
these annuities tLi-niiaate.neaa: these are called ftrmiiwit, annuities, — Imp. 
Ann. S I 16, or S^'j i> of the same kind, but worth only 8,^g years pur. 
chase, because they tennioate so much sooner ( that SOi. perannum in 
these might be purchased for 403/. 2i. Gel. 

7. Umoium, I^ prti. This it a word that refers to the leveral sorts of 
stocks in which a new loan is made ; for instaiice, if govenunenc borro^tr 
SUmillions, and give to each lender, for every lOQ/. so purchased, lOOl. 
SptTcent Cons^, 301'. in the Reduced, and the rest m Long Annul- 
ues ; diet) this sto<:&, the moment It is subscribed, is saleablei and while 
thedifferehtaiticl^are sold together, it iistiled omniuai ; and IJ premiuni 
means, that a perMn to purchase 100/- of this loan, must pay t^. or 11. Ss. 
tnortrllum the DriFln:^ tender ; had if beta !^ discount then the pur-' 
chase would have beM il.St. list than the origl^ cost, or 98/ 15/. 

5. India-Bonds, Sr. dil. : this phrase shews, that the tionda of 100/. 
giirea by Ae East India Cbmpany are 2 shillings each div^ount ; that is, 
to ^cbaded-of these I muSt pay S99/. 2r. instead of 900/. 

9. £x. Bills, 1j dis. 1/. pre., shews that exche<]uer-faillB of IDQ/. each, 
jhictnated in value from It. dlsCdnnt to 1/. premium : at o«e part of the 
iaj 1 of them would Kave be^ purchased for 10 ^liUiiwf 1^ uian 1000/. . 
and at tht tioie of the market 1 shillings nwfp than lOOw. must bave been 
^vefl for them. . - 

10. X^ottery Ticket*, 18/. shews the price of I.oitety Tickets for the 
time being. 

11. Consols for Feb 35. 62»i*hews thatsomepecsoBahxlbou^tstock 
in antidpation, and agreed to give for it -on the dajr metittooed at the rate 
of 62/. 10* per cent." pp. 168.— 169. 1 

Art. Xln. ■^ ^V to Joyct't Aritimitk ; contuiung Solutions and 
Answers to all Uie Quesbons is the 'Work. To which is added an 
' A^pehd^ shewing ^ Mediod of Making Mental Calciilations, with 
muerous ExaimJes. By the same Ai^or. ISmo. pp. nit. 80S. t^ce 

6. Bd. bound. K. Phillips. 1806. 

'pHIS K^ is very conveniently adapted to the size of the waincdat 
podet of any ymng gemlcroan, who out coax his mamttia to'pur- 
chate it fbr him, or to give him money for snch laudable puTpeses, and 
tberel^ coiAie him to inipoie upon his master, b^ pj«eentiilg Mr. Joyce's 
■tintiou itnttod of hii &m. It tt neatiy pruned, though not M fiefc 



;., Google . 



92 Kepton's Serm4n. 

irorti prcM and other errors as might be wished. In some plaCM we 
find, for' whole pages together, tlie dot of multiplication ' introduded 
initead of the symbol of etjuahty; and in others vve trace the einisai«ii 
ef the mark (if radicalily. Bat these are trifles compared wiUi the ab- 
furdity of saying (p. 60) " 1 divide by 8/, instead of multiplying bjr 
2*. 6i/." It il extremely unluclty, when a writer on arithmetic provei 
bimself ignorant of the nature of such simple rules as multiplication and di. 
vision. But Mr. Joyce is equally unfortunate in the rule of three ; for 
*B siyfl, as ISgallonsareto 3/.-I8/. so are 65,873 gallons, lo 21,408/. 
lit. 6d. and alT his proportions aie equally ridiculoua. Our readers 
will at once^ sec that this is not hypercnticism ; a proportion is coDsti- 
tated of two equal ratios, and ratio is the relation which subsists between 
■lagnrtudes of the laar iUJ mth respect to quantity. So that it if ' 
M atisurd to state the proportion between money, and a measure of ca- 
pacity, as it would be. to determine how much bluefieis there is in thun- 
der, or how much melody there is in a typhus fever, After this, we do 
Dot much wonder that our author applies to questions generally, the ele- 
gant iippellaiioi) of "' lumt," (p. 62.). To make amends for these in- 
^ganctes and inaccuracies, we are presenied with a syllabus ot ' mental 
Withraetic' Carefully, abrtdged» as we conjecture, from Whiting's little 

. ffcce pnder that title published in 1788. i 

It should be observed, however, that Mr. Joyce seems awai-e of hN . 
inability ; as he most pathetically appeals to the old adage, humaaum ut 
trrarfs Truly it furnishes a .maxim which we are always ready to urge 
IB favour of an author, who ventures oii an unexpired region., where 3 
work, though much wanted, is difficult of execution. But in the prcr 
fent times, when there aie more books of arithmetic, by same tcorut than 
ought ever to be read, we know nbt what temptation there coijd be for 
2. writer, who has other roads to fame, to fatigue himself hy labouring 
along this worn up path. But we recollect farther, the modern im- 
provement of the old adage, — To err is hun:-an,^-to forgive, divine ; and 

as we are desirous to act under its influence, we promise to forgive Mr. 

Joyce for his ' Practical Arithmetic' ' and ' Key,' if he will forgive us for 

recommending him to relinquish all thoughts of publishing the 'Alge. 

bra' and the 'Practical Geoint-tiy* he talVs of. He had belter let hii 

character rest on the respect Sble footing of tlie 'Scientific Dialogues'; 

for we perceive that nothing short of a miracle can prevent his injuring hi» 

repotation if heintwmeddle with matheijiatical sul^ects'. 



.An.XlV. TheWorh of'Crtatho, a StArs of Due6uwt for S^U'r 
Lecture, tfo. I. Bdng the First Sermon cf the Series, delivered at 
St. Mary Le Bow Church, Cbeapside, on Monday, Sgrt«mber5, 1608. 
" By the Rev. Edward Reptooi A. M. of Magdalen College, Oxford, 

Curate of Crayford in Kent.' 8vo. pp, 27. price is. Mawmjn, 1808. 
TMR- Repton publishes this sermon, (the utJe of which we have correct- 
■'" Jy copied), as a specimen or advertisement' of the course which he is 
now delivering at Bow Churcli, for the Boyleaa Lecture. He regrets* 
with reason, that the sertnons- preached at this Lecture have. been usaallf 
delivered to empty pews; and that even tiie Series pifciishwl by i^T. Van 
Mildert, (Eel. Rev, Vol.111, p, 122) whicK have been favourably.' re- 
ceived fraw the press, found but few auditors. We. shoujd with, great 
pte^ureic'Adoui/ecblcrecomBiendauonin utd of bis endeavours to terivs 



r,oii,,-,-,ih,.GoOglc 



tk« faahton.of atteBdiag thtie lecturin ; but the wrroonlie liu published 
will doubtless attract that sort of .notice .wiiidi miftt redder any fxhtin^ 
tioas of ours eotirdy superflupus. It is proper, that, before ffiving a 
i^>ecimeii of this first Lecture, we should remarli how carefully Mr. Rfn- 
too has excluded from it«vefy tincture of those (jualities which usually are 
rewarded with popularity, by the mAiltitudi; ; pomp of language, eothu- 
■iaim of senlimeiit, and osteotatioo of science and learning, were never 
more tuccessfully avoided. It ia, we thtnl, as a logidan, and a Ji-aioe, 
that he chiefly excels : and to bis merit in these respects, we cannot applF 
any terms of panegyric that would be worthy of the occasion. We will, 
however transcribe the " series of inquiry" which he proposes to pursue ;. . 
" nanielyf I0 ems'ukr the var'taii •worli of the Crea/ha ia tit order deicrihed- 
im MQus,itt the firit chapter (if Gtnes'u s lo examine the t!aii/ pregrai of . 
Amaan tSicpvery in former flfe/, comjiarej with the more rajiid progrut of 
the preteni i resting thc'Inili of the iacred hooks, Dn.their genera/ tendency t9 
tie improvemettt and happiaeii of man !' This " serifs" is to include " a» 
inquiiy into the superior exceUeiuc of revealed religion," Mosaic and Chrh- 
Haa, " Beyond that of " all other religions ] all this is to be performed in 
«(f A/ lectures, fiiv ooiy fifty pounds, and, what is sill] more surprising, is 
to constitute a «rws/ We will now give an extract from the sennon,_ 
which appears to us one of the most extraordinary passages', [considering; 
that the writer is only a stniple curate, has not yet, taken a degree in Dim- 
nilj, and periwpa fs not even in Priest's orders,) that we erer read ; 

' Let ui hope there is no presumption ta supposing,- that the nrioat 
rerelatiaDe it God's Will with respect to Mw, and which seem adapted to- 
liie piogreBsive state of hia mind and faculties, appear to. denote that he 
.has been gradually advancing in knowledge, although there it one pomtt»' 
•mhitk matoftheianstifAdamtaneverhofUtoiataius Ht a^ne having 
eaten of jhe Tiee which taught hun the " Knowledge of Good aiid. 
F.vil ! ! \" — Hence ithappens, that in ajlonr inquiries, in all our dtsci>- 
Viries, doubt and ignorance ar; ever copcendioE; we kwMu not •aihat it 
right or vtrong, tuhat tuf oftght ta deem gooJ ar evil ! ! except indeed in iOtJk 
matters at relate lo the daliei and happiaeit of ourselves and feUow erea- 
turn it f^r in these mt eititr do er oi(ght te eitj/ the dictates of the Di- 
vine Creator beneTolently iniplaoted.in us, since, as St* Paul expresses it, 
" we are taaght of God to loye One imother ! !' pp. I7, 18. 

We heartily congratulate Mr. R. on the discovefyf— that what it. com- 
monly called, but impropeily^ the Fall of Adam, was tiie precise cause rf 
his intellectual pre.emirieoc'e' above all bis posterity 'i and tliat the true rea- 
son why our knowledge is so imperfect, wny we can never hope to attain 
an equality with Adam, and why we eirinot discern between good and 
evil (except as faj as concerns our dmies and. happiness, which we under- 
stand instmctiTely) it, thnt we have not the opportunity, whicli he fortu- 
nately ei^oyed, of tastin^; die forbidden ftuit ! Mr. R. has omitted, how- 
eter, to rtate the name of the brnignant being who encouraged' Adam' and 
Eve to aspire after tiiis ineflable inconomunicable prfvi!.ege.* ' ■ ■■ ' 

' We trusfthe BSMciouB patrons of Mr. Reptqn, whodiscerpe^his pocn- ' 
liSr fitness fori*eBoylean Donation and Lectureship even before this dis- ' 
eovery waspublishsd, will take Trare nSw not ro fcrgst'Vim when a vacancy 
otcurB in the stalls of 11, Cathedral, or on the episcopil,bpnth. 

■Mr. R; seems also' to have discovered that waor coniaiTis 95 partii of ' ■ 
oxygen, and 515 of hydrogcn.gas!^fp.l9.) on which subject we adviw'' 
Jliai tg send 3 paper to the Royal Society. 



...Coogk 



94 Campbetl'* IValkt »f Vsefubuu. 

Art. XV. Bmf Vearoine tf lit BffiM MitttMsim itJm.- Sra. tW.' 

■ 70. 1^ U Bnttoa. aai Bwditi. liet'. 

QUR fimintentianwuto bne noticed tbis jumfdikt at Wi^e laieth'f 
"^ btit on consideiaticHi ve diink oDr tatlc u eu mm e ly then, '^t is 
(ocomprenedat toadmitof no abiidgenien vitkoat degtaieMili^ into « 
ineivliM of naiae* and datei ;hu ttMlf^ ^Hidgement of the Ptfk|||kaF 
Accounts of the Misrioii ; it is written With the nunon clearoeM, linpit- ' 
city, and candoor ; h costs bat a shilling ; it ii aaid to be drawn ^ bjr 
the Secretary of the Bapdat Miuionuy Society, Mr. FoHer, who ii oe- 
cenarily in poas^on of the most accurate inlonnatiM; and ther^orc, if 
anyone, yet unacquainted with thtf sul^ec^ cares to know die ifiidiag 
particdars of the origin and prc^si of a miivon, at dinntemted in ' 
dni^, aud as streuutms in exertion, ai any that &e ChriHian worid ever 
did or ever can employ for the illuminadoD and coDveruon of idolaterat' 
and sarMRsing, beyond all comjiari«oo, all ibmer missions, and all other 
mdertaVinrt, m the grand article of tranalatinff the \»tif into the Ha' 
gnagei of ale heathens, it will costbim but &de time, or money, or labour, 
to procitre laid read this narratiTe. 

Itia not written, cor ouebt it to have been written, in the itrain vf 
apology; we may faiHy doubt tldwther there ever was an undertaking 
<n the tanie magnitude and continuance, and in which to many persons . 
were concerned, that supplied by its conduct soiitde to gratify the roalice' 
of its bitterest eneimes; Such enemies even this undertaking baa been 
&ted tn encounter : and oiir benevolence pFomfKa ui to with that die names 
of all of tbem may prove to be, what most erf them mil certaialybe, tOff 
insigaificant to be perpetuated in infamy after the uafcttunate pengDi are 
gone. 

In one punt thit namtiTe is nmatit&ctory ; it pastet in to slight and 
delicate a manner over tbemeatoreatrfobttracdon an;! Hestraiot adopted' 
by the Indian govtmment, that weareleftuDinformeaas to thedegree of 
disabili^ under which cither at present or formerly the missionaries have 
been placed. But we can ea^y understand that this f<»beannce on the 
psrt t^ the HamUH-, waa qnite indispensaUe. 

TbesuniberofpertoatlMptizedl^tbemianonaneSdown toNov. 1807t 
ia ope hundred and twenty-three t nearly a hundred oS whom were nadw«» '- 
chiefly Hindoos, with a lew Mahometans. Wine -were of the Brahm in caste. 

Art. XVI. Walit of Uiejaliuii in Latidon and ill Enwrani. fiy Johiv 
Campbell. Kinirtland, near London. ISmo. pp. 150. price 2s- bonnd 
BnrStt, 1808. 
TT ia undfl ub tcdly tme.M Mr. Car^ibell ofaterget, that « if every Chris- 
tian were to consider hiihs^a miastonary from God to such perithing^ 
nien at he has access to, which be certainly it, modi good might be done 
every day ;" and all who deserve the name they assume will be iieddy to 
acknowledge the obligadon it involves, to the whole extent which Mr. 
Cami^U would rec^uire. The principal ot^ecdon that would be made, if 
not perha^ the principal that would be felt, by persons of this character, 
is^ that much hann may be done to the interests of religion, much odium 
needlessly incurred by its uncere profettort, mnch pr^udice excited 
among its careleu and ditripated neglecters, by «i wueannaUe ekiwitm , 
of pious, renaik 2nd admonition. It is the jan of dutretiea to ascertain ' 
when such beaerolent inter&r^ice a« Mr. <?. justly re^otoDKiidt is ttosea. 



Slyles's Uft ofSrahierd. »a 

MfiiUcfOodivbat ts4be best (bm trf" ceo^Iyut;; wiih Mi adrice^ lad h 
iriH be the aDXiwRCODcera <tf the tnily^ deront, Mt to let diii mitM' be 
decided by nsdoe delic«7, by a dKad of*< ^ kodiU of the ctom," or 



aaiiK>tdiM(e«ideMiimudcftranoetfttbe>onBioMOl 

One of the givttett advanta^ w be derivea fiom faabimally renMmberiDe 
and diacbarging the obligatMii to i/iuA we allude, would be an inawMd 
WedEmiMM OM atreaKtboffiMty in thepbUandiK^HCt biniaclf; a'fofti^ 
]ike Aat of tbc early riicnda in " beariiw chdr tettinMniy j" a Chiianta 
berowB like dutaKfibed by Racine to toe Jewiih bigli prieati 

" Je crainaDiau, chu Abner, et n'aipwntd'autrecraintr." s 
. Tbe book contiKSofaBoiseroni collection of canTenatioa* ofa i^- 
giDOs turD) many of which we are to undentaod have actually taken jJace t 
an^ it ia arranged into clH^itertt iatitled "W^lka." It u calculated to. 
aSord both moUTei and examples, to thoie who are to Dofeignedly c<ni. 
linced of tbe truib of Scripture sfid tbe importance of etemit;, as to £m1 
'■ ' ' ' iritualiocc ' ' ■ ■ - 



a proper disposition to oromote the spiritual iocereeta of those with nrboia' 
th^ Slay be accideotally or permanently connected. It may also be re- 
1.1 — jj amusing and useful book for children. 



Aft. XVII. Mrt, Zeicetttr't School': or tht History of lerera) Young 
I^iea, related by themtelves. 8ro. pp. 186. price 3s, 6d. boards. 
' M, J, Godwin, JuTCnile Library, Skinner Street. IBOB. 
'T'HOSE who think it sufficit^nt for children*! book* that tbey ihonld 
be euenaining and harmleH, will pralnbly not find much to object 
against tbis.little publication of Mr. or Mrs. Godwin ; exccpuitg that it 
- tends to impress even on children, and^even on feinale cluldren,tlie proprie- 
ty of domestic theatricals and visits to the play house. In other reelects, 
nearly tbe same tbaracter is applicable to it which we have already ,giTeD 
of tbe " Stories of old OanieX " published at the JuvAfle library, before 
tbe name of iti conductor was avowedt (See Vol, IV. p. 274.) 

Art. XV III. T^ Lift of David BraintrJ, Mutinmiry to the In£mt, 

with an Abridgement of his Diary and Journal from President Edwards. 

By John Styles, Author of an £<uy on the Stage, l&w, pp, 291.~ 

pnce 4s, bda. VSlliamfl and Co. 1806. 

IT is less necessary to recommend tbe admirable cbaracter of Sraioerd* ' 

. aa a study forerery Cbiistiao, and ,a model in almost all respect* for 

every Missionary, than to state the pretentions of this publication to a pre. 

ference over &>rmer biographies. The life by President Edwards, says Mr. 

S,t " bas been snpposed to contain much unm^rtaiu and exuberant mat. 

'tert and a too frequent recurnence of thi same, things" in Mr. Srainerd's . 

Dkry. Qur author hatitherefbre adopted the recc»nmendadon of a friend, 

to "rewrite the iife, and select from the original volume the most niuor' 

taut and interesting portions of the I^iaty and .Journal," so as "greatly to 

reduce the book both io size and price, without at all dimimshing its in- 

* In a recent work, whicb will speedily come under our review, it is re* 
inarked,that "to this day the memory of David Brainerd isheldio renera- 
tion in those districts which were blessed with his .minUtryt" the converts 
made among the Indians by " the incessant labours of this Judicious and . 
truly apOBt(uic misaiooaiy," are described as bavii^. eminently adorned their 
yroKUion <^ Chnitianity. Mmeiri of on AmerkmLadj. , 



.dtyGoogIc- 



triDsic worth;" Foriihe Kle^tiDnvIte' wailed hirfnelf of " Mf. Wnleyy 
, AkiidgEii)<^ti'''iakiagi«ire.W.'sAd.ibi)ie ^'dicaaom of KDHRitnii-wbi^ 
Mr."V>'o^yvfiioni.alpei¥ua6iDD:th&ihey iterefdunded inerror, bad thought 
6ttaei>Gabide.fro]iilu3awii'WOrk. Tin: very AxculicDt asd i^^^ctiva re' 
. maHit'af PmideDt:£id^Brd3 at the deee'of the original volume^ ara.uuro- 
duecd ^ra-with bsdu .afuidsentett.- To indulge is ctwervuiiHis oa ttjir 
ptenltarciiaractv ajid Mngtllar piety of Brain«rdi or in extracti &cun' tbe. 
origiDtut ffi'-ihe-pncsent autttor wriich we think jianicularly worthy of aUen- 
dcn, WMildiCitaKLaui' statice o( diia work lo a very uoguit^U^ length j 
cnsiderilig its iDtiiesicjnenta, and that .die life by Edwards wat become 
•canKi . WB KBgard tbe puhlioatioo at! a valuable aod timely •etrtce to th;; ra- 

ligwis ppbiic. ■ ■ ■ 

Art. XIX. Tie ■Arcaamn of Xalhnai D/ftaee. By Hanatus. ^8to. fp. 

50. 1SU8. ■ ■ ■ . 

TN this spirited and patriotic pamphlet, the production we noderstand of 

M.TJor B.irber, it la ui:ged that ttieonly way of cantcnding gijccessfully 
gainaf the disciplined hosts and consummate tactics of Bonaparte, iabjr 
overwhelming theia with a vast superiority of physical force. Ft is 
recoDiipended therefore to arm the .whole popubtioa of a countn(,"or 
Englu)^ or Spain for initance, with the fiiie_i the, advanta^a. oT'tbia ~ 
weapon are forcibly 8i;at»i,aDd a very nniple plan of discipline is laid down. 
It would take up too oiuch room to give our reasonaat length, forthifitlng 
that no considerable body df French troops wlH evfir be defeated' by pike- 
men, though of ICO times superior force, "^e consider it as evident that 
pikemeti, to act with' eSect, muii act in a body j and conieqaently that, in 
ahinclosed'ctnintt^ they would be nearly' incapable of acting at all. In 
an op«i country, we ' are persuaded that a coqis of light-infantry, rfiough 
destitute of artillery, would be more than a match for an mmeoBC supe- 
riority of pikeiuen. The author proposes a plati of breaking an enemy's 
line with a powerful columh ofpiketnen'} which column we think woiild 
soon be entirely discomfited, if aotdettroyedt -daring their charge, by',a' 
brigadebflig'htEuna, hefdreiheycould touchtheireOemy. ' " " 

It does iippcar to us, that the irregular forfe tif a countiy should be 
trained to the light infantry exercise : that in this country eapacially they 
must expect.to succeed.by wiarkijianship, and' agility; and that general 
engagements should be scmpulously avoided, as ngt only unstrvicfeaWe but 
minous to the cause. ' There are acveraf very good reijiarks on the ex- 
pediency of abridging and simplifying the detail of discipline, -which are 
not excluBJveiy applicable (0 that system which th6author recommends. ' 

An- XX, Tie Paviir of- God. A Sermon ■ Preached at LymingtoD, 

.before the AsEociated Ministers and Churches of Hampshii^, .Sep. 

2ft. 1808. and publisbiKl at their Request, By J. Hunt, (Titchfieiit} 

■ bvp. R». 50. price ls6d. Willia'ms unA Co. 1808. 

■fT is not surprising that this sermon shoi^d haw been thought worthy, by 

J- those who heard- it, of appearing in print, though, it is chargeable with ' 

civain imperfections which may be naturally Bspec'ted in a sermon " not 

wlittL'n with the -most distant view to publication." Superadded to die 

Btore essential, retjuisites of correctand devotional sentiment, we find iii it 

nfuch Tigorous thou^t -and impessive diction, 'on a great variety of 

. impotlSDf wpKS; We c'ati'flot enter, into a <^;icalBX3nuQatiOi) of th« kt* 

r,o,i,,-,-,rh,.GoOglc 



Ryan's Jiml^si's.- . __ .• . 27 

Wm, or of any particular seiuimenti expreise4 in it, whhoui exoceding 
^I proper boundi : it mutt tuffice to give a vecy bnef analysis, and a 'sp:- ' 
cinen eqrially brief, for the guidance of oui" readers. In considering 
vital is nteaat by the power of God, Mr. H. observes that it must be 
(Hninct from any tiling we cjn conceive: iti's fleit^e^ ' delegated an- 
thfitity,' ' physical stivngth,' * mechanical force,' nor that kind of ' intel- 
lecoia] encrtcy' wliteb operates in haman cieaniresby means of matter. 
^e oext .consider! iti pecuUariliea in relation to die Other divine attributeSt 
ati'din conipariaoB with the fkcukiea of created intelligences. Its (^ra- 
tions are then dinlayed in the instances of crfatioo, providence, reil^iRp. 
tion ; the last of which ia discussed at lome length in respect ta.paat^ 
present, and future timeo. The disccurse is teitninated with a reference 
to those feeling' of reverence in all beings, of dread in the gui'ty, oF' 
cdnsoJatioo ana dependence tnthe devout] and of coi^ident hope and de- 
ter mi oati on ii) the Christian church, which a view of tlie divine omnipo- 
lenge, is adapted to excite. Il will bs esiijcnt that so extensiye a plan, 
while it ensured dignity and i(npressLan to the sermon, roust preclude the 
]>dssibility of doing justice to uy of its parts, Mr. Hunt's forcible man- 
ne'r will be discerned even in the very short passage tlht follows. 

'< Behold [Jim then in creation I Almighty goodness has given being 
ta uDi^umbered worlds. Behold him in providence !' Almfghijr wisdom 
directs the affairs of a universe. Cootemplaie him in redemption ! AJ- 
mf^ty lore spreads itf celestial whigs over a guilty world, anyiom to 
take under it* protection the returning sinner. Behold him in heaven 1 
All his perfections, arrayed in omnipotence; combine to diSiise happincw ' 
to innunierahle myriads of immortal spirits. Behold him ! shall 1 say^ 
behold him m helH Yea, for there fallen spirits, held by alraighty justice, 
li« " reserved under chains of darkness until the judgement of the great 
diy." And shall not otir spirits, every where surrounded by an omnipo- 
tent God, bow with the most profound reverence j and espedilly on an oc- 
caiion like the present My, « How dreadful is this place ! it is none 
other than the house of God { it is tJie gateef heaven." pp. 44 — i5.' 

Art. XXX. ImlioriarU Considirationi , respectfully addressed to a 4>stin- 
tinguished Fein:ile Invalid; aodpublish&j witha View to the BcDeTrt 
of other Patients at the Bristol Hot Well*. ]2Jno. pp. 46. price I&. 
Seeley, Hatciiard," ButtoK, Burditt. 1808. 
'T^H£ title of this.pamphlet iodicntes JM peculiar fitness for a local cir- 
culatien ; but we hope the very interesting circumstancei to which it 
' rdfersf and the pleasing manner in which it ia written, may procure an ad- 
mission for the truly important considerations which it comprises to many a 
aick chamber in remote spheres of fashionable life. It seeiDa W have been 
cent in MS. to a late beautiful and widowed Cougteu, by the «idow of 
It worthy ciergyman in Oxfordshire. 

Art. XXII. Analysis of Ward'tErraia ^the Prolat^nt BiUe." aWbik 
published in England in l6S8,fortlie Purpose of expgaiifg, the Prot«a- 
tant Bible and Protestant Clergy to Ridicule and Contempt ) and/era^ 
lished in Dublin for the same Hurpoae in Sept. 1807. By the Kev. £(j. 
watd Ryan, D. D. 8vo: pp. 63. Dublin, Joues t Ktvington, Longman 
-and Co. 1803. 
T~\R. Ryan had an taay task, though apparently a necessary: and lue^ 
"^ one, to yfsivnof io exposing the abiurditici aad erion of Ward't- 



98 Letter ^(o tlie Biihop of London. 

"Errau." Hi* Analysis i» not very Iciined or elaborate: bat it is s'lffi- 
cicQtly to for llie purpose, whifb wc hope il will extensively accompli-h, 
on the other side of the Clianne!, of vindicating the Protestants from mis- ' 
representation, and countetactinfj the illiberal uruficea of their ill-advised 
anti restless enemies. 

Art- XXIII. Suniiay Pafiert. Addressed to Youth ; on the Impoitance 
■ of Practical Religion.. 12mo. pp. 134. price iis. 6d. Hatchai-d, 1808. ■ 
/^ONSlDER!\G the expediency of presenting the moft important 
truths and topics in every variety of form, we have no hesitation in re- 
eommending this little work, "The author (M. A. ofFulhaml wrote 
' these papers," wc are told, " for the benefit uf her own children, to be laid . 
on their breakfast-table on the day peculiarly set acart for religious instriK- 
tipn," The subjects are " True religion, the aJvantagea of early piety, 
the sabbath, the old and new covenarits, Christian krowledge, the provi- 
dence of God, the worship of God, the love of God, the Holy Spirit, the ' 
CKristian Braces, hunulity, pride, truth (veracity), .prayer, the proper use uf 
reason and die passionsin religion. Christian convcrsnuon, sclf^ommand, - 
advuatagei and disadvantages of riches, why the snhbath is often found ' 
wearisome, perseverance, death." The remarks are with few exceptions 
jutt and useliil ; thoagh the^ have no pretension s to depth or nov i-'tty. , 

Art. XXIV. The Infiucnte vnd Advantages of Rc!ipai^eiitmf^'ne& iii'the 
History of Haniuh and Samuel. /Idapted to the Use of Societies 
insiitu^ for the Relief of Lying-in -Women. 12mo. pp. 16. price 3d. or 
18«. per Hundred. Bi'ton, Maxwell & Co. 1809. 
npHE history of Hannah is very properly chosen as the subject of 
this little UKl ; the gooJ advice which it contains of a religious 
and prudential Idnd, and the familiar friendly style in which it is <u-awa 
up, intilie it to the notice of those Societies and Individuals for 

wliose use it is benevolently designe d. " 

Art. XXV. A Lctu, to tJu'jU^tliro. the Lord Biih^h of Loniieni 
containing a Statement of the immoral and disgraceful Scenes which 
are every Evening exlribited in the public Streets hy Crowd* of half- 
naked and unfortunate ProBiituie^. To which is added, a Postscript, 
containing an Address to tlie Magistrates of London, Westminster, 
*nd the Borough «f Sou^bwark. By a Citizen. The Prafiis of this 
Publication will be given for the Support of the London Female Peni- 
tentiary. 8vo. pp. 36. Price Is. Wiliiams and Co. 1808. • 
""FHE purpose of this letter is evident from the tiUe i it is addressed to 

the venerable Prelate, with tiie hope of prevailing on him to exert hia " 
influence by means ofthe clergy and parochial officers within his juris- 
.diction : and the precise object to which the woithy writer would dirert 
their efforts, is to drive from the public streets into less Eecure and_ 
accessible ha*.;nts, a nuisance which has of late become much more e\- 
■ teneive and insulting than at any former period. Whoever raaj^ be thought 
oF other projects for diminidiing the evil, we conceive that iKs at least is 
practicable, that it is liaWe to no sound objection, and that it might be • 
tendered to n very gie::t extent efficacious and salutary. The public is 
nluch in.lebted w all writers who escite their attention to those sliameful 
titid pemicioiis pmctices which disgrace the police of the metrofiolia ; but 
lar more to thoEC wlio call on the proper persons, and point out the proper 
niwtwds, to remove the eriU which they dcopunce. 

. Goo;ilc-- ; 



t'99 ] 



Art. XXVI. SELF.CT LITERARY INFORMATION. 

*,• Gfnthiaeit and 'Puhlliheri who haiie vjorit in ikc fireit, teH! ahliip lit 
Canducton of the 'Eclectic Rtview, bijttn£ng Informaiion (pott fiuid,) 
of th; lulijecl, exieni, and firo^abU price of .suck woris ; ■which they nuly 
dtpendupon being commuaiealed to thepaMie,ifeonsiiUntwih ilifitaa. ' 

lections. Dire notice "ill be gWen of tbe 
time at i:ach aale. 

1. A very mm and ciirions coltcctlon of 
prirts and Ixxiks of prints, tlie protierty ol 
a Ociitleulan, wi'll ktmwn ai ix Ijteraiy 

fine Sppuimens ol' laily Maitcn, and a 
lir^e coIk'cEion of liia Woiks of ilit-rony- 
miis Wierx, ;Sii% 

1, TIw extcihive end valoaLile coUcetion 
efBotanical Prints, Urawinga, and Book] 
of Drawia|;s, llie pragjcrty of Che late 
JuhD, F.ur1 of Bute i comprisiD; many 
hnniired capilBl BuCanicnl Di'avmj(s on 
pagier an:l vuUiim; likcwiBk all ttie plnt^f, 
ciiluiireil anil plain, of the Butanical Works 
LIuQ extiiut, fariniia a complete illustrnt om 
ofChc Species Phiiitiiruui. 

3. A select co'leclinn uC Books; In Greek, 
Lat'n, Eogliah, Italiun, and Spanish ; beln;; 
a cons'ntri-able pait of the Ber. Mr. Dii-'. 
teiis's Library. ' 

i. Library of James Sims, M. D. LL. D. 
F. R, S. b/ougbt from hia hmiso in Fiustury 

A. The entire and T.iliiable Library of the 
Inle JoiiO TbouiBS, Ej.rl of Clanricarde, 
tc. 

6. AP.irtoffheLiiirnry oflholateHisht 
Hnn. Richard, G,ni;c)ii of Penrhyn. 

1. Tbe very valuable Library of Sir 
William Binyth. Bart, crmtainlne a very fln« 
L'olleetionofCiaa-iics, County Hitlory, &c ■ 
uiBiiy on l»i^ paper. 

S. Dr. Kilclmei's Mujiral Library. The 
very ejlraordinary assemltlage of Music, 
roiMsting of fhe complete Works of the 
best CumpoBers, in very elegatit Condition 
principatly boinid by Kklthi eber: to nbich 
is od.Ieil, a stnall mlBccl Ian eons Selection 
from hii Library. 

9, The valuable Library of James Ste- 
venB, Esq,of Cam<^Dn, containing a very 
capital Citllcctioa of Books -in Natural His. 

A iiew selecU^n of the most favoiirite 

Poetical Pieces, elegantly printed in foor 

small octavo valuuits is just <mi tbe eve of 

pijblication, under the title of The Atuac»> 

containing b cal~ 



Soon rill be piibliihed, in ten slieirts, a 
To[Jograpliic.il Mapotthc.Pyi'cnE-es, prui- 
i:lpal1y tikfitfrom the Franrti survey, Kitli 
eunsiilerable additioris, ext^nidla^ from 
'I!;iyonnR and Pcrpignnn in the Norili, to 
the inopth of the Ebro oihI Biirirm in the 
■S'Utli; including; thu Pnivinres of Arrj^-i>ii, 
Catalonia, Navarre, and Bisc.iy. Ity A. 
.Arrovsmith, 'this Mip will exhibit every 
imnlt ylilave. and other Olij.icls of Note, 
with all Cl,e minute and dimcult p»3<e:t 
thrungh this ?reat barrier, inltilitti! un 
both rifles (jflhe Monntains.. Price tliice 
giiinsBB to siiUscribcrs, to whom the map 
-will be delivered in the unlet' it is aiib- 
seribed lor. The price will be advanced lo 

■ Ontheiinito^Jannarr, 1809, afiilon the 
first of every ancccediiiK mimlh, will he 
published, under tho anthofity of the So- 
<!relary at War, a Mimthiy Army List, of 
a Pocket Size; to co^itai-i, in addition to 
th^Oenerat, Field, and Rcgiineiltal Oflii-cr!:, 
the Names of all Officers emploved opnn 
the Staff of the Army, both at Ilomu nnd 
Abroad, in ttie Civil as well as Military De- 
partments. 

In a few <?a>t will be pnblished, in 2 voU: 
4to. 5\ j«. and imperial 8vu. 31. 39. in extra 
boards, et^bdlishcd with fbrty highly 
linishcd cnEravingK, from dcsigus, by ti. 
Hewlett, ensravBl under the direction of 
E. Orme, andprintcd in a sup^inr stvli.', 
by W. Butmer. The Indian Sportsman, a 
complete dcacuiption of the Wild Sports of 
Jhc East; the Elephant— Bhinorero*— 
Tijer— Leopa Til — liear-r Deer— Buffalo— 
Wolf— Wild Hog— JackHll— Wild D03-- 
the Civet, and most other nndomeMicated 
animals; also the feathered game — Pishes 
— i-and Serpents. Intenpertcd with a vaiv 
cty of intenrsting anecdotes relative in 
tbeir habits. 'I'he scenery gves a filiclifiil 
roprescntation of that Pleturesfiiie Country, 
tbe MannerA, and Cnatoms of the N^t^vc 
sndEuropenn Inhabitants. By Cap t, Tho- 
mas WitlisTnsnn, upwards of twenty yeurs 
recent in Bengal. 

'Messrs. . Leigh and S, Suthcby will sell ' 
by auction, duriiigtbis Winter and incceiU 
in^ ^priaj;, the following Libraries and Col- 



lection of lyrical end patiietic pieces ; tlie 



,,-crlh,G00glC' 



Selfct-Zit^try In^mation 



liito- A ^'l!« English Gratohiar, written in r>> 
:rcd ; inMiiir letftri, snd rendered an e)>terta<niii; 
i^sin Tork, bv ^fr. Oultoti, nnthor at the T^- 
wilh irller's 'fiuTdB, &c* is no«- ln-ll>e prcsi 
ukI nil] shortty malK it<^ appvknufM. ' ' 

Al-o a Volume "f M'^ceManeaai fount, 

rbic-flyiomir, byilie smnid autlior, •ill bo 

)nib;UliidqHont tliR !^ii>( time. ~ - 

Mr. W.K Ji^iiiMm's Poetii-al Panthw*. 



100 

»econ(l, namitiv^ 
Isrr; the fbinl, dfscriptiiwtn 
«nd the'fourth, sell ct-oni from tl 
, of ■'iiti()-irty. Tlic work is einbflili-hert » 
tno htf^iy-flM<«l>«d vi^ettOi engraved 
wood by Cleniwi. 

^ work at this tini(^ orpnniliar ntl 
will very, alinrtlv imkc it» npptaraiirp ; 
'is intiticd, " The Brazil Miit ; or, a E 

criptinn of the'CositibF Brazil:'' tran^Jstnl er Pnbnlons KiKtaiy of the Hentheii Oivls 
from the P.'rtncucsE of MnnaeV Pmontel, aadllliittrioiu HenKi in e»By TCiw.accwn- 
Principal Ilydi-ojraphCT to his Majojty jMnleil with numerons EnpravitiC" i' in « 
John V. of Purtii^fll. It will be aocumim- state oT fbrfardmau and will spiieat Iii (lit 
niM by n coiftiderablc nnmbn- of Chaiia af coiine of the enBoing Moiilh. 
its Tt^adpil Port', frniti mnnnt^riiita of Miv. Molineui, of Maccle^^iHd, hne in 
itnilmibtnlaathority ui.-verbe'ijre pubHshei). the pns», iu pout q^iarto, tha Sliod haual 
Proposals have botn hti-ly i«wed by Mr. Inslrurfor, or Stcnographieal Copy-hook j 
Jamea Mormon. Master of the MmiMi- designed a«a rompanion \obis Iptrodnctiun 
tile Academy at Ola^^w, for publishin; by to Mr. Byrnni'd short band. 
■ubacriptiuii b ivwk in two volume* octavo, A new Edition, very miith impnndt and 
in[it1e<l,''Ibe Ocirirat Accotnplanti beinp corrected, of Laiig'^O'T'^'s Plut; ■!*, by dm 
a complete course uf Mercantile Co;npu- Rev. Francis Wrangbani, w,ll>Bpjiear tins 



C of Merca 
latioa and Accompta; adapted to modetn 

Mr. Pelwbete iepriiitinirn new edition of 
1«cal Attachment wi(ii Bcpctt lo Home, 
a Poem ; b« aim, tbe Seventh Portion of 
the Hlftory of Cornwall ; and he bas com- 
pleted his Histckry of Dcvouslnve, in three 

volnmei folio _ _ 

Mr. Taunton, Sargpoa to the City and Ihemonth. Reports oatlif EHeiai of p pej 

Tinnbilry Divpenanried, is'atont to pubHsh h. ciiliar Regimen pa Cancerous Tu(uoiin aD4 

tmall work on. Pathology, which will be Ulcers. 

iilustratpawilheoEnavliigs. ^ Mf. Polifhele ii eioirfoyed in collecting 

- The Ksv. Bofwll Scott, of PorCimoulli, the Correspondeure and. Paj^ers of hia 

baa it> the prem a Sermon on the NcW Cre- Friend and Neighbour, Mr. WhilaVer, with 

Btinn by Jems Chti'<!t a view to (he publication of )ii; ilt^muin in 

"■ ■. Tbo^a* Nvfibam, author of an a qoatto volume. 

■ ' '■ " -n— 1_.-.^!, Mr.BiglBud'i Vicwofthe World ■• - - 



A new, edition of Mr, Jhomlon's f roeif 
State of Tuiltey, with very coiisiderabli 
additions and olterotions, ind'idinj a Map 
of the Tnrkiah Empire and a Plan (tf Com 
Btantinople, is ixpected tq appear tlii* 
toontli. ^ 

Dr. Lambu will publish ii 



Inqiiiiy into the ProEvcsiof Popali 
bi^ad.'iA nboiitto puhllsha View ofth 
natural, Political, and Coinsiercial circum 
■tance* oCxfaat Country. 

The History of Chili, nataral, civil, and 



and: 



jiotiticaU IrantilatPrf ftom the Italinii of the with ai 



state of great formi 

will extend to fire octaso vmuines. .a corn- 
prises' a tolerably mimite gi^^aphieal dc»- 
rlption of all the Countr>s(Tf the V'orld, 



Abbate Moliiui, with notes ft-om the Spanish 
and Frsneh versions, is in (he press atN^w 
Yoil:. in two octavn vohnnes. This work 
willlMrepr'nled in London. 

A woric h^ly interertrns to the Euglish 
AatlqiiBiy, under the title of" An Historical 
Sarvey of the Ecdesiasllcal Antiquities of 
France, tilth a view to illustrate the rise of Poetns, 
and Progteat of tWIhie ArcTtitCiurern Eu- lefquetcar 
rnpe," which had ]iMg rngajeddie percc- Tnaiic an 
. nal ia^ectian and-li^tlout rnearclies of 
ibe btc Rev. G. D. WbittinEtoa of Cam' 
bndga, 'is' DOW iA the|fres«, under the ifT- 
rceUoD 'Of oote judicions aad honourable 



,t of whatni 



I iblluwcil by asopa-, 
of every Nation' and 



rate Histin4cat Vi 
People. 

Mr, Donovan is preparing for pnblicaiioif 
a Coolinuatiou of his History uf British 
£ird^ 

Mr. Oulton has lii the press a collection 

i9y comic, containing bur, 

ona of Ovjd aoci Horace,dra- 

— Also, 



: and (nincfllaneous 
rs from a Father to a paughter oi 
' jnale Edncatjun, with apptTjprijito ditec- -. 
- tions for inffirnctingYooni! Indies- ; 

Menrntr* of Dr. Paley, frq.n the Peu of , 
fHends; and will Tcry soe«be llil before '» .Gdaiieman whO;wa3 one o:'hiiE»rittit>- 



ihe PubTc 



ih,Gtioglc 



-List^ JlWis^reeefUhf published. 



nen at Bifiopwpnrmoiilli, are expected 
t»appe3r in 2 lew weeks, 

Mr. TtioFHas On'ra nf Linrjioal, n yoiith 
df Kvatef n,' hna in the preai « vtjuine of 
. PoGina, whbJi irill Bppor etilj In thil 
moDtb. 

T[« Her. Joba RoUoion, of RarenitOnc- 
dale, isenpgedona IMIilical, Th«><a=ii'« I , 
and UcdMtasttcal Di('t«(i:ny; iBlcwIed M 
com|irisc,*l>BUTBr is luravncuMcniiiig the 
Aotii^uities of tba Htbrewt, hqiJ to loiai a 
boclyofsor ptnre hiWijry, ([fQintiphj, chu- 
.nqloKJ'rtl^viirilr', uid eci:le$iB>tic;il opinicni. 
T68 Re*. W.t. Buwlei will sbuntrpub- 
I IJsh a Ihird volume ii( I'oema, 

1'lie ^Rev, Dr. Vinocqt Is prtp^r<ap to 
publUli the Oropk Text of Arriun's Iu<li<t> 
-sudtbePerifilus; wiUi a translation to oc- 
^'ocnpanv his uummoiu on thoie Rorks. 

Tbe Rev, JJt. Raes, lidiior of the New 
Cyclopedia,, boa in the pivfs tvo valiini« 
at' ^eimona, en practir^l auil intenstin; 
subjects, vbiub will be pubLiberi cwlym 
tie spring. 

Mr. C Sylrester, of Dirliir, has iq the 
j^-raa an Ktemeatarjt TnuiUsa 011 Chemi*- 
try, tbe plan of which ia said to be i^ manr 
rtspecti origmal, 

la Mtrdi next, li expected to apfmr ia 
ODc UiTKp vuliiiiie, 8va. price ninc-vhillin^a 
in boards, to Siirrriieri, an Original Esaay 
fin tbe identity aaJ gcnccal reiunectjoo 
^cbebuman'hoilyi in nh:c)i tbGeTidonixt 
Til favour. of tbte . rni|K>r*airt, lulqiK:^) ue 
mniidered in R.-UtioD betb tu Phil^fitig ami 
gc'ri/iiare. %; & Qrev,(i»l'St. Auntk.Coni- 
waU.lautbor ef ^ Ori^-iaal Eiiuy no tbe 
immateriality and immortality of ttie hunw 
ip»l. Tbe pp«e ^o be advaiKcd to nua- 
aubuiribeni. 

Proposals have bten drcntattd fcr |mb- 
lisbing by tubsi^rlptieDr a new nfifjon irf Cba 
Piactital worliJirftlic ftt Kichai;^ Baxter; 
Ls pipr sing the iour fuliu Vulunics called h)* 
"i'latlicalWorks,'^ aodwKiic other Pieces 
nijtii)cluded therein, (ritb a Hew life, wtit- 
ti'ii'tiu- the occasion, and an elegant Vov- 
t^Wt of the Aotbor. It )B calculated that 
the' Work will' ^tend to Sisleca Volnmea 
Ortaro. A Volume to be putllibed eiery' 
Throe Months, at H:df a-Gwifca ewdl: Uk 
price to.be raised to NiHi-iubscribers. 

Troponla are isgoe<l for pnUidiinK (y 
Subxtriptiaa, a- Hittory uf Lyait.Clvil.'Ee. 
eleiintical, CummcFclal, BiOKr^lti^l, Po- 
litical, and Military, Iniin its fonndatkn 
(abuiit the firbt age of ttia Chriattab Era) to 
tlu prrseiit time; inteis(tcrKd n-itb occa- 
»i»utJ ftsatarks oqWii nationilOocurTen-' 



101 

ces ai ma; acrse to elucidate the leal State 
efthi^Town, or the M.Tiiaerg, Character, 
nud condition of tbe Inhabitants at different 
periods. To which nill he preli«ed, an In- 
trodactofy Acpunv of iti RttHatiou, Har- 
bour, ll}ren. lulanil Navigation, Ilie.BDOei.t 
and niod<'m State of Manhlnnd, Wisbeacb. 
and the Pens, and whate<-er is most rnaar- 
Inbli-, tnemnrntile, or iiitert^n'K is othea' 
pairuof tbe adjacwt Countfy. RyWJlliaai 
Richards. 



A rrprint is i)lso aimoiinced at Philadel- 
phia of Mr. CrUiaCs " D'rRist of tlio Uw* 
respecting Ronl Proptnty" (ori5in,ill» pnb- 
:lishi;d, in London, in 6 TiJs. toyaV Sv^ 
1601^-5) tu be compri«nl in live TOlum^ 
8vo. The lii-Bt Is cumplcted, - * 

ThcFlrstV^oliimcofa " Sysleaof Ame- 
rican Dm ithology" hrti lately a^ppenradat 
Pbiladelphta, containing sixteen p1nt<«, of 
TL-rvro-iiicctable cKcciititiD. Tbe n-urkl'i «» 
be compriite:! ialea *uluines4to.; liie pJUM 
tobecolouri'd. 

Fa*iic». 

There fca»e bernnuoT biws from the 
Fl¥noh pret£. in varHina pnbltcatioiK, some 
erenin a, demi-ofHeintfarm, nn ibesubicet 
of cMnbit^hing an Union of the diaferent 
spci* uf Chri^itians under tbe dominatina of 
iapoleon. Tlie most recent and coiisidrt. 



able, ' 






'3 fr.intitled I'rem llulorknt ilu H'^ueil .fc. 
Pirm, be. llwtortcal CompeniliQni oT^ 
Collectiou pf Docoiuents oa tbe wioua 
Plana, for the Union nfall Christian com* 
■nnolons. fripi tbHtinieoftlic Rcrorm[iti«n 
to the Pretrat Day. Collecteil and edilcnl 
by M. Rahaiu, Jnii.' MemWr of the l>gis- 
tatnreaodoftheLrslon of Honour. 

Vohunes 4. 5, 6, and 1, ,of Ancilkin'l , 
View of'thc Revolutions in the' Pofit'col 
System of Enebpe, from the cod «f the fif- 
toenihCMtiiry, ia IQmn. have been pub,- 
lltbed at Pntis, iirke l'3 «. M Ceou T^- ' 
Heat da JjczD^ltMu, &c. 

Two hlstoriral Wiiiks of some interact 
have appeared *at Pari*; — a History of 
RoMia, inero.piioeifr. by the'AtitlKir of 
ta Vvyagt dc Pj/tliagon i—-aBi a Viaw.oC 
tbu real CnnscK of tbe Declloe of Poland,. 
by M. de KeDiarB(H'(](i, late Lieutananl- 
OawraLiutbe Fcti<hArmy. fO'v/nFail- 
n^Mr mr Jc-/ Cauiti ritUu rjt la Dfutinl* 
dt la pBlugnr, 8t«. piice 4 ffc 



.dtyGoogIc 



. , { 102 ) 
Art. XXVIl. , LIST OF WORKS RECENTLY PUBLISHED. 



Ciimal View of tlic Agricullutp of the 

Ciniilyfllwlfnrd, drannup hy onlcr of 
nvittuaid o! A^i'ieuliun; and liitcrnal lin- 
. p<o>i'iiiL-ut. By Tlwnus Batubelor, farncr. 

The tloiiplivright't A.«sitt;iDt; b^iu; a 
;Wcir PcaVtJi'nl jreatijconlliel^foiiiils and 
•n lavJjKi o; bcr important. Imjilements 
nad«iise of in .ijriculun;. Willi Sxteen 
large Knsr.tvinga. By Amirew Gray, Au- 
■ttvit of tlic E.vpericDceil Millntig ht, royal 
8vo, 15--. , 



Antiquarian and Topagraphical Cabinet i 
'ecmtiiiiun? a Sorira of Views of ibc must in- 
■telwifiii-tfbjceLsofCuri.jsity in Orual Bri- 
bin, acoDipaiiial wilt> lottcr-priiis dti- 
'niptioD. Vol. 4. 13iiio, 15s. 



■■ AneHat^ of Painters wlio have rniilol 
•( lireD iKim in England, with <JrilicBTltl^- 
nartion Ihuir Ptodiietion^ ; intendedasa 
jCiotiiiinEiubpf the Antcdotex of PaiMing, 
*y ciw late HordCi, Earl of Orford, % 
Edward Edvarda, late Teiii.-hur of Pcrspoc- 
tiirc and Associate iu the R-.val A^aJciny, 
4lo.ll. Is. 0.. 

> Aa Etsav on the Ei^rliei Part of the Life 
of ^witt. By the, B^v, John Bnniett, D. D. 

, *iid Vicc-rroroBtof Trinity Colkd^'C, Dub- 
^n. Tuwliicb qre sulyuinHd, Pieces aictU 
VltoSwiftj TwiMif his OrlRiiiitl Letters; 
p.iui F.xtmott from kis Rcuiark^iua BLimuts 
Histoij. Svo. 6s. 

SIcraoiT^ of Robert Ciiroy, Eajl iif Mo.n-'- 
KHKith, i«ritt«n by bituself. Published from 
an origtrial MS. in the cnstody of tliR J':arl 
ff .Corli and Oriyy i t<> which ii added, 

. Tra;<ini nla fttjalin, baing a 11 story of 
QBTtnElizabctk'B Favourites, by S!r Kobert 
>'iiiinton, with explanatory ' Annutatioim. , 
Jtancltrimcly, piiutcd by Ballautyne.Svo. 



. Principl" of Cooveytinrinu : Hibiik a 
Digest of till" Laws of Enjtland, trfpert'mg 
rual Propi;rty. By William Cta-sr, Esq. 
6 Vol* royal 8ro. 51. Ss. D. 

A Treat.se ot> the law of Tinies,Compile<l 
inpart trom tbeNotenof Rirhard Wqoddr- 
Kti.D.C.L. BySamael Toiler, Esq. ruyul 
8»o, Ifts. 6rt.- 

Tlie Practice of the High Court nf Chan- 
eerv. By Joseph Harnion, Esq. Newly- 
arranged, with tho ailditioD of the inodeFH 
Cases. ByJuhnNewland, E«q.3 VoltSro. 
ISs. 

The Attomey-Genersl Tcrsiis Brown, Par- 
ry and 0< hen. The whole of the Proceed- 
iDgi in this Important C(m>e, from its com- 
menacnient,1i>-tfaveniber 1801. to its Gnat 
Decision i eonlainitig Copies of tb* varioxs 
Me-nnriali to the Boaiil ef' Excise j' tin! 
Opinions of an eminent CiiiinBei, taken priOT 
to his Elevation to the Bcm-b ; a copyofa 
Letter to the Chancellor of t|ie Eiiefaeqiicfi , 
and other 'mterestins partitulars. Also K ^ 
Stalemcntofthe Origin, Bise, aad Prt^era 
oftheGuncem; its Magnitnde and Extent, 
and (be Benelks which haTercEalted to (bft 
Public in p<ieral. Jty W. H. H. Browi>. 
The Arguments of .Counsel taken in Bliorti 
haad by Mr. Fnngnhanon, are given at 
full length. SvD. Ss. €d. 



A Treatise on Scrophiihi. By Jamen 
Ku-iell, Fellow of the Royal College of 
Surgeons,- and Prirfpsjor of Clinical Siiruery 
in the Uoiversityot; Edinburgh. Svo. fii." 

An E\poslulatory Letter to Dr. Moshley; 
on his Review of the Report of the London 
College of Physicians on Vaccination. By 
M. T. C. M. B. K. L. S. 8vo. 1 s. 6d ^ 

■Cases of Diabetes, Consumption, &c. 
with Obrervatlonson the History arid Treat- 
ment of Disease in genenJ. By Hubert 
Watt, Slemberof the Faculty of Pbynci- 
ans and Surgeons, Glasgow 8to. 8s. 



Mt«. Leicester's School; nr, th<^ History The History of the UniversiCr of Edin- 

oTseveral Vonn^ Ladies, relaied by them- luirgh, from 1580 to 1646. By TbomiB 

,>elvE$. 3s. bds.. . ■ Cmwford, A. SI. Professor of Pbiiosophy 

The Junior .Class Boob ; or Sending Lea- and Matbeniatics in the College of Edin- 

Kms foro'cry day in the Year, suleeted from burgh in 1646. To wbich.is prefixed, tbe 

ilte-inost approved Anthois, fur the use of Charter granted to the College by James 

Schools. By WiUiam ,FK<kric. MyLus,; theSjxlh ofScotloiid.in l&BQ. Gvo. 7h fi^ 

Master of the A<^demy in Ked-Uoa- The Economy of tlie Human Mind, bj- 

Square, London, lamo, *s. ^' " ■"— '" — "- 



Eleauora FenundcZi Mnm. 3t. 



Do,l,,-crlt;GpOglC 



List of Works raceullif pHhlkheil. 



rrtMiune tint Iipvond Mpnsure, s Sf Ho- 
roiim- roller of Advire to the Edildrt ol all 
ihf Public Papers, Is. 6d. 

Tho Trniiiiusionii of the Liimaion S*oietr 
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A LijHer to the Kight Rev, the I/ird 
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otUiudiiigraoci'ctt 



HiRol, ItiUfiirt, 'I'lirkty, Aualri, 



rery e' 



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Stitpirietft HmiMiBJimwKy, prtached 6>i (lie li-.hV 

June, atlhe iUii.li Ch,ircli of Ji[. M»mi- 

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- ., .-.,.. ,-e J,it«l In the piiUlic "' ' W<.>tiijin,(ur. J 

--imlj liy ,;rt,wd» oFhalf-nakcd and uiifor- Dnk"!*. Lt. B. F, A, ,t. .s. o,i. 
tatutt Prestitut**. Ii. ASennflJi pruMheU iH'nne tlw AiiOMtt 

Major Hosan'i Appeal to the Public, and ""tl Houourahle ft-ciety ofFieeand .\coept. 

Farewell to.the A^ny^'^s. 6(j. d M^soua ofKiii;!,">d.iii Hip I'ariib Chui^ ' 

■ ■■ lor- "f'St-Mii-y l>liit«toir,Oii Moin[av,Junn27. 

""•'■■ "-■■. Blnrd B»rv. M. 'j>, H 



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.. ■^.-■lu a^ty. .11. if. neenir i 

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■ -hi: friiL-riilty. 'J,. ' 
« tlK Mim le' nnd ParaHa 



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Work, uniformly printed and cniWliahrd, sinVn,™ ™ T ^ ■<■ 

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'i^ ., o ■ ■.' ","■;■ ™" — * Sermon oceasiooed by the Heath of 

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ih,Goog[c 



( 104 ) , 
COStlBSKWBENCB. 

We ore sorry fliat the inHiipeiite<l t^t taili*TOl«Wc ItOnt at Mrnkl «t«eUli 4 tbe 
IiTC'-caC Dumbot coniprla ui U doTer, till tliS oMt moAh, the tmertnn ufonr pramiscd «ri- 
(nine on KaXyt DocUm of AmaHehi •» weHw ti> omitftoiccf TfcJ'Jifin-* ctf ib £nj(iii 
CliHcij Vat.lr., Gasn'a Joknudi^ OtTrmAifa Corpi if DJKOfrg fitim Hit Souite^ ^ At 
fliMuri talielitific OcmM, Jcmicien'* Diftionarf nf-lie^Oak i««p«j», meA9tf\a'a 
n-^alhn ^ Etafclic^ Ftta:U-,gt a!^ of ubicb will fnMOt •ppear in tbe ^Mnbcr lor 
February. 

Several highly ntftmed FHenas are rt^qMted M aeAtpt Okr thanksfcr tbdr obligii^ ' 
nmnitndalions and Valuable attlstance. 

' TheNcjvd "lubmittedto the Crlticistnofthe Eclectic ^cne*" hUBotmy daima.Uitt 
wears aware of, to beexcepCeil from tbc Kmeral nile, wTilcfc ptecludcionr DOti«il( -pubU- 
calkmsoftbatkhtd. The copy inleiuleJ^rAur-uie will JwnlitnMl, «« af plication M 
the plsee when: it vai left. 

tbeKoTivwer of littapneie'e Unhtm! Mngn^, (EcL Ser. IV. p. 1047) vifbea it to 
be mentioned b«re, tbat, bedbtTiocinliis aciWunt of. that book notice Dr. L.'a revival of - 
lU calumny rtspcttiHg tbeiIluiitrioiuH(nranl*8 4[frJi andcnui Irtatrnfat of hii Son, bccauM 
be could nM Iben tarn t" tlie book in which that calumny was refu tail. He no* refers i 
■Uwbo hare any doubti on the subject to to), iv. pp. 339, '340, of the Monthly Maga- ~ 
Sine, wbere-itiiipioveUootbeauthoiityofMr. J. Wood of Shrcmhury, and Dr H.' Dar- 
ain, that Mr. Httvard and hi« ton oniftirmly mfcaifesled fo:' each otht t an extisonlinary 
degree of aSfccCion ; that tlie son constantly epofce wjtb gratitude of hii father^ kind 
Ircauneiit of him, affirming tiiat " tit JiAer akaiyt Bllmced im to live aikechoKj" and 
-that once, vbcn b larly wna lamenting, in young [loward's preseuce, tbe. expence of bis 
fother't " cxtioTagiL. though amiable ccoootrieiiics," and racotniDended that when he 
•onie of ase, if any of the property war settled, be would not join to cut off tbe entail, 
• bf Hxelaiined irith gTedl indignatiou to Dr. Damin, on (jultcing tlia room — " See ; tWs 
-^'■>-f hacalli hurselfthe^HBirf ofmy father, wishes »if to emharrua bini ! Wbat (ood . 
sould 1 posiiibly do with money, which «illiKBr any comparison with tbe good he baa 
dooef" Without jefcrring to other authorities, it is evident t^t Iheie staleuienls are; 
' atttslj ineconcilaUe with tbe charge of morase unrelpMtin^ severity, which has beeu )« 
dttttefall; brought agdiut thi! aiteiiiablc philantbropiit. 

Erralo jarW-If.. 
.p. 9fi3. 1- 6, (TOmbottoni,./brson readgrandHin, 
p. 11)77. 1. Se.fur terms rt«d turns. 

U16. L 44, fiir their religion read theirruUKion. 
Jin. I. 1 ! ,/oi' moral rtad oral, 
U19. L fiOy/orliTiiigrwrflying. 
im. 1. li,/ijre\tenalrcadeiteadei. 
11S9, I. 8, iffc/oystctnaiic. 
Tb9/ price itf darto's £4ition of Hancer^ ObserFBtions, sbonid have brcu stat(J SI. !«, 
(f. U04.> 



Doiii--,-,ihvGoOglc. 



THE 

ECLECTIC REVIEW, 

For FEBRUARY. 1809. 



>Vrt I. 4 Journal <^ the Vy^ti tmd Traveli of a Csr'fU: rf Diimttrp 

. under the Cominand of Capuio Lewii and Capuia Clarke, of {he- 

.Aimy of the United States t from the Mouth of^ the River Miuot^^ 

through the Interior Part* of North America, to the Pacific Ocean ; 

. , during^eYeaw ISO*,' 1805, and 1806. Containing an authentic Re- 

lation of the most interestivg TntDaactibna during ihe Expedition ; a t)e- 

■cription of the Country ; and an Account of its Inhabitants, Soil, 

- Cliimte, GuHontWB, and VegeUble andAnimaJ Producdona, By^- 

trick Gass, one of the PertoDs employed in -the. Expedition. 8to, 

pp.381. Price 9«< Pittaburgh, printed ; London, nprwted lor fiudd. 

1808. 

'yERY few projects within our recollection have excited in 
us a more interesting 'kind of curiosity^ by their first 
aiHiouncement, or the news of their completion, than that of 
which this volume records the execution. Our imagination 
had often wandered across the unexplored wilderness of the 
immense western regions of the North American continent, 
beholding all the romantic, and beautiful, and tremendous, 
and savage scenes, over which nature had maintained the sole 
empire for so many a^es, admitting only a few gloomy tribes 
of the wildest human nemgs to witness her uncontronjled ope- 
rations. AAd we were delighted at the information, that a 
band of adventurers had been sent to traverse the unknown 
region, in order to bring descriptions which would convert 

~ our vague fantastic visions into pictures of r^lity. 

There is something exceedingly striking in the first view of , 
such an enterprise. -The more retired trafcts of the vast 

- country which the travellers are going to enter, are nearly 
•s unknown, excepting, merely as to the Elements of which 
they necessarily consist, as the interior of the globe. From 
the Unexplor^' scene being so vast, a certain ttiysterious so- 
lemnity seems to rest upon it; deepened by -the reflection 
that, while -thousands of years have been passing away, and 
while all the events recoraed in nearly the whole history of 
the. hunwD race have arrsen and gone by^ the region they 
were going to behold luis refused access to- all civilized men, 
^uid liaa-been involved in a kind of sacred darkness, \afQ whicb 
Vol V. I 



r,o,i,,-cdtyGoOglc 



106 Gass's Joiarnal of an Expedition.^ Discoveiy. 

the men before us are the first that have dared to cany a light 
Xbey are advancing to penetrate into woods, and caverns, 
and valliea, which no man that' could disclose their secrets 
by means of the pen or the pencil ever ^w ; and.tbe gloomi- 
ness oX tbe upsets of those scenes strikes our imagination as 
frowning on the intrusion. A river, the very strength of which 
would indicate a course of some thousands of miles, meets 
them at the beginning of deir entei-piise, fomtelling them what 
labours they have to endure, and what immense spaces they 
hare to pass, especially whenlhey consider, that the country 
near the sources of thi« great river is in truth but the com- 
iqenoeinent of that >ti)l more imknowti teriitbry, wliich it is 
peculiarly tbeir appointipent to explore. Wtth,out grvijiE 
any excess of licence to ftucy, we niay anticipate for this bajid 
df^! men an ince!>sant severity of labour, and a nurahar* 
le^ train of d^ingers. The Knowledge that there are com- 
panies u;f savages sci^ttered bere a^d there, vt^iLe it augments 
tbe roniaulic gloQm of the vast wildc:(nesdj scj^w to. sugg^et 
cupens tfiat no^ one pf t^ea^ ady«n,turer« may e?er again ape 
the sppt itW» w^ucb tkev we n^ow setliag out. Ournuods. 
easily represent their tracK as haunted and watched by those 
most cruel of wSd boasts, till they come, to soi^ dreary ref^s^, 
where they can be iostajiljy desU'oye^. W^are williag,. how- 
ever, to imagine them escsj)iii£ this f^te, cooquenng 4JJI 
other dangets, and reaching at Tength^ tpe sj^or^^ of th^ Pa^ 
cific Ocean ; an^ we sympathise in th^ir enthusiastic ex^iltai 
tion ID. living attatneo their object, after (he progress ati^ 
strenuous exertions of a whoLe year, of whicQ each d^y^d 
moyemeuts might be regarded as a distinct enterprise, ftut 
we sink from tnis exultation into de^ond^cy, when wq je-^ 
collect tliat DOW they have to letum. ^Vhcn, however, th^. 
4tre at length returned, through a repetition and, q^nqu^st qS - 
the same olfstacles, toils, and dangers^ they appear to u^ an 
elev^j^d class of heroes, who will beor^ a^ long as they. livei 
a strong peci^liarity^ and a cectaio t^pc^da^aa ot cbanvctert 
■as being the ipen who have ^en and apcoDapiubed nh»t 
none evf r saw and a<;coa^ished befji^e. ■. .. i- 

Now such a train g^ fancy was a very fiije prQpfir:at^n S^ 
ifOtering on the narrative of Mr. Patrick Ga«E, ,wtK>: ¥^1^^^% 
wi.t^ the most invincible sobrie^ of spirit, the ^n^re qq^rs^.p? 
the identical enterprise with which, both in the e:f^^ioo ^ui 
narration, w§ haa, dreamed that so m^y rsm^ntic, pftfltMi* 
Bnd enthusiastic sentiments would be asaodarted* ^ WW 
gball exceed Mr. Patrick in the faculty of k^^iftg q^sQ tp 
the direct business of the story, and carrying, i[ ligjtt sffi 
without *^6r digressing into a paragrapli of reflwHoHi oc, a4r 
loinitioa, o' wonder, gi oxten^ oescrqHiooj 9c, trlmaiitii ot ■ 



.dtyGoogIc 



Mass's Journal of dnE-vpedilion of Discmien/. 107 

piety,' Or tfteorUina;, or even explanation. Ha takes us for- 
waro a'cirtaiti numo'er of niiles each day, kills ' some buffalo* 
and ' some. elJi,' faithfully deposes to the Behaviour of the 
sky, thdt it rained of; tnat if shined, discovers the bank of 
the riVer £o' he high or to be flat, sends out thje hunters and 
fetches thtiin'. in again, falls in with a tVoop of Indians, bi^s 
them goodmorningj and' is immediately gff, aqd so we proceed 
from the' liioiith of the Missouri to t^at of the Columbis, 
arid with the' utmost composure all the way iSack again. Any 
observations or inquiries of a scientific nature were out of the 
question iti such a party and such an expedition ; but it 
might have been expected thai the grand appearances of the 
country, its rtiM aspect of unsubdued nature, the solemnity 
of its vast solitudes, the silence of its plains, tbe magnificence 
of its ^tn^ataiS,' the thunder of its cataracts, its endte^s changes 
of sceneHy, ^nd the characters and liifitin^rs -of its' few di- 
minishing tribes of fierce atid forlorn, inhabitant^ wha$^ m?^ 
ctitistitutton reflects all , that is 'Stern- apd ^melancholy in tba 
physical ppect'of the wilderness in whiclt-they range, MdWio 
wiU probably, at no very distant pejied, become ex^nct,-^ 
it reaily. might have been expected tbat all this cou^d nor 
have heern contemptated^ by any man of ordinary cultivatiori' 
^d' perception, wim the invulnerHitle sedktenessof oiirauthbr.' 
Bat perhaps this is the true philosophical s-pirit, after all'. For,' 
if wdTToUla otily let oursSlvt*!' think, what should th^ae people, 
of the' <ksert' be, hut jjist somany nien and; lyo'iBen, "with 'the 
Very same number of Jjtnbs and ey^s. as ourSeive's .'What is Ijhej 
amazing extent of the'region, with all, i|s,, varied forms antt. 
f^atur^E, ,bul so much earth, sq much plain iposjtiye piad,.co- 
V6red indeed ft'ith trees and grass ? What is the silence of. tlrti 

glains, hut there being nobody there i What are great niv,ws> 
ut'the collection in valHes of quantities of water that will not- 
stay on the hills? And then too, as to cataracts, if a quan7- 
tity of water, in running along, comes to a steep place, vth^'^ 
should it 'do b(it fall down; and when it does sp, how should^ 
it help niakfhg a noise' and a foam? is not thii natural, and; 
quite cotnthdtl ? . 

VVItH prbfrfpr respect for the philosophic torieof Mr, Gass's 
mental s^tein, we must however be allowed, to hope, that the 
ia\\ account of'the expedition to be given, if it is not pub- 
lished already, by one or both of the leaders, will supply 
a bbldeif, liistbry of the proceedings of this daring and inde- 
fatigable troop of adventurers,, ana more picturesque sketches 
of a cbnntry' now disclosed, for the first time, la the view 
of the cit'iHzeil world, and which we may v^^iure to predict 
will ndi spda be invadedhy another such expedition. 

^rSy' in ortier to render the' accounts of the expedition 



r,o,i,,-crih,.GoOglc 



lOS Cass*s Jevrnal tfan Expediiim of Dtscomery. 

more complete, and partly in consideration of tbe e . . 
hazanls wnlc^ it wis judged to involve, and which made ic 
prudent to multjply the chances of obtaining any account at 
all, everyindiyithiat of the party, who was in any degree cona- 
peteni;, was enjoined to keep ajournal. And really it is the 
least that can be done in the way of shewing the due respect 
and, admiration' of these intrepid adventurers, to let them all 
ptibltsb their separate journaU, compared with some of which, 
rt is very likely, tlie one before us might appear quite an 
author-like performance. The Amedi:an publisher apologises 
for' its plainness ; but the reader will thank him for letting it 
escape clear of that finishing and trumpery, with which it 
seems he was wHhin an inch of concluding it to be ]its.j]uty, 
to spoil the story. ' ■ . 

' Iq detennining the form in whieb the work ahoukj u^ear, the pnb^ 
lieher had lome difficulty. Two plana pmented thenitelTe*. The one 
Wa» to preserve the fonn of a daily journal, (in which the origtaal had 
beCD kept), and give a plain description of the couDtry, and a simple 
l^ttion of occtiirericea equally intelligible to all readers; leaving toeveipr 
perioit att- opportutaity of embdlishiog the scenes presented to him, in hii 
•WD -wf. The other plan was to more fiilly digest the subject, make the 
DAiratiTc more general, and, askuanag Jesa <» the journal form and itylt^ 
describe and clothe the priocipBi parts of it as hit fancy miffht suggiiat. 
However far tbe latter might have been proper, htA a fere^ country 
been the subject, and the pntici^ object of ^e publication mere amuie- 
inen^ litany ot^ecboi^ occurred to it, id the ju^sent case ^ and resdered 
tbi former tiie m'ost eligible,,especia11y as by it the climate asd face of- 
tbe country will be more iaiisfactoiily deBcribed. And Mr. Gau baviog 
declared, that the beauties and deformities of its grandest scenes were 
et]ually beyond tbe pOWer of description, no attempta have been madej 
r^Kf by hini or' the publisher, to give adequate representationa oi. 
Ibcm.' p. 8. ■ ■ ' 

- And so this modest and conscientious person would not 
hit-e )md the' slightest consciousness of impudence and im- 
pOsttion in presuming, while lounging in his parlour, over 
Jin puiich and tobacco, to describe and hepaint, and that too 
even without auy dncuments, the most striking appeao^or-eB 
between the Missisippi and the Pacific Ocean, and publishiDe. 
this manufacture as tbe authentic account given by one ot 
the travellers through that country ! 

The easiest way of informing our readers what the book : 
contains, will be by a brief abstract of the narrativek Tbe 
corps of discovery sent out by the American government was 
partly composed of the regular troops of the States, an4 
partly of other, men, engaged for this particular enterprise. 
It' coi^sisted of forty-three, including the commaad^, Cap« . 
tains- Lewis and Clarke, thie respective proporrions of whose 
authority, relatively to each oth«r, are not stated^ . The f 3tp«- 



1,-0,1 h,. Google 



'Gitsa's JoarruUofan Exp'editiffn o/Biscove^. to? 

tlitio^, embarked on board a haiteaii An^'f^bpfnogves, set 
out from its establiabmebt at the moutH 6f.tlle^V'tipJ river, 
near the confluence of the Missouri with the Mississippi, on tljp 
14th of May, 1804. In Hhe evening they' stopped tb encaiQp 
bn the<ban(c a few liiiles up tbe Missouri, where they fell, as 
It seeiiis, to the very laudable employment of reflection,, and 
the very necessary one of consolidating their vesolutioh and 
courage. .... -^ 

* Here ve had laiure to reflect on our situation, .^nd engagements.: 
and as we had alt entered this Eerrice aa volunteers, to. consider, hopr 
far we itood pledged for the succes* of an expedition, which the govcri- 
meat had projected, and which had l>een undertaken 'for the heneiit and 
at the 'expence of the Union ; of conrse of moch interect ' add high exp^c- 

■ tatkm. ■'■■' ■ 

* The \3ttt aatbenticated accouott Informed vsf that we -^Bre to pasi 
tliroagh a country possessed by numerous, powerfiil iiad warlike nations of 
tanget, of gigantic statnrcv fierce, treacherous and cruel ; and partlca^ 
lar]^ hostile to white men. And fame had muted with tnditian in op* 
posing mouDtaina to our course, which human enterpiize and exertion 
would atteimtt in v^in to. pasi. The determined and resolute cbaracto-^ 
howerer^ of the corps, and the confidence which pervaded all racks, dis- 
pelled every emotion of fear and anxiety for the present; while, 3 
sense of duty, and of the honour which would attend die completion of 
die object of the expedidon ; a wiah to gratify the expectations of die 
government, arid of our fellow citizens, with the feelings Which noveIt)[ 
and discovery inrariably inspire, -seemed to insure to us apiple support 
ID oar fiitare hhIs, suffering, and dangers.' p. 15*. 

The voyage directly up the Missouri, from its mouth to what 
is called the Mandan village, whei-e the party took up their 
winter- quarters, about the 47th degree of latitude, and the 
lOlst of west longitude, maybe considered as the first grand 
stage of the expedition. This voyage, being made against 
a strong current and the impediment of numberless sand-bars, 
took up hetweeri five and sis laborious months ; and, reckoning 
of course the windings of tbe liver, was computed at about 1600 
miles. Sometimes they were able, by the help of a fivourabie 
wind, to advance as much as 20 miles a day; but at other times 
with their utmost eifoits they could not proceed itiore iharl 
four or five, and when the wind blew directly down the rive* 
theywere compelled to remain stationary. Occasionally, when 
they' could not be content to do this, they went forward a few 
niitesby means of a tow-rope. A tolerable quantity of somfi 
kinds of provisions must have been laid in before they set out; 
hut their chief dependence for subsistence was 00 theit 

* Tbia pBtagiaph was certuolynot written fay honeot Patrick } it tftti 
sample of the kiM of work die Ainaricaa puUither vouM have jii^:<^ 
it, d it had not been drtennined, profaaUy because the slid PatricfL VM 
•bitiBate» to pnat.th» journal netriy iii its origiiul ftate. . 



ih,Googlc 



1 10 G&ss's Jottnufl of an Exgedititn.^ J^iscmer^- 

almpst daily hiiptinjf ^long the forests bqrfecbg oi^fie fiyef ; 
and jiever, surely, sirn;e that river first Jsegain to flpiy betweei^ 
'fiios^ wfid borders,' had there been such h^rw; ^pnig; the 
buflaloesjdeer, elks, goats, and bears.. We could tia*e .^ijjjpd 
.10 kiiQw the ordiijary size or weight of the^p ap'nai^ls,. e^pq^ 
cially'tbe biiffalops, whyiher they were swift, qr'^trong, o^ 
p^^rc^, aiid whether any degree of dgingpi: attended tbe htuit-r 
5ng;"biit it was enoiign for our journalist that tKey werp fpilijd. 
killed, and eaten, and that whatever nunaber .w^re destroyed 
to-day, there'was a cbaiice of findibj^ '^oirie mpr^ tp-rnprrow. 
The greater ■ proportion of the corps ihusthave'beeh qualified 
for i^his hunting; vve are ijot told whether there vr^s atiy nxed 
tjj^e as ti) which oif thein sljpuld be th\ts emplpypd ji) succes- 
sibh ; but some of them were almost constantly out, and UAfJ^c 
R*JS«PMilJff<;«P hy; ^Vjijch flqp sprigs of spirit, -Qttf bflclM. bteods, 
IpluQKiei?; paradfi ;o£cers, »nd so futtb^ uquM. baye fouod 
t^eo,vfrfloH{ingG.o£. their valour .tiDtla.liiElerejar^^d. Sopae- 
UmsB oae^of tUese'«dv«ntur^r3 alube, sometimeB tno oT nare^ 
as it mi^bc happen, would quit the vessel, btvd plnAge^ intd / 
fh*!" deepest' pecessfs, of tlje trackless "fiiTcists, where, a^ 
it Vpiild 'seem toifts,' riiey might' lose ail certainty' ijs to 
{he gt^arkl directibnaf, th^r course,' wber^ the^y 'ihigltt'bfe in- 
^ted iij "mcjrisses,. ,wher6 there tnigbt, for '^iiy 'iSi^g' they, 
iouic^ kopvj;.lp iRe.contrare, bJ^prowJjJBig^v^ygg^ aD^-yvhere 
(here often .^ers.a^tiially.D^ifS aricli.wqlvjes;, ^r^ gvean^tiil^ 
the" vessef would go .foo*:i%rtIj pfietupany iplje^ &rbi tfes.piact! 
wber^ tjies^ hun^rs lofj'it, witljoijt i;naTf.i.(ig, *S f^r ^ y,^ are 
here iii formed, "any uiarks or.signalfl-py wbicft,, wjiea they 
regained the b^nk^ they coiil^ kSbw'ybsjthe.r il.Wt' P»4efl oi; 
jipt. ' In these expeditious tTiey„ff?fm!i3iitly ^v^mlei:*^ oiiles 
a^j^^yfrorn' the river,' and renjairied' ifll night, ynshpltered. in 
the forest, in g'eyeral 'iristaiices, 'a nunjuer of '^^s ana nights 
^iipessiye'iy. And- nio re' 'than,' ^jiisj j^heji h'a^ either yj^'.^'ring. 
flrflfip ^uch' dist^npes, their heay^ h^ds^oTijaegt^ or.||b, egntKiy^ 
m^ap.s 'fpr know'i.nc' h'pw to find k'^gaiji', ,^f^r tfie^.s^pf^d 'teat:.!^ 
tj^fi vp^sel aqd g_npc'iire rn.ore^gpWtp'^SSjst iii ta.kin^.it '^f'^r-- 
th^f. is tcj.say, if,ft<;\K6]v^(Ji4,Hot;^save/them.yi3t^t^^ 
fey »ievpHri,5^ it'm 1%. i^^^jj^ p|j|q. lyjiich agre'^ab}e, cigj^gj^ 
. ^t^nce oow'aiia ti«n' n^^meijed. Xp 'dp all' ililj n^'^, be,fj.w.t€v 
^3sy. % those w^q^ ^*j:el^jn^d &n§ ajcctistoipefi tp ^,';, but>6 
Cftn sif hy 9"i* l.'rtle; fee afid farthing ^aodlti, and Wjjnd^^r tha)^ 
si^gh "h^rj wer.^. 9,oj sooii: sajVed^fflfiC fijrihsr trpiiWe' ^^% t^e 

Acquainted, alas ■ ^yigi the fijrce of biihger, »Ke djiuht whetnet 

we *c[iikl 09 thft sv^ft^ <y?i is few*, braxetl ^.iww, giB>™y 

forest^ ui'Sbi.sppsffitHljy, fth&ndofied' a conditioiL: The -nvai^ 
tuui^riUhic'h. w6 should ti^expobiiiiff to^encatinter in.;lHtaES^ 
and savages would- b&'Alisostaistetrifale 'to 'M.as^oU*-4«Qt. ->' - 

"*" . , Google 



Gam\ Journal tfan Exp^JtHm t( Bittti^. ri f 

In tliM^vtfy.ldngvo(ytgie,tbe adtventurars passed by ib'fitte)-' 
ponDrj' eacuDpnenta of sevier^ considerable' tiibea of 'I'ldfkm^' 
the Hionx, the Riekarees, aod the Mandatis ; in the neigh- 
bouriiood of vhida lust tribe they eitabliibed tfaeir reaide»iJoe' 
fen- tha :wlntoi. With t^ exooptton of tbis tribe, thbir iotsr* 
corunemth the nittiTSs was veyy slight and tranrnent, toA the* 
descriptioDB wtc^ at we have inbtnoated, brie^ a;enera]r, and w».' 
discripui(ntiag.-,I^i9 likely Uierewerfe'distiDKUi.shinsqliaraetar' 
iptics pMuiiar to eac^ oation ; but it wouli W^^ <^o ^Qr m«a 
who had to weep several sc[iure leagues of wilderness eaob' 
dayfon tbeit dinner, to be inqilitingi ^od dpeculBting about 
imtfovsl characters and Indian p6liticsi 8ome branches d^ 
titeSe doubted comnmriitie* of firleemfln ware very kind srf 
dor *byag&W; and they aU comforted thethsielrtis pretty Welt, 
on the whole, except that thtfyhad ail tRe biftgfttting sitt' of 
a thievish ipropenrfty. The fUea we have acquireil' of theft^ 
aborigines from our popular hooks is very much of a I'omaiilic' 
cast; it is thatof arace of beiiigs separated^ by aii immense' 
cbasm from the ordinary eoonoqiy of nations, ana evea of hu-' 
man nature, and invested with 3, certain gloomy magnifiLcenaq' 
whit^ quite ovefawes our spirtM w4aAa we' tbitik af aieetiag' 
tliMn at th« frontiers of thei}" deserts. Thtt aosieire yiiiayit^' 
BBoribed, the uTic'onquerabid ind^'pendelRce, tbe pevtitiabity s£ 
deBigii, thte inteitrfty &f thfc greater pas*iiiHBi -l**e «nthwBta»ai| 
of flrafceririty and piitribtism, ahd the defiantt! of silBfertiigs rfriii 
Oeatb, combHied with tfto'dreadfui feroriity, and the abode 
within an aliUbstboiindles^ deset-f, havfc conStituted'a character 
much more strange and striking than even that of the descen- 
daiitB of Romutua. But all' tfiese coloort' of tWe itirteHous . 
vanish, the instant we look at an Indian coriimuhi^y througfe 
the medium of Mr. Gass's description. ^The bein^ that hail 
appeartjtf of siftti poneWffttfs' asrftet are just no rikMfelhtiri a 
ffew gangs .(rfriia^ dlny fi\intfer?i with cotirage enough cer-' 
teiniytb set upon' and 'Mlt; and' ^catp one another, put' not/ 
enough to withstand the nJetiaoes and i'esofiite air. of one of 
the captains of the expedition, who told a large' party that iii 
one instance seized him when on shore, apparently designing 
tb detain hiih, that he ' had lii' hii boat What would destroy 
twenty such i^atlons as tHefra' In'bne day ; on which the war- 
riors let hini go; T^oW Mr; Pitrttfc Gass having, as we have 
said, beydrtrfall Hvifig'meh, the knack of taming and subduing 
aM fantastic, rdmantic, macniftcent, apd ' awe-inspiring' ideas,, 
bring the completfest extioguishfer af fiincy that ever beheld 
dr related rt^nderful things, we are at liberty to believe that 
Ais savi^ T^ce hav« a much more singular ahd striking cha- 
racter tha^ His- short descriptions would giVe'nsta apprehend; 
while, on the othet hand, we aiayfairly coiKlude there is a great 



.dt,Googlc 



113 .'GiH*s Joartul t^ttn Espedilkn ^hUeaoety. 

deid of ^titiobs Qotottring, in such a deltneatitin aa that'girai 
by Dr. Robertson. We are inclined to think that Volney 

-bas ^ven by i&x the most st^er and compreheattveTepreEen- 
tationof the savagea, in the long affii tnoet inierestihe essay 
at the end of his Tntvels in Amenca, — One or ttfoof the very 
few. particulars relating to them in the present "Tt>tiHnej may 
be Bs curions as an^ thing else we could transcribe fxoia it. 
~ * Captuit Lewis, myself, and some of the men, v^nrover to the tndiAi 
eunp, (a band of ^e Sonx' ; their lodges are aboQt 80 In number, and 
contain about tm persons each, the greater part women and children. 
The women were employed in dressing buffrioe ikio t, for clotltiog for them- 
•dkeai and For corenn^ their lodges. Th<y are the most friendljr fcopk 
I erf r saw ; but will piUer if they have aa ^tportunit j. They are also 
very dinv: the water they make use of is carried in thf paunches of the. 
aoi/n»ls ihey ](ill, just at th^ are emptiedf without being cleaned.' '^bout 
^5 days ago they tiad.'^ battle with the Mahss, of whom ' they killM 75 
men, and took 25 women prisoners, whorij they have now with them. They 
promised to Capt. I.ewis uiat diey would send the prisoners back, and make 
peace. In the evening Capt. Clarke and some of the men went over, 
and the Indians niade preparations for a dance. At daik it commenced. 
Their bond of mnsic^ or orchestra, was composed of about 12 persons 
beating od a buffUoeliide, and shaking small Ugs that made, a rattling npise. 
They nid alargofire ia the centre of their camp ; on one side the womeOr 

. i^ont 60. in mrabeTt fojined in a sdid coliunn round the fire, with sticks in- 
theirhapdi) and the scalps of the Mahaa they had killed tied on them. 
They kept, moving or jumping round the fire, rising, and falling on both 
feet at once ; keeping a continual noise, singing and yelling. In this mao- 
oer Ehey continued tiS ten o'clock at qigiu, when we rf turm^d to the boat.' 
p. 62. 

. < Th^.people, (a viUaee of the MBndans).(fc) aotlnuy th^ dead, but 
gjace the body on a taSoQ., wrapped in a buffaloe robe, where- it lies ex- 
posed.' p. 83, ,' ^ 

* I went up \t[ith one.of the men to the villages of the Mand40s: they 
treated us friendly and gave us victuals. After, we were Aoof uting they 
presented a bowlful to a buffalo? head, saying, " eat that." 'thm super- 
stiUbus credulity is so great, that they believe, by'usiogithe head well, 
the living buffaloe will come, and that they will get a suwly of meat.' 
f. 98. '■ '- '''.-'. ■■ I ■ ■ 

The winter residehce,oftb,etraveilei?i, close to the villagea 
of the, Maudiuis, .gav.e opportunity ^r minute observations and 
inquiries respecting the hditts of the savages ;' bui the party 
seem to have very much miiidied their own business'. And 
indeed jt was iio inconsiderable business that they liad on 
their bands, in, first bailding a large strong fort, thg construc- 
tion and extent of which ai;e described, in. constantly scouring, 
the forests, evep ,in tije severest weather, for pipyisions, in, 
trying to c|i^. and remove the vessels out, of "the; ice of the 
fiver, .a«d .ijt making canoes tq propccyte tlieir voyage^ aq th? 



ih,Googlc. 



Gtss's Jittnto/ oJ«!^ ExpediltM <^ Discwmf.^ IIS- 

priocijtd boat was bere^to return down to the place where 
they£»d first set off, tmd in April did return, with' thirteen 
neo, leaving thirty .one men and awooian, (the Indian wfs 
of -their French iaterpreter) to proEeed on thcexpedifion *. 
, A very suQimary Btateniebt is tnade «f thft general appear- 
anca of the countrythusfar, and of the quahty of the soil, 
which is faid to be lexcelleat. for the first six hundred miles, ' 
luit afterwards, up to the distance of two thousand miles from 
the month of the xirer, to he of inferior quality,' though gene- 
rally deserving to be called * good second-rate land.' In pro- 
ceeding along, careful notice is taken of all the rivers that fall 
into the Missouri, with the breadth of each, and often some 
mention of the appearance of the country up their hanks. The 
enumeration of this vast succession of tributary waters is Plough 
te shew the grossneas of the mistake, perhaps an error in. 
printing, of making the Missouri itself no more tban 875 yards 
broad not far fromita-mDUtfa. Except in the case of such a 
narrow opening between walls of rock as would caase a tre- 
mendous rapid, {which is not alleged), this noble stream ^vould ' 
flood tbecouptry iii' contempt of any inch channel. 

After remaining at their fort from the first of November, • 
1804, to the eighth of April, 180*, the party se* off. acaia 16 - 
tbeir small vessels, on a coi^rse of enterprise comparco.i^ith 
which all they had hitherto experienced of difficulty' aud , 
hazard was but mere aipusement. The second ^ge may be ' 
reckoned from the Mandan.fort to the mouth of the Columbia, 
a distance, in the winding, course of the waters, of 2300 miles. ' 
Reducing the. irregularities, of their imovem^nt to a straight 
line, it appears that ^ey ke^t^ through this whole progress; &■> 
direction very nearly due west; for the Mandanfort is placed^ 
in latitude 47 deg. 21 min.; when they- 'had advartced near^ 
700 9iiles fLrtber up the Missonri'th^- were still in lat. 47 ; ' 
and the month of tbe Columbia was found to be in lat. 46 deg. 
19 min. ■ 

For a good maiiy hundred miles they proceeded, just as well . 
as befbre; with a bold free river, with a tolerable-looking, 
country, except for the deficiency of wood ,in many, parts, with, 
a prooigious massacre of wild cattle, and with now and then 
an accident to a boat, which would liave been very frightful, 
and very justly So, to a party of pleasure from London to , 
lUchmotid, but seeihs to have occasioned a wonderfully small 
degree of alarm to these dexterous and fearltes adventurers. 

* Tbc reports de^tched by the leader!) of the expedition from this ' 
plac^ Foit Maadui to.the AnKrican Pretident, were laid before Con- 
sretfiFeb. 1^ 1806, aod^iitenvaids'ITiiitedimder the titleof a ' Maiagt 

from the PraideBt,Scc,'-.For, a review of this ioterestiiis publication, tee 

■E.R.VoI.n.tp.665-«72. 



ih,GoogJc 



Thvj .[wsseei .tbe tribe qF Indium called GnsmrtliM/Kt bm 
wit^iit seeing much of tbeai, or cariTifg;to«eej met ffitH MVSnil 
euonnous bsarB,one of wtiicb gBi e'daageKmA'krMtle tOtiiir ^rHietf - 
men; toA. s«w what had mtmtly lieen « burning OiAlimdiik* 
T\aj weie Beveral Avfi in advuicing throiiffti k dret ryvttd^, 
formed by two lines af ttoinitains absdtiitciy <kRtif tfte ofttlf- 
vpir«tation, the most dismal ocifntrf, oar tiaveUct ttiiftlfs, 
that he liEid erer ^'Qt seen ; they wotc partly m^A 1^ th<! 
sight of some very singnUr preciptoes At tin tOnniimtiWi of if. 
A IhtlefurtberoiijEoiBeof tham piet m«h otte'Of<h«$e'p^e&9snit' 
Ikde adventnres, wbiob would now uid tbeo bappfca v«ff 
opportunely to exfailasate their iplrits.^ 

' In tbe erening we weattowardatlieriVer to encamp, whert'orte oFtKe. 
ntra baviag gt>t doiro to a tiaiW point of the ivoodi tn the bank, befbue 
the rest of th» panj, wis attaCkM W a hcgr he-b^, aiid hfs gun mimeil 
five. We were idxnK two hun^a yatds from Him, bat the bank dtenf 
was so ttcep we aovld. notget dowoi to his ainitailce:' we howeTer flitnt 
at the anisul from th« place we ttqult axd he wem vR vitbomt ia^arittg 
tJ]e,iiwa.' p. 136. 

Perhaps ws may as neH, while we are about it, ev'sn give 
oneortsro mote of tbe seme mirtliftil sort of incidents snd 
sutuatipoi, from other partsof die book. 

' Another hunter went up the river to look for elk. VtTieo he had 
gOM^boutithree miles he wM attacked by rHree brown heart, that were near 
d«Tourioft kim ; bv» he madd his^cKaoe by ninriHig dowii a st^ bank 
iiUodieWater. In this adtvntiin: kef^, Injured his gun, and fiAirC one 
^^s lu>dt ; tbereforei letmnlod to -sanp.'' p. IM. 

' }n the ewning.'tfta man whs hi* started' » go to the other end 
of the poita;;*, munied withom being Acre. A white bear met bim at 
Willow creek that oa frigfiteBod hit borw that be threw Him off among' 
the feet of the aniraal; but he; fortunately, tbainf ^^ *^^ to'thoot) bad 
antficientpr^qeace of ftwd u h|it tbe bear oadrJiaid. with has'gnn; Md^ 
the atixJic so ^tunned it^thit itgaFQ I^ib ^e t* Stt;)4p a tra» cloi^' hf,- 
before it could seize him. The blow, however, broke the gun, and l end n ' W 
it useless ; and the bear yvcbed hint about thf^ tu^uHr k^ tiMP' Mpt 
away. When he came down he caiieht his horsei 4>°ut two ^ites ditf 
taiit, and returned to cainp. These bear« are very QUiierou^ it) this {AR 
of the country, and very dangerous, as they will' attack aman every ouvxr^u- 
ni^ p. 246; 

' As to the degree of credit da,e to tbe^ and other oi^rJoMi-, 
particulars, We sball,^ once for alli.e3:|iress oijuc^tir« ^i^ns^ 
of Mr. Gass's y^ra^ity:, his narrative has- tbtougktQut th^l 
strongeEt marks of t^ing. 9, plain booest account of. ma ttor it 

ofltCi^.. ,'".■■'■ ■:■'■'' 

.Wpent)g|E^h«ipr(«Midedlu|i thaMssmin about jHWmitesj 
they actived. at a poinb 1^1010 kf <ti'ri^,-or' *- fopkJY' M '^^' 
trfw^lae getuin|Hrf. ssprewek'kj itno^is^'brat^.cfaes, tbVl^'bC'' 



,,-,-,ih,Googlc 



Gass's journal of an ETpedilion ofDiscnperyt '. U5 

t^hich was so large} and h^ such an appearance, as tp «au99 
aj^nbt: which of them should be considered as the river-' 
- Her^ thfiy gave an admirable proof that they Were the righ( 
inen for meir undertaking, t^y sending two distinct parties tq 
examine both the braiiches at the same tjme, abd ektending 
the examination more than 60 miles up the smaller and uor^ 
dierrt .branch, which, though navigable to a still greater 
distance, thpy concluded hot to take for continuing their exr 
peditibn. At .the point of this confluence they drew their 
principal boat oii land; and' ' covered it with' brush,' and 
piiried in the earth, in b(^xes which they made for the pui;-; 
pose,'a l^rge quantity of baggage and stores. They then sef 
forward, on the southern brauch, «hich was still a river qf 
aimdst . 400 yards wide. Though it was midsummer, and th^ 
latitude but 41" 24', they saw before thein mountains on whicit 
^now stjil rested. Advancing a few days, they came'tp a part 
of thenver whert*, in' the s^iace of seventeen miles^ it fa|]^ 
362 feet, in a number'of distiii<;t perpendicular cataiacts,the 
first 98 "feet, the second J9, the tinrd 47, the fourth 26, lyitl^ 
a hu'cnbe'r of smaller 'pitches,' as the journalist calls them, 
and r^iH water betweep. It might be supposed impossibt^ 
quite impossible, to get past such a place as this witho^it soniQ 
jninuteness of descnption, and some expressions, of .dejig^ht 
and amazement '" BVit no ; our author retains all t'ne'woqt^^^ 
poi^mand of both his feelings and his pen. Very few-bdiirs 
were wasted by the' baiid in observing, and very few lines are 
wasted i»j IWr. Gass in celebrating, so. gratit! a spectacle, 
To be sure, he might tell us that it liiay oe' all very pjr^p^c 
and very fine for persons' whoa^re sittih^ at their ease midwQMr 
derijig at the deficiency, of his taste, ^or the sublime, to ^jg 
talking about grand spectacles ; but t^at these cataracts fyr-j 
nishecTven' different eiiip.lojmeut to him. and his com^anipnsj 
from thai' of indulging'their taste, and fiiling ihejr jfiurhajs ■ 
with rfia^.sodies .o.i^ astonisbment. This di^lightful. piage, ajj 
forded ',m#ii the gratification of ilnloading tlieif boat pn3 
canoes, bringing them on land, and dragging both the Utjing 
and'tlie cafioes, on a kindof small rtaggons which they had tq 
make for the purpose, oyer eighteen miles of a wild country 
withpgt a road or track. While the greater part of the Durpber 
were completing this portage, and several were out day and 
ni^ht hiuntingj^i'iothet party w,^re making d. large boat, the 
iron frame oFwbich! they had brougfit with tbem. This wa* 
done.af: thepUce.ivliere tlifejf'were toembayk a^inop-.ib* "veil 
aboye, the failpj aiittth? vessel was to be the siil^stijtut^ for 
thijir priiifjip^I i^oatJ'whitjTi they were '9^]iged to. If^ye at tlia 
place of. tbeir landi'iie below the falls. After ■the labour of, 
MVU'al vy^eks. this -^s^t was fini.sUcd,_6rawri iiito the river^ 



r,o,i,,-crih,.GoOglc 



and found fo be not water pr6of> for wapt of tai; or^pitch.. tt 
WBS therefore to be taken all in pieces, and . deposited under 
ground. Timber of the proper size fot canoea w^-foun^ 
twenty miles higher up, several were made, and> after the 
delay and severe labour of aboijit % month, the expedition 
went forward again. , , . 

They soon advanced into the passes of the great c^i;) of 
inountains called the Hock Mountains, from their cWfiy 
consisting of masses, of bare rocks, some of theni to,th^ 
height of 1000 or' 1200 feet. There are some ipterstieies 
where the adventurers found wood, game, and quantities of 
fine currants. They had to encounter some difficult rapi^s^ 
They were a number of days among these dreary passes, 
though they contrived to advance sometimes ,as much as 20 
miles a day. Soon after emerging, they came to a point 
where the river separates into tSrep branches, of nearly, equal 
size. As before, they spared nO exertions in exploring each 
of the rivers ; and after a research of several days, they chose 
the middle stream, which leads almost directly to the,.w^t. 
By favour of the Missouri they had now advanced nearly 3000 
miles ; and here they were, seized with an odd revolutionary 
fit, and ungratefully decreed the depoaal of this grand 
monarch of streaAns, who was supplanted and. succeeded 
by a whimsical oligarchy, under the names of MadiBoh, Galla.^ 
tin. Philosophy, Wisdom,' Philanthropy, and, at the head of 
them, Jefferson, the name they imposed on the branch on 
which they decided to follow up their discoveries, and whicb 
m all reason and loyalty ought to have been still called the 
Missouri. Ten days brought them to the bead of this river, 
and therefore brought their voyage to a conclusion. They 
■were now to seek for the great Columbia river, or some of 
its waters. And our author says, that ' it i^ not more than a mile 
from the head spring of the Mis»dun, (he seems' here to 
repent of having lent himself to the late disloyal proceedit)gj 
to the head ^^ ^^ue of the branches of the Columbia.'' But 
they were to go in quest of some navigable streani ; 'and a la- 
borious march of 40 miles brought tbeni on the banks of the 
Sho-sho-ne, a river of 70 yards' wide, iwhich they, knew 
must fall into the Columbia. Some miserable harf-starved 
natives, however,, gave them a very unfavourable account of 
the current of this river ; and a division of the band ascer- 
tained, by a difficult journey theymade down one of it«^ 
banks, that it was altogether impracticable for navigation ; and' 
also that it would be impossible to ti'avel forward down its' 
banks. On this mortifying discovery, they had to miiLe ujr 
their minds to what proveo one of the most painful and me- 
lancholy jouroies that any compaby of mortals e^el* per-' 



r,o,i,,-,-,ih,.GoOg_lc 



Cas»*» Jatmml ef an B^pe^ition of JOscover^ \\1 

formed. -^.Thfit it was practical^le at all, was owin^, to tbs 
-circumstance of the .Snadie Indians, who jntiabit thi» fright, 
ful tract of country, having a great number .of tior^^es. The 
travellers bought aliout ^trty of them, an^ ejigaged one 
of these Indians as a guide. Tha jourpey was across a 
mouniainous tract, where the toil, waa extreme, wiiere they 
werq obliged to melt the snow for ibeir portable soup, 
where the horses (which, they had for the conveyance of 
their baggage, not for jiding) met with frequent accideota, 
and where the men became fieeble, a^d: many of them 
Eickly from want of food, as they rarely, could kill any 
widl animals. But for.an occasional meal of horse-flesb, they 
must have, perished, as. they ^ad taken with them only an ex- 
tremely ^mall quantity of portable soup and parched com, 
which latter was ^oon consumed. This iourney lasted nearly 
s. month, and terminated in' plains, and on the banks of the 
Koos-kooS'ke, a. laxgq river, where they rmade the canoes tn 
which th^ were . to reach the Paci&c Ocean. The Snake 
Indians bad been very frif pdly to them ; and they experienced 
the .same kindness from the Flat-heads, a tribe labapiting the 
plains of the Koos-koos-ke. ,The deaomination of these people 
will be explained by a short extract. 

' We iDOToie thei* natires to be a part of the Flat-head nation, as 
all thnr headi^rqcOvipFeupd iDto the ume form. This ni^ahr and 
defonuing operatiea, i> perfonned in infancy, in the fbllowing nunacr. 
ApiecCof lioard is jdaced a^iut the back of Hu brad, extenoins ircHa 
the shoulders some distance aJbove it ; another ihorter piece extend from . 
the eye-Jjrows to the top of the £rst, and they are then bound together 
with uiongs or cordi made of skim, so as to press back.the forehead, make 
the head nsfe at the top, and force it out abore the cars.' p. 224. 

Our adventurers went rapidly down the Koos-koos-ke, were 
joined from the west by another great river, the Ki-mo-ee-oein, 
and.soop came to a confiuence with the Columbia, a riyeit 
of half a mile wide, and widened by this jupction to the 
breadth'of more than 1300 yards. At a place where this 
rivet &Us. perpendicularly twenty feet, they bad to take their 
baegage and vessels by land to the level, or rather the rapids, 
below- In passing down they obtained a tolerable supply 
of provisions, though- the country is far from woody, and saw 
a great many camps of natives along the banks ^ immediately 
below the cataract they perceived the tide ; and on the I6th of 
November, 1805, they saw the waves of th« Pacific Ocean. 

With a, few very short , notices,, we must now take pur 
leave of this most daring and indefatigable Ijand, T^py fixed 
their quarters in a woody region, a few miles from the coast, 
wher^ they supported themselves as usual by bunting, ^nd 
where they spent a ipost dreary winter, af. Mr. Gm*; ^ys. 



ih,Googlc 



iii Cass's Jiumdl^im ^xpedSion ofDitiffc^. 

Aift,'frem the4th of Norembey, 180S, to th* SJi^of MatxA, 
I80fl, there fcere notnrfort t^ati - tweJve drffs efa wMih it'difl 
no* rain, and of thes* bnt^iit were cleai'/ Thftj* had some 
nWftreonrte rtitft various tribes' of tbe RatiydS, the CTrttt-oifc*, 
ClKt8(l»fra, CitMaWas, Chiltiz, aii* Callimatix, all ot thiitt- verV 
*retehed' beings, a:nd hone of thern apparently v#y ''fott. 
midable, oiiless f^erhaps' the ' l&st^ntetitiotied tribe,- Wno ^m 
deseri'bed as fertttiioQs', Efnd one of whom attempted to bill 
orte of the party inonler tAget his blsnliet.' In one cirtum- 
staiifce 6f tfteii' condition, however, it shbuM seetn- iBct ad^- 
tance- flir towirds civilixation, as' they ri*aleveii lihe poEshed 
trtiea 6f' Engl WJ;', the P^^f were' visite'd by a procuress nitb 
nifite' sange prostitutes m her keepitig. TWey had' nlet mtb 
B siAiiiaV sbecitnlitii of ' European Cfiristnti' moiaTs at' die 
M&ndhh villages'; aUd Mr. G&s^ sdys it is by no means un'- 
ns«al amoHg' tte Irtdian tribes. The Flab-heads are the ohly 
tribe he met wit*t throilgh thd whole extent traversed by die 
expeditiort, to Whose females he grveS any crCJit, for virtue^ 
Snd *e h&vetiOt the smallest lieasoHtb'silpipote, that the pat^ 
Mlffclt^d tfaenfisclves U remam liH&iJbfmed of &e degree df 
virtUCDf arty one ttibte near which they spSnt any consideKiW* 
time. . . 

' I>ani^! the frfttttn of the nbrt)^ up nbe Cotumbia, they 
bad diore' intercourse with the natives:<^n wtien pe«s'iiig 
down' toward- the; ocean the jjrectfditlg' year. And aif the 
de«;riftri(ihrf perfectly concur in exhibhing a racS of huniaii 
btiilg^, of vVhosd hfe !c 'is the siiigle exclusive object to obtain 
i , scanty ntiserabl'e subsistence. This appears to' be the 
condition, of alt the tpb^s to the west of the Roct Moun- 
tains. Over most of that' country traversed and seen, by 
our traVeilets, tl^ere is 'ail' extreme scarcity of wood, ' and 
(Hfereftre- df wiH ariimah ; and* it is evident that, but for 
the'sabnon iH' t^ rivers, the slender' aiid miserable popQ-' 
ItttioHwtoirfdbe itriniediately femtshedto'deaili. "fhis hippy 
ddivdrftnee was very near bvirtalring' some of the forlorn' 
tribes' whbm the advcntd'retTs fdiind tort^ard the heid' of 
flomc of the river^ that fall idto the Coltnnbia, and who had' 
almosf consumed their little stock of dried fish before* tha' 
ascentof the salmon up th^ risers in the spritig. This fiih'bad' 
been observed by thfe travellers irt the' Columbia the pce.:^ 
ceding autumn, in immenste' quailtities, but in a^poor'and' 
dying condition ; so mUcb so, that Mr. Gasi' describes the' 
snflir<A at one place, aa ' lined ivlth d^ad salmon.' Their 
ascent ia' tfot obstructed by the fells of the Columbia, because, 
ifcte tide; combined with the effect of ^ veiy straifclied] 
G^Mhafe! for some distance below die falls, sometiinks' ;^,e£tuce&'. 
thtir defithto abdut'tenfeet. *. - ' - ' 



I h, Google 



G&ss's Jwrml of an Expedltitm af Discooery. Ill 

Tbc ^x}W(UtM>n rettH'aed Bp the rvi&t to tbeie falh, «nd 
then, iodt»ad of contindiflg' theirTOjrage to the fllace vrheK 
they ba<I taktiti the Water the ^ec^kig Bi^tRmn, Hkey dt-i 
rected thtir course towartb it by a jourtiSy acrosK tlie plains^ 
assisted by the horses (hey obtained among the natives, s 
race of animals, brought, ne ttoubf, ifi a fordier age, frooi 
Mexico. About tbc middle pf May. the adventurers reached > 
U]^ place where they had eircampei^ on the bank of- the 
Koos-koDs-ke, the preceding Scpteotber, jn sight of dlose 
dismal mountErins which they were now to cross once mote. 
But they found the enterprise quite impracticable jbr the 
present, on aecoTinP orf Hie srtow-, and were Compelled to - 
wait nnany Weeks on the plain, with stich a scarcity of game 
as threateped thenr continually with famine. Their wants were 
partial'ly supplied by a repast now and then on dogs and 
Dorses, given them by the natives ; who were indeed wonder- 
folly friendly to them, and besides affording them geueroui 
assistance, as ftr as their extremely scanty resonrces would 
allow, had the honesty to restore we horses which had beCA 
left with them the preceding year, and some other articles 
of property whioh they had tound^ though concealed irl the 
grouna by the travelters. Mr. Gass says, ' AH the Irw 
diaris from the Rocky Mofrrrtalns to the feUs of the Colunibia, 
are an honest, ingenuoire, and well: disposed pi^ople; but 
from the falls to the sea coast, and aloEig it, they are a! rascally 
thieving set.' He does not assign, or appear to have sought, 
any cause of such a difference : and we may be certain . 
that no such absolute lines of separation are admissible, ui 
moral geography. The acceant of even- this better divi^coi 
of the AoferKtaus- incUidfls a oharaoteristic circumstance : 
* One of the naeivasi hski rmind hi^ neok 9. scalb of an Pn- 
dKaa, with sis thwab» ai»l fttur fingers of other Indians 
hehadlulled itv battle, i»6 die Stw-sbo-ne, o# Snake nation.* 
p. »12i 

As GO their weapons) bc'says, 

* Fro.m the Miodaii datioD' to tbe Pacific Oaean, the arm^ of the 
lodiaaa are getKraJly bmvs and b)towb> aod t)ie ^var-niallet. f he war- 
Aallct is a dab, wkIt'3-Wge bead cX voodor ttoDe; tho^e of stone 
are gMcndly .iiavtMd< 4riflt< Isather,' and- AMMMd to the eM of tin dub 
with thongs, oritrajwDf'loathait'andihenBelvs of ciaJni^' p. 52S 

The journey over the tnoutitains^ wai mad^ in part of 
- the. montit. of. Jttnd and. parti efi JolV )' .al wllieh' seMoA the 
snovp li^ in- SQiae- pa^H' sis' o^ etgM feet dfeep, arl^cf' fFe^ 
«wff fM' on the Kjih- of ihi* lawei' mtottth;' though the lajl. 
tt^ «rt^ be only: abtrtjt ,« or 41 de^ees. At' this" part of 
H^ nfUYatiPfe. thef roHoWiiig pertipew. no(e. 15. ioS'erSwJ* nro- 
•fcaWy by^e puMlsber; ' "'■ ■ "^ f" ^k*"^ , 



.dtyGoogIc 



420 ' CeMH Antiqmiies 1^ Itkaea^ 

■JtviUnot be a subject of atupriHe thx aoow ibould fdl kerein the 
middle of wiBTDcr, wbco the etention of thit part of the couatrj, whidi 
dividet the eaiteni from the WMtera watettt ia ukea inlo nefr. £«eiy 
penoD wi!l be able to compreheiuL that no inull degree of elevatiiMt 
ahbre it< mouth wit] be coiHi^erLt to pve.so ts^d a com^e to the Mitsouri 
for upwards' of 3000 mile«, even »upp6Bing there |Were no great fall» or 
cataracti.' p. 344. 

Having laiely accomplished this perilous stage of tbeir en< 
terprlze, our trareUers separated into two bands, explored 
witL admirable uiirit apd perseverance some of tli(t head waters 
of the Missouri, and at length, by routes in which it is 
impossible for tlie reader to f^Low then withoi^t the assist- 
ance of a map, a great desideratum in this work, they alt 
met, August 12, 1866, about 200 miles above the Mandan 
villages. They arrived at St. Louis, on the 23d of Se{>- 
tember, havine lost only one uian by death, during their 
absence. — Nt:itner during the expediuon, nor at the close, 
does Mr. Gass make the smallest reference to the protection 
of Providence, if we exceot the single instance of one slight 
unmeaning paretrthesis, * thanks to God.' 

If the American government were lookiifg to . a commercial 
communication With the Faciiic Ocean, hv means of the 
Missouri and -Columbia, it appears to us tiiat the . dreadful 
tracts between the heads of these rivers must have nearly 
destroyed tbeir expectations. 

Art. II. Geli'i Geography and yiniiquiliu-rf Jlkaco, 
{ComladeJframfi. 10. J 
JUAVIXG noticed in. our last number the inadequacy of 
Homer's. description of the port of Phorcys to warrant 
Mr. Gell in deterqimiDg- that port to be the modern Dexia, 
our inquiries are naturally directed, in the oextj^ce, to the 
residence of Eumxus, the swioe-herd, whom Ulysses first 
visited after his arrival at Ithaca. This faithful servant,. as 
we are informed by the ppet, fed bi^ wvine near the tocl^ 
Korax, and watered them a^ the fount of Arethusa. There was, 
also, either an excavation' in the rock, or an ov^hanging 

.projection, which furnished the . swioe-herd .with a nightly 
shelterfrom the north wind, while he sl^t near the sties. Thee 
passage from which these particulars: are collected may be 
foun(^ Od. xiii, 407, and Od. xiv. ad-fio. 
/ * iFmn the beach (i»3» Mr. Gell] tnbere wc landed, which i*. on Am 

,BUttni side. of the itic, aad not lar from the cqie,wc proceeded iq> a very 
rwfted pah towaidi the |iTec!ince, till w* anived at a spot when the stiata 
oftix rocki, ditpoted in (teps, pres«it a cnrions and noKular nfturat 

' deiceiit to a fonntaia called Pegada, or the well freqneoted by the iluii- 

' herds of the ^dnity. The fouotain ii repmcDtea ia PUte I, wjua^ 



.dtyGoogIc 



■n 



0^*9 AJttiquikies ^ Itkaca. 121 . 

t tgutt i< *«m filing the tmngh from wbkli the cattle drink. ' Bdiiad 
thcAaMOiy U a can^ pecettBtkg abcut ten Utt into the mountain* 
ptobaUynudc lif ut St KHnediitant period) ntd comaining a remroir of 
cutUeat wUer, collected id drop* ffoia the joof aad ddei of the grotto. 
About ten jurdl south of the fbimt h the bed of a tonvnt, and in it ' 
hat been another roclc ciitero. A •tream ruihesi in the winteri frosi tbo 
mountain above, having first precipitated itself from tha roclc, and nused 
in iti way a number ^ beautiful terraces, formerly cultiFated. It la ink- 
le to visit this sequestered spot without being struck with the recol- 
of the FoDnt orArethusa and the Rock Korajt, which the poet 
ns in the same line *, adding, that there the swine eat the iveet 
acorns, and Afttsik. the clear blade water. 

* Hating nssed some time at die'fbnntain, taken a.drawing, and tuade 
ihentcessu^ ObMt-ntioas on the ntuatioo of the pl»ce, we proceeded to all 
Otanurati^ cpf the precbice, dimlnng oter tfae tefFaces atkow the Baurce^ 
among aliad]^.fig-iKt>,wliich,howeter, did not prerent us &omibalii^ the 
powerfuleHectsof ^eraid-day sun. After a shut,, but fatigaiag asceott 
we arrived at the lOck, which erteiida in a vast ferpea^iciilnr aentiaiKle, 
beautifully fringed with trees, facing to the loiith^aUf Under the erar in 

' Ibund two caves of inconsiderable extAi^ the eni ranee of one «f wEictit 
not difficult of access, is seee in the view of the fount. They arestiti 
the resort of sheep saA goats, aod in one Of them are small natural receft- 
tacles for the Wat«r, covered by a stalagmitic incrustatioa. 

* These caves being at the emrSmity of the cnrVe formed by the preci- 
ptoe, open toward the south,, and present us widi another accompmimeal 
of the Fooot of Arethusa, mentioned by the poet, Who infonns us t that 
the nsineberd Eomxue left lus guests in the house, whikt be, putting on 
a thidc garment, went id sleep near the herd, under the h^low oTthft 
rack, which sheltered him uorn the northern blast. Now we koo« 
that the herd fed near the fount, for Minerva tells Ulysaea^ that he it 
to go ^t to Eumxaa, whom he should find with the swine, near tlie 
Rock Korax and the Fount of Arethuaa. ^s the swine then fed at the 
fountain, so it is necessary that a cavern should be found in its vicidityt 
and this seems to coincide, in distance and aituatio^i, with that of the 
foem.' pp. 17—20. , 

We do not feel ourselves warranted to speak a/a strongly oit 
ttie identitv of this scene and the one described by Homer, «s 
the 'author. ' Surely it can be no uncomraop thine in a rocky 
country, to find a spring hu^blipg from a, ptecipice, and % 
cavern in its vicinity. But Mr. G. says " It may be fairly 
presumed, from the' very rd^itarkabie coincidence between 
this place and the Homeric account, that this was the sptine 
designated by the poet as the fuuntaiti of Ar^thusa, and tbe 
reudenoe of Eumieus ; and perhaps it would be impossible far 
find aiKithcr spot which bears, at this day, so strong a resQio- 
blance to a poetic description composed at a perioo so very 
vaniQte. There is no other fountain in ^is part of the island, 
nor any roctc which bears the slightest resejinblance to tbe 

■ * Ody.. N. 406. t Od. line 583. tOd. line 408. 

VoL V. K 



,,-,-,ih,Googlc 



laa' Ca\W Antiquities of Ithaca. 

Kopax of Homer „", It is -natwial, while contpDapfetingtbU 
scene with the iiaprcasion that it, is the Korax and the Arer 
thusa of Horner^ to seek all the CDiroborating drcumatances 
wliich can be prtacured. And when it li remembered that -, 
Telemachiifl Came to the Same point, by a diiferent route 
frbm his father^ one eagerly hopes' that the poet may 
have left some landmarks on record for' tracing his jour- 
ney. But on turning to the ISlh book of the Odyssey, it is a 
disappointment to discover that Homer is silent on, this 
subject; and the traveller "is compelled to solace h'^s^K 
with the thought, that as a long walk of the young prince, 
is not described, nor- any incident^, which happened on his 
ivay mentioned, the distance fioin the fort, where he landed 
^er his departure from the coast- of Peloponesus, to the 
residence of Eumtcus, must be short. This supposition 
agrees with the situation of the modern Korax. 

The next object is to ascertain the site of the ancient city 
-of Ulysses, for which Homer supplies usVith the following 
clew. From rfie rock Ko?P, we are told, Od. xiii. 204, that 
knysses and the swineherd descended a rough road) and aoon 
came i^eac the city, in the neighbonrhood of which was a 
fountain made by art, and supplied with water from a cold 
spring issuing out of a rock above. A circular groyeof alders^ 
and an aJtar to the nymphs, bompl^ted.the beauty of the scene. 
Now it is certain that Mr. Gell did find a weli, near the vestiges 
of the town sakl by tradition to be the ancient residence of 
lJlyfise», It is, however, rather remarkable, that when be is 
so persuaded of the strength of bis side of the cause, and in 
some oases indulges his nincy in an unwarrantable degree, 
h6 encumbers this part of the subject with unnecessary diffi- 
cnlties. He supposes the fountaih made by art, and the rocfc 
ftom which the spring issued, to be buried in an accumulation 
of soil. Gratuitous suppositions throw aa air of suspicion ovef 
a cause, and should not be indulged' where they may easily 
foe dispensed with. The fountain made by art, must have 
been a mere reservoir, which of course could not he perma- 
nent like the objects of BBture, and must have been reduced 
to fragments centuries ago. It was hardly tb be 'expected 
'that a cistern should exist from the time t>i Ulysses tilt nowl 
'With regard to the rock, there i^ no need to understand by 
it a precipice of amazing altitude. The word wnja signifies 
a stone as well as a rock ; and u4-bS" merely means a:b6ve the 
fount or reservoir. The poet may have intended (o describe 
apiece of mason's work constructed' for the pnrpose of giving 
volume and direction to the waters of the spring. ' Mr. G^K 
we fetel assured, cannut think this too fanciful. But tboiign 
this difficulty respecting tfaeahsenc^ of the few ptoia agd root 



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Geira AiaiqaiHet Althaea. ■ 123 

-niBy be removed, we cannot entertain much confidence 
that the ancient reBidence ,of Ulysses is certainly diaccn'ered, 
because an old well was accidentally brought to light rieax 
the vestiges of a town. We cannot boast of having travelled 
in those parts, but we frequently read of wells being formed 
in diilerent situations, ana almost invariably in the neighbour- 
hood of towns and villages, in the east. But let us advance 
from the well about one hundred and 6fty paces, which will 
bring us to the site of what Mr. Gell considers to be the 
aacieht city of Ulysses, now called Aito. Here the author 
does not boast of producing any accesBion of cviden<% to 
strengthen his argument, except so much as arises from the 
bare circumstance of ruins bein^ found in that situation. He 
is, as mi^t be expected, &om his classical ardour and his san- 
guine conjectures, very minute in detailing the number, posi- 
tion, and appearance of the remaining walls ; but the poet has 
left us no means of ascertaining «ny resemblance to the plan 
of the metropolis of Ithaca. Many parts of the mansion of 
Ulysses have been mentioned by Homer; He speaks of the 
echoing portico, the great dining hall supported by pillars, 
the dormitories, the {)rivate apartments. Mr. G. has taken 
pains to construct a magnificent palace iroja these hints nf 
the poet. He has adjusted the relative situation of the 
Tarioiis rooms, shewn their size and number, and gone so 
far as to fix the position of the doors, ascertain the height 
and materials of the threshold, and even the nature of the 
floor. We look upon this architecture of Mr. G., as a sort 
of castle in the air. ' It is almost impracticable to attain to 
a clear notion of any diversified scene of nature or com- 
plicated . structure of art by the fullest verbal description, 
much less by such broken hints as are dispersed in the 
Odyssey respecting the residence of Ulysses. It is awk- 
ward and unfortunate that the ground work of the town, which 
still remains, has not been mentioned by Homer, when the 
palace which he partially describes has of necessity yielded 
to time. 

The last coincideucc which we shall adduce, is the dis- 
covery of the garden of Laertes. The only directions with 
which' the poet furnishes us, are, that it was distant from 
the town,, and that the way to it from the citadel was a* 
descent. Mr. O. thinks he has found a third discrimina- 
tive circumstance, because a ship sailing from Italy was 
driven near the garden by a stoi'm. Upon this, point we must 
dissent from him, for a vessel in a storfn may be driven 
far out of its course. The spot which is said to h^ve been 
the garden of Laertes, is the village of Leuka. 
, , K2 



r,o,i,,-crih,.GoOglc 



124 G«ll*9 j^nlifiikm ^ Tiham 

'X««l(ai« a'««y pretty nIlme,-coDU<ting«f about ttfirtfhovKi. 7>e 
fiane ligiuiies a pofHv tree. It m situate on a litUe flat on tbcweUtm 
iaai of NciitoB, and jun-ounded by terraces producing cgrn and flax ia 
abundance- There » a well Wow tie village, luffidenUy plentiful for die 
purpOBes of the inhabitants, who cape out to congratulate as on our ani- 
ya!| with water in pitchers of coarse earthen-waie. 

* The beautjr of the j^ce, and the quantity of cnhiVMied graondi Soduced 
ns to imagine tliat Lenka -might be the utuatioo of the ^iea to iritich 
Laerces retirect during the absence of Ulyisee. The mskmb CQf^spondB 
«ith the descrlptioB grvn by (he poet*. Ulyiaea dcMewled frtaa the 
dtadd to the &nn of Laerteu whick waa at aone distaBC* fromahe 
town, Now the fam cnM not hiere bees on (be mitlutm poniQn •fide 
i^qod) £>>: if ii Kad Ujyseet miut luve passed very nea^r it in bit vay frvoi 
thehou^eof Eutasuito tfaceity, and in the other portion of Ithaca tWe it 
no way of descending from the citadel without coming upon XjCuka. That 
Xiaeites lived 09 the western side of the ialand> seems probable from the 
circuifistance that a ship sailing from Italy was driven near the garden hf 
a ilorm-'f pp. IQl, 105. 

From takiog, a general $urvey of the evidence^ wUch arises 
from Of comparipon of Theaki with the descriptioDS o£ 
Homer, in fE^vour of th« point which the. ajithor wishes to 
' establish,^ we caast acknowledge that it is veak and unsaT> 
tisfactory. The patticuUr scenes- do not cafrjt that con- 
vi^tipq to out mind whtch ttiey apjxe^ to ^ave efTected 
ill bio). There is a want ,of sometnnig escltjsiTely impro:- 
priate> Thjeir general similarity might have weight, 1/ no 
objections arose from another quarter ; but is not sufficient 
to overbalance lepugnancies and d'tlEculties. — We must, 
however, remind our readers that there is a wide dlfierence 
between dUproving evidence, and denying the fact which 
that evidence is brought to support 

Aftfr all, we are of opinion that Thea^i ia the Ithaca 
- of Homer ; not in consequence^ but in defiance, of the coib'* 
parisons drawn with so much minuteness by Mr. GeH., The 
truth is, that a constant and unbroken tradition baa tnorQ 
effect on our minds, than all the questionings of modern 
scepticism, and the pomp of modem Jogic^ which sometimes 
iiiviglve plain truths in inexplicable difficulties and uaanswer- 
able, qbiections. This tfaditioa is made out by the namQ 
which the island seems to have ever bome among its iiifaa- 
, hitants, aad by the medals whith have been found there. Re- 
presentations of three of these medals are given in the title 
page of the present publication. . The idcntificatipn of 
ancient places and the demonatralion of ancient events we 
have sometimes found so arduous, although from ciccumr 
stances not much conneuted with technical logic we enttv^ 
tained no doubt of the point, to be proved, that we arc 

« 0(L^^ ' t Od.2*.30fc. 

;., Google ■ 



■ GeX^i Ahiiquilies of Ithaca. \2i 

wot tflmys sUrtled or conrdunded by tli6 objections and 
difficulties to which researches, at this distant period often 
giT* bipih. We woutd ralfter ground on tfiis argument 
of fnldltion> than on aiiy other, our suspicioh that the text 
of the Odjssejr rcspectitig the situation of Ithaca is cor- 
rupted, anJ plead a right of emendation. And on the sani< 
principle, we would admit tlie conjecture that some chan^ 
has taktin place in the cbaonel between Ithaca and (&- 
phallonia. 

. AVe suspeet some of our readers are eveeedin^y fattened 
by tike dryOMs and. ]engtb of this hhaconiian iisousnon ;- 
and we wdl hope that etiiers, to» much- in lore tH«h Ho<" 
trier to think, an Inquiry tedieua whitih directs tli«ir attftti> 
tion ta his inimitabte poeay, will h^r with our protixiby. 
For tbs relief of the fwinetr class, and im order to canrey 
B more adequate coAceptioo of. Mr. Goli's performance to 
ail our readers, we will prodnce an extract ur two n^ich 
bave no refersnce to the above inquin.' The author's 
design is to givct a abort account of the lutereMinc kland 
of Ima«a] as well as to point out more parbieularly diose 
features, which may appear to have been dbacribed in tbe 
Odyssey. But we most complain, that he has dealt wicb 
too sparing a hand bis information respectiug the preient 
i;ibabitants of the isLand. He seems to have been so occupied 
with his search after the scenes decribed by Homer, that 
otber inquiries dwindled into insienUicance Ut hi» estima.* 
tion. The short term of bis stay,, also, nuist have prevented 
him from giving a faithful picture of the modern Ithacen. 
stans, even if he had' been disposed Co grant that gratifi- 
cation to his readers. For though a iew days might be 
sufficient for exploring the face of a small island, as many 
months are reqiusite to acquire a tpler^le acquaMttance with 
tbe charaoteror its inhabitsntst He has said enough, how- 
ever, to coQvinca us that tbey are still under tbe »flueace 
•f a base and degrading superstidon. 

■ Wi. Mm ^iMrX at tbe celebrati»D of tb« feaM of tbe AsccBiioa, 
iriien thf citizent appeared in their gayeit dreaset, sod lalatcd each 
euier m- the- atmtt .with' deinanstiatioiii of ■ plouure. A» we nte at 
bnakfiw k' die heme of Signior Ztvo, we were toddenty mned by 
the dliclMrgfe' d# a mat mcceeded by a tretDeodauj craib ai pottery, 
which fell 00 the t£s, stc[>B, and pSTeracatat ii> every directtoa. The 
bells of die Dumeroiu churches coramenced a most diKardaot jingltf; 
^ colaors were boitted on every maat in die port, and a jreDeral ibout fn;'yaf 
anaounced some great event. Our host iMonned us uat tbf &■* of tbe 
AscknioD was annually commemoiated ia this manaer at Bothi, the po- 
pulace exdflimhig ,H»1n V X^wlot, oMhk '« *«»» Christ is lissa, the tru 
G&d.' p. 29. 



r,o,i,,-crih,.GoOglc 



126 Philosophical TVansartiw^j,, 1 801, Part II. 

. A cus^m of h^h antiquity, still preserred,. is tfaits, de* 
scri^e^. ■ ■ ■ 

* Jq the even^g of the festival the inhabtl^U danced before their. 
hoQses, 401I at oo^we saw the figure which is aaid,to hay? b«o lirtt used 
bylheyouthsand, virgins of Delos, al the happy. return of "theicw fconi 
the expedition of the Cretan labyrinth. It has 'how lost mveh of that 
intricacy which was supposed to allude to the windings of the habitation ' 
of the Minotaur, vet much depends on the genius of the leader, whose 
ihOremeots are followed by ten or twelve men and women steeping time 
with the music, and holding by each other's handkerchiefs. One part of 
theidance reicfnUes the' game ofthreadtng the needle, as practised by 
cduldren in England, ufigdre not ill applied to the representauon of the 
nwMs and peTpIenties qf the labyrinth.' p. SS, 
- ifThese extracts contain dntoBt the whole of the intormation 
wjiieh Mr. &.■ has communicated respecting the present inha- 
hfrtants of the island. But we feel that'we have but little right 
Mvcbmplain of an author, for iiot fulfilling more than his et)^' 
ffai^tnent' promised, Mr. O. professes principally to give 
an- account of the antiquities of Ithaca; and thesfi he ex- 

Elored with considerable diligence. He had fatly prepared 
ia itiind with »uch intelligence respecting thid- bland, as 
former writers both ancient' atid modern supplied j and was 
competent to recogniee any coincidence which"niight offei' 
itielf to his yiew. It is but fairness to say that he, has. 
brought together, in his work, all the most inlportant pi»s- 
sages from ancient literature which throw light on his sub- 
jeet. By vd^al- descriptions 'afi^ ^i.'iquisite designs 9F the 
pencil, he has also put us- in full possession of the .topo- 
graphy of the itmdern Itbaca. Ifhn is too faneiful'in many 
«f nis conjectures', if he imagines coincidences which do 
not exist, or deems them more striking than they really 
are, 'the reader needs not be misled. The book contains 
its own reroedyjin the accuracy and' minuteness with which 
the scenes ar6' represented b}' the pen and the pencil, anrt the 
opennesB aiid imf^rtiaUty with which the passages from 'an- 
cient literature are cited. We are not obliged to yield 
to faja conjectweQ, hut itiay weigh his facts and deducto.' our 
owo conclasioBs. . .'-':■. 

^ , ;._ : : .^... p ,. — ~ 

Arti III. FhiloKfilikal T'''ff<'ctioia of the. Rfiual Sxuto ^ lffia4m. For 
^ , . ,the Year 1807.. Part U. 4to. «>; iv. 185. Price 15b. fid. J*Co1. 
■JJ^T this part of the volume for 1807, there are ten paipers; of 
* which we shallsjieak in rheir order. 

VII. On-Fairy mgs. By Wi H,Wollaston, M.D. Sec. R.S. 
Read March I2, lso7. The appearance of fairy rings, or 
circles of darli, green grass, common as it. is, and frequently as 
it has exercis;ea the ingenui^ of theorists, has not yet beeti 



Dgili--,-,lh,. Google 



■i'hitosophtcal Transactiom, 1307, Part II. ISTJ 

satisfisctorily Accounted fot, except tnf some measure by Dr. 
Widberinc, who 'has' ascribed i-hern to the growth fff agaric. 

• His remarks, however, were confined to on^ species of agaric, 
the Ag. orcades ol bis arrangemeiit ; but' Dr.' WoUastoti haS 
observed that these rings are for«ied by the growth, not 
mn-ely of this ^aric, ^ut also ol the coinrtion mUshrOoqi 

' fAg. tampeatris), the Jg' pnneriis,znA the ^^perdonhtwisiU. 
In the case of muslirooms, he found (hem -^lely at the ex- 
■terior margin of the dark rim of jftass; ahd he was led' to 

• conjecture from their position, that progresMv incfease' froth 
a central point was the mode of f<>rmat!On (rf' the ritg. "' 

We do not conceive it woilh while.. to iw^M upon this 
theory : for, in truth, we do not regard it as satisfactory. ;Tfa« 
:inost plausible theories, beside this, are those of Mr; Gough, 
'and M. Floriau-JoHy, which are detailed in 'Nds. "SO and 31 
of Nicholson'^s Philosophical Journal, or No. 4 df the fietro- 
"spect of Discoveries^ 
, VIII. Ohersalions on the Slructure of the .Stojnadijs (^ difffK 
tnlAnimak, with a view to elucidate the Proeesi of -converting 
Ardmal ttp4 Vegetable, .Substojicts into Chyle. By Pve^ard 
.Home, Esq. F. R.S. RejKl April 13, 1807. 

Mr. Home's obserratioBs on the .stomachs of tbet ' porptuM 
' and of curtiinatcBg tmimala,. described vin former comaiiinica- 
-tions to'^ RoyatSoci^, inclined him to believe thKttljffi 
■fourth Cavity ot'the'rumiHaTit's stomach, while the 'nnimal 
'is aJive, fs always ''divided, in a greateror less degree, into 
two jportions, one of which includes the plicated structuft;, the 
' othen* the villous. Hence he was led to conjecture that the foo^ 
uiidefgoes /auo. changes iti the stomach, the one preparatory fo 
the other'; the last of these forini-ng the chyle. .. ^ order to 
.investigate stilL further this curious subject, he h^ examined 
the internal structure of. the stomachs of different animals ; 
. aad the iDsults oi bis int^iries are bow laid, before the Kt^al 
■ Sociehr. : . .."■[■■.'■, ■ . • ■ 

Mr. Home describes tbeintemal Btructai<e of snch stomach^as 
appeared to form the principal steps in the gradation between 
animals which rumifaate and those which are truly csrnivorons, 
-nrangii^ them in a series, the beginning of which is that 
nearest allied to the stomach of the ruminant in the ctat- 
plexity of its parts, and the termination, that which is most 
simple in its internal structilre. Our indefettgable anatomist 
Jtates thftt be derived material assistance in the course of bk 
inquiries from Mr. Brodie,- and that the extremely accurade 
.drawings accompanying the paper were made by Mr, JV. Cl^t, 
The subjects, whose stomachs he examined, were the turhs^ 
the cod-fish, the hare, the beaver, the domumte, th^ waterrratt 
die cmnimn rtU^ the korscf the ass, th.e kangaroo, the hogt the 



,h,Cooj^lc 



128 JPkUosiphieal 7V4?uac<^,- i 807^- Par/ //. 

perari, the elephant, the moif, the stoat, the armadiUa- (wkh 
sine bands); he also examined the human ttoftach, and tfaet 
of the fyttx, the vdmnyre bat, the long-eared iai, fine havkt 
the cormorant, the. viper^ the /ttr^^, the /nif , aiuid (fae iAff 
shark. 

It will npt he expected th^t we should follow Mr^ Heme in 
his details reflecting the. stomachs of all these aaiaiaU : tliose 
w^a devote t^ir attenUon eo anatomy and phj&ielogy, will 
read ^ith, pl^sure acd advaoUge the whol« paper ; ivhi|« tp 
JWe geneia| reader we shall present Mr. HoQ»a'« mmmMcy vf 
tne pnnci{>a1 results, as be)ew: 
14 KiMo tht «eriM of facftg and obfeiratioM wtnch ban besb surfaced, 
' 4tK followiae coodaBioni laay be diasra. 
, ' liiat tbe soWeat liquor is cecreud fwm gind* of a lenwwbtt . 
pfflil^ svacture in all animaW but much largen and skuc toqipitowi* 
)ti-«m tluD 'others. ' 
' '*' Tiiat tliete glaoda are always situated near the Qlificc of t^e caviqr 
. ybese coDUnts are exposed to tbeiraacreuoD. 

*' That the tiscid lubttaoce found on the intemaT membrane of all 
,tfae ttomactis that were examined rvceitt^ after death, ia.trduced to that 
vtate bj tt KeretiDa from dte whole ttir&ce' of the atomach 'wliich coaga> 
lates aftjumeo. This appeora ts b» ffwed) by etcrf pinlt>f the fonrih 
«iunrriof:tbe calf's >Mtn«ch IwraRthc' pK^ertT of coagulitln^tnitkV 
• '"ISm ptofatf in the geoenl aeoretien (d.ifae oWmat^ featti itP M 
■v^tmiti 4i«t the 049gM*lJoB ef lNid,«ab«lmKei| if mceHtrji tor tWr 
faoiaBactvd oa t^tii^solnsntliqaori andi a, prac^CfJ.ol|s(*TiHtoa;of die 
Jate^Mr. Hoqtertthat veak stomachs cao onlf djg^ liHi^ £ao4»is ip 
cppBrmation of «■ _ .., 

. ' Thbt in convening animal and vogeuble Bfib^acai if^^fityi^, the 
food is first intimately mixed with the g^eral tecretuns of the stoinacbi 
Sind' after it' has been acted on by thenii the aolvEiit liquor is poured upon 
^ by wHith the nutritions pert is dissolred.' This solution is ^terwarda " 
'MnTtrfed htA ^e pj46ric p<Htkm, where it is raixM with &e secretionv 

-pecuRar to that cavity, and coBTerted Itrto chyle. '' 

i . « The gmt itK^tk. aC the mutdes. *f^ the fylvAtt paitiaa tif 'mate 
ttomachs, will, by their action, compress the contents, and Kjmxe the 
;^)# from, »h* ipftfeawble paw of the ft>«l>-. ■ ■ 

,:,j<.^aaeima)s 4d),9*ej^>qd it easy of di|eal^, the itcwK^cfawitsr of a 
W^iflc aad Pyloric. (Uttiw. oaly j b^t m ikw wluue iaai U, dilicalt af 
digestiopj, ottierpanfl are sHperaddec^ in which it undergoes a. prepajMioo 
_hefoi^"vt,«sulMni;ttedw'tha5;p!ipws3.' py. 1?7..15;'8. 
' iX- Exjierijn^^ Jor mvestigatkig iiu Cattu gf tht eahurtd 
«?naii*(mc MingSt tfi^cevered. by, Sir:lm*c NewWo, btiwtHa tmo 
■IHijp'it-giiisfies'h^.v^i Me.^i&thtr.- iBjr Willi«>i- Uei»diel, 
J,t.D>.r.R.S. J^d feb. a, ISOT-. 

Tlhi3.is.8,»ery twg, ve^ ilt^ETanged, and very uwotarettHig 
psperi tfceugfe wi .» bgh^ cimlcwa iwmc. We are diapoeo* to - 
.treatt «v«ry. «oisamBiiC«Uoii is^tsk ^U fJitringuisbied astroeo*' 
jnec^ w^' 4U. dtte- respect; ItUb savesal.of the pupu^ he 



Do,i™it,.Googlc 



PhUoMphicfd 'Iramaetietu, l80?> Pari //. Mf 

bU-rtCeittl^ pultKsbed bare':l>tte»«o feeble and jiJMi^ that 
ve retlly f««F hia repolation as a pbilosopher u liable ta 
a degrek of injury from his own ill-directe4 aad iiapeffiact 
Ubowrst ^icb it cQAlxl not aj^tehend from.any other saurca. 
Tha docUir's preseni object seens to be, tu orertitrn tbo 
Newtflttiaa theory vf gts of easy tran^iid)4»l and etMyno 
flacUoa. Witbeut desiring to be consi^itd tw streBaoMs ad* 
vacates of tiMt JtvpotbeMs, we may Ventore to tay that he 
h«a not adfascea ene aijgument, in th)!icDiw«iHucatu)8, bgr 
vUdt the ptobahilUy of ibtLfxistence <^ those iXa is in tin 
snaUdst cfesree Letseiwd. F«r though be affirma that^- when a 
leM is Ian opoD a iaet«llic'nttnar> there U do tmosmistiiiB 
of the niys ; yet the absori^tion, wlugb^e ia hot uowilliag 
t»adaiA,ls lA feat .t« be oonstdeied as a apcctfti of tiiuts- 
nbsioB. At a caffeful aationointcal obaerrer, tmH an in. 
genious experimenter, Ductor Hcrscfael deserter VUcbprtjsA: 
Mti^.late be kaa Gfentfally «omaM«Qed: hia, iKrestigBtions 
baftue he has acqoauitied hunsslf with what had beea done 
b^ !Otbfir-phtlo9ophersi or elae hat abandoned them beftir* 
uuykKre pro^Beed »ay resolts of real tgipoitaoae. As far 
uwe> can judge ftam aiJb paper before us. Dr. Usrtchel.sesmi 
Id bavercbnfvned faia itindy of the phenomena Of light, almost 
CDtiraly to tiie works nf: Newton r a« thodgfai notfait^ wortfajr 
«£ hisi ookiDe )nd hem done in the ctnnpafis of a century^ 
tfas mosC momeotoas ever known with regard to the piK^^eas 
•f pfailoeophiaal discovery. Is, it possible that this, .able 
aabviDaoier ^ould nerer have heard of £uLer, of fioAguer, 
of VarignoB, of tbe abb^ Mazeas, of Boscovicl^of Jtmian, of 
M- VoaiVi or of T, Yonng ? Or does be think thai imus of 
these phuosophera baite made discoveries worthy of his at* 
tention, re^ecting-tbe coionrs of thin plates f Finding himto 
have bBBD u extremely ill prepared ioi the study be utder^ 
took,, we MDD not surpriaod tbat be shotild speak of ^e 
•olmn 4»f thin ptatea as ' the discovery' of rtowtoo, thnoiif^ 
ignosBBce of the pmjons ohservatians of Dr. Honlce and 
L-oadi BrenetoB:; nor can. we wooiler at. hb hasty conchiuon, 
that tJwi sabject of these madi&catJiHia of light baa been 
' totally overlooked* by alt later authors. We hope tbot hsi 
fate Bhi* genllenan farther pMuecutes the subject in the nay 
ho pcopmaes, h«. will take ma pains Co leaoi wibac Ins been 
done already, and thus spare himself the mortification of 
having labottEod Hnnacenariiy and ia ntin. 

Ganxicictring tiwt naboral teadcncy of a high, repntstistt «• 
gtrft«UM«nt^ ewL la vetj inditfentne re;iaaoiitgp, we have 
Bougbt im sigbtto.ospeaxourdeaidedo|Hnioti on the>pDe9ent 
ac«aaio«i So ibr fimn. tha pMMy cspeFifwadk described by 
Dr. H. (p. 231) being decisive against the Newte^ian hypo* 



ih,Googlc 



rtie«wi'((8 w&ltevftllately heard' if pretinAeS, we cOttMefit 
M totallyi uncdangcted with the qiiefltioti', Becuilte tbe'ra^sof 
Jight are foilllti to undergo certaitlflexions and nit)difi<attiOn« 
^n the rteighbiiUrl«>oil' of bodic^rtear-whiclithey paW'W*!e» 
converging from the'sUI-face of a 'mirror, doea it follow that 
tb«y are not libble'ljo trM^-modificalioAH at the Borfiwiesof 
tnuifi^r«iit bodies ^'At'-would be :«;~ciurious -wsy-of reftttiog 
tfe position eltaf'e and 3;mafce'5> w affirm^ tliough ever so 
giavetyj th«t ftdnd-gmakelir:- PropBsidbns-mrf be' diifereirt 
without- bftmg corttradictory. Thn colours here described are 
identlicaj with i hose 'of' the cOronte detcrifasd by M.: Jordan 
and others, and cenalWly have no imraediate ooniJeotion with 
.the^cnlours of thin ^Iktes. 

- X.. On the EcBjimriv-^ Beesr InaLetterfrom T.A.Rnight, 
£sq. F.R.S. tO'the Right Hon. Sir Joseph Banks, Bait. KvBu 
P.R.^. ReadMny li, I801. - 

Accordingito this paper,;.the ophrion, that each hife or 
swavoxof bees remains at alt timCsunconpeoted'iwith other 
colonies' in its vicinity, is erroneoos ;-forMn K.fotind thftli 
B fris'iidly intercourse- often takes plane bhtween difiineAcea^ 
lonies, and tbat this ^ not unfrequentlyf endd ina juncuotY'-ef 
the' two snarmt. He' also -remarked ibat bees.wiU * cilrnr 
otller things on their thighs' beside' the_^nna of plants -witn 
which' they 'feed their young; and ^- \i' strougi^ disposid 
to -(believe that' bees-wax, instead a£'bdng an' snimatrsub^ 
stance exuding between the scales r^ the' inseatfs bdli^i As 
Mr. Hunter imagined, ' is collected from planftf. and merSy- 
deposited between' those scales. Beside' the preeediitg ob". 
servations, there is nothing worthy of notice in- this- pafe*^ 
except the frequent recurrence of the. term 'not unfre- 
quentJy,' — ^a fashionable phrase^ we conjecture, with the 
-dilettanti part of the R. S;, importing- nearly t^s:saiaevag 
freguenlii/, or oflen. Those who 'want to learn any thing. "Im- 
portant relative to the economy of beesi-Avill obtain, iar more 
information from M. Huberts Nouvellei 'Observations- atr Jea 
Abeilles, than from a '^htindred such heaitatiag, indfaiibiira^ 
unfinished communications, as ^at which we ere notr dis-< 
missing. < i ' 

XI. Ohservatiom ■ and Measurements <f the Planet ..fTesUi. 
By John Jerome Schroeter (of Lilienthal) F.R. S. Read May 
2S, 1807. 

This is a modest, unsssuming paper, neither giving^' boc 
pretending to give, much information. M. Scbroeber finds 
that the apparent diameter of tb« plaoeb Veata is only 0,488 of 
a second, and only half of what he has found to be the 
apparent diameter of the fbuitit .ntellite of 'Saturn. He 
then adds, — . - > 



r,o,i,,-,-,ih,.GoOglc 



Philolop^iial TrMMctmu, \wn,PaHU. JSi 

* ThU extraoTdiaaiy imallntMt wth »utk am inlmt't ra£mt,.amd' mw' 
iUtdy rig)U of a f)tid itOTi is the more remarkable, u, according to 
the preliminary calculatisoa of Dr. GauBS, there can be no.^oubt t^ - 
thii placet ii found in the aame region between Mars and Jupiter, in which 
Ces^s.^PallM, aad Juno perform their revolutica* round the son ; that, in 
ctoae uAi<iB with them, it has the same counologicat origin ; and that aa ■ 
jilariet of mch smalloesa and of bo very inienae Jight, it i» comparatively 
miO^iothi earth. Hit remaiikable circumstance will no doubt be. pro- 
ductive t& iraportant coamologieal obKrrationai as lOon as the dements of < 
die new p&nct have been iul£cieii0y determined,' aad ita diatance from the , 
caith aacertaioed by calculation.' p. 216. 

XII. A new Evdunneter,. accompanied teith Experiments, 
elucidating its Application. By William Hasledine Pepjs, Esq. 
Read June 4, 1807. 

The principal advantage of this ingenious contrivance. 

In wilicn the re-i^entb intended to act dii the gas to be 

exaaiined are inclosed in a gum elastic or indian-ruliber bottle, 

but which we cannot Uescribt very intelligibly within'moclet^te 

lidiHs, is that of measuring the absorptioti of oxygen 'gas 

BWre accurately, even to the thousandth- part of a'l;iibic 

inch, than tbe apparatus iii common use. With this' ad- 

Taotaee, it baa also that oif pepfoimin^ i the process''' Vith 

'.compTetajess aod accuracy ;:it i»of easy construction,. and Veiy 

■ portable. ■' ■"^- ' '■■•' 

Xill. Obs'ereaiions m ike Nature of the mew celestHi Body 

disfiovefed Ay Dr. Olbirs, and of the Comefwkick wastxpeifed 

•^■appear tost Jariuary 'in' Us Return from the San. ^y ,^i{- 

iiain Herscbel, LL. p. f.R.S. Read'june 4. I8O7. :.■■ ". ' 

We find nothing worth recording in that part of tlv^SS 

observations' which relates to the ^la»et, ,6r, as Dr. Hers^b^ 

will sLjU have it, ^ the asteroid' Ve$ta, except, that with 

a power of 577 the diameter of the visibJe discof ihe ' 'ask- 

teroid' i$ about a 9tb or loth part of that of the Georgifrb 

planet. . ■ ,„ - 

The tsnaining port of this paper respRcts what Dr. 

Herschel, by a lingular phraseology, terms ' the exptcte'd 

contet.' It was seenboth bythe doctor's ' sister Carolina^ 

and faimself: the following is the conclusion of the memoir. 

» When i conqare these crfneivationa with ray fonner one* of 15 lither 
telescoinc comets, I find that out of the 16 which I have . ekamioed.'. 14< 
have ieea wiihota a»u vhiiU ioIiJ tody in tieiretnlre, and that the other 
two had a very ill oefined amall central light, which might perhaps be 
called a nucleus, but did not deserve the name of a disk.' p. 266. 

We wish the Doctor, instead of presenting the public , 
with bis crude speculations on coloured rings, . had ascer. 
tained and described the principal elements of these comets : 
^ucb an tudertaking would fail more within his province. 



.dtyGo.ogIc 



lcc%e of iteae tftAy tistraordinaty apparations, ~^or wheilKr 
*«■ are- to call tbem tearenlj Awifej or not, teetta now * 
iDStter of BoaiE doubt. . , ' 

■ XIV. On the quanJtty of Carhgn in CarSonic A'pi4,, art^ OH 
the nature <jf the Diaaiond. Bj William Men, Esq* .F-t-g. 
and Wjliiani. Haslledine Pe^ys, Eeoj. K^ Juiw.iaii.,Uq7,- 
., Tbe- esumales of (bo q.uaD6it,y ^.K&al esrboa iii; (wcUmK: 
igMads by Lavotwocn ' G«i vteti dtr MarveKU, and $»wb«an Tria- 
nan^ differing very widely; tat tbe^ cxpcnvaont afGu^tm 
deMonreau»oa the ccrmtuisUl^^cypf bhedimnoiMlrbcingltifble 
^ lome olyectioin from thQinaaner ia wbicti the opgwwfliy 
were cdnoiicted, Mr. Allen and Mr. Pepya, wboMi. f^e^fh 
Eacy and sKiU. in chemical 'inquiries Br« y*«\\ inowf^ .de- 
tennined to- institute ^ set cw exfivrimeHts in otdlsK itl> 
settle' tbe question. The. apfHuatpK tbey n^e- :IIm< -^F 
wa$ tculy ingenious.,, tbe axperun^Hts jw^eio;U4ly QondMQte^ 
and snfficiently variied, and the pjjoper cotrecUoKs di,iljf,ap> 
plied: their laboius on these iAtcrestiug topUM hav«^ ia«iK 
estiniatioi:^ solidly, established tbe £vA\(iyiHi% pointy.: 

'!». TluCtheeKinate giMa b^ liivaiiib-, ef SS-pant^of-dtban -ill 
-cwiy UX) paiu ctf caitotue aoidi. iv.TEryiBculy coirect^tfae mcaB' of 
our expenmenta irukes it 28,60. 

* ScQf > 31W f^ tSamond it p»irt eathonf foT hod it Mntsttcd any 
Bota&le proportion of hydpogcDc, JX muu Jiav^'hean diwowred eitfajtr 
by detonating with the oxjgvne, aa id tl^ ca^. of animal c^coalj.or 
"by dinnbiihitig the quantity of oxyc;ena gas. ; ' ' 

* Sdjy, That welfbamttharcoaTcOntarna' no' sensible quantity of hy- 
Avgene I but if exposed to the air for a few hours it absorbs, mou- 
taret «4iKh renders the- reanlbi' oncertaiir. 

* 4tlily. That cfaircoa] can oo longer b^ -ciinndered a aft oicidt of 
CU'bon; because wAm fuvflwh fr^tartd^ it requires quite' u .anefa 
finygnK for its ctmifausnoD aa the dianNxid. "nuvis also- tbe case with 
atone coal and plumbago. 

< 5thly. It appears that diamoad and! all cartjonaoKMS aidntaaon (as 
br u,' our present methoda of analysis are fi^afaje of ibiiiniiiirwiiin iMr 
Baturel diner principally from eadi other in. tbe Mate, of aggs^HUMa 
6f their particles. Berthollet has wdl renurkec^ . tliBt in pcofortlon 
. as' this ii'scronger, decomposition is more diiGcult : and hence tlw 
.variety oF tnapenwres reqmred for ifie combnoian oc diB^imt inflam- 
nable nbmacM.'' p. 383. 

, XV. An. JccoUkl ^tke Selisliam Jm Uune. ^ Mr. J«aa^ 
Canie. Read Ma^ 7, 1807. 

The object of tlib communication is not so much to give 
an account of the. Tin Mine,^ as to relate the noveL airoum- 
stance of * the occnrrence of pebblea of ehlurite schist, c»- 
•ihented h^ erystaUiud tin.' 



i,,-c,it,Googlc 



XVl. An JniAftisY*^ UTaiert af the Dead Sm dnif Ike 
River Jordan. By AlexAMtltr MireM,. M. D., one of -^tm 

WwsiciaiH to Ouy's llaspiteJ. Read June 18, ISOT. 

The Dead Sea is a perpetual token of the effects -df tti* 
▼ine dispte^nre at aggravated sin ; so that ererr tfaigg re- 
Utiw to it will -be read with peculiar interest. Tnaependenily 
of Qie frdquent fefererices to itin the Scriptures, as. in 
Ceoesia six. Dent. xxix< 22. Zepliaaiah ii. S- &c. we find 
it described by Strabo, Tacitus, and Pliny, aowng tke an- 
ueiito* wd by A(Mwdfe4, Paceche, Volney, m4 otAers, 
aiaeng tira Bwdcrm: all of wbon confirm tbe stBtoanenk 
of the intense sakirta* of the wattns of this lake. Bat, 
though the obief peouliarily of tfaew waters has been loiig 
kaowiii we are not aware of any chenical analysis, beside- 
^oM by Mt M- Mgcquer, Lavoisier, add Saige ; an analysi«^ 
however, which does not appear to have been conducted with • 
the iitoaost posaible acouiacy. 

The specimens, analysed by Dr. Marcet, were brought 
to Sir Joseph Banks by Mr. Gordon of Clunie, who has' 
recently 4ravetied in rilestine.; he thwe (iUed an ounce, 
and-half phial with wMer <of the Doad Sea, and a rather 
larger phial with water fram the nver Jerdaii, which runs 
into the Dead-Sea. Dr. Marcetfirst state* the following ge- 
neral properties pf the. water of this lake, 

< One of the most obrioui peculiaridei of the Dead Sea water, ii its 
■l^edfic gnnt^ which I ibuad to be 1)211-, adcxree of deasitji icarceljr 
to 'Be met with, I believe, in any-other naturaTwater. The circum* 
stance of this lake sUowing bodiei of considerable weight to float upon ii« 
surface, wai noticed by lome of the moit ancieot writera. Strabo, 
amongst others, sutoa that . men' could not dive in this water, and in' 
going into it, woold not npk lower tluu th< navel ; aad Pococke, who 
batbnl in it, relates that he coold lie on its suT&ce, motionless, and 
in any attitude^ wkhout danger of sinkiDg*. These peculiarities, wbicb 
Ii at first, suspected of being exaggerated, are fully confirraed by Mr. 
Gordon^ vAo alio bathed is the ij/ke, and experienced all the e&cts 
just related. 

' «. The water of the Dead Sea l» perfecdy tftmpaiwJt*, and doa 
dM deposit; any crystalt on Standing In chae vntdk. 
* 3. Its taste is pecrflariy bitter, »3if», and pungent*. 
4l Solutiomi'ersi]veTpn>duce4oaita VwycainoailPWC^hai^almKt 



tag tbe presence of] 
• S. Oxalic ■ ■ 



add tastaady disoaftn fime la the 'teto'. 



* Mr. Mauodrelr being williag to fiiake a trial of its strenotb, went 
iote the vator, and " fauna it bore up his body in- swiipmirie with aa un- 
common force." He also tells us <■ that the water of this Me tii sea !• 
vt*y lui^d, sod /oA to die lughest Axptt i aod BOt <u)y Mh, bot'e]*- 
vcnetjr M)Vr and mnutoiu.'- w>- 

r,o,i,,-,,Mh,.GoOglc 



:1M Philosophical Tratadaionsy liQlf . PffrtIT, , 

• 6;'The']ii^e being Mparated, both cauitic and ctrboaued-allcaliei 
tMdiljr.throiiv down a magnenan predpiutc, ', 

< ?• SolutioDs,of barytea produce a cloud, ^owjng the exis^cf of lul-^ 
l^uricacad. 

' 8., No almnine can ,be discovered in the water by the delicate. teit 
of succinic acid combined with ammonia. 

' < 9. A small quantity of pulverised flea salt beingadded to a few drops 
ftftheyater. cold and undiluted* the salt was rea£ly_ dissolved with the 
assistaiade of gentle trituration, showing that the- Bead Sea is not satu-' 
rated with common salt. 

• 10. NoDe of the colouied infusions commonly iised to ascertain the 
prevalence of as acid or an alkali, such as litmus, violet, and turmeiicf 
were in the least altered by the water." pp. 298, 299. - 

. Dr. Marcet analysed the water by two difl«rent prbflessCs;; 
die results of both coincided very nearly, but tne author 
seems to think the last, which we here subjoin, the most 
accurate. 

• On summing up the conteDts of these 150 grains of the water, they 
appeared to be as follow : 

' Salts. , Add. 

Muriat of lime - 5,88' gnuos 2,89 grains. 

Muriat of magnesia 1^7 => ^I 

Mttriatofsoda - 1^S4' =? 7,15 

Seleaite - - 0,08.. - . - 

36,87 18,65 ' 

And consequently the propoitibiis 6f these salts in 100 grains of the vater 
would be: Grams. 

Mmiatofllme . . - ' S,920 
Muriat of magnesia - - 10,246 
Muriat of floi& • - -, ■ 10,S60 
Sulphatof liras - ^ - 0,0S* 

,2*,580.' pp,310,Sll. 

"Hence it appears that the Dead Sfeff water wm contains 
abo^t one fourth of its wei^t of salts supposed in a state 
of perfect desiccation ; or, if, they be desiccated at the tem- 
perature of 180° on Fahrenheit's scale, they will amount to 
forty-one per cent, of the water! If any, person wish' for .a 
stronger confirmation of the Scripture account of the Origin . 
of the Dead Sea than this furnishes, we can (Hily pitythe 
miserable state of incredulity to which he is reduced, and- 
coihmtt him to the influences of that Potver which can cause . 
the ' wilderness to blossom as the rose,' and from '.stones raise 
up children unto Abraham.' ■ ' ., 

The water of the river Jordan was also perfectly peHucid : it , 
wu yery soft, and bad no sali?u taste. Fire huhdred ^nins,'* 

r,on,-,Mh,.GoOglc 



Atcimtan PrMe SermHK IM 

vv3ptyMi6&-^ £00* left C^S gtaim of dry reaidae, whicb ia'aoly 
-j^ rare of the proportion- of solid mattetin the water of 
the Dead S£a. Property treated, 'this water indicated the 
presencte- of carbonate of lime. Two other precipitates^ ope 
of them magnesian, Were also produced, the former weigh- 
ing 0,lz of a grain, the latter 0,18 'of a graiii. The in- 
fereoces Dr. Marcet drew from the whole were, * that the 
river Jordan might possibly be the source of the salinA in- 
gredieirts of the Dead Sea.or, ai least, that the same sotirce 
of imp regulation might be common to both' ! ! ! The glaring 
absurdity tof the former -inference, its slight connection witn 
the lattei*, and our iTf^estigator's obvious unwillingness to 
glance at the real cause, cannot pass unnoticed ^y the'most 
careless reader. We would earnestly recommend this ex- 

Eert chemist to analyse -the state of his own mind in re-' 
ition to some reiy momentous topics : and would beg to 
remind hiui that, if the philosophy which stops at second 
causas, deserves censure, ' of how mutih severer' reproof 
must that philosopher ' be thought worthy', who not merely 
stopsat second causes,' but biisily hunts after them in a caso 
where the immediate agency and impression of the ' Great 
First Cause' are stamped most visibly, palpably, and eter- 
nally. And, apart from religious considerations, we would 
wish Dr. Marcet to explain, upon hit hypothesis of the river 
Jordan being ' the source' of the saline ingredients of the 
Dead Sea, how there should be a marked duFerence between 
them? namely, that while carbonate of lime was detected in 
the water of the river, there should be no trace of it in the 
water of the ■sea f 

Art. IV. A Strraem on tM Trantlalion of thi ScriUvm iaio tht Oruntid 
Langa^ei ; preached before the Univeruty of Cambridge, May 10, 
180rr. By the Rev. Francis Wraoeham, M. A. F. R. S, of Trinity . 
College, Camlmdge. 4to. pp. 51.' Price 3/. &d. Loodon, Mawmu ^ 
Cambridge, Deighton ; Ojtford, Parker. 1807. 

Art. V. AStrnumprracktdiifortthe VmvrrtUy ^ Cambridge, oatHie^&iL. 
Juac) ld07) agreeabEy to the hutitutioD of the Rev, Claudius Eucha- 
nan : ^ the Rev. Joho Dudley, M. A. of Glare Hall. 4to. pp. 39. 
Price Sj. 6d. London, Cadell and Daviea ; Oxford, Parkefj Cam- 
bridge, DeightoD and Nicholson. I807> 
Art. VI. The Expediency of traiulalhg Our Scrifiturct into teveral of the ■ 
Orientai Language!, and the Means of renderinr thote Traaiktiona use- 

' All, in an Attempt to convert the Nations of lodU to the Chritiijui 
Fdtfa ; a Sermon preached, by Special Appointment,' before the UnT- 
♦mity of Oxford, 14ov. 8, 1807, by the Rev. WilRam BairoW, rf 
Quftn^i Cdlcge, L. L.'D'and P.S, A. Aathorof an Enay od Edu. 
cation, udihe Bainpton Lectors Sennoiufor'179d,>4t9; pp. 39. fiitt 

. Sr.^.. Cooke, AiviBgtoa. 1896. 



.dtyGoogIc' 



lU SmhanUn JPrae Skrmmt. 

.imwimetik carrot tjmgiu^^ itfe M^i £k tht U«t ^id BoBBfit «f 
' the Natiwi 1 fireivhf4 og.itft<i»X AfvotobotaXf^iti^ze the ^JtuKfiMi/ 

of OxMi '>'o'^ 29>1.9Q7i,^ the Kef.£d«^ Nv%, Ihf.A.laie 
' Fellow of ^£moa CalWe^. and Rector of fiiddcoden, Keat. iia. 

i». 70. Price 3f. &/. Cooke, Oxfondi ftivhgtoni. Black snd 'Co. 
■'1808. ..■;.,. 
TT nay be presumed the priacipal object of th«; fHr^posal 

ta tha Englith UniTeraitie^, for the appoiotmiwit. ,^f <|<H)r 
(^ their mambers to preach ,oa the eubject H^oijed in. these 
tiUt!«,.. WM rather to exqite the natioiwl atteriiti^Q And ^n- 
tereatj tb»n cithM to briug under discusuon the geoenU 
^BOttiot of #>e propciety of thus .truulatjiig Ha/ft biblq, . «c 
to obtain speciAc iiistructioBS rei^B^e to thesiod^ of ese^ 
cutirtg sjtich ^ (vork- That, propriety iodeed could not be- 
held to need an^ argument, or ad^ any d«bate, anong 
ftersoiu believing the volume to be, imd to b^ exolusiv^^, 
ft diviae reT«lation ; ajid the queetlans relativ-e to the jMrti^ 
edlar wetbods and ri^e* of translating, and to thejiwilber, 
aod the order, of precedence, of the eastern dialects which 
ehouJd be made vehicles for the Baci;ed oraclj^ «fi|uld be 
more 'wilibiii the eorupneece of the Cbrietian- £cho}ars ia 
the East, than »f the most learned j^dg^ to whom tJ^ey could 
W ^hmitt^ hese. 

Indeed^ work had already utaAe s>4ch a progress, i? the 
able babdf ' (^ Mr. Carey sm hi» associate^ tong.biefore 
aay kind of 'co-«peratit>n was thought of by tuiy of .the persona 
esaembled si^« in the Be^al .(ilollege, or ' the soisllest 
notice was taken by the learned in this country, as to prove 
that no oateB tat i o Mfl »che«e, no foriDal movement in tbe 
ielOTWd *firidj WMfMcesiaty, itioi^erto effect a fery >a|«^ 
ttod at tbe same (ime careful; tnuisfusioa of the Holy Scrip- 
tures' into tfat £sibtic languages. Aided by. annuid oijfipV^ 
t)¥ motley, in SQnls .£arj)risiti^y SBOalt, cimsidering Ae izst 
'extent of the work; that. Bnareiis' of translators,, with liis 
ttssistatA' mkaionariM, and some learned iiatires .of thb east 
iphom lie has been vigilant and sutcessfnl in sfe^kiiifl for the 
serviiej would ib i^'fewyears have -^q^uiipped i^ BiMe for 
invading every idolatrous r^ion of AsT'^ tbDUgbuuassisIied by 
the slightest favour or co-operation of any learned insfi^U(Hi 
whatever, ' ■" ' .'"" 

Wefeel .it the more oiwepsary to do .ttiis Justice io Mc 
!Carey and his .missionary coa^utors^ because we hare i>b- 
laerved JWt ft few instances of a oispositioa to withhold it. >Ve 
Jiftve pwcdved in Bene qdatttaa the indicatieiM 'oS a miafa. , 
<D>'^alSaa slightly >tt.(nimbie over the wifno^kled adiieve- 
ments of th^ men ; while RfteseBtMtBW .itKtald h^ «tUl 



Do,l,,-r,lh,.GOOglC 



Btuhatum Prixi Sermom. 13l 

inaVing; of the necessity of translations into the eastern 
languages, end of it |jlan of appointing translators, so and 
so setected, so and so qualifieu, so and so authorised, and 
so and so patronised, just as if the fact were uot before 
our eyes that there already are many translations going on 
with the utmost despatch, a number far advanced, and sereral 
very nearly finished ; that there already are in full action a 
set of translator:!, whose combined industry, fidelity, facility^ 
and attainments in the Asiatic languages, there can be 
no chance of ever finding men worthy to supersede. And 
again, in sOme other instances, where the extraordinary 
performances of these men have been recognised,. we have 
noticed a mode of expression apparently implying, that 
they have been employed, or in some way of other pa- 
tronised, by the College of Fort William ; whereas it ought 
to be understood, that these translators have proceeded under 
no direction but that of their own judgements, improved 
and corroborated, as wise men always know how to improve 
their judgements, by consulting the opinions of all the 
intelligent persons within their Knowledge; and under no 
patronage or auspices whatever, other than that of the 
subscriptions of the religious public toward the ezpences, 
conveyed to theln chieSy through the medium of the Baptist- 
Missionary Society, who sent them to India, aided by a 
liberal contribution from the British and Foreign Bible Sa> ' 
ciety, — unless indeed, like some of our wretched abettors of 
paganism, we are to consider it as quite a lavish generonty 
of patronage barely to have suffered such men to live and 
study, on the consecrated ground of our Indian territory. 
Mr. Carev's situation, as a professor iu the Bengal. College, 
afforded nim, no doubt, many advantages of aUterarv kind, 
and also the salary received fur his personal sejrvices in 
that •dttiation was an advantage of a pecuniary kind to hia 
grand undertaking; for to that undertaking he has devoted 
toe last rupee that he could spare IVom bis necessary expencec, , 
instead of indalging in luxury or making a fortune; this 
is about the extent of his obligations, (let them be called 
to, since a Christian and a sectary cannot be supposed to 
deserve advantages, or to earn a handsome salary) of his 
obligations to the College ; the whole schei^e and manage- 
ment of the biblical translations were the concern of the 
miuionaries alone, and independent of that or any other learned 
institution. Thus supported by no further patronage than 
a moderate annual subscription, these disinterested and in« 
defatigable itien have performed a work which exceeds aU 
former examples in the same department of literwy labour. . 

Now we ran no hazard in saying, that if the same number 
oS iAetgyment- conOuencing under the same difficulties 
V0I.V. L 

. . L.Cooj^lc 



IS8 Bttckanau Priff Sertftons^ 

without any pecuniarf reward for ' such labqun, proTuluiK 
besides, in a great measure, for even tbe aiibsuteace oF 
themselves and their families hy their extra exertions, had 
acquired such an extent of oriental learning, and ei^ecuted 
'such a prodigious mass of translation, the preachers oa 
the subject before our Universities would have tnumphantly 
held them up- as having gone far already toward executing 
tbe gi^eat project in questipn, and as being quite of course 
the men that ought to form the basis and the soul of any 
still more extensive «chen]e, for the same important purpoie» . 
which a Christian nation might be inclined or exhorted to 
adopt. And the reverend preachers would have been higidy and , 
justly indignant at any proposal, which should overTooJi} or 
but slightly notice, the great and rapidly advancing perform- 
ances of these translators ; .and which should, we do not say 
tend to deprectatti their labours, but that should do less than 
most explicitly recognise their works as the more than half 
accomplishment of uie noble design, and the workmen as the 
persojis that ought ever to be at the head of all under- 
takings or institutions for oriental translations of the bible. 
Either therefore let it be distinctly and iionestly declared, 
that the circumstance of these translators being- sectaries 
desecrates their nttsinments, and destroys the value of their 
labours, destroys even the valne of the sacred text if thof 
faithfully turned it into Sanscrit or Hindqptaneci or let them 
be acknowledged as the worthy leaders of tlje undertaking, 
the head of the column of biblical assailants of supersu- 
tion, liot to be displaced by substitutes, but reinforced by 
associates.— ^We have premised these observations, because 
we, thought it moire delicate to express them in a general 
form, than as particular remarks, to be several times repieated 
on The sermons now before us. 

These sermons are the- productions of men well knowa 
for talents and erudition ; and we are pleased that tlw 
learned bodies, before whom they were delivered, haye had the ' 
sn^iject presented to them with 'so much elegance, knpwledgei 
aijaspifit. 

■ Mr. Wrang^am's ii the first in the order of dme. It begins 
in a pointed and spritely manner, with a Quotation fropj a 
TCnerabTe English prelate, a bl^op of Cbichestei in the. 
sixteenth century, who was of opinion that the most perni- 
cious elfects would accrue to the devotion of wonbippioe 
congtagettons, from the prayers being in a language wmw 
they could understand. This leads to a brief cetrospfCt of 
the great contest (more memorable than that aboat die.Vodjr 
of Moses, and between parties of the saoiB chsntcter) whe- 
ther the books- ti^ Moses, and ^1 the siiceeeding ii)«|kived 
wfiter8,'shQuld or should, not' l>e made knowq to Wf pOBpl? 

r,o,i,,-,-,ih;.Googlc 



Buchanan Prize Sermom. 139 

at large, by oteans of translations. Th& preacher exult^ 
in tbe tciumph Qver priestcraft and superstition, tbe cela- 
bmtion of which victory closes with some friendly and plea> 
sant congratulation of his Holiness, on the benefits he must 
have derived from the ' recent discipline of St, Cloud.' 

Quitting this, view of the fierce resistance made by the 
priests to the extension of the knowledge of the scriptures, 
even in any language, and especially to translations into 
the modier- tongue, as the most effectual mean for that ex- 
tension, Mr. Wrangham enters on his proper subject, by 
charging this ' country with a negligeace, at least, of its 
duty in respect to the communication of divine knowledge * 
to tbe people of the east ; and proposes to consider the 
subject of translations into their languages under the foU 
lowing topica'of inquiry: — With what languages, from moral 
and poliucal considerations, shall the undertaking beeio?— ^ 
In those, which we may .prefer, shall we publish tbe Scriptures 
collectively, or in separate portions ; and in the latter case, 
what shall be the succession adopted ?— Fiom what (ext^ and 
by what persons, shall tbe translation be made ? 

It will be observed that the mode of expression, in the first 
of these inquiries, sefims to imply that nothing has yet 
been done, or nothing worth mentioning; though it is 
proper to add, that there are^ ia the notes, two or three slight 
references tp the translations already so far advanced under 
the lahoun of the missioiwries. Supposing that such an 
inquiry had not been rendered somewnat impertinent — by 
the fact of a translation of nearly tbe entire scriptures into 
the Bengalee, and of a large proportion of them into many 
other of the languages of India, — the question proposed coula 
still have admitted very little doubt or discussion ; the vast 
province which forms, if we may so express it, the head 
part of our Indian empire, in which we have the greatest extent 
^nd familiarly of intercourse with the natives, and in which 
the translators would almost necessarily be stationed, being 
very evidenfly the proper one to begin with. But the preacher 
has. tpade thf} proposea iiiquiry merelv a starting point, from 
which to go into a wide diversity of oWrvations, on our per- 
verse indisposition to iinpart a privilege to which we are so 
much indebted as divine truth, to a country to which we are 
sai4^o be so mu,ch indebted as India; on the indications of 
tbe win and probable intentiontof Heaven in giving- as so vast 
a foreign power; oh the nature of the bigotry of the Hin- 
^P.Q&t \and their wretched conditioo ; on toe, advantages sf- 
fotded by the ceutrality of quc eastern empire for diffusing 
fbegpppe][9V^aU Asift^ onthepossibiMtytn overcoming' the 
L2 



ih,-Googlc 



140 Buchanan Prise Sermoni. , 

paganism even of, Hindostan ; on the inuUlity of the Roaaa 
Catholic mode of proselyting the he^heiis; on the various 
directs of India ; or the advantages aerived from the insti- 
tution of 211 eastern college ; and on several other topics. In the 
course of these observations, oyr connexion with India is 
asserted to be so vital to the interests of this conntry, that tbe 
sEeverino; of it ' would open an artery by which we should bleed 
to deatn.* We Euspect Mr. W, woufd find himself iavolved 
in great embarrassment, if reduced to state and prove the 
prodigious benefits derived by our nation from the possession 
of Inma ; and to us it would seem very like a reRection on the 
- arrangements fixed bv the Creator, in ^e economy of the 
globe, to maintain, that the welfare or ruin of a cfiltivated 
people, possessing a cultivated land, cai) ever, without some 
monstrous violation of the order of nature, be dependent od 
a country on just the other side of the planet. ' 

Mr. Wrangoam possesses a very liberal mind, and un- 
doubtedly adaressed an audience to which nothing could 
be more grateful than the full display of his liberal sentiments; 
w€ are therefore sure that^ since the ni^ent outcry which 
he has heard irom bigots and infi.del9 against a disinterested^ 
jnous, and indefatigable band of missionaries, he has bten 
sorry for the inadvertency of a sentence like ^ following, 
apparently, from the immediate connexion, pointed at those 
missionaries ; ' we do not, like some of the sectaries of our 
own church, rely upon either the sincerity or stability of 
>udden conversions, (p. 15.) Those missionaries, we bcbeve, 
have been more scrupulona in their ezftmination of pro- 
fessed converts previously to admission, and more strict in their 
subsequent discipline, than any missionaries that ever went 
before to any part of the heathen ' world. Sneh a reflection 
will appear also somewhat indiscreet, when it is recollected 
tliat none hiU sectaries have been found in England willing 
to en^^e in such a mission. 

Under 'the. second bead of inquiry it is easily shewn, that 
it will be lietter to icireulaie select portions of the bible, 
at first, than all at oRpe to Commumcate the whol^ even 
independently of tbe consideration how much earlier this 
can be done ; and this has been die method adopted liy the 
missionaries. He recommends luch lelectiont to be accom- 
panied by a 

* SiiD^e abstnct of tbe Jewirii ttoiy, coatnitbg thrir once floariibiog, 
witli their now fallen cooditiaa ; a plun set of canons teaching the accm- 
rate ^ppredation of hiitorical eridencet a soaunary exhibition of aigu^ 
meDtti ettabliiliiBg the general authenticin of our Scriptnreii a BsCe4 
idduction of datesi eriacing the inteml between the deJiverr of the 
predictiooi, a* stated by Jewi, and their fiilfilmcnt at proved by Cliriiti>iri 



Do,l,.cdtyGo'0(^lc 



Suchamn Prize Sermons. 141 

o-and nch otiier iKon' docidatioDa at ibiy be deemed estential to the 
Wwfc.'p.9l. V 

The third question, * From what text, and by what per- 
sons shall these translations he made?' is answered, as' to 
the 6r5t part, hy a recommendation of ' The audiorised 
English version ; with such previoua corrections however 
as, bv the concessions of its most strenuous friends, may 
for this purpose be derived from the modem collations of ^ 

■ Hebrew and Greek mannscripts, the highly advanced state 
bf biblical cnticiun, and the numerous illustrdtions of the 
inspired writings lately discovered in the compositions and 
customs of the east/ This rule of translating from, the 
£nglish version should obviously be meant for such natives 
of the east, as maybe eijgaged to assist in the translations, 
and who will be unacquainted with Hebrew and Greek: 
our preacher however thinls that not very much of this 
native co-operation will be wanted by aQcnnieo as Cole- 
brooke and-Carey, provided 'they be ' encouAged by the 
mutiificence of their country, which is never so exhausted as 
to be wanting to uoble purposes, and fostered by the smiles c^ 
their sovereign, who in tne royal patron of the authorised 
version has a bright example of sagacity in discoveririgj 
and liberality in rewarding, professional talent.' 'With re-, 
spect to the * liberal reward of professional talent,' Mr. 
Carey not ooly does oot ask, but would not accept, any such 
reward as an ' advsntage to himself. * This muni&cenc^, how- 
ever, and these smiles^* says our preacher, ' will Brst be 
wanted at home.' But what munificence and smiles does he 
mean? can be seriously im^oe that for such a thing as 
making the bible better understood at home, or diffusing 
its light among the people of Asia, any patronage is to 
be expected, beyond what may arise from the »iari^ of 
individuah, applied to the object by themselves immediately, 
or through some of the Cfanatian societies ? We have heard 
of no movements toward the adoption of sach a plan as that 
propesed ^y our preacher ; the diguitaries and the body 
of the clei^y have been still and silent ; and even by ' Her' 
whose liberal ear* he addressed with iio much animation, 
the matter seems to have been dismissed quietly from recol- 
lection, though he assumed to say for Her, that She was going 
to be very active about it. 

We find, contraiy to what we surmised on rsiding a fbnner 
p^e, that a corrected English text is to be made the author!*' 
tauve standard for ereo the moat learned European trsns- 
Utors into t^ Oriental languages, for * the Colebrookes^ and 

' HOe Cdf^s-* We should think the Colebrookes and the 
Carey* would be very apt to spurn « »ny such imposition. 



r,o,i,,-crth,.GoOglc 



H2 . Buchamn Prize Sermons. 

If thent were a cbannel thrpugb tbo isduvu^ vf Sa«s» «• 
should tbinb it a strange caprice of audiority tlmt «fa<hiU 
requiire us to double tbe C^e of Good Hope, esp^oally if 
ttie Utteif inTolved a probability of vome parti of the cai^go 
b«Dg spoiled. But it is not caprice In the case before ua } 
tberd is a reason very distinctly assigned, namely, tbat it 
will be difficult to find translators all of whom shall be ' ua- 
Jiia^tsed by any heretical or sectarian notioDs ;* and tht^fore a 
synod of the clergy, the oTtkodox clergy, (beware therefore 
of any of your Hfarwickshire Grecian^^ — a synod which will 
be infallibly certain, of course, that every interpretation^ aod 
glf^B of sectarian and heretical critics must be erroneous, — i 
IS in a great measure to gupptant the less safe and le^ obse- 
quious 6riginals, by prescritting definitively, in English, a 
bible that shall' in future ages^ all over the regions. of Asia* 
take scrupulous care to sanction every point, if we rightiy 
linderatand Mr. W., of a certain ecclesiastical creed and insti- 
iutioii established by law in a remote island of the earth. 
Bu^ this expedient of substitution and prsscriptioa will 
probably prov^ inadequate to the purpose, even iu its imrae- 
diate operation ; for if the * Colebrookes and the Cai^eys,' who 
iire to translate, should .unCprtunataly happen to. he a little . 
heretical or sectarian, they will be just as able, after the 
expedient^ s^ before, to iofu^ the erroneous, tiuctare into theic 
Oriental veisionsi — unless either, first, they can he made to 
take a solemn oath never to cast one look toward the de-,. 
posed Greelt and Hebrew author idea, which are. so, likely ta 
tetnpt them to swerve from their allegiance to the usurpiajp 
English codex ^ or, secondly, the proposed synod,, or at least 
scfnie of its memhersj will take the trouble to l^arn Sanacnt,, 
Bengalee, (JriSsa, 4c. &c., in ordei;to he judges,pf the fideliqr 
6f th^ derfdmiances. - .... ■ ;■ 

We reel.iiah ungracioiu tfaingj especial^ loir^inackiha on, 
4 discourse '.ot Mr. Wmngham, wtwse spjxit.ifl^ genem we 
Very highly r'esp^ct and admire, to fiave the taak (t^isqlutely 
ilicunibeDf on w who maintain a, principle pC ,neutr«j[ity} 
of animadvertp^ on.tfais assuming ajn-it du corps, this pro^ 
pensity. to ctajm infallibility, which wmild »o nnceremooiouily 
^tte everything i^ own way a;^ tf> ^bid tlw hibla itselif to 
^aSs IntQ.^he languages of Kindpai^n, Tartarji, a^d. C^i^ 
^cept tliroiigh the medium and the, check of a venion nrst 
carefuljiy ac\iusted| in every phi;ase^ and word, to accord in 
eV«;ry .points with 'a local ecclesiakical institutipn* by a> synod 
(»\npQsed exclusively QLBeuQUS devpt^ to |ts^nte^e•ta! , 
; We' will quote Prtr.W^s proposal oc th^, ^ccific n^o^i^jres 
requi^te for completipg a chrcep^d ^agliajtM^ext ^ ao^'pro-i 
yi^efl therg Wfitie^funethuig, atofe.li^gEaria the pdi|(9^A4E 



r,o,i,,-,-,ih,.GoOglc 



tlie proposed appotntmem, sttKl sothefhing less despotic in 
the moae of in applieation to tb£ eastern verriAnd, :ive IvnnHj 
Wiaih (for ressona prM^ krgsty »ated tnotii' last bumber, 
p. &4 «( wf .) - tbftt the time w&te come for mjch a proposal to 
be carried into efFect, 

* Let 3 lUlional aynocf dieo, appointed from the XJniTersitnj of tlae 
nnited kiagdom/and the whole of ihe British clergy, ajiig'n to each 
of iu cDnsuRient members certain portions of Seriptm-e'— for die ptupOKS 

- tHiaWPfon/aag inch reading*, as arCsatiaioned b^ a t^itfa.'tory majority 
of mjunscDpt* i of adopthig toch interpretatkiU u tlit CultiVatM nnc 
oC Hebvw ciitioitm imperioaily MiggetM ; of rutoriog Of teeti^ii^g 
lock alliHion, u have been- ducoverod or e^lnAtd br oar tslBrgitd 
ao^uaiataace w^ the writiiigfi qnd in h abitants vf th( £m1 ; fiinlly,in 
a faumbler view of the lubjecti of adjutdag any 4Ci9ideiit«l ditloOa^ooi of 
panicular patsagks, (^atrilniting each book into ^yitematic scctiilBt-and 
subdiviiion* ;. and re-iofuuDg the 6re and spirit which may occauooal^ 
hare beeo lowered to the cooler temperatiire of Europe. Let these sepa- 
rate labouiii tubsequeotiy uadergo the careAil revisal, and receive Uie 
aoleinii approbation, of the entire body ; aiid they will thui tonstitiite a 
itandard text,- not only foi* all die TertidAa no« projected, bflt also, (whM- ' 
ever circnnstancn shall appear, t« legitimate jadges, ra demand or to fa 
. VDUT the Beasiiie) for the donettic ase of Grett BritiliD.' p. 99. 

• But how to find talents, intelleotuat or pecunitiry,' savs 
Mr. W. ' for these arduous and expensive translations V He 
answers ' Maecenases wilt ever create Maros,' But then 
how to create Msectnases ? He cites the ' p'rincely writer 
on dsemonDlogy,' who accomplished so much by a single 
rescript, and then adds, ' Cmisecrate but the ^ream of royal 
patronage to this holy purpose, and ^uard it sacredly from 
the open absorption of tfie great, and the base mining of , 
the little, from the lip of tjic supple and of the noisV wor- 
shipper of power ; and modem Hebraists will not shrink from 
a comparison with those who, under the influence of con- 
temporary prejudices^ trembled at a spell.' p. 30. But to 
whom is the injunction directed? Which of us is to tonse* 
crate that loyai stream to this hoiy purpose ? He ne*A kppeala 
with more propriety td the generous part of the pnblic st 
large; arid iinatly etonclude^ With a strenuous exhortattojl 
to the rroblest atshievemertt that our Ration ever performed 
or attetnpted' mfof^ien ladds.— A good share of eotertain- 
nent ana information is subjoined in the form of notes. 

After the preceding remarks, a very few words will sufiSce 
for a closing estimate of this sermon.' It contaHJi aifcajr 
foEcihie obs^vations, ingenioits allusions, and brilliant tmages. 
Sometienes there i» toe Htutih watching and art apparent- in 
snrprising these images, and the objects of these allanons, ftnft 
bringing them in a littleagainst their good will; and now and 
then they come in with rather too mach appearance of an 



.dtyGoogIc 



. 144 BachoMn Ftiae Sermons. 

, ' tiDftir jtc^coaceit and collusion with the author.' The btppiest 
'. thing ^r. an orator is to happen to meet with these, sparbling 
A- wanderers as he is actively going right forward, when neither 
be Dor they were at all thinking ofeacli other, hut are both 
equally delighted with the casual rencountu*. We hint this 
fault, however^ only with respect to the smaller number of 
Mr. W.'s figures ; and we will only notice one as violating 
essential laws^ that of the Jordan flowing into the Thames. As 
a discussion, the composition is carried on with vigour, and 
, by meass of a- little more care and labour would -^bave been 

carried on wkb somembat more strictness and coasecative~ 
.pess, through .the' series of topics; it would bare moved, if 
we. may be allowed the phrase, more in a straight line, with 
leu tH that quick bounding and starting in many directions, 
- whteh in this sermon does undoubtedly trace, alternately, the 
waving line of beauty, and that Iteen and fiery zig-Ka^ in 
which the lightening is usually delineated, but certamly 
revolts a little too much from regularity. - The electrical 
'animation which pervades the wholes is not at all dimiaished 
by the excess of learned words, and the too frequent approach 
to rhetprical pomp ; nor does the flourish o£ the orator prereirt 
us from f^ehng strongly the cordial energy of the man and 
the Christian. 

On reading a few pages of Mr. Dudley's sermon, our at- 
tention was forcibly arrested by an unexpected and un- 
accountable strain of eulogium on the political and moral state 
of the ancient people of India, and on the moral character 
of its present inhabitants. Citing, the testimony of Greeks 
who visited that country in the time of Alexander, conflrmed 
by historical indications found in some of the ne^vly-disco• 
vered Sanscrit records, that the whole of modern Hindostan 
was, in the earlipst ages, divided into a variety of powerful 
slates, some i^onarchica), and others republican, he prOi> 
ceeds, 

* Tli^ conatitut^ t>f all tbew lUtes Kfin to have been iboaded on 
«ee principles. Ariian , exiiressly writes « die Indian*' afe all free i" 
Vid it may be ufely affinued that they eojove^ nearly the same degree of 
liberty as the ftatet of anciept Greece and Italy. UpOD the same autho- 
nties we are eoabled Co ccmclude, tfaat theie states were ruled by sdutaiy 
lavs and wboteiome ordioancn ; that ans and icimcei flourithed within 
their cities ; that the people were not only civifized but refined ; and that 
the varioBi citiei and prorioces within the domiaioDi of each were been- 
|ued by ■ pwnenHis fend baroy population. The bittory of nattoai lufE- 
ciently proves diat vinuc alone cat) produce such proiperity ', and hence 
w« jniMt draw toaclmioni decidedly favourable to the general character 
f^f the natioBB of ancient India.' 
With respect to ancient Indian freedom, eveii supposing 

Doiii--,-,ih,.Goo_glc 



Buehanati Prise ServuStu. 1 45 

We had- not the means of knowing that fbeir reHgious eco- 
nomy WBS utterly mortal to any such thing, it wpuld require 
fiur more precise evidences than any we have happened to 
see, to saUsfy ua that such a. people coald know any thing 
aboot wh«t a modern ppliucal philosopher ought to mean 
by the' term free constitution. But this is a question of httle 
importance here ; the latter part of the passage is what we 
meant to remark on. When maintaining that the Bncient 
Hindoo population were virtuous and happy, we prt:sume Mr. 
O. Decewsrily meant and asserts that they were so under the 
ptevalilBqe of the Brt^minical system, the syxtem indeed 
which has prevailed wiA supreme- authority from the earliest 
^es of which we have any historical notices of Hindostan, 
only with a partial and temporary suspension by the conquests 
of Buddha: Now it is too well known to need repeating here, 
that the BWihminical systen of religion (as we are trying 
to l^m to c^l it, in confonnity with the pious complaisance 
of the limes) comprehended every thing, without exception, 
in the life and concerns of its believers ; it constituted the 
mor^, the economicSr and the politics, as well as the 
^eojogy of the nation ; and Mr. Dudley very pointedly in- 
sists, and repeats, that tlie character of the Indians has always 
been most wonderfully conformed to tbei^ religion, insomuch 
that whatever they were and are, they were and are in obe- 
dient devotion to its principles and institutions. The grand . 

' repository of those principles and appointments is the Insti- 
tuteaof'Meou. Now then let a soberman read this bonk,' 
keeping in mind throughout that he is reading the compre- 
hensive, the sacred, and sovereign, institution of the people. 
Our preacher has read this famous work himself, and should' 
know what he has seen in it.' To .say that he has s^en 
^ere a>aet'of false and silly dogmas and fancies about Deity, 
though combined indeed with one or two ideas that appear 
like. the traces and reltca of a true theology that had once 
been known, but had long since vanished, may not'sc!em 
directly to the purpose ; though it may be assumed as un-, 
questionable, that a false religion is absolutely incompatible 

' witb the existence of a pure morality in the commuiiiCy en- 
tertaining such religion, and that as matter of (act theVe is 
not,. nor ever was, a nation in which they have exii^ted to- 
gfjther. Bat he has seen there the actual economy of prac< 
tice, exhibited at great extent in the moral, civil, and ce- 
remooial institations. He has seen that the most prominent 
thing !n the whole system is that infernal contrivance of 
castes, vHiich would be the death of all feelings, and all right 
conceptions of justice and benevolence, even if the dis- 
tiactioas were less fii^rantly iniquitous than diey axe, and 



r,o',,-,-,ih,.GoOglc 



H6 Sticiamin PriMt Semums. 

were.brongfat iftto opervdon id a hundred times fewefmtbde*- 
and io9taiices. He hits seen, in. the definitioiw and clftui- 
location of virtues nod crimet, and the puniabmeDt* ap* 
pointed to the latter, a greater accumulatioD of absurditoea 
by far, and a more complete abjaration ai all yul laaW i 
principles, than id tbe iiwtitmiona of any ptber psgMt nation^ 
or of all the pagan nations taken together. He Bas seen in 
that work so vast a catalogue of ridiculoiM aadoEtCTt tmu' 
seous ceremonial prescriptions, as eouJd hate left no nmU ' 
in the thoughts, no rectitude or indepeaJenoc in the uoder- 
•tanding, and very, little space in life, for the study dr tbe 
exercises of true morality. And finally, be has sden t^ 
priest and tbe km^ coii^ining themselves in a reientlesB 
tmlimited desootism. All this our preacher baa. aesn hi- tbe 
Institutes of Metm ; tbe system exhibited in these IniUtttcs 
Vas practically in opei'ztion in tbe early ages to nhioh be 
refers ; it is bis own assertion that the character of the people 
accorded, even to a wonderful degree, with their religioas 
institutions ; and be will have it, Dotwitbstanding, that aoc^ 
& people were virtuous and happy. A more de^jerate i^- ' 
surdity, we imajgine, was never advanced from pulpit orptass, 
since preaching er printing began. Tbe reports of tbe 
adventurers who returned {root Alexander's- expedition fay 
lell just what stortea they pleased in Greece j tbe rague as- 
sertion of Arrian, or tbe traces of ancieat history feUnd in 
Sanscrit writings,, arc all not worth a> straw as opposed to 
the evidence resulting from tbe records of the religiouK 
institutions. We know what w^ tiie system, both in tbe 
general principles and tbe deuil, which not only was i^- 
ranged in a book, but did actually and imperiously iwraD- 
nise over the population of ancient India ; and we koow 
that that system was of a nature incomparably idore deadly 
tt> freedom, virtue, and happiness, than any system that 
ever cnraed tbe human race. 

In adverting to tbe tbeologic_aI and moral dnc'ri'l^ of 
the ancient phnosophers of India, our preacher ft^ls into the 
error, in which many writers have preceded him vfitbent bis 
good intentions ; the error of taking a few lofty mecillalira 
ideas, and a few good moral presvfiptionB, which have been 
detected here and there in tne writings of those saget,. «a 
proof that their philosophy was. subline in itsviewi. and ex* . 
cellent in its precepts : as if a syfteai, of whioh peHups a 
fiftieth part is true iu theory aBd iiaefol in ptnctical: appli- 
cation, might cl^im to be held iu hi^h veneration becauae 
it has &ilea, because it really has ju^t failed, as (he.very - 
worst systems must do, of being qlt false and afl perniciouK. 
Vfhy will , not the vnri^r^ who ip aon vivett with, an irift* 



,,-,-,ih;Googlc 



, Suehanan Prhe Serttunt, 147 

ligious, design to the few ttamo^ .particles of'trus theology 
iindl pur& morality discovenble in tbe loditui liceneiire, al- 
ways tate care to tell ua what a load of base materials ia 
to be examined aod washed *nd sifted ia order to get 'a 
fight of this sleader {troportikiB of gold do•r^ Why do they 
not leeoUeet to notice now nagstc^, in potnt of enlightea- 
iaa ~*nd salntary infhience, must be this aiminutiTe quantum 
of truth intermiSed and buried id heaps of absurdity aqd 
pollution * And why will Hiey not, or can they not, perciriv-e, 
that when a noble idea, perhaps concerning the dtTioe natut<^ 
orTirtue, does present itself in these revered literary import- 
atioDs frOBi Benares, it is hardly allowed to continue noble for 
an iustantf Scarcely has . toe vsadw begun to admirer it* 
and to wonder at findisg tt io a heathen patge^ when sad'- 
denly it sioks into baseBrss, or sboots into n mortscer, or it 
dispersed in smoke. It is conneoted, in the very satne or tlili 
iBxt aeotence, with soaai pimile conceit or vile superstition ; 
tbe- figuR that seemed to be^n with the Ikce or an Ado. 
ms at Apollo^ ends with the tail of a silalce. No trans* 
formitioa of an object ftom great to despicable in one of 
our drtiams, can be more whimsical, more sudden, or siora 
devoid of rational process. Mr. Dudley hau, £of insttteoei 
read and quoted the Geeta, which is celebnrted ia a prsGace 
to Wilkios s translation by that eminent Chvifitian divine Mr. 
Warren Hastings, as aperfonoaflce ' of a sublimity of coRoep' 
tion, reasoning, and diction, almost unequalled : and a ^ngle 
exception, among all the known religions of mankind, of • 
dietjlogy accurately corresponding wtih that of the Chciftlian 
dispensationj and most powerfully illustrating its. ftinda«a9Rtjtt 
doctrines.'' But, unless awed and dazzled by tbe AuthfK'ity 
of this great theologian, Mr. Dudley must have oblervM^ 
in this production of Hindoo iilunaination, many instanos* 
of whit we hare described, of a just and striking theologitSaJk 
or moral thought lapsing instantly into some inexjMreasiMy 
^ly phantasm, ot solne grossnees of superttitien, or ifitik 
a myafical inanity, under a diction that glimmers of phi« 
losophical abtti^ction, but is in fact a more exquisitely per*. 
feet nootense than Jacob Behmeu ever even dreamed. 

' A considerable portion of the sermoD is occupied with » 
plausible and sufficiently probable view of t^ progreM «f 
deterioration, by which toe Indian theology nay b4 con* 
jectured to have passed froin the primeval beUef and worship 
of one supreme Spirit, dowfi to toe , ultimate fictionS'SiHl ado- 
ptions' o£ millions of devtas. At the cenclusioo of tbe sketotv 
be represetits the progressrv^ degradation' by the foljowii^ 
i n gen lo us CO m p prison , 
'The ffiigraa. ftti'^f^mfk i»MriH».ftatii wtyimmii'miwn 



Do,i,,-,-,ih,.Googlc 



148 ' Buchanan Prize Sermons. 

rcMt^ed ft vflit and spacioos temple, ninplf majestic anil nobly grand | 
hlia^t, periu^ not exactly afEer the plan of the truett patriarchal modelit 
yt» diAring fitrm them mtly in a few panicukn^ and thenfore not 
wholly ooworthy of the true end only God. FanciAd (fininctianti madt 
by iQcceative myst^Dgueat concerning the po^ven ud attribntcioFtlu* 
God, led hii fmag votariei. to divide the tpaaaM' and noble bxnt into 
three compartmenta, (or chs purpoacf aa waa imAgined or jnttaidcdf ol 
k more canrenieDt worship, ^nd more efl^cuul uae. The aame piiit- 
C^e led to a farther (ubdinsion into eight parte, and agun into ouieraf 
which it is now become dilEcuIt to enumerate and iiiuoaaible to trace. 



By the veiv first alteration, the Toroi of t%e originaf temple 
•troyttd t the next rendered ' it difficult to perceive what it had been, 
and ancceediog alteratloiia multiplied the perplexi^ aod conlirmed the 
GonAiiion. -By itteK, liKHVOTer, the wfaote wai formed intoauch a ;, 
nna>bei of labyiinthical' mazes winding up aod down dirangfa faaliii ' 
and chambert, and raoltai that to find the way to the original, and 
once the only, altar, became a task iriacK tew were competent 4o 
nndertake. and ilill fewer liluly to acc<nnplich. But &ther, tMK cnd^ 
leai aubdivisiont and alteratioMi made untally at nodom, M dw ang- 
Keations of capnce, or from the deiigni o£ aelf iAteroat; not only du-. ^ . 
figured) but rendered great part of the original tempje oaeleat, and fveit . ^ 
■oxioui ; for great part of it became converted into lonely chatnbers 
and fool tcceaaei, ' the abodes of owl* and doleful creatures ;' otber 
parti became drrary dungeons, dark and dank, never cheerea by any 
•unny ray, or purified by the sweet breath of heaven ; fit, therabre, 
iiideedi and only fit, for their horrid inhabitants, the grizljr [^lanKima of 
npers^on, the htsNog writliin^ dragons of daath,' p. 15. * 

This may hare been the process; but it is'a strange lem-'' 
ency to heathenism to say, as in the aucceeding paragraph^ 
* ' ' ■ a vast host of deities, who, notwithatanding they have 
been embodied into a multitudinous variety of strange forms, 
or signified by uncouth or extraordinary symbols, are yet 
but oifi God ; and that, though scarcely known, is yet no 
other than the true God.' We caniiot biit regard this as a, 
Biischievous kind of representatiAn. It is just nothing to 
say, that with sufficient records, research, and acuteness, 
these abominations might be traced back, ' through a long 
succession of ages, and of corruptions of the human under- 
standing) to the original worship of. the true God; for the 
same may probably be said of all cr^bdes of idolatry and 
Superstition whatever, and therefore the entire infernal 'as- 
semblage of demons and idols, over.' all the earth, and all 
time, may, in this gentle evangelical method of philosopbis* 
ing, be courteously denominated the true God, There la no 
trace of this kind of courtesy in the' language of Ezekicl. 



By a very, curious mode of interpreting Bis text,' however, 
(Acts xvii. 22, 23.) our preacher has made the Apostle Paul 

— u:i.:. .u:. 1-; _» t .1 ■ ],j the expfessic" 

ijpj'-Paui is made 

'Doili--cdtyGoOglc 



exhibit this complaisance at Athens. ' In the expression, 
* whoa tbeeefore. ye- tgMmMtly WovAijpi'-Paul is made to 



Suclunan Priu Sermtnt. 149 

refer, not specificalt^ to the ' uoknown God,* whose altar 
he s'lDgles out excluaively, but tQ all tbe gods togeUier that 
die A uieai an B worshipped. 

Mr. Dudley allows, diat in later aces the Hindoo super- 
stition, with Its inseparable system of moral principles asA 
ordinances, is become ioexpressibly abominable, Well, the 
. Hindoos take their chfUBCter, with astonishing correctness, 
firom their superstition ; and yet, in the face of this his own 

foution, and in contraxliction fto every, yes everjr, respecta- - 
le authority, be describes these Hindoos as distinguished 
by their * fidelity ,' * punctuality,' * filial obedience,' {as for in- 
stance, in burning their mothers) * gentleness and mildness of 
teipper,' * elegant manners,' and ' amiable dispositions,' * and 
adorned by many virtues, which shine with an endearing 
brightness through every shade of either" fault or vice.' p. 4. 
.We might quite as well stop here : and we shaH only no- 
tice, that the preacher disapproves of employing mission- 
aries; the bible is to be translated, to get into the hands of 
the learned Hindoos, to convince them, and then all the 
rest of the people will follow. How it is to find its way to 
each of these learned persons, and, excite their attention, we 
afe not told. But at all events, the gospel must not, as 
in the beginning of its beneficent and victorious career, be 
* preached to the poor :' it mdst not begin its labours and 
successes in India,- as it has in other countries, among the 
lower orders of the people. * If that cause ever triumph in 

indio, if must owe its success to arguments which may 
Qnviace the headi not to contrivances for securing the 
footj the Brahmen must be gained, before the SudramW- 
be turned. To begin with attempting the ' conversion of 
the lower classes, would in all probability be injurious to 
the gkoeral' success of the Christian cause: for tha proud 
Brahmen, offended by observing the men he bas been ac- 
customed to lead, abticipating him in the reception of the 
faith of the Gospd^ #ould be apt -to maintain, from pre- 
judice, an obstinate jpersUBsioA that the religion of the. 
Christian is fit only for the basest of mankind, and wholly 
unworthy the regard of men of higher birth, of nobler na- 
tural powers, and the more espeaal favourites of Heaven.* 
{>. 19. Let the learned Brahmin be convinced, and declare 
or Cluisrianity, and the reverential multitude, our preacher 
thinks, must naturally be awed into the same faith. He 
forgets the ^vial circumstance, that the momwit the Brah- 
.mio does this, he will lose his caste, and sink to a class 
that even the Sudra beholds with contempt. 

In point of composition the sermon is respectable ; and we 
eoald not hentate to apply ^e aame epithet ta the intel- 



,Mt,Googlc 



1 90 Baity «fi /nterak ' end Aiwmttei. 

lectul ^il!^ Much k ^iplajTs,' if, in estinacin^it, tt« ceuld ' 
detoeh ourselVM frond the disgust unaToid»Uy excited \>y 
hearinjg a Christian preacher inaintaiti, before A leernbd 
Christian university, so many opiiiioos, which ptobabty every 
reader of these paiges will agree with us in tbinklng are 
equalty pernicious, autiscriptural, and absurd. 

Our Bpeci6c cosntnenu on the eermons preached at Oxford 
must, be roserred for the ftdlowing number. 

An, VUL TKf Dmrint of /mtrttl mU Aimiilia m^/tieaiJy uiwHigslfd 
aid tuflanedi XOftdter wit)) Kveral ukM table* cooiw^ed with -the 
Saliject. By Ftsdcib Biily, of the Stock Exchange. 4to. j^-jdr. 206. 
Price 15». boanis. RickaraHn, I8Q8. . . 

'T'HERE is no country iij the world in which the. benefits 
of mathematical investigations are aa fully experienced 
or 40 readily acknowledged, and in which the sttidyof the 
mathematics i^ at the same time so little eijcour^ea, as. in 
Englaod. The utility of the modern analysis in perfecting 
the lunar theory, and consequently in simplifying the rules 
for Uie determination of the longitude at sea *, is known by 
nearly all tbe seamen of opr immense navy, ;■& welt as by ,, 
tbat ' numerous and respectable class of socie^ which is en- 
gagetl in the extension of our foreign C(Uiu»eree. The v^ue 
also of another iioit of mathematical inquiry, we mean tbsA - 
which relates to Interest and Annuities, the doctrine of 
Reversions, Assurances on Lives, &c., has been, better t^pre- 
ciated h«re than in any other country ; and no person who 
reflects on the advaptages that have accrued, and that rangr* 
accrue, frqm the fomuttion of sofueties ftw the ffranting of 
annuities 4nd assurances, wb«i regulated (as all the oeA 
known societies of that kind ore) on sound princif^ and 
accurate computations, will ever ventjire to insinuate the 
inutility of ' mathematical pursuits. Th»t puiicular depRrt- 
ment, which is the subject of the treatise before Ms, was, in.. 
the seyenteenth century, entirely uncultivated and unknown: 
yet in the course of the eighteenth, having o^cupi^ the at- 
tention successively of five or sijt of the ablest nwtbema- 
ticians, it has attained an emipenee. a perfection, aitdade- 
gree of usetulncas, supeiior pei^aps, w at lenst equal, to t^«t 
of any qther branch of . math«Bi^caI or physical sciesoe. 
The store of knowledge, aoquirad by the labours of inMnunis 
men, in relation to this importapt topic, lies saattered ^lOUt 
in a variety of distinct places ; so that tbe student, whs wttold 
avoid tbeiatigue of new iuvastigation by avwliiig himself df 
whlit had been done by others, oas be^ c^m^led to searfib 

' . •See'£«I.Rw.V9liy;t.9«3. ■" ' , 

, , r,,j,-,,-.Mi>,G00glc 



Bait; on JiUerestnii Antitaties. 131 

Tolui&e alter Tolune of the Tranuctions of different learned 
societies, to turn over ponderous quartos of coUection» of 
mathematical disquisitiDhs, or \o hunt up some little obscure 
boot where, as he might learn from other quarters, ,a singla 
problem had been well discussed. To collect these scattered 
n-agtnents, and reduce them to one connected regular mass ; 
to exhibit this department of science as others have been ex- 
hibited, 10 that its various parts should have their situation and 
nugnitude duly adjusted, and the whole Should rest firmly on 
the basis of denMinstration, was therefore a very laudable 
attempif and deserves a. measure of commendation modified 
only by a regard to the judgement displayed in the execu- 
tion. Such has been the attempt of Mr, Baily ; his plan, and 
the conleotB of his book, are described in the ibHqwinfjf 
extract. 

' My object !iu been to accommodate the work u much ai posti' 
Ue to tbote wbo are acqaainted with the fim prhiciplea only <i AI- 
ffebn: and I apptehead that loch ai can readiljr soItc a Single 
«^iatioD, aad have a thorough knowledge of the oatiire and uw of I.ogari- 
tbmi and the Method of Scnes) wiU find little or no difficulty in their 
.pn^ire^ through the work. I^e more expert anaiyitt howeraiv aiay 
Qccaat^^y consult it with advantage to himself i a« he wjU net only 
Gad some points that are new, hut alio, that the variotu tbeoremi lien 
given will afford him an eaiy reference for the solution of OMt ( 
which may engage hit attemimi. I have chiefly aimed at i' 
and perspicuity ; ocincr well persuaded that the true endi of tctence are , 
only retarded by an aSectation of profundity and brevity. 
■ ♦ la-die first and fimr following chapters (the superttructure of all the 
■ Yett). I have entered into a fiill inveMuptinn 9 the docb^ of Id- 
terefltt both Simple and Compound : and have ihown the variooi reiulta 
whidi arise according to the periods at which auch iatore^ is p»able. 
The next six chapters contain the principles of the doctrine oT Asfiiu- 
tiesi with their several afiections, not only according to the times of the 
p^awnt of inteteatf but also accordingto the periods at, which the annoity 
Itself becomes due and is payable. iThc twelfth and thirteenth chapters 
contain a fidl exposition of the doctrine of Reversions and of the 
Rtnewal oi Xieoses ; together with lever^ useful tables for calcufaibnj; the 
value of the Fines whi^ ought to be paid for the resewat of leases held 
under Corporations and Colleges. The four lubseqaent chirrs coutaia 
SB' investigation ef several useful and cvrious points which could not 
fKiperly be cjas^ under 'the preceding beads; tad which are indevd 
of sufficient importanoe to form distinct sectioni ff thenisdves. T^ 
last chapter Is devoted princip^ly to the application ef this dpprine to 
Vtrieus sntnects in Finance : and . in this psrt t have insertul several new 
Gumuls, «i1)ich I diink niay^ be very convenient and useful to. such pei;^ai 
as have directed their attention to these studies,' pp. xi.— xiii. 

We cerCaiaiy think this worl(, on the whole, a respectable 
perfornrance ; it indicates a mathematical tf^ta formed o^ 
reiy good models,- and a iwnstderable proficiency in the 



r,o,i,,-crih,.GoOglc 



l£it .-Baily mlroertst axid Annuitki. 

several kinds of mBthematical knowledge connected witk 
-the subject The infonnuidn aJGarded will be fecund very 
valuable; and it is usually exhibited with great neatness and 
perspicuity. We find it, faowevM, our' auty to complain, 
that the work u not altogether what we could wish to have 
seen it. One great object of the author in composing the 
treatise, is lost : it don not stand alone. References are fre- 
quently made to other books, for the supply of imp^rtaot steps 
in. the investigation; and these references, it would. seem, 
are sometimes intended to display t^ author's extent of 
reading. His manner also, though neat, is too diffuse : had 
he aimed at compression, instead of an exhibition of acquire- 
ments, he would undquhtedly have produced atre»tise, equally 
useful and equally ptrtpicuous, in half the. compMB. He often 
dilates, where conciseness would be hi'^hly commendable} 
and sometimes, though lest frequently, he passes slighdy \ 
over topics, which, either from their real moment. or the 
importance formerly attached to them, demanded a more 
ample notice. Under the head Equatien of ftapn'eiiU, for 
I example, there is no mention of the controversy carried on 
at different times by Hutton, Burrow, . Todd, Keith^ and 
others, rehuive to the proper method of treating this' rule: 
and, what is'more extraordinary, Mr. Baily takes no notice of 
the inutility of<the double sign (+) given in the algebrai- 
cal formula for the equated time of two payments. His the- 
orem for the equated time is of the form - — - ^ — \f ' 

the doable sign being retained. He will find it proved, in 
a little book on Arithmetic, published more than twenty years 
ago by Mr. Bonnycastle, that " the double sigu made use 
of by Mr. Malcolm, and every author since, who lias given bis 
tuetnod, cattmt obuin ; and that there is no ambiguity in the, 
problem." . ' • 

To convince Mr. B. that our censure^ of his manner of refe- 
rence to other authors is not the result of an ungenerous wish 
to depreciate an ingenious work, but proceeds from a desire to 
render it more worthy of public approbation, we beg him to 
reconsider the references in his notes at pp. ij, 40, 61, I40. 
We would ask him, how far it was necessary to direct his. 
readers to four tables of logarithms f would not Huttou's or 
Callet's do alone f but must all the old book shops in London, 
be hunted over to find Sherwin's and Gardiner's ? Again^ 
[p. 61) after being referred to the * common method of sonv^ 
ming an infinite geometrical series*, we are told that ' the 
sum of any infinite geometrical series decreasing is equal 
to die square of the first term divided by the di^reuce w> 



,,-,-,H.,Googlc 



Baily vn Interest and Annuities. 153 

tveea the first and second,' and fdr a proof of this we 
are directed to * Bernoulli de ^eriebus in^nitis. Cor. to prop. 
8.' Nbw, when Malcolm. and half the writers on Arithmetic, ' 
and more than half the writers on Algebra, exhibit this pro- 
position either explicitly or by implication, where was the 
need of this reference? It could not be to convince the 
plain English accountant that Mr. B. had fead & scarce Latin 
work on InGnite Series ; because it Would still remain a 
matter of doubt, though quite as important for the reader - 
to know, whether Bernoulli's Works are in the library of 
our author, or in the libriuy of the London Institution. — Once 
- more ; 

' For the coDStnicUon, Sic of the logarithmic curve, the reader 
may conndt Robertaon's Geo. Treat, on tie Come Sec. Svo, 1802. Keill's 
?r<art on Logarithm! at the eod of hit edition of Euclid. Euier'i Introi. 
ni Anal. Inf. vol. ti. La Croii Cakul. D^. tt Jnleg. EmerBoa an Carve 
Lines : or Hugeuii Opera ReliquOiyA. ii. in which latter work, the priQci< 
pal properties of this curve are pointed out,' p. 140. 

Where is tfae utility of all these references, or where in- 
deed was the necessity for any } All that Robertson says 
about the lo^rithmic curves may he comprized in a page ; 
and this would have been amply sufficient for Mr. B.'s pur- 

Sue when incorporated with what he has given himself, 
at we have probably said more than enough, to check the 
indulgence of this propensity in the treatise Mr. Baily pro- 
mises on Life Annuities and Assurances. We will now make 
an extract of a diCFereiit nature ; an extract which, though it 
is founded on a remark made before by Woodhouse, La Croix, 
imd others, is of sufficient importance to deserve a place here. 

* The terms of every art or science ahould be clear, deEnite, and 
explicit, and though thef may not always be snlEcieiitly precise, yet they 
should never tend to convey any false ideas on the subject. By using 
the tenn Hgfterholk logarithm, an idea is immediately entertained diat 
this is die only system of logarithms that can fae expressed by the hyper- 
bola : whereas, not only the common system but every other system 
whatever may' be expressed by means of that curve; and the Mily dif- 
ference is that in the former, or hyperbolic logarithm, the asymptotes of 
the curve, are at right angles to each other; but in the latter or commoa 
logarithm, ihey form an angle of 25°. 44', 25}". These are generally 
called Briggs's logarithms, afrer the name of their inventor ; and the foimer,, 
for the same reason, I have here called the Neperean logarithm.* p. 14.. 

Although there are several parts of the treatise before us 
which we have read with satisfaction ; yet we confess we 
were most pleased with the note (E) in the Appendix, where 
our author expltdns the application of the Logarithmic curve 
to the doctrine of Interest and Annuities; because it shewn 
the advaotages that result from giving scope to the powers of 

Voi.V. M 



.dty Google 



1 54 Burly on Interest and AnrmUies. 

imaeination in mathematical pursuits. Sohie of Our reader*, 
lip doubt, will be startled at our associating * powers of imagiiia- 
tinn' with 'mathematical pursuits;' having settled it in their 
jiiiiids as B sort of Rxionit that to indulge iii the latter is to ritin 
the former. On the same principle, differenily applied, certain 
mathematical tutors and authors, of a new sect, Iiare affirmed 
that ' science must not be degraded by metaphor.' On a for- 
mer occasion*, we explained the reason of the mathema- 
tician's acquiescence in some of his deductions as cerlainty^ 
thoueh made from mysterious processes, while we noticed se- 
veral remarkable instances in which mathematical reasoning 
is analogous, in its nature and results, to the reasoning em- 
ployed on ihei most important religious topics. We will now 
endeavour to she^ that mathematical inquiries, so far from- 
being unfriendly to the play of imagination or thp indulgence 
of fiction, frequently call in their assistance; and, instead of 
being degraded by metaphor, arc often nothing else than » 
contiiiued metaphor. 

. The province of imagination, as it is explained by our best 
metaphysicians, is ' to make a selection of qualities and of 
circumstances from a variety of diflerent objects, and, bJ^ 
con^bining and disposing these, to form a new creatioa 
of its ovvii.' Now, this describes accurately what is ef- 
fected every day in the process of mathematical investiga- 
^ tion. Instances of this mental magic will occur to every 
reader of competent information, in tlie appHcalion oi 
algebra to geometry, in transfeiTiuo; the principles of mo- 
tion to the ideal or fictions generation of suifaces and solids, 
whether of rotation, of translation, or of expansion, in the 
ivholc theory of fluxions and all its applications, in (he ap» 
proprialion of pure analysis to the doctrine of chances, in 
the geometry of curves, in the application of tliat doctrine 
to political aritlimetic, the duration of life, &c., in the ap- ' 
prupriation of analysis to trigonometry, and of these con- 
jointly to physical astronomy. Mathematical invention, in 
these and all its other varieties,' is, in truth, the fruit'of imagina- 
tion : and every new solution is, strictly speaking, a distinct 
invention. Mathematicians have in this way more than ' half 
created the \vondrous world they see :' ana tlieir ideal crea- 
tions are distinguished from most others in this, that tliey 
can at once be applied lorealilies, and turned to piirpoiies 
■of obvious and striliing use. Let us take the cxampK; fur- 
nished by Mr. Bail}', to shew in what manner these ' selections 
are made' and ' new creations formed.' From the various 
properties of arithmetical and geometrical j»rogrtr8sioiiK, this 
' was selected ; that if any arithmetical and geometrical prgtrrds- 

* See Review of Boanycwtle's Trigonometry, Vol, IV, pp 52— o9. 

. r,o,i,,-,-,ih,.GoOglc 



^ haily on Interest and Annuities. 155 

aion were arranged in parallel order, terra by term, the several 
terms of the Former would serve a& exponents of the correspond- 
ing terms of the latter, in such manner, that, by the mere ad- 
dition and stibtraction of the former, what might be acconi' 
plished by the multiplication and division of the latter should 

{lot merely be indicated but ascertained :' and the same ana-, 
ogy was found to subsist between the multiplication and di- 
vision of the arithmetical terms, and the involution and evolu« 
tion of the geometrical terms : — from this selection, moulded 
by a rich imagination, arose logarithms. A farther selecUon 
or one universal property of logarithms, and a grouping of 
this with another property selected from the doctrine of 
equations, led to the general formula, y==ia', from which 
* new creation,' according to the manner of the algebraists* 
^ all the particular properties of logarithms could be made to 
flow witti perfect ease' and simplicity. It was another dis- 
tinet effort of a fertile imagination, to draw together the re- 
mote analogies of equations and of curves, and make such 
a selection as should define cur\"es by means of equations 
and thus render them mutually illustrative and determina- 
tive of each other's properties : it was a farther effort atill, 
to select from the multifarious properties of curve lines 
those which depicted, if we may so say, the nature of loga- 
rithms, and thus make a portrait of mose remarkable num- 
bers : and it was another effort of a like kind, * a selection* 
tenninatihg in ' a new creation,' that singled out, from the 
attributes of aimuities and reversions (apparently so inipreg. 
cable against the attacks of imagination), some so stricdy 
connected with the nature of the logarithmic curve, as to 
make the latter a perfert repres'entative of the former. 

Poetry is doubtless the child of imagination : yet how 
Iiai poetry been defined ? The father of cnticiam has denomi- 
nated Doetiy Ttxn fui^iTum, ff« imitative art; while Baron 
Bieifieid de&ries it as 'the art of expre$sing our thoughts bv 
jiction' Neither of these definitions, is, in our estimation 
sufficiently cdmprehensive ; though Aristotle's was admitteii 
for ages, and Bielfield's is often cited as the most appro- 
priate that has yet been given. We mentibn them, merefy to 
shew that great critics, ia their definitions pf that fine off- 
spring of imagination, have selected qualities, that equally 
distinguish what in the opinion of many requires not the 
aid of imagination at all. For is not mathematics ' an imi- 
tative an?* an art by which ' we form to ourselves things not 
in being,- exhibit things absent, and represent things pant?'* 
And that this department of science oeaU in fiction, every 

*, Barrow. 

^2 . 

r,o,i,,-,-,ih,.GoOglc 



ise Baily on Inttrest and Jnmaties. 

one knows ; with tbis remarkable advantage, that the fiction* 
of the mathematicians are made to contnbute to the disco- 
very of truth. But we shall be told that the fictions of the 
p6ets tend to illustrate the elTects of realities : tme ; and 
"we enjoy the delights which this quality of poetry is 
adapted to impart. None can admire more warmly than 
ourselves, the admirable * selection* and ' new creation' of 
the great dramatic poet, when he shews the power of gold, 
and the mischievous consequences of slander, in the passages 
set at the foot of our page*: or be more forcibly struck 
with the powen of Hogarth, when by a * new creation' he 
depicts the miserable consequences of dram-drinking, ki his 
singular , picture called Gin : and we at once acknowledge 
these, as displaying considerable powers of imagination. All 
that we are now asserting is, that efforts of imagination, 
equally strong* lively, and illustrative of effects and con- 
sequent^, result from the exercise of investigation among 
nnutbematirians : and we appeal to Mr. Baily's figure 4, 
triiere he exhibits to the a/e^ oy means of logan^mic curves, 
the difierent accumulative powers of money lent out at S, 
5, and 10' per cent, and indeed all the leading theorems of 
interest and annuities, as a full confirmation of our posidon. 
' As we have never before indulged in a disquisition of 
this- kind, we shall the more readily be favoured with the 
attention of our reader^, while we now shew, as brieBy as 
posuble, that matheinatical * science is not degraded by me- 
t»ph6r.'' Wfaaf is a metaphor? An act of tbe imagination 
figuring one thing by another : thus, by a metaphor human 
lite is figured to be a voyage at sea, ' There is a tide in 
H)e affairs of men,' &c. By a metaphor, the quaUues of a 
conqueror are figured by uiose of a lion ; and one of the 

- * Gtld. " O thou tweet IdngJuller, and Atai divorce 

Twixt natund too taA tire ! tho« hn^x defiter 
Qf Hymen's purest bed ! thou, valiant Man I 
Thou ever young, &eth, lev'd, and delicate wooer, 
Whose bluih doth thaw the coMccrated anew. 
That lies on Dian's lap 1 thou visible god. 
That Bolder'st clow inqxusibilitiea. 
And mak'tt them kiss J that ipeak'it with ereiy tongust . 
To every puipote I" 

ilmder. — p— *' Tis slander. 

Whose edge is ahaiper thap the iword t whose toogoe 
Out-venoms all tbe womiB of f^ile ; whose breath 
Rides on the postiog winds, and'dinh belie 
All comers of Che woiid : kings, aueens, and atateij 
' Maidt, matrons, n^, the sedeS oi the gravcj 
lOiii Tiperous liandtr eoters." 



t,.Goi:)glc 



Baily on Interest and AnmatUs, 1 67 

most eloquent writen of the present age* 'lus given « £n« 
metaphorical picture of Buotiaparte'i attwjc aa Egvpt ; de^ 
scribing bim as a vulture pouncing upon ao ioFerior bird, 
which ' in vain strugfrled, Happed its wiogs, and rent th» 
air with its shrieks.* Thua, a poe^ or aa orator, bjr moaot 
of his metaphorical representative, relates or depicts tb«. 
action of the real abject be is describing : and, in a simiJar. 
mafiuer it is, that a mathematician, by means of an alg«- 
braical repreKotative, portrays tlte action or opcntioo of.. 
the di&rent subjects of his iovestigatioo, and that with greatn 
or less minuteness as the case may require. The easeattal 
difFerence is, that by the one process we nUutfnt/e the oaturc. 
of the object of the meuphor ; by the other we ifscerlam thq. 
nature of the object of investigation, so iar aa it yr^a the 
subject of inquiiy. The invention of mathematicians is em- 
ployed to discover truth ; that of poeu to embellish or en-< 
ibrce it. But the aid derived from imagioatioD, as to the. 
original -* creation* of the metaphor or of the Smta of equa- 
tion, is alike in both: and both, the ttructure (^ a metaphai 
as well as the viaaagejiimt of an equation,— ^ic referable 
to rules, a deviation from which usually occasions the losa 
of the object for which either was employed. They are, ia 
fact, both metaphors^ though differently applied : and hence 
algebra may be justly regarded as universally couvenant in 
metaphors, and truly termed a Sgwative langu^e. 

If diose who argue that mathemuical speciuatioas are uo- 
favourable to imagination, would analyse thar own senti" 
inenU> they would find their notion to oe sknply this ; that 
the imagination of a poet and the imagination of a msthe- 
maticiau are directed in different channels. We admit it; 
and 'so were the imaginations of Gray and of Cowper, of 
Milton and of Waller. And we do not hesitate to assert thai 
the author of Hudibras would have been as unlikely to write 
the Ode on the Passions, as lo anticipate CavaJlerius in 
bis docrine of Indivisibles, We will also admits &rther, ' 
that the mathematicianB never attribute intellect or feeling 
to their subjects; and that, in one remarkable insunce, a 
Professor of the abstruse sciences has been heard to exclaii% 
after reading Paradise Lost, What does it prove 7 — but all 
this is quite consistent with the oranioa we defend, and plaiidj 
results trom the distinctness of tuie subjects, and the deng^s 
of poetrr and mathematics respectively. It maybe added* thai 
some of the ablest mathematicians of the .present day arf 
distinguished, not only by an elegant taste and extensive 
knowledge in works of fancy, but oy a truly brilliant iow- 



t, Google 



\Si JamM'i Uisiertationt en the Farm- and Colour of Man. 
cioation, both on serious and humorous -subjects j and (hat 
^ one writer roay.be deemed to surp^s all his contemporaries. 
i5 the profusibrt, splendour, and propHetj of his imagery, it 
isa Wrrter Iri -whose metaphors we continually find thp very 
processes and tlie very language of mathematics. 
'As guardians ef the interests of literature, we are alikp 
ftiMidly to tl)e' exertions of ingenious then in every profes- 
sion, so ^tnfe as we See that they have a tendency toincrease 
the'sfock ofhirmtm information, or to preserva unimpaired the 
raViOns sources ftf happiness; and we cannot permit ^at any 
drfe branch- of knowledge, or any one source of, mental 
dciigHt, should be unduly depreciated or exalted in compa- 
rison With another. Mathematical knowledge in particular, 
we are convinced, and we hope have satisfied oiir readers, 
srf far fr6m being hostile, is even favourable, nay stimulative, 
to the exurcise of the imagination : and that it strenrrthena an<^ 
iWriroVes the" other intellectual powers, is universally allowed. 
■Wi Shall conclude with recommending it to general pursuit, ii^ 

fWewbrdSof the illustrious Bacon : "Mathematics do re- 

nieay and dire nikny defects in the wit and faculties intellectuid, 
For if the ■rfft-btf^dnll they sharpen it ; if too wShdering, they 
fijt if; if too inherent in the sense, they abstract it. So that, 
ts tennis is a gaioe of no use in itself, but of great iisa 
in respect it Hiaketh a quick eye, and a body ready to put 
itself into' all position^; so in the mathematicB, that use 
which is- collateral andintervenient, is no less worthy, than 
that whic*i i^ principal and intended." 

AitilX., JatnM'a ^atAroffilagia ! or, Duurlathm m the F«m mfi4 
.J, ■ ; , Colimr if Man. 

.'■,: (Concluded from p. 81.) 

tN tlja eighth section of this singular volume^ Dr, JarroM 
* a(Wauces a doctrine on the origin of fione, hable at least 
to much opposition. Observing that lime is the basts of 
bone, and that lime has been supposed to be formed chiefly 
fcy the"" secretions and the decay of' marine animals, be is of 
opinion that salt, not the simple muriat of Soda, hut the 
frixed mass, affords the principal supply of o^seovis matter to 
the animal econofaiy.' ©raniyorous, and especially gallina- 
cftius animals, having strong powers of digestion, use chalky 
be thinks, as a substitute for salt. He attributes the , superior 
vigour of Arabian horses, and the greater specific gravity of 
■ttitir bones, to tfce abundance of chalk and marble in that 
■p'fcrt of the world. He ascribes the brittleness of the bones 
dF'oM' persons, a»d the falling but'of the teeth, to a Ae-> 
figirticy of osseous matter. It must be rtmarktdt hoijever, 



.dtyGoogIc 



Jarrold's Distertaiiens on the Form and Colour^ Mart. ]£9 

that preternatural ossifi cations are most freqncnt in advanced 
age; and Blumenb^ch, an author wbom Or. J. frequently 
quotes, expressly states that. Maxima hnjus (teitme parlts 
calearea mdolis acido pkosphoreo nuptie) 'portio in ossibus 
priescrtim pvovcctiore atale ; cum contf-a tencllie xtatitlie eorpxis- 
eulunt geltttmosa vialcria abundat. Bhimenb. Insl. Physiol. § |8. 
Other sources of osseous matter, our auihor seeks, ip different 
articles of diet, more particularly in oat bread. 

The ' Form, of the Head ' is considered in the next section, 
as occasioned by the expansion of the braiu; and the in- 
fluence of its position, iipon the form nnd carriage of the 
body, is discussed. But Dr. J. does not ggin much in regard 
to nis main object, by supposing the enlargement of the 
posterior part of the cranium to be owing to the fulcrum,* 
(which he assumes to be situated in a Tine between the 
orifices of the ears), being placed farfher forwards^ in Negroes 
tiian in Europeans; for this situation of the orifice of the ear 
must be of the same value, for specific distinction, as the form 
of the head which he supposes it to occasion. 

In Sections 10 and ] I, under the title, ' On the Influence 
of the Brain on the Character,' our author treats of the dis- 
tinction of the mind, or intellectual faculty, from aoiioal life, 
in which he includes the appetites and passions; find of the 
influence which the latter has on the former, and tite conse- 

auent necessity of attention properly to modify its reaction ; 
rawitw some of his principal arguments from idiocy and mad- 
ness. The expression, — » Jmiuiis am never mad, their diseases 
bear no analogy to insfinity. A human being, labouring under 
canine nudness, does not lose his reason,' p. 1<}8, — might be 
interpreted as rather Hibernian. 

The observations on the Forehead^ in the I2tb section, 
introduce a chapter on Physiognomy ; in which, as well as 
several of the succeeding ones, the author' combats Lavater's 
Hypothesis, that this science is founded on the form of the 
bone. The existence of the science, he thinks proved, by its 
being generally exercised as an art; and he makes it the. 
parent of aflcction and love (of which consequently the blind 
must be incapable.) But he asserts, in contradiction to La- 
ifater, that 

■ ' Every pautoo, every sentiment, has its own appropriate expressian, 
and evcryset of features is capable of consejring them ; and that there- 
fore the hard and Immoveable prt» of the face c.innoi be the cliief s(udy of 
the ^byflognonu9t> The forehead, which is I.nv^tor's leading feature, 
may be covered, without the expression of the coimtenance being lost.' 

^l33. 

' Id die tow I talte of the subject, every human countepaoce is capa- 
ble of exprewiag everj human feeling. The face of mao ii alike an index: 



,,-,-,lh,;GOOglC 



t fiO Jarrold's Dissertations on the Form aiid Cohur iff Mm. 

Aftheaundindcfthe^woni; but the conntenaace of a wim man it not 
alwBy*ezpmiiveofwiKloiii: hia thoaghti mar be occupied on triflM, or 
he may be loirowfbli or some paision may nime hit mind, and aa is the 
state of the raiod to will be the expretrion of the couBteoance. Witdon) 
has iuoM'D proper chanicter; it it inde^ndent of anj^ aet of features ; it 
does not court beauty or shun iu opposite. Expression it the proper 
fltndy of the phyaiognomiat ; it is the sdence of physiognomy. The 
beauty, the honor, aad die excellenqr of the human countenance, con- 
sitt in its being an index of the heart and of the underttanding.' p. l2^. 

Dr. Jarrold seemti to us not to discriminate sufficiently be- 
tween the momentary expression^ and the permanent charactevt 
of the countenance. It cannot be supposed that the bone 
should indicate the sudden emotions of the mind ; but if it 
be susceptible of impression from a vein that passes over 
it, from the pressure of a tumor, or the gravitation of the 
fluid which it contains, — how can we assert that it b in- 
capable of alteration from the exertions of those softer parts 
whicJi more immediately express the feelings, or of those 
organs of the brain, in which, according to Dr. Gall's theory', 
those feelings primarily express themselves ? We are rather 
■ led to suppose, that wnatever expression is most frequently^ 
made use of, or in other words is characteristic of any per- 
son, will ^n time produce a definite effect upon the skull, and 
thus imprint a physiognomical character upon it. A transient 
emotion will certainly not be expressed by a corresponding 
change In the form of the bone; but a transient emotion is 
very different from a settled character. The Negro skull is 
not necessarily incapable of bearing these physiognomical 
symbols ; though it may be of a form less advantageous -for 
exhibiting them, than the European. 

We also think our author incorrect, ip confounding 
' beauh/' and ^agreeable expression,^ as synonymous terms; when 
he accounts for the superior excellence of shape among the 
Greeks, by some veij' extravagant encomiums on their su- 
jierior knowledge and virtue. 

' They surpassed -ui in personal beauty bec»ite they surpaated us in 
knowledge , our vices are concealed, but their virtues were public i they 
were auperstiticuii. but we are bigoted; they enquired for tome new 
fhing, some addition to the general stock of knowledge ; we enquire 
after that which is old. Beauty or uglioesi of the person resides es-' 
senualty in the character; exalt the one, and it beaatifiet the other.' 
p. 127. 

Beauty of the figure and face, however impossible it may 
he to determine upon an Ideal (for this we apprehend Dr. J. 
means by ' imaginary ideas of tteauty'), implies something 
rery distinct froip the expression of candour of soul,, which' 
may beam in the cpqntenance wherever it exists in the 'cha- ■ 
facter. 



ih,Googlc 



Jarrold's 2)i«fr/ii/w«j on iheFormand Cokna-ofMan. 161 
. The rounder orbit of the Negro eye, our author explains in 
me 14th section, on the same principle as the form of the 
occiput : 

, • The nryef part of the we^ocket aapports the brain ; in infancy it it ' 
tmmd phukt limilar to the other bonei of the tptem, and yieldj on 
prewnre, and thni their fomi it accountod for. Where the prewure it 
•n^, the roandiuu which it common at Irirth to both Europeans and ' 
^Aica ni, and I mi^ add, to the whole animal creation, ii but little 
iBlemipted, and continues through life. Jt it nnnecettary to inquire which 
•hape it moit desirable.' p. 133. 

The forax, of the nose is accounted for, at least' in part, in 
ft aimilsr manner : 

. * The African face beinjr an inclined plane, the noie lodget on thit 
^ane, and prettei with ita whole weight oo the bone* below. On the 
EnrOpean face the note doet not preti, it doet not incline towardt the 
Uct, bdt in a different direction j were it to fall at it ttravituet, irwoald 
fill in a right line to the earth : the note of an African it wpported by 
the face, and wonld &11 obli^ly.' p. 142. 

The fiize of the cheek bones, in which all nations surpass ', 
our own, he attributes to the greater exercise of the muscles ' 
, attached to them ; and contends for their equal ralue, is 
physiognomy, with the forehead; 

There is great beauty, perhaps there is also no small de- 
gree of truth, in the following remarks, which arise out of' 
a consideration of the jaw and its muscles. 

' Illegitimate children,' he tayt, ' are their moiher't shame j she feels them 
at such ; and thii fe^ngii, in some inttancee,at the moment of the child's 
existence the cause of iti destruction. But if it be once placed- to her 
breatt, passion flows with her milk, and the infant is secnre from injury ; 
the can bear the shame, the can endure reproach, she can suffer want — but 
■he cannot wish her child were dead } much leas can she be ita niurdejer., 
1 have always pitied the mother who suffered death for the uurder of her 
in&nt ; she sought to conceal her shame, and she was not checked by 
natural afiecuon, for it was not yet in existence ; it is unlike in its na- 
ture erery other kind of murder.' p. 166. 

He concludes his consideration of die Form of the Body, 
with the Hair, its distinction froui Wool, and the varieties to 
which it is liable. 

The Colour of the Skin forms the second part of the work ; 
at -least so we infer from an introductory section, and the 
numbers of the divisions recommencing. The objections, al- 
ready stated with respect to the whole work, apply more par- 
ticularly to this part. The length- to which it is extended 
is indeed excused by the author ; yet the results of bis dis- 
quisitions are scarcely valuable enough to reward the labour of 
following him through uptvards of eighty tedious pages ; and 



r,o,i,,-cdtyGoOglc 



198 Jakn^i Disserfatiom tm iht Form-and Colour ^ Man. 

we must ccnfeu tbu the new b>'pothesci Hith which they 
■ce abuRdantly stored by nn means aiminitih tKeir dulness. . 

The sun is regarded by Dr. J. as the primary cause, of the 
colour of the htimua skin. 

* BAt we have made but liole progress,' coniinues he, ' in our enqoiiyf 
if we aay it is the «un which producei the cnlour of the akin. How doeajt 
operate i It lioes not turn marble black. There is tu>diiDg ia itself ^whieh , 
Gpmmumcatea colour. It does not tcul or blacken, like the foul air of 4 
Ijlighland cottage. It bleaches ^ede^d Gbres of vegetables, which froni 
being brown become white. It mutt therefore exert sorac.other^influeDce. 
on the living body than thjit which it exerts on the dead. What is that in- 
Jhience ? The sun pei^ima sn important part in the prodneliftn 'of colour, 
, but other agents are necessary ; moisture is necessary. Every lUmnier does 
ppt equally dter oiir complexions ; in one we become-brQWDerihaniuBno- 
ther. la it the honest to which we are indebted for the deepest sh^ \ 
No ; but that which is the wettest. .Children play uncovered with far less 
cMng^in their complexions, while the si)n shines without a claud|t|i4a 
tl)ey do when their facifs an: occasionally wet with raio.'p. 188. 

In order to account for the dififcrent effects produced by 
the heat of the sun and that of a culinary firej two sections 
*re introduced on the sim's influence. Whether theje ' prove 
that the experiments of Count Itumford require to l»c re-, 
considered; and that the term caloric, which the. Freucb 
cliemists have, with so much assiduity, imposed upon science, 
must be erased, as conveying an erroneous sentiment,' we will 
not presume to decide; but we are perfectly convinced, that 
tfas chapters in question stand in very great need of rtcumi" 
dfpalwn, ftnd that tiieir erasure would be far from diminishing 
the iutrinsic value of the work, if tlie heat of ihe sun ever 
naturally produced the temperature of 300 degrees of Fah- 
renheit's thermometer, it is very probable that a little friction 
OF an accidental spark teould kiudle a flame, in matter so 
circumstanced, ancf spread devastation through - a country, as 
easily ns if the heat had been produced by an ordiiiarj' fire. 
And if a tog of wood, exposed to 2OO degrees of Fahrenheit 
from an artificial fire, would be converted into charcoar, as 
Bt J. asserts ; the reason why the sun's heat has i>ever yet 
effected the same^ may rather more reasonably be thought 
ewing to the impassibilitj/ of exposing wood for any length 
of time' to such a solar temperature, than to the sui^ being 
* a fire w/tkhhurns no/.' The esploded hypothesis of the se- 
paraiiou of the rays of heat and light by the prism, enables 
him to surmount the difficulty of accounting for the com- 
bustion of substances by means of a burning glass; but why 
the rays of the sun should ^uf/t, wheu refracted, while they 
prr^eiitfife whi;n reflected, we we at a loss to discover, — yet this 
is evidently. implied jti the assertioiis, that the. sol:\r rays, 
ilk Older to c6mmu:iicate heat, ' must be obslr^icbed hy 



Doii™itvGoOglc 



I 



■JaiToltl's Dissertations on the Form and Cojmrof }ian, 165 

an opaque body and reflected,' sod * tiie grca'erlhe heat of 
*he sUhj the less is the danger of fiie.' We willincly allow 
that the rays- of the suii produce effeqts, panicutar^' oh or- 
ganic beings, not to be imitated by artiBcial fire; and will, . 
even believe, t|i;it tlie effect upon the vtsaela, which secrete 
^e rele mOcosiim, belongs to tliis class : but pr. J, nmst ex". 
cusp ua from concluding, oq this account, that there is a 
plurality of species in the genus Heat, whatever van'etxs 
may exist, , The immediate cause of the coU»ur of the haii*, 
the eyes, the skin, and the blood, is supposed lu be iron j and 
yie rays of the sun are supposed to call it forth, by means of 
nqisuire a% a kii^d of ntordant. The Negrti colour, the 
Pocur . contends, is the most perfect, because capable of 
enduring all climates, lhouc;h particularly adapted to the 
torrtd ^one. And since the want of a skin, properly femi' 
pd for the ' climate, is the sDurce of numberless maladies 
and inconveniences J he exhorts new settlers in America to 
ensure a covering of suitable tcyt\irc to their fiiiiifties, by 
marrying people of colonr. 

Observ^tionf on tl(e cojour of the original inhabitants of 
Amf^ric^, none of wlioip ^re black, am^ that pf ibelnha- 
liit^nt* qf high northern latitudes, conclude the discussion ; and 
the volume closes witii «.j|ust tribute to those illustrious mea 
,who ha>ve been < chiefly, inatr-nmeutal. in procuring the' aba- 
litKHi of the slave trade. We purposely omitted menttoiv 
ing, during the course of our reinarks, a sunordinate aiiD whick 
Dr. J. has in view in tlii^puhlicanon : ' to call the atteniion 
of parents to those means by which the beauty and strenctti 
of ibeir oifspring may be improved,* In referenco to ih\* 
. subject, frequent observations relating to physical education 
are iucersperscd through liis work ; and occasionally severe 
strictures are passed, an the modes whicli now prevail. Some 
are rather extravagant, biit many are. certainly iadicinus, 
&nd they uniTormly evince a' sincere desire of BeneAting 
loankinft in general. We select two specintens. 
' ' Inth« education of children, advice is ^Tcn, excellent for ttowiidoilv 
and excellent a!sp for thf style and manner in which it ii coinmuni- 
, rated : it is an appeal to '^be understanding, lo keep the pattiBDi in 
auhjecti^n t the force of the tnith, aad the ' excellmcy of the advice* 
are ielt and ac^nowletigeil, and [he little ones, iq a transport of pleasure, 
ptonouQce in favor of viftue. fivit no iteps are taken tlut the b^y 
shall co-ogerate with the miad ; ^d until tbis i» done emineiice can- 
pot be gained ; and, I believe, in moic instances, the voice of reason 
and of conscience will be hushed by (he swell of passion. It is in 
vain to recommend chastity, and at the same time luffer indolence, 
and allow full aiid hixurious living ; the plainest food is fittest for youth, 
^di as if regMds the health md the character. It is in rain to cAect ^ 



r,o,i,,-cdtyGoOglc 



cropii 
ana tb 



164 iaxtolA's hissertalions mi the Firm and Colour of Man. 

•weetneu of diipoimon, if s cimH ii nude the ogl* companioti. Itii in 
Tain to advise tbcKOTeniitig of any paisioDi if care be not taken that it be 
not inflafned. We pay too little mpect to our youtht even aa their ad< 
viiers ; and we are shamefiiUy culpable in not recommeadin^ inch a plan 
af living as shall render the observance gf the advice that ii giren lea* 
difficult." pp. 108. — 109. 

• The true end of educa^n is, to nock the memory vith yoftr 
sendments, and to induce proper habits; it is to fonn the raind U' 
though tfulneSE, and to supply those maleiials which will tnake life a 
blessing. An immediate harvest can never be procured j yet wc expect 
it in education ; our children must come from school matured ; but the' 
farmer waits the grow^ of the bUdci and anddpates the qoaUty of the 

mirom the naure of the seed. We expect too much of onr childrmi 

1 therefore we sQt a value on that which ^peara to be somelhtng, and' 
u in many cases worse than nothing. Education anticipate* the imua 
man. I mIe not £)r the progress that was made in this branch <^ litenture 
or in the other ; I aek not for the excellency of the daocCT^— I ask for 
the man ; and 1^ him I judge of the care of the parents) and the skill 
of the preceptor. Greaf imilaiive factMei are.not a pledge of a sound 
understanding, but rather the reverse. , £oys button on the buskin and 
tread the stage, and the crowd gaze and apiJaiid. The drcumstance 
ought not to surprise; destroy' die native diffidence and modesty of 
ehUdreo, and a little preparation will qualify any of them for [daycrs. 
The -newspapers inform us, at least once a year, that the children of eom£ 
«f the^first families of the state, in one of the first schods of the state, 
acted a play, and that they performed very well : no person doubts th« 
infonnatioo, but what ii the result f Kn not die youths, who cnt th« 
greatest figure on such occaiiions, more likely to grow up into cozcombk 
rather ihw mature inp men V p. 148. 

Before we dismiss this volume, we aie obliged to pronounce 
a very sevete censure on tlie uDpardonable carelessness with 
which it is written. Such blunders as these,—-' tfaa^Jpf^tV< 
of man, which embrace the brute and is, &it.* (p. 12), * The 
commission of crimes, jwrwert the jndgement.* fp. 12), ' mat- 
trices' for matrices {p. 17.), ' Huay .for ^aUy repeatedly ; 
* standart' for standard more than once ; some of these 
at least mXy be choritabh^ ascribed to the press. But there 
is a vast -quantity of errprs in composition, which necA- 
sarjly attach to the author j the 6rst paragraph of § 7, afibrds 
a glaring instance. One example will shew that his re- 
markable inattention is not connned to words merely ; ' the 
meridian of Loudon is 5z degrees !' We wish our author atid 
his cause well : we can applaud his ingenuity, if not his 
logic or his style; and respect bis intentions, if not rejcMc^ , 
in his success : we have received both entertainment and 
instruction from his boo^, but we must recommend to him, 
in case a second edition ^outd be called for, to prune away 
redundaiicies and supply deficiencies, with a judicious but 
not iinufrous hand. 



r,o,i,,-cdtyGoOglc 



( 165 ) 

An.Xi Um^ ^ an Amtntm I^\ WUh Slutchet of Mnmen ud 
Sceneiy, in Amenci, ai they existed pferiotu to die Revolution. By 
die Author of ' Leuere frnn the Mountaini,' &c. &c. ISoio. 2 voli. 
pp. SSS, S44. Price lOi. 6d. boardi. Looenua and Co.. and Mn. 
H. Cook. 1808. 
TN comtnon hands, the underlalcine to write an account of 
the dame of a country squire, who hred, half a centurv since, 
a couple of hundred miles more or less up the Hudson 
river, and to do tliis after tlie writer has been forty years 
an entire stranger to the place and the person, and not- 
withstanding she was perhaps hardly twelve years old at .the 
time of finally quitting them, would have seemed a rather 
forlorn literary project. The present writer, however, was ad- 
vised to such an undertaking by her friends ; and, iti executing 
it, has produced one of the most interesting hooks that we hare 
seen for a good while past. A brief notice of the materials 
composing it, will explain how such a quality could be 
imparted to such a book, even without any severe labour 
on the part of the writer. Tha most enviable perhaps of 
all qualifications for maldne interesting books, is to have 
actually vi^ted scenes little Known, anaseen, with an obser- 
vant and reflective mind, uncommon objects and transac- 
Uons. 

The author is well aware that the great distance of time 
since she quitted America, and the very early period of 
life at which her observations were made, will not be fa- 
vourable to the credit of accuracy in her narratives and 
delineations, especially when it is added that she has not 
the aid of any written memorials. Under such circumstances, 
any moderate degree of truth, in the sketches, would imply 
an extraordinary prematurity of thought and tenacity of 
memory. But these advantages will be amply and confi- 
dentljt attributed to die writer, by every one that observes 
the nice shades in her pictures, and tne minute &cts in 
some parts of her record : while her character will give the 
assurance of an uniform concern to preserve truth of re- 
presentation. After saying thus much, it is fair to observe, 
' ^lajt a certain fallacy of colouring is quite inevitable in 
<tnch a work. Tt is familiar to every one's knowledge that 
there is a double deception in recollecting, in advanced 
life, the sceues and events of childhood ; they presented 
a deceptive appearance at the time, to a mind opeuing 
to.th6 delights of [existence, esulung in the joys of no- 
vel^, surprize, affection, and bope,^ and too ignorant, and 
too e^eny welcoming a crowd of new ideas, to hav* 
learnt to compare, to disciiminate, and to suspect; and 
tgUD> . in the recoUcctioni in later life, a second imposition 



.dtyGoogIc 



i66 Menhirs ofianAmeiHcanLaiy. 

pats& oti the mind, in that ford sympathy W''^ otje*3 foiiatt 
sdf^'that itiomeiitary recovery, of jiiyeuile bping, by which 
the delights aijd' the astoiiisliiiieiits of the early period axe 
repfesented as more exquisite and profound than thej.were 
■ctuatty felt. This deception operates, in a still greater 
degree, in the recollections of a person who was removed 
froiD the scenes and objects of early interest at the veiy 
period of the utmost prevalence and enthusiasm of that in- 
tei^est, and who, having never Seen tliem sinc^e, did not gra- 
dually lose the emphasis of the feeling by familiarity with i'ts 
objects. To have grown forty years older io the habitual 
acqua:intancc with things and persons that delighted or'anfitf 
us at the age of ten or twelve, or of similar things and 
persons, would have given a vastly different character to 
the remembered aspect^ which those objects presented to 
MS in our youth, from that character witli which they would' 
lie recailed to our imagination as the enchanting forms 
of 3 vfsion, which in the early itiorning of our life was 
Aitii up from our view for ever. In this latter case, the 
retrospections 6f a mind like that of Mrs. Grant inevitably 
turn in some degree into hoeCry ; and in the work before us 
it could not depend on her will, or her most conscientious 
veracity, to avoid a certain fulnetis of embellishment, espe- 
cialh' m delineating the characters of her early friends and 
neighbours, for which her pencil might not have found 
■ colours quite sd rich, If her residence had permanently 
continuecf, and this work had been written, in the state of 
Vermont. At the sarne time we must say, that there are 
IO many lines firmly drawn, and so many things true io 
general nature in the representation of particulars differing 
strangely in. specific modification from what we have been 
accu^omed to witness,' that every reader will be satisfied of 
the siibsiantial Bdelitv of the whole of this very interesting 
and original series ot delineations. 

Not\nth5tandin.g the new and striking views of nature 
»nd human society unfohled in the book, 6n6 of the most 
interosting portions' of its contenu is the account, inter- 
mingled with them, ifi the author's early life arid feelings, 
lief father was a Scotch subaltern officer, in a regiment 
that served many years \ix America, in the old times of tite 
wars between thfe British settlements and the French and 
Indians of. Canada. He rt'as accompanied by his wife and 
daughter, at a time when the latter was too young to retain 
nny remembrance of )\er native country ; and he was" sta- 
tioned & good while aboiit Albany, 170 milfisnorth of New 
Yoik, and at Fort Os^vego on lake Ontario. At Albany 
they were introduced to C^rs. Schuyler, the widowof Colonel 



.dtyGoogIc 



Mtntoirs of an*Aniericim Zady. ' f^T 

Schuyler, the son of a gentleman of that name, iVho induced 
and accompanieii the visit to England of those Indiaiv 
chiefs, mentioned in the Spectator as one of the principal 
London shokvs of that time. Either this eider Mr. Schiiyter, 
or fais immediate ancestors, had emigrated from Holiand, 
and ranked among llrt rnost wealthy and respectable sei- 
flers in the province of New York, and among the most 
aealoUsly lojal subjects of the British gorernmeiit. As his 
residence was pn the frontier of the country bclonginjij 
to the Mohawks, or Five Nations, at that time probably 
the most powerful of all the tribes of the aborigines, he 
was the principal medium of intercourse between that for- 
midable community and the province, and the principal 
preservatiie of peace and amity. When the French iii 
Canada' became powerful enough, in conjunction with the 
Indian tribes in their alliance, to commence a system, 
and to indicate the most ambitious designs, of hostility 
and encroachment, it was felt to be of the utmost import- 
ance to the province to retain the friendship of the Mo- 
hanks ; among whom the French intriguers, or rather we 
should say negociators, had niready been assiduous to pto- 
pagate the notion that the English were a contemptible 
nation, a company of mere traders, inhabiting an insigni- 
ficant island- Mr. Schuyler judged tliat far the best ex- 
pedient wQuld be fpr a number of the chiefs to visit 
Kngland, in order to have imhiediate evidence of its power 
and magnificence, and to receive the respectful attentiotis 
of its government. It was found Very difficult to periuade 
thpm to this undertaking; hut at length they consented, on ' 
the positive condition that their ' brother Pliilip, who never 
told a lie, nor spoke without thinking', should accompany 
, them, with which he reluctantly complied. The measuro 
had the desired effect ; the sachems were kindly and re- 
spectfully treated by queei) Anne and all her court ; on their 
reiurti to America they called a. solemm council of theit 
nation, and made Such representations, that the Mohawkx 
continued the firm allies of the British State and settlers,— » 
through their intercourse with whom however tlieir numbieni 
and their independence were gradually diminishing, till, 
by the time that the Knglish power was annihilatetl, they 
had sunk into comparative insignificance. In des<Tibing 
the reception of the chiefs in England, the writer makes 
some very just remarks ou the proper mode of treating 
obser^~ant and thoughtful bari>arians, ^uch as these wert, 
when they happen to visit a civilised country. 

The understanding and the virtues of -Mr. Schuyler must 
Jiave been of a very high order of es'^cik'ncc; aiid those 



ih,Googlc 



1 6S Memoirs ^ an American Lady. 

qualities sppear to have been inherited by his son, the 
husbaud of the lady who makes so distinguished a figure 
in this work. He became, in his turn, the chief manager 
and conciliator between the province, and the T3c£ who 
saw their ancient empire of woods suffering an unceasing 
and progresiive invasion by the muhiplying colony of - 
strangers. In these and all bis other benevoTent employ- 
ments, he had a most able coadjutor in hia wife; who was 
his cousin, and had in a great measure been educated by 
bis father, whose fond partiality she had early engaged by 
extraordinary indications of intelligence and worth. It was 
not very long after this lady became a widow, and when 
she was past the age of sixty, that our author was intro- 
duced into her bouse, where ber reflective disposition, her 
■paffiion for reading, and the interest she took in listening 
to the conversation of elder people, soon rendered ber a 
great favouiite. She attained to such a degree of intimacy 
and confidence, that Airs. Schuyler, when not engaged in 
important affairs, would spend hours iu conversing with 
her and instructing lier, and in some of these conversa- 
tiom would relate to her many particulars of her own his- 
tory, of that of her deceased relatives, and that of the 
colony : ' 



colony : hence the writer became qualified to relate ' 
transactions in the femily, and in the province, of a period 
antecedent to her personal knowledge. 

The first part of the work is an ample description of the 
town of Albany and its vicinity ; the ^te, the surrounding 
country, the romantic recesses between the bills, the banks 
of the great river Hudson, the manners of the inhabitants, 
and ^eir whole social economy, as all these things appeared 
to the author, are exhibited in the most lively and pici- 
turesque manner ; and the whole foims, to us, a surprisingly 
outlandish scene. It is impossible for us to give any just 
, idea of this most interesting description; but the following 
are some of its prominent features. The children and young 
people, b^inning as early as the age of six or seven, 
were, formed, by themselves as it should seem, (it does 
not appear that they were allotted by their parents) into 
a number of little classes or companies for the mere pur- 
poses of friendship and co-operation in pursuits and amuse- 
ments; each company consisting of an equal number of 
hoys and girls, acknowledging one of their number of each 
sex, as leaders, and holding a kind of convivial meeting at 
particular times in the year. Within these companies bpgan 
very early those attachments which commonly led to mar- 
riage, and itwasreguded as not very honourable to.marry 
out of the company. Jn » new and rising seitiement, the 



r,o,i,,-cdtyGoOglc 



Memtn'ri «/ an American Lady. 1 6» 

"Carriages were of course v'erj early, often when the parties 
had. not passed the age of sixteen or seventeen. When 
a' yburh was anxious to attaifi this object, Uie usual ez- 
■peaient For providing the requiBite resources was to go on 
ji'trading adventure among the Indian nations; his fathejr 
ftinitahing' him with a canoe, and money far lading if witU 
the articles most in request among those tiibes.- A. most 
etit^rtairtipg account is .given of tlie usnal severe toils. and 
'hazard^ of fhis enterprise ; and of the strange transformation 
of tfle boy into the gravity, the prndeiice, and the dignified 
'deportmieht' of the man, which is often ejlected By the 
■(Are,, tHfe ibresigbt, the self-command, and the courage 
which hi' has been compelled to exprt during even one 
expeditiA'n of this kind. When the young people rashly 
'inarrife'd' before any provision had been made, the parents 
of both f he parties very composedly met in i;onsuhation, 
Und the family that happened to have thV more property 
toblf tVe '^oung pair home: the young man then comyienced 
"his tradthg expeditions, and the young people and ,the old 
beople often continued to live together with mutual saiis- 
fsei^bn mahy years yfter they liad ample means 'for a separate 
competency, the ancients belrfg as foi;d of their gr^ndchjlclrep 
V they had ever been of their own. All thti families Kaji 
"ftegroes, but these slaves were tfeated with as much kindness 
IBS 4f they had been equals ; they were bred up in the house, 
ai^ their mothers bad very great influence, ript lofiayaur 
■thorKyi in the family, and over' their master's chihlfen- . When 
a negrt child was a few jeaVs 6lH, it was formally given 
io one of' the children dP the fyiniify, who' wai thenceforth 
consldeted as its master or. mistressj and its patron and 
friend ;■ the twb children grew up iii the most afrectionatfe 
iiabils, and (Kfere were iimumerablfi iiisfa'nces .'tif (he negro 
young men ■ Kraving' the "mokt esfreme p'erils, to defend iit 
Assist therr^^blih;^' masters.' '"tet 'all this tUAe there waS, 
■in the 'whites,''-an iij^rhitle .perfect cpnVictibn of ft'vpst aiid 
■ihsBperablt Artier hf-in^'placied by naiure'b^tw'feen them 
Mnd the' ^African race'!' 'nils feeling operated kd pow6p- 
fuHy, that;- IVetbre thef'iri'lyar'bf BritiMi' troiipS i^ Albany, 
i>rilv .one t^nl^tto waS" |-eniertiheij«d' to haVc'been borii ther^ 
ttiw he w»s rigardert as 'sih'annmklov'i*, antl.'afmost a! monstronB 
-c^fiattire. AWiostthe whol'e of Vile iuhabltaots'arip'repfesenteil, 
n> have b^eii.' onierlyi inilii^t^Ods, f/ielidl;^, anS in . shoft 
ekcCedingly pure, in tfaeli- generaj riiorajs ; , tlie'dbt^eGtiie** 
of the descj'iption,,ui'to.'"3ne 'tra'iidi'.QfmoralSi' at;')^stj''fs 
strongly snp'pdrtea' by. the veij, inri_Hus"'ifccV>{i(^('"bf the 
astonishment, the ge;V'feval!n\(^rti|fita'tion,'infl'\?>d*^rarnif,' caused 
«t (She town ■.byl'i 'siitteri' mst^n'cfr'of' 'sedtic'ticn in one Sf 
Vol. V. N 

Do,l,.cdtyGoOglc 



170 Memoirt.ofan,A7neritan Lad^. 

the midcUtng families, and this was ejected by a ^ritisb officepr 
who. was entertafned there. , As ah odd exception to the 
geheu'al tihaiacter of virtue and good order, the ^'winter }io- 
tiestly nj'entionS a custom sim'ilar to one that prevailed ia 
Sparta,' a licensed practice of petty thefts amoBg the younf 
men. It was requisite to take the utmost care of pigs aod 
poultry, while all other things might be left exposed with entire 
safety.. It was thought fair to belabour the thief, if^ caught 
in the fact ; but no real criminaKty seems to have been 
imputed to it; it was considered as an establi^ed privi,- 
lege of the youth, and all but the gravest , part of thp 
c6mmunity were too willing to applaud the most d^terou^ 
performer for siich ingenious tricks as those of w^idi oaf 
author relates one or two. The young men were V^oV allowed, 
to join ifi these frolics, as they were called, after they 
were Aiarried, which to some of them is said to baye been np 
small niortificafioh. , , ■; 

Thp young people, though brought up to acqifire,s(> early 
a spirit of enterprise and independence, practised the greatest 
deference to their parents. Law or . piinishmeiit .w^s scarcely 
"ever heard of in tlie towti'. In the rare case of,a ijiegro 
proving incorrigibly refractory, he was sold to Jamaica ; j^ 
this transaction, excited a far more melaocholjr epioudv j.u 
Ihe whole population, than the execiition of a if^^e^jCiiim^ 
nals at once excites in our metropolis. The dascr^ti^p' (^ ■ 
the summer excursions of the people of Afban);,. i^5g,^0jB \qto 
t'he most delightful scenes of wildness and .sifaptjf;ity,'-anjl 
'(iisplay^ iliat romantic mixture of cultivated an^. unci- 
vilised life,'' (thoiigh with a preponderance ofi the : forgierjjai^d 
tliat contrast of garden with boundless forest, wlitob must be 
a transient state of moral' arid physical nature in any country. _ 
A sufGcietitiiuDofeer of specific facts are giv^, tp attest tb^" 
truiSij-in substance;, of our author's repxeseFjta^^iL of the 
vifri^uqiis and fiiappy. condition of this cdn]miii)^y.^.1wt tber^ 
late ^Iso some' omer feels tending- to prove thiij; topur pvzise^ 
are, "a little indebted to the rekin^ing 'glow'. ^.^Ke.wiUei^p 
primeval fancy and sensibility. Format, the periocl|^ whic&tKp 
'description relates, the settlement., bad bee^^.aj good wbi^ 
'pifested by something beyond all [coippaps^n ,^oiie p6rnir 
'cious than the wolves of the' desert ; by ^e. military ;finM9i 
.Europe, whose officers had itaken indefetigable: jjains tc^^le^ 
pVave the potions, manners, and morals of theyqungjpeppieyVr- 
j^a'imicb^^oie easy exj^loitj' tfian to vanquish tbe,Frerch uiil 
ifKe.Tqdians on th^ lakes.. By a vam^b of elegaj^c^ and.^;frotb 
"of'gaietyj'by^ridicHle ofthe primitive ^'abi^ p'f tfa? old sober- 
isided se^tlarsJ^'^Rnd .an ostentatjpn of koo^^BS .thb world, aa^ 
-'at last'b^ the iutrodgctidupf j^aUs'sfyi^ S^h ^^ ontM4 



i,,-c,it,Goo(^lc 



Memoirs ^ <m AaiericaH tailg, 111 

< inftDta' in the young ' people,' wbieb dFove them to rusb 
into dissipation like a torrent, in acorn of. the autbori^ aQ^ 
remonstrances of the elder . inliabitaiits, and reduced their 
'KealouB, affectionate, but Coo .senbitive and self-important 
minister, to a melancholy which was helieved to have be- 
trayed him to a Tohintary death. AU this had takes place 
hefore the time, of our author's i^desce; and though the 
pbrenai^ hbd in ageod meaaure subsided, it is impossible to 
.•uppc!Me,it cou)d have lefra state of manners altogether so 
unsophisiicsted as out autlnr would represeiiL 

^'' describing the coi«fartab}e situation of the negroes ' 
4n ttiis^ 'Settlement, she by no means aims at ridBing auy 
plea' for ih^ slave-trade' or slavery; she means merely to 
«1ate tdie-bct, that in Albany they w6re kindly treated »nd 
cwhperatively h»ppy. — W^ must notice the striking in'^ 
danmtettcy bbtireen this senHenoe (I. 48} is which she ssys 
tiiiC'^.ewo or three slave't' ware . the giteatest number that 
tSittlBi family ever posseasedj'. and her mention iit another place 
that Mrs. Schnyler had': ekrreD, and her information that 
'eatih (^>itd of a family had an appropriated n^ro. 

It would be in vain for uh to attempt any abstract of th^ 
history gS Mrs. Schuyler. ■ ^e was evidently an extraordinary 
anda'inom estimable psTsoD^ and though .so few of us ever 
hsatd ef her before, oer fame, during oer time, was ^iread 
over the- northern provinca of America, and far among the 
saVa^e tribes ; nor shcaild wc hare ventured to gaiusay, if her 
biiAgraphei" had asieited that the queen of Sheba, even after 
het visit to JeniBalcm, was less qualified to counsel or to 
govera than this lady. She was consulted by traders,, planters, 
governors, And geacrals; she was revered by soldien, by Indians^ 
lyy BWsstonarieSj and even by the most depraved persons that 
ever'cfBoe wkhin the spfaeieof heracqaaintance. rerbapsthe 
otJly mteo that ever oflnred her an insult was' General Lee, at 
AAt tim*6 a captain in the English serrice, who, in marching 
past ber estates towards Ticondenoga, hastily and harshly 
aecnanded certain supplies for the troops, which she would 
Mi*e heed of a41 persons the readiest to furnish voluntarily ; 
hat when he was brought back wounded from the fat^ attack 
on that fortress, and kindly accommodated and attended in her 
house till his recovery, ' be sWore, in his vehement manner, 
that be was sure there would be a i^aee reserved for Madame 
ia heaven, thongh no otber woman should be there, and that ' 
lie sbould wish for nothiiig better tbaa to share her final 
destiny.* Both during the colonel's life, and after she wa» 
left albne, her house was the grand cteotre of attraction to all 
parsons io the province who were devising any thing for tbo 
^ N2 



Doii™ih,'GoOglc 



•172 MemoirsBfait. American Lady. 

^ public Welfare; or had evendifficult private, sffirtrs of iio- 
portance ou tfaeir hands ; nor can we refase to believe that 
It was well Worth their while lo travel very'tcKny leagues, 
even over snow and ice, to take the benefit, of so much 
cool and comprehensive prudence as' our author (ibokigb so 
yoHug an observer when residing there) has .given us the 
mfahs of beinr; Assured they would find, in thajt house. 

' A g:reat number of plewint; deuils, some of tbwoi vesy 
curious, are given of the domestic system, the hospitalities, 
the young inmates entertained and cduosted in- the &ia)ly» 
the manners of the negroes, laral the iffricultUral &rra«i^e- 
rnentA. Every thing relating toMrs. Scluiyler'Ki |tf rwrnjil chai- . 
racter and habits, is extremely iaterestine ; andi.wer doi. uot 
believe that nny- of her friends cauld have gjyen>>a> more 
lively description of her mannen, or a stronger. clhibitt^B 
of tlW leading pi-incifileS of her character, her eoiinentt^ 
sound judgement, her inoessantly active benetioen«e,9nii.it 
is very gratifying to add, her habitual piety. lier lit^cary 
attainments were, for such a state of.agciety, laspectaUe ; she 
could speak several of the EiirD[iesn langtitbrj^fi, aodi ha4 
read the best English authors^af the popular alass : ^sbe alvays 
continued to read ati much as the very .aotiVe eeaeioiny of hefc 
life would permit. But the wisdmu which eoniniaiiilsd s^j^h 
general respect was chiefly the result of .a JongiexercisC 
of a vigorous undefrstandit^ on pnctioaL vflairs audi I'm! chs' 
racterst aided too, as we must havkrit,, aod ss JM^. Graat 
indeed represents, by the sdciet^': of <ii«r e'llighunefl bua- 
band ; who wits considerably be^ scniar^:«acl'V^R also st^epur 
onttly occupied, duping his whole lifc> ',d(i proinQtiDgj t|ie 
public goAo. Th«y are described as havitw been .c^r^^ial 
in a very tincOmmpd degree^'their lortg ut^ion wasi«ittiW)^y 
hsppy, and the matiiier in w^ichitbe survivor qfa .<)iDce;eyinGea, 
and endeavoured - to conceal, tbei Cwtenes, of, Jrer 4$wf for 
the loss, was inor»aUied to poetry tiian pruba|%.atty :fh^^ 
that happened l>ufore or sticer in the back seu|ewi«)ta«f New 
York. 

.Having ho children of her own, thislady ia effect ad(^|ed 
a great number of children, in sucOe-ssign,. partly tho^ of 
her relations; but" in directing their edu4atipu she did npt, 
Jike divers "sensible ladies, that we 'have benrd of. ^tiljec, Jier 
whole tisie and atteotim to- he eusrossed by it, ^d;eff9|t 
the error iAto ' a ulertt. 8Ue knew tRRt<a matron, Je»aenB;her 
importance in thb estimate of chiUnen, by. appearing. ,, to be 
al.vaysat tdeir senrtce ; she felt that a-pontttant course of 
intellectual and religidns discipline was (luie to h^r oni) ioibd ; 
ft id that a peHon of sense and property hi>^. also dijiics of ^ 



.dtyGoogIc 



Memoinif an American Latl;^, 173 

more genoml nature, than tbose relating exclusively lo her 
own immetiiate cii'»le. 

VViat We nbould deem perhaps the principal fault of the 
book, is too much length of detail conceniinfi the nume- 
rous collateral relations of Mr, and Mrs. Schuyler. Kscept 
in the instance of the wiiiow of that gentleman's brother, it 
is impossible to take much interest in a lon^ and perplexing 
enumeration of persons and personal hlstones, of no import- 
itnce in themselves, and serving only to sprtad out, but to 
Spread out by interrupting and dispersing, the memoir of 
the principal character; the accident of their being relaleJ 
to her, fonn:ng the sole claim of most of. them to be so 
much as mentioned. 

Befere the contest between the American States and the 
Mother Country had taken a very serious turn, Mrs. S. with 
many other intelligent colonists, felt a perfect conviction that 
the connexion could not ctintinne lung, and would be utf 
terly useless to both countries while it lasted. She retained 
however much of the ancient attachmeut to Englitnd; but 
was too highly respected by both puties to experience any 
indignity, or material inconvenience, in the military compe- 
tition ot which she lived to see the commencement, but not 
the close : she died in 1788 or I789, not much short of the 
age of eighty. 

The house of this distinguished family having been fre- 
quented by the principal commanders in the Canadian wai-s, 
short sketches are given of sonie of their chiracters, to- 
gether with narratives of some of the most remarksbie of their 
proceedings; especially of the fatal attempt on Ticunderoga, 
in which the author's father was present, and of the bold 
and intelligt^nt schemes executed at fort Oswego by Colonel 
Duncan, a brother of ths late Admiral Lord Duncan. 

A very large proportion of these volumes relates to the 
Indian tribes, and affords many most interesting descriptions 
and observations. The author used often to visit some de- 
tached families of the Mohawks (which denomination she 
seems, in one or two instances, to apply to the whole of 
the Five Nations, though the Mohawks were only one tribe 
of that league) that encninped in the neighbourhood of AU 
bany during the summer, and liept up a friendly and inti- 
mate intercourse with the settlers. Some of these Indians 
were Christians ; and a very, pleasing account is given of the 
benevolent efforts whieh had long been made by some of 
the families, especially the female part of them, to insinuat« 
Christian knowledge and habiu among these wild but not 
unreflecting tribes. 

In the ooorse of a' joorn^ to lake OBtariQ, our author was 



ih,Googlc ■ 



n* Memoirs ^ on Jmeritm La^. 

preteaUi Bt the court, or at least in the palace, oif the moat 
famous warrior of the Five Nations ; and die gives A moaj 
amusing account of his mannei^, and of ber feelings on the 
occasion. In addition to what she saw of the Indians herself, 
she eagerly listened to the innumerable accounts of them 
given by the traders and ihe miliiarj' men who bad been 
amone them^. From the impretision made by the boldness 
and the wildness of the Indian character on her young ima- 
gination, we do not wonder to see a strong tincture of fa- 
vourable partiality in lier representaUons and reasonings 
concerning those nations; yet we rather wonder to see, in a 
lady's description, the epithets ' high^souled and generous'' ap- 
plied to these heroes, just two pages after the account of 
the most mi^emble state of slavery and oppression in which 
their wives are uniformly held. No one is disposed to deny 
that there are certain modificatioDs of the savage character 
analogous to virtue in some tribes, especially perhaps the 
Mohawks; but it is now quite too late in the day for its b> 
accept any estimate oi tbe condition of any savage people 
whatever, as, on tie vhoU, otherwise than profoundly depraved 
and miserable. 

Onr author g^ves a very striking view of the process by 
which the American tribes have tost their independence, and 
are very fast losing even their existence, in consequence of their 
intercourse with their civilised neighbours. Her explanation 
of this i^oint is introduced by some general speculations OD 
the progress of civilisadon in Europe, which should rather 
have been reserved to be rendered more Simple and precise 
by maturer consideration. 

The roguery of the American citizens, in the district' now 
jcalled Vermont, deprived the author's father of a' valuable 
portion of land, several years previously to the period at 
which he would have been certain to lose it as a loyalist. 
Nothing to be sure can be much more odious and disgnuting 
than that system of decepdon, chicane, and rascality, whidb 
she describes as having overspread that part of the cuuntry, 
and driven her father to desert his plantation, and return to 
Europe, even before he had lost all hope of supporting bis 
claims. We have not much to object to, in her many spirited 
observations on the American character and government. 
But we cannot very well comprehend the reasonableness 
of those animadversions on the assamption of independence ' 
bv the American States, which seem to proceed ou the prin- 
ciple that either they should always nave continued de- 
pendent, or should have waked till England should volun- 
tarily set them free. The former is obviously absurd ; and 
how many thouuuidysars most dieyj^tvevaited to jie»Use.^e 



r,o,i,,-cdtyGoOglc 



Memoirs of an American Ladtf. 115 

latter? Nor can we work ourselves into any thing like an 
animated sympathy with certain high-flowo sentiments of 
patriotism, which, in remonstrance against the desire to enji- 
gratc from a land of taxes, wouliJ seem to go far towards telling 
a man who is anxiously considering how Jiis family are to- 
live, that the * proud recollection that he is in the country that 
has produced Milton and Newton,' is a much better thing than 
to have plenty of good corn, bacon, cabbage, &c, &c., in 
such a low-minded place as America. 

There is one passage relative to the puritan settlers in the 
northern provinces, which we read with surprise. 

• The people of New England left the mother country as banished 
from it by what they considered oppreeaion y came over foaming with 
religious and poUtical fury, and narrowly missed having the mast artful 
aod sbls of demagoguei, Cromwell himself, for their leader and guide, 
ThcT might be compared to lava, discharged by the fury of internal 
combaauon, from tM bosom oi the commonwealth, while inflamed 
h>f conteoding elements. Tliis lava, every one acquunted with the con- 
niliioot of oature must know, takes a long time to cool ; and ^riien 
at length it ii cooled, turns to a «ubstaiice hard and bairen, that 
long resists the kindly influeDce of the demenU) bdbre its sur&ce re- 
sumes the appearanc<; of beauty and fertility. Such were the almost 
. literal effects of political convulsions, aggravated by a fiery and intolerant, 
zeal for their own mode of worship, on these self righteous colonists.' 
Vol. 1. p. 19?. 

Is it possible that some idle partiality to the House of . 
Stuart caq have had the inHuence to prompt this strange^ 
piece of absurdity ? Whatever has prompted, it does really 
seem very foolish not to know, that the emigrants in que5~ 
tion were the most devout and virtuous part of the English 
natjoD, and were glad to escape to a melancholy desert ttom. 
the pillories and prisons of such tutelar saints of Britain as> 
Laud. 

While noticing faults, we may apprise the reader that - 
these" Volumes^ apparently from haste, are written with much 
carelessness and incorrectness of expression. But be will 
find every where great animation, and ease, and variety ; wid 
in many places elegance and energy. The descriptions ^a 
beautiful, and various, and new, in the highest degree : w^ 
will for conclusion transcribe one of them ; w^ might triLOn 
scribe a third part uf the book, 

. * In «ne place, where we were snrTDunded by hills, with awamps 
lying between them, there seemed to be a general congress of wolves, 
who answered j^aqh other from 0[q)08ite hills, in soi^ncjs the most t^trtific. 
ProbaUy the ^rror which all savage animals have at firf was exalted 
laio fofVt by seeingao many eneiflieSi whoitf they dur« not attack. 
The tnul frogs, the harmless, the bidepus ^nhafaitanta . of tb^ swamps, 
ieemed deltmthied ^b^ to be out-done,' and roared a' tremendous bats to - 



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■ 176 ~ The Fathers nf tU Evglisk Church. 

tlui branira sccompaniiDent. ThU was almost too mnch ibmjr lovesT 
t^e ternble-subfime; some women, who were oor fellow-ua*efjersi 
Bhiieked with terror: and fifially, the horrors of dut oigbt were, ever 
afinrheld in aweful remembrance by all who shared them.' pp.117, 118, 

Alt. XI. Tie Falieri of the EngUth Church ; or a Selection from die 
,; Writings of the Reformers and early Prctestaot Divinet of the Oiurcb 

of England. Vol. II. containin,-, various TractSi and Eittracts Froai the. 

Works of Launct^ot Ridley, ancl Hugh Latimer ; alto the Catechism of 

Kiiig Edward VI. With Memorials of their Lives. 8vo. j^ IQf). 

Price lOs. Hatchard, Riviiigton, Seeley, I80&. 
JJAVING already stated our cordial a[>probation of th» " 

, undertaking, in our review of the Brst volume (Eel. Rev. 
iy. p. 427), and strongly recommended it to the patronage of' 
our reader^ and the public at lai^e, we cannot deem it ne-' 
cessary to go into any length of preliminary disquisiiii^n is 
giving an account of the second, or to describe very niinutely 
dje D^nefits wliicb it is calculated to afford; It would in- 
volve us, indeed, in a {general repetition of the remarks we 
have before submitted to the public ; as the contents of the 
present volume arealike favourable tt> the determination of 
controversies on the theological tenets of the established 
church, to the correction of erroneous, sentiment among 
private Christians, and the practical improvement of the 
character. In these respects, we beg leave to repeat qiir 
strenuous recommendation of the volume now on our table, 
Bo all classes of religions men, but more especially to the 
members of (he Establishment. It contains f^elections from the 
writings of Dr. Launcelot Ridley, cousiri to the bishop of 
that name; and from the sermons of that eminent divine 
ind faithful preacher Dr. Hugh Latimer, who was for a 
Aoirt time during the reign of Henry VIII. Bishop of Wor- 
eester, and was afterwards burnt for his adherence to iho 
protestant faith during the persecution under Queen Mary. 
Beside these, we have King Edward's Catechism, and pre* 
fixed to it the royal injuiiction with which it was originally 
published. In a note are givfin the 42 articles, which re- 
ceived the sanction of the clergy in convocation at the same 
^me as the catechism. There are also lives of Latimer,, and 
King Edward, from Fox's Martyralogy, containing a gre^t 
deal of very interesting matter.. The short account of Ridley 
4nd his writings is collected from various quarters. " 
i The selections fibte Dr. Ridley coasist' of' two entire com« 
mentaries on the-Kpbesians and Phllippiattfi, which are now 
extremely ■scaree ; and a short extract from an ixpositjon od 
Bt. Jade; ' Hi.s writings are grave, plain, and practical : no^ 
practical ;it' the serise, whif;!^ perhaps tnany persons affijt 
ttf that *pr(lj for;'|he^ 4fe fuJIJl of scriptiyfip , dj?«t''jn«,«-. But 



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The Foiktrs cf tie ^gHsh Chttrch. m 

4eM idoetrinea are introduced in their proper situation ai^ 
Connexion. They are bnougfat forward ks the spjirophste 
Mid qi»iy support of Christian moralfiy, and b3 peitccdy dis- 
lAnOI from any mere civil aiid sociBl principles of conduct. 
-S!»njeflt'Tor those dirirte tmtha, by the combitied and harnio- 
ntoits MiprcssioT] of which his own mind had been convinced, 
Ifeshnna not to declare the whole counsel of God. Know- 
ing also that the gospel is the power of God unto sal- 
vation, he disdains the policy of those who, in order to secure 
its effectual reception, tiiiuk it necessary to superadd sum^ 
contrivance of their ot^n. Aware, like St. Paul, of the un- 
founded prejudices which worldly initided men entert^iu 
against the doctrines of grace, be conter^ts himseif, like St. 
Paul, with bearing a simple and manly testimony against 
their objections. Regording it probably as neither iieccs- 
6»r^ nor advisable to follow them into the perplexities, in 
which tiieir reasoning involTOd themselves, Fte proceeds t» 
point out the necessary connexion between those ductrmes 
and a boly life. 

After observing that a man may know whether be is in the 
favour of God by ascertaining wtiether be have faiths be adds ; 

* Some will atk, how thall we know whether we have fiiith and di« 
^rit of God, or no. This thing nisy be known by ibe fruiti, and by the 
works, and motioni, that they fhalJ perceive in their hearts. If ttwf 
perceive tfast they be glad to hear God's word, to read it, to study it, be 
glad it'gaeth ibrward for God'* glory oaij, do believe it to be mie, and 
that God will. perform and bring to pass all things promised or thientenet 
, ID his word, that he wll lewanl good men, and punish evil men jn the 
world' to come ; if they shall perceive a readiness, a towardnB6B to be 
fibedieot to do God'i cciminandroeDts, yea, to do it indeed for God oniyi 
to the uttermost of their power j if theie things they perceive in tliemseke^ 
thfy be sore signs that they be in the favour of God, have faith and the 
ffir'K of God, and shall have life everlasupg.' pp. 10, 41. 

It will of course be understood, that onr general ap- 
probation of his writings and of the other articles i*i ' 
this work is not given without some grains of qualifica- 
tion; we do not undertake to maiuUin the truth of sU 
the assertions, still less to prove tkt;ir mutual consiitency. 
In the following extract, we find the returner's views of 
.predestination stated in a manner, which must of those w ha 
bold the doctrine will approve, 

' Methioketh tb« Aposde doth speak these words, to stop the ua^odTy 
iBouths of canial men, which say { " Xf we be elected and Chosen «f God 
ta immortal glory, what maketh matter vita ws do f Do what we wffl, 
we shall at die last come to that glory and bliss. If we be not chosen 
and predestinated to be saved, wlut skilleth of our works ? They sliaJI 
not profit u^ tp obtain life everlasting ia joy. If we do all tlie coniinaoj|.. 
'menu, that God had) commaiided to be iajtt, at the end we shall be re. 



.dt,Googlc 



178 . The Fathers tf the EngUah Otarek, 

kcted and damiied,.ifwet)e not picdottiuteil of God to be intd 6^ 
Cbiat JcRM throi^h iaith." Tliat no man ahoald qicak so tmaodly, * 
reaaoD with himseu on thi) nunner, and coDdeoui gopd woricf, OMpite t» ■ 
Lse holily, and care not how he lire, vhether he luej) God> ocgiiiUB^b 
menu or no, St. Paul laj^, that God hath elected aod chotf^ lu.to b( 
holy before him in lovei that is to saji whosoever will be holy, and gLv^ 
themMlves to serve God, to keep his commandments, to live a Ufe nut? 
and dean from all vice and sin, to believe in God, to trust Cbrist'opfy tp 
be his Saviour, Redeemer, Jnstifier, Deliverer from sin, death, bell, and 
eternal damnation, and give himself to love God above all things in this 
world, prefeniog God's glory above all earthly tlungs, and to deserve 
good to evwy man, Gtudying alway to seek the gloi^ of God and the prtift 
of other men, according to the will and pleasure of God, for w4iose ssft^ 
Doly, good works, that God commandeui in Scriptnre, are to be dooej 
which works they do, that be chosen and elected of God to eternal salva- 
tion. Who be elected of God to salvation, who be not, we cannot t^i 
but by the outward works that they do. 

' Signs of God's predestination are these. First, God of his good- 
ness electeth, and chooseth whom he will, only of bis mere mercy and 
goodness, without alTthe deservings of man j whom he hath eiect»l, he 
calleth. them for the most part by preaching of the Gospel, and by' 
the hearing of the word of God, to faith in Christ Jesus : and through 
&ith he juitilieth them, fbrgiveth sios, and maketh them c^xdient to 
ben bis word with gladness, to do that thing that God's word cem- 
fnindetb them to do in their state and calling- Whcrefiare, to hear 
thtf'word of God with gladness,' to believe it, to know that it is the meat) 
by the which God bath ordained to bring to salvation them that believe 
yo order their lives according to the commandment of the word of God, 
Jb) do all good works commanded in the Sciiptnrea to thie nttennost of 
thrirpown*, these be the signs of salratioo.' pp.SQvSl. 

' All^those that go not forward Irora virtue to virtue, and increase daily in 
•iJrtue, (weroayleam] not tobe buildedof God. For the building of Christ 
iocreaseth daily, and is made more and more the habrtatioo anddwelling- 
■^ace of' God by the Hdy Ghost, by whom they increase ; which will 
not suffer them to be idle, unprofitable to other?, or evil occupied ; but 
osoveth and stinretb always to do the v«ill and pleasure of God, and suf- 
fered not his to be idle or evil occupied.' pp. 76,77. 

From Latimer we have eleven entire Sermons, beside ex- 
tractB. Seven of these form a commentary on the Lord's 
prayer. The composition is remarkably' shnple and unaf- 
fected, and the style of a vety popular and attractive kind ; 
■there is no' rhetoncal management to excite extraordinary, in^ - 
tereat, whichyet his equable unpretending eloquence is ge- 
nerally siire to create. Wl^at eQiinently qualifies him for a 
public teacher, is his distinct view of the bearing and in- 
-Bfuence of religion upon every condition and occurrence of 
;life. This faculty, johied to a happy genius, and an ob- 
'servant experienced niind, fills his exhortations with poijited 



■and familiar illustrations. We shall introduce a few 



:peci. 

.,Goog[c 



The Fathers of the English Church. . its 

mens of Us sl^le and seDtiments ; but bis extensive acquaint- 
aoce mth scripture, which is common to most of the' elder 
writer, the liveliness of his address, his gravity of advice, 
and solemnity of reproof, can be felt only from an .uncon- 
lined and repeated perjsal. 

• There be new spirit* started up now of llace, that say, after we have 
recnved the Spirit, we cannot lin. I will make but one aigunieat. St. 
Paul hjd brought the Galatians to the profession of the bith, and Idt 
them in that state : they had received the Spirit once, but th^ linned 
ae^i as he tCEtiiied of them himself. He saith, " Ye did ran well." 
Ye were once in a right state ; and again, *' Have tc receired the S]xrit' 
by the works of the Inw, or by the righteousness of^ ^rth I" Once they 
had the spirit of faith, hut false prophets came (when he was gone from 
tbem), and they plucr^ed them clean away from all that Paul bad planted 

/ tbem in; and then said Paul unto them, " Ohl foolish Galatians, who 
hath bewitched you ?" If this be tru^, we may lose the Spirit, that we 
have once posscsseil. It is a food thing, I will not tarry in it>' p. 434. 
' And lead lit "Of into Umfilatlim hit JeSver at from evU. In the petition 
afore, where we say, '' Forgive uo our trespasaea," there we fetch Femedies 
for sins past, for we inuat needs have forgiveness, we cannot remedy the 
I matter of ouraelvea, our sins must l>e remedied by pardon, by remis- 
sion. Other righteousness we have not, but forgivin? of our unnghteons- 
ness : our goodnega standeth in the forgiving of our illneas. All mankind 
must cry far pardon, and acknowledge themselves to be sinners, except 
our Saviour, who was clean without spot of sin. Therefore, when we feel 
our sins, we mast with a penitent heart resort hither and say, " Our Father, 
which art in heaven, forgive us our treapasses as we forgive them, that 

' ttvspass against us " 

• Mark welt this addition (" As we forgive them that trespaaa"), for 
our Saviour putteth the same unto it, not to that end, that we should merit 
any thing by it, but rather to prove our faith, whether we be of the faithful 
flock of God, or no. For the right faith abideth not in that man, that 
is disposed purposely to sin. For whosoever purposely sinneth against his 
conscience, he hath lost the HolyGhoat, theremisaion of sins, and finally, 
Christ himself. But when we are fallen, ao we must fetch tbem again at 
God's hand by this prayer, which is a storehouae j here we shall find re- 
mission of our sin»' p. 601. 

Addressing such as ars tempted to refrain from prayer 
on account of tbeir sins, he says, 

• When Christ commanded us to call God, " Our Father," he knew 
we should find fatherly adection in God towards us. Call this (I say) ' 
to remembrance, and again remember, that our Saviour hath cleansed, 
through his passion, all our sins, and taken away all our wickedness. So 
that as many, as believe in him, shall be the cliildreo of God. In such 
wise let ns strive and light a^inst the temptations of the devil, which 
wotdd not have us to call upon God, because we be sinners. Catch thou 
hold of our Saviour, believe in him, be assured in thy heart, that he with 
hii sufferings took away all thy sins. 

' Consider again, that our Saviour calleth us to prayer, and comm^detli 



,,-,-,ih,Googlc 



IM, The Falhth of the En0hh Church. 

n* to pray t oor sing I« us and withilraw n» fiwn prayer, but oar SanooT 
makeEhthemnothin);' When tve Mieve in him, it i« like as if we had no 
■ins. For h« chanfi^h wirhus, be taketh our Binvandwiikednoss from ut, 
and giveth unto us bis holioesg, ri^hceousneo, juoticei fulfiiliBg of the law, - 
anil so, consequently, ererlagting )ife. So that we be like, as if we had done 
BO tin at all: for his ri)ihteou«ile3« standcch us in good stead, as thouf;Jt 
we of our own selves hadfiillilled theUw to the uttermost.' pp. 481, 485. 
The fajtlifiilness. and zeal of tliis veix^rable man are well 
l>nuw[i; aiiiung many instances, is ttie t'ollowing : 

* St. John Itaptist, that liardy knight, and excellent preacher of God ' 
. be aaid this petition riglit with a good f^ith ; " Our Father, thy will be 

done." Thfrefbre lie went to the kinj* saying- 1 " Sir, it is not lawful 
for thee »o to do.'" See wlial boldness lie had ! How hot a stomach in 
God's (juarrel to defend God's honour lind glory 1 Bat our chaplains, 
what do they now-a-days \ Mai'fy, (hey wink at it, they will not displease t 
Rm- they seek livings, they seek beoefices, theretdre they be not worthy to 
be God's officers,' p. 545. 

' Our last extract shall be from the sermon on the petttioh 
'Give tid this da^- our daily br^ad.' 

* And here we be admonished of our estate and condition, what we be» 
namely beggars. For we ask bread, of whom \ Marry, of God. What 
are we then f Marry, beggars, the greatest lords and ladies in Eiiglaiid 
are but beggars before God. Seeing tlien that we all are but beggars, 
why should we then disJain and despise pooi- men ? Let us therefore con- 
sider, that we are but beggars. l«t us pull down our stomachs, for if 
we consider this matter well, we are like as they be afoie Cod. For St. 
Paul saith, " Whiii hast thou, that thou hast not received of God?" Thou 
srtliut a beggar, whatsoever thou art, and though there be some very rich, 
«ad have great abundance ; of whom have ihey it ! Of God. What saith 
he, that rich man ? He saith, " Our Father, which art in heaven, give ui 
this day our daily bread i" then he is a beggar al'ore God, as well as the 
poor<.-st mau.' pp 564, 565. 

, Ot^ the Catecliism it is the less neces^^ry that vre should 
aay much, as it lias lately been twice offi^red to the learned 
wwrkl. We liavtf ihe satisf'actiofi to find that it has been 
coiDjiared wit!) the original etlitioii of 1553, and cleared of 
•aanta niiBtakes which a^yeaK^ in the latL-r editions. This 
tratt is published si-parutely, and is worthy of general no* 
tiuc, as it is adtnirBbly calciilaied fur the difl'usion of plain 
9iid edit'yii'ij religious iostructiou. 

We sincerely rejoice iti the encouragement which the con- 
ductor of tins publication hnvt: received, not only from th« 
public, but froai "snnie ttistin^Disiied prelates of the Cbui-ch 
of Kufflund;" utrd we readily bi'.-ir testimony to the impar* 
twtity which they have hitherto niaiiifesttd, and in which they 
ftroft-ss their determination topi'r^eveic. 



.dtyGoogIc 



Art. XII. A yiniTica^im of the Nature and Efect of EvangfUcal Prtaei- 
ingi in a, Letter Wa Uah-rister; occasiojied by the First Part of hU 
Hints to tV Public and the I^ginlature, Willi a Postscript : contam- 
inff Strictures rm his Second Part. By John Styles, 8vo; pp. Jt3. 
P^ee 3» 6d. Williams and Co. ISOS. . ' 

JN thte' opIniotT of maiiy, the ' Barrisier' has had ton niticb 
attention \>aXA' hiin. He is thouglit^io liav^.dmvtid an. inir 
portaace from ihu zeal of' his aiita^otiistSy. which he never 
coidd have obtained by t(is own; and their eajjeniess, arisiiig 
froni ibdignation at his effrontery and contempt of his powers, 
.iBi£ht'a|>j>ear^,ithas beqn apprenetidc^i like the elfectof alarfj) 
Wtid- cpnst^rhaTion, The reasoning of his ' JHints'. being so 
palpalily sophistical, aiid the style .so revoltirtgly sc/irnli>iiS) 
ihcy have been supp.p'sed. Jncftpable of affecting the minds of 
ennghtened (pen with any other se[;satioii than that of disf^ust; 
aiidny somje'liffWas tiierefore deemed the sounder policy, to 
let them fret away their Uttie hour unniolested, tiU tliey lunk 
into, inevitable oblivion. tVhatever might be the wisdotn ^f 
tliis^ policy, and we.are 'stron»ly inehned to qiiestioa it on 
thq general principl^e that discussion is nlways favourable to 
tiiith", it was soon sitpcrsedetl : severil writers hurryinj^ for- 
wards, either from ajust cqnvom fpr personal fh^'i'acier, pr a 
lai^dapLe ardour tp defend the ChjisCiaA fuiih. But ajthoMgh 
tliese writers had bi-en induced, by reg:ard ,to such; a f^ihcipJia 
of policy, to .i-es(r.aio their feelings,, tltere would stTll ^hays 
l)e?n(VC9Hon to almnuoi) it. The.pLTsoiij^.Whu favoured.it,.haJ 
J(^med*a, ^I'ue estima^e.pf the^^aVj'is^sV a.b/)pk, bitt a false one 
1)1*1113 party. y The pani)'ihl'|?t !w{t^ jii?.tly. jhobght so,.uiiwprthj)r 
tbe regard of^.iiitclligeiit'tiid)»"that it. could have no. change 
Jt ^pbtaining, on thfe(j,r.oiind of its litera;ry merit, an .extent of 
sale which coti,td alafm any one except its piiblisher It should 
liavebpen remembered^ hoWever, that ihlsbpQk referred to ^ 
su)^<v^ vf religious co.ntrover»y ; that it was favourable to 1^9 
'viv'w'B of a restless, insidious party, and that it ^atteied-tbe 
.prejudices of • the world/ as the sacred writers term it, or or the 
irrelit;:ions arid ^profane, who foriii the majpriTy in every uv 
tioniipon, earth.' Il^should have been remembered that' tb^ 
party., whose interests it was covertly tp prbmo.te, and v/hq 
were to recpmmend it'auiong the people whose taates it wr? 
adapted. to gratify, .wyre in possession of a very extpnsi^^ 
and fyi^midabfe iufltience. They had sevecal perioiHca) )<ix>xiif 
in their hands; and ^ot a'few individuals of thqir i(Uin|>,t^ 
liad exhibited talents and ac<)uired fatpp.. .Besides, aliiio^^ 
ih^ whole^periodical literiittire of the age^and t' large "pro- 
poriiioh m the talent, might be regardp^ asr*auxili.aT;y to^^iUi^ , 
party io.. ^^ue^tio,n,,whenever an opporiwnity otfered of strik- 
iflij.aj'tilbw, at e\*ar§[efical,prijitii)lcs. . Cjliucclunen w^io disi- 



^dtyGooglc 



Styles's Vindtcatim 0/ Evangelical Preaching. 



owned the excellent aiticles which tbey liad subscribed, ' dis^ 
senters' who had renounced the faith of their venerabfe an- 
cestors, profligates who derided ^oth, and sceptics who despised 
all ; men of every class in opinion, of every rank in attaiu- 
ments, however' divef sified and hostile on any or on . all otbw 
subjects, would be found ready to coalesce, in operation Jt 
least, when piety was singled out for attack. Without laying 
ftside mutual antipathies, and without engaging in a deferisiv^ 
league, they could' yet co-operate in offensive warfare; some 
even of the worse informed and more intemperate adherents 
of orthodoxy have unwittingly joined the enemy's standai'df'; 
and SoKiinianism ' ha^' b^ea equally surprised and delighted 
to find writers, who would tremble at the thought of * deny*- 
ing the Lord diat bought them,' among' her mbst ac'tit'e and 
sfMnnous allies ; Mzraturgue novas /rondes et Hon sua potiia, 
Tlie ardour, therefore, of the party itself, and the disposition 
of the irreligious among other parties tti assist it, tiasneeA 
considerably underrated liy those who protested against * writ- 
ing the Barrister into notice ;' the public ear woujd sooii baVe 
been occupied by the applause of bis friends, though it liad 
never been solicited by the appeals of his adversaries. 

At the same time, it would seem tbilt the talent i^f the 
^iarty, or at leasi its consciousness of strength, was rated' a littife 
too nizh. It was never suspected that want of piety would'^ 
in that estimation, so fully cbmpensate for the wane of 6very, 
thing' else that can fcnnoble the heatt or the intellect. It was 
jiresumed, that theii* taste and iiidgement would equally 
ihrink ffofn such disreputable aid ; and that however thfiir 
prejudices might incline them to favtmr the undertaking, bdth 
pride and policy would forbid tHem to identify it as theJf 
own. We had adopted this mistaken opinicm, to some extent, 
ourselves. We really had no conception that thfe state of 
■their resources was so pitiable, and the state of dleir feelings 
so Warm ; we little imagined that the appearance of the 
Barrister in the field would excite sUch ludicrous extacy 
amone Socinians in all parts of the kingdom, or that aftec tb^ 
doctrine of an atoning Savionr had withstood for centuries 
tiie united powers of learning and logic, of wit and eIo» 

SueAce, it would have been expected to give way at once 
efore the efforts of mere slander and sdiirrility. well may 
ithe author of the * Vindication ' eJcclaim, in the words of some 
unspecified writer, ** Poor Soeinianism! through the straitness of 
^he siege wherewith thine enemies have besieged thee, an ass's 
head is sold /or ftfurscore pieces of silver, and the fourth pari 
of a kab of dove's dung for five pieces of silver P''— — Let it 
therefore be shewn ^hat the ' rational ' party has r^ly beea 
sp deluded a* f4ll id love after the m^ner of Que«4 



ih,Googlc 



papacy ima, it) the plenitude of thear critical wisdom, even 
:qea the infallible Lord Peter, byrecominendiaF ta"g6-« 
neral: use aa ar^cle extreaxrilr unUke ' good instead 



Siylet'i PirUUeHtint ^ Svang^icdl Priacfntig, lis 
Titipiaj t^t it be shewn that the tribnnals of the Socinian 

papacy I 

exQeeqet 
neral: ut 

muttoit i'-i-and we are persitadect . tbtt such an expdsure.ofl 
^^ffiadioff; fondness and n<i\cl)ipab.iayr of absurdimswiiBptici^ 
and artful imposture, will not fail of its proper effect ou'tbd 
public nunctcnor b« ,sBeedily for^tt^ ' ■:■'■< \ 

_ We. canqotass^i tbnC this taa^ihas be«i ddeqaateOijF'^eFM 
&raif4} fMtfMctirth0rQ,As One very' obvious Keeson.dlMMiied 
rather auperfluousj to |ii;ofv0 that the>}o«triaeof tbeBtefiannertf 
i^^.n^t a new ^popeli. and tbat iWj.'l'Dtsries}t wbi are in. 
vastablji ftigoMtiz^ for theia < ezeenHne praanNDeBsi' aaA 
*:>g.p4!>Mss^' wer^; ifot, bad. men.: Tbe''wmtersv«h(i hwrie bow 
i)9^Tpd the .^a^istQr.with tbcir notice, ;.hBve:reliedi too micb 
ot).,tl]f.t«%^ii^i^}u>owlfd([e. Ewdldisuetrwittnt of their readitrfr^ 
uiifl hfiv* Jeft..^)M|f qf hia iOauwerable- sof^ismi and G^seii 
Im^s aujd alfs^rdit^; wji^iH libroud detecticn, ntrioh' .f Air^ 
ti^j^t too gl^FiMt <t4 Uailire it.' Mr. Styles's patnpbkrt M 
%,t^respeK:(,by far thc| lesH exceptionable; bat it is 'still 
too vague and too imperfect. Instead of being ' A Viodioatkw 
of £yangeIicaLPrea$(iing,,',it should havq b^o, to b greater 
^teii't, at ieast^ a l^futatioa o£ the ' Bints ;' considered in 
t^' (^aiacter waicii it assumeB, it is highly respectable, and 
" rep^tire luindft.fuffioientlf convtDcia^; but wft could wiA 
^„im^(Hte»w-eirit<>,detail,'diEttithiid lolitiiHMthe ivnegnlaf 
^tirfffrck adoittaai by tAs assaibiut,' tepetl^ distinctly" every 
aHaok»,i))o^ witb:h»M aft ■ eyefy ^oint, ahd driven htih suc- 
oaaaireJy fruAi al^tlls SbitionS and subterfii?es. We iire awarift 
Vwim-AASw^of ''tNi^ kind would' have been somewhat vo- 
hmiAOtas ; * tb Tcfiite eiK the falsehoods in a book, almost 
every page of whicb^ is crowded with them, wpuld require a 
^erfbrni^nce of twice or ihrice its magnitude. Mr. S. doesj io; 
^l^i^.dispose of nearly ^I the Barrister's errors, by arrattguig^ 
t^em ioto somethiqg like a mass, and explodiag.them at oatie-y 
Sut for the vwy iwipstrueted, inattentive,- or.pr^uclioB(i, — und 
(MinokAtberolaneseOuld-tbe ^Hints' beve aw bniiriouseffect,- 
r-wa ioax that his J^awer-wili not be fotind sdfBciently ample 
apd miaute. • We shcAildalso object to sojng of the phrases of 
rebuke^ b> tfathet tdo Anceremonions. It is*, nevertneless, an 
ualBfol cud inlereitiilg pamphlet ; it is in maiiy instances ably 
AFVued ; it is pretty warmly s6a6oued with saiicasm, and is, _ 
riVitten in r^eral with great vigour, clearness, and spirit. 
0[Te proof' of its merit the reader may possibly have observedf 
*>^4f ^ndeed any of our^readers ever condescend Xa open thft 
CritlcaT RevMW.-^ia a H9galarly spiteful and angry criti<^uey 
wllich trails aud |^shet aad wriAei in ev«y li ne n e at pttor 



.dtyGoogIc 



t 



it* SLyl«<*s Fiinlication ■/" HvangiUait Preaching: 
cutty ; and wlitch .nas evidently yniwn up, under ttfeBAri 
rister's'own ey», dt leaet, anH jirobably by Ms own hdlid'-'Wo' 
fto^nicsi writer can wish fot- a more sttleiidid- tUtiuipH; tKSh' 
to ilave. hb argumeiiis nwety anGWt;re(i-^y'U^b<™btikt^' 
iwpHacbei, and His eaHjl life Krrmiftiaed tdt 'iHAritS' ijSl"^.' 
4isonftion sdd topics oi abuse <A4iich cannot be 'de{eul9M'ln'1& 
Wofcj- ..-.,.■....''; ■■:■..'. .-.;. ;i;ir.:..r' 

A Hbort account of ii(it''booIl, knd « few ibJftratJtA'-rrMI ilH 
wejWi»H fioW'Stabnut to oilr.fWdtra ; ttserWng tw-^-Wtu/t oc- 
4iiaiaB:a«heiiup|)leinet«tarV^ir»it)ariis «n the'Sek;ond Wri M''^Rff 
VHinti,rffirMlhichMit.S«jie8,w«thliA,Wteft tad «*«."'■'■'■' 
. ■ Tbe pbh ' thb> author radopts^ 1« t«>' rtcWlite 'the Bat^I^t^i^ 
fli»e 6tBttsiBent9,qf-tb«R-Bentar elTebt of feirftt1»^}CitT Pteaffht-' 
iia^;im entMqfliidirK^miaf iu MtuWi <aM-AltKiifioU'AMtibilite' 
oE ki 'tendency;' add, bk-dlsingehnftitB '-tfefatbi^ht -of 'Ks' 
^vdealies.' After .t)bHe['vine'''tliak tAe AftfTrsiei* ba^ fibV'bd^ 
lioeed a. sii^le ^troo/' lif Me wlutve lie iHfMki aeaMMlthc 
««M>/i>/^t of evad'geiibal.docfnn«ii'«lll''<clM^if<)IC''lffiiV 
to ipehtjiun '* one solitiu^- inttamw of dftllWboft^ ^aAm^: 
Uiowii' to :W such, bekj?g'/t«ltVkted iii'itkit-'ri^^ioM ffykvi 
xoMtatiia/? hi pwceoiisf ' ■■ .■■•■»l' .n ■- ''\ >ji>-—-^. >;:/•'■ ' 

'■But 1 tee -.yow cbuntinanCe tegt«lrt^'. i^fe V tijoj' jftrffii«|| 
hdv^' dMcttW¥?d one ^Wngellcal CoIpriV.^'-'H-iV'tbe,lJ6i)rman''vftom|. 
imted'al-fiatiitioiim the MiBsiKoBry-SociHy-'tif'fwemy guinta*,'- To "Be 
litre, «bBn:>lb:rtie:«JrciinRiRni»Df'tte cM6iiit'totMiitte<^'^W'}ifi^^ 

to. Lbie.c^',^^^. niiiwoD*, tbuj. ri]ibbing,.)^,^hi)idrti4'«nii efDb4Mi^e 
hii.^iricumstajfM, 'Such Ii,i mi iijini _,iiiil, .jl/l irii.liii.iiljjMlllllHW 
tp'niak'e'ah.ii-rtlavo.urable impreisionpi; tbf poblip,^^ .|^ ii« ,|t«iMgR'^ 
amae-xhe-ataiithirtn o( the nun himaelf. . ' '. • j, i . '4 „.i, wj ■. 
^•'-Ac*of^og,tjihi«' owh conftssion, he "liad btwri i ''[i PtWCidKH^ 
a#a ^'"' anj' though M' Obtained ti/Cent^-eigfit'ihSlings pw we«S:^KbHC 
flt<:<fe**«-.t*Wfci-iu«fc'*WF^tf*"c(feBe*jirenc«W'Wife.'bi8-fan^fv^^ 
itiisaggaej md l<agi;M -W.fuH ipf«ar«.-«'ihS«'':be«iit(e syti^oTftU.'lw^: 
TBbt]F-be^ lu.bmTfliEvaBgiaboa l>n;«:hiiVgi oi'|>iW«d^,^>uD^^>E< 
kn&wl^tbe gt^ fiS tat Lord." But «rlnt.wuiltt:«iMb/'Hit('A6i^1t^' 
lifter JfS became infected with evaDnltoWstatifBaAa i . lb jUeUi^lifr 'Se>- 
■'- eof^dfU ' ■■ — ' - ■ ■ - 



Mfteti 



.^m hia gQOfl.aid courie or;(lrUQl(fi°t>tlft':. His famitji^uMbiWiiar- 
by 'thephange, "Tliey Jost their rjg«,3^,tjieir >»retcbMfitedjdifiii 
frugal .comtort, kod actualjv sayed n^ne^^ndjWt ,ic ^{^m fMHki> 
. Kur Was this alii ^e poor man not^oiily ri-lipjjiwt^gj tii« rr^iptPi^.^ij^^t 
, of ib'cbfiet^' and t^Cravagaticc': but'h^ f^ina'tically iv'isbed. (o i^^^i^^,^ 
o^htWtht influence of tWit rell|f)an^ whiiJfi had cl^nged-'W^chanHj^R^ 
imprwAl his di^ebmnancea, andraiied'tnip fVbituhedegi'itdiiioii ot^cttfa 
tfidhdtftitirt of virtue and the diguity'oF Hi inepir^W^al a[>d' iinmoni} beq^. 
(:ini}}biadve ifcahK bu^kf.atnftrUitl^WdipMiCapmt, m^'-b^/^ 

'""'■' ' • • See Evaogi M^;. lor Not. I867. 



t, Google 



Styles*s Fttidimtim of Eva^dieal Prmc^ng. 18f 

yosr new, a p^^w nccbuM for the telfithneM of crime, and iu -diviul 
coniequences: But I nSier think the public will ap^and that which 
you Jiuribly coiKlnnn;ai]d the religion, which will make the drunkard raberi 
the idler iodustriou*^ and the miserable happy, deservet and will pontitiiM 
to enjoy the lanctioD of the legiilature.' pp. £^11. 

The charge against the doctrine of man's depravity,— r 
thus expressed by the conscientious Barrister, " it i» vet^ 
enogelical to trace moral evil up to the great Author <^ 
our nature," — is repealed by a. reference to the Mosaic ac- ' 
"count of the introduction of sin by the fall of Adam ; 

' And* what better account,' says Mr. S. 'hare you given of the subject J 
You admit the fact, tbat.nioral evil exists, aad you very rationally account br 
il thus; *'it is the e&ct of acquired habit, of corrupt example, widmiscoii> 
ilncb;" that is, depravity is the effect of de^nrvityl 1 1 Vour wtmiasioit 
goes to ^rove, at least, a wonderful aptitude m human nature to acquira 
Bnl.lubWb to foilow corrupt examples, and wilfully to turn siide iota 
the vaUta^of inqcity; and.may I ask, is this aptitude naturaU Xsita 
pntpeny inhennt in the species, or wbeOce is it derived ?' p.21. 

TTte doctrme Of ChristVvicarious e^qDiatidn of sin is then 
vindicated from the misrepresentation and false deduction 
of the Bnonymous pamphleteer ; And as he and his friends 
liayB, with no Utile exuhation, professed themselves too dull 
io understand how there can be any difference between 
rigbteousuess and m^- righteousness, — a defect of faculty 
. oa which ther have even attempted to be unusually smart 
and wittyj-^Mr. S. briefly eqdeavours to inform their inquiring 
mnds: 

' When we ciutitm a sinner ^^nst self-Hghteonsoess, we do not fe- 
^ &r to £hat moral virtue which formi the personul character, byt to that 
*rnl& which represents iroperfrct virtue as the nKritorions cause of jus- 
nflcadon, and which leads its possessor to deem himself his own savionr, 
aad to reject Christ and his meritsi as the onl^ foundation of hope. All 
those who that rely upon their works, as the gronnd of their acceptance 
With God, we consider as ** trveting in thenudmt that they are righteous," 
wttho&t vij one claim to the cbuacter ; fttr the essence of vinne matt 
\d wanting, in the heart that is merceaarr and confident^ arrogant i^ 
proud* p/zT* 

The exfKMure of the Barrister's blimder, — we Bhotild be most 
liappy not to consider it as a wilful one, — respecting the doctrine 
of justification by fait& and its tendeil^, should have been 
sgrnewbat more ample : it is quite sufficient, however, for 
those who are capable of understanding that good workt 
may be ^sentially necessary to gnal salvation wiuiout beine 
its meritorious and procuririg cause. Let us add, once" for all, 
that a system which insist on the necessity of habitual, 
spiritiial, scriptaral bolinefs, as preparatory and' antecedent 



r,o,i,,-crih,.GoOglc 



IK Styles^B Fihditation of Evangeliatl pTeatfnng. 

to the po5ies<uon of heaven, must necessarily be guiltless of 
licentious tendency. 

■ Mr, S- then defends Dr. 'Hawker, and Messrs. Cooper, 
Burder, Hilt, &c; aeainst the accusations of their illiberal 
and unprincipled detainer;, he seems to guess, indeed, that 
ttie virulence' manifested against Mr. Burder is the effti- 
rion of revensre and personal malice. From the conclnding 
r^nfarl(s,'we select the following spirited and even eloquent 
^Assage. 

• Yoor pamphlet breathet the Fpry spirit of an incendiary ; 'it is vio- 
fcot without provocation ; and, under the mask of zeal for the public 
'aHaiie, it aims, at this tk-emehdoCb crisis, to spread die horrors of 
eivi! discord. At a ptriod when unanimity ii esientisl to cur very 
existence a; a nation, when turrounded wiiJi ft^reign, enemies impla* 
cable and desiring) powerful and persevenng-) our situation de- 
mandi the arnEhilation oi every domestic frud, and a generous comlnna- 
tion of all ranks and all! parties, to support the public burthens, to share 
the cammoa danger, and- to defend the altar and the *rone : this insi- 
dioas production, as if circulated by an emissary of our subtle foe, would 
break the trood. of social compact, and, with the flames of religious per- 
•ecutioD, would give the sigim for the invasioa of our .liberties, and the 
destruction of our laws. 

' But I am willing to resolve all your indiscretion, your injustice, and your 
' ■ ' ' ounmbted hatred to the doctrine of Atonement. This,tb»- 



lievc to be the fact ; your friends, the Sociaiani, have long endeavoured t< 
i«aaon it out of existence ; the Monthly Reviewers wi^ to have it ex- 
Dunged from the Articles of the Church, and discarded from the Bible t 
but the inflexibility of government will resist the oae, and Uie mysteiioni 
.Arm of Omnipotence will prevent the other. Your forlorn hope seenu 
to rest on the ruin of those, who pertinaciously .declare that the " Lamb 
flf GoJ taketh away the sin of the world." This is your last resource ; 
^should you fail in this, you will gnash your teeth in silence. But.&U 
jrou must i it is a doctrine, in the success of which all tieaven is iote- 
reited ; you must silence the harps of the blessed j you must fiiniisb 
us with a new Bible ; you roust take the govenuuent of the universe into 
your own, hands, before you can obliterate the impressiooa which Calvarj 
has made upon die intelligent creation of God. " Whosoever falleth oa 
this atone shall be broken in pieces^ but ou whomsoever it sh^ fall, it 
■hall grind, him to powder," pp. 71, — 73. 

In the strictures on the second Part, which contalb many 

i'ust bitt rather desultory observations, we fibd it strongly 
linted that Mr. Feliowes, whose sound divinity the Bar. 
rister so melodiously psalmodlzes, is the manager , of tha 
Critical Review; and that \ba applause which it bestows 
on the * Hints' is ihe discharge of a debt '. of gratitude ! 
We have left, however, do space for extending our remarks; 
and shall therefore quit the subject for the present, witlia 
'cordial recomiheiidatLunof Mr. Stylcs's pamphlet to the atten- 
Uon of our readers. 



r,o,i,,-cdtyGoOglc - 



(187 ) 

Art. Xtll. A Circle of the Artt and Scitntet, fer th& Uh- of Scboola 
«nd youag Persoaa, concaioiDg a dear yet brief KxpluDatioD of the 
PriocipleB and OUecta of the most important Brandies of Human 
. Knoiriwlge. By William Mavor, L. L. D. 12rao. pp. 476, four cn- 
. grayiagi. Price 4«. 6d. bound. R. PhiUipi, 1808. 
AS our eadravoun tc» produce a reformation in some of tbe retenm 
boolcmakerB have not^en so tucceastul as we couid wishi'weahall on 
die present occaBion chang'^ our method a little; and instead of pointing 
out how we conceive a book might have been rendered better without de- 
viating from tlie author's plan, we will ihew a young man who is just set- 
ting out in this honourable profession, how he may make at useful and ar 
saleable a book as that which now ties before us. 

First, we would say to him, be sure to make your title promise a great* 
deal more than you mean to pertbrro. Thus, if you call it a ' Circle of 
the Arts and Sciences,' take care, as Dr. Maror does, not to comprize 
much above half of them : for example, take " Agricuhure, Algthra, Av 
eUtecturff Arifhmellc, Atirtnomy, Botant/, Chtmislry, Chrnnolbgy, Drawng, 
Ekctridty, Bthia, Gahamsmy Giograhhy, Gleiet use of. Grammar, H'uta- 
ry, Ht/draului, Hydrostttiles, Lamt, Lsgic, Mqpirtiim, Makanici, Mcnsu- 
raiion. Military Art, Minerahgy, Music, Mythology, Oftlics, Pertmarulup, 
PiytiakgifiPiieaTHalia, rolilici, Hhetoric, Tieology, Trade, Trigsnametry, 
Zoolegy ;" and omit Anatomy, Dialling, Dyeing, Geometry, Heraldry, 
Navigation, Perspective, Poetry, Sculpture, and a great many more, just as 
striking and serviceable a« those you retain. 

■ 2. Adopt ihe alfihabelical arrangement, because that will save yon 
abundance of trouble in arranging Uie subjects accordicg to their mutual 
relations ; and besides, will sliorten your labour, as your plan will in this 
respect correspond with that of the Encyclopedia which the bookseller 
bas lent you to iitmish you with the information necessary for' ^our 
work. 

8, In choow'ng your siil^ccts forengravings (foryou must have plates), 
take care to fix upon at least one topic respecting which you do not com- 
prehend the detail ; as that will give you a chance of blundering where it 
-)8 least to be expected. If, for example, you do not know that the orbits 
of the planets Ceret and Pallar intersect one another ; why then — let Oile 
"of your. plates be the lolar sysUia, and so aha!! you present the public with 
all incorrect plate, as Dr. M. has done. Do not forget, also, to make a 
reference to some plate which ii not in the book : thus, if your plates relate 
to Astronomy, Architecture, Botany, and Drawing, you must take care, 
under the article Penmanship, to say, " see plate Stesogh aphy." 
4. Take especial care to recommend some books published by your 



bookseller. Thus, if it be Sir Richard Phillips, say that " the best prai 
tical guides (o Geography are the copy-books and the grammar of Gola- 
imili," and that Joyc("hia carried Ae practical part rf arithmetic to at 



_^h a degree of perfection as the subject perhaps allows." 
5. These minor partlcubts duly borne in rtiind, proceed with your 
work, by turning to the proper article in the Encyclop«dia, and trans- 
cribing afew of^the delioiUDns duly separated by questions. Thu^ in 
Mensuration, say •' what io a line ?" and copy the dehnition ; " what is a 
right line ?" and copy anoilier definition. You will find this very easy, 
02 



r,o,i,,-,-,ih,.CoOglc 



I8S .MaToi*« CiTclt'ofthe Arts andScieneei. 

ylftwnt) and tafefif yon only take due ore to make the Ian two wordi tf 
yOBf quntioa, and the fint tvo of your aaswer thi isnu. Yon need ftot 
always, howcTcrt adhere to ttrictly to accurate deSnition ; for 

6. You abould, now and then, describe a thinp in hnguage that will do 
nearly aa well for any oAer thing ;. as ihia wilTexenipnfy'the.ralea about 
die " geaut proximam," and the. " diffenntid' giTcn by youraelf under the 
head Logic. Thus, aay of Muaic, '' it is an innocent luxury, which ii 
naneceiaary indeed to our existence, but which greatly improves and gra* 
tjficB the aense of hearing :" for, if you change the last . word, you may 
nuke the same phrase serve for snuff or tobacco, by only properly intro* 
ducBig Jmeff or (Dj/r. You may also say, -^ith Dr. Mavor, that Arith* 
luetic "is that science without which the buainess of life in c'milnud lodt; 
ty can scarcely be carried on for a. single day ;" becaoae tbist you know, 
"will serve, just as well for cooking, or shoeouking. 

7- Aim sometimes at a litde obscurity. Thus, when you are speaking 
4f an active agricultutifct) say " he hag spent bis life in promoting the 
ieit iaiertih ofhis country," Do not hesiute, though yon are awai-e the. 
term necessarily means riEgiaui interests. Thus also, lay ** the capital o£ 
> column is that whose /Au> U reuaJ." Say that Getiic architecture t* 
" light aiid delicate to a fault :" that ." Loguriduns are ( see Jaya'i defi- 
niuon) by changing multipUcaciQn into addition, and division into sub- 
traction," &c. ; bccausi; there is an advantage in having nothing clear in 
the seuceoce but the reference, to lomt treati&e published by your book- 
selleri and haply the reader mny purchase every thing written by the same, 
authors. Do not forget to ssy chat the planets " are opaque. bodies which 
describe ellipaes of larger aod smaller d^rerit ^d marfj/ einular round 
die sun." 

8. Introduce akilfoily a few childish or nonsensical questions, with ap«, 

Driate answers. Thus you may ask, " is not the dodo an inelegant 
?' " i> not thepeacacka'beautiful bird ?" " dees not the toad bear, 
a great resemblance to the frog r" " is not the kingfisher a beanti^ bird V 
" Wh.iC is the disposition of the fox," or " of die tiger ?" " is algebra ■ 
useful in the reaolutioa of mathemaiical problems V' which i* almost at 
wise as to ask whether a spade be useful in gardening. '*. Where is mercu- 
ry found .'" An. " Mercury or quicksilver is found (not in the cloodi, or , 
at the ir.Qon, hut) in the earth at great depths 1" 

9. Declare your intention not to treat upon a subject, aod then introduce 
it in a part of the work w^ere nyb 'dy expects it i that will create sur> . 
prize. Tl'i'ai when treating of architecture, you may divide it into " civil, . . 
niliiary, and naval," but declare you '' shall only attend to the former." - 
Then, when, yon treat of the " mi&iar^ art," you can introduce military 
architecture, and especially " jumw/ architecture," with gre.it effect. 

10. To swell out your book aod make a little matter go a great way* 
lake care that. your queptions and answers be, as far as possible, tantolo- 
gous. Here again, our author wdl supply you with examples ; for in- . 
■tance: 

" Q. Did not theiotroductioo of gunpowder cause a change in tV art' 
of war ?" \. 

" A, The introduction of gunpowder hat made a greu change in the 
art." ' , . / . 

*'Q. HasDottbeinreatioo of gungowder rendered nioderu w^rs moit 
'■ exi'i.-uwvc J" 



r,o,i,,-cdtyGoOglc 



Gteeu'M MiactUanioni Poetry. 1 89 

"A. "Die iBTcnturaofgui^Kiwder Aw rendered modern wars inlintlcly' 



** A. The Aknewan war prodaced a grmJ change in military tae- 
tici." 

*' Q. Did the war ariiing out of the French revohtitai occaiion any 
changes ?" 

'* A. The war occasioned by the French revolatioo Adi produced great 
and important changei," Sec. &c. See. 

II. To shew bow ignorant an author may bci introduce a ct^otii 
■prinkling of blunders in dilfe rent parts of your work. To display your 
knowledge of g»^metry, affirm,that " if the circumference of a circle he 
niultiptied by half the diameter, the product will' be the area :" and do not 
explain any where how to find the circumference fi;oni the diamirter. To. 
shew how well you are acquainted with physical astionomy, make a grost 
mistake (as (.ur author does,, p. 43) in illustrating the nature of the tides. 
Take care, also, as he does, lo mauifest your ignoranceorthe.law to which 
magnetic and electric attractions conform, bliew that you haTc nearly 
forjiotten your X^atin, or that you know uat the meaninf; ot grMii at; which 
you may easily do by following tlie example pf Di-. M. and spying tliere 
are " several, kinds of gravity, two of which are the a</ri7£/,cn of cohct'iim 
and that of gravitation 1" Say alio that gravity is '■ denomin^Cvd relatire 
gnmty aiheaimmmtdia a^atd ;" for many rraders love to h'. startli^d 
xceuiwudly with an absurdity. Say farther, that the needle " at present de- 
clines about 21i° westward, and seems to be still ad-oaitctHg towards thfr 
west," In your enumeration of metais take our author for yiiur cKniflple, 
' and say they " arc 23 in number," omitting Rhodium, Palladium, Iridium, 
Osmium, Cerium, and Professor Davy's two new metnU Potaitium and 
' Sodium. Lasdy, affirm that "the human eye is of a globular foim," and 
dien immediately contradict it by adding, that it is " qiore promin.-nt be- 
fore than behind." 

Wc could add many more rules tending to facil'cate this branch of m»- 
pu&cture : but we fancy it wil' be unnecessary. For we beliL'Vi: that, tiy 
following the directions here given, and acting up to their spirit in other 
particulars not specified, almost any one of our readers, if he could persuade . ' 
himself to undertake the task, would produce in One month, " a Circle- of - 
the Art6 and bciencea," just as copious, as perspicuous, as profound, a* 
correct, as useliil, aodas worthy of public encouragement, ai that whose 
title is [Jaced at the he^d of this article- 
It would be unJHst, however, were we not to Btate, that In our etlinls- 
tlon the La'oj, PolUitt, and HKology, though not qu'te what we could 
wish, are far ihe best parte of the volume ; we tually ri-'gret that Dr. M. 
did not, instead of compiling such a miserable farrago as the whole, en- 
large the pans just fldvi;ited to, and gi»e them to the world in a distinct 
work under some appropriate title. 

Art. XIV. MiiciUanKius Poetry, by | homas Green, Jiin. of Liverpool, 

8»o. pp. 131. Price 3s 6d. bds. Longmanand Co -1809. 
TI/HEREA6 it hath been humbly represented to us, in our couri of 
ciitic.'sm, that grent danisgc hzth accrued and doth yet accrue to the 
lotereiU of liienuore in this realmi from tiie icaicity and eutrbiont pticc- 

* Do,i,,-c,it,.Googlc. 



ISO Steinkopff's Serinon. 

efpajjcr, and that the said .scarcity i* in great measaVe occasioned ty Ibe 
incontinent waste of paper eonimitted by BCribtJers of Thymes and othff 
idle iiiatter»j to wit, by die wriiing »ai printing of such words aa here 
lollow,— 

" England expects" ^imniortal Nelson cry'd) 
•' That you will make your duty jII your pride ;" kc. S.'C. 
We therefore, in consideration of the premises aforesaid, do strictly eo- 
jcin and command you, Thomas Greeo the younger, and iJl other the 
poetaster! and poetastri'SseB of this realm, that froni the dale hereof, until such 
dme as ii ehall be certified to us that the customary market price of paper 
i* reduced tweniy per cent , you and every one of you do entirely desist from 
ipoiling any more paper by printing any such matters as aforesaid, and from 
spoiling any nion^ P^pei by writing any such matters thereoo save and 
except <Kie quire of foolscap paper each per week. Under penalty &c. ■ 
■Rltness &C. &c. this fir« day of Febiuary, 1809. 

Art. XV, Einc 'Frtdigt aur Btfcerderung drr wohlthttigen Ent^inccit 

Jer Gtitlhchafi •ovtt Frtimden ncthltidtnder jiaihnder. Sec. 
J Sermon jiree.ched at the German Lulhernn Chapel in the Savoy, 28th 

August. ISOP, by C. F. A. Steinkopff, A.M. Pastor of theCcngregation;. 

for the Benefit of the Society of Friends to Foreigners in Distress, with 

« brief Aceoorn of the Society. 8vo, 20. pp, Price Is. Eaclier, Bohn^ 
'Bnrditt. 1808. 
'^UMEROUS are the paths, and ofti-n difficult to be avoided, whidi 
■^ lead to poverty la our native country, though surrounded by our 
kiodred and inuir.ate acquaintaece ; and Revere are the trials which usually 
attend that State, even with these mitigations of its misery ; bUi the so- 
journer in a strange land, amidst people of an unknown speech, scorned by 
the popdace, and pecoliarly exposwl to snares and impositions, ajwcara 
Inuch more liable to sink into a 4tate of want, and to be involveain its 
«tmo5t distresses and horrors. A societv formed for the recovery of our 
fellow men frcim afflictions so deplorable, well desei-ves encoOragcment 
from every class of the inhabitants of this favoured country, whelhpr 
Datives cr foreign residents ; and we are glad to find that it has obtained 
an extensive and rcspeclnble patronage. 

Tne Sermon, now in our hands, is excellently adapted to promote the 
important object of tliis very laudabk institution. We regret that the 
langjiage in which it was prcdched is not more generally understood in this 
country ; and we do not doubt that if the discourse spoke intelligibly to 
an English e^r, it would make a.powerful impression on many an English 
.heart. It combines twhat we seldom meet'in charity serriions) genuine 
eviingeiical piipciples, with plain and pointed arguments for beneScenee. 
1*hc following translation of a short paragraph must suftice for a specimen 
of the preacher's manner. 

" Blessed are the merciful (or compassionate) ; for tliey shall obtain 
mercy." AU the good w_hich tliey do, renders tliem not proud, but 
luimble. They think not highly, hut meanly of them stives. They require 
not 3 reeompence, as if intitled to it in Justice ; but they hope for, and 
expect it, from the free grace of God, who is faithful, and hafb pro- 
mised it to theiQ. They freely forgive others ; and He forgives them. 
Tbey bestow fretly ; ^d God often bcsiows on tbeiD, eyen iit this world* 



"r,o,i,,-,-,ih,.GoOglc 



M' Donald's Ftiisal 191 

-BD liberallvi that they can. joyfully exclaim, with the Pulmist, " Thfey 
• who seek the l.ord shall not want any good thing." 

This Society does not confine it9 chsriuble eXertioni to the auinaiice 
of 3Dy class of people distinguished by national or religious diveruty. 
It rejects nooe but the impostor or the Itceatious. It hbeotea the ui>- 
foitunate debtor, relieves the ac^ed ^ the sick, and restores to their 
native couivhie* persons who ouierwise could not rejoin their iamilies or 
friends. Id the course of the preceding ten months, it had thus assisted, — 
44 Germans, 10 Dutch, 10 Swedes, 10 French, 5 Swiss, S Italiaw, 
3 Norwegians, 2 Danes, 2 Russians, 1 Spaniard, and 1 Pole. Someaf> 
Acting instances are specified. We think it an omission, that persona whv 
receive subscriptions for so useful an institution are not named in the 
pamphlet before ua ; we take the opportunity of supplying the defect, by 
mentioning the worthy preachar, who resides at the Savoy ; the Rxw. 
G. Bruonmark, Prioce's-Street,B.aiclvffe-Highway ; the Rev. C. Schiwabe^ 
6 Little Ailie Street, Goodman's Fields ; and the Secreury, Mr. Chtrlei 
Murray, Bedford-Row. The profits of the Sermon will be given to the 
Society. ' 

Art. XVI. Fingal, an ^\c Poem, by Ott'ian, rendered into verse fay 
Archibald M« Donald. Bvo. pp. I60.price,7s. bds. Cadellaind Davies, 
1808. 
►THIS versification of Fingal is certainly not deaitute of merit t though 
frequently incorrect both as a pOLra, and ai a translation. We have 
BO idea tbat a work of this kind, however meritorious, would'oblain po- 
pularity either among those who admire, or among those who despise, the 
Gaelic bard, as he appears in the prose of Macpherson ) but there may 
be some readers, to whom the melody of metre and rhyme, together widK 
the additional perspicuity, which he has received from the labour of Mr. 
M. may, so far compensate for the loss of his peculiarities of spiri^ 
manner, and phrase, as to enable them to peruse the peiformaace with 
considerable pleasure 

A few lines from the be^nniag of Duan the First, m'ay en^e the 
reader to judge of this veriion by comparing it with Macpherson's. 
* Up, up, I. Swacan saw, amidst his pow'rs. 
Tall as a rock the giant mooarch tov'rs. 
Like yonder mountaiji fir the spear he held : 
Broad as the rising moon his shining shield t 
He sat upon a rocle beside the main, 
'So low'n on high ■ cloud that threatens rain. 
*' With what an army under his comman<^ 
" Does Surno's son, I said, invade the land ! 
** All vet'ran soldiers, arm'd with sword and sHitild, 
" Expert to tui n the fortune of,the field.- 
" But mishty monarch, Tura likewise boasts 
*' Her gaUant herOea, and ondaunted hosts." p. 5i 
A dissertation of thirty pages is prefixed, containing a summary view ot 
.llie Ossian controversy, which the author regards as ^tisfactorily decided 
in favour of the genliinenest of the poems, by the publicatinn of Macpher> 
•oR'sCpAier of tlie MSS/ he is believed to have destroyed. (See Eci. 
^T. Vol. IV. pp. 318. +79.) , 



,,-,-,ih,Googlc 



1»Z TTie Shnjakiad. 

An. XVIL Am ImtrtAttioK to Arithmelie } in wlucb the finr yam- 
cipdl Rulei arc illuitrated bf a Variety of Qoenioiut ncognphtcal* 
" npbiul, and MuceUancouc. ISaw. pp. iO. Prioe la. 6a. Booe 



Kograpt 
nd Hot 



A S tbU book ina;^ pmrnl to do tew than time adr a i mg e i orcr 
moit otiieri i^ the kind, we ttMll Tcnmre to describe them, not- 
viihttaodiag the certtinty that our reader! are oeariy u tired of (nch articles 
■ a* Vf are. 1. It ii coniiderably amalleri than moit ibnilarpublicadans. 
3. It containi much Icm bfonnatioD, cr.mparatiTelTi on the nlnect rf 
Arithmetic i a large proportion of its (canty tpacc fong occnpted with 
a:iecd<Ke8 and poetry. S. It aniwen Mr. Chamben'i puTpoae better 
to auppty hit pupjli with, dun any other book yet pubKiheo. 

AmXViH. y1aIatrBdiitlhntelhc3liidveftlieHolyScrifiUta,caKa\mog 
a /oociie Account of the principal Events in the Old and New Teita^ 
^ems; chiefl)' dengned for the Uteof YovngPeraoD*. By3CIetg)nba« 
of the Church of England. The SectmT Edition, with CorrectioM 
and ImproTcmeiiU. 12iiio. pp. 200. Price 3s. €d. HMcbard,. Seeleyi 
&c. 1809. , 

'l^HOUOH we sbou'd for manr leaiODs recommeDd the study of tbc 
BiUe itielf, in preference to any abttract of it* faiitaiical parts, .tcC 
we are not di^KMed to deny that this little worit, may be uaefiuly adaed 
to thi; juTeniie collection. A more diitinct >iew of the laered ht»t<Ay 
may bt obtained by nich an ^ridgenicnt, dian by a perusal df orional 
documents ; and, at all events, the book is new, it is hannlesii it r^ate* 
to those (utJBcts which should most freqaently occupy the attenuoQ, i 
. and it directs the reader to the most valuable of all writings. 

From what we recollect of the former edidon, we thiii the precent !• 
gieatly improved ; the editor has mended the ityie, and supplied tome 
considerable omissions ; he has added a few ilbistritive notetf a short 
Chronological Table, and Dr. Watts's Catalogue of Scripture Names. 
Some persons will deem this Introduction preferable to most of the 
woiki which have appeared sinc^ its first ptudicauoDj in Aose mpeeta 
wherein it differs from them i in its comparative brevity, in its plain 
narrative form, and iu regular division itito short chapters. 'We could 
wish that the Saviour's £ath, which is albded to m tjie d^catioa 
to young reader*, had been bmght forward more prominendy into newi 
and more explicitly fcpretented t» the ground of hope and ae motive to 
obedieocc 

Art. XI^. 7^ A'ln^t&tii^,- A Sanrico-DidacticFoem. Coatainiag Hints 
for the Scholara ' of the New School, suggested by Horace's Art of 
Poetry, «od improved by a contem[^uon of the Works of' the fiiM 
Masters. ISmo.pp SI. Price 2s. J. J. Stockdale. 1808. - ■ 
A Dedication of this poem to Messrs. Wordsworth, Soath«y, atad Cole- 
ridge, infontiB us that it is intended to hold up tlie ' new school to ri- 
dicule { and the writer baa certainly done bis utmost to realisetbe landd)le 
inteotian. Butalas! it is not the fiminnancc.of good intenuoa filing; |t 
similar case occorred many years a^, to the gteat mortificatioo of a c^tuQ 
.well dispMcd-donkey, who ioteuded to frisk asA fondle lik» a greyhsMKL 



,,-,-,ih,Gpoglc 



P»Hk Dupulalion at Fort Wi&um. ■ 1 93 

, ._ _jy that we hate read hi« book wtdi nnaltcred gravfef' wA 

now to report it at a new prorftbaC it it caiier toyereei-n ^ 
d than to nicceed ia eiponng i^ to deniioD, aai tnal'it is t 
to beverjr tn«e, and yet vetydullJ Iftheautr 
of a call, in his way to the pHnter'a, Wearigbt hard 



abmtrd than to nicceed ia eiponng it to deniion, and thal'it is poitibW 
-pennaded him to omit the whole of hia poetry, and the irii^ of hi* ' aoiek 



except the extract* he profeaaei to * ridtcniei' the pnUieaciott would dWfl 
harebecD quite aiserere andeflectual on the offending poett, qmte'ai lite, 
fill to the erring public, and, if not ten ttnct 1uplier> at leait ten timer leti, 
In fac^ there no loo^r appcua to be dteleatt occaiion for anV nicH 
coiTcctire either of wnten or readert ; Vtr. Wordsfrortfa'a bit pidtlicatiod 
Itiay be regarded aa the luidde of the * new icbool ;' it hju already been 
buned with nuHci of ignominy ; and if its ghoit wiB walk, it mint. Wc 
do hope, (owerer, that the three writers inll feel ft a dnty to endearour, 
irith the utmost diligence, through the reat of dieir Itnit to atooe tar their 
patt miaconduct, to recorapenae the preaent age fbr kiadly iufieriag tbelr' 
abturditiet) and to erect tome Dioniuaenta of their UDqneaiioBaUc geniu^ 
which may withttand the chan^ of literary cafiric^ and the lapie of 
time. 

An. XX. PuiSe Dufiutafin sft^ Studeatt ^ iht C^t efWoM tmSam, 

. in Btitgai, before dw Right Hon. Lord Minto, Gorerpor GoMnil of 

Bengal, and Viaitor of the College i together with hu Lordahip't Slia- 

Murae, S7th Fcbmary, ^806. Pnnted U Caicotta. lAodoB, leprinted. 

- pp.52. Blade and Co. 1806. 

"fiUT few co[Mei, we onderatand, of theae docomentt hare been printed ; 
*^ and though the pam[^iet displays the nrosperity of the Colleee and die 
^tilicienc^ a the student* in a manner tu^y gratifirii^ to me fiiendi 
sf both. It would not be likdy to obtain general circiuatwa. The prin- 
cipil part of it conntts of an Me Disconne by the noUe PresideM 1 the 
part moat intemting to our readers i| that which refer* to the attasnistOU 
of the B^dtt Mianooariea and their pupila in the Chineae toogac. A ftw 
■eafencea on thia adMcct we shall extract; whether the refereace to it wai 
introduced ^ regularly or not," the liberality of to CofcnMrOannal ii 
bigfalydefernng of praiK, and of knitation 

* Thtee fonog men, 1 on^ht, indeed, to lay, boyti have sot «bJ 
^nied a ready use of die Quneae laoguwe 6x the poqmae of' ond 
■mnicBttoB, vriuch I uodcntaBd ia aeiuter difficult Aot met la 



la ODDoected with China \ but they Ime atdUercd* ia a — g... 
worthy of admiration, diat iriiich hai^Ken deemed acarcdy within the 
tfadb of Ean^Msn lacultin or industry ; I nvao a Teiy csteoiife an4 
«OiTect acquaintance with the written language of Chin^ 1 will wt de> 

tthe particolars of the Exanunation which took place 00 the lOdt of 
month at Serampore, in the Cbineae langoage, tiie Report of whkli 
ner I hare read widi great interest, and reconuneud. to the libml. 
;e of those whom I have the honour to address. It u enogrh fa- 
my presem purpose to say, that Acie young pupila read Cfaineae oook* 
and translate them ; and they write compositioni of thdr own in the - 
Chinese laivuage and character. A Chinese preaa too it estabUabed. 
Mtl in aau^uac. In a wml, if the fbuodeia and fuBBMm sf d>i« Itul* ' 
Vol. V. P 



,,-,-,ii>,Googlc 



.^4 Blajp:, J^\fvay,ii^^it^tfBpTeiPH Fffefimtion. 

£^lt<^ baH pot ytt tfu^I^diilvf haw at leau wot and a iit ypy d a davP 
ji^day tKroug^.th^ tliicKinipaDeti^te c]i)ud,tt)cy haye {>nMed that mufuim 
fiptgci^aiemt wKich for so many agaf hat iniAulued tiiat vait Empire froof 
df? r^U of itun^nd. 4>^ "* eOtesff^D at' leaat tbe bo^ thft a per^e*^ 
j^Dce ijf fjila pr piipiJaF attemptf m^ let in at length upfj^ tlfiue raulti- 
fu4eh'u]ec|0sj^:3l)aiidapd-loqg fortuilden Uchuv oi t^umiui iHUrcouifc 
jHifdaoctal inifiio^inejBt.^ 

. * I must not ODUt. to caini»t5d the z^aloui and Derserenng lal^;«in of 
4(r, Lajwrf abd of tfiose leajiKd and pipoa pcrfgnf auodated i^iUi him, mfa* 
liave afxo'q^li&bed, for ^.fooju): hentit, we ouy hope, of. duft ipmiffp 
ud [Kfpuloui r^ipo, ChiQoe yErsipiif, in ibe ChiasM t b a r ^ctei^ « the 
Pugpek oT Math«}vi I^k, apj Lukp, thrawiag qMS t^at prectotu ininf»t 
^)ftji all it^ felifiouB uid noral ti;ea«iir««, to the Urgeti aMiopiaiMLpppub^ 
ticn io the world.* pp 32-t3*. 

The iLepon hei* alluded to, we have M«a | and it iviH donbtleia 
ttt friijted at fength in Hme of ^c oriicellaDiet or official Kecwd* widi' 
lirlu<db ottT nwlen arc cDwveriaBt. The Boya wepe, John Clark Mardi- 
tfaa,9gtA 13'; iab«/. Carey, IS ; Beajapiis Wjcki Manhma^ 8. Th« 
{ddeit of these youths ' repeated the five boolu of Conversatioas of Coiu 
fuctM }> * held B drapntation in the Chinese hnguage,' 'produced twenty 
WBiences in ChiiifK. his own coniposition and wntingt' and * wrote, in 
that' charactLT and language, twenty oeot^ces dioated tg tuoii and ex- 
pfalfied their m«ining,' ftc. ^c ftc. 

Art. XKt. Hlnli for Ihc Comideralioni of ParlhmtM, in a l^ 
iKf to ^r. Jei)Di;r, on the iopiio*d . Failiues of Vaccf "Utiop at tUaC' 
. wood i indojlipg a Report of th^ pyal Jeonerian SupLety Opthat Kw»*' 
, jectj after',^'qarrfitl public IpvestigaUqii on the Spot, Kc. &c. By • 
WilTiaip Blair, Sur^feoD of the Lock Hoipiial aiHJ Aiylura, &c. ftc. 
8ro. pp 3Q0, Price S*. &A. bd». eallftw, Hawhard, && 1808. 
An.KXIl. A SUMmmt ^ tomt ^jtetitH $a the Bill, m amtaJed fy i^; 
GoamJitet v'^ tinue of Gmminpaf, ta firfotta tht SprtiJiits ffl^fic^BU 
.bg -the Small' fiox To whidi is tabjoiaed, a Cc^ ef the Bill. By- 

A^iiiigknaTe. Sw>. Price la. Johnson. I«08. 
Art. XXIIl. An Jiwwer to Mr. Iflghin»n*i Ohjeetims *o the BiS ^ 
.JitnBtirSamaitttfKtmtnl iteSfinatB^ nflht Iiifettim rfti^-ffmall-Poxt 
with an (^toesdix. pmuining soiQe mtawftiflg CommnncKianR iftoni ■ 

- FMtiKDMMiHi)'I^nctIiionai«,o»the f w gr eai and" Efeaey of Vacoipe 

- 3««Cuktbn,'- By'Gharioe'MiiTTa^Sva. p£70.pri^b. Loomaqnul' 
Co, IBQS. ■ rr "■ ? 

V CA^SB may' truly be regarded as ^ on its lart legs" when its 
■^ cWrtpatmn flndsiirtiself reduced to luch degrading and ijeroraw 



n»aso^hiit3ilu)port, asareh^re plainly ii:fed upon Mr.Bireh. The ex- 
pMUte oFsomBtjf this geotfeman's contrivances i»ifl be found 'cxqeedlngly 
MW W e H iiig^ ire-paonotTim; panicularije diem ; ^d «JH less' could »e 
gWe any idea of (he'ingenuiiy maiiifestejl byMr. Bfair id iracingtbeinto 
iWrwopernitti^'" 1** two facts suffice' to affi>|^ our rearferi i^omcno- ■ 
tiM'rfMr Ei'nS: Among hla "Serious Reatons'T "fttr contfooing ' t|ie 
vartMMa bio^nlatien, he gives this j '^tlfai.in chepqpnlous pdrtffl t^e 
Mi«ttprf»,-itte«Ut-abaiKlaii«'of(iildren-w^ meat! of prp-i- 



.at,G00glc 



FenelonV Dkdtgvtu F95 

tiding food aodraiiiKnt for them, thii pettilnitia] diseaie ii ctKuidered ■■ 
a mercifnipramiiBit an the put irf •jffmixoaef to I««kb die kvf^ta sf a 
poor mao'i &mity!" — Agaiotbaring received iofomiation from an unprofn- 
aioiul pcreMi that, the T^cdne- practice, had proTed.- fttaUf wnngctMfiii ' 
at Rtngwoodi he^wrote to a nii^^raa oa the 9goi to result apanicnlM .. 
ataiejncrBti and thcii| without waiting for the aiuwer, uinuliaiely in. ' ^ 
serted hii crude, alanmag, un^henticated, andialie ranu^ir ia'4 in(icaia|> 
paper f Mr. Birch, liltewise, lb pretty clearly proved to be the author of die 
tiandak>as**(3<«*'^kMebroime,'' of which tkijeeai'ninjri^m prtMetf' 
tobe-gWenaway-as add! 

The latter pari of the work u not tesi oirious and im^rtaot^ yi k- 
kn to the extiadrdinaiy zeal with -which the ^yiiciwi.tq the SnMll*pMC - , 
Hocpital ha« RTived the nriol«ia praatice them* afiarit liadaearty be^J ■ "• 
cone exti8Ci{ aad dncribei the dao^r to whtdi tiw paUic heallh'HaJ' 
been expoted, amt the injury it hai suilainedi by the late pl^a of iaoca-^ 
lating oiit'patteats, who haTe carried' the peauleocc about the atreeta. 
in their way to the hospital U> be exainiaed. We «re very (lappy m . . i 
Jeani, that Mr. Blair's moat laudable eipotore of theae flagfanaoOiMliMi 
procured the eSectaal iatetfereace of the governor*. . ' . i 

The T«pon 6q the Ringwood cases, i» well koowd to thcf'pu&Sc. , 
The whole pUblicatioQ, dimiae and ill-digesied as (perhaps unavoidaUjF j; 
it is, deaervei the particulaT atteotion of all wjiotau ak iiitei«A b Ait. 
iiBponaM cauae. ana npecially of the mnnbera of the LapibtuET, M*^ ' 

that the bill "to prevent the apreadiag of the infectiotf Of tb; iniaH-post:'' ' 
ia agam coming under parliameotary consideration, ^'c are (Gspqaea. \ , 
to extend the same recommendation to both the pamphleta whose titlea we , ,, ■ 
have annexed. The general principle «f the t»ll iarwe ihifik, aautfactoriiy 
viadicaied by Mr. Mmrayi it it as consutuficiial, aa th« regiUtioni res* 
pectiag the ^agne, and tKe laws of quarantine. He omitt discuaBinK Mr- ' 
Highmore's objections to particular part* of the lull at it. now itaiSs, be- , 

cavse it may naturally be expected and wished to raceive ifmy iwdifica* 
tioni in its different stage*. He justly observe** that tbv mcnoi why 
the proposed measuret of preventing atuectiOD are not eittendtfd to W 
Me^«, FeVerg^ &c. is becanse these are not prOpBgated. bj' Inocdla- 
tion; and well exposes the notion, thit the Small Poi' oiight to be 
preserved as a test of the efficacy of the Vaccio*. i . 

The conuauBieationi io the Appcni£x wiH be fbtlnd higUf'ttttemtiDg 
aBd'Mtitfii^>iiy. 

Arti XXIV. Diatogaii en Efogumce in geiierai r particularly tliat Kind 
which is fit fbr the Pulpit. By M. Fenelbn, late Archbisliop of Cain- 
bray. With his Letter to the Freaeh Acad^jr, coneeming Rtwtoriq, 
l?oetry. History, and a CompritOn betveea the Ancients and tiie Mo- 
dem. Translated from die French, and lUuatrated with Note* and 
Quotationsi by, William StevenSOn, M. A, A new Edition, revised ahd 
corrected, with additional potest by the Rev. Jam^ CieightoQ* £. A. 
8vo. pp. 3^ price 8s. boaids. Baynei, 1808. . 

JTENELON'S Dialogues on Eloquence have been so often recoBimeiJdtd' 
by the first theological authoriiiee, and are so well ettabiished in th« 

public esteem, that we deem it needlesa to make any Other remark on the 

present edition, than that it has derived some advantage from the additioat 

mentitmed ia th.e title^ and that it i* bahdsomely printed. 
P 2 

r,o,i,,-,,Mi'„.GoOglc 



t »^« ] 

Art. XXVJ. select LITERARY INFOHMATION. 

%* Gaitkmtn and PMthert wb Am« mtrh k the ftrat, xeW eB^ tie 
CouAHm-/ of the EctsCric KETielr, tyfouBng 'mfonm^tt fpoit pmd,) 
of the tidya, extan, md firoBatlt firice of luck wori* j lohick liey wiof 
atfiti^ifUM 6mf nmnriiHieated lo thepuNie,iftmsuleBtmth iltftlan, 

Ht. Maa«tM]r vill^hort^ pinUiA A»k m dhk gmttomlDiaaa, ii in tbe prttt. It 
of Solei for uc'ertaiuini tba SituUion and will be pablndied IP oghloen aKMbl^ 
FelatkMii, in the liting Bod;, ofihe prin- Jwrte: ttiefint'of wbich ii iolendad to ap- 
t^ps' Bla«1-*««Bel«, tfents, &fe. cdscemed pear in the fint of Marcb. 
>■ SuffMti C^wrarfoDS' The work «ill be il- Ur. 8. Ware, Architect, will fmbligh, H 
huttated by platsa, and cMKain (ome afcn ««k>, ttie Ont part of a TnatiK of 
praeticaf reifiartu go tba peifcrmance of Arcbet, Bridges, Domsi, Ji^ntn^att, and ■ 
tbe OKMt OEiial .opantioDs in turgery. Embankment Walli. Ilie aDthorptoIeauf 

Mr. P. ThompMd, of Bmton, hat in the to thew a litnple mode, of describing geo- 
piaktbvteranger^Gaide throujh Boaton metrically tbe ceteneria, and to deduce 
and ita CMretM] bainf an attetnpC al a hii theoifj Trom that line. 
top^ia^Mat. UitoffBal, aid dcioiplive Mr. Edge«orUl'^ ivork on ProfriMMal 
account of that part of Linoolnahira, in a Educatioo. in a quarto -volume, ii ia. a 
onalt Toltin*, «mb«!jii filled witb plates, atate of fonuilBesB, and may loOD be tx- 

Tbe Itev, Ed^anl Oavies, author of pttrted. 
Celtic rieteaTChM, haia wwk in coaltna- Mr. Todd'i ne« edKlon of Milton vill 

atim of tbe tid^t, ia tbt paaas, and appear in a ftir we^a ; and he has aent- n 
which oiU ibo41y appear, the praaaObKrTaIiaD»an Gowti aad Chan- 

Hr. Jtdinea'i translation of the Chroni- car. 
cl«orMons(relet..being a cuntinuation of Mr. Thomai Mortimer, vice-ctnisul ai 
Froiuart'l Chroniclet, will lubn appear in OMend forty yeara ego, is prepariDg a. 
ft>utquart«*)MuinA. new Dictionary of TAde, Commerce, and 

Speedi^ wM he pobttMied, tn Sio : the Uanfactures. 
FuurBl4*Bscrfti||th£raj,a nnmncQ.iXen Dr. Fopham'i Remarks □□ Varien* 
vantoi. BjlbeRer. Robert Blfod. Teals of Scriptare are expected in a few- 

Speedily will be published hy aiibscrip- weeks- 
tion, an -Uie Ode* of 1>litdir, tranilated Dr. Halex's Grsl rolumeof aNe* Analy-' 

into Enflidi Lyrif Terse, with ootea ex- fii of Chranology is expected to appear thia 
planatoty and eri^al, from, the original month. It will make three quarto vo- 
Greek. BythaRe«,,J. I.G>fiile>tone,M. ^.. lupaa. 

late Felluw of CaiiM Collew, Cam^ridgei TbeRe'. WiBennetintenda immediatetf 

•ppoiBted Master it tba (^aiiiivt School, putting to press bis proposed " Essay on 
Becclei, by the most Rer, the ArdiUihep the Gospel IMspensation, nmsidered in 
of Cantertniry, the Rrv. Dr. Strachey, connection with God's moral OoTernment of 
Aiebdeacon r4 Sutblk, '. and the. Rer. Men :" in two parta, prioa 5i. in Boards. 
Bence Bence, Reckx' of Becclei ; to whom Part I. shewing the whole . of BarelatioD ta- 
the work >*, with their Permiialoii, dedi- be ■ rhtoI fiai of eiocising the natonJ 
Cated. Ho entire English Version of tbis power* of atea, congenial witb Qieir <di*- 
greatest of Lyric Poets has erer yet appear- rarter and present state u intelligent ac< 
,d by one Person i West's, the only work countable creatores. This, (hereKire, will 
in repntt, containing a very few only CFf comprise a distinct detailed tiow of 
the Odes. The bonk will be ele^tly lint partkular nwmrr, in which Ihe .tratb* 
printed in tbolicap quarto, tn be paid lijr and Uessingsof tbeOoapel have beennad* 
oD delivery- Price One Quinea- known to sioners from the earliest age* 

Mr. James Flmes is engaged on a DicUo- of the world; especially with re^reuce to 
nary of the Pine Arts, to include Accounts tbe original discovery of mercy to our first 
of the Arts in Theory and Practice, and of porenta after the fhlt — to the AbrabamiQ 
tbe Proteauirs in all Agt:^ covenant — to the Itfal iaatitntion If 

A Kew and Complete Idditlon of Dr. Gill's Moses — to the evidences of Christianity-^ 
Bipoittion; of tBe Ohl and New Testament to tbe pecidiar doctrinn ^ the Svw Tm^* 



ih,Googlc' 



tia^fVorkuvcaai^fuBihsied. 197' 

Bient— and to tte WilittMj Ol raotncilia- la>pp«HODtbe Snt|>f FabrauT ll09;ftaB 

tion, Bi GOtNtocttd bj MIT Lord u>4 liu reauiliiat iHuaben to be rewlj' in the oooii* 

■pcstin ; tbe whole iateadcd to pron that of tb* year. — Any numbor nuy be para 

tba Ooipel, tritb idl Iti iwtrnctiuoi and cbued fepatalelrj Imt tbe piiiM will be 

racoon^eoiaA, alirBys lutb been, and coniidmablf raiieil after the ci>aiplMiaD of 

ever ought to be, held fonh in the public tbe wiwk. One buodred piMf impraHioiw 

mltriatiy oTtbe wad of lift, both ai a rule v^Ube UJiea off on kfinewiiTe ntn liriVl 

oF iitf, anlM ajcrauikdorbpi, to aiiiaeTE pap«r. 

mdifimli^ hit II. itstiiig the true im- Mr. ]. Bdand, Fencinff-MaVer of tba 
port of the of the Goipei-Dispeosaliisi, aa Royal Militate Academy atWoolwbiub, in- , 
addreascd to ilanen in frnend — the Satid- tends publiihing by tubieription a treatiaa 
wale of ibii divine eitabliibment, as the on tbe ^rl of FeMiiig, theoreUnlty and ex- 
rale of miniMeiittl conduct— with a solution perimeiitallf explained on principlei ep- 
(£ the MUD difficult;, grounded on the. tiiely beW, cbiefly desigoed for thole who . 
fpecial purpoK of God rE9pecting the have oaly acquired a superflcial liDowledga. 
S«d aalntioD of hidlndnali— And the eon- tf the u>e of the SworcL To which wil[ b« 
aisteat mod^ of ooadBCtiug tbe Goapel Hi- added *Doie remark* on tbe Satn, and eti 
niatry iw that plan. the Cul-nwl-lliriiil-iaord ; also observations. 

Mr. B. deems it proper to acquaint the on 9e<era1 erroneous opinions generally en- 

ittiglaoi pnblie, that hi* propoaed Euajf tertained oDlhe*ubjectof&BoriJ-D^<ac>- 
bai DO cowoMtion with the preseat conlru- A new edition of Lardner's Work*, which 

Terey mpectlng tbe " PaMJve-Power Hy- have been longoulof print, i* in coaaider- 

potheda." able forwaidneaa. Tor the ■ecomniDdation 

Proposals hare been iatned by Hesir*. of purcbaaen, tbe publiiber hai resolved to 

Harradenand Son, of Cambridge, for pub- issue the works in monthly part*, Tbe, 

lishing by Subacription, under the title t^ tint part will msbe its appearance on Wed- 

Cantabr^ Depiota, a itrfei of Views in nesday, the first of March, and the othen 

the Cnirerai^ of Cambridn, accompanied in succefsico, on ^e Snt da^ of every 

witb Letter-prea* Descrmtiona. Tbe Views month or earlier, at tbe option c^ Sub- . 

will be entirely diilerBDi from those already icriben. It i< calculated, that the whole 

betbte the public. In the execution of the works will be cHnpriied in about 32 

plates, tbe atroke engraving Wilt be adopted paru, and that this will be ' the cheapest 

throughout. It is intetided lo complete edicionof tbe works of Luidner c*er,pub- 

theworV in six numbers, forming a haiid> lished. The pobliaher pledges hims^ bx 

soma quarto volume; each number to coil- execute thi* desirable nndeitakicg in ». 

tain four views, bendei occasional vignettes neat and respectable maUoer. 
and plana. The first number is expected 

Art, XXVI. UST OF WORKS RECENTLY PUBLISHED, 

BiooaArav. Helitarian Lectures, on Sacred andHo' 

Honn of y„imt. -ml Mnni^ ™lS.bi^i .d.pnJloll,.Coji|mbm«, 






Ann Bformy, Author of 



of « AoAtcaa Lady; with >«"**«' '^'^ * "'P '^ ^^ ™y I-*'- 

Sketcho.of£^lSK«7^i«ric ^'•„*^- J,'*"^ *»-^- « . , ,^ 

a* U«y exi<Sl»««io« te tbe'llevotutiou. A"E»*y Onmuur U Nalord and a». 

ByMW.Oruit.9Vola. iSmo. tOi. ad. £"'.T?i. !^'^^vr'*^, a,"..." 

Sketch of the Life a^ Ckaraeter of Don ST^*^?'-'?!:*^' ^w^''"''"S S" 

JoTCuia Blake. U 6d. ^"^ •*. P'",l«op''y »' School*. Bj tbs 

dtj'fleeMa; - or, a Feep into London fijr 

6ood Childnni : vitfi npwudt of mu bun- A History of Fnnce, fnMO tlie. Reign of 

di«d E^ravinga. By the author of Ruiai Ckxis tothepew:eofCkiiipo ?aimk>, 17Mi 

Bcenex. S*. ed. aftmthefnamerloftbeUiMoiT ofEngiad, 

The Weddteg anoag &• flaM«i; with in a series of Letters from a NoU^wn ta liia . 

EngTwinKa. By«M oftbewthonaf Oti- Son. l)tiDo.3i.6d. 

final PoMii.li> ACoDpsndious History of Hnr ■ 



r,o,i,,-,-,ih,.GoOg.lc 



1*8 

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SMthn'OdbMCsBBtrf, 3lc. »j ieii^ah 
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At M. of BoMao, New Sngbad, efOBn Bve. 
3f. Sil.itna; 8va.'6l. 



jEuK 9f WwA* teamly ptt&Usii^ 



A Pnsticil Treaiise or HeadinJ ; «itB a 
(MUcdoii of Ptactiica.1 Prccedenfs, 'By' J. 
Ohttt^, Esq. off he MitMJe Temple. ivoJs, 
royal ffto. 31'. 3s. . 

jKrisdii.'tion of fhe Court Lett, «Keitipti- 
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tod&ironi, and by Idw emcnaed to inquire 
•>t, and present ; togefher with approved 
P(eccdents. B$ S. mtsoa, Esq. of Gi " 



THe LoMoft Kfedlcal litcETouarr ;. Iif 
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of Mei!!i:ilic'; viz.' Aiuloiny,. Pbysiolbsj, 
ai)d Pathotogj ; the PrTiclice orHiysic «nd 
TherApeutica, a^d ftfatenM Mdlit^ : wilb 
whatever r^hitei (o iHedioine, in Kataral 
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, M. ». Fdha of the Royal ' Socreties of 
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Observations on \u Eruptire {KieaM 
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R. Pew, M. D, Is. 6i, 

A. rom. Celfide Medlciiia, .tibri Qcta^,. 
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199 

Bto. fc. Preflied to tbis VoIuBie. ia an 
A/^nt of the Life and Character of iKo 
An^r, hf the Rev. Isaac Miloer, Derii 
t.mM^'"^"'^"'^ ^'"^' ^''^' 
^"^^^ Ne» whole Duty of Prayer* con- 
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Unuer^ty. By Jhe ReT. Charls, Simeoo, 
W ^rt!"Tvl,f '"i:;'^,!^^^' ^'"^'■'W 
,JV ^™^: *" ^hri'tian Zeal, and oil 
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Fnitem:ty. a«. - i- « toe 

A View of the Progress, OriFio, and 
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Stmeli.-B nf Tmtl]. Moral an-l EelfclQus- 
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Plain ar-d Useful Selections I 



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datioii. By JiAn Hunt. Is. relating to each. With a eon 

Sdect Sentences from the SenoCDs of Account of the nwut popular I 

Hie late Rqt,4V. Biaithvaite. 2i. treating those Disorders to which cnis nooie 

Animal ii subject, either by nature, or nri- 

TorocsAPHT. ginatiog in improper treatment, from the 

' Tbe Brazil Piloti or, a Description of ^^ sWndard autbcritie. ; Biographical 

«ieCoaslofBrMil,tranilatedfromt&ePor- Polices of distinguished Sportamen, tc. 

tuiKieof Hanoel PimMitel, principal Hy- The Engr.vingsby Mr. JohnScott. Part I. 

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Portugal; .to which are added Charts of ■" '"e'™ P""- ■I>o»«'ly, fcranng Ot» 

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fifteen Charts. 4ta. 11. Is. 

London and Middlesex; or, a Topc^ra-^ 

COEEkSPONDEBCE. 
Tbe continuation of tbe Review of the ' Improred Verwon of the Kew Testament,' fte, j 
11 necessarily poatponad till the next month, on aecoantof the writer'a ill beateh asd 
other hindrances. — It abouM hare been atated in that article, p. 3T. 1. 19. after tb*^ 
' worda ' printed copy,' that — In the bock of tbe Revelation alone, ,Sengt1iiis took the 
Ubetty of insertj^r readings .lAicb had not appeared in any printed editisa, bccaaaa 
be tsond that this book had been carelessly edited from a Very Km MSS., nnnpeiktjidy 
■Mdem, and not very correct: bia ajpi account is as fbllowa; (See BecL IT. •( his 
'I'refoce lo the Stutgard Editipn, intitled Craiatitntio IWns ipahis)— >* Tixiai nempe MMler 
florem diJiboteditlooDmreceptsnun.qaK aingntasuia ndque laborut nsrfa, covjaDctC' 
at TCTO.eclecticostndise»niociat»MoltiipluaiBeeiitatishabent, qaam pkriaqne videalar. 
Bine legem aemel nobia fixam, facile sernBTimua : nf n* ifSatm i (Safe* u a ^t ai aon ^- 
asffon, auUr Itxtaa abaillcret. In aola idsm Apocatypai, ob Cautaa wo loco sxpianata*, 
^anuactiptM codices pnefart, ea tomen osnditianc qt ipaeptionin inteb^ lestiraeia 
auggefatmargo.' _ 

£mltbiVtl.V. 
f^tS . 1. 35. read e£am thtde^am. 
413. 1.13. /(n-iSthi™d»«»enteenth, 
31. L 9, /<ir It is mJ I* it 
37. L34. /orLLreirfJ. J. 

The Letter of Vn<a, exprening Us satishetftin with out (emarhs to Mr; ^ftchM'* 
Ke* OictioDary of the Engliab lAngvage in oiu last Number, was duly reoelred. 



.dtyGoogIc 



■ ■ ". ■ ; ■ ■ ■ '"THE- ■■'.■■■ ' ■■'■•■ 
ECLEGTiq RBVlgW, 

' ■ For MARCH, 1809. 



Ar. I. CkremtkeflluCid-sktim the Spanidi. By Robert Southey, 
4M).' pp. 510. Price 1/. 5i. I^ngman and Co. 1808. 

.T^URING the seven centuries that have elapsed since the 
deathof the Cid, there has, probably, never been a time, 
Ull within the last seven months, when a large volume of half 
legendary history of his adventures wotild have-hftdany great 
chance or obtaining much attention in England. J«at- now is 
the time, or rather four or five months since wSs the timp, for 
"calling Some of the chieft of the ancient Spanish chivalry from 
their loftgslumber, in order to assirt us to extend backward 
into former ages our interest in the heroic character of that 
nation ; a nation in which We had begun to hope that almost 
every nobleman, and every peasant, was going to perform such 
exploits as those of the Cid, in a more righteous cause than 
almost any in which that hero had the forlune to display hi$ 
valour. We are never content to confine our admiration to the 
nresent spirit and actions of an individual, or of a'peot>le, that, 
has become a favourite with us, if we pan find or fancy any 
thing desfei'vifig to be adihired, in the retrospect of its earlier 
times. Besides, whien a pe6ple is entering on a grand and 
most perilous enterprise, in which it is evident that any thing 
less tnan the most heroic spirit must fail, the martial names 
and atchre^ements of its ancestors have a certain influence, a 
..greater, indeed, than iswarranted by the history of national 
character, on our hopes of its success. When summoned to 
vindicate the national cause, the men surely will not bide them- 
selves from danger among the very monuments of their heroic 
■pro^enito'rs ; "they can not he content to read and recite the 
'Stones of invincible champions, of their own names| and, by 
Itheir nativity,' "reflecting'lnstre on theirown villaee» and towns, 
'andyel see these towns and villages comtnanoed'and-plun- 
dered by Bands of foreign invade ; tiiey can not endure to 
'tee^tbeif country an^' themselves in a state to make tfaem abhor 
"i^recolletition that such renowned heroes were therr fare- 
' fiitb'ers :'— is it possible 'that*he Spaniards' of the JiMS<Mt-'day, 
'recali'mg to mind the gallant hostility which onte wpalled the 
''Afonrs,' can qaietlv sink down under the damib&ti«n4{Aevao- 
■ Vdl.V.'- ■, ■ Q. ■■■ - > 

^-^.-Mjlc 



202 ' Southey'a Chronicle of the Cid. 

dern Saracens ? It has occurred to our thoughts, numberleas 
times, while going through this volume, what an intolerable 
place (heir couDtry would soon become, to the usurping enemy, 
if the Riartial spirit which blazed all over it in the eleventh cen- 
tury could be now re-kindled; and what a dreadful impression 
would be made on the Gallic squadrons by even a very small 
army of such uieu as this Kodrigo Diaz, and those that fought 
by bis side. The very same reflections have occurred, no 
doubt, to mijltituciesof the Spawsb nation, within the last few 
months : but, notwithstanding all such reflections, and the 
mohienta'ry ardour they lii^ in some instances possibly ha« 
excitedg'lt Vdtild appear that one niore prcittf remained to 
be given, that, in these times, the tombs, thehistones, and 
the splendid fables of valiant ancestord have lost all tlieir 
power against a daring invader. 

As all our readers, as well as ourselves, talk less or more 
every day of the events in Spain, which have lately awakened 
the stroa {Test interest throughout the whole civilized world, it 
will, perhaps, be permitted us to take this occasion of suggest- 
ing' a few oo Inside rat ions relative to those events, and to 
the mapner in which they have been vieveed and celebrated in 
this country. 

With regard to the manner in which those events have beeti 
beheld, and discussed, it is painful tons, as believers in Cbris- 
tianitji, to have to observe, that it may be doubted whether 
there lufs, ever been a grand affair, involving a most momentous 
crisia^ and creating a profound and universal solicitude, wbicb 
was contemplated in this country with any thing so much 
like a general consent to forget all religious oonsiderations. 
The anxiety which we have ipHy shared with all around us, for 
tlie success of the Spanish p^t^pl^r could not prevent us hQcpi 
sometimes thoughtfully observiiig in What term? anxiety, 316- 
culntion, or triumph, were expressed by veteran statesmest 
you ng political philosophers, many divines^, the whole tribe al- 
most of journalists, and a very large prqpoi'tidn of the mass 6f 
the people ; and it has been exeeeajngly striding to perceive 
the geltel-al willingness to exempt the Governor of the world 
from aU exercise of care or interference. We really believe 
«e have hardly met with one political or military calculatiotn 
on the powers a^id proo^ilitie^in this great commolioQ, in 
which thfl fact of an^inaigbty Proyicleuge,-if any accident 
c<mld have ^i^geste<i; it to the -calculator's thougatst wou|d 
. lmfe;bee^ oPh^as tn^ch importance, ici his aqconctt, aa'.ouc 
legiment-of' sf^dier^pipr^ or less, o'r one cargo of ammuuitJOD. 
£ut'tn^nera), the thooght seems not to'have occurre<l^.alli 
. the.4tl»n»,'th§. re^on^pg%,'th^ augttries, the'exyltatloQi-jUld 
• -jfaQ;if fire^: hjav^ aU'b.een rcntertain^ and revftlved^ .'lihdeitjUi 
entire failure to recollect th(tt an invisK)!^ Beingrhi|^/ev'et 



Sontiiey'B Chrem'deefiheCid. 20S' 

decided the courae and Events of human tfliiiM. And Ae be- 
nefit of this exclusion of every thought relating to that Being; 
has been very great, to the confident class of speculators, as it 
has simplified their calculations; the interference of an in- 
visible Power, is a thing so independent and mysterious, that 
it is very difficult to adjust its place and value among dte ele- 
ments of the calculation ; but let the whole matter be reduced 
to a piftin account of so marly men in arms against so many, 
and we, go directly to the conseqirencft without hesitation. 

We could not deem k a favom'able omen, when we observerf 
the general, and we think unequalled,. prevalence, in this Chris-' 
tian country, of so light an estiniate of the dependence of hu- 
man aflairs on the Supreme Governor. Another very promi- 
nent circnmstance, has been the apparenti renunciation of all' 
concern ^boiit the stability or subversion of the power of the 
Romisbcburch. In' times that are past, yet Hot so long pjist 
btit we ourselves can remember them, this most impious, ty- 
raiinic, and cruel power was regarded as one of the most 
pemicions andhateful things on tne face of the whole earth ? 
alid its grand instrument, theinquisition," was considered as 
precisely the utmost reach of diabolical contrivance and malig'^ 
nity. English protestants could not hear the words popery 
and inqi[t3it(on, without instantly thinking ofcrowds of racked, 
or bttming, or bleeding martyrs ; of numerous other pious and 
holy men perishing in duh^ons and deserts; of soldiers,' 
stimitleited by priests to merit hearen by absolutely wantoning^ 
in the torments and death of wopert and ohildren ; of irtid- , 
night spt^ of domestics exliorted and threatened into in- 
formers, of the general interdit^tjon df divine knowledge by 
severe pun tshm en ts for reading thebible, of ^nintinite swamai 
of lazy, bigoted, and vicious ecclesiastics, of the worship of 
saints and of images, and of a train uf folhes and impietie% 
in doctrine and ceremony, far too numerous to be named. 
Nothing inspired greater dejigbt than any symptoms of the 
approaching fall of this most execrable power ; i?ur aMi* 
cipationft of , the prosperity or decline , of any of the politicai 
states of Europe depended very much, perhaps more than 
on any other thing' whatever, on the degrfee in which they 
respectively assisted or opposed that impious and cru&l 
hierarchy : vvhile many devout and learned wrjters, and a mul- 
titude oj thejr readers, rr^oiced to discern any coincidence 
between passing events ai^ the prophecies of th» &Jl of 
anticbrist. In looking 'round on the states that supportthU 
epprmpus usurpation on the liberty, the reason, and the eon- 
sciepceofmankirtd,' it was nptorions that Spdn and Portugal 
werelbemosi^i^ful sul^cts of the slavery atid abettors of 
the tyraiivy. When the recent tnovement in Spain beettow- •• 

. Google 



jOt Southey'B Chronicle of tfi£ Cid. 

extensive as -apparently to promise to raise the whole effective 
population in arms, we began to entertain a most earnest sen- 
timetit, something between the desponding desire and the hope, 
that now, at last, not onlj' a repelling boundary, much more 
lofty and impervious than the Pyrenees, would be raised against, 
the irruptions, on one side at least, of lie grand tyrantpf Eu- 
rope, but also that in some way or other the strongest bold of 
popery would be eventually shaken into ruins. It was pot to. 
be expected that any direct measures^ for reducing, the invete- 
rate ascendancy of the popish establishment, would foKm a part 
oftheBrst revolutionary proceedings. But, as we trusted that 
all the genius and knowledge in the country would he called 
forth by the great occasion, and that, the mostabie, enlighten- 
ed] and liberal men would soon come to occupy the vacated 
powers of government, we Battered ourselves they would be. 
too wise, as statesmen, to be bigoted as catholics. We pre- 
sumed they could not but feel that the freedom which deser\'- 
ed to be sought at the expence of a prolonged and direful con- , 
flict with the greatest military power the world ever saw, would 
Feiuaiii impertect, dishonoured, and in a great measure use- 
Ijess, unless something were at least gradually eflected, for re- 
ducing that despotism of superstition, which would else be ^ 
. fatal obstacle to all grand schemes of national, improvement. 
We thought that the great commotion, which would excite 
throughout, the whole naUon twenty times more bold thought 
and strong passion, than bad prevailed in it at anyone period 
for centuries past, would give such a shock to th^ dominiot} of 
superstition, as to loosen and crack all its impositions and insti- 
tutions. And why should we forbear to add, that we had a ne>r 
ground of hope, when this liberal and protestant nation deter- 
mined to putforth, all its immense strength in aid of the Spa- 
nish cause, and when it was avowed in both countries that with- 
Qut this aid that cause douid not triumph. It was quite na^ 
tutal to conclude, that this protestant nation, which had but 
very recently testified its antipathy to popery with an ardour 
of zeal almost flaming into fanaticism, would accompany this 
assistance, if not with the stipulated conditipn, at least with tbfe 
most powerful recouimeDdatiou, of some remission of the ri- 
gours of spiritual slavery ; a recommendation which, under 
sueh circumstances, could not have failed to be effectual. 

Thus, we bad begun to indulge anticipations, of momuitoua 
changes in favour of intellect, conscience, and religion, to 
arise from the great movement in assertion of national liberty. 
When, however, in the simplicity of pur hearty, we began to 
give vent- to some of these imaginations, in snpli little humbl<». 
circles of politiciansas we can be supposed to be admitted iu> 
wefouiid.o,ur notions received with a smile of cpntempt. . We 



ih,Goog-[c 



Somhey's Chronicle of the Ctd. KJ5 

were told, that these are not times for recalling tbtf antiquated 
trifling cbntrorersies of divines about popery and protestant- ■ 
ism ; that enlightened politicians are now of opinion, that the' 
iniquitous iiistitu I ions of the superstition of any country oueltt 
to be held sacred and inviolate in that country ; that it a lew 
protestants hare sometimes eot themselves into the dungeons 
of the inquisition, it was their own fault, as they might hare 
gonequietly to mass like theirneighbours; that, in short, any' 
such concerns as that of securing such things as liberty of reh- 
gious prdfessioii and worship, are altogether beneath the notice 
of states, and those who preside over them, in great conjunc- 
tures of their affairs. We were rather plainly told, that such 
grand events as those of the present time are not for the under- 
standings of persons, who can never advert to any great sub- 
ject without tnaking it tittle by some conceit about Providence, 
and whose first groveling anxiew and last, in political commo- 
tions and revolLitions, fixes itseff on no greater an object than 
what it calls the advancement of pure religion, — meaning per- 
haps, in truth, nothing better than the progress of methooism. 
On this we betook ourselves, for a while, to the silent ob« 
servation of events and opinions, and soon perceived that we 
had indeed entertained a very fantastic kind of sentiments. £x* 
cepta number of religionists of the most antiquated stamp, 
nobody seemed to recollect any harm that popish intolerance 
had ever done; the inquisition was'almost become venerable, 
as a tbrtress of the faith against modern infidelity ; at any rate, 
it was a powerful support of the ancient established order of 
things ; a most bigoted tribe of priests had our cordial licence 
to hunt heretics, and keep the people in the most wretched 
and deba^ng ignorance, if they would only make sanguinary 
addresses (many of them were«^in the most savage style) to rouae 
the population to war. -Let bat the enem-y be destroyed, and 
the conquei«rs might cetebnte their victory , foraqy thing our 
natiofi seemed to care, with an auto de /S. ■ The very for- 
tresses, that Englishmen might shed their bloed in recovering 
from ^e enemy, might be allowed to become, the foUowing 
yearormpnth, the prisonsof those who ivished <for liberty to 

■ profess the faith of their generous deliverers. All were en- 
thusiastic, and very justly so, for the resCue of Spain and Por. 
tugal ; governors and people, debuiers, newswritters, reviewers, 
all breathiid (ire against Attila and his barbarians; and when 
these invaders -xere exterminated, the gtori&us result was to be 

' — what was it to be ? what in all reason ou ght it to be ? As tax 
as we could understand, itwastcJ be a full restoration of that ' 
order of things, under which those countries had, for ages, in> 
variably presented the most melancholy spectacle of imprison- 
ed min<^, of tyrannic superstition, and of national prostiation. 



i,,-c,it,Googlc 



309 Sotitfaer*s Ckromde f^fke Cid, 

iasUEunps. We s»y, a full rettontio^ .; for tbetre'wa««pt* - 
th&L,w« remenaber.. a siDgle |tarticulaT of the wbolp: wretcbod 
econotay Reified for re^rmiition. Id the ^vom of sucqss^, ^ 
gs a condition of our powerful and ei[{>ei]i^ive co-operation to 
sectire tt. ■ 

Tbat great improTement of modern times, the divtsioa (^ 
labour, may have extended much further than wu were aware. 
In some past periods, there have been in England politjciana 
^nA gtateamen of very great note in their day, who assuiiied it 
ac H part of their vocation, to promote, to die uimou of t^ir 
power, in their tranMCtioDS with allies, the ftccurity ofeonsci- 
aiUious men and reforming reason^s, against the per^fwuting 
malice of a spiritual tyranny. It may be, that bow the narnowed 
provinctfof this class of men no longer includes this concern. 
This may be; — but then at>other thing also may be jif they have 
excluded from their departuient a concern wbioh the OiviBe 
Governor has included withfo thtiir duty, it may be that achewes 
and enterprizes, ij) professed viudicatfbn of liberty, aie, on ab^ 
connt of tais indifference or contempt shewn to the mosf s^red 
branch of liberty, destined tp fail. The divisioa of labour 
might be carried so far as to .be fatal ; if the officers- asd crew 
of 'a, damaged ship at sea, should choose to say, that' llieir bui 
ainesB is tonavieatethe vessel and defend it against the eoemy^ 
and that as to uie teak-, which is fast 6Iling the bold, that be- 
longs to the shipwrights' buaineas.iti the port, tbe consequence 
vonld not be.very dQubtful. We began to fear, a, good many 
moMhs siooe, that such a fate Bwait«d our grand undertaking 
in favour of Spain. For the la^ twenty years,- it Lad appeared 
-UiDet evident, that Providence was hastening the fail dfincaitt- 
parably the most dreadful tyrant that, ever, Mro^cftted the dnini-^ 
luon of Europe, — the popish ^uparstuion; it lutd beeoi»e the 
general persuasion o( wise and good men, botXi ^roro exaiptn< 
ing the scriptures, and observing, t^coBrae of levents, that tUa 
divine procesB of emancipation, wbWb had beein.'ao Vrdently 
looged and pray«d for by millions of the devoutest add holiest 
men Ithat ever inhabited the earth, would proceed rapidly to 
its completion i sod therefore it was impossible torrpcl tbe 
eoaviction, tndependeirtly.of all calcvlatioas of conifwrative ' 
military forces, tliat the niightiest oifovl in the poVvcr.qf any Da.> 
tton to. make, if a.chicf object o£ that elfoit wit* absolutdy to 
maintain the popish system in all its aiicieut rigour, most fail; 
and that any other natioji, especially if- n protestaot nation, 
leading it» asststsroce on sucht MrwA «^ t^ia^opt an^f>romote tkU 
object, must eventually retire wUii disaster acd . humiliatioa; 
This objeoti jh its (ikVAt decide^, fcrtn, was invariably aK^Wed 
in Spain.; aod as far as.'the public are yet informed; the ivbole 
resources of tbifi coumry,werc plc%^, wiiilioiit a sttpnlatioii of 



r,o,i,,-,-,ih,.GoOglc 



Southey's Chronicle of the Cid, 2p7 

a remonstrance against a system which would doom v>y advo- 
cate of pure religion to itnprisonmerit, or tortures, or deat^. 
Our politicians may say it was not within their province) *nof 
in their competence,' to take account of any such matters; 
but neither, therefore, was it permitted to be in their cpmpe-'' 
tencej with the whole vast means of this country at their dis- 
posal, to accomplish any part of the great political project- A' 
most signal fatality haa appeared to accompany every measure 
and movement; ths results are before us; !jpain is' over- 
whelmed, and our armies, after months and months of ineffi- 
ciency and ostentation, are driven out under circumstances of 
the utmost affliction and mortification, and followed by the 
most bitter taunt that ever stung this nation, that " in spite of 
the English, the inquisition, the overgrown monkish establish^ 
ments, and the oppressive privileges of the nobles^ havi^ 
ceased to exist in Spain." What a memorable fact it will be itf 
the history of these time;, that the enlightened nation, which 
had so long been the grand champion of protestantism, should 
have justly incurred tJlis poignant and triumphant reproach 
from a conqueror, who is himself a pretended papist! Th^j 
wonder, however, will relate solely to the principles on which 
the enterprize was nndenaken ; there will be no wonder at the 
consequence : if one of the most emphatic peiitions which 
good men could have concurred to address to Heaven, for 
ine Spanish people, would have bfen, that such institutions 
might fall, — ami if the intimations of revelation combined with 
the rftcent and contemporary train of events, to give soletnti 
signs that the papal institutions were in fact just ready to fell> 
^— what was the result to be reasonably apprehended, when a 
protestant' nation should undertake to exert its utmost force 
that, as connected with the otiier establishments of the unhap- 
py people, these institutions might stand P Was ittO'be;e*r- 
pected that out of pure favour to the English, as protestgnts, 
the Supreme Disposer would suspend his operalions for desi- 
troying the popish domination ? 

We gladly believe tliereare times yetto come, when pbfiti- 
cians will be aware that the question, what monarch or whsrt 
dynasty is to rule any particular portion of the earth, 15 an ex- 
ceedingly trifling matter in the view of Him that governs- ft 
all, compared with the promotion or the repressi<m of the cause 
of pure Christianity. How many more disastrous calculatioiis 
and events are to enrich our history with melancholy itisiruc- 
tioH for their benefit, remains to be seen ; and it is'tiot diffi- 
cult to imagine new'occasions for practically trying, whether 
it is really a judicious principle in politics, for a Christian and 
protestant nation to lend its force and sanction formally to 
maiauia and consolidate the most pernicious and cruel si^per- 



r,o,i,,-cdtyGoOglc 



^ 



208 Southey's Chronicle nf the Cid. 

sthions of every country, where it has an absolute or an influ- 
enUal power. This point should be decided ; and if all the 
experimenls are to be made, on nn assumption of the affirma- 
tive, it is not too much to anticipate tljat the series may be 
very short, and that the result may be recorded on the monu- 
mental ruins of a great empire. 

Some readers may perhaps here alledge, that the martial 
despot that lias been successful, is also a supporter of supersti- 
tion; that be inserted in the new constitution for Spain, framed 
at Bayonne, an article, expressing that no religion but popery 
should be legally tolerated, and that he parried this into effect 
in agreeing to the firi>t article of capitulation, proposed by the 
inhabitants of Madrid, We may answer, first, it cannot rea- 
•oaably surprise us, if the Divine Being should manifest a much 
fcverer indignation against the formal support qf popish su- 
perstition, by a nation long eminent for zealous protestantism^ 
than against even the same support by a nation long equally 
eminent for its zealous popery- Secondly, though Napoleon 
does pretend, and in gome degree practise, an adherence to the 
Romish church, yet all Europe sees that he is, in effect, its 
enemy and destroyer; be treats some of itsmost saered institu- 
tions with contempt, and for bis own purposes is gradually 
abolishing the various organs of power that made it so formid- 
able. As far, therefore, as an able, powerful, bad man, who 
does every thing from motives of selfish policy and ambition, 
may he a Bt agent, under the divine government, for break- 
ing up by degrees the dominion under which reason and con- 
science have so long been reduced to suffer, the present agi- 
tator of nations seems the right operator. 

We have thus endeavoured to explain how we soon began to 
dsspajr, on areligious ground, of a cause, for the success of 
which our anxiety, in a political reference, most warmly sym- 
pathised with that of our countrymen in general. We ivill 
now venture one or two brief observations ou the political 
grounds of hope, afforded by the first stages of the grand move- 
saeat. 

That a nation in arms cannot be conquered, is perhaps a 

Eroposition, like many others that sound very well, of but 
ttle meaning. The thing cannot be realized; there never 
can be a nation in arms. Say that the men, capable of beai^ing 
.arms, that is, not too young, nor too old, nor too unhealthy, 
are as much as a sixth part of the whole population; this will 
indeed give a most formidable list in such a country as Spain, 
But then how evident it is, that only a slender minoriiy of'this 
enrollment will ever come into action, h. very large propor- 
tion of these competent men must becniploycd in preparinj 
the furniture of war for those who actually take the field ; a 



r,o,i,,-,-,ih,.GoOglc 



Southey's Chronicle of ike Cid. 209 

large proportion of them must attend to the indispensable con- 
cerns of agriculture ; millers, and numerous manufacturers' 
and shopkeepers, must keep to their business, if the popula- 
tion is to be regularly supplied with the most direct necessa- 
ries ; many of the enumerated men must stay to take care of 
tbeirsick, their aged, or their infant relatives : in a catholic 
country a number are under ecclesiastical restriction ; a con- 
siderable number of men to ivrice and print, are aa necessary, 
in such a juncture, as men to fight ; many must be employed 
in every district, in concerns of council and police ; a number, 
in almost any Imaginable war, will join the enemy, .at any 
point where he has been signally successful. We svill add 
Only one other class, that is cowards, who positively will not 
fight at kll; and whom it would require more than half of tho96 , 
that will fight, to attempt to hunt and capture and coerce into 
tattle ', of these there naturally most be a very large number 
in every 'rtation of Europe ; and these, in addition to theirti- 
midity, will generally be sceptical enough as to the necfessity 
of ihe war itself; sucn concessions as they would have madc^ 
and as they think bugbt to have been madej rather than pro- 
voke so dreadful an extremity, would have averted it. 

We have heard commonly enough, of late, of five or six 
Jiutidred thousand warriors being ready tp march, or even of a 
* millioh of heroes panting to rush on the enemy, and resolved 
to conquer or perisn ;' the absurdity of such flourishes might 
be' apparent, on a moment's reflection, which is enough to 
convince us that though we may talk of ' rising in a mass,' 
and of a' nation in arms,' it is in fact but a comparatively 
small proportion of the inhabitants physically capable of act- - 
ing in arms, that can at any time, in any civilized country, hfe 
brought into military operation. Instead of the innumerahle 
■myriads, which many of us seemed to imagine would drive on 
like the moving sand of the Arabian desert, and absolutely 
overwhelln the first large French army that should venture to 
present its front in Spam; it was very doubtful whether the 
Spanish nation,, even if as generally inspired with patriotic ar- 
dour as it is possible for any nation to be, and carrying to its - 
utmost practicable extent the principle of rising in a mass, 
could have met the invader with a force numErically equal 
to what he could without much difficulty bring, considering 
the immense number of his veterans at every moment in the 
posture of war, the authority and promptitude of his decrees 
of conscription, and ihe vast extent of populous territory over 
which those consi:riptions operate. And as to the nature of this 
popular levy, it was to be considered what an uncouth element 
of armies it would continue to be for months, what a want there 
was of men of commanding military talents, to throw the rndc 



ih,Google 



* 10 Southey's Chronitie if the Ci4. 

tliough brave muses into syuem, qnd at the same time )]9W 
soqp their quality, and the capaoity of their leaders, were 
likely to be brouglit to the Lest oy the unremitting, assault of 
tlieir rapid and pertinacious. eneiny. It was also to be inquired, 
where were arseilals aotl.maga^zines ? whence were half tne re- 
quiwta numl}er of fire-arms tobeoblain^d? for as to ottier arms 
there can be no greater folly than to talk of them.' Possibly 
there are, in e vary country, a very small uuuiber of meijsofiria 
. or so g«rce thai, witboiu aoy other weapons than pi)tep, they 
would resolutely advance to the encounter with musketry and 
artUlery ; but as to the generality of the men tbat arniifs piust 
be composed of, we think their defeat is infallib1e> whatever 

' their Qumbersmay.be, if under no other protection ihan their 
pikes they are oonfronted with lines of fire-arm's. For, setting 
aside the real difference of power between tlie two kinds ot 
weapons, setting aside too the effect of manosuvres, the influ- 
Bvaa oi imagination viiW be great and fatal. To unpractised 
troops, at Isa^t^ guns seem something more than mere wea- 
pons ; both by those that hold them, and those that meet theoi^ 
It isalmostfelta« if they had akind of formidable efficacy in 
themselves, their operation is ao totally different from any other 
imtfuments that can be wielded by' human hands- TTie ex- 
plosion, the flash, and the intliction of death, at a great di»- 
tance, ^y a missile tb^ cannotbe seen or avoided, inspire in 
the possessor of the weapon a certain conscionsness of being a 
much mow powerful agent, than he could have bepn hy an im- 
plement, which had no other force than just that which he 
coiild give it by the grasp and movemeot qf his bapd, and no 
effect at a distance. A.ua this influence pf. ipaginatiqii ope- 
rates with dolible force on the man whq is advancipg ■against 
these fire-arms, while himself has only au inprt piece of wood 
or iron; he will look with despondency &na contempt on his 
pointed stick, while tbe lines in his front, seem to be arrayed 
in tbunderand lightening, while he is startliug at the frequervt 
hiss of bullets, and seeing his companions begin to fall. 

But tbere.would be no end of enumerating the disadvan- 
tages, undei' which the Spanish insurrection was to encounter 
such a tremendous Invasion; and, even admitting that insur- 
rection to be as general and as enthusiastic as it was represent- 
ed, a sang^uine espec'atioii of its success was probably enter- 
tained hy very few of our country nien,"after it was ascertained 
to the conviction of all that Bonaparte bad nothing to fear on 
<he side of Germany, though the earnest desire did sometimes ' 
assume the language of confident hope. Still, however, it 
was not the less certain, that a great and resolute nation might 
accomplish wonders, against the largest regular armies, and 
the most experienced commanders; as history was ?t hand Jo 

. shew, by various ejiamples and, eminently above all others^ 



iJMlloftlienttcflCtbe French revollttibn. Ocrtaittly, indesd^' 
tixre nasanicirainousitiffcrence, iri foiat of ge6iu» ttod vfi- 
temy between the lemdcrr of thie wai; against gipais !u>A *\te 
eflmmaudera who. had invaded France ; the JugheK <eanius, 
however, cannabworkliteralLjr by ioagic ; and if thC Fre»tth> 
Legldns cohM hare been comoiaBcl'ed by even atiU grester t^ 
]aats than those acoiially at their hea^i it tvai evideiu: tfaey tnuK 
Teaetvea.dreadfolshdOKif they wore to be.fatlen opoa by aere^ 
Fd hundred thousand men, iispelledby the same cntbusiasat 
of valour and obstinacy of peraetviatice which 6rEt con-- 
founded and fioaiiy touted the zirUid -armies of iBruuswiok^ 
Cburfsit, and HsxeCobourg : in , fcne'Tarieties of, the opBaict^ 
befides, ail the latent ceniuB in xhe paitrjolic army would- i 
flamdout, and decWe whom aature had appoibted, in fion*< y^ 
Qjmpt of all hiws of raiik, to the cotnmand. But tben^ thero ^ 
mmu be an adequate cause to inspire the popotar levies wi^ 
this'herotcfury, which should persist to burn and .to fieht, in. 
■piteofaJi checks anddisaiiters, in fontress and in fiiUC «^ie« 
tner ihe battalione wem in order Or covfasioa, whether thry. 
found themselves separated ioto small bodies, ^oi:.tl»roii>u:toge<i 
ther in afionderous mast. Aad it might fairlyhe assumed, at 
thecom»)em:ementof the Spanish reTCilutiJ(>n,thlit lio lewcause',- 
no other cause, than that wnicb had produced tkis grand efiact 
in the French levy en maase, vrouhl odva produce it io that of 
Spaio. All know that the cause wbl(^ operated thus on tbe 
reTX>tiitionary armies of France, nra^ the passion for liberty^ 
eontinually inflamed to astate of entbiisiasm, by barigg the 
object most simply aitd conspicuously ^)tac^ in view. .T^e 
object was placed befoie them, if we ;tnay so ediprevs it, " Svii 
orb'd;" it was liberty,nolin the partial sense merely of bc»)^ 
freed frdmthe powier and iiiterferenoeof the foreign motiarclM 
who had sent the armieathey were oenobacing, and whose de^ 
iigD,they had liule doubt, it was to dinda France aniong 
them asa conquest, andits people as slaves; but in tbe ani- 
mating sense, also, of being no longer the aobjects of a despot 
athome. A geneiW could circatate through faifi ounp an ad- 
dress like the following : — ' ' Brave citizens, soldiers of liberty i 
prepare, fior battle ; to drive these legwns of Auatiia and Prus- 
sia'from your country, which ishenceforth to be the land of 
freedom. Your ancestors, in such times as those of. Lewis XIV) 
were 'Seait to war on these very plaips, at the mandatQ of .« 
cruel tyrant, and his detestable minions; while they fougbt, 
vtit^ a toiilom and tuelaacbely valour, their couatryflnen were 
all in cfaainsv^nil a grand object for which they were to fight 
and bleed.was, that their maAteriaightlaae none offais piower 
to keep them so. Yon, soldiers of liberty, ate called ts cth 
lebrate in arms the comnencement of « neiir »ra. By the 



i,Googlc 



313 ^lahey 9 Chremcle^ the Cid, 

heroic charge ibat shall dash tiiese annissof insdent Evaders ' 
in wiflcks ami fragments back on the eonntnes from which, 
they cane, you will confirm the doom that faas crushed theinr 
temal despotism of our country in the dust.- The Bastile is 
down, there is an end of a profligate couit and. arbiuaiy 
power, of the exctnstve rights and Uie arrogance of nobles, 
of the npaaity of farmers-general, and the dominaliDa 
of papal priests. ' The impositions ihat so long> fixed; our sla- 
Tety, by fettering ourminds, are broken airay I we have ex- 
ploded the notions, as well as defied the power, 'of JeqKitism ; 
wehftve proclainiedthat all political power essoitiaily resides 
in the people, and that those to whom its exercise is to be eo-^ 
trusted, shall bevhosenby thepeopl^ and most strictly ac- 
eountable to themi "■ We are a part o£ this emancipated and 
elevated people^ and' are boldly come forth to maintain their 
cause and our own. ; kit not worthy c^usto be brave in such 
acause? Doas^noTthis land of pew-born liberty deserve that 
we should fight for it'lite lions .^ There, io our sight, are the 
armies thatare-cameto makeusall slaves again. Let us -bll 
upon them directly, and drive them into the Rhine." 

Eveiy mind responded to such an appeal : though imper- 
fectly organised at first, though in various instances un^l- 
fiilly or unfaithfully commanded, and though many times it^a 
stateof confusion and defeat^ these half-disciplined battalions 
were ' fraught wrtb fire -nnquenchabie ;' they astonished, and 
after a while' intimidated, their veteran antagonists, by re- 
turning incessantly to the charge; tbey wiare coutinually re-. 
infdrc^ by more of their countiymen, • animated with thci 
same powerful sentiment, till at length the most famous le- 
gions and generals of Europe were overpowered, anddriveii 
away by an irresistible torrent. We- can remember to bayc 
read, in the accounts of those times, that one morning, after 
several days of severe conflict, and very partial success, in 
Alsace, general Pichegru signified to the army ^lat b:: feit it 
needful to give tbem repose that day ; on which he was inK 
formed, that they testified their disappointment, and expresseil 
3 strong and general wish to be led again to battle ; tbey were 
led accordingly. — Itwouldbeas much beside the purposeto 
discuss here the correctness of that idea of liberty, whiob aieia- 
ted such an almost pretemaiursl energy in the people .and the 
armies of France, as to notice what a wretched disappointment,' 
aud what^a hateful despotism, were in reserve to terminate ajl 
their pros(iects. -It is Sufficient for lour object, that a faoldj 
grand idea of liberty, involvtug the annihilation of every thing 
that had oppressed and galled the people, and sent their advo» 
cates to the fistnle, under the old despotism, and' qiiite cletr 
of all coutiteraotive connderations of this and the.other aristo- 



r,o,i,,-,-,ih,.GoOglc 



Sonthey's Chronicle of - thje Cid. Sl3 

er^cal distinction or monopoly to be held sacred, fuid thi» 
or the other individual or family to be maintaiaed in power, — 
it is enough that this idea inspired the energy, which flung 
the relics of the invading armies at the palace gates of those 
who had sent them. It is enough that every one can imagine 
in an instant, ' what woi^d have been the eB't;ct in the camp 
of Jlourdan or Pichegru, if information had come from Paris, 
of. the provisional government, anxious lb secure the rights 
atid happiness of the people, having settled that, though nei- 
ther a prince of Austria. or Prussia, nor exactly Louis XVI, 
must be luug, yet the allegiance uf the nation was inviolably 
due to some individual of the family, the duke of Charires, 
for instance, on wbo^e accession the government would go 
on in the same wise and popular manner that it bad done 
a hundred years past. 

The reader has anticipated all we could say in the appli- 
cation of these bints to the recent movement of the Spanish 
people. We shall content ourselve^ with very few words, as 
there is now probably no great difference of opinion unong 
thinking men, relative to the original and progressive pro- 
babilitie^s attendant on this memorable event. One single 
short question disposes of the whole speculation^ Has liber- 
ty, in the sense in- which alone it is' of importance to a 
people, ever been fairly set before the Spanish nation i It 
is oi the essence of this question, to reflect a moment on 
the condition of the Spanish nation previously to this event ; 
we mean their condition as jnstly imputable to their own 
sovereigns, and their own system of government, exclusively 
of what evils may have accrued to tbpni' of late years from 
the French intrigues and ascendancy in their poutt. And 
according to all accounts, that condition was deplorable. 
Taken in a collective view, the people were ignorant, indo- 
lent, poor, dirty, and extravagantly superstitious, fond of 
• tawdry shows and cruel sports, strangers, in a great measure, 
to ingenious and mechanic arts, stationary in almost all the 
points of civilization in which the other countries of Europe 
are advancing, hampered by a clumsy and perverse judica- 
ture, in short, bearing the most flagrant marks of an incor- 
rigibly bad government. Thus matters had gone on. during 
the reigns of successive monarchs, and during the reign of 
orohabTy the last of the Bourbons in Spain, Charles IV. .^t 
. length, in consequence of we know not what intrigues and 
private arrangements, the sovereignty j^sed suddenly . fropi 
t^im into the bands of his son, not, Qt course, withoQt expos- 
tulation and repugnance, on th^ part of th^ father, , w/i(^se 
rights, Recording to all orthodox notions on the subject, were 
grossly violated by thp trans^., .^ll^tbjs.^bil^, Jif)wever„ a 



ih,Gaoglc 



•14 Stmthey's Ckrontch of tiie Gid. 

powetfirt iKfl'gW)our, wliose tenets eoheerning Kiiigjy iwfrts, 
savittg and excepting those of .himse)f and his rOyarMotfieis, 
are deeniCTl bigtily heretical, had Ais schemes of tnjnsfer 
preplired, and brs inBchines in operatiop ; and lo ! in aino- 
mest feotli the 'kings vanish from Spain, and 'ourbrotber 
Joseph' succeeds to the ihrone. Ir was found -that the two 
inqnarchs had been fescinated, as we read of uufortunate birds 
■nmetiotes being, to throw theonselvesdieectiy into the mouth < 
oflbe great serpent. At this jnncture began the commo- 
tion wHdl has so deeply and justly interested all (Europe. 
A just indignation at the base and treacherous proceeding 
of nappleoii , rose so high, in some parts of the conhtry, as 
to issue in an energetic call of the whole naiiod to arms. 
This Was a tremendous crisis, and a most awful EUmmons; 
for i might be held certain, that the enemy, defied and 
chaHenged in thb unexpected quarter, and this new manner, 
wouki discharge the whole collected thunders of his martial 
empire, and, e»en if unsuccesaftji, would desperately prosQk 
cute the contest with the last battalion that would adhere to 
his standard. And if such would be his determination, what 
a scene the patriots bad before them ! If thfc emergency 
should prove to require n, he' would be able, at a moderate 
cdmputation, to bring three hundred thousand spldien, in 
successive armies, into Spain. It would be idle to caicnlaue 
'that such a force, a large proportion of it veterans accnstomed 
to victory, and commanded by such a set of generals ■ as 
never were combined in any other service, could be every 
vbere encountered, and finally i-epelied, by (ess than four or 
'five hundred thousand of the patriots. And if the Var should, 
'continue even no more than six or eight naorrths, howmany 
great battles would there be, beside the' incessant course of 
partial actions and bloody skirmisiies ? Would it have been 
it-dll an extravagant prediction that, during so many months 
of such a war, two hundred thousand devoted Spaniaids 
might- pwtrfi f And then what rrriseries woujd be suffered by 
the tl^ienceleis inhabitants, whsrt riuOibers of ageti and sicx 
persons, and women and childrmf, would' be exposed to ter- 
ror, ■ to want, and in many cases even to deatli ; whit 
i^sbbtitfn of the countty, what destruCTion of habitatiotis, 
'■tihat "rum of agritulturc) and what famine, a^ the probable 
consuRiintttibtt ot all 1 This picture is inexpresstbiy too fiunt 
■for the prospect; which was, or ought lo'have 'berti, dis- 
thlctly 'profited tb the minds of those who fiist sammoned, 
■tfftd 'iH'Who'6«3)ndl^d them in' summonitig, their comitrymtSn 
'to combat rtitb the' whole poWer oT'IiVan^eL "Now then, j*e 
'ma^'ask, sdcffiiily, •«*« wd^tbat'OBJecr, fiffthe attaiutnefat 
*of wbich thtgcoiinlt^wffi tobtel^d opi^'to thiifflost^antic 



ih,Googlc 



Soathey's Chrmick of the Cid. 815 

and enormous train of horror^ } What was that ullamate 
transcendent felicity, the thought of which was to inspire such 
inultitudesof men with the perfectly new sentiment, a contempt 
of wounds and death ; which was to animate the mothers, 
wives, sisters, and daughters of tliese men to urge them on to 
battle, Und which was to reconcile the whole population to 
Lave their country placed, for months, in a situation about pa<- 
rallel to that of a forest, infested by tygers f At the very least, 
that Object could be no less than the noblest system of na- 
tional liberty that ever blessed any people. 

Let our readers recall to mind tlie manifestoes, and addresses 
to the people, issaed by the provincial JanUs that took the 
lead, atid judge whether this n^fTJ the object. Some of thosa 
publications were strongly conceived, and eloquently express- 
ed. They powerfuify eifpatlated on the treacherous arts, by 
which the nation and the royal family had been inveigtedj- on 
the excesses committed in some places by the French troops, 
and on the glory of revenge ; on which last topic we regretted 
to see the patriots adopting a language, and endeavouring to 
rouse a spirit^/]f savage ferocity, fit only for the most barba- 
rous age. £ut the accomplishment of revenge could be only 
a very subordinate object with the patriotic Juntas ; nor could 
it be expected foprove an object adequate, in those parts of 
the "couritTy which had not immediately suffered or witnessed 
the outrage committed t>y the French, to stimulate the popu- 
lation to turn their meadows into fields of battle, and expose 
their. persons to the sword ; especially as it would be obvious 
that, as soon as Joseph should he enthroned, the excesses of 
tbe'French mtist, even for his sake, cease. What, then, it 
muststill be asked, was th^grand ultimate object to be attain- 
ed by- so dreadful a war, even presuming it must be successful? 
Ahd^ as far'as we have at any time been able to discover, the 

^ grind, the sublime object, which was to animate the people 
tosuch^atvarfare, to c'otnpensate its infinity of miseries, and 
to crown the final victory, was no other than a relum to the 
fiid stale df tliings, with me mere exception of French influ- 
ence, and the rtiischieVous power of the Prince of the Peace, 
at the Spanish court. None of the indispensable innovations, 
flone of the grandrefoTflis^'for the want of which that people 
had been so long pitied dr despised by alt the civilized world. , 
WBS-Bpe«i&caUy held out, ^^y'part of die incitement or th# 

.pn$e ; uo limitations bfth'^rOya) power, orthe royal expen- 
ses, iio reduction of the privifegbs of the aristocracy, no re- 
straints on ecclesiastical aiTrogancg, no 'political existence to 
be.given tothe people, rfo inethod of enabling them to parti- 

,C)pate or IntlueDce iheir govefnment, noabrogatiootof the 
Mrbarods municipat regut^ions agaiiTsrtb'e fViegom of 'trkfe. 



ih,Googlc 



216 ioat)ief a Chronicle of tke Ctd. 

no improvements of political economy that should contribute 
to supply clothes to those in rags, and food to those almost 
starving. No, there was nothing of all this held out to the 
people; they were to draw on them, to fieht, and to expel, 
the whole power of France, at the dieiidful cost that we have 
described, and then Ferdinand and the old government were 
to be triumphantly restored, and all woulabe welt! Hun- 
dreds of thousands of them were summoned to rush ont e 



}ant1v to perish, in order that the remainder might continue to 
be tbo poor, ragged, forlorn nation^ that they were, and 
arc. 

If a project for exciting the people to plunge into an un- 
fathomable gulf of miseries and death for such an object, may 
be furgiven to the statesmen and prelates of Spain, whose 
catholic imaginations are so stored with prodigies and miracle^, 

' what, however, will sober judges hereafter say of the politicians 
of England, at the memorable juncture ? By what reach of 
conjecture will it he possible to explain, how they, the en- 
lightened inhabitants of a free country, in which they have 
so often elocyiently declaimed on the glory of having permit- 
ted no despotism here, on the energy with which noble ideas 
of liberty will inspire a people to resist the armies of a ty- 
rant, and on the vn:etcbedness of living under a government 
like that of. Spain ; in what w^y can it be made intelligible, 
bow these enlightened politicians should conceive it possible 
to rouse a whole people to arms, at the peril of sucn awful 
consequences, by any objectsheld out to them by the /untas } 
or should deem it a desirable thing if they could, — excepting, 
indeed, with the mere view of diverting the danger a while 
longer from our own country, and giving, in our stead, Spa- 
nish victims to thq French sabres. 

What was Ferdinand, or any other individual, fo the un- 
happy people of Spain, who were to leave their families, to 
have their cottages burnt, to famish, or to bleed for his sake ' 
What had he ever done for them, or attempted to do ? If he 

.had been a thousand times more theirfriendthan they had ever 
found him to be, by what law of justice or common sense cdlild 
it be, that countless multitudes should go to be slaughtered 
on his account ? — not to notice the absurdity of suinnioninga 

. nation to fight for a person who was, as to any possible coo- 

4 nexion with them, to all intents, a non-entity. 

For a while, we still hoped, that tlie name of Ferdinand 

. would be suffered to sink, by degrees, out of the com^eni ; 'and 
that the project would assume, at length, the bold aspect of a 

. re»lly popular cause. In this hope, we anxiou^y waited tffe 

. assembling of the Supreme Junta. At last they assembled, 
.veriJied their powers, and took the. oa^ which they had , so- 



ih,Googlc 



South«ys Chnmicle oflke Gd. . tf 17 

leainly framed. We read that oath, 'and bare never since, for 
one instant, entertained tbc smallest hope of the Spanish 
cause. There were khdc most vague and insignificant ex- 
pressions in that oath, about taking care of the interests of the 
nation; but its absolute sum and substance vm, popery and 
Ferdinand. The first of these, avowed in its utmost extent 
and grossness, we considered, as we have already attempted to 
explain, as enough to ensure the fate of the whole design, on 
account of its aspect relatively to the divine government ; and 
the latter, as furnishing far too insignificant a motive to ani- 
mate a nation to battle. The Junta began by declaring tbey 
bad no power to asBemble the Cortez, in other words, that they 
could -do nothing for the people ; they went on to restrict the 
freedom of the press, and now, — the world is ceasing to in- 
quire what they are doing. 

No room remains for remartcs on the measures of out go- 
vernment, relatiug to the vast preparations and armies pro- 
fessedly intended for the assistance of Spain ; what is worse, 
we have no room for adding many remarks on the book which 
has given occasion to this article. 

The Cid (le. Lord) Rodrigo Diaz was a most renowned hero, 
of the eleventh century, who was sometimes in the service of 
the Christian monarch of Spain, and sometimes maintained 
-himself independent in his conquests from the Moorish part 
of the country. There are several ancient records, ancf an 
epic poem, concerning him, in the Spanish language; Mr- 
Southey has fbmied the present work, by combining and har- 
monising the several relations together, f&ithfully translating, 
as he assures us, what he has selected from each, and noting, 
in the margin of each paragraph, the work, and ihe part of 
the work from which it is taken. The translation is in tne an- 
tiquated English dialect, which appears to ub to be, in general, 
pretty successfully supported. 

The story is something betiveen a history and a romance ; 
andNr. Southe^ has not attempted to distinguish what ia true 
from what is fabulous ; the Spanish literature evidently sup- 
pUcd no meaiis fordoing this, nor would it have been worth 
while, bad it been prscticable, 'as the fabulous parts are pro- 
bably quite as amusing as the true, and give as stifkirfg a pic- 
tore of the times. In this view the work is very interesting. 
We are transported into an age and country, where the gen- 
tlemen go out to work in the morning, with their steeds and 
lKrK:es,as regularly as the farmers wiin their team and plough, 
and indeed a gooa deal more so. The Cld surpasses all njs 
contemporaries for diligence and success in such laudable oc- 
cupation. His course of enterprise is so rapid, so uniformly 
successful, and so much of apiece in other respects, that in 

Vol. V, ' R ■ 



.dtyGoogIc 



»1» Soudiej's ChronkUqfthe Ct'd- 

Bome parts of the book the mind is quite tired of following; 
him. in many other parts, however, the narrative is eminently 
striking, especially in describing some of the single combats, 
and, most of all, in the long account of an extraordinary court 
of justice, held on two young princes or noblenien, who had 
abused their wives, the daughters of the Cid. Nothing in the 
whole library of romantic history can exceed this narrative. 
The Cid appears a humane warrior, according to the standard . 
of those times, and yet he could calmly be guilty of the most 
infernal cruelties; for instance, hnrnijig a]i"ve many Moorsi 
in the siege of Valencia. The destruction of 'inSdels,* in- 
deed, in any and every manner, seems to have been regarded 
as one of the noblest exercises of Christian virtue. Three, or 
four of his constant companions in arms display such magna- 
nimous bravery, and such an affectionate fidelity to him, as to 
excite the reader's interest and partiality in no small degtee. 
A prominent feature of the story throughout, ia the frequent 
recurrence of religious and superstitiousideas,in the discourse 
of the'warriors, in all situations. Thereare many things' of 
the same character as the following :' 

' And the Cid awenibled hii chief captains, and koights, and peoplri 
aad said unto them, — Kinsmeii, and frieiida, and vassals, hear me-^ 
to-day has been a good day, and to-morrovir shall be a better. Be ye aB 
armed and ready in the dark of the moroiDg ; maM shall be said, aod the 
bishop, DoD Uieronymo, ^ill give us absolution, and then we will to 
horse, and out and smite them, (the Moorish arm j) in the name of the 
Creator, andof the aposde. Santiago. It is fitter that wc should livcj 
'' than that they should gather in die fruits of this land. But let us take 
couDSel in what manner we may go forth, so as to recdve least hurt, for 
they are a mighty power, and we can only defeat them by great mastery 
in war. When Alvar Fanez Mlnaya heard this, he adswered and said, 
praised be God, and yOur good fortune, you have atchieved greater things 
than this, and I trust In God's mercy that you will atchieve this also. 
Give me three hundred horse, and we will go out when the first cock 
crows, aud put ourselves in ambush in the vaOey of Albuhera ; and when 
you have joined batde, we will Iseueout and &1I upon them on the other 
side, and on the one side or the other God will help ua. W«U. was the 
Cid pleased with this counsel, and he said. It should be so i and he bade 
them feed their horses In time, and sup early, and as soon as it wits cocIl- 
crow, come to the church of St. Pedro, and hear mass, and thnve them- 
selves, and communicate, and then take horse, in the name of the Ttwitff 
that the soul of him who should die in the business, might go, without let^ 
to God.' p. 231. 

In an introduction, Mr. Soulhey has given a brief history of 
the conquests and sovereig,ns of the Muors in Spain, down to 
the time of ttie Cid. 



,,-crlh,GOOglC 



'pH 



[>219 ] ■ 

Art. tl. A Gtiural and Cowuclid V'ato of the Prophtiiet, relative to lie 
Caavertiiin, ReUoralion, Union, and future Glory, of the Haueei ofju' 
dak and hrael ; the Progreit, and final (yoerthrow, of the Aniichritiiatt 
Caafederaty in the Land af Palettlne; and the ultimate general Dilution 
if Chrirlianitj/. By the Rer. George Stanley Faber, B. D. Vicar of 
StocktoQ-upon-Tees, 2 vols. 8vo. pp. xxTii. S22. 333. Price 18s. bd«. 
RivingtODS. 1808. 

THE Prophflcies of Scripture, illustrated by the events 
which fulfil them, can not be too frequently presented to 
the public utention. Their accoroplialimenl has been so re- 
markable in a long train of events which form the great features 
of the annals of past ages, that to readttiemin connection with 
history so fixes the attention, and so Impresses the mind, that 
we can no more dispute the truth of the prophecy than 
the reality of the (acts. Let any man, accustomed to reflect 
on the rise and fall of empires, look through some good 
history of the former and present state of Babylon, Niniveh, 
Tyre, and Jerusalem, aiid then read the predictions relative . 
to these celebrated polities recorded in Scripture, and the 
infidelity of his heart will tremble.. Such however is the 
sc^ticism of the public mind, and such the influence of an 
infidel witticism, ' the study of the prophecies either flnds a 
man mad or leaves him so,' — that it requires considerable 
courage for a gentleman of learning, an associate of culti- 
vated men, and a votary for literary fame, to make the Pro- - 
pbecies the subject of his studious researches and public 
works. A writer, therefore, who belongs like Dr. Faber to 
this rank of society, and who nevertheless has suiEcient re- 
solution dispassionately and minutely to enter into these in- 
vestigations, is intitled to the esteem and gratitude of all 
classes of Christians. 

The Jews are a people so universally known, their history 
embraces such avast extent of time, their character and circum- 
stances diflfer so widely from those of any other people on 
the face of the globe, their dispersion has been so accu- 
rately foretold, their suflTerings have been so great and 
protracted, . and they have been so eminently honoured' 
of God as the instruments of communicating the revelatioD 
of his Truth to the world, that no man who receives that 
revelation' as authentic can fail to take considerable interest 
in its descriptions of their future destiny. That the prophe- 
cies do speak of their restoration is agreed by all ; but'there 
is a considerable diversity «>f opinion among divines, con- 
cerning' the nature of that restoration, the means by which it . 
will be effected, and the p^iriod of its accomplishment. To 
some it appears probable, from the nature of the Redeemer's ■ 
Kin^doin> the analogy of bis past couduct, and the express 



r,o,i,,-cdtyGoOglc 



320 Faber on the Prt^ecus-coQceming the Jem. 

language adopted hy bimself ^nd bis apo4t)e*i t^t ^.9?f 
cestoratiQn, like t^e callipg of the Centil^ is purely of aspi- 
ritual nature. ' Their rettira to Jude^ as an yniud people 
supposes that they will fonn a body politic, and conseouently 
that Christ will be the head of a temporal kingdom ; rar no- 
thioe is more clear from the propheeieS} dian that he is to 
' b.e their Ruler, Prince^ or King. This opinion implies, that 
fhe laws and ceremonies of Juousm must be still observe^ 
iti order to keep ^em distinct and separate from the con- 
verted Gentiles. And this supposition peqtetuates circum- 
c'lfiioa, the interdiction of marrii^ with any but the seed of 
graham, and the civil and criminal code of the Mosaic in- 
stitutions; all which, according'to persons of this sentimeet, 
are abrogated by the Christian dispensation. The sameldn- 
guage, tbey further observe, that is applied to the calling of 
the Jews, is used to describe the calling of the Oentiles, and 
ipnst tbere&re be interpreted in the same manner. Tha 
language in which the Jewish Scriptures mention the reGe{>T 
tioQ of the Genules into the church, is as highly figurstiTe> 
as local in its desi^ptions, and as political in its representai- 
t\oni, as that which has been used to predict the future re^ 
storation of the Jews ; and the latter may therefore be pre- 
sumed, as the former has appeared from die evidence of 
facts, . to have been used only in conformity to Jewiab 
habits and modes of thinking. The New Testament, oa 
the o^er baud, speaks of the restoration of the Jews in tb^ 
asme simple and spiritual language that it applies to tbs 
umversal caiUng of the Gentile nations ; the desoriptios has 
nothing local, political, or miraculous connected with it, but 
intimates that the work is to be ^Eected, under the' special 
influence of Heaven, by the same ordinary means that h»« . 
destroyed Polytheism, that have maintained and diffused-Chris* 
tiantty in opposition to all the power of the Roman empire, 
the sophistry of In&delity, and the blasphemy of Athdsm, 
and that are destined to aonvert alX the heathra nationa oa 
the globe, wkbout 'any new i&inicles but such as are disptayed 
every day in the conversion of sinners. It is wortbyof rematk, 
they think, that the prophecies which speak of the restoia^ 
tion of this singular people, are -by most writers on the nib- 
ject sought principally from the Old Testament, who do not 
sufficiently, attend^ at the same time, to th« peculiarity of the 
style then used. 'The figures employed to predict the first 
advent of Christ aad^ the nature of Messiah's reiga were. so 
local and political, diat the Jews almost universally Dusnn- 
derstood the nature o£ bis Ifingdom ; they expected ooe'that 
ma toaporal, and if not tou^y ptescriptiire, yef sucfa a» 



,,-,-,ih,G6oglc 



Faber «i Ae- Propfaties Cffftttrnlm^ the Jms. !Kil 

wtnild ibftke the Christians tributary to the seed of A.braham' 
And we muBt confess thae some ivriters have fallen i^to thb 
ianie mistt^es &s the ancient and modern Jen's; and have 
urtdentood the proph£(;ies too literally, to accord with the 
sintple^ spiritual, and universal nature of the Kingdom of 
Christ. 

While, we state these sentiments, it it doe lo our readers 
to ine;ition it, aa iJie opiilioD of the greatest tiOniber of 
writers on this subject, thai some of tne Jews will be re- 
stored to their own land; though few of the expositore 
agree as to the mam>er, the oieaiis, ot the time. Some are 
of opinion tjiat they will be converted while among the Gen- 
tiles, and then be restored to the Und of Judea; others,thal they 
will return first, and then embrace Christianity. As to the 
motives of their return, some think they will be religious, others ' 
that they will be political ; some think the means wili be 
ordinar)-, others fbretel supernatural signs and miracalous 
operiftions. But- that our readers may be i^prised what are 
the Opinions of Dr. Faber^ we will give them, as nearly as oui: 
limits ftill admit, in his own words. 

Either before or about the expiriltiori of the 1260 yearfc 
of the duration of Antichrist, one great division of the scat- 
tered Jews will embrace Christianity ; and somd might^ 
maritime nation of the faithful worshippers will aid their re^* 
fum to Judea. At this period tHe Ottoman empife will h'ave 
been' overthrown, aild the greS.t^ confederacy of Antichrist 
will have been completed, ivhich'wiil be conducted by the 
taler of the French nation. While the maritime power 
i* engaged in convertirig one great divisioi^ of the Jews witH 
< viewto their restoration, the Antichristian confederacy will 
take under it* protection another great division of the Jews, 
and wilt direct its arms against Palestine in order to restore 
them in an unconverted sMte. This expedition will be con- 
ducted by land. In this attempt Antichrist will meet with 
opposition from a king of the south — (but who this may in- 
tend is not conjectured,) and with a still more fomtiaable 
resistance from Russiii, who is considered as Daniel's ' King 
of the North,' end will bring into the contest chtm'ois ana 
horsemen and many ships ; but Antichrist will overcome 
all opposition, place the unconverted Jews in Jerusalem, 
and then go toward Egypt. But Edom, Moab, and the chil- 
dren of Ammon, shall escape out of his bands. At this time 
the maritime nation ^ill bring the converted Jews to Pa- 
lestine, where mOch blood will be dhed by the two divisions. 
At length, the unconverted pait will redeive Christianity and 
join their brethren. Antichnst will then return from Egypt 
sod Libya, besiege and take Jerusalem, and commit we 



r,o,i,,-,-,ih,.pOOglc 



^22 Fab^r on the Prophecies concerning the Jews.' 

most atrooipiis baibanties. On hia retaking Jerusalem, the 
tropps of the roaritime power will retreat to the shores of 
the Mediterranean, and be joined by many of the converted 
Jewd. To this host Antichrist wilt direct his attention ; he 
will advance [he whole of his army to Megiddo near the 
forces of the maritime power, and prepare to engage them. 
Ac this anxious '.moment, a supernatural appearance, like 
that in the wilderness of the glory of the Lord, twill be 
manifested over Jerusalem, accompanied by all the saints 
and an innumerable army of Heaven. This tremendous vi- 
sion will halt on the mount of Olives, and by an earthquake 
uleave it asunder. It will then advance to the v&Uey of Me- 
giddo, and hover over the heads of the palsied troops of Anti- 
christ. Jesus will then personally display himself to the as- 
' sembled nations. The faithful will view bim with wonder anil 
joy. His kindred after the fiesh, who pierced him, will now 
behold him in his glory. He will come with clouds, and alt 
the kindreds of the Latin earth will wail because of him. He 
will smite them with plugues, make them destroy each other, 
and ' summon the converted Joes to take vengeance by the des- 
trucdon ^ their enemies.' Thus will Antichrist come to an 
end, and none shall help him, Thi^ will occupy a period of 
about 30 years. The ten tribes, however, which have been 
so long concealed from * mortal knowledge,' will be found, 
and restored by land, in a converted state, to the country of 
their fathers ; and then the awful apparition uf the ^echinab 
will remain suspended over Jerusalem. 

All this, with a vast variety of minute circumstances tc^ fill 
up the Drama, may be clearly and indubitably discerned, 
according to Dr. Faber, in various prophecies of scripture. 

These opinions are stated and variously illustrated in S'S 
pages. The entire remainder of the volumes is occupied in 
commenting on the various passages as they stand, in the or- 
der of the books of the scriptures ; these are divided into 44 dis- 
tinct chapters. The text and commentaries front the Old Test- 
ament employ live hundred and thirty pages; those from Uie 
New employ only seventeen. Should not this circumstance in- 
duce our author to suspect whether he may not have been misled 
by the highly figurative language of the Old Testament, as be 
£ads so little on this subject in the New, and especially as 
even St, John in the Apocalypse takes no distinct notice of 
the restoration of the Jews ? 

He who enters on the task of writing commentaries on the 
Prophecies with a favourite system in his mind, is much more 
likely to pervert the sacred oracles to its assistance, than lo 
derive his conclusions from a fair examination of their import. 
Dr. Faber, undoubtedly, is often betrayed into this error : for 
be not only forces a meaning on tbe passage which it will not 



Faber on the Prophecies concernitig the Jews. MS 

bear, but adopts sentiments into his commentary which are 
not to be found in the text. The following scriptures and com- 
mentaries will illustrate our assertion ; and by referring from 
pages 145 to 155, it may be amply confirmed. 
Prophecy I. The dlsfieriian ^ the Itraelua—^heir Idolatry in tieir 
ditftiriion — Thar Juturt rtrloralioB. 

' DeuteroDomy iv. 27- The Lord shall scatter you itaoag the 
natioDSi and ye shall be left few in number amoag the peoplei. whither 
the Lord shall lead you. 28. Add there ye ahall nene gods, the work of 
men's hands, wood and stonei which neither see oor hear, nor eat, nor 
smell. 

' ^. But, if from thence thou shalt seek the Lord thy God, thou 
shalt find him, if thou seek him with all thy heart and with all thy soul. 
SO. When thou art in iribulition, and all these things are come upon 
thee, in the end of the days if thou wilt turn unto the Lord thy God 
and wilt be obedient unto his voice, 31. (I'Dr the Lord thy God it a 
merciftjl God) he will not forsake thee, neither destroy thee, nor forget 
the covenant of thy fathers which he sware mKO them. 

• At the time when this prophecy was delivered, the children ef Iirael 
were on the point of taking possession of the promised land ; and, 
huma:]|y speaking, nothing waft less likely than that any such calamity, as 
Moses here predict?, shouTd befall them. Yet, agreeably to hisdeclsTa-: 
tion, lie lea trlha were first led away captive into Assyria, and have ever 
wnce been given up to the delusion of worshipping strange gods. After- 
wards -thelvio Iriittwere carried from their own counttyto Babylon. And 
at length the aame t-aro trihej were yet more effectually dispersed by the. 
Romans; and sre, at the present day, wanderers over the face, of the wtole. 
earth. In the course of this their last captivity, they have' been repeat- 
edly compelled, as if that the prophecy might be completely fulfilled, to 
bow down before the idols of ropery, and to abjure their own religion*. 
' ' Nevertheless, although they be apparently forsaken, God aciil hath 
his eye upon them. As they were of old brought bacK from Babylon ; 
to will they, in due season, be converted from their long apostasy, and 
be gathered together out. of all natiiins. Nor will Jadtih alone be re-' 
stored : Itrail likewise shall seek the Lord his God, and be obedient 
unto his voice. Then shall the liva rival iiagdaau be for eyet united 
together so as to form only one pcoftle : for God hath declared, that h« 
will not utterly destroy them, nor ever forget the covenant which he 
sware unlo their fathers.' pp. 86, — 87. 

Can there be any man living, uninfluenced by a previous hvr 
pothesis, who would say, from thus text, that Moses predicted 
the captivity of the ten tribes Brst and Assyria as the scene 
of it? — can there be any man who would infer from its terms 
that it is yet to have a future accomplishoient, ortbat Judah 
and Israel shall be gathered together out of all nations 
and be so united as to form one people ? To say these 

* See Bp. Newton's Dissert, yii. 

r,o,i,,-cdtyGoOglc 



.224 Tzher on the Prophe^es concenihig the Jems. 

things can be proved from oth^r Scripture^ is quitn 
useless : for why are these passages cited, but to prove the^ie 
distinguishing and doubtful positions. It is veij unfortunate 
that this should be the first text in the series offered to prove 
our authors favourite opinions, the commentaries on which, 
being So obviously deficient both in accuracy and argument, 
prepare the reader to suspect the justness of all the subse- 
quent reasonings. By the method Dr. F. has pursued, he has 
repeated the same things so often, and with so little attention 
tB opinions previbusjy expressed by others on the passages, 
that it is impossible to read regularly to the close of the 
first volume, without strong sensations of fatigue. Had Dr. 
Fa ber classed all the principal passages under distinct heads, 
and taken more time to an&wer known objections and to prove 
the senae he had ascribed to them to be their true import,, 
we think he would have made his work both marc interesting 
and more convincing. 

The restoration of the ten tribes H a very prominent part 
of our author's work. He conceives that the Prophecies speak 
in Qxiny phces- distinctly of Israel and Judah. But to us 
nothing appears clearer, than that the terms IsraM and 
Israelites are used by the Scriptures, when not speaking his- 
toFicall} hut prophetically, as applicable to the whole of the 
descendants of Jacob ; excepting thos^ places where the terms 
' Isradaud Judah are both used. He complains of Mr. Mede 
for not making this distinction ; but thfc adherence to this very 
distinction has involved him, we suspect, in a variety bf false 
conclusions. Dr. F. is aware of the va^tdifiiculties attending 
this restoration, hut he surmounts them all by sayiiig, 

■ It m^ be piwbably asked. How can tha ten tribefl-ever be diteovered 
aAer the lapse of so maoy centuries, during which they have been cam- 
fickly lost imd miaded amoog the Badont of the east ? To such a ^ei- 
tion It would be sufficient sln^ply to answer, I know not. The rettoratioit 
jof tbe ten tribes id expressly foretold, aad i* therefore xa article of &ith. 
With the manner of thar dtBcoveiy I preminie not to coocera n^eif.' 

That the ten tribes, as a separate body from the other two, 
*ill bfe discovered, converted, and restored, is an opinion too 
lightly assumed. It involves, indeed, so many difficulties, we 
may say almost natural impossibilities, that much clea:rer evi- 
dence is requisite to establish 'it, thijp has yet been presented 
Irom the Prophecies, More than two thousand five hundred 
years have elapsed since these tribes were carried into cap- 
tivity; and we have no distinct account of them, in any 
ifecords whatever, during all this time. What became of them 
afterwards, is rather a matter of conjecture than of histoiy ; but 
jtis the prevailing opinion, that the greater part of those wh» 



ih,Googlc 



Faber on the Ptvphea'^s cenceming the Jexes, 22S 

werecarried away, — forsome might be left in the cosquered 
country— feturned, and united with the Jews after Uieir restor- 
arion fixm Babylon. Those who did not return appear to bave 
been greatly dispersed ; many of them probably were lost by 
intermarrying with the heathen nations among whom they were 
situated ; and the descendants of the rest, though preserved 
distinct, perhaps, from the heathen nations by marrying only 
with the posterity of Jacob, are not now to be distinguishea, 
we apprehend, among the general body of Jews, a% de- 
scendants from the ten tribes. The terms, Jews, and Israel 
or Israelites, appear to be used through the whole of the 
New Testament as convertible ; and are naver employed, as 
far as we can perceive, to distinguish between the ten tribes 
and the other two. There is no doubt that a great number of 
the kingdom of Israel returned into Jndea with Ezra ana 
Nehemiah, and were mentioned by those two inspired writers; 
bolh of whom, in their account of this event, and of some 
others which happened soon after, include all the twelve tribes 
without exception. Indeed it appeals clear, that from this 
period the distinction of the particular tribes began to he lost ; 
till,. in process of time, on account of the political ascendancy 
of Judak, they were all comprehended under the common - 
name of Jtws. We may add, that Josepbus gives no intima- 
tion of the existence of tnese tribes as distinctTrom the others ; 
and that the Apostle James addresses himself to ' the V' 
twelve tribes scattered abroad.' The A^ans in the East, and 
the people in America mentioned by Dr. Faber, may be ad. 
mitted to have had an extraction resembling a Jewijih one, 
without supposing them to compose the ten tribes; for the . 

proof that the Afgans were originally Israelites is so sjender, 
that, in our opinion, no great importance should be attached to 
it. If we were to consider these people as the only represents^ 
tives pf the ancient nation of Israel, the case would be hopeless 
indeed ; for these people are Mahometans, and have been aucl^ 
for ages ; and they Imve continually intermarried with others 
of the same religion for so great a length of time, that tq 
separate and exhibit them as tlie descendants of the ten tribes* 
would reauire at least as great a miracle, as the restirrection 
of the body, by which our author illustrates the subject. Wq 
would not be understood to assert that the disperseo Israelites 
became extinct an a separate race from the heathen nation^ 
either by death or intermarriage; but only that their disdnct- 
ness as tribes, and as a separate body, from the descendants 
ofJudah, as well as all proof. of such distinctness now sub- 
sisting, is irrecoverably lost. 

Very little indeed of the ancient prophecy, respecting the 
seed of Abraham, is represented by Dr. F. as baviog Efeeit 



r,o,i,,-critvGoOglc 



226 Faberon the Prophecies cmceming the Jews. 

fulfilled hy the advent of the Redeemer and-theestablishment ' 
of his kingdom through the first prnmulgatibit of Christianity, 
'• — an event which surely cannot yield in importance to any 
thing future. This appears to us to be not only what is called 
the primary, but. the only sense of many of the prophecies. 
We would ask Dr. F. what transaction can human conjecture 
devise as yet to come, more extraordinary in its nature, im- 
portant in its effects, and glorious in its consequences, than 
the Eternal Word appearing in human deSh, making aii 
atonement for sin, tisiug from the grave, ascending to heaven, 
pouring out the Spirit, appointing a gospel ministry, com- 
pleting the canon of the Scriptures, and establishing a system 
of truth which is advancin£r by rapid steps to subdue and 
regenerate the world?. Had our author, and his oracle Mr. 
Lowth, moi*e seriously considered this view of the subject, we 
think they would not so frequently have directed our atten- 
tion to a future temporal kingdom to be obtained and esta- 
blished by the sword. The unconverted Jews, according to 
this system, are first to dispossess the present inhabitants of 
Judea by force of drms ; and the country, again, is to be 
forcibly wrested from theyn, by the converted Jews, conveyed 
and assisted by the maritime nation of faithful worshippers. 
Butj as far as we can judge, the Scriptures never represent 
the kingdom of Christ as owiofj its promotion or establish- 
ment to any other weapon than ' the sword of the Spirit.' 

Another circumstance which inclines us to question the 
accuracy of Dr. Faber's system, is, the number of miracles 
■ which it represents ai necessary to the restoration of the Jews. 
We might ask, what greater necessity is there for fresh 
miracles, to convince them, than there is for the conversion 
of the numerons and prejudiced nations of the heathen? 
Why is it to be expected that a nation, which had a number 
of most stupendous miracles wroujiht before their eyes, yet 
without effect, should have others wrought to convince them 
of the divine mission of Jesus of Nazareth, while all other 
nations are commanded to receive the truth concerning him 
on the evidences alrepdy afforded, and this too on the testi- 
mony of none but persons of the unbelieving nation ? — We 
admit that this kino of argument should be cautiously em- 
ployed in commenting on the Scriptures ; for the wisdom and 
sovereignty of God are not to be circumscribed by the con- 
clusions or human reasoning: yet it certainly should not be 
overlooked by a commentator on the Prophecies, who is in 

f>erpetua| danger of being misled by the higlily figurative 
anguage of the Old Testament, — especially too as our Lord 
declared that no other sign should be given to this people than ■ 
that of his resurrection. The restoring a barren land into a 

Doiii--,-,ih,.Googlc 



Faber on the Prophecies foitcemmg the Jews. 227 

rich and productive state, the discovery of the ten tribes ivliicTi 
have been lost to the world for more trian two thousand years, 
the separation of them from the people with whom they have 
been mingling for most of that time, the actual desiccation of 
the Euphrates, the appearance of the fiery pillar over Jeru* 
salem, the personal manifestation of Christ, and the literal 
fiealing of ttie sick, the blind, the deaf, and dumb, with many 
ofhei marvellous occurrences, are all necessary to the accom- 
plishment of our author's system. 

. The principal features of Dr. F.'s previous works on pro- 
phecy are very prominent in this ; he every where finds ' the 
infidel King,' meaning the French government; for though, 
according to, his system, the reign of this King cannot, at 
farthest, last nmch more than sixty years, yet he is made the 
subject of the prophecies through the far greater part of 
Scripture. He is Isaiah's Leviathan and Bird of prey; be is 
Jeremiah's Lion of the thicket and Dry Wind of the plain; 
he is die Infidel King of Daniel, the Northern Tyrant of Joel, 
and the Antichrist of the New Testament. Nothing tends 
more to convince us that the prophets were inspired meiiy 
than the comprehensive scheme of providence which, tbeir 
predictions embrace j and nothing more strongly proves that 
the commentators are not prophets, than the narrow systems 
of explanation, by which they limit many of the greatest 
transactions to the times in which they live. 

Several parts of Scripture, which a host of learned writers, 
both foreign and domestic, have agreed should be understood 
only in a literal sense, arc here explained mystically ; and 
others, which have by the same writers been explained to 
bear a mystical import, are now said to require a literal inter- 
pretation. Indeed our author makes the Prophecies respecting 
the restoration of the Jews assume so much the appearance 
of a temporal, local, political, and exclusive character, that, 
with our views of the spirituality, unity, extent, and sim- 
plicity of Christ's kingdom, we must demand much stronger 
arguments, and a train of reasoning much richer in proofs 
and purer from assumptions and hypotheses, th»n we find in 
these volumes, before we c^n numt^er ourseRes among the 
admirers of the system which they unfold. Bin though we 
cannot agree with him on the subject of Prophecy, it is no 
more than an act of justice which we gladly perform, to ex- 
press our high approbation of his theological sentiments, and 
of the spirit which is generally manifested in his work. Wo 
therefore see no urgent reason to (feprecate thafextensive cir- 
culation, which, from the importance and novelty of the aub- 
ject, aud the writer's celebrity, these volumes will probably 
obtain. 



,,-,-,ih,Googlc 



[, 228 ] ■ 

Art III. CoBeeOtu _fi>r tie HUtgru ef thtTtvin md Sokt »f Gntiak^m f 
coatainiiig authentic Memoiri of Sir Isaac Newtoa, dow firit publiihed 
from the originaj MSS. in the FosKtsioD of the Earl of Portsmouth. 
B7 Edmund Tumor, T.R.S. F.5. A. tto. pp. 200. price \L5i. MUler. 

T OCAL hirtories in general possess only a local interest- 
Of the pnblic at large they seldom gr»nfy the taste of any 
except a. few antiquaries, to whom ^very plank rescued from 
,the wreck of ages is mere precious, than the frhole vessel- to 
which it belonged would have been, if it Were of contem- 
porary construction. We have net intention to itepreciate the 
worth of antiquarian researches ; for to tbf se, ne^t to recorded 
history itself, we are indebted for our multifarious knowledge 
of man through all stages of his social existence. But though 
Great Britain, for more thati eighteen centuries, has been the 
thronged and restless theatre of several astonishing revolutions, 
and innumerable heroic events, of which every province htu 
been occasionally the scene ; — and though on almost every 
spot of ground over the face of our island may still be dis* 
ceriled the obliterating footsteps of time, leaving behind only 
contemptible fragmenu of tbe mightiest labours of lUah, to 
^lew that they asm been, that they are destroi/ed, and that 
the puny piles erected oa their foundations in like manner 
will be trodden down ; — yet few places have been so frequently 
and eminently distingnished, as to possess universal attraetlonj 
and abiding renown. None, however, are so forlorn and de- 
lightless as to l>e unendeared to tlieir humble inhabitants ; and 
few are so little in their own esteem aa not to boast of one 
family whose ancestors have been great on their natiTe soil 
from time immemorial : nay, in no village that we^imembef 
are all the families so equal in poverty and wretchedness, tfiat 
there cannot be found among them some traces of the diflfe- 
rent gradations of rank and respectability that obtain in society 
at large, from his Majesty, the 'Squire, down to *' the slave 
that grindeth behind the mill," — the parishapprentice. Every 
diatnct therefore, however comparatively insignificant on die- 
scale of the empire, if it hns the good fortune to give birth to 
ft historian, will furnish him with materials sufficiently cu- 
rious, splendid, and venerable, to please the local pr^udicel 
of its people, to soothe and delight the amiable passion which 
the cottager feels toward the house of his fathers, and above 
f.\l to gratify the pride of the gentry, by displaying on quarto 
pages, and in tawdry engravings, the riches and glory oi 
their ancestors, their trees of genealogy, the tables of theif cha- 
rity, the trophies of their atchievements, and the funeral 
monuments that distinguish them as much in death from thd 
crowd tfiat lie, according to their various degrees, in the chuicli- 



r,o,i,,-,-,ih,.GoOglc 



Tumor's Sutoty of Grmiham. 229 

yiwd, (ome with and some witioiU sepulchral stones, as in li£t 
tbey were' exalted above tbeir teDants and neighbours, by 
their fine houses, their glariog equipages, and toeif liveried 
lacgiues. 

la tlus view, these ' Collection),* as they are modestly styled, 
for a history of the town and soke of Graiithacn, are well cal- 
culated to interest the inhabitants of that vicinity. But a( 
the same time tbey afford one article of inestimaUe and im- 
perishable value to the nation' at lai^e, and not only to the 
people of'England, but to the whole globe, not only to the 

Eient but to every ftiture generation ; for wherever a ray of 
c shines, or an atMH , moves toward the centre, shall 
IFTOM's "honour, name, and praise" extend. To this ar-* 
tide we shall pay particular attention, after having, in as few 
Vords as may be indispensable, informed our readers, that the' 
TOlume, containing this rare and unexpected treasure, gives ai 
learned, faithful, and sufficiently detailed account of whatever 
ia most worthy of observation in the town and district, called 
the Soke, of Grantham, containing eighteen villages and ham- 
lets.* In works ofthis kind, wc look for nothing but plain 
truth in the simplest langu^e ; and tbeir principal merit 
consists in assembling as many circumstances as may be north 
presentit^, in. the ^tallest possible compass. But topogra- 
phers IB general are exceedingly garrulous ; and the reader 
mast frequently winuow a bushel of words for a grain of lact.' 
Mr. Tumor, hoseever, is honourably exempt from this pre- 
tailiBg fault of his fraternity ; for he is minute in enumerating 
objects, hut not diffose in clescribing them ; and as the bulk 
of local mtsnoraUlia deserve no ampler notice, than would 
he given of chairs and ts&les, in an inventory ' of house- 
hold goods, the less that ia said of them, after they have been 
harely mentioned, the better. This book may therefore be re- 
(ummeaded as a futfafuL re^ster of the district which it 
daterilies, by a gentletniaa born and long resident on the spot, 
-«ad familiarly ac4Hiunted with the scenes and the subjects 
which he displays. We shajl give a few short extracts, con- 
tuning suoh passages as may. be read with interest beyond the 
-^eigbbourho^od of Grandiam. 

Among the beoevoieut bequests we find the following curiom 
one ; ' ' 

* Miehad CoIfsnaD^ gent. gsfC out oi,the Angti /nit, Graodiaiil, in the 
yesr 17Q6, 40i. per aaiidm tex tfer, iai a Krmon to be preached agaiast 
OnmltMui, the Swday next ajitr tkt AUinat^t timet, ia the sAor- 
, ttioa.' p. Is. 

In t^e account of this town being taken hv the king^s forces 
in ^le civil wttrs (1^4;^), we fipd a remarka^e quotation from 



.dt,Googlc 



230 Turner's fftston/ of Grantham. 

De Foe, (the authbr of Robinson Crusoe) which deserves at- 
teniion. 

' About.this time it wis that we begin) to hear of the name of Oliver 
Cromwell, who, like a little cloud, roie out of theeast, aod spread firn into 
the oonh, till it ihed down a IBood that overwbeln^ the three kingdomi. 
When the war first bro]te out he was a private captain of horse, but now 
commanded a regimeac ; and joiniag with the earl of Manchester, the 
first action that we heard of him, which emblazoned his -character, was 
at Graaiham, where, with only his own regiment, he defeated twenty. 
four troaps of horse and dragoons of the King's forces.' p. 62. 

This volume cuiitains more than a hundred sepulchral in- 
scriptions. After reading things of this kind, we have some- 
times exclaimed with a sigh. Oh how pious are the dead ! 
Were the living like them none would be afraid, none would 
be unfit, to die ! We shudder to tliink that marble may be made 
to speak, in Che name of the dust which it hides, a language 
that never fell from the lips nor rose from the heart of ' the 
poor inhabitant l^low,' while he sojourned above. Specimens 
of this religion among the dead, this righteousness imputed 
to them by the living, abound not only in the volume be- 
fore us, but may be read bencatb our feet in every church- 
yard, graved upon thi^se volumes of mortality the tombs of 
our forefathers, — those books which shall be opened at 
the general judgement ; of which these pious epitaphs are 
only the superscriptions, but whose darkest secrets shall 
be revealed in that ' great and terrible day of the Lord.* 
These remarks, of course, are not aimed at any thing in tbo 
volume whose funereal pages have occcasioned them to be 
made in this place ; they are thrown out like ' bread upon 
the waters,' in the hope of exciting the attention of at least 
one of our readers to a preparation for eternity, that no sur- 
viving friend may put a Lie into his mouth when it is closed 
for ever. The piety of our Roman Catholic progenitors 
sought every opportunity to display itself in memorials and 
mottoes wherever they could be introduced. Some relics of 
this amiable, if not praise-vrorthy, zeal for the honour of the 
Christian faith, .are preserved among us to this day, — ashamed. 
as we protestants are of appearing over- righteous. Among 
these popish relics (which we hold ingreeterveneration than the . 
bones of all the saints in the calendar, and which are far more 
likely than these to work miracles, by striking home to tiie 
hearts of siuners while carelessly reading them,) we may rank 
religious inscriptions, not only on grave-stones, but those on 
bells also, of which many examples may be found iji this: 
kingdom. We shall here only quote a brief and affecting 
specimen of each kind. On the tomb of Edward Saul, for- 
ftieijy prebendary of Lincoln, is the following sentence : 



,,-,-,ih,Googlc 



Tixtnox's Hiitoiy of (iranthatn. 231 

' O that through this grave and gate of Death we may finally 
passe to our joyful resurrexion to eternal life, through Jesus' 
Christ our Saviour. Amen.' p. 108. — On the second bell in 
Harlaxton steeple are cast these words ; 'J. H. S. Nazaremis 
rex Judeorum, fili Dei, miserere mei. 1635.' 

In the description of the village of Harlaburton, wc find 
the following enlivening anecdote of an honest man, who on 
a certain occasion almost jumped out of his skin for joy. 

* About 50 yards to the SW. of the maasioa-houae are two stODea 
about 7 yards apart. On one of them is engraved, " Bili'i Leap, 16S3." 
TradicioD says, that KiDg Charles I. when on a vint to Belvoir, passed by- 
HaHaxton, and that the person whose name is recorded on the ttone. 
tiiade this astonishiog leap tor joy.' p. 112, . 

In a note respecting the church at Great Paunton, this story 
is recorded. 

* . Mr. Ellya, the builder, » reported to hare sent his wife a cuk, ia- 
scribed CaUis Saod, without any further mention <^ its contenta. At 
his return to Pauuton, he asked what she had done with it, and founcl 
she liad put it in the cellar ; he then ac<]ualated her that it cbntaioed the 
bulk of his riches ; with which (being issueless) they mutually agreed to 
build a church, in thanksgiving to God for having prospered them iu 
trade. Commaiucatidbya Calhuuc Pritil.' pp. 127, 123, 

The author justly celebrates the munificence of one of bit 
ancestors Sir £. Turnor, whose motto, "Dona Dei Deo" shews 
that he was charitable on religious principles. 

We shall now make ample amends to our readers for the 
frivolity of some of the foregoing observations, and the se- 
riousness of others, by two Or three extracts from the ' au- 
thentic Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton,' contained in this vo- 
lume. If we were called upon to say who was the greatest 
man uninspired that ever lived, we believe that we should ' 
answer. Sir Isaac Newton.. On that name it were useless 
to pronounce panegyric here. It would be equally, unne- 
cessary to attempt to measure his genius, or characterize his 
labours. The one seemed to know no limits but those of the 
visible universe ; the other were all that an immortal spirit 
in a mortal body, during an earthly existence, could perform ; 
for Sir Isaac Newton was the greatest of men, not ao much 
because he was more splendidly gifted than others, but be- 
cause he improved the powers which he possessed to the highest 
degree of profit, and employed his time, — that most precious, 
and mostabused of all the talents committed to our charge,— 7 
as if the fruit of every moment were to be eternal. Wliat 
his contemporaries thought of him, we learn from Pope's hy-* 
|>erboHcaI couplet; 

' Nature and Nature's laws lay wrapt lA night ; 
Godiaid **XietNcwtoabel" iL^aUwat light.' 



.dtyGoogIc 



'399 Tumor's S^tory <^ Gratith^m. 

. How much mora humbly kaA justly the sublime phtloeD- 

gher himself estimated his acquirements, we may see room the 
Jlowing note. ^ 

* Sir Inac (aid a litde b^ore his dea^i <* I do not know what I may 
appear to the world j but to myself i Kem to bs* e been oiJy VAs a bojri 
yl^ng op the ae^-shoFB, and diverting m jtelf, in nov and uieo fiodiDg a 
Debbie or a prettier shell thao ordinary, wI^ilBt the ^'eat oceftB of tnidt . 
uy all nodiacOTercd before me." MSS. Condmtt. Newtoo b«^ns bia 
first letter' to Dr, Beotley, in 1692. thus s " When I wrote my treayse 
^xiut oar ayit^] I had an eye upon such principles as might work with 
coniidering men for the belief of a Deity, and nothing can rejoice me 
more than to find it viefid for that purpose. But if I have done the pub* 
lie any service thti way, it it due tq nathiog but iadiutry and patient 
thonght." Four Letteri, iSfe. edit. 1796, Byo/p. ITS. 

. Our limits will not purmit us even to sketch a memoir of his 
life ; we shall therefore only state that he was born at Wools- 
thbrse n^a Grantham, wwit to two little iday schools in the 
neighhourhood till he was twelve years old, and then attended 
« great si^lAral at Grantham for some years longer ; after which 
his mother took him home, intending to bring him up to the 
managemetit of his own small patenial estate.- But bis genius 
ttroketbroughtherestraiDt of such ignoble employment, andhs 
entered himself at Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1660. Here 
began his career of mathematical and astronomical glory'] ia 
which he persevered, through fery few changes of life, 
brightening in his course as he advanced to his meridian, and 
broadening as he went down till the day of his death, which 
happened at Kensington, In ]726-7. The documents con- 
cerning him in this volume are ' Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton 
sent by- Mr. Conduitl to M, Fontenelle, in 172T ;' the ' Pedi- 
gree of Newton, from the entry made by himself in the Col- 
lege of Arms :' ' ' A remarkable and curious conFersatign be- 
tween Sir Isaac NeWton, a^d Mr. Condnitt :* and" •■» letter 
from Dr. Stukeley to Dr. Mead dated Grafttbam, June 25, 
■1727.' 

We shall make our extracts from the first and last of these 
articles. ' That part of a great man's life, il^ which the size ' 
and featnreii of his mind, if wc may use so' bold a form of 
speecbj are as decidedly formed and fixed as the bulk and ' 
itreng^ of his body, the period from boyhood to maturity, i» 
in general miserably deficient of itiustratitin and anecdote in 
biographical accounts. We shall therefore confine our selec- 
tions, cbjefiy, to circumstances relative fo Sir Isaac Newlbo 
ID tlris mpst interesting cera of his life. 

* Sir Isaac med to relate that he was very negligent at ^chooU aqdnrj 
low in it, till the boy. above him ga^ve him ? kick on the belly, which put 
bin to a (teat df4 oFpaift. Hbi eoetcut. with tavisg thcaihed his ad- 



Do,i,,-,-'ih,.Googlc 



Tumor's Sistory of Grantham. SiS 

jenuy. Sir Ifaac could not i:e9C till he had got before hrm in the achocl, 
«nd from that time continned rising tilf he was the head baj. MS. Cot^ 
dmtt* p. 159. ^ "^ 

Thefollowiogparticulars aregiyenof hisstudies at oallege. ' 

* He alwaTt infermed himsoif before haad of the baf>l» his totor in- 
tended to read,, asd when he came to the lectSrea, found ho knew more 
of them thin his tutor : the lirst books he read fot that purpose were SauQ- 
derson's LiOgic, and Kepler's Optics. 

' A desire to know iriiether there waS' anr thing in judicial astrology 
first piit him i^on studyiag mathematics ; he discorered the emptiness 
ofthat study, as soon, as he erected a Sgure, for which piupose he made 
Dse-of two or direc problems in £uclid, which he tum£d to by means of 
an index, and did not then read the rest, looking npon it as a book con- 
taining only plain and obvious things. He went at once upon Descartes'i 
Geometry, and made himself master of it, by dint of genius and appli- 
cation, without going through the usual steps, orhanng the assistance of \ 
'aay odier person. 

* In 1664 he bought a prism, to try soma nperinents upon Descartea's 
doctrine of Colours, and soop found oat his own theory, and the errone' 
(rasness of Descaitet's hypothesti. About this time he began to have the 
£rst hint of his methM of fluxi<ms ; aud in the year 1€€5, when he 
retired tofaji own estate,* 00 account of the plague, he first thought of ' 
his system (rfgrarity, M^Hch he bit npoa byoOMmng an ^)plc &U frota' 

a tree, 

* He laid the foundation of alHiis discoveries before he was twenty-four 
years old, and communicated most ctf them in loose ttacts *»d lettei^s to 
die -Royal Society, of which au ample accoust Is given io the Cwwqercium 
Epistdtcum. 

' At the university, he spent the greatest part of his time in lus cloMtt 
pid when he was tired with his severer studies of philosophy, his -relief 
9nd amusement warS going to some other study, as history, chroDdog;y| ■ 
divioity, and chemistry, alTwhich he examined and searched tboronghly, U 
' appears by them^nypapershehasleftonthosesubjects- After his cenu^ 
to Loudon, all the tune he had to spare from his business, and the dvih* 
tiesoflife, in which he was scrupulously exact aud complaisant, was ens. 
idoyed in the same way ; and he was haediy erer akme without a pen in 
Ids baud, aad a book, before him : and in all the studies he undutook, tw 
bad a perseverance and patience eqiMl to his saj^^ty and invention.' 
p. 163. 

We li^ve often been delighted to contemplate, ia^Sir Isaac 
I^Wton'a character, the aamirable aaaoeiation of ekcelleat 
mocal quiilitiQS with transceiidant powers of intellect. 

* Notmth standing the extraordinftry honours that were paid hipi ht 
had so humble an opinion of himself, that he had no relish of the applauf^h 
which was so deservedly pud.him ; and he was so litde vain and desiromi 
(^ glory from any of his works, that h^ as it is well kuown. would have 

* At Wooltthoipe, where bis motfier liTei ;The fxg^ tne is aew 
remaisine and is shewed to itraagerti " .. 

■Vol. .V. S 



,Mt,Googlc" 



334 Tumoc'* History oj Grantham. 

let othcn run away with thegloiyof thoKinTentioDs, which haVe done w 
much honour to human nature, if hia friendB and countrymen had not 
been more jealous, than he, of his and their glory. He was exceediogty 
courteous and affable, e\-en to the lowest, and never dei;nBed any man far 
want of capacity, but always expreMed &eely hia rewntOieDt agaioit any 
immoralhy or impiety. He not only shewed a great and cooKant regard 
to rcli^otrin genera), at well by an exemplary course of life, at in all 
his writings ; but was also a brm believer of revealed religio^, wbicb 
appearsby themanypapers he has left onthat subject) but hi* oodon of 
the Christian religion was not founded on a narrow bottoia, nor hii chari- 
^ and morality so scanty, as to shew a coldness lo those who thought 
otherwise than he didf ia matters iadi&rent ; much less to admit of per- 
secution, of which he always expressed the strongest abhorrence and 
detestation. He had such a meekness ud sweetness of temper, that » 
melancholy story would often draw tears from him, and he was ex- 
ceedingly shocked at any act of cruelty to man or beast ; mercy to both 
being the topic he to^d to dwell upon. Ad innate modesty and aim* 
pKcity shewed itself in all his acboes and expressions. 

< He was never mairied ; he was very temperate in his diet, but never 
observed any regimen. He was blessed with a very happy and vigoroM 
coDS^tion ; he was, of a middle stature, and plump in tus Utter years \ 
he had a very lively and piercing ctc, a comely and gracioqs aspect, 
and a line head of hair, as white as stiver, without any baldness, and when 
his peruke was off, was a venerable sight. And to his last illness he 
had the bloom and ctdour of p young man, and never wore spectacles, 
norlostmone than one tooth to the day of his death.' pp. 164,165. 
- *0a Saturday morning, the 16tb, he read the newspapers, and held a 
pretty long discourse with Dr. Mead, and had all his senses perfect ; but 
that evening at six, and all Sunday, he was insensible, and died on Mon- 
day the 2o3. of N^rch, between one and two o'cfock in the morning. He 
reemed to he »e stamina vita: (except the accidental disorder of the stone) 
to have caniwl him to a much longer age. To the last he had all his 
■eniet and Acuities strong, vigorous, and lively, and he continued 
vriting tajL studying muiy nours every day to the tune of his last illness,* 
p. 166. 

The following additional iuformiitJoii, concerning bis habiU - 
'^nd i IT di cations of character in early life, is extcaoted from 
the letter of Dr. Stukelcy to Dr. Mead. 

. • Every one that Voew Sir Isaac, or have he3rd of him, recount the 
^regnanc^ of his parts when a l>nY>liia strange inventions, and extraordi- 
n^ inclination for mechanics. That instead of playing among the other 
boys, when from school, he always busied himself in making k»cl[-knaclu 
and models of wood in many kinds. For which purpose he had got 
little taws, hatchets, hammers, and all sorts of tools, . which he would uie 
wftli great dexterity. In particular tb^ «peak of his making a wooden 
clock. About this time, a new windmill was set up near Grantham, in 
tilt way to Gunnerby, which is now demolished, this country chiefiy 
using water millt. Our lad's imiCatiDg spirit was taoo excited, and by 
frequently prying into the fatiric of it, as th«r were making it, he became 
matter e&ough to nakea very perfect model uereof, and it was said to.bc aa 



r,o,i,,-,-,ih,.GoOglc* 



T^mmh History of Gra^kanu 235 

deniaiidcurioiuapieceof workmanship, astheorigiaa]. . This sometunei 
be would Kt upOD the houBe-top, where he lodged, and clothing it with 
lail-cloth, the wind would readily turn it ; biit what was most extraordi- 
nary in its composition was, that he put a mouse into it, which he c^led 
the miller, and that the mouse made the mill tarn round when he pleasedt 
and lie would joke too upon the miller eating the corn that was put in. 
Some tay he tied a string to the mouse's tail, which wasput into a wheel, 
like that of turnspit dogs, so that pulling the string made the mouse gs 
forward by way of resistaace, and this turned the mill. Others suppois 
there was some corn placed above the v^eel, this the mouse endeavouriag 
to get to, made it turn. Moreover Sir Isaac's water clock is much talked 
of. This he made oat of a box he begged of Mr. Clark's (his landlord) 
■ wife's brother. As described to me, it resembled pretty much our com- 
mon clocks and clock-cases, but less ; for it was not above fotar feet in 
height, and of a proportionable breadth. There was a dial plate at t(W, 
vritn figures of the, hours. The index was turned by a piece of woodt 
which either fisll or rose by water dropping. This stood in the room 
Vhere he lay, and he took care every raommg to supply it with it* proper 
quantity of water ; and the family upon occasion would ga to see wbat 
was the hour by it. It was left in the house long after he went away to 
the UniTeraity." pp. 176. 177. 

Dr. Stuketey tells us thatmuch of his information respecting 
Sir Isaac, was supplied by Mrs. Vincent, an elderly matron, 
to whom it is supposed the philosopher had formerly been at- 
tached. Mr. Clark, also, informed him that 

< The room where Sir Isaac lodged, was his lodging room too when 
a taxi, and that the whole wall w^s still fiilt of the drawings he had 
made upon it with charcoal, and so remained till pulled down about six- 
teen years ago, as I laid before. There were birds, beastii, men, sbip*, 
and raatfaemattcal schemes, and very well designed. 
: *' We must understand alt this wiiile,that his mother had left Wolstho^, 
and lived with her second husband at North -Wttham. £ut upon his 
death, after she had three children by him, she returned- to her own house, ' 
whichlikewise,it ou^t to be remembered, was rebullthy him. She iqran 
this was for saving expences as much as she could, and recalled her son 
Isaac from school, intending to make him serviceable in managing of the 
farm and country business at Wolsthorp ; and I doubt not; but she thought 
it would turn more to his own account, than being a scholar. According- 
ly we must suppose him attending the tillage, grazing, and the like. And 
they tell us thathe frequently came to Gmntham market, with com and 
Other commodities to sell, and to carry home what necessaries were proper 
to be bought at a market town for a family ; hut being young, his mother 
usually sent a treaty old servant along with him, to put him into the way 
of, business. Their inn was at the Saracen's Head in Westgaie, where as 
soon as theyhad put up their horses, Isaac. generally left&e mantoma- 
nage the marketings, and retired instantly to Mr. Clark's garret, where 
he used to lodge, near where lay a parcel of old books of Mr. Clark's, 
which he entertained himself with, whilst it was time to go home again; 
or else he would stop by the way between home and Grantham, and lye 
under a hedge studying, whilst the man went to town and did the business 



.dtyGoogIc 



236 Neie Fersums of the New TeHatneni. 

and CjJkd upon him is hii return. No doubt the man madf remcnnrancct 
ofthi* to hianiDtber. XakewMc whenatbome,if his'mothiM' ordeml'hini 
into the field*, to look after the sheep, the corn, ortipon any odier rural 
KDpIornMnt, it went on very heavily through kis madage. ' His chief 
(lelight wai to ait undfratree, with a book in his hands, or to busy him. 
telf with bia knife in cutting wood for raodeU of somewhat or other that 
ftruck bia &Qcy : or be would get to a stream and make mill wtieeh." * 
Pf. 179,180. 

It would be quite supeHlubiis to apologise to our readers for 
extractiD^, from a .vohime which few of them will ever see, 
■uch copious details concerning a m^n who is the glory bbtb 
of their country and of human nature. 

Alt. IV. The New TutatMnt, at an InUiroved Fcrthn, afion the Bat'u of 
.jlnkbithoft NfOKome't New.Traiulatum ! tuilk a cwrecud Text, anj 

. J/etu, crttieai and explanatvy. 

Art. V, jI N«wTettai»ait; or the Nevi Cevaumt, tucerdia^ to Lake, 
Pmd, and. John. Fn^ruiediu Corfemii^lo tki Plan nf.ihi !alt Reo. 



(Conl'mtieifromp. S9.) 
'IT appears convenient to arrange our observations on the Im- 
proved Version, and the less considerable work before us, 
under the distinct heads of the text which forms their basis, — 
the distribulion of the test, — the mode of translating j»:fi/^r 
emrtsjians, — the Hyle, — the degree of invpartiality that is ma- 
uiiested, — and the character of the rwtes. 

I. On the Text. Archbishop Newcome's translation, which 
lisatsumed in both the volumes before us, was made from 
Griesbach's N. T. 1775 ; but, in the ' Improved Version,' the 
text is conformed to his second and mdre perfect edition, the 
result of the laborious exertions of a long life, princi{>ally 
spent in scriptural studies. Whoever would form a fair esti- 
mate of this edition of the Greek Testament, it is necessary 
that he possess a competent proficiency in the critical scirtice, 
tbat he diligently study the Prolegomena to each volume, and 
that he have been for some time in the habit of tising the edi-' 
tion, noting the text, and pondering its evidences. To exa- 
mine at length the character of the whole, would require a 
volume of no moderate size. Such a work would involve a ■ 
revisel pf Grieshach'^ estimate of the value of every authori- 
ity, whetber manuscript, ancient version, or citation ;— an ad- 
justment of each to its proper recmJWB, according to the 
classification derived from Bengelius aild 8emler; and an ap- 
plication of the evidence thus ascertained, according to the 
strict canons of criticism, to about one kumired thoustmd cases. 
'_ Sucji a lahuur^ however, Is not necessary here. A few experi- 
.ntepta cruris will be found quite satisfactory. We hazard no- 
thing in saying, that the yenerable professor has att:faieved that 



r,o,i,,-,-;ih,.GoOglc' 



New Versions of tke New Testament. SS7 

hotioarable and necessary work, nliidi bas been for ages want- 
ed, of lilieratiiig the sacred text of the N. T. froor iHumthe- 
rized intrjlsions and alterations ; and that he has exhibited it 
in a stateso nearly approaching to its- original ind 7Mtit>e/orm, ^, 
as to exclude all probable expectation of any material improve- 
ment from future collations and critical' labours. 

Our readers, we think, may fairly expect us to poiAt out the 
mcst signal instances in which this text adopts readings differ- 
ent from thofifl of the received text; ana affectiiTg, or slip- 1 
poaed to affect, the senie aud meaning of iiqportant passages. " \ 

A small number of those instances possess a theobgicar im- 
portance, as they bear sOme relation to the great contiwversy . / 
concerning the person of Christ. Thi&circuinscance, througa ' ~ 
a lamentable defect of judgement aiMl Andour od both m&» - 
of that question, has led to some unhappy results. ( 1.) It hm 
induced some injudicious defenders of the-truth, by pertina- 
ciously contending for readings demonstrably spurious, to 
-viohte tb^ indisputable rules of moral evidence, 'Of to mats 
erroneous assertions 'as to particular f&cts of that evidence; 
andthus to bring disfaonourupon the sacred cause wtueh thoy 
haveso onworthily itiaintained. (2.) The advei^ries, there- 
Tore, of the great doctrine of the Redeemer's Deity have 
boldly drawn the inference, that its sKcnors have no other 
foundation for this grand article of their faith than corruptions 
of the scriptural text We earnestly hope, for the sake both 
of tbe troth itself, and •of its misguided opposers, that the , 
time is fant approaching when none but sound evidence sfaail 
be produced in behalf of ajust oause ; and when there will 
be no chance of evils here arising like those which we have 
again deplored. 

Though we can oidy present a selection of the variations Of 
the respective texts and versions, we pledge ourselves to 
bring forwards d^^ that are of any distinguished importaQcej 7. 
except in the Apocalypse. We must be permitted to make '" 
this exception, becatise, for a reason intimated in the fotmer 
part of-this article, (pp. -iS, 36, of tfae present voiume]uhe 
emendations in that sacred book are too numerous and impor- 
tant to-admit of selection. We shall likewise endeavour' to 
make our synopsis include specimens of all the various kindi 
of alterations in the lekdings. In a few instances only, shall 
we subjoin the evidence for the readings preicrred ; since it 
could not be fully stated, exceptby a systmn of abbreviatioDs 
which would be generally unintelligible, or by extendinir this 
part of our review to a tiresome length. We also trust that 
every icompeteat person, particularly of 'Uiose who sustain the 
responsible of&ce of interpreters of the revealed will of G,od, 
will ascend to the proper sources, and investigate that evi- 
dence fof iumself. 

. . Copgic 



S38 

K-JuDcs^iVcrsan. 
Mm. ii. ii.They 

no. [H,r,S.T. 

ill t. Fnihi 



• you thil bcii tb 
more be givciL 



Received Ten. 
'lif^ Le. thcj 



IT. lO. Set thee 


('nyi, ««iS, 


beon, S«M. 




.. »7. BTtbtm 


«r.-^x-j-,. 


ef oU timt 




4?. Thepubli- 




*"ri.l. Almfc. 




13. For thine U 


r« m -.«» •« 


the klngitoni, ind 




die power, and the 


li«/H,,«J',Mt-, 




•.« «« '-£»i. 




■^>. 


j8. Opc-Jy. 


;,"'tf«w- 


vii. 14. Be- 


STfc 


cmue. 




ii. 13. To re- 




penunce. 




X. *3, Flee ye 




into iDotbcT. 


IXAn. 


iti. 35. Of the 


«,«(».,. 


hem. 




lix. 17. Why 


r.>,iiy.«'.y<. 


oJlest thou me 


/h; otlui ■■>«- 


good .'lW<i. none 


«,'.-^-w,'.e.. 


good but one, Ibot 


w. 


»God. 




11.11. And to 


.i. ri IUw1*M' 


be biptind with 




the bapdiin tb>t [ 




arobiFtiicdwith. 




13. [Cla^.inr' 








•rf«..l ^ 




»i». I J. Where- 


■» -f i TA «! 


in the ton of min 


"■-'C^™' *K'™- 



Mf A'ntf Tesiament. 

Grieilach'i Text. Impi«vtd Venion. 
th.y».r. 



the gent ilet. 
■fit t/* righteo) 







e j( into UKJ. 

r. ted if they 

pcrwtnti yon ,001 

' hll,Heeyciut« 



Why ukctt thou 

roe cAnctrning 
good ? Ooe m/j 1( 



in the prophet 



*Vfr«{' ' 



ajoa. 
hu father 1 

.h,Coog[c 



New Fersisnu 0'tht New TatammU 



K.]. Vcf*. 


.R.T. ' 


0. T. 


lmp.V. 


»L a6. untaTM 




*;?. 




^tx Jl.j. 




*9- 




Ki.».OmFMhw 


nJTt«.V^.,'.-t. 


n<fne. 


Tuka. 


•hidiminhcnu 


rw 'wfohui. 






ThywiUbcdoM, 




X.J. 




«ith. 


(«* ..3 ■„', rS, 






4. but dclim M 




Rij. 




frornnS. 






^tl-fcS 


"%^'V„™ 


■^^^., 


thiMc^e. 


•hiUbemtheacU; 


JiV^ 






the ODC itun be 
taken ud the other 






kft. 








J<*n i. 87- He it 


'.»;, '.rn^ 


' Aj. 




ii picfemd be- 


■;, 'W(^»>>» 


Sij. 




fore me. 


yir«. 






». 3. 4- wiiting 




aaahuJ,Uamt6 




ftf W*. to'i.du. 


. — :r;;^;^ 


Otmark^fniMt 




OK he had. 




^urinMu. 




ri. 69.thitChri(t, 




'. -Ay*, <w 


the Holy On^of 


the S«i<tf the liv. 


ew. 


G«A- ■■ ;;,.^_ 


lot Ood. 








™. >53. "U. 




RaaintdM Wl£ 




ll.ADdererymim 




tt.m„i./frU^U 




W#, t»- ..nn M 








> b. 8. UiBd. 


nfXif. 




■beggar. 


iL 4i' where ihe 


, «■!. i nAw^ 


Sg. 




itid«uUid. 


■•^Hl. 






x«i. 15. he dull 


Aii4«w. 


Xm^m. i. «. 


(/y(™;.«R.T.) 


..k,. 




betiketh. 




33.]reduUhm. 


Hm. 


'«•«. •■ •■ 7« 


tM'^'^rR^T.) 






have. 


rewUlhm. 


ActiiL 30- or 


'»_»■(*•; ^— 


X«. til f»n£r 


of the fnut of 


thefnihofhuloiat. 




ri ;«i ,^- 


hishiu he would 


«««dtat W the 






place nuufun oa 


8ed),be«ouUriuf 




W.. 


bii throne. 


up Chiut to at 








SD bit throne. 








. iii. II. Ihe Ime 


nS JartM-ir X*^ 




he. 


nan which wu 


:lW^ 






hnled. 












•p«X«p,^«. 


before VPoi»ted(J. 


•d. 






Xi-,pre.ord«nei) 


W.»J.Utua&. 


'!■' 'MkltlUH. 


WoXKfJw, '>p 


' in truth, b 






rj,to««Jr^ 


thiacvy. 


r.Az. hi* HUM. 


'»,l^^ '.^ 


;«W«.. , 


.^the»«he^> 


Ti.8.^th. 


r-VTux. 


a:V«- , 


** C»/i farour. 


riii.ie.tb«(nii. 


'n^j^Xn. 


'■ uMijufun ja- 


(j«W. R. T. 






yi*^, i. 1. lh« 


lolsiiHiii'tlitrik 






which iiall*dthe 


-«X-) 



ih,Googlc 



240 


JVirai Fersiom^ 


«&« JV«» r<»f <im 


lori. 


K.S.Vm. 


~ tLTi. 


G. T. 


ta,*T.a. 


^.37-C***^ 




A^ 




wr«.) 








ii. J, 6. it ii 


r»X^ M 


'AUO. 


Bm. 




••(if 'urn. 






nid uDtd him. 








»V»3. vnat. 


■ipUA. 


■««^>«;uk 




»ili. «. the iit. 


•4.^... 


h..^'M». 


the .bole ilhod. 


ig. tDfit«d he 






(jub«~jr. r. 


tfaeit BUUKn. 




h* p^i^riAed Wb. 


ilO. iMMT r,i. 


JJ-MthcMCOBl 


■ '11 T^ ^«vr 't 


. *it Tf '{Mir 


"c/^* ii.r.iMi 


pMla. 


1.^^ ^ ' 


+-»«._ 


*,tMnT.lmm^.f 


IT. iS, 10. who 


'> n^ nt;^ 




whodoeth tSf 


dDfth >U thne 


rim. THtri 'a*' 


rH^ltTw'i^^ 


thii^t. «£i>£«r* 


tfainp. Knom i)Bto 


'..£H*l«-<*f»^; 




knan ft Mi. iT 


God m ^ hit 


rfp«iri'.rT«'«i« 




«U. 


woclafiwnibebe. 


«i. ^^ 






Biimiir of the 








mrid. 








^r""- 


•wb *»if '«#«- 


«{;^e*W'M<r> 


tolboitiriwMH 


riX^. 


T>:xU».'»«w,. 


than. 


iri. 7. the ipitit. 


«n»^w- 


rlnn^IiMW. 


with tlieni- ta the 
Mtd. 

Softteriha » 
of Pjnku. 

of ihaLord. 


«ai.j.wup«.- 






•edintbetpirit. 


(num. 


«* 


».4-Sop»tet. 


>Ar«pr. 


lAl»ftN«#.. 


iLofOod. 


«•.-*. 


•riE K*tV 


iir.6.moKdiu 


'Vl(« 'Mi-. 


•vitm W «.(. 


M »o« tkM 


teodir.. 


»»i«r 


.W<H^4»H. 


eight or Cu^T^r 


Rom. tLL6. that 






' -famq .di.au 


being dead. 






.thM. 


m. 6. But if it 


If^. 


A/. 




morewoife. 








rii. I.. KftiDC- 


T^K^UX.*- 


•* <^ J. (. ^ 


Osta-wA 7:), 


4(Lwd. 




inilint ToundMi 




iIr.j.dled,Md 


■«rf*^. ») V 


■-*!/.« Wlfr. 


died tDd Ji»Ml 


MM, iMdierintf. 


>b.«, •i.iuci*... 


#11. 


V.X.. 






(7J,2W,i«.w* 


oTTa. je. r. ;, 






A rf. r* «j-l— 9; 


it iainiudt dc 






<b«^<t.(i*. 




«.!». spirit «r 


nn^MTvene. 


n.. ■*,;«, Holy ; 


OUImvAr.fat 


God. 






«..«(«• « ««p,) 


»4. 1 «iU eo«e 




'ari^v. 


Iwiir. ■' 


torcxiififfltiua. 






4u«n|oftbe 


w^;««B'.^ 


•w^Kf 


blMd^ >f 'Chrin. 


p»pelof ChiiK. 


"t?**^ «;xe«- 






«ri;5.At)il}i. 


l;^;t ' 


•atW. 


Aii*. 


T&ibe cfaorehet. 


'« 'm;^. mmu. 


■UdMchurduc 


I Cor. i. M. a 


.^Mxw- 


^VV"- 


•il«. 


1)U<pn. 


7/»«<. 


tothcgeiUiltt. 


••1 '» r9 m.^ 


JEff. 




eraT'*'' 


„« '.^^ «r,« 






'««/«•»•))£. 






«L,.,M-f*t*« 


tgWttif «J.. 


if£A 





.dtyGoogIc 



JVwu Fentions of the New Testament. «4l 


K.J.V.r^ 


ILT. 


G. T. 


Idipr. Tcis. 


il. 30. » under 


•mt 'nri .f/Hn. 


Wl.tJ.J<«. i^ 


■tundtrlhcliw. 


thcbw. 




J. ■•i.ri, ':-r;* ,i- 


not bei»r tnyitlf 








under lit law. 


I. 1%. for the 


rm yif 


'"'■ Jf;/. 




cirthr. thtLord'i, 








ind the Ailncn 








Ihettof. 








w.24.Tak,.«t. 


XifiiT,. fiyru 


^V- 




. Cor. ,ii. 11. . 


•iff., \Lx^ 


V?(.t. 


incoBiidcrite. 


fooliBfloiyint. 


lam- 






Gd.U4.for. 


'^■^f 


«(i. 


for. 


iii. t. thai ye 
•hooUDMobefibs 


,,,.7/--"^"^ 


.ffy. 




ttuth. ' 








Eph. L 18. un- 


l}»«^r. ~ 


ta^mi, bean. 


miud. 


der««dins. 










um..;m. 




diqieu^tion. 


byJe«»ChriB. 


iiilmnXtimi. 


.''■'■ 




v.p. dit tpLrit. 


■ Uni^TH. 


P-T.V. 


light. 


ai.G(-J. 


e>w. . 


X{I»T». 


Chritt. 


PhiLi. 16.17. 




7S«< i». ViT 




iii. 16. bj the 


■«.'», -ri '»ri 


RrJ. 




MMe rule, let ui 


ft..«V. 






mind the ume 








thing.' 








i». 13. Chriit. 


XfrrJ. 


S^. 


hiM. 


Col.Li.iiidibe 


h;«.i.x. 


S'j- 




Lord Jeius Chriit. 
6. Srinseth forth 










ttti Hj«f . hI 


br. fbrtl. fndC, 


fruit. 




■l'E»i/H"'- 


and increaielh. 


ii».ind of the 




■ffy. 




Father, >od of 








Chritt. 








II. of the dni. 


™. -m^tr^. 


^■• 




iii.IJ. God. 


e.». 


X;irT<v. 


C*ritt. 


16. the Lord. 


sr 


e.^. 


God. 


11. God. 


Kip,,. _ 


the Lord. 


iv. ij.gre.tw»L 


!Sjj.«iJ.. 


great eencera. 


iThui.iiLa.ini- 


iii.M, :r.; e.. 


rL.M{7nruer». 


fellow worker to- 


nisttrof God, and 


.E, —) »><;y>'. 




gether witli God. 


ourfdiowUbouter. 








3 Theu. ii. ». 


"*^«.S. 


K^j,'.:;. 


the Lord. 


Chritt. 








4. >• God. 


'.lAJ.. 


■S,j. 




8. Che Lord. 


'«i>X>'" e<^- 


;Ki(^iw.«. 


the Lord Jnus. 


lTim.i.4.«Ml- 






iy edifying. 






oFOod. 


I7.wiK. 


"?*■ 


J?y. 




ii.7.inChrijt. 


'i. X((«-$. 


JEy. 




iii. 3. not greedy 


^i -U^f^eK. 


_ pj- 




cffiiUr lucre. 








16. God. 


e.i(. 


■ ^ C 


He who. 




*..*..J^«^.. 


A;. 




TJ. 10. eternal 




^ f'TM ;•«. 


the tmt life. 


life. 








jTim.u.>. of 


X(,«-J. 


Sc,(.V^. 


of the Lord. 


Chriw. 








Pbilem. ao. in 


'» IC.IJy>. 


■» X{-«-^. 


inChriA 


the Lord (,')««■.) 








Hib.-i,;. and adit 


■■I unrr^^ 


«5. 




te\ \:m over the 


— ;i;i.(i.n^. 






worlu of (by hasdi. 








Vol. V. 




T 





r,o,i,,-crih,.GoOglC'. 



243 



JVfttf Versions of the New Testament. 



K. J. V. 

iii. i6. tome. i 

thcrtfurc h™ 



through with a diit. 



1 Pet, i. aj. for 
ii. 1. grow ilunby. 



1 Joh. IL. 13. £> 
t£al acinvil/dgctb 
tie Sm, &Ui fk 

i». 3. thit con- 
ftneth nMrfiMjt- 
>ui Chriri ia come 
ill the flesh. 

1 Joh. V. 7,8. in 
heaven, the Father, 
the Word, and the 
Holy Ghost: and 
ihcK three are ooe. 
And there ire three 

13. that believe 

Son of God. 

and that ye majr 
keUew. 

Jude4-Oad. 

aur Saviour. 









nirmi 3i-(. 



"iii;e.r*. 






■«] rj 'Ajun 



^n 



it,j. 



ami Tib aiTTi^n. 






If any of our rvaders are inexperienced in these researches, 
they may be surprised at the number of words and clauses n- 
jected za sf*inoa9. We assure tbem, that these rejections are 



New Vertion3 o/" the New Testament. 24S 

made upon clear evidence. Indeed Griesbach has genei'ally 
leaned in this respect to the side of caution. Additions to the 
original text have arisen principally from three causes. 

1. Necessary supplements in the first sentence of t-essonS 
detached from the Gospels, &c. to be read in the public service 
of the church. The practice of appointing lessons, still hap- 
pily retained in our national church, was derived from the Jew- 
ish synagogues, and is of the most venerable antiqoity among 
Christians, It is easy to conceive Tiow these introooctory sup-" 
plements found their way from the Lectionaries into many 
copies of the N. T. Examples ; Matt. viii. 5. Luke «, 22. 
Acts iii. 11. ' 

2. The transcribers frequently incorporated clauses from pa- 
rallel passages in other parts of Scripture. Examples-, Matt. 
XX. 22. from Mark x. 38, 39. — Luke xi. 2 — \, from Matt.vi. 9 — 
13. — xvi. 36, from Matt. xxiv. 40. — Acts ix. 5, 6, from xxvi, 
14.— I Cor. X 28, from v. 26. — xi. 24., from Matt. xxvi. 26, 
from which also tflyns has crept into the text of Mark. 1 Tim. 
i. 4. and Jude 25, from Rom. xiv. 27. Heb, sii. 20, from 
Exod. xix. 13. — 1 Job. iv. 3, from v. 2. 

3. Glosses, or marginal annotations, originally added for the 
exposition of difRcult or elliptical passages, and occasionally 
for the introduction of a popular notion, or a favourite inter- . 
pretation, were sometimes assumed into the body of the text> -^ ' 
through the ignorance, or the over-doing zeal, of copyists. 
Examples: Matt, xxvii. 35. Mark iv. 24. John v. 3, 4. xi. 

41. Acts viii. 37. Rom. xi. 6. 1 Cor, vi. 20. vii. 5. Gal. 
iii. 1. PbiLiii. 16. Col. ii. 2. II. I 

Matt, vi, 13. There can be no reasonable doubt that this 
doxology was introduced fjora the Liturgnes of the ancient 
Greek church. It is wanting in the best and most venerable t 

■ MSS., though the majority as to mere number have it. The 
Alexandrine and the Ephrem have lost several leaves which . 
include the place. The Coptic, the Vulgate, and three Ara- 
bic versions want it ; the other ancient versions have it. None 
of the Latin fathers acknowledge it. Of the Greek, Origen, 
Cyril of Jerusalem, Gregory Nyssene, and Maximiis, have t, 
written expositions of the Lord's Prayer, in which they omit ' i 
this doxology. Cassarius (A. D. 364.) expressly adduces it as ■ 

a liturgical formulary. It is less easy to account for the ab- 
sence of the clauses omitted byL,uke: but the instances are 
numerous, in which the same discourse of our Lord is given 

■ more fully in one evangelist, and more concisely in another. 
The evidence against them does not, however, appear to us 
quite decisive. 

■ Matt, xix, n. This is a remarkable alteration, but it stands 
upon good authority. The common reading might originate 
ill a gioGs of some one,'who conceived our \Lord's answer to 
lelate to the title given bim, rather than to the question it- 
T2 

..Google 



M* Nae Vtrsions of the Mem. Testament. 

self., fc it supposftbTe, that Hie, who " knew what was in mati," 
perceived the mind of this young ruler to be tinctured with 
Grecian literature, and to be perplexed with the great question 
of the philosophic sects ? Admitting this, the reply is beau- 
tifully appropriate. Be it also observed, that our blessed Sa- 
viour's words are delicately, but not .obscurely, calculated to 
direct the inquirer to himself as the '£!£ atA&oz. 

Acts ii. 30. This clause is rejected by a powerful body of 
evidence, of all the three kinds. Newcome has very impro- 
perly supplied " successors ;'* which the I. V, has not correct- 
ed, though tbe sense manifestly requires a singular object. 
The spurious clause has the air of a gloss, to (ill up the ellip- 
sis; but the sense is equally plain, and the impression much 
stronger, without it. 

Acts xiii. 33. Anciently, the psalm now numbered the Ist. 
was considered as a kind of proem to the whole collection, 
and the numeration commenced with the fallowing one. n;ii™ is 
the jireferable reading: but it may be better to retain the 
othexh\TaoAen\tr an slut ions, since it js a mere mark of re- 
ference. 

Acts XV. 18, 19. The weight of evidence is against this 
clause: and, in tlic coiiics which have the ('ullfr reading, it 
Eppears in so many forms as lo s'.iew that the common one was 
framed ntit ol'sc-.-cral gl:!ssi>s. 

F;ih. iii. 9. T i- e v; ^i!s , re v.a;iti:-.^ \r. il"> \Ir<andrine^ 
Vaf ■;'■;, 'pnren, lerinoit, Sau' ermanei<-4-i, and l" rneria- 
nu.i; ih.'tis, in al t'li best MS.' . and in si-veral ir.ici'ior: in 
every ancient version, rxcept the Slavonic and Gothic, and in 
a.mostcommandijiglist of fath r-. 

1 Joh- iilt 23, Jt is cuiions, that in King James's version 
this large clause is printed as spurious, or as a mere supple- 
ment; though it stands upon the highest ground of evi- 
dence. 

There are three passages, to the readings of which theologi- 
cal writers have annexed peculiar importance, since they have 
been often urged in the controversy on the Veily of our Lord 
'.lesus Christ. To these, therefore, in pursuance of our pro- 
mise, we shall pay a particular attention. It would be affront- 
ing our readers, to remind them of the fallacy and .e-ttreme 
danger of that reasoning, which, on any question, would as. 
sume i priori what ought to be tlie reading of a scriptural pas- 
sage, and thus would prescribe to the divine word, instead of 
implicitly receiving lessons fiom it. We shall see, in the se- 
quel, whether the adversaries of our Lord's Deity have any 
reason for triumph, or its friends for alarm. 

Acts XX. 28. There are no fewer than six various readings ~-- 
to the third clause of this verse. 



r,o,i,,-,-,ih,.GoOglc. 



iVea) Verswhs of the Nm Testartunt. ■ 2+5 

1.— ri{» JjckXtwiW ■nil XpiffTou, — the church of Christ; — 2.— 7©iflM, 
— God ; — 3. — Zvfm SraS,— the Lord God ; — 4.— -©eou lul Kvfi'ou, 
— llie G»d and Lord ; — b. — Kve^ow xai e<oi, — th^ Lord and God ; 
6,— Ku{f.u, — the Lord. 

1. X;i»™s. No Greek MSS.; but the ancient Syriac v. and 
th? Arabic of Erpenius's ed. Origen probablj', and a few later 
and inferior fathers. A Synod (held under popish influence) 
of the Malabar Christians, in 1599, says, that the Nestoriaus 
introduced this reading instigante diabolo. 

2. 9(ofi, the common reading. MSS. in 5 ascertained ; iti 
9 conjectured: but if No. 56 of Wetst! and Griesb. be es- 
teemed the repreiiintative of four Medicean,- wemust say 12 ; 
and in 1 {No. 66. W. and G. ) doubtful from the obliteration 
of the writing. None of these MSS. are older than the xith 
century, most of them more modern, and all except one of 
very inferior value. The united evidence of them all is but 
of small weight, or more accurately speaking, of none at all, 
except so far as they agree with more ancient authorities.— 
Versions: the modern text of Vulgate, and the Philoxenian 
Syriac, but Zorrf in the margin, — Fathers: Epiphanius, Am- 
brose, Cassiodorus, Fulgentius, Bede, and a few others in- 
ferior, Griesbach has Theophilus of Antioch, but we appre- 
hend it is a mistaiie. 

3. Ktt^iav »n». One MS, of the xiith century ; and the 
Arabic y. in the Paris and London Polyglotts, a very faulty 
version, not probably older than the xiiith century, 

4. eiov Ka\ Kufiiu. One MS. an apograph in the xvith 
century, by James Faber of Daventer, from one written ia 
1293, 

5. Kuf*'oir kkI eioa. Onfi Uncial MS. (Passionei) assigned by ■ 
Bianchini to the viiith, and by Montfaucou to the isth cen- 
tury ; and 46 more recent MSS. which form the majoiity of 
mere number, but none of them are among \hd nio>t correct 
and authoritative. The Slavonic version made in the ixth 
century. Of the fathers, only Theophylact, and the reading 
in him very qucstiouable, 

6. Kupiv. MSS. Four Uncial, viz. the Alexandrine, the 
Cambridge (Bezse), the Ephrem, and the Laudian 3 ; which 
are fl/Z the most ancient MSS. of the Acts, except the Vati- 
can, an accurate collation of which for the Acts and Epistles 
is yet a desideratum. Six more recent MSS. but which 
Griesbach esteems as among the best and most independent, 
Versions: the old Latin, Ihe Coptic of Sais, the Armenian, 
the margin of the Philox. Syriac, and probably the Etbiojiic. 
Fathers : Irenzcus, Const. Apoi-t. Eusebius, Atlianasius, Cbry- 
softom^ Jerome, Aagustijie, and several besides. 

On seriously weighing all the evidence, every impartial 



-..u.,Goo(^lc 



i46 JVew Versions of the New Testavi^nl. 

mind, we conceive, will admit that the last has the fairest 
claim to acceptance as the genuine reading. If any, from a 
theological predilection, should feel reluctant to this admis- 
sion, however supported by proof, we recommend to their 
serious meditation the following passage of AthanasluK: as, 
also, the whole treatise from which it is taken, the design of 
which is to guard against a confusion of the two natures in the 
person of Christ We lament that modern preachers and 
nymn-wrilers liave gone so far in violating this caution. " The 
■ scriptures have in no place delivered to us the expression bl^od 
t^ Udd, separate from the human nature (li;(» <rB(KO[), or that 
God, through the human nature, suffered and rose again ; 
such audacious phrases belong to the Arians" Athan. contra 
Apollinar. ii. 14. 

The second vemarltable text," to which we have al)uded, is 
1 Tim. iii. i6. where the question is, whether we ought to read 
©io(,^ff;, or B. 

1.' Seo; is the reading of almost all the Greek MSS. in small 
letters, i. e. those whose antiquity does not reach higher than 
the xth century. Versions: the Slavonic and the Arabic of 
the Potyglott. Fathers : Chrysostom, Theodoret, John of Da- 
mascus, CEqumenius, and Theophylact: one or two oihcrs of 
tlje Greek fathers have been adduced, but liable to atrong 
doubt. 

2. 'Ot is the reading of the Alexandrine*, the Euhrem, tlie 
Augiensis, and'the Boemerianus. The Vatican, the Sangpr- 
manensis, and the Coislinianus, Eire mutilated at this place. 
These are all the existing Uncial MSS. of the Epistles of Paul, 

• It is well known that ithas beeo a'matter of very anxious disputCt 
whether OC orec (the contraction in ^1 the mnat ancient MSS. for eiJs) 
, is the on^fW reading ot the Alexandrine. It is confesaeci, on all hands, 
that the two cross strokes which noia appear in the MS, are the addition of 
a modern pen. The question is, Were they added without any aotfaority 
in the MS.' itself? Or, with the honest intention of preserving from irreco- 
verable' loss a point and a cross-siroke, which had proceeded from the first 
hand, but were in a state of evanescence ? All tlie aids of eye-sight, sud- 
Ghine, and microscopesi have been employed to discover the vestiges of 
the primeval point and cross-stroke ; but no decisive result baa been ob- 
tained. Some diligent inspectors thought they could perceive the faint 
remains : others, as diligent and eagle-eyed, protested that they fould not 
discover any such traces : and even the same observei* has at one time fen- 
cied he saw them, and at another time has been unable lo recover the vi- 
sion. See Wetstein, Berriman, Owen in Bowyer'a Conj, and particularly 
Woide's valuable preface with the notes of Spohn. Oir own opinion is, 
that the scale turns in favQur of OC. The veiiutn at this passage is said 
to be now so much rubbed and worn by rqteated examination, £at no fu- 
tore inspection can be of muck avail toti'arai determining the point at istue. 



D3i'i--.-rll>/GOOglC 



New Vermm of ike New Testament. 472 

exceptive I'assionei, which has not been sufficiently examined, 
and whose evidence, therefore, on this potnr, is not before the 
public. It is also found in the Parisinus )4, and the Upsa- 
liensis, both small letter MSS. of tlie xith or xiith century, 
Ver^ns: the Coptic of Sais reads of. Both the Syriac, the 
Ethiopic, the Armenian, and the Arabic of Erpenius, have the 
pronominal prefix; sp that it is impossible to be deterniined 
whether they, read •{ leko, or o which. Fathers : as far as can 
be ascertained, the Greek fathers \yi\\.h the exception men- 
tioned above) appear to have read U or o. Of the Latins, pa 
(g;) appears only in Jerome on Is. liii. 11, and die Acts of the 
II. Council of Constantinople. 

3. 'O is found in only one Greek MS. but that an Uncial 
one, the Clermont fersiims : the old Latin, and the Vulgate. 
Fathers : all the Latins, and some of the Greeks. 

On this statement it is to be observed; [I.) That Gi« is 
found only in the more recent Manuscripts, the offspring of 
the latest of the three ancient recensions, the Byzantine : and 
it is supported by no evidence from the Fathers earlier than the 
close of t-he ivth century, nor from the Versions .earlier than 
the ixth. (2.) That the greatest weight of external evi- 
dence is in favour of »{, (3.) That p is the more smooth and 
' easy reading, and threes with the immediate antecedent /luimj-' 
fwi. It was, thereiore, most probably substituted by some, 
who, not adverting to the remote antecedent, fancied the con- 
struction df ot un grammatical. (4.) That if ©c were the ori- 
ginal reading, it is to the last degree difficult to conceive that 
it could have degenerated into oc, and that so important a 
word as ec should not have been made prominent by the Fa- . 
thers of the first three centuries. But, to any one versed in 
the appearance of Uncial mafluscripts, it will i^pear easy and 
probable that ec should have grown out of oc. 

The learned and unbiassed reader must form his own judge- 
meat ; we confess that ours is in favour of S?. But we object 
strongly to the rendering in the Improved Version, "He who was 
manifested in the flesh was justified by the Spirit," &c. The 
editors have followed Abp. Newcome in supposing that ^ may 
be putelliptically for o»Tot ir. This supposition, we apprehend, 
is quite unauthorized and erroneous. "O^ is frequently pnt V- 

for wTot and '^mif. It also not unusually supplies the place of " \ 
the partitive oims ; but in that case we thmk it is always Allowed 
by a panicle, as ti, -y; H, at, yi^ ; as in the passages adduced in 
the Archbishop's note for sanctioning this construction, and 
which consequently are irrelevant. Till some better support 
b adduced for this assumed ellipsis, we must reject it as false 
Greek. In the [dace before us, es is undoubtedly a relive i 



,,-,-,ih,Googlc 



248 New Fersiont of the New Teslatnenl. 

and its natural and proper antecedent has been pointed out 
by the learned Professor Cramer, disuoguished tiins : 

— nVi; iiTTii ixxAniriz @E.OT ^aiTo;' (c-tuXsc wl. iifoiujiM in( eUoSifa;, 
». T. ^.' ^ 

— " Whicb is the church of the living God (the piilar and 
support of the truth, and confessedly great, is the mystery of 
godliness) who was manifested," &c. 

The last of these three observable passages is the eelebmted 
1 John V. 7, 8. Upon this we need not spend many words. It 
is found in no Greek MS. ancient or recent, except ^ne to 
which ive shall presently advert ; — in no ancient Version, 
being interpolated only in the laiter transcripts of the Vnlgate. 
Not one of the Greek Fathers recognizes it, though many of 
them collect every species and shadow of argument, down to 
the most allegorical and shockingly ridiculous, in &vour of 
the doctrine of the Trinity, — though they often cite the words 
immediately contiguous both before and after, — and tjiongh, 
with immense labour and art, they extract from the aait words 
the very sense whicb this passage has in following times been 
adduced to furnish. Of iJie Latin Fathers, not one* has 
quoted it, till Eucherius of Lyons in the middle of the vth 
ccBtury ; and in his works there is muck reHson to believe that 
it has been interpolated. 

Under these circumstances, we are unspeakably ashamed - 
that any modern divines should have fought pedtbus et wn- 
guibus for the retention of a passage so indisp,utably spurioiw. 
, We could adduce half a dozen or half a score passages of 
ample .length, supported by better authority ihan this, but 
which are reiected in every printed edition and translation. 

One Greek MS., we have said, contains tb.e clause. This is 
the Dublin, or Montfortianus ; a very recent MS. glaringly 
. interpolated from the modern copies of the Vulgate, and disr 
tributed into the present division of chapters. Hence some 
of the best critics have assigned it to the xvthor xvith cen-' 
tury. But no one appears to have examined it with so much ■ 
care as Dr. Adam Clarke ;t ^nd to him we are indebt- 
ed for a very accurate description of it, and a. facsimile of 

* It has been 'attempted to be shewn that Tertulliao and Cyprian have 
cited the last clause of v. 7. Our readers may be satisfied, on this subject, 
by 'referring to Griesb, Nov. Test. vol. ii. App. p. 13-^15 t or,Por«on'8 
Letters to Travis, -240— 282 i or Marsh's Michaeiis,. vol. iv. 421 — 424. 
See alsof ifx a lamentable contrast, Travis's Letters, 3d. ed. 62, 53, 15— 
12H- 

t See hit ' Suaathn ef Sacrid Liitraiope.' 

r,o,i,,-cMh,.Go0^lc 



Nca> Fersions qf the New Tf^stament. 349 

ihe passage under consideration. He is disposed to give it 
sn antiquity as high as the xirth, or even the xiiith, century. 
But, with deference to that learned and respectable author^ 
^e will observe, that his arguments do not prove any more than 
thac.tht; Dublin MS. may ht of that age as' the highest sup« 

gosition, but by no means that it must indubitably be bo. 
"iving it, however, every advantage, it is still modern : and 
the testimony of a single witness, ami that of so esceptionable 
an internal cnaracter, can be of no value in opposition to all 
other evidence. — It is hardly necessary to state that we es- 
timate as nothing the Berlin or Ravian MS ; for its conviction 
is decisive, as an impmlent forgery of the xvith century. 

We have thought it right to enter thus minutely into the 
literary history of these texts, both from that regard to truth 
which is our first duty to the pnblic, and because we believe 
that many good men have felt considerable anxiety on ac- 
count of the exploded readings. Suchsnxiety is to the last 
decree nnnecessary. Surely those excellent persons will 
reflect that Truth, — Divine Truth, — can never suffer from ho- 
nest investigation.; and that no injury can be inflicted upon 
. it by its bitterest enemies, qomparable to the adduction of un- 
sound arguments by its professed friends. 

In the great and general benelits which accrue to Scriptural 
Truth ffom these investigations, all the component parts of 
that trutfi must respectively participate, and, in an eminent 
degree, that capital one of the Deitif of Chrut. Its adver- 
saries baVe, indeed, affected to raise a triumph on the result 
of the Biscussiona connected with the three texts ; but with 
how much right, let the impartial judge. The first passage 
is rescued from countenancing the aritiscriptural sense of pas-< 
sible Deity, the error of tbos^ ancient heretics whom Atba- 
nasius so zealously refuted. Of the second, though the read- 
ing is cbaf)ged, the sense remains the same. And with re-- 
gardto ^thc'last, they are, in our esteem, the best advocates 
of the Trinitarian doctrine, who join in exploding suchagro^s 
interpolation, and in protesting against its being still permitted 
to occu^ a place in the common copies bf toe Neiy Testa- 
ment. 

The proofs of oor Lord's true and proper Godhead remain 
unshaken; deduced from the prophetic descriptions of the 
Messiah's person in the Old Testament, — from the aacription 
to him (Jf ■t3\e Epithets, the Attributes, the Works, and the 
Honiage, ^hich are peculiar to the Deity, — and from those 
numerous and important relations which he is affirmed in Ejicrip* 
tureto sustain toward' bis holy and universal oburch and to- 
ward each of its true memben. This last head of arvument^ 

Vol. V. U 



ih,Googlc 



850 JVeiu FersioAs of ike New Testament. 

*j in particular, derives some accessions from the purifying fire 
I <fi just critidstn through which the text of the L'hiistiui 
$criptures has passed. £. g^Accs.xvi. 7. " Thsy attempted to 
go into Bitltyitia ; But the Spirit of Jesiia suffered them not." 
Rom.Xv. 29.-r— "the fulueas of the blessiug of Christ." Eph, 
y. 2 1. " Submitting yourselves one. to another .in the fear of 
Christ." - Col. iii. 1 5. " Lei the peace of Christ preside in 
your hearts" 2 Thess. ii. 6." — wliom the Lord Jesus will 

*v^_ consuuie with the breath of Hia month." These texts now 
form an atldiiiQii to those numelroiis ones that attribute to our 
Blessed Redeemer an exuberance of grace and -goodness, 
a plenitude of authority, and an invincible universality of in- 
fluence, which, in the judgement of unprejudiced reason, arq 
V tQtdlly incompatible with the powers of any other than the; 
' Inhnite Being, the Cod of all grace. — ^These texts are traos- 
- lated, as wc have quoted them, in the 'Improved Version.*. 
The editors have, given in their text what they fouod in the 
well authenticated original; but in their notes have made 
some aukward attempts to escape the obvious inferences. 
- It remains for us to state, that in the ' Improved Version' 
there are three portions, of cuusiderable length, marked ax 

■-.;. 6f dubioDH authenticity : MatL i. 17. — ii. 23; Luke i. fi.— ii. 
; >S i and 2 Pet, ii, \. — 22. These portions. are admi^d Jiy 

Wetstein, Griesbach, and other editors of the GreeX Testa- 
ment, without any scruple or intimation of doubt. . They are 
found iii all existing MSS. (mutilations excepted) ; iD'all the 
ancient versions ; and plentifully in tlie citations of th^ Fa- 
tlters at least as high as Justin Martyr, with regard to the two 
Ikst of the paiuages. 

. At the same, time It must be confessed,, that upon the testi- 
monies of Jerome and Epiphanins there is some defect in the 
external evidence' for the portions of Matthew aad Luke. 
There are, also, certain other difficulties from chroDulogy, 
/ history, and internal evidences, wjiich we cannot regard as in- 
considerable. A bare sutement vyithout discussion would ba 
upsatisfactory and us0less ; and it vvouljd be totally ii&pr&cti- 
cahle to compress the requisite discussion within ainderste 
limits. Il' is scarcely necessary to remind our readers, that any 
evidence, hotveyer sligbt, againsf^the passages in ooestion, 
woald be extremely acceptable i to opposers of the doctrine, 
which, though it might readily dispense wi|h their suffrages, 
they have on various occasions been called u|Xrtl to sup- 
port, 

. As for the chapter in 2 Peter, , we lare not convinced, by 
the reasoning of Bishop Sherloclt, .that it is a citation &oia 
some ancient Jewish writing.. Is it supposable that, after tht^ 



ih,Googlc 



(rood's Anniversary Oration. 251 

explicit an<l cautious declarations on the origin and authoritv 
of projihecy in ch. i. 19 — 21, the apostle should instantly atf- 
duce a large cit-ition, expressly as a. divine propheof, from any 
apocryphal work f — Besides ;' the 20th verse of ch. ii. itself 
strongly militates against tiie hypothesis. The difference of 
style may be accounted forj from the awful sublimity and 
grandeur of the subject. From v. 19. the writer appears to' 
descend to his more plain and usual manner; and again in va- 
rious parts _ofch. iii. to rise to the same elevation and so- 
lemnity, A difference of style, equal or greater, may. be ob- 
served between the satires and some of the odes of Horace, 
and in manyotheripstances. 

The unforeseen length, to which this branch of our discus- 
sion has extended, though we have reduced it as much as we 
could, compels us, notwithstanding extreme reluctance>: to 
defer the reoiainder till the next number. 

Art. VL jianivcriaro Oratien, delivered March 8, 1808,. before th| 
Medical Society of LondoD ; on the General Stracture dnd Ph^^sio- 
logy of Plants compared with thoac of Animals, and [on] the mutual 
' Convertibility of their organic Elements. Published at the nnanimoug 
Reinvest of the Society. By John Mason Good, F. R. S. Senior 
Secretary to the Medical Socitty. 8vo. pp.56. Rice Si. Longman 
and Co. 1808. 
'F'HE author Xyf this tract has been long known to the 
public as a tnan of various and extensive acquirements, 
of refined taste, and of inde&tigable industry. He has 
distingtlisbed himself as an advocate in the cause of phi- 
lanthropy, as a constitutional politician, ns a biographer, 
as an accurate and elegant translator- of a heathen poet*, 
■as an equally elegant and perspicuous translator of a portion 
of the yebrew Scriptures, and as an acute biblical critic. In 
"the dissertation before ns, Mr, Good assumes a very dif- 
farent function, which he discharges however with no little 
ability; and, though he was unexpectedly called to the 
task, and had but a short time to prepare himself, he has 
■presented the public with such a luminous statement of 
important facts and inferences, as we know not where else to 
look for, in any thing like so narrow a compass. 
■ Our ingenious and learned author first examines the ge- 
"•eral structure of the vegetable system ; he then proceeds 
to^ point out its resemblance to an animal frame ; and he 
closes with various striking and original observations * oti 
the mutual convertibility of their organic elements.' We 

* See Eel. Rev. Vol. II. pp. £05, 686. 



^o,i,,-,-,ih,.Googlc 



15? Good's Anniversary Oration, 

will be a. little more particular. He commences Tvitfa ndv 
tictng the seed of t)ie plant, which he denominates its effg; 
he examines the structure and component parts of £i« 
vegetable egg* in what manner the root issues from one 
part df its central organ (its corcle or heartletj, and the 
trunk from another part; then he traces the respective 
atrdcture of these derived organs, and the means by which 
in several plants the one may be made interchaneeably to 
assome the functions of the other: he next unfolds, so te 
speak, the substances of which the trunk consists ; eluci* 
dates the process of its annual growth and lignification^ 
treats of the number and nature of tbe different systems 
of vegetable vessels, and investigates the questions of ve- 
getable circulation, irritability, and contractibility. He thus 
tenninates this branch of bis enquiry. 

*Io£ne, the great mau of the facts and phxnomeDa of vegetable Gfe bat 
•o cIoM a reieinblaDce and paralielisra to the facti aod phEcnomena of animal 
n&. if we except iboM which relate to the rational and immortal mind, 
%ith which I have do conceni at preKnc, as clearljr to indicate the amiti- 
cauon of one conimon nnem to tKith, uhrat oae common tyetem ca& 
he made to apply ; and, if I mistake not, to demonstrate one commoa 
dtrivabon fivm otw Almighty Cautp.' 

Mr. Good proceeds, in the second ]^ace, to point, out 
a few^of the resembjancas of vegetables to. the economy 
or habits of animals, sel^ting those which are either most 
curious or most important ; such, for example, as that 
plaaU, like animals, are prop^ated by sexual connection^ 
the anomalies from the general rule neing as various ia - 
auimals as in vegetables; — that the blood of plants, lik« 
that of animals, is compound ; — that, as in animal, so in 
vegetable life, the very same tribe, or even individual, which 
in some of its organs secretes a wholesome aliment, in 
other organs secretes a deadly poison; — that some vege- 
tables, as well as some animals, exfoliate their cuticle an> 
nually; — that vegetables as well as animals are subject to 
the classification of locomotive or migratory, and fixed or - 
permanent; — that plants, like animals, have b wonderfid 
power of maintaining their common temperature, whatever b« 
the temperature of^the surrounding atmosphere ; — that both 
plants and animals are capable m existing in very great 
decrees t^ heat and cold ; — and that both plants and animals 
sre susceptible of the divisiou.into terrestrial, aquatic, amphi- 
bious, and atrial. 

Our author lastly enters upon the ques^on of converti- 
bility ; and here shews that vegeuhle matter can only be 
assimilated to animal, by parting with its excess of carbon, 
and rec^viDg a supply of its oefiuenicy of azot. Th« foit 



r,o,i,,-crih,.GoOglc 



Good's Anniversary Oraton. S53 

of these is affected by the triple co-operadon of. the ito- 
macb, the lungs, and the skin ; the second, at the luDgs, by 
the process of respiratioQ, in conjunction with what goes 
on at the skin, by the process of absorption. Then, to 
c^omplete the circle, it is ihewD that by means of putre- 
faccion, the radical elements of animal matter return to their 
Original affinities; so that, as Mr. Good observes, 

■ Bj (imple, binuy, or ternary attractions and comlnnatioDt, the vrtutle 
oFthe mbstauce conuituting the animal system, when destitute of it»iial 
principle, it* rational and immoital tpirit, flies off progressivety to convey 
Ktvpalulum to the worid of vegetables ; and nothing is left behind bat 
lime, or the eanh of bcmet, and aoil, or the earth of vegetables : the former 
furnithing planu with a perpetual stimulus by the eagerness with which . 
it imbibes oxygen, and the latter of&riog them a food ready prepared fo? 
their digestive organs.' pp. 48, 4)9. 

The operation of the chief sepdps, — air, moisture, aD4 
beat, as accesaaries to putrefaction, is then pointed out ; 
and after some just remarks, saggested by the productjon 
of adipocire ih thc/osses eommunes or common bunal caverns 
in the churchyard of the Innocents at Paris, the oration con- 
dudes as follows : 

* But excepting in situations vS this kind, in ceaKty, in every sitaatim ilk 
which dead animal matter, dotitute 6C'ati(untai.kitm, its divine and im- 
mortal piinciple, i) exposed to the usual auxiliaries of putrefaction, pn- 
tre&ction will necesnnly ensue, and the balance will be fairly maintained ; 
—^e common elemmu of vital organization will be set at liberty to 
commence a new career, and the animal will restore lo the vegetable tht 
whole which it has antecedently derivai from it. 

' In this manner is it then, gentlemen, that' nature, or rather tliat the Gos 
of «ature U for ever unfolding that simple but beautiful round of acuoo, 
that cirettliu ^terwi moila, u Beccher hu elegantly ei^nvssed it, by which 
every system is made to contribute to the well-being of eveiy system, 
evilly part to the harmony and happiness of the whole : eltablishing his 
jKiiections, confounding inlidelity, and overpowering us, whenever wc 
contempbte it as we ought, with the sidiUmeit emotioai of gratitude, ador> 
ation, and lore.' p. 56. 

In every -part of Uiis elaborate dtsquiattion, for such it 
pust be termed, we find marks of various reading, of ex- 
tensive research, of cautious experiment, and of acute rea- 
soning.' Many of the &ccs brought forward are novel and 
striking. We might make numerous extracts which wc ate 
persuaded would be highly entertaining to moat of our rea- 
ders ; but we muKt content ourselves with selecting two bt 
three. Speaking of the secretion of wh^Jesome and poi-: 
sonous mattn by different organs of the same individual, 
Mr. Good, after enumerating some curious instances, says, * 

* And truly extraordinary is it, and highly worthy .of notice,- that 
TariODi plaoti or juices of plantfi which an &tally poiioaout to'fftitie' 

....Coo'^Ic 



854 Good's Anniversary Oration- 

animaU) mxg not ooly be eaten with impunity by others, but will aflbrd 
ihem a sound and wholesome nutriment. - How numerous' are the insectf 
tribe) that feed and' fatten on all tbe species of eu/iiorila, lit noxious 
(purge ! The dhantsa, or Indian bucerOa, feeds to exiess on the ealnirmd 
Or n>x VBHiUa ; and the land-crab*' on the berries of' the hifipomane or 
maccbiheel-trCe. The leaves df the ia/nda lati/e/ia are feaated upon by 
the deer, and the ronnd-homsd «llc -ti but are raortally poisonoua to sbeepi 
to horned cattle, to horses, and u> mafi. The bee extracts honey without 
injury from its nectary, but the man who partakes of th;it honey after it is 
deposited in the hive-cells falls a yictira to hja repast. Some very singular 
cases in proof of this assertion occurred at Philadelphia no longer ago than 
the year 1790, in the autumn and winter of which an eJCtcnsirt mortality 
was produced amongst those wlio hadpartaken of the honey that had been 
collected in the neighbourhood of Hiiladelphla, or had feasted on the 
COnimon American pheasant, or pinnated grous;^ as we call it in our own 
coantry. The attention of the American gorentment was excited by 
the general distress, a minute examination into the cause of the mortality 
ensued, and it was satisfactorily ascertained that the honey had been chiefly 
extracted from the flowers- of the ialma lalifalia, and that the pheasants 
\^ich had proved thus poisonous had fed harmlessly on its leaves. Id 
consequence of which a public proclamation was issued, prohibiting tbe 
use of the pheasant, as a food, for, that season.' pp. 22 — 24<, 

Prom our author's account of aerial plants, or those which 
bave no root whatever, we select the following : - 

' Perhaps the plant most decisive upon this subject is the aerial eptdett' 
Avin ^1 first, if I mistake not, described by that excellent Portngues* 
phytologist Loureiro, and denominnied aerial from its very extraordinary 
feroperties. This is a native of Java and the East Indies beyOnd the 
Ganges; and, in the latter region, it is no uncommon thing for the 
inhabitants to pluck it up on account of the elegance of its <eaTea, the 
beauty of its flower, ^nd the exquisite odour it diffuses, and to suspend 
it 'by a silkeii cord-from the cielings of their rooms ; where, from year to 
year, It continues to put forth new fragrance, excited itlone to new' life 
and action by' tht stimulus rf the su'rroundiog simosphere.* pp. S9, 40. 

Ourlasl extract will corrp'borjite the half-discredited account 
of MM. Humhoidl and BoiipiiiliJ, relative to fishes being 
thrown out alive from a volcano during its explosions : 

* Alphas often. .b^.W^h^ byjh« human species with impunity at 
:^i°. TilJet me(itioo^ UB;ha»;vig;been.rea(ured at SOO".; and Morantio, 
one instance, a( 325°, and that Jiir the space ,of five minutes. Sonnerat 
fouiid ^sh^s existing in a hot spring at the^anillas at 158° | : and M. 
'■Humb'oldtandM.'Soripland, in travelling, ilirough the province of Quito 
"in South Ameritia, 'perceived dther fi'shes ;ihibwn'up .lUve and apparently 
in health from the bottom of i volcano, in the course tif-ilsex^losroni, 
■'alc(ngWi[h"waterand hrttftlvlpour that raised the tHeitaometfettiJ 210°, 

.,,!* ;Cawir ruri^a., , . ^■Cervai piii^^j/iof ^r^n,, 

, 4 Tftrao Ofpido. , . . h £pi4'i'dnimjlai airi): , , 

II He. graduates bjr Reauipur's thermometer, and calculates the heSt 
upon this at'tlg". ;■ ' ■ '■ " 



ih^Googlc 



Good's Anniversary Oration. 255 , 

b«Qg only two degrees ihort of the boiliag point.* This last asKrtion 
has been discredited by lome naturalists in our own couotrj, but I 
think too hastily) and I am happy to have itio my power, on this oc- 
cuioo, to add in no small degree to the testimony oi these eDteiprising 
aod very observant travellers. The m^nusciipt new in my hand? is an 
autographic note, written by the late lord Bute, himself .an excellent zoo- 
logist, 10 his friend the late Reverend William Jones of Nayland in Suf- 
folk, as justly celebrated for his philosophical as for his theoloncal pub- 
lications, and was communicated to me by Edward Walker, EsquiiVi'of 
Gestingthbrpe, Essex, (who married Mr. Jones's only dauzher,) a-^en- 
tieman who is himself well versed in botanical scienqi. In Uiii notet 
aiter deservnily compliinentjog Mr. Jones on a pbilowphical work he 
had just produced, hii noble correspondent adds, " Lord Bute cannot 
faelp ImpaTting to Mr. Jones a singular observation made t>y him in June 
last, at the batiia of Abano near the £uganian mountains in the borders 
of the Psdiun state, famous in ancient authors : they are strong sulphur 
boiling springs, opzing out of a rocky eminence in great numbers, 
spreatEng ovej an acre of the top of a gentle hiU- In the midst of 
these boiling springs, within three feet ofiire or six of them, rises a 
tepid one, about blood-wann, the only source used for drinking : but 
the extraordinary circumstance is, that not only confervas, &c. were 
found in the iaiRitg ifiringi, but nuraben of small black beetles that died 
on being taken out, and^unged into cold waters. How amazingly 
must the great Author of nature have fonned these creatures to' bear 
a constant heal of above 200'' !" 

* I take it for granted that the animals here referred to were not spe- 
cies of the uarabaui or genuine beetle, which is wx. a water-insect, hut 
of the dytucut or hydrofihU which arc so, and which have so hear a re- 
semblance to the iCHtsbxna, as to be dennminated water-beetle* by many 
zoologists. And upon this explanation su£ec me to observe, that it is 
impassible for any collusion to have taken place between these differ^tu 
witnesses) uncoonected in every respect as they must have been with each 
other, living at different periods, and travelling to different ouaiters of 
the gttibe ; and that hence, in- the opinion of every man of candour^ 
the tesumony of the one cannot fail in a very considerable degree to 
esiaUtsh the testimony of the other.' pp.31 — 33. 

There are, itideedi hutnerous facts, all of ^hich tend tq 
confirm the ^tateinent o^ these intrepid travellers. Dogs have 
existed without apparent incoiiveiiiei)ce ici a temperature of 
236* measured hy Fahrenheit's thermometer, a heat exceeding 
that of ,hoiting water by 24°:^ a species of ttEtiia has bee^ 
foond aliv« in .a bolted carp : the oven girl? in some part3 
of Germany have sustained a heat uf S5T° for a quarter of an 
hour; one girl support^ it ten minutes when augmented to 
-28S" without inconvenience, and another breaihed in air 
heated to 325" for five minutes f : the incombustible man, de. 

* Recueil d'Observadoni de Zoologie et de Aoatomie Compart, 
t Hist. Acad. Scienc. 176*. 



,,-,-,ih,Googlc 



256 Booth's Introduction lo an Analytical Dictionary. 

scribed by I>v Sementini of Naples, would receive boiling 
oil into his mouth, and bathe his fingers in fused leiidf with- 
out inj'uiy*: and to come nearer home, Sir Joseph Banks 
hore a heated room at 211", while Hir Charles Blagden has 
himself given an account f of his sustaining the heat of 260" iri 
the surrounding factitious atmosphere. Now, if such de- 
"Crees of heat could be borne, without great jnconYcnience, 
by uiimals formed to exist in a much lower temperature, it 
purely will require no great stretch of credulity to believe, 
that animals may have been formed with ao organisation 
suited to these elevated states of temperature. 

Ri)t it is time to terminate, these observations, which we 
have been induced to extend much farther than we first de- 
signed; by the interest we feel in the curious subjects of Mr. 
Good's investigation, and rlie pleasure his essay has afforded 
lis. Though small Jn siae, it is a repository of important 
ifacts, many of them little known; to which, the stuaent of 
inedicine, or of natural history, and all indeed who can 
dE^ive pleasure and beueiit from an enliL{htened survey of 
nature, will feel indebted to us for directing their at^ 
tention. ■ . , . . 

An.VW. InlrB.ductioato an Aanlytical Dictionary of the EngRih Langue^f. 
By David Booth. Svo. j^.' 1681' Price 5i. Johqson, Veroor and 
Hood. 1806. ' 

rpHE unusual, .and unavoidable delay, which has befallen 
our notice of this work, will not be imputed, by any of 
our constant readers, to a distaste for the subject of which it 
treats. So much is yet wanted, and that so urgently, in 
order to place the study of our vernacular tongue on a level 
with that which has been devoted to most other European 
languages, that we regard with pleasure every fresh mark of 
attention to so important an object; although we have too 
frequently to regret the inadequacy of qualification, that is 
lietrayed by philological adventurers in this ardiious inves- 
tigation. 

No student, who has been accustomed to avail himself of 
the invaluable labours of Stephanus or Scapula, can be in- 
sensible of the advantages to he derived from en analytical 
dictionary of the language that he wishes to explore. Such 
a work,' executed by a person well acquainted with the 
sources of the language under consideration, a!nd duly atten- 
tive to its e«senti^ characteristics, must greatly facilitate the 
attainment of that precisioi}, which" is indispensable to per- 
spicuity, and conducive to every other excellence of com- 



* Phil. Mag. Vol. xxxji. 

+ Phil, 'I'ram. V«1b.Ixv, andlxviii. 



.i.,'Cooglc" 



BootVs tritrodaclion lo an Analjjlkal Dicliomry. S5T 

liosUion. Comprehensive information, nccurate discrioriiiuiT 
tion, xnd inilefatigable exertion, are Requisites for the un- 
dertaking, of far greater importance tlian inventive genius* 
or vivacity of imagination. Fact, not theory, — is the rule to 
be observed. Where information is defective, it is ill sup- 

EUed by conjecture. The present state of a language may 
e sufficiently illustrated for every useful purjjuM-, in caBca* 
where remote antiquity and complicated transfiis'tons hava 
rendered it impossible to ascertain its original form. 

Previously to the appearance of the ' IntroductioiC now be- 
fore us, Mr. Booth published a Pivspectus of an analytical 
dictionary of the English language, which we have not seen. 
The present work, he intimates, fay his motto, to be intended 
as a sketch, presented to the literary world, with the view 
of obtaining their sentiments on the subject. So prudent 
and so modest a design, demands our regard, and ensures our 
candour; but it cannot properly supersede our censtire for- 
the atithor's negligence, or our regret for his defects and 
ilisqualificatlons. 

Mr. B, bejjiiis, by stating it to be • exceedingly probable^ 
diat the art of communicating ideas, by articulated sounds, 
qas enisled among mankind, in their earliest stages of so. 
cipty.' We cannot but regard this debut, as singularly un- 
foitunale. It betrays, that the writer either had never read 
the first chapter of Genesis, or had never considered the 
solidity of the evidence on which its autherilicity is grounded. 
"If the Qreeks, viho conjectured that their progenitors went 
on four legs for some ages before they discovered the art 
of walking on t\yo, may be excused, from their ignorance of 
early history ; the same apology cannot be pleaded, for the 
tincertainty of an English writer, in the nineteenth centurjr 
of tW Christian ^ra, whet(!er onr first parents did, or did 
liot, ' cotnmuiiicate tlieir ideas by articulate sounds!' - 

If our' author appears on this point to be unreasonably 
dubious, it is not to be inferred, that he is in general a 
Pyrrhonist. On the contrarv. he does not hesitate to found 
his system on principles, wdipb we conceive to ftdmit of 
considerable doubt. ' The individual impulses of the mind/ 
says he, p. 1 1. ' will be marked by monosyllabic sounds.* 

* Reitiog therefore upoa this ttieoiy, all worda of one syllable are to - 
be. considered .^ primitives, unless, iroma complexity of signilicMion 
and probable etymology, any of ihem shall appear to have been origindly 
polyayllablcs corrupted by time. Onthc other hand, every word or more 
than t>[ie syllable will be considered as a compound, fbmied by the con- 
junction ai tv/o or more simple words.' p. IS- ' 

He acknowledges this to be hypothfsis. ; ' bnt,' he adds, 
f we find it coufiriticd by an analysis of thelangua^es with . 

..;., Google 



258 Booth's Iniroduction io an Jmb/ticalDiciionan/. 

which we are acquainted.' We presume, that Mr, B. does 
noi include the Chinese, or the Esquim&us: language, in the 
number ; the former of,which consists wholly of monOsyliableSf 
and the Jatter abounds with more than kendecasylkbic terms. 

In' particular instances, as well as iu general principles, 
we find the author exceeding his proper mark, by wandering 
out of his road. 

* The desigDatei a th'mg or kHoii Id gcDeral, as separately maHced by 
he,thi, gr it, while the pronouns perform the same otasx in most otho" 
langua^B. //and/Af, when gender is not attended to, are ByaoDjnnous.' 
■ Each it expressive of being in general, and when used verbally, signi- 
fies to bring forth, or to a£l to what we already see. The, it, and, add, 
at, to, and do, are kindred words. They mark that an addition is made 
to BOOK collected mass of existence.' p.'45. ' 

Again,- 

' TiTM, or ihe measure of the duration of existence, was originally, in 
mo9( nations, calculated by the flux and reflux of the ocean. This, 
which with us is termed the tide, was formerly syoonymouswithjiw. 
The Saxon word tide signified lime only, and several of our compounds 
expressive of stated penods, have the affix: tide : such aA IVkittantidft. 
MarlinmailiJe, Noahtide, 3(c. From the same cause the Romans ex- 
pressed by the word 7>m^r/a/, cither f/mf, a sea-storm, or destruction.. 
The regular recurrence and similarity of the tides, may have suggested 
the idea of using the word as indicative of makilude of the same kind, and 
a word denoting these changes of the sea may have originated the plu- 
ral tenntoations. The particle «, ancient!)- spelt Vr, forms a. termina- 
tion in several' words, and has this signification of tinu: Thns once,' 
twice, zaA thrice, are equivalent ta one -lime, two timet, and three f ana ; 
and, when these numerals are extended, we use the word timti, as, four 
timet, ^ve timef, &.C. The Germans express onf/, (wi;4 8cc. by mmal, 
^taeimal. Sec. the word mal in their language having the power of the 
French foiiaaA our urn, artime, apphedtothe repetition ofaiferent.. 
The varied spelling of ee and et is of no moment, for as we formerly 
had oRo, lioiet, and tiriet, marking the addition of ei to oat, Ivdty and 
ihrie, so we now have some of our plurals, as dice, mice, and fiaice, 
ending in ct. It is, therefore, not improbable that ce, or et, is synony- 
mous with lime, in its numeral signification ; and, as added to one; I'Oio, 
or three, it expresses how many of these things, or actions, are exhibit- ' 
ed, so, if employed in simple connection with the name of a thing, it 
may denote a number of such things, leaving the extent indefinite.' pp. 
25,26. 

Mr. B. seems unfortunately to have forgotten, that those 
seas, with which the Greelis and Romans were chiefly ac- 
quainted, are not subject to /ides ; and that ce, added to the 
numeral one, cannot have a plural signification. 

Errors like these, together with the desultory and imanah/- 
^iW succession of Mr. B.'s observations, may be a.scribed to ■ 
his servile adoption or imitation of Mr. Home Tooke's la- 
genious vagarieii. He remarks, that 



r,o,i,,-,-,ih,.GoOglc 



Booth's Introduction to an Analytical Dictionary. 259 

' It was reBerred for a Lionxua, a Lavoider, and a Tooke, to butld 
, anew the temple of ScicDce, and to replace the Gothic arches and 

floomy vaults, by the eleeant and cheerful atructures at modem taste. 
t U some time, however, before the rising fane can attract the wordiip 
of the crowd. The spirit of prejudice, like the ghoats of" the departed, 
loves to linger near to mouldering walls, under the covert of the oieht.' 
pp. 14, 15. 

The exact reverse of these rtietorical iliustrations, would 
have given a more just idea of Mr. Tooke's philology. It 
replaces the structures of modern taste, by Gothic aruhes,* 
and gloomy vaults, and lingers near mouldering walls, under 
the covert of the night, as affording the more favourable 
scope to plausible illusion. 

With all this, Mr. B.'s subject had no proper concerrj. 
An analytical dictionary should distribute compound words 
iiitder those simple terms which are certainly and clearly 
radical. Its alphabetic arrangement should not depend oti 
remote, dubious, or obscure relations of one word to ano- 
ther. ' Where doubt may reasonably obtrude, it is preferable 
to admit two radical themes for ditierent words, rather than, by 
fordng^such as pre of remote significations, and discordant 
fdrms, to enlist under the same banner, to create a difficulty 
in the use, and an impediment to the advantage, of a po- 
pular work. 

It is time to examine that part of our author's Introduc- 
tion, which properly relates to his proposed Dictionary. The 
whole of this is so much entangled with ^prelative matter, 
and its - natural divisions are so much imeftpersed one with 
another, that, in order to form any idea of the author's - 
purpose, we found it necessary to collect into one view the - 
marginal heads of his paragraphs; which are the only indi- 
cations he has chosen to give, of any aim at methodical ar-, 
rangement, Kroni this process, it appears to us, that he in- 
tended first to treat in general of the several parts into, which 
speech is commonly distributed, as they are affected by in- 
flection; and then to detail the principal terminations and 
prepositions by which they are inflecieil, or varied in signi- 
fication: but if this was His design, he has not followed the , 
same oi>der in the Jatter, as in the former division ; and he 
so frequently flit-s' off at a tangent from his subject, that we 
can otily hazard a conjecture, instead of offering a decisive 
opinion of his plan. In this respect he has successfully 
imitated Mr. Tooke, but probably withont the aim, which we 

• We use the term Cathtc, in the p<^u!ar sense, for what would more 
properly be called the Norman arch. Otherwise the allusion would ill 
apply ^ the comparative antiquity of Mr, Home Tooke's researches. 



Do,l,,-Gilt,.GOOglC 



260 Booth's Introdiicliqn to an Analytical Dictionary. 

conltl not but impute to that gentleman, of bafBing tbe At.' 
Itection of bis fallacies. 

I Our langu^e, tbough it does not admit either of the in- 
flection, or ^e composition of words, so easily, or to ao 
great an extent, as most others, embraces no small diversity 
of prefixes or affixes, (especially the farmer) in consequence 
of the various accessions which it has derived from foreign 
courcef. Our Sason and Norman conquerors Jiave stamped 
oitr common terms respectively with prepositions and termi- 
nations of the German and the French languages ; and our 
modern literati have greatly augmented the store of those 
which we had previously received through the > medium of 
the latter, from the Latin and the Greek. Thus multitudes ^ 
of our terms begin with the be, the for, the mis, &c. of the 
German, the de and dii, thee and ex, the in and^n, the co, 
cmt, and sym, the anti and trans, &c. of the French, L-atin, 
and Greek languages ; while, to the same sources our various 
terminations of the plural number, and genitive case, of our, A 
tmtns ; the several persons, the imperfect tense, and ^e 
participles of our ■verbs ; and the modes in which our adJeC' 
tkes, adverbs, and abstract substantives are formed from these 
roots, are easily to be traced. 

Mr. B. in aGsigning these to their various originals, has 
observed no systematic distribution of their several classes^ '. 
tnd in some cases. In which he refers to modern tongues,, be 
commits egregious errors. For instai/ce, he. tells us, p.. 75. 

- that "presentSjarticipJes are finrmed by the addition of. t^j 
in English, and ung in German ;" whereas ttng is a common 
termination of German abstract nouns, hut never of parti' 
npfc*. The author's gross ignorance of German is equally 
cVklent in many other, cases. He informs us, (p. 6:1.} re- 
qKCtinj^ the sounds of the 1Vcn<.7i langu^e, that "dansiai 
tattt, so much ; and champ, a held, are pronounced as -we 
■houid dang, tang, and skang'^ but he admits that "in 
aame districts, the sound is so peculiarty nasal, that.it is 
treated as a vowel." We can assure him, that it is so alt 
tbe world over, where the French language is properly spoken ; 
aud that no Frenchman would find out what he meant by 
the English sounds of dang, iqng, and shang. We tvould 
therefore earnestly advise Mr. B. either to apply himself 
idiresh to the study of modern tongues, or else to omit all 
xoention of them in his projected work. We would also 
recommend to him, not to trust to Mr. Tooke as a guide in 
the Sa.zvn language ; but to see his own wav clear, so far as 
he appcr.ls to it. On the ancient Brituk dialects which 

- rnter more into tbe substance, than into the injlcclioiis of oo» 
speech, we find nothing , unless, (in p. 57-] our author means 



r,o,i,,-,-,ih,.GoOglc 



SootVs Introduction to an Atial^cal Dictionary. 381 

tile GaeliCy by the Celtic. If so, we can assure bim, Uist, 
tbe former belongs to a language radically distinct from the 
German ;* which last indeed comprises ths purest remains of 
the genuine Celtic. 

From what has preceded, we cannot but conclude, tbst, 
in order to secure his intended work from palpable errors* 
Mr. B. mbst restrict it witbin narrower limits than we should 
wish to assign to an analytical dictionary of our language. 
He must content himself with what is simple and obvious Co 
a mere English reader, or depend only on his ?.cqiiaintance 
with tbe Latin and the GrecR. Yet, as such a work is 
greatly needed, and if executed, however imperfectly, with 
due modesty and caution, may be of constaerabte utility ( 
especially as .there must be a commencement of it, before it 
ean approach to perfection ; and as Mr. B.'s exertions maj 
stimulate more able hands to proceed with the undertaking: 
we would not discourage hira from perseverante in his at- 
tempt. In the present sketch, there is much that may afford 
information to the bulk of our countrymen ; and even tbat 
may excite them to examine, for themselves, into the struc- 
ture of our very beterogeneous, but comprehensive language. 
Mr. Booth, (like the god of bis idolatry, Mr. Tooke,] ex- 
hibits a' degree of acuteness and ingeuuitV) that entertains, 
where it does not instruct ; and hix work will certainly !oe lesa 
likely io impose on its readers, than the prototype which he 
has chosen to follow. 

As a favourable specimen, we insert a paragraph, with the 
marginal title, 'Of Emphasis as the mark of cases;' and 
subjoin, as the best apology for defects which our duty has 
compelled us to notice, that with which the author closes bis 
present performance. 

' It may be fiinher obfeired of genitivei, that they have, front the 
shitted itatioa of our prospect, a two fold fiigmfication. Iq dther point 
ef Tiew, one aoun ii underatood to lelang to anoclier ; but, in the ^u 
case, we coniider a noun as the propertif of its genitive, white in tha 
ttker, we contider a noun as having a ri^A/ lo, or fioiirer ovtr, that with 
which itii to connected. In tiu we attend more particulnrly to the firt- 
frutoriiifi, and in tiat to the ttale af mijcction. These different modes 
^ exprestioa have often no distinguishing mark excepting that of Em- 
^htuu s which points out the word on which we wish the meaning of th< 
■entcDce pridcipally to depend, by a iuore forcible tone of prominciatioa. 
mien we ny, ■• This is Alexander's haute" we mean th^it the house it 
a fiar^ of the proptrty, tit ont t^ the things Mmging to Alexander ; but 
whm we say, " This is Altxandtr't house," we state that the house be* 
long) to AUxander, and not to another.' p. 39. 

" • "TheCeltic «-, signifying wan," layi Mr. B, " originated the Ger-, 
WnTproDOUa tr, kt." 



.dtyGoogIc 



62 Universiiy. Sermons. 

' At the conclusion of our introductory labourij wc ma^ be allowed to 
anticipate, and'to apglogiie for, tome of the fkulta of which they will be 
accused , Didactic worka are, in general, either too laconic for the ino- 
rant, or too garrulous for the learned,; and it is, .probabl^t ini])OMiUe to 
sadafy both clasgea in the same productioo. The sin that mott eanlj be* 
seta a writer ii prolixity, but here it was, in many placet, uoaroiflaUe. Iq 
.treating of sutjects hiUierto but httlo attended tO) it was necenaij to 
dwell oo the proofs of what might otherwise be rejected as fanciful i and 
yet, after all, much illustration has been suppressed, lest the more in- 
structed reader should yawn over a twice-told tale. It were, perhaps, 
better for an author who hopes for the approbation of the public, to limit 
bis excursioDS into unfrequented ground ; but etymology is one of the 
trac'less wilds of nature : while we stray we are allured by the charms of 
novelty :. we wander from shrub to shrubt and from tree to tree, till we 
can no longer recover the beaten path which surromids, without entering, 
the forest.' pp. 157, 158. 

All alphabetical index of prepositions snd terminations is ' 
very properly annexed, 

Art.VIII. Barrow's Strmon oit the ExfttiSauy of Iraiulating but Seri/Uura' 

into levcrai of the Oriental Languaget ; preached, by special ^pptunt- 

ment, before the University of Oxford, flic. &c. 

Art. IX. Nares's Sermon on the Duti/ and ExAoStttey of trantla&ig the 

Scr'ifituivt into the current Language! of the Eait s preached, hy specia] 

. Appointment, before the University of Oxford, &c. flee 

{Concluded from jt. 150.) 
TF one or two leaves were cut out of Dr. Barrow's sermon, we 
should account it, on the whole, a sober, sensible per- 
formance. It is written in a perspicuous unoniamented style; 
■ and addresses itself to the understanding of the very learned 
auditory, without any attempt to awaken their iuiagination. 
Rather too much labour is perhaps employed in proving the 
general duty of Christians to endeavour to diffuse the knOw. 
ledge of their relijrion ; and there may be sOme small matter 
of complaint, that the greater part of the discussion turns fully 
as much on general topics, as could be warranted by the par- 
ticularity of the subject and the pontracted limits of a single 
discourse. The Doctor wishes the English version lo super- 
sede the originals as the authoritative standard, for the oriental 
translators*, notwithstanding that these translators are to be 
excliisi\'ely Europeans. He does not even signify that any 
exception should be made in ikvour of the translation of the 
New Testament into the Sanscrit, though he mast know there 
is a wonderful resemblance of structure between that languai»e 
ai)d the Greek. With regaixl to the Hebrew, he says that 
our scholars in the east have probably not studied it critically. 
It is not for us to decide how far tins is the fiict ; but we may 

♦.The adoption of it as the original' is literally hii expression, 

r,on,-.Mh,.Go,Oglc 



University Sermans, 263 

well presume they will think it an inttispensable prerequisite 
for translating the Old Testament, to acquire so rouch knoW' 
led^e of the uri^inal language, and of tbe collations and 
crittcisms supplied by several distinguished scholars, as to bc^ 
ftble, in their own minds, to rest the auUiority of their version 
into tbe eastern languages on the true origin.il, and on their 
' own comprebensioa of tlie most onaterial criticisms of the. best 
Hebraists. Several yery obvious considerations would occur 
to forbid their taking the English vei-^on w substitudun for 
the original. 1. Even on the absuvd supposition thaf ;tfaesp 
trsnslators could believe that th^, English version do^s, ik% 
«Tery sentence in tbe whole Bible, #b tiuly ct^press tbe iSft^^ 
Qf the' original as it is possible for tlie iLtiglish language t9 
express it, yet they Would be aware that ijo a thousand iu- 
^taaces'the peculiar idioms and figurative e'vpressions of tif9 
onginal f especially aa oriental origiijaU) are, of necessity 
dropped in tbe English version. Now every, scholar, of th« 
most middling acquirements, is sensible ho,w much the pre- 
cise cast and colour of the sense depends 6n these peculiar 
pbrosni and figures.. The meaning may in substance be faith' 
fully given in the tiunsWioe ; but a certain nice characteristic 
mod ifi^fttioo, which gave it a definite and peculiar bearing, 
a significance, force, or beauty, is lost, through the impossi- 
bility of literally translating the original idioms, or finding 
any exactly parallel to them. How many times this'bas,beeB 
ui^ed as an argument, in this country, for studying both the 
sacred writings and the classics in their originals, notwith- 
standing the acknowledged excellence of our translations ! The 
.observation always is, thaF you ere much more absolutely in 
possession of yoMir author, th^ you have a far more vivid and 
discriminate impression of his thought, than you could by 
means of the best. possible translation. There is the same diN 
ference, as there would be between seeing the natives of a 
tUstant country settled among ourselves and adopting our own 
^ress and customs, and seeing them in liheir proper chmate, 
with all their appropriate habiliments and manners. But if' 
such knowledge of the original he so desirable for a mere 
reader, how much more for the translators to be- appointed 
for the proposed undertaking. In the long process ot trans- 
lating the whole bible into any one of the oriental languages, 
let it. hut be considered what a prodigious number of instances 
will occur, in which the translator will have to choose his form 
of «rords lamong a variety of modes of expression, one more 
dignified and one more common, one. more plain and one more 
jiguratire, one more moderate Mid one , mdre vehement, one 
more specific and one more general, in either one of which 
the idea as it stands in English, divested of the striking pai* 



r,o,i,;,-,ih,.Google 



S64 Untvenitj/ Sermons. ^ 

ticiiUrity whicli it {lerhaps bears in tfie original, might be 
almost indifferently rendered. Mow, in b vast numbetdf tBese 
iitEtttiices, it is obvious tbat his knowing the precise mannfer in 
vbich the idea is presented in the original would instantly 
determine his clioiee, when the language of the Knglish ver- 
•ion would have given him no assistance for deciding it ; and 
it ia fair to presume that, in a great majority of these instances, . 
the selection so determined will be much better than the oiie 
wbicb would else have been adopted nearly by chance. These 
instances will be so numerous, that there can be no manner of 
doubt that the bible, as translated directly from the Hebrew 
and Greek into one of the eastern languages, would appear 
Considerably diGTerent from what it would as translated by the 
very sacne men on Dr. B.'s plan of tbkiog the English ' a» the 
original.* And not only would there be this prominent dtf- 
fieretice of idiAms and figures, but the far greater coDfidence^ 
whicb is felt by a translutor^ from an original, will impart to 
the general course' of the ccttiposition'a certain vigour and 
firmness, which can never be giveii by a translator who is re- 
minded tbat the 'ground and authority on wfaidi he is pro- 
ceeding is only itself a ver^ion.-~-We are ashamed to be ob]i-> 
ged to dwell on such very trite considerations. 

Thus far the case is stated, on the supposition that the 
transltuors in the east could be made so soperstitioos as even 
to take the English verBioii positively for a work of divine ru- 
diority, which renders every part and pasfiige of the sacred 
scriptures as strongly and accurately fts it is possible for them 
to be rendered in English j but, aecttndlv, they know too well 
that this is not the fact. They know that a vast number of 
important criticisms, tending to a more correct interpretation, 
bave been accnmutated by a series of indefatigable scholars ; 
and that the result of the collations has confessedly proved 
tbe trecessity ornjodifyiog', in a considerable number of ins- 
tances, the original text, by chaiiges which, tbongh in. general 
Hot very important perhaps in themselves, might often be- 
come e^Etiemely material at the distance and divergency of a 
versi^ of a version. They cannot avoid perceiviiig, besides, 
that a considerable numberof passages in ourtranslation have 
a perplexity and obscurity of expression, which they will not 
and should liot be dispttsed to impute to the original ; and tbirf 
will only have to look into Lontn's Isaiah, (though they will 
feel certain that so general an alteration of language ii. fat 
from necessary Or desirable,) to see how muQh more pe^- 
picuously many passages might be rendered. Takisg tftors- 
fore the present version as their invariable autbority, tbe 
translators would be quite cotain tbat they were transfusing 
tte dince revelation into the languagew of Asia, under die 



r,o,i,,-cdtyGoOglc 



pres^ioBs^wJiich the a^t^isJi sMa of btbljcal GriuCiRip hits fur- 
bished the rnraiif nf preventing ; «tid y«t «Ur lesrneil prC^-lier 
will' injfist th^ Uies.e vitW't>ctun?ifS vrt)i%n)ei> ab«|l uIm tJtK prp- 
ien\ 3i}thori2e(t vei sj^n * a» t^fi Of rgin»l,' iwd be Content wijh . 
4ie consolation of iiBingtoVI] jlifU at soilif ' fiilun tiipe mea- 
sures may peirhaps Ve t^^ei Vsrectify tb^evrors w^uoh .th«y. 
are new enjoineti to. poniiaiti aftar' UiOite errors M(\ hare 
gone into million^ of copies, 0i)diiip H»vdj of tens of mUliqus 
(^Asiatic ^aders. ,, ; 

' Wkcoaver,' Jte B^f f, • fram die tliscjuUilioM and dtMorme^cf tnttfeni 
comrneatatorti aod laipeciaUv bam the coUauini of our own dietiiigiMfMd 
Mliol IchoWs, » staodard H^raV WM' shall to mded.td the gmeral ' 
■atiifactiga of tha learqed^ fnif py/a it*ri\<ffi of che Scfiptgrei nujfftvs^ 
rcBderedrnpreaccurai^y } i^e feyr eirqr«,th^ uc still fb^^ )» it, nuy be 
corrected; 3S well for our pvin tAviDt^g^ md imyro^itteat, n tor the y^e 
and instractioq of thoss, wtip mjiy ^t aey time becq^oe cojiferwtq (fur 
crted.' , ., . "-''.■■"', 

The Hebrenf Scriptuj;es, opiy ^« bere refi^rred.i^ii t>ut An 
equal interdict is to be put, as far as appejirj^pn t.be aWV^^the 
original of thp N!e\y Testament; " Anolaej* , iropqrtai>t t^j^oti,!^ 
tothe {>1an,'aj-i^3 fnim the cotisiJerat^on, of t^e jl^w rEy^uM i;i 
whici)'^. traiui^i^ fropi a^tranalatiqR - i^ imi4^ ^^ pmf .wVil Uf 
h^i, 4n alt parts of the *ywld- Wim, WaeBgoufselWtifliaaBwt 
4esseribed su^ works io cbe iuhsI (^raae, A (be shkdanr- of a 
^ftde' i Who bas%pot bear^ and repestcl iul«r |i«l« aregard 
is due to works, which bring the Icelandic conipoBlciQiid irM> 
our lan^age oiily tbrouga the tnedtuqa of the ICfttitt, .and 
}haae of 4rai)i^ ot Persia l)hcoueh th»t of tbe Fti^aob:? Aiid 
what is to prevent the laqre intalligeot'iuid learned part-of tiM 
readen in the East from entertaining »Hiili(«F sentimqat iii the 
case in question * Jiide^, tUey >vUtoot)0(^y IcBovrtiow very 
qtuph modified and detarior^ted the pifof^siHt sacred itaoka 
are likely to have bepftiBe, nnfl*?r thU ^t>t>iei tvtnsmjssron ; 
)Q|U£ they will be apt to surwiae gomet^ing (aore and jickntthing 
worse. It may happep that wpie few ^f them wtU ask, si^ 
(tificaotly, Why tnis scriipoioup adhereufte .10 jBhe Eiigjufa 
^TarfiUm, as ^ standard ? Wi>ef)cd U M, that in tiW use of your 
(flcr^ hook, and exaotlj' thftt aiorfc of the aunibarleas robirni^ 
ofyour literaturP,.yQu set pp or ftcknowisd^ahigliev xutJio- 
rity in you^rverciion Uiftn ir) fhe Qciginal^ ]> there, io UiaC 
vetjiouj^pnie iqa|>orUnfc(^<^riawf:if«)ni the MigiBkl, of Ivhicsh 
difference yotiare kindly resoltiedf as ^Dod Christians, that wg, 
.thp pgt^le of Apia,,shall eiyoy trhebea^t? Whjit nre Jhe 
"transUiors-to say \n repW 7 Iioiiglilnptto. be pqsMb^ f?^ 
tbam to ai]swer.^itli truth that t^ey tOfMy ^o- net lihfliu«^l!if«s 
understand Uieofiginal ; fqr U isettw.tocoocfiisQ^lutt a tttii- 
VOL.V. X 

r,o,i,,-cdtyGoOglc 



'266 Uithersiijf Sentuns. 

efaicTOUs affect this' Would have' on the minds of inquisitive 

heathens, who are inclined to reject, douht, or cavil, and can- 

' not be aware of the fnll evidence \vhich, in this country, a 

person notable to read the originals has, notwithstanding:, bf 

' the gmeral faith&Iness of the translation. And what will be 

the impression on the minds of those same heathen inquirers 

and opposers, if the translators shall fairly assign the reason 

which our learned preachers have more than intimated as re- 

' auiring a strict adherence to the English standard; namely, that 

ttiere is in England a legal retigious establishment, from any 

tenet* or appointment of which it is essential that no expression 

even in the oriental hibles should be suffered to dissent ^ 

While Dr. Barrow advises thatselected portions of Scripture 
■ be circulated among the heathens of the East before the wholie 
is given to them, he very judiciously condemns any plan that 
' should propose to give out the bible in a long succession of 
small parcels, at considerable intervals, regulated by a spiritual 
poUcy of xdiipting the various parts of the. sacred book to the 
OGeasioDs ana the attainments of the people. He observes, 

* Itwat thnttfaatthe pretended Prophet of Arabia introduced his Koran 
to hii foUowen and converts ; and «uch a syitem is in its own nature 
liidde to the supidon of foivery and fraud. It may reasonably excite 
aMtrritnuiim in Ac BMtvfi oTthe £aK, that we shall conbnae to produce 
WMtwe shall Fepment as inspired wriungs, as Idd^ at they appear willing 
.torecave tbem; as long as we have any interest to oeinved by their ere-' 
dalit« ; or any pcJitical influence to lie procured by the m^miBsioQ of Ibeir 
■incu.']!. 12. 

Tlie Doctor recommends the extension of a branch of our 
'Cttahlisbed church to India; and the institution of schools, 
'whtchshould * receive without distinction tlie offspring of our 
siriijects, our allies, and our enemies, as niany as should be 
found willing to be taught* ; and in which, ' shouid it appear 
necessary or beneficial, the inducement of gratuitous educa- 
tion must be offered equally to the sons of the rich and the 
poor.* AdverUng to the very great expence of such extensive 
establishments as he proposes, he specifies several sources of 
supfriy; bat also observes, that 'perhapstheexpedients them- 
'■«Te> may be so managed as to p'roduce a considerable pro~ 
^rtioD of their own support.' This should not have been said 
vritbont some explanation how it is'possihle ; especially when 
■^Oa Doctor was going to decide, a few lines lower, that unless 
we have ttie means of maintaining a system involving very 
great expeoce, we had better attempt nothing at all. 

■ If, however*, mvs he, < all these resources, and all others that can be 
denied, are belknd to be inadequate to the object in view; ifit be not in 
our power to pUTtoe such meaiurea as are deemed the' most likdytoeD- 
■•urctacceu,itwiU beprudeot todetiit iaunediatelyfrom the attempt. Ov 



.dtyGoogIc 



University Sermons. 261 

MtipturcB theiiuelres Tiave condemned the folly of him whn abould 6egm It 
tuild wUhottl counting the eoit, and not be ahUtn^uh." p. 24; 

We are always sorry wjien we see benevolence receiving 
laws frotn pride. The sentence we have quoted seems to say, ' 
that England, beinga very great and famous nation, must form 
all her schemes on a very great scale, corresponding to her 
, national magnificence, the display and the honour of which 
^re always to be the leading consideration ; and therefore, if 
shehasnot the meansfor supporting a vast system of operations - 
for Christianizing India, sbe should, in the spirit . of national 
dignity, disdain to do good in a smaller way that would con- 
fess the deficiency of her power. When will mankind, at 
least (he professedly -Christian part of mankind, attain the 
/rue dignity of being so intent on a benevolent object for its 
own sake, aa to forget to be always considering and calcula- 
ting about the honour of the agent that is to accomplish it? 
If we were fortunate enough to be, for a little while, divested 
of our personal and national self-importance ; and actuated to do 
good by pure Christian benevolence, and zeal for the service 
of the Almighty, instead of continually dwelling od gaudy 
images of splendid undertakings and great estabtisbments, as ' 
the means of gaining ecUU to schemes of philanlbropy and 
piety when ov adopt them, — we should be earnest to accom- 
plish the beneficent purpose in any smaller measure, and by 
any humblei* means, which might be within our power, though 
we could not afford to employ < such, a nu.gnificeDt apparatus. 
la the affair before us, there is nothing analogous to our 
Lord's illustrative case of the man that began to build and 
could not finish; nor to that partial and unsound adoptioo- 
of Christianity, against which he introduced this figure aa a 
ivaming. They were cases in which, unless a whole were at- 
tained, apart must be necessarily useless: there was no use 
in laying the foundation of a tower, if the superstructure were 
not reu'ed. But in prosecuting schemes for enUcrhtening and 
converting human beings, every single mean, and every sinole 
"success, has its own independent value. If but ten faithful 
missionaries, or hut five, can be sent into a country, shalt 
we refuse to do it because we cannot send five hundred } 
The five or ten will explain the evidence and doctrines of the 
true religion to a small number of heathens, as clearly, and 
with as much effect, as tiie five hundred could to a proper-' 
ttonable number. Unless therefore we place the value of 
our scheme, not so much in the benefits imparted to indi- 
vidual human beings converted to Christianity, as in the 
splendour and self-grain lation that may arise to us from the 
magnitude of the aggregate of such conversions as effected 
by our means, — we have the same reason exactly for sending 
X 2 

Doiii--,-,ih,.Googlc 



248 ■ Unhersity Sermons. 

thefive, or ten, tfjat *e have for wnshing we contd seiid fiv6 
hundred. On wliat principle can we pretend to wish, for the 
ludianchildren, the KoiindinstruCTionof a thousand schoolB, — 
but that each one school, taken separately from all the rfett, 
would bti beneficial to its pupils f But, for this reason, one 
s):h()o), if only one could be instituted, would as much de- 
serve to ba iitstituted as if there were about tiobe.B99 moi». 
The same may ba said of the smaller practicable extent of 
mSuns and agency, a.% contrasted with the greater desirable 
one, in all the other departments and expedients of the 
scheme. 

While the Doctor was admitting that the *hoie national re- 
sources of England tind India might prove inadequate tO fmt 
in force the best expedients for instructing the people of rtie 
latter in Christianity, and was prescribing a sudden aiid entile 
abandonment of the design iu the o'ent of their so pro»ing ; 
it \i probable be really might not kowv how fir ttoe possi- 
bility of bringing into extensive action one of the greatest' 
of these eiipedients,— that which specificaHy formed the ap- 
pointed Subject of his sermon — lad already been carried- 
beyond this state of uncertainty and dubious experiment, witb. 
out any of those aids from the chief watfohsi authority which 
he seems to assnme as Indlsperrsabte to the support of the de- 
sij?n from first to last.* 

I'be loamed preacher poiuts out certain things, (n the sitm- 
tion and character of the several classes of the Hindoos re«- . 
pecti*ely, which he thinks tiiay contribute in some degi"ee 
60 incline them to a fwiiurable reception of Christianity ; sii*- 
ii<-i^teH considerable facilitation froiu points of apparent 
analogy feetwfeen the true religion and the Indian mythology ; 
aiid incidentsllyintrmatcs somewhat of the stature of his Qwn 
rhrolowy inthlssentence ; ' Chrislifinily will teaCh thcro that 
at n1i times and in all places men are esse iti ally Ct^uftl to each 
otlier; and e<ii*a!ly intitled, if they endeavour to fleserre 
them,- to the fSvour and' blessings of the great Cwirtorj Go- 
-vernor, ahd Judgu of the world.' p. 17. 

Itisrellictantiy, and from tbe constraint of diity, that im 
notice th* foltowmg passages. 

' ■ *. This may be a.proper place to correct as error ia. our llut oamber-, 
ID wliicbw^,luid weaoiqewhatexajrgerattd thepecunUiysuppliL-a oblatned 

bv th? buMionary. tianslators in theEiislf^evt'oin the very act of statiog 
toat thoVe supplies for the vaAi and exjwnsivi- underuking were solely 
deriiffd from the liberality of the religious public, and thtir own labourt. 
Of Which 'they devote ail the fruits. We raeririoneil their hdviJig re- 
Cciveda vtry Jibe^l' doiiation from the Briiisli and tareiiin '.Bftle So- 
ciety J we now understand, that sonie private unsuthorized intc*ftren£fe has 
fKevehted thrir receiwig any advaotagt hitheno fr«n tbeig<ei)«-tftib^ti(tt 
to which we alluded. 

. Coot^Ic 



Unfoersif^ Sermons. 269 

— ' I Vmld hare thedoctiiiKi tabe taught perfectly tni&nnind ton- 
uKent, at all times anil in all places the same . • . . MiHienariea of TviovB 
ictererts and partiel) igaorantly or wilfuU}'. differing tp tbeif cMomeWt 
their opinions, and their desigos) should not be suH^ed v> appear amongst 
those whom we wish to convert. If, indeed wc permit the miniateri pi 
Tarioi:a sects and denominationst Lutherans and Calvimsts, Ani'iliilp* 
and Kaptista, to inculcate their respective tenets without rettraSnt, the uD- 
lettered Indian will not he ab!e to dtienniDe, vhat that Christianity is,, 
which we would persuade him to embrace ; add the more lenmed, cgn- 
vinced that the doctrinei of aH our teachers cannot be equaN^'tntei niiy 
be led to conclude that all are equally &1k. If one preacher be oi Faul, 
and aaother of Apollos, no convert may tie of Christ. The miiiioDaries 
from Kome and from other Churches appear to hare had very little 
juccess i at least to have made very few sincere and jiteady coDVErts, 
VVithout inquiriniT miautely or invidiously into the causes 01 these fai- 
Jures, 1 would recommend one uniform and general ariempl, to the ex- 
clusion of all others, « here we have the power to exclude them, to be 
made by the ministers of the national church, under the authority and 
regulations of an net of the legislature,' p. 13. 

* Let it be our business ... to furnish them with what' we have so 
long Eiijoyed, and what will be- not only of inestimable value, but of 
primary necessity in their' church, with a univ^rsfll rule of co,nduct, and 
it ^xed itabdard of tmth, to which appeals in doubt and coitfroveny 
may always be made ; with a criterion by which in all times to come 
■ the errors of ignorance may be corrected, and the extravagances of en- 
tbiiBUsm restrained i by which the pretensions of the hypocrite may be 
tried and proved ; aFid by which peace and uniformity may be preterred 
in faith and worship, principle and practice.' p. 11, 

We have already had ogcasion to refer to Mr. Fi>Her's 
-^inted awd conclusive observations on winLt we Jiove Jiere ex- 
tracted ; and we bU»U willingly excuse ourselves from saj'ing 
more tiiaii a very few wortls. In making one or two obvious 
remarks, we may surely put it to the candour of ouj readers 
what opinion impartial critics must iiievitahty entertain of the 
principles held forth in these extracts. Apply the famili«r 
rule of judging by reversing the ca^e, as far a^ in tlie present 
jiKtance the caae admits ei being reversed. Suppose a com- 
pany trfdisinterestedt pious, and indefatigable men, connected 
with the estabiisbiuent, had been exerting diettiselves to the 
very utmost of their faculties for a course of years, in India, 
to make «he natives acquainted with the divine Uevelation, and 
wh^t are reg^ded by the general.agr«ement of Christians as 
its grand doctrines ; occupying but an exceedingly diminntive 
portian t^ their own time, or that of tbosc they wished \o 
titdi^^hten, about any of the little, distinctive points of their 
profession as mem^kcrs of tlie English estahlialiinent ; ontJ ncv^r 
uttering a word of disrespect toward the eeulout; kboitrers of 
other Christiaa denominatkons. fioppass' next, ti»t; somft 'V>f 
Xbe dt:niQ[niiiaiion:s:»6p»ratii)g frooi t^'.estiibUsb««t)t .hadib^. 



r,o,i,,-,-,ih,.GoOglc 



210 Universib/ Sermons. 

-gun to regard it as their duty to make an eflfort' for the reli- 
gious illumination of Hindoos ; and that, in the first public re- 
' presentation on this subject, they had complained of it as a - 
.. serioiw, an intolerable grievaiice, that a number of missiona- 
ries of the estabJi^ed cnurcb were already making themselves 
busv it) India, that the labours of these men would mischiev- 
ously interfere with those of the sectarian missions, and that 
. It was very much to he lamenti^d that the sectaries had not 
the power to ' exclude* these obnoxiou!) missionaries. Every 
reaaer, even before the sentence is finished, has a lively con~ 
ceptinnof the universal indignation that would liavc burst forth 
at the exhibition of such a spirit. 

Now, we wish the reason to be shewn why an equally indig- 
nant sentiment should not be expressed, when such princi- 
ples are avowed by Dr. Barrow, and other persons on the 
same side. He and they will alledge, that they are of the 
' authorized national church, the church established by law ; 
and that tfwt gives them a righ,t to insist on the exclusion of 
these separatist missionaries, as a preliminary to their under- 
taking. And why, we would ask, are you of that national 
church? The answer must necessarily be, Because ou,r 
judgements approve of it, both in doctrines and constitution- 
-And why, we would again ask, are those separatist mission- 
■ arJes, and the class of Christians who have contributed the 
. most to aid their exertions, yiot of that national church, united 
to which, they might have enjoyed so much more privilege, 
and incurred so much less obloquy ? The answer would be^ 
plainly, that, their judgements approve a different mode of wor- 
ship and Christtan ordinances. We would then ask the 
Doctor, and those who concur in his propositions for 'ex- 
clusion,' whether they have some infallible authority, some 
direct .testimony from heaven, in evidence of the iibsolute 
feciitude of the ecclesiastical tnsiiintion to whith they ad- 
here, and, therefore, of the error of all who may have nd"p<ed 
any different one. If they admit that ihey have not, and that 
their preference of one particular form of institution to those 
thai differ from it is simply a matter of opinion, it) which they 
have been determined by the free exercise of their inider- 
standing ; we may then coufidently demand, by what right 
; ihcy 45an assume to exclude from a field of benevolent Chris- 
. tjan exertion, and from that part of the field too which their 
Own toils may have in a measure cultivated, Biich virtuous 
and intelligent men, as have been led, by the very name free 
. fixerciA^ pt uudentasiiing, to approve a differently modified 
^ sdmioisti'Wian bi religion. If the opposite 'conviciions' and 
■^ pEef^rcnces .sf two. -olUses of mankind are purely and 
.^u<tlly.tbQ«e:of apii»on>^iu>iufajlibleatitbority4nterveningfo 



r,o,i,,-,-,ih,.GoOglc 



Umoersity Sermcns> '■ 271 

decide between them, then there can' be in either dais no right 
to prohibit the other to teach its doctrines, escept ixKf^ con-, 
fltitute such a right : in Dr. Barrow's -view it probably did Con- 
stitute' the essence of that right, when he proposed tbe 'exclu- 
sion of all others, where we havethe power to exclude them;* ' 
When we ask for the infallible authority, which at the 
least ought to be at hand, with the most lutnitioos jnanifesta- 
tionif when men are assuming to impose siI«Dce on their itA- 
low mortala, we do not mean to admit that even an extraordi- 
nary testimony from heaven, to the absolute purity of the' 
forms of faitD and worship adopted by a class of men, would 
give those men arightautlioritatively to interdict, ajid forcibly 
to restrain other men, from teaching doctrines and observsnces 
differing from this infallible standara. 

. Dismissing all abstract questions of the rights of conscience, 
we may be permitted to say a word on the beneFolftnce and 
justice of the Doctor's reqnisition, as affecting the. missioii- 
ariea at present in India ; we particularly refer to those of 
die Baptist denomination, as the piost numerous, and as hav- 
ing been rendered, by variouR circumstances, the most con. 
spicuous. These men have parted from their friends in'£ng-i 
land; have made a voya^;e which itself absorbs what men, 
anxious to be doing good, regard as no inconsiderable poTtiod 
of a life ; haVe become seasoned to the climate, which mus£ 
always be fatal to aconsiderable portion of the northern EurO- 
pear& going to reside there ; have acquired a perfect com- 
mand of the most extensively prevailing vernacular language 
of Hindoostan, a large acquaintance with those less eitten- 
fively in use, and a deep knowledge of the learned language 
of that countiy; they are become familiarised, probably lie- 
yondall other men in the world, with the business pf transla- 
tion, have furnished themselves with the .apparatus of print-; 
iti^, and have poured out multitudes of bibles, and portions 
of^ bibles, in many languages ; they have, during the same 
space of time, addressed innumerable discourses to the inha- 
bitants in explanation and enforcement of the ChristihB reli^ 
gion, have become intimately acquainted with the manner of 
thinking among these people, and accustomed to meet their 
oWeciions with dexterity and their abuse with self-command: 
alt this they have done, not only without die prbspact of 
any tempoml reward whatever, but with the certainty ofrc-i 
alising none. In the doctrines they have taught, they have'tibl 
incided substantially with many of the most venerable'and 
illustrious men the church of England ever had to Enast, and 
with the opinions, which beyuud all question its founders 
meant to express in its articles. All this is a ttifle wit* Dr. 
Bn-rovTi as if iuch men, and such proceedings were but sa 



r,o,i,,-,-,ih,.GoOglc 



^^^ Uviversiijf Sermfiasi\ 

obsfjuctioQ and a nuisance, in the waj^ of any undertaliingfor 
intro,d^cing the bibl^ ajid Chmtianitjr an^ong the heatnen, 
lie ,c^oraes aovln with a sweeping proposition, for the exertion 
oFouf- '.povyftr to e:£ctude ihem.' And this he does loo, with- 
out ha^iR in readiue&s, or in preparation, any men or means 
V>:t>iifceed tbem. Men,, oi mpre regular oraer, arc te be 
spniewliere,,, soinbtime obtained, to be sent to undei-go some 
y^&^iea<iOf)i|ig to the climate, are to begin to try their tongues 
ij),ar(iculaFin£ the particles of tbe Bensal langui^e, to toil foe 
fiOfiie^ears .in acquiring tne powtr of coiivetsing freely with 
tie najiy&s, and are then to look fqrwarJ, as tci a very jeniote 
aiUiiii^i^nt, to. the ultimate niasteiy tf the many otner verna- 
culi^ di^lectiy and the Sanscrit; all this while Uiey ire 
to be regarded, and to regard themselves, as the proper per- 
. spns to dis[)lnce men who can converse BucBtly with the na- 
fives of various countries at' Asia, and some oi whom cnn read 
iTie Puraiuu with almost ihe facility of ihe most Jeeroed Brab- 
mias. ^Iftbese men have a due nrtrtion of modesty, whal will' 
ibey think of their situation ? What can ihey thmk qF Eng- 
lish justice, Or English sense, when they sue such predpces- 
sora silenced itnd * excluded ;* and the system which they 
n&ye brought into opention, wrth xuA incalculable and ge- 
^i^r6u5 labour, nnceremoniously broken up ? With what Itintj 
of contciousn^s and reflections arf (hey to look at the print. 
ing-.pressei, [purchased for them, perhaps, frtim tbe mission* 
aries, who are no longer allowed to use them) lyins useless 
like lumber ih their pbssession, till that future penod when 
their a^itaiiiments may qualify them to begin inaliing some use 
ftt £Uch an implement? It is amazing lo btsar a sensible 
learned Ghrisiian preacher uVging a measure, that ihx-olres 
n|areicircimn$tancesQi injustice and absurdity, than the whole 
space of' d^e occupied by his discourse would have sufficed 
^.«ndmefate. 

. Ill spOie. of these p^agraphs, we are aware of fanving been 
led into repetitions we eoukl have wished to avoid ; but we 
^ust.lppe forgiven for wishing to expose, in a broad and 
|K^ttiept manner, that injustice and contempt' toward the 
da^s^oi extraordinary excellence, whicn Dr. B. can recofp- 
ineifd witij the most entire self-complacency. We are, ai 
i^e s^n}^ yioQ,^ ^^py (<> assure ourselves, that there can be 
put y^i^f.Qsisaas in bis sacred nrofe$:>lon of a sicfiilar spirit ; and 
tb^t th& mqwihers of thp establishment, in {ren«^l, wouldjnin 
{ii a mu(;n xppre animated reWohation of such illiberali^'^ mao 
we have ffllu^ed ourselves ta exsres^. ' , 

^jftfl. to 'perfect uniformi^^,''. It is, exceedingly strange at 
^his tiuif qf (Jay, »d ionfj .since tije^perio^ wheJl thp en^erqr 
t^lps 9!^e too, ob^exyaliou «ai,.bi8, wi/icjtiesi to hev »"** 

r,o,i,>,-,ih,.GoOglc 



. %j(hiBg «otpPt*f. As « ^MBsibility. TJrtre on be but one 
B^ .la Kngl^^ fKiitifnrmad, thai ii6 Fcn'oiulary of faittt tner 
qid orpv«r qh\ s4C^Fe iMiifunnitj' of upioion ) that do axjsting 
creed ^ foun^ w|>alfle of precliidiDg niimlwrlexs question* 
ana c4ntri)veri>ies»aMiT^ those wtto nrewilUng, oa die wbole, 
to suUcribe to (t- 'No creed, consisting of ii tnoiletatcly long 
series 6f artick'Si couM probably be se frametl, as not to tc^ 
quire U leiut a thousantl new articles, to. iix the definitive 
sense of the priOiHry ones, and guard it nUh evfTV nice di^' 
crimiuation, if it is really required that all the subscribert 
shall receive precisely the same idea from every t<;rm and 
clause of every Hitiele. But what can it be less thun this, tiiaC 
OUr preacher is requiring among the Christian teachers eiri- 
ployetl it) IiKliu? If it Ue .only a substantial conformity of 
li^thlo the artibles of the church of Kn^land, os explained by 

■ a very ifrcatnroporiion of its most leanied divinesj that he 
demands in the Indian missionaries, that degree of conform- 
ity a»4- omfertntty-, as we have said, exists already. 

We. will only add o»e a^Mtrvation ; — that perfect tinifonnlty 
of doctrine, wliitfh the preatrlter requires in the Christian teach- 
^Crs ii) ln(lifl, inordcrio give tbe natives an impres-^ton of tlt^ 
certainly of our religion, would produce the dirsrctly opposite 
eifect: u ttiuat tppear to them the result of collusion. They 
«re not, we suppose, to he taught, that all these teachers ar« 
iiHpired from i)«awn, and directed by an uniform itifaltible in* 
teilij^euce in all thur thoughts and words on the subject 
of religion. Tht'y are to be taught, that these menha^e 
f^ertbin Inspired books in their bands, but that all the inter- 
pretations of them, are purely the work of these fdhhie.tbougti 
Aonest, and thonghtful men. They witl soon percel** that 
the inspired authorities, though in inany juris of most per- 
ftctly decided incaning, and easy comprehension, do ye», in 
other jrarts, afford much matter for the exercise, and not a 
Utrfe (or tbe difficulty and doubtfuluoss of undur^anding. 
Their common sense will tell thei»> that their leaGhevsmust 
;<ead these documents, and deliberai*, and balance, and rea- 
son on them, with the sarae diversity, and in soaie points per- 
plexity, of opinion, as they do themselves. Now this being 
the case, if tlie missionaries are all found to agree exactly in 
fhe ojHnions they told forth, throughout tbe wide extent of 
Cbri$ttan doctrine, rfie intelligent natives will feel certain that 



this cannot be an honest iK^reement. They- will kn»w that sO 
piany distinct miads, eact thinking, with faonest simplicity 
•fld independence, on tfae very- mult^arioug doctrinal contents 
^an am])le vohime, never could come, -iu so n)any points, t» 
<hp saste conclnsion; and *herefftre tliey will bt soqn con^ 
viaced.tlte tvliole is a coocected sy»tom«> impose upfm th«n^ 



...Google 



a74 Opiaf'« Warrior'a JUhim. 

We are sorry tofind our limits novr absohitttly forbid «i^r 
obseiTBtion onMr.'NarBB's Sermon, h codtuns much good 
sense, with proofs of extensive learning; andts distinguisb- 
ed l>y meritorious oandour of spirit, ana siniptTcity ot style.' 
Wits much ingenuity and plausibility, the preacher rejife- 
sents the happy introduction which the Christian doctnnes 
will lind, to the acceptance of the Hindoos, through their own 
theological dogmas. We must say, that experience, if no other 
cause, wtruld make us exceedingly sceptical on this point: 
we cannot remember to hare read of any Hindoo conrert who 
profeised any obligatioHB to his heathen creed for inclining 
flim to the admission of Christianity, except, indeed, by 
meansof the contrast of evil with good. There is incompara- 
bly sOvinuch more that is utterly hostile to the true religion, 
than concordant with it, or analogous to it, in the Indian sys- 
tem, that we can see no slope for sliding smoothly from ^e 
one to the other. 

Art. X. Tie IVurrior't Rilurtt, and other Poem. By Mn. O^. 

8to. pp. 186. Fnce63. bdi. Longman and Co. 1808. 
fT is a well known fact, that pleasure in memory, as well 
■ as in hope, is sometimes sweeter tlian in enjoyment. This 
may be the case with us at present ; and our fond recollec- 
tion and preference of Mts. Opie's earlier poems, maybe a 
mistaken estimate of our former feelings and of her matnrer - 
works- Be it so ; we hope the book before us is even superior 
to its forerunner,-^ and we shall be happy to think so seven 
years hence ; at present we are not persuaded that it is 
equaL 

The principal merits of Mrs. Opie's poetry are elegance 
and tenderness ; its principal faults, feebleness and insipidity ; 
merits and faults so congenial, that we rarely find the for- 
mer, without an alloy of the latter. The converse of the 
proposition, however, is not true; every feeble and insipid 
writer is not consequently, at any time, elegant and tender. 

The contents of .this volume are exceedingly miscellaneous. 
It opens with two of the most horrible tales that we ever 
read ; which seem to have been written with the true Ger- 
man intention, and for no other purpose, — to cauterize 
and harden lie feelings, by making them familiar with 
scenes and occurrences the most shacking and repulsiveto 
humanity. Had these been written in the German tongue 
-^ as well as in the German taste, and two stories, English in 
* substance and tlnglish in style, substituted for them, every 
reader of unsophisticated sentiment, would have been pleased 
with the exchange. We do not blame Mrs. Opie so much 
{Qr.havingtold the taleaill, asfor not having tgut bettersto- 



... Google 



Opie's Warrm's Seiuthi. 275 

ries iitf Well. The first is the legend of a warrior, who re- 
turns from the. Holy Land, and linds, in his first interview with 
his wife, that his son has followed turn thither ; and aftev fur- 
ther mutual inquiries and explanations, discovers also ibat 

. be hai killed that son in .combat. Unfortunately for the in- 
terest of the piece, this. discovery is made much sooner by 
the readers,: than by the parties ; and the catastrophe, whicn ' 
should have broken like a flash of lightning upon both in the 
same moment, and at the very last Tine, is anticipated about 
the middle of the poem, and we hurry over the latter part 

. with impatieoce, in the vain hope that oar anticipation may 
be a mistaken one, that the gatlatit son may have survived, 
and that be will appear in the cijais of their alarm to rescue 
his parents frwn despair and madness. We therefore felt all 

.'-the bittanesB of dii^pointmcnt, because owr expectation was 
.fulfilled^ Mrs. Qpie is. not very suceessfal, because she is 

. veiy negligent, in the management (tf the measure which 

., she has. adopted in this poem. It ought to be anaptestic ; 
but it is often very weak, and generally very uneasy, from 
the number of motiosyllables which crij^Je' the' lines, and 
make the disjointed syllables fall like pebbles on a stone 
pavement, instead of rippliug like a rivUlet, as the true 
melody of the metre requires. 

With the secAnd story, bearing die romantic title of ' Ju' - 
lia, orthe Convehtof St Claire,' we are even less satisfied. 
It is indolently writtea in stanzas of four eight-syllable lines, 
Ae first and uiird having blank terminations, the second and 
fourth only rhyming : a score of which, (as far as the mere 
mechanism of the verse goes) might be made by any of the 
poets of the Westmoreland lalces, stam pecle in iino. We were 
vexed at this slovenliness in Mrs. Opie, because it is unwor- 
thy of her, and of her sex ; ladies' verses, like their persons, 

- should not only be attended with the Loves, but attired by 
the Graces. The .story itself is, however, more exception- 
able than the form in which it is related : it is one of the 
most wanton and wicked suicides ever committed in verse. 
A young lady kills herself, because a cruel and unnatural 
father 1ms doomed her to take the veil, that he may enrich 
her brother with her portion ; and she kills herself in the 
very moment when her lover arrives at the door of her cell, 
to inform her that her brother is dead, her father has re- 
lented, and she is the sole heir of her family ! — had she 
waited only one stanza longer, all would have been well* 
and the story would havo ended, as all good stories ought, 
in a wedding. We -mention this melancholy event as a warn- 
ing to all youne ladies, both in -prose and rhyme, who are 
withiit a syllable of despatching themselves; and We affec- 

. , Coo'^Ic 



374 Opte'8 Wgrrim'i Sefum. 

tionatdjr advue tbem in «U awi'h casei, to suspend ihe f«ul 
stroke fur a cmama or two, of bvena sdnticiilon, Iang«r than 
■a aeceesa^ t{> tlo dicir bil«iK4t ;' u it i»- iaqximVe to tell 
who may arrive in the very nrxt iine, or wtet miMcle may 
- be wrought to deliver tbem should tke knthtu' hup^cn to 
tsni over 3...new lefcf in their fk\-oitT'. 

Among the nunerons little |>ieeet thbt fintB-tlte bttlkof 
tfats Tolume, we pfefn: thoee id which the name of Henry 
occurs. It is of jto cotisaqueoce to us- 4d» Henry Was, or 
who he is ; the name is inspiratoon to Mn. Ofiis's taase, and 
Jove is die theme w winch she sings the sweetest and the best ; 
Do other can raise her harp aWve die middle pit»ly, bat' ^s 
bnogs toneK from it thai would vihrate thfaitgh t^ beait of 
Apauiy. We know not whether .thoLfljwn/'O*' the fiJMowing 
' Ballad, fbuBd«d on fact,''be the ^eneial AeCo of Mw. Opie's 
aoRg,ord(»ne other interesting ^wain^ ■ The-talc itself is very 
Eimpje,«nd wouldliHwc beeu.very -str^dng,'if.the«iJntt6tui'te> 
in which the issue is woEt imitfopeiiy faiiefitatlte<il^ . tmd been 
'(HHitted, ..•..■•■'■■.,'. 

« Roahd 70«hftl Ilmr/s i»itteM bed 

His ideiqitng fruiods and parMiipreMMit , - 

'Bw^tl^t [herj «jia raised Ins 'hngvid head 

He loved far more than al] ikf. reM.. 

Food mitBal tore tiieir IiOMns fire^ j . 

Arii neadf dawned \\it\T iiridal ioy, 

'When every hop^ ttt onceezfiinid, 

for Henry ga his death, bed Jly. i 

Tbe bal truth the sulfetvr read ' ! 

In wee]»Dg Locf'a dovrncan eye : < ' : 

" AndntuBtli must I, dien," he odd, ' ^■' 

"£rethou agtmine, my Lucy, die! 

•'"No.. . deign togratitinf last, liBtprayer; 

Twoold soothe thy lover's parting tm^, 

WooidBt thou with me tD church n^iiirt ' . 

Ere yet I feel the strcte of duth. . . 

"For tniat.me, lore, I shail my hfc 

With scmething like to joy rc«igi^ 

If I but DQce may call t^iee wile, 
■ And, d jing, claim and hail thee loiDe," 

He cea«edi and Lticy checked the thought 

That he might at the altar die,.„ 
' The prayer with Huch true low |WM fraugld^ . . 

How comd she suoh a prayer dcnjf i i 

Theyr»:achedtbecharch.,..berdiedtwa» wate , ... 

With chilling feara of coniiag'woe.'.. ■ 

- . But triumph, when the rjtBi,beg*i!, ..i. . 

J>flt Henrj's (ieek a flatterii^gUw. , , ..■ 



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Opie's J^ai^iar's Jlelurn. 277 

Tlie,naptul knot wa^ scarcely tied, 
.When Henry's eye strajiee lustre fired ; 
."She's ipineldje'i.mlncT" he faheriog eriedi 

The four copies of verses called " Secret Love" are re- 
printed, without acknovfledgement, from Mrs, Opie's'own 
tale of 'The Orplian.* They are exquisitely dalioate uMt 
tiouchfng^^ and possess an iuexpressibfe cliarm of tender- 
ness, tmith all who read must feel. The concluding couplet 
of the third of tbe$e' beautiful iagateUfs resembles, (probably 
without plagiarism) « couplet in one of Dr. Yonng'a Satires. 
; •HylooV. the typeof .Vila's snows, 
My heart of jEtna'r *ecret fires." p, 156. 
' para's like JSXia, crown'd with lasting mows'! 
; AyitlboDtthefreeieii'tnit within she glows:' 

Yoang's Uiawrtal Paitita, 
'Ia.t}ie foUt^ngipgeni^us simile, Mrs. Opie seems to have 
imitated a very exquisite one of her o»». 

* Aflfd olt we see gay ity's' wreflth 

Tbc tiM with BrilHwt bloom e'erspread, 

WheVi nrt itt leasts,, and gaze beoeath, 

W<Mtbe hidden tree isdead.' p. 1^. 

In bcr former volume we luid, P^g^ ^St 

* A £ice of smile*, a heart of ttara I 
So ia the ebwchyari (realnt Of death)} 
'i'ha tiirf itureosiog Tcdure .weara. 
While all iB pair 3^ dead beneath.' . 

Mrs, Opie is Irequei^tly careless and prosaic hotb in IwT- 
diction and m her Terse ; as for iostaDce in the fcdluwua^ 
lines. 

* Till c<M Acuity b<r hud ipp.'fes.' p. 90. 

' A shield to guard thee against Faticy't p«wer.' p. 91. 

Sometimes she admits inadmissible rliyiUes, as 
< How bleat weM I 19 waich eacli charm, 
"nut decks thy vale m itonns or calw.'' p. 61. 

Occasionalty she is obscure and iucopgruous ju metaphor. 

* And thee. Sublimity ! I bwl, 

Throned ' on the gieim of Borrowdale.' p. 60, 
W^ have freely found fault with this favourite of die pub- 
lic i because slie is a favourite of ours also, — because she has 
more occasion for one friend to teH her of the bletnisbes, 
tliap for t thousand to tdl her of the beauties of her poetry ,.<— 
aud because we arc persuaded that slie seldom writes as well 
as she can, though her undisiiBguisUing adtoirefit Tua'y tliii^ . 
that ?U«; writes weU enough. 

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t 278 J 

An. XT. 7%! Trial of tiailmaal^olaid Mmkekim, -^ th£ Rcgat C^fT 
of Enginart, by a Gaieral Courl-Mmiiia/, (^c. on five Oiu^es, pre- 
ferred against bim by Sir Thomas Tiijrge, K. B. licuteaant-General 
of the Ordnance. With a Pre&ce, and explanatorjr NotM- By Ailam 
Oldham, Solicitor. 8vo. pp. 176. PriteSi. 6d. Bunerworth, mtebard, 
Burditt. 1808. ' 

TpHE proceedings of courts-martial are certainl^_ not amen-, 
able to literary tribunals, as suljuects of cntidsui; but^ 
on inspecting the pamphlet now before us, it ai^>eari to 
have an undeniable claim upon our attention, as avowed 
friends of virtue, and of our couotry. Tbe .topic of mili- 
tary inquiry, also, at the present crisis, b&comes.a matter (£ 
no small interest and importance, to the public at large. 
While our national independence bo powerfully rests oa the 
fidelity and zeal of our brave countiymen in anna, we ctDDot 
but feel much satisfaction in observing the complete jiuttfi- 
cation, and the distinguished honour, which have accrued 
to the character of Colonel Mackelcan, from the ordetJ to 
which he has been subjected. 

The essence of military merit is not dependent on- cisrcum- 
stances that make it publicly known ; especially in tbose 
departtnents of our army, wherein every officer rises by ie> 
niority. Col. M. must, by his present rank in the corps of 
Engineers, have spent many years in the service oi bi» 
country ; but his lot does not appear to have been cast in 
spheres of conspicuous exertion and brilliant exploit. Had 
it not been for a string of unfounded charges, which he 
has been compelled to refute, the puhfic might scarcely have 
heard of one, whom General Morse, the commander of his 
corps, testifies to be 'an officer of the best ability in hia 
profession, an honourable and upright man, and one of the 
most zealous officers he ever knew;' and (vhom Major-Ge- 
neral Twisa ' has always considered, in point of integrity 
and ability, as a very meritorious officer ; having been a 
witness to some instances of his zeal, which he scarcely 
ever saw exceeded.' (pp. 127, 128.) Sir Thomas Trigge, on 
whom devolved the ungracious task of prosecuting such an 
officer, acknowledges, Irom his acquaintance with these g^- 
tlemen, that * a character could not come from a better 
source ;' yet he seems to have been desirous of invalidating 
their testimony, by adding) ' that these officers do not appear 
to have had much opportunity of observing CoL M's.'con- 
duct.' (p. 165.) Strange, that they should not be adequate 
judges of one who must have served in the same corps with, 
theip,, probably for thirty yeacs! — arid stranger still, *hat |ter- 
aons of so high responsibility should commit their ov^n' 
ch&ractier, by a testimony, for which they had not in(0sput-' 



..V. Google 



TVial^Iaeia. CoL Afackekan. 279 

able fToftad ! !' If any thing can render the prosecutor's ee- 
mork yet more wonderfnt, it is, that every officer who had 
served under Col. M. and who bad opportunity to bearwib- 
ness on this occasion, coaaurred in giving to his whole oon- 
duct the most ample and zealous applause ! ! ! 

From the contents of this pampnlet, as printed from thd 
Judge Advocate's minutes of proceedings, it appears that, 
Col. Mackdcan' had, for ten yeai^, heen commanding en- 
gineer of the Norman islands ; that improprieties, in soma 
branch or other of the ordnance department in that station, 
excited' the attention of the Board { that some clerks of ths 
ordnance were sent over, as commissioners, to investigate 
the fact; that these persons, (who were probably very little^ 
versed in military transactions) were so grossly imposed upon 
by people of mean stations and very questionable chamc- 
terR, as to bring various criminal charges against Col. Mac- 
kelcan, because he had, in certain instances, when the exi- 
gencies of the service and the public imperiously demanded 
it, fulfilled the spirit of his duty incompatibly with the letter 
-of those general instructiuis which are given by the Board to 
.their officers. In consequence of this, without having been 
hiced by a single witness, he was superseded in his com- 
mand, and kept in suspense for many months, respecting the 
nature of die charges to be advanced against him; as well 
as in ignorance of the witnesses that were to be brought 
forward, till called upon to make his defence. This he has 
perfoimed^ notwithstanding, in a clear and impressive man" 
.ner. 

The members of the court<martial, including four genend^ 
-and eleven field officers, (mostly of the Koyal Artillery) close 
tfaeif sentence in this remarkable manner: — 

< Ami upon fiill comideratioo of the whole matter, are of opinion, that 
.l4entta«iit-coloiKl Mackelcan has been guilty, in aorneinttancea, of dia- 
.otiedieiKe of orders and irn^darity. of conduct ; but it appearing that he , 
faai not an any occanoa been actuated by motives of pei-aonal intereit, but 
AD the coaparv by an ardent zeal for the public good, they only adjudge 
^lieutenant coloael Mickelcan to be reprimanded .' 

An officer, who has 'been actuated on every occasion, tiot 
by mobves of personal interest, but, on ^e contrary^ by 
.an ardent zeal for the public good,' in trifling departures 
from regulations which obviouslv cannot be ad^ted to every 
exig«acy of the service, would probably appear to most 
persoot of such humble intellects and retired habits as our- 
.'•elvei, (iiuiead of deserving even a simple reprimand, which 
was itself the slightest censure that could be given,) tqhave 
merited the approbation, and the tfaanlts, both of his sove- 
raigD and bis conntry. It is not easy to account for the appare'nv 
iQcoDgmity of the court-martin's decision, unless it be n^ 

Google 



899 Tnii^pLiad:. CM/Jfa^^ferk 

^ari^.as ft cnpi^i>inik«v (^vcb airuftrvtticnbwh' t«l»e scNne' 
ticiict .blade bjr .^ufivs iii cjvibcQteta) witlioutnlqcltHiVig^ 
' bBvel»4^n,)nipasBU7ie u»,^riFa.at any coiictuslAn. 
. Th^lHsf,: btic not the lesst'. siutter of lurprisc, wliicfa' bap 
occurred to us m p.efn£nig dua pamphlet; afite* fniin a letter 
which is stati-^ to h3ve heeii' addressed on the oocuion to 
tltc uoiMmssdihg ofBcer of the troops in Guarnssy, by bis 
royal liighiuess tiie Commatitkirm chief. It cIokin in tti&fel- 
lowing terms, the severity of wbicb can only havt arisen, we 
presume, froai hit 'ardent zeal for the piuilic^ooi,^ 

* 1 have it further in. coirnnand to tiewre you wilt cenrey to Lieutenant 
. Colonal Mackelcan hia mojeAy'i great regret, th(i[ an o^er of «ueli long; 
-service And. l>igh character, ihould hareexposad himwir to th;S' Reserved 
^t»ure; acid ab o to .communicate to tuni, tJiat nothing fafk a conttdcra- 
.tioD of hit eernces and char^ter could hare induced bit msjeny . u> 
coofimi the lenient aentfUicc of the Qgqrt* woQithe varioitt cluirge* cf 
. vhich UeuteoaDt Colonel Mackekan hai been fauad guilty-' f. .168. 

We cannnt wish belter ta the Board oF Ordoance, in (he 
flpproaching public inveati^tion of ii&d'r proceetSngs'; or, to 
anj^ iociividual, from the highest to the lowent, wiio&e Con- 
duct ,may, u,t any tinier lie suhjept^d <to military Inquiry, 
lban» thtkt Mri/ may appear, to li^ve heon gctuaieiy an !ev>ry 
nccaaent not ny tnotmeSof personal interest^ ioft (ot tl^e con- 
trary) hy an ardent, zeal fir the puldk good. If ismoi for 
.Ds to judge iwliat reparation the Board of Onlnance will make 
Col M. fur tlie ijcrious injury that he has received front false 
RQcusatioi). His charactori. indeed, is not only aocured, hvf 
emblazoned ; and bis brevet promotion, we' perceive, ie 
accorded from the ' dltte of its ■ aiispension j but we 
doubt not iJiiit ho and the public must \ym^ bsea sub- 
jected to cspencfls, a hundr«d-foId grantor rthan ihe daMUge 
.tvbtcb the luller was e'vrn preteiiij£(l to ha.v,e t^3i'Ke(i;ftQn the 
!in:egii1arities Jiiid to his chftrgi^ It. tkucoiDCa lua MrneoMrJi, 
ihftt they wt>re. aetiiaUy aatui^tf of the public < uionoy^'Mui 
wene «vidci)iiy desigaed foi' no other iMHrf>Me. . - ■ 

The iiioti.v.<s for publtaking this trial, a f« cleRt^y snd f^- 
cibly sia-ed, in a sensible prefticel That it- shoifld ' excifa 
n>uph in,t©rasti.n thti corps of Engineers, anil, ipnch -aitailety 
for. the saieiy and Itpnoin- of the party acattScd/i Ria^ -ha 
easit^y conceiveil,.aftt'r , the litateme^t which t*£ have giv«». 
At this juiietui'Oi: ikQMeyfr^ when , evivaj' EnglisJiiiitia nuiat 
-feel ctificsFtied^n tbt; .sepniity of .uprigivt, -zealous, and^bU 
officQi's frQnt.obliM^uy .uiuLpririuioiij and nEtefi'^tbacpublif; 
etlentioii is strongly .b^nti to the .luilitMy adnrimutratiou tif 
our ai|ii>i'», the pamphlet mny vecy poopecly .jiwaleena strong 
.inteJt'St, for 'be}4ri[id t^te ltmit& ef.thoso; depsitmciiifi which 
,ar« .under tW Rurrtroul of .titc Board of .OnUKUce, or'^Qvea 
^J^ose of the sirmy in gtyu^rat . < .■.-'" . 

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'• ' ( 881,)- -, ... , .. 

An. Xlt. 7% FamUy Pittun, or Dimftiu E^ati<m-i t -Poetic Epii. 
tie from a Couot^ GeDtleman to hia Colkge Frieod the Bishop of 
•*••*••. Isimo. n>. 70. price 2b. Cradock and Joy. Walker. 1808. 
A MONO die frw Writer* of poetry whom \n could wiak to write 
morp, ia the aaoDytKMs ambar of * The ramily Picture.' • Both hii 
principlei aad ht« tatentt have very reiwctable chami to our esteem. His 
opinions on Education in {>eneralr on the moral ioefficacy ordaiger of all 
syatemt from which religious inttniction is exdndedt on tbe evils of 
piU>Iic aeminaries, on the dtsirablmcis of private tuition, c^cially for 
femalest on the dissipations of the aget aiul oo domestic dudes, appear 
to u> aubttantialty correct ; and it ia not of importance to specify the 
few insiancei in which we think his remarks exceptionable. 'The poem 
exhibits several pleaung scenea, apirited sketches of character) and . 
striking seotiments, generally in simple forcible lai^age,faUt occasionally 
with considerable elegance : there ia muchpCHBt and hamobr -in some o£ 
the satirical reflections, not unmipgled with strokes of gebuine padioa ; 
and the Terttfieatiott ia distingaisJied hy a remarkable eae'rgyf freedom^ 
ar)d Variety. On the other hand, we have to comptaini Utat the per- 
fiHmaoce, taken altogether, is very imperfect and superficial, that^the , 
Terse is ofEen rendered intolerabU rugged and intricate by h^r^ ellip^* 
and awkward inversions.: and i^ ia no unreasonable fastidiousness to 
observe still more reseufuilyi that phrases, and whole passages, arp' 
introduced, with whatever good design, .ao much in the manner of tl^ 
dasdcal satiiiats, that no latfy would choose to give diem utterance. 

In a passage which stroogly reprxdMtes tbe representatlan of liqentip^s ' 
Xatirt plays hy the . yAnths of our public schools, and exposes the baAeni) 
influence of uncorrected classical studies, we observe tbe foUowjPS just 
JWrk; ' 

' Dipt thus in Agao^pe's dye all o'er 
We rise rank P^^ns to the very core. 
^or woodei:, if we deem ourselves debag'd 
ByChriitiaDtneekD^s; orwitb sick distaste 
Turn from ^e texts, that stew, ia simple str^n. 
Poor erring o^thow riciousandhow vain!' ' pp. Il- 13^ 
The. author'* rcfsrencw to Ids family Jiave all the disttoOMM u4 
trndenteM of truth ; the following is asi intcKstiiig ipeoinm. 

• But yeiter mom, eccentric as I rov'd, ■ 

I sketch*d a little groupe of forms belov'd j 
Tho' (not like academic picture fair) 
E^rental fear infiia'd its colouring there. 
W^th early steps, thro' forear foliage dark 
" * £ iK*lC, ere carol'd at « heaven-gate^ the latfc. 

AIT Was one ^uiet gloom.' Slept i; very breez*: ' 
Thef cold inOpn sunk behind the sHeirt tre« : 
And 6n their trunks as miits hung gleaming gr^. 
And faint stars twinkled in the dawfl rf day. 
Stay on my sallow path leaf, afier leaf, 
, Is'sdtlness fell. A momentary grirf . ■- . 

, ; 51iAk!'d the stardnft tear. And " 1" I oisd, ■ 
- •• I^A stiidl I fiid, uid Am all hnnut prid< 1 
V01..V. Y 



r,o,i,,-cdtyGoOglc. 



389 AriHBtrong*! Ekmetits of the tatin Tongue. . 

■ ■ ' •• YrtimsjiM tn nwyace 1 re-Jippwr, 

" lUch a freih leaf, to spread and flouriA here j 
'" And on each product of a fruitfiil' spnog, 
.*< Hopei and chill itfjt their rays and Bhadowi fling i 
■' Shew ffftdor^ in brown vigour suxit and atmind). . 
■< Thro' itornu adhering to his oakea brancbi 
■* Unwi^ering, tho' aronnd the verdure fa<fe> 
" And the lait-kit of all the sumnter-shade ; 
■■ Shrink from my puny WUrunn'i aspin hue, ■ ■ 

" And with his aspiu ti'einaur tremble too ; 
*■ Piiint in the pleanant easf of artless- 'Jaae 
** The graceful leaf that flows along the j>tane ; 
*' la Ann^t retiring bloom, her virgin pnote, 
'' Ita coy sweets shut from dayt the fragraitt lime ; 
" In Kali, the sticculcot green sycamore, 
** And its rich sun-tints, varied, every hour — 
" Yet ail-^ow dance iii air our quivering joys — • 
. . . : .« J^ A breath enlivens, and a breath dei;troya !" pp. 6%-~^\, 
We scarcely expect that onr brief nctice of this little poem will pro- 
cure fat it so much -of the public favour as Bevtrml excellent patsagfea in 
it deierre ; but we hope it may incite the author to undertak« and care- 
folly complete florae other- performance, more Worthy of, his abilities, and 
better intitled to lasting fame, ■ 

Art. XIII. ElemenU pf the Latin Tongue i with aU the Rules, in 
English. By the Rev. Robert Arrastruug. 2d. ed. 12mi). pp. 116. 
2s. 6d, Mawraan. . . 

TF it were possible, in this land of freedom, to effect an uniformity of 
school books, and especially of thoie used in learning Latin and 
Greek, the advantages, both to masters and scholars, would be great. 
Almost three hundred years ago, siich an uoiformity was commanded, 
by royal proclamation. In the course of the last centory, however, inno- 
vations have been itilrodtced to a wide extent ; but we fear that . none of 
.the Ne^ and Edsy Methods have succeeded half go well) in laying tb« 
■itmodation of sound claesioal learning, a( the old aad ettiblidwd one. ' 

It is to the prajpe.gf the volume before us, thatit deriatM ai little U 
potable from the old method. It it, infac^ a i^publicatioiv of the Eton 
Accidence, almost vtubaiim : with the addition oTa synoptic table of the 
Declensbnsi and a luller account of the ImpcrtoDal - and- Defective 
Verbs. Mr. Arm'stronsisblaniable foi* h^viugaaded nothing tothe veiy 
meagre account, whiablic has copied, of. the Adveiba and Conjunctiont, 
An arranged list of eac]^ he might easily have borrowed fromVouiuior 
the fiulilniiaiut .of KudduS^Qj .aifd such lists would be exceedingly ler- 
vice^le to leamert. ..ThfgSyntax a;id Prosody jrei as the title pro- 
nuBes. in EwIUh ; atid,jbf th are comprehensive, persinciiqas, and well 
arranged. ' The latter ^gSal's.to great aflv'ani^ge, on conipapsbn with the 
very poor and defectiva J?rflimiia«f jthe Eton, or tit.protptybe Lilly'it 
Grammar. When the compiler was iii so good a course of i^u imprave- 
nent, we woi^dtf that be should neglect togive'a secnoti.Qii the qoso- 
tity of the pcDult; of £'atronym'ic% of Dtpiuistives id tAitAOd tihu, «t 



ih,Googlc 



Bakewell's Ohs&itatiom imWool. St3 

Adject)Teiii)d£f, iSt, tail/, &c. Several, muderaut ckiHi of lylUUei 
might be comprehended uodera fev ahort rules, which, in the common 
KhoolB, boys Recount for bjr the allegBtioD'Of ■ xuthork;,' b aolution too 
often the reiource of ignorance. We bave noticed, a few overtightt; 
VQcb as, that / ii called a double contanatit, aod U ' laid, without any ex- 
planation or limitatioRj to lengthen a pTeceding'TOweL We alio diaap- 
prove of the abience of the LjuId Tcraified ntlea. Th^ might be printed 
ID a few jagtB at the end, and thdr lue, of conrse>left to die opdoa of 
maatere. 

Art. XIV. OhaiiatioM on tit It^atme »f Soil end CUauiU upm Wn^i 
from which ii deduced, a certain and eaay Method of improTiog the 
Quality of English Clothlne Wools,^ and preserving the Health of 
Sheep ( with I£nu for the Munagemenc of Slieep a^ Sheanur ; aa 
iDqnirjp into the Structure, Growth, and FonoatioD of Wool and Hair ; . 
and Itemarl^s on the Means by which the Spanish Breed of Sheep may 
. be made to preserve the best Qualities of its Fleece unchanged by 
difietent ClimatM. By Robert BaLewell. With occasional Notes and 
, Remarks, by the Right Hon. Xjiud SomerviUe. 8vo. pp. 157. Price 

5s.6(i.bds, Harding. 160S. 
■'T'HE method whidi Mr. Bakrwcll proposes, for improving the quality 
''" of English clothii^ wool, is the application of an unguent tath« 
skin of the sheep. ' His tacts, relaUng to this practice, appear to be faiHy 
•tated, and his deductions rational and plausible. In thenocthern coun- 
tries, and in Scotluid, a custom has immcmorially prevailed of using what 
-they calllbecpsalve, being a mixture of butter and tar, in the proportion 
of one gallon of tar to twenty, pounds of butter,as a preservative against 
the inclemency of winter in those Ueak and exposed situatians. 1^ 
whole of the Cironaa,'aod Virginia thin tar, ^ which is far- more liquid 
than the tar from the more northerly of the United States,} imported at 
'Liverpool and Glasgow, is sold for this use. Whether during the present 
''suspension of our intercourse with America any substitute for this ingre- 
dient has been adopted, we know not. The pi-actice, however, having 
' been found, in the Northumberland and Cnmberlsnd wools ihat have-fallen 
under Mr. fiakewell's inspoctioo, to soften the staple and Tender it silky, 
he recomnKods it to general atl^uiott. 

* It were to be desired,' he says, ' that a cheap atibitilute for tar could 
be foimd, because if used in a considerable' quantity it commupicates a 
dark tinge to the fleece, ^vfaich renden it unsuitable for the brigbtest 
' dyett aad for those goods which are .finished white, as blankets and 
•tmred ciothi; on, which account, I would recommend a 'quantity of 
bees-wax to be melted with hotter,' hogs-Jard, or olive-oil, and if any tar 
'. be u«ed, that it should not be in a greater proportion than one quart, to 
*'tSQ pounds of the mixture.' 

£ees-wax, batter, hogs Jard, and otive-oil are'«nfortUDately all expensive 
' aittclcs, if tabcpnrchasedtpatti<»larly theiut; and on ^s ttibfect. we 
< Miili take the opportnni^ to exfcesa our r^iet that the production of ve> 
• -sn^ieoils continoes to be so nnch neglected Jn this country. ;• Though 
^'UK-ixlivc is pot sotted to oar blimate, let ui profit by the ejiample of 
. 4Nr.«oatiiieatai nd^iboHn. . la Oerrouy and ia fraoM* .aa excellent], 
. wiineMaMt aadpahtable td is iaam from the leedi of the, cMoipflBgardca 

. Cookie 



tomyi vihidi li coldtned in large '^laatitiei tx thtt pnrtoK. In Hol- 
Jand and in wwr^ pirti of Omnmr, the a aam te fitldi of rape and 
toksetA tarpLBt the luxnriaitce of wncatt in tlidr tiob jcUdw bat, and 
«qnal it in the profit derived from the oi!a which they proaooe t tfa^ ax 
Vktvae all excellent alnnutin and inepantiTe for while crqw. Theac 
^li wookt uoite, eipiallf wdl as bnoer or krd, with tar or beet-mx- 
Lord S<Muerrilie miegeau the uie of yellow odire. It ia a gmtf clay» 
its colour ia thtt </^ the wool ttsdf t ithaifin- s Im^time becniuedui 
Spain in iu natural atatet with a view pofaapa to produce thia effect, the 
rending Ibc vtxd aiifcj. 

The influence of soil npon wo<d,Mr. BakewcU contidera aanot being 
exerted inteTDdlljr, by meant of die food, bat externally) by laeana of the 
AAidti oS the ioA upon the fleece, either by insiDuatiBff ita narticka ioto 
Ota Sixes, or chemically unithig wttfi ita lutfece. To thu' theory we 
CoDfen Oaraetvet, with Lord SotterriUe, not dtapowd implieitly to aub- 
acribe i and it Wodd Tei^nire a raorc extended obanrvation and record of 
^tu, than ate detailed l^ Mr. Bakewell, to ettabH^ it, afthnigli he la> 
boura with conndenUe ineenmty fer that putpoae. lltOB^ Mr, B> haw< 
tttr falli rather short in tS^ and in aoine Other, tbeMetic pans <^1^ pub- 
licauoQ, he haadeserred well of the coouminity for the practical iafefeBces, 
and experience of facta, \riiidi fae Haa detailed on tiuatn^onaBt wtgen. 
He ii a great advocate for abelteriog iheep in, winter aad at i^^; ft prac- 
tice that cannot be too much nrged. Upon the whok, we heartily recOa>< 
Mend diis little bocdc to the grOwert of wool aad fuoKTs throt^hont 
the koigdom. Jta appeadkea aad paaticripta give it ralber a deewtory 
- K ; aome of the aentcncea are tortaoua and obacare, and Mr. ^. 

) the Tulear im[Hrofniety of confounding the verba Ay and /ir> 

But in wotkc of oua kind nch fiudts are very pudonahlet 

Alt. XV. Tie M(yfUmM Lmgav[t ef Si. P<niJ,M hit Dtttrtflien rf 
, Iht Matt of Sm, firovedfiom fie Gaifiel ^ffitUry t» telale out fo the 
Chitrck ^ Reme, ha to tke Timet U wAuk it mat writteuj with aome • 
Remarks on Sir H. M. Wellwood'a ^erraoni on Matt, xitlv. 14. By 
N. Nisbett, M.A. Rcctwof-Tunstall. pn. 88. Price 2a. 6d. Riving- 
tona. IfiOS. 
1WR. N. ia one of the dabblers in pYq)beqr, jand' cancciTea -that frotn 
time to thne he ia making n^w ditcoveriea in that department Of 
theological acieoce. Hia detign, in thia pinlix and bulky paMphlct^ ta, 
-40«cquiiintthe world, that the Apoatle Paul.in hia prediction of the Mm 
^<«f Sin, 2 TbeiB. ii. had tfaeadme dijectinviewas wr.Loirfabd Saviour 
-iad ia die twedtj^'fbuitb ch^Mr df the Oo^ by fit. MadUoW j taranlp, 
ihe deatruction of Jemiakm b^lbe RonumtL 

It haa geiiendlyb«eo.K^>oaed, ihat it Waa theidesign df a^.^udto 
foretel the corniptiona of the phuidi of Koree, an^ the 'daatncttve 
inrsCOn (^ aupAwtiBD,. idolati^, and mllTWanhqi, which fqr aga biuied 
tbetrudi miCM- heapa of ataomiiiaiiona, and iptMd iciror, iwicfa»d|iB<i> aad 
tfli^iry, oVer thegt«ltM)fan<a£Chiiatoadiiai>. SUa'iotmRiatid^^Iikh 
'has Men -pretty geOtnd abxw Pratetnot <li*ibe(,-Mr..M.'ia|ectat( mb- 
ceiviOg tfaftt hehal oatnfactonly pranid that thd: .ftqilxoy oif^thiljiUilAf 
• tin haa no r^Mwc* M the chwai of Kbow, hatiit'-deiigDed'IOjpmfict 
-theet«beo>Mrtlirtwtf the Jewiab polity. F'* -^itiirtf B^^iwot tJirt npf 



Vaugbui's Narrative of the Sttge of Zarageza. St5 

die rimUari^ of the tan^ge lued by oar Lord and bit pottle ; and he 
irnagines it to be cooclusive. But what ii more nataial, than tfaau.as thet« 
may be a rMemblance betwen tWQof Cbiufgcnemieit in tlieir^rit, their 
character, and in the erenti of their linal niin, lo ibere should be a 
icsemblance in the lannagE made hk of to detcnbe them i Hia oilwr 
reaioni have litde wrigfit. 

la a note at theclowihe wgueictrciHiouslyagainit SirHeory Moncricfi' 
Wellwood't eiqxwtion of BomeTAsMM Matt, xxw ; aDd'iiisi«ta that the 
application of any iwrt of that prediction, to the da^ of judgeraeu, ia * an 
hypothesis most iqurious to the cauie of Christiaucy ;— apd if ia&lditf 
mcreaan. k can. tie no aiatter of sunimei whfs auch vethodB of i^ 
teqtntioc Scajtm are Fee oited to." We iatrtat Mr. N. to lay ^ide hif 
ffloDD^.de^MMencyi ud takecoun^. The progress or decay of Cl>nar 
mnity dcet «M dep^ oa the i^teipretatviD of a siofle prediction ijia^ 
m b%ieare to MOs«le him witb the asnmoce that the rcUgioi) of Jea^f 
k loainff no groMd. VHwivrer that , roJigioo if ?*^f and faithfi^ 
pKubedt aad - thii m the casf in a greater nHmber of p^c» than it 
ever .was beibre* jt t* uwatntly croivwd with wiccets, aoa is every ye^ 
extending bi conquett*. 

Aft. XVh . Kaiietal Lift jfanialia r comprizinr all the Tables, and ■ 
every neoeasary Infiuin^tiott, coDtaiited in the Act of Fa'rliameV &r 
fftaqtiBg the same, both on Single and Joint Lives, with Ben^t of 
' Sunrivorahip ; also, Additional Tabfea, anneied to the former through- 
ont t calculated to ahew what Annuity can be purchased far One Hun? 
dred Pounda Sttrliag;, at the same lutes upon the same Lives. 'By 
E.F. T. Fortune, Stockbroker. 8to. pp. 96. Price a». GA, Bdosey. \W9. 
npH£ cojuoiis title, given to this pamphlet, leaves us but liftlo to say rela- ' 

tive to ita contents. The tables, which are in number tvtu, ancl ahew 
the yearly amount of life annuities granted on one or two' liv^ and the ^- 
Torihip, at difierent price* of the three per cent, coosola, are preceded 
by aD abttract of the Act of Parliamrat for granting Liie Annuitieff 
Mued bat fear. The coirecmess of the tables inducted in (he Act of 
.Parliament is a poiol not referable^ to our tribunal : but aaauming their 
truth as the basis of the computations by which Mr. Fortune formed hit 
additional tables shewing what annuity may be purchased at different ages 
for 100 pounds sterling, we think'it right to say, that, fi^m the exami- 
- nation of .•evBralpaiticulan takw promiscuously, we believe them to be 
^ry accurate. The pamphlet ia neatly printedi and teems extremely free 
from press eiron. 

Art. XVII- Sarrative of the SUge e/Zaragoza. By Charlea Richard 
Vanghan, B. M. Fellow of All Souls College. Oxford, and one of Dr. 
RadclifFe's Travelling Fellows from that University. Third Edition 
with CorrecLions and Additions. £vo. pp. S3. Price li. Ridgway. 
1809. 
XJOW different wovld have bean the coni^ion and destiny of the 
Speoitih a&irs, had it been ppasible for the mass of that un- 
fortunate pecqtle to tuve been animated by the same spirit, and e^uided by 
the tame ucill, as are described in tbii valual>le pamphlet! . Thi^te can , 
be no doubti we presume, either of iw geauioeoest or ita authenticity. 



r,o,i,,-,-,ih,.GoO(^'lc 



, 28S Lectures of a Pretqrtor fo.kii Pupils: 

The account it gives of the memorable dereace of Sarpgi^u i* exc«tl- 
iDglf suiking; the inhabitanta of'thnc city appear to have ditphyed an 
fottmsiaitic bravery, and a daumlraB, indelatigaUe fortitude, anrpassed 
by nothing in all hiitory. The stretts^ blocked up wiih batteriea, and, 
heaped with dead, on both lidei, were the (ceae of. perhaps the most 
tanguinary and obstinate conflict that was ever c^riied gn udthio the walb 
of uiy city on earth. The disdncliOM «f aeci seXi and rank, the con- 
cera for property, the love of liie, crefy uiog wsu lost sight of, in 
, tlus a«t(HUBhing bfau of heroism. ' ' 

■ AngustinaZaragoza, about 22 yeftrs of a^, a handsome womanf 
of the tawer dlatis of ihe people, whilst' perfbrmiog her doty of carrying 
refreshments to the gates, arrived at the battery of the PortUlo, at tbe 
very moment when the French 6re had absolutely de<troy«l ere^ perKm 
lltat was ^t^tioiied in it. The citizens, and soldiers, for ihe moment.he* 
■itated . to re-man the guns; AuguHina rushed fofward over tbs 
vounded, nd' dain, snatched a match ' from the hittd t^ a dead arr 
tillerymaO) aikd fired off' a S6 poitnder) then Jumpii^' ufMni the gun, 
mads .1 solemn vow never to ^uit italivp during the tiege, and having. 
Stimulated her fellow-citiEent by this daring intrepidity to fresh exertiont, 
they instantly rushed into the battenii aqa ag^in opened a tremendous' 
^re upon tbe enemy. When the'wnter of these pages saw this heroin© 
at ZarasOza, she had a small shield of honour embrcndered upon the , 
•Iceve of her ^wn, with •■ Zarago^j,". inscribed upon it, and was re- 
ceiving a pension from govenUDcat and die daily pay of an anilleiyn»n.' 

At one time, when the French were in possession of half the towiia 
the following laconic note was sent by ihe commanding officer, requiring 
the inhabitants 'to surrender ; Quarltl Central — Santa £ngnKUi-~£a 
. Ca/iiialacha." It was ahswered In the same ttyle, with a declaratioa of 
" war even to the knife," a weapon much in use among the Arragonese j" 
Quarlel GcMral—Zara^m^—Guerra al CtichiUi^~~i'alafax." After a 
series of most dreadful sMguIts and struggles, carried on, with some in- 
termissions', for two months, the French retired, on receiving inMlligence 
of a considerable body of troops being on the way to reinforce the inha- 
bitants. Tbe writer concludes with assuring us, that 'though he saw ik 
Zaragoza many a parent who had lost his children, and ra;my a man re- 
duced from competence to poverty, he literally did not meet with one 
human being who uttered tlie sJightesr complamt ; every fceKng aeemed 
to be swalfowed up in the mfmary of what they had recently done, an4 
in a just hatred of the Frtnch.' 

It is a^mei-ncholy reflection, that the brave citizens and their gallant 
chief are protably at, lt)ts very momint undergoing another siepe, and 
enduring new sufferings, wjth na hope but that of ricquirinjj fresh glory. . 

An. XVin.* iMlarci of i PricefJer 1o hit Pupils, in a Series of Talcs 
delivered for tbe Instruciion and Admonition of Yoiith of both Sexes. 
Rendered frofii the Cermao ftf the celebrated Adlerjungi bf WiKam 
Wemiiflgtoo. 12mo. pp. 168. Prioe 3». 6d.. Longman and Co. 1809.- 

JT is not difficult to, account for the lact, familiar perhaps to most of our 
renders, that idea^ appear much more attractive in a foreign-, than in a 

vernacuJsr tonpue. The pjici whii h' a hnjuije has. cost b9 to 3cq.iir#, 



,,-,-,ih,Googlc 



Murfji's Mentorian Lectures, - - SST « 

give a Ac^oui value to it in our estimation, from which ereiy-tluDE ex- -. 

' preaied in that language deriTcs some benefit. There is alio a nov&tj ia . 
the foreign, atlireof the thoughts, which add* a.beauty to their appearance 
that we oeTer £nd in their ordinary, and cummon dre«3. We nia;y remark, : 
too>.tbat a slight degree of dMcuriiy ii favourable to the charms of almoit 
nay KDciment we can mevc with ; the opcracioa of a foreign language in 
improving the effect of ideas, is like that of a vtU over a bea.utifulform, or 
of the niatineu which occasionally adoroi a prospect on a siunmer evening, 
and is so exqoisitely imitated in the paintings of Cbude Lorrain.— It u 
only from cossiderattons of ihii Itiad, that we can pardon Mr. Wenniag- 
toa for .thinking that four tales in Gemao were wonh translaciag) whidi . 

' in. Eagliah uv certainly not worth reading, 

Aft. XIX. Aa Inquiry into the Symfilsmi ^d Treatment ofCarditlt, or the 
lafiammotioH ojtheftearf s illustrated by Caset and DisscctioDi. By JohQ - 
Tord Davis, M. D. &c. Stc. 8vo. pp. 200. Price 4(. boards. Bath, 
{trinted; Longman and Co. liJOS. 
'T'H£ principal inferences, deducible from the caiet recorded by Dr^^^ 
I)avit, are, that synci^ aod irregularity of the pul.^e are aU in- - 
variable tymptoiDB of this.terribie dlsoi^err— that delirium, and symptom*, 
of high nervous excitement, su'cb as wanderifig pains,and spasmodic affec< . 
tioni oT various parts, sometimes occur,-^t]iat pneumonic symptoms, pal- 
pttabba, and vomiting, do no/ always appear, — and that, ' if there be any 
pathqgnomonu: tymptomi it is the extreme aaguUh that It felt in the regiaa . 
of tie heart.' 'Dr. D. advises bloodletting, and the exhibition of digiialii, 
as adordin|r the best hope of success. But all the three caws descnbed,. 
as well as a fourth briefly fioUced, terminated- fatally. The publicatipa 
may not be ahoKether without iu use ; as it combioea several detached 
observations, and adds a few n,ovel ones to our icamy stock of know- 
ledge, concerning a disorder ^hich has happily been t^o aCklcHii observed 
to be accurately understood. . , 

Alt.XX. Mentorian Lfetwes on Sacred emd Moral Su^eets, aJafUed ta 
tie Compreheiuioa of Juvenile Readers. To which are added, Ori^- 
aal Miacellaneous Poems. By Ann Murry, Author of Mentoriji. 
J2ino. pp.254. Price 4s. 6d. Longmanand Co, 1808. 
'E'EMALE edncadon has of late been a subj^t of much di«nwiioi>.' 
^ Some writers recommnd the ladies to go through the same rouUDe 
of' education, as young gentlemen intended for the learned profewoo*. 
They would have them begin .with the elements of the dead languagesr 
and, bydefpves, proceed to an extensive ac<juaiataace widi classical lite* 
rature. A^erwards the fair students must have private lectures on vari- 
ous arts and sciences, particularly Logic and Kbetoric ; by which meana 
thejr. would enjoy all the advantages of scholars at the university. Ac- 
cording to this plan, the ladies would not be mere listeners, when grave 
anddigniJied subjects are Invnght on the carpet-; but might contribute k 
due share of tntelligencei enliven abstruse topics with their wit and viva- 
city, give importance to tritliag ones by profound observHtions, gain fair 
triumphs by force of eloquence, without claiming the allowances of cour- 
tesy, and attain to such a degree of intellectual vigour as would make 
them more respected and hoaouted b; the other hatfof the cieatido. A^ 

' Do,l,.cdtyGoOglc 



1 8& Murry's Menlorian Lectm-es. 

this cUu of writers are dUpowd to exalt the pat above ttu^ ftktnid 
iXsKidaTd, theie are others who would depreai them too lov. They agreV- ' 
with Milton in tl>inkin^i that one toague is sufficient. They are a^d 
lest exteaaivE-lnowledge ahoiild 'lead the ladies to encroach on the pre- - 
rogativei of men ; and unfit diem Tor aidingin the lighter <^ces abd re- 
cr^nbna necessary ior relaxing our minds, fatigued by laborious exertions.' 
They wtmld have it that the ostural Boftoess of the sex, sufficiently indi* 
cates tliat they were neither designed for the athletic efforts i^ bodily 
ttrermfh, which enterprize* of great pith and moment often demand ; fior 
fot the intellectual nestling commonly requinte for making advances in 
tdence A third class of reasoners take a middle course, -and assert diM 
the attainment of knowledge should be regulated in alt persons, whether 
niaTe or female, by the situation. Some ladies, therefore, may with pro- 
priety be very learned; others very estimable, without learning; but dl 
■houTd Inbw enough to qualify thera for tiie duties arising out of rfleir 
rApectlve stations. ' 

The present publication cannot be objected to, by »ther of fhese classes 
of disputants. It ;:;ives useful hints to those ladiec who design to «hdy 
hard ; it Will not inlpurt so much wisdom as to endanger Ihe prerogativei 
of men ; and it allbrds iostructioD, in many parts, closely connected wfcfa 
the duties which all women have to peifbnn. 

' The* aul^ects which, come under discussion are. Mental Cultintioa, 
Moral Excellence, Taste, Sublimity. — The chapter on Mefltal Cahha- 
lion is very well written. That on Moral Excellence contains many good 
remarks, but it blends together things which ought to be kept distinct. 
Common discretion it placed on the same footing with duties of morality 
apd rtJigtoQ. Some of the observations en chanty are enroneou;, and 
tbe definition of it is defective and inadequate. The analysis of ideal 
beanty, in the chapter on Taste, has merit. The first lecture on SuUimtty, 
Hi which its genenU nature is discussed, is somewhat obccare aild 
confused. Little new light can be thrown <ra this sut^ect after Ad- 
dison's Dissertation on the Pictures of the Imagination; In the other 
lectures, the author illustrates the sublime in composition, by specimeHa 
Goto the Scriptures. These extend to so great ^length, thkt they occnpy 
fiy far the'larger portion of the volume, and give it the appearance of an 
historical epitomt of the Bible. After some lime, the subject which was 
tO'be ilhutrated is forgotten, and the author memly relatea scripniral in* 
<^Bta which harc'Do bearing on the.origiital question. Buf aldiougfa 
ihi» mayttotbe itiictto togica), yet if itbeconsinent with the improve- 
ment of youth, we vtil not quarrel with the writer about it. Aod we 
willingly add, that the historical account of the Bible is drawn up ip an 
acctfrate, concise, and perspicuous manner, calculated to engage the at- 
' teatioo and inform the minds of the young. 

Tbe work' is divided into a series of lectures, mpposed to be delivered 
by a governess to her pi^l. It is to be regretted, tEiat the lectures are 
tifrown into'the shape of dialogues, i'he observationB of L^dy Louisa, 
the pupil, in reply to what Mentoria has advanced, or in request of some 
farther expiration, are dull, tautologtns, and useless. Tbe bot^ would 
be more {Measiog, if Lady Louisa'a partwav endiely expunged. 

Hic poems are not poetry. 



h,Googlc 



F" 



Milner's Life of WiViam Hmard. ' 289 

Ajt.'XSl.Tmak admowhid to nhmit to tht Gvidanu tf Gpd. A Sermon, 
preached at the Chtq>el, in Fish Street) KinffUon-tpon-HuIl, Jan. 8. 
1809. By George Payne, A. M. Published at the Reqwit of the 
Church. 8to. pp, 32. Price Is. Baynes. 1809., 
r reading a sermoD like this, it is but justice ta reflect how few dis- 
'■ couiBei, not directly intended for publication, will endure a minute 
and rigid examination iil print. The defects of such a perfomiance 
may reasonably be charged against those who request tp hare a aermoo, 
which hat pleased them from the pulpit, perpetuated and diffused by the 
press, rather than to the author who accedes to their friendly an'i flatteriag 
impOTtonities { and such a request will be readily excused, even when the 
•ermofl it much \em intttled than thia to a]^ar before the public, by Uiose 
who retnember bow much force, novelty, and beauty, may be given to 
a discoDTK. by an accoraplisbed speaker, which cannbt accompany it an 
paper to the privacy of iBdtyidual readers. The sermon before ns c^ipears 
both to Deed and to claim some degree of indulgence, on conaidaxtiiMS 
of thia nature. It i» the production, we believe, of a ^oong mini>ter,.whD 
baa not before presented htmself at our bar ; and it ia far from b^n|^ 
dettittite of pretensions to Oar favour. We cordially approve the kh- . 
ouaiess and the wisdom of his exhonati<H») and sincerely wsji that they 
may produce their ^propriate effects on the minda of thiue who hayeJi^eaol 
or v^ may read them. The text ia, Jeremiah iji . 4 ; Wilt tluM im try 
uate Mt, Afy Father, thou art the Gude of my^uth ? 

Art. XXII. ^ Hiilory of Frattce.frpm the Cammencemtai of ike Reign of 

Clovit, in 418, to the Peaee of Cimfui Formio, in October, 1797 ; after. 

the Manner of the History of England in a Series of I^ettets front, 

a Nobleman to his Son. 12mo. pp. 422. Price 5s. 6d. bds. Carton 

and Harvey. 1809. 

IT i« only as a careful and &ithfiil namtiTe of eveatii that we god vcmuk 

to recommend this puliation. It bears but a slight resemblance to 

the popular work, professedly adopted ai.its modd, excepting ita epistolary 

form. It is in general rather deserving of tolerance than M approbation. 

With regard to style, it can {ncteod to Titde other merit than that of plain- 

nets aod pertpicnity ; and though it is nt>t chargeable perbaps with 

erraaeoDe tendencyi either moni or political, it employ* but rarely and 

feebly any of the namrraoa occaaions of inciilt:atiBg lassons of wiadoia. 

The latter part of the work perhaps would admit of most exception. The 

author ajqxars to hare taken pains in executing his task ; and, as a.per- 

formance of this kind is wanMd for the juvenile book-case, he will La all 

probability obtain a sufficient remuneration. 

Art. XXllI. Some Remariahl' Pattt^et in the Life of Mr, mifiim 
■Howard, who died at North Ferriby, in the County of York, March 2, 
I7ft4. ByJoaephMilner, A.M. late Master of the Cramniar School^ 
Kingtton-i^n Hull, and Vicar of Trinity Church. Fourth Edition. 
12ttio. pp. 92, Price It. 6d. boards, Hamilton, Haichard, Riving* 
tons. 1809. 

AS we could wish to give all potsiUe extent to the circulation of 
this valuable performance, we scruple not to recommend even a fourth 

edition of it to the notice aod patranage of every reader. The change 



r,o,i,,-cdtyGoOglc 



290. . Woodhy'a'PoetHZ ■ 

of character iA U)e cubject of the .Darrative was K) decided aod -conipi- 
cuoui, the pnocipiea of that chas^ were to scriptural, the comments of' 
the excellent biographer are so judidoua nnd impressive, and his styU 
is so nervous, th^t we cannot but regard the publicittion zs at all time^ 
promigirw the highest benefit and meriting the wannest praise. It majr 
be regarded as one of the superior class of " religious tracts ;" and. miy 
not only be perused with pleasure by the devout Christian, but circulated 
aniong general readers wiiji great prospect of utility. ' 

Some press errors, we observe, that affect the grammatical construcUOO) 
hai'e been suffered to pass uncorrected. 

ArtXXIV. A Cancise and InfiariiaJ SlatOBotl iff the ReSghui Ofthiom, 
Gtntral Charatler, i^e. of the matt tminatt Sccit and P-^irtiu vthick 
/Svidt tie Britiik Ckriifian Church, &c. &lc. ; io a familiar Converia- 
doa betwees a Yoiith and his Friend. By C. Huibert. 12(no. ^ 59. 
Shrewsbury, Wood } Crosby aijd Co 1609. 
TLE-WRITTEN and anperJicit) as this statement is, we shoaM probably 
ban let it pass with only a brief end lenient notice, or poliaps wi^ 
cMire neglect, but for the dangerous notions 'of the innocence and haim- 
lessnesg of error in religioni which it' evidently teiuls to inculcate^ In 
this respect, it somewhat resembles a- publication, which by its priomyt 
aiucious appearance, and prbfeBiioos «f liberality, has obtained unmoited 
patronage from the public. We refw to Mr. Evans's " Sketch of th» 
Deiioiiunations of the Christian World." And we cannot prait this 
opportunity of strongly stating and deploring the veiv pernicious effects, 
which it is .adapted,' and has been observed to proocCe, on light aSd 
sceptical minds.. To expose the various instances of unfairness and par- 
tialitj* which it contains, wotild not be ^ery difficolt; but we only complain, . 
on this occasion, of its manifest tendency to diffuse a spurious candour, 
an Mscripttira] charity, and an indifference toncerniog religicnta tnitb. 
Oor r^ret for the prevalence of this evil would be still deeper, were it 
not for a remedy which is extremely well suited to cODntciact it. Maay 
of onr readers,, undoubtedly, are acquainted with the "-Esaiy on Troth^ 
containing an Inquiry -into its Natureand ImtXHtanca, with a StaCeneDt 
of the Cansei of Error, and the Reasons igf its being permitted," by 
Mr. Fuller; pfefixed to his improved editioa of "Adams's fie» of 
JirSgiofu.'-'f ' We would beg leave, mott earnestly to recommend' this 
excellent tract as an antidote, and the accurate and comprehensive Work' 
of which it forms part as a substitute, for the pobliouioDS againit which 
we faove k]t it an imperious duty to protest. ... 

Art. XXV. The Church-Tard, and other Poems. By George Wood- 
ley. Foolscap 8vo. pp. 155, Price 6s. bds. Tipper. 1809. 
TTNLESS the elegant, yet modest ^pearaocc, of dii* little .Tolum», 
iias too much prepoateseed us in Its favour, it has nuniKclaims' to 
commendation. The priacipal poem, on a vsi-y affecting subject, which 

• Publisii^d, .1S05, in 8yo. and iSipO. Sold, by Williams and Co. 
Fultoi),'&c. . ■ ' '.' 



ih,Googlc 



Woodley's CkurcK'Yardy and other Ptfems. 3>| 

the author ha* trnted copioudy and iDgewouity, cont^iog numerom p»- 
Mgn of rnl merit. W« eatract oaeasnotno unfair specinteii, 
' Hark ! vrfth what awfiil tooe the drdwvv dock 
Proctainu the tTeetiDg hour ! How iiilloi hii 
' The dinnal acocnti from hia iron toogue ! . - 

Methinki the very ranks of marah sited grares 
Quake at the •ound ; and Irom ben«ath ii heard 
A iinall itill voice, which cries, " Redeem the time!" 
' And hark again ! The tolemn tickling chimes, 
Euritiug the bands of silent indolence, 
Channt their niKtunial service to the moon [ 
'Tiansportiog sounds .' at this impressive, hoar 
' What blest sensatioDB is it. yours t' impart ! 
It seems as if from Hearen's ftill orchestra. 
Some lyrists had come down to strike the cfaordsi 
■ And wake sncij anient rapture in the soul 1 
For strains at once so sotram and so sweet, 
So heart-entranciDg, — sure were never heard^ 
By human toudi or art alone produced. 
'Stilt line'ring in die calm and list'ning air, 
J hear dienj yet ; though faint, yet heavenly lin«t 
Piminished, not destroyed ; the softened tone 
Sublimes the melody. My rising toul 
Struggles to- quit the gross eacumb'ring clay, ' 
AncTchase the viewless minstrels through the air ! 
But ah [ the concert dies I She droops her wtcg. 
And, sighing, sinks again into herself!' pp. 35— S7. 
The serious turn of the sentiments in this work, and the very amiille 
duracter which it inclines ns Lo attribate to the author, will icraBglj 
recommend it to the patronage of thou who rejoice in the asiociatioii oT' 
poetry aad derotion. 

The minor poems nre by no means despicable. There is one Intitled 
< Poor Hannah,' written in the ballad style, and iri the same plaimiw 
Stanza as " Twas on a Winter's Evening," which is truly pathetic. The - 
Stanza ' How could you praise my beauty,* &c. was probJi)ly suggested by 
* charminK verse m the ballad of" William and Margaret; and the 
Bubjens of the two poems are not very dissimilar. In the present, the 
betrayed and abanddned Hannah dies, at the moment Fhen her penilent 
lover retunu to renew and sanctify his vows. He finds her expiring on 
S bleak cliff, in a dreadful tempest ; and while be is venting the agonies 
of remorse and despair to the following lines, is struck by a flaih of 
Jigbtping: 

" Awake, arise 1 'tis Henry calls t 'tis Henry at thy feet. 
Who comes, a weeping penitent, thy pardon to intieat ; — 
O God ! what horror cliills me ! what do mine eyea behold—- . 
Her soul hs' left its tenement — her hand, her heakt is coU ! 

*' Curst be the hand that rudely plucked the fiow'r so pure and gay. 

Then left it, noprotected, fo pine and waste away ! 

J loath myself! Smite, smite me, ye awful jijihttiings, dead! 
Fall, fall, ye lofty mountains, and crush this treach'rous head." 

pp.n2,ut 

-/V fin: ca jr.ivin^, by Landscer, is prefixed as a fronlispiece. 



...Google 



[ 292 1 



Art. XXVL select LITERARY -INFORMATION. - ^ 

%* GeniUmn and Ppiliiierj <wko have loerit la tie firat^ v^obSge iht 
Condttctori of the Eclectic Ri^view, fyttatSag m/armtttuM ffiMt fiaid,J 
ef tie ailgtelt etettiH, aod finbatk firke of tueh vitrhi ; vih^ liey may 
itpmd upm teiitf cnHmuvieaud to lie fiuiie^ ifeottthteut viith if*ftlii«- 

Mr. Park'neditlon of Warton'i History of M r.' firmer' i( printing ■ lecond edition 

English Poetry is in a ^tafe nf fpreat forward- ' of hia SwrnontantbePkiVblei, in ops octa- 

neM. The editor's plan is not only to retUe «o tohune^ 'i 

botb text and notei, and free tte extiwta Tlie fl*^- Wo), DiUliji't 4rst Totume of 
from tbe cbar^ of insopariKji b> «tHch the uaw edition of Ames'i Typographical 
they hare hitherto been ^J];ected> but Antiquities, by Herbert, it gonii ia preia. 
also tOHipply ■ continuatiDn 1n furtbeT' Tbii itilKncluEte'tlieirfaale of ." Lewis's Ufa 
ance trf* Ifir. Warlon'g p!an- The TCry ofCaito*;'' a scdTCfl book ; and an ample 
copious Annotaliiiia on Warton's Hie- aacomit sf ttrf boAs printad by our first 
lory by the late learned ' Aaliqwity] tb«. *enei^le tstwuraphei, ^Ith new and inte- 
Rev. George Ashby,.ti^ther uiUi.tha va- rastin^ ettracU. Tlie notes will embrace a 
nous MS. ohservationa left by that scute grcatportion of the bibliogr^hi'^al history 
critic Mr. Hitson, are in tlie Raiids of the df the' ATteenth reottir;. 'Eiclusinly of 
preaent Editarj and so far as the pm^iOMa tha inr«*of<Ainca andSerlieit, there will be 
of correction and illuiitrBtioa «an h«.iert«d a-ptdiwii^ly ^imertatitngn Xhe early state 
will he appended to fb* 'aoUk of Mt-. War- ufprJ^dteg and fog^winf ia thi< country, 
ton. with faC'iimilewDod cats. All tba large pa- 
Mr. C Br*llpy, of Wallingford School, ----- 
Ins in the press a Series of Questioiis adapt- 
•d to Lindley Murray's Efl^i^b GramMiar ; 
with Notts, for the'nse of those who have 
made some proficiency in tbe study of the 
English Language, jhe plan of this wtirk 
U simitar to that of Morgan's dTrammaticEe 
QuKlfiob**. 

IiHbeprm, and tnaf be «xpaote4. early 
in Vt^, Es^y-s addressed U the Jewi 



the 



id the 



tiud of the I^v and the Prophets ; written at 
the reitnest of thb London MissiOsary So. 
cietyt'by ttaeKieT. Mr. Ewing, of Qta^ow, 

ha. Apology for tbe' Kind's Supremacy, 
with M.emoitsof tli/Supmnacy of the Pope, 
shewing its Rise, ProgreM, and Results in 
different A^ and Kations, eofaras nsiates 
toiMlsfltun.ilin the pmsinoneBvo. vo- 
lume. A);itis B)if posed to proceed fro rn a 
distioguislisd Cluwaclei; in tbe church, it is 
eajCTly cxpecteil jn partitiilar by those of 
the Rouli'sTi persuasion. 

Two mlumes of Sermons of the }ate Bi- 
ihopMursley, an-.intended to be publishol 
hy subscription, and to be reudy in June 

Speedily witt-bepublished, neatly priirted 
in octavo, a ittaa of Iliscourset ou the 
Principles of RelieiouB Belief, as connected 
with Human Happineu *nd Improremwit. 
By the Rev. R. Morehead, A. M. of Baliol 
Colk^, Oxfiird, Junior Minister ol Uie 
Epit'copa I Chapel, Cuwgate, Edinburgh. 



- . _ large pa- • 

per Copies of tSiS fent voluoip are engaj^, 
and tbe greatc* number oflhe small, of 
iHiich'tJie iotpiMslMi »'s limited ant. One 
single copy wtti be printed on rclbwi, of a 
(i^ierrroyal folio uzc. This is afterwarrls 
io be jlluminaled and adorned with appro- 
priate omamMts, portraits, Howers, Greek 
and EtruKan b6rdeni, Ice - . ' 

The Rev. Joseph Willfinson, of Tbetibrd, 
is going topiihrish, by Bubi(h:iption, Setect 
Vie^s in Cumberland, Westmoreland, and 
partof Scotland J axhibiling tbs inoK {lic- 
tumque siutations in theae.countjea, with 
letter-press deuvtptions. 

Mr. Hilditoh proposes Id piililish by sub- 
scription, tbe History and AntiqmtM* of 
Tamwiirth. 

Ijird Vakntla .bes printed twv Mi)pea 
of his Trarels; the whole wilt ap^r 
about May or Jnne next, in 3 quarto vo- 

Dr. Stork of Btit((>l, ha^ mtdertdlna to 
write a Ufe of Uw late Dr. Bedihui; «itli 
tbe approbation of his tamily and friends. 

Mr. Matthew MiirHtt, of Truuty CoUcfCC. 
Cambridge, is printing an Essay on the Life 
and Ciian^ter of Agesilain,' son vf Archi- 

The Rev. C. Wellbelon-d, of Yock. will 
soon publisU Memoirs of the Life 'a^id Writ- 
ings of tbe late Rev. Vf. Wood, minister 
of tt.e chapel at<Mill-bi]l, in htA»i with 
t'bi: address deliverod at his intcrmrat, and 
a sermon On occs^on of his death. . 

Mr. EiiGeld, author of the Pionouncint 



ih,Googlc 



IJst ^ Works rteently publiike,d. 393 

rKctkinarr of thi EugliA Language, Im Amnnberafthi: upitHrtkyoF OKtbrdhag 
ncariji ready for press the firtl yrfunie uf announced for publication, Liwiley KMiaj 
anew Encychipaidla, OTCiKleoflLnOWkd^ exaaiiiKd.or on addnsi tu clasiical, Freacb 
and science. The work is amnged in a ' and Englisb teacbera ; and grammalical er- 
popular waf, «ud ii laleudal as welt for. ion. in Mr, Murray's grammar are pointed 
tfae anistauce of the youthful mind \a Its out ; shewinc nt the same time the necesHiCy 
progresstlirough the(lillere'ntstage«ii(>cha- of an Eu^lish grammar, that will lead' to 
Isstie learniiig, •■ for ttie more eiilighti^ned the grammar of any other language, with- 
lover of (cienc'e. It <« to coDiiit of 35 «a- out violating tbe purity of the Engtiih. 
Itime»duodecimo, each coDtaiuing a com- Mr. Robertson Buchanan, who latilypub- 
plete treadtie on aome important branch of lished an Eisay on the Teeth of Wheels, 
■eieoce. with their applicatiou in practice to mill- 
Mr. Jernrnjhani wilt ibottly puhlinfa » work and other mai^hinery, has a second 
work, inlitied, Tlie Aleundrian School ; iSsay nearly ready for publicatlDn, and 
being a Narrative of the chantcters and irri(- three more prepa red for the press. He will 
higk of the Ant Christian profeiHOrs in the also apceditf publish a second edition of 
city of Atexaudria, bis Essay ou Heating Buildings by Steam, 
Mr, LucBs is preparing to publish the which will contain a methodical collection 
TraTBJs of HumaniHs in search of the Teoi' of the facts tbat hive slace been aacertarned, 
pie of Hsppine^. and hare rendered the practice certain and 

Mr. MKitin, who has been diligently em- commodious. 

^lojed in the titudy of emraneona fonlls for ' The Reports of the preventire Medical 

M>me yearn, is about to pnblish, under the iDstitutiou St Bristol, which havebeeusoma 

_, patruiiaee of Sr Joseph Banks, a quarto time eipected, were left in a certain d^refe 

mlume of Plate* and Descriptions of the of fiirwardneis by the late Dr. Beddoes; 

PetriScationi <rf' Drrb^ire. Be has also and they will be completed and published, 

nearly ready for publication, in an octavo as soon as pooible, by Mr. KPng and Dr. 

vohune,'Ui Elementary Introduction to the . Stock. The former gentleman has l>een 

Knovledgeof ExtraneoasPossils; being an Burgeon to the institution from its cotDr 

attempt to eitablish the study of these bo- mencement. 

dies on BcinitiflcprimHples. Speedily will be polished, A System of 

Speedily wilt be published, A New and Surgery, in 4 vole. Svo. by James Russel, 

Complete MiliUry Dictionary: including ¥.R.S.£. Fellow of the Royal College of 

"tiic theory and praotke, and also the whole Surgeons, ooe of the surgeons of the Royal 

•cicnce of the art of war, with numemtM laficmary, and Profestor of Clinical Surgerf 

enmnngs. Priue II. 3i. in boards. in the Ifnivenity of Edinburgh. 

AneweditionofQuintilian.aflerthemaa' In the press, and toon will be published, 

ner of Rollio'i Contpendium, i) printing at A System of Surgery, m 4 ndB Bvo, byj<riin 

OKlbrd, in an octavo votume, and is nearly Thomsoa, M. D, one of tbe nrgeotH to tkC' 

reidr for publication. ' ■, Royal Infirmary, Professorof Surgery to the 

The London llaokttllers having ooqt- Royal College of Surgeons, and Regius Pro- 

Sletcd Holinsbed's Ctaiunidt, that of Hall fessor of Military Surgery in the Uuivenily 

marly ready, and Grafton is in tbe ofEdiuburjh. 



*rt. XXVil. UST OF WCJRKS RECENTLY PUBLfSHED. 



11m EagHA Botanist'! Pocket Compa- An Easy Giaaimar of the Laws and OAi- 

Inaiii oontainhig tt« asacntial generic cha- stitution irf Englan^,. accoqipanied iliith 

raL-ler of every Britilh plant, arranged questions and cases tor solution, and by a 

%rtaMy to the Lianean •ynen: together glMsry «f totn»<F ^y ^>e ^t. J. Oold- 

with a abort and eaiy iabtiductjan to the smitb, autbor of the Grammar of Geogia' 

ribBayafbat>ay,andaii csplaoation of tbe pfay, Itc. 18«i^^6(V - „ . *' 

Iprin^^ea apim .wUidi tlie clanilicaiien ,of - . , , . 

the system is foastkd. SyJ.Cada, llBfo. . f .vr mwkm^ '' ■ , . 



TM tilttfi'^'bf BWWJdtaj UnttU tta 

i.,Coo'^[c 



List 8^ Works recenlhf publiiied. 



dlioovery of -Hie'island, in the yenr IfiOS, 
till the- aeccitlon oF T.OFd Scafnnh, IBOl. 
By JahnPoVTf, *"- 11. Us- W- board*. 



AUtWrtoJoiinHayBarlh.M. D. F.B.S. 
LflndoD an'] Edinbui^h, ke. fiom Cotin 
Cliinhirftt. M. D. F- R. S. &.C. aiillior of an 
y.fMV S9 the Potilenlial Fwer : exhibitinj: 
iaTtliV<'''^B"<^ "''^''*! inrectimis njiture of 
tWt Utal dJHtemper in Grenada, dndtiji 
1793, 4; 5, anil £} and in thc.Uniled States 
lifAmtrieafrani 1793 to ISfl^i inotdertu 
i-OlTPCt llie pei.nioioos Oottiine promuliatHl 
fcy Dr. EdwV Mllkr, and .lUiot Auipriean 
. pbf II cisus, relative to tliU dcstrifctivi' pc&t.- 
IrnCF, 8v(,..et. 

Ab Essay on Warm ami Vapour B.ithB, 
with bint* for a new moilu of applvii';: heat 
and coid, for the cilre of di " 



the late Biibop Kurd. OnJ t&iuao. >»•, 
13». ' . . . , 

The HartoUn Miacellany. « uew Edition : 
■ with n Bupplemenl awl Note*. Jjy Tbomai 
Park, P. S. A. »ol. ii. Wyal 4to SUSs. 

Plntarch'a Lt>-«B, trannUited from the Oa- 
icinal Creek; with No«s.Cr(lii»l and Hn- 
toricBl, and a Life of P'nt»rcb. By John 
Unehome, D. D and WiHiam , Langhom^ 
J*. M A new Edition, w Ui CorrBClons and 
Addilioire, by the Rev. Praopis WraDgham, 
M. A. F. R S, 6 vols. 8vo. 31. 3s. 

Tlip liiad aM Odymy of H.imer, trana- 
latei) into'EngfiriiBlank Verse, withcopioo* 
AltetutioTO and Note», prepared ftf'Uie 
Presrby th» TtanBlutor, William Cowper, 
Esq. and piibii^ihed mth a Preface by hi» 
KtBfrtian, John Johnson, L. L. B. Chaplain 
(o the BijhopufPelerborojigh. Third EdU 
■ ■ ■ Svo. 11. 16s. itqral (»prr-9l. 8i. 



and coid, for the cilre of dinffltcs and the ' ,,,'.,, - ', ^,v.„ , e™*ft n T» 

ByE.K*ntiHh, M. D. phyHiBiantOllie Bn- „,,_,„ j.^.„ ', «. -i,s Notes. Hi». 



Sti^ilan, A, M. "ith Notes, Hi*. 
toncBln.id CriU>-al. A.mw Edition, ftir- 
recie'd and tevised. by John Kiotiolls. 7.S.A. 
iw:. 19 foil. 8vo. 91. 

A Co«»pl««! View of tlie Cold and Silver 
■■Ptbe CoiimifaliNatioiis.Biibtheir Names, A»- 
li*J- lav, W.'ipht, and S.ctling Value. By 
James I.JL. Goldunilh, l'2ino. 10s. Sd. 

Flowersof Litarainrei or, qiara^crUtic 
SkeiihfW fif Human Nature pn^ modern ^ 
Mannei-B ; con-itdng of Kssay^ Anecdoli*, 
Tales. Nmatiiai. <n(iou« Stqries. kc- 
chicd!) seircteil from tha most. cel«brated 
ProdHCtionsintheYeiT tfiCn. l2ili,o. 6b. 

Reliquea of Boburt Burns ; cOBaistinic 
ohjofly of Orieinal Letters, Poems, and 
Critical OtorrvalJoaa on ScoLtish Songa. 
Collected and publislicd bjr R. H. Cromek. 
Si'o.lOi.ed. 
A Dialogue io the Eljs'anri^Wi, between 
afed from the O.igiual in order to be pre- the i Bight Hon. fliptiGs Jamea Tax, ,Mai 
fined to the new Edition of Mr. Sempte's .jg,^^ ^f i,]^ ji^yai piagenJtors. 4to. ^. 
JmimeyinSpain, aadiljustrattdby aMup. Sdecliooa in PortU|tiiese, from vatiodl 

-2s. Cd. Anthors, wiHi EaEllsh Translatjons, lit, 6d. 

A Letter to wnilam Meliiah, Esq. M. P. ^ Let,pf jo tis Royal Highnens thrSotn 
ons W&Ntiute inlha Pbrisi i)f Edme^- _ef T£«ri<i ^r, an)ii(position.of tba.Qrcum- 
__. __.L--.i.j — 1 .1,.....; ;„ r\.^;.». ;which'led to the Appoidtiiienfof Sr 



TIemiillt on the Jneobinlcal Timdeii 
Ihc Kdinhnrgli Reriew : in n let| 
Kar( of Lun«dal«. By R. Whar. 
,M. P. 8vo. 6s. 

TTie'IntroiliiiTtion to an ExeminBtiuii of 
the Internal Evidence, nspeecins the anti- 
quity and airthentinity of certain pnlilicft- 
tions, said to have brrn found in manus- 
cripts at Bristol, written Uy • learned 
jiriest and (rthcri in the liftai.nth centviry. 
By John Sherwen, M. D. Membi^r of the 
.CoHe^ of Phywcifins and of the Dillege of 
Stirecons, and Conespondinj Member of 
theMc<UBBl Society. 4-ondon.Svo.7s. 

The Span >h Post Guide, aa pabiislied at 
Madrid by order ot the Got 



1, and oa the alledged Abuses 
HospiUl. By the Rei 
A- M. Vicar at tdi ' 



Is. 6d. 



: Warn 



'II. 



A Collenlon of Portrait* drawn f/om pUnl.'being a ReftllaUon of theloTcrtirei 

theUft. Ko. t to be oonitmi^d quarterly. ■' -- ■ — -■■ — ■■- - <-- 

II. !»-■■■ 

Remafki on Mr. Pttx'i Hitfnr; of Janes 

■n.-i». - , .. ■ '■■ ■ ■ 

solatia* Uoifomu ot tW BHiialt ATmy. 
Va,i. lOs-M. _ _ _,^ 

LettMt from «* *ttb W. Watbwtoti, 
, IL a BiAopo* (»»•«•»».*' 1^ }'*!' R- „.. .^ 
Hnri, D. D- *»bop tC W«n)i«er, from the (i,^ j^^ 
yjM n*» t|4TJ«, Mt fo *»W«»t*f tj Anecdotes of LI 



MHireprewihtaHons contained in a Lel- 
terfrom the Rei\ Dr. Warren, .Vi£Br.af Ed- 
monton.' to William HeUliih, F.sq.'JII..P. Br 
SobertW^ilbm*ai».6dL-. . . -« ■ 

The CAmpoilror'B Snd PiBumaDt GuU« 
to thf'Art of Primiilf. t.By G. BUnvt 
Printer,'rojaH3«no. i3ai*d.l r.,-. .■ 

An Essay on the Commercial Halrita M 



List of IVorks rcccnllj/ published. 295 

By Ibe Rot. \V. Beloe, TtanaUtor nf Hero- the months of May sad Jane, I80S, k](I- 



e to the agreement made Ijr Qov 
mentwith Mr. Falmer.tur the refarm 
improverdent of the 'poBtrofB[;e vtd its r 
nne; witb'iin appendin, 'coniaining th( 
's therein referred to. 



tloui, tu. VoLili. avo.g(,^Ttae first two 
Voluaea ot the Work, price ISa. are i 
print- Two more Voluines are preparin 
ftw Publication. Attbeend oftheGftbwi 
be ^veu a gcnaral Indoi to the whole work. 

^n ■nali'ticml Inquiry into the Principles at. 
of Taste, By Richard Payne KarKbt, Esq. Six Letters, on ttie (uhject of Dr. Mil- 
<lth Editfcn, Svo. 8s. 6d. nn's eKptsDDtiitn relstiiijr tu the prnpo~iil 

An Essaf on Mettati; or, an Introduction jnade in the last smion or Parliament, for 
to tha KnowWge of Ancient and Modern adniitticig the Kng'i ctlain ths e'eclioD of 
Coius and Medals; especiaUy tlioM of Roman' Calholtc Bishi>p<. Addrssed to 
Ureoce.ltMne, and Britain. By John Pin- the Niter of tbp Morning Post, and firit ~ 
ton. T^ird Edition, with CorrRClions and published In that Paper. By A. B. T» 
' Additions, 3 vols. Svo, Il.lU.6d- which is now added, an appendix, tiuntain- 

The RemotBtrant : being a Lcttrr to Mrl ing all the documunts. Sio. 3s, 
William Halej in Reply to his Address to 

the Public upon the Injurious Tendency of -, 

the London Fetnalc Penitentiary. By O. roLiTici. 



I. li. 

AcomparatlTe View of the Plans of Edu- 
cation, as detailed in the Publicadonsof Dr. 
Bell, and Mr. Lanoaiter. The Second Erli- 
tiou.with'BeiMrltiioo Dt. Bell's "Madras 
School," and H nts to the Managers end 
Conunittees of Charily and Sunday Sehoola, 
on thaPracticability of exteod'nf ■■'^ '"' 
ititutioiu upon Ml. Lincaalcr's Plan. " Pat- 
ruDa doi mlriiil firal," By Joseph Fox. 8vo. 
Ii.6d. 



Tha Whole of the Procecilingt of 
Boaril of Inquiry, upon tl)<; unbu'ct of 
late campaign in Portugal. By Authoi 



■ily. 



1 the Present G^mucnraQnt, • 
iiiit l>olilicol, of the UrJ^sli 
India; including a tIcw of 
uMantioni in that conatry« 
led toalienale I lie ufleotjuns 
inale-tcr from' an officer, 
iput, to his fricQd In Engdtnd^ 



Anecdotea of Bird* : or, short j 
ot their Habits in a. state of Nntnr 

lectedfrom the best Authors on Natural His- the year IS09. By an 
lorT- f- 8*0. 4s. Old Schoot. Std, 9s. 



Reflections upon the State nnd Conduct 

of i ubiic Aff^ira.af thc_ commencement of 

ishOiaD of tha 



■ An Abridgement of the latin Prosody 
vade easy, fin the Uia of Schools i conUln- 
ing aa much of the iDformalion giran oo 
rach Subject in the larger Work, as appear- 
ed Miited to thetJae and Capaeitj- 0* Youag 
PicMdians. By J. Carey. I- L. D. 13«io. 
3s. €d. 

A Grammar of the Persian Language.' 
BySirWilliiimJonea. The Seventh tSditiun. 
letisedandcotrected-by Dr. Wilkias, Edi- 
tor of the improTed Editimi of Richardson's 

' Vernan DictiODary. 4to. I81. 

MiTai, 

ThcUotber, a poem, infivatxioka. By 
Mrs. West. FnolicBp Svo. 7s, ^ 

Poems and Translations, from the ininar' 
OredipoetsBiidothers; written ' ebiefly be- 
t*een tbe s^ea of ten and lixteea. By a 
iady. Svck 5*. ■ - ■ 



Poor Discourses, on Subje^-ti rcUtiag tn 
the auiuseinnat of Che Stage: . preached at ^ 
eraat Su Hary'H Church, Qqibiidge, on 
Sunday September the 25lh, add Sand..y 
October the 3d, ISOSj with copious sup- 
plameatary notes. By James Plumtro, 
.B.n. 7«. 

The Way in wtieh we ahouhl gn ; a s- r- 
mon, pmcbed in the parish church of itf. 
BoMph, Cambridge, onSuaday, Decemtwr 
lllh. 1808, for tlie benefit of tbe New 
School, established on Dr. Bell's ^nd Mr. 
Lancaster's plao of «dncation. By Jimea 
PlaEatM, B.D. Ik 

A Plain and Serious Address, From a pa- 
rochial clergyman to his parishioners, at 
theeoaimBQCiimootottlieiKwy.ai'. ii. fid. 
Youth admanished to submit lo tbe Guui- 
■nee of CSod. A Sermon, preaclied at tttt 
Chapel, in Fish-Street, Kingtton opon Hull, 
Jin. s; 1809. .By George Pdyoe, A. H- 
, Published at the Bc^uett of the Church 



.dtyGoogIc 



S96 List^ ej Works recently fubltsked. 

TorodK^piir, A H>>t«y of BrMVoookshirr. Cootain- 

LondiDR IllmtraU ; or, a CalUctiOD of '"* ^^ Antiquities, Sepulcbral Hoaiitnent!! 

Plate*. Ma>i.tiDE of EDgra^inj. frumoti- ^"^ InKjiptkms.Kahiral CuiiMitw* Varw- 

(inal PaiHli'Qgs and Drawings, and Fac- "°"." ™' i Stratlfli-ation, Mineralogy, a 

(ixiile Copiei of Scarce PrjnU ; di.play. '»?''?» H'' '^ "P "" "*^ r*2"' »'^ 

IDS tb« State of th« Britiah Metropol", I^* GeneaJogy and Arms of tbe Farnillea 

ftoni the Reign <rf Queen Elizabeth to the Wazooedj together wrth the n«o rf the 

Be-olutioii. No. 2. with foor plates, wz. Patrmii and IticumbcnU of all Ita P»rirte. 

l.Tbe H«piUlorSt. John of Jernjalam, «i>d Liying. in that County. ByTJeophilM 

near SmithfieU, a Faosimrlu Copy tnta tba ■"™*' 0«P"'y B^pi'rar, &,& The lecond 

TeryKarceEtchiDgbyHoHar.iBDogd»le'j ""* concluding Volome, illnrtratjd by Bo- 

MenaWicoQ, 8. SufiUk House, Charins meroui plate».Toyal 4to. *l. r4». 6d. 
Crosi, from a Drawing by Hollar, in tbs 

Pepysian Uhrary, Cambridge. 3. Durham, tuvrli. 

Saliibuiy, and Worcester HouaeE, id the Caledonian Sketcb«(, or, a Tonr thraai^ 

Strand, (rom a Draving by tlie (ame. 4. Scotland, In the year 1807. By Bt Jf>hn 

Yorfc Houae, adjoining the above, from a Carr. 4to. with nuineroos fine vieas. 21. 9*. 
Drawing: bytbesami!. Iii. 

COROESPONDENCE. 

ODracQpuDt of theniilosophical Traniactioiu &ir lBOS,Part. I, U Deceuarijy pMt< 
pooed to the next number; 

We are much gratiiled by Ibe favourable upinion of the olyect, tendeui-y, and DEMutioft 
of tliii publicaboa, exix«ued by our correapoodBat Oitnaler kaia No(th Britain ;ai wall aa 
by Ibe candour with which br hai made his remaiferoD a critique in our Jast votnme, 
p. 10B9. If hereconsiden thesubjeettovhic)iheadTarti,hewfll6D(t,that the rei!stanc<^ 
to a veiiel in motion will not he invariable, with equal TetociUci, ^le the deosity -of the 
fluid Tariea, unku the tuifaat nmnirmf, a> wtll as the quantities Of Stiid displaced, be in- 
venely as the deatities. And cren if this were not the fact, Otorrdtor'i arfMaenti irbutd 
not apply to our objectiims ^umt Qeaeral Grant's contriTaocs : because it is not t^ «es- 
tel, but the iait let Ania through the tube and drawn after II, which expedMCM the npiit- 
an^ to be meisnred in the itandarti experiment} and that reslitance wi^ manifestly vary 
-cm^oiatly with the density of the fluid, and wlcfc some- touetioa of tlie vdocity of- the tail- 

Id antwer to anotbcr wortby Cormpoudent, who dgns Igteivi, «e would htf to ob* - 
terve, that the (eneral commendation of an author^ style does tmt iuqilT an unqu^ifiedi 
approbation of every sentence in hii work; and that the Tariow Isolts oTwhi^ Igmitiui 
justly complains in the work referred to, sre all noticed in our critique, t* iKron^y, We 
think, erety thing cansideied, as the occasion requiiad. 

- Dr. Carpanter'a Letter has come to band. He wodU prdtablrnot han thoagbl it so ne- 
cMsary fiirjbim to " call upon us" to correct au naintentioDal iqis-ltjdeufjit, bad he recol- 
I*cttdth(t the gentlesifB vtawi alone it coDcemed was the only proper person to demand 
such " SD act of justice |" and he ml|rht bate been still lets iocHned ft> mterftn, had be 
fint taken the tranble (o asceitain whether that geatleman hadcomj^ioed fn'bWf^i'avd 
wbetWhe bvl MMirad a private wpUnatipn, and ahetb^ be in* desirous' of .leccivisg *« 

Errata,— p.l'n,L93.rMrf;*;T8orlTr9. ... 

p. 193.1. iSinfierHnrr^AOuemma. 
p. SOO, 1. 6. frombbttom.fbr odiorfeMwAM' ~ 



ih,Goo'glc 



THE 

ECLECTIC REVIEW, 

For APRIL, 1809. 



An. I. CaUdonian Steleha : or a Tour through Scotland iolSO?: to' 
which is prefixed an Explanatory Address to the Public, upon a recent 
Trial. By Sir John Carr. 4to. pp. about 560. Price a. 2». Jilathews 
andLdi^. 1809. 
/^UR. knight has once more run his summer course of ad- 
ventures, and given the story of them to the world witli 
B richness of exhibition, in point of paper, typography, and 
engraving, to which we might gueation the claims , of any 
narrative less important than the retreat of the Ten Thou- 
sand,, or the voyage of Columhus. We cannot help thin^in'^. 
what pride would have elated, the minds of facetious inn- 
keepers, singing boatmen, mountain guides, the poases^or^ 
of mud cabins, and possibly some lords of ancient castles,. 
if they could have foreseen that their doings and their sen- 
tences were to be recorded and recjtcd in such elegant 
lines of letters, on such beautiful (ieldB of paper. And the^ 
builders of steeples and bridges would have looked with, 
augmented complacency at their performances, which they 
already admired beyond!^ all "other works of art in the world^ 
if it could have been foretold t'o them that the skill and, • 
genius,, so wonderfully displayed in these structures, were' 
destined to be represented in a thousand impressions of a fair 
delineation, and admired to the extremities of the kingdom, 
not to mention * the Continent and America,' where it seems 
that some of the knight's former works have attained no small- 
degree of popularity. . , . 

So long as England, the continent of Europe, and Ame- , 
rica, three portions of this unfortunate world diat cannot, 
at present, agree in anv' o;ie sublunary thing besides, shall 
agree to ivelconie Sir JiSin's costly volumes in the most ra-. 
pid succession in which horses, ghaises, ships, printers, and! 
engravers, ca.n co-operate to furnish them, it will be i.u vaia'^ 
for reyiewflf p tp hjnt a wish that the intervals might be a little 
ten&thened, in accommodaiJon to. their toils and theii^ purses.' 



ih,Googlc 



298 Carr's- Caledonian Sketches. 

It will be in vain to suggest bow many accampliBbments, of 
rather laborious acquirement, are useful and graceful to a 
tnveller, or how many are to be held quite indispensable if 
he means to come upon us for two guineas ererv time be 
returns. We are tempted, notwithstanding, to take the li- 
ber^ of suboiitting, tnat when a iraTeller undertakes no less 
a task than that of displaying the peculiar character of a 
people, it may be of some advanlwe to him to- have studied 
phimsophicalfv, not slightly glanced over, Uie distinguishiog 
characters and institutions of other nations ; that he' would 
have done well to read over, at least half a dozen times, such 
works as the Spirit of Laws, and the Wealth of Nations j 
that an intimate acquaintauce \titb natural history would not 
tend to impoverish, his observations on the productions and 
animal inbabitaai;; qf ^ilj 4a4 dale ; and that if be is resolved 
to have names or sentences from a learned language,, the 
readef should have some security that a certain noted river 
shall not be written ' Tiber' and * Tibur* in the same Hue. 

it may also be equally pertinent and useless to repeat to 
Sir Jobii Uie admonition, that no h^w of accurate views oF 
a country can be acquired in such a galloping expedition 
as this. We are not suit'ertd to learn the exact space of 
time ili whith it wai performed, but it appears to have been 
despatched wilhlft a *ery moderate section of the finer por- 
tioh of the yiiar, and with an inconceivably passionate at- 
ta^hmeht and urideviaiing fidelky to the kings high road. 
At Edinburgh indeed, in the midst of ease and gentili^, he 
remuoed a con&idfcrable time, and has pct:upiea an exces- 
sively dispropottioiied space of his book With detail and 
descriptions which *e coulfl have so much cheaper in works 
written fbi* the partlColar purpose.; but when he advances to- 
ward theJ'etited and tnoiintainous regions, wfa^te a naturat 
and mot^l ^6nel:y of a new dnd wild atid striking character 
opens aronnd him,' his movements acquire the celerity of i 
culprit escaping ftom the officers of jjustice. 

We can cbd^t-^hend that it was riecessary at ^dr post 
to inqnire afottut the Qieans of being. Conveyed to ^e next ; 
but thflt . this should so often appear the first and chief of 
the. traveller's ocCfipations, comports but indifferently Mtb 
our notlbtl t)f the functions of & man. whom the pablic emr 
ploy and pay, (fot this is ihe view in which Sir John wxf 
feiriy be reg^r^d) to furnish tliem with original and accu- 
rate information of the manners and curiosities of the cobe- 
tn which he traverses, and especially of those parta of- it 
which are (nost remote, tnost' peculiar, and least accesstblfr-. ~ 
We could have allowed him to <}uit Edinburgh jnct at aoea 
as he'^leased, and any oUlet.latge town, as it may tie pre*' 



Do,i™;t,.G6oglc 



V Onr's Caledonian JHhtttkes. 299 

somed that large towns in Scotland brar ab much resent- 
blance to large towns in Engtand, that the points of dUler- 
eoce can very -soon be told ; and at aily rate we havepleftty 
of ments of igfortnation. But when he rescbed the viUages 
sad the mnmer camps of the true Caledonians, when be 
surveyed their domestfc and rural econoniy, when be wan- 
dered on tiie itaargin of their likes, lotiked' into their dark 
.(^ens, listened to llieir torrents and catai-acts, and climbed 
tbeir bilk, we should bave been mtich bet:«r pleased to have 
.been with bjm hdf a year, sometimeB isnibling, a^d suiner 
times stationary for a number of weeks-et once, than to have 
Ind tbe dashing anKiaement of riding after him. at a hunting 
pace^'through such a country', even though we closed arid 
crowned the adventure with the triumph of iindiR|; our 
neebs safe out. of the highlands, and out of Scotland itself, 
at the end of s very few weeks from the time of its com- 



A traveller, that should really deserve to be paid^ at any 
thing tike tbe rate demanded by Sir John, would not have 
staid in London till die commencemeDt of the ' delightful 
nooth of JutW.' He would bave set off northward at the 
first approach of spring, would have thought it no part of 
his business. to describe the buildings of Cambridge, Stam- 
ford, or Yoik, tvould haM confined bis notice of Dur- 
ham and Newcastle to the description and censurb of the 
state of the prisons in those towns, and would bave begun 
bis narrative and sketches exactly at tbe ' peel' which he 
was sbeWo at • tb^ edge di the herder tract, formerly named 

- ^e Dcbateable Land. He wodM have waited a few weeks 
in Edinburgh and its nei^honrhood, for tbe complete de- 
partnre of the Scotch winter; he would then have vanished 
somewhere in tbe nottb or the west, and would have been 
seen Ik) more in the kutude hf tbe Tweedy till fairly 
Uown back by t^ temfiests of November. During this 
long interv^. Bis course would imve been such, tliat dny in- 
«iary after him along tbe great road vKfalA very soon bare 

-faHed. He would cdrteialy ham had no anti|iathy to tbe. 
cigbt of a good town, or to the acoommodations of a goed 
inn; but' bis citfiasity would have led him on many an ad- 
venture across the' rack and idmott trackiess ridges, the 
' hiUsvf mist,' into those' -obscaic retreats where the little 
seoict^ retaibs scHnenirat (rf the obaraocor - of- former ages. 
He'wonldifaave fimnd his wmy iniU little sehDolSt aiid ' kirkis,' 
where fehbt primitive sinipKeity lecelinsi, <fitem the two knvds 
of, iaifaraction, a certiain dighity. whidi cbajcactEmes in an 

- equ';^ di^gree iio othernuluBtaicieers intheworkl., Hewoi^d 
have visited the establishments on the hills, to mkath. the in- 

Z2 

r,on,-,Mh,.GoOgJc 



300 Carr'a CaUdoOian Si-eteiis. 

habitants of the vsllieg renfove daring; the summer, famiK- 
arising himself with the shepherds, with their children, and 
' with their fare, and listening to their legends and local 
histories. He would have spent many weeks among the < 
islands, tracing their moral diversities from one another, and 
the difference of any or all of ttem from the character of 
society on the main land. And then as to the natsral sce- 
nery, be would have eagerly explored it through all its ro- 
mantic and dreary forms, even to the tops ot the munn< 
tains. Time for all this misht have been secured, byenter^ 
ing the country early in the year, and remaining in it till 
late in the autumn. If itbe objected that there' would have 
been many other requisites, besides time, for such an en- 
teVprize, and that especially a Icnowledge pf the Gaeliclan- 
goage would have been indispensable, why should it not be 
answered at once, that a knowledge of that langu^e is 
necessary, absolutely necessary, to any one who undertakes 
to give a satisfactory account of the inhabitants of the High- 
lands. If again it were pleaded that the gentleman's health 
may be too delicate for him to sleep on heath within a 
sli^t tent, or to enjoy the air and odours of a smoky hut 
the whole night, or to defy the effects of wet clothes, or 
to endure the contact of his linen when it may not hear a 
comparison with the snow on the Highland summits, rather 
than abandon a stene of sublimity and primitive character 
and Gaelic song in quest of soap, or to ford rivers on.foot> 
or to clamber amoug the chasms and ledges of precipices, or 
to spend several days in such a place as the island of St»l&, 
taking views of Fingal's Cave, and the other wonderful ap- 
pewvoces of its coast, — if his corporeal nature is inadequate 
to all this, we certainly caaoot require him to attempt it ; 
but then we must look out for some other advimttirsr' to 
bring US nich ' sketches* as would give the boldeat and 
most peculiar features of the Caledooian territories and 
people, it had been no Jault in Bruce, or Park, or Heame, 
or Mackenzie, if their physical part had been composed of 
slight and frail materials; out it bad been a good reason for 
declining any approach to regions, wheie they knewthat ebe 
explorer would need all the vigour, as well as the courage, 
of a wild beast. It is rather foolish, to be sure, to bnng 
into thought even the most reowte comparison between the 
expeditions of these traveller):, and any possible' route in the 
fintish island ; but yet there are very many thing* in the 
Highlands' of Scotluid, eminently worthy of description, 
vbich will never be truly descrihed by any btA> thebest 
built, best winded, best seaBBMed, and least dainty, of trtr 
■ veiling herees; , 



r,o,i,,-cdtyGoOglc 



Carr's CaledMtian Sketches. 301 

While however we have ihus signified what kind of mail, 
and >n what course of proceeding, we can be willing to 
employ and pay as an explorer of the norihern part of our 
island, and protested against the usurpation of sumptuous 
quarto honours now bel'ore us, we must noj deny that the 
tnight has given as, as usual, a gooti deal of information and 
amusement. He knows more than we do, though we know 
much more than we can approve, of his clundestine deal- 
ings with other books wiiile making up his own ; but ^t the 
same time he certainly keeps a sharp look about him, doet 
not appear during his journies to sleep or drink more thai) 
quantum m^i, and in every place he visits is always sure 
to direct his inquiries to some of the proper subjects. We 
really think' very few persons could make so pleasant a story ' 
out of .an adventure, in which they whipped on so fast, ana 
so very far in' a straight line. Let any one consider what a 
narrow stripe, what a mere riband of a country, can be , 
effectually surveyed by a traveller, who (unlike old Elwes) 
shall make strict conscience of not eluding a tumpike-bar 
by ever diverting into a bye-road for three or {bur hun- 
dred miles together, and ask himself whether it -would be 
easy to get wherewithal to make an entertaining quarto 
during such a run. In addition to the real value of some 
parts of his materials, and the amusing quality of others, 
the knight has in general a clear, easy, gentlemanly style, 
but seldom twisted into affectation or loaded with finery. 
His mannei: of describing has always pli'ased us; in general 
the moral proprieties are duly preserved ;'th*re is nothing 
dogmatical iu the mode of giving his opinions; and as to 
his temper, we doubt whether any adventurer traversing, at 
tbis present writing, any part of this terraqueous globe, 
possesses half so much good humour. He turns even mis-: 
chances and disappointments into pleasantry, finds or makes 
every body obliging to him (except those vile critics, ca^ 
ricaturists, and jurors) and sprinkles ^< golden opinions' on 
•all sorts of people.' The high and low, the livmg and the 
dead, share the diffusive liberality of his graise; which 
chaunts in gentle and well deserved accents tlie generosity 
of a peasant, but swells, as it ought, into a resounding mag- 
nificence, when it alludes to the highest of mortal things : 
witness the following two specimens, thp latter of which is 
the fnest passage, in the volume. 

' This equipraeot enabled me to observe the natural kindaesB and civaity 
of the lower people, which with pleasure I record. A few miles before 
I reached Nairn, I came lo a gloomy heath, from, which two roada di- 
verged, and I knew not which to take : the night w^» advancing, I was 
alone, and all was sUent. In this dilemnu, I rode back, to alitUe Wofi 



i>,Googlc 



302 Can'a CaleAman Sketchts. , 

/(tow which I hfdfoaafd, cowuting oi some mitdable -tuicf llQ«el|i die 
inhnbitaau of which had all retired to tett. Afier knocluag at thp dw 
o£ one of them for some tjine, ^ tall athletic peasant, whoae slumbert 
appeai*ed to ban been as BOi)nd aa health and tonocence gener^ly unite to 
render thero, addressed me with the usual s^utati on, " What's a wiill?" 
Upon my telling hira my situation, instead of giving me any directions, . 
he came out, and, with no other covering than a ihirt, inaiated upon 
walking by the aide of my horse for a mile, till he had seen me out of the 
possibihty of mistakiog my road, whicb he did with the most pA'fect 
good hwnouF, -snd at'partiag refiised to accept a doncenr for iBcb c^- 
tnordioary atteotioa t todocd he ^peaied ube hurt that I tboukt Inn 
dfiendit' pi. 3S&. 

•Poetry neTer had a m»re ddicste and fteliog votary, (than Dr. 
Bcatcie) DOT region a mere acute and ferrid apostle. His reiined mo< 
deetyacted npoa his rich. and culdvated mind, as a fine veil upon a 
beaiKiful face, increaiin^r the charms which it rather covered than con- 
ceglcdf The piety of hi* Severeign, captivate^ with the elotjneace bf the 
hoJy advocate, sought for the pleasures of personal conversation with him. 
Dr. BeMiie had the peculiar honour of an ioterriew with their majesties, 
unrestrained by the harassing forms and depressive splendour of a court, 
vhopaid the most flattering compliments to his hallowed labours, and 
more substantially rewarded them with a pension. Such an application of 
resources deriwd by a beteved monarch from a loyal people, resembles, 
as wai once tAaer^eA upon a memoraMe occawoo, th'e sun, which extracts 
moisture from the earui, to replace it in refreshing dews. The writings ' 
and life of this unbt«pished man coiacide with pire design aod perfect 
execution. Alt thathe inculcated, hepractised. He arrested tbetfaougltt- 
lesf, hr fixed the wavering, be confirmed the good. Hi* dymesQc ror- 
rowi were gre^t and nuny ; his philosophy, liowevo', was oi a divine 
nature, sfiA be submitted to them with a resignation which seeoled to b« 
derived from Heaven, where be is gone to mingle with the ^nrits of the 
good and great, wbp preceded him \a their flight to immortality.' p. 288. 

Considering our knight's unequalled coaiplaisance> which 
we beJievfi to arise froiq a real kindness of nature that feels 
ittuch nkore pleasure iii praising than condenDiog, we are 
gratified in rxpresaing our strong and sincere applause of 
the independence of character displayed in Almost the oaly 
iastances in which this complaisance js intermitted, — bisde> 
scriptions and censures of the stnte of various priEous which 
h« visi«ed in his tour. . In this part of bis travelling economy 
we always respect him highly, and would exhort" him to re- 
{;ard it as a. mutter of indispensable obligation in every future 
expedition. It is quite tiiiie to arra^n before the public 
those persons, whoever they may bo, that are accouniable 
for the continuance, in any town gf England especially, of 
any thing cprrcsponding to such deticciptioos as we could cite 
fcom this volume. 

• TV prison i« weH^ calculated to pumsh the prisoner before bis guik 
iiprovad: tlK dnageou, wbictt are bdow euh wbcr, wedark, dam^ 



Do,i,,-,-,ih,-Got")glc 



sod UDvrbt^eKme. The vcbtilMon, wM<^ Wfltod ta ifae top of t^ 
ganA, are choaked up. The prisoofrs tle^ i^d nrav > the jqpaunqn 
room U small aod i}wy reotilated ; and the male prisonera are let Q^t 
oDijr teven at a time into a tmall yard for exerciie, and that only twice 
a week, which yard it cloae to an ion, and cOmmaiided by it. It it si- 
ditionally painfiil to reflect, that the asiilea a» hMd heve onty occt; a 
year. The keeper of the priaon i£ a humane and fiesjiectable iMm, attd 
' nrach regretted diat the builditig wai ao objectiouble. The bridffwtf 
it ia a thockiag ataM. llie alee^ng-room of the pritoMn it a M«tt 
cs*e under the road, twewed at the bottom with it»w. Kite thettaUn^ 
the robbert in Gil hln. Into thii Tuk I vai abevo, in ntid dayt Irf 
the aid of a iaMhera : it wm dripping v>th wtt w every u^,' p» UL 

This is tlw (irhoti at Dtirhani : the aecoant of that at Neil* 
cwile !■ only not quite se bad. There can bowevev be Mo 
doubt, at least with burgesses and magintiBteft or^irtlMirwitiV, 
tbat this is the best imaginable method for nrformiitg the 
morals of the criminals. 

Sir John relieves the drearines} of the bordef connwy by 
dcMtriptionB of the hnbiis aniJ ffliploits of ita forRier ferooioDs 
iflbabitants, and the anecdote of tlie excellent Bcvnard Gil- 

fin, who took down the glove fvhich had been hua^ np irt 
is cbureh as a challenge. The beautiful neigfabownood of 
Jedburgh, the ruins of Melrtwe abbey, which, asweavebeMs 
informed, measure 943 feet in circumference, »nd the re- 
collected strains of the Last Minstrel, combined to put our 
erratic knight forward in the htghetjt spirits on the loAfl 
toward the capital, which he soon hailetl, Bitder the deiv^ 
mination given it by ihe common people, of ' Aq14 Retkie, 
reik tnesning smtAe.* There is no intimation of the leRgtfa 
ot time spent by our auihor in Etiinburgh and Its Ticinity, 
but about 180 pages are filled before we are permitted to 
leave it. It is but fair, hnwever, to obserw, that some of 
the information given within this extensive ^ace retates net 
exclusively to the titj-, but to all Kco^nd Much of the 
information relating to the cii|, especially to its noble lite- 
rary institutions, in vaFuable. and is ^iven with clearness ; 
some of the antiquities might possibly deserve 'to be oivefe 
more described ; a few of tne fively and characteristic anec- 
dotes would have been quite welcome; but after all that 
can be pleaded, there is no forgiving Sir John for ensross. 
ing such a measureless space with accounts of buifdings, 
streets, municipal arrangements, unimpoitant localities, ana 
urifling incidents, such aa every city and great town may 
supply in all desirable plenty. 

The moat interesting artidfe, perhaps, in tbis poitibn of the 
volume, is the ample explanatun ^ the nature of the de» 
p9.rtment of the profeBsoVshiJr of' Medical Jurlsprndence, re*- 
cent^ initituteit in. the. univ^i^ ef EdinblU^i Si< John 

Do,l,.cdtyGoOglc- 



-S«4 Carr'a CtUedonim Sketches. 

will hare tlie thanks' of ewcry tntetligent reader for -this per- 
^spiciious and comprehensire staiement. He supplies various 
information respecting the economy of the universi^, and 
gives a list of the names and respective departments of all 
tW professors. Aslight indiscretion is committed, we think, 
'in the eulogiums be bestows on such men as professors Du- 
'gftld, Stewart, Playfair, and I.«sUe. It will be thought, that 
.-the bare mention of their names had been quite enough to 
Iremind tbe public, of their distinguished ulents, and their 
\doqtributions to the advancement of science. Nor would it 
btiBurpnsing if the ill nature of. some critics were to bint 
.a .dou^t, whether Sir John has duly qualified himself to 
give additional authority to the verdict of the scientific 
world OD their writings. 

-.. .Among tbe many buildings described, is the huge uofi- 
ni^ed structure designed for a new college, but left, from 
^deficiency of money, m a state to require, according to Sir 
John, at least I20,000l. for its completion. The sly travel- 
ler is tooh^rd upon the Caledonian ambition when he sug- 
gests the. consolation to the ' citizens of Edinburgh,' that 
;tbis 'pilS) when tinted by " the mellowing hand of Time," 
->viU aaordthem the melancholy but picturesque effect of 
a -mighty ruin.' 

.An account is given of the legal and ecclesiastical iiisti- 
rtuCions, of the libraries, literai-y societies, hospitals, trade, 
amusements, and . every other imaginable thing which can 
.supply an apology for detaining us from our eagerly de- 
sirea excursion toward the Highlands, We have apleasing 
.description of Roslyn and Hawthornden, combined with no- 
tices 4nd anecdotes of Drummond, whose memory has given 
a classic character to the latter. mentioned place. Sir John 
avails himself throughout,, with very great address, of every 
cUss of historical aasociations with the places he visits, es. 
pecially all associations of a tender and romantic quality. 
.We have only to observe, that be -is rather apt to employ 
^his resource to an extent very inconvenient to all but 
yrealthy purchasers of books. For instance, Holyrood -house 
very naturally recals the idea of the Queen of Scots. But 
when that idea suggests itself, the traveller Ands other and 
better uses for it than a mere indulgence of pensive seoti- ' 
ment; it brings with it a licence for tilling eight pages 
with an extract (a curious one iudeed) from Sir James Mel- 
ville's Memoirs, with specimens of Mary's verses, and a copy 
- of the. first English letter she ejver wrote. This was mucn- 
jnore than «6uld be legitimately added to tbe description of 
the pala0e, which is thus concluded: 

■ f-T^'asfixvc^/tm of iqufitn. JtfaBp;....caaoot, !al of excidog the 
deepest bteren, and of awakeoiag msDy tender emotumi.. Her chain- 



;., Google 



Carr's Caledonian Sketches. .305 

ber !t OD the Mcood floor, in which her bed, and the (iinutura of the 
room, TcmaJn as ihe left theiD. The bed of crimBon damask, bordered 
with green silk fringes and taasele ; and the cornice of the bed is of open 
fi|[ured work, and, contideiing its antiquity, io good preservatioa- Be* 
hind the haDg;ings of this room, in part folded back, is the door of. a 
passage leading to the apartmei^Cs uDderaeath. Through this door, it is 
■aid. Lord Dariilw and the couBpirators entered on the 9t!i of March, 
1566,^ and efTecied the murder of Rizzio. The closet in which this 
•anguioary transactioQ took place, is in the north-west tower of the pa- 
lace, and about twelve feet square, and opens into Mary's chamber, who 
was supping with the Countess of Argyle and the ill-starred Italian, vhta 
the assassins dragged him away (althongh he clung to his royal patfo- 
ness for protection,! and butchered him in the i^jojning chamber of 
presence, upon the floor of which some brown spots are she^ra, u the * 
tdood of the murdered musician. It may be just possible that diis it 
not an attempt to impose upon the credulous, as I am informed that the 
stain of blood on timber is indelible.' p. 60, 

We have a very lively description of the zeal displayed, 
by the Scotch in their attendance on the sacrament, ' or, as 
it is called, the Jfoli/ Fair,' which, out author says, is cele- 
brated only once a year in each parish. 

* So zealous are they in their attendance, upon these solemn occasions, 
diat I have fivqtiently seen the aged, who have been too infinn to walk, 
neatly and decently dressed, conducted in a litde can, preceded by a 
•on or a daughter carefuHy leading the horse, and in this maimer pro- 
ceeding to a distance of several miles to church. Owing principally to 
the scaotj dispersion of the populauon, the kirks, or meetings, are fre- 
^ently very far removed from those who wish to attend them j and it 
IS astoniabing what pilgrimages the Scottish peaaanu will perform upoa 
these occasions, their enthusiasm appealing to redouble in proportion to 
the distance and dilEculty of reaching the place of devotion.' p. liT. 

The knight by no means disuiproves a serious attention to 
the duties of religion ; but he is moved with much indigna- 
tio^i ^Creligioa and its ministers should ever have inter- 
fered, as ID rtio case of Mr. Home, the writer of the tr^edy 
of Douglas, to censure the stage, and condeuin the worthy 
employment of clergymen in writing plays, and attending the 
representation of' them. It seems, however, that this iUibe> 
raiity has had iti day, and is departed. Mr. Home is con- 
gratulated as having ' survived the absurd prejudices of his 
countrymen, who now regard him with- as much pride and 
admiration, as they formerly did with abhorrence ; and when 
1 was at EdiDburi;h',(say3 our author) 'this venerable tjrnan(^t 
of his country' (why is it not said his religion, for it was of 
tliat that he ouu;)it to have been the ornament?) 'was still 
alive, althougli fiom great age,* -and consequent debility of 
mind, only his hody could be said to be so." It is added, 

* Douglas yas actedin 1766. 

Do,l,.cdtyGoO(^lc 



306 Carr*9 Gikdanian Sketches. 

• As a pnof how soon the Scotch heCame ■rfninat) «f Biieti lutrov^- 
mindtd prejndicM, and that the reign eF bigotry Bad Mif a»» nxlaretet 
fbr a «tiort space of time, at e^ttraordbary as the abere noty i»i (thai 
of the ecclniastical ceniurea of Mr. Hmiw) w^n that ifcttriova acves^ 
■ Mrs. Siddong, lirst appeared at EttiDbiirgh, the busiiien of the e«ek- 
masttca] courts was t^pilated by her niehn »f actingi and the chief afi" 
Cera were obliged to fix their ifays of InifiiKM ia the etYuisgri rf whkh 
■he did not peiforra, in consequence of tlje joonger menhera, clergy, as 
wdl ai laity, taking their seatc at three o'clock io the •fternooB when 
she petformed.' p. ISI. 

As far as the biuioess of tbeae courts rfitated to religJoJh 
it is obviiiiu it uiuld aot be carried oii in the absence of 
all that 4>iMy and. f>ru<tence which theise young getitUmen 
and Chnstian pasttvs earned to the pl«v-h«itS9. 

In the vaiioua tonrse which our mithof took after leavi«g 
Edinburgh, he visited, no d»iibt, a good proportion of toft 
places most KBoarkable in Scotland. He went as (ar to the 
west as ihe i^lsad of Stafia, and ^ far to the novlh as 
Peterhead, and trarcrsed sooie parts of the intens^diate 
country in several dirt;ctioas. He. has naade a large coltecr 
tioii of iacts, many pertineut observations, many pleasing apd 
curious de»cri|ttive liketches, iUKlsoDie very beautiful diawilga 
of rt!iitafkai>i«^huildi'jg& or scenery. No man caii b^ mora 
attei^tive to the objects presented to his vi^w, during the 
short time that he ^inutG himaetf to centtnue in sight of 
tHem. In all his excursioas be di8}]^ays a laudable inquiir 
sitivene^ respecting matter:! of art, inanulwcture, and poli- 
ticat economy ; and his attention was strongly arrestea by 
the Carron fbunden, and the manu&cture of fcelp, which 
latter be thus describes. 

' Kelp is the calcined a^hes of a marine plant of that aame. and ia 
used in die maDufacture of slam and soap : it rrortn on the rocks atid 
■faores of the Hebrides and Highlands After n is cot, or collected, it 
ia exposed to iIk sun and wind ) and before its mnsovc is exhaled, it is 
placed in troughs, or hoUoMia, dug ia the framd, akmt six feet Icngp 
and t«» or tuve broad : rauod its xurgis is laid s row of stones, eo- 
which the lee-wced is placed* aod set oo ire within ; ud in coQaequeocs 
of cootiaual tUFpUea ol' this Awl, there if in the ctntrs a perpetual &anM> 
firoD which a liquid like melted metal drops into the hollow beneath, 
and when iiill, it is> in a state of fiuioni raked about with long iron 
rakes. Great nicety is required to raove the weed while it is burning, 
and to keep it free from dirt, ^%'hen cool it consolidates into a Aeavy 
dark-coloured alkaline substance, which undergoes in the gtassJuniBes a 
. second vitriiactioD, and assumes a perfect transparency.' p. 49(k 

The traveller vras greatly' pleased with the character of 
the Highlanders, and lias given a profusion of anecdotes il- 
lustrative of it, together with various pictures of their mode 
of life, one of which ne shall tratwcnbe, 

' I had before seen specbDens of Highland hamlets, and in my Way w 



Carr's CaUttonkn SkeHhet. 'ao7 

thi< flice (Lett^ Hodky} IpMKd by anodtfr of tbeni. At a 4Utanct- 
cliey reseiDDle i number ot pilei of tjuf. In g^wraj tbtj an bwU- i« 
gient and ttrathii or upon the side of a Uui ot d^ a nvei wt asieuai. 
adjolnrng to which there is a litjle ai^hle Iaii4- Tbu ncv l,«ttiijr Find* 
Ity u cToK to the ihore* of tht; laliei ajl (be hut; of w(u^ ^^r tf: 
be constructed after the same (ty]e of rude architecture. The walla are 
built of turf or ttonei, according to the nature of tb* ai^oinmg goU, and. 
raised about six ftet high* on th« top of which 3 rotn of bnnchn of 
tncB it cODStEucted .; tkisii covend with squjrei of turf, of about lix 
ijKlkM thick) clMcly prcwed tt^etbtr, ud put oo fraih from iiii pomt 
moor, with the giaas or hoatb wpoa i^ Mteli afterwasdi aoiitiiiiaa to 
grw^, and reoderi it difficult for a tranller) ttoleM be br verj- shtip- 
sighted, to diuinguiih at a little ^t)^t^^cff the hu ffgm tht moqr. \ bira- 
aeeo mapy of thete buildiogi in high vagetatioBi aqdin that rn^rtft tbejr 
reminded me of the aaniedeKripuon of buitdinga in^wedeo* 

■ I waA obliged to stoop on enterigg tho door of thew aylraa abodn> 
and within hw a cabin which brought to my recoUectipq that of RobiB- 
soaCrnw»e: upoa the ground, abgut the centre, was the fire, the smoke 
of wfaich cKt^wd dtrough a bole in the top of the roof, but not without 
baving'firsc blackened every part of it within, tiU the rafters looked like 
cbarcoal ; and, unleai tbfi tjowfiDg elM^4 be waiBr^reaf, ttw tvm. n 



xhelTes, tor holding proMtions. 

' A tolerable but la din j«(i inu ihcie {Wta ; a ban. idMcfa is dM ' 
kitchen ; a bena, ao iQAeinwm ; «ad a tH|nr, whan thecattl* ar« housed. 
Frequently) the j^rtition of the qhafubers is effected by ao old blaideM, 
or apiece of udrdoih. lo the kitcheoi and freqanlly ia- dw inaat 
room, there aie cupboard-faeda for the bnuly t OTi wlaat i« anrD frequeot, 
when the fiii 91) tee grouad ia utiaguished^ they- poi th«r bed of haath 
and hlankctt on the wqt wherfr it ba« bunted, on accmnCof (be gionad 
beiog dty. A true fArrner lovet l» sleep aeae ^ byar-, that ha ntay 
hpar his CJtttl« eat. These poniarchal dweUiags freqwetly trenibk, ant' 
sometioiea fall, b^&ue llie ^ry of tlw tcnpeat. I wa& toI<i that 'fof 
iar nortlX) when a H^hla^d peasut catenavM his fiiendi wiA a ^mt*- 
M f^aaa of whi#kyi i^ if iMWk aa a oomi^taNBt to the bost^ t» iimlt, 
tohu toef't*^, fU'^diBg t» the princ^ttl bean, which by- its 'wki^' 

; epahlea the roof tu ruiu the pMiitu« suf % mouatain a^l, and wkida 
forma the great protection of thct ftnily withiafnini its iarj. 

*A house with an upper story is called) by way of pre-etnineocC), a 
lofted hiti. I was informed by sonie gentlemen, who had long reiideil 
in the ]t£ghlands, that in some; of these miserable habitations, upon their 
return from grouse shoodiig, they have been frequently ot&red a glass 
of exccUeot white »r red wiaet as well as whi^ky^ Agotber HiglHand ' 
ui.mIiiihiii iiifiiiiiini niiij that ^ie«e mountaineers are so attached to their 

' nud oc ^t hovelS) that, although ho had eraoced itt some of hit tenants 
fKOt Kone C9tugec, they contiDupl to pteftv theic fonner dwellings, the 
wriunw^p of theit QYtt ha^df ■ 

' Ti» Higfaifni f¥^W°T*» tilw.t^ Ilifti Vf vfit^wudk attached to 



,,-,-,ih;GoOglc- 



3D3 Carres Caledonian Sketekei, 

dieir dap|hin«t wluch^ are coonrucied dose m their doors. To such a 
|Htdi of fondnCsi U thii cirried, that upon an order being issued 'Jiat no 
one shoukl raise their dunghill in the struts of Callendar, one old lady 
is Said to have expressed her joy that she was not deprived of hers by 
diis dean and cruel decreet for she had made it in a back room.' p. 40S. 

When the knight catchi^s a good stt^ry, he dona not mind 
its having a slight degree of improbability or exaggerauon. 
We have a tolerably good opinion," hoivever,' of his general 
personal veracity. He dearly loves a little innocent mirth, 
though. It be at the expense of the Highlanders; but he is 
very far irom the slighteBt inientton to degrade them, by 
any of the curious anecdoTes he gives. He introduces a 
still greater number of pictures and stories tending to ex- 
hibit tliem in posses!iion of all the noblest virtues. 

His admiration every where does justice to the magnificence 
of nature in the Highlands; he celebrates many scenes as 
striking as the following, and often in language less over- 
charged with epithets. 

* Afterwards ,we followed the line of the river Awe, which is very 
long, deep, black, narrow,' and rapid> flowing into Loch Etive. Our' 
coarse lay through copses of weeping birch and hazel, along the foot of 
the stupoidous and ragged Cmachan Ben, a mountain measuring three 
thoasaod two hundred and ninety feet above the level of the sea, and 
tweoLy miles in circumference at its base. This Al[Hne scenery, pani- 
cularly as the evening advanced, was at once awful and tremendous \ 
frequently the road extended ^oog a frightini precipice, overhanging 
XiOch Awe, which lay in many places a prodigious d«>th below ua, and 
which we accasionally saw, through the openings of trees iinpeodbg 
over it, reflecting star for star of the cloudless sky, in its dear, but 
sable ntirror of waters ; whilst huge shattered fragments of rock, ar- 
rested in their descent by projecting crags, impended awfully and fright- 
fiilly, far above us, on the sides of this mighty mountain, deriving in- 
creased magnitude and honor from the shadows of the night, the solemn 
nicoce of whidi was cmly interrupted by the melancholy mnmiur of 
rmoie water&lls. The superstition of the neighbouring peasants still 
gives ciOrency to the trntinon of the terrific Bera, to whom was com- 
mitted " the charge of the aw/W spring," conceived to be the source of 
the lake, andiwho, from the summits of CruacbanBen, could at w91 
pour down £oods on the fields below.' p. 505. 

On the whole, we close the voluine in good temper with 
Sir John, whose manner of making books we certainly think 
needs very material reformation, hut who gives us id every 
one of them a good portion of valuable information and 
amusing anecdote. We bad nearly forgotten bis explana- 
tory address, relative to a recent trial. We are the less pro- 
voked at him for the prosecution, in consequeoce of its hav- 
ing failed, and of its- failure having tended to confinn the 
liberty of the pre^ But he-protests in this addreis,-that he 



r,o,i,,-cdtyGoOglc 



Whitaker's Life 6/ St. Neot. 309 

holds the Itberty of the press most sacred, and that the ca- 
ricatures in the satire, on account of which he brought his 
action, were the chief or sole ofFenae w^ich he wished to 
reach with the law. We think such, burlesque scratchjngs 
a vtxy shabby expedient for satiric criticism to hare re- 
course to ; but we think too that they could do Sir John no 
great mischief: if the purchasers of his former works were 
pleased with them, how 'tnany of them would be likely to - 
renounce their opinion of his quaiitkations, and conseqUen;t- 
Iv refuse to purchase hid next book, simply because .the aa- 
mbT had been caricatured ? But even if his expensive books 
had iu consequence been subjected to a somewhat more limit- 
ed sale, it cannot be impertinent in us to hint to his mo- . 
desty, that the price of nis publications previous to the one 
before us is no less than seven pounds sterling, and that men ' 
of almost equal distinction with himself, that Bacon, and 
Newton, never published books to any such amount. 

Art. II Tit Lifi of Saiia Naa, tht eUetl ^'all tit Bralitri lo Kmg 
Alfrtd. Bj the Rev. John Whitaker, B. D. Rector of RuaD L^y- ' 
honie, Comwall. 8to. pp. SiS. Price 10s.,6d. Stockdale. 1809. 

'T^HE point of view, in which this work is presented to us, 
cannot, we apprehend, but produce some serious impres- 
sion on the mind of fuiy person accustomed to literary enw 
ployment. The hand of the writer was arrested by that of 
death, amidst the occirpation of conducting bis Toluntfi 
through the press ; and his cessation from a long life of phi- 
lolonc^ toil and contention was announced to the publisher, 
by the return of a sheet uncorrected from a distant extremity 
of our island. Neither was this polemic vetenn merely en- 
gaged to liie last period of life in actual composition. In a 
letter, dated but two montiis before his death, we meet with 
these prospective annunciations : " My present work will be 
followed hyanother, next year, — The History ofOxforA'. yet, 
that' will be merely a small work, an octavo, like this, at 
present. Both wUl be followed by a thbtl, ' much larger in 
size, and significancy,— ^ History t^ Lmuhn, quite new, 
and original, aiid nt to make a quarto."—— •-Go to now, ye 
that wy, To-day or to-7tunrcn>we mil go into such a city, and 
continue there a year, He For what is your lifef Is it not a 
vapour, that appeareikfor a UttU time, and thai vanisheth away f 
J^hr thatye ought to say, IP TBB lokd WILL, we shall Hoe, and 
do this, or tha^. 

If the oharacteristie ardour of the author's antiquarian pur- 
suits involved him in a literal neglect of this salutary precept; 

~~^'_ ' . • James, ir. IS, 14, 15. \ 



,,-,-,ih,Googlc 



SW Whitaker's ig^^Sl.NeSt. 

and if bis deemee txhibiti tbe vanity o^human expectations in a 
striking lif bt, we lio not ukc upon us to infer, as a t^seqiience, 
that he W8B either 'thoughtlesii of eternity, or unprepared u> 
«nta- on that a'ftful neriod of huann exbteace. We have 
known hini only by his publictdons. ' Piety seems often to 
baT« pervaded, and influenced, his historical researches: and 
if unhappily alloyed by a measureof supersiitioii, or inadetjaate 
to the suppression of dogidaiic «kI acrimonious propensities, 
wears more inclined te intimate approbationi though it can 
DO longer a£bfd encouragtfmelit, than to ex[Mtiatenn censure, 
whichno more can serve the purpose of admonition. Tbe 
leork, which he hae bequedtbed to tbe pttblic, ^one demands 
' our scmtifly : its tMtkor has already appeared before an iaB- 
nitely higher tribunal ; where we, ere ioi>^, shall meet t;tm. . 
Little more is known, by nmst of ojir coantrymen, con- 
cerning St'Xeot, than that a town in Huntingdoosbire, and 
anotber in CornM'all, bear his nHU>e. Neither *nll tbe more 
leemed of our readt-rs probably he less snrprised than others, 
to sf him designated, in tbe title of this artitle, as die 
oldest brtfttiffr ft> hvg Affred. His right to that distinction is, 
notwithstanding, so plausibly supported by Mr. W. that tbe 
chief obteation to it^ e^fanissiOn seems to arise from its hkving 
fio.]ong lain dormant. This, indeed, we think utterly iocoin- 
IWtible with tbe fiUl esteot of those bonoom, to which our 
~ author hat laid claim on behalf of die saint. That a kin^ 
of th& eaM and south Saxons, and of Kent, should resign fais 
.actual dominions, and eren his title to the aoiKreighty of 
all England, for the sole purpose of retiring to a uaonastery; 
aod that such sacrifices shonla not have been generally and 
Joudly celebrated by cburchmeO) who, m bis, and tbe fi^- 
towng a^^cfl, were alnost ekelusively the ditpemen of his- 
toocaT £aaet — 6xG«eds our capacity of belief, anlees' on 
«tr<Higer grounds-than We can yet discover for its supfion. It 
appears) tMtenbeleas, by an eKtract which Lelano [CoUk- 
lanea,, teSi: iv. p, \Z.) made froth aves'y ancient manviscnpt 
life eif St. N«ot, tbAt he tfoiaaotiof Etfa^walph, andchere^ 
f«re. a brother of Alfred. It is also certatA, tintt a aoB of ' 
Etbriwulpb (bora apperentlry while he htM th6 kiogdom t£ 
K«nt> &c> aubordihately to his iatber £gbert] wks e>dcfwftd 
by hioi. with that monarchy, when Ethenrnlph bitaiBelf saiv 
ceeded U^ father in the West Saiion khigooin; Tkte sob 
makteDO faMhar appearasce on the atoge 'of faistoty,.aA^ 
the year 851, at which time he obtained a vieto^' sTertite 
Daaes in defeoob of ,his own tertitortte. k ano appilkrs, 
SQb»«()ue»tIy, that i- man of the saiiie name. iHth -thisjsenaf 
E th e lwu lpb, and intitled an eari, resigned botb his property 
and hit persoQ to thfe -rery~inebfttery/ in whicli St. Neot, 



,Mt,Goog[c 



Whitaker's I^e ^ St. HuBt. ■ 311 

i^bout the sane time, id known to have offieiaMd as at priest. 
Tbat a tradition had been preserved, though obscurely, al- 
most to lh« tinw of the Reformation, that St. Neot had lieen 
a king, appears sinreoTer from a paiated window which , still 
remains in the e^urch named after him in Cornwall : and 
finally, that, St. Neot was nearly relai/d to Alfred, has been 
admitted by all tbe histomns who have spoken of him, aad 
wbosa nritings l>a»e bceh handed down to ua. 

The most rational solution of these difilcuUies, seems to 
be tbia : Athelstan, whom,.Mf. W. ba^ aimed to identify with 
St. Neot, was born many years before any other of Ethel> 
wulphN sons, when Ethelwulph waa very young, and proba- 
bly (as Matthew of Wesbninster intimates) before be was 
Btarried. Stbelwulph,. notwithstanding, when be acceded to 
-tlic West SsKon tbrpne, having yet either no other cbildren, 
or none hut infants, ap|>oiiited Mhelstui, (perha^ merely 
pro tempore) to reign in Kent, of which be had himself, been 
king, during his father Egbert's life. Ethelbald, tbe eldest 
Icgttimata son of Ethelwulph, (possibly instigated by jea- 
lousy of Athelstan) in Sjitook advantage of bis father's ab- 
senbc^ Xn seize tbe West Saxon kingdom ; tbe goverement of 
.wbict^ Ethelwulph^ on his return, resigned to him, resun^ 
ing ijie domioiea of Kent,, and retaining the royal title ; 
while Ethelbald, though possessied of the chief power, con- 
tented himself with that of diUte. If an ,this occasion, Athel- 
stan, as might be expected, relinquished bis ktDgdom in 
favour of his dethroned father, it ift probable that no higher 
title than thitf of earl would be allowed to hisL l^ese 
twenta miggestareasonable tnotiiv for bis retirement, shortly 
RAerwurdst to the monastery of C^tonburj^ which Ethet- 
wnlph, in that rery year,. enrich«l with a large endonment, 
at the same moment in which be dedarsd hia assent to Air/ 
.dt^lsimt'i donation. 

- Siuppasing tUs train of circmmstancos, (wbicb are perfectly 
ramsontnt to the noeti authentic records ei the times,) to 
1m.t0 been comected with AtfaelMaaU dasoeRt from. a tlutme 
to «.moila*lie cell, jwt oiiiy woiUd tbe asiai of snob »cfa»nge 
in bb. QDwdstioi be essentially dMsioisbefl, bat tbe state of. 
pahlicrajffairB. woiiidraoder it palpably inexpedient to take 
iWKh notice -of the event. Oo entering tbe. ecclesiastical 
ttatBi, ari^nge o£ nktaet was, and is still, custoiaary ; and it 
waa'desuabk tbat, Athektim rintdd; mage in that, which he 
vua/foaA OQ the ocoasiOBk JSt-V/k with muab parobahilttv 
dnraves.b from Nwimsi a. tittle one^: ati ^pallatioa whiok 
teighl h« cboscn eithni ft«*i. humility, or policy;. if ii did 
- Mff( rofier: to bis auture,. w^ieb tisdttion napreseotB. as bb- 
jo#. the samnsui h&s. Under, tbe- oamfi ai Ntoku, ami. in 



.dtyGoogIc 



3I« Whitaker's Ufe of St. Neot. 

the successive characters of monk, hermit, ^nd pnniw 
dent of 3 new monastery, AtheUtan acquired a renown, 
which eclipsed that of his former dignity, at the same time 
that it gave no offence to his reigning brethren. He at- 
tained to grea^ eminence for those pious qualities which 
were then roost in repute ; was revered by his contempo- 
raries of the highest order, and eBpecially by his youngest 
brother Alfred ; was canonised at his death ; and nas been 
complimented, by succeeding ages, with signal . miraculous 
endowments, in return for their oblivion of his o&ce ele- 
vated sphere of worldly dignity. 

The reign of Alfred forms, in our judgement, die most 
interesting epoch in our whole national history. Whatever 
was intimately connected with him, if insignificant in itselfj 
acquires a relative importance, like the habitation and ap- 
purtenances of some great and good man deceased. It ap- 
pears to us, therefore, at all events, to be worth the paina 
which Mr. W, has taken, to ascertain the real nature and 
degree of that affinity which is uniTersally acknowledged to 
have subsisted l>etween Alfred and St. Neot. The interest 
which a biographical work may reasonably be expected to 
excite, depends however more on what was </0ne by the per- 
son of whom it treats, than on the question, who he was: 
and if we have dwelt longer, in proportion to the extent <^ 
Mr. W.'s discussion, on the latter inquiry, than we may do 
on that of the former, itis only because on thispoint hehas 
afforded us less satisfaction. 

The centuries, both preceding and following the age c£ 
St. Neot, abounded with ecclesiastics, who have attuned to 
no small eminence in historical or legendary records, either 
as benefactors or as disturbers of mankind. Some of our 
contemporaries would doubtless assign to the latter class 
those pious, zealous, and learned monks of. lona, who, ^^ 
the example of their founder Colum, difiiised tbe know- 
ledge nf^the gospel in Britain and many parts of Europe, 
greatly to the annoyance of the Pagan ^migion/ We how- 
ever are so fanatical, as to estimate thdr labours higher even 
than those of the venerable Bede, (Pfaose compoationi exhibit 
a measure of learning and of exertion, that is truly asto- 
nisfaing at so dark a period. Succeeding priests acquired 
equal renown wiifa any of the fonner, but- of a.rvery differ- 
ent kind, as successful candidates for political authority. 
With none of these, did St. Neot enter the lists of competi- 
tion. His prudence, and probably bis pte», deterred him 
from setting an example of turbulence to the Dunstans and 
the Beckets of the next following centuries : and neither the 
activity of his zeal, ' nor -theekteat of his learning, qualified 



Do,i,,-c,ih,.Googlc 



j; 



Whitater*s Ztft eT -5?. Nedt. 3^ 

hitn to tread in the steps of a Column gr a Bede. There 
was however another line oF usefulne^, of no slight import- , 
ance to mankind, open to ecclesrastics at that -time iii«cb 
more than at present, in conseqiletice of the vfeneraUon which 
fcas then paid to them, by the higher, &9 well as by* the 
lower ranfcs, of otir countrymen. They had the most, fa* 
traUrable Opportunities of adminisienrig advice and admoni- 
tion to those, who of all men most need, yet seldomest re- 
ceive, such sal tltary communicdtions — we mean the sovereigns 
of states. In the exercise of this privilege and duly, which 
even thentaxMt have required a high degree of affectionate 
fortitude, 8t, Neot, if we may credit his early biographers 
BS well H^ our oldest historians, was by no means aeticiient. 
They concur in assilring us, that heseverfeiy reproved .the 
great Alfred, for improprieties which di»hoRoared the early 
nart of his feign ; and several of theih mArtover assCrt, that 
_je excited that prince to lay the foundation of an university 
i.t Oxford. But of these substantial honours, Mr. W', haa 
laboured to deprive hiift, as zealously as he has endeavoured 
to re-assert for him the more showy dignities of royal l)irtb 
and of sovereign power. 

Indeed the volume before us may be consitlered as s apec!' 
inen of anew kind of writings, which should be called ruga-' 
five biography ; and we shall not be surprised if it becomef 
fashionable. It will afford ample scope for ingenuity, an(i 
endless occupation of paper, to write anew the lives of 
celebrated personages, hierely to prove that they neTerper" 
formed any' of the actions which have commonly been at- . 
tributed to them. This is completely exemplified in" the 
present instance. If the author bad, agreeably to the sen- - 
sible advice of his publisher, prefixed to bis various sec- 
tions some indication of their contents, they must have run 
in this course: — Chap. 3. Sect. i. St. Neot's reproofs of 
Alfred, fe/uted. — Sect. 2. His recommendation to him to Jbund 
a school at Oxford, dtlto. — Sect. 3. His buildiitg the church- 
in Cornwall, ditto. Chap. 4. Sect. 2. Alfred's seclusion ia 
AtbClney, ditto. — Sect. 3. The removal of St. Neot's rpmaintf 
to Huntingdonshire, ditto. 

Our readers, we presume, will readily excuse tts ftoni 
entering into the detail of all these negative discussions. 
Their time, -and ours, would be ill employed in the fabrics' 
tion of historic doubts, or working our weary Way againsfe- ■ 
the powerful current of authentic, records. It may suffice 
to retnarh, that mnone of tliese investigations has the au-» 
thot, in otir opinion, established bis positions J aiid, frequently, 
the leaps which he hds toade ' to bii^ conclusions have re- 
minded us, that 

You V. A a 

r,o,i,,-crih,.GoOglc 



514 Wliitaker's Ufe of St. Neta. 

' trifles light as air 
■ ' Are, to the «ealouB, coD£nnatlon« ntioog 

At proo6 of holy writ. 
We can better agree with bim ia his eDdeavours to account. 
In a natural way, for facts, which he supposes to have been 
clothed by the later biographers of St. Neot with a super- 
natural garb^ These form me principal subject ol the first 
section of his work. 

We sliall not attempt to decide the long pending contro- 
versy between our two universities, concerning their com- 
parative antiquity, which is affected by the opposition of our 
author (though an Oxonian) to the idea that Alfred establish- 
ed a seminary at Oxford ; but we think it necessary to remark, 
that some of his arguments are evidently untenable. As 
such, we regard one, on which he lays very coosiderable 
stress; that Oxford was not within the limits of the JVest 
, Sojron kingdoni. We doubt the fact, as Oxford originally 
belbnsed to thst kingdom, and therefore, when Egbert re- 
duceu Mercia to subjection, was most likely to be reunited 
to its former government. But supposing it to have re- 
mained, nominally, within the limits of Mercia, that king- 
dom having been reduced in Alfred's time to a mere pro- 
vince, he might as well establish a seminary there, as within 
the West Sa;<on boundary. We think it particuli^rly curious, 
that 6ur aurfior should have cited, in support of his ai^u- 
mel^t, a passage of Malmesbury, which asserts that Alfred's 
!iU9ccssor "constituted two bishops; for the South Saxons, 
Berney ; and for the Mercians, Cenulph, at the city of Dor- 
chester, in the county of Oxford," p. 116 : as if the same 
authority which constituted a bishop over the Mercians, 
'could not found a school among them ! But he adds, from 
Henry of Huiilingdon, that the same king " seized London 
and Oxford, ana all the land belonging to . the province 
of Mercia." This proves that Mercia was, previously, but 
a province of Edward's kingdom, under a separate, but su- 
bordinategorernment : and that its bein? in that condition, 
in Alfred's tbne, did not prevent him from exerting him- 
self for the prosperity of its principal cities, is evident; 
for Asser informs us, that London, (one of those here namedji 
was rebuilt by Alfred, after it had been depopulated by slaugb- 
ter, and destroyed by conflagratiou.* 

- The first section of Mr, W.'s fourth chapter relates to a 
*' Ad. 886. J^Jfred Angulaaxonuni rex, pott inccndiar urlntun stn- 
ges^ue populonim Londoniam civitatem hdnimJic^ mtauravit, et habita- 
Klem fecit: quam geoero «uo iBtheiedo Merdorum comiticoiiUDendavit 
Mtmaiam- Uundeni Anglica,&c. fiaskf. 1602. f. IS. 



,,-,-,i_h,Googlc 



Whitaker'i I^e (^ St. Neat. 3i9 

clnronicle publishfed by Gale, in his Scnptores XV HisUn 
TXti Btitannkx, &c. with the title of Chronktm Fani Sancli 
Neoti, ■ which it hean in a MS. found by Lel^ind in the time 
of Henry VIII at St. Neot's in Huntinfrdoiishire. Otir auj 
tbor clearly demonstrates this to be a performiince of hisati 
which had be<^i} controverted :f Ixit he makes some strange 
tnistakcB , fespecttng it. "I vhall distinguish it," says he, 
"by the title of his Annah C which unfortunately is the 
same that Lelandused for Assjer's treatise De ^Ifredirebua 
geslis, commonlv called his life of Alfred — we say unforliu 
Haleb^, because on nb other ground he charges Leland with 
attrtbntiiig tb&t to the Annals, which he evidently meant of 
the Life. Both works might indeed justly be called Annals^ 
being wriuen in the form which is usually designed by the 
title., Hence also, when Leland, speaking of the Ckronicon 
Fani Neoti, calls it *' a book, which has reduced the annals of 
jisser into an ■epilame" "So plainly," says Mr. W", "was 
Lelaml acquainted with the life, as to knrjw it was merely 
iQ epitime of the armab f'^ Leland, bn the contrary, knew, 
and said, that what our author distinguishes as the annals,, is 
really an epitome of the life. Mr. W. seems to have been 
deceived by the supenor extent of, the' vi(hole anual^, to 
'that of the life; not observing or considering (hat th.e, a^- 
naU, which embrace a much greater length<of time than the 
Itfe, comprise all that relates to Alfred \yithin less than 
half tiie space whicb is occupied by Asser's narrative . of hjs 
life. . ' 

For the.groand which there is to believe, that the former 
part of Alfred's reign exposed him justly to the reproof of his 
■ pious elder brother, we must refer our readers to several,ej(7Y 
tracts, on the subject, from Turner's History of the. Angl«-Sax-j 
ons, in our review of that valuable work, (vol. iii. pp. T7 — 19.) 
Mr. Turner's authorities, and conclusions, appear to us macb 
too strongs to be subverted by the objections with which Mr. 
W. has assaUed this part of Alfred's Ijistory. There is, in-. 
dee^, a seen:>iDg inconsistency, between, the. excellent quali-. 
ties which Asser ascribes to, Alfred from h^s early- youth,, and, 
the acknowledgement which he notwithstanding makeii, that 
the signal calamities which. befel him vrere. no^ undesepied^Mr 
inflicted. We are inclined to attribute ^e hitughtiness apd 
severity, with which Alfred is said to have dbgusted his sub-, 

■)■ H'' labour to this effect appears to be wholly disinterested ; for .the 
very accoiiQt of Alfred's degraded corditior, which he issertB to haw 
been interpolated in laser's Life of Alfred, is tvrtoiM the Bame ioA* 
Ckronken hfioti, which he mamtains to be ia genuine «MDpoait»a «t 
Ajjer"*. 

Aa 2 

, r,o,i,,-crih,.GoOglc 



9t« Whitaker*! life of St. Neot. 

jeetB, to his Conscionsneas of a vast niperiority of a^titnents, 
lind hi3 indignation against the barliarom ignorance Rnd KtipU' 
d)ty ^ich then so generally prevailed over all classCff aidong 
wta. If this, as is probaole, was partieuIarljT diir^ted a- 
g«inst the Saxon Clergy, on whom it wss mcMt irtcunbent to 
Acquaint themselre? with useful learning, we Iney iiDputa' 
some share of the severity of St. Neot's reproofs to his cle-* 
ficfti partialities, without aero^atinF; from tne honotir Chat id 
due to his fidelity and fortitude. The aspwity of hia tadmo* 
nitions niight, perhaps, tend to diminish theii' immediate ttti- 
)ity ; but they appear ta have been- recollett*d by Alfi'ed With 
the most salutary effect, when his heart was humbled, and 
■oftened, by adversity and retirement. 

Mr. W, however, denies that retirement (a baVe been m 
solitary and defenceless, as it has been represented, genefaHy, 
by our historians. The trifling- variations, which oocur among 
the earliest writers on the subject, seem to us rather to confirm 
thart to invalidate their testimony; as it may reasooably hi 
inferred, that their information was derived from witiiMstfs 
wbo were not in compact. It is of little congeqnenc*, whether 
Denevulf, (the peasant who harboured Alfred, and ww ftflier- 
Wirds raised byliim to the episcopal order) was orighially s 
swine-herd, or a cow-herd. Heminht be lioth; for, although - 
Atheltwy, in its former, as well as in its present state, seems 
to have been better adapted to the pasture tif cows than of 
^'>g% ^e are not aware that the latter animals betmV any 
aversion to water and mud. To avoid sticking fast m the 
.subject, we shall quit the reputed isle of Athelnejf, 8ft«rTe- 
oiarking that Oar author's description of it impPies him to \MVb 
touched at it, when passing, bythe atraifeht road^ froBiTKtin- 
ton to Gkstonbuiy. Oflhe ruins at the last mentiMied place, 
he introduces a particular description, whi°n treatlitg of Sb 
Neot's retirement thete; as be dcres, thote opportuM^y, «f 
the church in Cornwall, which is denominated srter the sain^ 
iriifen spoddng of his residence on tbat spot. For tbe lai. 
ftt accbuDt, which will peculiarly gratify the snti^arisn 
iCadei', Mr. W. acknowledges his nbHgations to a wofthy Cler- 
gyman df the vicinity, whose work on Latin Gr&mmM- «w 
iitd tlie pleasure to recommend in our thl*d voiUBoei p. B33.* 

Our anther supposed all that remains of the rqykl Mint 
» he still contained^ in a hole, formed for the pUrpoBc, in 
a wall of the Comisb church. This is only a small quaiiti^ 
«f mould ; whereas the Huntingdonshire church exhibited 
aWtof bonest at having belonged toSt. Neofc. We cannot 
tbeiefore but rcigard th« claim of the latter, as the more 

* Faiiua Grammatiea, by the fier. fiichaRl I>yae, of Liikeard. 

. ,. 'Google 



Whitaker'a life ^ St. Neot. Ill 

substantivl of.tbe iwo; notwithstanding Mr.W.'s argun^rits 
to prgve that the skeletoo was th'<tt of Bariua or Bart, th« 
<H)nfideptial attendant of . St. Neot, ' and that in no other 
wnsc it ever appertained to his master. In the present age, 
there is little clanger of litigation on snch a question; but 
should it unexpectedly arise, we vrould recommend a com- 
promiie -, on th« grouud, that, after the body of St, Neot had 
returned to dust, it might be carefully treasured up in ■ 
Cornwall, while the lew perishable parts were removed to 
Einesbury, the naoie by which one quarter of the town of 
St. Neot's in Huntingdonshire is siill distniguhhed. Itseemi 
unlikely, that the mere removal of Uaritis to that p}ace, after 
hta master's death, should have occasioned the change which 
was indi^jiutabiy made in its appellation. One point of 
Mr. W.'s argument on the subject, is exceedingly curious. 
He alledges tliat the bones of St. Neot cou/(^ /to/ lie removed 
from his Huntingdonshire church to Croyland, and back 
i^in, as some have axxerted, because a history of that place 
at that period, issilent respecting it : yet he admits that the 
bones M ^An'iM were t')U3 removecf, and were M«t believed 
to be those of St Neot ! 

Connected, rather oddly, with this question, we hav^ an 
toyeBtigation of the existence of Moose Deer in Ireland, and 
I in ICligTand, even so lately as the sinteenih century. As the 
Iriik Moose Deer, however, are said to he " exalted in dig- 
nity of head and horhx, in proportion as they are inferior 
in size of hotly," we presume that the name must have been 
given to some very difierent animal : because the Moose 
deer, or elk, which is common in Canada, is much lirger 
sad higber in the body, but lower in^ the head, than me, 
CQiDifton stag. - 

Mr. W. has very commendably inserted, by vray of appen- 
dix to his work, three Latin biographical accounts of St. Neot, 
of which he procured copies fiom ancient MSS. in the Bod- 
leian and Magilalen libraries at Oxford, and in the British 
Museum. The lastj which narrowlv escaped the conflagra- 
tion of Uie Cottoninn library, is the least important, having 
been published by Capgrave, in 1516, from the original by 
Johq, Vicar of Tinmouth, in the founeemh century. The 
other two are of earlier date, being written, one wholly in 
verse, another chiefly >u prose, by William ELamsey, who 
was abbot of Croyland in the twelfth century. 

On the whole, we regard this posthumous-work of a learn- 
ed, laborious, and acute antiquary, as a valuable, though not 
as a very important accession, to our documents of national 
btstoij. It .is harmless, amusing, and in some respects in- 
stracbTe. Its defects are too obvious to be ensnaTing, 



ih,-Googlc 



SIS IJce's English TremslatimK. 

and may be useful, as w&rning;s, to those who are engaged in 
the study of our history and antiquities. They plainly sug- 
gest the expediency of diffidence, on obscure subjects; of 
modesty, on controverted pointi!; of cool perseverance in 
bistoncai research ; and of temperance and mildness on every 
topic of liierary investigation. Having extended our article 
to the utmost limit of propriety, we abstain- from enlarging 
it with extracts ; the autlior's style being well known to the 
public, and bis present volume being sufficiently cheap to 
be purchased by all who feel an interest in tlie subject. 

Art. HI. Tranilalioni in Poetry and Prete from the Grak PoOt and 
Prafc tiiulkort, consisting of a Chronolo^cal Series of the moat vdu- 
al)lei scarce, and faichflU TraasUtions CKiant, and several never before 
published. By Francis Lee, A. M. Chaplain in ordinary to his Royal 
Highness the Prince of Wales, Member of the Asiatic Society, fcc. 
VoJ. 1. Part r. [Hesiod.] roya! Svo. pp. 60. 'Price-e*. Miller. 1808. 

'T'HIS transUtion ofthe writings of Hesiod is, as the title- 
page imjjorts, the commencement of a very voluminous 
work- The whole collection of translations ivill form twenty- 
seven volumes, of which the specimen now presented to the 
public, together with the Iliad, the Odyssey, and the fiutra- 
cbomyomachia, will constitute the iirst. It is ^e intention of 
the compiler to choose^ of two or more good English trans- . 
lations, that which is judged the closer to the original. He 
also purposes to make what alterations may appear advis- 
able to him, in the versions vvhicb he shall select. Notes from 
various hands will accompany the text, and with these the 
same liberty of alteration will betaken. 

■ The English style is corrected in various .places ; obioletc terms, 
spellingSj idioms, and inequalities of verses are adjusted, bat witb al spar- 
ing 3 band as possible. L.ives and prefaces that were' wandng, are eivea 
by the e4itor. Multitudes of useless notes are rejected, which would Jill 
up great quantities of letter press, waste much t^me, and distract the at- 
tention in perusal. All the notes are omitted, conuining the literarycon- 
ceits of comjnentators, and pedantic displays of leurning ; as well as those 
presumiBg to supply judgment for the reader. Prolix comments are 
abridged and compressed, and useful, concise notes selected, and others 
added, by which the text may b:' elucidated and explained. Latin notes, 
'and others unintelligible to an English reader, are rejected, and Enriish 
notes of equal import substituted, where requisite, in dieir traces. The 
critic, who seeks for Hebrew, Greek, or Latin notes,, must be referred to 
the vnluminous original scholia on the ancient authors. For in this pub- 
lication general knowledge is sought to be CQtnraunicated through the 
medium of our own tongue, freed from the dead languages, and united 
)irith concisenesB. p. ix.' 
We think the time is gone by, when so vast a mass of 
. precian literature would nave been acceptable to . English 



ih,Googlc 



iM^i English Transitions.' 319 

readers at large. The enthusiasm and perseverance" wfitH 
which learned men pursued the study of the Greek and 
Roman classics at the revival of letters, and the admiration 
of them which was naturalljr communicated to common minds, 
have toDg subsided ; and both tlie learned and the unlearned, 
by a customary revulsion, have ^one into the opposite ex- 
treme of blamable indifference or dislike. A poet would be 
apt to tell us, tliat he hears, or seems to hear, tba mourning 
of the muse of ancient poesy, about to take her' last leave 
of our island, and afiraid that the world willnot a&rd her 
another place of refuge. 

" The lonely mountains o'er. 
And the resouodiog shore, 
A voice of weeping heanl, and loud bment; 
From haunted (pring, Uiddde 
Bdg'd with poplar pale. 
The parting Geniua ii with sighing aeot." 

' Milton'& Ode on Ckriti't Nativity, 
Philosophy is now the order of the day. It is not the 
ma^c inspirations of poetic genius, but the cool dictates of 
a vigorous mind; it is not the effusions of elevated senti- 
ment, hilt the ehiborate investigations of reasoi); it is not the 
warm and high-wrought colouring of fancy, but the naked 
glory of truth, which men now chiefly profess to admire. 
The straightest and easiest road to celebrity, is through a 
well-conducted analysis of divars gases, or an ingenioua 
structure of political economy. The design, therefore, of 
giving to the world a large collection of translations from 
the Greek, is ill-timed, even if it be accomplished in the most 
able manner. And we carinnt flatter any compiler with 4 
hope that he will increase his fame or his wealth by suph an 
undertaking. 

We object to the author's method of conducting the pre- 
sent work. As it was stated in the outset, he makes altera- 
tions in the text where he thinks- it necessary. This liberty, 
he has taken with the translation of Hesiod now before the 
public ;' and he purposes to treat all future translations in 
the same way. If Mr, Lee thinks of improving the diffi;rent 
works by this means, and is indifferent to the result on the 
public mind, we do not so much wonder. For some men are 
apt to suppose, that their own touches would improve the 
inost finished pieces; and are able to despise any popular 
clamour which may be excited against them, bfing supported 
- by an inward consciousness that they subserve the causfe of 
literature and truth. But if he supposes chat be shall recom- 
mend the work by this' liberty of emendation, we wonder 
much at the strangeness of bts misconception. Who that 



ih,Googlc 



329 Lee*s Engli^ Trandatms. 

ku been BecuatOHi^d to ^mire Pope, or Dry^eQ^ or say 
other eminent transUtor ; who ih^t has only bedrid of the 
praises of the English Iliad aijd ^neid, would choose to read 
9> translatioii which he knew had been changed in variou* 

{liaces, aocordiag to the wi'l of the compiici- ? A poeni is-not 
ike a common treftiiae on Oxygen, which might be re- 
vised or correct^ by ^cc^dsive inquirers. We should not 
tp touch jrratified jEo hear of Paradi^ Lpst iniprpved, or of 
some tender pa&sages thrown into, the epistle fiom Eloisa to 
jihelard, or of a nevv stanza- added to Alexander's Feast by ati 
unknown hand. We are so much in the habit of blending a 
poem snd its author ' together', that they bath pass under the 
easae nams, 'Milton*" designfitea the writings of the man 
who hore that (lUne, a« we|i i^s the man hiiosSf. We should 
almost ai soon think of altering his personal identity, as the 
identity of his compniitions ; and propose anipi^tating a foot 
orjan «TO. with a view to graft another m^n's in the stead of 
them, 3s expunging lines from his poem to make room for 
improraments. Such an amended copipc^sitlon would, in our 
estimation, very aptly ilkistrate the description of Horace iq 
the opening of bis epistle on the art of poptry, " Hminano 
^piti eervicem pictor equinam," &c- 

The compiler's method of conducting the present, worfc i^ 
objectionable on another ground. He njakes the chseness of 
atr^Bslationa cause of preference. We had hoped that the 
oW notions, which prevailed about this species of composi- 
^oii before the time of Dryden, were effectually exploded by 
his oracular dictates OD ihe subject. We are therefore both 
astonished and grievOd to see s, writer, in these last times 
•f. cli^sicQl literature, so ignorant, or so contenipCuous, of 
Jhe natufijl laws of tr&oslatjon- For of ignorance or contu* 
ntacy wye mu!it accuse him, when he thinks closeness (as 
^at term is coDunonty nnderstood} an excellence in a poeti- 
cal rersion. Every language, and especially a laiignage car- 
jried to its bigheit point of iiitprovemen^ has its peculiar 
idieiBs, metaphors, and turns; which, if they ate closely 
ifuUowed in a translation, are either nonsensical, or disgust- 
ing. Jt is allowed, that Djryden, who saw the necessity of 
avoiding this fault, has frequently fallen into it ; probably be- 
e^use !i njind used to Roman modes of thinking and speajt- 
ing, from long study of the language, is not always a^vare of 
a peculiarity which an E))giish reader would instantly per- 
ceive. " But why, in the name of all the muses at once, 
should 3L translation be preferred because it is chargeable 
with this imperfection ? ,The union pf English words and 
^atin idioms is tike one of those chemical solutions which 
oeatralize tl^o prpperties of each ingredient. And, what ig 



ih,Googlc 



Lee's English Tru^^atiMU. 321 

«til1 worse, the poetical tertnem quid thns produced is good 
for nothing. It has neither the novelty of an original com- 
position, nor the elegant likeness of a skilful imitation. 

The present tranBlation of Hesiod, which Mr. Lee has 
chosen for the opening number of his compilation, was 
written by Thomas Cooke. The writings of this Greek poet, 
who is affirmed to be more aoeient even than Homer, are on 
various accounts interesting to the English reader. Their 
Jiigh antiquity will recommend them lo those, who wish to 
(:oaipara the efforts of the human mind, in a very early 
stage of society, with those of later periods, when we enjoy 
the accumulate experience ,of many generations, benefited 
by all the arts of civilization. Nor is there small delight in 
contemplating the picture of domestic life and social man-* 
ners, which the pencil of this ancient poet drew from the 
original, as it was found in his own times. For modes of 
early warfare, and simple negociation, we may have recourse 
to Homer. For the habits of peace and humble privacy, (Ve 
must turn to Hesiod, There is another circumstance of still 
more powerful interest than those already mentioned. Our 
great epic poet drew some of his subllmest notions, from the 
Theogony of this Grecian bard ; and he who has any just 
feeling of poetical 'beauty, or any curiosity to trace noble 
expansions of thought to their source, will read passages 
with pleasure which mioistered materials to the mighty ge- 
nius of Milton. 

But whether Hesiod ■ has -poured forth the dictates of hi* 
muse in flowing numbers, or elegant and appropriate words; 
whether be has the delicate and unexpected turns of expres- 
sion, the skilful allusions, the happy combinations of lan- 
guage, and the various undefinahle beauties of style ; in short, 
whether he best expresses what had been often thought be- 
fore by others, are points of no moment to the readdr of a 
translation. He is dependent on the translator for these ex- 
cellences; and the translator must depend on his own ge- 
liius, which may convert barbarous prose, provided the sub- 
ject be suitable, into an elegant English version, as well as 
the most lofty flights of Hotner ; or translate the noblest rap- 
tures of poesy into doggrel rhyme. The beauties of style 
in a translation, whether poetry or prose, do not at all de- 
pend on the original. The Imitation of Christ, written by 
Thomas a Kempis in nionkish language, was translated by 
Castallio into classical Latin. ' The uncouth satires of Dr. 
Donne are elegantly versified by Mr: Pope. The majestic 
form of Virgil has been successfully disguised in the plebeian 
garb of Dr. Trapp. 

As, however, it is essentiaJ to the pleasuif of many English 



ih,Googlc. 



SS2 ' Lee's English Translations. 

readers, to know that the origina} author is an eminent 
poet, we will assure them that Hesiod is pronounced to be so, 
by the iew who understand the beauties of his stj-le, and the 
thousands who only read them. The excellences for which 
be is conspicuous are, simplicity of language, sweetness of 
numbers, an impressive gravity of address, and perspicuity in 
the communication of his thoughts ; now and then he infuses 
ardour into his verse, and sometimes he rises to sublimi^. 
Few passages are found of questionable meaning, or diffi- 
cult interpretation, in the poetry of Hesiod. It is not there- 
fore to be expected, that a translator will give much occa. 
sion for discussion respecting the sense of the original. 
There is one line, huwerer, ih the beginning of the Worfcs 
and Days, which will admit of a more reasonable significa- 
tiou than the translator has affixed to iL 

Fiu^iHC yiif uc) xat it* ftjiO^t tfycurcua, &C. (l> 42.) 

is thus rendered : — 

* Would the immortal gods on meo bestow 
A mind, how few the wao^ of life to know, . 
Tbey all the year, from labour fireC) mightlire 
On what the labour of a day might gire.' p. 18. 

We cannot imagine the poet could advance the doctrine 
which is broached in the Eilglish. What possible degree of 
abstemiousness, consistent with the preservation of life, would 
be sufficed, for a year by the hardest labour for a single day ? 
it appears to us that the meaning of the line is, tbat the 
gods had concealed or withheld the spontaneous productions 
of the earth, which were enjoyed during the fabled age of 
gold, when the labour of a day might gather as much ^ the 
temperate habits of a year would consume. We can only 
state, our opinion at present, without giving our reasons; for 
if we once get into verbal criticism, we fear the patience of 
our readers would be put to a very severe test. Getierally, 
the thoughts of ihe Grecian poet are exhibited with sufficient 
fideli^. The versification of Cooke is tolerably neat ; some- 
times it approaches to elegance, but it is often careless and 
prosaic. The following extract is an instance of the transla- 
toi's best manner. 

* O I would I had my hours of life A^on 
Before thii Hfth, this sioilil, race of man ; 
Or had I not been calt'd to breathe the day, 

~ Till ihe rough iron age bad -paaa'd away ! 
For Qow, the tijnea are Bach, Uie gods ordain. 
That ev'ry moment shall be wing'd with pain ; 
Coademn'd to sorrows, ' and to toil, we live ; 
Ren to our iaboar dcMh alane can give t 



,at.,G6og\c 



LeeV English Tramtationt. $23 

And yeti -amid the' caK> our lives aoaoyj 

The godi wiU grant aome intervali of joy : 

But how degea'rate is the buman state'. 

Virtue no more dietingiiishes the great ; 

No aafe reception shall the stranger find t ' 

Nor shall the ties of blood, or friendship, bind ; 

Nor shall the pareot, when his sons are oigh. 

Look with the fondness of a parent's eye, 

Nor to the sire the son obedience pay, ■ 

Nor look with rev'rence on the locks of gnjf 

But, oh t regardless of the pov'n dina^, 

With bitter taunts ^hall load his life's dedjoe. 

Revenge and rapine shall respect coninuod. 

The pious, just, and good, negL'cMl stand. 

The wicked shall the better ni^a distress. 

The righteous suSer, and without redress ; 

Strict noneaty, an.l naked truth, shall fail. 

The perjur'd villain, in hia arts, prevail, 

Hoarae Eovy shall, unseen, exert her vMce, 

Attend the wretched, and in ill r^oice. 

At last &ir Modesty and Justice fly, 

Rt^'d their pure limbs in white, and gain the sky ; 

From the wide earth tbey reach the blest abodes. 

And join the grand assembly of the gods. 

While mortal men, abandon'd to their grief, 

Siak in their sorrows, hopeless of relief.' pp. SI, 22. 
Idle words are sometiines introduced , to eke out the mea- 
sure. 

' May I nor mine the righteous yaths pursue. 

But int'rest only ever keep in view.' p< 23. 
Insignificant monosyllables are brought forward into the 
nlost conspicuous and public place to form a^'hyme, 

' But be that is not wise himsel', oor can 

Hearken to wladom, is an useless man,' p. 23. 
The emendations of the compiler are doC numerous or 
violent. A few specimens are subjoined to satisfy the reader's 
curiosity. 

1. Caeie. ' But from I^ometheus 'twas concealed in vain 

\\hich for the use of man he stole again j 
And, artful in his fraud, brought ftora above : 
At which, enraged, spoke cloud-compelling Jove.* 
Lee expands the two last lines. 

' And artfiil in his fraud, brought from ^wve, 
Clos'd in a hollow cane, deceiving Jove: 
Again defrauded of celestial fire. 
Thus ipoke the cloud-compelling god in ire.' 

2. Code. ' With soothing language and the treach'roui smile 

The hean to purchase, and that heart beguile. 



,,-,-,ih,Googlc 



324 AcdHoU of Jamaica, 

Lm. • With nuDiien all dKcitfiil, and hm tmm 

Fraught with ixK, axiA wid> detnctloM tanBg.* 

3. Cooke. < Around her pcnoaj lo, the diamonds shine. 
La, .< Gold omamenti arotwd kcT pertca ihine.' 

4. Cod^. * And now attend while I at Wkla nlat^ 

And traoe the vanoiu turns of tnunaa MMe.' 
Lee expands again. 

' And DOW the •ut^eet al ray vene I cluq[e 

To tatei of ffttAt and delight I noget 

Whence yon may pkasire and adrant*^ gwii 

If in your mind you lay the uscfiil luram." 
> Upon examining the four specimens lieFe predaced, tbe 
intelligent reader %(ill prob^blv be puzzled to determine 
which will bear away the parm^ Mr. Cooke, or Mr. Lee. 
They seem to contend which can write the worst, and the 
rictory remains dqobtt'ul. If they had tubed their reeds, 
liVe the shepherds in the Eclogue, for a w^ger, the justest 
decision would be for (heni to eschaoge stakest If Mr. Lee 
is so successful In contending with Cooke, even in his- un- 
liappiest moments, for the palm of inferiority, be needs fear 
no defeat when lie enters the lists with Pope or Dryden : 
be will certainly carry every thing before him. The poet 
who so easily resigned the throne of dulness to Mae Fleckno^ 
will nbt endeavour to wrest the sceptre Irom any modem 
possessor, or interfere with the claims of any heir appatentv 
. If it be alledged in support of Mr. C:'s emendations, that 
Cooke's translarton of Hesiod ii the best, and that the al- 
tered passages were very bad, we have no scruple to say, 
that, where a good translatioii is not e:itant, the better plaq 
is not to publish one ; but if it must be published, to give 
it to the world as it came out of the translator's hands ; more 
especially, if it is altered without being impioved. We have 
paid' rather loo much attention, perhaps, to this work; but if' 
our remarks produce their dne efiect on Mr. Lee's mind, be- 
, fore he commits his fame and bis property beyond reoally 
we BhatI not consider our time to havn been misemployed. - 

An. ly. Jccowa of Jaiuaka aitd its Im^aMtaiiti By a Gentleman, 
long resident in the Wen ladies, pp. 305. Xrfugnuoand Co. 1808. 

'T'HI^ work, which is drawrT up in a lively and amusing 
manner, appears to give a jost representation of the pre- 
sent state of the important island of Jamaica, of its various 
prodactions, and of the manners and dispositions of its di- 
versified inhabitants. Neither deep science, nor acute re- 
search, is perceptible ia the author ; but we have no fessoo 



ih,Googlc 



■jtMmnt of Janutiea. 925 

to doobt Aa fidelity of his detineations. He professes to 
have copied nothing from others ; and assures Us that * the 
•cconnt be eives is in ft great measure the result of his 
own perwafti experience and obBervatlon, unaided and un- 
restraiiied by the pages of any writer whatever, and unbias- 
sed by Miy motives but those of a lote Of troth-' Pref. 
p. Xii. 

In the description of the voyage' and approach to Ja- 
. oifrica, as well Ss in that of its interior scenet-y and Vegetable 
riches, We wftre forcibly reminded of the flowery language 
of the late Mr. Beclcford, in his history of this island ; but 
it is not often thftt the jatithor disgusts us with the silly af- 
fectation of fine Writing. The varied tmrface of the island 
ii much more appositely displayed by the homely emblem 
mentioned in the following passage : 

* In pziBg «n this landicape, the author hat more than once been 
maiaded erf' the nwthod a gmd«nus, who bad been in Jinuicsi tonhwt 
to sifc an idea of iti interior to tome c^ hit ac^aaiwaace, who wanted 
a OMCriptian af it. He tank a iheet of wntii^ g^P^f and crampliag 
It m b it w w i i hi* faMdi, laid it on the tablet ind half expanding it* 
t«a dw cm^aay that wat the beat deicriftion lie ooald give of the face 
•f tb> interior ^ Jamaica ' p. 9. 

Ths g'oTemment andlawsof Jamaica ate necessarily fram- 
ed apda tbOse of the mnher country, with such modifica- 
tions as would naturally arise from loctdditTerennes. ItWCTO 
to btt wished, however, that soma things did not bear so near 
fl reteiiiblance, or rather that th^ did not exbt at all either ia 
the parent state or die colony. 

' The oiBce af l ecre ta iy it here a very InCRitve one itKleed* yatupt 
•eoMd to lubt hot ih« vf the gorenor bhntelf. 'Rw ftn attadid to 
it are very coniidetaUe t every patent conuniiiion and otho' itttttixnent 
hat ita itated nticet and even the record* vf office on onlv be opened 
wtth igoUtnhy. tt ii ptetty ibrewdly to be to^cted, Uiat the jtrws 
of liiKCBre or nominal ^painunem* it rather arintrary than opeciSc. It 
it by no meant uituflul td oikc trata aa hdndred to &TK huod/ed poood* 
Ainvncy tm th6ie nomitial at^ointnientt.* p 5&/ 
- * It hat been loi^KMed. thtt the lawyen of thit petty tpeck on tbv 
tdrettrial ^obe, receive not less than half a million of mimey anonally, ' 
fbr d«ftrt>dtag the propbty of dieir fellow CitiZeiU tgaintt legal or illegal 
iSTalioti.* p.ll. . 

The chapter on comaeroei specie, taxes, &c. is ndiortaod 
unU^^tory, considerii^ the important nature of the ob- 
jects. But the author seems aware of kis Jerte -, and hurriea 
thrdugh iliese, and matters of a political and military kind« 
lo picture with greiater felicity of expressiou, and more 
comprehension of the subject, tne persons, dresses, manners, 
And oustodis of the tnhabitaiits, and the objects (tf natural 

. Coo>^[c 



326 Account of Janudca, 

history, ia the animal and vegetable ktng<ionis, which oiTec 
themselives as anictes either of UBe or curiosity.. 

It is here suued, though not for thS first tiotey that the 
bread-fruit is not so important an acquisition, to tbe country 
as was at one time expected. . - . 

* Thia plant iiiuldpliee eo nst, that at the present Unte (twelreyean 
since its f\TZt iatroductioa here) every part of the island abounds with it. 
The Beg;ro, however, vHo is a pKtty good judge of the snbstadtisl be- 
nefits of vegetable production,' regards this stranger wifh cold, ^thy t 
except as a novelty, he prefers the cdhivatioD of his. more productive 
and substantial plaintaic, and his more palatable and nutritive yam^ . , The 
truth is, th^ breadfruit, though it makes a very .good puddin?, is of iU 
self an insipid and not very substantia] food.' p. 100. 

* The Otaheite, or South Sea cane (introduced about fourteen yean 
ago iDto this country), has almost totally superseded, the old West India 
cane, there being now few properties Uiat retain any of the latter, par- 
ticulaHy on the north side of the islaitd, This cane" (the <Ai West 
India cane) *was of much smaller size than \tt successor; it seldom 
exceeded six or seven feet, exclusive of the top, and was about four tMr 
five inches in circumference ; whereas the Other is freqaeotjy ten, twelvci 
and even fifteen ieet in length, and eight or-nine inches in circwnfcrence ; 
(he size, however, nnnt necessarily ^jqiend on the ferdfity. of the' tdSi 
and ^vourableoess of the season. The old cane had, however, its '^ 
culiar advantages ; its juices were perliaps richer, it yielded a weightier 
and more substaotial sugar, and its leaves, or tops, anordqdA Ur^rsi^ 
ply of fodder, and of a better kind, tban the other. "Yhe planters were 
therefore lor some time doubtful, on these accounts, of the benefits aad 
expediency of the exchange. But the greatly increased quantity of 
sugar which the Sotith Sea cane yielded, caused tt finally to tilumph over 
its ancient rival. Four hc^gsheads (of. 18 cwt.) are oittn obtained from 
an acre of the fbraoer, whUe the latter seldom or never esceeded two and 
a half: the meditun of both may be set down at tws and a half and one 
and a half.' p. lOSi. :.'.:'■ ..>.'- 

We believe thatthe Bourbon cane fexactlV'the 'sinie with 
that described here as the Otaheite or Soiiih Sea canej Was 
first introduced into Jamaica from Martinico, upon t^e, con-, 
quest of thsit island' in 1794. We reme'r4her|.to''1j9,vei. b^fi 
furnished, by correspondence with ]aipaica on tni^ sijhjpct, 
in I799> with three instances of its great superiority in firo-, 
ducUveness to the old cane, all of which exceed the'.lai^st 
proportion stated hy our author. On ah estat^. called Old 
Plantation, in Clarendon,, 10 acres yielded 43'hVds. of the 
finest sugar ever seen in the islano. On Castle Weemyss' 
estate, in St. Mary's, 7 acres and 3 rood produced SlJ hhds. ; 
and 3 rood 2* perches (16 perches less than an acre) at 
Eden estate, in the parish of St: George's, gave 5 hhds. of 
excellent quality, from rattoons of the preceding year. 

In th^ tenth chapter, on planters, proprietors, attornies, . 
oteneers, aud hoQk-keepei«i the author has entered iDto « 



r,o,i,,-cdtyGoOglc 



Account of Jamaica. 327 

debut of the life and prospects of the subordinate ranks of 
Europeans in this island, particularly those young men who 
engage as book-keepers on plantations, which deserves se- 
rious perusal, as well by the youth who are destined to cross 
the tropic, as by their adrlsers. It is from these inferior 
stations that ^he Dody of small planters, and attoniies of the 
greater proprietors, gradually rise to wealth and distinction. 

It is only in the particular instances, that our author's ac- 
count of the habitual dissoluteness and profligacy, in which 
the whole community of Jamaica is immersed, can be new 
tO'Engtisb readers. Whilst, however, the women of colour 
are charged with the most shameless licentiousness, we must 
not omit to notice his eulogy of the decorum and the virtues 
of the white ladies ; he ados expressively, that 

'Jamaica is a country unworthy of, and unsuitable to, the tender and 
amiable part of the human species. They are ofiMi ill used and neglected, 
and those who ought to be their protectors, their defenders, their affec- 
tionate coQipanioDs, act, in too many initaDces, in a maon.er incoosineot 
with thit chatacter.' p. X64. 

The want of proper means of education for both sexes 
in Jamaica is described and properly lamented ; we are told 
that, ' among the most opulent of this country, there are a 
great number who consider a book (not an accompt-book) as 
an useless superfluous thing calculated only for the idle, 
' and view all arts and information as contemptible, that do 
not contribute to the production of cent per cent' 

Amusements, among colonists of this description, are na- 
turally those of the most base ^nd sensual kind. Accord- 
ingly, we And that the favourite ones are convivial' parties, 
tavern dinners, dancing, racing, and gambling. "In this place 
the author mentions the hearty and undistingnishing hospi- 
tality of the islanders, with the remark, however, that all 
*are ambitious to make a figure in this respect, .and usually 
treat their guests mucb above, rather than under their cir- 
cumstances.' 

Though the author states, on the subject of the slave- 
bade, and its abolition, that he is ' unconditionally an advo- 
cate for neither side ;' the bias of his mind is evident, when- 
ever there is the smallest reference to that iniquitous traffic, 
and its detestable consequences in the West Indies. We do 
not scruple to pronounce him an advocate of slavery, and 
an enemy to its abolition. Happily it is needless, in these 
times, to demolish the few and feeble arguments here ad- 
duced to countenance this exploded system of iniquity. 
Indeed the book cohfutes itself. Great stress has been laid, 
and is here laid, upon the amelioration of the laws in the 
Wett Indies, with respect to slaves. A complete code of 



ih,Googlc 



328 AccmOit of Sttmeam. 

laws, called the * Consolidated Slave-laws,' noW exisia in 
Jamaica, chiefly for the protection of the slaves. 'The negro 
slave is as completely protected,' says thl^ author, ' against 
violence and murd«r, as the white mftn. A white man, vriio 
heats and abqses a neero, is equally liable* to he prosecuted 
and punished, either By s magistrate, or the owner of tbe 
slavey' [not by the abused slave himself!) 'as if he tbu^ 
treated a white man like bimSelf.' But mark the mockery 
of this pretended equal distribution of justice. *ThseQt^ 
dence qf a slave is, however y rat admimble against a white mmC 
Slaves, forsooth, are nOt to be believed^ because 'they h&ve* 
(rationally enough, perhaps) ' no other opinion of Sackera 
swear, a^ they call the oath of the white people, than < that 
it is a mere empty form of words;* and jiet it is said, ' they 
regard their own mode of taking an oath as most solemn 
and binding; this, however, can only be administered by 
one negro to another.' — Again; ' Neither overseer nor owbn 
is aUow:ed by th^ law to exceed, in inflicting punishmeo^ 
thirty-nine lashes ; nor is a book-ke^^r, dor others in su- 
horoinate situations, permiQxd to exceed tbe fourth part of 
that qiianium : at least, if they abuse this law, tney arc 
liable to a heavy penalty, one half of which goes to the in* 
former.' — What \ to the negro-infomier ? to the man who 
is disqualified from hearing testimony ? And what other iu* 
former can there possibly be in auch cases? Whatever 
nominal provision there may be for the security of persmi 
and property to tbe negroes, we have not the smallest doubt 
of its being in a great measure, if not totally, nuUiBed, by 
intentional naws in the legislative enactments, or by the dia< 
positions of those to whom the execution of such enactmeats 
IS conBded. ' 

We heartily concur with dur author in deploring the pao-> 
city of religious instruction, which is to be met with in Ja-* 
muca, either for tbe negroes, or for its white inhabitants It , 
is not sufficiently known in England with what a detente 
and diaholical obstinacy every attempt to Christianize the 
blacks is discouraged, counteracted, and jepelled, by tbe 
legistative and municipal bodies, as well as by a large proa 
portion of ihe inhabitants, of this guilty and ill-destinied re- . 
gion. Butitisnotby any means surprising, that the spirit ef 
vice, impiety, aud persecution, should effectively prevail oa 
a soil so tainted witn every crime arid possessed by every 
demon, when such a spirit is with difficulty restrained, even 
in a country like out own, from breaking forth into acta of ' 
viole>ce or attempting measures of legal hostility. Weart 
sorry to perceive that the moral feelings of the author blive 
aot entirely escaped contadiinatioD from this polluted X9t^ 



ih,Googlc 



JV«B Versions o^ tkt jVeW Testamtnt.- ' S29 

munity: He has unfortunatelj let several passages escape him, 
>t'hich Detray tbe state of' hia Ihdral sciittilients; arid we mention 
them— not tor ihe fe4ke'of the fcadet, whotii thfcjWoiild tather 
dUgust thail eridanger.-^butjad ti vVanilrig to ali refeidehU Jn Ja- 
iriSiCatO be v^ry'fcautioufe Wli'ch'ihey Wj-iW fat ftie public eye- 
Theawful visi|itioh' of eirm^fiiilEeSjbecaiisepf laWjre^tsthey ' 
have not s^dllowed'up ivhiJIfS 'tdiyris, is ^Irt^atttl with rabit 

■ uiibdconiiii^ levity; p. 23.'^' ai " " aUzitig 

pdrtiatiiy, applifc'd fottie plfeiit whioi 

fehiliiied aiie.valley whilferhe" y'ctftt* 

"tiriodd dj-ougfit, i^ v^ry lipar'iJ i itiii- 

bute it fp tie habit WVch 'i?iit i iJtKer 

wiilt^ residifeiiti, has' acquired, A) cofoii* 

as an lhfe'rioI^sp^et;i^, thclt, in dc iLpfati- 

ter, he should say ^^'HiispuH « co^ 

loitf) ' fife'tfoiiis-fiii irttha «a^£ J 'weU 

■tTjtf offsprtnk bX 'd fti'ord viri^c he U- 

yfhhta oii iMift ktb'Ad'incfe,' Kfe Iwbere 

tHe^ af^'Iibe'r'al1y,'eaiicatedi ill , ,.., , oumry 

'wotifd'pBi'tfiif h™,* hp would, si his d^beUlk^^ t'eiueath ihe 
biilk of'his fortiin'etothieoi/ p. 260.' 'Ktust, th^ man ftii'ejfo 

.parBjJtaTautie^j'beciuse' he hii^ Aegffeiited ^iin'hii'Djar Ones ? 

*ls tine cfime id 6'e produced' as the justification of another ? 
There are alsb a. few erroVs of a niore| venial' Kind : such 
a^ • Lucca,' p.' 11 . for tAtce'aj tfifi naih6 of a town aYid port 
61) the north side: 'tracts* for tracks^ p^ 1?;, .'.riiead* for 
ideeu, p. 39. Buttne work^is on (lie wliol6 respectablcj ind 

■ 'libf uri^Fof thy of attention, froVn ttie public; ,' '|'' 

Ak. IV. Tk*Ne^ TertUmmiiiH'dti TinjtrOixdytnioUiufioh ihtBhiittif 
II ^rihbiAt^ NifiMMix'i Iffv^ IVMiiMon I witi'afOrHtted Text, ami 
-.-. iieUi,dntiaU'anJ txfiiamoory, \ : ^<\ ■ -■<>'■ 

■An. v. A-Ntia/Tetlimmljorifii Nhv Ctvtmttti, 'd^eor/Sng'to Lah, 
. ■ Faat, ii^J^'f.'- Pttb/tedinGoifa^Uflo the Nait p/ tkt 'fat Rev. 

• lEJwardSiiBiutM. ' . ■ < 

, 1 . , (CtnehJedftMi^^l.) 

ir. Oif tli'e Dlstribiiim and Punttuation of fte T^ex'^ <^ tbe 
New Testamedt. , ' . 

Every readeir must have felt Ihfe utility ' whI comfort of 
having any written or printed' d6cumt;iit' presented to hia 
eye, nr. a t^tiohal anaj^ clear form of division ana suboi- 
vision. Yet it is remarkable, that; a practice so' convenient 
and obvious shijiild bave existed io a comparatively im- 
perfect state till our