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No ancient writer has been so thoroughly subjected to all kinds 
of criticism as Horace. The number of those who, in ancient 
and modern times, have published editions of his whole works, 
or of detached portions, is so great, that the mere enumeration 
of them would require a volume. We might suppose at first 
glance that all the aids which can be desired in regard to an 
ancient author— ^rammarians, manuscripts, and commentators — 
exist in rich abundance for Horace ; and yet, upon a closer 
examination, we find that much still remains to be done. Two 
ancient grammarians have lefi commentaries on Horace — namely, 
Helenius Acron and Pomponius Porphyrion. They lived towards 
the close of the fifth century after Christ ; but their scholia, as 
they have come down to us, are to a great extent raixed up with 
later comments. Besides these, Jacob Cruquius, in his edition 
(Antwerp, 1678), has made up an ancient commentary from the 
marginal notes of four Codices Blandinianij so called from the 
Blandin monastery on the Blandin Hill, in Ghent. These ancient 
Bcholia are not so good as those which we possess on some other 
writers ; but they are useful on account of the interesting and 
▼aluable information which they contain regarding persons men- 
tioned by Horace, particularly in the Satires, and which these 
commentators had extracted from earlier books de personia Hora- 
tiaim. Consequently, in every edition of the poet they must be 
mentioned and made use of 

There are more than two hundred manuscripts of Horace in 
existence, some of them very good. The above-mentioned Blan- 
dinianiy made use of by Cruquius, were particularly excellent, 
but are now lost Only a few of the others have been thoroughly 
collated ; and it is matter of astonishment tbet, notwithstand- 
ing the number of editions, a text of the Horatian poems, really 
founded on the manuscripts, and critically amended, is still a 
desideratum. The first who published an edition of Horace with 
a commentary was Christophorus Landinus (Florence, 1482) ; 


iv ^ PREPACE. 

and after him many learned men directed their attention to the 
explanation of Horace's language and allusions, till the time of 
Richard Bentley, whose first edition was published at Cambridge 
in 1711. Bentley, by this edition, establisbed his fame as a 
decided genius in criticism. He altered the text of Horace in 
about eight hundred passagcs, oflen accordingto the readings of 
manuscripts (for he had many, and some were excellent); often 
also, however, upon simple conjecture. More modern critics 
have perceived that manyofBentley^s corrections were not what 
the poet *wrote, but merely what he might have written. But 
even in his unsuccessful emendations, he has afibrded to later 
critics and commentators rich and interesting materials for de- 
bate, from which none has been able to escape. In the present 
edition, considering that it is intended chiefiy for schools, we 
have seldom mentioned Bentley's name; but in many cases we 
have been unable to refrain from touching, generally in a very 
few words, upon points about which he has raised controver- 
sies. The direction that the criticism on Horace has taken since 
Bentley'8 time is the poetico-aesthetic, the character of which ia 
best developed in Mitscherlich's somewhat diffuse, but yet eruditQ 
and judicious edition of the Odes (Leipzig, 1800.) Very recently, 
Jo. Casp. Orelli — whose third edition has appeared iu the year 
1850 — ^has endeavoured tocombine the explanatory and aestbetic 
style of commentary with a new critical recension. We have 
taken his text as the basis of ours ; paying careful regard, how- 
ever, both to former editions of all Horace's works, and also to 
the numerous editions of detached portions of them ; among 
which L. F. Heindorrs edition of the Satires (Second, Leipzig, 
1843) deserves particular notice. 

The present edition contains nearly all the poems of Horace, 
those only having been excluded which cannot be made nse of 
for educational purposes. The commentary was begun by Pro- 
fessor C. G. Zumpt. He died, however, without conipleting more 
than the notes on the Epodes. The remainder the undersigned 
has endeavoured to execute in bis father's spirit. 

A. W. ZuxPT. 
BEnLiK, November 30, 1850. 



the most celebrated lyrio poet 
of the Romans, and who in all 
ages, and among ali nations 
which have felt an interest in 
poetry and intellectual culture, 
bas been greatly admired and 
much imitated, was born in the 
year 65 b. c, in the consulahip 
of L. Manlius Torquatus and 
L. Aurelius Cotta. Hence in 
Odes, iii. 21, be addresses to an 
amphora the words O nata 
mecum conmdt Manlio; and in 
Epift. i. 20, he mentions that in 
the December of 21 b. c, he had corapleted his forty-fourth 
year. December was therefore his birth-month ; and we learn 
from a short notice of Horaoe'8 life, which probably formed a 
chapter in Suetonius' Lives of the Roman Poets, that the day 
was the 8thof themonth (a. d. vi. Id» Dee.) Horace was conse- 
quently six yearsyounger than Li vy, five years younger than Virgil, 
and two years oJder than Augustus. His native plaoe was 
Venusia, an ancient Latin colony, which, at the time of the 
Social War, 91 b. c, had received the full Roman franchise, 
and was consequently a municipium. Venusia was in Apulia, 
but just on the confines of Lucania; in which, indeed, a part 
of the territory belonging to it in later times was situated. 
Hence Horace, in 8at. ii. 1, 34, in speaking of himself, jokingly 
says, Lucanus an jSppulus ancqts. His father belonged to the 
lowest class of freemen : he was a freedman (Hbertinus), which 
indicates that he had formerly been a slave; and had, upoa 
his manumission, assumed the name of his master-^Horatius. 
Whether he had a cognomen or not, is unknown. Tbat of 
Flacous, which his son bore, was properly given to persons witb 
long loose ears. 

1* (V) 


The poet himself was tberefore freeborn {ingefimu) ; and tbis 
fkct, considering the great number of freedmen who lived at 
Rome, and rose to wealth and influence, was of itself something 
to be proud of (compare Sat. i. 6, 7.) Horace acknowledges his 
humble birth ; but his education, he says, was equal to that of 
one destined for the highest position in society, although his 
father would have been satisfied if his son had followed the 
same calKng as himself-^namely, thatof « cwtor (^Sat, i. 6, 86) ; 
or, as Suetonius in Horace's life more fully says, exactionum 
coactor; that is, an agent of tbe argentarii, who, for a certain per- 
centage or commission, collected from purchasers at auctions the 
money due for what they had bought The father, boweyer, was 
besides the possessor of a small estate near Yenusia. 

The school at Venusia, though the town was a considerable 
one, and weatthy, was yet but second-rate. It was good enough, 
however, for boys intended for handicrafts or a mercantile life; 
writing and arithmetio were taught; and even the higher class 
of citizens— 'the magni centwiones, as the poet calls them (Sat. i, 6, 
73)— were content with it But young Flaccus was taken. by his 
father to Rome, to be educated there. The father himself leA his 
borae, settled in tfae capital, and accompanied his son to all tha 
teachers whom he attended. The poet . praises this conduct as 
very self-sacrificing, and oonsiders himself fortunate in having 
been thns preserved from the follies and seductions to which 
youth is liable in a large city : (compare the whole of Satire 6, 
book i.) Horace stndied in Rorae Latin and Greek grammar ; 
and af^rwards, under the same teachers, rhetoric. He mentions 
{Epi$t.\i. 1» 71) that, when a boy, he attended the school of the 
grammarian Orbilius, who nsed to dictate passages irom the 
writings of the old Latin poetLivius Andronicus, and give gram- 
matical prelections on them. He also states (Epitt. ii. 42), that 
Homer was exptained to him, no doubt by a Greek grammarian. 
In such studies Hprace'8 life passed on, till it became time for 
him to decide whetber he would enter into pubKc Ufe or not 
To do Bo fae faad to become eitber an advocate or a soldier. 
He was not inclined to ' adopt either profession ; for the latter, 
indeed, he probably had not physical strength. Besides, the 
Roman state seemed falling to pieces: the civii war came on, 
tfaen tbe mnrder of Caesaf . Horaee withdrew iVom this soene 
of coniusion ; and afler the fasfaion of faigh^born Roman youtfaSi 
wentto Atbens to pursue fais studias, especially in pfailosopby. 
His fatber appears to haTe been dead by this time. The most 
distinguished philosopher then teachingat AUiens wasCratippus 
tfae peripatetic, to wfaom Cicero faad sent fais son. Horace men- 
tions {Epist. ii. 2, 45) that fae faad attended tfae disoourses of a 
pexipatetio — probably Cratippus. He felthappy in the quietand 


tranquillity of Athens, and attended olosely m his studies. He 
attempted also the composition of Greek verses ; but gave it up, 
seeing that in Greek poetry no iaurels were now to be won, 
whereas the Latin literature of his time had but few great poets 
to point to (Sflrf. i. 10, 31.) His quiet was broken in upon by 
the civil war ; of which the republican party, under Brutus and 
Cassius, .transferred the seat to Greece. Yoiing Horace .was 
enthnsia^tic for liberty, whose representative Brutus was consi- 
dered to be. He therefore joined the republican army as a volun- 
teer, and was soon advanced by firutus to the rank of tribunus 
mUitum. This was a high honour for the son of a freedman to 
obtain, especially one wbo had no great fortune ; consequently 
envious enemies were not wanting,but still he was able to main- 
tain his position. He seems to have visited Asia Minor with 
Brutu»— at least if he was an eye-witness of the occurrence 
which he describes in Sat, i. 7. In 42 b. c, Iiowever, he returned 
to Greece, and took part in the battle of Philippi. After this 
battle— in which the ret>ublicans were defeated, and the leaders 
fell by their own hands-^the greater part of the troops entered 
the service of thetriumvirs, the officers w^ere dismissed, and only 
a few continued the war under Sex. Pompeius and Doroitius 
Ahenobarbus. Horace, in Odes, ii. 7, 9, describes himself as 
having been among the fugitives, saying that he had left bis 
shield on the field of battle. As soon as the state of politics 
permitted, he returned to Italy, and went to Rome, where alone 
he could hope to rise by his abitities. 

His patrimonial estate, which had never been )aTge,had during 
the civil war been quite lost {Epist. ii. 2, 50), not by the proscrip- 
tions, by which the triumvirs had attempted to alter the condition 
Df Itaiy— -fbr Horace was too humble to be afiected by them— • 
but by the general calamities of the country. The triumvirs had 
to reward the soldiers who had assisted them against the repub- 
lican party, and this could be done only by granting them small 
estates. In the most flourishing cities of Italy the owners of land 
were obliged to give up their property to the soldiers. Compen- 
sation in money was promised indeed, but could not be given at 
onoe, because the state treasury had been too thoroughly drained 
during the constant wars of the period ; and it is very doubtful 
whether fuH payment was ever- made. Octa vianus settled a colony 
of veterans at Venusia, and Horace's estate was one of those 
assigned to them. How was he now to H ve ? The bloody and deso- 
lating nature of the wars had, aAer the battle of Philippi, which 
seoured peace for a while, produced a reaction : people began 
to rejoice in peace, and feel a longing after its arts. But elo- 
qnence, which Cicero had oarried to such a pitch of excellence, 
eoald not be awakened under a tyranny ; histor^, amid the still 


smouldenng ashes of political ranconr, wouid have to letslip tbe 
truth, and flatter the ruling party. Under these circumstanceSf 
men of ability took refuge in poetry and the regionsof fancy; and 
little else was heard now in the intellectaal circles of Rome but 
recitations of poetry and criticisms thereon. Among the dis- 
tinguished poets of the time we may mention especially Yirgii, 
whose charming pastorals had delighted all, and gained for him 
the favour and patronage of Octavianus ; also Varius, who hnd 
recommended himself by a poem on the death of CsBsar ; and 
many others, to whom Horace occasionally alludes. Horace, too, 
felt an inclination towards poetry : he says {Epist. ii. 251) that 
poverty, which impels men to boldundertakings, had driven him 
to attempt verse-making. He soughtin poetry the means of sub- 
sistence, by writing occasional verses. These were not directly 
paid for, butpresents were sentin acknowledgment of them, and 
they gained for him the patronage of wealthy men, on whose 
bounty he lived. He soon became known to his brother poets at 
Rome ; and first Virgil, then Varius, spoke of him to Maeoenas. 
The latter invited Horace to visithim, and asked him a few ques- 
tions about his family. Horace answered timidly and modestly» 
Maecenas then dismissed him without any definite promise; and 
it was not till nine months thereaAer that he again summoned 
him, and made him one of his friends {amici.) This happened 
probably in the beginning of the year 40 b. c. 

Maecenas has been richly repaid for his kindness to Horace by 
the praises which the latter everywhere bestows npon him, and 
which have made his name a current word for * a patron of litera- 
ture.' He was one of the most influential men in Rome; not from 
his rank or birth ; but purely from his political skill and sagacity. 
He was descended from an ancient but not a noble family ; for 
none of his ancestors had held any curule ofiice in Rorae. He 
was a simple Roman knight, and inclined to remain so : tbough 
ofYen invited to take office, he always declined, preferring the 
quiet of private life, which his wealth enabled him to enjoy, to 
the activity of a bustling political career. He was the friend 
and confldant of Octavianus, whom he aided with his advice and 
co-operation in the mostcritical situations ; and to whom he was 
so mudh attached, that at the time of the battle of Actium (30 
B. c), rfnd previousiy, when Octavianus was obliged to bo absent 
from the city, he undertook the responsible and laborious office 
of praefectus urbi. This confldence of Octavianus in Maecenas, 
being well known to all, rai^ed the latter in actual power above 
most men in the state, and all aspirants to the emperor^s favour 
flocked to pay their homage to Maecenas. He was at the same 
time well acquainted with, and had aflne taste for Iiterature,and 
took the deepest interest in it. He attempted poetry himself t00| 


not unsnccessfully. Horace, as it appears, became tbe cbief lite> 
rary assistant of Maecenas : he gave him information aboutnew 
boolcs, helped him in his own compositions, and wrote poems for 
bis grarification and amusement. A great part of tbe Satires, for 
instance, was undoubtedly intended primarily for Maecenas and 
the intellectual circle that be had drawn around him. Horace 
acted also as his secretary in such state affairs as he bad to attend 
to. This is apparent from the sixtb Satire of the second book, 
wbere a person requests Horace to obtain the signature of Mae- 
cenas to a paper, asking his assistance quite in the styie in wbicb 
one addresses the secretary of a great man. In one passage, also, 
Horace cornplains tliat tbe amount of biisiness wbicb be bas to go 
tbrottgh at Rome prevenu bim from baving any ieisure. The 
favour of Maecenas soon obtained for our poet the means of mak- 
ing a sufficient livelibood : he became a scriba. This he himself 
indicates in Sat. ii. 6, 36 ; and his biographer Suetonius says, 
tcriptum qtuiestorium comparavit^^ he bougbt for himself a clerk- 
ship to tbe quaestors.' These scribae formed by no means an 
uninfluential class in Rome. They were tbe under-secretaries in 
all the government departments,'and the affairs of the state were 
in a great measure managed by tbem. The chief secretaries were 
changed annually, and eonsequently could be but very imper- 
fectly acquainted with the duties of their office, which tberefore 
devolved necessariiy on the scribae^ they bolding tbeir posts for 
life. The state required from the scribae security for good con- 
duct and integrity, and thus it bappened that tbey formed a 
strong and exclusive corporation ; and their offices became sale- 
abie, like commissions in tbe British army. As to liow Horace 
contrived to unite liis new duties with bis empioyments at the 
house of Maecenas, we can only form conjectures. Either be was 
ailowed to perform tbe duties of scriba by proxy, or he performed 
tbem at the bouse of Maecenas, since tbe latter, being oflen 
engaged in state afiairs, could not dispense with the attendance 
of bis secretary. Tbis, bowever, is certain — that Horace gradu- 
ally withdrew bimself from business, and gained leisure enough 
to follow bis poettcal inclinations undisturbed. 

At flrst, perbaps, Horace iived in the bouse of Maecenas, and 
was treated as a dependant; but as tbe latter became more 
acqnainted with tbe poet's merits, be gave him greater freedom 
and independence. Let us now imagine to ourselves Horace's 
condition and mode of spending his time. He has bis own bons^ 
in town, with three servants to wait upon him. He has bis own 
particniar friends and associates, but he goes, perhaps daily, at a 
certain honr, to tbe house of Maecenas on the Esquiline Hill ; 
and to a special invitation from his patron even a promise made 
to anotlier must give way. Out of Rome, Horace possesses a 


small estate — either a direct present from Maecenas, or obtained 
by his influence, as compensation for the patrimonial property 
which had been assigned to the veterans. This estate is the pride 
and joy of the poet's heart : here he feels happy in rural seclusion 
and simplicity ; and hither he invites (repeatediy in his Odes) 
his particular friends, if they wish to enjoy country life. He isin 
Rome only during the time when he must be there — namely, the 
beginning of the year. He returns to his Sabine farm as soon as 
be possibly can, and iives there for the remainder of the year ; 
except when he goes, as the state of his health often obliges him 
to do, to the warm baths of fiaiae, or to the sea-bathing at some 
town in southern Itaiy. 

The situation and appearance of this celebrated farm may be 
pretty well determined from the notices which hegivesin £pitt, 
i. 14, 16, and 18 ; and Sat. ii. 6. We cross over to the right bank 
of the Anio at Tibur (the modern Tivoli), and then go up along 
the river, following the via Valeria^ as far as the little village of 
Varia (now Vicovaro.) Thisvillage lies to the lefl of the publio 
road, on a hill above the Anio, eight Roman miles from Tibur. 
Horuce's estate was in the district connected with this village ; 
and had, in earlier times, when landed property in Italy was 
distributed among more persons, sufficed foi the support of five 
families: now it was cultivated for Horace by eight slaves. It 
was situated in a valley, which lay in the direction from north to 
south ; so that the hill on the right was gilded by the beams of the 
morning sun, that on the left by his evening rays. A consider* 
able rivulet, called the Digentia (now Licenza), flowa through 
the middleof the valley, fhlling intothe Anio about a mile above 
Varia. Thus far the locality is certain, and can at present easily 
be found ; but the exact place where the villa stood it is scarcely 
possible to flx, since it was certainly not so magnificent or lasting 
that traces of it should remain till now. Horace, in Odes iii. 13, 
mentions a/on« Banduwu as springing up near his farm. Ifthis 
was tbe largest of the nuraefous brooks which bubbie up onthe 
slope of the hill on the right side of the Digentia, then the villa 
must have been situated some three miles up the valley. There 
was connected with this housein the country a house in Tibur, 
according to a custom which still holds in the smaller towns of 
Italy, that toeach house a certain piece of land belongs, on whicb 
again may be a villa. The poet, therefore,of\en praises Tibur as 
his darling residence, where the Muses favoured him raost, and 
where he wished that he might remain in his old age. Suetonius, 
in his biography of Horace, says, Vixit plurvnmm in secetsu rurit 
8ui Sabini aut Tiburtini: domusque ejus ottenditw circa Tibumi 
luculum. Now the grove of Tiburnus, an old local god of Tibur, 
must have been in, or at least very near, the town. For these 


ezternal advantages Horace was indebted to the ffayoar and 
friendship of Maecenas : the literary friends whom fae met at 
his bouse encouraged him to poeticai activity and to improve- 
ment in the art ; and there, too, he became acquainted with many 
men of power and influence in the state. It would have 'been 
easy ibr him to alter his position in regard to Maecenas, and to 
strike out for himself a path to honour and authority ; but how 
little be thought of this appears from his conduct to Augustus. 
Maecenas had spoken of Horace to the emperor, and had given 
him a copy of his poems ; with which, being a raan of taste, and 
ironi disposition as well as from poiiticai motives a patron of 
literature, he expressed hiraself as delighted. He wanted a 
secretary to write letters for him, and asked Maecenas to give 
up Horace to bim. Maecenas consented ; but Horace pleaded 
the weak state of his heaith, to escape taking the office, wbich 
would have given him much influence, but at the same time 
much trouble. Augustus admitted the excuse, and was not 
angry ; but he wished that Horace would speak of his exploits 
in his poems, or rather that he would write a poem upon them, 
and he felt hurt that the poet had not mentioned him in any 
previous production. But Horace declined to attempt any such 
panegyrio, his reason being either that wbich he gave — namely, 
tfaat he had no talent for e^ic poetry— or, as is more probable, 
that he hated flattery. He had in his youth belonged to the 
republican party ; and though in his maturer years he felt and 
acknowledged that the restoration of the republic was impossible, 
and the govemment of Augustus beneflcent, still he was unwill- 
ing to act in such a manner as indirectly to depreciate the merits 
of those heroes who had formerly been the gods of his idolatry. 
But he oAen praised the administration of Augnstus, whicfa had, 
in truth, induced contentment and excited gratitude in all^ 
extoUing him for baving given to Italy and the Roman Empire 
the long wished-for blessings of peace ; for having, by successful 
battles, extended and seeured the boundaries of his dominions ; 
and for labouring most zealously, by good institutions and wise 
laws, to elevate the moral condition of the people. It was not 
tili afler pressing requests from AugustuA, which he could not 
refuse without giving great ofience, that Horace resolved to cele- 
brate in two odes the viotories of llberius and Drusus, the step- 
sons of the emperor, and for this reason to add a fourth book 
of Odes to the three which were already in the hands of the 
public. The epistle to Augustus [JCpitt, ii. 1) was writtenonthe 
same occasion. 

Maecenas, partioularly when he grew old, and fell into bad 
faeaith, also made demands upon the poet which he could not 
veeoncile with his prinoiples ; and this was probably the reason 


why, towards the end of his life, his visits to Rome became fewer 
and fe wer. But, upon the whole, the connection between the two 
friends remained the sarae ; and onght always to be considered 
as a pattern for the relations between an artist or poet and his 
patron. The more the fame of Horace increased, the more inti- 
mate became his friendship with Maecenas. No petty jealousy 
interfered with their mutual affection and respect. Good foiv 
tune preserved the friends from the necessity of a separation, 
and gratified the wish of Horace not to survive Maecenas long. 
Maecenas died, afler a protracted illness, in tbe year S b. c. ; and 
when near his end, he commended our poet to Augustus in the 
fbllowing words : Horatvi Flacci, ut mn^ memor etto. Horace fol- 
lowed soon aAer, on the 27th of November in the same year, 
having very nearly completed his fiAy-seventh year. Death took 
him by surprise : he had not time to make a will ; but, having 
no children or relations, named orally Augustus as his beir. He 
was buried near his iong-loved friend Maecenas on the Esquiliue 

Horace frequently describes his own bodily appearance and 
mental temperament. He was of small stature, and faad dark 
eyes and black hair ; though the latter, as he grew older, became 
somewhat gray. In his youth, he was of a weakly coustitution, 
and sufiered from a complaint in his eyes. When he reacbed 
the age of manhood, his general health did not much imp^ove, 
but he became stout and corpulent ; so that Augustus used to 
joke with him upon his rotundity. In temperament, he says^ he 
was hot ; in his youth even passionate ; in his iater years easily 
irritated, but easiiy caimed again. His dress wa» simple, and 
rather careless than elegant. In his mode of life he studied 
comfort and ease, which never degenerated into luxury. 

Tbis, then, was the poetof whom Quintilian, the greatest of 
Roman critics, remarks, that he was almost tiie only Latin lyrist 
who deserved to be read — a judgment which has been fuily rati- 
fied by posterity ; for scarcely any nation has ever had any lyrie 
poet who has been so extensively read, admired, and imitated as 
Horace. It is therefore worth while to say something regarding 
his poetry in general, and regarding the kinds of poetry which 
he cultivated. 

It is of great importance for the thorough comprehension and 
enjoyment of a poet like Horace, whose excellence consists ia 
his baving invested the particular circumstances and friendships 
which led him to write wi^ a universal interest, that we should 
know when his poems werecomposed ; and, even sincefientley 
spoke briefly, generally, and without stating proofs, on. this 
question, it has been eagerly taken up by every subsequent com- 
mentator. Horace began his poetical attempu early, and ewor 


tinned his antivity tili he had attained a considerable age. He 
intended to conclude his poetical exertions with the firstbook ot 
tbe Eplstles, which he published in the y^ar 20 b. c, when he 
was in fais forty-flfth year. However, he still occasionally made 
poems (garticularly Odes, iv. 14) in celebration of exploits of 
members of the reigning family ; and at last, long after tbe pub- 
lication of the first three books of Odes, be issued a fourth ; and 
besides, by tbe wish of Augustus, wrote the seoond book of 
Epistles. It is thus certain that Horace himself published his 
poems divided into books ; and in regard to the Jlrs Poetica alone, 
it is a possible, but not a probable supposition, that it was issued 
after its author^s death. It seems likely, tberefbre, that all of 
Horaee's poetry which he himself considered worthy of publi- 
cation, has come down to us. 

Horace commenced his poetical labours in hisyonth with sati- 
rical poetry, which with him assumed twoforms — the satire pro- 
perly so called, and the more lyrical epode. In the Satires, we 
find no ailusion to the battle of Actiutn, or to the events imme- 
diately preceding ; they were therefure finished, and perhaps also 
pubiished befbre 32 b. c. It appeari, moreover, that the two booki 
were issued together. They were composed on various occa- 
sions, partiy for tlie amuseraent of Maecenas's sociai circie ; and 
appear to.have been intended originally entirely for the enter- 
tainment of private friends. Horace read each separately to hi« 
friends, as he composed them ; aAerwards he divided them into 
books, and published them. They were followed by the book 
of Epodes. Some of these Epodes were undoubtediy composed 
long before ; but we find in the book allusions to the impending 
battle between Antony and Octavianus, which beld all Italy in 
trembiing anxiety, and also a kind of triurophal song on the 
Tictory at Actium ; so that the book seems to have been published 
immediateiy after it With the Epodes, Horace closed his satirical 
poetry. He had gained a name by it, but had aiso made himself 
enemies ; and in his riper years he acknowledged that it was not 
enougli for a person to raark and satirise tbe faults of bis fellows, 
but that he must himself attempt to produce something excelient. 
He brought the hexameter of the Satires to perfection in the 
Epistles, and ebanged the simpie iambic verse of the Epodes for 
tbe strict and artistic metres of the Odes. He finished the first 
three books of the Odes alK>ut the year 20 b. c, and published 
them together, as appears firom the first Ode, and from the last 
of the third book. The first book of the Episties was also issued 
in the year 20 b. c; and with it, as we have already observed^ 
Horace intended to close his poetical oareer. But in 17 b. c, at 
the emperor*8 request, he wrote the Carmen Satcuiare; and soon 
afterwards-*at ail events before 13 b. c— he published the fourtb 


book of the Odes. Tbe second bpok of Epistles appeared aome^ 
wbat later still. His Epistle on the Art of Poetry appears to have 
occupied him last, for it contains observations suoh as only old 
age and mature experience could supplyj and has especaal ref»> 
rence to tbe drama; as if the poet intended, in tfae gradual 
development of bis talents, to advanoe from lyrioal to 'dramatic 

It may here . be asked, What is it tbat gives Horace his 
acknowledged value? He is a poet of reality, trained in tbe world 
and fbr the world, fuU of elegapt reoiarks, pleasant and kindly 
sentiments, averse to all rough merriment, and impelled by his 
genius to clothe his observations in the garb of poetry. He i« 
an amiable man and a thorough gentleman ; but what make» 
him a poet is not an inspiration or wild impulse of the soul, but 
the qniet deliberation which enables him to give his reflections 
the most beautiful form possible. He works with tbe greatest 
oare, and strives to attain perfection in bis style of represen- 
tation and ezpression. He is great, because he thoroogbly 
understands, as an artist, all his immediate relations, and raises 
the individual to the universal. In bis lyrio poems he despises 
the dithyrambio strain of thought ; and its want is made up by 
noble sentiments, and by freedom from faulte ; for of bombaat 
and want of correctness notbing is to be found in tbera. Many 
of his Odes are imitated from the Greek, but he has doiie it 
skilfully, and wlthout lavishly following his models; and hia 
poems are even superior to the originals in poiisb aud in unitjr 
of thought. He had only one predecessor among tbe Romana 
in regard to odes— namely, Valerius CatuUns, a poet of great 
ability and genius, but who wrote very little, and made, as it 
were, merely a beginning. In regard to epodes, Horace, as it 
appears, was the only one of the Romans who attempted them. 
The idea of this kind of poetry he derived from the Greek Archi- 
lochus, whose celebrated satirical poems were written in iambics ; 
but their form he bimself invented. The name of epodi ia 
taken from the fact, that in the majority of them the first verse 
is a somewhat long line ; then foUowing it, or in addition to it 
(iW), one shorter. The epistle, as a kind of poetry, is entirely an 
inventiou of Horace. There was nothinglikeititiancientlitera- 
ture before his time, and he had but feeble imitators in Claudiani 
and Ausonius, who lived in the fourth ceutury after Cbrist Hia 
Epistles are . really letters, containing personal allnsions, and 
sentiments (for example, JSpist. i. 3, and 9) not going beyond 
private matters. But in others he goes from private affairs to 
general observations on life and art The epistle, witb Horaee*t 
as patterns, has been a favourite species of poetry among the 
modern». The satire was not invented by Horaoe, but he re- 


inodell«d it, and was tbe flrat to bring it into general notice. Thi« 
kind of poetry was unlcnown to tbe Greeks: its place was sup- 
plied by wbat was called the Old Comedy, with which Horace, in 
defending bis Satires, ciasses them. The Drama Satyritum wai 
a parody on tragedy. Tbe Latin word Botira is not connected 
witb tbe satyrs or tbe Drama Satyrictun : it comes from tbe ad- 
jective satur^ * full, beaped up.' Hence $atura means originally, 
^a beaping up, mizing togetber of beterogeneous things,' eitber in 
offerings made to tbe gods, or in laws wbich embraced Tarious 
subjects per taturam^ * in the gross or slump.' Hence the old 
Boman poets Ennius and Pacuvius called a poern written in 
various kinds of verse, and probably of a comic nature, a tatura. 
Lucilius, about the year 120 b.c, retained the name, applying it 
to a regular hexameter poem, of the olass now called satires, 
wbicb be divided into thirty books. This originated the satire, 
and Horace expressly mentions Lucilins as its inventor. Horace, 
however, made an improvement on its character. He gave up 
personal attacks, and the assailing of particular individuals : for 
this he made use of bis Epodes. In bis^atires he lashes not single 
fools, but fools as a class— folly generally. Tbe satire witb bim 
is a didactic poem ; it gives instruction in the philosophy of Hfe, 
and particular persons mentioned are introduced merely as il- 
laetrati ve examples. Tbere are marked features of distinetion also 
between Horace and his sucoessors as Roman satirists, Juvenal 
and Persius, whose works are still extant. Lucilius had been 
entirely personal, and principally political ; Horace, in anotber 
age and under other political circurastances, took only the follies 
of mankind as fais subject: he was worldly-wise, and endeavoured 
to teach by showing wbere error lay. Juvenal inveigbs against 
Tice with ardour and indignation ; Persius was a noble youth, 
of noble spirit, desirons to regulate life according to tbe maxims 
of tfae Stoic pbilosophy. In style, Lucilius was.very free; Juve- 
nal is rhetorical and regular ; Persiiis difficult, epigrammatic, and 
fuU of obscurity. Horace retains throughout the tone of witty, 
familiar conversation. It is for this reason tfaat he seems to have 
given to his work, thougb including it in the species df poetry 
called satire, the distinctive name of Sermones (' Conversations.') 
Tbis accounts also both for the fact, that his Satires are generally 
in the form of entertaining narrative, and for the peculiarities of 
their language and metre. In style, he keeps as close as possible 
to tbat of polished prose; indeed he speaks once of the mina 
pedettrii in bis Satires. In regard to metre, be so constructs his 
hexameters tbat tbey are very difierent from the sounding lines 
of beroic poetry. It would have been easier for him, as we can 
partly see from the Epistles, to follow tbe epic hexameters of 
Virgil ; but he would not do it, tbat be migbt preserve tbe cba^ 


raeter of his own ipecies of poetry more pnre. The approach to 
prose in Horace'8 verse is seen, for instancei in his freedom with 
regard to elision, particularly that of the monosyllabic particles 
nati% dum, cum^ jt, which is contrary to the epic usage ; in some 
cases of synaeresis, as prouty quoad, vindemiator ; in syncopes, as 
eaUHor^ tddum ; and contractions, as dwitu^ turrtx^ In the con- 
■truction of the yerse, also, we observe an intentional accnmula- 
tion of spondees, whereas the well-framed epic line deligbts htf 
by a tasteful variety of dactyies and spondees. 

It seems proper to add to this introduction a table of the metres 
used by Horace in his Odes and Epodes. The strophes which 
he employs are of two kinds. In the Epodes, one somewhat 
long line is foliowed by a shorter one^the two forming a metrical 
whole or strophe ; from which fact, as already mentioned, the 
word 'epode' takes its origin. The Odes consist all of stanzas 
or strophes of four lines each, with either the same or similar 
rhythm :— 

I. Stbofha Asclspiadxa Pbixa, which consista of the follow 
ing, four timeB repeated. See Ziumpty § 861. 

n. Stbopha AscLXPiAnsA Skcukda, which consisu of a Gly- 
eonian line (Zumpt^ § 859), and an Asclepiadean. These two, 
repeated, form the strophe of four lines. 

-I- - 

III. Stbopha Asclspiadsa Tsbtia, which consists of three 
consecutive Asclepiadean verses, and a Glyoonian. 

-u - 

IV. Stbofha AfCLSPiADSA QuABTA, which consists of two 
Asclepiadean lines, a Pherecratean {Zumptf § 859), and a Glyco- 

introbuotiok; 'Zttt 

V. Stbovbi. AsoLXHikDXA QvxirrA, whidh coDBiatB of a greater 
Asclepiadean line xepeated four times. 

yi. SxsoPHA Sajfphica. Zumpty § 865. 

YII. Strophi. Saffhica Majob, which conaists of two pairi 
of UBes, each coDtaining a so-called varnu jSrittephameui» and s 
choriambic trimeter. Zim^t, § 862. 

TIII. Stbopha AiCAicA. ZKmpt, § 866. 

IX. Stbofha Abgbiiochia Fbixa, which consists of two line» 
repeated — the one a heroic hexameter, and the other a vernu 
jirchUochiut minor, Zumpt, § 847, 

X. Stbofra ABCHII.0CHIA SscirirDA, which consists of two line» 
repeated — the one a heroic hexameter, and the other made up 
of an iambic diameter and a dactylic trimeter catalectio (vcrfttf 

"~ ' "~-i "^ \ S. JL ^ . ' 

XI. Stbofha ABCHII.OCHIA QuABTA, which consists of two 
▼erses repeatedr— the one vivertue^rehUochiut major^ the other an 
iambic trimeter catalectic. Zrnnpt, § 834. 

XII. Stbofha Alcxabia, which consists of two lines repeated 
— the one a heroic hezameter, the other a daotylic tetrameter 



XIII. Stbofba La.mviga Pbima, consisting of a pair of iambic 
senarii. Zumpt^ § 837. 

Xiy. Stbopha Iambica Sbcuitda, which consists of two lines 
— the one aa iambic senarius, the other a venui lanMati quaUr- 
fiariui. Zumpt, § 838. 

XV. Stbofha Ptthlambica, wbich consists of two ]ines« 
beroic hezameter, and an iambio senariut. 

XVI. Stbofha Tbochaica, which consists of two lines re- 
poated— -the one a trochaic dimeter catalectic, the other an iambio 
trimeter catalectic. 



























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Ode. Metre. 





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De Abti Posnoi. Libbi 

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This poem is a dedication of the first three booki of Odes, which 
Horace published together, to his patron M aecenas. It serves 
at the same tirae, however, as an introduction to the collected 
lyrical productions of Horace. The anthor says (1-28) that the 
pursuits of men are veryvarious : one strives afler honour, another 
afler extensive possessions, another afler a peaceful life on his he- 
reditary estate; others afler commercial gain, after a life of 
merriraent and debauchery, afler the exciting employments of 
war, or ailcr the pleasures of the chase. He, on the other hand 
(29--36), busies bimself with the cultivation of lyric poetry; and 
will feel happy i^ in the judgment of Maecenas, he is worthy to 
be cGDsidered as a lyric poet 

Maecenas atavis edite regibus, 
O et praesidium et dulce decns raeum : 
Sunt quos curriculo pulverem Olympicum 
CoIIegisse juvat, metaque feryidis 

1. C. Cilnius Maecenas was a member of the Cilnian gens, which 
belonged to the ruling clans in Arretium, an ancient ciiy of Etruria, 
and was said to have given several kings and military leaders to 
that country. — 3. Sunt quos—juvat. Gram. ^ 360, 4, and as to the 
perfect collegisse, Gram. $ 371, note 2. The allusion is to the Olym- 
pic Games, of which chariot-racins {curriculo—curru) constituted a 
principal part. The great difficuTty in this ezercise was to turn 
round the mela (the pillar which marked the end of the course) so 
closely as not to lose any ground, and at the same time so dexter* 
ously avoid grazing tl^ post and being overturned. The victor 
received as his reward a garland made of the leaves of the wild ol' 



Evitata rotis palmaque nobilis 5 

Terrarum dominos evehit ad deos ; 
Hunc, si mobilium turba Quiritium 
Certat tergeminis toliere honoribus; 

Illum, si proprio condidit horreo 
Quidquid de Libycis verritur areis. 10 

Gaudentem patrios findere sarculo 
Agros Attalicis condicionibus 

Nunquam dimoveas, ut trabe Cyprla 
Myrtoum pavidus nauta secet mare. 
Luctantem Icariis jductibus Africum 15 

Mercator metuens, otium et oppidi 

Laudat rnra sui ; mox reficit rates 
Quassas, indocilis panperiem pati. 
Est qui nec veteris pocula Massici ^ 

Nec partem solido demere de die 20 

.- .... ^ 

tree {palma.) — 6. That is, makes him as proud and happy as the 
gods who rule the world. — 7. To hunc, and* in line 9, to illMm, 
Bupply evekit ad deot. As among the Greeks a victory at Oiympia 
conferred the highest honour, so at I(ome this resulted from any 
one's election by his fellow-citizens to the «cr^ewim— that is, tri- 
pliees — honore»; namely, the curule ediieship, the praetorship, and 
the consulship. — 10. * All that is swept together frora the Libyan 
threshing-floors.* Libya is the north of Africa, one of the corn- 
growing countries which supplied Italy. The poet alludes bere to 
wealthy landed proprietors. At a later period, under Nero, the 
whole of the Roman province of Africa was in the possession of six 
persons». — 11. Gaudentem, *one who finds his pleasure in, who is 
satisfied with.' — 12. Attalicae condiciones are offers or conditions, 
Buch as Attalus III., king of Pergamus, who had been proverbial 
for wealth, and who bequeathed his kingdom and his treasures to 
the Roman people, might have made. — 13. Trabs^navist a part by 
poetical license being put for the whole. The ship is called Cyprian 
because it was buiit of cedar, in which the island of Cyprus abound- 
ed. The Myrtoan Sea is that between Euboea, Crete, and Pelo- 
ponnesus. — 15. Icariis Jluctihus would in prose be cum Icariis fiucti-- 
hm. The Icarian Sea is that between Samos and the island of 
Icaria, so called from Icarus, the son of Daedalus. AfricuB is the 
south-west by west wind. — 17. Rura oppidt «Mt, ' ihe country round 
about his town.* The merchant, whose businesa consisted in bring- 
ing the produce of the East from Alexandria to the ports of ItaTy 
(for this, in the Roman sense, was a mercator), has a house in tke 
country town to which he belongs, and an estate in the neighbour- 
hood. — 18. Pauperiem, *a life without gain,* a mere competence^ 
Bufiicient to ^ive him the necessaries of subsistence: egestas is 
difTerent, for it means * absolute want.* — 19. Veteris pocala Mas- 
«lei, 'cups of old wine from Mount Massicus.' This was a hill 
in Campania, famous for producing excellent wine. A solidus 
dies is a day which may be wholiy and without interruption de- 
voted to business. To take away a part of this — that is, to givo 
one'B-8elf up to pleasure and enjoyment about noon, or any time 


Spernit, nunc viridi menibra sub arbuto 
Stratus, nunc ad aquae lene eaput sacrae. 
Multos castra juvant et lituo tubae 
Permixtus sonitus bellaque matribus 

Detestata. Manet sub Jove frigido 25 

Venator tenerae conjugis immemor, 
Seu visa est catulis cerva fidelibus, 
Seu rupit teretes Marsus aper plagas. 

Me doctarum hederae praemia frontium 
Dis miscent superis, me gelidum nemus 30 

Nympharumque leves cum Satyris chori 
Secernunt populo, si neque tibias 

Euterpe cohibet nec Polyhymnia 
Lesboum refugit tendere barbiton. 
Quodsi me lyricis vatibus inseres, 35 

Sublimi fenam sidera vertice. 

before the principal meal of the day — was a sign of a jovial and 
careless voluptuary. — 21. N<ni 8pernit=jumt, 'fie does not scorn, 
he finds his pleasure in.' Memhra stratus ; Gram. ^ 259, 2. — 22. 
Caput aquae is the fountain from which a rivulet fiows, and which 
in ancient times was usually sacred to a nymph, and adorned with 
an image. — 24. Matribus detestata ; Gram. % 271. We have an- 
other instance of the same constructlon immediately afterwards (27), 
visa est eatulis fidelihus. — 25. Suh Jove ; that is, sub dio, *in the 
open air.' Jupiter is the air. — 28. The district of the Marsi in 
Italy is mountainous, and abounds with game. It is therefore a 
favourite resort for huntsmen. — 29. What Horace says of his own 
pursuits divides itself into three parts. He feels himself borne away 
mto the circle of the goda, when his head is crowned with bay 
(hedera), which used to be ^iven as a mark of honour to poets 
Idoctae frontes) ; he seems to himself to be different from other men, 
whenin the summer, in acool grove, with nymphs and satyrs danc- 
ing around him, under the favouring smile of Euterpe, the muse of 
lyric poetry, and of the pensive Folyhymnia, who invented the lyre, 
he can chant a lay, as erewhile, in the island of Lesbos, Alcaeus, 
the most distinguished of Greek lyrists, did ; and thirdly, if Mae- 
cenas will acknowledge that his efforts have been successful, and 
consider him as a true lyric poet, he will enter on the enjoyment of 
immortal fame (sublimi feriam gidera vertice.) 





A LAUDATORT ode, addressed to the Emperor Octavianus Caesar, 
who, when he returned to Rome (29 b. c.) after his victory over 
Antony and Cleopatra, began to regulate the internal afiairs of 
the state, and particularly to improve the moral character of the 
people by enacting strict laws. This poem was written in the 
year 28 b. c, when Caesar received the title of Princepa Senahu 
(line 50.) 

Jam satis terris nivis atque dirae 
Grandinis misit pater et rubenti 
Dextera sacras jaculatus arces 
Terruit urbem, 

Terruit gentes, grave ne rediret 5 

Saeculum Pyrrhae nova monstra questaei 
Omne cum Proteus pecus egit altos 
Visere montes, 

Piscium et summa genus haesit ulmo^ 
Nota quae sedes fuerat columbi 10 

£t superjecto pavidae fiataruat 
Aequore damae. 

Vidimus flavum Tiberim retortis 
Litore Etrusco violenter undis 

1. The poet describes the prodigies which were seen after the 
murder of Julius Caesar, and were supposed to have been sent by 
the gods as a punishment for that crime. These prodigies were 
chieflY great tempests, durin^ which various places were struck by 
lightning, and inundations ofthe Tiber, which are here represented 
as the commencement of a second Deucalionic flood.~2. Pater ; 
namely, deorum et hominum^ Jupiter : ruberu dexterat ' his red right 
hand ;* that is, his hand armed with lightning. — 3. Sacras — arceSf 
the Capitol, where the temples of the three presiding divinities of 
the etate, Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva, were. — 4. Terruitt both 
generally * has terrified,* and especially *has alarmed them, lest 
(Tic),* &c. — 6. Saeculum Pyrrhae, the lime of the deluge, when 
Deucalion and his wife Pyrrha alone were saved: nova monsira 
questae, 'who saw with grief wonders unknown before;' namely, a 
change in the face of the whole world*. — 7. Proteus, a sea-god, who 
actedas Neptune^s cow-herd : ^U visere^ a Greek construction for 
egit ut viserent. — 9. Construe thus : etgenus piscium haesit summa 
ulmo, Mnthetopof theelm.* — 11. SuperjectOy 'pouredovertheearth.' 
— 13. Flavuf, because it carries much sand along with it, and for that 
reason has a yeliowish appearance. — 14. LitusEtruscumt the north- 


Ire dejectum monumenta regis 16 

Templaque Vestae ; 

Iliae cium se nimium querenti 
Jactat ultorem, vagus et sinistra 
Labitur ripa Jove non probante u- 
xorius amnis. 20 

Audiet cives acuisse ferrum, 
Quo graves Persae melius perirant, 
Audiet pugnas vitio parentum 
^Bara juventus. 

Quem vocet djvum populus raentis 25 

Imperi rebus % prece qua fatigent 
Virgines sanctae minus audientem 
Carmina Vestam ? 

Cui dabit partes scelus expiandi 
Jupiter ? tandem venias, precamur, 80 

Nube candentes humeros amictus, 
Augur ApoUo ; 

Sive tu mavis, Erycina ridens, 
Quam Jocus circum volat et Cupido ; 
Sive neglectum genus et nepotes 36 

Respicis auctor, 

Heu nimij» longo satiate lado, 

ern bank of the Tiber, on which the Etruscans dwelt. The wayes, 
driven back withviolence from it, inundated the city, most of whiQb 
lay on the south eide. — 15. Dejectum, the supine = tt/ dejiceret: monu- 
menta regis^ the so-called JRegiaf said to have been built by Numa, 
close to which stood the temple of Vesta, where the Palladium of 
Rome was kept. — 17. Uia, or Rea Silvia, the wife 6f Tiber. She 
complains too much (for nimium querenti ^o together) of Caesar'8 
murder, and wishes for the utter destruction oi the wicked city, 
whereas Jupiter wants merely to punish it : therefore aftefwards 
Jove non probante, — 18. Jactat »e ultorem, ' acts as ihe avenger of 
Ilia;' for which reason, in line 19, he is called uxorius^ 'governed 
bjr the will of his wife.' — 23. Viiio parentum are to be connecied 
with rara : the youths are not numerous, because their fathers 
fought with each other. — 25. Vocetf ' can the people call to for help.* 
— 26. Precct the ablative singular, confined almosT entirely to poetry. 
Gram. ^ 80, 4. — 27. Virgines sanctae, the Vestal virgms. Vesta 
does not listen to their songs (carmina minus audit), because she is 
angry with the Romans. — ^29. Partes, ' office, duty.*-^31. Candentes 
humeros, a Greek accusative; comp. Gram. ^ 259. — 32. Augur, be- 
cause he is the god of oracles and prophecy. — 33. Erycina; that is, 
Venus: so called from the celebrated temple which she had on 
Mount Eryx, near Lilybaeum in Sicily. The companions of Venus 
were Jocus and Amor, or Cupido, who were usually represented as 
boys with wings. — 36. Auctor; that is, Mars, the father of Romulus 
and Remus, and the god who delighted in th« game (Jludus) of war. 



Qnem juvat clamor galeaeque leves, 

Acer et Mauri peditis cruentum 

Vultus in hostem. 40 

Sive mutata javenem figura 
Ales in terris imitaris, almae 
Filius Maiae, patiens vocari 
Caesaris ultor, 

Serus in coelum redeas, diuqne 45 

Laetus intersis populo Quirini, 
Neve te nostris vitiis iniquum 
Ocior aura 

ToUat. Hic magnos potius triumphos, 
Hic araes dici Pater atque Princeps, GO 

Neu sinas Medos equitare inultos, 
Te duce, Caesar. 

—38. Leves, * sraooth, polished, burnished.' — 39. Construe thus : et 
vultuf Mauri peditis acer in cruentum hostetn, The look of the 
Mauritanian soldier is fierce at all times, but particularly when he 
is glancing at an enemy whom he has wounded or slain. — 41. The 
author now comes to the main point of his poem; namely, the state- 
ment that Octavianus Caesar had been sent by the gods to save the 
Romans. He ventures on the fancy that Mercury, the son of the 
goddess Maia, had assumed the form of Octavian, and had conde- 
Bcended (therefore, in line 43, patiens) to become the avenger of 
Caesar^s murder. Sive—juvenem in terris imitaris, 'or if thou hast 
assumed, and art bearing on earth the form of young Octavian,' who 
was then in his thirty-fifth year. — 43. Filius, nominative for vocative. 
See Gram. ^ 311, note.— 45. Serus, a poetical construction for sero, 
—47. Nostris vitiis iniquum, 'hostile, opposed to our faults.' — 49. 
Hic potius, * here on earth rarher than in heaven, where, as Mer- 
cury, thou usually dwellest.' The accusative triumphos depends upon 
ames. — 50. Pater, scil. patriae, a litle which was atterwards formaliy 
conferred on Octavianus by a decree of the senate. — 51. Medos; 
that is, the Parthians. Octavianus, like his grand-uncle Julius, in- 
tended to commence a war against this people, after settling the 
internal affairs of the state. His motive was a desire to avenge on 
the Parthians the defea^ which M. Crassus and Antony the trium- 
vir had sustained at their hands, and particularly to deliver the 
Roman captives, of whom they had still a very great number, and 
to recover the standards. 




An ode to the ship in which Virgil sailed to Atlicns in the year 19 
..,.-., -, j ^^gj. ^^ stormy 

i Briindusium on 

B. c. The poet wishes his friend a g"ood passage over the stormy 
3a. His wish was gratified ; but Virgil died at F 

his retum from Greece, the same year. 

Sic te diva .potens Cypri, 
Sic fratres Helenae, lucida sidera, 
Ventorumque regat pater 
Obstrictis aliis praeter lapyga, 

NaviB, quae tibi creditum 5 

Debes Virgilium, finibus Atticis 
Reddas incoiumem, precor, 
£t serves animae dimidium meae. 

Illi robur et aes triplex 
Circa pectus erat, qui fragilem truci 10 

Commisit pelago ratem 
Primus, nec timuit praecipitem Africum 

1. <S^u; is often used at the beginning of pravers and wisbes, and 
need not be translated. Diva potens Cypri, * the goddess who rules 
over Cyprus ;' that is, Venus, of whose worship that island was a 
principal seat. She had sprung, according to mythology, from the 
foam of the sea, and was believed to have the power oT granting a 
favourable passage over her native element. — 2. Fratres Hele?iaei 
Castor and Pollux, the Ai6aKovpoi. To their benevolent care deli- 
▼erance in storms was ascribed, and the ancients recognised their 
protecting presence in those electric flashes which are fre(^uently 
seen about the tops of masts after a storm. This phenomenon is 
sometimes called St. Elm's fire ; properly, St. Helena*s fire. On 
account of their guardian care of sailors, the Dioscuri were placed 
amonff the stars ; the constellation of the Twins being frequently 
callea Castor and Pollux. Compare Carm. i. 12, 27. — 3. Ventorum 
pater, Aeolus, ffod of the winds. He resided on one of ihe Lipari 
islands (which irom him were called Aeolian), and kept the wmds 
shut up in a cave (bence in the nezt line obttrictis), letting out only 
tbose whom he pleased. — 4. lapyx, the north-west by west wind, 
favourable for snips sailine to Greece. Aliis^eeteris, scil» ventis. 
— 5. Tibi creditum, * who has been intrusted to thee.* — 8. Animae 

wood, and covered with triple orasB. — 12. Ptaecipitem Africum^ 


Decertantem Aquilonibus, 
Nec tristes Hyadas, nec rabiem Noti, 
Quo non arbiter Hadriae 15 

Major, tollere geu ponere vult freta. 

Quem Mortis timuit gradum, 
Qui siccis oculis monstra natantia 
Qui yidit mare turgidum et 
Infames scopulos Acroceraunia ? 20 

Nequicquam deus abscidit 
Prudens Oceano disHOciabili 
Terras, si tamen impiae 
Non tangenda rates transiliunt vada. 

Audax omnia perpeti 25 

Gens humana ruit per vetitum nefas. 
Audax lapeti genus 
Ignem fraude mala gentibus intulit : 

Post ignem aetheria domo 
Subductum macies et nova febrium 30 

Terris incubuit cohors, 
Semotique prius tarda necessitas 

Leti corripuit gradum. 
Expertus vacuum Daedalus a^ra 

* Africus (the south-west by west wind), who rushes fiercely and sud^ 
denly across the deep.' Compare Carm. i. 1, 15. — 13. AquUonibus, 
the dative used poetically for cum Aquilonihus. — 14. Hyadas, stars 
in the forehead of Taurus. The rising and setting of the Hyades 
were believed by theancients to be always accompaniedby much rain : 
hence the name, from the Greek ^tiv, pluere, and the epithet here 
given to ihem, tristes. — 15, Quot * than which,' or better perhaps, 
employing the personification, * than whom,' is to be connected with 
major (est.) Hadria, * the Adriatic Sea.' — 16. In prose it would be 
sive tollere sive ponere { = componeret * to calm*) vult. — 17. Gradumt 

* step, approach.' Death is m poetry treated as a god. — 18. Siccis 
oculis ; that is, without tears : monstrat the sea-monsters, of ^hich 
the mythologists spoke. — 20. Acroceraunia, a promontory of Epirus, 
dangerous and sadly celebrated iinfamis) on account of its clifis. — 
24. I^on tangenda vada, * the waters, which, according to the ap- 
pointment of the gods, were not to be touched.* — 25. Audax per- 
peti ; the infinitive depends upon audaxy a Greek construction. — 
27. laneti genus = lapetiflius ; namely, Prometheus, who secretly 
stole nre trom the gods, and brought it down to men {gentibus.) 
— 29. Aetheria domo subductum, * stoien from the ethereal house ;' 
namely, heaven. — 31. Cokors, * troop,* incubuit, * encaraped.* — 
32. Semoti, ' distant, far removed ;' because, in the earliest ages 
of the world, all men were believed to have lived to a great 
age: corripuit gradum, 'quickened its pace.' — 34. Expertus, scU. 
est. The story of Daediilus, a Cretan artist who made wings, 


Pennis non homini datis. 35 

Perrapil Acheronta Herculeus labor. 

Nil mortalibus arduum est : 
Coelum ipsum petimus stultitia, neque 
Per nostrum patimur scelus 
Iracunda Jovem ponere fulmina. 40 

and with his son Icarus flew over the sea, is well known. — 36. Her- 
culetiB labor. One of the twelve tasks imposed on Hercules by 
Kurystheus, was to bring up Cerberus from the lower world. Here, 
therefore, Hereuleu» lalmr is * a labour of Hercules.' The last syl- 
lable of perrujtit in this line is made iong by the ictHs. — 38. StuU 
titia, an ablarive of cause, *in or from our folly.* — 40. An allusion 
to the belief that Jupiter killed several individuals, at whose conduct 
fae was indignant (hence iracunda fulmina)^ by lightning. 



An ezhortation to enjoy life merrily, since death is spcedily and 
surely impending. L. Sestius, constd suffeetua in the year 23 
B. c, was an intimate friend of Horace from the time when they 
served together against the triumvirs, in the republican army of 
Brutus and Cassius. 

SoLViTUR acris hiems grata vice veris et Favoni, 
Trahuntque siccas machinae carinas, 
Ac neque jam stabulis gaudet pecus aut arator igni, 
Nec prata canis albicant pruinis. 

Jam Cytherea choros ducit Venus imminente Luna, 6 
Junctaeque Nymphis Gratiae decentes 
Altemo terram quatiunt pede, dum graves Cyclopum 
Vulcanus ardens urit officinas. 

2. Machinae trahunt siccas carinas ; that is, naves : a part being 
poetically put for the whole. The ships of the ancients were in the 
beginning of winter drawn up on the beach, high and dry, and had 
of course tp be taken down to the sea in spring by means of ma- 
chines; that is, levers and rollers. — 4. Canusi not *gray,' but 
* white.' — 5. Cifthereay an epithet given to Venus, from the island 
of Cythera, south of Laconia, which was one of the places where 
she was chiefly worshipped : imminente Luna, whilst the moon ap- 

Sears over them, and looks smilingly down upon their sports. — 6. 
)ecente»=pulchrae; altemo terram quatiunt pede ; that is, they 
keep time in their dancing. — 8. In the spring the Cyclopes, 
under the superintendence oT Vulcan, forge in Aetna the thunder- 
bolts which Jupiter darts upon the earth durins the summer. Vul- 
can, the god of fire, is here treated as fire itsell, being called ardana. 



Nunc decet aut viridi nitidum caput impedire myrto, 
Aut flore, terrae quem ferunt solutae ; 
Nunc et in umbrosis Fauno decet immolare lucis, « 

Seu poscat agna sive malit haedo. 

Pallida mors aequo pulsat pede pauperum tabemas 
Regumque turres. O beate Sesti, 
Vitae summa brevis spem nos vetat inchoare longam. 
Jam te premet nox, fabulaeque manes, 

£t domus exihs Plutonia. Quo simul mearis, 
Nec regna vini sortiere tahs, 
Nec tenerum Lycidan mirabere, quo calet juventus 
Nunc omnis et mox virgines tepebunt. 




and said urere. — 9. Nitidumy 'shiaing/ firom the ointment which 
was used for the head. As to aoluiae^ in line 10, compare line 1. 
— 11. Faunua^ the god of shepherds ana peasants. These in the 

beginn' " * * ' " 


ablatives < . 

we may say either mmoZare hoatiam or hostia^ * with a victim.* — IT. 
Aequo pede : in prose it would have been simply aequej * equally.* 
— 14. Palaces are called turresj on account of their height. Beate, 
* happy ;* that is, rich, and therefore happv. — 16. Fabulae manes : 
the manes, spirits of the dead, are considered by Horace, because 
they have no bodies, to be a mere sound or name, and ngthing real. 
He therefore gives them fabulae (' shadowy beings') as an apposi- 
tion. — 17. Quo=in quam domum, * to which.* — 18. Talis, ablative 
of talus ; originally, * the ankle ;' here and frequently * a die' for 
gaming. The Romans, at their drinking-bouts, had a president, 
who was called king (hence resna vini.) He who made the highest 
throw with dice obtained the honour, the matter being thus left to 
a kind of lot (hence sortiere.) 

Coin of Sestius. 



Ths poet alleges inabilitj as his ezcuse fbr not celebrating the 
deeds of Augustus and M. Agrippa in heroic verse: he can only 
write songs. This ode was written about the year 27 B. c. 

ScRiBERis Vario fortis et hostium 

Victor, JVlaeonii carminis aiiti, / 

Quam rera cunque ferox navibus aut eqois . ^^ it ^ •/ > ' ' 
Miles te duce gesserit. __ /i^'^'" ^-^» 

Nos, Agrippa, neque ha^ dicere, necgfaxBta 5 
Pelidae stomachum cederejnescii, 
Nec cursus duplicis per mare Ulixei, 
Nec saevam Pelopis domun 
^ Conamur, tenues g£a&di/, dum pudor 

Imbellisque lyrae musa potens vetat 10 

Laudes egregii Caesaris et tuas 
Cuipa deterere ingeni. 

Quis Martem tunica tectum adamantina 

1. Scriberis must, on account of the verse, be taken as the future, 

• thou shalt be celebrated by Varius.' L. Varius was an epic and 
dramatic poet, and a friend and patron of Horace. Of his poems, 
among which was a panegyric {Panegyricus) on Augustus, only a 
few lines have come down to us. — 2. Maeonii carminiB aliti, ' a bird 
of Maeonian song.* * Maeonian* is equivalent to • Homeric,* Mae- 
onia being the ancient name of Lydia, in which is situated Smyrna, 
the alleged birth-place of Homer. A Maeonian bird or Maeonian 
swan is therefore an epic poet. — 3. Quam rem cuTique = quamcunque 
rem: such a separation is not unusual, even in prose. Navibus aut 
equis, 'by sea or by land.' — 4. MileSt collectively for militett *lhe 
Roman soldiers.' — 6. Pelidae stomachumy * the wrath (fiijvjv) of Achil- 
les, the son of Feleus, who did not know how to yield' \cedere nescii, 
cedere being here used poetically for cedendi, see Gram. ^ 396, note 
3.) Achilles did not know how to yield to Agamemnon. The 
anger of Achilles is the subject of Homer's Iliad. — 7. Duplicis, 

* crafty :' Ulixei, genitive of the form Ulixeus. The wanderings of 
Ulysses form the subject of Homer's Odysgey.^S. Saevam Pelapis 
domum, * the horrible deeds of the sons of Pelops :' namely, Atreus 
and Thyestes. The murder of Agamemnon, grandson of Peleus, 
by his wife Clytaemnestra, and that of Clytacmnestra by her son 
Orestes, were favourite subjects with the tragic poets. — 9. Tenues 
grandia, the reason why he can write neither epic poems nor tra- 
gedies : his powers are too weak for such lofty subjects. — 10. Mu9a 
potens imhellis lyrae, *my muse, my poetical talent, which has 
power only over the unwarlike lyre.' — \2. Deterere, • to rub off;' 


Digne scripserit, aut pulvere Troico 

Nigrum Merionen, aut ope Palladis 16 

Tydiden superis parem i 

Nos convivia, nos proelia virginum 
Sectis in juvenes unguibus acrium 
Cantamus, vacui sive quid urimur, 
Non praeter solitum leves. 20 

clad/ for adamas is anything impenetrable. — 15. Meriones was one 
of the heroea of the Trojan war. He was the charioteer of Idome- 
neus of Crete. — 16. Tydiden, <the son of Tydeus;' namely, Diome- 
des, who also, like Meriones, fought against Trov, and, by the help 
of Athena, wounded Ares and Aphrodite in battle. — 18. Sectis un- 
guibus: neatly-cut nails were a sign of breedine and elegance, for 
the Romans devoted particular attention to tois department of 
personal adornment. — 19. Vacui sive quid urimur; that is, sive non 
amamus sive amamus. The import of the sentence is this: roy 
poetry is indeed of a light, but yet not of a licentious nature. 

L. MoNATiUB Plancus, consul in 42 b. c, was one of the most dis- 
tinguished statesmen of his time, but unstable in his political 
opinions; for he was in succession a fbllower. of the dictator 
Caesar, an adherent of the senatorial party, and a partisan of 
Antony, whom he desertcd shortly before the battle of Actium to 
join Octavianus. His political talents, however, and his activity, 
rendered his services uecessary even to those who did not and 
could trust him. Horace ezhorts him to scek recreation from 
the cares and annoyances of political life in the study and en. 
joyment of nature, and in conviviality. This ode was written 
shortly afler the battle of Actium, when Plancus already belong. 
ed to the party of Octavianus. 

Laudabunt alii claram Rhodon, aut Mitylenen, 
Aut Epheson, bimarisve Corinlhi 

1. Alii corresponds to sunt quibus in line 5, and to plurimus =plu' 
rimi in line 8. Rhodes, a city on the island of that name, celebrated 
for its commerce and for the cultivation of the arts and sciences : 
Mitylene, a town on the island of Lesbos, much praised for the 
beauty of its situation and the tasteful architecture of its houses: 
the other places mentioned — Ephesus, Corinth, Thebes, Delphi, 
and the Vale of Tempe — were also admired for their natural 
beauties ; for the Roman poets looked for iine scenes as subjects 
of description in their works, in Greece and Greek Asia Mmor, 
just as we do in Italy; and naturally, too, their refinement and 
poetry being of Greek origin, as ours are of classical, particularly 
Komao. — 2. Bimarisve Corinthi moenia, Corinth is called * two 


Moenia, vel Baccho Thebas Tel ApoUine Delphos 
Insignes, aut Thessala Tempe ', 

Sant qaibus unnm opus est intactae Palladis nrbem 5 
Carmine perpetno celebrare et 
Undiqne decerptam fronti praeponere oliram ; 
Plurimu8_in Junonis honorem 

Aptum dicet equis Argos ditesque Mycenas. 
Me neque tam patiens Lacedaemon 10 

Nec tam Larissae percussit campus opimae, 
Quam domus Albuneae resonantis 

£t praeceps Anio ac Tibumi luous et uda 
Mobilibus pomaria rivis. 

Albns ut obscuro deterget nubila coelo 16 

Saepe Notus, neque parturit imbres 

Perpetuos, sic tu sapiens iinire memento 

6ea'd,' becaose, being situated on the isthmus, it ia near both the 
Corinthian and Saronic guifs. The citadel, called Acrocorinthusi 
was particularly admiredfor its strength (hence moenia.) The city 
had been rebuilt very shortly before this time, according to a plan 
of Caesar. — 5. Intactae, 'virgin,' the ordinary epithet of Athena, 
the protdcting divinity of Athens. — 6. Carmine perpettio^ Mn one 
contmnous poem ;' that is, a poem which celebrates the heroic deeds 
of the Athenians from the origin of the city in the mythical times 
downwards. — 7. Olivam^ properly, fhe olive-tree and its fruit ; af- 
terwards, a crown made of olive-twigs ; and here, metaphorically, 
poems which relate the traditions and nistory of Athens, and which 
bring their authors crowns of honour. Consequently, * to place a 
crown of olive-twigSi plucked from all quarters, upon their brow,' 
means ' to gain glory and fame by poems reiating the history of 
Athens, and adomed with iilnstrative iroagery drawn from all 
sources.' — 9. Argos, situated in a plain of Peloponnesus : its breed 
of horsee, and the temple of Juno ('Hpa7ov) in its neighbourhood, 
are celebrated by Homer. .Mvcenae, the royal seat of the Felopidae, 
a very ancient town, which did not exist in historic times, is also 
praised by him for its riches. — 10. Patiens Lacedaemon : the prin- 
cipal virtue of the Spartans was patientiat the patient endurance of 
bodily pains. — 11. Larissae opimae : Larissa, a town in Thessaly, 
faraed for the fertility of the country around it. Percu$tit, ' has 
filled with love.' — 12. Domus Alhuneae^ * the grotto of Albunea,' the 
nymph of a small stream near Tibur (the modern Tivoli), a town on 
the Anio (now Teverone.) The Anio, which was far-famed for its 
falls,.and is hence called in the next line praeeeps, winds round the 
greater part of Tibur, and numerous canals go off from it into the 
orchards of the infaabitants (hence, in line 14, pomaria uda rivia mo- 
hilibus.) Tibumus, the son or erandson of Amphiaraus, was one 
of the heroes whom tradition made the founders of Tibur. A grove 
near the city was sacred to hini. — 15. Transition to the proper sub- 
ject of the ode. The connection of the thoughts is as follows : — ;• I, 
as a poet, find my chief gratification in contemplating tbe beautifiii 
seenery in the neighbourhood- of Tibur, and in occasionally com- 
poaing light, easy poems, refraining from great efforts, which wouid 


Tristitiam vitaeqae labores 

MoUi, Plance, mero, seu te fulgentia signis 

Castra tenent eeu densa tenebit 20 

Tiburis umbra tui. Teucer Salamina patremque 
Quum fugeret, tamen uda Lyaeo 
Terapora populea fertur vinxisse corona, 
Sic tristes anatus amicos : 

* Quo nos cunque feret melior fortuna parente. 25 
Ibimus, o socii comitesque. 

Nil desperandum Teucro duce et auspice Teucro ; 
Certus enim promisit Apollo, * 

Ambiguam tellure nova Salamina futuram. 
O fortes pejoraque passi 30 

probably bring me nothing but annoyanfie and vexation. Yoa, a 
statesman, must enter more seriousiy inio the afTairs of life than I 
do ; still you need the relaxation of convivial pleasures ; and that 
these are not inconsistent with activity in business, I can sbow by 
the case of Teucer' (line 21, onwards.) The south wind is cailed 
albu8f because it sometimes makes the sky bright and clear, tbough 
commonly bringing rain and storms. For deter^el we might also 
have had detereit. See Zumpt, % 177. — 18. Tristitiamt ' the stern 
seriousness of life,' opposed to cheerfulness and mirth. Hence aiso 
in the next line, moUi mero, *wine which softens ihe heart.' — 20. 
Castra fuleentia signis. In Homan camps the standards of the 
legions and coborts, which consisted of silver eagles, and even the 
staves of which were richly adorned with metal, were stuck inlo 
the ground in front of the generai's tent. — 21. Tiburis e«t, equiva- 
lent to Tiburtini tui, the name of the town being put for the villa 
near it. Teucer : Telamon, king of Salamis, when he sent away 
his two sons, Ajax and Teucer, to the Trojan war, had commanded 
them to return together, because hc would not receive the one with- 
out the other. Accordingly, when Ajax Jiilled himaelf from vexa- 
tion at being conauered by Ulysses in the contest for the arms of 
Achilles, Teucer did not dare to return home, but sailed to Cypras, 
and thcre founded another Salamis. — 22. Lyaeo, a name oi Bac- 
chus, very appropriate here, for it means * the deliverer from care ;' 
tempora uda Lyaeo^ * his temples moist with wine.' — 25. Quocunque^ 
divided as in i. 6, 3. Fortuna melior parente^ * Fortune, kinder than 
my father,' who exiles me, — 27. Auspice Teucro. Horace here 
puts into the mouth of the Greek hero an expression derived from 
a Roman usage. A Roman commander-in-chief had the au- 
tjjtcia ; that is, the right of consulting the gods by tbe flight of 
birds, for the purpose of ascertaining whether any proposed 
course of proceeding met with their approval. He was therefore 
not merely the duxt but also the auapex of his army. — 28. Certus 
Apollo. ApoIIo was the god of prophecy ; and consequently he 
and his oracles were •infallible, truih-telling.' — 2ft. Amhiguam, 
*a second,' so that it would be doubtful which was Saiamis, 
properly so called, or so that when any one spoke of Salamia merely, 
without any diatinctive epithet, his hearera would be uncertain 


Mecum Baepe viri, nunc vino pellite curas; 
Cras ingens iterabimus aequor.' 

to which he alluded.'— 32. Iterdbimus = iterum navtgabimus or iCe- 
rum peragrabimus. 



DESCRtpnoN of a youth ealled Sybarig, wbo, from love to Lydia,ha8 
become effeminate, and has given up all serious and manly em- 

Ltdia, dic, per omnes ' 

Te deos oro, Sybarin cur properes amando 

Perdere ; cur aprioum 

Oderit campum, patiens pulveris atque solis ? 

Cur neque militaris 5 

Inter aequales equitat, Gallica nec lupatis 
Temperat ora frenis ? 
Cur timet fiavum Tiberim tangere ? Cur olivum 

3. Apricum camjmm^ * the sunny plain ;' namely, the Campus Mar- 
tius, where the young men used to amuse and train themselves by 
warlike exercises of all kinds — riding, spear-throwing, swimming 
in the Tiber, which flowed past the field, and ihe iike. — 4. Patiens 
pulverin atque iolia, * he who could bear both dust and sun.' MUi' 
tarist in the next line, ' he who has come to an age when he should 
serve as a soldier, and who has both strength and courage enouffh 
to be one.' — 6. Gallica ora^ *the mouths of Gallic horses.' The 
horses of Gaul were highly esteemed as war steeds, and were 
brought into Italy in great numbers. They were governed {tempe- 
rare) byfrena lupata ; sometimes alsO called simply lupus, a briale, 
the bit of which was jagged, so as to make it more severe. — 8. Fla- 
vum Tiberim, Bathing in the river was alwa^s considered as a 
means of strengthening the constitution, and was especially recom- 
mended in the time of the emperors, when the immoderate use of 
hot baths was doing much to weaken the bodily vigour and mental 
energy of the Romans. As to the epithet/a»u«, see i. 2, 13. Cur 
olivum. The poet comes now lo the exercises of the palaestraf 
which were of Greek origin, but were at this time practised with 
great spirit by the Roman youth. They consisted, as is here men- 
tioned, in wrestling, and throwing the spear and the discus — a plate 
of metal very iike our modern • quoit.' Before wrestling, the intend- 
ing combatants used to rub their bodies over with ojl, in order to 
render themselves more supple, and ihus able more easily to elude the 
grasp of their opponents. Here, therefore, olivum vitare means *to 


Sangulne viperino 
Cautius vitat; neque jam livida gestat armis 10 

Brachia, saepe disco, 
Saepe trans finem jaculo nobilis expeditol 

Quid latet, ut marinae 
Filium dicunt Thetidis sub lacrimosa Trojae 
Funera, ne virilis 16 

Cultus in caedera et Lycias proriperet catervas ? 

shun a wrestling boiit.' — ^9. Sanguine viperino, for quam sanguinem 
viperinum. The blood oi snakes was believed to be a mo8t deadly 
poison. — 10. Gestat brachia livida armis. Gegtat, used poetically for 
kabet: arma here aro thediscus hndjaculum mentioned immediately 
afterwards. — 12. Trans jinem exp^itoj ' thrown quite beyond the 
point attained by any of ihe other players.' Expedito belongs to 
disco as well as to jaculo. Nohilis, * well-known, famed,' is to be 
understood, like patiejis in line 4, as ' who once was, and still might 
be.' — 14. Filium Tlietidis marinae, * the son of the sea-goddess The- 
tis: namely, Achilles. When the Trojan war broke out, his mother, 
knowing that he would lose his life m it, took him to Lycomedes, 
king of Scyros, where, disguised in female attire, he was brought 
up with the king'8 daughters. Ulysses discovered him by a strata- 
gem, and induced him to join the Grecian host. Sub funera. As 
to sub, used of time, see Zumpt, $ 319. — 16. Lycias catervas. The 
Lycians, under the command of Glaucus and Sarpedon, were allies 
of the Trojans. Lycias, therefore, is here used as = Trojanas, 


An exhortation to enjoy life so long as youth and circumstatnoes 
permit, leaving the management of the world to the gods. Thali- 
archus, the name given by Horace to the friend to whom this ode 
is addressed, is fictitious, and means according to its Greek de- 
rivation, magister convivii. The poem is in imitation of an ode 
by the Greek lyrist Alcaeus, part of which is extant. Horace, 
however, makes his scene the country near Rome. Mount So- 
racte, now called Monte Tresto or Monte di S. Silvestro, was 
distinctly visible from the city, being situated about twenty-fbur 
Roman miles from it,in the district of the ancient city of Falerii. 

ViDES ut alta stet nive candidum 
Soracte, nec jam sustineant onus 

1. Vides, ut, *Do8t thou see how?' &c. little different from vides 


Silvae laborantes; geluque , 
Flumina constilerint acuto ? 

Dissolve frigus ligna super foco 5 

Large reponens atque benignius 
Deprome xiuadrimum Sabina, 
Thaliarche, liierum diota. 

Permitte divis cetera, qui simu 
Stravere ventos aequore fervido 10 

Deproeliantes, nec cupressi 
Nec veteres agitantur orni. 

Quid sit futurum cras, fuge quaerere et 
Quem Fors dierum cunque dabit, lucro 
Appone^ nec duices amores 15 

Sperne puer neque tu choreas, 
^ Donec virenti canities abest 
Morosa. Nunc et campus et areae 
Lenesque sub noctem susurri 
Composita repetantur hora, 20 

Soracte atans f — ^3. Laborantes. The trees trcinble and bend under 
their burden of snow. — 4. ConetUerint acuto. 'Sharp, keen/ is a 
Btandins epithet for cold. Frost contracts ; hence constiterint ; and 
hence also, in the foliowing iine, dissolve, as the opposite of consti- 
terint. — 5. Super foco, a poetical construction, for which a prose 
writer would nave said twper focum. Zumpt, % 320. — 7. Dmrome 
guadrimum Sabina — merum dwtn^ * take Uberally from the Sabine 
jar wine which is four years old.' Viota was a two-handed jar 
{jimrov) from which the goblets were filled. It is cailed Sabine, be- 
cause the wine it contained was Sabine, a bad sort : hence in Carm. 
i. 20, 1, the poet styles it vile Sabinum. Horace knows, however, 
that his friend'8 wme has been improved by keeping, since it is 
quadrimum, ' of the vintage of four years ago.' In Epode 2, 47, the 
peasant is said to drink wine of the same year; and in Carm. i. 19, 
J5, Horace, in making a libation to Venus, is content with wine two 
years old (bimum.) — 9. Simul^simul ac, *as soon as.* — 10. Stravere 
l = gedarunt) ventos. Stemere is properly used in reference to the 
waves of the sea, 'to smooth:' hence, poetically, also of the winds, 
which raise the billows. — 13. Fuge guaerere, used poetically for noli 
quaerere, as in ii. 4, 22. — 14. Fors = Fortuna. Quemcunque, divided 
as in 6, 3, and 7, 25. — iwcro appone, *consider as gam,' gain to 
which you have properly no claim, but which is simply and entirely 
a gift of Fortune. — 16. Tu is inserted merely to make up the line, 
and is consequently not to be translated. — 17. Virenti=florenti, said 
of one in the vigour of youth or early manhood. — 18. The poet speaks 
of three pleasures pursued by the Koman youth: first, tne Camjms, 
scil. Martius, the exercises of which have been touched upon iii the 
previous ode ; secondly, areae, open squares, where the yonng people 
used lo meet and saunter and gossip ; and lastly, intercourse with 
the fair sex. — ^20. Composita hora, •at an hour agreed upon.' BepC' 
tantur, let these flifferent modes of amusement * be practised repeat- 


Nunc et latentis proditor intimo 

Gratus pnellae risus ab angulo 

Pignusque dereptum iacertis 

Aut digito male pertinaci. 

edly, often.' — 21-24. Description of a merry game of ' hide-and-seek.' 
The sentence consbts of two parts, corresponding to the two parts 
of the^game, and connected by et — que. The girl hides, but betraya 
herself by laughing. When the seeker discovers her, he takes from 
her a forfeit or pledge, either a bracelet (pignus dereptum lacertis),. 
or a ring (pi^nus dereptum digito), which she teasingly refuses to 
give (hence digito male pertinaci) Construe thus : nunc et gratu* 
risus, proditor ah intimo angulo puellae latentis: that is, qui prodit 
puellam latentem. To risus pignusque, suppLy uom line 20 repttan" 
tur, or Bome verb of simiiar meaning. 



A HTMN to Mercury. This, like the preceding ode, ia in imitation 
of a Greek poem by Alcaeus. 

Mercuri, facunde nepos Atlantis, 
Qui feros cultus hominum recentum 
Voce formasti catus et decorae 
More palaestrae, 

Te canam magni Jovis et deorum 6 

Nuncium curvaeque lyrae {Mirentem, 
Callidum, quidquid placuitj jocoso 
Condere furto. 

1. Nepos Atlantis. Maia, the mother of Mercury by Jupiter, was 
a daughter of Atlas. — 2. Mercury's first merit. He has given man 
ianguage and eloquence. Feros cultus, *wild way of life:' the plu- 
ral is poetic. Jiecentum, ' newiy created.' — 3. Catus, an old Sabine 
word, seldom used in later times, equivalent to prudens, sapiens.-^ 
4. More palaestrae. Mercury presided over wrestling-schoois, and 
over physical training generally. The palaestra is calTed decora, be- 
cause it gives man a graceful carriage. The young Romans exer* 
cised themselves in the palaestra with the same view as young 
people now practise dancing ; namely, to give ease and eiegance to 
their motions. — 5-6. Mercury is described as the messenger of 
the gods, and the inventor of the lyre. Et deorum; thal is, et 
ceterorum deorum^ a mode of speaking pretty common both in 
Greek and Latin. Curvae lyrae: Mercury, as the tradition ran, 
formed the lyre out of the crooked ehell of a tortoise, by fitting 
stringa to it. — 7. Mercury wa» the god also of gain made by 
craft and cunning. Callidum condere, a Greek construction for 


Te, boves olim nisi reddidisses 
Per dolum amotas, pueram minaci 10 

Voce dum terret, viduus pharetra 
Risit Apollo. 

Quin et Atridas duce te superbos 
Ilio dives Priamus relicto 

Thessalosque ignes et iniqua Trojae 15 

Castra fefellit. 

Tu pias laetis animas reponis 
Sedibus virgaque levem coerces 
Aurea turbam, superis deorum 
Gratus et imis. 


callidum condendi. Placuit is to be taken in its proper sense, 
* whatever has pleased him, taken his {sincy^ =quidauid adamavit. 
— 9. Two instances of Mercury^s cunning are citea. The tradi- 
tion in reference to the former of these is, that on the very day on 
which he was born he stole hfty onen from Apollo ; and, at the 
moment when thc god was uttermg dire threats against him, con- 
trived to take away Tiis quiver fromhis shoulder. Upon discovering 
this second theft, ApoUo was forced to laugh at the dexterity of the 
little fellow. The construction is as follows : — Olim Apollo, dum 
te puerum terret minaci vocCf nisi reddidisses boves per dolum amotaSj 
risit viduus ( = spoliatuSt or cum privatus esset) pharetra.'—lZ. The 
second instance of Mercury's craft. By the command of Jupiter 
he conducted Priam, king of Troy, who wished to redeem from 
Achilles the body of his son Hector, safely through the midst of 
the Grecian camp, unobserved by the two Atridae — Agamemnon 
and Menelaus. — 15. Thessalos ignes^ * the watch-fires of the Thes- 
saiians ;' to which nation belonged especially the Myrmidones, the 
. companions of Achilles. Ini^ua Trojae = inimica Trojanis. — 17. 
Mercury*s last duty. Wilh his golden rod — a present from Apollo 
— he guides the souls of the dead to the lower world. Laetis sedi- 
bus, *the place of the blessed,' Elysium. — 18. Levem ; that is, 
bodiless — the shades. — 20. Imis = inferis ; namely, Pluto and 



This poem is addressed to a female, whom Horace calls by the fic- 
titious name of Leuconoe. She was addicted to the study of 
astrology, by means of which she endeavoured to ascertain the 
duration of her own life, and of the lives of her friends and 
enemies. The author in this poem attempts to dissuade her 
from the practice of the art ; an art which in his time was in 
great repute, but was aflerwards prohibited under severe penal- 

Tu ne quaesieris (scire nefas), qaem mihi, quem tibi 
Finem di dederint, Leuconoe, neo Babylonios 
Tentaris numeros. Ut melius, quidquid erit, pati ! 
Seu plure^ hiemes seu tribuit Jupiter ultimara, 

Quae nunc opposilis debilitat pumicibus mare 5 

Tyrrhenum, sapias, vina liques et spatio brevi 
Spem longam reseces. Dum loquimur, fugerit invida 
Aetas : carpe diem, quam minimum credula postero. 

1. Ne quaesieris,=s,noU quaerere, a negative coramand. Gntm. 
^ 369. Scire nefas, scil est, ' to know it is a crime against heaven ;* 
the gods having thought it right to keep the knowledge from man. 
This is implied in n^as, — 2. Bahylonios — numeros, * the calcula- 
tions of the Babylonians ;' tbat is, of the Chaldeans, who came 
from Babylon, and practised astrology. — 3. Ut melius,=quanto 
melius est, — 4. Ultimam, supply JiaTic. — 5. Pumicibus, the cfiffs on 
which the waves beat, and which tbey are said debilitare, The 
word properlv means the sarae as its English derivative, * puraice- 
stone ;' and the name is bere applied to rocks cracked and crumbling 
from the action of the water, and thus resembling pumice. — 6. 
Vina liques. The Romans, before drinking wine, used to filter it 
throu^h a linen cloth, and thus free it frora irapurities. The poet's 
meanmg here is simply, that Leuconoe sbould give. herself up to 
pieasure and wine. . Spatio hrevi spem longam reseces, ' Cut off (take 
away) the long hope frora the short space of life.' Spatio brevt is, 
therefore, the dative. — 7. Dum loquimur, *whilst we are talking,' 
whilst I am giving you this admonition. Invida aetas ; time is 
called envious, because it curtails our pleasures. — 8. Carpe diem. 
Carpere here expresses activity in enjoying, ' seize, grasp, raake the 
most of this day ;' enjoy thyself so long as life and opportunity 
permit. * 

OAaMlNUM UB. I. 43 



A SUBLIME eulogium on Auguetus, written about the year 24 b. c, 
when Augustus was in undisputed possession of the government, 
ahd had just added another prop to his power by uniting in 
inarriage his daughter Jalia to his nephcw M. MarccUus. The 
poet flatters him afler a truly sublime fashion ; mentioning iirst 
the gods, then the heroes of Roman history, concluding with a 
prayer to Jupiter for prosperity and a happy reign to the em- 

QuEM yirum aut heroa lyra vel acri 
Tibia sumis celebrare, Clio 1 
Quem deum ? Cujus recinet jocosa 
Nomen imago 

Aut in umbrosis Heliconis oris, 5 

Aut super Pindo gelidove in Haemo 
Unde vocalem temere insecutae 
Orphea silvae 

Arte materna rapidos morantem 
Fluminum lapsus celeresque ventos, 10 

Blandum et auritas fidibus canoris 
Ducere quercus. 

Qaid prius dicam solitis parentis 

1. Acri tibiaj * the shrill-sounding flute/ a standing epithet for this 
instrument. — 2. Sumis celebrarey Clio^ a poetical mode of expression, 
taken from the Greek... In prose it would be sumi» cel^randum, 
' doBt thou take up or choose to celebrate/ Clio was tbe muse of 
history, and is purposely named here. The poet intends to wriie a 
panegyric on a nistorical personage.~3. Jocoso — imago; namely, the 
echo, for which the Romans had no particuiar name, and which they 
therefore frequently called imago voci^. It is called jocoaa, because 
it mocks the traveller, and plays with him. — 5, 6. These three 
mountains, Helicon in Boeotia, Findus in Thessaly, and Haemus 
in Thrace, were tbe chief seats of the muses. Thrace was also the 
native country of the most ancient Greek poets, particularly, Or#. 
pheus; hence, in line 7, unde, &c. — 7. Vocalemj used in a parti- 
cipial sense, =canentem» Temere, ,* involuntarily, without knowing 
why.' To insecutae supply sunt. — 9. il/aterna, * of his mother y 
namely, the muse Calliope. — 11. Blandum — ducere, 'able by coax- 
ing and delighting to draw after him.' Auritast said properly of 
one who has long or large ears, here simply 'attentive, listenmg.' 
— 13. Solitis parenti» laudibus; that is, quam solitas laudes parentis 
deorum et Junninum; namely, Jupiter, with whose praiaes the ancient 


Laudibus, qui res hoininum ac deorum, 

Qui mare ac terras variisque mundum 15 

Temperat horis ; 

Unde nil majus generatur ipso, 
Nec viget quidquam simile aut secundum : 
Proximos illi tamen occupavit 
Pallas honores, 20 

Proeliis audax. Neque te silebo, 
Liber, et saevis inimica virgo 
Beluis, nec te, metuende certa 
Phoebe sagitta. 
' ^ Dicam e"t Alciden puerosque Ledae, 25 

Hunc equis, illum superare pugnis 
Nobilem ; quorum simul alba nautis 
Stella refulsit, 

Defluit saxis agitatus humor, 
Concidunt venti fugiuntque nubes, 30 

Et minax, quod sic voiuere, ponto 
^ , Unda recumbit. 

Romulum post hos prius an quietum 

poets used to begin their productions. — 15. Variis — horia. Hora is 
nere, in accordance with ita original signification in Greek, ' a sea- 
son:' mufidum is therefore = coeZttm. — 17. TJnde; that is, ex quo; 
namely, Jove. This god, according to the ideas of the ancients, 
was the creator of all, and was himBelf optimus maximus, the great- 
est and best being in the universe ; none of his creatures equallinff 
or resembling him. — 18. Seeundum. The Latins have a well-markea 
distinction between secundus and vroximus. Secundus is one who 
etands next to another, and but little below him ; whereas proximus 
is one who is next indeed, but, it may be, at a very great distance, 
longo iniervallo. — 21. Proeliis audax. — A descriptive epithet of Pal- 
las or Minerva, the goddess of war. — 22. Virgo; namely, Diana, the 
goddessof thechase. — 23. Ceria — sagiiia, 'for ihy sure (surely-aimed) 
arrow.' ApoUo invented and used the bow. — 2b. Alciden, Hercules, 
grandson oi Alcaeus. Pueros Ledae, Castor and Pollux, the former 
of whom was distinguished as a horseman, bothfor the management 
of his steed and the styie in which he fought, and the latter as a 
pugilist. Pugnis, therefore, in line 26, is from pugnus, not pugfui. 
— 26. Superare — nobilemj a. poetical construction, ^illustrious be- 
cause he conquers,' or * from his victories.' — 27. Simul = simul at" 
^e, or ac, Alba, partly from its coiour, ' bright,' partly because 
its appearance is a sign that the vioience of the tempest is past. See 
i. 7, 15 i-albus Notus. As to the jconstellation of the Dioscuri, com- 
pare i. 3, 2.-29. Dejluit — humorj * the storm-driven water flows down 
from the rocks ;' that is, the water which, in spray, has been thrown 
far iip the cliff*8, flowa. down again into the eea. — 31. Quod sic 
voluere, * because they (the sons of Leda) have so willed ;' the waves 
obey their behest. PontOj the dative, poetically, for in pontum. — 
83. The poet comes now to the heroes of Roman history, among 


Pompili regnum memorem, an superbos 
Tarquini fasces, dubitOj an Catonis 95 

, Nobile letum, 

Regulom et Scauros animaeque roagnae 
Prodigum PauUum superante Poeno 
Gratus insigni referam Camoena 
Fabriciuraque. 40 

Hunc et incomptis Curium oapillis 
Utilem bello tulit et Camilium 

whpm he mentions first three of the kinffs — Romulus, Numa, and 
Tarquinius Superbus (for of him, not ofTarquinius Priscus, every 
Roman would think who read of the ' proud rule,' superbos fascea) 
— then the most distinguished raen in the republican times, without 
keeping to chronological order, however, in the enumeration. The 
construction is, dubito utrum Romulum^ an Pompilii regnum, an 
Tarquinii fasces memorem, an Catonis letum et Regulum et Scauros, 
&c. referam* — 35. Catonis nohile letum ; namely, of Cato Uti- 
censis, who, in the year 46 b.c., when Julius Caesar had conquered 
the Pompeian party in Africa, put an end to his own life at Utica, 
because ne was resolved not to live under the dominion of a single 
man. — 37. Regulum. M. Atilius Re^ulus, who was defeated and 
taken prisoner by the Carthaginians m the year 250 b.c, is cele- 
brated for the faithfulness wiih which he kep> a promise made to 
his enemiesr and for his devotion to his country's good. Compare 
iii. 5. Modern critics have cast doubt upon the truth of some pas- 
sages in his history. Scauros, — There was only one distinguished 
man of this name, M. Aemilius Scaurus, consul in 115 b. c. After 
holding in succession all the great ofBces of state, he was finally 
made princeps senatus. He was highly esteemed for his talenta 
and 8K.ill as a politician. — 38. Paullum ; namely, L. Aemilius 
Paullus, who was consul for the second time in 216 b. c, and one 
of the Roman commanders in the disastrous battle of Cannae. 
When he saw that the battle was lost, he refused to flee, but re- 
mained and died upon the field where so many others of the noblest 
Romans had breathed their last. He is here, therefore, called 
prodigus animae magnae (Gram. ^ 277, 5, note) ; Poeko superante, 
' Paullus, who lavisned forth, gave up, threw away his great soul, 
when the Carthagmians were conquering.' — 39. Insigni — Camoefta, 
* with a praise-giving muse.' — 40. Fabricium ; namely, C. Fabri- 
cius Luscinus, who fought with Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, and was 
equally distinguished by his valour and his integrity. — 41. Curium, 
M.' C5urius Dentatus, who subdued the Samnites in 290 b. c. 
Though he was so poor that he wrought with his hands for his daily 
bread, yet when the Samnites ofTered him presents, he, in the true 
spirit of the primitive Romans, rejected them. The epithet in- 
comptis-^capillis, * with his uncombed or shaggy hair,' is intended 
to be laudatory, as indicating that Curius was unacquainted with 
the arts of the toilet, and heedless of the customs of refined society. 
— 42. Camillum. M. Furius Camiilus, the conqueror of the Gauls, 
who had destroyed Rome. After iheir defeai he rebuilt the city. 


Saeva paupertas et avitus apto 
Cum lare fundus. 

Crescit, occulto velut arbor aevo, 45 

Fama Marcelli. Micat inter omnes 
Julium sidus, velut inter ignes 
- Luna minores. 

Qentis humanae pater atque custos, 
Orte Saturno, tibi cura magni 50 

Caesaris fatis data : tu secundo 
Caesajpe regnes. 

Ille seu ParthoR Latio imminentes 
Egerit justo domitos triumpho, 

Sive subjectos Orienlis orae 55 

Seras et Indos, 

Te minor latum reget aequus orbem ; 
Tu gravi curru quaties Olympum, 

— 43. Saeva = dura. Apto cum lare, * with a suitable house ;* that 
is, a house suitable for a poor man, who himself cultivated the 
small piece of ground that he inherited from his forefathers. — 45. 
Velut arbor occulio aevo^ * like a tree whose growth is not obsorved ;' 
that is, gradualiy. Marcellus was at this time in his seyenteenth 
year, and had just begun to gain honour by his conduct in oflficial 
posts. — 47. Julium sidus ; that is, Augustus: the force of the 
expression is, * Julius (C. JuHus Caesar OctavianuB Augustus) 
gleaming like a star.' The connection of the thoughts is, •the 
fame of Marcelius is growing gradually, but that of Augustus is 
alreadv most brilliant.' Ignes — minores = ttellas minores. — 50. 
Orte Saturno, *son of Saturn ;' namely, Jupiter. Compare line 
13. — 51. Tu secundo Caesare regnesj 'reign with Caesar next be- 
low thee.' In prose we should say, * let Caesar rule next to thee.' 

— 54. Egerit justo — triumpho. 1 he triumph over the Parthians, 
whose territory extended close to the Roman dominions (hence Latio 
imminentes)j is calied * just,' because they had before by stratagem 
conquered M. Crassus and M. Antonius, and almost annihiiaied 
their armies. This was the main cause why Augustus, from the 
very beginning of his rcign, meditated a campaign against the Par- 
thians. — 55. Subjectos Orientis orae =subjacentes, 'situated or 
living under the sky of the East:' ora here is *tract or quarter of 
heaven.' About tlie year 24 b. c, Augustus sent his lieutenant- 
general, Aelius Gallus, on an expedition into Arabia Felix. Its re- 
sults were very trifling ; in fact, it was a failure. — ^57. Te minor, * in- 
ferior to thee, next lo thee, under thee.' Aequus, * merciful and just.' 

— 58-60. The idea is this : 'as Augustus rules justly on earth, so do 
thou reigrn in heaven by thy thunder, which makes known thy power; 
and by ihy lightning, by which thou punishest such as offend thee.' 
Properly, the order should have been inverted : * as thou rulest in 
heaven, so may Augustus rule on earth.' — 58. Gravicurru. Accord- 
ing to tho descriptions of the ancient poets, what men call thunder is 
the noise of the wheels of Jupiter'8 heavy chariot, as he drivea 


Ta parum castis inimica mittes 

Fulmina lucis. * 60 

through^the heavens. — 59. Parum castis inimica — luds. Lightning 
often stnkes trees ; such trees, according to the superstitious notions 
of the ancients, as bave been defiled or profaned by some crime. For 
this reason, every object struck by lightning had to be purified by 
numerous religious ceremonies, and the wrath of Jupiter to be ap- 
peased by a sacrifice. ^ 


This ode, as Quintilian (Instit. Orat. viii. 6, 44) has observed, la 
allegorical. Under the figure of a ship, which, after being much 
shattered in prcvious storms, puts out into the wild sca again, 
the poet describes thc Roman state, which, aflcr having come 
through so many civil wars, seemed hkely to be again ^unged 
into great confusion, in consequence of the quarrel between Oc- 
tavianus and Antony in 32 b. c. The idea of representing a 
state under the figure of a ship is borrowed firom the Greek 
lyrists, who made much use of this metaphor. 

NAVis, referent in mare te novi 
Fluctusl Olquidagis'? Fortiter occupa 
Portum. Nonne vides, ut 
Nudum remigio latus, 

£t mahis celeri saueius Africo 5 

Antennaeque gemant, ac sine funibus 
Vix durare carinae 
Possint imperiosius 

Aequor ? Non tibi sunt integra lintea, 

1. Beferent, *shall new billows carry thee back V — 3. Nonne videt 
ut—gemant, *dost thou not perceive how they groan?' — 4. Nudum 
remigio latus. The author is thinking of a trireme, a ship of war; 
the main strength of which lay in its oars, just as now steam-vessels 
dcpend for moiion principally on their engines. In a concussion 
with an enemy's ship, the great matter was to strip ofi* the oppo- 
nent^s oars, which was effecied by drawing in one's own oars, and 
passing ciose to his side before he had time to take in his. For this 
reason, the state, shattered by intestine commotions, is here com- 
pared to a ship deprived of its oars. — 5. Saucius ; properly, * wound- 
ed;' here, 'loosened, made to totter.' The mast (mdlus) is treated 
as if it were a soldier.— 6. Sine funibusj * without cables ;' that is, 
* without anchors.' If thou dost not ride at anchor, and remain in 
harbour, thou canst not weather the storm. Notice the plural cari- 


Non di, quo8 iterum pressa voces malo. 10 

Quamvis, Pontica pinus, 
Silvae filia nobilis, 

Jactes et genus et nomen, inutile ; 
Nil pictis timidus navita puppibus 
Fidit. Tu nisi ventis 15 

Debes ludibrium, cave. 

Nuper soUicitum quae mihi taedium; 
Nunc desiderium curaque non levis, 
Interfusa nilentes . 
Vites aequora Cycladas. 20 

nae, used poetically for the whole ship. — 10. Non di, An allusion 
to Augustus. He was the deus who had saved the vessel of the 
state after the death of Caesar, when it seemcd on the eve of de- 
struction. But now, if he died, who was to rescue the ship, since 
he would leave no son behind him ? — 11. Pontica pinus. Pontus, 
formerly an independent kingdom, was celebrated for its forests, 
which lurnished the best wood for ship-building : hence, in the next 
line, silva — nobilis. Ponticapinus is therefore *a ship built of the 
pine-wood of Pontus.' — 13. Genu» et nomen. The author attributes 
to the ship the same origin and fame which the city of Rome had. 
Thou boastest of thy origin, since Mars and Romulus were thy 
builders, and of the iame {nomen) which thou hast acquired ; but 
these bring thee no help now (tnu^tZe est.) — 14. Pictis — puppibus, 
The Romans used to pamt their ships {(orpuppis stands nsparsjpro 
totOj for the whole ship) with stripes of different colours, oy timi- 
dus navita, Horace means himself. He had been 'out,' as the 
English phrase goes, in the civil war after Caesar*8 death, and 
knew and feared the troubled sea of revolution. — 15. Nisi debes 
ludibrium ventis, 'unless thou owest sport tothewinds;* that is, 
* unless, by the decree of fate, thou art doomed (boond) to make 
sport for the winds bv becoming a wreck.' — 17. JVttpcr, * lately ;' 
namely, at the time of the battle of Philippi, when the state — ^that 
is, the consideration of state affairs, politics — caused me much 
anxiety and disquietude, but at the same time also disgust and 
weariness. Supply, as the verb to liiie ll,fuisti, and to line 18, 
e». — 20. Vites aequora interfnsa {inter) nitenles CvcJadaSj *avoid the 
seas which roll between the glittering Cyclades ; that is, generally, 
seas full of rocbe, on which thou mayest be wrecked. 




A FiiAT of Horace'B fancy, written, as it appears, without any par- 
ticular reference to the state of thc empire ; though sonie have 
supposed it to contain an allusion to Antony, who was ruined by 
his love lo Cleopatra, as Paris was by his to Helcn. 

Pastor cam traheret per freta navibus 
Idaeis Helenen perfidus hospjtam, 
Ingrato celeres obruit otio 
Ventos, ut caneret fera 

Nereus fata : ' Maia ducis avi domum, 5 

Quam multo repetet Graecia milite; 
Conjurata tuas rumpere nuptias 
Et regnum Priami vetus. 

Heu ! heu ! Quantus equis, quantus adest viris 
Sudor ! Quanta moves funera Dardanae 10 

Genti ! Jam Galeam Pallas et aegida 
Currusqae et rabiem parat. 

Nequicquam, Veneris praesidio ferox, 
Pectes caesariem grataque feminis 

1. Construe thus : eum patior (namely, Priam^s son Paris, wbo, 
when tending his father'8 sheep, had given the well-known decision 
regarding the beauty of the three goddesses, Venus, M inerva, and 
Juno) perMus (because he had violated the laws of hospitality to- 
-wards AlenelauS) king of Sparta) Helenen hospitam traheret per 
freta (' was carrying over the sea') Idaeis navUms, * in Idaean ships ;' 
that is, ships built of the wood whtch grew on Mount Ida, near 
Troy. — 3. Ingrato, because the winds love to rage, and roam, and 
rouse the sea. — 5. Nereus, a sea-eod, who presiaeCi especially ovei 
the Aegean. He possessed the gitt of prophecy ; and when he saw 
Paris neeing with Helen, he uttered tbe prediction which Horace 
proceeds to give, announcing the dire fate Ifera fata) that awaited 
Troy. Mala avi = malo omine, omens being taken principally from 
the ni^ht of birds. — 7. Conjurata — rumpere, poetical for quae wni- 
versajuravit se rupturam esse. — 10. Funera= cladem, ' destruction.* 
Dardana gens means the Troians, so called from Dardanus, one of 
their ancient kines. — 11. Pallas, the eneray of the Trojans, is al- 
ready preparing ner helmet, her shield (ihe aegia, in the centre of 
which was the friKhtful head of Meduea), and her chariot, and 
thc wild ferocity oi war is rising in her boeom. — 13. Ferox zscon* 
fsus, * trusting.' Venus wa» the constant fricnd of the Trojj^ne.-^ 
5 P 


Imbelli cithara cartnina divides ; 15 

Neqaicquam thalamo graves 

Hastas et calami spicula Cnosii 
Vitabis strepitumque et celerem sequi 
Ajacem. Tamen heu Berus adulteros 
Cultus pulvere collines. 20 

Non Laertiaden, exitiuro tuae 
Genti, non Pylium Nestora respicis ? 
Urgent impavidi te Salaminius 
Teucer, te Sthenelus sciens 

Pugnae, sive opus est imperitare equis, 25 

Non auriga piger. Merionen quoque 
Nosces. Ecce furit te reperire atrox 
Tydides melior patre, 

Quem tu, cervus uti vallis in altera 
Visum parte lupum graminis immemor, 30 

Sublimi fugies mollis anhelitu, 
Non hoc pollicitus tuae. 

Iracunda diem proferet Ilio 
Matronisque Phrygum classis Achillei 3 

15. DjvideSf as in i. 36, 6, is to be connected with /mmi». We can 
earmina dividere even to a single person, by singmg to her at dif- 
ferent timee. — 16. Thalamo. An alluBion to Homer'8 Iliad, iii. 381, 
where it is related that on one occasion, when Paris was fiehting 
and bard-pressed, Venus concealed him in a cloud, and took him 
home to his chamber. — 17. Calami spicula Cnosii. Cnosos was a 
town in Crete, whose inhabitants were famed during ail antiquity 
as archers. — 18. Strepitum, *the noise of war.' Cclerem *&fut 
Ajacem : this construction is Greek — *Bwift in pursuit.' The 
younger Ajaz, the son of Oileus, is roeant ; his standing epithet in 
Homer being ' swift.' — 19. Tamenj in spite of all this, in spite of 
the protection of Venus ; and althoush thou avoidest the battle, yet, 
&c. Serus, a poetical construction tor aero. — 21. The poet enume- 
rates some of the chief heroes who fought against Troy ; mention 
ing 6rst Ulysses, son of Laertes, whose craftmess it waa which de 
vised the wooden horse, the ultimate means of the taking of the 
city ; next Nestor, from Pylos in Peloponnesus, famed for his elo< 
quence ; then l^ucer, from Salamis (compare i. 7, 21) ; Sthenelus, 
charioteer of Diomedes, and his companion in arms ; Meriones, 
companion of Idomeneus of Crete ; and lastly, Diomedes, son of 
Tydeus. — 22. Non — reapieis, *dost thou not think of?* — 25. Sive 
= velsif 'or, if, &c., also a good charioteer.* — 27. Reperire. The 
infinitive, according to the Greek usa^e, instead of nt reperiat. — 
28. Meliorz^fortior. Compare IIiad,-iv. 405. — 29. In aUera parte 
vallis visum. The stag for^ets the pasture and flees, as soon as it 
sees a wolf on the other side of the valley. — 31. Sublimi anhelitu, 
*with a deep-fetched breatb;' that is, pantine heavily. — 32. 
Tuae; namely, uxori Helenae, to whom Paris had boasted of 
his strength and valour. See Homer, Iliad, iv. 430. — 33. Ira- 
eunda — classie Achillei. Ab Achilies and his companions (hero 


Post certas hiemes uret Achaicus 35 

Ignis Iliacas domos.' 

called classUt because they had come in ships) were angry with 
Aganiemnon, they withdrew from the Grecian camp ; and thue the 
day ol the fall oi Ihum, here called simply * the day,' was put off. 
AchUlex, genitive from the form AchiUeus.—^b. Posi certas hiemes, 
•after the fixed number of winters;' that is, ' years.' Ten years 
had been fixed by the fates as the time during which the siege of 
Troy was lo last. ^ 



A POKM of recantation or retractation, addressed to a female fi^iend 
-wbom he had injured and offended by his Epodes, which were 
written in iambics, and were chiefly satirical. The poet ad- 
dresses his retractation to a single person ; but we should be 
wrong in considering it as having reference to her alone. Ho- 
race had in his youth attacked various persons in his poems : in 
his riper years he repented of this, and wished to become recon- 
ciled to them alL The present odfe is therefore a retractation, 
intended for the public in general, of all the rash and violent 
words wbich disfigured his early poems. 

MATRE pulchra filia pulchrior, 
Quem criminosis cunque voles modum 
Pones iambis, sive ilamma 
Sive mari libet Hadriano. 

Non Dindymene, non adytis quatit 5 

Mentem sacerdotum incola Pythius, 

2. Quemcunque modum voles (ponere) iambts (dative), pones. The 
epodes are cafled criminosi iamhi, because ihey ai^ full of crimina, 
charges against peopte. — 4. Mari Hadriano, a less frequent form for 
Hadriatico. Fire and water are two great means by which destruc- 
tion can be effecied : therefore, ' burn or drown my poems.' — 5. 
Bindymene; that is, Cybele, the mater magna Deoram, so called 
firbm Dindymus, a mountain of Phrygia, near Pessinus, where she 
waa chiefly worshipped. Her priests, in their fancied inspiration, 
often behaved like maniacs. — 6. *The Pythian ApoUo, who dwells 
(hence incola; namely, adytorum) in the inmost sanctuary of the 
temple at Delphi, does not, in that inmost sanctuary {adytis, ablativc 
of piace ' where'), so agitate the minds of the priestesses' (for sacer- 
do8, a noun of common gender, is here to be taken as feminine.) 
Wben the Pythia, or priestess of Apollo, had seated herself on the 
tripod in the temple, she uttered certain strange sounds, which were 


Non Liber aeque, non acnta 
Si gerainant Corybantea aera, 

Trisles ul irae, quas neque Noricns 
Deterret ensis nec mare naufragum, 10 

Nec saevus ignis nec tremendo 
Jupiter ipse ruens tumultu. 

Fertur Proraetheus, addere principi 
Limo coactus particulam undique 
Desectam, et insani leonis 15 

Vim stomacho apposuisse nostro. 

Irae Thyesten exitio gravi 
Stravere et altis urbibus ultimae 
Stetere causaCj cur perirent 
Funditus imprimeretque muris 20 

Hostile aratrum exercitus insolens. 
Compesce mentem : me quoque pectori» . 
Tentavit in dulci juventa 
Fervor et in celeres 'iambos 

intefpreted by the priests, and issued as oracleB. — 7. Liber. The 
wild proceedings of the Bacchantes, or priestesses of Bacchus, when 
under fancied inspiration from the god, are well known, and often 
mentioned by the poets. — 8. Corybantesj the priests of Cybeie, who, 
at the festivals of tbeir goddQ8S,neld cymbala of brass (hence called 
aera) in their hands, and struck them together. This beating to- 
^ether is poeticaliv expressed by geminant : the priest has a cymbal 
m each hand, ana when he strikes them together, the instrument 
is of course double. — 9. Noricus enais. The mines of the Roman 

Erovince of Noricum furnished, in ancient times, the best iron: 
ence ' Norican steel' is frequently used to indicate the best, hardest 
steel. — 12. Jupiter ruens tremendo tumultu. Jupiter, when he thun- 
ders and sends down his lightnin^s. — 13. l'he following is the poet's 
story : — Prometheus formed all Iivin^ creatures (^clay, and came at 
last to man. But here the clay which he had failed him, and he 
was forced to add something to that which he had at first taken to 
make man (called by Horace princeps limusj 'original clay.') He 
therefore cut some clay from the animals previously formed iun- 
dique; that is, ex omnibus animalibus desecuit), and hence comes 
the odd mixtur^ of qualities in the human character. The poet 
observes particularly thai Prometheus took a piece of clay from the 
hon : hence the choler or tendency to anger in man. This idea of 
the origin of man and his passions is often taken up by the Greek 
poets. — 17. Thvesten. The story of the quarrel between Thyestes 
and Atreus, wnich ruined the royal house of the Pelopidae, is well 
known. Stravere=prostravere. — 18. Ultimaecausae, ' the final cause.' 
Others had gone before, internal dissensions and disorders: but at 
last war came, and had its usual effect. Stetere^extitere. — ^21. Ara- 
trum. According to an old Roman custom, the boundaries of a city 
which was to be built were marked out by the plough ; so also, 
when a citv had been razed to the ground, the pface on which its 
walla had stood was ploughed up. — 22. Mentem=iram. — 2i. CeUres 


Misit furentem. Nunc ego mitibus 25 

Mutare quaero tristia, dum mihi 
Fias recantatis amica 
Opprobriis animumque reddas. 

tamboit. The iambi are called quick, because the verse is a quick, 
danciDg measiire. — ^26. As to the construction of mutare, see Gram. 
^ 294, note. 



Inyitation of a female friend to his Sabine estate. Description of 
his life there, and of his enjoyments in the summer. 

yELOx amoenum saepe Lucretilem 
Mutat Lycaeo Faunus et igneam 
Defendit aestatem capellis 
Usque meis pluviosque ventos. 

Impune tutum per nemus arbutos 5 

Qnaerunt latentes et thyma deyiae 
Olentis uxores mariti, 
Nec virides metuunt colubras 

Neo Martiales haeduleae lupoSy 
Utcunque dulci, Tyndari, fistula 10 

1. Vdox — Faufius. The Pan of the Greeks, called Faunus by 
the Roman ehepherd, is represented with ihe feet of a goat, being 
tbe ^od of grazmg and climbing cattle ; hence velox. Lucretilis, a 
hill m tbe aistrict of the Sabines, not far from Horace^s villa, and 
now called Monte Gennaro. Lyeaeus, a mountain in Arcadia ; the 
region where, according to the poets, Pan usually resided. We 
expect, properly, mutat LucretUi Lycaeum, 'exchan^es Lycaeus for 
Lucretilis;' the place to which he goes being put m the ablative. 
BotK constructions, however, are used in Latin, with the same 
sense. See Gram. $ 294, note. — 3. Defendit=arcet. Faunus pro- 
tects the flocks from the heat of the sun and from the rain, botn of 
which are hurtful to them. Capellig mei», dative, =a capellis meis. 
4. U8que = 8emper. — 6. Deviae, * wanderiiig.* — 7. Olefttis uxores 
mariti, a circumlocution for *8he-goats.* The expression appears 
to U8 neither poetical, nor in goodtaste. Horace, however, iiving 
in the country, and an admirer of pastoral life, may be pardoned for 
using it. — 9. Martiales lupos : the wolf was sacred to Mars. Hae- 
duleae, * young kids,* an tkva^ Xey^ittvov, received into the text here 
from a happy conjecture of Bentley. — 10. Utcunque, * whenever.* 
The sense is this : my^flocks are safe upon their pasture, under the 
protection of Faunus, whenever, &c. Th& Jistula, or ayrinx, is the 


ValleB et Usticae cabantis 
Levia personuere saxa. 

Di me tuentur, dis pietas mea 
£t musa cordi est. .Uic tibi copia 
Manabit ad plenum benigno 15 

Rurjs honorum opulenta cornu. 

Hic in reducta valle caniculae 
Vitabis aestus et fide Teia 
Dices laborantes in uno 
Penelopen vitreamque Circen. . 20 

Hic innocentis pocula Lesbii 
Duces sub umbra, nec Semeleius 
Cum Marte confundet Thyoneus 
Proelia, nec metues protervum 

Suspecta Cyrum, ne male dispari 25 

Incontinentes injiciat manus, 
£t scindat haerentem coronam 
Crinibus immeritamque vestem. 

flute, on which shepherds used to play. — 11. Usticae aibantia. The 
name does not occur elsewhere : it appears, however, to have been 
that of a valley in the neiehbourhood of Horace's villa, since it is 
called cubangf Mow-Iying. — 12. Levia — saxat the smooth chalk- 
rocks which surrounded it. Personuere must be taken intransitively, 
*the rocks ring wirh the sweet flute.* — 14. Construe thus: copia 
opulenta honorum ruris (that is, of those things which honour or 
adorn the country ; naraely, flowers and fruits of all kinds) t^i kic 
manahit (ex) comu henigno ad vlenum ('out of the horn of plenty, 
which is richly filled even to tne brim.') Cornu is the comu For- 
tunae, generally known under the name of Cornu Comae. — 18. Fide 
Teia, ' with the Teian lyre.* Teos was a city of lonia, and the 
birthplace of Anacreon. * To sing with the Teian lyre' means, 
therefore, * to sing songs such as once Anacreon sang.' — 19. Ldbo- 
rantes in uno — unum amantes, ' loving one ;' namely, Ulysses. He 
was beloved both bv his wife Penelope, and by the goddess Circe, 
who wished to keep him on her island. Circe is called vitrea from the 
colour of the sea, which is like glass; for she was a sea-goddess. 
—21. Leshiii scil. vini. — 22. Nec Semeleiusj &c. The sense is this: 
it will Dot happen, as often occurs at drinking bouts, that qutCrrels 
will break out. This sentiraent is thus expressed : * Bacchus, in con- 
junction with Mars (,cum=una cum), will not stir up battles.' The 
proper origiuator of the fights is Mars, who associated himself with 
Bacchus. The mother oi Bacchus was Semele, who was deified 
under the name of Thyone : here the two names are connected. — ^25. 
Male dispari; namely, tihij *on thee, who art lamentably unable 
to cope with him.' Cyrus is the name of one whose love Tyndaris 
had despised. — 28. Immeritam vestem^ ' the innocent garment,' the 
garment which has committed no oflence on account of which it de- 
serves to be torn. 




The praises of the vine, and an ezhort&tion to moderate drinking. 
Quintilius Varus, to whom the poem is addressed, is otherwise 
unknown : he is probably the same friend of Virgil and Horace 
whose death is bewailed in the 24th Ode. 

NuLLAM, Vare, sacra vite prius seTeris arboreni 
Circa mite solum Tiburis et moenia Catili. ~ 
Siccis omnia nam dura deus proposuit; neqne 
Mordaces aliter diffugiunt sollicitudines. 

Quis post vina gravem militiam aut pauperiem crepat % 5 
Quis non te potius^ Bacche pater, teque, decens Venus ? 
At, ne quis modici transiliat munera Liberi, 
Centaurea monet cum Lapithis rixa super mero 

Debellata, monet Sithoniis non levis £vius, 
Cum fas atque nefas exigao fine libidinum 10 

Discernunt avidi. Non ego te, candide Bassareu, 
Invitum quatiam nec variis obsita frondibus 

1. Viie priuB ; that is, priu» quam vitenif * sooner, rather, more 
willingly tnan the vine.* — 2. Moenia Catili, Catilus, or properly 
Caiillufl, who was a son of Amphiaraus, one of the seven heroes 
who made war against Thebes, was, according to tradition, the 
founder of Tibur. — 3. iSiccw = «o6r««, 'sober men, abstainers;' 
opposed to madidi vino. — 4. AliteVy * otherwise than by wine-drink- 
ing.* — 5. Crepat seems simply to mean 'talks about,* for the te in 
line 6 is dependent on the same verb. — 6. Decens =r pulchra. — 7. 
Ne quif • . . . Liberi, * that no one may overleap the gifts of Bacchus ;' 
that ia, may transgress the bounds of moderation. — 8. Centaurea-^ 
rixa. The fight between the two fabulous Greek tribes, the Cen- 
taurs and the Lapithae, is often described by the poets. It was 
fought out or decided (debellata) over the wine (euper mero) ; that is, 
at a drinking-bout, at the wedding of Pirithous and Hippodamia. 
— 9. Sithoniis. The Sithonians were a 7*hracian tribe, here used 
for the l'hracians generally, who were notorious in antiquity for 
their dmnkenness, and, as a natural result, their tendency to quarrel. 
Eviutt an epithet of Bacchus, from evoe, the cry which the Bac- 
chantes uttered. — 10. Cum .... avidi, * when, p^reedily anzious for 
the gratification of their passions (libidinum avidi being connected) 
they see right and wrong as separated by but a narrow boundary.* 
This is a very beauiiful description ot men who, inflamed and 
blinded by wine, are led on to crime. — 11. At the festivals of Bac- 
chus, the Bacchames, clad in fojc-skins {bassareus^ hence given here 
as a name of Baccbus himself), and swinging thyrsus-stayes in their 
handSi used to carry about in procession chests, in which lay the 


Sub diviim rapiam." Saeva tene cum Berecyntio 
Cornu tympana, quae Bubsequitur caecus amor sui, 
£t tollens vacunm plus nimio gloria verticem, 15 

Arcauique fides prodiga perlucidior yitro. 

sacred furnitiire, covered with leaves, particularly with ivy. The 
sense is, * I wili worship thee, beautiful Bacchus, iust as thou hast 
decreed, and will not profane thy holy service ;* tnat is, will keep 
within the bounds of moderation, as thou commandest. — 13. An 
exhortation to Bacchus himself not to excite the soul overmuch : 
*curb, restrain thy dreadful drums and the Berecynthian horn* — so 
called from Berecyntus, a mountain in Phryeia, where jparticular 
festivals used to be celebraied in honour ot Bacchus. The hom 
and the kettle-drum were the instruments of the Bacchantes. — 15. 
Gloriat ' boastfulness, vaingloriousness/ which ezalts itself too 
high. — 16. Arcani Jidet pr^iga, * the faith which squanders (that 
is, tells to everjr one) secrets. A man intoxicated tells what has 
been given to him as a secret without restraint: in vino veritas. 
Hence the faith of a drunkard b truly ' more transparent than glass.' 



Tia poet invites Maecenas to a modest and simple entertaimnent. 

ViLE potabis modicis Sabinum 
Cantharis, Graeca quod ego ipse testa 
Conditum levi, datus in tneatro 
Cum tibi plausus, 

1. Vile — Sabinum, ^common Sabine wine,' which Horace him 
self has. Maecenas, at his own house, drinks noble kinds of 
Italian wine, which are raentioned in the ninth and foUowing lines ; 
namely, Caecuban, so called from the ager Caecubut, near Fundi, 
on the Appian Road ; the Calenian, named from the town of Cales ; 
the Falernian, grown in Campania, at the foot of Mount Massicus; 
and the Formian, so called irom the town of Formiae. — 2. Can- 
tharis. The cantharus is a somewhat large kind of goblet, with a 
handle; so called from Cantharus, its inventor. Graeca — testa, 
&.C. The ancients usually did not draw their wine into casks, 
but kept it in two-handled jars of earthenware, which stood round 
the chamber beside the walls. Such a jar is here called testa ; and 
the epithet Graeca is applied to it, because it had formerly con- 
tained Greek, noble wine. Horace had chosen such a vessel, in 
order to dignify his counlry wine. — 3. Levit perfect of linoy * I close 
up with wax, o&c. seal up.' The wine-jars were closed with wax, 
and then sealed. Datusy scil. eat ; that is, eo anno^ quo tibi platuuM 
datua ett in theatro, * when you were greeted with applause (clAp? 



Clare Maecenas eques, ut patemi 5 

Fluminis ripae simul et jocosa 
Redderet laudes tibi Vaticani 

Caecubum et prelo domitam Caleno 
Tu bibes uvam : roea nec Falernae 10 

Temperant vites neque Formiani 
Pocula colles. 

ting of hands) as you entered the theatre.* — 5. Maecenaa eques, 
^aecenas rested his pride on this — ihat, though of a very ancient 
family (.Camu i. 1, 1), nch, and, as the trusred favourite of Augustus, 
influential, he yet took no state pffice, but remained a simple Ro- 
man eques. Paterni Jluminis ; namely, Tiberis, which is called 
'paternal,' because it fiowed past Etruria, from whose kings Mae- 
cenas claimed descent. It was in the iheatrum Pompeii, not far 
from the bank of the Tiber, that Maecenas had been received with 
enthusiasm. The mons Vaticajius is on the north side of the river. 
—6. Jocosa — imagOf *echo.' See i. 12, 3. — 10. Uvam — prelo domi- 
tamCaleno; that is, ' Colenian wine.' Construe thus: nec Faler- 
nae vites nec Formiani colles (for * Falernian and Formian wine*) 
lemperant mea pocula, ' mix my goblets;' that is, are mixed in the 
goblets which I have. The Romans never drank their wine uu- 
mixedi but always weakened with water. 



Frater to Diana and Apollo. Horace calls upon the maidens and 
youtbs of Rome to celebrate the praises of these deities, and to 
beseech them to avert all danger. Written about the year 28 b. c. 

DiANAM tenerae dicite virgines, 
Intonsum, pueri, dicite Cynthium 
Latonamque supremo 
Dilectam penitus Jovi. 

Vos laetam fluviis et nemorum coroa, 5 

2. Intonsum — Cynthium, Apollo, called Cynthius from Cynthus. 
a hiil in Delos. He is said to be intonsus, because he is representea 
as a youthful or beardless god, and consequently unshaven. — 3. La- 
tona was the mother of Diana and Apollo, whom she bore in Delos 
to Jupiter. Her praises were sung by the two choirs, the youths 
and maidens, united. — 5. Vos ; namely, puellae. Laetam Jluviis, 
Diana, the goddess of hunting and of the woods, and who conse- 
quently delighted in streams, without which her woods could not 
exist. Coma nemorum is, by a common poeticai figure, the leaves 


Qaaecunqae aut gelido proniinet Algido, 
Nigris aut Erymanthi 
Siivis aut viridis Cragi. 

Vos Terope totidem tollite laudibus 
Natalemque, mares, Delon ApoUinis, " 10 

Insignemque pharetra 
' Fraternaque humerum lyra. 

Hic bellum lacrimosum, hic miseram famem 
Pestemque a populo et principe Caesare in 
Persas atque Britannos 15 

Vestra motus aget prece. 

of the forest. — 6. Algidus was a liill in Latium, between Tusculura 
and ihe Alban range, now Monte Compatri. It is celebrated for 
the numerous battles which the Romans fought near it in the earJy 
periods of their history. Erymanthus, a mountain in Arcadia ; Cra- 
gus, in Lycia. — 9. vos, To ihis word belongs mares—pueri. 
Tempe is the celebrated valley between the Olympus and Ossa, in 
which Apoilo was said to have been purified atter slaying the Py- 
thian dragon. — 12. Humerum insignem pharetra, &.c. ApoIIo was 
the god oi archery and music. He received the tyre from Mercury, 
who was likewise a son of Jupiter, and therefore ApoIIo's brother. 
See Carm. i. 10, 6. — 13. Hic ; namely, Apollo, who was believed to 
be the deua averruncus^ the god who averted from men all evils, 
panicularly war, famine, and pesiilence. — 15. Fersas, that is, Par- 
thos atque Britannos. Augustus had at this time the intention of 
making war a^ainst both of these nations. The poet wishes that 
ail the evil which would otherwise befall the Romans may be turned 
upon the poor Parthians and Britons. 


Description of the external independence and safety which man 
gains by uprightness and moral purity. The poet sees even the 
wild beasts fleeing before the good man. 

Integer vitae scelerisque puru8 
Non eget Mauris jaculis neque arcu 
Nec venenatis gravida sagittis, 
Fusce^ pharetra, 

Sive per Syrtes iter aestuosas 

1. Integer vitae. The genitive vitae means * in, in regard to,' pro- 
perly expressed by the ablative. Gram. ^ 277, 6, note 2. — 2. Mauris 
jaculis, * iavelins such asthe Mauri (Moors, inhabitants of Maurita- 
nia) have. — 4. Pharetra gravida sagittis venenatis, * a quiver beavy 
(that is, filied) with poisoned arrows.' — 5. Construe thus : sive iter 


Sive facturus per inhospitalem 
Caucasum vel quae loca fabulo8us 
Lambit Hydaspes. 

Namque me silva lupus in Sabina, 
Dum meam canto Lalagen et ultra 10 

Terminam curis vagor expeditis, 
Fugit inermem : 

Quale portentum neque militaris 
Daunias latis alit aesculetis, 

Nec Jubae tellus generat, leonum 15 

Arida nutrix. 

Pone me, pigrii; ubi nulla campis 
Arbor aestiva recreatur aura, 
Quod latus mundi nebulae malusque 
Jupiter urget: • 20 

Pone sub curru nimium propinqui 
Solis in terra domibus negata : 
Dulce ridentem Lalagen amabo, 
Dulce loquentem. 

facturua (c»0 per SyrteSf sive per Caucasum, ttive (or vet) per ea loca% 
quaey &c. — 8. Hydafpes, a river of India, a tributary of the Indus, 
celebrated in many faoulous stories (fabulosus) after Alexander the 
Great's campaigns. Lambii, poetically used for aUuiti * washes.' — 
9. An instance is adduced, in proof that the virtuous man has 
nothing to fear. The example is the poet himself — 10. Ultra ter- 
minumt * bevond the boundary of my property,' within which there 
are no wild beasts. — U. Curis expeditisj poetical for curis expeditus 
or solutus, *free from care.* — 13. Quale portentum, connected with 
lupus in line 9 ; * such a monster as, &c. — 14. Dauniaa. Daunus, 
an ancient hero, came from Illyricum to Apuiia, and settled on 
Mount Garganus : hence the whole of Apulia is cailed Daunia, or, 
with a Greek termination, Daunias. This district was ceiebrated 
for the strength and military spirit of the tribes which inhabited it ; 
hence the epithet-mTVrfaris, * warlike.* There were in the district 
extensive oaK forests, iilled with game and wild beasts. Aesculetumt 
an 4iro^X«yrf^evov, * a wood of aesculus, the wimer oak.' — 15. Jibhae 
teUus ; that is, Mauritania and Numidia. — 17. Connect vhi nuUa 
arhor pigris campis recreatur aura aestiva, *where in the desert 
plains no tree is refreshed by the summer breeze.' According to 
the notions of the ancients, the middle region or zone of the earth 
was aione habitable — the northern being barren, and envelopedln 
eternQl mist, and the southern so hot that no human bein^ could 
live within it. Pigri campif * lazy, unproductive, barren plams.* — 
19. Quod latus mundi = quamplagamj quam zonam. Malus Jupiter^ 
' bad weather,' Jupiter, the god of the sky, being often put for the 
weather. — ^22. Domibus negataj ' denied or refused to the dweilings of 
men;' that is, * uninhabitable.* — 23. The sense is, 'I shall always 
and everywhere live with the same geniality and freedom from care 
as now, and shall consequently be happy and secure.' Dulce riden- 
tem, *smiling sweetly,' the neuter of the adjective being poetically 
used for the adverb = suaviter ridentem. 



Ode on the death of Qaintilias Varus, who is mentioned in the 18th 
Ode. It is addressed to the poet VirgiL Horace ezhorts him to 
bear pktiently the loss of their routual friend, since man can do 
nothing against the fates. 

Quis desiderio sit pudor aat modus 
Tam cari capitis? Praecipe lugubres 
Cantus, Melpomene, cui liquidam pater 
Vocem cum cithara dedit. 

Ergo Quintilium perpetuus sopor 5 

Urget ? cui Pudor et, Justitiae soror, 
Incorrupta Fides, nudaque Veritas 
Quando ullum inveniet parem ? 

Multis ille bonis flebilis occidit, 
NuIIi flebilior quam tibi, Virgili. 10 

Tu frustra pius heu non ita creditum 
Poscis Quintilium deos. 

Quod si Threicio blandius Orpheo 
Audilam moderere arboribus fidera, 
Non vanae redeat sanguis imagini, 15 

Quam virga semel horrida, 

1. Quis — sU pudor aut modus t * What end or limit can the long- 
ing for so dear a friend have ?' A question implying the answer, 
that there can scarcely be a limit. Pudor ; properly, 'shame, 
modesty ;* here, * an end, termination,' which is fixed by the feel- 
ing of what is right and becomin^. — 2. Praecipe^ * teach me.* 
Melpomene, the muse of tragedy, is here, to suit tbe character 
of the ode, represented as the goddess of elegy. — 3. Liquidam^ 

* clear.* Pater ; namely, Jupiter, who waa the rather of the Muses 
by Mnemosyne. — 5. Sopor = somnus, death beins represented as 
an eternal sleep. The answer to the question liere introduced 
by ergo is given in line 9, occidit, ' yes, ne has fallen.' — 6. Con- 
strue thus : cui quando Pudor^ etc^ ullum (or quemquam) inve- 
niet pareml * W hen shall the goddess of modesty, &.c. find 
any one equal to him T — 7. Nuda^ 'naked;' that is, 'unadorned, 
siraple.' — 11. Tu . , . . deos, 'Thou vainly demandest in thy love 
{pius) Quintilius from the gods, for he was not intrusted to thee 
upon such terms that, when he had died according to fate, thou 
shouldst be able to recall him.' — 13. Quod si, * Nay, if thou,* or 

* even if thou.* Tkreicio = Thracio. — 14. Moderere jidem auditam 
arboribus (dative for ab arboribus), * though thou shouldst wield the 
lyre once listened to by trees.* Comp. Carm. i. 12, 7. — 15. Vanae 
— imagini, * to the emptjr, bodiless, incorporeal shade ;' an allusion 
to the state of the inhabiionts of the lower world, as described by 
Homer and Virgil. — 16. Virga — horrida, Comp. Carm. i. 10, 17. — 


Non lenis precibus fata recludere, 
Nigro compulerit Mercurius gregi. 
Durura: sed levius fit patientia, 
Qaidquid corrigere est nefas. 20 

17. Non lenift •inexorable ;' recludere fata^ a Greek construction 
for ad with the gerund. Recludere; properly, *to open;' here =s 
digaolverei * to nmlifv, or reverse.' — 18. Nigro gregi =ad nigrum 
gre^emy ' to the black flock ;' namely, of the shades. — 19. Durum, 
* It 18 hard that we must yieid to fate, and cannot resist it.' 



The author calls upon his muse, to whom alone he boasts of being 
devoted, to sing to his friend Lamia. This was L. Aelius Lamia, 
consul, A. D. 3. The ode was written about the year 25 b. c. 

Musis amicus tristitiam et metus 
Tradam protervis in mare Creticum 
Portare ventis, quis sub Arcto 
Rex gelidae metuatur orae, 

Quid Tiridaten terreat, unice 5 

Securus. O quae fontibus integris 
Gaudes, apricos necte flores, 
Necte meo Lamiae coronam, 

Pimplea dulcis 1 Nil sine te mei 

3. Portare = portanda, * to carry.' The poets frequently speak 
of sinking care in the sea, or giving it to the winds. Qui$ rex gdidae 
otae 8ub Arcto, *what kingof the frigid zone under the constellation 
of the north.' Quis rex metuatur, and afterwards quid terreat, de- 
pend upon unice tecurus^ * quite free from anxiety or care.' The 
politicians of Rome were at that time chiefly occupied with the 
aifairs of the Parthians. Phraates, king of that nation, had been 
expelled from his kingdom on account ofhis cruelly ; and Tiridaies, 
one of the nobles, bad been chosen in his room. Phraares fled to 
the Scythians (whose kin^ is here the rexgelidae orae suh Arcto)^ 
and returned with auxiliaries from them. Tiridates sought support 
against him from Augustus and the Romans. — 7. Apricos—flores, 
*8ummer (and thereiore sweet-smelling) flowers.' When Horace 
asks the muse to knit together flowers, and make a crown for Lamia, 
it is equivalent to the prose, * sing him a song,' or, • sing of him.' 
Compare Carm. i. 7, 7. — 9. Pimplea is properly the name of a foun- 
tain sacred to the muses in Thrace, afterwards in Macedonia. 
Hence the muses are called Pimpleides, or Pimpleiade», * inhabit- 
ants of the Pimplea.' Instead of this Qreek form, Horace has taken 


Prosunt honores : hunc fidibus novis, 10 

Hunc Lesbio sacrare plectro 
Teque tuasque decet sorores. 

a Latin one, Pimpleus, a, unif which occurs nowhere else, but is 
supported by analogy. Sine te, &c., * without thee (that is, with- 
out th^ help), my song in honour of Lamia {mei konores) does no 
good, is a vain attempt.* — 10. Fidibu» not>isy * with a new lyre;* 
tnat is, in a new kind of verse, to which the Romans had not pre- 
yiously been accustomed. This is explained by Leshio plectro ; that 
is, such songs as once were sung by Alcaeus and Sappho, who lived 
in the island of Lesbos. — 11. Sacrare = consecrare, immortalitati 
commendare, * to make immortal.' 


A POEM addressed to some friends with whom Horace was banqaet- 
ing. He ezhorts them not to be led away by the ezcitement of 
wine into qnarrellin^ and strife, but to engage in cheerAil and 
entertaining conversation. He gives a specimen. 

Natis in usum laetitiae scyphis 
Pugnare Tbracum est : tollite barbanun 
Morem verecundumque Bacchum 
Sanguineis prohibete rixis. 

Vino et lucernis Medus acinaoes 5 

Immane quantum discrepat. Impium 
Lenite clamorem, sodales, 
Et cubito remanete presso. 

Vultis severi me quoque snmere 

2. Tkracum est, scil. moSj ' it is a custom of the Thracians.' The 
Thracians were notorious in ancient times for their drunkenness and 
quarrelsomeness at their banquets. Compare Carm. i. 18, 9. Tollite 
= relinquite, * leave the barbarian practice.' — 3. Verecundum Bac- 
chum, &c., • keep modest Bacchus far from bloody quarrels;' that 
is, keep quarrels far away from Bacchus, so that he may continue 
verecundus ; preserve a proper deportment and decent behaviour. — 
5. Vino et lu^emis, dative and hendiadys, *a nocturnal banquet.' 
Acinaces, ihe crooked cimetar which the Orientals, the Medes, Per- 
sians, and Parthians used, and perhaps fought with at their feasts. 
— 6. Tmmane quantum, a contracted and very strong expression, 
* monstrously, immensely far.' — 8. Ciihito presso, The ancients re- 
clined at table, resting on the left elbow. The poet here imagines 
his friends springing up ro fight, and conjures them to remainquietly 
lying. — 9. The banqueters invite the poet, who has ontered the room 
during their quarrel, to drink. He agrees, but on condition that the 


Partem Falerni'? Dical Opuntiae 10 

Frater Megillae, quo beatus 
Vulnere, qua pereat sagitta. 

Cessat voluntas ? Non alia bibam 
Mercede. Quae te cunque doraat Venus, 
Non erubescendis adurit 15 

Ignibus ingenuoque semper 

Amore peccas. Quidquid habes, age, 
Depone tutis auribus. Ah, raiser, 
Quanta laborabas Charybdi, 
Digne puer meliore ^mma ! 20 

Quae saga, quis te solvere Thessalis 
Magus venenis, quis polerit deus ? 
Vix illigatum te triformi 
Pegasus expediet Chiraaera. 

quarrelling cease, and the conversation be changed. He propoBeB 
that each of the company shall tell the story of his love. Severi 
Falerni. There were two kinds of the far-famed Falernian wine — 
one sweet, the other acid. The latter is described here as severum. 
— 11. Frater Megillae Opuntiae. He calls on one of the revellers 
to tell his tale, not mentioning the man's own name, however, but 
that of his sister Megilla, who came from Opus, a city of the Lo- 
crians. Quo — vulnere, qua — sagitta, poetical expressions for quo 
amore. — 13. Cessat voluntas ? * Does he refuse V ' Has he no m- 
clination?' This will not satisfy us; for, in the first place, it was 
upon this condition alone ino9i alia mercede ; llterally, * for no other 
pay orreward') tbat I joined your company; and, secondly, his love 
18 without doubt of a kind of which he need not be ashamed. — 15. 
Non erubescendis ignibus, ' with a love for which you need not blush.' 
— 16. Ingenuo — amare ; that is, amore mulieris ingenuae, ' love to a 
freeborn, respectable woman,' not to a libertina, * freedwoman.' 
This latter class had no good repute. — 18. Tutis auribus ; that is, I 
shall keep it a secret, telling it to no one. Hereupon the poet's 
friend whispers in his ear the story of his love. — 19. Quanta laho- 
rahas Charyhdi, ' what a dangerous love you had, as dangerous as 
Charybdis !' Charybdis was a whirlpool in the Straits of Messina, 
which sucked in and destroyed everything that came within its in- 
fluence. — 21. Thessalis — venenis, ' by Thessalian charms.' For 
The«saly was celebrated in ancient times as a land of magicians. — 
23. Triformi — Chimaera, ablative, governed by expediet = solvet, 
liberahit. Chimaerae, however, must be supplied to illigatum. The 
love of Horace's friend is compared to the Chimaera, a monster 
which united in its form the appearance of a lion, a goat, and a 
dragon. The hero Bellerophon slew it, with the help of the winged 
steed Pegasus, which Minerva had givcn him for this purpose. 




l^RB probably still existed, in the time of Horace, on the coast of 
Calabria, near the promontory of Matinum, the so-called tomb 
of Archytas, a celebrated Pythagorean philosopher, and a con- 
temporary of Plato. The present poem is an ode on this tomb. 
The poet introduces the spirit of a shipwrecked person, who first 
consoles himself for his misfbrtune, recollecting how many great 
men have died, and considering that all must die, and then be- 
seeches the sailor who may find his body on the beach, to throw 
upon it, according to the old and sacred custom, three handfbls 
of earth, without which the ancients believed the shades of the 
dead could not be admitted into the lower world. 

Te maris et terrae numeroque carentis arenae 
Mensorem cohibent, Archyta, 
Pulveris exigui prope litus parva Matinum 
Munera, neo quidquam tibi prodest 

Aerias tentasse domos animoque rotundum 5 

Percurrisse polum moriiuro. 
Occidit et Pelopis genitor, conviva deorum, 
Tithonusque remotus in auras, 

£t Jovis arcanis Minos admissus, habentque 
Tartara Panthoiden iterum Orco 10 

1. Numero carentis arenae mensorem ; that is, innumerae arenae 
mensorem. The Fythagorean philosophers were distinguished for 
the industry with which they cultivated ihe study of mathematics 
and arithmetic, and it appears to have been a favourite question 
with them, how much sand there was on the earth : at all events, 
we know that Archimedes wrote a book on this subject. — 2. Cohi' 
hent — parva munera exigui pulverist ' a little dust, and that a (slight) 
present, encloses thee;' thee, who studiest the infinite. — 5. Aerias 
domos — rotundum polum; that is, the stars and the sky, which, by 
astronomy, thou soughtest to examine {tentare) and map out. Thia 
was a favourite study of thc ancient philosophers, parlicularlv the 
Pythagoreans.— 6. Morituro^ * since, notwithsianding, thou hadst to 
die.' — 7. Pdopis genitor, Tantalus, such a darling oi the gods, that 
they took him to their banquets. — 8. Tithonus was beloved by Au- 
rora, who took him up to heaven ; this is here expressed by remotus 
in auras. — 9. Minos, the legislator of Crete, who, to give his laws 

freater force, declared ihat they faad been comniunicated to him by 
upiter, is well known. — 10. Panthoideny Euphorbus, son of Pan- 
thous, a celebrated Trojan, who was slain by Menelaus. His shield 
was hung up as a trophy in the temple of Juno at Argos. The 
philosopher rythagoras, who taught the transmigration of souls, 
«isserted that he had formerly been Euphorbus ; and, as the story 


Demissum, quamvis clipeo Trojana refixo 
Tempora testatus nihil ultra 

Nervos atque cutem morti concesserat atrae, 
Judice te non sordidus auctor 

Naturae verique. Sed omnes una manet nox 15 

£t calCanda semel yia leti. 

Dant alios Furiae torvo spectacula Marti, 
Exitio est avidum mare nautis ; 
Mixta senum ac juvenum densentur funera, nullum 
Saeva caput Proserpina fugit. 20 

Me quoque devexi rapidus comes Orionis 
Illyricis Notus obruit undis. 
At tn, nauta, vagae ne parce malignus arenae 
Ossibus et oapiti inhumato 

Particulam dare. Sic quodcunque minabitur Eurus 25 
Fluctibus Hesperiis, Venusinae 
Plectantur silvae te sospite, multaque merces, 
Unde potest, tibi defluat aequo 

Ab Jove Neptdnoque, sacri custode Tarenti. 

eoes, when tbe shield of Euphorbus was taken down, the name of 
rythagoras was found upon it, thus confirming the philosopher^s 
declaration. Hence * Pythagoras (once Euphorbus) has been sent 
down a aecond time to Orcus (iterutn Orco demUium), and the re- 
gions of Tartarus now hold him, although the first time he had 
given up only his body (nervoa atque cutem) to black death, as he 
showed when the shield was taken down (clmeo rejixo), by pointing 
out upon it the traces of Trojan times.' — 14. Non $ordidu8 = non 
contemnendusj * not a contemptible.* Said wilh a slight touch of 
irony, for Archytas was a Pythagorean, and all the disciples of 
Pythagoras valued their master very hiffhly. — 15. Manet = expectat, 
* awaits.' — 17. Furiae. According to Homer'8 represeniation, hor- 
ror, fear, and strife, personified as avenging goddesses, are present 
in battles. Torvo spectaeula Marti, * as spectaclee for grim Mars.' 
Mars looks grim, because hedelights in bloodshed. — 19. Densentur, 
a poetical form for denaantur, * are numerous.' — ^21. Rapidus Notus, 
eomes devexi Orionis, * impetuous Notus (the south-west wind), the 
companion of Orion, when it sets.' In Novemher the constellation 
of Orion sets, and at the same time the south-west wind begins to 
plough the Adriatic. — 23. Ne parce, Connect witb dare particulam 
vagae arenae =fac ut des, * give ;' literally, * be not too niggardly 
to ^ive.' — 24. In regard to the verse, observe the hiatup here, cavUt 
tnhumato. This is very remarkable. — 25. Sic; that is, *if tnou 
doest it, then may the woods of Venusia bear the shock of (literaily, 
be beaten by) Eurus, whenever he shall threaten the Hesperian 
waves ;' that is, the seas round Italy. Thus the winds would do 
him no harm. — 27. Multa Merces, * a rich reward.' — 28. Defiuat ab 
aequo Jove Neptunoque, * flow in upon thee from gracioua Jupiter 
«id Neptune.* The latter is called ' the guardian of sacred Taren- 
tam/ because his son Taras was said to nave been the founder of 
6* B 


Negligis immeritifl pocituram 30 

Postmodo te natis fraudem committere ? Fors et 
Debita jura Ticesque superbae 

Te maneant ipsum : precibns non linquar inultifi, 
Teque piacula nnlla resolyent. 

Quamquam festinas, non est mora longa ; licebit ' 35 

Injecto ter pulvere curras. 

that city. — 30. Ne^ligis, here = nihil curas ; * have you no scruples 
at committine a sm ^raudem committere) which will bring injury on 
your descendants, though they are innocent of it?' — 31. Fors ee, 
'perhaps too i^ for8=forsitan. — 32. Vices superbaej 'terrible retri- 
bution.' The gods wiU as proudly spurn your prayers as you siight 
mine. You may consider it of no consequence that your desceud- 
auts are to suffer for your crime ; but it may be that you yourself 
shall feel the punishment. — ^33. Precibus non linquar inultisf * l sball 
not be left {liw^uar z=relinquar), you will not leave me here unburied, 
without my prayers (your neglect of them) being revenged by the 
gods.'— ^35. l'he sense is this : the performance of this sacred duty 
will not detain you long. Throw three haodfaie of earth upon my 
body, and then you may hasten on your way. LicAit curras ^cur- 
rere poteris. 


This ode was written in the year 25 b. c, when Aelius Gallns, 
prefect of Egypt, undertook, by the command of Augustus, an 
expedition into Axabia ; into the land of the Sabaeans, as Horace 
says. They were the most renowned tribe of the Arabians, and 
received their name from the city of Saba. This ezpedition, 
which utterly failed, was joined by many young men, fbnd of 
war, from Rome. Among them was Iccius, a friend of Horace, 
who, up to this time, had occupied himself closely with the 
study of philosophy. To him the poem is addressed, and there 
runs through it a gentie strain of irony in regard to the new 
course upon which the youth, all unused to battles, had entered. 

Icci, beatis nunc Arabum invides 
Gazis et acrem militiam paras : 

1. Beatis — gaxiSf * the rich treasures.' Arabia was called /elix, 
and was consiaered by the^Romans, who received from it or through 
it spices, frankincense, precious stones, and pearls, as very rich.^ 


Non ante devictis Sabaeae 
RegibuS; horribilique Medo 

Nectis catenas. Quae tibi virginum 5 

Sponso necato, barbara serviet 1 
Puer quifl ex aula capillis 
Ad cyathum Btatuetur unctis, 

Doctus sagittas tendere Sericas 
Arcu paterno ? Quis neget arduis v 10 

Pronos relabi posse rivos 
Montibus et Tiberim reverti, 

Cum tu coemptos undique nobiles 
Libros Panaeti, Socraticam et domum 
Mutare loricis Hiberis, 15 

Pollicitus raeliora, tendis 1 

4. Segibu». Among the Arabians then, as now, each tribe had its 
chieftain. Medo, used for Orientais generally; for Augustus did 
not intend that this expedition should be directed against the Par- 
thians, to whom, properly, the name of Medes belonged. — 5. Quae 
virginutn, quite = quae virgo. — 6. Spojiso necato, * whose betrothed 
thou hast slain,* and whom thou hast thus made a captive. — 7. Puer 
ex aula, * a boy from the court of one of those kings.' The kings 
of the East used to have high-born boys as their pages. One of 
.these Iccius is to take prisoner ; and to make him wait, with his 
hair anointed, at table, ad cyathum, to pour out the wine into the 
cups. This was an office for which young and beautiful slaves were 
usually chosen. Tbis boy is also, for the entertainment of the 
guests, to show his skill m archery, which he has learned in his 
Arabian home. For Sericus, like Medus above, is used for Orien- 
tal generally. — 9. Sagittas tendere, properly, arcus tendere. — 11. 
Fronoe is to be connected with arduis montibus, ' rushing down from 
lofty mountains.' Eelabi, like reverti in line 13, is * to flow back, 
up again to the source.' — 13. Cum — tendis, *when you, as soon 
as yoa,' &c. In prose, we should have had cum — tendas. — 14. 
Panaetius, of Rhodes, was a Stoic phitosopher, and a friend of the 
younger Scipio Africanus and Laelius. Domum, * school' = sectam. 
— 15. Hiberis, ^Spanish;' the Spanish iron being famed. — 16. 
Tendi» = contendis. 


An invocation of Venus to be gracious to Glycera, a female friend 
of Horace. 

Venus, regina Cnidi Paphique^ 
Sperne dilectam Cypron et vocantis 

1. Cnidus a town in Caria; Paphos, a town in Cyprus: both 


Thure te multo Glycerae decoram 
Transfer in aedem. 

Fervidas tecum paer et solutis 5 

Gratiae zonis properentque Nymphae 
£t parum comis sine te Juventas 

famed for the worship of Venus. In the former was the admired 
statae of Venus by rraxiteles. — 3. Thure. In this, and flowers, 
the usual oflerings to Venus consisted. Decoram in aedem^ * into 
the beautiful chamber, which, by thy presence, wiU be consecrated 
as a temple.* This interpretation conjoins the two senses of aedeSf 
/apartment,* and * temple.' — 5. Puer, Cupid, who is called /cr»t- 
dus, because he excites fervor^ amor. Soluti* — zonis. The (rraces 
are always represented by poets and sculptors with their girdles 
loosened, and their robes flowing. — 6. Pr<merentque. As to this 
position of que, which properly belongs lo rlymphaet see Zumpt, 
4 358. — 8. Mercuriusque. He accompanies Venus, as being the 
god of lively and entertaining conversation. Compare Carm. l 
10, 2. 




AuousTUS had conquered his rival Antony ofT the promontory of 
Actium, near a temple of ApoUo. / From gratitude, he built on a 
part of his palace-ground on the Palatine Hill a temple to this 
god, near which tbe first public library in Rome was established. 
The temple was dedicated in the year 28 b. c. To Apollo, as 
god of it, the poet in this ode addrcsses his modest requests. 

QuiD dedicatum poscit Apollinem 
Vates? Quid orat, de patera novum 
Fundens liquorem ? Non opimae 
Sardiniae segetes feraces, 

Non aestuosae grata Calabriae 5 

1. Dedicatum, Properly, only the statae of the god was conse- 
crated ; but the poet here uses the expression of the god himself. — 
2. Novum — liquorem ; that is, new wine, not old, of which rich men 
made libaiions. — 4. Sardiniae. This island, like Sicily, the province 
of Airica, and E^ypt, was famed for its fertility in corn, and was 
one of the granaries of Rome and Italy. — ^5. Calahriae. No district 
•f Italy had so much ezcellent pasture-land as the * summer-bamt' 


Armenta, non aunim aut ebur Indicnin, 
Non rura, quae Lirts quieta 
Mordet aqua, taciturnus amnis. 
«• Premant Calena falce, quibus dedit - 
Fortuna, vitem ; dives et aureis 10 

Mercator exsiccet culullis 
Vina Syra reparata merce, 

Dis carus ipsis, quippe ter et quater 
Anno revisens aequor Atlanticum 
Impune. Me pascnnt olivae, 16 

Me cichorea levesque malvae. 

Frui paratis et valido mihi, 
Latoe, dones et precor integra 
Cum mente nec turpem senectam 
Degere nec cithara carentem. 20 

(aestuosa) Calabria. — ^. Indicum. The ivory is called Indian, be- 
cause part of it came from India. The rest came from Africa, from 
the countries above E^ypt. — 7. The sense is: I do not ask of thee 
lands in the most fertile district of Italy ; namely, Campania. The 
Liris (now Garigliano) flows between Campania and Latium. — 8. 
As to mordet, compare Carm. i. 22, 8. — 9. Calenafalce. The neigh- 
bourllood oPCales, in Latium, was celebrated for its wine. See 
Cartn. i. 20, 9. Hence : * to prune the vine with the Calenian hook,' 
means *to own a vineyard at Cales.' Instead ofpremant, we should 
expect the technical term putent. — 10. The sense is : Neither do I 
wish for much money, to live sumptuously and splendidly like a 
merchant. — 11. Exsiccet = ^tibat : cululli are a kind of large cups 
with handles, jugs. — 12. Syra reparata merce, * gained in return for 
Syrian wares;' that is, for spices, incense, and other articles of 
trafiic, which came from or throagh Syria and the East. These the 
merchant seils in Rome, and purchases with the money fine wines. 
— 14. Aequor Atlanticum, He sails along the Mediterran^n as far 
as the Straits of Gades, where he sees the Atlantic. ^ 17. The 
wishes of the poet are now stated. They aro, first, peaceful enjoy- 
nient of his possessidns {parata for the more common parta, * that 
which has been gained'); secondiy, good health ; and lastly, an old 
age, in which his mind shall remain unimpaired, and which shall 
consequentlv not be biirdensome (turpii) either to himself or others, 
and in which he shall still be able to cultivate poetry. Construe 
thus : preeor, dones mihi frui {ut fruar) paratis et valido (that is, ut 
validus simt ut valeam) et degere (ut d^am) senectam cum integra 
mente nec turpem nee cithara carentem. Xatoe, a Greek form, * Bon 
of Latona;' that is, ApoUo. 




An ode callingf upon his lyre and himself^to sing or compose in 
Latin such son^s as once Alcaeus, a native of the island of Lesbos» 
had sung in the Greek lan^age. The poem was written on 
Bome occasion when his friends were urging him to write and 
publish lyrics. 

PosciMUR. Si quid vacai sub umbra 
Lusimus tecum^ quod et hunc in anDum 
Vivat et plures, age, dic Latinum, 
Barbite, carmen, 

Lesbio primum modulate civi, 5 

Qui ferojc bello, tamen inter arma, 
Siye jactatam religarat udo 
Litore navim, 

Liberum et Musas Veneremque et illi 
Semper haerentem puerum canebat • 10 

£t Lycum, nigris oculis nigroque 
Crine decorum. 

O decns Phoebi et dapibus supremi 
Grata testudo Jovis, o laborum 
— _ * 

1. Poaeimur refers to the request of his friends: '1 am called 
npon ;* namely, to write lyric poems. Vaeui, ttcil. negotiis, ' in my 
hours of leisure.' — 2. Lusimus. The song of the poets is often 
compared to a ^arae or play. Here Horace's object in using this 
word is to indicate that he had composed merely iight jocular 
poems. — 3. Latinutn earmen. The poet fancies he has the very 
same lyre on which Alcaeus had *discoursed most excellent 
music;' hence he calls upon it, as having previousiy sung Greek 
strains, now to attempt a Latin song. — 5. Modulate. The par- 
ticipie is here used passivelv, 'taned, played,' tbough the verb is 
properly a deponent. — 6. Ferox bello. Alcaeus was not merely a 
poet, but also a warrior, for he is said to have fought against the 
Athenians, and against Myrsilus and Pittacus, the tyrants of his 
native city. — 7. Sive = vel ti. Whether he was among arme — that 
is, actively engaged in war — or had returned to hishome, an islsnd, 
to which of conrse as here mentioned, he had to proceed by sea, he 
was always writing poetry. — 10. Semver haerentem puerum; that is, 
Cupid, who, in Ode 30, line 5, is called fervidus puer. — IL Lycus 
was a youth whom Alcaeus admired for his beauty, and celebrated 
in his poetry. — 14. Testudo, * lyre,' this instrument being originally 
made of the shell of a tortoise. See Carm. i. 10, 6. lu^race ima- 
gines that the lyre is played at the banquets of the gods for their 


Dulce lenimen, mihi cunque salve 15 

Rite vocanti.- n 

entertainraent. — 15. Connect cunque with vocanti^iquandocunque te 
voco, * as often as I caii upon thee ri<e, in due iorra/ as poets i^e 
to do. 


A SOHEWHAT remarkable poem, in which Horace shows the insn^ 
ficiency of philosophy to supply in man the place of a relig^ous 
faith. Horace was a foUower of Epicurus, who held that the 
gods exercised no superintendence ovef human afTairs, but that 
chance reg^lated all things. A prodigy — ^namely, thunder in a 
clear sky — had astonished and frightened the poet : he makes 
his observations on this, and comes to the conclusion that the 
gods do rule the world. 

Parcus deforum cultor et infrequens 
Insanientis dum sapientiae 
Consultus erro, nunc retrorsum 
Vela dare atque iterare cursus 

Cogor relictos. Namque Diespiter, 5 

Igni corusco nubila divicfens 
Plerumque, per purum tonantes 
Egit equol volucremque currum, 

Quo bruta tellus et vaga fiumina, 

1. ' A sparing and infreauent worshipper of the gods.* He calls 
himself sparing or niggardly iparcue), because he did not make rich 
oiferings to the gods ; not merely from the smallness of his fortune, 
bul from his belief that careful and zealous worship) was unnecessary. 
— 2. Sapientiae consultus. A very common Latin phrase is jurut 
consultus ; properlv, 'one wbo is consulted about law matters;' 
hence * learned in the law.' So here sapiefitiae cotieultus i8=pAf2o- 
fophiae peritus. The philosophy is called insaniens, because it 
forsakes nature, and forms artificial and baseless systems. — ^3. Erroy 
* I wander about, range on the mountains of vanity, can come to no 
firm bclief.* — 4. Iterare cursus relictos ; properly said of ships, • to 
enter anew upon a course which has been forsaken.* Horace had 
at first been a believer in the covernment of the gods ; then he had 
forsaken this, and philosophy nad made him an unbeliever : now he 
comes back to his nrst faith. — 5. Diespiter, an older form for Jupiter. 
Its composition is dies (for diei^pater^ ' the father of the day' — a fine 
expression. — 6. Jgni corusco^Julmine, * with his lightning.'— 7. Per 
purum, scil. coeltim, * ihrough the clear sky,' whereas commoniy 
thunderatorms occur only when the heaven is covered with clouds. 


Quo Styx et in visi horrida Taenari 10 

Seiies Atlanteusque finis 
Concutitnr. Valet ima summis 

Mutare, et insignem attenuat deus 
Obscura promens : hinc apicem rapaz 
Fortuna cum stridore acuto 15 

Sustulit; hic posuisse gaudet 

■■'■ -11 ■ '. - _ m 

Tonantes egit equo8 = intonuit. Comp. Carm. i. 12, 58. — 10. Tae- 
nari. Taenaron (now Cape Matapan), a promontory of Laconia. 
There was a temple of Poseidon upon it, near wbich there was be- 
lieved to be an entrance into tbe lower world. Hence Taenaron ia 
used for 'the lower world' itself. — II. Atlauteusque Jinitt *and 
Atlas, which lies at the end of the world.' According to tbe belief 
of the ancients, the heavens rested on the mountain-range of Atlas, 
in the north-west of Africa, which was the extremity of tne world. — 
13. Insignenit * the lofty one,' singularused for the class. The sense 
is this : God overthrows the lofty, arm raises the humble. But the 
poet changes a iittle, using afterwards the neuter obscura. — 14. A^i' 
cem, heTe:=sdiadema, the sign of kingly dignity, or of high authonty 
generally. — 15. Cum stridore acuto. The goddess Fortune is repre- 
sented with wings, to indicate her inconstancy ; and as she hastily 
(rapax) snatches off the diadem, the noise of her pinions is heard: 
bence * with a shrill wbizzinff.' — 16. Sustulit contains the notion of 
' has taken, can take, and oTten takes.* In Greek the aorist, and 
in Latin poetry the perfect, is frequently used to express what com- 
monly happens. Gram. ^ 333, 2, note 3. 


A PRATER to the goddess Fortune, that she may protect Octavianns 
and the Roman army, who, in the year 27 b. c, meditated an 
ezpedition to Britain. Julius Caesar, during his Gallic wars, 
had been twice in the island, and had subdued the tribes residing 
on and near the coast. But afler his departure these had not 
paid the tribute imposed upon them, and Octavianus meant to 
punish them for this neglect The Britons, however, averted the 
stroke by submitting, in fbrm at . least, to the Romans, and 
acknowledging their supremacy. 

O DivA, gratnra quae regis Antium, 
Praesens vel imo toUere de gradu 

1. Antium, tfae old capital of the Volsci, and situated on the sea- 
coast to the south of Rome, was celebrated for its temple of For- 
une. — 2. Praesens ^spotenSf tanta vipraedita, ut, *bo powerful as 


Mortale corpus vel superbos 
Vertere funeribus trfumphos, 

Te pauper ambit sollicita prece 5 

Ruris colonus, te, dominam aequoris, 
Quicunque Bithyna lacessit 
Carpathium.pelagus carina. 

Te Dacus asper, te profugi Scythae, 
Urbesque gentesque et Latium ferox 10 

Regumque matres barbarorum et 
Purpurei metuunt tyranni, 

lujurioso ne pede proruas 
Stantem columnam, neu popuhis frequens 
Ad arma (^||ftfilWr^ad arma 15 

Concitet imperiumque frangat. 

Te semper anteit saeva Necessitas, 
Clavos trabales et cuneos manu 

to,' &c. Praefentia is often used of the power of the gods, be- 
cause their mere presence, their appearance, brings assistance. — 
4. Superbos triumphos vertere funeribux ; ihat is, evertere triumphoSf 
*to overthrow, bring to an end, triuniphs, by putting funcrals, 
death, in their place:' translate thus : ' lo lurn the higheat honour 
and grealest exuhation into the deepest sorrow.' — 5. * Supplicates 
thy mvour wil-h anxious prayer,' entreating, namely, that thou wilt 
vouchsafe to him a bountiful harvest. — 7. Bithyna, because in Bi- 
thynia, as in Pontus (Ode, 14, 11), there were extensive forests, 
from which the Romans obtained much wood for shipbuildiug. 
Lacessit, because the sea was struck by the oars, and cut by the 
keel. The Carpathian Sea is that round the island of Carpathus 
(now Scarpanto) between Rhodes and Cyprus. — 9. Horace, in 
going over a number of those who fear Fortune, mentions first the 
barbarians, the Dacians, whora, because they Uved in the wild 
north, he calls * rough' iasper), and the Scythians, who led a no- 
madic hfe, * unsettled, wandering' iprofupi) ; then the civilised na- 
tions, which have cities, especially ' bold' (ferox) Latium (alluding 
particularly to Rome) ; and lastly, kings. — 11. Repim matres bur- 
harorum. Among the barbarians — that is, the Orientals — a king'8 
mother has in all ages been, and still is, a person of grear estima- 
tion, and exercises no little influence on the government. — 13. Ne 
depends on metuunt. The foot of Fortune is called inmriosus, be- 
cause its spurn inflicls injury. — 14. Columnam; n&mely , felicilat is. 
We may use the same figure, * the pillar of prosperity or good foit une.' 
Fopulus frequensy a throng of people, who summon the qniet and 
ease-ioving persons {cessantes) to arms. Ad arma is repeated twice, 
in imitation of tue cry, ' To arms, to arms !' — 17. Anteit, here used 
as a dissyllable, the vowels ei being contracted. Necessitas, the 
goddess of necessity, is represemed as bearing in her hands large 
nails (clavos trabales), wedges {cuneos), hooks, and molten lead, 
wherewith, at her pleasure, she strengthens, severs, or unites what 
has been severed ; for by the ancients, as well as by us, molten lcad 
was used for this last purpose. The appearance of the goddess is 
intentionally made fearful, in order that it may be seen what power 


, Gestans aena, nec severus 

Uncus abest liquidumque plunabum. 20 

Te Spes et albo rara Fides colit 
Velata panno nec comitem abnegat, 
Utcunque mutata potentes 
Veste domos inimica linquis. 

At vulgus infidum et meretrix retro 25 

Perjura cedit, dififugiunt, cadis 
Cum faece siccatis^ amici, 
Ferre jugum pariter dolosi. 

/ Serves iturum Caesarem in ultimos 

Orbis Britannos et juvenum recens 30 

Examen Eois timendum 
Partibus Oceanoque rubro. 

Fheu cicatricum et sceleris pudet 
Fratrumque. Quid nos dura refugimus 
Aetas ? Quid intactum nefasti 35 

Liquimus ? Unde manum juventus 

Fortune possesses, and hence what virtue may be in a prayer to her. 
Comp. Carm. iii. 24, 6. — 21. Spes and Fvdes are always given as 
companions to Fortune, the latter aJho panno velataf * clad in a white 
garment,' to indicate the purity of her character. — 22. Abnegatj 
fcil. sCf * dpes not refuse herself as a companion,' * does not refbse 
to accompany her,* even when she leaves the houses, or by the 
spurn of her foot overthrows the prosperity of their friends. — 83. 
Utcunque = quandocunque, *a8 often as.* mutata veste : the Ro- 
mans, when tney felL into misfortune, especially when they were ac- 
cused, used to lay aside the shining robe which they commonly wore, 
and assume in its stead one of a dingy colour. This was called 
vestem mutaret and the expression is here applied to the goddess when 
she overthrows ' mighty houses,' making their members mutare ves- 
tem. — 25. Atf * but then;* namely, when a great house falis into 
misfortune. lietro — cedit, *retire, draw back.^26. Cadis cumfaeee 
siccatisi * after draining the casks to the very dreffs ;' that is, after 
enjoying the hospitality of the house to the fullest eztent. — 28. 
Dolosi ferre jugum pariier ; namely, pariter cum domibus potentHnis. 
Juffum is humiiiation, calamity in seneral. The friends are oalled 
dolosi, because in former times they nad promised to share adversity 
as weli as prosperity ; a promise not now fulfilled.— 30. Recens exa- 
men, • the fresh troop,* recent levy, young recruits. — 32. Oceano 
rubro, * the Red Sea,' on whose coast Arabia iies. It was called 
by ihe ancients also mare Erythraeum or rubrum. — 33. The idea is 
this : the Romans have to atone for the civii wars, and the demo- 
ralisation consequent thereon, by foreign wars and the extension of 
the empire over the barbarians. Cicatricum et sceleris fratrumque : 
the copulative conjunctions are used, although the sense is simply 
*of the scars we have inflicted upon, and the crimes we have com- 
mitted against, our brethren' (feliow-citizens.) — 35. Quid nefasti 
liquimus (== reliquimus) intactum ? * what wicked deed have we left 


Metu deorum continuit ? QuibuB 
Pepercit aris ^? utinam nova 
Incude diffingas retusum in 
Massagetas Arabasque ferrum. 40 

uncommitted ?' — 38. The construction is this: utinam diffingas 
C re-forge;* that is, sharpen and polish) incude novaferrum retusum 
('blunted;' namely, by the civii wars) in MasBagetas, &c. The 
Massagetae were a Scythian tribe: we must, however, understand 
the name here as including and referring chiefly to their neighbours, 
the Parthians. 



Triumfhal song upon Ihe batde of Actium, by which Rome was 
delivered from all fear of the power of Antony and Cleopatra. 
The poet, with fine tact, avoids the name of Antony, the men- 
tion of which would have reminded the Romans that the war 
had been in truth one between cltizens. 

NuNC est bibendum, nunc pede libero 
Pulsanda tellus. nunc Saliaribus 
Ornare pulrinar deorum 
Tempus erat dapibus, sodales. 

Antehac nefas depromere Caecubum 5 

Cellis avitis, dum Capitolio 
Regina deraentes ruinas, 
Funus et imperio parabat • 

Contaminato cum grege turpiura 

1. Pede Itbero puUanda tellus ; that is, we must danee, to show 
our Joy. — 2. Saliaribus — dapibus. The priests, and among them the 
Salh, the priests of Mars, were accustomed on festival days to give 

geat entertainments, the luxurious character of which was famed. 
ence Saliares dapes or epulae = opulentae, opiparae. — 3. Pulvinar 
deorum. Before the statues of the gods there were placed tables 
with cushions. On these, at lectisternia (thanksgiving feasts for 
victories or other fortunate events), food was placed, as if for the 
god himself. The eratj for which we might have expected est, 
points'out what ought to have been done by the state, and could 
not be done by private individuals. — 5. A^itehad here to be read as 
a dissyllable, the c before Jiac being elided. Nefas, scil. erat. As 
to the Caecuban wine, compare i. 20, 9. — 7. Regina ; namely, Cle- 
opatra, queen of Egypt, whom Antony wished to make empress of 
Rome. — 8. Funus = exitiumf * destruction.' — 9. Contaminato — 


Morbo virorum, quidlibet irapotens 10 

Sperare fortunaque dulci 
Ebria. Sed minuit furorem 

Vix una sospes navis ab ignibus, 
Mentemque lymphatam Mareotico 
Redegit in veros timores 15 

Caesar, ab Italia volantem 

Remis a^Jurgens, accipiter velut 
Molles columbas aut leporem citus 
Venator in campis nivalis 
Haemoniae, daret ut catenis 20 

Fatale monstrum. Quae generosius 
Perire quaerens nec muliebriier 
Expavit ensem, nec latentes 
Classe cita reparavit oras, 

Ausa et jacentem visere regiam 25 

Vultu sereno, fortis et asperas 

virorum. At the courts of the Asiatic kings, and a(so at that of the 
sovereigns of Egypt, there were great numbers of eunuchs, who 
were an abominaiion to the Romans. They were regarded by theni 
as a disgrace to the human race (for morbo depends upon turpiiim.) 
— 10. Impotens is one who cannot command himaeli, who is not 
masteroi his own mind; hence one who hopes for that which he 
cannot obtain, *hold' = audax^ and consirued, after the Greek 
fashion, with an infinitive. — 13. The greater part of Antony's fleet " 
was burned by Octavianus ; the admirars ship alone, in which An- 
tony had fled near the beffinning of the engagement, being preserved. 
Thus tospes ah ignibus, being construed together, are equivalent to 
servata ab ignibus. — 14. Mareoticoj scil, vino, a sweet wine, grown 
at Marea, a town of Lower Egypt, near Alexandria. By this wine 
the mind of Cleopatra was li/mphata, * maddened, heated to mad- 
ness:* her mind was fiUed with vain fears, so that she sailed away 
at the very ^ommencement of the engagement, thus occasioning 
defeat to her party. — 17. Remis adurgens db Italiavolantem, * pursu- 
ing her closely with oars, oared ships, as she was hastening from 
Italy.* The description is not historically accurate ; for Octavianus, 
after the battle of Actium, went first to Asia, then for a short time 
to Italy, and then sailed for Egypt, where Cleopatra killed herself 
in the year after the battle. — 20. Haemonia, the poetical name for 
Thessaly, so called from Haemon, the father of Thessalus. Daret 
catenis = caperet, * take prisoner.' — 21. Fatale monstrum. Cleopatra 
is so calied, because it sometimes seemed as if she were destined 
by fate to overthrow the Roman state. — 22. Muliehriter^ * as women 
commonly do, with womanly timidity.' Cleopatra attempted to 
stab herself, but was prevented by the guards. — 23. Latentes oras 
=.ignotas oras, and reparavit=paravit pro iis, quas amiserat. It is 
related that Cleopatra had for a time purposed to sail awny in a fleet, 
which she caused to be broaght into the Red Sea, and to seek a 
new abode in unknown regions. — 25. Ausa — sere^to, ' even daring, 
or being bold enough to look upon her palace, in all its desolation, 


Tractare serpentes, ut atrum 
Corpore cornbiberet venenum, 

Deliberata morte ferocior : 
Saevis Liburnis scilicet invidens, 30 

Privata deduci superbo, 
Non humilis mulier, triumpho. 

with a calm countenance, without a tear.' — 27. Serpentes, She is 
said, as is well known, to bave killed herself by the bite of an asp, 
which she had secretly applied to her breast. — 29. Deliberata morte 
ferociory * prouder, bolder, because she had resolved upon death.* 
Veliberata for the more common decreta. — ^30. Saevis Lihurnis ; that 
is, inimicis. The Romans had, particularly in comparison with the 
Egyptians, small and light ships, which are here, as in Epode i. 1, 
cailed Libumian. — 3L rrivata, *as a private person, deprived.of 
her royahy.' 'J'he nominative with the infinitive, privata deduci, 
]a a constniction after the Greek, and is dependent on invidens ; 
the sense being, ' she was envious of the Roman fleet, and would 
not/ &c. 




, This poem is addressed to the poefs slave, and charges him not to 
make costly preparations for a bonquet which Horace is about 
to celebrate in the open air. 

Persicos odi, puer, apparatus; 
Displicent nexae philyra coronae; 
Mitte sectari, rosa quo locorura 
Sera moretur. 
Simplici myrto nihil allabores * 6 

* Sedulus, curo : neque te ministrnm 
Dedecet myrtus n^que me sub arta 
Vite bibentem. 

1. Persicosj such as the Persians, who were notorious among the 
Greeks and Romans for their laxuriousness and debauchery, used 
to make. — 2. Philyra, the thin skin between the bark and the wood 
of the lime-tree, which Was used for tying garlands. — 3. Mitte sec- 
tari =3 noli sectari, noli quaerere. Quo locorum = quo loco. Rosa 
sera, * a late rose ;' one which blooms after the reguiar time is past. 
The servant is not to seek costly garlands, made of rare flowers. — 
5. Construe: curo (that isy volo) nihil allabores = ne ^uid adjungas 
ma^no lahore. — 7. The vine, or rather the tree up which the vine is 
tramcd (a custom still retained in Iiaiy), is called arta, because it is 
thick, and consequently throws a cooiing shade. 




C. AsiNius PoLLio, in whose praise this ode was written, was, both 
from his high birth, and frotn his distinction in the political as 
well as literary world, one of the leading men of his time. 
When but a youth he came prominently forward as an orator ; 
for we find him in 75 b. c, in his twenty-third year, accusing- C. 
Cato. After this he served under Caesar ; and during the civil 
wars ailer Caesar^s death, he held an independent command. 
In the year 43 b. c. he decided the fall of the republican party 
by siding with Mark Antony, when defeated and a fugitive, and 
bringing about the triumvirate of Octavianus, Antony, and 
Lepidus. In the year 40 b. c. he was consul, and reccived in 
the fidlowing year the province of Illyricura, Whilst in thia • 
command, he conquered the barbarous tribes of the Parthini 
and Dalmatians, and took the town of Salonae. For these 
victories he, on Uie 25th October 39 b. c, celebrated a triumph, 
which was called the Dalmatian. In the quarrels between 
Octavianus and Antony he attempted, so long as it was possible, 
to act as mediator, inclining, however, more to the party of the 
latter; and he could not be prevailed upon, even before the 
campaign of Actium, when the ruin of Antony seemed ^ertain, 
and all his fbrmer friends were leaving him, to take the field 
against him. He was too proud, and too much imbued with the 
old republican spirit, to serve under Octavianus. During the 
time when these disputes and quarrels were going on, and when 
he could not be politically active, he turned his attention to 
litorature, and wrote tragedies and historical works ; among the 
latter, especially, a history of the last civil wars, from the year 
60 b. c. (the consulship of L. Afranius and Q. Caecilius MeteUus), 
when what is called the first triumvirate was formed by Pompey, 
Caesar, and Crassus. It is to be lamented, that of all Pollio*8 
writings nothing except the very smallest fragraents has come 
down to us. 

The praise which Horace bestows upon PoUio in this ode refers 
merely to his distinction as a historian : of his political skill and 



activity he could not venture to speak, aa thej had not heen 
exerted on behalf of Augustua. However, hc incidentally (line 
13, and fbllowing) mentions his triumph, and his abilities as a 
senator and an advocate. The ode was written probably nof 
long ailer the battle of Actium. 

MoTUM ex Metello consule civicum 
Bellique causas et vitia et modos 
Ludumque fortunae gravesque 
Principum amicitias et arma, 

Nondum expiatis uncta cruoribus, 5 

Periculosae plenum opus aleae, 
Tractas, et incedis per ignes, 
Suppositos cineri doloso. 

Paulum severae Musa tragoediae 
Desit theatris : mox ubi publicas 10 

Res ordinaris, grande munus 
Cecropio repetes cothurno, 

Insigne maestis praesidium reis 
Et consulenti, Pollio, curiae, 

Cui laurus aeternos honores 15 

Dalmatico peperit triumpho. 

Jam nunc minaci murmure cornuum 
Perstringis aures, jam litui strepunt, 

1. Motum — civicum ; that is, hellum civiU. Metellus was consul 
in the year 60 b. c. — 2. Vitia, * the political and military blunders.* 
The poet is thinking, for instance, of the unfortunate campaign of 
Crassus against the rarthians, or of the overthrow of Pompey and 
his party. — 4. Amieitia» et arma. Caesar and Pompey were at 
first friends, and allied by marriage ; Pompey bein^ the husband of 
Caesar's daughter: afterwards they fought agamst each other. 
Thus the ' friendship" turned to ' arms.' In the same way, Antony 
was conpected with Octavianus, being married to his sister Octavia. 
— 5. XTncta, 'dripping, or wet yfwYC =i tnaculata, tincta. — 6. Opus 
plenum periculosae aleae^ *a work fall of hazardous throws;' that 
is, a work containing the history of many a bold and venturous 
undertaking. — 8. Sitppositos cineri doloso. The sense is this: 
you relate the history of the civil wars, which, though exiernally 
finished, are still slumbering under the ashes. The last sparks, 
however, of the animosities and ill-feeling generated by the civil 
wars, were extinguished by the mildness of the reign of Au- 

gustus. — 9. The meaning js: do not hurry away to the trage- 
ies which you purpose towriie; *Iet the theatres want thy tra- 
gedies for a litlle.' — 10. Publicas res, * the history of the Roman 
state.' — 11. Grande munus, &c. * then thou wilt turn again to ihy 
great present (the present to Roman literature of tragedies) with 
the Cecropian buskin.' 'Cecropian' is equivalent to * Athenian;' 
from Cecrops, the founder of Athens. Tragedy was invented by 
the Athenians, and by them alone of the Greeks brought to perfcc- 
tion. — 17. The sense is this: the vivid descriptions of battles in 


Jam fulgor armorum fugaces 

Terret equos equitumque vultus. 20. 

Audire magnos jam videor duces, 
NoQ indecoro pulvere sordidos, 
Et cuncta terrarum subacta 
Praeter atrocem animum Catonis. 

Juno et deorum quisquis amicior 25 

Afris inulta cesserat impotens 
Tellure, victorum nepotes 
Rettulit inferias Jugurthae. 

Quis non Latino sanguine pinguior 
Campus sepulchris impia proelia 30 

Testatur auditumque Medis 
Hesperiae sonitum ruinae ? 

Qui gurges aut quae flumina lugubris 
Ignara belli ? Quod raare Dauniae 
Non decoloravere caedes ? 35 

Quae caret ora cruore noslro 1 

your work bring the whole scene before my mind. Cornua and 
liiui, horns and clarions, were the two kinds of musicai inBtruments 
used in the Roman army ; the former being crooked, the latier 
Btraight. — 20. Bquos equitumque vultus seems to refer to the battle 
of rnarsalus, where Pompev's cavalry fled first ; because, it is 
said, they could not endure tne sight of the spears of Ca§sar's co- 
horis, which, by his orders, were directed at their faces. — 21. Au- 
dire. The Roman leaders, before battles, were in the habit of 
delivering speeches to their armies ; and the historians were fond 
of ^iving the substance of these, adorned with all the charms of 
polished rhetoric. — 23. Cuncta terrarum subacta^cunctas terras suh' 
actas. Caesar, before he went to Africa — the time to which the 
poet alludes — ^had subdued G]:eece, Asia, and Egypt. Cato is the 
well-known Uticensis, who, after the battle of Thapsus, which de- 
termined the fate of Africa, killed himself at Utica, to escape the 
necessity of yielding to the conqueror. — 25. The poet comes now to 
a theme which he often touches upon ; namely, the sad misfortunes 
of the civil wars. Many citizens belonging to the Pompeian party 
had falleh in Africa, particularly after the battle of Thapsus. Ho- 
race so represents the matter, as if Juno, the ancient tutelary god- 
dess of Carthage, and the other guardian divinities of Africa, had 
presented the blood of these citizens (the descendants of the victors, 
victorum nepotes) as an expiatory sacrifice for the destruction of 
Carthage, and the conquest of Jugurtha. — 26. Impotens cesserat m- 
ulta teUure^ ' had, in anger and grief, left the land whose sufferings 
they could not avenge.* It was an ancient belief, that the gods left 
a city, the destruction of which they could not avert. — 30. Sepulckris, 
In ihe lands which the Romans had fertilised with their blood, there 
were everywhere tombs of the slain, witnesses to the impia hella ; 
that is, the civil wars. — 32. Hesperiae^ruinae, * the fall ol the west- 
em (that is, Roman) republic* The crash was heard even by the 
distant Parthians or Medes. Hesperius is * western' generally. — ^34* 


Sed ne relictis, Musa procax, jbcis 
Ceae retractes munera naeniae : 
Mecura Dionaeo sub antro 
Quaere modos leviore plectro. 40 

Dauniae, ^ro^exXy = Apulae (Carm. i. 22, 14); here = Romanae.— 37. 
The poet, when about to go on at some length wiih this lament over 
the civil wars, recoUects that his ceneral purpose is to write only 
jocular poems (;ofi) of a lighter class {leviore plectro), not elegies 
inaeniae) such as, erewhile, ihe renowned poqt, Simonides of Cos, 
composed: hence, now, Horace reatrains the gush of his sorrow. — 
39. Dionaeo sub antro. Dione, properly tbe mother of Venus, is 
sometimea, as here, Venus herself. 


Sallustius Crispus, grandson of the sister of the historian, was a 
friend and imitator of Muecenas. He might, like him, being 
rich and a favourite of Augustus, have attained to the highest 
offices in the state ; but preferred aquiet life as a simple Roman 
eques, and the tranquil enjoymentof his wealth. Horace praises 
him in this poem for the wise use which be makes of his fbrtune, 
The ode was written about the year 25 b. c. 

NuLLUS argento color est avaris 
Abdito terris, inimice lamnae 
Crispe Sallusti, nisi teraperato 
Splendeat usu. 

Vivet extento Proculeius aevo 5 

Notus in fratres animi paterni ; 

1. NulluB color est. Silver has no glitter so long as it lies con- 
cealed in the bowels of the earth: in the same way money is use- 
less, if kept shut up in a chest, and not expended. — 2. Lamnae, 
shortened form of laminae ; properly, *a plaie of metal,' here used 
contemptuously of stamped or coined money. Connect the ciauses 
thus: inimice lamnaej nisi — splendeat^ * who hatest money, unless 
it shines,' &c. — 5. Proculeius was, in rank, merely a Roman 
eques, but a man of such distinction and consequence that Augustus 
thought of giving him his daughter Julia to wife. He was praised 
as a pattern of brotherly love ; for when his brothers Scipio and 
Murena lost their property in the civil wars, he shared wiih them 
bis own fortune. Extento — aevo : his iife wili be lengthened, for 
his fame will be immortal. — 6. Animi patemij * for his fatherly feel- 


Illum aget penna metuente fiolvi 
Fama superstes. 

Latius regnes avidum doraando 
Spiritum, quam si Libyam remotis 10 

Gadibus jungas et uterque Poenus 
Serviat uni. 

Crescit indulgens sibi dirus hydrops, 
Nec sitim pellit, nisi causa morbi 
Fugerit venis et aquosus albo 15 

Corpore languor. 

Redditum Cyri solio Phraaten 
Dissidens plebi numero beatorum 
Eximit virtus populumque falsis 
Dedocet uti 20 

Vocibus ; regnum et diadema tuturo 
Deferens uni propriamque laurum, 

ing.' Gram. % 2TI, 2, note L Compare Zumpt, % 437. — 7. Penna 
metuente solvi ; that is, penna auae non solveter or dissolvetur. The 
goddess Fame is, as is well known, represented with wings. In 
the word solvi^ Horace seems to /allude to the story of Icarus, who 
fled from Crete along with his father Daedalus, by means of wings 
which the latter had constructed of wax. Icarus perished in the sea 
called after him Icarian — his wings having been melted by the heat 
of the sun. — 10. Remotis GadihuSy * to Gades (used for Spain) far 
distant from us.' Uterque Poenus also refers to this ; for there was 
a Carthage in Spain as weil as in Africa. The sense, consequentlj^, 
is this : one who can rule his desires has a wider dominion than if 
he were lord of Spain and Africa. — 13. Comparison of avarice with 
the disease of dropsy. As this disease grows, if it indulges itself 
{sibi indulgens) — that is, strives to quench with water the morbid 
thirst (ihis should, properly, be said of the sufterer, not of the dis- 
ease) — so also avarice, the more it has, the more it would have. 
Nothing but the conviction that virtue alone is able to make a man 
happy can eradicate this vice. — 17. Phraaten. Phraates I V. king 
of the Parthians; whom his subjects had expelled for his cruelty, 
had recently (26 b. c.) been reinstated in his power by the help of 
the Scy thians. He was thus Cyri solio redditus^ ' restored to the 
throne of Cyrus ;' for the Parthian monarchs considered theniselves 
to be the successors of the old kings of Persia. — 18. Dissidens plebi 
virtusj *virtue, dissenting from the common people ;* that is, tfae 
wise and virtuous man, being of a diflferent opinion from the mass 
of the people, who regard rhraates as happy because he has been 
restored to his kingdom, numero beatorum eximit, 'excepts»him 
from the number of the happy,* does not consider him as really 
happy. Observe, in the scanning of this line, that the um of heato- 
rum 18 cut off before the first word of the next line, which begins 
with a vowel. — 22. Deferens uni, •yielding, ascribing to him alone.* 
The doctrine of the Sioics, of whom Horace is here chiefly think- 
ing, was that the wise man only was happy ; and was a king, having 
a crown secure and indestructibie, and the laurel peculiar to him- 


Qaisquis ingentes oculo irretorto 
Spectat acervos. 

.self, belon^ing to liim alone {prcpriam laurum.) — 23. Ocitlo irretorto. 
A person is said to throw bacK his looks or glances (oeulos retor- 
quere), who, on going away from anything which he is anzious but 
unable to possess, casts his eyes wistfully towards it. Hence oculo 
irretorto i^ here said of him who can pass by great heaps of goid 
witbout even looking at thera. 


AD Q. DELMUM. ' ^ 

Q. Dbllius, to whom this poem is addressed, was one of that nu- 
merous class of Romans, who, not possessing any spirit of poli. 
tical independence, and being heedless of, if indeed they had, 
any inward conviction, were content, during the civil wars, to 
fi»lIow the majority, and the tide of success. He had been con- 
nected in succession with all the great parties, and was now in 
iavour with Augustus. This ode, however, has no reference to 
his character or political relations, but is simply an exhortation 
to enjoy life temperately, never going to ezcesBes either of joy 
or sorrow. 

^EQUAM memento rebus in arduis 
Servare mentem, non secus in bonis 
Ab insolenti temperatam 
Laetitia, moritare Delli, 

Seu maestus omni tempore vixeris, 5 

Seu te in remoto gramine per dies 
Festos reclinatum bearis 
Interiore nota Falerni. 

1. Aequam mentem should refer properly to equanimity in pros- 
perity (in bonist fcil, re&us) as weli as in adversity (m arduia rebus) ; 
but the regular use of the expression in Latin is in regard only to 
calmness under affliction and calamity : so here. Equanimity in 
prosperity is ezpressed by mens temperata ab insqlenti laetitiai ' a 
mina kept free from immoderate joy.* — 4. Moriture is to be con- 
nected with the foUowing eeu — seu ; *who art doomed to die, 
whether . . . .or. . . .' — 6. JRemoto; namely, from the world, 
and the harassing pursuits of men. — 7. Bearis = beatum reddi- 
deris, * hast blessea.' — 8. Interiore nota. To the amphorae, in 
which^he wine was kept, short notices (notae) were affixed, stating 
the year by the names of the consuls. Hence nota here is equiva- 


Qua pinns ingens albaque populus 
Umbram hospitalem consociare amant 10 

Ramis, et obliquo laborat 
Lympha fugax trepidare rivo, 

Huc vina et unguenta et nimium breves 
Flores amoenae ferre jube rosae, 
Dum res et aetas et sororum 15 

Fila trium patiuntur atra. 

Cedes coemptis saUibus et domo 
Villaque, flavus quara Tiberis lavit j 
Cedes et exstructis in altum 
Divitiis potietur heres. 20 

Divesne prisco natus ab Tnacho 
Nil interest an pauper et infima 
De gente sub divo moreris, 
Victima nil miserantis Orci. 

Omnes eodem cogimur, omnium 25 

Versatur urna serius ocius 
Sors exitura et nos in aelernum 
Exilium impositura cymbae. 

lenl to ' sort,' and interior is, * taken from the innerjpart of the cel- 
lar ;' that is, stored up longer ago, hence ' better.' — 11. On the 
bank of a winding stream irivus obliquus), where pines and poplars 
grow. Ldborat lympha trepidare ; that is, cum lahore trepidat lym- 
pha ; the water ffows, as it were, with labour and difficulty over the 
pebbles of the brook, and its rippling is a trepidatio. — 13. Nimium 
breves fioreSj * the flowers, too soon to fade.' For ferre we should 
expect ferri^ but supply puerum. — 15. Jies, * your circumstances, 
fortune.' Sororum trium, the three Parcae, of Fates. — 17. Salti' 
bu8 =pascuiSf * paslures,' on which extensive flocks were kept. — 
18. As io flavus, compare i. 2, 13. — 22; Nil interest divesne (that 
is, utrum dives) — an pauper — sub divo moreris. Prisco natus ab 
JfiachOf 'sprung from ancient Inachus,' a fabulous king of Argos; 
hence ' of ancient and noble descent.' iSm6 divo morari = in terra 
vivere, — 25. Eodem cogimur ; that is, in eundem locnm {eodem be- 
ing thus an Vidv erh) compellijnur. — 26. Connect the words thua: 
versatur sors (* the lot is shaken') exitura (cx) urna seriusocius. In 
the most ancient kind of trial by lot (mentioned even by Homer), 
the lots were cast into an urn, which was then shaken, and that 
which fell out was the one taken. — 28. Cymbae, Charon's boat, 
which will take us over the Styx to eternal exile — residence in the 
Vand of shades. 




This ode is addressed to a certain Septimius, a person otberwise 
nnknown, but who appears to have been an intimate fricnd of 
Horace. The poet laments that he is about, probably in the 
company of some noble Roman, to set out for Spain, where in 
the years 27 and 26 b. c., a fierce war was carried on with the 
tribe of the Cantabri. He declares that he is wearied of an 
unsettled life and of campaigningf ; and he wishes, as the abode 
of his old age, either his house in Tibur or one in Tarentum. 

SeptimI; Gades aditure mecum dt 
Cantabrum indoctum juga ferre nostra et 
Barbaras Syrtes, ubi Maura semper 
Aestuat unda ; 

Tibur, Argeo positum colono, 6 

Sit meae sedes utinam senectae, 
Sit mddus lasso maris et viarum 

Unde si Parcae prohibent iniquae, 
DuJce pellitis ovibus Galaesi 10 

Flumen et regnata petam Lacoal 
Rura Phalanto. 

IUe terrarum mihi praeter omnes 
Angulus ridet, ubi non Hymetto 

2. Indoctum, ' who has not learned, and will not learn ;' jugaferre 
nostra, * to bear our yoke,' the Roman supremacy. — 3. Syrtes. 
The fancy of the poet connects Africa with Spain, and he names 
the part of Africa least cultivated, and most inaccessible to ships. 
— 5. Argeo pctsitttm colonoy 'founded by Argive coionists.' See i. 
18, 2.-7. La98o maris, • weary of ihe sea. In prose we should 
have had the ablative instead of the geniiive. Gram. $ 277, 2, note 
1. Comp. Zumpt, ^ 437. Modus =Jinis. — 9. Unde si Parcat pro- 
hibent, *if the Fates keep me from this ;' namely, from living in 
Tibur ; hence unde = a Tibure. — 10. Dulce — fiumen. Galaesus 
(modern Galaso) was the name of a river in the neighbourhood of 
Tarentum. The district was admirably suited for the breeding of 
sheep, and Tarentine wool and Tarentine dyes were famous among 
the Romans. Ovihus pellitis is the dative. The sheep are called 
pellitae, beeause they used to be covered with hides to protect the 
wool from. impurity and injury. — 12. Rura regnata Phalanto Laconi^ 
poetical for rura guhernata olim a Pkalanto. Phalantus, a Lacedae- 
monian, is said to have founded Tarentum. — 14. Angulus, in refer- 
ence to the fact that Tarentum was situaied in the Turthest corner 
8 ^ 


Mella decedunt viridique certat 15 

Bacca Venafro ; 

Yer ubi longum tepidasque praebet 
Jupiter brumas, et amicus Aulon 
Fertili Baccho miniraum Falernis ' » 

Invidet uvis. 20 

II le te mecum locus et beatae 
Postulant arces : ibi tu calentem 
Debita sparges lacrima favillam 
^ Vatis amici. 

of Italjf. Hymetto decedunt, . * yields not to the honey of Hymettus,* 
a hill in Attica, famed for the sweetness of the hone^ produced 
upon it. The name of the hili is used for its products, m the same 
way as Venafro in line 16. — 16. Bacca : namely, the olive. Vena- 
frum, a town in Campania, produced the best olives. — 18. Aulon, a 
mountain of Calabria, in the neighbourhood of Tarentum, where 
good wine waa grown, on which account it is here calied amicus 
fertili Baccho, and is said to be little inferior (jninimum invidet) to 
the world-famed Faiernian. — 21. Temecvm — postulant, *that place 
wishes thee, and me.' This is a poetical inversion, the sense of 
course beiq^, ' Thou and I wish for that place, desire to live there.* 
Arces is said generally of the city of Tarentum, which lay high. — 
22. Ihi — amici, The sense is this : there we shoiild wish to die, I 
before thee, so that, standing beside the funeral pile, thou shouldst 
moisten with thy tears the still hot ashes of thy poet-friend. 


An ode of congratulation to an old feIIow.soIdier, onje who had 
been with Horacc in the republican army of M. Brutus ; had 
then served under Antony; and at last, afler the battle of 
Actium, had reached the haven of tranquil repose. Horace 
invites him to a banquet at his hoosc. 

O SAEPE mecum tempus in ultimum 
Deducte, Bruto militiae duce, 
Quis te redonavit Quiritem 
Dis patriis Italoque coelo, 
Pompei, meorum prime sodalium? 5 

1. Temjms in ultimumdeducie, *brought into the greatest peril,* 
for tempus ultimum is a time at which a person betieves death to be 
imminent.— 4. Dis patriis, *the gods of thy home, thy household 
gods.' — 5. Pompei is to be read as a word of two syllables. Gom- 



Cnm quo morantem saepe diem mero 
Fregi coronatus nitentes 
Malobatltro Syrio capillos. - 

Tecum Philippos et celerem fugam 
Sensi; relicta non bene parmula, 10 

Cum fracta virtus et minaces 
Turpe solum tetigere mento. 

Sed rae per hostes Mercurins celer 
Denso paventem sustulit aere j 
Te rursus in bellum resorbens , 15 

Unda fretis tulit aestuosis. 

Ergo obligatam redde Jovi dapem, 
Longaque fessum militia latus 
Depone sub lauru mea^ nec 
Parce cadis tibi destinatis. 20 

Oblivioso levia Massico 
Ciboria exple, funde capacibus 
Unguenta de conchis. Quis udo 
Deproperare apio coronas 

pare i. 35, 17, anteit. — 6. Morantem — fregi, ' I have often broken 
the lingering day with wine ;* that is, have often, when the day 
seemed long, and hung heavy on our hands, broken off a piece of 
it, as it were, by banquetin^. — 8. Connect capillos nitentes Syrio 
malobathrOf * hair sbining with Syrian malobathrum.' This was an 
Indian plant, from whose leaves an oil was pressed; here the oil 
itself. — 10. Belicta non beue parmuld. This is a famous expression 
of Horace, in regard to the close of his miiitary career. The phrase 
18 to be considered as a poetical mode of indicating and describing 
the losB of the battle. Horace, neither less brave nor less cowardly 
than his fellow-soldiers, fled aiong with them, when the deaih 
of Cassius and Brutus made it evident that victory was im- 
possible. — 11. Minacesy 'those who formerly had threatened with 
their weapons.* What follows is again merely a poetical descrip- 
tion of a defeat in general. — 14. Denso — aere, * concealed by a thick 
cloud,' in the same manner as heroes in Homer are often with- 
drawn from the midst of battles, enveloped by their euardian divi- 
nities in mists so dense, that the foes find themselves at fault. 
Horace, as a poet, was under the special proiection of Mercury. 
Compare ii; 17, 29. — 16. The figure is taken from the waves of the 
sea, which, when receding from the beach, ofien carry away what 
they have just before ihrown up. Fretis aestuosis, * in the boiling 
fiood, amidthe roaring waters.' — 17. ObUgatam, 'whichthou owest^ 
= debitam. In regard to the custom of spreading out feasis before- 
the gods, in token of gratitude, see i. 37, 2. — 19. Sub laurii mea. 
There is here a slight totich of irony in regard to Horace himself : 
come to me and rest in my house, ihe house which I have gained 
by my laurels, be they military or poetic. — 22. Ci6<jr/a, a^kind of 
large cups, in form resembling the pods of the Egyptian bean. 
Ohlivioso Maisico, ' wiih Massic wine (wine froni Mount Massicus: 
corapare i. 1, 19), which brings forgetfulness.'— 23. CoTichis, 'shells,* 


Curatve myrto? Quem Venus arbitrurn 25 

Dicet bibendi ? Non ego saniua 
Bacchabor Edonis: recepto 
Dulce mihi furere est amico. 

vessels in which ointments were kept. Quis udo — coronast * who is 
taking care to hurry on, prepare hastily, ffarlands of the pliant 
parsley?' This is a periphrasis for a simple command, *prepare 
quickly.' Deproperare = the prose properare. Apium is calied 
udum, because it is moist and pliant. — 25. Arbitrunii elsewhere 
magistrum bibendi. Sce i, 4, 18. — ^27. Edonis, a Thracian tribe, de- 
voted to the service and orgies of Bacchus. Recepto — amico, 'Bince 
I have received back my friend.' 



This poem, the composition of which seems to fall iu the year 
20 B.C., is addrcsscd to C. Valgius Rufus, a fricnd of Horace, 
and a man distinguished as a statesman (for he was consul suf' 
fectus in 12 b.c.), and also as a writer both of prose and poetry. 
Valgius grieved immoderately at the death of a young friend 
called Mystes, and devoted hia poetical talents to the sole pur- 
pose of bewailing his loss. Horace urgcs him to tum his atten- 
tion to more serious and worthy subjecls, particularly the praises 
of Augustus, and the recent exploits of the Roman people. 

NoN semper imbres nubibus hispidos 
Manant in agros, aut mare Caspium 
Vexant inaequales procellae 
Usque, neque Armeniis in oris, 

Amice Valgi, stat glacies iners 5 

Menses per omnes aut Aquilonibus 
Querceta Gargani laborant 
Et folii» viduantur orni : 

Tu semper urges fiebilibus modis 

1. Hispidoa in agros, *upon the rou^h fields;* that is, fields either 
bristHng with ears of corn, or coverea with weeds and briers from 
the copious rains. — 3. Inaequales, ' which, deslroy the level of the 
sea,' by raising great billows. — 4. Usque = semper. — 5. Iners, in 
opposition to the constant moiion which open water has. — 7. Gar- 
gannSf a mountain of Apulia, near the town of Sipontum. — 9. By 
modi here we must understand songs of lamentation, elegies, in 
which Valgius bewailed the loss of his young friend. Urgere is said 
of anything which a person does uninterruptedly, without inter- 


Mysten ademptum, nec tibi Vespero 10 

Surgente decedunt amores 
Nec rapidum fugiente solem. 

At non ter aeyo functus amabilem 
Ploravit omnes Antilochum senex 
Annos, neque impubem parentes 15 

Troilon ant Phrygiae sorores 

Flevere seroper. Desine mollium 
Tandem querelamm, et potius nova 
Cantemus Augusti tropaea- 
Caesaris et rigidum Niphaten, 20 

Medumque flumen gentibus additam 
Victis minores volvere vertices, 
Intraque praescriptum Gelonos 
Exiguis equitare campis. 

mission : hence in this passage it is equivalent to perpetuo lugeg. — 
12. FugientCt sciL Ves-pero, or rather, with its mornin^ name, LuH- 
fero, * when the morning star flees before the hastening sun ;' that 
18, when day breaks. — 13. Ter aevo functus — senext Nestor of 
Pylos, who, according to Homer, lived to such an age that he eaw 
four generations or ages of men. His son Antilochus was killed by 
Memnon before the walls of Troy. — 16. Troilus was a son of 
Priam, who, though young and weak, engaged in unequal strifo 
with Achilles, and was slain by him. — 17. Desine querelarumy a 
Greek cpnstruction, for which, in prose Latin, tbe accusative que- 
rdas would have to be used. — 20. Niphaten, a mountain of Arme- 
nia, here emplpyed to designate the whole of that country. Simi- 
larly in the next line the river Medus, which falls into the AraxeSi 
near the city of Persepolis, is used for the Parthians, who dwell on 
its banks. Hence it is said minorea vertices volvere, a mixed iigure ; 
fof volvere is quite properly used of the rolling of a river, but 
vertex can be said only of the person who is made not to carry * his 
head' so high. With minores vertices ihe English phrase * dimin- 
ished heads' may be compared. — 23. Gelonos, a tribe of the Scy- 
thians who dwelt in Europe. The poet says of them, that the pre- 
datory inroads which they had been in the habit of making into tho' 
Roman dominions were now prevented ; ' that thev ride onTy in their 
own narrow territories, within ihe bounds marked out to them' 
(intra praescriptum.) AII this praise of the victories of Augustus 
refers to the facts, that in the year 20 b. c, Phraates, king of the 
Parthians, acknowledged the supremacy of Rome, and restored the 
booty and captives taken in previous campaigns ; and that Tiberius, 
the stepson of Augustus, with the help of a Roman army, estab- 
lished Tigranes as King of Armenia. 




An ezhortation to L. Licinius Yarro Murena to guard against 
eztremes. Prosperity and ad^ersity have their turn in thie life 
of almost every man. Licinius needed this advicc, and would 
have been more happy and fbrtunate had he fbllowed it. He 
displayed towards all a candour and openness of speech Which 
gained him many enemies; and iu the year 22 b. c, when a 
conspiracy against the life of Augustus was discovered, in which 
he was involved, he was put to death. 

Rectius vives, Licini, neque altura 
Sennper urgendo neque, dum procellas 
Cautus horrescis, uimium premendo 
Litus iniquum. 

Auream quisquis mediocritatem 5 

Diliffit, tutus caret obsoleti 
Sordibus tecti, caret invidenda 
Sobrius aula. 

Saepius ventis agitatar ingens 
Pinus, et celsae graviore casu 10 

Decidunt turres feriuntque summos . 
Fulgura montes. 

Sperat infestis, metuit secundis 
Alterara sorlera bene praeparatum 
Pectus. Informes hiemes reducit ^5 

Jupiter, idem 

1. The navigation of the ancients was principally confined to 
coasting : it was rarely and unwillingly that they ventured into the 
open sea, since, having no compass or any other of our modern in- . 
struilfents, they could not know their position or direct their course. 
Hence the poet^s advice, not to be always out at sea. — 2. Urgere^ 
as in line 3 premere, denotes remaining firmly by a tbing. Litus 
vremere may well be translated by the English nautical phrase * to 
iiug the shore.' — 5. Mediocritatem, ' the middle path, mean,' ac- 
cording to a frequent use of the word, though, upon the whole, 
mediocria has oftener a bad than a good signincation. — 6. Obsoleli 
— tectt. Obtoletnm is anyihing which has become dirty and ruin- 
ous from age. Hence in ihis passagc tutus is put in opposition to 
it, • safe under a roof not yet decayed.' — 11. TurreSj * lofty build- 
ings, palaces.' — 13. Infesti*, ablative plural of the neuter infestum, 
•a calamity;' as secundisj from secundum^ 'a prosperous state or 
event.' Hence altera sors = adversa sorsj adversafortuna, * a change 
of fortune.' — 14. Benepraeparatum, wellpreparedforlife, forthebear- 
ing of human vicissitudes. — 15. Informes, ' which disfigure the face 


Sumniovet. Non, si male nunc, et olim 
Sic erit. Quondam citharae tacentem 
Suscitat musam neque semper arcum 
Tendit Apollo. 20 

Rebus angustis animosus atque 
Fortis appare ; sapienter idem 
Contrahes vento nimium secundo 
Turgida vela. V 

of earth and sky.' — 17. Si male nunc, supply esU Male est, * things 
are bad, I am in misfortune.' Olim, in a rare and poetical use, re- 
ferring to -the future, not to the past. This use, however, is quite 
consistent with the etymology of the word, which is connected with 
idlus = Ule, and consequently meant originaliy 'at that time,' either 
past or future. — 18. (iuondam = interdum, * sometimes.' The in- 
stance of Apollo ia very happily chosen, since he was not only the 
god of poetry, but also a warrior, and the inventor of the deadly 
bow. — 21. Aebus a7igu8tis ; that is, in a^igustiiSf 'in straits, diffi- 
culties;' like infestia above. — 23. C&ntrahes — turgidavday 'thou 
shouldst take in the swelling sails.' Vela contrahere ib ohen said 
even in prose of one who keeps himself temperate and every way 
within bounds, and is here particuiarljr appropriate, since the poem 
ends with the same figure with which it began. 



A HAJLF-JESTiNG, half-serious ode, imprecating curses upon a tree 
on his Sabine farm, by the sudden fall of which hc had been 
nearly killed. Written in the year 30 b. c. 

Ille et nefasto te posuit die, 
Quicunque primum, et sacrilega manu 
Produxit, arbos, in nepotum 
Perniciera opprobriumque pagi ; 

lilum et parentis crediderim sui 6 

Fregisse cervicem et penetralia 

1. Nefasto die, *an unlucky day,' called also ater dies. The 
Romans had many of these in their calendar. It was unlucky to 
commence any business, either public or private, on such days, for 
it could never turn out well. — 2. Quicunque primum; namely, te 
posuit. — 4. Opprobrium pogi, ' for the disgrace of the village,' in 
which thou standest.— 6. Fregisee cervicem parentis, * broke his 
father'8 neck;* specific, humorousiy for the general, 'killed hia 


Sparsisse nocturno cruore 
Hospitis; ille venena Colcha 

£t quidquid usquam concipitur nefas 
Tractavit, agro qui statuit meo 10 

Te, triste lignum, te caducum 
In domini caput immerentis. 

Quid quisque vitet, nunquam homini satis 
Cautnm est in horas : navita Bosporum 
Poenus perhorrescit, neque ultra 15 

Caeca timet aliunde fata ;* 

Miles sagittas et celerem fugam 
Parthi, catenas Partbus et Italum 
Robur ; sed improvisa leti 
Vis rapuit rapietque gentes. 20 

Quam paene furvae regna Proserpinae 
£t iudicantem vidimus Aeacum 
Sedesque discretas piorum et 
Aeoliis iidibus querentem 

Sappho puellis de popuJaribns, 25 

£t te Ronantem plenius aureo, 
Alcaee, plectro dura navis, 
Dura fugae mala, dura belii. 

Utrumque sacro digna silentio 

'father.' Next in enormity to this crime of parricide comes that of 
killing his guest in the night, and staining his house with his hlood. 
—8. venena Colcha, sorcery, the black art, called Colchian from ita 
inventrix Medea, daughter of the king of Colchis. — 9. Conctpitur =s 
committitur, * is or can be committea.' — 11. Caducum =casurumf 
* which didat intend to fall on the head of thy master.' — 13. Homini 
— cautum est in horas = ah homine cavetur in singulas horas, * does 
man take precautions for each single hour.' — 15. Poenus ; that is, 
Tyrian or Phoenician, for Carthage was a colony from Tyre. The 
Bosporus (Straits of the Dardanelles) was much dreaded in antiquity 
as a dangerous part of the sea. Neque ultra — aliunde, 'and no 
furfher, no longer (namely, if he succeeds in passing througU the 
Bosporus) from any otber quarter any oiher thing.* — 16. The last 
syliable of timet is made long by the ictus, Fate is called caecun, 
in a passive sense, because it is not foreseen by men. — 17. Sagiltas 
et — fugam, a hendi^dys, *the arrows which the Parthians shoot 
when in flight ;* for this was what made those warriors formidable. 
— 18. Italum robur, ' the strength of the Italian, Roman, armies.' — 
21. Quam paenCf * how very nearly.' Furvae, an old and little used 
word =nigrae. — 23. Discretas, 'eeparate;' namely, from those of 
the wicked. — 24. Querentem — puellis de popularibus, 'lamenting 
concerning the maidens of her country,' because they did not show 
her the anection which she sought from them. Sappho and Alcaeus 
composed in the Aeolic dialect of Greek : hence Aeoliis jidihus. — 
26. Connect sonantem dura mala navis (that is, 'of a sailor'8 life'), 
dura malafugae (' of flight, exile,' for he was banished from Lesbos 


Mirantur umbrae dicere ; sed magis 30 

Pugnas et exactos tyrannos 
Densum humeris bibit aure vulgus. 

Quid mirum, ubi illis carminibus stupens 
Demittit atras belua centiceps 

Anres et intorti capillis 35 

Eumenidum recreantur angues ? 

Quin et Prometheus et Pelopis parens 
Dulci laborum decipitur sono, ^ 
Nec curat Orion leones 
Aut timidos agitare lyncas. 40 

by the tyrants), dura mala helli (of the war which he waged against 
tne tyrants.) Sonantem is equiyalent to canentem. — 30. Mirantur 
dieere digna ailentio, * confess with admiration that they are singing 
things worthy of the ailence ;' namely, which prevails in the lower 
worla.' — 32. Densum humerist 'thick with tneir shoulders ;' the 
shades press so eagerly to hear the music» that their shoulders form 
a dense mass. Bibit aure, ' drink in wilh their ears.* — 33. llliB car- 
minibu8t .ablative, to be connected with atnpen», * with, or at, thoae 
sonfiTS.'— 34. Belua centiceps ; namely, Cerberus, the sentinel of 
Hades. — 36. Eecreantur, * take rest,' because the Eumenides, the 
Furies, are themselves standing still and listening. — 37. Pelopia pa- 
rernt, Tantalus, who, like Prometheus, suffered fearful punishment 
in the lower world. Both, charmed and deceived by the songs of 
Sappho and Alcaeus, forget their torments. — 3^* Orion, the hunter, 
who is commonly engaged, even in the region of the shades, in the 
chase, now non curat agitare leones, * cares not to rouse and pursue 
the lions.' 



An advice to an otherwise unknown friend, called Postumus, to drive 
away care, and enjoy life wisely. 

Eheu fugaces, Postume, Postume, 
Labuntur anni, nec pietas moram 
Rugis et instanti senectae 
Afferet indomitaeque morii ; 

Non si trecenis, q^uotquot eunt dies, 6 

2. Pietas, * piety, reverence to the gods ;' herein so far as it is 
connected witn superstitious observances. — 5. Trecenis —- tauris ; 
that is, with three times as many cattle as were used for a so-calied 


Araice, places illacrimabiJera 
Pliitona tauris, qui ler amplum 
Geryonen Tityonque tristi 

Compescit unda, scilicet omnibus, 
Quicnnque lerrae munere vescimur, 10 

Enaviganda, sive reges 
Sive inopes erimus coloni. 

Frustra cruento Marte carebiraua 
Fractisqu^;auci fiuctibus Hadriae, 
Frustra per auctumnos nocentem 15 

Corporibus metuemus Austrum. 

Visendus ater fiumine languido 
Cocytus errans et Danai genus 
Infame damnatusque longi 
Sisyphus Aeolides laboris. 20 

Linquenda tellus et domus et placens 
Uxor, neque haruraj quas colis, arbocum 
Te praeter invisas cupressos 
Ulla brevem dominum sequetur. 

Absumet heres Caecuba dignior 25 

Servata centum clavibus, et mero 

hecatomb. Quotquot eunt dies, * as many daya as pasa, every day.' 
— ^7. Ter amplum Geryonen, the son of Chrysaor and Caliirhoe. Tne 
poets described him as havin^ three bodies. — 8. Tityus, a son of the 
goddess Earth, of immense size, who, when killed 6n account of an 
assault upon Diana, covered in the lower world nine acres of ground. 
Tristi unda, the Styz, whose waters are dark and sluggish ; hence 
tristi. — 10. Terrae munere, * the gift (that is, fruits) of the earth,* 
especially corn. — 12. Coloni are here rustics, or country people in 
eeneral. — 13. The idea is this : in vain may we avoid war, or the 
aaDgers of the deep ; in vain may we take most anxious care of our 
health; we must die. — 14. Hadria is the Adriatic, as in i. 3, 15. 
The sea is called raucus, •hoarse,' *hollow-sounding,' on account 
of-the dull, hollow roaring of the waves. — 16. Auatrum, the souih 
wind, called Scirocco in Italy, which prevails especially in the end 
of the summer, and is very injurious to health. — 18. Cocytus, one of 
the rivers in Tartarus. Danai genus, the fifty daughters of Danaus, 
who, on account of the murder of their husbands, were condemned 
to the endless toil of pouring water into a vessel full of holes. — ^20. 
Sisyphus, son of Aeolus, condemned 

< Up a high hill to heave a huge ronnd stone,' 

which, as soon as he reached the top, rolled away down again. 
Lahoris longi damnatust poetical for ad longum laborem damnatus. 
— 23. Cnpressos. The cypress, being sacred to Pluto, used to be 
planted at graves. — 24. Brevem dominum, ' thee, their lord but for 
a brief season,' since thou must soon die. — 25. Dignior. The heir 
is more worthy of the Caecuban wine than thou art, because be en- 


Tinget paviraentum superbo, 
Pontificum potiore coenis. 

joys and uses it, whereas thou art niggardly of it. — 27. Tinget 
pavimentum mero superboj a sign of extravagance : the heir does not 
merely drink the wine, but he allows it to run over upon the ground. 
— 38. Pontificum potwre coenisj * better than the banquets of the 
priests ;' that is, than the wine drunk at these. Compare i. 37, 2. 



An ode in which the poet describes the luxury of his time, as 
ezhibited in the erection of magfnificent buildings, and laying 
out of large pleasure parks. These latter, particularly, were 
injorious to the country; because by them immense tracts of 
arabie land were withdrawn frora cultivation ; so that Italy, a 
naturally ferttle land, had to be -supported by the grain of Sicily, 
A&ica, and Egypt. 

Jam pauca aratro jugera regiae 
Moles relinquent, undique latius 
Extenta visentur Lucrino 
Stagna lacu, platanusque caelebs 

Evincet ulmos. Tum violaria et 6 

Myrtus et omnis copia nariura 
Spargent olivetis odorem, 
Fertilibus domino priori ; 

1. Regiae moleSf * magnificent buildings ;' buiidings as large and 
beautiful as if an Eastern monarch were to inhabit them. — 2. The 
poet points to the luxury of the Romans, as exhibited in their fish- 
ponds (piscinae.) At all parts of the Lucrine Lake, which waa sit- 
uated near Baiae, the most frequented watering-place in Italy (in 
1538 this lake was filied up by an earthquake), the water was led 
off into the private estates in the neighbourhood to supftjy fish- 
ponds ; and also, perhaps, to form convenient bathing places. Hence 
uiidique extenla stagna visentur, * the water will be seen extended 
on all sides.' — 4. Instead of the elms, which, on account of their 
little shade, do no harm to agriculture, plane-trees are planted, un- 
der whose thick branches nothing can grow well. Hence evincet 
=z ttuperabity * will dispossess, or tal«e the place of* The plane is 
called caeld)8j * unwedded,' because the vine cannot be trained up 
it, as it is, for instance, on the elm ; the technical expression for 
such a training was maritare ulmoSy * to marry the elnris.' — 6. Myr- 
tu8 is plural, * myrtle-trees.' Copia,narium ; that is, * of sweet- 
smelling flowers,' flowers valuable only for their sweet odour. — 7. 
Olivetis fertilibus domino priori, * upon, in place of the olive-yards 


Tum spissa ramis laurea fervidos 
Excludet ictus. Non ita Komuli 10 

Praescriptum et intonsi Catonis 
Auspiciis veterumque norma. 

Privatus illis census erat brevis, 
Commune ma^num : nulla decempedis 
Metata privatis opacam 15 

Portifius excipiebat Arcton, 

Neo fortuitum spernere cespitem 
Leges sinebant, oppida publico 
Sumptu jubentes et deorum 

Templa novo decorare saxo. 20 

which brought fruit to the former owner.* — 9. Laurmt used poeti- 
cally for laurus. — 10. Ictus = radioa. — 11. Praetcriptumf sciL esL 
Cato is called ifitonsust because the Romans of his time did not 
shave the beard. This custom was not introduced at Rome till 300 
B. c, when barbers came from Sicily. It found at first little favour, 
but in the time of Horace was universally practised. — 13. CensuSj 
* fortune.' — 14. Nulla — Arcton refers to tbe fact that the weulthy 
Roraans built particuiar rooms for the summer season, which faced 
the north, and consequently were shady, and received the cooling 
northern breezes. The winter rooms looked to the south. Con- 
Btrue thus : nalla porticus metata decempedis excipidtat opacam ArcUm 
privatis. — 17. In the good old tiraes of Rome, the priyaie houses 
were poor, constructed of the fortuitus cespes ; the materials which 
the earth happened to afford at the place where ihey were to be 
erected. On the other hand, the public buildings, even at this early 
period, were built novo »axo ; not with the stones of Italy, but witn 
new, far-fetched stone ; that is, marble. 


Ode to Pompeius Grosphus, a Roman eques of Sicily, whom Horace 
mentions also in his cpistles (i. 12, 22.; The poet sings the 
praises of a peaceful life, accompanied with temperate enjoy- 

Oti(7M divos rogat in patenti 
Prensus Aegaeo, simul atra nubes 
Condidit lunam. neque certa fulgent 
Sidera nautis : 

2. Prensus =deprehensus, icaught, taken by surprise;' namely, 
by a storm. Simul =simul at^ue.--3. Certa — sidera. The stars 
served to the ancient mariners mstead of a composs : they are called 


Otinm bello fnrioRa Thrace, 

Otium Medi pharetra decori, 
Grosphe, non geramis^neque purpura ve- 
nale ueque auro. 

Non enim gazae neque consularis 
Summovet lictor miseros tumultus 10 

Mentis et curaR laqueata circum 
Tecta «olantes. 

• Vivitur parvo bene, cui patemum 

Splendet in mensa tenui salinum, 
Nec leyes somnos timor aut cupido 15 

Sordidus aufert. 

Quid brevi fortes jaculamur aevo 
Multa ? Quid terras alio calentes 
Sole mntamus ? Patriae quis exul 
Se quoqne fugit ? 20 

Scandit aeratas vitiosa naves 
Cura nec turmas equitum relinquit, 
Ocior cervis et agente nimbos 
Ocior Euro. 

Laetus in praesens animus, quod ultra est, 25 
Oderit curare et amara lento 

therefore certa^ * safely-guiding.* When they are concealed, then 
the sailor trembles, and prays to the gods for a clear sky and a calm. 
— ^5. Thrace. The Thracians were famed for their addiction to war- 
fare. Besides their own wars, they also engaged in those of other 
nations, as mercenaries. — 9. Consularis lictor. The poet, ailuding 
to honoars generallv, adduces the consular diffnity as an instance. — 
10. Summovere is the proper expression for the duty of the lictors, 
who, going before the consul, * keep off' the crowd.— «11. Laqueata 
terta, * wamscoted ceilings.' The roofs, when not vaulted, were 
divided by the beams of the next story, which lay across one an- 
other, into smail sunken sqnare spaces (facunar.) These, in the 
houses of the rich, were adorned with gold, or painted. Such ceil- 
ings were chWedlaqueata,— 13. Farvo, 'for little, with little, at liitle 
expense.' Before euij eupply ah «».—15. Timor, the fear felt by the 
man who possesses wealth, and dreads its lose. Sordidus cupido, 
of the avaricious and greedy man. As to the gender of cupido, see 
Gram. % 62, 17. — 17. Jaculamur, a stronger expression for petimus, 
'we strive after, aim at.* — 18. Quid mutamut terras caletites alio 
aolef *Why do we take lands warmed by another sun in ex- 
changet' namely, for our own country? that is, why do we travel 
to foreign lands ? — 19. Patriae—fugit (perfect.) The sense is this : 
we gain nothing by travellins, since we cannot escape from our- 
selves. Exul patrxae; properly, one who has been banished from 
his oountry, here one who has vdlantarily left it.—- 21. Aeratas^ 
' brass-tipped ;* for the prow or beak o/ships, especially of ships of 
war» had to be made strong. — 25. Quod ultra esl ; namely, ultra 
praesensj *the future.'— ^. Oderit eurare, poetical ior nolU curare, 
9 Q 


Temperet risu : nihil est ab omni 
Parte beatum. 

Abstulit clarum cita raors Acliillem, 
Longa Tithonum minuit senectus, 30 

£t mihi forsaU; tibi quod negarit, 
Porriget hora. 

Te greges centum Siculaeque circum 
Mugiunt viccae, tibi tollit hinnitum a 

Apta quadrigis equa, te bjs Afro ^ 35 

Murice tinctae • 

Vestiunt lanae ; mihi parva rura et 
Spiritum Graiae tenuem Camenae 
Parca non mendax dedit et malignum 
Spernere vulgus. ■ 40 

the negative imperative, 'must not care.' — 27. Temperetf 'temper» 
make bearable.* — 29. An instpnce of the perversity of fortune. Tho 
gallant Achilles was dooraed to die young; whereas Tithonus, son 
of Laomedon, and the favourite of Aurora, a man who had per- 
formed no exploit, attained a great age, because Aurora had ob- 
tained from Jupiter immortality for him. — 33. Connect eircum with 
mugiunt. — 35. Aota quadrtgi$ equa^ ' the mare yoked to the four- 
horse chariot :' tne proper signification of apius is ' joined, con- 
nected.' BU Afro murice tinctae lanaej ' wool twice died with the 
African murez.' The murex (a shell-fish from which a fine purple 
dye was procured) was found on the coasts of Africa, Phoenicia, 
and Peloponnesus. Dyeing twice produced a finer shade of colour. 
— ^39. Parca non mendax^ * the truth-telling Parca,* the goddess of 
Fate, who never makea mistakes. — 40. Spemere b dependent oa 
deditt and stands for the prose ut tpemam. 


Maecenas, to whom this ode is addressed, sufiered, particuli^ly in 
the last years of his life, from constant ilhiess, fever, and want 
of sleep. With this tfiere was connected a fear of death, bo 
strong as to approach the ridiculous. It was natural, therefore, 
that he should distress-those about him, among whom waa 
Horace, by his complaints. The present poem is an answer to 
a complaint of this kind. 

CuR me querelis exanimas tuis ? 
Nec dis amicum est^nec mihi, te prios 

2. Affiicpm etty accordin|; to a Greek uaage as ploccf , ' it agreeable 

CARMINUM LIB. 11.^ 99 

Obire, Maecenas, mearum ' 

Grande decus columenque rerum. 

Ah, te meae si partem animae rapit 6 

Maturior vis, quid moror altera, 
Nec caras aeque nec superstes 
Integer? Ille dies utramque 

Ducet ruinam. Non ego perfidum 
Dizi sacramentum: ibimuSj ibimus^ 10 

Utcunque praecedes, supremum 

• Carpere iter comites parati. 

Me nec Chiraaerae spiritus igneae, 
Nec si resurgat centimanus Gyges, 
Divellet unquam : sic potenti 15 

Justitiae placitumque Parcis. 

Seu Libra seu me Scorpios adspicit 
Formidolosus pars violentior 
Natalis horae, seu tyrannbs 
Hesperiae Capricornus undae, 20 

Utrumque nostrum incredibili modo 
Consentit astrum. Te Jovis impio 
Tutela Saturno refulgens 

to them, decreed by them/— 3. Mearum rerum, nearly equivalent to 

• my, of me.* — 5. Pariem animae, scil. alteram^ * the half of my soul.* 
— h5. Maturior vi» ; tbat is, if thou diest sooner than I. — 7. Nec ca- 
rus aeque, * who am neither so dear, so valuable to myself, as thou 
art to me.' — 9. Ducet ruinam.. The \erh ducere is used, because 
when part of a buiiding falls, it commonly 'draws' along with it the 
part which would otherwise stand. Horace's prediction was almost 
literaily fulfilied. He survived his noble patron only a few monihs : 
both died in the year 8 b. c. Non — sacramentum, ' the oaih which 
I took when I entered thy service was not a false one : I will keep 
it.' — 11. Supremum iter carpere, * to go the last journey, to die.' 
Iter carpere is a common ezpression with the Latin poets, and is 
taken from the gradual progress along the road, gathering it up, as 
it were, bit by bit. — 13. Chimaerae. See i. 27, 24. — 14. Gygen, a 
hundred-armed giant, son of Uranus and Gaea. — 17. The poet goes 
to the notions of the astrologers, and makes use of them to express 
figuratively that he will die at' the same time with Maecenas. He 
says, ' whelher the Balance, or the Scorpion, or the Capricorn iooks 
upon me, as the most powerful part of my natal hour.' For although 
there are always more consteliations than one looking down upon 
the birth of a cbild, yet one of thero, according to the dogmas of 
aatrologers, has the preponderance, is in the ascendant, and has 
most influence upon tbe fate of the man. Adnpicit was the techni- 
cal expression in astrology. — 19. Tyrannus Hetperiae undae, ' the 
lord of the Hesperian wave, or sea,' because its setting excites 
storms in the Mediterranean. As to Hesperius, see ii. 1, 32. — 23. 
Jupiter, according to ihe astrologers, was a favourablje, Saturn an 
unfavonrable planet to be born under. Hence * the pfotection (tu- 
ida, also a technicai term in the so-called science) of Jupiter, who 


Eripuit volucrisque Fati 

Tardavit alas, cum populus frequens 26 

Laetum theatris ter crepuit sonum: 
Me truricus iliapsus cerebro 
Sustulerat, flisi Faunus ictum 

Dextra levasset, Mercurialium 
Custos virorum. Reddere victimas 30 

Aedemque votivam memento ; 
Nos humilem feriemus agnam. 

shone forth in opposition to wicked Saturn, has saved thee, when 
thy sickness seemed unto deaih.' — 24. Volucris Fati. Fate as a 
deiiy, is represented with winga, like Forlune in i. 34, crfr. — 25. 
Three times had the people, when Maecenas appeared in the thea- 
tre after his recovery, applauded him. See i. 20, 7. — Ti. This refers 
to the same mischance, which forms the subject of the 13th ode of 
this book. — 28. Sustulerat, for suftulisset, * would have removed 
from the earth, killed.' Gnm. ^ 336, 1. — 29. Mercurialium. See 
ii. 7, 13. — 30. The rich, when they escaped any great danger, 
brought great offerings to the gods, and built them altars or tem- 
ples. Poorer people were content with a little lamb for a sacrifice. 



A LiOHT and pleasing ode, in which the poet expresses his content- 
ment with his humble lot: he has intruth as much as the rich 
man, since death will not spare the one any more than the otber. 

NoN ebur neque aureum 
Mea renidet in domo lacnnar, 
Non trabes Hymettiae 
Premunt columnas ultima recisas 

Africa, neque Attali 5 

1. Aureum — lacunar, *a golden (gilded) roof.' See ii. 16, 11. — 
3. Non trabes Hymettiae premunl — Africay * Hymettian architraves 
(for ihese are wnat are here, frora their similarity, called trabes) do 
not press (surmount) pillars hewn in the remotest part of Africa.* 
* Hymettian' is here * of white marble, procured frora Mount Hy- 
meitUTS, in Attica.' The African or Numidian marble, of which 
the pillars themselves consiated, was variegated. — 5. Attali — oceu' 
pavi. Attalus, the last king of Pergamus, who in 133 b. c. be- 
queathed hirf kinsdom to the Romans, was celebrated for his 
wealth. Henoe ' 1 have not as an unknown heir takon possesaion 


Ignotus heres regiam occupavi, 

Nec Laconicas mihi 

Trahont honestae purpuras clientae. 

At fides et ingeni 
Benigna vena esl, pauperemque cHves 10 

Me petit : nihil supra 
Deos lacesso^c potentem amicum 

Largiora flagito, 
Satis beatus unicis Sabtnis. 

Truditur dies die, 15 

Novaeque pergunt interire lunae. 

Tu secanda marmora 
Locas sub ipsum funus, et sepulchri 
Immemor struis domos 
Marisque Baiis obstrepentis urges 20 

Summovere litora, 
Parum locuples continente ripa. 
Qnid, quod usque proximos 
Revellis agri terminos et ultra 

Limites clientinm 25 

Salisavarus? Pellitur paternos 

of the palace of Attalus/ is equivalent to * I have not suddenly and 
unexpectedly fallen heir to a large property/ — 7. Laconica» — pur- 
puras. A particular and excellent species of the murex was found 
on the Laconian coast; consequenily the purple dyes of that district 
were famed. Hence wool dyed with Laconian purple was a siga 
of wealih. The poet here joins to it an indicaiion of rank and dis- 
tinction bv sayine, * the wives of respectable clients spin {trahunt) 
this wool. — 9. Fidei, *the lyre.* — 10. Benigna vena, ' a rich vein.' 
-~12. Deo9 lacesso = a dii» peto, * I ask from the gods.' Potentem 
amicum. Though the poet m these words does not name or directly 
allude to his patron Maecenas, yet there can be no doubt that he 
had him principally in his thoughts.~]4. Unicis Sabinis, ' with my 
single Sabine farm.' Supply praediis. — 17. Secanda marmora loca», 
' thou leltest out the marb!e to be hewn.' Compare line 4, recisas 
columnas.-^ 18. Sub ipsumfunut. Sub, of the approach of time: 
' notwithstanding that thy death is near.' — 20 Marigque — litora. 
Baiae, the favourite Roman watering-place, near Cuniae, in Lower 
Itaiy. The Lucrine Lake, in its neighbourhuod, was quite bor- 
dered with the villas of the wealthy Romans. In fact, they built 
into the lake, thus *removing' or * forcing back' the bank (for this 
is iummovere litora.) The rich Roman thought himself parum 
locuple» continente ripa, * not rich enough, from the bank which en- 
closes the lake.' — 23. Quid, quod, *aye, even.' Usque proximot, 
'always the next,' are to be connected. The poet alludes here to 
the 80-caIied laiifundia, immense private estates of wealthy Ro- 
mans, which were laid out in villas and parks — a great iniury to 
Italy, since the most.fertile districts were thus thrown out of culti- 
vation. See ii. 15.— 26. Salis, from sdlio, *thou overleapest.' — 

102 Q. HORAXn FliACCI 

In sinu ferens deos 

£t uxor et vir sordidosque natos. 

Nulla certior tamen 
Rai&cis Orci iine destinata 30 

Aula divitem mant^t 
Herum. Quid ultra tendis? Aeqoa tellns 

Pauperi recluditur 
Regumque pueris, nec satelles Orci 
Caiiidum Promethea 35 

Revexit auro captus. Hic superbum 

Tantalum atque Tantali 
GenuB coercet, hic levare functum 
Pauperem laboribus 
Vocatus atque non vocatus audit. 40 

27. In sinuferens deoty as in the olden times, AeneBS, when fleeing 
from burning Troy, carried with him his father and his househoid 
gods, penates. The whole of this very beantiful description reminda 
U8 of scenes too often witnessed of late vears in the Scottish High- 
lands. — 28. Sordidos natos, * ihe poor, ill-clad children.* — 30. Fine 
destinat, * than the region, place, appointed by Fate in the lower 
world.' — 32. Ae^ua, poetically for aeque, and to this refers the que 
m iine 34, for this que is used for ac, which would have to be em- 
ployed in prose : 'as to the sons of kings.* — 33. Recluditur, *i8 
opened, opens,' when a person descends to Tartarus. — 34. Satellet 
Orci ; namely, Charon, who ferries the spirits of the departed over 
the Styx — 36. Auro caplus, *brihed with gold.' — 37. Tantali genu»t 
Pelops, Atreus, Agamemnon, Orestes, and others, hence the most 
renowned and powerful kings. — 38. Levare is dependent on xjocatuM, 
and is used for ut levet : * calle^ upon to deliver. 


Htmn to Bacchus, in which the poet describes the power of the goJ. 
He so represents the matter, as if he had unexpectedly fallen in 
with Bacchus (lines 1-8) ; and then, inspired by him, begins to 
sing his praises. 

Bacchum in remotis carmina rapibas 
Vidi docentem, credite posteri, 

1. In remotis rupihua. For Bacchus loves lonely woods and 
(ockas ther« he teachea hie foUowera the myetlc songe (fiormina,)'^ 


NymphaBque discentes et aares 
Capripedum Satyrorum acuta». 

Evoe ! receDti meos trepidat metu, 6 

Plenoque Bacchi pectore turbidum 
Laetatur. £yoe ! parce, Liber, 
Parce, gravi metuende thyrso. 

Faa pervicaces OBt mihi Thyiadaa 
yinique fontem) lactia et uberea 10 

Cantare rivos atque truncis 
Lapsa. cavis iterare mella^ 

Fas et beatae conjugis additum 
Stellis honorem tectaque Penthei 
Disjecta non leni ruina 15 

Thracis et exitium Lycurgi. 

Tu flectis amnef), tu mare barbarum, 
Tu aeparatis uyidus in jugis 

4. Acutas, * pricked up ;' that is, the Satyrs (described by the poets 
as having goats' feet) intently listening. — 5. Evoct the crv of the 
worshippers of Bacchus. — 6. Turbidum laetatur, * my mina is con- 
founded, or confused, but delightfully/ Turhidum, neuter of the 
adjective used for ibe adverb. See Zumpt, $ 383, jfn. — 7. Parce. 
Tne poet trembles, as it were, fearing to give himself up to the in- 
fiuence of the ^od, and prays for mercy. — 9. Faa est. Now, since 
thoa hast inspired me, it is right, proper, that I should sing tby 
praises. He praises him first as the god of abundance, making 
wine, and milk, and honey flow in the land. Mvthology tells us that 
when tbe Bacchantes, in their divinely-inspirea madness, beat upon 
the ground, wine and milk (jlactis rivi) streamed forth ; and when tney 
struck decayed trunks of trees {trunci), honey came out. Thyiadat, 
' the Bacchantes :* tbey are styled pervieacet, * persevering m their 
inspiration.' They rage until these miracles take place. — 12. Ite- 
rare, * to sing, celebrate, tell of ;* to make the honey, as it were, 
flow again. — 13. Beatae eomugis ; namely, Ariadne, the daughter 
of Minos and Pasiphae. £fer ornament, or crown {honos), which 
Bacchus had given her, was placed among the stars : that is, tbe 
consteilation oT the crown( corowa) was named after her. — 14. Pen- 
thei. Pentheus, king of Thebes, was opposed to the introduction 
of the worship of Bacchus, and the god, as a punishment, caused 
his destruction. — 16. Lycurgi. Lycurgus, king of the Edoni, at- 
tempred to oproot all the vines in his country, and for this crime 
was visited by Bacchus with madness. While in this condition he 
killed his son, and maimed himseif. — 17. Mare harbamm, the 
Indian Ocean, which Bacchus is said to have reached in his Asiatic 
ezpediiion. — 18. The idea is this : when tbou art drunk {uvidus), 
thou tiest up t^e hair of the Bacchantes with snakes, in such a 
manner, however, that the snakea do no harm. SeparatiM, ' remote, 
solitary.' Bistonides ; properly, • the Thracian women,' for the 
Bistones were a Thracian tribe. But as Thrace was the chief seat 
of the worship of Baccbua, the word comes to mean * Bacchaotes.' 


Nodo coerces viperino 

BiBtonidum sine fraude crines. 20 

Tu, cum parentis regna per arduum 
Cohor» Gigantum scanderet impia, 
Rhoetum* relorsisti leonis- 
Unguibus horribilique mala, 

Quamquam, choreis aptior et jocis 26 

Ludoque dictus, non sat idoneus 
Pugnae ferebaris, sed idera 
Pacis eras mediusque belli. 

Te vidit insons Cerberus aureo 
Comu decorum, leniter atterens 30 

Caudam et recedentis trilingui 
Ore pedes tetigitque crura. 

— 20. Sine fraudej * without injury.* — 21. In the war which, ac- 
cordin^ to mythology, the giants waged with Jupiter, and in which 
they piled up raountains upon one anothfer, Bacchus whirled Rho- 
etus, one of them, back {retorsisti) from heaven. Thie he accom- 
plished by assuming the form of a lion, and thus fri^htening the 
giant. Hence (line 24) mala, ' jaw,* = ore. — 27. Ferebansy &,c. * thou 
wast held as not rightly fit for battle.* It was thought that thou 
wast fit only for dancing, and joking, and playing ; not for war. — 
28. Pacie eras mediusque helli ; that is, medius eras idem pacis et 
belli, ' thou wast fit for war as well as for peace ;* thou stoodst, as 
it were, in the middle between war and peace, and couldst turn to 
either. — 30. Comu. This is given to Bacchus as a symbol of power 
and strength. The description of the hell-hound Cerberus follows, 
as, frightened and fawning, he accompanies Bacchus when retum- 
ing (xecedentis) firom the lower world. 



Epiloooe of the second book of odes, and addressed to Maecenas. 
In this ode Horace expresses his confidence that his merita as 
a lyric poet wiU be acknowledged, and that hia naroe will be 

NoN usitata nec tenui ferar 

Penna biformis per liquidum aethera 

1. The poet thinks that, after his death, he will be changed into 
a swan, and fly up to heaven. Hence he calls himself 5T/onn}f voteSf 
and says ferar per aethera penna non usitata (because he was the 
first lyrist of the Romans, and therefore had iovented a new kind 

0ABMINT7M LIB. n. 105 

Yates, neque in terria morabor 
LongiuB, iriTidiaqne major 

Urbes relinquara. Non ego, pauperam 5 

Sanguis parentum/non ego, qaem vocaB, 
Dilecte Maecenas, obibo^ 
Nec Stygia cofaibebor unda. 

Jam, jam residunt cruribus asperae 
Pelles, et album mutor in alitem 10 

Superne, nascuntarque ]e?es 
Per digitos humerosque plumae. 

Jam Daedaleo ocior Icaro 
Visam gementis litora Bospori 
Syrtesqtie Gaetnlas canorus 15 

Ales Hyperboreosque campos. 

Me Colchus et qui dissimulat metom 
Marsae cohortis Dacus et ultimi 
Noscent Gelonl, me peritus 
Discet Hiber Rhodanique potor. 20 

Absint inani funere naeniae 
Luctusque turpes et querimoniae : 
Compesce clamorem ac sepulchri 
Mitte supervacuos honores. 

of *pinion* for himself), nec tmui (no feeble wings, but sucb as 
would carry him surely and safely to heaven.) — 4. Invidia majort 
' greater than envy, than my enviers.' — 6. Sanguis, ' offspring.* £gOt 
quem vocas, * I, whora thou callest by his name, or addressest in a 
tamiliar way; I, Horatius Flaccus.' — 9. He fancies he feels the 
transformation into a swan already in process. Sesidunt pelle» cru- 
rHms, *the skin is sinking to the legs;' and, as he is passing from 
a larger form to a smaller, this skin becomes wrinkled, rough (a«- 
perae.) — 13. Daedaleo — Icaro, 'than Icarus, the son of Daedalus,' 
who flew with his father from Crete. by means of wings which they 
had made of wax. Observe the histus, Daedaled ocior. — 14. Ge- 
mentisy just as, in ii. 14, 14, the Adriatic is called raucus. As to 
the Syrtes^ see i. 22, 5. — 18. Marsae cohortis ; that is, of ihe Roman 
cohorts; for the Marsians and other tribes among the Apennines 
formed the strength of the Roman infantry. — 19. As to the Geloni, 
see ii. 9, 23. Peritus. The Spaniards and the Gauls, barbarians 
though they now are, shall yet, when they have become civilized 
and been educated, come to learn, study, know me. — ^21. NaeniaCf 
* dirges,* which used to be sung at fiinerals, generally by" women 
hired for the purpose. — 22. Turpes, *ugly,' because tney disfigure 
the countenance. 



Tbis poem fonnB, as it were, an introduction to the tbird book of 
the odes. The poet, in the first stanza, compares himself to a 
priest, who, when bringing an offering to the gods, causes a song 
of praise to be sung to them by choirs of boys and girls. He 
then goes on to describe the differences of position among meo, 
and shows that we are all on the same level in one respect — 
namely, that we must all die. From this he draws the conclusion 
that it is not worth while to strive afler riches. 

Odi profanum vufgas et arceo : 
Favete linguis: carmina non prios 
Audita Musarum sacerdos 
Virginibus puerisque canto. ' 

Regum tiraendorum in proprios greges, 5 

Reges in ipsos imperium est Jovis, 
Clari Giganteo triumpho, 
Cuncta supercilio moventis. 

Est, ut viro vir latius ordinet 
Arbusta sulcis, hic generosior 10 

Descendat in campum petitor, 
Moribus hic meliorque fama 

1. Profanum vulgus ; that is the great mass of people, who are 
not initiated into tne doctrines of the wise. — 2. Favete livgui», the 
usiial exhortation of the priest to those who broiight offeriugs : lite- 
rally, * be merciful wiih your tongues;' that is, do not say any i!I- 
omened word, and, to secure you Irom this, be silent ; hence it may 
be translated siraply, * be silent.' — 5. In proprios greges, scil. impe- 
rium est. The kings are compared to shepheras. — 7. Giganleo 
triumpko. Compare ii. 19, 22. — 8. Cuncta — moventis. Homer 
makes the same statement in II. i. 528.-9. Est ut, * it is the case 
that, it happens that,' has here nearly ihe force of quamqucm, licet^ 
*although.' The apodosis begins in line 14, aequa lege. Virovir^ 
the same as alius alio, ' one plants his bushes (that is, trees, vines) 
more wideiy than another;' that is, he has a larger property.— 10. 
Geuerosiory * nobler, of higher rank.' Campus is the Campus Mar- 



Contendat, illi turba clientium 
Sit major : aequa lege Necessitas 
Sortitur infiignes et imos, 15 

Omne capax movet uma nomen. 

Destrictus ensis cui super impia 
Cervice pendet, non Siculae dapes 
Dulcem elaborabunt saporem, 
Non avium citharaeque cantus 20 

Somnum reducent. Somnus agrestium 
* Lenis virorum non humiles domos 
Fastidit umbrosamque ripam, 
Non Zephyris agitata Tempe. 

Desiderantem, quod satis est, neque 26 

Tumultuosum sollicitat mare, 
Nec saevus Arcturi cadentis 
Impetus aut orientis Haedi, 

Non verberatae grandine vineae 
Fundusque mendax^ arbore nunc aquas 30^ 

Culpante, uunc torrentia agros 
Sidera, nunc hiemes iniquas. 

Contracta pisces aequora sentiunt 

tius, where the clections used to be held. — 13. Contendat, &c. 
'strivefl with his competitor, and is superior to him in character.* 
TuHm clientium ; that is, he is a better speaker, and defends more 
persons before coiirts of justice. — 14. Necessitas, By this name 
Fate is to be understood, who appoints the term of human existence. 
Compare ii. 3, 27. — 15. Insignes^summos. — 17. Super impia cervicef 
*over his impious neck.* An allusion to Damocfes, to whom Di- 
onysius the tyrant granted the enjoyment of his wealth and luxuries. 
He soon declined the pleasure, however, when he saw a naked 
sword suspended over his head by a single horse-hair. — 18. Siculae 
dapest such as Dionysius caused to be set before Damocles. But, 
besides, the Sicilians generally were famed for their debauchery. — 
19. To daborabunt supply ei. — 21. Somnum reducenty * will bring 
back the sleep which he had before.' Somnus—fastidit. Construe 
thus : Lenis somntii non fastidit (' does not dcspise') humiles domos 
agrestium virorum. — 26. Neque mare iumultuosum sollicitatt 'him 
the stormy sea troubles not.' The poet is thinking of a merchant 
who travels over sea to increase his gains, and to wnom, therefore, 
the state of fhe sea does cause anxiety.— 27. Arcturi cadentis = occi' 
dentis. When Arcturus, the constellation of Bootes, sets (in the 
end of October), it brings bad weather. About the same time the 
constellation of Haedus, which is on the hand of the Waggoner, rises. 
— 29. Verberatae grandinCj ' struck by hail.' This refers to the 
owner of a vineyard, who 'was spoken of also previously in line 9. — 
30. MendaXf inasmuch as it cheats hope, and yields a bad harvest. 
Aquas ; that is, too much rain, which makes the vegetation rot. 
Arbor must be understood collectively. — 33. Contracta — molibuSt 
' th« fiihes fMl that the eea has been made narrower by the massei 


Jactis in altum Tnolibus : huc freqnens 

Caementa demittit redemptor 35 

Cum famulis dominusqne terrae ^ 

Fastidiosus : sed Timor et Minae 
Scandunt eodem, quo dominus, neque 
Decedit aerata triremi et 
Post equitem sedet atra Cnra. 40 

Quod si dolentem nec Phrygius lapis, 
Nec purpurarum sidere clarior 
Delinit usus, nec Falerna ^ 
Vitis Achaemeniuroque costum, 

Cur invidendis postibus et novo 45 

Sublime ritu moliar atrium ? 
Curvalle permutem Sabina 
Divitias operosiores ? 

of sione thrown into the deep.' This refers to the buildings which 
the rich Romans made even into the sea. See ii. 18, 20. — 34. Fre- 
quens, surrounded by many workmen and slaves. — ^37. Faftidiosus, 
who is no longer coatent with the land. iUtfuie, the inward remorse 
which every one feels who has been guilty of shameful actions. On 
thc other hand, TtTnor is the fear of external evil. — 39. Aeraia tri- 
rcmt. See ii. 16, 21. — 40. Post equitenif 'behind the horseman;' 
that is, when the owner of that great estate mounts on horseback. — 
41. Quod ft, 'if therefore.* Phrygius lapis, marble, which was 
hewn near Synnada in Phrygia, and was used particularly for 
pillars, such as are still preserved to us in one of the noblest tem- 
ples of antiquity — the Pantheon, built by M. Agrippa.— -42. P»rp«- 
rarum usus sidere clarior^ ' the wearing of purple garraents, shining 
more brightly than the stars.' For, properly, we should have haa 
elariorumj agreeing with purpurarum.—i4. Costum, an Eastern aro- 
matic ftlant, particularly usea for ointments. It is called Achaeme- 
nium, from Achaemenes, the founder of the royal race of Per«iia, 
here used to indicate Oriental ori^in ffenerally. — 45. Novo ritu, -in 
a way that I have not had betore? The invidendae posiea are 
marble pillarSi — 46. Moliarj 'build with labour.' — 47. Valle Sabinaj 
'for my Sabine farm in the vale.' Horace's little estate iay in a 
beautiful vallev. — 48. OperosioreSf 'which^ould cause me more 
trouble and toil.' 

oAEMnnTM UB. m. 109 



Ar ode to the Roman youth, ifi wfaieh he exbortB thcni to imitate 
the valour and {nety of tkeir anoetftora. Writtm abeat the year 
21 B. c. 

Anoustam aroice pauperiem pati, 
RobuBtus acri miiitia, puer 
Condiscat, et Parthos feroces 
Vexet eques metuendus hasta 
« Vitamque Bub divo et trepidis agat 5 

In rebns. Illum ex moenibus hosticis 
Matrona bellantis tyranni . 
Prospiciens et adulta virgo 

Suspiret, eheu, ne radis agminum 
Sponsus laoesfiat regius a^enim 10 

Tactu leonem, quem cruenta 
Per medias rapit ira caedes. 

Dulce et decorum est pfo patria mori 
Mors et fogacem persequitur virumy 
Nec parcit imbeihs juventae 16 

Poplitibus timidoque tergo. 

Yirtus repulsae nescia sordldae 
Intaminatis fulget honoribus, 

1. Amieej '<K>ntentedly, without complaints.* As te pauperieff 
compare i. 1, 18, note. — 2. Puerj ihe Roman *boy,* or rather 
*youth/ for the name of puer was given even to young meo who 
had reached the militarv age-^seventeen. — ^5. TreputtM in rebus, *in 
dangers.* '*~6. The aatnor' is thinking of a toene in Homer {II. iii. 
154), where the Trojan women, particularly the daughters of Priam, 
look down from the walU and towers of the city upon the battle, 
being anxious about their husbands and fathers. — 9. Susmret az »««• 
pirans meiuat^ for the following ne depends upon it. Rudis a^mi' 
num, ' inezperienced in war* = rudis belli. — 10. Sponsus regius \a to 
be understood as the son of an allied king, who bas been betrdthed 
to the daughter of the kine who is waging war (Jbellantis tyranni). — 
12. Ira^ the wild fury of tne lion thirsting for blood. — 14. Fugacemt 
eenerally, ' one who is accustomed to flee ;* here siinply, * ffeeing, 
fugitive. — 16. Foplitibus timidoque tergo. The back and hollow 
ofthe knees are exposed to the enemy by a fugitive, instead of 
the breast, which the stout fighter displays. — 17. Virtus, both the 
valour of wbich the poet has just spoken, and virtue in gencral. 
Nescia sordidae repuUae^ * which knows no disgraceful repulse ;* 
that is, is always conscious, if ever it sustains a repulse, that 
it war unmeritea, and therefore not disgraceful. Hence its konores 


Nec Bumlt aut poriit secures 

Arbitrio popularis aurae. 20 

Virtus, reciudens immeritis mori 
Coelum, negata tentat iter via, 
Coetusque vulgares et udam 
Spernit humum fugiente penna. 

Est et fideli tuta silentio 85 

Merces : vetabo, qui. Cereris sacmm 
Vulgarit arcanae, sub isdem 
Sit trabibus fragilemve mecum 

Solvat phaselon : saepe Diespiler 
Neglectus incesto addiait integrum; 30 

Raro antecedentem sceiestum 
Deseruit pede poena ciaudo. 

are called intaminati = incontaminali, * undefiled, pure.* — 19. Se- 
eurest the axes which were Btuck in the fasces of the Roman ma- 
gistrates. Hence the meaning is this : the favour of the people can 
neither give to virtue faonour, nor take it away : she faas it of her- 
self^ — 21. ImmeritiB mori ; that is, immortalitate dignis, * men de- 
serving of immortality.' — 22. Negata — via, * by a way denied to 
it;* that is, * difficult.* Compare i. 22, 22.-23. Vdam A»mt»m, 
' the damp earth,' enveloped in unwholesome mists, and which can 
therefore afibrd no fitting seat for virtue. She flies away towards 
hesiV en.fugientepennay * on fugitive wing.* — 25. Fiddi sUentiOf *to 
the silence of faith ;* that is, * to the preservation of silence pro- 
mised.' This virtue was exhibited pariioularly in keeping undi- 
vulged the mysteries of the gods. — 26. Construe thus : vetabo 
(that is, prohAeboif (ne) sub iisdem $it trabibus, etc. (ts) qui vul^arit. 
The mysteries of Ceres, which were particularly holy as exhibited 
at Eleusis in Attica, were also celebrated with great solemnity at 
Rome. — 27. StA isdem trabibus, Mn the eame liouse, under the 
same roof.' — 29. Diespiter. See i. 34, 5. — 30. Incesto addidit tn- 
tegrum, ^has added the good man to the bad ;' that is, * has de- 
stroyed the righteous man with the wicked; has, in bie wrath 
against the wicked, destroyed at the same time tfae good.' — 31. 
The sense is this : it is rare that a criminal escapee punishraent, al- 
though she (Punishment) with her limping gait ma^ come but slowly 
after him. 




Ajt ode to Augustus, in wbich he i» praised in a beautiful and 
polished manner, but trutbfuUy. Horace eztola in bim the 
genuinely Roman virtue of perseverance and Brroness {con9tantia\ 
and shows that by it all tbe great heroea wbo, according to the 
belief of tbe ancients, had been raised to the position of gods 
had obtained their fame. He considers Augustus as belonging 
to thia class, and in &ct there was nothing in the emperor so 
well worthy of praise as tho determination and steadiness by 
which, when a young man, he overcame the greatest obstacles, 
aad reached his aim. The poet spends a considerable time in 
describing how Romulus was assumed into the number of the 
goda, no doubt with the view that Augustus should be pointed to 
as a second Romulus. The ode was written about the year 


JusTUM et tenacem propositi yirum 
Non civium ardor prava jubentiam, ^ 
Non valtas instantis tyranni 
Mente quatit eolida, neque Auster, 

Dux inquieti turbidus Hadriae, 

Nec fulmiflantis magna manus Jovis: 
Si fractus illabatur orbis, 
Impavidum ferient ruinae, 

Hac arte PoHux et vagns Hercules 
Enisus arces attigit igneas^ 10 

Quos inter Augustus recumbens "" 

Purpureo bibit.ore nectar. 

1. Tenacem propositi^ * firm to his purpose, steady-minded' = con' 
stantem. — 2. Ardor, * the passion.* — 3. Jnstantist *threatening.* 

— 4. Mente quatit solida, * drives from a purpose formed for good 
reasons,' for tnis is what is here called mens solida. — 5. Dux Ha' 
driae. Compare i. 3, 15. — 6. Magna manus, * the great (that is, 
mighty, powerful) hand.' — 7. Orhis, *thevault of heaven, the sky.* 

— 9. jFlac arte=hac virtute ; namely, constantia. These heroes 
kept firm in the pursuit of tbeir objects. FoUux did not reach 
heaven aione, but in company with his brother Castor; the two 
being the Dioscuri. Frequently, however, the name of the one^ is 
used to indicate both. V&gus, ' the far-wandered ;' for Hercules 
is said to have travelled to Spain (even to the western ocean), 
to Africa, and lo Asia, everywhere delivering mankind from 
monsters. — 10. Enisus — igneas. Eniti is to raise one's self 
by labour from a lower to a higher position, * to struggle for- 
ward.' Arces igneae, the sky, because it is lofty (arar), and studded 
with stars {ignes.) — 12. Purpureo ore, *with rosy lips,* to indic&te 


Hac te merentem, Bacche pater, tuae 
Vexere tigres indoqili jugum 

Collo trahentesj hac Quirinos 15 

Martis equis Acheronta fugit, 

Gratum elocuta consiliaatibu^ 
Junone divis : ^ Ilion, Ilion 
Fatalis incestusque judex 
Et mulier peregrin^ vertit 20 

In pnlverem, ex quo destituit deos 
Mercede pacta Laomedon, mihi 
Castaeque damnatum Minervae 
Cum populo et duce frauduiento. 

Jam nec Lacaenae splendet adulterae 25 

Famoeus hospes, nec Priami domua 

the eternal youth which he enjoya as a god. — 13. Hac — trahente$, 
An allusion to the triumphal march of ^acchus as he retumed 
firora India, after spreading oyer the whoie world his precepts of 
civilization. — 14. IndocUi — collo, * with their necks, ill to teach 
(namely, to bear the yoke.) — 15. Hac Quirinus. The tra4ition was, 
that Romulus had been taken up to heaven by his father Mars in 
his chariot, and that thae RomanB had named ium, aa a god, Quiri- 
nus. — 17. The scene which Horaee describes is this : A council of 
the gods is held, to determine whether Romulus sball be taken into 
their number, and in it Juno delivers the speech which we have 
fbllowins. In tbis speech she speaks strongly against the restora- 
tion of llium. Why, we naturaily ask, does Horace (throug^h the 
coddess) so much condemn the restoration of Troy» even ^oin^ so 
far as to say, that Rome can endure only if Troy remains m nmisf 
For we know that Augustus really did reboild Troy ; and by grant- 
ing it privileges, and settiing many colonists in it, made it an im- 
pbrtant town. But he had it in his mind to do more : tbere was a 
report that he intended to make Troy the seat of govemment, and 
leave Rome. This is what Horace opposes. Conhoct gratum con- 
8iliantiJbu8 divis^ * a thing agreeable to the deliberating gods.* — 19. 
Judex ; namely, Paris, son of king Priam, who gave jud^ent in 
the dispute between Juno, Minerva, and Venus, regarding tbeir 
beauty. Fatalist * appointed by fate,* which had doomed the fall of 
Troy. — 20. Mulier peregrinoj Helen, whom Paris carried off from 
Sparta. Compare i. 15, 5. — 21. Connect ex quo with damnatum^ 
&c. in line 23. Damnatum belongs to Ilion : * condemned by me 
and Minerva, ever since the time when Laomedon cheatea the 
gods.' Destituit =fraudavit, privavit, and on this account construed 
with the ablative, mercede pacta. Laomedon, father of Priam, had 
bargained with ApoUo and Neptune to J)uild the walls of Troy for 
a team of horses ; but when the walls were finished, he refused to 
fulfil his engagement. — 2i. Duce fraudulento ; namely, Laoroedon. 
It is true, tne punishment fell upon the innocent Priam, but the 
whole royal race of Troy was faitnless. Hence (in line 27) perjura 
domus Priami. — 25. Lacaenae — adulterae — hospes : namely, Paris, 
w^o seduced Helen when he was a guest in her husband's house. 


Perjnra pugnaces Achivos 
Hecioreis opibus refringit, 

Nostrisque ductum seditionibus 
Bellum resedit. Protiirus et graves « 30 

Iras et iQyi8nm nepotem, 
Troica quem peperit sacerdos, 

Marti redonabo ; illum ego lucidas 
Inire sedes, ducere nectaris 

Succos et ascribi quietis 35 

Ordinibus patiar deorum. 

Dum longus inter saeviat Ilion 
Romamque pontus, qualibet exules 
In parte regnanto beati : 
Dum Priami Paridisque busto 40 

Insultet armentum et catulos ferae 
Celent inultae, stet Capitolium 
Fulgens, triumphatisque possit 
Roma ferox dare jura Medis. 

Horrenda late nomen in nltimas 45 

Extendat oras, qua medius liquor 
Secernit Europen ab Afro, 
Qua tumidus rigat arva Nilus, 

He no more goes about in bis glittering armonr ($plendet.) — 29. JVb»- 
tris duetum seditionibus, ^drawn out, prolonged (for this is hdlum 
dueere) by dissensions among ourselves,' the gods. For whilst Juno 
and Minerva were hoetile to the Trojans, Venus, Mars, and Apollo 
defended them. Jupiter wavered between the two parties. — 30. 
Re9edit= ixtinetum est^ *\a finished.' Protinus. The connection 
of ideas is as follows : — ^As my desire of revenge has been ffratiiied 
by the destruction of Troy, I will not persecute the descendants of 
its inhabitants, and I forthwith (for this is vrotinu») vote for the 
aesumption of Romulus among the gods. Tne Romana were (that 
is, believed themselyes to be) descendants of the Trojans. Rea 
Silyia, who became bv Mars the mother of Romulus, was a vestal 
yirgin, and is here calfed Troica aacerdoa on Bccount of her descent. 
—33. Redonabo, in prose condoftabo, ' I will make a present of him 
to Mars;' that is, 'will pardon him for the sake of Mars, and will 
giye up my anger to please him.' Lucidas — aedes. Compare arcet 
igneas in line 10. — 37. Inter^ in prose, would have to be placed 
immediately before Ilion. — 48. Exules ; fhat is, the Romans, 
descendants of the fugitiye Aeneas. — 40. Busto. This is a mere 
poetical idea, and must be understood as 'the spot where they 
fell ;' for the Trojan heroes had no monuments erectcd to them. 
Some of the Greek warriors, however — as, for instance, AchiU 
les — had monuments, which ezisted eyen in later times. — 41. 
InsuUet, 'leaps upon them, or over them,' thus dishonouring 
them. — 43. Triumphatis^ a poetical construction, 'overwhom she 
bas trinmphed.' — 46. Medius liquor, * the middle water;' that is, 
*the Mediterranean Sea.'— 48. Tumidus^ «swelling;* that is, which 
annually, at a particular season, swells and inuudatea the country. 

10» H 


Aurum irrepertum et sic melias silumi 
Cum terra celat, spernere fortior 50 

Quam cogere, humanos in usus 
Omne sacrum rapiente dextra. 

Qbicunque mundo terminus obstititi 
Hunc tangat armis, visere gestiens, 
Qua parte debacchentur ignes, 66 

Qua nebulae pluviique rores. 

Sed bellicosis fata Quiritibus 
Hac lege dico, ne nimium pii 
Rebusque fideutes avitae 
Tecta velint reparare Troiae. 60 

Trojae renascens alite lugubri 
Fortuna tristi clade iterabitur, 
Ducente victrices catervas 
Conjuge me Jovis et sorore. 

Ter si resurgat murus aeneus 66 

Audtore Phoebo, ter pereat meis • - 

Excisus Argivis, ter uxor 
Capta virum puerosque ploret.' 

Non hoc jocosae conveniet lyrae. 
Quo, Musa, tendis ? Desine pervic^x 70 

Referre sermones deorum et 
Magna modis tenuare parvis. 

T- 50. Connect foriior svemere aurum guam oogere, ' stronger, mor» 
anzious to de^pise gola tban to gather it. Also, connect spemere 
aurum irrepertumt which is eqaivalent to noQe aurum reperire, *to 
spurn seeking gold.' Cum terra eeUu are to be oonnected witfa^u;.* 
* gold is better situated th«n (in that staie), when the eanh coaceals 
it, than when it is discovered.' — 51. Humano8~^e9trUf * wbilst the 
right hand steaU away for znan^s use evervthiog sacred ;' in its 
^greed transgreseing all law. Tbis clause belongs cloaely to cogere. 
^-55. Debacchentur, a very rare word, properly, *to weary one^s 
self with Bacchic frenzy.' Hence translate, * wfaere (qua parte s 
qua terra) the sun iignes) rages witfa moet fnry ;' tfaat is, in the ez- 
t^eme south. — 57. FiUa ; that is, * that which is appointed to them 
by fate.' — 58. Hac lege = hac condicione. — ^59. Rebusfidentes, * trusC- 
ing to their deeds.' — 61. Alite lugubri is the aame as maia avi in 
i. 15. 5. — 62. Iterolnlur =^ iterum .d.el^iiurj * bMI again he over- 
thrown.* — 65. Aeneus, Uterally, * bra;ten ;' here, figarativeiy, 
*strong,' as ^trong as. the first wall of Troy» which was built by 
Phoebus. ^66. Meis Argivis^ ' by warriors whom I proteot,' asl 
did the Arffives (Greeks) in the ofd Trojan war. — 67. iJsor — ploret, 
as always mllows the destruction of a town. — 69. Horace hao ven- 
tured into a iield far diatant from the ordinary range of his poetry, 
when he began to give political advice, and condemn the restora- 
tion of Ilium. The poem ends, therefore, with an apolqgy. — 70. 
Pervicaxt ' irreverent.' — 72. Tenuare = extentMre, * to mi£e Uttle» 
ttnimportant, by a little song (modis = carmine.) 




Ob>c to Calliope, the mnBe of heroic poetry. In reality, however, it 
is a laudation of Aiiguetus. Ab in the preceding poem Horace 
had praised his firmnesa, so here he extols hifi foresight, pru- 
dence (eomtZiufn), and the essence or substance of the whole ode 
is to be found in lines 65-68. Augustus ezhibited thi» prudence 
in three distinct ways : first, in the coi^quest of the troops which 
oppoeed him (line 42 to the end), particularly those of Antony, 
and Horace represents his hattle with him as tbat of Jupiter 
against the giants and Titans ; secondly, in his mildness afler 
the victory (line 41) ; and thirdly, in his Uterary occupations and 
enjoyments during peace (lines 37-40.) The giYer of this pri- 
dence is Calliope, to whom also the poet has dedicated himself 
Henoe his right to sing the emperor^s praises in an ode to the 
muse. The ezpansion of this thought &rm8 the introduction 
(line0 1-36.) 

DsscENDE coelo et dic, age, tibia 
Regina longum Calliope meloB, 
Seu Toce nunc mavis acata, 
Seu fidibus citharaque Phoebi. 

Auditis an me ludit amabilis 5 

Ineania ? Audire et videor pios 
Errare per lucos, amoenae 
. -Quos et aquae subeunt et aurae. 

1. Age^ an encouraging call to the muse, 'do come/ — 2. Resina — 
CaUixype. The muse is a queen, partly, generally, because sne is a 

foddess, and partlv, specially, because sne is a daughter of Jupiter, 
ing of the gods, being ihus of royal blood. Longum melos. The 
goet wishes to compose a long ode, and he has succeeded, for this • 
» his longest. — 3. The muse is ofiered the choice of three things, 
Mtve (which is omitied) tibia (compare i. 12, 1) seu voce acuta (* with 
thy clear voice,* as in i. 24, 3: voce liquida) seu Jidibus citharaque 
Phodn, * on the strings of Apolio'8 lyre.* For jidibus dtharaque is 
a hendiadys, = jidibus citharae. — 5. The poet turns to his com- 
panions. AuditiSf * do ye hear V namely, the muse singing, * or ia 
that inspiration, enthusiasm (insania), which oflen takes possession 
of poets, deluding, befooling (ludit) me ?*— 6. Construe thus : videor 
ttudire et errare, * I think I hear.* Sibi videri is the common ex- 
pression for one who sees a vision, or to whom any supemaiural 
phenomenon occurs. Pios ver lucosy ' throueh the groves of the 
muses,* a common poetical nction, indicating tnat inspiration comea 
upon a bard most readily in solitude, andin the enjoyment of nature. 
8. Suheunt refers both to aquae and aurae, because wind and wa- 


Me fabulosae Valttire in Appulo 
Altricid extra limen Apuliae , 10 

Ludo fatigatnmque somno 
Fronde nova puerum palumbes 

Texere (mirum quod foret omnibus, 
Quicunque celsae nidum Acherontiae 
Saltusque Bantinos et arvum 15 

Ping:ue tenent humilis Forenti), 

Ut tuto ab atris corpore viperis 
Dormirem et ursis, ut premerer sacra 
Lauroque collataque myrto, 
Non sine dis ftnimosus infans. 20 

Vester, Camenae, vester in arduos 
ToIIor Sabinos, seu mihi frigidum 
Praeneste, seu Tibur supinum, 
Seu liquidae placuere Baiae. 

ter penetrate into the grove under the tops of the trecs. — 9. What 
Horace here relates of the advemures of his youth is borrowed 
from ihe Greek poets, who tell similar stories of themselves. Of 
Pindar, in particular, it is said that bees, when he was a boy, laid 
him down on boughs of laurel and myrtle, and fed him with honey. 
Fabulosae belongs to palumbes in line 12, Mhe dbves, of whom so 
many stories are told.' Coropare i. 22, 7. Vulture in Appulo. Vul- 
tur was a hill of Apulia above Venusia, Horace'8 birthplace; 
Btretchine, however, also into the neighbouring district of Lucania. 
Thus it oappened that the boy, though playing on the hili beside 
his own native town, yet went bcyond Apnlia, extra limen altrieit 
Ajmliae; Apulia being called altrixt because the poet was bom 
there. Observe the metricai liberty w^ich Horace takes hej;e in the 
word Apulia and its derivativea ; having the first syllabie lons ia 
Apjmlot as is by far most common, but short in Une 10. — 11. ^do 
fatigatum^ue somno, poetical ; for the child was wearied with play 
only, and m consequence of this fatigue was overcome by sleep. — 
12. Fronde novOf * green, fresh leaves.' — 14. Acherontia (now Ace- 
renza), Bantia (now Abbazia di Vanzo), and Forentum (now Fo- 
renzo), were towQs in the neighbourhood of Venusia ; the first situ* 
ated, like most Italian towns, high on a hill, hence called nidut, the 
last in a valley, hence humilis. — 17. Ut expresses the object, and 
belongs to texere, in line 13. Connect corpore tuto ab atri* viperit, 
* with my body safe from black snakes.' — 20. Non tine dis ; that 
is, non sine deorum auxilio. Without the particular assistance of 
the £ods, the boy could not have been so bold (animotus) as to sleep 
in the forest. — 21. Vester^ * belonging, devoted to you.' — 22. 
Tollor in arduot Sabinot, * I raise myself, climb to the high land 
(situated among the Apennines) of the Sabines.' This land itself 
has no name in Latin, tbe name of the people,*iSa&tni, being always 
used for it. Seu — that is, vel — proficitcor (this must be supplied 
from tollor) Praenette, ti id mihi placuit, Si,c. for seu is equivalent 
to vei ti. Praeneste (now Palestrma), celebrated for its cool (frigi- 
dum) refreshing air, and for this reason still a favourite summer ree- 


Vestris amicnm fontibuB et choris 25 

Non rae Philippis versa acies retro, 
Devota non extinxit arbos, 
Neo Sicula Palinurus unda. 

Utcunque meoum vos eritis, libens 
Insanientem navita Bosporum 30 

Tantabo et urentes arenas 
Litoris Assyrii viator, 

Visam Britannos hospitibus feros 
Et laetum equino sanguine Concanum 
Visam pharetratos Gelonos 85 

£t Soythicum inviolatus amnem. 

Vos Caesarem altum, militia simol 
Fessas cohortes addidit oppidis. 
Finire quaerentem labores, 
Pierio recreati» antro. 40 

Vos lene consilium et datis et dato 
Gaudetis almae. Scimus, ut impios 
Titanas immanemque turmam 
Fulmine sustulerit caduco, 

idence for the Romans. Tibur (now Tivoli) is situated on the peak 
and slope of the Alban range, and is hence called supinumi * hang- 
in^ on a hilL' Baiae (see li. 18, 20) is called liquidae, on account 
oritB clear, pure, pellucid air. — 26. Acies versa retro Philijrpia; 
that is, • thc defeat at Philippi.' See ii. 7, 9. — 27. Devota = sacra 
diis inferisf 'accursed.* See ii. 13. — 28. Palinurus, a promontory 
on the coast of Lucania, near the Gulf of Velia. Nothing is known 
of the danger alluded to here, to whicb Horace was exposed iri the 
Sicilian Sea (Sicula unda.) — 29. Utcunque: see i. 17, 10. — 30. 
Bosporum : see ii. 13, 14, and 20, 14. — 32. Litoris AssyriU of the 
Araoian deserts, which extend as far as the Persian Gulf — 33. 
Britannos hospitibus feros. The story went, that the Britons 
sacrificed strangers to'the gods. — 34. Concanum, a Spanish tribe, 
said to practise the Scythian custom of eating iorse-flesh. — 35.. 
Gdonos : see ii. 9, 23. — 36. Scythicum amnem /Tiamely, the Ta- 
nais. — 37. Militia — ojtpidis, * as soon as he has added the cohortg 
wcary of service (Ihat is, the veterans, the milites emeriti) to the 
towns,* settled them in the towns; for the Romans used to set- 
tle their veterans as colonists ; and Augustus in particular had, 
after 'the battle of Actium, done this on a most ei(tensive scale.-— * 
40. Pierio antro, * in, or by means of the Pierian grotto ;* that is, 
by the study of poetry ; for the cave on Mount Pierus in Thessaly 
was eacred to the muses. — 41. Consilium here is trisyllabic, i after 
l b^ing pronounced as y. . See Zumpt, $ 3. — 42. Description of the 
battle ot tbe Titans and giants with Jupiter and the other celestial 
deitiee. Compare ii. 19, 28. — 43. Immanemque turmam, ' and the 
rest of the horrid troop,' for the poet mentions afterwards many be- 
sides the Titans.— 44. Sustulerit=.extinxerit, interfecerit. Caduco, 


, Qui terram inertem, qui mare temperat 45 

Ventosum et urbes regnaque tristia, 
Divosque mortalesque turbas 
Imperio regit unus aequo. 

Magnum illa terrorem intulerat Jovi 
Fidens juventus horrida brachiis, 50 

Fratresque tendentes opaco 
Pelion imposuisse Olympo : 

Sed quid Typhoeus et validus Mimas, 
Aut quid minaci Porphyrion statu, 
Quid Rhoetus evulsisque truncis 55 

Enceladus jaculator audax 

Contra sonantem Palladis aegida 
Possent ruentes? Hinc avidus stetit 
Vulcanus, hinc matrona Juno et, 
Nunquam humeris posituru^arcum, 60 

Qui rore puro Castaliae lavit 
Criaes solutos, qui Lyciae tenet 
Dumeta natalemque silvam, 
Delius et Patareus Apollo. 

Vis consili expers mole niit sua, 65 

Vim temperatam di quoque provehunt 

* deacending * from heaven. Compare ii. 13, 11. — 45. Description of 
the power of Jupiter. Ttrram inertem, ' the sluggish earth,* be- 
cause, according to the ideas of the ancients, it stood still, whilst 
the heaven moved.— 46. Regna triatia, • the sad kingdoms.* In the 
mind of a republican Roman there was no more unfortunate state 
than a monarchy : no doubt, however, the poet is thinking chiefly 
of the despotisms of the East. — 50. Connect horrida juventuB fidena 
brachiis, *the fearful crew (of the Titans), trustin^ to the brute 
strength of their arms,' whilst the gods above had wisdom and pru- 
dence to oppose to them. — 51. Fratres ; namely, Otusand Kphialtes, 
two giants, wbo attempted to reach heaven by piling Pelion and 
Olympus, two Thessalian mountains, upon each other. — 52. Im- 
posuisae, for imponere, See Gram. ^ 380, note 2; and Zumpt, ^ 5JK). 
' — 53. Those here named were all giants, sonsof Tartarus and Tel- 
lus, and therefore uterine brothers of the Titans, who were sprung 
frora Uranus and Tellus. — 54. Minaci — BtatUy an ablative of quality, 
' of threatening posture,* of, or with, the attitude which pugilists as- 
sume. — 56. Audax is to be connected with evulsis truncist * bold, as a 
sliiiger, wiih his uprooted trunks of trees.' — 57. Aegida : see i. 15, 
11. — 58. Hinc^ *on this side, on the side of Jupiter. Avidus ,' * evi* 
ger,* for battle. — 60. Nunquam — arcum, Apollo, *who is resolved 
never, at no moment (so long as the war lasts), to lay aside his bow.' 
— 6l.Rore puro Castaliae, * with the pure dew of the Casialian fount/ 
a spring on Mount Parnassus in Thessaly, sacred to the muses. — La" 
vit, present for lavaty from lavire. Compare iv. 6, 26. — 64. Delius-^ 
Apollo. ApoIIo was born in Delos, and there consequentiy is hia 
natalis silva. Patara, a city of Lycia, was a favourite place of his 
abode, and he had a celebrated oracle there. — 65. Via consUii ex- 


In majus ; idem odere vires 
Omne nefas animo moventes. 

Testis mearam centimaniie Gyges 
Sentenliarum,-notus et integrae 70 

Tenlator Orion Dianae, 
Yirginea domitus sagitta. 

Injecta monstris Terra dolet suis, 
Maeretque partus fulmine luridum 
Missos ad Orcum ; nec peredit 75 

Impositam celer ignis Aetnam, 

Incontinentis nec Tityi jecur 
Reliqoit ales, nequitiae additus 
Custos^ amatorem trecentae 
Pirithoum cohibent catenae. 80 

pers — exirens eonsilioj *force without pradence to regulate it ;* op- 
posed to vis temperatat ' force guided by prudence.* — 67. Vires omne 
ftefag animo movefites, ' strength which employs such tnind a« it has 
to set in motion every possible wickedness.' He adduces as 
instances the 'ritans and giants, who presumptuously strove to 
reach heaven, and therelbre were destroyed ; Gyges, as to whom 
compare ii. 17, 14 ; Orion, who made an attempt upon the honour 
of Diana (jtentator Dianae), and was therefore shot by tbe virgin; 
Typhoeus (line 53), on whom Mount Etna was rolled ; Tityus, who 
attempted to force Latona ; and Pirithous, who ofTered violence to 
Proserpine. — 74. Partus ; ihat is, jilios suos : see note on line 53. 
Luridum, * ghastly, gloomy.' — 75. Nec — Aetnanif ^the swift (de- 
vouring, fierce) ftre has not eaten away Etna which is placed above 
Typhoeus,* so that it should become lishter, and the giant be delivered 
from his burden. — ^77. Tiiyijecur. The punishment of Tityus was 
this, that he lay stretched out in Orcus, and a vulture {ales,nequitiae 
custos additus) gnawed continually at his liver, which always grew 
again. — 79. Trecentae catenae. Theseus attempted to defiver his 
friend, but failed, and was himself taken prisoner in the lower 
worjd. Hercules was able to rescue Theseus, but could not free 
Pirithous, who was bound wiih innumerable chains. 

120 ^ Q. HOBATn rLACCl 

cTakmbn V. 

An ode written in the year 20 b. c, when Augustus, bj threats of 
war, compelled Phraates, kiog of the Parthians, to restore the 
Roman standards, and the large number of Roman prisoners that 
iiad fallen into the hands of his nation in the unfortunate ezpe- 
ditions of M. Crassus and M. Antonius. Some short time be&re 
this, Britain, which Augustus, desirous of carrying out the pro- 
jects of his adoptive ^ther Caesar, had threatened with war, 
had, nominally at least, submitted to tJie Roman power. See 
Odes, i. 35, 30, and 21, 15. The joy in Rome «t both eyents 
was great, and Horace expresses his in this od^ He begins 
with a desGription of the disgraceful servitude of the Romans 
among the Parthians, and then shows by the ezample of Regulus, 
that to ransom them would have been base and injurious. But 
as Avgustus has by threats of war forced their restoratioo, he 
mufit be considered as a god. 

CoELO tonantem oredidimtis Jovem 
Regnare ; praesens divus habebitur 
Augustus, adjectis Britannis 
Imperio gravibusque Persis. 

Milesne Crassi conjuge barbara 5 

Turpis maritas vixit, et hostium 
fProh curia inversiqae mores !) 
Consenuit socerorum in arvid 

Sub rege Medo Marsus et Appulus, 
Anciliorum et nominis et togae 10 

Oblitus aetemaeque Yestae, 
Incolumi Jove et urbe Roma ? 

1. Codo is to be connected with regnaref ' that Jupiter reigns in 
heaven.' As contrasted with this, Augustus ^ill be held a praesens 
divus, * a present, visible god ; a god who reigns on the earth.'— 
5. An indignant question, * Has a soidier of Crassus really lived 
with a barbarian wife?' To miles belong, in line 9, Maraus et 
Appulus, which are the names of the two most warlike tribes of 
Italy. Compare i. 2, 39. — 6. Connect hostium with socerorum t» 
arvist * in the fields of their fathers-in-law, enemies of the Romans.' 
— 10. AncUiarum. The ancilia were the twelve small round shields, 
sacred to Mars, which the Salii put on when they began their dance 
in honour of their god. The form anciliorum is the less common 
one for ancilium, from ancile. The to^a was a dress peculiar to 
the Romans, and was worn on all public occasions. — 11. Aetemae 
Vestae. The epithet ' etemal ' here refers not so much to the god- 
dess as to the fire which burned on her altar, and which it was the 
duty of the vestal virgins to keep up coaetantly. On this it was 


Hoo caverat mens provida Reguli, 
Dissehtientis condicionibus 

Foedis et exemplo trahentis 16 

Perniciem veniens in aevom, 

Si non periret immiserabilis 
Captiva pabes. * Signa ego Punicis 
Affixa delubris et arma 
Militibas sine caede,' dixit, 20 

*Derepta vidi j vidi ego civium 
Retorta tergo brachia libero 
Portasque non clausas et arva 
Marte coli populaia nostro. 

Auro repensus scilicet acrior 25 

Miles redioit. Flagitio additis 
Damnum : neque amissos colores 
Lana refert medicata fuco, 

Nec vera virtus, cum semel excidit, 
Curat reponi deterioribus. 30 

believed that the welfare of the state depended. — 13. Reguli. C. 
Atilius Reeulus was, during the iirst Punic war, in the year ' 
255 B. c.t aK>ng with the greater part of his army, taken prisoner in 
Africa by the Carthaginians. He was sent to Rome to negotiate 
an ezchange of prisoners ; but instead of doine so, he opposed the 
proposal in the senate, and, in accordance with his pledged word> 
returned to Carthage into captivity, and to the torturcs which he 
knew awaited him. — 14. CoHdicionihus foedist the proposals of the 
Carthaginians for an ezchange of prisoners and the conclusion of a 
peace. — 15. Exemplo — aevum, *who by his example would brine 
destraction for the future (veniens in aevum), unless,' &c. He said 
that he would bring destruction by his example, if he and his fellow- 
captivea should be freed. — 18. iS^T^na — afixa deluhris. Siandards 
taken in battle used to be hung up in temples as trophies. Tlie 
Carthaginians, it appears, had done this with the Roman standards 
and arms, which had been taken, however, sine caede, * without 
bloodshed,' without the soldiers having been slain. — 22. JRetorta — 
liheroj * the arnas tied behind a frce back.' — 23. Portas non clausas, 
*the gates (of Carthage) not shut,' a sign of the security in which 
the citizens conceivedthemselves to be. — 24. Populata. Povulari 
is properly a deponent verb, but the participle has frequently the 
passive meaning. — 25. Scilicet\ *naturally, no doubt.' This remark 
18 supposed to be made by those who were favourable to an ex- 
change of prisoners. — 27. Damnum, the loss of ihe gold, for which 
you will receive worthless men. Amissos colores, tne natural hue 
which the wool had before it was dyed ; for medicata is = tincta, 
infecta. — 29. Cum — deteriorihus, * when it has once departed (out 
of the minds of men), it will not, refuses to be (non curat = non 
vult) brought back into the bosoms of the degenerate, of those who 
(by allowing themselves to be taken prisoners) have shown them- 
selves to be destitute of courage;* strictly, * too little courageous, 
not courageoos enough,' for deterior i? =» minu9 honutt minus fortis. 



Si pugnat extricata densis 
Cerva plagis, erit ille fortis, 

Qui perfidis se credidit hostibus, 
Et MarteToenos proteret altero, 
Qai lora restrictis lacertis 35 

Sensit iners timuitqae mortem. 

Hic, unde vitam sumeret inscius, 
Pacem duelio miscuit. pudor ! 
magna Carthago, probrows 
Altior Italiae ruinisl' 40 

Fertur pudicae conjugis osculum 
Parvosque natos, ut capitis minor, 
Ab se removisse et virilem 
Torvus humi posuisse vultum, 

Donec labantes consilio Patres 45 

Firmaret auctor nunquam aliias dato, 
Interque maerentes amicos 
Egregius properaret exul. 

Atqui sciebat, quae sibi barbarus 
Tortor pararet ; non aliter tamen 50 

Dimovit obstantes propinquos 
£t populum reditus morantem, 

Quam si clientum longa negotia| 
Dijudicata lite, relinqueret, 

— ^31 . * If ever the hind, which has freed itself from the hunter*8 toiU, 
fi^hts bravely afterwards, then will the soldier who has allowed 
h^mself to be taken captive be brave iikewise.' But the former 
never happens, therefore never the latter. — 33. Se eredidit, *given 
himself up,' intrusfed his life to the mercy of the enemy. — 37. 
Unde vitam sumeret insciuSf * not knowing whence he should take 
true, real life.' The captive did not understand that by war alone 
could he save his life, and hence he gave himself up to the enemy, 
thus making peace when he should have been making war. — 41. 
The author now, after finishing the speech of Regulus, returns to 
the narrative, and describes hisdeparture from Rome. — 42. Capiiis 
minor = capite deminutus. One who allowed himself to be taken 
prisoner was disgraced, and lost the rights of a Roman citizen. — 
45. LabanteSj * hesitating, undecided,' whether they should accede 
to the proposals of the Carthaginians. — 47. Inter amicos is to be 
connected with egregius^ * distinguished among his sorrowing 
friends,' because he alone was cheerful, whilst they were sad. — 48. 
Properaret exul = properaret in exilium. — 49. Atqui, * and yet, 
neveriheless.* — 51. Dimovit, * he pushed aside,* he pressed through 
the crowd, reditus morantem, ' who wished to delay, put off, his 
return to Carthage.' — 53. The sense is this : he went away with 
a countenance as unrufHed as if, after the business of the Forum 
(consisting principally in the settlement of disputes between Roman 
citizens), which had been long and irksome, he were hurryinff away 
to a pleasnnt villa in the couniry, there to recruit his heafth and 


Tendens Venafranos in agros 55 

Aut Lacedaemonium Tarentum. 

spirits during the summer. As to Veoafram and Tarenturo, com- 
pare u. 6, 11, foll. 


A PLATFUL invitation to Maecenas to spend the first of March with 
the poet, on which day the Matronalia in honour of Juno Lucina 
were celebrated by the married men and women. There is added 
to the invitation an advice to rest from political employments. 
Written in the year 29 b. o. 

Martiis caelebs quid agam Kalendis, 
Quid velint flores et acerra thuris 
Plena, rairaris, positusque carbo in 
Cespite vivo, 

Docte sermones utriusqne linguae ? 5 

Voveram dulces epnlas et aibum 
Libero caprum prope funeratus 
Arboris ictu. 

Hic dies anno redeunte festus 
Corticem adslrictura pice demovebit 10 

1. Qutdagam, * what I purpose, mean to do/ for, properly, Ho- 
race, being caeleh», • a bachelor,* had no connection with the cere- 
monies of the Ist of March. — 4. Ceapite vivo, * fresh, green (hence 
vivuf, not wilhered or dead) turf,* which was to serve as an altar for 
sacrifices to Juno. — 5. Docte sennones utriusque linguae, eaid here by 
way of joke: * versed in the literature of Greece and Rome,' which 
is as much as, ' ihou hast searched the literature of both nntions, to 
discover what right or call I could have to celebrate this festival ; and 
having found none, thou comest now to ask me.' Whai follows con- 
tains the poet's an8wer.*-6. AJhumcaprum : white animals were al- 
ways preferred as sacrifices, bearing even externaliy signs of purity. 
The^oat was sacred to Bacchus or Liber. In regard fo what follows 
see ii. 13. — 9. Hi^ dies anno redeunte feslus, ' this day, which 1 
keep 88 a festival, because it is just a year since the fall of the tree 
nearly killed me.* — 10. Corticem adstrictum pice, ' the cork made 


Amphorae, fumum bibere institutae 
Consule TuUo. 

Sume, Maecenas, cyathos amici 
Sospitis centum, et vigiles luceruaB 
Perfer in lacem : procul omnis esto 15 

Clamor et ira. 

Mitte civiles super urbe curas: 
Occidit Daci Cotisonis agmen, 
Medus infestus sibi luctuosis 
Dissidet armis, 20 

Servit Hispanae vetus hostis orae 
Cantaber, sera domitus catena ; 
Jam Scythae laxo meditantur arcu 
Cedere campis. 

Negligens, ne qua populus laboret, 25 

fast with pitch.* — 11. Amphorae — inftitutaej *froTn the amphora, 
which was stored up,* the aative dcpending on demovebit, The large 
pitchers or jars, holding about forty quarts of wine, were taken to 
the hjgher part of the house, into a particular apartment called tbe 
apotheca^ through which the smoke was made to rise, this heing 
said to preserve the wine. Hence fumum bibere is here said of the 
wine. — 12. Consule Tullo ; that is, in the year 33 b. c, when L. 
Volcatius Tullus wae consul. Consequently the wine was four 
years old. — 13. Cyathos amici sospitis centum, * a hundred eups for, 
or on account ot, the preservation of thy friend.' * A hundred 
cups ;' that is, a great number ; a common call at banquets. — 15. 
JPetfer, &c. • keep up the lamps buming even to the dawn of day,' 
for vi^iles is to be connected witb in lucem* Hence the meaning is, 
remam at the banquet till * daylight doth appear.' — 17. Mitte civilet 
curaa. During the absence of Augustus, Maecenas, by his appoint- 
ment, was prae/ectus urbi, the highest magistrate in the city. He 
exercised the functions of this omce, but did not assume any par- 
ticular precedence or insignia ; hence in line 26 he is called privatus, 
* a private man.' — 18. Daci Cotisonis. Cotiso, the king ot the Da- 
cians, had recently been conquered by M. Crassus, proconsul of 
Macedonia. — 20. JJissidet, 'are in dissension, ouarrelling;' the Par- 
thians are prevented by a civil war from making inroads into the 
Roman territory. — 22. The Cantabrians had been conquered in this 
very year, 29 b. c, by Staiilius Taurus, but they were not cora- 
pletely subdued till ten years later. They are called sera catena 
domiJti, because the subjugation of Spain had begun in the second 
Punic war, nearly 200 years before. — 23. Scythae, The Bastar- 
nians, a Scythian tribe, had, like the Dacians, been conquered by 
M. CrasBus, and therefore all the Scythians are purposing to retire 
from the field of battle, and have their bows laxi, ' loose, slack, un- 
bent.' — 25. Ne qua populus laborel, depending on negligens, • heed- 
ing not that in any respect the people are sufiering.' IVfaecenas was 
not bound to attend to this matter ; it was the duty of the other 


Parce privatus nimium cavere; 
Dona praesentis cape ]aetu8 horae et 
Linque severa. 

magistrates of the city. — ^26. Parce eavere=noli cavere, Compare 
i. 28, 23. — 28. Severa, * serious employments.' 


Thk power of the lyre and of the skilfiil eloquence of Mercury 
(compare i. 10, 2) is celehrated. It is so great that even the 
monsters of Tartarus listen to it. The poet descrihes some of 
the inhabitants of the lower world, and dwelis particularly on 

Mercuri (nam te docilis magistro 
Movit Amphion lapides caneiido) 
Tuque tesludo resonare septem 
Callida nervis^ 

(Nec loquax olim neque grata, nunc et 6 

Divitum mensis et amica templis) 
Dic modos, Lyde quibus obstinatas 
Applicet aures, 

Quae velnt latis equa trima campis 
Ludit exsullim meluilque tangi, 10 

Nuptiarum expers et adhuc protervo 
Cruda marito. 

Tu potes ligres comitesque silvas 
Ducere et rivos celeres raorari ; 

1. Vocili8=idoctu8, * skilled on the lyre.' Te ma^istro, ' by teach- 
ing.* — 2. Amphion was said to have built the walls of Thebes by 
his lyre, the stones following its music. — 3. Testudo. Compare i. 
10, 6. Connect callida resonare septem nervis (ablative), 'cunning, 
skilful at sounding from thy seven strings.' — 5. Olim ; nameiy, be- 
fore thou wast spanned by the strings, and when thou wast merely 
the shell of a tortoise. — 8. Applicet, • may turn, incline,' to which 
she may listen, and in consequence of which she will lay aside her 
stubbornness. — 10. Exsultim, an Sina^ \cy6ixcvov, but regularly formed, 
* boundingly.* Metuit tansi ; that is, non vult tavgi, * will not 
allow herself to be touched. — 12. Cruda marito, = expers mariti.—^ 
13. Tigres comitesque silvas ducere, * to lead wilh ihee as thy com- 
panions tigers and woods.' Comites belongs to ducere. — 14. Bivos 


Cessit immanis tibi blandienti 15 

Janitor aulae 

Cerberus, quamvis furiale centum 
Muniant angues caput ejus, atque 
Spiritus teter saniesque manet 
Ore triliugui. 20 

Quin et Ixion Tityosque vulta 
Riflit invito ; stetit urna paulum 
V Sicca, dum grato Danai puellas 
Carmine mulces. 

Audiat Lyde scelus utque notas 25 

Virginum poenas et inane lymphae 
Dolium fundo pereuntis imo 
Seraque fata, 

Quae manent eulpas etiam sub Orco. 
Impiae, (nam quid potuere majus ?) 30 

Impiae sponsos potuere doro 
Perdere ferro. 

Una de multis face nuptiali | 
Digna perjurum fuit in parentem 
Splendide mendax et in omne virgo 35 

Nobilis aevum, 
> ' Surge,' quae dixit juveni marito, 

eelerea morari, * to delay the swift course of rivers.' — 15. Immanit 
aulae, *of the horrid court* which Pluto and Proserpine hold in the 
lower world. — 18. The use of ejus here is very remarkable, as the 
hi^her poetry is accustomed to eschew this pronoun entirel^. For 
this reason, some have considered the whole stanza as spurious.^ 
19. Manet ore trilingui, * flows out of his mouth, which has three 
tongues.' This is not strictly accurate, for Cerberus has three heads, 
and consequently three mouths and three tongues, but he has not 
tbree tongues in one mouth. — 21. Izion, the kmg of the Lapithae, 
who, as a punishment for an attempt upon the honour of Juno, was 
bound in Tartarus to a wheel which constantiy turned round. As 
to Tityos, see iii. 4, 77. — 23. Danai puellat. Danaiis fled with his 
fifty dauehters from Africa to Argos, where he became king. He 
betrotbea his daughters to the fifty sons of his brother Aeeyptus ; 
commanding tbem, however, to murder their husbands on the first 
night of their marriage. They all obeyed his orders except Hy- 
permnestra, who spared h^br husband Lynceus. The other daugh- 
ters were condemned in the iower world to the punishment of con- 
stantly pouring water into a vessel full of holes. — 26. Construe thus: 
dolium inane lymphae pereuntis imofundo, * the cask empty of water, 
because it runs out {perit) at the bottom.' — 28. Sera^ because they 
did not begin till after the death of the Danaida. — 29. Manent, = 
expectant. — 30. Quid potuere majusf 'what greater sin could they 
commit?' — 33. Una de multie, 'one of the many;* namely, Hy- 
permnestra, who waa worthy of being wedded. — 34. In perjurum 
parentem; namely, her father Danaiis, who had formerly made 


*Saiige, ne longus tibi somnas, unde 

Non times, detnr : soceram et soelestas 

Falle sorores, 40 

Quae Telut nactae Tituloe leaenae 
Singulos eheu lacerant : ego illis 
Mollior neo te feriam neque intra 
Claostra tenebo. 

Me pater saevis oneret catenis, 46 

Quod yiro clemens misero peperoi ; 
Me vel extremos Numidaruro in agroB 
Classe releget. 

I, pedes quo te rapiunt et aurae, 
Dum favet nox et Venos, i secundo 50 

Omine, et nostri memorem sepulchro 
Scalpe querelam.' 

Seace with his brother Aegyptus. — 38. Longus tomnuB ; that is, 
eath. Unde; that is, ab eo, a quo, 'from him from whom thou 
fearest it not.* — 42. Singulo», *each her own husband.' — 47. In er- 

write upon my tombstone a lament for my death, by which thoa 
wilt show that thou hast been mindful of me. 


An ode in praiBe of the fountain of Bandnsia, to which the poet 
says he intends to-morrow to sacrifice a kid. We know of a 
fbuntain of Bandusia sorae siz miles from Venu^a, the birth- 
place of Horace. If this be the fona here eztoUed, which is at 
least possible (compare Introduction, p. z.), then the ode must 
have been written very earlv, aboat the year 38 ,b.c., while 
Horace was yet residing in his native town, withoutany settled 
position in life. 

FONs Bandusiae, splendidior vitro, 
Dulci digne mero non sine floribus, 
Cras donaberis haedo, 
Cui frons turgida comibus 

1. Vttro, * than crystal,' as we should say. — 2. Non sinejloribua, 
'and also of flowers:' worthy to have flowers brought to thee as 
ofierings. — 4. Frons turgida comibua, * the forehead swelling with 


Primis et yenerem et proelia destinat 5 

Frustra : nam gelidos inficiet tibi 
Rubro sanguine rivos 
Lascivi suboles gregis. 

Te flagrantis atrox hora Caniculae 
Nescit tangere, tu frigus amabile 10 

Fessis voraere tauris 
Praebes et pecori vago. 

Fies nobilium tu quoque fontium, 
Me dicente cavis impositam iiicem 
Saxis, unde loquaces 15 

Lymphae desiliunt tuae. 

the horns.* The kid haa not yet real homs. — 5. The more com- 
mon form of the ciause would be, Quem frons veneri et proeliU dea- 
tinat. — 8. Suboles ^regis, * the onspring of the herd.' -7 9, Atrox 
hora Jlagrantis Cantculae, Canicula is tne dog-Btar, during whose 
season fhe sun is hottest. Hora is here * time, season' generally, 
and it is called atrox, because it is burdensome, distressmgly hot. 
— 10. Nescit tangere, *cannot touch;' namely, because ihou art 
shaded by oaks and rocks. — 13. Fies nobilium jfontium, ' ihou wilt 
become one of the celebrated fountains,* be renowned like the foun- 
tains and caves of the muses. The prophecy has been fuihlled. So 
long as there is taste in the world, this little poem and the name of 
Bandusia cannot be forgotten. — 14. Cavis — saxis, 'the cave 
among the rocks, with the oak growing over it.' 


Ode on the retom of Aogustus from the war which he had carried 
on against tne Cantabrians and Asturians. Written in 24 b. c. 

Herculis ritu modo dictus, o plebs, 
Morte venalem petiisse laurum 
Caesar Hispana repetit penates 
Victor ab ora. 

Unico gandens mulier marito 5 

1. Construe thus : Caesar, modo dictus (* who was recently said*) 
petiisse Idurum venalem morte ritu Herculis. In the year 25 b. c, 
and during the war, Augustus had fallen into a dangerotis illness. 
It thus appeared as if he were resolved to buy the iaureli victory, 
even at the price of hia life, in the sarae manncr as Hercules had 
often, in ihe performance of his celebrated labours, put his li(e in 
the mo8t imminent peril. — 5. Unico gaudens^-marito, * who has joy 

oAftMnnjM UB. iii. . 129 

Prodeat justis operata Bacris, 
£t soror clari dacis, et decorae 
Supplice vitta 

Virginam matres juvenumque nuper 
Sospitum. V08, o pueri et puellae 10 

Jam virum expertae, male ominatis 
Parcite verbis. 

Hic dies vere mihi festus atras 
Eximet curas : ego nec tumultum 
Nec mori per vim metuam, tenente 15 

Caesare terras. 

I pete uuguentum, puer, et coronaa 
£t cadam Marsi memorem duelli, 
Spartacum si qua potuit vagantem 
Fallere testa. 20 

Dic et argutae properet Neaerae 
Marreum nodo cohibere crinem ; 
Si per invisum mora janitorem 
Fiet, abito. 

Lenit albescens animos capillus 25 

Litium et rixae cupidos protervae ; 
Non eso hoc ferrem calidus juventa 
Consule Planco. 

in her husband alone.' Livia is meant, the all-powerful wife of 
Augustus. — 6. Operata justis sacris (ablative), *after bringing to the 
gods the oiferings due, the ofTerings which she is called upon to 
make.' Operarit with the dative of the god to whom the onerings 
are brought, is the ordinary term. — 7. Soror clari duci» ; namely , Oc- 
tavia. Decorae supplice vitiat * adorned with the ribbon which suppli. 
ants to the gods used to have around their browa and in their hands.' 
— 9. Juvenum nuper soepiti^t * of the youths recently preserved,' by 
the emperor'8 victory in the Spanish campaign. — 11. Jamvirum exper- 
tae is equivalent to nuptae, * married.' — 12. Parciie vertns male ami- 
nati* bas the eame force as favete linguis in iii. 1, 2. Observe the 
hiatus in malif dminatis. — 14. Tumultum nec mori per vim, * war, nor 
(its coDsequence) a violent death.' — 18. Marsi memorem duelli ; that 
is, a cask stored up during the Marsic or Social War (91-89 b. c.): 
this wine would consequently be upwards of sixty years old. But 
Horace doubts whetfaer such wine is to be found ; smce Spartacus, 
in the Servile War (73-71), laid waste the part of Italy most flourish- 
ing and richest in wine. — 19. Si quoi *if anywhere,' = sicubi. — 
20. Testat *jar,' for cadus, ampkora vini. — 21. Dic — properety *tell 
her to hasten.' The hair is cailed murreusj because it is anointed 
with oil of myrrh. Females at this time wore their hair gathered 
into a knot at the back of the head : hence nodo cohibere. — 23. The 
sense fiilly expressed is this: if Neaera's surly porter will not allow 
thee to go in and execute thy commission, do not tarry expostulating 
with him, but hasten back to me. — 25. Albescens capillus is opposed 
to calidus juventat age and youth. — 28. Consule Planco ; that is, in 
the year 42 b. c, when Horace was twenty-two years old. 




Desciuption of the power and destructive influence of gold. The 
poet rcsolves to 11 ve content with his humhle lot 

Inclusam Danaen turris aenea 
Robustaeque fores et vigilura canum 
Tristes excubiae munierant satis 
Nocturnis ab adulteris, 

Si non Acrisium, virginis abditae 5 

Custodem pavidum, Jupiter et Venus 
Risissent : fore enim tutum iter et patens 
Converso in pretium deo. 

Aurum per medios ire satellites 
£t perrunnpere amat saxa potentius 10 

Ictu fulmineo: concidii auguris 
Argivi domus ob lucrum 

Demersa exitio ; ditfidit urbium 
Portas vir Macedo et subruit aemulos 
Reges muneribus j munera navium 15 

Saevos iilaqueacit duces. 

1. Danae. the daushter of Acrisius, was, in consequence of a de- 
claration by an oracle that her son should kiil his grandfather, kept 
by hei^ather shut up in a strong tower, that she might never be 
married. But, as the story goes, Jupiter visited her in-the form of 
a shower of goid. Her son was. the hero Persqus. -4cn«i, *8trong,* 
Compare iii. :^, 65.-3. Munierant, for the regular munivisseniy de- 
fendisfent. Gram. ^ 346, 2. — 6. Pavidum, because he feared that 
nis daughter's son would kill him. — 7. Fore. 'Ihe accusative with 
tbe infinitive here depends upon an omitted ' they thought, beiieved, 
knew.' — 8. Converso in pretium deo, * to the god, if he changed him- 
self into gold,* pretium being thus = aurum. — 10. Amat, like the 
Greek ^iAcc, ' is accustomed.' Fotentius ictu fulmineo, * more po- 
tent than ihe stroke of a thunderbolt.' — 11. Augur Arprivus is Am- 
phiaraus of Argos. His wife, Eriphyle, was bribed wiih a golden 
bracelet by Polynices, who was raising an arniy against his brotber 
the king of 'I hebes, and she persuaded her husband to accompany 
her brother Adrastus on the expedition, though he knew that he 
would perish in it. — 14. Vir Macedo, Philip, king of Macedonia, 
father of Alexander the Great. He made himself master of Olyn- 
thus, Amphipolis, Potidaea, Pydna, and many other towns, by 
bribery. It is related of him that he used to say any fortress could 
be taken inlo which an ass laden with gold could enter, Aemuloa 
reges, his competitors for the throne of Macedonia, Pausanias, ^.r- 
gaeus, Arrhybas, Chersobleptes, whose under-generals he bribed. 
— 15. Navium — duces, an allusion to the freedman Menas, the most 


CreBcentem sequitur cura pecuniam 
Majoruraque famee. Jure perhorrui 
Late conspicuum toUere verticem, 
Maecenas equitum decus. 20 

Quanto quisque sibi plura negaverit, 
Ab dis plura feret : nil cupientium 
Nudus castra petO) et transfuga divitum 
Partes linquere gestio, 

Contemptae dominus splendidior rei, 25 

Quam si, quidquid arat impiger Appulus, 
Occultare meis dicerer horreis, 
Magnas inter opes inops. 

Purae rivus aquae silvaque jugerum 
Paucorum et segetis certa fides meae 30 

Fulgentem imperio fertilis Africae 
Fallit sorte beatior. 

Quamquam nec Calabrae mella ferunt apes, 
Nec Laestrygonia Bacchus in amphora 
Languescit mihi, nec pinguia Galiicis 35 

Crescunt vellera pascuis, 

Importuna tamen pauperies abest, 
Nec, si plura velim, tu dare deneges. 
Contracto melins parva cupidine 
Vectigalia porrigam, 40 

skilful admiral of Sextus Pompeius, whom Octavianus induced by 
bribery to desert his master. — 18. Majorumfame», ' a hunger, thirst 
after more.* Perhorruif a stronger expression for nolui. — 19. • To 
raise my head so hie;h as to be widely visible, visible far and near 
(late conapicuum) ;' that is, to become rich and powerful. — 22. To 
plura sxxpply tanto. — 23. Construe thus : nudus ('without riches') 
peio eastra cupientiUm nil, * I betake myself to the camp, the party 
of those who seek nothing :* hence of course I leave, desert the 
party of the rich. — 25. Contemptae — rct, 'of a despised (ihat is, 
small) fortune.* — 26. Arat has the last syllable lengthened by the 
ictut; see a similar case in iii. 5, 17. As to the sense, compare i. 1, 9. 
— 30. Certa Jides meae aegetis, ' the sure confidence that my harvest 
will turn out as I wish.' — 32. Fallit sorte heatiorj a Greek construc- 
tion, ' my liitle property escapes the notice of him who glitters with 
the g;overnment of fertile Africa« as being, according to late's decree 
(or ' in regard to lot'), happier;' that is, he does not perceive it to 
be happicr. Hence the.accusative/ic^enfem depends on fallit. — 33. 
Calabrae apes, As to the excellence of the honey of Tarentum, see 
ii. 6, 14. — ^34. Laestrygonia in amphoraj ' in an amphora from For- 
miae,' a town of Campania, famed for its wine: see i. 20, 11. For 
Formiae boasted that the district around it was the ancient land of 
ihe Laestrygooes, of whom Homer speaks in Odyj»»cy, x. 82. — 35. 
Languescit. Wine loses its bitterness, becomes mild by age. Fin- 
mia vellera ; that is, sheep whose fleeces are fat, thick. The wool 
irom upper Italy, called Gallia Cisalpina, eepecially from the neigh- 
bourhoodof Altinum, was in great repute. — 39. Contracto — cupidine^ 



Quam si Mygdoniis regnum Alyattei 
Campis continuem. Multa petentibus 
Desunt multa : bene est, cui deus obtulit 
. Parca, quod satis est, manu. 

* by limiting my desires.' Horace, contrary to the regular practice 
in prose, alwayB treats cupido as masculine. Parva vectigalia por- 
rigam, ' I shail extend, increase my small income' (for vectigalia 
Iteie = reditus generally). — A\. Alyattei. Alvattes was king of 
Lydia, and father of the well-known Croesus. The Mygdones were 
a tribe in Phry^ia. Hence the meaning of the passage is this : than 
if I were to join the kingdom of Alyattes to the fields of tbe Myg- 
donians, and thus become lord of more and richer lands.— 43. Bene 
ettf ' it is well with him, he is well off.* 



Ods to Aelius Lamia, who is mentiooed in i. 26, 8. An invitation 
to a cheerful feast on the nezt day. 

AelI} vetusto nobilis ab Lamo, 
(Quando et priores liinc Lamias ferunt 
Denorainatos, et nepotum 
Per memores genus omne fastos 

Auctore ab iilo ducit originem, 5 

Qui Forroiarum moenia dicitur 
Princeps et innantem Maricae 
•Litoribus tenuisse Lirim 

Late tyrannus)) cras foliis nemus 

1. Most of the illustrious Roman families traced their descent from 
some mythical hero; and the Lamiae, among the number, referred 
the origin of their race to Lamus, a son of Neptune, and king of 
the Laestrygones, who is mentioned by Homer in Odysgeyy x. 8L 
He was said to have reigned in Formiae. Compare the preceding 
ode, line 34. Hence nobilig ah Lamo means * noble, since rhou art 
descended from Lamus.* — 2. (^uando ferunt = quoniam narrantf 
'since people say,* or 'since it is said,' followed by an accusative 
with the infinitive. — 3. Construe thus : et omne genu$ nepotum ducit 
originem per memores fastos ah illo auctore^ qui, elc. The faati^ cal- 
endar kept by thd consuls and censors, are called memores, because 
they preserved the meraory of distinguiahed men. — 7. Prinrep», 
*■ first.' Maricae. She was the goddess of the shore at Minturnae, 
where the Liris (now Garigliano) discharges itself into tbe sea. The 
river forms near its mouth extensive marshes. — 9. Late tyrannus =■ 


Multis et alga litas inutili 10 

Pemissa tempestas ab Euro 
Sternet, aquae nisi fallit augur 

Annosa cornix. Dum potis, aridum 
Compone lignum : cras Genium mero 
Curabis et piorco bimestri 15 

Cum famulis operum solutis. 

late.regnafUf 'reigning over a wide dominion.' Construe thus: 
cras tempesteu demissa ab Euro (' sent, brought by Eurus*) sternet 
nemus multisfoliis et litus inulili alga ; that is, there will be a sreat 
storm. — 12. Aquae — augur, ' the predicter of water, of rain.* When 
the hoarse tones of the crow were heard at night, the circumstance 
was said to presage rain. — 13. Annosa, because, according to the be- 
lief of the ancients, it lived for seven generations. Dum potisj scil, 
est, * 80 long as it is possible.' Aridum lignum^ * dry wood :' do it 
before the wood becomes damp from the rain. — 14. Genium curabis, 
The common ezpression is, Gettia indulgere^ * to enjoy one*8 self ' by 
holding a banquei. — 16. Operum solutis, a Greek construction for 
apere solutis, liberatis, * freea from labour.' 



Ode to Faunus, the rural god, who gave increase to the seed and 
the flocks. His festival was celebrated twice in the year — on 
the Ides of February and the Nones of December ; that is, at 
the commencement and close of agricultural operations. 

Faune, Nympharum fugientum amator, 
Per meos fines et aprica rura 
Lenis incedas abeasque parvis 
- Aequus aiumnis, 

Si tener pleno cadit haedus anno, 5 

Larga nec desunt Yeneris sodali 

3. Lenis incedas, 'go gently, or graciously,* be gracious. The 
expression abeas aequus has the same force. The poet fancies that 
Faunus goes over the fields, examining them, bles^ing some, and 
' cursin^ others. Parvi alumni are the young cattie. — 5. The idea is 
ihis : if I, at the end of the year, on the Nones of December, ofTer 
a sacrifice to thee, as I certainly shall, or, because I shall do^o, be 
gracious to me. Fleno anno, * when the year is full ;' that is, at the 
end of it. — 6. Venerix sodali, in apposition to craterae, because wine 


Yina craterae, vetus ara multo 
Fumat odore. 

Ludit herboso pecus omne campo, 
Cum tibi Nonae redeunt Decembres) 10 

Festus in pratis vacat otioso 
Cum bove pagus ; 

Inter audaces lupus errat agnos} 
Spargit agrestes tibi silva frondes ; 
Gaudet invisam pepulisse fossor 15 

Ter pede terram. 

and love are always eupposed to go together. — 7. Vetus ara, *thy 
o!d altar,' such as country people usually have. — 12. Pagus, *the 
village ;* that is, the country people ; said without any special refer- 
encc to Horace'B estate. — 13. A sign of the power of Faunus: he 
can make the sheep bold and the wolf tame. — 14. This probably 
refers to the fact that the country people used to strew over with 
leaves the place where they held the festival of Faunus. — 15. Fossor^ 
'the vinedresser,' by whom the earth is invua, 'hated,' because he 
has to work on it. Gaudet pepulissej 'he rejoices in beating it ;' 
that is, in dancing. He beats it ter, because the measure of the 
dance is triple time. 


An ode, containing instructions, delivered in a playful strain, re- 
garding the proper subjects of conversation at banquets. The 
poet asks not for learned discussions, but for free, easy talk 
about wine, baths, taverns, and love, interspersed occasionally 
with a toast to any friend who has recently met with good fi>r- 
tune, or tlie like. 

QuANTUM distet ab Inacho 

Codrus, pro patria non timidus mori^ 

Narras, et genus Aeaci 

£t pugnata sacro bella sub Ilio ; 

2. Codrus, the last king of Athens, in a battle with the HerS' 
clidae, voluntarily gave up his life for the safety of his country : 
hence he is here calTed non timidus == audax, mori pro patria. His 
line of descent from Inachus, a mythical king of Argos, is adduced 
as an instance of an abstruse but very unprofitable subject of con- 
versation, as also the genealogy of Aeacus, from whom Peleua, 
Achilles, Telamon,and Ajax were said to-be aprung.— 4. Sacrollio, 


Quo Chlum pretio cadum 5 

Mercemur, quis aquam temperet ignibus, 
Quo praebenle domum et quota 
Pelignis caream frigoribuSj taces. 

Da lunae propere novae, 
Da noctis mediae, da puer auguris 10 

Murenae. Tribus aut novem 
Miscentur cyathis pNOCula commodis. 

Qui Musas amat impares, 
Ternos ter cyathos attonitus petet 
Vates ; tres prohibet supra 16 

Rixarum metuens tangere Gratia 

Nudis juncla sororibua. 
Insanire juvat. Cur Berecyntiae 

a standing phrase in Homer, 'iXios ffw?. — 6. Quis aquam temperet 
iMnibu9, *who makes the water bearable, comfortably tepid, by 
nre ;' that is, who prepares warm baths. We are perhaps to under- 
Btand the reference to be to public baths, the excellences or defects 
of ^hich were a suitable subject for table-talk. — 7. Quo praehentei 
&c. This is to be understood of an inn or tavern-keeper, who lets 
one of his rooms to a company. Quota, scil. hora, ' at what hour.'— 
8. Pelignisfrigoribus; that is, cold such as prevails amons the Apen* 
nines, where the Peligni dwell. Hence we see that the ode was 
written in winter. — 9. Da, Bupply cyathum, 'give me a cup, novae 
lunae, to drink lo the new moon.* Compare lii. 8, 13. — 10. Noctis 
mediae, * to drink to midnight,' to which we mean to extend our 
carousal. Auguria Murenae, * to the heahh of our augur Murena ;' 
that is, to the heahh of our friend Murena, who has recently ob- 
tained the priestly ofiice of augor. Who tbis Murena was is uncer- 
tain. — 11. Tribus aut novem, etc. The eense may be gathered from 
the following explanation : — A poculum, one of the larse cups out 
of which the Romans drank, held about as much as twelve cyathi — 
small cups which were used for taking the wine from the pitcher. 
Now the wine was very seldom drunk unmixed, and there were 
chiefly two degrees of mixture: first, three cyathi of wine, in nine 
of water; that is, only one-fourth being wine — this was the mix- 
ture commonly preferred ; and secondly, three cyathi of water in 
nine of wine, ihus three-fourths being wine. This latter mixture 
pleases the poet, who means to put himself into an inspircd {attoni' 
tus, enthusiastic) state of mind. He would have even three more 
cvathi ofwine (line 15, tres supra, ^three besides,' besides the nine); 
tnat is, he would drink his wine pure, but this would intoxicate hira, 
and make him ofTend the Graces ; that is, transgress the rules of 
propriety. — 12. Commodis, a poetical construciion for the adverb 
commode, * suitably, properly, comfortably.' — 13. Impares, because 
there were nine, an odd number. — 17. JVwdi« juncta sororibus, for 
ihe Graces are often represented naked, twined in each oiher's arms. 
— 18. The flutes are called Berecyntiae, bccause they were used in 
the worship of the Mater magna ; and Berecyntus is a mountain in 


Cessant flarnina tibiae? 

Cur pendet tacita fistula cum lyfa ? 20 

Parcentes ego dexteras 
Odi: sparge rosas; audiat iDvidus 
Dementem strepitum Lycus 
£t vicina seni non habilis Lyco. i 

Spissa te nitidum coma, 25 

Puro te similem, Telephe, Vespero 
Terapestiva petit Rhode ; 
Me lentus Glycerae torret amor meae. 

Phrygia, which was the chief seat of this deity. — 20. Pendet, ' Hang 
on the wall.* — 21. Parcentes dexterast ' niggardly hands,' hands that 
do not always give bountiiiilly at a banquet. — 23. Lycus, a fictitious 
naroe for a churlish old man, who lives in the neighbourhood. The 
names which come afterwards are also fictitious. — 24. Non habUis = 
non aptOt *not suitable,' because she is too young for him. — 25. 
Spisaa comai * with thick hair/ an ablative of quahty. Tbick hair 
being a sign of youth, Telephus is contrasted wiih old Lycus. — 26. 
Puro similem Vespero, * like the evehing star, when it rises in a clear, 
cloudless sky.' — ^27. Tempestiva ; that is, suited to thy youth, which 
is stiii tender. 


Ode to a wine-pitcher, which the poet has had broaght down fi^m 
the 8o.cailed apotheca (see iii. 8, 11, note), for the entertainment 
of his patron and friend M. Valerius Messalla Corvinos. Mes- 
salla was born in the year 59 b. c, and in his youth distinguished 
himself in the army of Brutus and Oassius by his talents for 
militaiy command. He aflerwards joined the party of Antony, 
then that of Octavianus, was consul in the year 31 b. c, and 
triumphed in the year 27 b. c, after the conquest of the Aquitani« 
Afler this he lived in literary leisure, devoted especially to the 
study and practice of oratory ; and it is his ability in regard to 
this which Horace eztols in this ode, briefiy, indeed, but highly. 

O NATA mecum consule Manlio, 
Seu tu querelas sive geris jocos 

1. Nata mecum, * sprunff, grown (which should properly have 
been said of the wine itself) with me,' in the year 65 b. c, when 
L. Aurelius Cotta and L. Manlius Torquatus were consuls. — 2. Seu 
geris, ' whether thou carriest along wiih thee.' The poet fanciea 
that wine, when grown and pressed, receives, as it were by divine 


Seu rixaxn et insanos amores 
Seu facilem, pia testa, s^mnum, 

Quocunque lectum nomine Massicum 6 

Servas, moveri digna bono die, 
Descende. Corvino jubente 
Promere languidiora vina. 

Non ille, quamquam Socraticis madet 
Sermonibus, te neglegit horridus : 10 

Narratur et prisci Catonis 
Saepe mero caluisse virtus. 

Tu lene tormentum ingenio admoves, 
Plerumque duro; tu sapientium 
Curas et arcanum jocoso 15 

Consilium retegis Lyaeo ; 

Tu spem reducis mentibus anxiis 
Viresque et addis cornua pauperi, 
Post te neque iratos trementi 
Regum apices neque militum arma. 20 

Te Liber et, si laeta aderit, Venus 

Segnesque nodum solvere Gratiae 


appointment, the power of exciting a particular feeling or disposi- 
tion, either cheerfulness or sadness, quarrelsomeness, love, or 
sleepiness. Hence in line 5, in speaking of the Massic wine, he 
says Quocungue ftmnine Ueiufny ^gathered with whatever desti- 
nation.' Properly, the grapes only are gathered. — 6. Moveri digna 
hono dict a poetical conatruction, aUer the Greek, for diena quae mo' 
vearia bono die, A dies honus is ' a lucky day,' opposea to dies ater. 
— 7. De»cende; namely, from the apothecat which was in the upper 
part of the house. Jubente; that is, since the presence of Corvmus 
commands, since my joy at the fact that Corvinus will partake of a 
banquet with me, and m^ desire to honour him lead (order) me 
to bring down milder (that is, older) wine {languidiora vina ; see iii. 
16, 35.) We must not, however, imagine that Corvinus was really 
impertinent enough to assume the master in his friend's house. — 9. 
The word madet is often used of one who has drunk plentifully of 
wine : hence it is here applied to Corvinus, as fuU of such conver- 
sations as Socrates and his disciples used to hold. These were cele- 
brated in antiquity not so much for their philosophic depth and 
learning as for their wit and gracefulness. — 10. Horridus, ' bar- 
barous, uncultivated,' hence * austere.* — 11. Prisci Catonis, ' old 
Cato ;' that is, Cato the Elder, called Censorius, by whose advice 
Carthage was destroyed. — 13. Lene tormentum, * a gentle torture.* 
Thou subduest a stem and otherwise inflexible character, by tor- 
turinff it, as it were, after a pleasant fashion. Those whom the rack 
couldnot bend often yield to the gentle force of wine. — 16. Lyaeo. 
See i. 7, 22. — 18. Cornuai * courage,' as the animals that have 
horns possess more courage than others. — 20. Apices ; that is, dia- 
demata. See i. 34, 14. — 21. Te—producent, * ihee (properly, the 
amphora, hence the banquet which is kept up with the wine from 
the amphora) they^hall prolong.'— 22. Segne» nodum solvere; that 


Vivaeque producent luoernae, 
Dum rediens fugat astra Phoebus. 

ifl, quae raro, quae nunquam solvunt nodum, Compare i. 30, 6 ; and 
iii. 19, 17. — 23. Vivae, *living;* that ia, burning. 



CoNsoLATORT ode to a poor woman. Tbe gods look not upon rich 
offerings and splendid presents, but upon puritj of character. 

CoELO Rupinas si tuleris manus 
Nascente Luna, rustica Phidyle, 
Si thure placaris et horna 
Fruge Lares avidaque porca ; 

Nec pestilentem sentiet Africum 5 

Fecunda vitis, nec Bterilem seges 
Robiginem aut dnlces alumni 
Poraifero grave terapus anno. 

Nam quae nivali pascltur Algido 
Devota quercus inter et ilices 10 

Aut crescit Albanis in herbis 
Victima, pontificum secures 

Cervice tinget : te nihii attinet 
Tentare multa caede bidentium 
Parvos coronantem marino 15 

Rore deos fragilique myrto. 

1. Coelo = ad coelum. Supinas manua. Suppliants raised their 
bands before them, turning tne palms outwards. — 3. Homa fruge^ 
* with fruits such as the year nas brought thee.' — 5. ^estilenlem 
Africum^ * the devastatine Scirocco.' See i. 3, 12. — 7. JRobiginem, 
a disease in grain, ' milaew, blight.* Dulces alumni^ the voung 
goats, sheep, &.c. Compare iii. 18, 4. — 8. Pomifero anno ; that is, 
auctumno, * in autumn.' — 9. The Roman pontifces possessed on 
Mount Algidus (as to which compare i. 21, 6), and near Alba Longa 
extensive pastures, on which the cattle grazed that were intended 
for the great public sacrifices of the Koman people. Hence the 
sense is this : let the pontifices care for greater sacribces, yours need 
only be small. — 10. Vevota^ * consecrated to the gods.' — 14. Multa 
caede bidentium, poetical for caede multarum ovium ; for bidentes was 
the name given in the Roman sacrificial language to sheep two years 
old. — 15. Parvos deos ; namely, the Lares, of whom thou hast 
litile imagea upon thy hearth. — 16. Fragili, ' delicate,' easily brokeo. 


Immunis aram si tetigit raanus, 
Non sumptuosa blandior hos,tia 
MoUivit aversos Penaies 
Farre pio et saliente mica. 20 

— 17. The sense is this : piety, even when it does not bring offer- 
ings, is more pleasant to the gods than wick^dness which brings 
large ofierings. Immunia is used in its strict etymological sense -s 
sinemunere, * without a present.' — 19. Aversos Penaiety *the angry 
Penates/ who, to show their wrath, have turned away their faces. 
— 2Q. JFar (coarse meal) and mica saliens (salt which, when thrown 
into the fire, crackles and emits sparks) were main constituents of 
cvery sacrifice. 


A D18CRIPTI0N of the immorality prevalent in the poet*s age, and 
which arose chiefly from avarice and eager striving afler gain. 

Intactis opulentior 

Thesauris Arabum et divitis Indiae 

Caeraentis licet occupes 

Tyrrhenum omne tuis et mare Apulicum ; 

Si figit adaraantinos 5 

Summis verticibus dira Necessitas 
Clavos^ non animum metu, 
Non raortis laqueis expedies caput. 

Carapestres raelius Scythae, 

1. Intactis thetauris, ablative dependent on the comparative opu- 
lentior, said for quam intacti thesauri, * than the treasures which the 
Romans have not yet touched.' Compare i. 29, 1. — 3. Caementis, 
Compare iii. 1, 34. The sense is: thou buildest for ihvself the most 
magnificent villas all along the shore of the sea, yet ihy wealth and 
thy splendour can give thee no help against Death. — 4. Mare Apu- 
licum. This sea lies opposite to the Tyrrhenian, and is elsewhere 
called Mare Superum or Mare lonicum. As to the quantily of 
Apulicum, see iii. 4, 9, note.— 5. Sifgit^lavos ; literally, 'if cruel 
Necessity drives her adamantine naifs into the top of thy house ;' 
that is, if the Fates bring thy life to a close ; for we frequently 
meet in ancient authors with the idea that the Parcae occasion 
death to a man by driving nails into his house. Compare i. 35, 17.; 
and as to adamantinos, i. 6, 13. — 9. Scvthae. Homer, in Iliad, 
ziii. 6, calls them the justest of men. They are here called cam- 


Quorum plaustra vagas rite trahunt domos, 10 

Vivunt el rigidi Getae, 
Immetata quibus jugera liberas 

Fruges et Cererera ferunt, 
Nec cultura placet longior annua, 
Defunctumque laboribus 15 

Aequali recreat sorte vicarius. 

Illic matre care^htibus 
Privignis mulier temperat innocens, 
Nec dotata regit virum 
ConjuX; nec nitido fidit adultero. 20 

Dos est magna parentium 
Virtus et metuens allerius viri 
Certo foedere castitas ; 
£t peccare nefas aut pretium est mori. 

O quisquis volet impias 25 

Caedes et rabiem toUere civicam, 
Si quaeret pater urbium 
Subscribi statuis, indomitam audeat 

Refrenare licentiam, 

pestres = vofidScs, * wandering over their plains.* — 10. Site, 'as is 
the cu8tom of their nation.* — 11. Rigidi, because they lived in the 
coLd north. — 12. Immetata, 'not measured,* for the Getae or Dacians, 
as they led a nomadic life, had no property. Hence also ihefruges 
are called liberae, becanse they belonged to the whole people, not 
to one individual. — 14. Anmta, ablative, for qtiam anmta. The 
reader should compare with this description of the Getae what 
Caeear iBell, Gall. iv. 1) says of the Suevi. — 16. Vicarius ; properly, 
the substitute that the upper slaves of wealthy people used to keep, 
here one who cultivates a piece of land after another ,* that is, takes 
his place ; the ' possessor in his turn ;' there being no proprietor, 
strictly so called. Becreat, * allows him to recruit, afibrds him lei- 
sure.' — 18. Mulier temperat innocens. The wives, not being greedy 
after gold (hence innocentes), spare, do not iay snares for their etep- 
sons, who can no longer be protected by their own mother. — 19. Nec 
dotata. The wives in Rome who had brou^ht their husbands large 
dowries, ruled them thereby. The Getac nad neither dowries nor 
female rule. — 21. Parentium virtus, 'the virtue inherited from their 
parents.' This is the dowry of the Getan maids. — 22. Metuens 
alterhts viri ; that is, apernens alterum virum. — 24. Nefas, »cil. est. 
The sense is this : a transgression of chastity (peccare) is with them 
a sin (nefas) ; and hence does not occur, or, if it does occur, the 
reward, punishment (nretium), is death. — 26. Rabiem civicamy such 
as was exhibited in tne long civil wars which preceded the reign of 
Augustus. — 27. The sense is: if he wishes (quaeret — volet) that on 
the base of his statues there should be added to his name the epi- 
thet * Father of the City,' or ' Father of his Country.' Thia is an 
allusion to the fact that Augustus was at this lime seeking, by 
salutary arrangements and laws, to gain this name, which after- 
wards he actualiy obtained. — 29. Licentiam, 'shamelessness, iicen- 


Clarus postgenitis : quatenas (hea nefas !) 30 

Virtutem incoluraera odimus, 
Sublatam ex ocuHh quaerimus iavidi. 

Quid tristes querimoniae, 
Si non supplicio culpa reciditur, 
Quid leges, sine moribus 35 

^ Vanae, proficiunt, si neque fervidis 

Pars inclusa caioribus 
Mundi nec Boreae finitimum latus 
Durataeque solo nives 
Mercatorem abigunt ? Horrida callidi 40 

Vincunt aequora navitae \ 
Magnum pauperies oppiobrium jubet 
Quidvis et facere et pati, 
Virtuiisque viara deserit arduae. 

Vel nos in Capitolium, 45 

Quo clamor vocat et turba faventiura, 
Vel nos in mare proximum 
Gemmas et lapides, aurum et inutile, 

Summi materiem mali, 
Mittamus, scelerum si bene poenitet. 50 

Eradenda cupidinis 
Pravi sunt elementa, et tenerae nimis 

tiousness;* libertas which goes beyond bounds. — 30. Clarus post- 
genitis ; that is, clarus apud posleros ; by such conduct he will esiin 
fame with posterity. Quatenus = quoniam. The sense is : we hate 
▼irtae so long as it continues among us (incolumem)^ but when it has 
sunk, has been removed from our eyes, then we seek it, and envy 
those days as happy in which it was with us. — 34. Supplicio culpa 
reciditur, ' the fault, vice, is cut ofT by severe punishmeni,' like a 
sore. — 35. Leges sine moribus vanae go together, ' laws, which have 
no force without morals.' — 36. Si neque^ etc. The sense of the 
whole sentence is this: complaints and enactments can be of no 
radicai benefit, so long as the need of money and thirst for it con- 
tinue. — 37. Construe thus : pars mundi inclusa fervidis caloribus ; 
that is, the southern zone, uninhabitable from the heat ; hence, 
especially, the interior of Africa. In the same way, in the next 
line, latus {mundi) jfinitimum Boreae^ the northern zone.— -42. Mag- 
num opprobrium is in opposition to pauperieSy * poverty, which is tne 
greatest disgrace.'— 44. Arduae, because the path to virtue is steep, 
because virtue is difficult to aMain. — 45. The poet thinks that an 
improvement of the public morals can be effected only by utterly 
annihilatine money. This may be done — sufficiently at least for 
all practical purposes — either by consecrating it all to the gods, and 
depositing it in the temples, particularly in the temple of Jupiter, 
the supreme Roman god, on the Capitol, or by throwing it into the 
eea. In Camtolium ; namely, miliamus, in line 50. — 46. Faventiumy 
'of applauoers,' for this is the proper sense of /avcre. — 50. Bene^ 
'truly, eincerely, thoroughly.' — 52. Tenerae nimis menteSf 'too 


Mentes asperioribus 
Formandae studiis. Nescit eqno rudis 
Haerere ingenuus puer 55 

Venarique tiraet, ludere doctior, 

Seu Graeco jubeas trocho, 
Seu raalis vetila legibus alea, 
Cum perjura patris fides 
Consortem socium fallat et hospitem, 60 

Indignoque pecuniam 
Heredi properet. Scilicet improbae 
Crescunt divitiae ; tamen 
Curtae nescio quid semper abest rei. 

eiTeininate mindB.' To this refers the subsequent description of the 
entrance of foreign, particularly Greek manners. — 54. Equo hae- 
rerci nearly equivalent to equo vehi, * to ride ;' but with a touch of 
humour, exactly expressed by our ' to stick on a horse^s back.' 
Sudisy ' inexperienced;' namely, in riding. — 57. Trocko. The 
trochus was an iron hoop adorned with bells, with which boys used 
to play. — 58. Seu tnalis vetita legihus alea^ * or preferrest (md/t» 
from tnalo) — namelv, to have him play — with dice which are for. 
bidden by the iaws. There existed among the Romans from early 
times laws prohibiting all games of chance, particuiarlv with dice. 
— 59. Perjura jtatrislides, Whilst the son is thus renaered effem- 
inate by a foreign education, the father is endeavourins by every 
means, even by aishonesty, to make money. Hence * tne perjured 
word of the father* is equivalent to * the father, who breaks his 
word and his oath.' — 60. Consortem sociumt * his partner in bosi- 
ness ;' for this is the proper sense of consorst one who has, along 
with ajiother, a sors, capital, for carrying on business. — 62. Pro- 
peret =j)ropere paretj • is hurriedly acquiring.* Scilicetj here 'natu- 
rally,* • it is not to be wondered at that.* — 64. Curtae rei = mancaef 
nimis parvae rei familiari. So the father thinks at least, since, 
never content with what he has, he is always seeking more wealth. 



Ods to Bacchus, inspired by whom the poet declares that he wishes 
to sing the praises of Augustus. 

Quo me, Bacche; rapis tui 

Plennm ? quae nemora aut quos agor in specns ~ 

2. Quae ngtnora is governed by m, which is given in the following 
member of the clause, quos in sptcus. The meaning of the poet- 
icai expression is: to what wilt thou inspirc me, O Bacchus? — 


Velox mente noval quibus 
Antris egregii Caesaris audiar 

Aeternum meditans decus 6 

Stellis inserere et concilio Jovis? 
Dicam insigne recens adhuc 
Indictum ore alio. Non secus in jugis 

Exsomnis stupet Evias, 
Hebrum prospiciens et nive candidam 10 

Thracen ac pede barbaro 
Lustratam Rnodopen, ut mihi devio 

Ripas et vacuum nemus 
, Mirari libet. O Naiadura potens 

Baccharumque, valentium 15 

Proceras manibus vertere fraxinos, 

Nil paWum aut humili modo, 
Nil mortale loquar. Dulce periculum est, 
O Lenaee, sequi deum 
Cingentem viridi tempora pampino. 20 

3. Vehx mente fioiHs, ' winged, rendered fleet by a new mind.' Meru 
nova, the feejing which was not in my bosoni till Bacchus put it 
there, enthusiasm, inspiralioo.— 4. Construe thus : audtar meditans 
inserere aetemum decue Caesaris stelHst ' shall I be heard, as I pur- 
pose, strive, to set the fame of Au^ustus among the stars, thus 
making it undying.^ He purposes, in short, to write a poera in 

Sraise of ihe emperor. — 6. Concilio Jovis, 'among the council of 
upiter,' who holds just such a deliberative assembly of the other 
gods as the Roman senate was. An allusion to the prudent legis- 
lation of Augustus. — 7. Insigne recens, *a star newly risen,' and 
consequently as yel unsung by any other (indiclum adhuc ore alio.) 
Hercules and Romulus had been brilliant stars, and were afterwards 
taken up to be gods. Hence Augustus himself is here the insigne. — 
8. Non secus is to be connected with ut in line 12. The prose ex- 
pression is non secvs ac. * Not otherwise does the Bacchant feel 
enthusiasm than I shall do.' The Bacchant is called Evias, from 
EviuSf the surname of Bacchus. See i. 18, 9. She is called exsom- 
niSf because she celebrates her rites in t.he night. The chief seat 
of the Bacchantes was Thrace, where the river Hebrus and the 
mountain-range of Rhodope were. The inhabitants were called by 
the Greeks, in the strict use of the word, barbarians: hence in line 
11, pede barbaro. — 12. Deviot *wandering away from ihe abodes of 
men.' Hence the nemus is called vacuumt 'desolate, empty of 
men.' — 14. Naiadum potens ; namely, Bacchus. Compare i. 3, 1 ; 
potens Cypri. — 16. Vertere for everlere, * to tear up, or overthrow.* 
The Bacchic frenzy was said to give the women such strength that 
they could root up trees with their hands. — 18. Dulce periculum. It 
is dangerous for a mortal to approach the god, for the divine infiu- 
ence is exerted even over the bodies of the devotees. However, 
ihis danger is sweet, pleasant. — 20. Bacchus is rcpresented with 
his tempTes begirt with a garland of vine-twigs and leaves. 




The poet invites his patron Maecenas to visit him at his Sabine 
&rm. To this invitation are added reflections on wealth, and 
the true way of enjoying life. 

Tyrrhena regum progenies, tibi 
Non ante verso lene merum cado 
Cum flore, Maecenas, rosarum et 
Pressa tuis balanus capillis 

Jamdudum apud me est. Eripe te raorae, 5 

Ne semper udum Tibur et Aesulae 
Declive contempleris arvura et 
Telegoni juga parricidae.' 

Fastidiosara desere copiam et 
Molem propinquam uubibps arduis^ 10 

1. Tyrrhena regum progtnies. See i. 1, 1. — 2. Non ante verso radOf 
* from a pitclfer never before turned over ;' that is, inclined so as to 
pour out wine. Hence the meanins is : a new amphora must be 
broken open in honour of Maecenas. l^ene merumt * mild wine/ wine 
which has become mild by age. See iii. 16, 35. — 4. Tuis capUlis, 
'for thy hair.' Balanust an Arabian aromatic fruit, which, as we 
see here, came to Rome just as it grew, and was pressed (pressa) 
for its oil there. — 5. Jamdudum apud me, 'already for a long time 
beside me, in my house.' In jamdudum we see Horace's longing 
for a visit from his patron and friend. — 6. Maecenas had his palace 
at Rome on the Esquiline, the highest hill in the city (whence, in 
line 10, the house is called moles propi?iqua nuhidus arduis)^ which 
was famed for its salubrious air, and for the view that a person could 
obtain from it over the whole of Rome. Maecenas, in his will, be- 
queathed his house to Augustus, and thus it came into the posses- 
sion of the Roman emperors. Nero is said to have looked froni it 
upon the burning city. Here the poet is to be understood quite 
literally, when he speaksof Maecenassurveying the so-called Cam- 
pagna di Roma, as ihe Esquiline Hill commanded this view. Three 
towns were particularly prominent in the view — namely, Tibur 
(now Tivoli), as to which, compare i. 7, 12; the ancient town 
of Aesula, on the slope of the Alban hills (hence declive arvum)] 
and Tusculum, which was situated on the ridge of ihe Alban hills, 
and was celebraTed as a place of great strength, but in modern 
times, since its destruction in the middle ages, may be consi- 
dered as represented by the town of Frascati, at the foot of the 
range. The local tradition in regard to the origin of Tusculum was. 
that it had been foundcd by Telegonus, a son of Ulysses, who un- 


Omitte tnirari beatae 

Fumum et opes strepitumque I^omae. 

Plenimque gratae divitibus vices 
Mundaeque parvo sub lare pauperum 
Coenae sine aulaeis et ostro 15 

Sollicitam explicuere frontem. 

Jam clarus occultum Andromedae pater 
Ostendit ignem, jam Procyon furit 
Et stella vesani Leonis, 
Sole dies referente siccos ; 20 

Jam pastor umbras cum grege languido 
Rivumque feesus quaeril et horridi 
Dumeta Silvani, caretque 
Ripa vagis taciturna ventis. 

Tu civitatem quis deceat status, 25 

Curas et urbi sollicitus times, 
Quid Seres et regnata Cyro 
Bactra parent Tanaisque discors. 

Prudens futuri temporis exitum 
Caliginosa noole premit deus, 30 

designedlv killed his father. — 11. Beatae Romaey *of weahhy 
Rome,* lor this is generally the sense of beatus. — 13. Vice$t 
'change.* — 14. Sub lare =8fih tecto, the god for that which he 
protectfl. — 16. SoUicitam explicuere frontem, 'unwrinkle, smooth 
the aaxious brow ;' that is, generally, drive away care and trouble. 
The perfect is bere used in an aorist sense, of that which commonly 
happens. — 17. The sense is this : sumnier is already come, the 
season when residence in the country is delightful. In the begin- 
ning of July the star named after Cepheus, the father of Andromeda, 
rises ; then the Procyon (Latin Antecanis), one of the stars in the 
constellation of Orion ; soon after it the dogstar (Canicula) itself; 
and finaUy, the star of the Lion makes its appearance, which is 
called here vetanus, because it brings the ffreatest heat. — 20. Befe- 
rente, ' bringiiig back every year.' — 21. JPastor — ^uaerit is tobe 
understood generally of all shepherds, but more particularly of those 
who tended the extensive flocks which, during the winter, fed in the 
plainsof Apulia and Calabria, but in the summer were taken up to 
the hills of Lucania. — 22. Horridiy 'rough, shaggy,' for he is re- 
presented with the hairy feet of the goat. — 2.5. It does not appear 
that Horlice alludes here to the praefeetura ur6t8, which Maecenas 
held in the year 30 b. c, during the absence of Augustus from the 
city. Hc would have indicated it more distinctly. We have here 
simplya general description of political employments. — 27. Reg- 
nata Cyro, *once reigned over by Cyrus,' which once belonged lo 
the great Persian empire. As to the construction of regnare, see ii. 
€, 12, note.^-^S. Tanais is used here fbr the Seythians on its banks, 
and their neighbours the Parthians.— 29. Prudena, * not without 
13 K 


Ridetque, si mortalis ultra 

Fas trepidat. Qaod adest, memento 

Componere aequus : cetera fluminis 
Ritu fernntur, nunc medio alveo 
Cum pace delabentis Etruscum 35 

In mare, nunc lapides adesos 

Stirpesque raptas et pecus et domos 
Volventis una non sine montium 
Clamore vicinaeque silvae, 
Cum fera diluvies quietos • 4Q 

Irritat amnes. Ille potens sni 
Laetusque deget, cui licet in diem 
Dixisse ' Vixi j' cras vel atra 
Nube polum pater occupato 

Vel sole puro ; non tamen irritum 45 

Quodcunque retro est, efficiet, neque 
Difiinget infectumque reddet 
Quod fugiens semel hora vexit. 

Fortuna, saevo laeta negotio et 
Ludum insolentem ludere pertinaZ| 50 

Transmutat incertos honores, 
Nunc mihi nunc alii benigna. 

Laudo manentem ; si celeres quatit 
Pennas, resigno quae dedit, et mea 
Virtute me involvo, probamque 65 

Eurpose.* — 31. Vttra fast * beyond what he is pemiitted to know, 
eyond what the godshave allowed him,' for this is fas. Trepidal 
^curat timet. — 32. Quod adest, the present, and that which im- 
mcdiately follows it; the things of to-day and to-morrow. — 33. 
Aequus, * with equity, justice ;' the adjective for the adverb, 
which woald have been used in prose. Flutninis ; namely, the 
Tiber, from which the whole of the following comparison is taken. 
— 35. Cumpace =iplacide, quiete, ^peacefuUy, calmly.' — 40. Dil^h 
vies, * a flood.' Wnen the mehing of the soow on the mountains 
has swelled the tributaries of the Tiber, Anio, Nar, and Claois, 
which commonly flow peacefully along, then the Tiber also be- 
comes an impetuous torrent. — 41. Potens sui, * master of himseif,' 
so that he keeps his passions under subjection. — 42. In diem, *for 
every day.' — 44. Polum, as frequently, 'the sky' generally.— 
47. biffineetf *change the form of, alter.' — 49. Laeta saevo ne- 
gotio, *wlio rejoices in her cniel employment;' namely, impove- 
rishing the wealthy and humbling the proud. — ^50. Ludere, depend- 
ing, according to a Greek construction, on pertinax* * obstinate to 
play;' that is, 'inplaying.' — 53. Celeres pennas. Compare i. 34, 
15. — 54. Resigno, a term taken from the lloman money-dealings, 
= rescribo, * I pay by bill, I ffive back.' Compare Epist. i. 7, 34.— 
55. Viriute mea me involvo, *1 wrap myself up in mine integritv,' m 
in a toga. Dying persons used to draw the toga over their head. 


Pauperiem sine dote quaero. 

Non est meun), si mugiat Africis 
Malu8 procellis, ad miseras preces 
Decurrere et votis pacisci, 
Ne Cypriae Tyriaeque merces 60 

Addant avaro divitias mari. 
Tum me biremis praesidio scaphae 
Tulum per Aegaeos tumultus 
Aura feret geminusque Pollux. 

and thus quietly await the stru^gle with the last enemy. — 56. Sine 
dote, * without any present,' which Forlune gives man as a dowry. — 
5S. Malus, 'the mast,' used here by synecdoche for the ship eene- 
rally. Compare i. 14, 5. — 59. Votis pacisci, to gain peace and rest 
by vowing presents to the gods should the ship reach tne land safely. 
—-62. Biremis here does not mean, as usual, a ship with two banks 
of oars ; but, as we see from scapkae, a small boat impelled by two 
oars. — 63. Aeeaeos tumultus, * ine raging storms of the Aegean.' — 
64. Geminus Pollux. See i. 3, 2, and i. 12, 25. 


Closing poem of the first three books of the odes, in which, as if 
his productions as a lyrist were here to end, Horace, with a jast 
consciousness of his merits in this department, promises to him- 
self immortality from his odes. 

ExEGi monumentum aere perennius 
Regalique situ pyramidum altius, 
Quod non imber edax, non Aquilo impotens 
Possit diruere aut innumerabilis 

Annorum series et fuga temporum. 5 

Non omnis moriar, multaque pars mei 
Yitabit Libitinam : usque ego postera 
Crescam laude recens, dum Capitolium 

1. Aerey * than brass;' that is, than a statue of brass {aeneo mo7iU' 
mento)i such as commonly used to be erected to the memory of illus- 
trious men. — 2. Situ, ' than the structure.' — 3. Impotens ; namely, 
sui, ^ vehemens. — 5. Fuga temporum, poetical for tempus fugax. — 
6. i^mnis, * utterly.' Hence afterwards multa pars mei, poetical for 
Tnagna parsmei; namely, my genius, the memory of what mv genius 
has created. — 7. Lihitinam. Venus Libitina was the goddess of 
sepulture : at her temple all deaths in Rome were announced, as 
the births were at that of Juno Lucina. Usque = semper. Fostera 
laude; that is, laude posterorum, by the praise of posterity, which 
Bhall cause me to be ever recenst as one who is but just dead. — 


Scandet cum tacita virgine pontifex. 
Dicar, qua violens obstrepit Aufidus, 10 

£t qua pauper aquae Daunus agrestium 
Regnavit populorum, ex humili potens, 

Princeps Aeolium carmen ad Italos 
Deduxisse modos. Sume superbiam 
Quaesitam meritis et mihi Deiphica 15 

Lauro cinge volens, Melpomene, comam. 

9. Cum tacita virgine ; that is, ^ith the vestal virgins, virgo and 
pontrfex being used coUectively. Hence the sense is : so long as 
the Koman priests, accompanied by the vestals, who maintain a 
Bolemn silence, go up to the Capitol to offer public sacrifices ; that 
is, 80 long as Kome, the Eternal City, continues. — 10. Construe 
thu^ : dicar princeps deduxisse Aeolium carmen ad Italos modos^ * I 
shall be celebrated as having been the firstto bring over the Aeolian 
verse to ItaHan measures;' that is, as the first to write in Latin 
such lyrics as, erewhile, were sung by Sappbo and Alcaeus, who 
composed in the Aeolic dialect of Greek. Aufidus (now Ofanto), a 
river near Venusia, the birthplace of the poet. — 11. As to Daunus, 
compare i. 22, 14, note. The hero of the country is here named for 
the country itself; hence the t^\\.\iei pauper aquae is applied to him, 
Apulia being deficient in water. Agrestium populorum, genitive 
dependent on regnavit, according to tne Greek construction a^x^ivy 
Kpareiv rivos. — 12. Ex humili potens ; that is, humili loco natuSj sed 
potens carminibus. — 15. Delphi calauro, * with the Delphic laurel,' 
wiih the laurei with which Apoilo, whose chosen seat is Delphi, 
crowns poets. Hence the meaning is : grant, O Muse, that I may 
be universally acknowledged as a true lyric poet. — 16. Foleus =3 
propitia, * graciously.' 




In thifl ode Horace excuses himself fbr not attempting that lofly 
kind of lyric poetry which Pindar had tultivated among the 
Greeks, but contenting himself with imitating the lighter songs 
of Alcaeus and Sappho. The poem is addressed to Mark 
Antony^s son, lulus Antonius, who was brought up by Augustus 
and his sister Octavia. At this time Antonius was held in 
respect and honour; so much so, indeed, that in the year 10 
B. c, he obtained the consulship. Aflerwards, however, in 2 b. c, - 
he was discovered to be implicated in a conspiracy against the 
emperor, and was obliged to kill himself The ode was written 
shortly beibre 13 b.c 

PiNDARUM quisquis studet aemulari, 
lule, ceratis ope Daedalea 
Nititur pennis vitreo daturus 
Nomina ponto. 

Monte decurrens velut amnis, imbres 5 

Quem super notas ahiere ripas, 
Fervet immensusque ruit pfofando 
Pindarus ore^ 

Laurea donandus Apollinari, 
Seu per audaces nova dithyrambos 10 

2. Ceratis ope Daedalea — pennisj * on wings which, like those once 
made by Daedalus, are but artificial, fastened with wax.' An allu- 
sion to the well-known story of Daedalus, who, with his son Icarus, 
flew away from Crete by means of wings which the father had con- 
structed of wax. Icarus, however, the wax of his wings being 
melted by the sun, fell and was drowned in the sea, which, from 
his name, was afterwards called the Icarian. — 3. Vitreo ponto. 
Corapare i. 17, 20. — 6. Super notas ripas, * over its well-known 
banks,* the banks within which it keeps when not swollen by rains. 
— 7. Profundo ore ; that is, grandiloquo, magnifico. The figure of 
the river is still preserved. — 9. Apotlinari. See iii. 30, 15. — 10. 
Nova verha devolvit, an allusion to tne fact tbat Findar, in his dithy- 
13 * (149) 


Verba devolvit numerisque fertur 
Lege solutis ; 

Seu deos regesve canit, deorum 
Sanguinem, per quos cecidere justa 
Morte Centanri, cecidit tremendae 15 

Flamma Chimaerae ; 

Sive, quos Elea domum reducit 
Palma coelestes pugilemve equumve, 
Dicit et centum potiore signis 
Miinere donat, 20 

Flebili sponsae juvenemve raptura 
Ploral, et vires animumque moresque 
Aureos educit in astra nigroque 
Invidet Orco. 

Multa Dircaeum levat aura cycnum, 25 

Tendit, Antoni, quoties in altos 
Nubium tractus. £go apis Matinae 
More modoque, 

rambB, a very sublime kind of lyrics, composed properly only in 
honour of Baccbus, forms many new words, wbicb, lonff compounds, 
are wbirled along by bis impetuous verse as great rocks are carried 
down by the force of a torrent. In tbese poems, too, tbe measurea 
of bis verse are more free, and put togetber more boldly ; hence 
fertur numeris lege tolutis, *he rusbes along in lawless measnrea.' 
13. DeoSf hymns to Jupiter — of wbicb we have a small fragment— 
and to other gods. Regesy panegyrics or encomia on ancient kings 
and heroes, such as Piritbous and Tbeseus, who were sprung from 
gods (bence deorum sanffuinemt put in apposition to reges), aod 
waged a just war {hence justa morte) a^ainst the Centaurs, wbo had 
carried ofT Uippodamia, tbe bride of Piritbous : such, also, as Belle- 
rophon, wbo slew tbe flame-breatbing Cbimaera (bere poetically 
fiamma Chimaerae.) See ii. 17, 13. — 17. Tbis refers to tbe odes 
wbich Pindar wrote on the victora in the Olympian, Istbmian, and 
Nemean ^ames, and some of wbicb were on the horses tbat were 
victorious in tbe races. Tbese are the only poems of Pindar which 
have come down to us entire. Elea palmat Ube palm-brancb of 
Elis,' refers indeed only to tbe games at Olympia, but we mast 
understand tbe otbers to be meant as well. — 18. Coelestesj =&ea(o<, 
as proud and as bappy as the gods. Compare i. 1, 6. Pugilem, 
victor in tbe pugilistic contests at Olvmpia. — ^21. Juvenemve. Ve 
supplies tbe place of sive or seu, whicb occurs in lines 10, 13, and 
17. Hence construe thus : sive plorat juvenem raptumfifkili sponsae. 
Tbis class of poems, of wbich we bave many tragments, is called 

in Greek Spfivoi (dirges.) — 23. Educit for tbe more common effert or 
evehit, * raises, extoTs to tbe stars.* — 25. Dircaeum cycnum. Tbis 
title is given to Pindar from Dirce, a fountain near Tbebes, 
his native city. Multa aura levaty 'mucb air — tfaat is, a strong 
breeze — raisea him.' We use a similar ezpression, *he takes a 
vigorouB or lofty fligbt.* — 27. Matinae. See i. 28, 3. The district 
was celebrated for the number of its bees, and the sweetness of its 


Grata carpentiB thyma per laborem 
Plurimum circa nemus uvidique 30 

Tiburis ripas, operosa parvuB 
Carmina fin^. 

Conclnes majore poeta plectro 
Caesarem, quandoque trahet feroces 
Per sacrum clivum, merita decorus 35 

Fronde, Sygambros j 

Quo nihil majus meliusve terris 
Fata donavere bonique divi 
Nec dabunt, quamvis redeant ia auram 
Tempora priscum. 40 

Concines ]aetosque dies et urbis 
Publicum ludum super impetrato 

honey. — 29. Per lahorem plurimum, * with greal labour,* answering 
to the operosa carmiTia in line 31. Hence the meaning is: Pindar 
composed such sublirae poetry by his genius: I, not posaessing 
such lofty genius, work up my odes with labour and care. — 33. 
Majore plectro, the opposite of leviore plectro in ii. 1, 40, and hence 
equivaient to majore carmine, ' in a loftier kind of song ;' for lulus 
Antonius distinguiahed himself as a writer. He composed an epic, 
in twelve books, called Diomedea, in imitation of those Greek poets 
who treated of the whole circle of traditions regarding Troy. — 34. 
Ouavdoque, ' when once he.' The Sygambri, a German tribe on 
the Rhine, Sier, and Lippe, had in 16 b. c. gained an important vic- 
tory over the Komans, under M. Lollius. Augustus was desiroua 
to avenge this, and the poet imagines to himself already the triumph 
which the emperor would celebrate. — 35. JPer sacrum clivum^ not 
elsewhere mentioned, but undoubtedly a part of the via sacroj along 
which the triumphal processions used to go up to the Capitol. Me- 
ritafronde; namely, lauro. — 39. Quamvis — priscum ; tbat is, in 
Milton'8 words, even though tirae were to * run back, and fetch the 
age of gold.' This is trulv splendid praise of the mild and happy 
reign oi Augu8ta8.~41. What follows has reference to the approach- 
ing happy return of Augustus from travelling through Gaul and 
Spain, in the vear 13 b. c. To celebrate this return both senate 
and people made the most extensive preparations. Besides public 
prayers and sacrilices, holidays were proclaimed (laetos dies, = 
festos die$)y which were connected wilh 2iju8titium ; that is, a ces- 
sation not only of the business in the courts of jusiice and public 
offitses (which the poet indicates, in line 43, by forum litibus orbum, 
= vacuum), but of business generally. Festal games (publicus ludus 
urbis, in line 42) were to be celebrated, and Augustus was to have 
a triumphal procession, to which lines 49 and foUowing refer. 
Moreover, piety demanded that private persons also, such at least 
as stood in any particular relation to the eraperor, should show their 
joy at his return, and their gratitude to the gods for it, by offering 
sacrifices. To this lines 53 and following refer. — 42. Superimpe- 
trato reditu, ' on account of the return which, by our vows and 


Fortis Augusti reditu forumque 
Litibus orbum. 

Tum meae, si quid loquar audiendum, 45 

Vocis accedet bona pars, et 'O Sol 
Pulcher ! O laudande !' canam, recepto 
Caesare felix. 

Tuque dum procedis, lo triumphe 
Non semel dicemus, lo triumphe 60 

Civitas omnis, dabimusque divis 
Thura benignis. 

Te decem tauri totidemque vaccae, 
Me tener solvet vitulus, relicta 
Matre qui largis juvenescit herbis 55 

In mea vota, 

Fronte curvatos imitatus ignes 
Tertium lunae referentis ortum, 
Qua notam duxit, niveus videri, 
Cetera fulvus. 60 

prayers, we have obtained from the gods.' — 45. Si quid loquarau- 
diendum ; that is, if my voice shali be audible amid the joyfal 
shouts of ihe crowde who are accompanying and welcoming Augus- 
tus. — 46. Sol = dies: hence, * O beautiful day !' — 49. Tu dumvro- 
eedis; that is, whilst thou, lulus Antonius, marchest proudly aiong 
in the triumphal train among the senators and kinsmen of the era- 
peror, I shall, in the midst of the crowd, join the shout of lo tri- 
umphe ! This was the usual shout with which the Romans greeted 
ti^iumphing generals. — 51. Civitas omnis. Supply dicet from the 
preceding dicemus. Dahimus thura. Whilst the procession ad- 
vanced along the principal streets, incense was burnt (in token of 
gratitude to the gods) on altars which had been erected at the sides 
of the streets. — 54. Solvet, *will free ;' namely, from the vows 
which Fhave offered for the safe return of Augustus. — 57. Jgnes 
tertium lunae referentia ortum, * the fiery form of the moon when 
she rises for the third time :' that is, the horns of the calf are like 
those of the moon*when she is three days old. — 59. Qua notam duxitj 
* where it has a spot,' a white one. Niveus videri, 'snow-white to 
be seen;' that is, in appearance ; a construction in imitation of the' 
Greek. The rest of the animal is fulvus, here * light-red.' 




Odk to the Muae, in wbich Horace acknowledges tbat at last, afier 
much envy and disparagement, he hafl obtained some recognition 
of his merits as a poet 

QuEM ta, Melpomene, semel 
Nascenlem placido lumine videris, 
Ulam non labor Isthmius 
Clarabit pugilem, non equus impiger 

Curru ducet Achaico 5 

Victorem, neque res bellica Deliis 
Ornatum foliis ducem, 
Quod regum tumidas contuderit minas, 

Ostendet Capitolio : 
Sed quae Tiber aquae fertile praeflaant 10 

£t spissae nemorum comae 
Fingent Aeolio carmine uobilem. 

Romae, principis urbium, 
Dignatur soboles inter amabileB 
Vatum ponere me choros, 15 

£t jam dente minus mordeor invido. 

O testudinis aureae 
Dulcem quae strepitum, Pieri, temperas; 

4. Tbe verb clarare is antique and rare. Tbe common word ia 
nobilitare. Compare aetemare in iv. 14, 5. — ^5. Curru — victoremy an 
aliusion to the fact tbat the victors in the Grecian games used to 
enter tbeir native city triumpbantly, riding in a chariot. The sense 
of tbe wbole passage is : if the muse is favourabie to a man, be will 
not, if a Greek, strive in tbe games to attain tbe bigbest bonour 
which could fall to tbe lot of any one iu Greece ; nor, if a Roman, 
will he prosecute a military life, and gain fame thereby. — 6. Deliis 
foliis ; namely, lauro, which was sacred to ApoUo, the god of 
Delos. — 8. Regum. Most of the nations with whicb the Romans 
carried on war were governed by kings, particularly tbe Eastern 
nations. Of their tumidae minae, ^swelling — that is, angry or 
boastful — threats,' Horace could speak witb great justice, — 10. Tbe 
eense is : he who has a poetical genius will cultivate it in solitude, 
and thus make bimsclf famous. — 12. Fingent, = ejjicient, * wiil make 
him, will 80 train and inspire him that he will become iilustrious.' — 
14. Soboles here = populus. Roma is bere conceived as a goddess, 
whose cbildren tbe Romans are. Amabiles sbould properly bave 
been joined to vatum. — 17. Aureae, a froquent epithet of the lyre, 
cxpressive of its excelience. — 18. JPieri. The singular is rare.— 


rautis quoque piscibus 

Donatnra cycni, si libeat, sonum, 20 

Totum muneris hoc tui est, 
Quod monstror digito praetereuntium 
Romanae fidicen lyrae : 
Quod spiro et placeo, si placeo, tuum est. 

20. Donatura, = quae dones, *who wouldst give.' — 21. Muneris tvi, 
nearly equivalent to munus tuum. Compare Gram. ^ 279. *AU 
this (my becoming famous) is of thy gifL' — 24. Spiro, not *I breathe, 
live,' but 'I am inspired by the muse,' inspiratus sum. 


Odb in praise of Claudius Drusus Nero, the yoDDger brother of the 
Emperor Tiberius, and stepson of Augustus. The two brotbers 
had, in the year 15 b. c, carried on an arduous but successful 
war against the Raetians and Vindelieians. Drusus, then a 
youth of twenty-three, had become particularly dear to the 
Koman people; because they believed that, if he reached tbe 
throne, he would rcstore the ancient freedom. 

Horace, with great skill, so constructs his ode as to give eTen 
greater praise to Augustus than to Drusus ; for to the emperor^s 
training he attributes the young man'8 talents and successes. 

QuALEM, ministrum fulminis, alitem, 

Cui rex deorum regnura in aves vagas 

Permisit expertus fidelem , 

Jupiter in Ganymede flavo, 

Olira juventas et patrius vigor 5 

Nido laborum propulit inscium, i 

1. The second member of the protasis commences in line 13 with 
gualemve, and tl\e apodosis in line 17. — Ministrum fulminis, for the | 
eagle watches the thunderbolts, and hands them to Jupiter when he 
wishes to cast them. — 2. Regnum in aves vagas, = regnum (* govern- ' 
ment') avium. The ancient as well as modern poets universaily i 
consider the eagle as the kin^ of birds, and Horace here hazards the 
fancy that Jupiter had given it the government as areward forsteal- | 
ing away Ganymedes, son of Tros, king of Troy. Others say that | 
Jupiter himself assumed the form of an eagle, to spirit away the 
beautiful boy to heaven. — 4. Flavus, Greek ^avdbs, an epiihet indi- 
cating the boy'8 beauty. — 5. Olim — propulit, 'once drove out of 
the nest,' and often does: the perfect usea in an aorist sense. Pa- 


Yernique jam nimbis remotis 
Insolitos docuere nisus 

V^enti paventem) mox in ovilia 
Demisit hostem vividus impetus, 10 

Nunc in reluctantes dracones 
Egit amor dapis atque pugnae ; 

Qualemve laetis caprea pascuis 
Intenta, fulvae matris ab ubere 
Jam lacte depulsum leonem 15 

Dente novo peritura vidit ; 

Yidere Raetis bella sub Alpibus 
Drusum gerentem Vindelici ; (quibus 
Mos unde deductus per omue 
Tempus Amazonia securi 20 

Dextras obarmet, quaerere distuli, 
Nec scire fas est omnia ]) sed diu 
Lateque victrices catervae 
Consiliis juvenis revictae 

iriiu vigor, ' hereditary boldness or energy.* — 8. Vocuere — venti. 
Other birds learn to fly in calm weather/but the young eagle makes 
the wind its teacher : herein consists its similarity to young Drusus. 
— 10. , Vividus. The use of the word in the secondary senae which 
it has hcre is rare and remarkable. — 11. Nunc, answering to the 
preceding mox. The eagle first learns to fly ; then it seeks as prey 
animals which can make no resistance ; and finally, it is ready for 
battle. Heluctantes dracones. Homer {Jliad, xii. 200) has a descfip- 
tion of a fight between an eagle and a serpent, which roany other 
ancient poets have imitaied. — 14. Ab uhere jam lacte depulsum. 
Both ah uhere and lacte depend upon depulsum ; the former indicat- 
ing more the position, the latter the occupation; sothat lacte depul- 
sus is equivalent to a word not used in good Latinity, ablactatus, to 
which, beyond a doubt, the expression ab ubere might be added to 
denote removal from position. — 16. Dente fiovo, * by its teeth, new 
to devouring ;* that is, which have not hitherto been used for this 
work. — 17. Videre. Supply talem, \o correspond with qualem iif 
lines 1 and 13. JRaetis suh Alpibus — Vindelici. The Vindelicians 
dwelt between the Danube, the river Aenus, and the Lacus Brigan* 
tinus. Their chief town was Augusta Vindelicorum, now Augs- 
burg. The country of the Raetians lay south from that of the Vin- 
delicians, and extended as far as Verona and Comum. These na- 
tions were subdued bv Drusus and Tiberius, the former conquering 
the Vindelicians, the latter the Raetians. Compare iv. 14, 15. The 
Raetian Aips, at the ibot of which the Vindelicians are here said 
to see Drusus warring, are the mountains about Verona. — 18. The 
parenthesis beginning with quibus, and endin^ with omnia in line 
22, appears somewhat unpoetical, and also foreign to the subject of 
the whole ode. But this is not a sufficient reason for considering it, 
as some have done, an interpoiation. Construe thus : distuli quae- 
rcre (properly, 'I have put ofT to ask;' that is, nolo, 'I wiU not') 
unde deductus mos iis (for the relative quibus is used merely to con- 


Sensere^ qoid mens rite, quld indoles 25 

Nutrita faustis sub penetralibus 
Posset, quid Augusti paternus 
In pueros animus Nerones. 

Fortes creantur fortibus et bonis ; 
Est in juvencis, est in equis patrum 30 

Virtus, neque imbellem feroces 
Progenerant aquilae columbam ; 

Doctrina sed yim promovet insitam, 
Rectique cultus pectora roborant : 
Utcunque defecere mores, 35 

Indecorant bene nata culpae. 

Quid debeas, Roma, NeronibuR, 
' Testis Melaurum flumen et Hasdrubal 

Devictus et puicher fugatis 
Ille dies Latio tenebris, 40 

Qui primus alma risit adorea, 
Dirus per urbes Afer ut Italas 
Ceu flamma per taedas vel Eurus 
Per Siculas equitavit undas. 

Post hoc secundis usque laboribus 45 

nect more closely) dextras oharmet. In translating we must break 
up the sentence: ' I will not inquire whence the custom is derived, 
which arms,* &c. The Amazons are represented on ancient mon- 
uments holding a two-edged sword in their hend, and the yindeli- 
cians used a weapon of the same kind (here called by the poet an 
axe); for which reason some looked upon them as descendanls of 
the Amazons. — 25. Mens rite. Supply from nutrita a similar verb, 
such as formata. — 26. Faustis sub penetralibus. Faustus is ' fa- 
voured by the gods.' Hence the house of Augustus is here inti- 
mated to be beloved by the gods. — 27. Paternus animus in pueros 
Nerones. Tiberius and Drusus were mereiy the stepsons of Augus- 
tus, but he displayed towards them all the kindnesa of an actual 
Tather. — ^29. Fortibus et bonis, ablative, according to the principle 
stated in Gram. % 303. — ^34. Cullus, * training.' — 35. Mores, • char- 
acter,' or here rather 'educalion,' which forms character. — ^36. In- 
decorantj equivalent tothemore common dedecorant ; culpae = vitia; 
and bene nata = bonam indolem, bonam naturam. — 38. Testis, scil. 
e»t, equivalent to testatur. An allusion to the well-known victory 
which the consul C. Claudius Nero, in conjunction with hiscolleague 
M. Livius, gained on the river Metanrus, in the year 207 b.c, 
over Hasdrubal, brother of Hannibal, who was bringing auxiliaries 
from Spain. Horace does not over-estimate the importance of this 
victory, when he dates from it Hannibal's despair of con^uer- 
ing Italy. Metaurum is used adjectively. Compare Carm. li. 9, 
21, and Ars Poetica, 18. — ^39. Fugatis tend^ris gives ihe reason why 
the day was beautiful, 'since it chased away darkness, calamify.' 
— 41. Risit ; that is, laetus fuit. — 42. Ut = ex qno, *8ince.'— 43. 
Taedat here docs not mean 'torchee,' but the wood out of which 


Romana pubes ci^yit, et impio 
Vastata Poenorum tumultu 
Fana deos habuere rectos, 

Dixitque tandem perfidus Hannibal : 
' Cervi^ luporum praeda rapacinm, 50 

Sectamur ultro, quos opimus 
Fallere et effugere est thumphus. 

Gens, quae cremato fortis ab Ilio 
Jactata Tuscis aequoribus, sacra 
Natosque maturosque patres 65 

Pertulit Ausonias ad urbes, 

Duris ut ilex tonsa bipennibus 
Nigrae feraci frondis in Algido, 
Per damna, per caedes ab ipso 
Ducit opes animumque ferro. 60 

Non Hydra secto corpore firmior 
Vinci dolentem crevit in Herculem 
Monstrumve summisere Colchi 
Majus Echioniaeve Thebae. 

Merses profundo, pulchrior exiet; 65 

Luctere, muha proruet integrum 

torches are made, ' pines.' — 48. Fana deos habuere rectos. The 
statues of the gods, which the Carthaginian had overthrown, were 
set up again, and remained frorn that time forward upright. — 
49. Ferfidus Hannibal. * Treacherous' was their great foe'8 usual 
epithet among the Romans, appHed with much the same justice as 
the French perfide AJbion to England. — 50. Cervi. Hannibal com- 
pares the Carthaginians to deer, the Romans to wolves. — 51. Opi- 
musi = amplusj ma^nificusy a rare and only poetical use of the word. 
— 53. Ah Ilioi 'gomg forth from liium.' — 54. In regard to Tuscis 
aequoribust compare VirgiFs Aeneid, i. 71, and following. Sacra^ 
the penates which Aeneas carried with him from burning Troy. — 
56. Fertulitj a strengthened attulit. — 57. Tbnsa, 'shorn' of its 
uppermost branches, an operation which makes the tree grow 
stronger. — 58. Algidus, a hill in Latium, sacred to Diana. It was 
thickly wooded. I^igrae, * black, dark, dusky.' — ^59. Per, here ' in 
spite of.'— €1. Hydra, ihe celebrated Lernaean snake, which, when- 
ever Hercules cut off one of its heads, received two in its place. 
Hence it is called here firmior corpore secto, * stronger because ita 
head was cut from its body.' — 62. Kt?M:i dolentem, * who grieved lo 
be conquered.* The simple infinitive here is a poetical construction 
for the accusative with the infinitive. — 63. Colchi. In their country 
Jason sowed the dragon'8 teeth, and thus produced monsters. 
Hence summisere, which is properly said of the earth's 'sending up, 
producing' fruits. — 64. Echioniae Thebae. Echion was one of the 
men who sprang from the dragon's teeth sown by Cadmus. He 
alone survived the fight between the brothers, and assisted Cadmus 
in the building of Thebes. — 65. Merses, subjunctive oimerso, = si 
merses, as in the nexi line luctere = si luctere, Exiet, an ancient 

158 Q. HO&ATn rLAOOZ 

Cam laude Yictorem geretqae 
Proelia conju^ibus loquenda. 

Carthagini jam non ego nuntios 
Mittam superbos : occidit, occidit 70 

Spes omnls et fortuna nostri 
Nominis, Hasdrubale interempto.' 

Nil Claudiae non perficient manasy 
Quas et benigno numine Jupiter 
Defendit et curae sagaces 75 

Expediunt per acuta belli. 

form for exibit^ not used in the proBe of the Augustan age. — 68. Cati- 
jugibus loquenda ; hence * bloody.' — 70. Superhos nufUioi ; such, 
namely, as he had sent after the battle of Cannae. — 72. Nomiiu» 
here = gentisj the Carthaginians. — 75. Curae sagacesj thc prudence 
of Au^ustus. This brings the Claudii safely out of dangerous posi* 
tions in war. For expedire is strictly used of deliverance from dan* 
gers, and acuta belli are cases which demand a speedy decisioD, 
* critical circumstances.' 


A EiTLOGiuM on Augustus, written sbortly before 13 B.C., in which 
year the emperor, afler a long absence, retumed from Gaul to 
kome, and was received by the wholo Roman people with the 
highest tokens of honour. 

Divis orte bonis, optime RornufaD 
Custos gentis, abes jam mmi»m diu : 
Maturum reditum pollicitus Patrum 
Sancto concilio redi. 

Lucem redde tuae, dux bone, patriae : 6 

Instar veris enim vuhus ubi tuus 
AfFuIsit populo, gratior it dies 
£t soles melius nitent. 
Ut mater juvenem, quem Notus invido 

1. Divis b^is; that is, propitiisj * who hast bcen born,' or * hast risen 
as it were, (like a star) by the grace of the gods, who wished weU 
to the Roman people.' Romulae = Bomuleae, as in Carm. Saec. 47.~ 
5. Lucem, * light, life, joy.' The poet, as we see from what follows, 
takes the word literaliy, and fancies that the day is brighter in 
Rome when Augustus is there. — 7. i«, 'passes, passes away.' 
Coropare ii. 14, 5. — 8. Melius = magis. —9. Invido. It enyies tbe 



' Flatu, Carpathii trans maris aeqnora 10 

Cunctantem, spatio longius annuo 
Dulci'distinet a domo, 

Yotis ominibusque et precibus yocat| 
Curvo nec faciem litore dimovet } 
Sic desideriis icta fidelibus 15 

Quaerit patria Caesarem. 

Tutus bos etenim rura perambulat, 
Nutrit rura Ceres almaque Faustitas, 
Pacatum volitant per mare navitae, 
Cialpari metuit Fides. 20 

Nullis poUuitur casta domus stupris, 
Mos et lex maculosum edomuit nefasi 
Laudantur simili prole puerperae, 
CnlpajD Poena premit comes. 

Quis Parthum paveat ? quis gelidum Scythen % 25 
Quis Germania quos horrida parturit 
Fetus, incolumi Caesare ? Quis ferae 
Beilum curet Hiberiae ? 

Condit quisque diem collibus in suis; 
£t vitem vidnas ducit ad arbores ; 30 

Hinc ad vina redit laetus, et alteris 
Te mensis adhibet deum. * 

mother the possession of her son. — 10. Carpathii tnaris : tompare 
i. 35, 8. The expression aeqttora Carpathii tnariB is somewhat pe- 
culiar in Latin, tbough its translation, ' the waters of the Carpathian 
sea/ is quite familiar in English. — 11. The journey to Asia and re- 
turn used generally to occupy at most only a year. — 13. Ominibus, 
She not only prays and makes vows to the gods, but also seeks in 
all occurrences omens either of her eon's retum or of his continued 
absence. — 15. /cte, a strong ezpression, generally confined to sorrow 
or fear, = percusm eotnmota. — 18. Nutritt * makes fertile.' FaustitaSt 
an £ira| Xiy^fievovt formed by poetical license, and equivalent to Fe- 
licUas or Conia, the goddess of abundance. — 20. Culpari metuit, 
* fears (and tnerefore takes care not) to be biamed ;* that is, non cul- 
patury because she is held in respect and honour by all. — 22. Mot et 
lex. Compare what the poet eays in iii. 24, 35 : Uges $ine moribus 
vanae, Edotnare=^domando expellere.-'-23. Similiprole, * on account 
of the children, who are like tne father.'— 24. Premit, * presses hard 
after, treads close upon.* — 25. Scythen. Compare iii. 8, 23. — 26. 
Horrida, * rough,' on account of the rough customs and character 
of its inhabitants. — 27. Fetus, with reference to the large size and 
fierce appearance of the ancient Germans, who were regarded b^ 
the Romans as monsters. — 29. Condit diem, 'spends, passes the 
day.' The order, ouu^t^e in coUibus suisj is contrary to the rule of 
good prose style (Zumpt, % 800), which requires m guis quisque col- 
libus, * everv one in his own vineyard.* — ^30. Viduas. The trees are 
viduae till the vine is trained up them ; then they become maritae. 
Compare Epodes, 2, 9. — 32. Te adhibet deum, ' he invokes thee as a 


Te multa prece, te prosequitur mero 
Diflfuso pateris, et Laribus tuum 
Miscet numen, uti Graecia Castoris 
£t magni memor Herculis. 

Longas O utinam, dux bone, ferias 
Praestes Hesperiae : dicimus integro 
Sicci mane die, dicimus uvidi, 
Cum Sal Oceano subest. 



god ;' that is, at the second couree, dessert (aUeris or secundis men- 
$ig), he makes an offering to thee, as well as to tbe other gods 
whose favour he is desirous to conciliate. — 33. Te prosequitur, ' he 
accompanies thee ;' that is, throughout thy whole life, in all thy 
proceedings, he accompanies thee with his prayers and offerings.— 
37. Feriast ' holidays,' here * days of rest,' in which no war or civil 
dissension shall take from Hesperia (Italy) the peace which she 
now enjoys. — 39. Sicdt 'sober,* the opposite of uvidi or madidi 
Integro^diet * when the day is yet unbroken, when we have the 
whole day before us:' hence simply an explanation or expansion 
of tnane. 




Qde io ApoUo, in which Horace beseeches the god to enable him 
to finish successfuUj the Carmen Saeculare^ the composition of 
which had been entrusted to him. At the same time he ezhorts 
the young men and maidens who were to sing the carmen to 

DiTE, qnem proles Niobea inagnae 
Vindicem lingaae Tityosque raptor 
Sensit, et Trojae prope victor altae 
Phthius Achilles, 

Ceteris major, tibi miles impar, 5 

Filius quamvis Thetidis marinae 
Dardanas turres quateret,4remenda 
Cuspide pugnax. 

Ille, mordaci velut icta ferro 
Pinus, aut impulsa cupressus EurO| 10 

Procidit late posuitque collum ia 
Pulvere Teucro. 

Ille non, inclusus equo Minervae 

1. Dive. The imperative belongtn^ to this vocative is given in 
line 27, d^ende. Proles Niobea. Niobe, wife of Amphion, king 
of Thebes, considered her own seven sons and seven daughters 
superior to ApoUo and Diana, the children of Latona, and turned 
away the people of Thebes from the worship of these deities. She 
was punished by the death of her chiidren, who were shot by 
Apolio and Diana. Magnae linguae^ = tnagnUoquentiaej * boast- 
ing.' — 2. Titvos. See iii. 4, T7.— -3. Achilles, of Phthia in Thessaly, 
hoped, after killing Hector, to conquer Troy ; but Apollo so guided 
the arrows of Faris as to kill the hero, and thus put on for a time the 
triumph of the Greeks. — 5. Major z=. fortior. — 7. Dardanas, and in 
line 12 Teucro, names of tbe Trojans ; the proper na^ies being bere 
used adjeciively. Compare iv. 5, 1 : Eomulae. Tremenda cuapide 
pugnax, Pugnax is here * skilful in fighting,' contrary to its usual 
sense. Gram. $ 206, 3. Homer {Jl. xx. 387) describes tbe lance of 
Achilles, which was so heavy that no one but himself was able to 
brandish it. — 9. Ille; namely, Achilles. Mordaciferro. The axe 
which cuts down a tree has, as il were, an envious pleasure in so 
doing: hence mordax. — 10. Impulsa, * overthrown.' — 13. ^The sense 
is : had Achilles lived longer, he would not have taken Trov by 
stratagem, as the Greeks did, but by open force, and would nave 
extirpated the inhabitants, so that Aeneas would have been unable 
to flce, and Rome would not have been buih. Consequently to 
ApoIIo Rome owes its existence. Minervae eacra menlito. The 
woodep horse professed to be an ofTering to Minerva, to ap- 

14* L 


Sacra mentito, male feriatos 

Troas et laetam Priami choreis 15 

Falleret aulam, 

Sed palam captis gravis (heu nefas ! heu!) 
Nescios fari pueros Achivis 
Ureret flammis, etiam latentem 
Matris in alvo, 20 

Ni, tuis victus Venerisque gratae 
Vocibus, divum jjater annuisset 
Rebns Aenae potiore ductos 
Alite muros. 

Doctor argutae, fidicen, Thaliae, 25 

Phoebe, qui Xantho lavis amne crines, 
Dauniae defende decus Camenae, 
Levis Agyieu. 

Spiritum Phoebus mihi, Phoebus artem 
Carminis nomenque dedit poetae. 30 

Virginum primae puerique claris 
Patribus orti, 

Deliae tutela deae, fugaces 
Lyncas et cervos cohibentis arcu, 
Lesbium servate pedem meique 35 

Pollicis ictpm, 

pease her wrath on account of the theft of the Palladium. — 15. Lae- 
tamchoreiss 'joyful with the dances' which were engaged in on the 
holidays that were proclaimed in honour of Minerva. — 16. FaUeret; 
properly, /efdlisfet ; and, in line 19, ureret ; properly usm«et.— 
17. Connect palam captis. — 18. Nescio» fari pueroty commonly 
called infantes. — 22. Annuisset,^ concessisaet, 'nadgranted.' — 23. 
Rebus Aeneae, here = Aeneae. Potiore alite^ ' with better omens, 
auspices.' Compare iii. 3, 61 ; and i. 15, 5. Jupiter granted to 
Apollo and Venus walls, which were to be drawn out (that is, 
built, for this is muros ducere), with auspices, a fate, better than 
that of Troy, which was now destroyed. — 25. Argutae ='canorae. 
Apollo was the leader and teacher of the Muses. — 26. Xantho^a, 
river in Lycia, on which the town of Patara was situated, where 
Apollo had a celebrated temple. Compare iii. 4, 64. — 28. Agyieu, a 
surname of Apollo, because he was the superintending divinity of the 
iyviait the streets of the city. He is called levis, 'smooth,' because 
he is always represented without a beard. — 29. The poet now 
changes his subject to an exhortation of the boys and ^irls who 
were to sing his carmen $aeeulare; and to give him greater mfluepce, 
he says that Phoebus has not merelv granted him his spirit, inspi- 
ration {tpiritum)^ but has also taught him the form of the ode.*~ 
31. Primaey 'most distinguished.' — 33. Tutela, the abstract noun 
for the concrete ; ' who are defended by ' Diana, the goddess of 
the chase. In English also the abstract noun may be thus used: 
here, for instance, * who are a care to' Diana. — 35. The poet iancies 


Rite Latonae puerum canenteSi 
Rite crescentem face Noctilucam, 
Prosperam frugum celeremque pronos 
Volvere menses. 40 

Nupta jam dices : ' Ego dis amicum, 
Saeculo festas referente luces, 
Reddidi carmen, docilis modomm 
Vatis Horati.' 

himself standing in the midst of the boys and girls, as they are sin^- 
ing, and beating time with his thmnb {hence pollicis iclum.) Hia 
poem is in the Lesbian or Sapphic measure (for Sappho was a na- 
tive of Lesbos), and the singers must consequently keep the Les- 
bian time. — ^37. Eitef 'according to old custotn. — 38. Crescentemface 
Noctilucam, Diana was the goddess of the moon, and as such was 
called * the night-shinins;,' and had a temple on the Palatine : 
* Fhoebe wazin^ in her Tight.* — 39. Prosperam frugum, * ripening 
the fruits, grantmg them increase.* Celerem volverct a Greek con- 
struction, = celerem in volvendot auae celeriter volvit. — 41. The 
sense is: at some time, perhaps wnen you are married and rising 
in years, you will remejnber with pleasure this festival and your 
share in it. — 42. Festas luces ; for the festival celebrating the com- 

Eletion of a century lasted for three days. — 43. Reddidi^ scil. voce, 
ence = cecini, DociliSt 'iearning easily and willingly,' is here 
construed with the genitive, on the analogy of such adjectives as 


A LiGHT and pleasing ode, in which the fugitive and perishable 
nature of all human things is illustrated by the change of the 
seasons. The poem is addressed to Torquatus, to whom also 
the fifUi epistle of the first book is addressed. 

DiFFUGERE nives; redeunt jam gramina campis 
Arboribusque comae ; 
Mutat terra vices, et decrescentia ripas 
Flumina praetereunt ; 

Gratia cum Nymphis gerainisque sororibus audet 6 

2. Comae ; that is, frondes. — 3. Mutat vices, pleonastic, = subit 
viceSf * undergoes a change.' Decrexcentia, there being now no more 
snow, the melting of which, in the first part of the spring, had 
swelled the rivers. They now keep within, 'flow along, past' 
(praetereunt) their proper banks. — 5. Cum sororibus ; there being 


Ducere nnda chorofl. 

Immortalia ue speres, monet anDiis et almnm 

Qaae rapit hora diem. 

Frigora mitescunt zephyris; ver proterit aestas 
Interitura, simal 10 

Pomifer auctumnus fruges effuderit, et mox 
Bruma recurrit iners. 

Damna tame^ celeres reparant coelestia lunae; 
Nos ubi decidimus, 

Quo pater Aeneas, quo dives Tullus et AncuS) 15 

Fulvis et umbra sumus. 

Quis scit an adjiciant hodiernae crastina summae 
Terapora di superi ? 

Cuncta manus ayidas fugient heredis, amico 
Qaae dederis animo. 20 

Cum semel occideris, et de te splendida Minos 
Fecerit arbitria, 

Non, Torquate, genus, non te facundia, non te 
Restituet pietas. 

Infernis neaue enim tenebris Diana pudicum 26 

Liberat Hippolytum, 

Nec Lethaea valet Theseos abrumpere caro 
Vincula Pirithoo. 

three Graces. — 8. Dtem, here = Solem. — 9. Frigora here indicates 
winter, zephyri spring. Froterit, 'presses forward, drives away.' 
Compare li. 18, 15. — 12. Iner», on account of the cold which winter 
brings, and the inactivity of nature during that season. — 13. Nature 
dies, but renews itself ; man dies, but returns not to life. The for- 
mer statement is illustrated by the case of the moon, which wanes 
indeed, but soon waxes again. — 14. Decidimus ; namely, inlo Tar- 
tarus. — 15. Diveg. This epithet seems to refer to the kin^s gene- 
rally, not to any particular treasures which TuUus Hostilius pos- 
sessed. — 17. Hodiernae sumtnae, * to the sum (number) of days which 
this day completes.' — 19. Amtco quae dederis animoj = quae Genio 
dederisy indulseritt *which thou mayst have devoted to thine own 
gratification.' — ^21. Splendida here seems tO be equivalent to soUem' 
nia rather than to honorifica. — 25. The sense is this : not even gods 
or heroes can bring back the dead, much less ordinary mortals. 
The particular story here alluded to in reg^rd to Hippolytus, who 
is called pudicuft because he resisted the passion of his stepmother 
Pfaaedra, is unknown. — 27. As to Pirithous and Theseus, see note 
on iii. 4, 79. Lethaea vincula, so called from Lethe, a river in the 
lower world. 



Ode to C. Marcius Censorinus, consul in 8 b. c, in which Horace 
promises him a eulogistic poem, and shows the value of sach a 

DoNAREM pateras grataque commodus, 
Censorine, meis aera sodalibus. 
Donarem tripodas, praemia fortium 
Graiorum; neque tu pessima munerum 

Ferres, divite me scilicet artium, ^ 

Quas aut Parrhasius protulit aut Scopas, 
Hic saxo, liquidis ille coloribus 
Sollers nunc hominem ponere, nunc deum. 

Sed non haec mihi vis, non tibi taiium 
Res est aut animus deliciarum egens. 10 

Gaudes carminibus; carmina possumus 
Donare et pretium dicere muneris. 

Non incisa notis marmora publicis, 
Per quae spiritus et vita redit bonis 
Post mortem ducibus, non celeres fugae 15 

Rejectaeque retrorsum Hannibalis minae, 

1. Commodu9j 'in a friendly manner.' — 2. Aera; that is, vasa 
aenea, especially vessels of Corinthian brass, which were highly 
valued. — 3. Tripodas. The^e formed the most honourable presents 
amoDg the ancient Greek heroes. Ulysses received tripods from the 
Fhaeacians. — 6. ProtulitP^ prodiiced.^ Parrhasius of Enhesus, who 
lived about 400 b. c, was one of the most distinguished painters of 
antiquity ; Scopas of Paros was the most celebrated statuary, and 
particularly weil known to the Romans, on account of his statue of 
Apollo, which stood on the Palatine Hill. — 7. Liquidis, * shining, 
clear;' similarly used of the voice in i. 24, 3. — 8. Poneret * to put 
up, exhibit;* that is, *toform, represent.' — 9. Vi8=potesta8. — 10, 
Res, 'fortune.' Deliciaey * luxuries.' — 11. Possumus — -pretium di' 
cerfi muneris, which he goes on to do. — 13. Marmora incisa notis 
publicis, ' marble monuments inscribed with words expressive of 
the public gratitude.' The proper expression is incidere notas mar- 
moribuSf not incidere marmora notis, but ihe construction may be in- 
verted in the same way as with inscribere. Notae, nearly = Z{«era«. 
—14. Spiritus, * breath, life.'— 16. Retrorsum ; namely, to Africa. — 


iNon incendia Carthaginis impiael 

* * # # 

EJQS, qui domita nomen ab Africa 20 

Lucratus rediit, clarius indicant 
Laudes quam Calabrae Pierides : neque, 
Si chartae sileant,^ quod bene feceris, 
Mercedem tuleris. Quid foret Iliae 

Mavortisque puer, si taciturnitas 25 

Obstaret meritis invida Romuli ? 
Ereptum Stygiis fluctibus Aeacum 
Virtus et favor et lingua potentium 

Vatum divitibus consecrat insulis. 
Dignum laude virum Musa vetat mori. 30 

Coelo Musa beat. Sic Jovis interest 
Optatis epulis impiger Hercules ; 

Clarum Tyndaridae sidus ab infimis 
Quassas eripiunt aequoribus r ates ] 
Ornatus viridi tempora pampino 35 

Liber vota bonos ducit ad exitus. 

17. This line is for two strong reasons Bupposed to be spurious: 
first, because the eaesura, which should fall.within the word Car- 
thaginist ia neglected ; and secondly, because, as line 22 shows, the 
poet is speaking of the elder P. Scipio Africanus, who did not de. 
Btroy, but only conquered Carthage. Moreover, it is highly pro- 
bable that after line 17 two lines are wanting, which are required to 
eomplete the four-Iine stanza, preserved by Horace most accurately 
in all his odes. Consequently, if line 17 be spurious, we may sop- 
pose a gap of three lines here. — ^21. Lucratus. He gained for him- 
self from his contfuests nothins but the name of Africanus, not, as 
many generals of later times did, great wealth. — 22. Calabrae Pie- 
ridea, the rause of the poet Ennius, who was a native of Rudiae in 
Calabria. — ^23. Chartae ; that is, litteraej the poets and their writings. 
— 25. Puert Romulus, the son of Mars and Ilia or Rea Silvia. — 27. 
Ereptum Stygiis Jluctibus, a poetical expression for ' rescued fi-om 
oblivion.* — ^28. Vtrtutj 'genius, excellenc^.* The poets are called 
potentest simply because they can do wnat no one else can do; 
namely, conter immortality. — 29. Divitibu» ingulis: These are 
usually called heatorum insulae ; but heatus and dives are synony- 
mous. — 31. iStc, *thu8 it has been brought about that,' &c. — ^33. 
Clarum sidus^ in apposition to Tyndaridae (nominative plural), the 
two Dioscuri, Castor and PoUuz. See i. 3, 2. — 35. Pampino. Com- 
pare iii. 25, 20. 




This ode is addresfled to M. Lollius, consul in 21 b. o., a man who 
at one time possessed in a high degree the confidence of Augus- 
tos, but lost it by his ingratitude and insatiable avarice. In the 
first part of this ode Horace treats of a subject similar to-that of 
the preceding ; namely, the power of poets to confer immortality : 
in the second part he praises LoIIius, saying much — perhaps not 
without special design-— of temperance and inaccessibility to 

Ne forte credas interitara, quae 
Longe sonantem natus ad Aufidani 
Non ante vulgatas per artes 
Yerba lo^uor socianda chordis: 

Non, si priores Maeonius tenet 5 ' 

Sedes Homerus, Pindaricae latent 
Ceaeque et Alcaei minaces 
Stesicnorique graves Camenae ; 

Nec, si quid olim lusit Anacrcon, 
Delevit aetas ; spirat adhuc amor 10 

Yivuntque commissi calores 
Aeoliae fidibus pueilae. 

1. Ne forte credas. The apodosis begins with line 5. — 2. Ad 
longe sonantem Aufidum. See iii. 30, 10. — 3. Non ante vulgatas 
per artes ; namely, lyric poetry. See iii. 30, 13. This ar» is more 
particularly defined, as verha socianda chordis, * words to be con- 
nected witn the strings,' songs which are intended and ought to be 
Bung to the lyre. — 5. Priores sedes. He might also have said pri- 
mas sedes, but, strictly speaking, there is only a comparison be- 
tween two parties — Homer on the one side, and all other poets on 
the other : hence the comparative. Homer is calied Maeonius, from 
Maeon, which was said to be the name of liis father. — 6. Pindari- 
eae — Camenae, * the poems of Pindar :*. see iv. 2, 1. Ceae refers to 
the poems of Simonides, a renowned elegist, who was a native of 
the island of Ceos. The songs of Alcaeus are called minaces, be- 
cause they were partly war-songs, partly calls to expel the tyrants 
Pittacus and Myrsilus from Lesbos. Stesichorus, too, wrote war- 
songs, and was, as it were, an epic poet in lyric dress : hence gravis, 
— 9. Si quid = quidguid, Anacreon had written love-songs, of 
which light kind of poetry lusit is properly used. — 10. Spirat, used 
fisuratively, as in the next line vivunt. — 11. Construe thus: ealores 
Awliae puellae commissi Jidibus. Tbis construction seems better 


Non so]a comptos arsit adulteri 
Crines et aurum vestibus illitum, 
Mirata regalesque cultus 15 

£t comites, Helene Lacaena ; 

Prirausve Teucer tela Cydonio 
Direxit arcu ; non semel Ilios 
Vexata; non pugnavit ingens 
Idomeneus Stnenelusve solus 20 

Dicenda Musis proelia; non ferox 
Hector vel acer Deiphobus graves 
Excepit ictus pro pudicis 
• Conjugibus puerisque primus. 

Vixere fortes ante Agamemnona 25 

Multi ; sed omnes illacrimabiles 
Urgentur ignolique longa 
Nocte, carent quia vate sacro. 

Paulum sepultae distat inertiae 
Celata virtus. Non ego te meis 30 

Chartis inornatum silebo, 
Totve tuos patiar labores 

Impune, Lolli, carpere lividas 

than making Aeoliae puellae be governed hyjidibutt or a dative for 
ab Aeolia puella. Calores are ' warm feelmgs,' especially of love. 
The ' Aeohan girl' is Sappho, a native of Lesbos, whose inhabitants 
belonged to the Aeolic race. — 13. The poet introduces a new idea, 
the illustration of which is concluded in line 30, and which brings 
him to the praiscs of LoIIius. Many besides Helen, both before 
and after her, had admired the beauty of gallants, but they were 
unknown, because their fates had not been recorded by poets or 
historians. Arsit comptos crines. Ardere aliquid or aliquem is said 
by the pocts for amare. The ablative may also be used, according 
to Gram. ^ 291. — 14. Aurum veatibus tllitum. Clothes erabroi- 
dered with gold were 'and still are much worn by Orientals. — 15. 
Construe thus : mirata et (for which we have poetically que) regales 
cultus ('his kingly bearing and apparer) ci comiles. — 17. Teucer, 
son of Oileus, a Cretan, and, like all his countrymcn, an excellent 
archer. Cydoniua, from Cydon, a town in Crete. — 18. Ilios. This 
form (feminine) is the only one in Homer. llium is more common 
in Latin. — 20. Idomeneus, leader of the Cretans. Sthenelus, 
son of Capaneus, charioteer of Diomede. — 21. Dicenda Musi* 
proelia. Compare iv. 4, 68 : proelia conjugibua loquenda. — 22. 
Deiphobus, the bravest of the Trojans next xo Hector. He is said 
to nave married Helen after the death of Paris. — 26. Illacrima- 
biles, passively, ' unwept for.' In ii. 14, 6, Pluto is called illacri' 
mabilis, actively. — 27. Longa nocte, oblivion. — 28. Sacro, a stand- 
ing epithet of poets, being priests of the muses. See iii. 1, 3. — 29. 
Sepultae inertiae, dative, for ab sepulta inertia. See Gram. ^ 267, 
note 2, extr. — 31. In^matum ; namely, as thou wouidst be, unless 
praised in poetry. — 33. Impune, * with impunity :' I shnll drive away 


Obliviones. £8t animus tibi 

Rerumque prudens et secundis/ 36 

Temporibus dubiisque rectus, 

Vindex avarae fraudis et abstiDens 
Dacentis ad se cuncta pecuniae, 
Consulque, non unius anni, ^ 

Sed quoties bonus atque fiaus 40 

Judex honestum praetuJit utiliy 
Rejecit alto dona nocentium 
VultU; et per obstantes catervas 
Explicuit sua victor arma. 

Non possidentem mnlta vocaveris * 45 

Recte beatum ; rectius occupat 
Nomen beati, aui deorum 
. Muneribus sapjenter uti 

Dnrarnoue callet pauperiem pati, 
Pejnsqne leto flagitium timet, 50 

Non ille pro caris amicis 
Aut patria timidus perire. 

oblivion. Oblivio has here the words carpere and lividus connected 
with it, which are generallv used of envy. — 35. Rerum pruden». 
JPrudens here has its origiiial sense = providens. Horacc ascribes 
to Lollius sagacity as a statesman. — 36. Rectus, *uprighr, steafdy.' 
— ^37. Vindex — fraudi*, in allusion to the conduct of Loiiius in tne 
provinces. — 38. Uucentis ad »e cuneta, *which draws all things, men, 
to it, after it.* — 39. Consulque non unius anni. This seems to in- 
dicate that Lollius had been consul before the ode was written. 
The sense is: thy mind is^that is (compare Zumpt, ^ 678), thou 
thyself art — not like others who merely strive to hold ^he highest 
ofnce in the state for one year, but thou hast the qualities which 
should beloDg to everv consul, which make thee, as it were, a 
consul among men. The opposition to m>n unius anni is, in the 
next line, ged quoties, etc: thou art consul not for a year merely, 
but as often as, in the choice between right and wrong (for to this 
eeneraUy, not to any particular office, judea: refera), thou hast pre- 
ierred the right, as dften as thou hast rejected bribes, and hast, 
cotne off victorious from the contest with vice. — 44. Explicuit, in 
prose expedivitt ' has prepared, made ready' its (thv) weapons, wiih 
whicfa, m spiie of all opposition, thou wilt punish the wicked.— 
45. Vocaveriat the potential subjunctive, ' thou couldst cali.' — 49. 
Callet; that is, intelligil, * understands.' — 50. Pejua leto, * worse — 
that is, more — than death.' Flagitium was a word particularly used 
in the Stoic philosophy, *an immoral act.' — 51. llle, a^ded super- 
fluously, as is regularly done vf\\\i auidem. Zumpt, ^801. — 53. 
TimiduB ifist) perire sz timet perire, a Ureek construction. 





A FLAYFUL invitation addressed to Virg^il. He is to hnng with him 
a box of ointment, whilst Horace will supply a pitcher of wine. 
Whether the poet Virgil be meant, to whom the third ode of the 
first book rei^s, or some other Virgilius to us unknown, we havc 
no means of ascertaining. If we believe the poet to be meant, 
then ^e must suppose the ode to have been written earlier than 
the others in this book, for Virgil died in 19 b. c. As to the date 
of the publication of this book, see the introduction. 

Jam veris comites, ^uae mare temperant, 
ImpelluDt animae lintea Thraciae } ~ 
Jam nec prata rigent, nec fluvii strepunt 
Hiberna nive turgidi : 

Nidum ponit Ityn flebiliter gemens 5 

Infelix avis et Cecropiae domus 
Aeternnm opprobrium, quod male barbaras 
Regum est ulta libidines. 

Dicunt in tenero gramine pinguium 
Custodes ovium carmina fistula, 10 

Delectantque deum, cui pecus et nigri 
CoUes Arcadiae piacent. 

1. Tenvperant^ tran^uillantt 'quiet, reduce to a siight motion;' 
hence ihey impellunt Itntea. Thracian (here used for * northerly/) 
winds were favourable to ships sailing from Italy to Greece. — 4. 
Hihema nive. This must be understood as comprehending rain as 
well as snow.' — 5. Nidum ponity etc. The sense is: already is the 
swallow building her nest, a sign of opening spring. Compare 
Epist. i. 7, 13. The story to wnich the poet alludes of Procne, 
daughter of Pandion, king of Attica, and sister of Philomela, who, 
being inflamed by jealousy against her husband Tereus, king of 
Thrace, slew her son Itys, and put him down at table before his 
father ; and who when Tereus, in his indignation, attempted to kill 
her, was changed into a swaliow, whilst Philomela became a night- 
ingaie, is well known. Cecropia domus in line 6 is the house ofthe 
kings of Attica, of whom Cecrops was the first. To it the atrocious 
deed of Procne was an eternal disgrace. Other kings as well as 
Tereus are«devoted to the gratification of their passions : hence the 

Elurai regum, giving[ libidinet a more general reference ; confined, 
owever, to barbarians (for the Thracians were barbarians.) — 9. 
Dicunt = canunt. — 11. Deum ; namely, Pan, who invented the 
8hepherd'8 pipe, and whose worship came from Arcadia. — 12. CoUet 
Arcadiaej Maenalus, Lycaeus, Cyllene, which are calied nigrij 
partly because thickly covered with woods, and partly frora the oark 


Addaxere sitiin tempora, Virgili. 
Sed pressum Calibus ducere Liberum 
Si gestis, juvenum nobilium cliens, 15 

Nardo vina mereberis. 

Nardi parvus onyx eliciet cadum, 
Qui nunc Sulpiciis accubat horreis, 
Spes donare novas largus amaraque 
Curarum eluere efiicax. 20 

Ad quae si properas gaudia, cum tua 
Velox merce veni : non ego te meis 
Immunem meditor tingere poculis, 
Plena dives ut in domo. 

Yerum pone moras et studium lucri^ 25 

Nigrorumque memor^ dum licet, ignium 
Misce stultitiam consiliis brevem : 
Dulce est desipere in loco. 

colour of the leaves, particularly those of the pines. — 14. Liberum 
= vinum. As to Calenian wine, see i. 20, 9.-15. Juvenum nobilium 
cliens. In this perhaps tbere is a little gentle banter : thou art ac- 
customed in the houses of the great people ^om tbou visitest tor 
drink nothing but the iinest wine, but if thou wishest this with me, 
thou must buy it imer^eris in line 16 being s= redimes.) — 17. Onyx 
is properly a precious stone; but as this was too costiy, the ancients 
often used in imitation of it a kind of yellowish tnarble, of which 
ointment-boxes, and such like, were made. — 18. Sulpicii» accubat 
horreis. Horrea Sulpiriana (for this is the proper form) was the 
name of a public granary at Rome, on the ground-floor of which 
there were shops. Accubat indicates that the cask is lyins there, 
leaning against the wall. The jars used to be so placed aTl round 
the walls. — '19. Connect largus donare novas spes, et efficax eluere 
amara eurarumj a Greek construction, = qui largiter donare potest 
spes novas et efficere ut amara curarum (the same as curae amarae) 
duantur. — 23. Jmmunem, * without bringing a present, contributing 
thy share to the banquet.' Tingere, here used jocularly, Compare 
iii. 21, 9. — ^26. Nigrorum ignium^ *of the black, sad, funeral piie.'— 
j2d. Jn loco, ' in the proper place.* Gram. $ 307, 1, note 1. 




In the fburth ode of this book Horace had extolled the warlike cleeds 
of DrusuB, the younger of the emperor*s stepsons; in this ode he 
celebrates the victory gained by Tiberius, the elder stepson, over 
the Raetians. However, the prudent poet so contrives that the 
ode both be^ins and ends with the praises of Augustus. Written 
probably in the year 15 b. c. 

QuAE cura Patrom qaaeve Quiritiom 
Plenis honorum muneribus tuas, 
Auguste, virtutes in aevum 
Per titolos memoresque fastos 

Aeternet ? O qua sol habitabiles 5 

■ Illustrat oras maxime principum; 
Quem legis expertes Latinae 
Vindelici didicere nuper, 

Quid Marte posses. Milite nam tuo 
Drosus Genaunos, implacidum genus, 10 

Brenno8(]ue veloces et arces 
Alpibus impositas tremendis 

Dejecit acer plus vice simplici. 
Major Neronum mox grave proelium 

1. Quaeeura — aetemet, a quesfion which expects a ne^alive an- 
8wer; namelv, ' no care or trouble can.' — 2, Plenis = satu pleuis ; 
namely, for thy deserts. — 3. In aevum ; that is, m omne aevum. — 
4. Tituli are * inscriptions' on triuniphal arches and other public 
monuments, recording the emperor'8 exploits. In the faHi, the 
state-calendar, here called rhemores, as recordins for the benefit of 
posterity everything notable, both tbe offices held by Aueustus, such 
as his consulships and his tribuneships, and the festivals and sacri- 
fices appointed for his victories, were mentioned. Much of both of 
these kinds of fasti has been preserved to us. — 6. Connect maxime 
with quoi &c., ' O thou who art the greatest of princes, as far as.' — 
7. Quemi governed by didicere. The more common constructioa ^ 
would be qui quid postes didicere. Legis Lalinae, collective for legum 
Romanarum, or juris, imperii Romani. — 8. Vindelici. See iv. 4, 18. 
— 10. The Genauni and Brenni were tribes who dwelt in valleys of 
ihe AIps ; the former in the modern Val di Non, the latter in the 
Val di Bre^na ; both wild, warlike, and from the rapidity with which 
they ascended and descended the steep mountains, difficult to reach. 
— 13. Defecit refers properly only to arces, but by the figure zeugma 
devicit is involved in it. Plua vice simplici is not * more tban 
once,' but, * with more than a simple retribution ;' vices being 
properly a return for anything received or suffered. — 14. Major 


Commisit immanesqne Raetos 15 

Auspiciis pepulit secundis, . 

Spectandus in certamine Martio, ^ 

Devota morti pectora iiberae 
Quantis fatigaret ruinis, 
Indomitas prope qualis undas 20 

Exerces Auster, Pleiadum choro 
Scindente nubes, impiger hostium 
Vexare turmas et frementem 
Mittere equum medios per ignes. 

Sic tauriformis Tolvitur Aufidus, 25 

Qui regna Dauni praefluit Appuli, 
Cum saevit horrendamque cultis 
Diiuviem meditatur agris, 
^ Ut barbarorum Claudius agmina 

Ferrata vasto diruit impetu, 30 

Primoscjue et extremos metendo 
Stravit numum sine clade victor, 

Te copias, te consilium et tuos 
Praebente divos. Nam tibi quo die 
Portus Alexandrea supplex 35 

£t vacuam patefecit aulam, 

Fortuna lustro prospera tertio 
Belii secundos reddidit exitus, 
Laudemque et optatum peractis 
Imperiis decus arrogavit. 40 

Neronum; namely, Ti. Claudius Nero. — 17. Connect fpectandus 
with guantix, &c., * worthy of admiration, with what destruciion 
he,' &c. ; that is, ' worihy of admiration for the destruction with 
which he/ &c. 18. Morti liberae, * to death in freedom.' — ^20. Frope 
qualis ; that iSfpropetalis.qualig. — 21. Pleiadum choro. The Plei- 
adee, the seven daughters oi Atlas, are called in Latin as a constel- 
lation VergUiaei quia vere oriantur. Both their rising and their 
setting were believed to brine stormy weather. Hence here, 
'whenthe group of the Pleiades cut the clouds* by the showers 
which they cause.— 24. Ignest to be taken figuratively, ' the flames, 
heat of battle.' — 25. Tauriformis, AII river gods are represented 
with horns. As to the Aufidus, compare iv. 9, 2. — 26. Dauni. 
Compare iii. 30, 11. — 30. Ferrata, 'mailed.' The barbarians wore 
iron breastplates. — 32. Clade, of his own soldiers. — 33. Te — divos. 
Augustus nad given Tiberius troops, his advice in reg[ard to the 
conduct of the campai^n, and the right of taking the auspices, which 
•operly belonged to nimself alone as commander-in-chief of the 
oman people. — 34. Ouo die. It was August 29th, 30 b. c, and 
from this day (Antony being dead ; hence, in line 36, vacuamaulam) 
Augustus might justly date his undisputed command of the Roinan 
wond. Perhaps, however, dies here is merely a poetical expression 
for * time* generally.— 38. Feddidit, as it were, a thing due to thee. 
For reddere is propcrly used of a thing due. — 40. Arrogavitf^addi" 



Te Cantaber non ante domabilis 
Medusque et Indus, te profugus Scythes 
Miratur. o tuteia praeeena 
Italiae aominaeque Romae. 

Te fontium qui celat origines 45 

Nilusque et Ister, te rapidas Tigris, 
Tebelluosus qui remotis 
Obstrepit Oceanus Britannis, 

Te non paventis funera Galliae 
Duraeque tellus audit Hiberiae, 50 

Te caede gaudentes Sygambri 
Compositis venerantur armis. 

dit, gaVe thee glory in addition to that galned in thy previous cam' 
paigns. — 41. Cantaher, See ii. 6, 2, and iii. 8, 22. Augustus had 
conquered them in 25 and 19 b. c. The Medes and Indians had nM 
indeed been fousht with, but from fear they sent ambassadors, whc 
acknowledged the Roman Bupremacy. As to the Scythians, and 
their epithet profugutt see i. 35, 9, and iii. 24, 9. — 43. Praesens, 
? visible.* See iii. 5, 2.-45. Qui celat origine». This refers only 
to the Nile, for the Romans knew the sources of the Danube. Ho- 
race, by the three rivers, indicates here the countries of Egypt, 
Dacia, and Armenia, which obeyed the Romans.-— 49. Non paventi* 
funera ; that is, brave. — ^50. Ae to Hiberia, compare iv. 5, 28. — 51. 
The tribes of the Ubii and Svgambri had surrendered to Augustus : 
he took them to Gaul, ana settled them on the Middle Rhine. 
With the Germans as a body, however, a peace had been concluded 
in 15 B. c, shortly before this ode was written, and to it eompositis 
armis refers. 


Tmc last of Horace*8 odes, in which he praisee Augustiis fbr having 
restored external peace and intemal morality, and having given 
poets leisure and opportimity fbr the practice of their art 

Phoebus volentem proelia me loqui 
Victas et urbes increpuit lyra, 

1. Prodia ; namely, of Augustus. Horace declares here, as fre- 
queotly, that his muse is iit only for the lighter kind of poetry. He 
goes on to compare the higher epic poetry, which is necessary for 
the celebration of warlike exploits, to the Tuscan Sea, and his own 
muse-to a little bark {parva vela.) But he can describe the benefits 
of the emperor'8 reign, and this he proceeds to do. — 2. Increpuit, 
Zyra, ' chid me, prevented me with his lyre :* he struck it, as it 


Ne parva Tyrrbenum per aequor 
Yela darem. Tua, Caesar, aetas 

Fruges et agris rettulit ubereS| 5 

£t Bigna nostro restituic Jovi 
Derepta Parthorum superbis 
Postibus, et vacuum duellis 

Janum Quirini clausit, et ordinem 
Rectum evaganti frena licentiae 10 

Injecit emo7itque culpas 
Et veleres revocavit artes, 

Per quas Latinum nomen et Italae 
Crevere vires faraaque et imperi 
Porrecta raajestas ad ortus 15 

Solis ab Hesperio cubili. 

Custode rerum Caesare non furor 
Civilis aut vis exiget otium, 
Non ira, quae procudit enses 
£t miseras inimicat urbes. 20 

Non qui profundum Danubium bibunt 
£dicta rumpent Julia, non Getae, 
Non Seres infidive Persae, 
Non Tanain prope flumen orti. 

Nosque et profestis lucibus et sacris, 25 

Inter jocosi rauriera Liberi, 

were, angrily. For Apollo was the niaster of poets, and corrected 
them when thev went astray. — 5. Fruges agris rettulit, since they 
are no longer laid waate by civil war. — 6. Nostro Jovi / that is, 
Jupiter on the Capitol. In the large temple Augustus built a small 
chapel, on the walls of which were hung up the Roman etandards 
that Phraates, king of the Parthians, was forced to restore 20 b. c. 
— 9. Janum Quirini, more commonly Janifin Quirinum. The Ja* 
nus was shut in Numa's reign, then in 235 b. c, some time after 
the termination of the First Punic War, and three times in the 
reign of Augustus, in 29, 27, and 10 b. c. — 11. Constnie thus : i«- 
jecit frena licentiae evaganti rectum ordinem ; an allusion to the nu- 
merous laws which Augustus passed in order to repress the immo- 
rality that had become rampant during the civil wars. Emovit cul- 
fOB seems to refer particulariy to the lex Julia de adulteriis, passed 
m 17 b. c. — 14. Connect famaque et majestas imperii porrecta (egt) 
ah Hesperio cubUi ad ortus tolis. Horace is quite correct in saying 
that the power of Rome rested upon the moral superiority of the 
Romans to all other nations. — 18. Exiget =fugabit. — 20. Ini- 
micat, a word formed by Horace, but in accordance with analogy, 
= inimicas reddft. — 21. Qui Danubium btbunt ; that is, the Panno- 
nians, Vindelicians, and Dacians. See iv. 14, 46. — 22. Edicta Ju' 
lia, the laws which Augustus, the adopted son of C. Julius Caesar, 
imposes upon them.~24. JPrope Tanain orti ; that is, the Scythi- 
ans. See iv. 14, 42. — 25. Et profestis lucibus et sacris ; that is, 
di^us et profestis et festis, ' both on holidays and common days.'— 


Cum prole matronisque nostris 
Rite oeos prius apprecati, 

Virtate functos more patrum duces 
Lydis remixto carrqine tibiis 30 

Trojamque et Anchisen et almae 
Progeniem Veneris c^nemus. 

28. Apprecatit a rare word first uaed by Horace, =^precati. — 29. 
Idore patrum. It waa an old custom among the Romans to have 
songs m praise of their ancestors sung at their feasts, and accompa- 
nied by a flute-player. Horace says he wili do this, celebrating 
particularly Anchises, and Aeneas, the son of Venus: for from 
these the gens Julia, to which Augustus belonged, traced its de- 
scent. — 30. Lydi» remixto carmine tihiiay * in a aons mized with 
(accompanied by) Lydian flutes.* The flute is called Lydian, be- 
cause it was jnuch used by the Lydians. Soroe commentators sup- 
pose that allusion is here made to the peculiar meaaure caUed 
Lydian, and well known as efieminate ; but this is improbable. 

Bomaa Standard. 


In the year 17 b. c. Augustus celebrated the ludi aaecidarei. These 
were instituted in the earliest times of Rome, to mark with 
solemnitj the longest period to which human life was supposed 
ever to extend : but it was a disputed point whether aaeculum in 
regard to these games meant, as in common usage, a space of 
100, or, in a peculiar religious sense, 110 years. Both views 
feund supporters. Augustus, afler the pacification of the em- 
pire, wishing to reawaken ihe religious feeling of the people, 
which during the long civil wars had almost died away, re- 
Bolved to revive these games, which, as Suetonius (AugtuL 31) 
tells us, had fallen into disuse. He ordcred the Sibylline books 
to be consulted ; and these, taking the cycle of 110 years, stated 
the year and the mode of celebrating the festival. The nezt 
who celebrated these games was the Emperor Claudius, a. d. 47 
(a.u. c. 800), fellowing the cycle of 100 years; then a. d. 88 
(a. u.c. 841), Domitian, and a. d. 204 (a.u. c. 957), Septimius 
Severus, again following the reckoniog of Augustus ; and lastly, 
A.D.247 (a. u. c. 1000), Philippus. The secular games lasted 
fi>r three days, beginning in the evening and continuing during 
the night They consisted in the oSering of various sacrifices to 
all the gods of Rome (hence, in line 7, Dts, quibu8 aeptem pla- 
euere edUea), and are fuUy described by Zosimus, ii. 5. 

To heighten the interest of the festival, Augustus requested firom 
Horace a carmen aaeculare^ which was to be sung by a choir of 
boys and girls. Many coramentators have been of opinion that 
the song is a so-called carmen amoehaeum; that is, consists of 
stanzas intended to be sung alternately by the boys and girls. 
But this opinion finds no confirmation in the pbem itself, equally 
little in the description which we have of the proceedings at the 
games, and is altogether improbable. In the aesthetic criticism 
of the poem, we mnst remember tiiat it was an official composi- 
tion, in which no high flight of poetic fancy could be allowed. 
It is addressed to ApoIIo and Diana, to whom the Sibylline books 
directed a poem as well as a sacrifice to be offered. 

Phoebe silvarumque potens Diana, 
Lmidum coeli decus, o colendi 

2. Lucidum eoeli decun refers both to Phoebus, god of the sun, 
and to Diana. who waa eoddess of the moon as well as of the 
M (177) 


Semper et culti, date, quae precamur 
Tempore sacro, 

Quo Sibylliai monuere versus 5 

Virgines lectas puerosque castos 
Dis, quibus septem placuere coUes, 
Dicere carmen. 

Aime Sol, curru nitido diem qui 
Prorais et celas aliusque et idem 10 

Nasceris, possis nihil urbe Roma 
Visere majus. 

Rite maturos aperire partus 
Lenis, Ilythia, tuere matres, 
Sive tu Lucina probas vocari 15 

Seu Genitalis : 

Diva, producas sobolem Patrumque 
Prosperes decreta super jugandis 
Feminis prolisque novae feraci 
Lege marita ', ■ 20 

Certus undenos decies per annos 
OrbJs ut oantus referatque ludos 

woods. — 6. Lectaa, the proper and standing epithet of women, 
*chosen, excellent.' The epithet of the boys, castus, refers to tbe 
fact that both classes, boys and girls, were to consist only of such 
as had both father and mother alive, so that they noight be ' pure,' 
not defiled, as it were, by any death in the family. The choir con- 
sisted of twenty-seven boys and the same numbcr of girls. — 7. 
Hence : the poem is indeed addressed specially to ApoUo and 
Diana, according to the order of the Sibylline books, and tbese 
divinities are tirst invoked, but yet a prayer to all the gods wpr- 
shipped at Rome is to be admitted. — 9. Uurru nitido. The cha- 
riot of the sun, according to the representations of the poets, glis- 
tened with metal and precious stones. — 10. Aliusque et 5«n, 
*every day new, as it were another, and yet always the same.' — 
14. As to the construction of lenis aperire, compare iv. 14, 
22 : impiger vexare, and line 25 of this poem. The goddess who 
is invoked is she who presides over births; she is called either 
by a Greek name, liithyia, or a Latin, Lucina or GenitaUs. — 17. 
Patrum deereta. In this very year, 17 b. c, Augustus, by a de- 
cree of the senate, established his first regulations regarding 
morals, in order to put a stop to the diminution of the number 
of Roman citizens caused by the visibly increasing immorality 
and dislike to marriage. His ordinances on this subject con- 
sisted partly in the imposition of severe penalties on adultery 
(Jex Julia de adulteriis), and partly in encoura|^ng, by nume- 
rous rewards, thoso who married and had children. This course 
of legislation was completed a. d. 9 by the celebrated lex Papia 
Foppaea. — 18. Connect super (= de) lege tnarita feraei novae 
prolis. Lex maritay with maritus used as an adjective, is a short 
poetical expression for Maw of marriage.'~2^. Or&t«, 'cycle,' of 


Ter die claro totiesqae grata 
Nocte frequentes. 

Vosque veraces cecinisse, Parcae, 2^ 

Quod semel dictum est stabilisque rerum 
Terminus servat, bona jam peractis 
Juugite fata. 

Fertilis frugum pecorisque Tellus 
Spicea donet Cererem corona ; 30 

Nutriant fetus et aquae salubres 
£t Jovis aurae. 

Condito mitis placidusque telo 
Supplices audi pueros, ApoUo; 
Siderum regina bicornis audi 35 

Luna puellas. 

Roma si vestrum est opus, Iliaeque 
Litus Etruscum tenuere turmae, 
Jussa pars mutare lares et urbem 
Sospite cursu, 40 

Cui per ardentem sine fraude Trojam 
Castus Aeneas patriae superstes 
Liberum munivit iter daturus 
Plura relictis : 

Di, probos mores docili juventae, 46 

Di, senectuti placidae quietem, 
Romulae genti date remque prolemque 
£t decus omne ; 

ten times eleven — that is, 110 — years, which, as is mentioned in 
the introduction to the poem, Augustus adopted in fixing the time 
of his eames. — ^23. Grataj because it was illurained with torches and 
altar-nres, and spent merrily in all manner of festivity. — 24. Pr«- 
quentegt because numerously attended. — ^25. *And do you, O Parcae, 
truthfal in singing (that is, who Bine truthfully ; compare line 13) 
that which is said by you once for anitemel)^ and whicn then even 
the end of the world Jkeeps, observes.' — 27. Bona—fata. The sense 
is this : grant that the iuture may be as fortunate for the Roman 
state as the ages past have been. — 29. The idea is, that Tellus, joy- 
ous and grateful on account of her fertility, shouid brine to Ceres, 
the goddess of the fruits of the earth, a wreath of ears of corn, such 
as the country people used to give to this deity at the harvest feast. 
— 31. A^uact * rain.' — 32. Aurae^ * breezes' or * weather' generally, 
Jove being the god of the weather. — 33. Telo ; namely, the bow. 
See line 61. — 35. Bicomi», for Diana, as goddess of the moon, was 
represented with a crescent on her head. — 37. Si does not imply 
doubt here, but means ' as truly as, since assuredly.' As to lliae 
turmae, compare Carm, iv. 15, 31. — 39. Ju»9a pars, apposition to 
Iliae turtmet and = qiuie para gentig Trojanae ju$8a est. — 41. Sine 
fraude^ * withont injury.' — 42. CaHug. Pius is the atiribute which 
Virgil commonly givea to Aeneas.— 44. Plura rdictis == plura quam 
rdiqueranti or quam relieta erant. — 47. Somulae genti. Compare 


Quaeque vos bobus veneratur albis 
Clarus Anchisae Venerisc^ue sanguis, 50 

Impetret, bellante prior, jacentem 
Lenis in hostem. 

Jam mari terraque manus potentes 
Medus Albanasque timet secures; 
Jam Scythae responsa petunt, superbi 55 

Nuper, et Indi. 

Jam fides et pax et honos pudorque 
Priftcus et neglecta redire virtus 
Audet, apparetque beata pleno 
Copia cornu. 60 

Augur et fulgente decorus arcn 
Phoebus acceptusque novem Camenis, 
Qui salutari levat arte fessos * 
Corporis artus, 

Si Palatinas videt aequus aras, 65 

Remque Romanam Latiumque felix 
Alterum in lustrum meliusque semper 
Proroget aevum. 

Carm. iv. 5, 1, and Gram. $ 208, 2, note. The poet, in the two pre- 
ceding lines, has been praying for the classes of young and old, and 
for the blessings most required by each ; here he prays for the Ro- 
man people collectively, ihe whole body. Rem is 'property' = 
rem familiarem. — 49. Bobiis albit. These were the sacrifices to 
Apollo and Diana ; they had been directed by the Sibylline books. 
—51. Bellanfe prior ; that is, superior iis qui bellum gerunt. The 
sense of the passaffe is the same which Virgil {Aen. vi. 854) ex- 
presses as the guiding principle or motto of the Romans, partere 
suhjectis, et dtheUare superbos. — 53. Manua potenlea AU)ana$que 
secures ; that is, manus potente» et secures Albanomm. Seeuren 
means the power of the magistrates, as symbolised by the azes in 
the fasces. The Romans are called Albans, as being descended 
from the inhabitants of Alba Longa; in the same way tne Parthians 
are called Medes. See Carm. iii. 8, 19. — 55. As to the Scythians 
and Indians, compare Carm. iv. 14, 42. — 60. Copta, the goddess of 
plenty, used to be represented with a hom, ana her figure occurs 
particularly often on the coins which were struck in the reign of 
Augustus. She is called beata, because she confers happiness, and 
consequently must be herself happy. — 63. Apollo was god of ihe 
healins art. — 65. Si is to be understood as in line 37. Horace men- 
tions the Palatine, because on it Augustus had built a magnificent 
temple to Apollo, and the god would, from gratitude, protect 
Rome. Aequus^ ^gracious, graciously.* — 66. Here the apodosis 
begins. Rem Romanam =Romanos, imperium i?oman«m.— 67. Alte" 
rum in lustrum. Lustrum seems to denote here the space of tiroe 
between each celebration of the secular eames and the next. Hence 
the wish of the.poet is, that Apolio will preserve the empire from 
one century to another, and that each may be better than that which 


Qiiaeque Aventinura tenet Algidumque, 
Quindecim Diana preces virorum 70 

Curet et votis puerorura amicas 
• Applicet aures. 

Haec Jovem sentire deosque cunctos, 
Spem bonam certamque, dornura reporto, 
rK>ctus et Phoebi chorus et Dianae 75 

Dicere laudes. 

preceded it {meliua in aevutn.) — 69. As Apollo is appealed to by his 
temple on the Palatine, so Diana is invoked by her ancient temple 
on tne Aventine, tho original seat of the Roman plebSf and by tnat 
on Mount Algidus, in tne neighbourhood of Rome. See Carm. i. 
21, 6. — ^70. Quindecim virorum, The quindecimviri sacris faciundis 
weve a priestly college of fifteen members, whose chief duty was to 
preserve, consult, and explain the Sibylline books. Now as the 
secular games were celebrated by direction of these sacred books, 
the ^uiTidecimviri presided at them. — 73. The choir declare their 
conviction that the gods will graciously hear their prayers. As the 
accusative with the infinitive, Jovem sentire^ supplies the place of 
a substantive, spem bonam certamque in the next line is in apposition 
to it. — 75. Doctusj in its real verbal sense, 'taught,' partly by the 
poet, and partly by those who had instructed the chorus in chanting 
the hymn. 




The poet ezpresses his determination to accompanj Maecenas fo 
the Actian war (31 b. c.) We know from history that Maecenas 
had no personal share in this war, but, by the special desire of 
Augustus, remained at Rome in charge of Italy. At the time, 
however, when Horace wrote the epode, this arrangement coald 
not ha?6 been made. 

Ibis Liburnis inter alta navium, 

Amice, propugnacula, 

Paratas omne Caesaris periculum 

Subire, Maecenas, tuo. 

Quid nofl? Quibus te vita si superstite 5 

Jucunda, ^i contra, gravis. 

Utrumni jussi persequemur otium, 

Non dulce, ni tecum simul, 

An hunc iaborem mente laturi, decet 

Qua ferre non molles viros ? 10 

Feremus, et le vel per Alpium juga 

Inhospitalem et Caucasum, 

Vel occidentis usque ad ultimum sinum 

Forti sequemur pectore. 

1. Ibis Liburnis inter alta propugviacula fiavmm, * thou wilt go 
in Liburnian barks amons the lofty bulwarks of the (hostile) ships 
of war.' The ileet of Octavianus consisted.chiefly of Lihumae 
or Libumicae, light vessels of war, such as were originally used 
by the Liburnians, an Illyrian tribe on the east coast of the 
Adriatic. On the other hand, the ships of Antony had lofty 
sides, and several decks, and were formidable in appearance, 
but very unwieldy. — 5. Construe thus : quibus vita jucunda, 
«I te 8wper»titej scil. erit. — 9. Laturiy »cil. 9Ufnu8. — 11. Feremus, 
eic. This is the answer to the previous question, and con- 
tains the main idea of the poem : ' yes, we will bear the danger 



Roges tuum labore quid juvem meo, 15 

Imbellis ac firmus parum : 

Comes minore sum futurus in metu, 

Qui maior absentes habet ; 

Ut assiclens implumibus pullis avis 

Serpentium allapsus timet, 20 

Magis relictis, non uti sit, auxili ^ 

Latura pius praesentibus. 

Libenter hoc et omne militabitur 

Bellum in tuae spem gratiae, 

Non at juvencis illigata pluribus 25 

Aratra nitantur mea, 

Pecusve Calabris ante sidus fervidnm 

Lucana mutet pascuis, 

Neque ut superni villa candens Tusculi 

Circaea tangat moenia. 30 

Satis superque me benignitas tua 

Ditavit : haud paravero 

Quod aut avarus ut Chremes terra premam, 

Discinctus aut perdam nepos. 

mutaally.' — 15. RogeBt 'thou mayst perhaps ask.* Si me rogeg 
might also have been used. — 21. Magi» relietia, 'but (fears) still 
more, when she has left her yoang ones alone.' — 25. Non — mea, 
'not that my ploughs, hamessed to more bullocks, may labour;' 
that ia, may cut up the heavy soil. — 27. Fecusve — pa»cuisy * or that 
my cattle, before the heat of summer» may chan^e (tbat is, ^ain in 
exchange) Lucanian pastures for those of Calabria.' Lucania is a 
mountaiDous district, Calabria and the neighbonring region of 
Apulia, a dry plain. Mutare aliquid means often * to obtain a 
thing, by giving something in exchange for it.' Consequently the 
force of tne- clause ia this, ' or that I may obtain from thee pasture- 
grounds in Lucania, to vtrhich my flocks may resort in the summer.' 
The sense of the whole passage is this: I do not wish by your 
friendship to acquire extensive lands, or to become rich in cattle, or 
to obtain a magnificent villa. He mentions as nuch a villa one ez- 
tending up the hill of Tusculum, even to the walls of the city. 
TuscuTum was situated on the top of the hill at whose foot now lies 
the town of Frascati. Its weJls are called Circaea (line 30), be- 
cause, according to tradition, Tele^onus, son of Ulysses and Circc, 
founded the city. Compare Carm. lii. 29, 8. — 33. Chremes, the usual 
name of an avaricious old man in the Greek comedies. 



The praises of country Ufe. At the end of the poem, after describ- 
ing verj beautifiilly the pleasures of a residence away from the 
busy haunts of men, Horace tnms the matter into a joke, and 
represents the picture which he has drawn as merely an Agree- 
able fancy. We must not suppose, howeyer, that the poet really 
preferred the town to the country. He did most sincerely love 
the country, but his connection with Maecenas and other circam- 
stances kept him much at Rome. Such time as he could spare, 
he spent in the country, and this kind of mized town and conn- 
try life seems to have suited him best, ibr he does not deny that 
he could not always enjoy the entire seclusion of the oountrjr. 

Beatus ille qui procul negotiis, 

Ut prisca gens Tnortalium, 

Paterna rura bobus exercet suis, 

Solutus omni fenore, 

Neque excitatur classico miles tmci, 5 

Neque horret iratum mare, 

Forumc^ue vitat et superba civmm 

Potentioram limina. 

Ergo aut adulta vitium propagine 

Altas maritat populos, 10 

Aut in reducta valle mugientium 

Prospectat errantes greges, 

Inutilesque falce ramos amputans 

Feliciores inserit, 

Aut pressa puris mella condit amphoris, 15 

Aut tondet mfirraas oves : 

Vel cum decorum milibus pomis caput 

Auctumnus agris extulit, 

Ut gaudet insitiva decerpens pira 

Certantem et uvam purpurae, 20 

Qua muneretur te. Priape, ei te, pater 

Silvane, tutor finium. 

Libet jacere modo sub antiqua ilice, 

Modo in tenaci gramine. 

9. The practice of trainin^ vines up poplars and elms is still pre- 
served in Italy. The figurative expression maritare, used of ioining 
the weak vine to the stronger tree, is very beautiful. — 11. Mugiett- 
tium, Bcil. houm. — 17. The sense of the figurative expression is : 
when the season of barvest witlT its fruits comes. — 21. Qua munere' 


Labuntnr altis interim ripiB aquae, 25 

Querantur in silvis aves, 

Fontesque lyniphis obstrepunt znanantibus, 

Somnos quod invitet leves. 

At cum tonantis annus hibernus Jovis 

Imbres nivesque comparat, 30 

Aut trudit acres hinc et hinc multa cane 

Apros^in obstantes plagas, 

Aut amite levi rara tendit retia, 

Turdis edacibus dolos, 

Pavidumque leporem et advenam laqueo gruem 35 

Jucunda captat praemia. 

Qois non malarum; quas amor curas habet, 

Haec inter obliviscitur? 

Quodsi pudica mnJier in partem juvet 

Domum atque dulces liberos, 40 

(Sabina qualis aut perusta soiibus 

Fernicis uxor Appuli), 

Sacrum vetustis exstruat lignis focum 

Lassi sub adventum viri, 

Claudensque textis cratibus laetum pecus 45 

Distenta siccet uberaj 

£t horna dulci vina promens dolio 

Dapes inemptas apparet : 

Non me Lucrinajuverint conchylia 

Magisve rhombus aut scari, 50 

Si quos £ois intonata fluctibus 

Hiems ad hoc vertat mare. 

tur, ' to present thee with them ;* that is, to offer them to thee, O 
Priapus, as the first-fruits. — 27. *The fountains murmur in oppo- 
sition (namely, to other sounds in nature.') LymphU manantibus, 
instrumental M&tive, =aquamanante. There seems to he a little 
tautology here, the poet having spoken immediately before ofaquae 
rolling along within their lofty banks ; but these are rivi, fiuvii, 
larger than tne fontes. — 31. MuUa cane. The feminine is used par- 
ticularly of hunting dogs. — 33. Rarum is a standing epithet of rete\ 
all nets having interstices. — 35. It was quite common at this time 
to eat cranes, birds of passage. At an after period, storks, too, 
were considered as delicacies. See Pliny, Hist, Nat. xxiii. 30. — 37. 
The prose constmction would be, quin non obliviscitur malarum cu- 
rarum, qtta» amor hahet ? — 39. (j^uodti, emphatic, * if, therefore, a 
faithfui wife,* &^ The apodosis begins with line 49. — 45. Textae 
crates are the hurdles which form the sheepfold.— 49. Connect non 
me magis Juverint, the magiM, which belongs to both clauses, being 
inserted in the second. Tne Lucrine Lake on the Campanian coast 
was famed for its oyster beds. — 50. Rhombus, and especially scarus, 
the most valued sea-fishes. The latter was called by Ennius, in a 
poem on the art of cookery, cerdtrum Jovis. The part oi the sea 
generally frequented by the scarus was the east of the Mediterra- 


Non Afra avis descendat in veutrem meum, 

Non attagen lonicas 

Jucandior^ quam lecta de pinguissimis 55 

Oliva ramis arborum, 

Aut herba lapathi prata amantis et gravi 

Malvae salubres corpori, 

Vel agna festis caesa Terminalibus, 

Vel haedus ereptus lupo. 60 

Has inter epulas ut juvat pastas oves 

Videre properantes domum, 

Videre fessos vomerem inversum boves 

Collo trahentes languido, 

Positosque vernas, ditis examen domus, 65 

Circum renidentes lares ! ' 

Haec ubi locutus fenerator AI£u8, 

Jam jam futurus rusticus, 

Omnem redegit Idibus pecuniam, 

Quaerit Kalendis ponere. 70 

nean: hence the poet lupposes that only the winter, descending 
witb thunder upon the eastern {Eois) waves, can drive the precious 
fish to the coast of Italy. — 53. Afru avitf or gaUina 2V«mtdtca, 
' Guinea-fowl ;' attagen, * woodcock.* — 57. Lapathu», ' sorrel.'— 59. 
The Terminalia, a merry festival of neighbours in the country dis- 
tricts, in which the termini, or boundary-stones, land-marks, were 
crowned. It was celebrated on the 23a of February, according to 
the Julian calendar. This festival was, upon the whole, one on 
which no bloody sacrifices were ofiered ; but Ovid in his Fasti, and 
Horace in this passage, allow the sacrifice and eating of a lamb.— 
65. The vemae, slaves bom in the house, sit comfortably round the 
hearth, near which, on the wall, were placed the images of the 
Lares, generally two. These statuettes are said to * shine ;* namely, 
irom the light of the fire.— 67. Locutus, scil. est. 



The poet imprecates cnrses on garlic in a style of playful ezagge- 
ration. It had-been presented to him at the taUe of Maecenas, 
probably by the special direction of the host, who wisbed to de- 
rive a little amusement fi>om the exhibition of Horace*8 aversion 
to the vegetable. 

Parentis olim si quis impia manu 
Senile guttur fregerit, 


£dit cicutis allium nocentius. 

dura messorum ilia ! 

Quid hoo veneni saevit in praecordiis 1 6 

Nura viperinus his cruor 

Incoctus berbis me fefellit, an malas 

Canidia tractavit dapes 1 

Ut Argonautas praeter omnes candidum 

Medea mirata est ducem, 10 

Ignota tauris illigatnrum juga 

Perunxit boc Jasonem ; 

Hoc delibutis ulta donis pellicem 

Serpente fugit alite. 

Neo tantus unquam siderum insedit vapor 15 

Siticulosae Apuliae, 

Nec munus humeris efficacis Herculis 

Inarsit aestuosius. 

At si quid unquam tale concupiveris, 

Jocose Maecenas, precor 20 

Manum puella savio opponat tuo, 

Extrema et in sponda cubet. 

3. Editt * let him eat,' antique for ecUu. Gram. $ 146, 4.-8. Ca- 
nidia, a woman whom Horace accused of practisiiig the raagic art. 
See Epodes 5 and 17. —9. A mythological ailusion. Such was the 
poison with which Medea anointed Jason when he was about to 
bind a yoke on the fire-breathing buUs. Uty here = ubif nottquam. 
— 13. * She (Medea) havin^ avenged herself on her rivaf by gifts 
soaked in this (such a poison as this), fled away by means orher 
winged serpents.* The peUex was Glauce or Creiisa, daughter of 
Creon, king of Corinth. — 15. Vapor tiderum, ' vapoury (noxious) 
heat of the sun.' — 17. MunuSj * the present ;' namely, the garment 
which Deianira gave to her husband Hercules, in order to secure his 
constancy, but which, being steeped in the poisoned blood of tl^e 
Centaur Nessus, caused the hero ezcruciatiog torment. — 19. Ther 
poet jocularly denounces a punisbment on Maecenas if he ever again 
causes him such sufiering. ■ 




An efiusion of indignation agrainst a man who, during the confu- 
sion of the civil wars, had raised himself by base means from 
tfae lowest station to rank and wealth ; and now in Rome, by his 
haughty demeanour, excited the wrath of the well-disposed part 
of the communitj. The poet does not name him; but the snper- 
scriptions in MSS., which were probably introduced by early 
commentators, are partly Jn Vedium Rufum, partly In Menam, 
This latter personage is of!en mentioned in the narrative of the 
events of this time by Dion Cassius. He was a &eedman of 
Seztus Pompeius, and commanded a part of his fleet, but during 
the war deserted to Octavianus. The rewards and distinctions 
which Octavianus bestowed on Menas excited the indignation of 
honourable men, especially of such as, like Horace, harboured a 
secret liking fbr the leaders of the republican party — Brutu8,Cas- 
sius, Domitius, and Sectus Pompeius. Compare Carm. iii. 16, 15. 

Lupis et agnis quanta sortito obtigit, 

Teeum mihi discordia est, 

Hibericis peruste funibus latus 

Et crura dura compede. 

Licet superbus ambules pecunia, 5 

Fortuna non mutat genus. 

Videsne, sacram metiente te yiam 

Cum bis trium ulnarum toga, 

Ut ora vertat huc et huc euntium 

Liberrima indignatio ? 10 

Sectus iiageliis hic triumviralibus 

Praeconis ad fastidium, 

Arat Falerni mille fundi jugera, 

£t Appiam mannis terit, 

3. Hiberids perustefunibua, * smarting fxom Spanish ropes,* urere 
being ofien used of a thing which produces a smartingpam, such aa 
whipping. * Spanish ropes' here are ropes made of ihe tough kind 
of broom calied tpartum, which was particularly abundant in Spain. 
—8. Bis trium. The sense is clear: the upstart ^measures* — that 
is, stalks along — the most frequented street in Rome dressed ina 
toga of six ells in width. — 11. ' By the scourges of the (resviri (or 
triumviri) capitales ;^ that is, b]r the scourges applied bv order of 
these men, who formed a sort of police court for trying onenders of 
the lowest class of the community. The public crier stood by 
him whilst he was being scourged, and proclaimed his crime and his 
punishment. He was punished so frequently that the crier became 


Sedilibusque roagnus in primis eques 15 

Othone contempto sedet. 

Quid attinet toc ora navium gravi 

Rostrata duci pondere 

Contra latrones atque servilem manum, 

Hoc, hoc tribuno militum ? 20 

disgusted with the constant bawling. — 16. * With contempt of 
Otnc* L. Roscius Otho, in his tribuneship, 67 b. c, passed a law 
that the fourteen benches immediately behind the orcnestra in the 
theatre Bhould be set apart for the equitesj and ordained expressly 
that this order should be open only to men inheriting free birth from 
the third generation. The person to whom the poem is addressed 
did not answer this condition, but, disregarding it, had obtained i)d* 
mission into the order, and all the rights of free birth, by the spe- 
cial appointment of some one in power, probably Caesar Octavianus. 
— 17. The sense is : where is the use of carrying on a naval war 
against robbers and slaves (such as Octavianus waged in the years 
38-36 B. c. with Sextus Pompeius), if this man, a man who has 
himself been a slave and a pirate, is commander of the fleet f 


An extremely bitter attack on a woman called Canidla, whose real 
name, according to the statement of an ancient scholiast, waa 
Gratidia, who carried on a trade in perfumery at Naples. She 
is accused here, in Epode 17, and Satires, i. 8, 23, of practising 
magic to gain and keep lovers, and even of killing a boy to ol^ 
tain materials fbr the manufacture of love-potions. The boy 
himself is introduced at the beginning and end of the poem im- 
precating and denouncing curses. 

* At o deorura quidquid in coelo regit 

Terras et humanum genus, 

Quid iste fert tumultus? et quid omnium 

Vultus in unum me truces? 

Per iiberos te, si vocata partubus 5 

Lueina veris affuit, 

1. At has here an imploring force : • Oh, pray what does this up- 
roar mean ?' The boy deslined to be the victim of Canidia's cruelty 
is the speaker. — 5. Si — affuit; that is, if thou hast really born 
children. Lucina or Juno Lucina was the goddess who gave help 


Per hoc inane purpurae decus precor, 

Per improbaturum haec Jovem, 

Quid ut noverca me intueris aut uti 

Petita ferro belua V 10 

Ut haec trementi questus ore constitit 

Insignibus raptis puer, 

Impube corpus, quale posset impia 

MoUire Thracum pectora; 

Canidia brevibus implicata viperis 15 

Crines et incomptura caput, 

Jubet sepulcris caprificos erutas, 

Jubet cupressus funebres 

£t uncta turpis ova ranae sanguine 

Plumamque nocturnae strigis 20 

Herbasque, quas lolcos atque Hiberia 

Miltit venenorum ferax, 

£t ossa ab ore rapta jejunae canis 

Flammis aduri Colchicis. 

£t expedita Sagana per totam domum 25 

Spargens Avernales aquas 

Horret capillis ut marinus asperis 

£chinus aut currens aper. 

Abacta nulla Yeia conscientia 

Ligonibus duris humum 30 

£xhauriebat, ingemens laboribus, 

Quo posset infossus puer 

Longo die bis terque mutatae dapis 

Inemori speclaculo, 

Cum promineret ore quantum extant aqua 35 

in child'birth. — 7. The distinction of the purple stripe on his tunic, 
which was worn by freeborn boys, does not protect him from the 
cruelty of the wicked woman. — 17. The magic burnt-ofTenng con- 
sisted of the wood of the wild fig-tree and the cypress, on which 
are laid the eggs and feathers of an owl, smeared with the blood of 
a toad ; also magical herbs and gnawed bones. These herbs ard 
said to come from Thessaly and Hiberia, a Caucasian district : a 
poetical fancy, founded on ihe fame of the Colchian poisoner Me- 
dea, and of the inhabitants of Thessaly, particularly the women. 
In addition to all this which we have mentioned, the marrow and 
the liver of the poor tortured boy are required, and by this horrid 
sacrifice Canidia intends to bring back the affections of Varus, her 
faithless lover. — 26. AverTialeSt ' from Lake Avernus,' which 
among the Roman poets takes to a great extent the place of Ache* 
ron, tne river of the lower world. — 29. Veia, the second assistant 
of Canidia, has been engaged in the meantime in dis^ging a hole 
in the ground, in which the boy, buried up to the cnin, is to be 
starved to death. Provisions are to be piaced near him, and changed 
occasionally, for the purpose of rendering his hunger the keener.^ 


Soi^ensa mento corpora : 

Exusta uti medulla et aridazn jecur 

Amoris esset poculum, 

Interminato cum semel fixae cibo 

Intabuissent pupulae. 40 

Non defuisse masculae libidinis 

Arirainensem Foliam, 

Et otiosa credidit Neapolis 

Et omne vicinum oppidum, 

Quae sidera excantato voce Thessala 45 

Lunamque coelo deripit. 

Hic irresectum saeva dente livido 

Canidia rodens pollicem 

Quid dixit aut quid tacuit ? ' rebus meis 

Non infideles arbitrae, 50 

Nox et Diana, quae silentium regis, 

Arcana cum fiunt sacra, 

Nunc, nunc adeste, nunc in hostiles domos 

Iram atque numen vertite. 

Formidolosae dum latent siivis ferae, 55 

Dulci soporae languidae, 

Senem, quod omnes rideant, adulterum 

Latrent Suburanae canes ' 

Nardo perunctum, quale non perfectius 

Meae laborarint manus. — 60 

Quid accidit % Cur dira barbarae minus 

Venena Medeae valent 1 

Quibus superbam fugit ulta pellicem, 

Magni Creontis filiam, 

36. Suspenm mento. A person swimming, having only his head above 
water, seems to hang by his chin. — 37. Exuaia, 'dried up' by the 
unsatisfied longing for food. Other readinss, exeata, exsucta, are 
bad, as they express the destruction of the liver, whilst it wae to 
form an ingredient in the love-potion. — 39. Interminato, passively, 
from the deponent interminari , here, = interdicto, negaio, 'prohi- 
bited, withheld.* — 45. Sidera lun^mque, ' the stars and the moon.* 
Commonly only the moon is put under the control of witches, who 
were supposed to draw it down, thus causin^ the darkness at an 
eclipse. — 58. Latrent = allatrent. Canidia wishes ihat the dogs may 
bark loug and loudly at old Varus when he goes to court any one but 
herself. Suburra, a disreputabie street in Rome. — 61. Canidia, after 
a pause, finds that her magic has failed to produce its expected 
efi^ct. Astonished at this, she asks herseif why her horrible com- 
pound has been less efficacious than that of Medea. Others explain 
ihe clause thus : ' why has my philtre, made up according to the pre- 
scription of Medea, not strength enough !'- But this interpretation, 
venena Medeaey quae mea sunt, has something unnatural in it, and 


Cum palla, tabo manus imbutum, novam 65 

Incendio nuptam abstulit. 

Atqui nec herba nec latens in asperis 

Radix fefellit me locis. 

Indormit unctis omnium cubilibus 

Obiivione peliicum. 70 

Ah ! ah ! solutus ambulat veneficae ' 

Scientioris carmine. 

Non usitatis, Vare, potionibus, 

multa fleturum caput, 

Ad me recurres, nec Yocata mens tua 75 

Marsis redibit vocibus. 

Majus parabo, majus infundam tibi 

Fastidienti poculum, 

Priusque coelum sidet inferius mari 

Tellure porrecta super, 80 

Quam non amore sic meo flagres, uti 

Bitumen atris ignibus.' 

Sub haec puer jam non, ut ante, mollibas 

Lenire verbis impias, 85 

Sed dubius, unde rumperet silentium, 

Misit Thyesteas preces : 

< Venena magnum fas nefasque non valent 

Convertere humanam vicem. 

Diris agam vos : dira detestatio 

Nulla expiatur victima. 90 

Quin, ubi perire jussus expiravero, 

Nocturnus occurram furor, 

Petamque vuUus umbra curvis unguibus, 

Quae vis deorum est manium, 

£t inquietis assidens praecordiis 95 

Pavore somnos auferam. 

Vos turba vicatim hinc et hinc saxis petens 

Contundet obscoenas anus. 

does not give minus its proper force. — G6. Ahslulit = consumpsU. 
Crelisa or Glauce was burned to death when she put on the poison- 
Bteeped garment which Medea had sent her. — 76, The Marsi were 
considered in Italy to be skilled in the properties of herbs. Vocei 
are incantations, formulae of conjuration, at the pronouncing of 
which particular herbs were made use of. — ^82. Atris ignibus ; bitu- 
men burns with a dark flame and a strong odour. — ^. Thyesteas 
vreces ; tiiat is, curses such as Thyestes imprecated on the head of 
nis cruel brother Atreus, who had fcilled his two sons. — 87. Charms 
cannot alter the eternal rules of right and wrong, as if they were 
human institutions. As to vicem, see Zumpt, \ 453. — 97. The 
Bense is : men will drive you from place to place as abominabie old 


Post insepulta membra difFerent lupi 
£t Esquilinae alites ; 100 

Neque hoc parentes, heu raihi superslites! 
Effugerit spectaculum.^ 

hags. — 100. EsqiiUinae, because at this time there was a burying- 
place on the EsquiUne Hill for poor people and criminals, whose 
bodies were not buried deep. See Satires, i. 8, 10. — 101. Super^ 
stiies. According to the order of nature, parents should not survivo 
. their children. 



A THRKATBNiNo poem, addressed to a man who had maliciously 
assailed some friends of tbe poet. Horace challenges him rather 
to attack himselfj and he will give him ^more than a mere 

QuiD immerentes hospites vexas caniS) 

Ignavns adversum lupog 1 

Quin huc inanes, si potes, vertis mitias 

£t me remorsurnm petis ? 

Nam qualis aut Molo«8US aut fulvus Lacon, 5 

Amica yis pastoribos, 

Agam per altas aure sublata nives, 

Quaecunque praecedet fera. 

Tu cum timenda voce complesti nemus, 

Projectum odoraris cibum. 10 

Cave, cave : namque in malos asperrimus 

Parata tollo cornua, 

Qualis Lycambae spretus infido gener^ 

Aut acer hostis Bupalo. 

1. Hcspitei, * strangers,* at whom even cowardly dogs bark. — 3. 
Quin — veHiSj * why dost thou not turn?* that is, a chalienge, = 
verte p&tius. — 10. Projectum eihum,—cibum tibi objectum : under- 
Btand, *and as soon as this happens, thy barking ceases.' — 12. Cor- 
nua, a second trope : first the poet compares himself to a fine Mo- 
lossian dog, a mastifT, now he calls himself a buil. — 13. Gener 
tnretu» Lycambae ; namely, the poet Archilochus (about 700 b. c), 
tne invcntor of satiric iambic poetry, by the pungency of whrch he 
18 said to have driven Lycambes and his daughter Neobule to com- 
mit auicide. — 14. Bupalus was a statuary, and his acer kostis was 
17 N 


An 8i quis atro dente me petiverit, 15 

Inultus ut flebo puer ? 

the iambic p6et Hipponax (about 540 b. c), who, irritated by a cari- 
cature of himself, turned the whole force of his satirical powers 
against Bupalus. 



A BiTTER lament oni the renewed outbreak of civil war, which had 
been terminated by the victoiy of Octavianus at Actium, 31 b. c. 
Horace, in his patriotic sorrow, bewails the old sin of Romuios 
as the cause of the never-ending dissensions in the republic. 

Quo, quo scelesti ruitis ? aut cur dexteriB 

Aptantur enses conditi ? 

Parumne campis atque Neptuno super 

Fusum est Latini sanguiuis 1 

Non ut superbas invidae Carthaginis 5 

Eomanus arces ureret, 

Intactus aut Britannus ut descenderet 

Sacra catenatus via, 

Sed ut; secuudum vota Parthorum, sua 

Urbs haec periret dextera. 10 

Neque hic lupis mos nec fuit leonibus, 

Nunquam nisi in dispar feris. 

Furorne caecos an rapit vis acrior 

An culpa ? Responsum date. 

Tacent; et albus ora pallor inficit, 15 

Mentesque perculsae stupent. 

Sic est : acerba fata Romanos agunt 

Scelusque fraternae necis, 

Ut immerentis fluxit in terram Remi 

Sacer nepotibus cruor. 20 

7. Jntactus Britannus. The poet thinks that if the war had for 
its object to lead in triumph the Britons, who had not yet submitted 
to the Roman yoke, he would not lament. The triumphal proces* 
sions at Rome went round the foot of the Palatine Hill, through the 
Circus Maximus, and down on the other side, by the Via Sacra, 
into the Fonim, then up to the Capitol. — 9. Parthorum. Since the 
defeat of Crassus in 53 b. c, the Parthians had been considered 
as the hereditary enemies of the Roman name. — ^20. Saeer nepotiJkus. 
* a curse upon the latest posterity, or to be atoned for by them.* 



An e±pre88ion of joy at the first news of the victory at Actium 
(September 3, 31 b. c.) Particular details regarding this victory 
and the flight of Antony to Egypt had not yet reached Rome. 
It wa8 only known that the routed fleet had steered in the direc- 
tioii of Crete. 

QuANDO repostum Caecubum ad festas dapes 

Victore laetus Caesare 

Tecum sub aita, sic Jovi gratum, domO; 

Beate Maecenas, bibam^ 

Sonante mixtum tibiis carmen lyra, 5 

Hac Dorium, iilis barbarum ? 

Ut nuper, actus cum freto Neptunias 

Dux fugit ustis navibus, 

Minatus urbi vincla, quae detraxerat 

Seryis amicus perfiais. 10 

Romanus, eheUj posteri negabitis, 

Emancipatus feminae 

fert vallum et arma miles et spadonibus 

Servire rugosis potest, 

Interque signa turpe militaria 15 

Sol adspicit conopiura. 

1. Quando Caecubwn bibam; that is, * when wilt thou hold a ban- 
quet m honour of this happy event ?' The Caecuban was a good 
wine, but excelled by the Cam^nian, the Falernian, and the Massic. 
Greek wioefl much drunk at Rome were the Chion, Lesbian, and 
Coan. — 5. The lyre, a genuine Greek instrument, was used at first 
to accompany the singing of hymns composed in the Doric dialect. 
The f)ute, originally rhrygian, was considered as foreign, especially 
the double flute, dextra et evnistra^ bas and treble, wnich a player 
ble w at the same time. — 7. That is, as we once celebrated a feast 
when Sextus Pompeius, who had called himself in his pride a son 
of Neptune, was defeated in the Sicilian Straits, and fled. The 
aflfair referred to occurred in the y^ear 36 b. c ; so that nuper is not 
limited to a very recent period. Pompeius had sirengthened the 
crews of his vessels bv taking in runaway slaves. — 11. Antony de- 
graded the Roman soldiers still more, by making them serve Cleo- 
patra. This reproach on Antony is founded on the fact that he 
married Cleopatra, and wished herto be acknowledged and honoured 
by his Roroan friends and soldiers as his lawful wife. — 16. Cono' 
pium, * a fly-net,' a bed-curtain made of close network, to keep oflT 
the troublesome flies and mosquitoes from Cleopatra and the now 


Ad hoc frementes verterant bis mille equos 

Galli canentes Caesarem, 

Hostiliumque navium |)ortu latent 

Puppes, sinistrorsum citae. 20 

lo Triumphe, tu moraris aureos 

Currus et intactas boves? 

lo Triumphe, nec Jugurthino parem 

Bello reportasti ducem, 

Neque Africanum, cui super Carthaginem 25 

Virtus sepulcrum condidit. 

Terra marique victns hostis Punico 

Lugubre mutavit sagum. 

Aut ille centum nobilem Cretam urbibus 

Ventis iturus non suis, 30 

Exercitatas aut petit Syrtes Noto, 

Aut fertur incerto mari. 

Capaciores affer huc, puer, scyphos 

£t Chia vina aut Lesbia, 

Vel quod fluentum nauseam coerceat, 35 

Metire nobis Caecubum. 

Curam metumque Caesaris rerum juvat 

Dulci Lyaeo solvere. 

efieminate Antony. — 17. Ad hoc, * at this sight.' We have adopted 
Benrley^s correction of the common reading a<2Auc, which gives no 
suitable sense. — 18. By Galli are roeant Gallo-Graeei or Galattu, 
who served with Antony as auxiliaries, but who deserted to Ocia- 
vianus before the decisive battle. — 20. Sinistrorsum citaef * quick 
to the left ;* that is, ready to flee quickly away towards the left. 
The left here is the direction of Peloponnesus and Asia. — 21. lo 
triumphe, etc, a question of amazement, *why delayest thouf 
The triumph is personified, and the sense withoat the figure is: 
why is the triumph not immediately celebrated ? — 23. Parem, 
Neither Marius nor Scipio Africanus is equal to Caesar Octa< 
vianas, whose triumph is approaching. — 30. Non »uis ventist * with 
unfavourable winds.' The mention of Crete's hundred ctties is au 
allusion to the Homeric description. In reality, however, the 
island had sunk very much in importance. — 31. Exercitatas Nato, 
Mossed by the south wind.' — 35. Fluentem nauseamy Uterally, 
' loose loathing;' that is, adisgust at the wine, all the nerves bein^, 
as it were, loosened, unbraced. The Caecubaa rdmedies this 
squeamishness, being a pungent wine, not sweet like the wines of 





A VKRT bitter malediction on the poetaster Maevius, a common fbe 
and backbiter of all the joung and rising poets of the time, par- 
ticularly Virgil and Horace. Virffil sneers at him in Eclogue 
iii. 90 ; and Horace in this poem wishes that he raa j be wrecked 
in a Toyage to Greece on which he was entering, and moreover 
▼owB a thank-offering to the gods should Maevius perish. 

Mala solata navis exit alite, 

Ferens olentem Maevium. 

Ut horridis utrumque veTberes latus, 

Auster, memento nuctibus. 

Niger rudentes Eurus inverso mari 6 

Fractosque remos difFerat. 

Insurgat Aquilo, quantus aitis montibus 

Frangit trementes ilices. 

Nec sidus atra nocte amicum appareat, 

Qua tristis Orion cadit : 10 

Quietiore nec feratur aequore 

Quam Graia victorum manus, ^ 

Cum Pallas usto vertit iram ab Ilio 

In impiam Ajacis ratem. 

quantus inslat navitis sudor tuis 16 

Tibique patlor luteus, 

Et illa non virilis ejulatio 

Preces et aversum ad Jovem, 

lonius udo cum remugiens sinus 

Noto carinam rnperit. 20 

Opima quodsi praeda curvo litore 

Porrecla mergos juveris, 

Libidinosus immoiabitur caper 

£t agna tempestatibus. 

2. Olentemj * ill-smelling,' probably because he was of an un- 
healthy, corpulent habit of body, as seems to be indicated in line 
21.— 4. Auster, Eurut, and A^uilo, the south, east, and north winds 
are invoked to destroy the ship-. — 11. An allusion to a very severe 
storm, in which Ajax, son of Oileus, when returning victorious from 
Troy, was destroyed bjr Pallas, in her ang^er at his malrreaiment of 
Cassandra. His death is mentioned by Homer in the Odyssey, iv. 
502, and by Virgil in the Aeneid, i. 39.— 21. Quodsi introduces the 

concluding sentence : 'if then ,1 shall sacrifice a goat and a 






Am address on a duU winter daj to the poet*s iriends, in which he 
calls upon them to enjoy life ; confirming his advice by the ex- 
ample of Achilles, who had been represented by tradition as the 
most perfect of all the Greeks, and yet as the shortest-Iived. 

HoRRiDA tempeslEB coelum contraxit, et imbres 
Nivesque deducunt Jovem; nunc mare nunc silvae 
Threicio aquilone sonant: rapiamus amice 
Occasionem de die, dumque virent genua 
Et decet, obducta solvatur fronte senectus. 5 

Tu vina Torquato move consule pressa meo. 
Cetera mitte loqul : deus haec fortasse benigna 
Reducet in sedem vice. Nunc et Achaemeoio 
Perfundi nardo juvat et fide Cyllenea 
Levare diris pectora soUicitudinibus, 10 

Nobilis ut grandi cecinit Centaurus alumno : 
Invicte mortalis dea nate puer Thetide, 
Te manet Assaraci tellus,.quam frigida parvi 
^ndunt Scamandri ilumina lubricus et Simois, 

1. DeducutU Jovem. The expression Jupiter descendit, indicating 
tkat the atmosphere has become tbick and heavy, that rain or 
snow has began to fall, is more common. — 5. Obducta — 8enectu$i 
Met moroseness be rubbed off (unbound) from the (therewith) 
clouded brow. Senectus used (Benium is more common in this 
sense) for the bad peculiarity of age, morositat, triititia. — 6. Horace 
was born in the consulship of L. Manlius Torouatus, 65 b. c. ; aod 
ke often mentions the wine of this year, wbich, either from a 
sentimental feeling, or because the vintage of that year waa 
remarkably good, he causes to be brought out aa a treat on spe- 
cial joyous occasions. Compare Carm. iii. 21, 1. Italian wines 
were kept up by the Romans to a great age, but this ie not done 
now. — 8. Achaemenio, properly * Persian,' here used for * Asiatic' 
generally, or for * Assyrian ;' this root, which gave tbe most vala- 
able perfume, being particularly abundant in Assyria. — 9. Fide Cyl- 
lenea, ' with the lyre of Mercury,' who was born pn Mount Cyllene 
in Arcadia. He invented the cithara (also called chdysy testudo), the 
strings of which were drawn across a circular hollow frame ; origin- 
ally, according to tradition, a tortoise-shell, whence the name. 
Apollo'8 instrument, the phorminx, was of a somewhat different 
construction ; in it the strings ran upwards from a sounding-board 
to a cross-piece between two horns. The name lyrat however, ia 
common to bolh. — 11. Grandi^ * when grown a man.' The persoa 
alluded to is Achilles, whose tutor was the centaur Chiron. — 13. 


Unde tlbi reditum certo Bubtemine Parcae 15 

Rupere, nec mater domum caerula te revehet. 
Illic omne malum vino cantuque levato, 
Deformis aegrimoniae dulcibus alloquiis. 

Asgarxunit, son of Tros. Hence hia Mand ' is the Troad. — 15. Certo 
subtemine, *■ with sure thread ;* that is, in the fixed duration of thy 
life. — 17. Vina — alloquiis, * by wine and song, the sweet solaces of 
ugly (deforming) sorrow.' 


A PiiAY of fancy. The poet calls npon the Romans to emigrate 
ftom Italy, where civil war is constantly breaking out anew, to 
the islands of the blest These islands on the west coast of 
Afrlca, now the Canaries, were famed throughout all antiquity 
fbr their salubrious climate, their ezistence and natnre, however, 
being treated more as poetical fancies than realities. Even the 
most ancient Gireeks had an undefined and vague knowledge of 
them, and the poets described them as the happy abode of the 
spirits of men. The. Roma^ general, Sertorius, having found 
humself unable to make head in Spain against Pompey, iutended 
to reure with his fbllowers to the happy islands ; but of actual 
settlements, or of the fbundation of any towns on them by the 
Romans, there is no record. The neglect of the Romans, to dis- 
cover and make use of the islands on the African coast is sur- 
prising, and can only be accounted for by the fact, that there 
was still iand enough, thinly peopled, on the co&tinent of Europe, 
to receive any surplus population of Italy. 

This poem seems to b«L one of Horace*s earliest, and to refer not to 
the Actian war, but rather to the hostilities between the Caesa- 
rian and Antonian parties on the occasion of the settlement of 
the legions in Italy, by which many cities lost their property. 

AI.TERA jam teritur bellis civilibus aetas^ 
Suis et ipsa Roma viribus ruit : 

1. Altera aetas maj mean either ' a second age (period of time),' 
or * a second seneraiion (of men.)' We underetand it here in tbe lat- 
ter sense, so that the poet says the war between Caesar and Fompey 
swept away one generation, and now another is being eztirpated 
(rubbed ofT) by the wars of the triumvirs. Taking this sense, there 
18 Do necessity for us to think of the particular time estimated for the 


Qaam neque finitiini valaerant perdere Marsi 
Minacis aut fitrasca Porsenae manus, 
Aemula nec virtus Capuae, nec Spartacus acer 5 

Noyisque rebus infidelis Allobrox, 
Nec fera caerulea domuit Germania pabe 
Parentibusque abominatus Hannibal ; 
Impia perdemus devoti sanguinis aetas, 
Ferisque rursus occupabitur solum. 10 

Barbarus heu cineres insistet victor, et urbem 
Eques sonante verberabit ungula, 
Quaeque carent ventis et solibus ossa Quirini, 
Nefas yidere, dissipabit insolens. 
Forte quid expediat communiter aut melior pars 15 

Malis carere quaeritis laboribus : 
Nulla sit hac potior sententia, Phocaeorum 
( Velut profugit exsecrata civitas 

Agros atque lares patrios, habitandaque fana 
Apris reliquit et rapacibus lupis, 20 

Ire pedes quocunque ferent, quocunque per undas 
Notus vocabit aut protervus Africus. 
Sic placet, an raelius quis habet suadere ? Secunda 
Ratem occupare quid moramur alite ? 
Sed juremns in haec : simul imis saxa renarint 25 

Vadis leyata, ne redire sit nefas ; 
Neu conversa domum pigeat dare lintea, quando 
Padus Matina laverit cacumina, 
In mare seu celsus procurrerit Apenninus, 
' Novaque monstra junxerit libidine 30 

continuance of a ^eneration, thirty or thirty-three years ; still less 
that we should thmk of the war between Marius and Sulla, as be- 
tweeen Sulla and Caesar there was a period of peace and prosperity. 
— 6. The AUobroges, a warlike tribe of the Gauls, between the 
Rhone and the Is^re, often alarmed the Romans by their proneness 
to throw off the yoke wheoever intestine troubles at Rome seemed 
to aiford a favourable opportunity. — 7. Caeruleay *blue-eyed.'— 8. 
Parentibusj here * motbers.'— 9. Impiaaetaa devoti tanguinis, 'agod- 
less race, whose blood is accursed, doomed to perish. — 12. Horse- 
men will ride over the spots where once noble mansions stood — 
a sign of destruction and desolation. — 15. Aut meliorpars. Out of 
quaeritis supply vos omnest * you, or the better pari of you.' Cc' 
rere = ut careamus. Gram. % 375, note 3. — 17. The story of ihe 
emigration of the Phocaeans in Asia Minor, from detestation of the 
Persian tyranny, will be found in Herodotus, i. 165. — 33. Seeunda 
alite =: hono omine. — 26. Ne sit nefas. The ordinary mode of ez- 
pression would be nefas esse^ or ut nefas sit redire, priusquam saxa 
renarint. In the same way, afterwards, we shoula expect ut tum 
demum in patriam redeamus^ cum Padus^ etc. — 28. Matinus was a 
hill in Calabria. — 30. A somewhat overcopious detail of monstros- 


Miras amor, juyet ut tigres Bubsidera oervi^, 

Adulteretur et columba miluo, 

Credula nec flavos timeant arroenta leones, 

Ametqiie palsa levis hircus aequora. 

Haec et quae poterunt reditus abscindere dulces 35 

Eamus omnis execrata civitas, 

Aut pars indocili melior grege ', mollis et exspes 

Inomlnata perprimat cubilia ! 

Yos quibus est virtus, muliebrem toUite luctumi 

Etrusca praeler et volate litora. 40 

Nos manet Oceanus circumvagus : arva, beata 

Petamus arva divites et insulas, 

Reddit ubi Cererem tellus inarata quotannis 

£t iraputata floret usque vinea^ 

Germinat et nunquam fallentis termes olivae, 46 

Suamque pulla ficus ornat arborem ; 

Mella cava manant ex ilice, montibus altis 

Levis crepante lympha desilit pede. 

Illic injussae veniunt ad mulctra capellae, 

Refertque tenta grex amicus ubera ; 50 

Nec vespertinus circumgemit ursus ovile, 

Neque intumescit alta viperis humus. 

Pluraque felices mirabimur : ut neque largis 

Aquosus Eurus arva radat imbribus, 

Pinguia nec siccis urantur semina glebis, 55 

Utrumque rege teraperante coelitum. 

Non huc Argoo contendit reraige pinus, 

Neque impudica Colchis intulit pedem ; 

Non huc Sidonii torserunt cornua nautae 

Laboriosa nec cohors Ulixei. 60 

Nulla nocent pecori contagia, nullius astri 

ities which are to happen before the emiffrants* return. We must 
remember that the poet was young when lie wrote this epode. — 36 
Exsecrata ; that is postquam execrationibua haecfixa et inviolata con- 
stititimuB. — 40. Etrusra litora ; that is, push out lirst from Ostia, 
then sail along the Italian, Gallic, and Spanish coasts, till you reach 
arid pass the r illars of Hercules. — 43. Cererem, ' corn.' The poet 
describes at some length how the earth, iu the happy islands, brin^s- 
forth without tillage abundant crops — a state of things which is 
found nowhere, and which would only do man harm. — 46. Pulla, 
* dark-coloured ;' that is, ripe. — 52. Alta, the ground seeming to 
rise, as the reptiles creep forth. — 56. Utrumque ; that is, both the 
overabundance of rain and the drought. — 57. The ship Argo bas 
never come to these happy islandsj nor has Medea with her accursed 
arts been here to blast the bounties of nature. — 59. Torquere cov' 
mta, *to turn the sail-yards.' — 61. Astri; as Sirius in our Italian 


Gregem aestuosa torret impotentia. 
Jupiter illa piae secrevit litora genti, 
Ut inquinavit aere tempus aureum } 
Aerea dehinc ferro duravit saecula, quorum 
Piis secunda, yate me, datur fuga. 


clime; — 62. Impotentia, *violence,* as frequently. — 64. Ut — au- 
reunif ' after he had alloyed the golden age with the brazen.' — 65 
Quorum tecunda fuga, * a prosperous flight from which (iron times.)' 



Obskrtations, flill of wit and good practical moralitj, on the uni- 
Tersally.preyalent vice of dissatisfaction with one^s own position 
in life---on tbe eager desire of possessing more than others — and 
the avarice which would ever accumulate and never begin to 
enjoy what has been acquired. This constant bustle is repre- 
sented as the most dangerous enemy of a quiet, reflective, happy 
life ; and no doubt the warning, not unnecessarily to distract 
their minds» was very seasonable to the Romans at this period 
(some years befbre the battle of Actium;, when property was in 
a nlost unsettled state, and peace had been long unknown to the 
republic. But the moral precepts are perfectly applicable to tho 
men of the present age also. 

Qui fiit, Maecenas, ut nemo, c^uam sibi sortem 
Seu ratio dederit, seu fors objecerit; illa 
Contentus yiyatj laudet diversa sequentes ? 

fortunati mercatores !' gravis annis 
Miles ait muito jam fractus membra labore. 6 

Contra mercator, navem jactantibus austris : 
' Militia est potior. Quid enim % Concurritur : horae 
Momento aut cita mors venit aut victoria laeta.' 
Agricolam laudat juris legumque peritus, 
Sub galli cantnm consultor ubi ostia pulsat. 10 

IUe datis vadibus qui rure extractus in urbem est, 
Solos felices yiventes clamat in urbe. 
Cetera de genere hoc (adeo sunt multa) loqnacem 
Delassare yalent Fabium. Ne te morer, audi. 
Quo rem deducam. Si quis deus, '£n ego^' aicat, 15 

1. The prose construction would be, QuijU ut nemo ea torte, quam, 
&c. contentus vivat. As to qui^ *how,* see Gram. % 118, note. — 2. 
Fors, not FoHuna, but *accident, chance,' the opposite of ratiot 
*a choice made for reasons.' — 7. Coftcurritur, 'the shock of battle 
takes place.'— 10. ConsuUor, ' the client seeking advice.' — 11. Datia 
vadibus, * having (in the previous term of court) given bail' that he 
would appear when required. An action for debt is alluded to. — 
13. Ve gettere hoc = huju8modi, hujus generis. — 15. Quo rem dedu- 



« Jam faciam quod vultis : eris tn, qui modo miles, 

Mercator; tu, consullus modo, rusticus: hino vos, 

Vos hinc mutatis discedite partibu^. £ia ! 

Quid fttatis V — ^Nolint. Atqui licet esse bcatis. 

Quid cauBae est, merito quin illis Jupiter ambas 20 

Irfeitus buccas inflet, neque se fore posthac 

Tam facilem dicat, votis ut praebeat aurera ? 

Praeterea, ne sic, ut qui jocularia, ridens 

Percurram: — quamquam ridentem dicere verum 

Quid yetat? ut pueris olim dant crustula blandi 25 

Doctores, elementa velint ut discere prima : — 

Sed tamen amoto quaeramus seria ludo. 

IUe gravem duro terram qui vertit aratro, 

Perfldus hic caupo, miles nautaeque per omne 

Audaces mare qui currunt, hac mente laborem 30 

Sese ferre, senes ut in otia tuta recedant, 

Aiunt, quam sibi sint congesta cibaria : sicut 

Farvula (nam exemplo est) magni formica laboris 

Ore trahit quodcunque potest atque addit acervo, 

Quem struit, haud ignara ac non incauta futnri. 35 

Quae, simul inversnm contristat Aquarius annum, 

Non usquam prorepit et illis utitur ante 

Quaesitis sapiens, quum te neque fervidns aestud 

Demoveat lucro, neque hiems, ignis, roare, ferrum, 

Nil obstet tibi, dum ne sit te ditior alter. 40 

cam ; thaC is, how far I go in my assertion regarding discontent. 
17, Hinc vos, vos hinc ; pToperly, hinc vos, illinc vos ; but the 
lively mode of representafion requires us to imagine a kind of ges- 
ticulation. Those to whom the god calls are to change not only 
the parts (partea) which they play, but also, with them, their po- 
sitions in ihe scale of society. — 19. NoHnt, the apodosis : ti qnis 
deuB vUae optionem detf nolint aliam eligere. Tne present sub- 
junctive indicates that tbe supposition is possible. As to the 
con»truction of ZiVet, see Gram. % 376, 3. — 20. Amhas buccas inflet, 
' puff up both his cheeks;' illis, ' against them,' a sign of contempt. 
Iiorace has intentionally chosen a vulgar 6gure, probably from com- 
edy. — 23. Jocularia, 'comic speecbes,' such as were delivered 
in the theatres. In enouncing serious truths in jocular language, 
Horace would be acting as the teachers of young children do, who 
^sometimes' (olim) give thera cakes and sweetmeats to ihduce thein 
to leam the letters, the A B C (.dementa.) To the relative clause,»^ 
qui jocularia supply the indicative percurrit, out of percurram. — ^28. 
The sound echoes to the sense, indicating hard labour. — 33. Magni 
formica laboris could in prose mean only ' an ant of ^reat industry.' 
Here, however, this genitivus gualitatis means, * which can endure 
great labour ;' and hence, properly, animal or hestia should be sup- 
plied. — 36. Quae. The poet*8 reply begins. In the relative is 
mvolved an emphatic conjunction, it being = verumiamen hacc, 
*■ very true, but.* The avarictous man toils on, and never Btops to 


Quid jayat immensum te argenti pondus et auri 

Furtira defossa timidum deponere tefra? — 

'Quod 81 comminuas, vilem redigatur ad assem.'— 

At ni id fit, quid habet pulchri constructus acervus? 

Milia frumenti tua triverit area centum, 45 

Non tuus hoc capiet venter plus ac meus: ut si 

Reticulum panis venales inter onusto 

Forte yehas humero, nihilo plus accipias quam 

Qui nil portarit. Yel dic, quid referat intra 

Naturae fines viventi, jugera centum aa 60 

Mille aret ? ' At suave est ex magno tollere aceryo.' 

Dum ex parvo nobis tantundem haurire relinquaSy 

Cur tua plus laudes cumeris granaria nostris 1 

Ut tibi si sit opus liquidi non amplius unia 

Vel cyatho, et dicas : Magno de flumine malim, 55 

Quam ex hoc fomiculo tantumdem sumere. £o iit, 

Plenior ut si quos delectet copia justo, 

Cum ripa simul avulsos ferat Aundus acer. 

At qui tantuli eget, quanto est opus, is neque limo 

Turoatam haurit aquam. neque vitam amittit in undis. 60 

At bona pars hominum decepta cupidine falso, 

^Nil satis est,' inquit, 'quia tanti, quantum haoeas, sis.' 

Quid facias illi ? Jubeas miserum esse, libenter 

Qaatenus id facit. Ut quidam memoratur Athenis 

enjoy his acquisitions, but the ant does. When the sun enters the 
sign of Aquarias (January 16), tfae closing {inversus) year assumes 
its most miserable aspect. — 42. Furtim defosaa go together. — 43. 
The avaricious man'8 defence. — 44. Horace replies. — 45. Milia-^ 
centumj ' tby barn-iloor may have thrashed a hundred thousand 
of grain ;* supply the ordinary corn measure, modius or medimnus, 
— 46. Plus ac. Horace frequently uses ac after comparatives, in- 
Btead of quam. See Zumpt, ^340, note.-— 47. In a troop of slaves 
taken to the market to be sold, one carries the bread-ba^, but he 
does not for that reason receive more of the bread than tne others 
who have had different burdens, or none at all. — 50. Viventit a 
somewhat free use of the dativus commodi, refert having com- 
monly a different construction. Gram.^284. — 51. At. The ava- 
ricious man raises a new plea, which Horace goes on to answer. 
The former having compared money to a heap (acervus) o( corn, 
the poet, in his reply, takes up tne same figure, and speaks of 
granaries (^ranaria) and a small corn-chest {cumera.) — 54. Liquidi 
= humoris, aquav. — 56. Eo fit, 'hence it happens' that a person 
who wishes more than he needs, falls into danger. This truih 
is illustrated by the fate of the person just mentioned, who would 
fill his vessel from a river rather than a brook. The stream car- 
ries hira away, along with the bank on which he was standing. 
As to the Aufidus, compare Carm. iv. 14, 25. — 59. Eget, in a rare 
sense, = cwpit. — 62. Tne third plea of the avaricious man : man 
is Valued according to his wealth. — 64. QvMtenus = quoniam. The 


Sordidus ac dives, populi contemnere voces 65 

Sic solitus: populus rne sibilat, at mihi plaudo 

Ipse domi, simul ac nummos conteraplor in arca. 

l^ntalus a labris sitiens fugientia captat 

Flumina .... Quid rides? Mutato nomine de te 

Fabula narratur : congestis undique saccis 70 

Indormis inhians, et tamquam parcere sacris 

Cogeris aut pictis tamquam gaudere tabellis. 

Nescis quo val^eat nummus; quem praebeat usam. 

Panis ematur, olus, vini sextarius, adde 

Quis humana sibi doleat natura negatis. 75 

An vigilare metu exanimem, noctesque diesque 

Formidare malos fures, incendia, servos, 

Ne te compilent fugientes, hoc juvat? Horum 

Semper ego optarira pauperriraus esse bonorum. 

' At si condoluit tentatura frigore corpus, 80 

Aut alius casus lecto te affixit ; habes qui 

Assideat, foraenta paret, raedicum roget, ut te 

Suscitet ac natis reddafcarisque propinquis V 

Non uxor salvura te vult, non filius ; omues 

Vicini oderunt, noti, pueri atque puellae. 85 

Miraris, quum tu argento post omnia ponas, 

Si nemo praestet, quem non raerearis amorem % 

At si cognatos, nullo natura labore 

poet now gives an instance of a man who valued himself accord- 
mg to his wealth. Why the case of Tantalus is brought up is not 
Bo obvious: the avaricious man, to whom Horace supposes him- 
self speakins, does not see its applicability, and laaghs. Hereupon 
Horace breaks off from his sentence (an instance of aposiopesis), 
and shows himthe bearinff of the case. — 71. Tamquam sacrist ^as 
if they belonged to a god, and there was a curse upon him who 
shoula handie them. — 72. The idea is this: it is the same thing 
whether you have real monejr, or merely a picture before your 
eyes, on which are^painted pieces of gold. You have as much 
pleasure in the one as the other, since you only look, never use. — 
73. Quo valeat ; that is, ad quam rem utilis ait. — 74. Sextarius, the 
sixth part of a consius, about half a pint, the quantity which a mo- 
derate drinker willtake at a banquet. — 75. Quis negatis doleat na- 
tura ; literaliy, ' things whicl^being denied to it, human nature 
grieves ;' that is, ' which human nalure grieves to be withouf.* In 
the preceding passage the poet has mentioned the necessaries of life; 
here he adds some of those things which make life comfortable and 
joyous, such as a respectable dwelling, decent clothing, society, and 
the like. — 80. Tentatumfrigore^ ' assailed by, shivermff from cold.' 
The poet is thinking of the disease most common in Jtaly — fever 
and ague. — 85. Pueri atque puellaey a proverbial expression, deno- 
ting ' all classes, old and young, male and female.'— -86. Post omnia 
ponast by imesis, for postponas omnia. — 88. At si, etc. Tho senee 
18 : if you try to keep the affection of your relatives, you will fail» 


Quo8 tibi dat, retinere velis servareque amicos, 

Infelix operam perdas; ut si quis asellum 90 

In Campo doceat parentem currere frenis. 

Denique sit finis quaerendi, quumque babeas pluS; 

Pauperiem metuas minus et finire laborem 

Incipias, parto quod avebas, ne facias quod 

Ummidius quidam (non longa est iabula) dives, 95 

Ut metiretur nummos, ita sordidus, ut se 

Non unquam servo melius vestiret, ad usque 

Supremum tempus ne se penuria victus 

Opprimeret, metuebat. At hunc liberta securi 

Divisit medium, fortissima Tyndaridarum. 100 

'Quid mi igitur suades? ut vivam Maenius? aut eic 

Ut Nomentanus?' Pergis pugnantia secum 

Frontibus adversis componere : non ego avarum 

Quum veto te fieri, vappam jubeo ac nebulonem. 

£6t inter Tanain quiddam socerumque Yiselli. 105 

Est modus in rebus^ sunt certi denique fines, 

Quos ultra citraque nequit consistere rectum. 

111 uc unde abii redeo, nemo ut avarus 

Se probet, ac potius laudet diversa sequentes ; 

as a man wonld do who should try to put his ass through the exer- 
cises of a horse. Your relations will not serve yon, as you have 
done no good to them. — 92. Denique introduces the last suggestion 
of the poet to the avaricious man. Hence it means ' at least, then:' 
if you are deaf to everything else, at least agree to this proposal — 
to have less dread of poverty and less pinching misefliness the more 
you acquire. — 94. J^e facias quod, ete.y *Iest that happen to you 
which did to a certain Ummidius.' — 96. Metiretur. He did not 
count his money, but measured it by bushels. — 98. Victus, genitive, 
govemed by penuria. — 100. Fortissima Tyndaridarum. Tyndarides, 
a son of Tyndareus, plural Tyndaridaey descendants of 1 yndareus. 
One of the children of Tyndareus was Clytaemnestra, who kiiled 
her husband Agamemnon. The freed-woman who slew her patron 
and husband is here, in jest, compared with the high-born Clytaem- 
nestra, and called the boldest of husband-killers. — 101. Xlt vivam 
Maenius^ * to live like Maenius,' who, as weli as Nomentanus, was 
a well-known debauchee at Ronie. — 102. Connect pugnantia secum 
adversis frontiJbuSt the sense being * things quite opposed to each 
other.' — 104. Vappa ; properly, * stale wine,' here * a useless fellow ;* 
nthuloj one who, like a mist {nebula) or the wind, has no solidity or 
regularity — 'avagabond.' — 105. Tanais and the father-in-law of 
Visellius were two well-known men at Rome, who suffered under 
opposite bodily infirmities. — 108. Illuc — redeo ; that is, I return to 
the proper theme of my satire — namely, that no one is content with 
bis iot. On redeo depend first ut nemo avarus se prohet, * that no- 
body, in his avarice, approves of himself, is pleased, content with 
himself;' tben afterwards, laudet, tabescat, comparet, and lahoret, 
Observe the hiatus in nemd utj which is bearable, as the arsis rests 


Quodqae aliena capella gerat (listentius uber, 110 

Tabescat; neque se majori pauperiorum 

Turbae comparet, hunc atque hunc superare laboret. 

Sic festipanti semper locupletior obstat : 

Ut, quum carceribus missos rapit ungula curras, 

Instat equis auriga suos viucentibuS; illum 115 

Praeteritum temaens extreraos inter euntem. 

Inde fit, ut raro, qui se vixisse beatum 

Dicat et exaeto contentus tempore vita 

Cedat, uti conviva satur, reperire queamus. 

Jam satis est. Ne me Crispini scrinia lippi 120 

Compilasse putes, verbum non ampUus addam. 

on the last sy llable of nemo. — 114. Carceribus (ablative) iiii««o«, = 
emigsos ex carcerihtts. Ungula for equus. — 116. Temnens, poetical 
for contemnens. — 120. Crispinus was a Stoic philosopher, notorioos 
in Rome for his moral harangues. He is called lippust perhaps be- 
cause he was reatly blear-eyed ; perhaps, metaphorically, because 
he did not judge aright the faults and weaknesses of his feuow-inea. 


Tbis Satire contains a defence against the charge that Horace, 
though of humble birth, had pushed himself forward into the 
society of the great, with the view of being considered a man of 
importance. The moral of the satire is this — that nobility does 
not lie in birth, but in character ; that virtue alone makes troe 

NoN quia, Maecenas, Lydorum quidquid Etrascos 

Incoluit fines, nemo generoaior est te, 

Nec quod avus tibi maternus fuit atque pateraua, 

Olim qui magnis legiouibus imperitarent, 

Ut plerique solent, naso suspendis adunco 5 

Ignotos, ut me libertino patre natum. 

1. Lydorum quidquid^ etc. ; that is, omnium Lydorumqui Etruscoi 
jines incolunt. It was a general belief in antiquity that Etruria waa 
colonised by Lydians from Asia Minor. As to the hi^h descent of 
Maecenas, see Carm. i. 1, 1. — 4. Olim qui. Supply n, *of such a 
rank as to.' Legiones here are the armies of the ancient Etruscaiu. 
— 5. Naso suspendis adunco, a witty expression for * despisest, 
turnest up thy nose at.' We see here that Horace was somewhat 
proud of his being ingenuus. His father had been a 6lave, and af* 
terwards, being manumitted by his master, a libertinus, he himself 

flATIRARIJM LIB. I. ' 209 

Quum referre nega« quali sit qaisque parente 

NatuS; dam ingenuus ; persuades hoc tibi vere, 

Ante potestatem TuUi atque ignobile regnum 

Multos saepe yiros nullis majoribus ortos 10 

£t yixisse probos, amplis et honoribus auctos ; 

Contra Laevinum, Valeri genus, unde Superbus 

Tarquinius regno pulsus fugit, unius assis 

Non unquam pretio pluris licuisse, notante 

Judice, quo nosti, populo, qui stultus honores 15 

Saepe dat indignis et famae servit ineptus, 

Qui stupet in titulis et imaginibus. Quid oportet 

Nos facere a vulgo longe longeque remotos % 

Namque esto, populus Laevino mallet honorem 

Quam Decio mandare novo, censorque moyeret 20 

Appius, ingenuo si non essem patre natus : 

yel merito, quoniam in propria non pelle quiessem. 

Sed fulgente trahic constrictos gloria curru 

Non minus ignotos generosis. Quo tibi, Tilli, 

Sumere depositum clavum fierique tribuno ? 26 

Invidia accrevit, privato quae minor esset. 

was therefore freebom. — 9. Tulli. Servius Tullius was said by tra- 
dition to have been the son of a slave of Tarquinius Priscus, and 
was therefore looked up to by the slaves in Rome as a notable in- 
stance of eood luck. Hence ignobile regnum, *the ffovernmenty 
which he obtained, though of ignoble birtn.' — 12. M. Valerius La- 
evinus was, as the schoUasts tell us, a youn^r man of the time of 
Horace, who, though a member of the ancient and distin^ished 
patrician gens Valerta^ one of whose members had assisted in ex- 
pelling Tarquinius Superbus, yet, on account of his vicious life, ob- 
tainedno posts of honour. Tfnde = a quo, scil. genere. — 13. Fugity 
historical present. — 14. Construe thus: licuisse (' has been put up 
for sale ;' that is, has been valued) non unquam pluris (quam) pretio 
unius assis. — 15. Quo nosti = quem nostij an attraction common in 
Greek, but rare and poetical in Latin. — 17. Titulit ' inscriptions' 
recording the great deeds of ancestors, imagines, ' busts* of ances- 
tors. — 19. Mallet. The imperfect-subjunctive shows that the sup 
position is not true; for Laevinus was not promoted, and Appius 
Claudius, censor in 50 b. c, who was very Btrict« did not remove 
good men from the senate, even though they were ignoble. Pro- 
perly, great-grandsons of freedmen (that is, nepotes ingenuorum) were 
their nearest.descendants who could be admitied into the senate, 
but Appius had introduced grandsons; that ia, jilii ingenuorum.y 
20. Novo = novo homini. Decio is *a Decius, a man like the Decii,* 
who were plebeians, and yet among the most distinguished men in 
Roman history. — 22. Vel meritOj scU. me moveret censorf *even 
justly.' Propria in pelle quiescere, a proverbial expression for * to 
be content with one'B lof.' — 24. Tillius, a person, as the scholiast 
tells. us, who was removed from the senate as a Pompeian, by ihe 
dictator Caesar, but, after his murder, Became tribunus pUbis, 
18* o 


Nam ut qnisqDe inaanus nigris medium impediit cras 

Pfellibus et latura demisit pectore clavum, 

Audit continuo : Quis homo hic aut quo patre natusl 

Ut si qui ^egipieX, quo morbo Barrus, haberi 30 

Ut cupiat formosuS; eat quacunque, puellis 

Injiciat curam quaerendi siiigula, quali 

Sit facie, sura, quali pede, dente, capilio ; 

Sic qui promittit, cives, urbem sibi curae, 

Imperium fore et Italiam et delubra deorum, 35 

Quo patre sit natus, num igaota matre inhonestas, 

Omnes mortales curare et quaerere cogit. 

' Tune, Syri, Damae, aut Dionysi fihus, audea 

Dejicere e saxo cives aut tradere Cadmo V 

' At Novius collega gradu post me sedet uno ; 40 

Namque est ille, pater quod erat meus.' Hoc tibi Paallus 

Et Messalla videris 1 At hic, si plostra ducenta 

Concurrantque foro tria funera, magna sonabit 

Cornua quod vincatque tubas ', saltem tenet hoc nos. 

Nunc ad me redeo hbertino patre natum, 45 

Quem rodunt omnes libertino patre natum, 

Nunc, quia sim tibi, Maecenas, convictor, at olim 

Quod mihi pareret legio Romana tribuno. 

and thereby a^ain a senator. — 27. An allusion to the latus davtu 
and high buskins, which were the badges of a senator. — 30. Bar- 
nis, a man otherwise unknown, but olten mentioned by Horace on 
account of his vanity — 35. Qui promUtitt by becoming a senator.— 
36. Num, ' whether ne is — but of coarse he is not.' 1 nis is implied 
in num. — 38. Tune, etc. This is what one of the people is supposed to 
say to the son of a freedman, who has obtained honours. The answer 
of the upstart follows in line 40. Syrus, Dama, and Dionysius, were 
common names of slaves. — 39. Saxo ia the Tarpeian rock, and this 
refers to the ancient punishment which the Roman magistrates 
could inflict for high treaeon and other heinous crimea. Cadmus, 
a well-known executioner. — 40. Gradu post me sedet uno, figura- 
tive : ' is a de^ree more ignoble than I ;* that is, is himself a liber- 
tinus, The ngure is taken from the theatre, in which the front 
seats were the most honourable. — 41. Hoc, 'on this account,' as 
in Une 52. PauIIus and Messalla are named, as represeQtatives of 
the Aemilii and Valerii, two of the most ancient and distinguished 
gentes in Rome. — 42. Hic ; that is, thy colleague Novius. He 
nas at least the merit of possessing a tremendous voice ; so that 
amid all the bustle and noise of a great man's funeral, ay, even of 
three together, he will make himself be heard above the big horns 
(for magna comua go together) and the trumpets. — 44. Tenet noSf 
* binds, captivates us,' induces us to elect him to ofBces of state. 
This is put into the mouth of one of the common people. — 47. 
Nunc answers to the foUowing olim. Horace had been a tribune in 
the army of Brutus. This was a post {honor) to which commonly 


Dissimile hoc illi est ; quia noiij ut forsit honorem 

Jure mihi invideat quivis, ita te quoque amicum, 50 

Praesertira cautum dignos assumere prava 

Ambitione procul. Felicem dicere non hoc 

Me possim, casu quod te sortitus amicum ; 

Nulla etenim mihi te fors obtulit : optimus olim 

VirgiliuS) post hunc Yarius dixere, quid essem. 56 

Ut veni coram, singultim pauca locutus, 

(Infans namque pudor prohibebat plura profari) 

Non ego me claro natum patre, non ego circum 

Me Satureiano vectari rura caballo, 

Sed, quod eram, narro. Ilespondes, ut tuus est mos, 60 

Fauca : abeo : et revocas nono post mense jubesque 

£8se in amicorum numero. Magnum hoc ego duco, 

Quod placui tibi. qui turpi secernis honestum, 

Non patre praeclaro, sed vita et pectore puro. 

Atqui si vitiis mediocribus ac mea paucis 65 

Mendosa est natura, alioqui recta, velnt si 

Egregio inspersos reprehendas corpore naevos, 

Si neque avaritiam neque sordes aut mala lustra 

Objiciet vere quisquam mihi, purus et insons, 

Ut me collaudem, si et vivo carus amicis; 70 

Causa fuit pater his, qui macro pauper agello 

Noluit in Flavi ludum me mittere, magni 

Quo pueri magnis e centurionibus orti, 

Laevo suepensi loculos tabulamque lacerto, 

only young men of rank were raised. — 49. Forsit, a poetical form 
oi foraitan. — 51. Cautum aasumere dignos^ * who art carefiil to take 
oniy worthy persons as thy friends.' — 53. Sortitus. Supply »im, not 
8um. This is merely what his enemies say, not the truth. — 57. 
J»/a«i«, given as an aajective to pudor^ *which checks eloquence.' 
— 58. Circum belongs to vectarit from which it is separated by 
traesis. Satureianua caballua is 'a Tarentine steed,' Saturion being 
the ancient name of a district near Tarentum, from which a fine 
breed of carriage-horses came. — 69. Purua et insont belongs to the 
clause with «i m the nezt iine. — 71. Pawper ; Ah^i is, etsipauper 
erat. — 73. Centurionibus, answering pretty nearly to our * sergeants,' 
wbo occupy a somewhat important position in a regiment, though 
generally men of humble birth and little education ; in a provin- 
cial town, however, they are men of consequence, whence they 
are here called ma^ni. — 74. Suspensi loculos, etc. See Gram. 
^ 259, 1. Suspensi is constrned in the same way as accincti often 
is. Loculi €t tahula are the satchel and reckonmg-tabie, the ma- 
terials for counting, which was the elementary branch of instruc- 
tion. The ancients, not being acquainted wiih the decimal system 
of notation necessarily had a different mode of counting from us. 
They used a reckoning-table, with lines for the units, tens, hun- 
dreda, &€. and counters or reckoning-stones (calculi,) These 


Ibant octonis referentes idibus aera; 75 

Sed puerum est ausus Romam portare docendum 

Artes, quas doceat quivis eques atque senator 

Semet prognatos : vestem servosque sequenles, 

In magno ut populo, si qui vidisset, avita 

Ex re praeberi sumptus miki crederet illos. 80 

Ipse mihi custos incorruptissimus omnes 

Circum doctores aderat. Quid multa? pudicum, 

Qui primus virtutis honos, servavit ab omni 

Non solum facto, verum opprobrio quoque turpi; 

Nec timuit, sibi ne vitio quis verteret, olim 85 

Si praecoparvas aut, ut fuit ipse, coactor 

Mercedes sequerer: neque ego essem questus; at hoc nunc 

Laus illi debetur et a me gratia major. 

Nil me poeniteat sanum patris hujus^ eoque 

Non, ut magna dolo factum negat esse suo pars, ^q 

Quod non ingenuos habeat clarosque parentes, 

Sic me defendam. Longe mea discrepat istis 

£t vox et ratio j nam si natura juberet 

A ceriis annis aevum remeare peractum, 

Atque alios legere ad fastum quoscumque parentes, 95 

Optaret sibi quisque ; meis contentus honestos 

Fascibus et selhs nollera mihi sumere, demens 

Judicio vulgi, sanus fortasse tuo, quod 

NoUem onus haud unquam solitus portare molestum. 

Nam mihi continuo major quaerenda foret res 100 

Atque salutandi plures; ducendus et unus 

calculi were carried in the loculi. — 75. Referentes aera^ * paying 
their school-fees.' Aera Idibus = singulos asses singulis Idihust 
for we know that the children at elementary schools paid an a$ 
monthly, and always on the ides. In the higher schools payment 
was made for the session. The ides are called octonae, A^ecause there 
were eight days between the nones and them. — 77. Doceat = docendos 
curet. — 78. Semet prognatos =Jllios suos. — 79. Ut in magno popuh, 
as is necessary in a large city.' He thus excuses his father's apparent 
extravagance. — 82. Connect (pudicum = purum) ab omni — /aeto. 
— 85. Olim, as frequently, = aliquando, referring to the future. — 
86. A praeco and a coactor, as to which latter compare the introduc- 
tion, had mean trades, which incapacitated them for holding any 
office, evon in the smaller towns of Italy. — 87. Connect hoc witn 
major, *the greater.' — 89. Poeniteat me here, as often, *I am dis- 
contented with.' — ^90. Dolo suo, a judicial expression for sua culpa. — 
93. Ratio, * opinion.* — 95. Ad fastum, ' according to, or to satisfy, 
-his pride.' — 96. ConneCt honestos (=t: honoratos) fascihus et seUis 
(ptrulihus.) — 98. Tuo judicio, Maecenas himself having a great dis- 
inclination to take office. — 100. Res, • property.' — 101. Salutandi. 
This refers to the well-known Roman custom of paying a visit 
isalutatio) to great men regularly in the morning. A person striving 


£t comes alter, uti ne solus rusve peregreve 

Exirem : plures calones atque cabaili 

Pascenai, ducenda petorrila. Nunc mihi curto 

Ire ]icet mulO; vel si libet usque Tarentum, 105 

Mantica cui lambos onere ulceret atque eques armos; 

Objiciet nemo sordes mihi, quas tibi, Tillij 

Qaum Tiburte via praetorem quinque sequuntur 

Te pueri lasanum portantes oenophoramque. 

Hoc ego commodius quam tu, praeclare senator, 110 

Milibus atque aliis vivo. Quacumque libido est 

Incedo solus ; percontor, quanti olus ac far ; 

Fallacem Circum vespertinumque pererro 

Saepe forum j adsisto divinis; inde domum me 

Ad porri et ciceris refero laganique catinum. 115 

Coena ministratur pueris tribus, et lapis aibus 

Pocuk cum cyatho duo sustinet; adstat echinus 

YiliS; cum patera guttus, Campana supellex. 

Deinde eo dormitum, non soHicitus, mihi quod cras 

Surgendum sit mane, obeundus Marsya, qui se 120 

Yaltum ferre negat Noviorum posse minoris. 

Ad quartam jaceo ; post hanc vagor, aut ego lecto 

Aut scripto, quod me tacitum juvet ; ungor olivo, 

after oflice had to comply with this custom. — 104. CurtOy here 
* lean,' for there is no trace in antiquity of tiie modern custom of 
cutting horses' taiis. — 107. Sordes^ ' miserliness.' Tilli. See iine 24. 
— 109. The slaves carried these articics witli them, tiiat the praetor 
might not need to go into an inn. — 111. Milibus atque aliis; that is, 
atque aliii milihus, = atque tnilibus aliorum hominum. Observe the 
poetical variation of the construction with the comparative, first 
quamtUj then the ablative. — 113. The Circus Maximus is caiied 
fallax^ because it contained the booths of the fortune-teliers, astro- 
logers, in short, of all those wiio in the next iine are calied ditini. 
vespertinum/orum is =/orum vespere, the adjective for tije adverb, 
aa afterwards, in iine 128, domesticus otior. Zumpt, % 682. — 116. 
Lapis albusj a common marbie tabie with three feet, = mensa mar- 
morea. — 117. Duo pocula. Each guest received two cups, that with 
the littie cyathus he might prepare for himseif a stronger or wealcer 
mixture of wine. The echinus (properiy * hedge-hog') was probably 
an instrument with pegs, for hanginc up the cyathus or the lamps. — 
118. Cum patera guttus^ both vessels used in sacrifice. The guttus 
had a long, narrow neclc, from which the wine or oii feil in drops. 
Campana supellex ; that is, of ciay, the finest kind of which was 
found in the neighbourhood of Nola in Campania. — 120. Marsya. 
In the Roman Forum there was a statue of Marsyas, with the one 
hand eievated. From the punishment which was infiicted on him 
by Apoilo, he was an embiem of judgment. Hence Marsya = forum. 
— 121. Noviorum minoris, an usurer, as the schoiiasts telf us. — 
123. TTneor olivoy for some gymnastic game on the Campus Martius, 
especially for bali, as is inclicated in iinc 12G by lusum trigonem, 


Non qucfraudatis immnndus Natta Inoemis. 

Ast ubi me fessum sol acrior ire Javatum 125 

Admonuit^ fugio campum lusumque trigonem. 

Pransus non avide, quantiim interpellet inani 

Ventre diem durare, domesticus olior. Haec est 

Vita solutorum misera ambitione gravique; 

His me consolor victurum suavius ac si 130 

Quaestor avus, pater atque meus patruusque fuisset. 

. <» 

which is = luitum trigonis. — 124. Natta, a man often mentioned as 
notorious for his avarice. He used the same oil for anointing as for 
burning in his lamps : hence Horace says that he stole it from the ' 
lamps. — 127. Quantum interpellet inani ventre diem durare^ *as 
much as keeps me from passin^ the whole day with an empt^ sto- 
mach.' Frandium must be distmguished from the coena mentioned 
in line 116. The former is breakiast. 


A TALE, composed by Horace fbr the amusement of Maecenas and 
his friends. P. Rupilius Rez, a native of Praeneste, and a 
Roman eques, was in 52 b.c., director of the publieani in 
Bithynia ; in 43 b. c. he became praetor ; but in the same year, 
at the instigation of Octavianus, he was proscribed, and fled into 
Greece to M. Brutus, who received him as his companion (comes). 
Persius was a native of Clazomenae in Asia Minor : his father 
was an Asiatic, und his mother a Roman, fbr which reason he is 
called Hybrida^ * a half-breed.* ' The affair is said to have taken 
place in the camp of M. Brutus. 

Proscripti Regis Rupili pus atque venenum 
. Hybfida quo pacto sii Persius ultus, opinor 
Omnibus et lippis notum et tonsoribus esse. 
Persius hic permagna negotia dives habebat 
Clazomenis, etiam lites cum Rege molestas, ^ 5 

Durus homo, atque odio qui posset vincere Regem, 
Confidens tumidusque, adeo sermonis amari, 
Sisennas, Barros ut equis praecurreret albis. 

1. Regis Rupili. In Horace^s time it was not uncommon toput 
the cognomen before the nomen. The poet, moreover, has a particu- 
lar reason for the transposition here, the point resting in the sense 
of ihe word rex. — 3. Lippis et tonsoribus. The tahernae medirorum, 
shops of apothecaries and empirics, as well as thosc of barbers, are 
still centres for gossip. — 6. Odium here is an aetive quality, * ill tem- 
per, bitter hostility. — 8. Sisenna here seems to be mcrely soroe 


Ad Regem redeo. Postquam uihil inter utrumque 

Convenit : (Hoc etenim sunt omnes jure molesti, 10 

Quo forteS) quibus adversum bellum incidit. Inter 

Hectora Priamiden animosum atque inter Achillem 

Ira fuit capitalis, ut ultima divideret mors, 

Non aliam ob causam, nisi quod virtus in utroque 

Samma fuit ; duo si discordia vexet inertes. 15 

Aut si disparibus bellum incidat, ut Diomeai 

Cum Lycio Glauco, discedat pigrior, ultro 

Muneribus missis); Bruto praetore tenente 

Ditem Asiam, Rupili et Persi par pugnat, uti non 

Compositum melius cum Bitho Bacchius. In jus 20 

Acres procurrunt, magnum spectaculum uterque. 

Persius exponit causam ; ridelur ab omni 

Conventu ; laudat Brutum laudatque cohortem, 

Solem Asiae Brutum apellat stellasque salubres 

Appellat comites, excepto Rege ] canem illum, 25 

Tnvisum.agricolis sidus, venisse j ruebat 

Flumen ut hibernum, fertur quo rara securis. 

Tum Praenestinus salso multoque iluenti 

Expressa arbusto regerit convicia, durus 

man notorious for his vituperative language. As to Bamis, com- 
pare i. 6, 30. Equis praecurrere albis is a proverbial expression for 
' to surpass by far,' white horses being considered in antiquity the 
fleetest. — 10. Construe thus : Omnes molesti sunt hocjure quofortes ; 
that is, all litigants (for these are strictly molesti) stand to each other 
in the same relation (Jioc jure> as men who wage war with one 
another. — 13. Ut ultima divideret mors^ 'so that death alone at last 
separated ihem ;' namely, when Achilles slew Hector. — 15. Inertes, 
men uninfluenced by the desire of glory. — 16. Disnaribus, ' men 
unequal in valour,' as were Diomedes the Greek ana Glaucus the 
Lycian (/i.^vi. 119). — 18. Praetorej a general expression for 'gover- 
nor,* since Brutus was properly proconsul of Macedonia. — 19. Con- 
strue thus: uti Bacchius cum Bithoy non melius compositum {par.) 
Bithus and Bacchius were two gladiators, who at last kiiled each 
other. — 23. Conventus here is the judicial assembly, formed of the 
Roman citizens settled in the place, and ihe companions of Brutus 
icohors), bv whom the quarrel between Persius and Rupilius was lo 
be decided. — 25. Canem. Horace, keeping to the figure of the stars, 
has here a good pun,' in the double sense of canisj * a low dog 
(scoundrel),' and ' the dogstar,' Sirius. — 27. Fertur quo rara securis, 
* to which an axe seldom comes.' — 28. Salso multoque Jluenti. As 
we can say in poeiry salsus et multus fiuit^ so here participially. — 
29. The regular custom among vine-dressers was to prune ihe vines 
before the cuckoo was heard — that is, belbre the spring equinox. 
When a travelier observed a vine-dresser engaged in pruqing ope- 
rations at a later period of the year, he called out derisively 
'Cuckoo;* which, consequently, became aslang word for *vine- 
dresser.' Arbuslum, properly 'ashrubbery,' bul here 'avineyard.* 


Vindemiator et invictus, cui saepe vialor 30 

Cessisset, magna compelians voce cuculum. 
At Graecus. postquam est Italo perfusus aceto, 
Persius exclamat : ^ per magnos, Brute, deos te 
Oro, qui reges consueris tollere, cur non 
Hunc Regem jugulas ? operum hoc, mihi crede, tuorum 
est.' 35 

— 30. Vindemiator is to be read as a word of four syllables, the 
second being long ; thus, vindemidtor, Compare Carm. iii. 4, 41. 
—-35. Ojterum }u>c tuorum est, * this is a part of thy business, ia a 
proceeding suitable for thee.' Hence the wit lies in the name Rez, 
which, as well as Regulus, occurs often in Roman families. 


In the 4th satire of this book Horace had censured Lucilios, his 
predecessor in satirical composition, attributirig to him careless- 
ness in regard to form — a matter essential in productions which 
are intended to endure. In the reign of Augustus there arose 
among the critics two parties, the one paying unconditional 
homage to the ancient Roman writers, whose vigour and talent 
they admired ; the other seeking to create something new, and 
insisting particularly upon strict attention to form, style, and 
versification. Under the first emperors the latter party was pre- 
dominant ; but afler Hadrian*s time the fermer assumed sway, 
and then began the rapid decline of Roman literature. In tbia 
satire Horace maintains his opinion of Lucilius, and justifies his 
own exertions. He rushes at once in medias re«, by a referring 
to his previous criticism, which is implied in the particle nemft. 
This want of a preface displeased the old grammarians, who 
therefore prefixed eight lines, which are here given, as they fbrm 
a kind of introduction. These lines are wanting in the oldest 
and best manuscripts. This is the last satire of the first book, 
and is intended to guide the reader in his criticism of the whole 

[LuciLi, quam sis mendosus^ .teste Catone 
Defensore tuo pervincam, qui male factos 
Emendare parat versus, hoc lenius ille, 
Est quo vir melior, Jonge subtilior illo 
Qui multum puer et loris et funibus udis^ ' 
Exhortatus, ut esset opem qui ferre poetis 


Antiquis posset contra fastidia nostra, 

Grammaticoruin equitum doctissimus. Ut redeam illuc.] 

Nempe incomposito dixi pede currere versus 

Lucili. Quis tam Lucili iautor inepte est, 

(Jt non hoc fateatur '^ At idem, quod saie multo 

Urbem defricuit, charta laudatur eadem. 

Nec tamen hoc tribuens dederim quoque cetera ; nam 

sic 6 

£t Laberi mimos ut pulchra poemata mirer 
Ergo non satis est risu diducere rictum 
Auditoris ; et est quaedara tamen hic quoque virtus; 
£st brevitate opus, ut currat sententia neu se 
Impediat verbis lassas onerantibus aores ; 10 

£t sermone opus est modo tristi, saepe jocoso, 
Defendente vicem modo rhetoris atque poetae, 
Interdum urbani, parcentis viribus atque 
£xtenuantis eas consulte. Ridiculum acri 
Fortius et melius magnas plerumque secat res. 15 

I]li, Bcripta quibus comoedia prisca viris est, 
Hoc stabant, hoc sunt imitandi ; quos neque pulcher 
Hermogenes unquam legit. neque simius iste 
Nil praeter Calvum et doctus cantare Catullum. 
• At magnum fecit, quod verbis Graeca Latinis 20 

Miscuit.' seri studiorum, quine putetis 

1. Nempe. Compare Zumpt, ^^ 278 and 345. — 4. Ckarta eadem^ 
•on the same leaf, in the same satire.' — 5. Cetera^ ' the other qual- 
ities which are necessary to make a good poet.' — 6. D. Laberius 
was a Roman eques, wnom the dictator Caesar compelled to go 
npon ihe staffe at the games which he gave. He was disiinguished 
as a writer o\ mitnes ; that is, dramatic scenes and jests, without a 
re^lar plot, and acted without masks. Women also pLayed in 
mimes, which was not the case in the comedy proper. — 12. Uefen' 
dente vicem = tuente partes. — 16. Secat = dirimit^ * decides.' — 16. 
Ouibus virig, dative for a quibus viris. He calls them viri, because 
they were nien of sturdy intellect, without much polish. — 17. Sta- 
bant. Stare is properly said of an actor wlio * pleases, takes' in the 
theatre. The opposite is cadere. The sense of the passage is: 
Lucilius and his contemporaries are to be admired for their talent 
and vigour, but the form of their productions is not worthy of imi- 
tation. — 18. As to Hermogenes, see i. 3, 129. The simius was a 
certain poet, M . Demetrius, so cailed from his puny form and ugli- 
ness, and therefore put here in contrast to the pulcher Hermogenes. 
See verse 90. — 19. C. Lacinius Calvus, who died young about 48 
B. c, was a friend of Catuilus, and a poet of considerable merit. 
Valerius Catullus was the celebrated lyric poet whose works we 
Btill possess. — 20. At. Horace puts his censure into the guise of 
an objection which is made to him. — ^21. Seri studiorum, ' hehind in 


DifHcile et mirum, Rhodio quod Pitholeonti 

Contigit ? ^ At sermo lingua concinnua utraqae 

Suavior, ut Chio nota si commixta Falerni est.' 

Quum versu» facias, te ipsum percontor. an et quum 25 

Dura tibi peragenda rei sit causa Petilli? 

SciJicet oblitus patriaeque patrisque, Latine 

Quum Pedius causas exsudet Poplicola atque 

Corvinus, patriis intermiscere petita 

Verba foris malis, Canusini more bilinguis'? 30 

Atqui ego quum Graecos facerem natus mare citra 

Versiculos, vetuit me tali voce Quirinus, 

Post mediam noctem visus, quum somnia vej:a: 

^ln silvam non ligna feras insanius ac si 

Magnas Graecorum malis implere catervas.' 35 

Turgidus Alpinus jugulat dum Memnona, dumqae 

Defingit Rheni luteum caput ; haec ego ludo, 

Quae neque in aede sonent certantia, judice Tarpa, 

Nec redeant iterum atque iterum spectanda theatris. 

your studies.* Gram. ^ 277, 6, note 2. Quine. Horace here, in a re- 
markable and extremely rare fashion, affixes the interrogative particle 
ne to the relative pronoun : hence the meaning is, * since you think 
— bul do you really ihink that a difficult thing?'— 22. The Rhodian 
Pitholeon, a Greek by birth, is unknown ; for it is not certain that 
the Pitholaus mentioned by Suetonius (Jul. Caes. cap. 75) as a witty 
poet, is the same person. — 23. Lingua concinnus utraque; that 
18, concinnatust mixtua ex Graeco et Latino. As the Falernian wine 
was heady and somewhat sour, il was often mixed with the sweet 
Chian. — 25. The sense is: you consider it allowable or even a 
beaut>[ in verse, but not in judicial pleading. However, if it ia 
ri^ht in one case, it must be so in the other. — 26. Petillius, a 
friend of Octavianus, who was accused of stealing a golden crown 
from the temple of Jupiter on the Capitol. — 28. Q. Fedius, nephew 
of Julius Caesar, adopted a son of the elder Messalla, who hence- 
forward bore the naroe of Q. Pedius Popiicola. — 30. In Canusium, 
as in a great part of Lower Italy, both Greek and Latin were 
spoken. 7— 3L Natus citra maret * born on this side of the Adriatic ;' 
that is, in Italy. — ^34. In silvam lignaferre was a proverbial expres- 
sion, corresponding exactly to the English ' carry coals to Newcas- 
tle.' — 35. Maenaa Graecorum catervas implere, *to make ihe large 
troops of Greek poets still iarger.' There are so many great Greek 
writers tbat no one now can gain fame in Greek literature, or in the 
departments occupied bv the Greek authors. Therefore, says Ho- 
race, I attempt neither the epic nor the dramatic, but a new kind — 
satirical poetry. — 36. Alpinus, a poet, now unknown, who seems 
to have written epics in Latin. Jufnilat Memnona ; that is, de- 
scribes the dealh of the Trojan hero Memnon. — 37. Defingit — eaputt 
' describes the muddy mouth of the Rhine,' probably in a poem on 
the deeds of the Romans in Caesar's time. The verb defingere is 
rare, and implies here, ' to injure by description.' Haec ego ludo. 


Argnta meretrioe potes Davoque Chremeta 40 

Eludente senem comeB garrire libelios 

UnDs yivoram^ Fandani ; Pollio regum 

Facta canit pede ter percusso -, forte epos acer, 

Ut nemo, Varius duoit ; molle atque facetum 

Virgilio annnerunt gaudentes rnre Camenae. 45 

Hoc erat, ezperto frustra Yarrone Atacino 

Atque qoibosdam aliis, roelius quod scribere possem, 

Inventore minor; neque ego illi detrahere ausim 

Haerentem capiti cum muita laude coronam. 

At dixi flaere hunc lutulentum, saepe ferentem 50 

Plura quidem tollenda relinquendis. Age, quaeso, 

Tu nihil in majgno doctus reprehendis Homero ? 

Nil comis tragici mutat Lucilius Atti, 

Non ridet versus Enni gravitate minores, 

Quum de se loquitur, non ut majore reprensis ? 65 

Qttid vetat et nosmet Lucili scripta legentes 

Quaerere, num illius, num rerum dura negarit 

Yersiculos natura magis factos et euntes 

Moliius, ac si quis pedibus quid claudere senis, 

Hoc tantum contentas, amet scripsisse ducentos 60 

Ante cibum versus, totidem coenatus, Etrusoi 

'I composd these light poems, satires/ — 40. Construe thus: pote» 
garrire comes libello» argHta meretrtce Davo^ue eludente senem Ukre' 
meta — that is, comedies; for the artful ' mistresa, tbe slave Davus, 
and the old father Chremes, were the chief dramati» pergonae in 
comedy.~42. As to Pollio, see Camu ii. 1, introduction.— 43. Pede 
ter pereu»»o ; that is, in lambic trimeter, which has three ictu». — 
44. Varius has been mentioned in i. 6, 55. — 46. Hoc ; namely, 
satire, which Lucilius invented, and which after him was attempted 
by P. Terentius Varro Atacinus, the most learned Roman ot his 
time, and by others, but was still in need of improvement. — 50. 
Horace had said of Lucilius in a previous satire (i. 4, 11), Quum 
fiueret lutulentu», erat quod tollere velle» ; that is, as his language 
was by no means pure, there was much which one would expunge. 
This judgment he repeats here still more stronely : plura toUenda 
relinqHendi»t ' more that deserves to be removeo than to be left.' — 
52. Doctu»j * as a critic* — 53. Nil mutat, * does he alter nothing ?' 
that is, does he censure nothing? — 54. Ennius was the father of 
Roman poetry, distinguished in all departments, but particularly 
in epopee. — 55. In comparison with himself iquum de se loauitur)^ 
Lucilius censures the verses of Ennius, though, in so doing^ ne does 
not speak of himaelf as a greater poet. Hence reprenei» is an abla- 
tive absolute : supply ver»ibu» from the preceding line. — 57. Num — 
num, poeticai for utrum — an. The sense i^: whether merely his 
nature or the nature of things generally permits none but rough 
and unpoiished verses to be composed in Latin, such as a person 
would write who simpiy wished to have iines that would scan. — 59. 


Quale fuit Cassi rapido ferventius amni 

Ingenium, capsis quem fama est esse librisque 

Ambustum propriis. Fuerit Lucilius, inquam, 

Comis et urbanus, fuerit limatior idem, 65 

Qnam rudis et Graecis intacti carminis auctor, 

Quamque poetarum seniorum turba ; sed ille, 

Si foret hoc nostrum fato delatus in aevum, 

Detereret sibi multa, recideret omne quod ultra 

Perfectum traheretur, et in versu faciendo 70 

Saepe caput 8ca1:)eret, vivos et roderet ungues. 

Saepe stilum vertas, itisrum quae digna legi sint 

Scripturus, neque, te ut miretur turba, labores, 

Contentus paucis lectoribus. ^ An tua demens 

Yilibus in ludis dictari carmina malisV 75 

Non-ego : nam satis est equitem mihi plaudere, ut audax 

Contemptis aliis explosa Arbuscula dixit. 

Men' moveat cimex Pantilius, aut cruciet, quod 

Yellicet absentem Demetrius, aut quod ineptus 

Fannius Hermogenis laedat conviva Tigelli? 80 

Plotius et Varius, Maecenas Virgiliusque, 

Valgius et probet haec Octavius optimus atque 

Fuscus, et haec utinam Viscorum laudet uterque. 

Ambitione relegata te dicere possum, 

PoIIio, te, Messalla tuo cum fratre, simulque 85 

Vos, Bibuli et Servi, simul his te, candide Furai, 

Complures alios, doctos ego quos et amicos 

Prudens praetereo ; quibus haec, sint qualiacunqae, 

Arridere velim, doliturus, si placeant spe 

Pedibua senis claudere ; that is, to write in hexaineters. — 62. Cas- 
sius, an unknown poet. — 64. Ambustum ; namely, before he was 
buried. — 66. Graecis intacti carminis auctor, Ennius, who first at- 
tempted satire (a kind of poetry untried by the Greeks), but who 
did not succeed in it so well as Lucilius. Hence the latter is called 
in line AS \\b inventor, — 67. Seniorumt poetical for vetustiorum.-' 
69. Quod ultra perfectum traheretur ; that is, what is overdone. — 
71. vivos ungues, 'his nails down to the qnick.' — 73. Neque, * but 
yet not.' — 74. An objector speaks. — 76. VUihus inludis, *in low 
schools.' In tho schbola of the ^rammarians the old poets alone 
were read and explained. — 76. Equitem ; that is, respectable and 
educated people. — 77. Arhuscula, the name of an actresa who is 
praised by Cicero.— -78. Horace mentions some persons whoee cen- 
sure is commendation. Fantilius and Fannius were bad poets, but 
are otherwise unknown. — 84. Horace next mentions his noble pa- 
trons, whom he is a|xiou8 to please, and introduces the Hst with 
the expression ambitione relegata; that is, ' without wishin^ to boaet 
of my great acquaintances.' Among these the most distmguished 


Deterios nostra. Demetri, teque, Tigelli; 90 

Discipularum inter jubeo plorare cathedras. 
I, puer, atque meo citus haec subscribe libello. 

are PoUio and Messella (lines 42 and 29.) — 90. As lo Demetrius, see 
line 79. Hermogenes Tigellius was a singer and teacher of music : 
hence plorare jvheo, ' you may howl away.' Besides, however, 
juheo aliquem florare^ like the Greek olixd^eiv KcXc^ta, has the sense 
of an imprecatioD, *ruin take you.' — 92. Said not without a special 

Poet reading. 




A JocuLAR defence of the Satires, which had drawn much odhim. 
upon Horace. He represents himself as consulting C. Trebatius 
Testa, a celebrated lawyer, well known on account of his inti- 
macy with Cicero, and the humorous letters which the latter 
wrote to him. The result of the poet*s deliberation and con- 
sultation is this : I cannot live without writin^ poetrj, and the 
satire is suited to my powers ; besides, my Satires please Caesar 
Octavianus, who will therefbre protect my person from dastardly 
attacks : therefiire I totU write satires. 

SuNT, quibus in satira videor nimis acer et ultra 

Legem tendere opus; sine nervis altera, quidquid 

Composui, pars esse putat similesque meorum 

Mille die versus deduci posse. ' Trebati, 

Quid faciam praescribe.' 'Quiescas.' ^Ne faciam, inquis, 5 

Omnino versusV ^Aio.' *Peream male, si non 

Optimum erat : verum nequeo dormire.' ^Ter uncti 

Transnanto Tiberim, somno quibus est opus alto, 

Irriguumque mero sub noctem corpus habento. 

Aut si tantus amor scribendi te rapit, aude 10 

Caesaris invicti res dicere, multa laborum 

Praemia laturus.' ' Cupidum, paler optime, vires 

Deficiunt : neque enim quivis horrentia pilis 

Agmina nec fracta pereuntes cuspide Gallos, 

1. Videor and videar have almost equal manuscript authority. 
The indicative, in a case like ^his, is generally preferred by Horace. 
See Gram. ^ 360, 4. Ultra legem. No doubt the twelve tables are 
meant., for in them a punishment was decreed against the author of 
mala carmina ; that is, lampoons.— -4. Deduci^ 'spun out' iike thread. 
Qpmpare i. 10, 60. — 6. Feream male^ a form of strong assertion, * may 
I be hanged, if that were not the best thing;' that is, undoubtedly 
it would be the best. But erat implies that he cannot do it. — 7. 
Connect ter with transnanto. Swimming across the Tiber was a 
common practice with the young men who frequented the Campas 
Martius. — 9. Irriguum mera; namely, which they had drunk at 
night. — 12. Laturus, the reason, 'because thou wilt receive.' — 
14. Fracta euspide. The chief weapon of the Romans was the »tZtuK, 
a spear about six feet long, with a strong barbed iron head: the 
wooden shaft broke ofT, but the head remained in the wound, thos 



Aut labentis equo describet vulnera Parthi.' 15 

* Attamen et justum poteras et scribere fortem, 

Scipiadam ut sapiens Lucilius.' ^ Haud mihi deero, 

Quum res ipsa feret : nisi dexlro tempore, Fiacci 

Verba per attentam non ibunt Caesaris aurem, 

Cui male si palpere, recalcitrat undique tutus.' 20 

' Quanto rectius hoc quam tristi Jaedere versu 

Pantolabum scurram Nomentanumque nepotem ; 

Quum sibi quisque timet, quamquam est intactus, et odit.' 

^Quid faciam? saltat Milonius, ut semel icto 

Accessit fervor capiti numerusque lucernis; 25 

Castor gaudet equis; ovo prognatus eodem 

Pugnis ; quot capitum vivunt, totidem studiorum 

Milia. Me pedibus delectat claudere verba 

Lucili ritu nostrum melioris utroque. 

Ille velut fidis arcana sodalibus oiim 30 

Credebat hbris, neque, si male cesserat, unquam 

Decurrens alio, neque si bene; quo fit ut omnis 

Yotiva pateat veluti descripta tabella 

Vita senis. Sequor hunc, Lucanus an Appulus anceps : 

Nam Venusinus arat finem sub utrumque colonus, 35 

Missus ad hoc, pulsis, vetus est ut fama, SabeJlis, 

Quo ne per vacuum Romano incurreret hostis, 

Sive quod Appuia gens seu quod Lucania bellum 

Incuteret violenta. Sed hic stilus haud petet ultro 

caiising death. — 16. Justum etfortem scil. Caesarem, ' the justice and 
coDstancy of Augustus.'-^!?. Scipiada, properly ScipionideSj refers 
to the younger Scipio Africanus, tne destroyer of Corihage and Nu- 
mantia. He was praised in the poems of Lucilius, Horace's prede- 
cessor in satire.— ;20. Undique tutus. The figure is taken from a 
pair of horses, which when any dan^er approaches, put their heads 
together, and lieep off all foes by their heels. — 22. Pantolahus, name 
of a spendthrift, frora the Greek Tr/i»/Ta \a$tiv^ «one who takes all 
from all,' having nothing himself. Nomentanus, also a spendthrift. 
— 24. lclo ; namely, by wine ; that is, drunk. — 25. Numerus accessit 
lucemis, a man when drunlt seeing double. — 26. Ovo prognatus 
eodem, his twin brother PoUux. — 27. Pugnis, from pugtius. — 30. 
The sense is : Lucilius intrusted all his secrets to his books, his bad 
fortune as well as his good ; so that his life can be seen from his 
writings, just as frdm a picture which people who have escaped from 
any imminent danger hang up in the temple of the god whom they 
believe to have given them assistance ; for this is tahula votiva. — 
34. SeniSj improperly applied, for Lucilius is said to have died in 
his forty-sizth year. Lucanus an Appulus anceps ; that is, who am 
but a common man, not being able even to name definitely the 
province of my birth. Luciiius, on the other hand, was a Roman 
eques. — 35. Finem, used poeticall^r for the plural, Jines, ' territory.* 
Vcnusia became a Roman colony in 291 b. c. — ^37. Quo ne=ne quo, 
* that in no direction.* — 39. StUus, as we say, ' my pen ;* that is, 


Quemquam animantem et me yeluti custodiet enBis 40 

Yagina tectus , quem cur destringere coner 

Tutus ab infestis latronibus? pater et rex 

Jupiter, ut pereafpositum robigine telum, 

Nec quisquam noceat cupido mihi pacis ! At ille 

Qui me commorit (^melius non tangere !' ciamo); 45 

Flebit, et insignis tota cantabitur urbe. 

Cervius iratus leges minitatur et urnam, 

Canidia Albuti, quibus est inimica, Yei>enum, 

Grande malum Turius, si quid se judice certes. 

Ut, quo quisque valet, suspectos terreat, utque 50 

Imperet hoc natura potens, sic coliige mecum : 

Dente lupus, cornu taurus petit, unde nisi intus 

Monstratum ? Scaevae vivacem crede nepoti 

Matrem : nil faciet sceleris pia dextera (mirum, 

Ut neque calce lupus quemquam, neque dente petit 

bosl) 55 

Sed mala toilet amim vitiato melle cicuta. 
Ne longum faciam : seu me tranquilla senectas 
Expectat, seu mors atris circumvolat alis; 
Dives, inops, Romae, seu fors italuserit exul, 
Quisquis erit vitae scribam color.' * puer, ut sis 60 

Yitalis, metuo, et majorum ne quis amicus 
Frigore te feriat.' * Quid ? Quum est Lucilius ausus 
Primus in hunc operis componere carmina morem, 
Detrahere et pellem, nitidus qua quisque per ora 

xny satire. — 42. Tutus contains the condition, * if I am safe.' — 43. 
ZJt = utinam, and po8itum = d€j>ositum. — 46. Insignis, here * noto- 
rious/ one to be pointed at with the finger of scorn. Cantabitur, 
said with reference to the verses which Horace will raake on his 
enemies. — 47. Cervius, a well-known accuser at Rome ; umat the 
urn into which the tablets with the sentence of the judges were 
thrown. — 48. As to Canidia, see Epode 5. Albutius, also a poisoner. 
It is probable that to Alhuti, according to a common Latin idiom, 
uxor is to be supplied. However, there is an ambiguity in the line, 
for the genitive may be taken as governed by venenum. — 49. Tu- 
rius, a venal judge, who, in any lawsuit in which one of the parties 
was his private foe, used, simply for that reason, to give sentence 
against him. — 50. Suspectos = i^ifestos, hostes. — 52. Intus = a natura 
sua. — 53. Scaeva, as the scholiasis tell us, was a rich spendthrift, 
who, considering that his mother was living too long, removed 
her by poison. — 54. Dextera ; as we say, * he will not lay hands 
on her, kill her byopen violence, but by poison.' To mirum au^ 
ply est. — 58. Circumvolat : supply 'even now,' whilst I am stiU 
young. — 59. Seu fors, etc. exul, = vel, sifors, etc. exul. — 61. Ma- 
jorum = nobUium virorum. — 62. Frigus is * coldness,* somewhat 
milder than odium, opposed to calor, studium. — 64. Connect nitidus 
wiih per ora, * outwardly beautiful.* We see this from the antithe- 


Cederet, introrsum torpis. Num Laelius et qui 66 

Duxit ab oppressa meritum Carthagine nomen, 

Ingenio offensi aut laeso doluere Metello, 

Famosisque Lupo cooperto versibus? Atqui 

Primores populi arripuit populumque tributim, 

Scilicet uni aequus virtuti atque ejus amicis. 70 

Quin ubi se a vulgo et scena in secreta remorant 

Virtus Scipiadae et mitis sapientia Laeli, 

Nugari cura illo et descincti ludere, donec 

Decoqueretur olus, soliti. Quidquid sum ego, quamvis 

Infra Lucili censum ingeniumque, tamen me 75 

Cum magnis vixisse invita fatebitur usque 

Invidia, et fragili quaerens illidere dentem 

Offendet solido, nisi quid tu, docte Trebati, 

Dissentis.' * Equidem nihil hinc diffingere possum; 

Sed tamen ut monitus caveas, ne forte negoti 80 

Incutiat tibi quid sanctarum inscitia legum. 

Si mala condiderit in quem quis carmina, jus est 

Judiciumque.' < Esto, si quis mala ] sed bona si quis 

Judice condiderit laudatus Caesare 1 si quis 

Opprobriis dignum latraverit, integer ipse V 85 

' Solventur risu tabulae, tu missus abibis.' 

Bis introrgum turvis. — &&. The Scipiada mentioned in line 17. — 67. 
Q. Caccilius Metellus Macedonicus, consul in 143 b. c, and L. 
Cornelius Lentulus Lupus, consul in 156 b. c, political opponents 
of the younger Scipio and Laelius, and therefore attacked by Luci- 
lius. — 69. Arrijmiti *he laid hold of,' a lively expression for vitupe^ 
ravit. Tributim. Lucilius attacked whole tribes of the people, for 
neglect or mal-performance of their military or other duties. — 71. 
JRemorant, contracted form of removerant. Gram. $141, 1. — 73. 
Ditcincti ; that is, when they had laid aside the toga, in order to 
amuse themselves more at ease. The comedian Terence was also 
one of the intimates of Scipio and Laelius. — 75. Infra censum, ' in- 
ferior in fortune,* for Lucilius was rich, and an eques by birth, 
which was a much more important thing in his time than in the 
reign of Augustus. — 78. Offendet solido : the dative used poeticaily 
for ad solidum. — 79. Hinc diffmgere ; that is, to make a transforma- 
tion in your nature, which you have now been describing to me : I 
can make no alteration in you, but take care. — 82. Mala carmina. 
See note on iine 1. Horace has chosen the word mala intentionally, 
as it may mean either ^immoral,' or, as applied to poems, 'stupid, 
witless.' — 85. Latraverit. The figure is taken from a dog. The 
construction with the accusative is poetical. — 86. Tabulae here are 
the wooden benches on which the judges sit. The judges burst 
into such a hearty fit of laughter that the joints of the benches aro 



The poet ezhorts his countiymen to live temperiitely, representing 
the absurdity and pemiciousness of debauchery. He exemph- 
fies one called Ofellus, probably a real person. This man had, 
during the civil wars, lost his property, wbich had been given to 
a soldier of the triumvirs : he was therefore now a tenant on the 
estate which had once been his own, but was quite as contented 
and happy as fbrmerly. 

QuAE virtus et quanta, boni, sit vivere parvo, 

iNec meus hic serrao est, sed quem praecepit Ofellus 
lusticus, abnormis sapiens crassaque Minerva) 
Discite non inter lances roensasque nitentes, 
Quum stupet insanis acies fulgoribus et quum 5 

Acclinis falsis animus meliora recusat, 
Verum hic impransi mecum disquirite. ' Cur hoc V 
'Dicam, si potero. Male verum examinat omnia 
Corruptus judex. Leporem sectatus equove 
Lassus ab indomito vel, si Romana fatigat 10 

Militia assuetum graecari, seu pila velox, 
MoIIiter austerum studio fallente laborem, 
Seu te discus agit. pete cedentem aera disco. 
Quum labor extuaerit fastidia, siccus, inanis 
Sperne cibum vilem : nisi Hymettia mella Falerno 15 

Ne biberis diluta. Foris est promus, et atrum 

3. Crassa Minerva or pingui Minervay said proverbially of one 
who is uncultivated and cannot comprehend fine philosophical rea- 
soning. Abnormis sapienst 'a philosopher who has no norma or 
system/ hence a practical philosopher. — 5. Acies, scil. oculorum. — 
6. Acclinis, a rare word, here in the sense of pronus, ' disposed,' 
and to be connected vfiih falsis. — 7. Impransiy not ' withoat having 
eateo/ but * when not eating.' Thus we give a proper antithesis 
to the preceding words. — 8. Male — judex ; that is, a person wbo 
has just eaten, or is engaged in eatmg a ^ood dinner, cannot be 
an impartial judge in regard to the propriety of temperance. — 
10. Si Romana, etc. Horace has just mentioned the true Roman 
exercises preparatory to service in the army — hunting and riding. 
To these he adds other bodiiy exercises, practised by those who Hved 
more efieminately, after the Greek fashion, such as ball-playing, in 
which, he says, the interest of the game makes one forget the exer- 
tion, and quoit-throwing. — 13. Agit = ducit, delectat, * attracts, 
pleases.' Pete a^ra cedentem disco, a poetical periphrasia for lude 
disco.-^H. Extundercy properly, 'to beat out,' is here = expellere, 
fugare — 15. Sperne ; namely, if you can. Falerno. Compare i. 
10, 24 .—16. Atrum; namely, tempestate, hence stormy, as it usually 
is in winter. Hiemare is properly * to be wintry, or winter-Iike,' 
though its common meaning in prose is, * to spend the winler, to 


Defendens pisces hiemat mare ; cum sale panis 

Latrantem slomachura bene leniet. Unde putas aut 

Qui partum 1 Non in carp nidore voluptas 

Summa, sed in te ipso esl. TiX pulraentaria quaere 20 

Sudaudo ; pinguem vitiis albumque neque ostrea 

Nec scarus aut poterit peregrina juvare lagois. 

Vix tamen eripiara, posito pavone velis quin 

Hoc potius quam gallina tergere palatum, 

Corruplus vaiiis rerum, quia veneat auro 25 

Bara avis et picta pandat spectacula cauda : 

Tamquara ad rem attineat quidquam. Num vesceris ista, 

Quam iaudas, pluma ? Cocto num adest honor idem? 

Carne tamen quaravis distat nil, hac magis illam, 

Imparibus forrais deceptura, te petere ! Esto: 30 

Unde datum sentis, lupus hic Tiberinus an alto 

Captus hiet, pontesne inter jactatus an amnis 

Oslia sub Tusci ? Laudas, insane, trilibrem 

Mullura, in singula quem minuas pulmenta necesse est. 

Ducit le gpecies, video. Qito pertinet ergo ' 35 

Proceros odisse lupos? Quia scilicet iilis 

Majorem naturi modum dedit, his breve pondus: 

Jejunus raro storaachus vulgaria temnit.' 

' Porrectura magno magnura spectare catino 

Vellem,' ait Harpyiis gula digna rapacibus. 'At vos 40 

winter.* — 18. Unde—partum, * whence or how dost thou think this 
has been gained V namely, contentment wilh poor food. — 19. Carua 
uidor 18 the * steam rising from costly dishes.* — 23. Eripiam, here 
= impediam. Posiio = apposito, * put upon the table.' The pea- 
cock was a luxury which the orator Q. Hortensius, in Cicero^s 
time, iirst introduced to the Roman dinner-tables. — 25. Vanis 
rerum = vanis rebus. — 28. Cocto, scil. pawoni.— 29. Hac magis illamt 
= illam (pavonis camem) maps quam hanc igallinae.) — 30. Te 
peiere, the infinitive of astonishment. Gram. § 382. — 31. Unds 
datum, ' whence given ;' that is, who has given you the notion 7 
The lupuSf a kind of pike, was worst when caught in the open 
sea, and best when taken in the most disturbed part of the river; 
nameiy, between the Mulvian and Sublician bridges. — 32. Fish 
were brought alive into the city ; hence hiet. — 34. The mulluSf a 
fish very much thought of bv the Romans, and which the heavier 
it was, was the dearer. The lupus, on the other hand, was a 
favourite fish only when small and young. The Emperor Tiberius 
had a mullus of four pounds and a half in weight, which had been 
given him as a present, publicly sold for sixty aurei. — 38. Connect 
stomachus raro jejunus. — 39. Magnum, scil. mullum. — 40. At vos 
introduces the answer of Ofellus. Enraged at the gluttony, he 
wishes that south winds, which bring heat, may come helpfuliy 
{praesentes ; see Carm. iii. 5, 2), and spoil the meat. He corrects 
himself, however, as quamquam shows : ' I need not wish this, for 
the meat, even when fresh (recens), is to you, having no appetite. 


Praesentes, Austri, coquite horum obsonia. Qnamquam 

Putet aper rhombusque recens; fnala copia quando 

Aegrum sollicitat stomachura, quum rapula plenus 

Atque acidas mavult inulas.' Nec dum omnis abacta 

Pauperies epulis regum ) nam vilibus ovis 45 

Nigrisque est oleis hodie locus. Haud ita pridem 

Galloni praeconis erat acipensere mensa 

Infamis. Quid 1 tum rhombos minus aequora alebant ? 

Tutus erat rhombus, tutoque ciconia nido, 

Donec vos auctor docuit praetorius. Ergo 50 

Si quis nunc mergos suaves edixerit assos, 

Parebit pravi docilis Komana juventus. 

Sordidus a tenui victu distabit, Ofello 

Judice 'j nam frustra vitium vitaveris illud, 

Si le alio pravus detorseris. Avidienus, . 65 

Cui Canis ex vero duetum cognomen adhaeret, 

Quinquennes oleas est et silvestria coFna, 

Ac nisi mutatum parcit defundere vinum, et, 

Cujus odoVem olei nequeas perferre, licebit 

Ille repotia. natales aliosve dierum 60 

Festos albatus celebret, cornu ipse bilrbrK 

Caulibus instillat, veteris non parcus aceti. 

Quali igitur victu sapiens utetur, et horum 

Utrum imitabitur? 'Hac urget lupus, hac canis,' aitint. 

Mundus erit, qua non offendat sordibus, atque 65 

ptttrid.* Compare line 89. — 45. Pauperies, ' poor dishes,' dishes 
which the poor man has also, are found even on the tables of the 
great {regum.) — 47. A certain Gallonius, by profession a cryor or 
auctioneer, was the first who had the acipenser, an unknown kind 
of sea-fish, upon his table, and was severely satirised on this account 
by Lucilius. In Horace's time the acipenser was quite common.— 
50. Praetorius. A certain Sempronius Rufus, as the scholiasts tell 
us, was the first (auctor) who ate storks; and, from indignation at 
his gluttony, the people rejected him when suing for the praetor- 
ship. Horace, therefore, calls him in irony *a man who was 
praetor.' — 52. Docilis pravi. Compare Carm. iv. 6, 43. — 54. The 
sense is : moderation is a diflTerent thing from miserliness, for the 
latter is immoderateness. — 55. Avidienus, an otherwise unknown 
miser, who, from his cynical mode of life, had the nickname of 
*Dog.' — 57. Est = edit. — 58. Mutatum, *soured, spoiled :' see ii. 8, 
50. Parcit defundere = non vull defundere ; compare Carm. i. 28, 
23. — 59. Licebit, * although.' As the present licet is often used as a 
conjunction, so here ihe future, in speaking of a future thing. The 
sense is: even when he gives feasts, he pours drop by drop out ofa 
large bottle, holding two pounds, oil, the smell of which is intolera- 
ble, and mixes old vinegar with it, that the guests may drink less. — 
64. Aiunt ; that is, people say, the proverb says, * on the one side 
is the dog, on the other the wolf.' — 65. Rules for a temperate life. 


In neutram partem cultus miser. Hic neque serviB, 

Albuli senis exemplo, dum munia didit, 

Saevus erit ; nec sic ut simplex Naevius unctaro 

Convivis praebebit aquam : vitium hoc quoque magnum. 

Accipe nunc victus tenuis quae quantaque secum 70 

Afferat. In primis valeas bene : nam variae res 

Ut noceant homini, credas, memor iilius escae, 

Quae simplex olim tibi sederit : at simul assis 

Miscueris elixa. simnl conchylia turdis, % 

Dulcia se in bilem vertent, stomachoque tumultum 75 

Lenta feret pituita. Vides, ut pallidus omnis 

Coena desurgat dubia? Quin corpus onuslum 

Hesternis vitiis animum quoque praegravat una, 

Atque afligit humo divinae particulam aurae. 

Alter, ubi dicto citius curata sopori 80 

Membra dedit, vegetus praescripla ad munia surgit. 

Hic tamen ad melius poterit transcurrere quondam, 

Sive diem festum rediens advexerit annus. 

Seu recreare volet tenuatum corpus, ubique 

Accedent anni, et tractari mollius aelas 85 

Imbecilla volet. Tibi quidnam accedet ad istam, 

Quam puer et validus praesumis, mollitiem, seu 

Dura valetudo inciderit, seu tarda senectus? 

Rancidum aprum antiqui laudabant, non quia nasus 

Illis nullus erat, sed credo hac mente, quod hospes 90 

Tardius adveniens vitiatum commodius quam 

Integrum edax dominus consumeret. Hos utinam Inter 

Heroas natum tellus me prima tulisset. 

Das aliquid famae, quae carmine gratior aurem 

(jua = quatefius. — 66. Cultus, genitive dependent on partem, * mean 
in regard to no part of his arrangemenis, either his dress and dwell- 
ing, or his food.' — 67. Albutius is without a doubi the same who 
18 named in ii. 1, 48. DidOf an old verb, *I assign, distribute.'— 
71. Valeas, potential subjunctive, for the future valebis, as afler- 
wards also credas for credes. — 72. Ut = quaniopere. — 73. Sedere, 
here, * to remain on the stomach.* — 76. Read pttuita. — 77. Coerta 
dubia, a dinner, at which there are so many dainties that one is 
at a loss which to choose, hence *sumptuou8, expensive.' — 79. Di- 
viTiae partieulam aurae, a beautiful periphrasis for Mhe soul.' — 
80. Dicto citius curafa, * refreshed more quickly than one can say 
the word.* Curare corpus is the proper expression for the taking 
of necessary food. — 82. Hic ; that is, the temperate man.~87. 
Pmesumis, * thou enioyest beforehand ;' namely, before sickness 
or age comes upon tnee. — 89. Rancidum. See iine 40, note. A 
wild boar, whole, used to be presented as the ornament of the 
board, even when the company was small. — 94. An allusion to the 
dcclaration of Themistocles, that the most agreeable feast for the 


Occupat humanam ? Grandes rhombi patinaeque 95 

Grande ferunt una cum damno dedecus : adde 

Iratum patruum, vicinos, le libi iniquum, 

£t frustra mortis cupidum, quum deerit egenti 

As, laquei pretium. ' Jure,' inquit, 'Trausius istis 

Jurgatur yerbis, ego yectigsdia magna 100 

Divitiasque habeo, tribus amplas regibus.' ^ Ergo, 

Quod superat, non est mehus^ quo insumere possis ? 

Cur eget indignus quisquam te divite 1 Quare 

Templa ruunt antiqua deum? Cur, improbe, carae 

Non aliquid patriae tanto emetiris acervo ? 105 

Uni nimirum tibi recte semper erunt res. 

magnus posthac inimicis risus. Uterne 

Ad casus dubios fidet sibi certius? Hic, qui 

Pluribus assuerit mentem corpusque superbum 

An qui contentus parvo metnensque futuri 110 

In pace, ut sapiens, aptarit idonea beilo V 

Quo magis his credas, puer hunc ego parvus Ofellum 
Integris opibus novi non latius usum, 
Quam nunc accisis. Yideas metato in agello 
Cum pecore et gnatis fortem mercede colonum, 115 

'Non egOy' narrantem, ^ temere edi luce profesta 
Quid(juam praeter olus fumosae cum pede pernae. 
At mihi seu longum post tempus venerat hospes, 
Sive operum vacuo gratus conviva per imbrem 
Vicinus, bene erat non piscibus urbe petitis, 120 

Sed pullo atque haedo ; tum pensilis uva secundas 

ears was to hear one'8 self praised. — 97. Patruwn, who ia either 
thy guardian, or at least takes a fatherly interest in thee. — 98. 
When thou hast spent all, thou wih not even be able to die, for 
thou wilt not have a single as to buy thee a rope wherewith to hang 
thyself. — 99. Trausius, a spendthrift, who, however, was not rich, 
— 102. The speech of the prodigal is controverted by two arga- 
ments: first, his superfluous wealth {quod superat) may be better 
eraployed (lines 102-105) ; and, secondly, the fortune may be lost. 
Ouo = in quod. — 106. Said in irony : ' doubtless thou alone shalt 
always prosper, shalt never lose thy fortune, thou who then shalt 
be a laughing-stock to thine enemies.' As to recte erunt^ see Gram, 
% 237, nole 2. — 107. Uteme. Compare Zumpt, % 352, extr, Uter 
alone would have been sufficient. — 114. Videas ia to be connected 
with narrantenii and should therefore properly be audias. MefatOj 
* which has been given to the soldiers,* properly *measured,* each 
Boldier receiving a certain extent. — 115. Mercede. Being now only 
a tenant, he receives but a part of the produce, as mercef. — 1J6. 
Luce profesta. See Carm. iv. 15, 25. — 119. Connect vacuo operum 
per imbrem ; that is, when a shower prevented me from workmg. — 
^O. Bene erat, 'we enjoyed ourselves.* Compare line 106. — 121. 
FensUis. The common way of keeping grapes fresh was banging 


£t nux ornabat mensafl cum dnplice ficu. 

Post hoc ludus erat culpa potare magistra; 

Ac yenerata CereS) ita culmo surgeret alto, 

Explicuit vino contractae seria frontis. 125 

Saeviat atque novos moveat Fortuna tumultus : 

Quantum ninc iinminuet ? Quanto aut ego parcius aut yos, 

O pueri, nituistis, ut huc novus incola venit? 

Nara proprie telluris herum natura neque illum 

Nec me nec quemquam statuit : nos expulit ille; 130 

Illum aut nequities aut vafri inscitia juris, 

Postremum expellet certe viyacior heres. 

Nunc ager Umbreni sub nomine, nuper Ofelli 

Dictus erat. NuIIi proprius, sed cedet in usum 

Nunc mihi, nunc alii. Quocirca vivite fortes, 135 

Fortiaque adversis opponite pectora rebus.' 

them up on threads. — 122. Duplice ficu. Figs» when ripe, are split 
into two parts, dried in this manner, and then put togetner again. — 
123. Culpa magistra^ ' fault being the magister bibendif president of 
the banquet ;* that is, whoever had made any blunder at table was 
condemned as a punishment to drink off a glass of wine. — 124. Ceres 
is here com itself.— 126. Saeviat atque moveat=^8i saeviat atque mo' 
veat. — ITJ. Farciu9=iminu8. Ofellus here addresses his cnildren 
(O pueri.) The novus incola (line 128) is the new proprietor of the 
farm, who, however, is called incola, * a temporary occupant, settler/ 
for the reason which is now to be mentioned, and which forms a 
Buitable conclasion to the satire. — 132. Vivador. Corapare ii. 1, 53. 


In this poem Horace takes up the extreme vi^ of the Epicurean 
philosophy (animal enjoyment), and this affords an opportunity 
of satirizing certain follics and failings of mankind. He gives 
a philosophy of the kitchen, putting it into the niouth of Catius, 
an Epicurean philosopher, who had recently died. Most of the 
cuiinary precepts here inculcated, however, were opposed to 
general opinion. Horace begins, as usual, with a dialogue. 

'Unde et quo, CatiusV 'Non est mihi tempus aventi 
Ponere signa novis praeceptis, qualia vincunt 
Pythagoran Anytique reum doctumque Platona.' 
*Peccatum fateor, quum te sic tempore laevo 
Interpellarim; sed des veniam bonus oro. 5 

, 1. Catiust the vocative here. Gram. ^ 311, note. Tempus f 
namely, to talk to you. — 2. Ponere signa with the dative, * to make 
signs for;* that is, eongigfuiref *to commit to wriiing.' — 3. Anyti 


Quod si interciderit tibi nunc aliquid; repetes moxj 

Sive est naturae hoc sive artis, mirus utroque.' 

*Quin id erat curae, quo pacto cuncta tenerem, 

Utpote res tenues tenui sermone peractas.' 

* Ede hominis nomen, simul et, Romanus an hospes.' 10 

^ Ipsa memor praecepta canam ; celabitur auctor. 

Longa quibus facies ovis erit, illa roemento, 

Ut succi melioris et ut magis alma rotundis, 

Ponere ; namque marem cohibent callosa vitellum. 

Caule suburbano qui siccis crevit in agris 15 

Dulcior ; irriguo nihii est elutius horto. 

Si vespertinus subito te oppresserit hospes, 

Ne gailina malum responset dura palato, 

Doctus eris vivam musto mersare Falerno ; 

Hoc teneram faciet. Pratensibus optima fungis 20 

Natura est, aliis male creditur. Ille salubres 

Aestates peraget, qui nigris prandia moris 

Finiet, ante gravem quae legerit arbore solem. 

Aufidius forti miscebat mella Falerno, 

Mendose ; quoniam vacuis committere venis 25 

Nil nisi lene decet; leni praecordia mulso 

Prolueris melius. Si dura morabitur alvus» 

reus is Socrates, who was accused by Anytus. — 6. Interciderit ; 
namely, ex memoria. If my interraption should make anything slip 
out of your mind, you will soon recall it either by your naturally 
stronff memory or by your system of mnemonics. — 9. Tenueg, 
* subtle.* — 10. Hominis ; namely, who has taught you the new pre- 
cepts. Romanus an hospet scil. sitj * whether he be a Roraan or a 
Btranger (that is, especially, a Greek.') Who was the author of the 
new precepts ? Maecenas ? Compare ii. 8. — 12. Horace begina 
with the BO-c&Wed ^statiof 'foretaste,' which consisted chiefly of 
eggs, and jhen goes regularly through the whole meal. — 14. Po- 
nere=apponere in mensa. It was an ancient belief that the long- 
shaped eggs contained the male chick; and that, being compact 
and fleshy (jcaUosa), they were more nourishing (magis alma) than 
those of a fuller form. — 15. That is : caulis qui siecis crevit in a^ris 
est dulcior suburbano caule, all the fields andf gardens in the neigh- 
bourhood of Rome being thoroughly watered. — 16. Irriguo horto; 
more properly, * than tne cabbage which grows in a well-watered 
garden.* Elutius ; iiterally, more washed out ; tfaat is, ' weaker, 
more insipid.' — 17. Vesvertinus. See i. 6, 113. Oppresserit here 
ie nothing more than * nas come upon thee unezpectedly.* — 18. 
Malum responsare is * to give a harsh note, to grate under the teeth,' 
as tough meat does. — 19. Doctus eris, *betaught,* =disee. — 21. 
Male creditur, because they are indigestible. — 23. Ante frravem so- 
lem, ' before the sun becomes oppressive;' that is, early in the 
mornin|^. — 24. It was customary at the beginningof a banquet to 
drink Falernian, a stron^, heady ifortis) wine. Horace rejecta this 
Byatem, and prefers a lighter wine. — 27. Morabitur, seil.^e, =tibt 


Mitulos et yiles pellent obstantia conchae 

£t lapathi brevis herba, sed albo non sine Coo. 

Liubnca nascoDtes implent conchylia Innae ; 30 

Sed non omne mare est generosae fertile testae. 

I^uric^ ^aiano melior Lucrina peloris ; 

Ostrea Circeiis, Miseno oriuntur echini j 

Pectinibus patulis jactat se moUe Tarentum. 

Nec sibi coenarum quiyis temere arroget artem, 35 

Non prius exacta tenui ratione saporum. 

Nec satis est cara pisces averrere mensa 

Tgnarum, quibus est jus aptius et quibus assid 

Languidus in cubitum jam se conviva reponet. 

Umber et iligna nutritus glande rotundas 40 

Curvet aper lances carnem Yitantis inertem ; 

Nam Laurens malus est, ulvis et arundine pinguis. 

Vinea submittit capreas non semper edules. 

Fecundae leporis sapiens sectabitur armos. 

Piscibus atque avibns quae natura et foret aetas, 45 

Ante roeum nulli patuit quaesita palatum. 

Sunt, quorum ingenium nova tantum crustula promit. 

Nequaquam satis in re una consumere curam ; 

Ut si quis solum hoc, mala ne sint vina, laboret, 

Quali perfundat pisces, secunis, olivo. 50 

Massica si coelo suppones vina sereno, 

Nocturna, si quid crassi est, tenuabitur aura, 

gravis erit, — 28. Conchae were perhaps ' oysters.* — 29. Cofl, seU, 
mno. This, being mixed with sea-water, had a laxative power. — 
30. It was believed that the waxing; moon influenced the size of 
sfaell-fish. — 32. Baiae, the Lucrine Lake, famed for ils oyster-beds, 
Circeii and Misenum, were all on the coast of Campania, not far 
from Naples. — 34. Jactat $e ^ gloriatur excellit. — 35. The meal 
pToper, the coenaj itself begins. — 36. Tenuia, 'subtle,* and exactu», 
* thoroughiy understood,' are philosophical expressions. — 37. Mensa 
18 the fishmonger's coanter, hence «ira. — 38. Ignarum is the sab- 
ject of the innnitive averrere ; * one who does not know.' Quibua 
asnia, ablative absolute. — 39. The sense is : one must know what 
fish, whenroasted, load the stomach. — 41. LanceSj dishes of silver, 
in the size of which wealth and luxury were displayed, for we have 
mention made of lafices weighing 500 pounds. Vitantis, governed 
by lancesj = ejus qui vitare vult, Inertem, * insipid.* — 42. Lauren- 
lum, from which ihe adiective Laurens comes, is a town on the 
coast of Latium, south of Rome. — 43. Vinea ; that is, the districts 
where vines are cultivated. The goats which feed on young vinc- 
leaves have tough flesh. — 45. Aelas^ scil. optima ; that is, tne best 
time for catching and eating them. — 51. Precepts regardinsr wine, 
extending to line 62. Massicum is so named from Mount iVfassicus 
in Campania, between Sinnessa on the sea and Suessa, which lies 
higher. On the northern slope the Massic is grown, on the eouthem 


£t decedet odor nervis inimicus; at illa 

Integrum perdunt lino vitiata saporem. 

Surrentina vafer qui miscet faece Falema 55 

Vina, columbino limum bene colligil ovo, 

Quatenus ima petit yolvens aliena vitellus. 

Tostis marcentem squillis recreabis et Afra 

Potorem cochlea, nam lactuca innatat acri 

Post yinum stomacho ; perna magis ac magis hillis 60 

Flagitat in morsus refici; quin omnia malit^ 

Quaecunque immundis fervent allata popinis. 

£8t operae pretium duplicis pemoscere juris 

Naturam. Simplex e duloi constat olivo, 

Quod pingui miscere mero muriaque decebit 65 

Non alia, qaam qua Bj^zantia putuit orca. 

Hoc ubi confusum sectis inferbuit herbis 

Corycioque croco sparsum stetit, insnper addes, 

Pressa Venafranae cjuod baca remisit olivae. 

Picenis cedunt pomis Tiburtia succo ; 70 

Nam facie praestant. Venucula convenit ollis, 

Rectius Albanam fumo duraveris uvam. 

Hano ego cum malis^ ego faecem primus et idlec 

Primus et invenior piper albnm cum sale nigro 

Incretum puris circumposuisse catillis. 75 

Immane est yitium, dare milia terna macello 

the Falernian. — 54. Vitiata lino perdunt iniegrum $aporem, 'if 
strained through a linen cloth, loee their pure taste.' Thejr must be 
clarified with pigeons' eggs^ in the same way as Surrentine wino, 
which, being somewhat acid, is mized with Jfaex Falema, * lees of 
Falernian.' — 56. Limus ia * the impurity.' — ^58. Marcentem potorem, 
him whom drinking has made sleepy. — 60. Hillae are a kina of sau- 
sages which ezcite appetite. The viands, too, which are brought 
hot (fervefUia) from the popinae, are sausages, of wbich the Romana 
were very fond. — 61. In morsus ; that is, for new eating. — 63. Juria 
^jutculij as above, in line 38. — 65. Muria, a sauce, principally made 
from the tunny-fish, which, Horace says, must be caught near By- 
zantium. — 67. Receipt for the preparation of the double sauce. 
Sectis, ' minced.' — 68. Corycus is a mountain in Cilicia.— 69. As to 
Venafrum, famous for its olive-oil, see Carm, iii. 5, 55. — ^70. Picenis 
vomit, The apples of the district of Picenum were the best to be 
had at Rome. — 71. Venucula, a kind of grapes nnknown to us, 
■uitable for jars ; that is, for making preserves. •— 73. The speaker 
plumes himself on his having originated the practice of putting Uttle 
elegant cups round the dishes with roast-meat. In these cups there 
were faex, preserved grapes, allec, a kind of caviare, wtiite pepper, 
vhich was not so strong as the other, mized with black saJt, which 
was stronger than the white. — 76. Precepts regarding the ezternal 
•nangements of a banquet, particulariy in regard to cleaniiness.— 

SATIBA&UM LIB. il. 235 

AngQstoqne Tagos pi«ces urgere catino. 

Magna movet stomacho fastidia, seu puer unctis 

Tractavit calicem manibus, dum frustra ligurrit, 

Sive gravis veteri craterae limus adbaesit. 80 

Yilibus in scopis, in mappis, in scobe quantus 

Consistit sumptus ! Neglectis, flagitium ingens. 

Ten' lapides varios lutulenta radere palma, 

£t Tyrias dare circum illota toralia vestes, 

Oblitum quanto curam sumptumque minorem 85 

Haec habeant, tanto reprehendi justius illisy 

Quae nisi divitibus nequeant contingere mensis V 

' Docte Cati, per amicitiam divosque rogatus, 

Ducere me auditum, perges quocunque, memento. 

Nam quamvis memori referas mihi pectore cuncta, 90 

Non tamen interpres tantundem juveris. Adde 

Vultum habitumque hominis, quem tu vidisse beatus 

Non magni pendis, quia contigit : at mihi cura 

Non mediocris inest, fontes ut adire remotos 

Atque haurire queam vitae praecepta beatae.' 95 

77. Compare line 41, note. — 80. Veteri craterae. The bowl, be^ng 
old, is valuable, but it should be kept clean. — 81. Quantus sumptus: 
evidcntly ironical. — 83. Lapides varios. The floor of ihe dming- 
room was of variegated marble, of mosaic, and was swept before 
the dessert came. — 84. Tyrias vestest * Tyrian (that is, purple) 
coverlets,' on which the banqueters lay. — 85. The sense is : we 
cannot expect at every banquet costly viands and furniture, since 
only the rich can have these, but we have a right to demand clean> 
Hness. — 88. Per divos rogatust a comraon formula. — ^89. Quocunque 
perges ; that is, whoever he is who has gtven you these precepts, 
and to whom you will retum. — 91. Non tamen interpres tantundem 
juveriSf ' since thou art merely an interpreter, thou canst not help 
me so much' as the man from whom thou hast received the pre- 
cepts. — 94. Serious expressions placed in immediate connectioa 
with a jocular passage make the joke more telling. 



A couNTKT life and the seclusion of the Sabine farm contrasted 
with the restleasness and bustle of Rome ; hence a satire upon 
city life. 

Hoc erat in votis : modus a^ri non ita magnus, 
Hortus ubi et tecto vicinus jugis aquae fons 

1. Hoc erat in votis, * this waa always my wish,' which was gra- 

236 Q. HO&ilTII FIiAOCI 

£t paullam silvae super his foret. Aucttus atque 

Di melius fecere. Bene est : nil ampliu8 oro, 

Maia nate, nisi ut propria haec mihi munera faxis. 5 

Si neque majorem feci ratione ma]a rem^ 

Nec sum facturus vitio culpave minorem ; 

Si yeneror stultus nihil horum, < ai angulus ille 

Proximus accedat, qui nunc denormat agellum. 

si urnam argenti fors quae mihi monstret, ut illi, 10 

Thesauro invento qui mercenarius agrum 

Illum ipsum mercatus aravit, dives amico 

Hercule :' si, quod adest, gratum juvat, hac prece te oro : 

Pingue pecus domino facias et cetera praeter 

Ingenium, ut<jue soles, custos mihi maximus adsis. 15 

Ergo ubi me m montes et in arcem ex urbe removi, 

Quid prius illustrem satiris Musaque pedestri ? 

Nec mala me ambitio perdit nec plumbeus Auster 

Auctumnusque gravis, Libitinae quaestus aoerbae. 

Matutine pater, seu Jane libentius audis, 20 

Unde homines operum primos vitaeque labores 

Instituunt (sic dis placitum), tu carminis esto 

Principium. Romae sponsorem me rapis : * Eia, 

tified through the bountv of Maecenas. — 5. Maia nate. He prays 
to Mercury, as being the god of gain as well as of poets (Cann. i. 
10, and iii. 11), to which latter function ut soles in line 15 refers. 
Fropria, * proper, belonging,' so as not to be taken frora me, hence 
= perpetua. — 6. Si. The apodosis begins with line 14. Eem = 
rem famUiarem. — 8. Nihil horum^ none of the things which the 
mass of people, insatiable in their desires, wish for. He then fiir^ 
nishes a specimen of the talk of such people. — 10. Some one had 
found a treasure, and suddenly made himseif the owner of the 
cstate on which he had formerly toiled as a day-labourer. Her- 
cules presided over hidden treasures. As to ai guae forst unusual 
for si quafors, see Gram. ^ 119. — 13. (rratumjuvat, *so pleases mo 
that I am grateful and contented.* — 14. Praeter ingenium, * ezcept 
my brain,* a pingue insrenium being 'a stupid, dull intellect.* — 16. 
In monteSi his Sabine farm being among the Apennines (see Carm. 
iii. 4, 21.) For this reason, and also because it was a refuge from 
the bustie of the town, he calls it arx. — 17. Satiris Musaque pe- 
destri, ablative of the instniment, and an h iiH ivoiv, = Muta 
pedestri satirarum. Horace considers his satires as merely versi- 
bed prose, since the flow of thought is not poetical. — 18. FlunAeuM 
Auster is the scirocco (see Carm. ii. 14, 16) which makea nien's 
limbs heavy, and, as it were, leaden. — 19. Libitina was the Roman 
goddess of funerals. See Carm. iii. 30, 7. — 20. Matutine pater 
seems to be a name for Janus formed by Horace himself. Horaoe 
means to describe the course of his life from the morning (mane) ; 
hence he begins with the god of the mornin^. Seu Jane Ithentius 
audis is = vd Jane, si (ita) lihentius audis, * if thou choosest rather 
to be called Janus.* Compare Carm. Saec. 15. — 21. Unde inttitU' 
unt ■=. a quo incipiunt. — 33. Janus himself addreases the poet : Eia, 


Ne prior officio quisquam roBpondeat, Brge. 

Sive Aquilo radit terrasj seu Druma niTalem 25 

Interiore diem eyro trahit, ire necesse est.' 

PoBtmodo, quod mi obsit, clare certumque locuto 

Luctandum in turba et facienda injuria tardis. 

* Quid viS) insane^ et quas res agis improbus?' urget 

Iratis precibus, ^ tu pulses omne, quod obstat, 30 

Ad Maecenatem memori si mente recurras !' 

Hoc juvat et melli est, non mentiar ^ at simul atras 

Ventum est £squilias, aliena negotia centum 

Per caput et circa saliunt latus. ^ Ante secnndam 

Roscius orabat sibi adesses ad Puteal cras. 35 

De re communi scribae magna atque nova te 

Orabant hodie meminisses, Qninte, reverti. 

Imprimat his cura Maecenas signa tabellis. 

Dixeris: "Experiarj" "Si vis, potes," addit et instat.' 

Septimus octavo propior jam fugerit annus, 40 

Ex quo Maeceuas me coepit habere suorum 

In numero, duntaxat ad hoc, quem tollere rheda 

Yellet iter faciens, et cui concredere nugas 

Hoc genus : < Hora quota est ? Threx est Gallina Syro par ? 

Matutina parum cautos jam frigora mordent,' 45 

Et quae rimosa bene deponuntur in aure. 

Per totum hoc tempus subjectior in diem et horam 

Invidiae : Noster ludos spectaverat una, 

Luserat in Campo: 'Fortunae filius,' omnes. 

Frigidus a rostris manat per compita rumor ; 50 

Quicunque obvius est, me consuht : * bone (nam te 

urge, icU. t€t £= properai ne quUquam, elc, He urges him to go ottt 
early in the morning, to visit hia patrons. See i. 6, 101. — 26. Inte 
riore gyro trahit = contrakit in anguttiorem eyrum ; hence in the 
depth of winter, wben the days are at the snorteat. — 31. Memori 
mente. The notion is, that at first Horace had intended to remain 
at home, but suddenly remembering that he must pay Maecenaa a 
visit, be goes out and pusbes hia way through the crowd. — 32. Juvat 
et melli ett = ddectat et jucundum e$t ; namely, the visiting of 
Maecenaa. The Eaquiliae or Mona Esquilinus, on which the house 
oi Maecenas stood, was formerly a burying-ground ; hence atrae. — 

35. Puteal is, properly, a place round a well {jmteua)^ enclosed 
by a grating; then, generaliy, a sacred place. — 42. Ad hoc, 'for 
tbia object, for ihis.' Tollere rheda; that is, to have me as his 
trfivelling companion. — 44. Hoc genus = huju» generis. Gram. 
^ 260. Threx is the name of a kind of gladiator armed with a round 
sbield and a crooked sword.— 46. Et quae; supply alia, * and other 
tbings of that kind, which.'--47. Subjectior, fctZ./tti.--48. Spectave- 
rat, conditional = ei spectavenU. He calls himself no»ter jocularly, 
'our friend Quintus.' — 49. Omnesy scil. inquiunt. — 50. Frigidue, 


Scire, deos qnoniam propius contingis, oportet) 

Num quid de Dacis audisti'?' *Nil equidem.' ^Ut ta 

Semper eris derisor.' < At omnes di exagitent me, 

Si quidquam.' ^Quid? Militibus promissa Triquetra 55 

Praedia Caesar, an est Itala tellure daturus V 

Jurantem roe scire nihil miratur, ut unum 

Scilicet egregii raortalem altique silenti. 

Perditur haec inter misero lux non sine votis : 

< rus, quan(io ego te adspiciam, quandoque licebit 60 

Nunc veterum libris, nunc somno et inertibus horis 

Ducere solicitae jucunda obliyia vitae ? 

O quando faba Pythagorae cognata simulque 

Uncta satis pingui ponentur oluscula lardo? 

O noctes coenaeque deum, quibus ipse meique 66 

Ante larem proprium vescor vernasque procaces 

Pasco libatis dapibus.' Prout cuique libido est, 

Siccat inaequales calices conviva sohitus 

Legibus insanis, seu quis capit acria fortis 

Pocula, seu modicis uvescit laetius. £rgo 70 

Sermo oritur, non de villis domibusve alienis, 

Nec male necne Lepos sahet; sed, quod magis ad nos 

Pertinet et nescire malum est, agitamus, utrumne 

Divitiis homines an sint virtute beati ; 

Quidve ad amicitias, usus rectumne, trahat nos; 75 

£t quae sit natura boni summumque quid ejus. 

Cervius haec inter vicinus garrit aniles 

£x re fabellas. Si quis nam laudat Arelli 

Sollicitas ignarus opes, sic incipit: *01im 

Rusticus urbanum murem mus paupere fertur 80 

Accepisse cavo, veterem vetus hospes amicum ; 

Asper et attentus quaesitis, ut tamen artum 

* uncomfortable.* Compare ii. 1, 62. — 52. Deos. This name is hcre 
jocularly given to the great men who rule the state. — 53. As to the 
Daci, see Carm. i. 35, 9. — 54. Derisor^^dissimulator. — 55. Quidquam 
8cil. audivi. — 60. Horace'8 thoughts, longing for the country. — 62. 
Ducere=haurirei * to drink in.*---64. Fonentur, See ii. 4. 14. — 67. 
Libatis dambus. He gives his favourite slaves portions of the food 
vt^hich he nimself is eating, to taste. — 69. Leges insanae are the stilf 
rules of etiquette observed at banquets in Rome. — 72. Lepos, a 
dancer, of whora Octavianus was fond. — ^75. Vgus reeiumne=uirum 
utilitas an virtus. Rectum is a philosophical expression of the Stoic 
school, for ' absoltite good.' — 76. Summumque quid ejus ; that is, 
et quid summum bonum sit. Cicero has written a treatise JDefini&ug 
bonorum et malorum. — 78. Ex re, * as they are suggested to nim by 
the subject of conversation.' Arelli sollieitas ignarus opes, * the 
wealth of Arellius, wealth which (a fact that the person praising it 
does not know) causes him much anxiety and trouble.' — 82. Asper, 

• rough' in outward appearance ; attentus quaesitis, ' thrifty, fru^^ ;* 


Solveret hospitiis animum. Quid multa 1 Neque ille 

Sepositi ciceris nec longae invidit avenae, 

Aridam et ore ferens acinum semesaque ]ardi 85 

Frusta dedit, cupiens varia fastidia coena 

Vincere tangentis raale sincula dente superbo ; 

Quum pater ipse domus palea porrectus in horna 

Esset ador loliumque, dapis meliora relinquens. 

Tandem urbanus ad hunc : " Quid te juvat," inquit, 

" amice, 90 

Praerupti nemoris patientem vivere dorso 1 
Vis tn nomines urbemque feris praeponere silvis? 
Carpe viam, mihi crede, comes; terrestria quando 
Mortales animas vivunt sortita, neque ulla est 
Aut magno aut parvo leti fuga: quo, bone, circa, 96 

Dum licet, in rebus jucundis vive beatus, 
Vive memor, quam sis aevi brevis." Haec ubi dicta 
Agrestem pepulere, domo levis exsilit ; inde 
Ambo propositum peragunt iter, urbis aventes 
Moenia nocturni subrepere. Jamque tenebat 100 

Nox medium coeli spatium, quum ponit uterque 
Tn Jocuplete domo vestigia, rubro ubi cocco 
Tincta super lectos canderet vestis eburnos, 
Multaque de magna superessent fercula coena, 
Quae procul extructis inerant hesterna canistris. 105 

Ergo ubi purpurea porrectum in veste locavit 
Agrestem, veluti succinctus cursitat hospes 
Continuatque dapes, nec non vemiliter ipsis 
Fungitur officiis, praelambens omne quod affert. 
Ille cubans gaudet mutata sorte, bonisque 110 

Rebus agit laetum convivam, quum subito ingens 
Valvarum strepitus lectis excussit utrumque. 
Currere per totum pavidi conclave, magisque 

literally, * careful to keep what it had acquired.' Artum animum : 
it was comiDonly of * a frugal mind.' — 84. Invidere alicuju» rei, ac- 
cording to a Greek usage =parferc. See Zumpt, $ 413. — 87. Tan' 
gentis, Tbe city mouse is fastidious, and merely nibbles. — 89. 
Bs8et = ederet.— 91. Fatientem. See Carm. i. 7» 10.-93. Carpe viam 
— comeSf a highly-poetical expre8sion=(»>fnf'mr(j me, is intentibnally 
chosen, for the sake of producing a laugh. Terrestria quando—$or' 
tita ; that is, quoniam terrestria (homines vel omnia quae in terra 
sunt) vivunt Ua ut mortalet animas sorlita sint, * since everything 
earthly must die.'— 95. Quo, bone, circa is a tmesis for cwocirca, hone» 
See line 51. — 103. Vestin. See ii. 4, 84, note. — 105. Procul exftruc- 
tis^in altum exHruetis : they were piled one above the other. — 
108. Coniinuat dapes ^continuo afert nova^ dapes. Vemiliter, * like 
a slave wbo waits at table.' — 111. Agit laetum convivam, *play8 the 
merry guest.* — 113. Currere and trepidare, historical infinitives. — 
114. Simul=nmul aique. 



Exanimes trepidare, simul domus alta Molossis 
Personuit canibus. Tum rusticus: "Haud mihi vita 115 
Est opuR hac," aii, "et valeas; me silva cavusque 
Tutus ab insidiis tenui solabitur ervo." ' 


HoRACE makes his friend and brother poet Fandanius (see i. 10, 
42) describe a feast which Nasidienus Rufbs, a man who with 
debauchery combined a certain degree of avarice, had given to 
Maecenas and his train. The couches, as we see from line 20 
and foUowing, were thus arranged : — 

Hedins leotas. 

6 1 5 1 4 







(1) Fundanius; (2) Viscus; (3) Varius; (4) Servilius; (5) 
Maecenas; (6) Vibidius; Q) Nomentanu^; (8) Nasidienus; 
(9) Porcius. It is worthy ot remark, that the arrangements of 
the table correspond with the rules which Horace lays down in 
the 4th satire of this book. Perhaps, therefore, in that satire 
Nasidienus is to be looked upon as the inventor of the precepts. 

' Ut Nasidieni juvit te coena beati % 

Nam mihi, convivam quaerentij dictas here illic 

De medio potare die.' * Sic, ut mihi nunquam 

In vita fueritjiielius.' ' Dic, si grave non est, 

Quae prima iratum ventrem placaverit esca.' 5 

'In primis Lucanus aper ', leni fuit Austro 

Captus, ut aiebat coenae pater ; acria circum 

1. Juvit = ddectavit, Beati =? divitis, — 2. Dictus, scil. es, ' I was 
told yesterdav, when I was going to invite thee to a feast, that thou 
hadst been there drinking since mid-day. The dinner usuall; did 
not besin till about four o^clock ; only gluttons commenced earlier. 
— ^5. Tnat is, what the gustatio was.— -6. As to Lucanus aper, see ii. 
4, 40. It had been caught leni AustrOf the host toid the guests, 
that they might know it was fresh. See ii. 2, 41. — 7. Coenae pater, 
Compare ii. 6, 88. Acriat eU, Ab to the precept here observed. 


Rapula, lactucae, radices, qualia lassum 

Pervellunt stomacburo, siser, ailec, faecula Coa. 

His ubi sublatis puer alte cinctus acernam 10 

Gausape purpureo mensam pertersit, et alter 

Sublegit, quodcunque jaceret inutile quodque 

Posset coenantes offendete : ut Attica virgo 

Cum sacris Cereris, procedit fusous Hydaspes 

Caecnba vina ferens. Alcon Chium maris expers. 15 

Hic herus: '^Albanum, Maecenas, sive Falernum 

Te magis appositis delectat, habemus utrumque.'' ' 

' Divitias miseras ! Sed quis coenantibus una, 

Fundani,*pulchre fuerit tibi, nosse laboro.' 

' Summus ego, et prope me Viscus Thttrinus, et infra, 20 

Si memini, Varius, cum Servilio Balatrone 

Vibidius, quos Maecenas adduxerat umbras. 

Nomentanus erat suner ipsum, Porcius infra, 

Ridiculns totas simuj absorbere placentas. 

Nomentanus ad hoc, qui, si quid forte lateret, 25 

Indice monstraret digito: nam cetera turba, 

Nos. inquam, coenamus aves, conchylia, pisces, 

Longe dissimilem noto celantia succum ; 

Ut vel continuo patuit, quum passeris atque 

compare ii. 4, 73. — 13. Atticd virgo, the singular collectivelyt sinee 
the KavrffS^ot are meant, the Attic maidens who in procession car- 
ried on their heads baskets with offerings. — 14. The slave Hydaspesi 
as his name indicates, was an Indian: hence hia colour, fuscua, 
* tawny.' — 15. Ckium. Compare ii. 4, 29. This wine, however, was 
mari» expert^ * free from sea-water,' -^ 17* Appositis ; that is, quam 
ea quae apposila sunt. — 18. Horace interrupts the speaker. The 
fact of Nasidienus telling the companyMhat he had other wines, in- 
Btead of quietly putting before the guests specimens of alU stnkes 
the poet as a mark of wretched avarice: nence the exclamation 
Divitiaa miseras! Then he asks about the guests. — 19. Pulchr» 
fuerit. Compare line 4, fuerit melius. "-20. The »ummu» on the 
couches is he who has no one on his left, the imus who has no one 
on his righr. Maeoenaa occupies the place of highest honour, the 
8o-cailed locus consuJaris. Tbe arrangement of the company is un- 
usual, in so far as Nasidienus himself does not lie next the most 
distinguished guest. Nomentanus occupies hia place, for the reaeon 
mentioned in line 25 ; namely, that he might pomt out to Maecenas 
all the excellences of the feast. The persons tbemselves are un- 
known ; it is not even certain whether thia Varius is the poet often 
mentioned by Horace. — 22. Umhrae are men whom the distinguished 
guesta bring with them (without their being speciblly invited), to ' 
faugh at his jokes and eontirm all his boasts. The term is very 
appropriate. -^ 24. Bidiculus absorbere. The infinitive, aooording to 
a Greek usage, indicates the reason why. — 27. The sense is : we, 
the other guests, ate straight on, without paying attention to the 
peculiarities of each dish, though our taste told us that they were 
21 Q 


IngUBtata mihi porrexerat ilia rhombi. 30 

Post hoc me docait, melimela rubere minorem 

Ad lunam delecta; quid hoc intersit, ab ipso 

Audieris melius. Tum Yibidius Balatroni : 

^' Nos nisi damnose bibimus, mor iemur inulti," 

£t calices poscit majores. Vertere pallor 35 

Tum parochi faciem nil sic metuentis, ut acres 

Potores, vel quod maledicunt liberius, vel 

Fervida quod subtile exsurdant vina palatum. 

Invertunt Allifanis vinaria tota 

Vibidius Balatroque, secutis omnibus ; imi 40 

Convivae lecti nihilum nocuere lagenis. 

Affertur squillas inter murena natantes 

In patina porrecta. Sub hoc herus, '^ Haec gravida," inqait, 

'* Capta est, deterior post partum carne futura. 

His mixtum jus est : oleo, quod priraa Venafri 45 

Pressit cella j garo de succis piscis Hiberi ; 

Vino quinquenni, verum citra roare nato, 

Dum coquitur; cocto Chium sic convenit, ut noa 

Hoc magis ullum aliud, pipere albo non sine aceto, 

Quod Methymnaeam vitio mutaverit uvam. 50 

Erucas virides, inulas ego primus amaras 

Monstravi incoquere ; iilutos Curtillus echinos, 

Ut melius muria^ quod testa marina remittit.'' 

Interea suspensa graves aulaea ruinas 

In patinam fecere, trahentia pulveris atri, 55 

Quantum non Aciuilo Campanis excitat agris. 

Nos majus veriti, postquam nihil esse pericli 

Sensimus, erigimur ; Rufus posito capite, ut si 

very different from the ordinary. — 30. Ingustata; that is, such «s I 
had never tasted before. — 31. Minorem ad lunam ddecia, ' gatfaered 
at the wane of the moon.* — 34. Damno9e :s vekementer ; propeHy, 
in such a way "Ht damnum hospiti inferamus» Moriemur inuUi ia an 
expression of epic poetry, here jocularly used in reference to drink- 
in^. — 38. Strong wine dulls the taste. Men of fine toste in wine 
dnnk comparatively little. Hence the guests on the imus lectus are 
sparing. See line 40. — 39. Allifani were a kind of large cups, so 
called from Allifae, a town of the Samnites, where they were much 
used. — 45. His, seiL rebue. The constituents of the sauce jire 
these : oil from Venafrum {Carm. ii. 6, 15), that which flowed first 
from the oiivea, before they were much pressed (prima ceUa) ; and 
caviare from the fish ecomher^ which was caught near New Carthage 
in Spain. With this, in the operation of cooking, Italian wine five 
years old was mixed. After the cooking, Chian wine is added, 
white pepper, and some vinegar made from Lesbian wine ; for itfe- 
thvmnaeue, in line 50, is *from Methymna,* a town of Lesbos. — 
54. Aulaea, * curtains.* These were siretched in the form of a tent 
round the table, to keep off the dust of the roof. Now, when they 


Filius immaturus obisset, flere. Quis esset 

Finis, ni sapiens sic Nomentanus amicum 60 

Tolleret : " HeUj Fortuna, quis est crudelior in nos 

Te deus ? ut semper gaudes illudere rebus 

Humanis !^' Varius mappa compescere risum 

Vix poterat. Balatro suspendens omnia naso, 

<'Haec est condicio vivendi," aiebat, "eoque 66 

Responsura tuo nunquam est i)ar fama labori. 

Tene, ut ego accipiar laute, torquerier omni 

Sollicitudine distnctum ! Ne panis adustus, 

Ne male conditum jus apponatur, ut omnes 

Praecincti recte pueri comptique ministrent ! 70 

Adde hos praeterea casus, aulaea ruant si, 

Ut modo ; si patinam pede lapsus frangat agaso. 

Sed convivatoris, uti ducis, ingenium res 

Adversae nudare solent,.ceIare secundae.'' 

Nasidienus ad haec : '^ Tibi di, quaecunque preceris, 75 

Commoda dent ; ita vir bonus es convivaque comis." 

£t soleas poscit. Tum in lecto quoque videres 

Stridere secreta divisos aure susurros.' 

^ Nullos his mallem ludos spectasse ; sed illa 

Redde, age, quae deinceps risisti.' ^ Vibidius dum 80 

Quaerit de pueriS) tium sit quoque fracta lagena, 

Quod sibi poscenti non dantur pocula, dumque 

Ridetur fictis rerum, Balatrone secundo; 

fall they are full of black dust. — ^.59. Essetf used in the lively nar- 
rative tox fuiaset. — 63. Mappa, 'napkin.* — 64. Sunpendens omnia 
nago. Sce i. 6, 5. Balatro's words of consolation are full of irony. 
— 66. Responsura — par fama lahori ; that is, your fame, or honour, 
does not correspond to, come up to, your exertions to make a good 
feast. — 67. Tene — torquerier^ * now you were tonured with anxiety 
lest/ &c. AU this is ironical, and is intended to intimate.that Na- 
sidienus had neglected many of those small matters which go to con- 
stitute comfort : the bread was bumt, the sauce was badly made, the 
slaves ill attired, and, what was more, Nasidienus, from want of 
slaves, had had tomake the 'groom' (agaso) wait at table, and he had ' 
broken a plate (line 72.) — 77. Et soleas poscit. Nasidienus has taken 
Balatro*s irony as earnest, and goes out to make some new arrange- 
ments. Hence he asks for his slippers, which were laid aside by a 
person when he lay down at table. Scarcely has he gone out when, 
on everv couch (jquoque^ from quisque), the groups begin to make to 
each other derogatory remarks on the entertainment. — 79. Horace 
interrupts his friend. — 81. De pueris = apueris. — 83. Ridetur fclis 
rerum, Balatrone secundo. They laugh in reality at the host and his' 
entertainment, but they pretend to be laughing at other jokes. Ba- 
latro helps Vibidius in this pretence, and states a cause for each lau^h. 
Balatro was, as it were, the second actor in the comedy, in which 
Vibidius played the first part. As to fctis rerum = fctis rebus, see 


Nasidiene, redis mutatae frontis, ui urte 

Emendaturus fortunam : deinde secuti 85 

Mazonomo pueri magno discerpta ferentes 

Membra gruis sparsi sale mullo non sine farre, 

Pinguibus et ficis pastum jecur anseris albae, 

£t ]eporum avulsos, ut multo suavius, armos, 

Quam si cum lumbis quis edit. Tum pectore adusto 90 

Vidimus et merulas poni et sine ciune palumbes, 

Suaves res, si non causas narraret earum et 

Naturas dominus. quem nos sic fugimus ulti, 

Ut nihil omnino gustaremus, velnt illis 

Canidia afHasset pejor serpentibus Afris.' 95 

ii. 2, 25. — 84. Mutatae frontis ; that is, he now looks cheerful, as 
if by his skill he was about to repair the damage sustained by acci- 
dent. — 87. Grui* sparsi. See Zumpt; ^ 42. — 89. Compare the prc- 
cept laid down in ii. 4, 44. — 93. Sic ulti. We revenged ourselves 
on him by eating nothing, as if Canidia (tbe poisoner so often 
attacked by Horace) had breathed upon the viands. 





ExcELLKNT remarks on the moral lessons which may be drawn 
from Homer*B poems.' Iliey are addressed to M. Lollius, the 
eldest son (hence in line 1, maxime) of M. LoUius, to whom the 
9th ode of the 4th book is addressed. The youth was Btxidying 
oratory at Rome. Horace was spending the summer at Frae- 
neste (now Palestrina.) 

Trojani belli scriptoreni, maxime Lolli, 

Dum tu declamas Romae, Praeneste relegi : 

Qai qaid sit palchrum, quid turpe, quid utile, quid non| 

Planius ac melius Chrysippo et Cranlore dicit. 

Car ita crediderim, nisi quid te detinet, audi. 5 

Fabula, qua Paridis propter narratur amorem 

Graecia Barbariae lento collisa dueJlo, 

Stultofum regum et populorura continet aestus. 

Antenor censet belli praecidere causam. 

Quod Paris, ut salvus regnet vivatqae beatus, 10 

Cogi posse negat. Nestor componere lites 

Inter Peliden festinat et inter Atriden ; 

Hunc amor, ira quidem communiter urit utrumque. 

Quidquid delirant reges, plectuntur Achivi. 

4. Chrysippus, a Stoic philosopher ; Crantor, an Academic, a fol- 
lower of Piato.— 7. Barbariae. The Trojans, not being Greeks, were 
IfaT^ri. — 8. Aeatus = cupiditates. -— 9. Antenor. See Ihad, vu. 348. 
Antenor and Aeneas had always recommended peace. For praeadere 
we should have in prose praecidi. Horace, by poeiic hcence, omits 
the subject, perhaps Priamum.— 11. NcBtor. See Jhad, i. 254.— 13. 
Hunc; namely, Atriden, Agamcmnon was irntated at the loss ot 
' Ghryseis.— 14. The Greeks had to pay for their leader's quarrel ; for 
21* (246) 


.^editione, dolis, scelere atqne libidine et ira 15 

Iliacos intra muros peccatur et extra. 
Rursus quid virtus et quid sapientia possit, 
Utiie proposuit nobis exemplar Ulixen, 
Qui domitor Trojae multorum providus urbes 
£t mores hominum inspexit^ latumque per aequor, 20 

Dum sibi, dum sociis reditum parat, aspera multa 
Pertulit, adversis rerum iramersabilis undis. 
Sirenum voces et Circae pocula nosti ; 
Quae si cum sociis stultus cupidusque bibisset, 
Sub domina meretrice fuisset turpis, et excors 25 

Yixisset canis immundus vel amica luto sus. 
Nos numerus sumus et fruges consumere nati, 
Sponsi Penelopae, nebulones, Alcinoique 
In cute curanaa plus aequo operata juventus, 
Cui pulchrum fuit in medios dormire dies et 30 

Ad strepitum citharae cessatum ducere Curam. 
Ut jugulent homines, surgunt de nocte latrones; - 
Ut te ipsum serves, non expergiscerifl? Atqui 
Si noles sanus, curres hydropicus; et ni 
Posces ante diem librum cum lumine, si non 35 

Intendes aniranm studiis et rebus honestis, 
Invidia vel amore vigil torquebere. Nam cur, 
Quae laedunt oculum, lestinas deraere ; si quid 

they were unsaecessful after Achilles in his-an^er left tbem to them- 
selves. — 16. Result of the poet's observations in regard to the moral 
bearings of the Iliad. He comes now to the Odyssey. — 19. Domitor 
Trojae, because it was by his advice that the wooden horse was 
buift. Horace here translates the commencement of tbe Odyssey : 
providu8=iiro\iTpoiroSf inspexit alludes to the Homeric v6ov eyvto. — 
23. Sirenum. See Odyssey, xii. 39. Circae pocula, See Odyssey, 
X. 136. — 24. StuUus cupidusque for Biulte cupideque. Ulysses did 
drink of Circe's cup, but not till he had received an antiaote from 
Hermes. — 27. Ulysses is a pattern of wisdpm. The suitors of Pene* 
lope, on the other hand, the juventus Aleinoi, so called from their 
chief, are examj[)Ies of average humanity, men born to eat and drink, 
and counted by their heads, not their opinions — they not having any ; 
hence numeru». Among these he jocularly reckons himself, saying 
nos. — ^29. CutCj here = corporc.r— 31. Ce^satum ducere Curam. Cura 
is conceived as a goddess, whom, by the sound of the lyre, the suit- 
ors endeavour to induce to be quiet and cease from annoying them. 
Ces$atum is the supine. — 32. The poet passes over to the general 
remark, that men have little anxiety for moral improvement. jD« 
noete, *by night,' beginning before night ends. Zumpt, ^ 308. 
— ^34. Hydropicus. Much walking was considered as a preventive 
of dropsy. 2W posce» — torquebere. The sense is : if you do not rise 
early to pnrsue the study of philosophy, envy and desire (amor 
taken generally) will keep you awake, to your great annoyance.-^ ' 


Est animum, differs curandi tempus in annum ? 

Dimidium facti/qui coepit, habet : sapere aude: 40 

Incipe. Qui recte vivendi prorogat horara, 

Rusticus expectat, dum defluat amnis; at ille 

Labitur et labetur in omne volubilis aevum. 

Qu£^eritur argentum puerisque beata creandis 

Uxor, et incultae pacantur vomere silvae. 45 

Quod satis est, cui contingit, nil amplius optet. 

Non domus et fundus, non aeris acervus et auri 

Aegroto doraini deduxit corpore febres, 

Non anirao curas : valeat possessor oportet, 

Si comportatis rebus bene cogitat uti. 50 

Qui cupit aut metuit, juvat ilTum sic domus et res. 

Ut lippum pictae tabulae, fomenta podagram, 

Auriculas citbarae coilecta sorde dolentes. 

Sincerum est nisi vas, quodcunque infundis acescit. 

Sperne voluptates; nocet empta dolore voluptas. 65 

Semper avarus eget ; certum voto pele finem. 

Invidus alterius macrescit rebus opimis; 

Invidia Siculi non invenere tyranni 

Majus tormentum. Qui non moderabitur irae, 

Infectum volet esse, dolor quod suaserit et menS| 60 

Dum poenas odio per vim festinat inulto. 

Ira furor brevis est: animum rege, qui nisi paret, 

Imperat; hunc frenis, hunc tu compesce catena. 

Fingit equum tenera docilem cervice magister 

Ire viam, qua monstret eques j venaticus ex quo 65 

Tempore cervinara pellem latravit in aula, 

Militat in silvis catulus. Nunc adbibe puro 

Pectore verba, puer, nunc te melioribus offer. 

39. Est for edit = con8umit, an Homeric expression. In annum, pro- 
verbial, ' till next year.' — 42. Eusticus expeetat ; that is, is like a 
clown *who waits. The story is thai, when a stupid rustic came to 
a river, beyond which his road lay, be said he would wait till the 
river ran paat. — 44. Beata = dive8.—^4,5. Pacantur = arantur, are 
ichanged from wildness to peace, fertiiity. They become friendly 
and useful to man. — 46. Connect cui contingit quod satig est, (ta) 
optet nil amvliu8. — 48. Veduxit, in an aorist sense. — 54. Sincerum 
= purum. The aense is: unless the mind is pure, it cannot enjoy 
any life, even the moat prosperous. — 56. Certum finem, *a definite 
aira,' to reach which will content thee. — ^57. The poet bcgins to de- 
scribe some vices : 57-59, envy ; 59-63, anger. This leads him to 
exhort allto leam virtue when young, because old age is stifF-necked. 
— 58. Siculi tyranni, such as Phalaris, Agathocles, and tbe two Di- 
onysii, all infamous for their cruelty. — 60. Dolor et mens, a tv Sid 
ivolv,=men8 dolens, ' the spirit smarting under a sense of injury.* 
— 61. Odio inulto is the dative. Festinat =fe8tinanter repetit.-^ 
66. This was the mode of training dogs for the chase : a 8tag's skin 


Qqo seniel est imbuta recens, serrablt odorem 

Testa diu. Quodsi cessas aut strenuus anteis, 70 

Nec tardum opperior nec {«aecedentibus insto. 

was staiTed and set up. — 71. The sense is : here you have my pre- 
cepts, and may use them as you pleaae. For my own part, I have 
a aefinite system of action : 1 step along the course of life af a mo- 
derate speed, neither waiting for the loiterers nor treadiog on the 
heels of those before me. 



When 'nberius, aflerwards emperor, went to the East, in the year 
20 B. c, to restore Tigranes, king of Armenia, to his dominions, 
he, being a man of education and taste, had many poets with 
him. Amon^ these was Julius Florus, a writer of satires, ifwe 
may credit me scholiasts. To him this epistle is addressed, 
which contains friendly inquiries about himself and some other 
&iends of our poet 

V JuLi Flore, quibus terrarum militet oris 
Claudius, Augusti privignus, scire laboro. 
Thracane vos Hebrusque nivali compede vinctttS; 
An freta vicinas inter currentia turres, 
An pingues Asiae caropi collesque morantur? 5 

Quid Btudiosa cohors operam struit 1 hoc quoque curo. 
Quis sibi res gestas Augusti scribere sumit 1 
Bella quis et paces longum diffundit in aevum ? 
Quid Titius, Komaoa brevi venturus in ora, 
Pindarici fontis qui non expajluit haustus, ^ 10 

Fastidire lacus et rivos ausus apertos ? 

3. We see that Florus accompanied Tiberius on his journey 
through Thrace and Macedonia to Asia, and also that it was during 
winter, the Hebrus being frozen. — 4. TurreSj of Hero and Leander ; 
hence between Sestos and Abydos, towns on opposite sides of the 
Heilespont. — 6. Cohors. See Satires, i. 7, 23. Studiosa, whhQVLt 
litterarum, has here the meaning which it often has in the writers of 
the Silver Age, ' literary.* — 8. Bella et paces. The plural indicatea 
the several wars and peaces which were made in the rei^n of Au- 
gostus. Longum diffundit in aevum. See Carm. iv. 14, 3. — 9. TV* 
tiug. This person is said by the schoHasts to have written but not 
published lyrics (hence compared with Pindar) and tragedies. Ho- 
race here hopea that he will soon publish them, and thus become 
known to the Romans, vetUurua inora jRomana. — 11. Figurative : lie 


Ut valet? Ut meminit nostri I Fidibusne Latinis 

Thebanos aptare modos studet auspice Musa, 

An tragica desaevit et ampullatur in arte ? 

Quid mihiCelsus agit? Monitusmultumque monendus, 15 

Privatas ut quaerat oped et tangere vitet 

Scripta, Palatinus quaecunque recepit Apollo; 

Ne, si forte suas repetitum venerit olim 

Grex avium pluraas, moveat cornicula risum 

Furtivis nudata coloribus. Ipse quid audes? ^ 20 

Quae circumvoliias agilis thyma ? Non tibi parvum 

Ingenium, non incuUum est et turpiter hirtum; 

Seu Iinguamx;ausis acuis seu civica jura 

Respondere paras seu condis amabile carmen, 

Prima feres hederae victricis praemia. Quocisi 25 

Frigida curarum foraenta relinquere posses, 

Quo te coelestis sapientia duceret ires. 

Hoc opus, hoc studiura parvi properemus et ampli, 

Si patriae volumus, si nobis vivere cari. 

Debes hoc etiam rescribere, si tibi curae, 30 

Quantae conveniat, Munatins: an male sarta 

Gratia nequicquam coit et rescinditur? At vos 

Seu calidus sanguis seu rerum inscitia vexat 

dared to deepise the open lakes and streams — that is, the kinds^of 
poetry open to and used by others — and to taste of the Pindaric 
spring. — 13. Connect Studelne apiare Thehanos modos Latinis jidihus ; 
that 18, to introduce the Pindaric kind of poetry into Roman litera- 
ture — Pindar having been a Theban. — 15. Uelsus, probably the 
Celsus Albinovanus to whom the 8th epistle of this book is ad- 
dressed. It appears that Celsus belonged to that class of verse- 
writers who, haying no original ideas, coniine themselves to the imi- 
tation and copying of others, Hence Horace jocularly recommends 
him to seek resources in himself (privatas opes), and no longer tran- 
scribe the books in the public libraries. Tne first of these iibraries 
was established by Augustus in the temple of Apollo on the Pala- 
tine Hill. Unless Ceisus takes this advice he runs the risk of shar- 
ing the same fate as the daw with the borrowed plumes in Aesop's 
well-known fable. — 18. Repetitum, xhe Bupme. — 21. Figure taken 
from a bee. See Carm. iv. 2, 27. — 23. Civicajura respondere, poet- 
ical for de jure civili respondere ; namely, to those who come for 
advice iconsulentihui) ; hence to act as an attorney or solicitor. — 26. 
Frigidafomenta curarum ; ihat is, striviqg after honour and wealth. 
The figure is taken from the medical art. Cold fomentations are 
of no use ; hence frigida = inutilia. — 28. Hoc opus, koc studium; 
namely, the coelestis sapientia of the preceding verse. — 30. Si=num. 
Zumpt, ^ 354, extr. Sit is omitted. — 31. Conveniat = oporteat. — 32. 
The figure is taken from a wound, the lips of which, when sewed, 
do not rightly meet, and which is therefore cut open, to be betier 
closed. — 33. Rerum insdtia, * ignorance of afTairs;' that is, both 
ignorance of your own affairs, positions, and relations, which has 


Indomita cervice feros, ubicanque boorum 

Vivitis, indigni fratemum rumpere foedus, 35 

Pascitur in vestrnm reditum votiva juveuca. 

produced a misunderstanding and ignorance of human afTairs gene- 
rallv, which, to prosper, require concord. — 35. Indigni — fwdust 
' wno are unworthy to break your league as brothers ; that is, who 
most not break your close friendship. 


A FRiENDLT Dote to thc poot Albius TibuUus, whose elegies we stili 
have. Horace and he had served together in the campaign of 

^ AlbI; nostrorum sermonum candide judex, 
Quid nunc te dicam facere in regione Pedana 1 
Scribere, quod Cassi Parraensis opuscula vincat, 
An tacitum silvas inter reptare salubres, 
Curantem quidquid dignum sapiente bonoque est? 5 

Non tu corpus eras sino pectore : di tibi formam, 
Di tibi divitias dederunt artemque fruendi. 
Quid voveat dulci nutricula majus alumno, 
Qui sapere et fari possit quae sentiat. et cui 
Gratia, fama, valetudo contingat abunde, 10 

£t mundus victus, non deficiente crumena? 
Inter spem curamque, timores inter et iras, 
Omnem crede diem tibi diluxisse supremum : 
Grata superveniet, quae non sperabitur, hora. 
Me pinguem et nitidum bene curata cute vises, 15 

Quum ridere voles, Epicuri de grege porcum. 

: U 

1. Sermonum; that is, the satires. Horace calls them sermones, 
not thinking them poems. See Satires, ii. 6, 17. — 2, In regionePe' 
dana. It appears that Tibullus had an estatc near the town of 
Pedum, between Praeneste and Tibur. — 3. Cassius Parmensis was 
distinguished as an elegist, but none of his poetry is extant. — 6. Sine 
pectore; that is, without a soul, without taste and talent. — 8.'Nu' 
tricula. Nurscs wish for their nurslings cvery possible good ; they 
could not wish for thee anything more than thou hast ; therefore 
enjoy ihy good things. — 13. Omiiem — gupremum ; that is, as each 
day dawns, as the diluculum comes, believe that day to be thy last, 
and enjoy it accordingly. — 15. The sense is; J at least act accord- 
ing to this principle, foUowing the tenets of Epicurus. I pay due 
attention to my body {curata cute ; compare i. 2, 29), and am fat 
and sleek, so that I may weli be called a pig of Epicurus^s herd. 

EPI8T0LA&UM UB. I. 251 


Fhiijosophical observatione on the Stoic principle, nihU admirari—' 
that is, to esteem nothing so highly that we must either obtain 
it or fiee from the sight of it Obedience to this rule produces 
that fxeedom from aU passion which is the chief requisite to the 
attainment of a listless happy life. The epistle is addressed to 
Numicius, a yoxmg man otherwise quite unknown. 

Nii. admirari prope res est una, Numici, 

Soiaqae; quae possit facere et servare beatum. 

Hunc solem et stellas et deoedentia certis 

Teropora momentis sunt qui formidine nulki 

Imbuti spectent : quid eenses munera terrae, 5 

Quid maris extremos Arabas ditantis et Indo«, 

Ludicra quid, plaosus et amici dona Quiritis, 

Quo spectanda modo, quo sensu credis et ore % 

Qui timet his adversa, fere miratur eodem, 

Quo cupiens pacto ; pavor est utrobique molestusi 10 

Improvisa simul species exterret utrumque. 

Gaudeat an doleat, cupiat metuatne, quid ad rem| 

Si, quidquid vidit melius pejusve sua spe, 

Defixis oculis animoque et corpore toipet % 

Insani nomen sapiens ferat, aequus iniqui, 16 

Ultra quam satis est virtutem si petat ipsam. 

I nnnC; argentum et marmor vetus aeraque et artes 

3. Decedentia certis tempora tnomentist * the seasons which change 
aocording to fixed motions {momentis = movimentis) of the planets.' 
The idea is : man]r men observe the heavens without beine seized: 
with any superstitious fear, but a gtance at earthly thinss fills them 
with passion. — 5. Properiy the connection Bhould be Quid? Quo 
modo spectanda esse credis munera terrae, etc? — 6. Maria, ecil. mM^ 
nera ; namely, pearls, wbich came from India by Arabia. Compare 
Carm. i. 29, 1, and^iii. 24, 2. — 7. Ludicra = ludi puhlici. Vona amici 
Quiritis ; that is, offices of honour. QuiritiSj singular collectively 
for Quiritium. — 9-14. The poet ehows that the fear of misfortune is 
as bad as the striving after wealth and fame. The term mirari or 
admirari includes both states of mind, and they both produce pavor ; 
a restlessness and indecision, which prevents all true activity, and 
causes the torjaor of line 14. His adversa ; that is, poverty and dis- 
grace. — 12. Quid ad rem = nihil interest. — 13. Spes and spero ex- 
press * ezpectation* merely, not necessarily * hope.^ — 15. The sense 
is : a man must not strive even after virtue with too much eager- 
ness ; otherwise, instead of wise he will be called mad, instead of 
just, unjuet. — 17. Marmor vetus aeraque, * ancient statues of marble 


• \ 

Saspice, cum gemmis Tyrios mirare colores ; 

Gaude, quod spectant oculi te milie loquentem ; 

Gnavus mane forum et vespertinus pete tectum. 20 

Ne plus frumenti dotalibus emetat agris v 

Mutus et — indignum, quod sit pejoribus ortus — ^ 

Hic tibi sit potius quam tu mirabilis ilii. 

Quidquid sub terra est, in apricum 'proferet aetas, 

Defodiet condetque nitentia. Quura bene notura 25 

Porlicus Agrippae et via te conspexerit Appi, 

Ire tamen restat, Numa quo devenit et Ancus. 

Si latus aut renes morbo tentantur acuto, 

Quaere fugam morbi : vis recte vivere : quis non t 

Si virius hoc una potest dare, forlis omissis 30 

Hoc age deliciis. Virtutem verba putas et 

Lucura ligna : cave, ne portus occupet alter, 

Ne Cibyratica, ne Bithyna negotia perdas, 

Mille talenta rotundentur, totidem altera, porro et 

Tertia succedaot, et quae pars quadret acervum. 35 

Scilicet uxorem cum dote ndemque et araicos 

and brass.* — 18. Cum gemmis colores = colores ei gemmas, Coloret 
is said for the cloth dyed. — 19. Gaude — loquentem ; thai is. rejoice 
in the admiration which is excited by thy eloquence. — 20. The poet 
speaks of the activity of the great landowner, who comcs early in 
the morning to market to seli, and does not go home till late in the 
evening. — 22, Mutus, a wealthy man, otherwise unknown. Indig- 
num — ortu», a parenthetical remark, expressing the feeiine of the 
man who wishes to outdo Mutus : * it would be disgracefur, not to 
be tolerated, since he is of humbler descent than I.' — 24. The idea 
is: all thy external advantagcs will avail thee nothing; for as time 
brings to lisht what is concealed, so it conceals the giittering things 
of earth : thou must die. — 26. Porticua Agrippae, a portico which 
Agrippa buiit in the year 25 b. c, and adorned with paintings, re- 
presentmg scenes from the Argonautic expedition : whence it was 
also caiied Porticus Argonautarum. It was a piace where many 
lawyers lived ; hence the sense is : aithough thou hast been known 
as an eloquent man, and one learned in the law (see iine 19.) The 
Appian road, leading from Rome to Capua, was the place where 
wealthy people used to drive out for pieasure, and hence this refers 
to the man of line 20. — 31. Hoc age; nameiy, ut virtutum pares. 
Virtutem — ligna. The sense is : if you consider virtue to be a mere 
name, and a grove to be nothing but a collection of trees, whiist m 
reality it contains a temple, with the statue of a god, which is the 
principal thins — if this is your noxion, then by aii means strive 
after earthly advantages. — 32. Ne portus occupet aller ; that is, lest 
any other merchant sail into the harbours before thee, and pre- 
occupy the market with his goods. — 33. Negotia Cibyratica, * tha 
trade with Cibyra' (a town ol" Phrygia Major, famed for its manu- 
facture of iron), and Bithyna, ' with the kingdom of Bithynia.' — 
Si. Rotundenlur = expleantur, •— 35. Quae pars quadrdt acervum ; 


£t genus et formam regina pecunia donat, 

Ac bene nummatum decorat Suadela Venusque. 

Mancipiis locuples'eget aeris Cappadocum rex : 

Ne fueris hic tu. Chlamydes Luculius, ut aiunt, 40 

Si posset centum scenae praebere rogatus; 

'Qui possum tot?' ait, 'tamen et quaeram et quot habebo 

Mittam ;' post paullo scribit sibi miiia quinque 

Esse domi chlamydum ; partem vel tolleret omnes. 

Exilis domus est, ubi non et multa supersunt dp 

Et dominum fallunt et prosnnt furibus. Ergo 

Si res sola potest facere et servare beatum, 

Hoc primus repetas opus, hoc postremus omittas. 

Si fortunatum species et gratia praestat ; 

Mercemur servum, qui dictet nomina, laevum 60 

Qui fodicet latus et cogat trans poi^dera dextram 

Porrigere. 'Hic multum in Fabia valet, ille Velina; 

Cui libet hic fasces dabit eripietque curule, 

Cui volet^ importunus ebur. Frater, pater adde, 

Ut cuique est aetas, ita quemque facetus adopta.' .. 55 

Si bene qui coenat, bene vivit; Jucet, eamus, 

Quo ducet gula; piscemur, venemur, ut olim 

Gargiliue^ qui raane plagas, venabula, servos, 

Differtum transire forum populumque jubebat, 

Unus ut e multis populo spectante referret 60 

Emptum mulus aprum. Crudi tumidique lavemur, 

Quid deceat, quid non, obliti, Caerite cera 

that is, as much as completes the heap of 4000 talents. — 37. JReginat 
in apposition with pecuniaf because money can procurc alT the 
good thinss jnst mentioned. — 39. The kingdom of Cappadocia, 
over which, in Horace's time, Archelaus ruled, was very poor 
and over-populous. — 40. The sense is : sirive not thou to be as 
tbe king of Cappadocia, who is poor, but as Lucullus, who had so 
much that he did not know his own wealth. — 48. Repetas^ * always 
take up/ or 'go to,' with reference to the daily return of the 
act. Compare line 20. — 49. Species et gratia, ' oulward position 
and influence,' hence posts of honour. — 50. Description of a nomen- 
clatorf a slave who accompanied his master when he went about 
to canvass for votes. — 52. The nomendator'8 address to his master. 
Fabia and Velina are names of tribes. — 53. Curule ehur = 9ellam 
curulem, — 54. Frater, pater adde. The candidate is to address the 
influentiai persons by these names of respect and affection, and thus, 
as it were, to make them relations (adoptare.) — 56. Lucet r= si lu- 
eet, 'as soon as day dawns.' — 61. Lavemur, in order to excite appe- 
tite again. — 62. Caerite cera digni ; that is, deserving to be treated 
as the people of Caere were, wno received the civitas fine sufragio, 
and consequently bore the burdens, without enjoying the privileges 
of citizenship. In the same way we should deaerve to endure ali 
the miseries of life, without iis pleasures, which flow from virtue 

254 Q. HOBATn FLAOd 

Digni, remigium yitiosum Ithacensis Ulixi, 

Oui potior patria fuit ioterdicta Toluptas. 

Si, Mimnermus uti censet, sine amore jocisque. 65 

Nil est jucunduro, viyas in amore jocisque 

Vive, vale. Si quid noyisti rectius istis, 

CandiduB imperti ', si non, his utere mecum. 

alone. — 63. Remimnij the abstract noun for the concrete remigeB ; 
Zumpt, ^675. Tiie remiges here are the companioDtfof Ulysses, 
yrho, determined to faave a good meal, killed the oxen of Helim. 
and thus brought upon themselves the greatest misfortunes. See 
Odyssey, zii. 297. — 65. Mimnermus of Colophon, a contemporary 
of Solon, and an elegiac poet. 


A NOTB to the CektiB mentioned in i. 3, 15. It oontains inqnirlefl 
regarding his health, and Gomplaints about Horace^s own st&te 
of mind. 

Celso gaudere et bene rem gerere Albinoyano 

Musa rogata refer, comiti scribaeque Neronis. 

Si quaeret; quid agam, dic multa et pulchra minantem 

Viyere nec recte nec auayiter ; baud quia grando 

Contuderit yites oleamque memorderit aestus, 5 

Nec quia lon^nquis armentum aegrotet in agris; 

Sed quia mente minus validus quam corpore toto 

Nil audire yelim, nil discere, quod levet aegrum ; 

Fidis offendar medicis, irascar amiois, 

Cur me funesto properent arcere veterno ; 10 

Quae nocuere sequar, fugiam quae profore credam; 

Romae Tibur amem yentosus, Tibure Romam. 

Post haec ut yaleat, quo.pacto rem gerat et se, 

Ut placeat juveni percontare utque cohorti. 

Si dicet recte, primum gaudere, subinde 15 

2. Rrfer. As we say commonly valere aliquem juheo, so here of 
the muse refer gaudere. Nero is Tiberius. — 3. mifuintem, jocu« 
larly= pollicerUem. — 6. Longin^uis =■ longe aUequepatenlibus. — 8. 
Aegrum, scil. animo. He was in a state when he could do nothing. 
— 12. Ventosua, gi^nerally = vanvs, 'vain;' here =levi8, 'in<»>n- 
stant, reatless.* Compare i. 19, 37. — 14. Juveni; namely, Tibe- 


Praeceptum auriculis hoc instillare memento: 
Ut tu fortunam, sic nos te, Celse, feremus. 

I Nero, who was at this time twenty-two years old. As to the 
cohora^ see Satires, i. 7, 23. — 17. The sense is : as you bear your 
pood fortune, the faTour of Tiberiua ; that is, if you are not elated 
By it, and do not become proud and overbearing, then I and your 
other friends shall bear with all your little foibles. 



A LBTTER to 'Hberius, recommendingr to his favour Septimios, to 
whom the 6th ode of the 2d book is addressed. 

Septimius, Claudi, nimirum intelligit unus, 

Quanti me facias : nam cum rogat et prece cogit} 

Scilicet ut tibi se laudare et tradere coner, 

Dignum mente domoque legentis honesta Neronis : 

Munere quum fungi propioris censet amici; 6 

Quid possim videt ac novit me valdius ipso. 

Multa quidem dixi cur excusatus abirem ; 

Sed timui, mea ne finxisse minora putarer, 

Dissimulator opis propriae, mihi commodus uni. 

Sic ego majoris fugiens opprobria culpae 10 

Frontis ad urbanae descendi praemia. Qaodsi 

Depositum laudas ob amici jussa pudorem, 

Scribe tui gregis hunc, et fortem crede bonumque. 

1. Nimirum, ironical, * nq doubt, clearly.' — ^3. Tradere, a common 
word in recommendations. See Satires, i. 9, 47.-4. Neronia, * of a 
man with the character and sense of a Nero.' — 6. Valdius = magis, 
— 8. Mea ; that is, my favour and influence with thee. — 9. Opis, 
used in the sense which the plural has in prose, *power, influente.* 
— ll.Frontis — praemiat ' I have avaiied myself of the advantages of 
a bold brow — a brow not covered wiih the blushes of rustic bashful- 
ness;' I have tried whether I could not succeed by impudence ; for 
jfron* urbana is explained by pudor depoaitua in line 12. — 13. Scribe 
kunc gregig tui. The genitivo is to be understood partitively, = 
unum gregis (cohortis.) Scribe=Jube esse epistola, *tell him iu 




Description of the advaotages of country liie compared with h£e 
in Rome. The epistle is addreased to Aristius Fuscus, to whom 
also the 22d ode of the first book is addressed. Compare 
Satires, i. 10, 83. 

Urbis amaiorem Fuscum salvere juberaus 

Ruris amatores, hac in re scilicet una 

Muitum dissimileS; at cetera paene gemelli; 

Fraternis anirnis quidquid negat alter, et alter; 

Annuimus pariter, vetuli notique coiumbi. 6 

Tu nidum servas, ego laudo rnris amoeni 

Rivos et rausco circumlita saxa nemusque. 

Quid quaeris? Vivo et regno, siraul ista reliqui, 

Quae vos ad coelum fertis ruraore secundo; 

Utque sacerdolis fuejitivus liba recuso : 10 

Pane egeo jara mejlitis potiore placentis. 

Vivere naturae si convenienter oportet 

Ponendaeque domo quaerenda est area primura, 

Novistine locum potiorem rure beato? 

Est, ubi plus tepeant hiemes, ubi gratior aura 15 

Leniat et rabiem Canis et momenta Leonis, 

Quum serael accepit solem furibundus acutum? 

Est, nbi divellat soranos rainus invida cura? 

Deterius Libycis olet aut niter herba lapillis? 

Purior in vicis aqua teudit rumpere plurabura, 20 

4. Et alter, gciL negat. — 5. Vetuli notique, a hendiadys, = noti 
pridem inter se. To take doves as an image of union is common, 
and Horace keeps up the rcpresentation by the word nidum (mean- 
ing the city of Rome) in line 6. — 8. Regno / that is, I am a r«r, am 
happy, a playful application of a philosophical expression. Cofiipare 
i. 1, 106. — 10. The offering-cakes (liba) which were brou^ht to the 
altars, became the property of the priests, who maintamed their 
households therewith. Hence the poet says iocularly, that he ia 
like a priest's useless slave (Jugitivus) who will no longer have fine 
cakes (that is, the city of Romc), but plain bread (country life.) — 16. 
On the 23d of July the dogstar rises, and at the same time the sun 
enters the sign of Leo, whlch is expressed in the next line by am- 
pere solem acutum. Compare Carm. iii. 29, 19. Momenta^vim. — 
19. Lihyci lapilli ; that is, the Numidian variegated marble, which 
was used for floors. See Carm. ii. 18, 3. Extravagant people used 
to sprinkle their floors with perfumes. Hence olet. — 20. Vici are 
the streets of Rome, along which the water from the neighbouriog 


Qnam qoae per pronam trepidat cnm murmnre rivnm 1 
Nempe inter yarias nutritur silva columnaB 
Laudaturque domus, longos quae proApicit agros. 
Naturam ezpelles furca^ tamen usque recurret, 
£t mala perrumpet furtim fastidia victrix. 25 

Non qui oidonio contendere callidus ostro 
Nescit Aquinatem potantia vellera fucum, 
Certius accipiet damnurai propiusque medullis, 
Quani qui non poterit vero distinguere falsum. 
Quem res plus nimio delectavere secundae, 30 

Mutatae quatient. Si ouid mirabere, pones 
' Invitus : fuge magna ; licet sub paupere tecto 
Reges et regum vita praecurrere amicos. 
Cervus equum pugna melior commnnibus herbis 
Pellebat, donec minor in certamine longo 35 

Imploravit opes hominis frenumque recepit. 
Sea po8tc)uam victor violens discessit^ noste, 
Non eqnitem dorso, non frenum depulit ore. 
Sic qui pauperiem veritus potiore metallis 
Libertate caret, dominum vehit improbus atque 40 

Serviet aetemum, quia parvo nesciet uti. 
Cui non conveniet sua res, ut calceus olim, 
Si pede major erit, subvertet, si minor^ uret. 
Laetus sorte tua vives sapienter, Aristi, 
Nec me dimittes incastigatum, ubi plura 45 

Cogere quam satis est ac non cessare videbor. 
Imperat aut servit collecta pecunia cuique, 
Tortum digna sequi potius quam ducere funem. 

hills was led in leaden pipes.— 22. Even in the city people strive to 
make their bouses aa rural as posaible, thus practically admitting 
the Buperionty of the country. Nempe, ' but assnredly.' Variae 
eolumnae are the piilars of variegatea marble which stood in the 
middle of the aCnttin, enclosing the so-called impluvium, a small 
open space with a fountain, and, if possible, a tree.^25. Fa$tidia, 
tne ennui or weariness ineident to fashionable life in a city.-r-^G. 
Here the second part of the epistle begina, in which Horace shows 
that to the attainment of a happy life striving after true good, and 
contempt of everything which falaely pretenda to be good, is neces- 
fiary. Coniendere = comparare^ and hence 9\BO^di»tinpbere. — 30. 
Flu8 nimio=plus aequo, i. 2, 29.— 31. Mutatae ; that is, wben ad- 
versae, Pones=<fgMmc«.— »34. Melior=fortiorj and in the next line 
minor s vietui, lierhi» = paicuie. — 29. MetaUif = quam metalla 
guntt 'than gold and silver.'-— 42. Ut calceus olim, a common figure. 
When a shoe is too large, it upsets the wearer (aubvertei) ; when 
too smali, it causes pains and bnnions.^5. The sense is : you will 
scold me, if my moral mazims do not plea^e you, just as I have been 
ecoiding you, because I do not approve of your mode of life. — 48. 
The figure^ taken from a ship which is towed by a rope. Money 
22* R 




Haec tibi dictabam post fannm patre Yacnnae, 
Excepto qnod non simu]«esses, cetera laetus. 

should be the ship, not the tow-rope. — 49. Fanum Vacunae^ a place 
near Horace^s Sabine farm, of whlch the site cannot be accurately 
determined. Vacuna was a Sabine divinity, identified by some 
with Diana, by others with Ceres, and by others again with Venus. 
At all events, she was a country goddess, who presided over the 
fieids, and gave them fertility. 


A LETTER to a maif called Bullatius, otherwise unknown, wbo, in 
travelling, was seeking rest for his mind. Horace shows that be 
"^can find it only in contentment. 

QuiD tibi visa Chios, BuIIati, notaque Lesbos, 

Quid concinna Samos, quid Croesi regia Sardis, 

Smyrna quid et Colophon ? majora minorane fama? 

Cunctane prae Campo et Tiberino flumine sordent % 

An venit in votum Attalicis ex urbibus una, 5 

An Lebedum laudas odio maris aique viaruml 

Scis Lebedus quid sit ; Gabiis desertior atque 

Fidenis vicus; tamen iliic vivere vellem, 

Oblitusque meorum, obliviscendus et illis, 

Neptunum procul e terra spectare furentem. - 10 

Sed neque qui Capua Romam petit, imbre lutoque 

Adspersus volet in caupona vivere ; nec qui 

Frigus collegit, furnos et balnea laudat 

Ut fortunatam plene praestantia vitam ; 

Nec, si te validus jactaverit Auster iu alto, 15 

Idcirco navem trans Aegaeum mare vendas. 

1. Quid tiha visa, acU. sunt este. — 2. Concinna^ referring to the beau- 
tiful buiidings in Samos, particularly the temple of Juno. — 4. Sor- 
dentf * are contemptible, mean.' — 5. AttaUcis ex urbibus. See Carm. 
i. 1, 12. The towns formerly governed by Attalus were Pergamus, 
Apollonia, Thyatira, and others. — 6. The idea is: or art thou so 
sick of travelhng that thou art pleased even with Lebedus ? He 
himself answers this question negatively, in line 11, and following. 
Lebedus, one of the twelve lonian cities, once wealthy and famous. 
-~13. Frigus collegit, * has caught cold,'— 16. Vendas, thus showing 
that you are so thoroughiy disgusted with the sea, that, rather than 


Incolami Rhodos et Mitylene pulchra facit, quod 

Paenula solstitio, campestre nivalibus auris, 

Per brumam Tiberis, Sextili mense caminus. 

Dum licet, ac vultam servat Fortuna benignum, 20 

Romae laudetuc Samos et Chios et Rhodos absens. 

Tu, quamcunque deus tibi fortunaverit horam, 

Grata sume manu, neu dulcia diifer in annum ; 

Ut, quocunque loco fueris, vixisse libenter 

Te dicas : nam si ratio et prudentia curas, 1^5 

Non locus effusi late maris arbiter, anfert, 

Coelum, non animum mutant, qui trans mare currunt. 

Strenua nos exercet inertia; navibus atque 

Quadrigis petimus bene vivere. Quod petis, hic est, 

Est Uiubris, animus si te non deficit aequus. 3C 

venture on it again, you will live an exile from your country. — 17. 
Incolumi = «ano, ' to a man in sound mindi' Mitylene was the 
cbief town of Lesbos. — 18. Paenula, a heavy winter cloak ; cam- 
pestre, a thin apron, which was the only thine that young men wore 
when eneaged in gymnastic exercises in the uampus Martius. — 21. 
Abiens. rroperly, and in prose, the person himself, living in Rome, 
and consequently absent from Samos, would be called absens. — 25. 
Si, * if,' as really haiJpens, hence, * as.' — 26. Lorus effmi late maris 
arbiterj * a place which commands the sea far and wide.' — 28. Stre- 
nua inertia, *a busy idleness.' — 30. Uiubrae, a small and deserted 
town near the Pomptine marshes, and consequently not a pleasant 
or heahhful place of abode. l'he modern Cisterna is generally be- 
iieved to occupy its site. The sense is : with contentment you may 
live happily in Rome (Atc), ay, even at Ulubrae. 



This epistle, as well as the 29th ode of the Ist book, is addressed 
to Iccius. In the first part of it Horace exhorts him to rcmain 
content with the comfbrtable and safe situation which he held ; 
in the second part he recommends to him a ccrtain Pompcius 
Grosphus. Iccius was a procurator — that is, factor in Sicily fbr 
M. Agrippa, whose estates he managed. 

Fructibus Agrippae Siculis, quos colligis, Icci, 
Si recte frueris, non est ul copia major 

1. The sense is: from the income of Agrippa'8 Sicilian property 
thou hast as much as may enable thee to live comfortably. Fructui 
is income generaily, not necessarily agricuitural produce. — 2. Non 


Ab Jove donari possit tibi. Tolle qnerelas ; 

Pauper enim non est, cui rerum suppetit usub. 

Si ventri bene, si kteri est pedibusque tuis, nil 5 

Divitiae poterunt regales addere majns. 

Si forte in medio positorum abstemius herbis 

Vivis et urtica, sic vives protinus, ut te 

Confestim liquidus Fortunae rivus inauret ; 

Vel quia naturam mutare pecunia nescit^ 10 

Vel quia cuncta putas una virtute minora. 

Miramur, si Democriti pecus edit agellos 

Cultaque, dum peregre est animus sine corpore yelox; 

Quum tu inter scabiem tantam et contagia lucri 

Nil parvum sapias et adhuc sublimia cures : 15 

Quae mare compescant causae, quid temperet annumi 

Stellae sponte sua jussaene vagentur et errent, 

Quid premat obscurum lunae, quid proferat, orbem, 

Quid velit et possit rerum concordia discors ? 

Empedocles an Stertinium deliret acumen ? 20 

Verum seu pisces seu porrum et caepe trucidas, 

Utere Pompeio Grospho et, si quid petet, ultro 

Defer ; nil Grosphus nisi verum orabit et aequum. 

Vilis amicorum est annona, bonis ubi quid deest. 

Ne tamen ignores, quo sit Romana loco res, 25 

Cantaber Agrippae, Claudi virtute Neronis 

est ul ^fieri non potest ut. — 4. Cui rerutn euppetit uaus, * who faas 
as much at his command as he needs/ — 7. In medio posita are things 
placed ready for use, so that one needs only to put out his hand to 
have them. — 8. Sic vives protinus = perge sic vivere, the future 
having here the force of an imperative. Gram. ^ 367, note. Vt^ 
' even granting or supposing that,' = etiamsi. Gram, ^ 352, note 1. 
— 13. reregre est = peregrifuttur, *is wandering, is abroad on its 
travels.' — 17. Jussaene; scil. a deo, hence, 'accordin^ to fixed laws.' 
The planets are meant. — 18. The cause of the waning and waxing 
of the moon. — 19. Rerum concordia discors ; that is, the univerae, 
in which we see great varietv, and yet throughout a perfect har- 
mony. — 20. The sense is: whether ihe Pvthagorean philo8ophy or 
that of the Stoics is false. For the joke^s sake he names as the 
representative of the latter a certain ridiculous philosopher called 
Stertinius, who, as the scholiasts tell us, had written 220 books of 
Stoica. Stertinium acumen =■ Stertinius acutus. -^21. A joke in rc- 
gard to Iccius^s simple fare. The word trucidare is used fudicrously 
of vegetables. — ^23. Verum =rectum. — 24. A proverb: one caneasily 
gain friends when brave men are in want of anything — namely, by 
Bupplying their need. — 26. Cantaber. See Carm. ii. 6. As to Tibe- 
rius Claudius Nero^s expedition to Armenia, see Emist. i. 3. King 
Phraates of Parthia restored, in the year 20 b. c, tne prifloners and 
Btandards taken in the unfortunate campaigns of Crassus and An- 
tony. On coins of Augustus we iind a representation of the Parthian 


Armenius cecidit; jus imperiumque Phraates 
Caesaris accepit genibus miuor; aurea fruges 
Italiae pleno defundit Copia cornu. 

monarch kneeling (genibus minor), and doing homage to the em- 
peror. — 29. As to the horn of plenty, see Carm. Saec.j 60. 



Tm poet gives injunctions to his senrant, C. Vinius Fronto Asella, 
to whom he has intrusted some of his poems to be taken to the 
emperor of Rome. 

Ut proficiscentem docni te saepe diuque, 
Augusto reddes signata volumina, Vini, 
Si validus, si laetus erit, si denique poscet ; 
Ne stndio nostri pecces, odiumque libellis 
Sedulus importes opera vehemente minister. 6 

Si te forte meae gravis uret sarcina chartae, 
Abjicito potius, quam, quo perferre juberis, 
Clitellas ferus impingas, Asinaeque paternum 
Cognomen vertas in risum et fabula fias. 
Viribus uteris per clivos, fiumina, lamas; 10 

Victor propositi, simul ac perveneris illuc, 
Sic positum servabis onus, ne forte sub ala 
Fasciculum portes librorum, ut rusticus agnum, 
- Ut vinosa glomus furtivae Pyrrhia lanae, 

2. Signata = ohsignata. Vinius is not to open them by the way, 
nor show them to any one. — 4. Sludio nostri, * from love to me.* 
Do not be too zealous in vour services (jsedulus minister), lest your 
hurry to give Augustus the poems should preiadice him against 
them. — 6. Uret. A heavy load inflames the shoulder on which it 
rests. The joke which follows is founded on Asina, the nickname 
of Vinius'8 father. The figure is taken from an ass, which, when 
it reaches its destination, madly eager to get rid of its packsaddle, 
pushes against a wall, and thus breaks it ofl* — 9. Fabulajias ; that 
18, become the sabject of a story among the wits at court, about the 
boorifih fashion in which my poems were brought to the emperor. — 
11. Victor propositi, *when thou hast fulfilled thy resolution' to 
carry the poems to the emperor. — 12. The messenger is not to 
carry in the packet under his arm, but elegantly in his right hand, 
and thus to hand it to the emperor. — 14. Pyrrhia, the name of a 
slave in a play by a certain Titmnius. She stole a bundle of wool, 


Ut cnm pileolo soleas conviTa tribulis. 15 

Nec Tu]go narres te sudavisse ferendo 
Carmina, quae possint oculos auresque morari 
Caesaris; oratus multa prece, nitere porro. 
Yade, vale ; cave, ne titubes mandataque frangas. 

and carried it so that it was seen, and she was caught. — 15. Tri- 
buliff properly, *a member of a tribe,' which every Roman was; 
but in the time of Augustus the tribes had become associations for 
charitable purposes, and hence tribuli» comes to mean a poor Ro- 
man — one who received assistance from his tribe. Still, as he has 
a right to vote in the comitiai he is invited to dinner by men of rank, 
and, having no slave, he carries with him into the banquet-room 
his slippers (see Satires, ii. 8, 77), and his bad Uttle hat ipileolu») 
under his arm. — 18. Oratux multa prece ; though thou shouldst be 
besought most eamestly to show what thou art carrying, do not turn 
aside, but burry on {nitere porro) to Augustus. 


This epistle is addressed to one Quinctins, probably the T. Quinc- 
tius Crispinus who was consul in the year 9 b; c. We see from 
the epistle that ho was rich, respected, and a fevourite of the 
people, so that he had already held various officos of state. The 
object of the epistle is to show that external advantages cannot 
make a man happy, but that the virtuous man alone is troly free 
and happy. The poet commences with a description of hls Sa- 
bine farm, and his contented life upon it 

Ne perconteris, fundus meus, optime Quincti, 

Arvo pascat herum an baccis opulentet olivae 

Pomisve an pratis an amicta vitibus ulmo, 

Scribetur tibi forma loquaciter et situs agri. 

Continui montes, ni dissocientur opaca 5 

Valle, sed ut veniens dextrnm latus adspiciat sol, 

Laevum discedens curru fugiente vaporet. 

Temperiem laudes. Quid, si rubicunda benigni 

2. That is, whether I cultivate it as an arable farm or an orchard, 
a sheep farm or a vineyard. Horace does not answer these ques- 
tions, but merely describes its pleasant situation. — 3. Amictaviti» 
bu8 ulmo, See Epode 2, 10. — 5. Continui montea, iril. »unt. Ni 
i= praeterquam quod. — 6. For a description of the position of the 
villa, see the Introduction. — 7. Curru fugiente, Compare Carm. 
Saee, 9, and Carm, iii. 6, 44. — 8. Laxtde», potentiai subjunctive. 


Coma vepres et pruna ferunt ? si quercuB et ilex 

Multa fruge pecus, multa dominum juvat umbra ? 10 

Dicas adductum propius frondere Tarentum. 

Fons etiam riyo dare nomen idoneus, ut neo 

Frigidior Thracam nec purior ambiat Hebrus, 

Infirmo capiti fluit aptuR et utilis alvo. 

Hae latebrae dulces et, jam si credis, amoenae, 15 

Incolumem tibi me praestant Septembribus horis. 

Tu recte viyis, si curas esse, quod audis. 

Jactamus jam pridem omnis te Roma beatum ; 

Sed vereor, ne cui de te pius quam tibi credas, 

Neve putes alium sapiente bonoque beatum, 20 

Neu, si te populus sanum recteque valentem 

Dictitet, occuitam febrim sub tempus edendi 

DissimuleS) donec manibus tremor incidat unctis. 

Stultorum incnrata pudor malus nlcera celat. 

Si quis belJa tibi terra pugnata marique 26 

Dicat, et his verbis vacuas permulceat aures, 

*• Tene magis salvum populus veiit an populum tu, 

Servet in ambiguo, qut consulit et tibi et urbi 

Jnpiter,' Augusti laudes agnoscere possis : 

Quum pateris sapiens emendatusque vocari, 30 

Respondesne tuo, dic sodes, nomine ? Nempe 

Yir bonos et prudens dici delector ego ac tu. 

Qui dedit hoc hodie, cras si volet auferet, ut, si 

Detulerit fasces indigno, detrahet idem. 

' one might praise.' — 11. Join adductum propius. The trees on my 
farm are as beaatiful as those about Tarentum. See Sat. ii. 4, 34, 
and Carm. ii. 6, 11. — 12. Bivo dare nomen idoneua. The water 
wells up 80 abundantly that this single fountain could supply a rivu- 
let. — 14. The spring was good for bathing the head in or drinking 
from. — 16. SeptembrHmg horia^ 'in autumn/ the moat unhealthy 
season in Italy. Compare Sat. ii. 6, 19. — 17. Quod audis, *what 
is said of thee ;' namely, that thou art beatusy as stated in the next 
line. — 20. Alium sapiente boftoque = alium ac tapientem bonumque. 
See Zumpt, ^ 470. — 22. The meaning of the figurative ezpres- 
sion is : do not, at the time when tnou canst throw oiff vices, 
pretend that thou hast them not, putting off the thought of free 
ing thyself from them till it is too late. — 23. Manua unctae are 
* hands soiled with eating greasy food.* — 24. Stultorum is emphatic : 
' they are fools, whose.' Incurata is, ' without healing them.' — 25. 
Tibi for a te. — 27. Tene, etc., are lines composed by the poet Varius 
{Sat. i. 10, 44) in reference to Augustus. The sense of lines 25-31 
is this : if one were to call you a great military hero, you would 
answer that such praise was not appropriate to you, but to Augus- 
tus ; but if another were to call you a wise man, would you not 
reply : ' Yes, that praise is justly given to me?' So much is man 
dieposed to altribute to himself inward excellence. — 30. Fateris, 
construed here with ihe simple infinitive, instead of the acciisative 


' Pone, meum est,' inquit. Pono tristisque recedo : 35 

Idem si clamet furem, neget esse pudicum, 

Contendat laqueo collum pressisse paternum ', 

Mordear opprobriis falsis mutemque colores? 

Falsus honor juvat et mendax infamia terret 

Quem nisi mendosum et mendicandum ? Vir bonus est 

quis ? 40 

Qui consulta patram, qui leges juraque servat, 
Quo multae magnaeque secantur judice lites, 
Quo res sponsore et quo causae teste tenentur. 
Sed videt hunc omnis domus et vicinia tota 
Introrsum turpem, speciosum pelle decora. 45 

'Nec furtum feci nec fugi,' si mihi diciti 
Servus, ' Habes pretium, loris non ureris,' aio. 
'Non hominem occidi.' ^Non pasces in cruce corvos.' 
< Sum bonus et frugi.' Renuit negitatque Sabellus. 
Cautus enim metuit foveam lupus, accipiterque 60 

Suspectos laqueos, et opertum miluus hiamum. 
Oderunt peccare boni virtutis amore, 
Tu nihil admittes in te formidine poenae. 
Sit spes fallendi, miscebis sacra profanis. 
Nam de mille fabae modiis quum surripis unum, 65 

Damnum est, non facinus mihi pacto lenius isto. 
Yir bonus, omne forum quem spectat et omne tribnaa], 
Quandocunque deos yel porco vel bove placat, 
' Jane pater' clare, clare quum dixit ^ApolIo,' 
Labra movet metuens audiri : 'Pulchra Laverna; 60 

with the inGnitive. — 36. Si belongs to clamet, negetf and contendat. 

— 37. Laqueo collum presaisse patemum—ju^ulatse patrem. — 40. 
Medicandum, one who, according to the Stoic notion, is insanus, 
and conaequently needs to be cured. Vir bonus est quis f namely, 
according to the opinion of the multitude. — 41. Consulta patrum, 
The written law at Rome consisted of the twelve tables, the bills 
passed by the people, and the decrees of the 8enate.»42. Secantur 
=ideciduntur, decernuntur. — 43. Tenentur = ohtinentur ' (law-pleas) 
are won.'— 45. Compare Sat. ii. 1, 64. — 48. Only slaves were cruei- 
fied at Rome, not freemen, and, above all things, not Roman citizens. 

— 49. Sabellvs. This race, living among the Apennines, had the 
reputation of being rough and uncultivated, but brave and honour- 
able. — 53. Nihil admittes in te, ' thou wilt commit no offence.' — 
54. Miscere sacra profanis is said of a thorough scoundrel, who 
minds neither human nor divine law. — 56. Damnum lenius est, 
non facinus. When one steals a triHe, the loss to the person 
robbed is of course lishter, but the crime is just as great as if it 
were a theft of valuabTe property. — 57. Vir bonus, in the opinion 
of the multitude. — 59. He invokes the gods with a loud voice, 
either *Father Janus' or 'Apollo,' but he secretly prays that he 
may be protected in his crime8.--60. Laverna, the goddess of 


Da mihi fallere, da justo sanctoc^ue Tideri, 

Noctem peccatis et fraudibus objice nubem.' 

Qui melior servo, qui liberior sit avaruS) 

In triviis fixum quum se demittit ob assem, 

Non video ; narii qui cupiet, metuet quoque ; porro 66 

Qui metuens yivet; liber mihi non erit unquam. 

Perdidit arma, locum virtutis deseruit, qui 

Semper in augenda festinat et obruitur re. 

Vendere quum possis captivum, occidere noli ; 

Serviet utiliter: sine pascat durus aretque, 70 

Nayiget ae mediis hiemet mercator in undis, 

Annonae prosit, portet frumenta penumque. 

Vir bonus et sapiens audebit dicere : * Pentheu, 

Rector Thebarum, qnid me perferre patique 

Indignum coges?' 'Adimam bona.' ^Nempe pecus 

rem, 75 

Lectos, argentum ? tollas licet.' ' In manicis et 
Compedibus saevo te sub custode tenebo.' 
' Ipse deus, simui atque volam, me solvet.' Opinor, 
Hoc sentit : Moriar. Mors nltima linea rerum est. 

thieves, had a temple on the via Salaria. Thieves used to pray to 
her before they attempted any theft. — 63. Qui = quomodo.-—6i. As 
fixu8 in triviis \b an aa lying in the public etreet among the mud, 
which no one but a miser would lift. — 67. Ferdidit arma, locum dese- 
ruit. The figure is taken from a soldier, for whom it is the highest 
disgrace to have iost his arms, especially his shield, in battle (see 
Carm. ii. 7, 10), or to have left the post assigned to him. Hence 
the sense of the passage is : he who give^himself up to a passioa 
is a conquered man — a captive. The poet (lines 69-72) gives us 
the thoughts of the passion represented as a person. She re- 
solves not to kill the captive, as, according to the laws of war, she 
migbt, but to make him serve heras long as he lives. — ^73. FentheUy 
etc, This is in imitation of a passage in the Bacchae of Euripides 
(line 492 and foliowing.) Pentheus, kinff of Thebes, had taken 
Bacchus prisoner, and the captive replied to all his threats, that 
divine powex would release him whenever he wished it. — 78. Opi- 
nor, etc. Horace borrows this opinion in regard to suicide from the 
Stoics, who considered it as not merely lawfnl, but in certain cir- 
cumstances laudable and necessary. — 79. Ultima linea. The figure 
is taken from the circus, where a white stroke was drawn as the 
boundary of the cbariot course. 




WiTTY and instructive observations on intercourse with men of 
rank,and on the advantages and disadvantagfes of moving in the 
society of the fashionable. The epistle is addressed to a young 
man called Scaeva, unknown, bnt certainly not the Scaeva men. 
tioned in Sat. ii. 1, 53. 

QnAMvis. Scaeva, satis per te tibi consulis et 8ci% 

Quo tandem pacto deceat majoribus uti ', 

Disce docendus adhuc, quae censet amiculus, ut st 

Caecus iter monstrare velit , tamen adspice, si quid 

£t noS) quod cures proprium fecisse, loquamur. 5 

Si te grata quies et primam somnus in horam 

Delectat, si te pulvis strepitusque rotarum, 

Si iaedit caupona, Ferentinnm ire jubebo : 

Nam neque divitibus contiiigunt gaudia solis, 

Nec vixit male, qui natus moriensque fefellit. 10 

Si prodesse tuis paulloque benignius ipsum 

Te tractare voles, accedes siccus ad unctum. 

^ Si pranderet olus patieuter, regibus uti 

NoIIet Aristippus.' ' Si sciret regibus uti, 

Fastidiret olus, qui me notat.' Utrius horum 15 

Verba probes et facta, doce, vel jnnior audi, 

1. Quamvit is here, as in Carm. i. 28, 13, construed with the in- 
dicative, which is contrary to practice in classic prose. — 2. Majort' 
bus = fMhiliortbus, — 3. 1 he two ciauses discct etc. and ut sieaeeut 
velit do not hanf; iogically together; however, disce quae cetuel 
amiculus is x= ego te docebo. — 5. Fedste^ aorist. Gram. % 371, note 
2. — 6. Primam in koram, Mill seven o'cIock in the morning,* long 
before which hour business had begun. The visits, too, to great men 
had to be made much earlier. — 8. Caupona = caupones, the busiling 
and thronging of the shopkeepers in Rome. Ferentinum was a towa 
of the Hernici, about forty-eight Roman miles from the city. It is 
mentioned here as the representative of small towns tn general, for 
the sense is : if you hate noise, go to ihe country, or to some smail 
town, and there you may enjoy quiet. This iatter idea is stated 
in lines 9-10. — 10. Fefellit^ scil. homineSi *whose birth and deaih 
have bcen unknown to the mass of men.' — 11. Prode»se tuit; 
namely, by obtaining for them official posts, and the like. — 12. 
Unctum =: pinguem. Hence siccus ad unetum, * a poor man to a 
ereat.' — 14. Aristippus, the originator of the Cvrenaic philosophy, 
iTom which the Epicurean was to a ereat extent Jerived. The woros 
Si pranderet Aristvppus are put in the mouth of Diogenes the Cynic 
(line 18), who soueht freeclom and happinesa in independence of 
roen and of everything like luxury. — 15. Qui me notat, *he who 


Car sit Ari»tippi potior sententia. Namque 

Mordacem Cynicum aic eludebat, ut aiunt : 

< Scurror ego ipae mihi, popnlo tu : rectius hoc et 

Splendidius multo est. E^uus ut me pOrtet, alat rex, 20 

Officium facio ', tu poscis vilia rerum, 

Dante minor, quamvis fers te nullius egentem.' 

Omnis Aristippum decuit color et status et res, 

Tentantem maiora; fere praesentibus aequum. 

Contra, quem duplici panno patientia velat, 26 

Mirabor, vitae via si conversa decebit. 

Alter purpureum non expectabit amictura, 

Quidlibet indutus celeberrima per loca vadet, 

Personamqoe feret non inconcinnus utramque; 

Alter Mileti textam, cane pejus et angui, 80 

Vitabit chlamydem, morietur frigore, si non 

Rettuleris pannum. Refer. et sine vivat ineptua. 

Res gerere et captos ostenaere civibus hostes, 

Attingit solium Jovis et coelestia tentat. 

Frincipibus placuisse viris non ultima laus est. 86 

Non cuivis homini contingit adire Corinthum. 

Sedit, qui timuit ne non soccederet : esto. 

Quid ? qni pervenit; fecitne virihter ? Atqul 

Hic est aot nusquam, quod quaerimns. Hic onus horret, 

Ut parvis animis et parvo corpore majus ; 40 

Hic Bubit et perfert. Aut virtus nomen inane est, 

Aut decus et pretium recte petit experiens vir. 

Coram rege suo de paupertate tacentes 

censures me.' This is the answer of Aristippoa.— 20. Equui me 
portet, alat reg, a Greek proverb, said of one wdo iives weli at other 
people*8 ezpense. •— 22. Dante minor, The senae ia : I am depend- 
ent on great men, you on poor. — 25. Fatientia was a technical lerm 
in the Uynie philosophy, aesiffnating the virtue of patiently endur- 
ing ali the incidents of life. Iience Ouem — veiat ; that is, who in 
striving dfter patientia clothes himselt in rags. — 27. Alter ; nameiy» 
Aristippus, or any one of his followers. — 30. It is related that 
once, when Diogenes and Aristippus were toeether in the bath, the 
lacter contrived to steal away with the Cynic s tattered mantle, in- 
tendinff thus to oblige Dioeenes to put on his purple cloak and go 
throuffh the street with it. Diogenes, however, wouid not do so, but 
waited tili Aristippus broueht him his own cloak. MUeti texta 
ehlamya is a niantle made at jVfiletas, or made of the Milesian wool, 
which was much famed in antiquity, and was dyed purple. — -32. 
Sine, from aino. — 34. Attingit aolium Jovii, is a divine honour. 
Coeleetia tentat, equivalenc in meaning to Carm. i. 1, 36. — 36. A 
translation of the Grrfek proverb : O^ wavr^s ivSpbs h K6^v$9v M* h 
xXo9t, that is, it is impossible that all can be fortunate. — 37. Sedit =a 
otioiuefuit ; time aorist. Fecit, in the next line, is also an aorist. 
•^3. Those who pay court to any great man should not press im- 


Plus poscente ferent : distat, snmasne pudenter 

An rapias; atqui rerum caput hoc erat, hic fons. 45 

' Indotata mihi soror est, paupercula mater, 

£t fundus nec vendibilis neo pascere firmns,' 

Qui dicit, clamat : ^Yictum date.' Suocinit alter: 

^ £t mihi diTiduo findetur munere quadra.' 

Sed tacitus pasci si posset corvus, haberet 50 

PIus dapis et rixae multo minus invidiaeque. 

Brundisium comes aut Surrentum ductus amoenum, 

Qui queritur salebras et acerbum frigus et imbres^ 

Aut cistam effractam et subducta viatica plorat ; 

Nota refert meretricis acumina, saepe catellam 55 

Saepe periscelidem raptam sibi fientis, uti mDx 

Nulla ndes damnis verisque doloribus adsit. 

Nec semel irrisus triviis attoliere curat 

Fracto crure planum', licet illi plurima manet 

Lacrima, per sanctum juratus dicat Osirim : 60 

'Credite, non ludoj crudeles tollite claudum.' 

^Quaere peregrinum»' vicinia ranca reclamat. 

portunate petitions : be who modestly waits will sncceed best in4he 
end. Rex suus is the great man whom a person has chosen as his 
patron.— 46. Hoc txtput^ kic fon$, The source of a river is its caput 
and fona. Hence the meaning is : the groond, cause (source), of 
your connecting yourself with a great man was that you might re- 
ceive money from hira, and be promoted to offices of honour. Thia 
you cannot obtain if you beg too importunately. The complaints 
of an importunate petitioner follow. — 48. Qui dtcitj clamat : * Vic- 
tum date,' *he who speaks thus is in reality screaming, ** Give me 
bread." * Stiecinit alter == succedit alter canens, an expfession taken 
from a row of beggars, who one after the other whine forth their 
complaints to the passere-by.— 49. Munercj dependent on findetur. 
-*52. Surrentum, a town of Campania, now Sorrento. celebraied 
for the beauty of its situation, on the sea-shore. — 55. JRefert, * imi- 
tates.'— 58. A juggler (pto»m»), who exhibited his feats of legerde- 
main in the streets of Rome, was accustomed, aftefmaking a great 
leap, to fall down, as if he had broken his ieg. When the bystand- 
ers came to lift him, he laughed at their simplicity, and started up. 
At last he broke his leg in reality, and cried fbr help, but no one 
came to his assistance. The passers-by called out to him fuaere 
peregrinum, *seek one who does not know ihy tricks.' — 60. The 
worship of Osiris, the E^yptian god of the sun, was introduced into 
Rome about the time of Augustus, and was much practised by the 
common people, 



Whkn Horace had attained lome reputation, a hoet of imitatora 
aroee, who, though destitute of poetic ffeniue, yet attempted to 
write poems like his. EnTiers also he nad, not a few. Against 
these two classes tbis epistle is directed ; in which, as it were, 
Maecenas is appointed umpire of the dispute. 

Prisco si credis, Maecenas docte, Cratino, 

Nulla placere din nec viyere carmina po88unt, 

Qaae scribantar aquae potoribus. Ut male sanos 

Adscripeit Liber Satyritt Faunisque poeta», 

Tina fere dulces oluerunt mane Camenae. 6 

Laudibus arguitur vini Tinosus Homerus; 

Ennius ipse pater nunquam nisi potus ad arma 

ProsiJuit dicenda. Forum Putealqne Libonis 

Mandabo siccis, adimam cantare severis. 

Hoc ftimul edixi, non cessaTere poelae 10 

Noctumo certare mero, putere aiurno. 

Quid ? si quis vultu torvo ferus et pede nudo 

Eziguaeque togae simulet textore Catonem, 

Virtutemne repraesentet moresque Catonis ? 

Rupit larbitam Timagenis aemuJa Jingua, 15 

1. Cratinus, a poet of the old Athenian comedy, usually named 
along with Eupolis and Aristophanes. — 3. Ut — poetat. Adacri- 
here is a military term, ' to eniist, to add men as soldiers to the 
army.' Hence: 'since the tirae when («0 Bacchus enlisted 
mad poets in his train, to which before the Satyrs and Fauns 
belonged;' that is, since the origin of poetry. Poets are called 
male eani^ as being inspired. ^5. Mane. The poets had drunk 
so much wine at ntght that they smelt of it even in the morn- 
ing. — 6. Laudibus vini. He praises it, for instance, in Jliadt 
vi. 261. and frequently. — 8. Puteal Lihonis. See Sat. ii. 6, 35. 
This Puteal and the Forum werc the places where usurers and 
inen of business congregated. — 9. Siccis. Compare Carm. i. 18, 3. 
— 10. Edixi, * laid down as a law/ that poets snould seek inspira- 
tion in drinking. — 12. Horace deals a blow at his wretched imitators. 
If a man dress, and try to look like Cato (Uticensis), this does not 
make him a Cato in soul. — 13. Textore exiguae togae, instrumental 
ablative, *by the weaver of a short toga,* a poetical expression for 
' by causing a weaver to make a short tojga ;' such as, contrary to 
the fashion of his time, Cato wore. — 15. Timagenes of Alezandria 
was a historian and rhetorician. Being brought as a captive to 
Rome, he gained the favour of Augustus, but lost it by uttering 
his opinions too freely, and was then received by Asinms Pollio 
into his heuse. A certain larbita, by birth a Moor, endeavoured 


Dam studet urbanus tenditque disertus haberi. 

Decipit exemplar vitiis imitabile; quodsi 

Pallerem casu, biberent exsangue cuminum. 

imitatores, servum pecus, ut mihi saepe 

Bilem, saepe jocum vestri movere tumultus ! 20 

Libera per vacuum posui vestigia princeps, 

Non aliena meo pressi pede ; qui sibi fidit 

Dux regit examen. Parios ego primus iambos 

Ostendi Latio, numeros animosque secutus 

Archilochi, non res et agentia verba Lycambea. 25 

Ac ne me foliis ideo brevioribus ornes, 

Quod timui mutare modos et carminis artem ; 

Temperat Archilochi Musam pede mascula Sappho, 

Temperat Alcaeus, SQd rebus et ordine dispar, 

Nec socerum quaerit, quem versibus obhnat atrisi 30 

Neo sponsae laqueum tamosa carmine nectit. 

Hunc ego, non aho dictum prius ore, Latinus 

Yulgavi fidicen ; ju.vat immemorata ferentem 

Ingenuis ocuHsque legi manibusque teneri. 

Scire velis, mea cur ingratus opuscula lector 35 

Laudet ametque domi, premat extra Umea iniquus ? 

Non ego ventosae plebis suifragia venor 

Impensis coenarum et tritae munere vestis; 

Non ego, nobiUum scriplorum auditor et ultor, 

ib equal the oratory of Timagenes by niere strength of voice ; but 
by hia ezertions he spUt his diaphragm, and died. Hence: *the 
emulous oratory of Timagenes split larbita,' said for ' the desire to 
equal Timagenes in eloquence spUt larbita/ — ;■ 17. VecrpU ejcemplar 
vitiis imitabUe; that is, a model which we desire to foUow deceives 
and leads us astray, because its very fauUs appear worthy of imi- 
tation. It is a trite but true remark, that the faulis of great men 
are the first things in them which are imitated. — 23. Archiiochus 
of Paros is said to have invented iambic poetry. Hence Farii 
iamhi. Horace in his Epodes had imitated Archilochus so far as 
the metre and slyle of writing are concerned, but he had not translat- 
ed. Sappho and Alcaeus had done the same. — 25. As to Lycambea, 
see Epode 6, 13, note. Connect verba agentia (= exagitantia, 
* abusing') Lycamben. — 26. Folia here are * laurels.* — 28. Construe 
thus: Sappho mascula ('of manly courage') temperat Musam pede 
Archilochij * writes in the same verse as Archilochus.' Temperare 
= regere. — ^30. This and the foUowing Une refer to Lycambes and his 
daughter. — ^32. Hunc ; namely, Alcaeum, — ^33. Immemorata, * things 
not before mentioned,' here the lyric poetry of Alcaeus. — 36. Pre- 
matf 'cries down.* Iniquus =inimicus. — ^37. Ventosae» See i 8, 12. 
What Horace here censures was really done by certain weaUhy 
people who wished to pass for poets. They gave dinners, and read 
their compositions to their assembled friends, who of course praised 
them. These are the nobiles scriptores mentioned in Une 39, whose 
uUor, 'punisher,' Horace is, because he writes better poems, and 


Grammaticas ambire tribus et pulpita dignor. 40 

Hinc illae lacrimae. ^ Spissis indigoa theatris 

Scripta pudet recitare et nugis addere pondus,' 

Si dixi f ^ rides,' ait, ^et Jovis auribus ista 

Servas ; fidis enim manare poetica mella 

Te solura, tibi pulchec.' Ad haec ego naribus uti 45 

FormidO) et luctantisacuto ne secer ungui, 

' Displicet iste locus' clamo, et diludia posco. 

Ludus enim genuit trepidum certamen et iram, 

Ira truces iniraicitias et funebre bellum. 

obtains more honour. — 40. Tribuaj * corporations, societies.' The 
expression * tribes/ is used here intentionally, because the school- 
masters assomed, as it were, a legislative or judicial function, the 
power of determining the merits of authors, by either introducing 
their works into the schools or rciecting them.— -41. Hinc illae lctcri- 
mae, *hence comes the^^censure which makes me weep ;' a proverbial 
expression taken from the Andria of Terence, i. 1, 99. — 42. Scripta, 
9cU. «•«i. — A/i. Ait, 'some one says.' Jovis auribua ista servaSi 
thinking them too good for mortals. — 44. Manare meila, ^ilowest 
with honey.' The verb is used transitively. Gram. ^ 249, note 2. 
^—45. Naribus uti = naao adunco su8j>€ndere. See Sat. i. 6, 5, and 
ii. 8, 64.-46. Luctaniis — uneui; that is, that I may not be still more 
severely handled. — 47. Diludia are properly the pauses, breath- 
inff-times, which were given to the gladiators between the single 
fignts, that they might recover themselves. Hence the sense is : I 
demand more tune to improve my poems. 



The last epistle of the first bpok. It is addressed to the book itself^ 
and, in a playful strain, mentions the fate with which it may 

Vertumnum Janumque, liber, spectare videris, 
Scilicet ut prostes Sosiorum pumice mundus. 
Odisti claves et grata sigilia pudico j ^ 

Paucis ostendi gemis et communia laudas, 

1. Vertumntts, the god of all chan^e (from verto), and hence of 
buying and selline. He had a temple in the Forum near the Janus, 
and its neighbournood was filled with shops, bookshops amonff the 
Test. — 2. The brothers Sosii were the prmcipal booksellers in Rome 
at this time. See Ars Poet., 345. Books, when put up for sale, 
were made smooth with pumice. Hence pumice mundus. — ^3. Grata 
jmdico, 'which are pleasant to a modest book.' Sealin^ was veiry 
commonly used in ancient times in piace of the locks which we put 
on chests and boxes. — 4. Gemis is here construed with the mere 


Non ita nQtritus. Fage; quo descendere gestis. 6 

Non erit exnisso redjtas tibi. 'Qnid roifler egi ? 

Quid Tolui V dices, ubi quid te laeserit ; et scis 

In breve te cogi, quum plenuft languet amator. 

Quodsi non odio peccantis desipit augur, 

Canis eris Romae, donec te deserat aetas ; ]0 

Contrectatus ubi manibus sordescere volgi 

Coeperis, aut tineas pasces taclturnus inertes, 

Aut fugies Uticam, aut vinctus mitteris Ilerdam. 

Ridebit monitor non exauditus, ut iUe, 

Qui male parentem in rupes protrusit asellum 15 

Iratas : quis enim invitum servare laboret 1 

Hoc quoqae te manet, ut pueros elementa doceatem 

Occupet extremis in vicisbalba sepectus. 

Quum tibi sol tepidus plures admoverit aures, 

Me libertino natum patre et in tenui re 20 

Majores pennas nido extendisse loqueris, 

Ut quantum generi demas, virtutibus addas; 

Me primis urbis belli placuisse domique ; 

Corporis exigui, praecanum, solibus aptum, 

Irasci celerem, tamen ut placabilis essem. 25 

Forte meum si quis te percontabitur aevum, 

Me quater undenos sciatamplevisse Decembres, 

Collegam Lepidum quo duxit LoUius anno. 

infinitive, instead of the accusative with the infinitive: 'thoa 
groanest at being shown only to a few.* — 8. In hreve te eogi, ' that 
thou art roUed up into a smail compass/ to be laid by in a chest, 
from which perhaps the reader, who is plenu» (that is, has other and 
better jpoems), may never again take thee. — 9. Augur; Horace 
himBelf. — 10. Donec — aetas^ ' till taste (which ahers with time) 
leaves thee forsaken.' — 13. llerda, a town in Spain. The Roman 
literature had begun to epread in the provinces hy this time, hut 
books reached them yery late ; so that what was antiquated at Rome 
was a novehy in Africa or Spain. Vinclue is * packed up* like mer- 
chanis' wares, or perhaps ' tied up round other articles,' as we use 
brown paper. — 14. Monitor; namely, I myself, who have been 
giving tbee advice. — 17. * This fate, too, awaits thee, that sfam- 
mering old age shall come upon thee, as thou teachest the boys ia 
the remote streets the A B C Here the book is completely per- 
sonified. Compare i. 19, 40. Only the old authors used to be read 
in schools; in Horace^s time, for instance, those who lived before 
Cicero, in the second century before Christ. The poet saw that fais 
book would become a schooibook, though not till after the lapse of 
many years. — 19. The sense is : when people read thee in the 
evening. when the sun is mild, then teli them. — 21. Connect ma- 
jores pennae nido ; that is, quam nidus estt than could be expected 
from the nest in which I was born. — 23. Frimis ^ princrpibus.^ 
24. Horace loved to bask in the sunshine, and hated cold. — 28. 
These were consuls in 21 b. c, consequentiy Horace was bom in 
December 65 b. c. 




This book was written at the urgent reqneet of Augustus, who felt 
liurt that Horace had as jet addressed nonc of his poems to him. 
This first epistle is addressed to the emperor. After a short tn- 
troduction in praise of Augustus, the poet begins to speak of the 
state of Roman poetry ; he exborts the emperor to foster it, and 
condudes with excusing himself for not celebrating the great 
deeds of Augustus, as his poetry is only suitable fer light subjects. 

QuuM tot sustineas et tanta negotia^solus, 
Res Italas armis tuteris; moribus ornes, 
Legibus emendes; in publica commoda peccem, 
Si longo sermone morer tua tempora, Caesar. 
Romulus et Liber pater et cum Castore Pollux, 5 
Post ingentia facta deotum in templa recepti, 
Dum terras hominumque colunt genus, aspera bella 
Componunt, agros assignant, oppida conduntjj 
Ploravere suis non respondere favorem 
Speratum meritis. Diram qui contudit Hydram 10 
Notaque fatali portenta labore subegit, 
Comperit invidianv supremo fine domari. 
Urit enim fulgore suo, qui praegravat artes 
Infra se positas ; extinctus amabitur idem. 
k ^ . : . 

2. Moribus ornes. Augustus was praefetJus morum. Compare 
Carm. iv. 15, 9,-4. Tua tempora ; that is, thee who hast to give thy 
time to the state. — 5. Compare Carm. iii. 3, 9, and following. -*►?, 
With hominum eenua we expect vivunt inter^ not colunt, which can 
refer properly only to terras. — 11. Fatali labore. The labours were im- 
posed on Hercules by Fate. The Hydra is a type of discord, to which 
Augustus had put an enQ in the Roman state. — 12. Supremofine = 
morte. — 13." Arles = virtutes. See Carm. iii. 3, 9. Tne sense is: 
he who excels his fellow-men is the object of their envy and hatred. 

s (273) 

274 Q. ^paATII FLAOOI 

Praesenti tibi maturoft largimur honores, 15 

Jurandasque tuum per nomen ponimus aras, 
Nil oriturum alias. nil ortum tale fatentes. 
Sed tuu8 hic populus sapiens et justus in uno 
Te nostris ducibus, te Graiis anteferendo, 
' Cetera nequaquam simili ratione modoque 20 

Aestimat, et nisi quae terris semota suisqne 
Temporibus defnncta videt, fastidit et odit, 
Sic fautor yeterom, ut tabulas peocare vetantes, 
Quas bis quinqne viri sanxerunt, foedera regum 
Yel Gabiis vel cum rigidis aequata Sabinis, 25 

Pontificum libros, annosa volumina vatum 
Dictitet Albano Musas in monte locutas. 
Si, quia Graecorum sunt antiquissima quaeque 
Scripta vel optima, Romani pensantur eadem 
Scpptores trutina, non est, quod multa loouamur ; 30 

Nil intra est oleam, nil extra est in nnce duri } 
YenimuB ad summum fortunae ; pingimus atqne 
Psallimus et ]uctamur Achivis scitius unctis. 
Si meliora dies, nt vina, poemata reddit, 
Scire velim, chartis pretium quotus arroget annus. 35 

— 15. PraeaetUij * while still alive.* Compare Cartn, iii. 5, 2. — 16. 
JurandoM araSf an unusual expressien. People swore, touchinfi; the 
attar at the same time. In 23 b. c, when Augastas recovered from 
a severe illness, 19 b. c, when he retamed from the East, aud on 
other occasions, tbe senate caosed public ahars to be erected to tbe 
gods, on which sacrifices were offered for his welfare, People 
swore, too, by the name of Augustus ; but divine honours were not 
granted to him so long as he was alive. Neither he nor any other 
of the good Roman emperors permitted this. — 18. Connect sapieM 
et juttus tn uno te antejferendo, — 21. Terria semotat * removed from 
the earth,' hence = mortua. Similarly suit temporibua defuneta » 
ea quae interierunt, — ^23. Veterumt neuter. Tahulae peccare «efanlet, 
the twelve tables. — 25. Aequata = aeguis eondicionthu» facta, hence 
' ancient ;' for, after the power of Rome became great, she never 
made treaties on equal terms. — 26. Fontifieum l&roe, principally 
the Annalee maximit chronicles kept from the earliest times by 
the chief pontifTs. They were meagre, and rudely compoaed, bat 
very useful to historians. Anneea volumina va/ttm, especialiy the 
Sibylline books.— 27. The sense is : the Roman people believe these 
old poems and annals to be beautiful, and written m choice Latin. ^ 
Horace takes the Aiban Mount as the seat of the Latin Muses. — 
30. Non eat quod^ *then there is no reason why.' The oldest 
poetB in each department among the Greeks were ahso the best — 
Homer, Archilochus, Aeschylus, and others. Not so among the 
Romans. — 31. A proverb, used of those who deny manifest truths: 
for the olive has a hard stone, and the nut a hard shell. —32. The 
sense is: with the same justice we might say that the Romans 
do everything better than the Greeks, and need to learn no more, 
being already at the height of perfeotion (fMmaiiMsi>rrwMe.)— 35 


Scriptor abhino annos centum qni decidit, inter 

Per/ectos yeteresqQe referri debet an inter 

Viles atque noYos 1 Excludat jnrgia finis. 

£st vetus atque probus, centnm qui perfioit annos. 

Quid 1 qui deperiit minor ufio mense vel anno, 40 

Inter quos referendus erit ? Veteresne poetas, 

An quos et praeflens et postera respuat aetas ? 

^lste quidem veteres inter ponetur honeste, 

Qui vel mense brevi vel toto est junior anno.' 

Utor permisso, caudaeque pilos ut equinae 45 

Paullatim vello et demo nnuro, demo et item unum, \ 

Dum cadat elusas, ratione mentis acervi, 

Qui redit in fastos et virtutem aestimat annjs 

Miraturque nihil, nisi quod Libitina sacraviT 

Ennius et sapiens et fortis et alter Homerus, 60 

Ut critici dicunt, leviter curare videtur, 

Quo promissa cadant et somnia Pythagorea. < 

Naevius in manibus non est et mentibus haeret 

Paene recens 1 adeo sanotum est vetus omne poema. 

Arobigitur quoties, uter utro sit prior, aufert 55 

Pacuvius docti famam senis, Attios alti, 

Dicitur Afrani toga convenisse Menandro, 

Arro^et = tribuaty afferat. — 38. Fin}8t *a definition, the fixing of a 
definite time/ — 42. Horace meniions here an absurdity connected 
with the indiacriminate prai^e of ancient authora; namely, that 
every author becomes good througfa time. — 43. An admirer of the 
old writera spealis. — 47. JRatione ruentis aeervif * in the same way 
as a heap of corn, which tumblea down/ when one takes away 
grain aftergrain. — 48. Qui redit infaetos ; that ia, who, in judsing 
of an author*s merits, goes always to the calendar, and counts now 
long he has been dead.^49. As to Libitina, see Carm. iii. 30, 7. — 
52. Samnia Pythagorea. Ennius, in the commencement of his great 
work, the Annalea^ said that he had seen Homer in a vision. who 
told him that his spirit had migrated (according to the doctrine of 
Pythagoras) first into a peacock, and then into Ennius. Hence 
Horace's idea is : Ennius, who thought himself a second Homer, 
and is so called by the critics, was yet careless. — 53. Cn. Naevius 
of Capua produced his first play on tho Roman stage in the year 
235 B. c. He wrote also an epic poem on the First Punic War. 
Non eet sr nanne eet^ a question of wonder, * do we not still read 
Naevinsr* and yet he is no creat poet. — 55. Quotiee ambigitur uter 
'utro sit priort * as often as tnere is a discussion which poet is better 
than another' in any department, ihe ancients only are spoken of.— 
56. Pacuvius, a native of Brundusium and a nephew of Ennius, 
was a celebrated poet, distinguished particularly for his mytholo- 
gical lore. He was bom in 220 b.c, and died in Tarentum at the 
age of ninety. As to Attius, see Sat. i. 10, 53. — 57. L. Afranius, 
who flonrished about 94 b. c, wrote /afruZae togatae; tbat is, plays 
whose subject and drttmatis pereonae were Roman, and called toga' 


Plautas ad exemplar Siculi properare £picharini, 

Yincere Caecilius gravitate, Terentius arte. « 

Hos ediscit et hos arto stipata theatro 60 

Spectat Roma potens ; habet hos numeratque poelas 

Ad nostrum tempus Liyi scriptoiis ab aevo. 

Interdum vulgus rectum videt ; est ubi peccat. 

Si veleres ita miratur laudatque poetas, 

Ut nihil anteferat, nihil illis comparet, errat. « 65 

Si quaedam nimis antique, si pleraque dure 

Dicere cedit eos, ignave niulta fatetur; 

Et sapit et mecum facit et Jove judicat aequo. 

Non equidem insector delendaque carmana Livi 

£8se reor, memini quae plagosum mihi parvo 70 

Orbilium diftare; sed emendata videri 

Pulchraque et exaetis minimum distantia miror : 

Inter quae verbum emicirit si forte decorum, 

Si versus paullo conoinnior unua et alter; 

Injuste totum duoit venditque poema. 75 

Indignor quidquam reprehendi, noii quia crasse 

Compositum illepideve putetur, sed quia nuper ; 

Nec veniam antiquis, sed honorem et praemia posci. 

Recte necne crocum floresque perambulet Attae 

Fabula si dubitem, ciament puriisse pudorem 80 

tae in opposition to tbe palliataet in which both subject and persons 
were Greek. Menander, a poet bf the new Greek comedy. Con- 
venisse = parfuisae. — 58. Epicharmus, a Greek comedian, born in 
the island of Cos, was taken eariy to Sicily, and lived under King 
Hiero (hence Siculus.) Properare, * to hurry/ on accoant of the 
liveliness and falness of action which Epicharmos and Plaatus had 
thrown into their plays. — 59. C. Caeciiias Statius, a firiend.of En- 
nius, who died 168 b. c, was considered as the greatest Roman CO' 
median. Terence was praised for his art in the representation of 
character. — 62. Livius Andronicus produced, 240 b. c. the first play 
ever acted at Rome. Besides writing plays, he translated the Odys- 
sey into Latin verse. — 66. Pleraque = plurima, 'very much;' tnis 
is the chief use of plerique in the writers of the Augustan age. — 68. 
Jove aequo, ' with the favour of Jupiter;' that is, rightly. The 
reverse is Jove irato. — ^71. Orbilius Papilius of fieneventam, a 
shrewd, ready-witted man, came to Rome 63 b. c, and opeoed a 
school, which Horace attended. He was a severe inaster, hence 
plagosua. The old writers only were read in schools. Compare i 
19, 40. As to memini dictare, see Gram, ^ 371, note 3. — 72. Con-' 
nect minimum distantia exactis i=i perfecti»,) — ^75. Vncit, aciL seeum. 
The figure is taken from a person selling, who, if there be any 
«)od point in an article, takes advantage of it to recommend 
tne wnole. — 79. Crocum Jloresque peram^let ; that is, goes over 
the stage, is represented, for tne ancient ecena was strewed with 
erocus and flowers. T. Quinctius Atta, who died in the year 
78 B. c, was thc author of many highly-eateemed faXnUae togatae. 


Cuncti paene patres, ea quum reprehendere coner, 

ttuae gravis Aesopus, quae docius Roscius eglt ; 

Vel quia nil rectum, nisi quod placuit sibi) ducunt, 

Vel quia turpe pulant parere minoribus et, quae 

Imberbi didicere, senes perdenda fateri. 85 

Jam Saliare Numae oarmen qui laudat, et ilJud, 

Quod mecum ignorat, solus vult scire videri, 

Ingeniis non ille favet plauditque sepultis, 

Nostra sed impuguat, nos nostraque lividus odit. 

Quodsi tam Graiis novitas invi^ fuisset 90 

Quam nobis, quid nunc esset vetus ? Aut quid haber^st, 

Quod legeret tereretque viritim publicus usus? 

Ut primum positis nugari Graecia bellis 

Coepit et in vitium fortuna labier aequa, 

Nunc athletarum studiis, nunc arsit equorum, 95 

Marmoris aut eboris fabros aut aeris amavit, 

Suspendit picta vuUum mentemque tabella, 

Nunc tibicinibus, nunc est gavisa tragoedis j 

Sub nutrice puella velut si luderot infans, 

Quod cupide petiit, mature plena reliquit. 100 

Quid placet aut odio est, quod non mutabile credas ? 

Hoc paces habuere bonae ventique secundi, 

Romae dulce diu fuit et soUemne reclusa 

Mane domo vigilare, clienti promere jura, 

Cautos nomiuibus.rectis expendere nummos, 105 

Majores audire, minori dicere, per quae 

Crescere res posset, minui damnosa libido. 

Mutavit mentera populus levis et calet uno 

— 81. Patre8= ttenioreB. — 82. Aesopus and Roscius, the two most 
celebrated Roman actors, both contemporaries of Cicero : the 
former excelled in tragedy, the latter in comedy.— 84, Minoribus ^ 
^ junioribus. — 86. Saliare Numae carmen^ the old hymn which 
Wflis sung by the priests of M»r8 in the proceseion which they made, 
equippea with the sacred shields. This hymn, like all the old reli- 
eious institutioDs, was ascribed to Numa. It was quite unintelligi- 
ble to the Romans in Horace^s time, and was explained by learned 
philologists in many different ways. Hence Horace's remark in 
jine 87. — 88. Sepultis ; that is, scriptorum^mortuorum, — 93. I^u- 
garif *to write poems.'--94. In viliumt *irfto vice, effeminacy.* 
Jr^ortuna aequa, causal ablative. — 97. That is, began to admire pic> 
tures. — 100. Mature plena reliquit ; namely, Graeeia. Greece brought 
the arts rapidly to perfection, and then abandoned them, as a child 
does a plaything. — 102. Hoc / namely, the rapidity of the Greeka 
in attaining periection. Venti secundi = bonafortuna. — 103. Rome 
used to care only for business. *- 105. Cauios nummos expendere for- 
caute nummos expendere. Nomen^ \n money-matters, means either a 
dcbt, or a debtor or creditor, the sum being marked in the debtor*s 
fu^ount-book under the *name' of the creditor, and vic^ versd, A 


Scnbendi studio ; paerique patresque seyeri 
Fronde comas vincti coenant et carmina dictant. tlO 

Ipse ego, qui nuUos me affirmo scribere yersus, 
Invenior Parthis mendacior et prius orto 
Sole vigil calamum et chartas et scrinia posco. 
Nayim agere ignarus navis timet, abrotonum aegro 
Non audet, nisi qui didicit, dare; quod medicorom est 115 
Promittunt medici : tractant fabrilia fabri : 
Scribimus indocti doctique poemata passim. 
Hio error tamen et levis haec insania quantas 
YirtnteB habeat, sic coUige : vatis avarus 
Non temere est animus : versus amat, hoc studet iinam ; 120 
Detrimenta, fogas servorum, incendia ridet, 
Non fraudem socio puerove incogitat ullam 
Pupillo 'y vivit siliquis et pane secundo, 
Miiitiae qoamquam piger et malus, utilis urbi, 
Si das hoc, parvis quoque rebus magna juvari. 125 

Os tenerum pueri balbumque poeta fignrat; 
Torquet ab obscoenis jam nunc sermonibus aurerai 
Mox i^mm pectus praeceptis format amicis, 
Asperitotis et invidiae corrector et irae, 
Recte facta refert, orientia tempora notis 130 

Instruit exemplis, inopem solatur et aegrum. 
Castis cum pueris ignara puella mariti 
Bisceret unde preces, vatem ni Musa dedisset ? 
Poscit opem chorus et praesentia numina sentit, 
Coelestes implorat aquas docta prece blandus, 135 

Avertit morlx>s, metuenda pericula peHit, 
Impetrat et pacem et ]ocupletem frugibus annum ; 
Carmine di superi placantur, carmine manes. 
Agricolae prisci, fortes parvoque beati, 
• Condita post fnimenta levantes tempore festo 140 

rectum nmnen here is a creditor wfao justly demands payment. — 110. 
Fronde ; naroely, ivy. Thc people are now so zealous in writing 
poetry that they think about it even when at dinner. — 112. PaHhi$ 
mendacior. Compare Cam. iv. 15, 23. — 117. The antithesis. — 122.- 
Socio, * his partner in bueiness.' Incogitare ia an Airaf >ty6/tgv9v, 
coined by Horace, ^todevise against aperson.* — 123. Fane secundo, 
* the eecond quality of bread.' — 124. MUitiaet dative. — 127. Jam 
nunc ; that ia, even as a boy.^130. Orientia tempora, the chiidren. — 
132. Ignara maritiss innupta.-~134. Poecit opem chorue. At festivais 
(the secular games, for instance) a choir of boya and girlR used to 
sing hymns in praise of the gods, and to supplicate their nelp. Proe- 
aentia. See Carm. i. 35, 2. — 135. Coelestee aquas^ rain. See Carm. 
Saee. 31. — 140. Condita poet /rumenta ; that is, after the harvest, 
when they had brought the grain into their bams; for this is eomderek 


Corpas et ipsam animum spe finis dura ferentem 

Cum eociis operum, pueris et conjuge fida, 

Tellurem porco, Silvanum lacte piabant, 

Floribn» ec vino Genium memorem breyis aevi. 

Fescennina per huno inventa ]icentia morem 145 

Versibus altemis opprobria rustica fudit, 

Libertasque recnrrentes accepta per annos 

Lnsit amabiliter, doneo jam saeyus apertam 

In rabiem coepit rerti jocus et per honestas 

Ire domos impune rainax. Dotuere cruento 150 

Dente lacessiti. Fuit intactis quoque cura 

Condicione super communi, auin etiam lex 

Poenaque lata, maJo auae nollet carmine quemqnam 

Describi ; vertere modom formidine fnstis 

Ad bene dicendum delectandnmque redacti. 155 

Graecia capta ferum victorem cepit et artes 

Intulit agresti Latio : sic horridus ille 

Deflnxit numerus Satumius, et grave viras 

Munditiae pepnlere ; sed in longum tamen aevnm 

Manserunt tiodieque manent vestigia ruris. 160 

Serus enim Graecis admovit acumina chartis, 

£t post Punica bella quietus quaerere coepit, 

Quid Sophocles et Thespis et Aeschylos utile ferrent. 

Tentavit quoque rem, si digne vertere posset, 

£t placuit sibi natura sublimis et acer ; 165 

Nam spirat tragicum satis et feliciter audet, 

Sed turpem putat inscite metuitque lituram. 

-^ 141. jpmu, * of the end ;' that is, of a good hanrest. — 142. His 
wife and sons were the aocii operum, for slaves in thoee days there 
were few or none. — 145. Fescennia waa an Etruscan town on the 
Tiber, where the custom prevailed of singing jocular lampoona at 
weddings. Hence Horace caila the aongs which the Roman pea- 
sants sang at their harvest homes, * a Fescennine license.' — 150. Ire 
per honeataa domot. It passed over from the peasants to people of 
rank, and became naturai among them. — 1.52. Lex voenaque, See 
iSat. ii. 1, 82. — 154. Describi, a good word to indicate personal 
Bttaeks. Satires on vice and folly in general were still allowed. 
Modum, ' the measure* or ' melody.' — 158. As to the Saturnian 
verse, see Zumpt, ^ 863. — 161. Admovit, scil. JRomanus.^162. Con- 
nect poet Punica heUa quietus. — 163. TkeepiM. See Ars Poet., 276. 
He 18 said to have been the inventor of Greek tragedy, and to have 
lived in the lime of SoIon.--164. VeHere, * to translate.'— 165. Pla- 
euit ttibi, * he found pleaFure' in translations. The number of Latin 
translations and imitations of Greek tragedies was very great ; but 
nnfortunately none has come down to us. — 167. Lituram. Foolishly, 
•nd because they do not undervtand the art of poetry (inscite), the 
Romans are afraid to eraae what they have once written : they do 


Creditur, ex niedio quia res arce8«t, habere 
Sudoris minimum, sed habet comoedia tanto 
Plus oneris, quanto veniae miuus. Adspice, Plantns 170 
Quo pacto partes tutetur amantis ephebi, 
Ut patris attenti, lenonis ut insidiosi ; 
, Quantus sit Dossennus edacibus in parasitis; 
Quam non adstricto percurrat pulpita socco. 
Gestit enim nummum in loculos demittere, post hoc 175 
SecuruSj cadat an recto stet fabula talo. 
Quem tulit ad scenam ventoso gloria curru, 
Exanimat lentus spectator, sedulus inflat : 
Sic leve, sic parvum est, animum quod laudis aTarum 
Subruit aut reficit. Va]eat res ludicra, si me 180 

Palma negata macrnra, donata reducit opimum. 
Saepe etiam audacem fugat hoc terretque poetam, 
Quod numero plures, virtute et honore minores, 
Indocti stolidique et depugnare parati, 
Si discordet eques, media inter carmina poscunt 185 

Aut ursam aut pugile» ; his nam plebecula plaudit. 
Verum equiti quoque iam migravit ab aure voluptaa 
Omnis ad incertos oculos et gaudia vana. 
Quattuor aut plures aulaea premunturin horas, 
Dum fugiunt equitum turmae peditumque catervae; 190 
Mox trahitur manibus regum fortuna retortis, 
£sseda festinant, pilenta, petorrita, naveS) 
Captivum portatur ebur, captiva Corinthus. 
Si foret in terris, rideret Democritus, seu 

DOt polish their poems. — 168. Arcesfil ren ex medio^ *it takes its 
subject from common life.' The nominative is comoedieu — 172. 
Attenti, * frogal.' — 173. Doseenntts, an otlierwise unknown poet, 
probably a writer offabulae togatae, — 174. Soccus was the come- 
aian'8 shoe. cothumus the traeredian'8. Henee he who goes non 
adttricto (that is, laxo) aocco^ is bne who writes no ffood comedies. — 

175. FiautuB, Dossennus, and other poets, sold their pla^rs to the 
aediles, to be exhibited at the garaes, and lived on the proceeds. — 

176. Stare and cadere are the proper ezpressions for a play which 
* pleases' or which ' does not please.' — 177. The Tnan who writea 
for fame is contraeted wiih those who write for money merely. — 
180. Valeat, *I shall say •' good-bye" to.' — 186. Unum, 'a bear- 
baiting.' In the time of Augustus baitings and pugilistic exhi- 
bitions took place generally in the theatres, supplying the place of 
oar farces ; afterwards the amphitheatres were built for them. — 188. 
That is to great pomp and glitter on the stage. — 189. In the ancient 
theatres the curtain lay on the ground (premufUur) during the play, 
and was drawn up at the end. Hcnce the sense is: four hours or 
more are devoted to the passages in plays that are intended merely 
to gratify the eye. Tho poet^oes on to mention such BceneB.~191. 
Begum foHuna = rege» infelices. — 193. Pictures representing great 
exploits are ezhibited ; aa, for instance the taking of Corinth. — 194 

SPI8T0LARUM LIB. 11. 281 

JXyenum confnsa genas panthera camelo 196 

Sive elephas albnB vul^i converteret ora; 

Speetaret popolum ludis attentiue ipsie, 

Ut aibi praebentem mimo epeclacula plura, 

Scriplores autem narrare putaret asello 

Fabellam aordo. Nam qaae pervincere voces SOO 

£valuere Bonura, referunt quem nostra iheatra % 

Garganum mugire putes nemusaut mare Tuecum, 

Tanto cum strepitu ludi spectantur et artes 

Divitiaeqne peregrinae, quibus oblitus acior 

Quum Btetit in scena, concurrit deztera ]aevae. 205 

Dijcit adhnc aliquid 1 Nil sane. Quid placet ergo ? 

Lana Tarentino violas imitata veneno. 

Ac ne forte potes me, guae facere ipse recusem, 

Quum recte tractent alii, laudare maligne ; 

Ille per extentnm funem mibi posse videtur 210 

Ire poeta, meum qui pectus inaniter angit, 

Irritat, mulcet, falsis terroribus implet, 

Ut magus, et roodo me Thebis, modo ponit Athenis. 

Yerum age et his, qui se lectori credere malunt 

Quam spectatoris fastidia ferre superbi, 215 

Curam redde brevem, si munus Apolline dignum 

Yis complere libris et vatibus addere calcar, 

Ut studio majore petant Helicona virentem. 

Multa quidem nobis facimus mala saepe poetae, 

Ut vineta egoroet caedam mea, quum tibi librum 220 

SoUicito damus aut fesso; quum laedimur, unum 

Si quis amicorum est ausus reprendere versum ; 

J)emocritus, See i. 12, 12. — 195. Diver$um genus, ' a kind of ani- 
mal quite difTerent frono the common/ is the subject. Then follows 
IQ apposition panthera confusa camelo ; that is, a cameleopard or 
girane, which was first brought to Rome and exhibited by Julius 
Caesar. — 196, White elephants are rare. — 197. Ludis ipsis^quam 
ludos i^o«.-— 202. Garganum. See Carm. ii. 9, 7. — 203. Artes^ scU. 
peregrtnae ; the works of art, statues, silver and ^olden vessels, 
with which the stage was adorned. — 204. Divitiae, rich dresses and 
brnaments, auch as that roentioned in line 207. — 205. Concurrit dex- 
iera Jnevae ; that is, there is a clapping of handB. ^ 208. Quae ; 
namely, plays. — 210. A proverbial expression, Mo walk along a 
tight rope,' for *to do a very difficult thin^.*— -211. Inaniter, • wiih- 
out reason.' — 214. Qui — malunt ; that is, who writes lyrics and 
epics. — 216. Munus Apolline dignum. See i. 3, 17, note. — 219. 
Multa quidem. Sed tamen in line 229 introduces the antithesis. Ho- 
race ezcuses the emperor for not having encouraeed poets sufficient ly : 
it has Wu^their own fault. — 220. * To cut the trees in one'8 own 
vineyard ' is a proverb for ' to hurt one*s self.* — 221. Laedimur, * we 


Qaum loca jam recitata revolTimns irreTOO&ti ; 

Qiium lamentamur, non apparere labores 

Nostros et tenui deducta poemata filo ; 225 

Quum speramus eo rem venturam, ut, simul atqne 

Carmina rescieris nos iingere, coramodus ultro 

' Arcessas et egere vetes et scribere cogas. 
Sed tamen est operae pretiam cognoscere, quales 
AedituoB habeat belli spectata domique 230 

Virtus indigno non committenda poetae. 
Gratus Alexandro regi magno fait ilie 
Choerilus, incuhis qui versibus et male natis 
Rettulit acceptoS) regale nomisma, Philippos. 
Sed veluti tractata notam labemque remittunt 235 

Atramenta, fere scriptores carmine foedo 
Splendida facta iinunt. Idem rex ille, poema 
Qui tam ridiculum tam care prodigus emit, 
Edicto vetuit, ne quis se praeter ApeHem 
Pingeret, aut alius Lysippo duceret aera 240 

Fortis Alexandri vuhum simulantia. Qnodsi 
Jadicium ftubtile videndis artibus ilkKl 
Ad libros et acl haec Musarum dona vocares, 
Boeotum in crasso jarares aere natum. 
At neque dedecorant tua de se judicia atque 245 

Munera, quae muha dantis cum laude tulerunt, 

' Diiecti tibi Yii^Iius Variusque poetae ; 
Nec magis expressi vultus per aeriea signa, 

feel offended.* — ^223. Irrevoeati, * without being encored.* — 224. Ap- 
parere = intelligL — 225. Tenui deducta filo, *8pun fine ;' that is, 
*elegant.' — 2^. Commodus = liberalis. — 229, Horace passes over 
here very elegantly to his reason for not celebrating the deeds of 
Augustus. Tne emperor's meril {virtus spectata helli domique) is con- 
ceived. as it were, as a goddess, who has a temple ; and the poets 
who sing her praise are the keepers of the temple. — 233. Choerilas 
of lasos, a town of Caria, a bad poet, who accompanied Alez- 
ander. Connect Philippos rettulit acceptos (= debuit) versihuSf 
*was indebted to his verses for Philippi ;^ that is, received Phi- 
lippi from Alexander for thern. Philippi, properly PhHippet, 
gold coins struck by Kine Philip, and bearing his Hkeness. — 
23.5. Traclata, ' when laid. Tiold of.' — 237. Linunt = maculant. — 
239. Apelles of Cos, the most celebrated painter, and Lysippus of 
Sicvon, the most celebrated statuary of the time. — ^240. Ducere aera 
is tne technical expression for founding in brass. — 241. Simulantia 
= imitantia. — 242. SubtUe videndis artibus (= judicandis artibus», 
The artes are opposed to the libri^ poems. — 244. Boeotum for Boeo- 
torum. The Boeotians were considercd as stupid, and the Greeka 
attfibuted this to the thick atmosphere of their country. — 246. 
Multa dantis cum laude, * to the great credit of the donor.' Both 
Virgil and Varius were by this time dead. — 248. Poets can honour 


.Qttam per yatis opus mores animique vironim 
Clarorum apparent. Nec sermones ego mallem 250 

' Bepentes per humum quam res componere gestas, 
Terrarumque situs et flumina dicere et arces 
Montibus impositas et barbara regna, toisque 
Auspiciis totum confecta dueUa per orbem, 
Claustraque custodem pacis cohibentia Jahum, 255 

Et formidatam Parthis te principe Romam ; 
Si, quanlum cuperem, possem quoque : sed neque parvum 
Carmen majestas recipit tua, nec meus audet 
Rem tentare pudor, quam vires ferre recusent. 
Sedulitas autem, stulle quem diligit, urg^t, 260 

Praecipue quum se numeris commendat et arte , 
Discit enim citius meminitque libentius illud, 
Quod quis deridet, quam quod probat et veneratur. 
Nil moror officium, quod me gravat, ac neque ficto 
In pejus vuhu proponi c6reus usqnam, 265 

Nec prave factis decorari versibus opto ; 
Ne rubeam pingui donatus munere, et una 
Cum scriptore meo capsa porrectus aperta , 

• . Deferar in vicum vendentem thus et odores 

£t piper et quidquid chartis amicitur ineptis. 270 

sreat men as much as painters and.statuaries, wbo can represent 
put the outward form. — 258. Eecipit = admittit. — 260. Sedulitas for 
sedulus. The sense is : any one who is foolishly ofRcious and eager 
in his attentions to a great man, is burdensome (urget), especially 
when he sbows his attention by writing poems on him ; for he in- 
jures his patron'8 fame, and makes the people iaugh at him, men 
generally keeping better in memory that which may be laughed at 
than that which deserves respect. — 264. I, at least, continues the 
poet, care nothing for an officiousness which annoys me, and have 
no desire either to have a bad portrait taken of me, or to be cele- 
hrated in bad verses. — 265. Froponi cereus, This shows that in 
Horace's time the portraits of distinguished men were publicly ex- 
hibited and sold. — 267. Pingui munere, ' a stupid present ;' namely, 
%he bad poem. Horace goos on to tell, that the poem, like other 
unsaleable works, will be used as waste paper for wrapping up gro- 
ceries. The poem, or as Horace wittily says, the writer along with 
the unfortunate victim of his praise, is carried into a shop, not rolled 
up like other books, but stretched out like a corpse in an open 
ehest, just as the bodies of tho poor were carried to burial in au 
open coffin. 



An epiitle of great iroportance, as relatin^ to Horaoe'a own poet. 
ical labours. It is addreBsed to the Jolius Flonis to whom i 3 
also is addreflsed. The poet begins by excusing himself fi>r not 
writing more : this is owing to his altered circomstances. He 
describes what first led him to write poetry, and shows that he 
has now many business engagements, which prevent his making 
progress in his art He perceives, too, that philosophy b the 
great study fi>r an educated man who wishes to be truly happy ; 
and this gives him an opportunity of concluding with some e3U 
cellent rules of conduct 

Flore^ bono claroqne fidelis amice Neroni; 

Si qais forte velit paenitn tibi vendere natum 

Tibure vel Gabiis et tecum 8ic agat : * Hic, et 

Candidus et talos a vertice palcher ad imos, 

Fiet eritque tuas nummorum milibus octo, 5 

Vema ministeriis ad nutas aptus heriles, 

Litterulis Graecis imbutus, idoneus arti 

Cuilibet ; argilla quidvis imitaberis uda ; 

Quin etiam canet indoctum, sed dulce bibenti. 

Multa fidem promissa levant; ubi plenius aequo 10 

Laudat venales, qui vult extrudere merces. 

Res ur&^et me nulla, meo sum [)auper in aere. 

Nemo hoc mangonum faceret tibi ; non temere a me 

Quivis ferret idem. Semel iiic cessavit et, ut fit, 

In scalis latuit metuens pendentis habenae ;' 15 

2. Si. The apodosis comes in line 16. Puerumj * a slave,' a vema, 
MangoJB the Latin term for a slave-roerchant. — 4. Slaves were ex- 
posed naked in the market. — 7. Litterulif. He knows something of 
Greek literature. — 8. Argilla uda is an ablative absolate. The boy is 
compared to clay, such as that of which a statuary makes figures. 
We use the same metaphor. — 9. Indortum, ' without being an ar* 
tist,' but yet so that his singing ehall please thee while drinking. — 
10. Levant = minuunt. If I say more you will not believe me. — 
12. Meo 8um pauper in aere, opposed to in aere alieno. Hence : I 
am poor, it is true, but have no debts, so that I am not forced to 
seil this boy. — 13. No other dealer would sell you the boy so cheap, 
and I should not give him so cbeap to every purchaser. — 14. The 
seller of a slave was bound by law to state to the purchaser, beforo 
the bar^in was concluded, whether the slave had certain &ults. 
H he did not do this, the bargain was void. The chief fault that 
faad to be mentioned was a disposition to run away. Here the wtoMge 


Des naTnmo&, excepta nihil te si fuga laedat : 

II le ferat pretiunn poenae securus, opi^nor. 

Prudens emisti vitiosum, dicta tibi est lex: 

Insequeris tamen hunc et lite moraris iniqua 

Dixi me pigrum proficiscenti tibi, dixi 20 

Talibus officiis prope mancum, ne mea saevus 

Jnrgares ad te quod epistola nulla veniret. 

Quid tum profeci, mecum facientia jnra 

Si tamen attentas ? Quereris super hoc etiam, quod 

Expectata tibi non miltam carmina mendax. - 25 

LucuIIi miles coUecla viatica multis 

Aerumriis, lassus dum noctu stertit, ad assem 

Perdiderat ; post hoc vehemens lupus, et sibi et hosti 

Iratus pariter, jeiunis dentibus acer, 

Praesidium regale loco dejecit, ut aiunt, 30 

Summe munilo et multarum divite rerum. 

Clarus ob id factum donis ornatur honestis, 

Accipit et bis dena super sestertia nummum. 

Forte sub hoc tempus castelium evertere praetor 

Nescio quod cupiens hortari coepit eundem. 35 

Verbis, quae tinaido quoque possent addere mentem : 

^ T, bone, quo virtus tua te vocat, i pede faosto, 

Grandia laturus meritorum praemia. Quid stas?' 

Post haec ille catus, quantumvis rusticus, ^lbit, 

Ibit eo, quo vis, qui zonam perdidit,' inquit. 40 

Komae nutriri mini contigit, atque doceri, 

Iratus Graiis quantum nocnisset Achilles. 

Adiecere bonae paullo plus artis Athenae ; 

Scilicet ut possem curvo dignoscere rectum, 

says that the slave had once absconded, but he expresses it very 
gently. He says semd cessavit^ * he was once negligent in his duiy,* 
and, metuens hahenae nendenti», * fearing the thong which hangs in 
the house,* w scalis latuit, * he hid himself about the stairs.* — 16. 
Nihil laedat, ' does not trouble thee.' — 17. Poenfie securus, because 
he has given thee the lex mentioned in the following line, * the noti- 
fication of faults ■equired by law.' — 19. The sense is: yet, when 
the slave runs away, you prosecute the seller. — 21. Talibus — man- 
cum^ ' who scarcely practise such courtesies as letter-writinff.* Con- 
nect mea epistola nulla. — ^23. Mecumfacientiajura, * the right, which 
iB on my side.' We BKyfacere cum aliquo and stare ah aliquo in thia 
sense. — 24. Superhoc, as in line 33, super alone = praeterea. — 28. 
Velut is wanting before vehemens. — 30. Regale ; tnat is, of King 
Mithridates. He took a castle in which the king had laid up his 
treasures. — 36. Mentem = animos. — 40. The soldiera used to keep 
their money in their girdles. — 42. Horace, when at school, had read 
the Iliad, which was the first book in a liberal education.— 43. See 
the Introduction.*— 44. Cicrvo dignoscere rectum, 'to distinguish 


Atque inter eilvas Academi qoaerere Terum. 45 

Dura sed emovere loco me tempora grato, 

Civilisque rudem belli tulit aestus in arma, 

Caesaris Augusti non responsura lacertis. 

Unde simul primum me dimisere Phiiippi, 

Decisis humilem pennis inopemque paterni 50 

£t Laris et fundi paupertas impulit audax, 

Ut v^rsus facerem ', sed, quod non desit, habentem 

Quae poterunt unquam satis expurgare cicutae, 

Ni melius dormire putem quam scribere versas ? 

Singula de nobis anni praedantur euntes ] 55 

Eripuere jocos, Venerem, convivia, ludom; 

Tendunt extorquere poemata : quid faciam via ? 

Denic|ue non orones eadem mirantur amantque : 

Carmme tu gaudes, hic delectatur iambis» 

Ille Bioneis sermonibus et sale nigro. 60 

Tres mihi convivae prope dissentire videntur, 

Poscentes vario muhum diversa palato. 

Quid dem 1 quid non dem*? renuis quod tu, iubet alter ; 

Qnod petis, id sane est invisum acidumque duobua. 

Praeter cetera me Romaene poemata censes 65 

Scribere posse inter tot curas totque labores ? 

Hic sponsum vocat, hic auditum scripta reliotis 

Omnibus officiis ', cubat hic in colle Quirini, 

Hic extremo in Aventino, visendus uterque ; 

Intervalla vides humane commoda. *• Verum 70 

right from wrong,' to know moral philosophy. — 46. Duru tempora, 
the war between the triumvirs and the republican party. — 47. Con- 
nect aesiut eivilis helli. — 48. The sense is : which were to yield to 
Caesar Augustus. — 52. Sed — ver»u$, The sense is: one who 
lias enough to live upon does not write verses, unless he is quite in- 
curable. Quod nan de§it =s quod tatig sit. — 53. Cieuta is hemlock. 
Its seed was used, particularly in cases of fever, as a cooHng medi- 
cine and purgative. — ^54. Dormire, Compare Satires ii. 1, 7. — ^57. 
Quidfaciam vit, * what can I do, pray f ' I cannot resist age. — ^59. Car- 
iniffe, fcil. lyrico, such as the odes. As to the iambi, see i. 19, 23. — 
60. Bion Borysthenites, a disciple of Theophrastus, but who liter- 
wards belonged to the Cynic school, flourisned aly>ut 256 b. c, and 
wrote treatises in which he lashed unmercjifully the follies of man- 
kind. Horace alludes here to his satires. Sale nigro. See Satirea 
i. 10, 3, and ii. 4, 74. — 65. Praeter ceterai * but besides these other 
considerations.' What comes is to be considered as of greatest im- 
portanoe. — 67. Spontum and auditumt supines. Sponsumt * to be a 
fpouMor.* See i. 16, 43. — 68. OMciis, here * visits,' whieh I should 
be engaged durinff the whole day in paying. Cubat, * liea sick.' 
The CoUis Quirim or Quirinah$ was at the extreme north of Ronae, 
the Aventine at the eztreme south.—- 70. Videa, scil. eese, Humane 
eommodai ironical, = adTnodum incommoda, FV<*m *— > o6«<<< ts a re- 
mark supposed to be made by Julius Florus : you may think aboiit 


Pnne sant plateae, nihil nt meditantibus obstet.' 
Festinat calidus mulis gerulisque redemptor, 
Torquet nunc lapidem nunc ingens machina tignami 
Tristia robustis luctantur funera plaustris, 
Hac rabiosa fugit canis, hao lutulenta ruit sus : 75 

I nunc et versus tecum meditare canoros. 
Scriptorum chorus omnis amat nemus et fugit urbeflj 
Rite cHens Bacchi somno gaudentis et umbra: 
Tu me inter strepitus noeturnos atque diurnos 
Yis canere et contracta sequi vestigia vatum ? 80 

Ingenium, sibi quod racuas desumpsit Athenas^ 
Et studiis annos septem dedit insenuitque 
Libris et curis, statua taciturnius exit 
Pleruroque et risu populum quatit ; hio ego remm 
Fluctibus in mediis et tempestatibus urbis 86 

Yerba lyrae motura sonum connectere digner? 
Frater erat Romae consulti rhetor, ut alter 
Alterius sermone meros audiret honores, 
Gracchus ut hic illi foret, huic ut Mocius ille. 
Qui minus argutos vexat furor iste poetas ? 90 

Carmina compono, hic elegos. ^ Mirabile visu 
Caelatpmque novem Musis opus !' Adspice primum, 
Quanto cnm fastu, quanto moiimine circum 
___ • ~ ~ 

your poems when you are on your way to visit people. — 72. J?e- 
demptor. 8ee Carm, iii. 1, 35. Caliduty * zealous.' We have here 
a description of scenes in the streets.— 74. Lonfc funeral processiona 
iSat. i. 6, 43) meet carts in the streets, and before they can disen* 
tangle themselves there is not only ereat noise, but danffer to paa- 
■engers. — 78. EUe. The poet is said to be ' with justice* a prot^gi 
of Bacchus, because he loves the quiet of the country. See Carm, 
iii. 25, 1. — 80. Contracta s arta. It needs quiet and study te keep 
whhin the narrow path of true poetry. — 81. A poet who has studied 
long in solitude often after ali produces nothmg but what is ridi- 
culous: and am I to write good poems amid the bustle of Romef 
Ingenium =s komo ingeniosug. VacuMf *empty of men;' faence 
* quiet.' — 63. Curi» s=. meditatione. — 84. Connect hie rerum^ * in such 
circumstances.* — 86. Dtgner, ' shall I be deemed worthy f ' Taken 
in a* passive sense, as properlv. — 87. A new point. Poets praise 
one another in a fashion whicn annoys Horace. ContuUi =sjuriM 
eonsuUu — 88. Meroa honoree ; that is, nihU niei honore», ' nothing 
buf compliments.' The lawyer called his brother as good an orator 
as C. Gracchus, and the rhetorician said that the lawyer'8 learning 
was as great as that of any of the Mucii, a family celebrated as 
jurists. — 91. Mirabile visuj etc Thus the one poet praises the 
work of the other. — 92. Cadatum novem Muei» (dative fora Muti»), 
and consequently perfect. — 93. Circumtpectemus^ etc. Horace ima- 
ginea that the two poets who compliment each other, and of whom 
ne, tfae lyrist, is one, an elegist the other, go together to.tfae Pala* 
tine Hill, to the temple of ApoUo, in which there waa a public 



Spectemus yacuam Romanis vatibus aedem j 

Mox etiam, si forte vacas, sequere el procul audi, 95 

Quid ferat et quare sibi aectat uterque coronam. 

Caedimur et totidem plagis consumimus hostem 

Xento Samnites ad lumiiia prima duello. 

Discedo Alcaeus puncto illius; ille meo quis? 

Quis nisi Callimachus ? Si plus adposcere visus, 100 

Fit Mimnermus, et optivo eognomine crescit. 

Multa fero, ut placem genus irritabile vatura, 

Quum scribo et supplex populi suifragia capto ; 

Idera, finitis studiis et mente reoepta, 

Obturem patulaa impune legentibus aures. 105 

Ridentur, mala qui componunt carmina ', verum 

Gaudent scribentes et se venerantur et ultro, 

Si taceas, laudant quidquid scripsere beati. 

At qui legitimum cupiet fecisse poema, 

Cum tabulis animum censoris sumet honesti; 11^0 

Audebit, quaecunque parum splendoris habebunt 

£t sine pondere erunt et honore indigna ferentur, ■ 

Verba movere loco, quamvis invita recedant 

£t versentur adhuc intra penetralia Vestae } 

Obscurata diu populo bonus eruet atque 115 

Proferet in lucem speciosa vocabuia rerum, 

library. They look roand the library for their own works, and, 
not finding them there, form the consolatory opinion that there are 
no true Roman poets there. — 96. Ferai = proefercLt, * brings for- 
ward, eays.' — 97. Horace compares himself and the other poet to 
two gladiators (calied Samnites, from their kind oi armour), who 
fighi on, striking each other, till dusk. So the poetsgive and re- 
ceive praises. — 98. Lumina mma, the time when the lamps are 
lighted. — 99. Puncto, ' by tne vote, decision.' In the Comitia 
the baliots were coanted by persons appointed for the purpose (diri' 
hitores), who insured accuracy bj making a point on a tablet for 
each vote. Hence such expressions as omnia puncta ferre^ * to gain 
every vote.' As to Alcaeus, see Carm, ii. 13, 27. — 100. Calli- 
machus, who lived at Alexandria about 280 b. c, was celebrated 
as an elegist, but more for his art than his genius. — 101. Mim- 
nermus, the greatest eiegiac amatory poet. See i. 6, 65, — 103. 
Quum^ ' 80 long as.' — 105. Impune, because I do not punish them 
by reading something in return. — 108. Beati, in the very doing of it. 
— 110. Censoris honesti, a censor who looks to morals and behaviour. 
— 1 12. Sinepondere=inania. — 113. Movere loco, as the censor used to 
remove unworthy persons from the senate or from their trrbe («e- 
natUy tribti movere.y— 114. The penetralia are the inniost parts of the 
house, where the hearth stands, sacred to Vesta. Hence vertari 
intra venetralia, * to be in the inmost part of the house/ and conse- 
quently diificult to expel.— 115. Connect bonus eruet {ponulo) fpeeiotta 
vocabula rerum, obscurata diu populof good words ana expressions 


Qoae, priscis memorata Catonibiis atqne Cethegjs, 

Nunc silus informis premit et deserta vetnstas; 

Adsciscet nova, quae genitor produxerit usus. 

Vehemens et liquidus puroque simillimus amni 120 

Fundet opes Latiumque beabit divile lingua; 

Luxuriantiacompescet, nimis aspera sano 

Levabit cuTtu, virtute carentia tollet, 

Ludentis speciem dabit et torquebitur, ut qui 

Nunc Satyrum, nunc agrestem Cyclopa raovetur. 125 

Praetulerim scriptor delirus inersque videri, 

Dum mea delectent mala me vel denique fallant, 

Quam sapere et ringil Fuit haud ignobilis Argis, 

Qui se credebat miros audire tragoedos 

In vacuo laetus sessor plausorque theatro, 130 

Cetera qui vitae servaret munia recto 

More; bonus sane vicinus, amabilis hospes, 

Comis in uxorem, posset qui ignoscere servis 

£t signo laeso non insanire lagenae, 

Posset qui rupem et puteum vitare patehtem. 135 

Hic ubi cognatorum opibus curisque refectus 

Expulit elleboro morbum bilemque meraco, 

Ei redit ad sese : *PoI me occidistis, amici, 

Non servastis,' ait, ^ cui sic extorta voluptas, 

Et demptus per vim mentis gratissimus error.' 140 

Nimirum sapere est abjectis utile nugis, 

Et tempestivum pueris concedere ludum, 

Ac non verba sequi fidibus raodulanda Latinis, 

Sed verae numerosque modosque ediscere vitae. 

Quocirca mecum loquor haec tacitusque recordor : 146 

* Si tibi nulla sitim finiret copia lympnae, 

Narrares medicis: quod, quanto plura parasti, 

which have ^adually gone out of use. — 117. M. Cornelius Cethefiruti 
was consul in 204 b. c. As to the attachment of the Cethefifi to 
everything old, compare Ars pogt. 43, and following. — 120. Read 
vehemeii» as deettt in i. 12, 24. — 123. Levahit = expoliet, — 124. Ut qui 
— movetur, like a player in a pantomime, who represents characters 
by mere gesticulations and movements of his body: here, for in- 
Btance, the charaCters of the drunken Satyr and the rude Cyclops. 
Moveri is construed wiih the accusative, because it is = motu expri- 
mere. Saltare also is used with the accusative.— 128. Haud ignobiliSf 
* a man of some note.' His name, the scholiasts say, was Lycas. 
— 134. Signo lagenae laeso, * if the seal of a flask was broken' by one 
of the slaves, that he niight have a draught of wine. Eatables and 
liquors which we lock up, used to be sealed in antiquity, that the 
slaves might not piifer. — 137. HellibQre was considered as a remedy 
for insanity. — 141. Sapere. *to study philosophy.* Nugae here 
means light pQet^-y.—HS. RecordoVf here * meditate.-— '147. Quanip! ' 
25 T 


Tanto plura cupiSy nnlline fatexier audes ? 
Si Yulnus tibi monstrata radice vel herba 
Non fieret levius, fugeres radice vel herba 150 

Proficiente nihil curarier : audieras, cui 
Rem di donarent, illi decedere pravam 
Staltitiam, et quum sis nihilo sapientior. ex quo 
Pienior es, taroen uteris monitoribus isaem? 
At si divitiae prudentem reddere possent, 155 

Si cupidum timidumque minus te ; nempe ruberes, 
Yiveret in terris te si quis avarior uno. 
Si proprium est, quod quis libra mercatur et aere, 
Quaedam, si credis consuhis, mancipat usus ; 
Qui te pascit ager, tuus est, et villicus Orbi, 160 

^Quum segetes occat tibi mox frumenta daturas, 
Te dominum sentit. Das nummos, accipis uvam, 
Pullos, ova, cadum temeti : nempe modo isto 
Paullatim mercaris agrum, fortasse trecentis 
Aut etiam supra numroorum milibus emptum. 165 

Quid refert vivas numerato nuper an olim ? 
Emptor Aricini quondam, Veientis et arvi 
Emptum coenat olus, (^uamvis aliter putat ; emptis , 
Sub noctem gelidam lignis calefactat aenom ', 
Sed vocat usque suum, qua populus assita certi» 170 

Limitibus vicina refugit jurgia ; tamquam 
Sit proprium quidquam, puncto quod mobilis horae 
Nunc prece, nunc pretio, nunc vi, nunc morte suprema 

—parasti, tanto — tupi$ ; that is, thou art an avarut. — 149. If you 
had a wound, and were told that some root or herb would cure it, 
but found upon trial that it did not, then you would throw it awav. 
Do the same in morals. The vulgar think that if a man has wealtn, 
he has necessarily also wisdom : if you fiod, however, that your 
wisdom does not grow with ^our wealth, then for the future 
despise the opinion of the roultitude. — 156. Cujndum timidumque 
minus ; that is, more free from passion in general, because the paa- 
sions consist in desires and fears. — 158. As not merely what a pereon 
buys is his property, but what he has used for a certain time with- 
out its being ctaimed by another, so not merely the land for which 
you have paid, but all the land of which you eat the produce, is 
yours. Lihra et aere, In early times, when there was no coined 
money, the metal was weighed out. — 159. Mandpat ueus, * uae, pre- 
Bcription, makes his property.' As to eontultis» see line 87. — 160. 
Orbius, an unknown lana-owner. — 166. Numerato nuper an olim, ab- 
lative dependent on vivas ; * whether thou livest on that which was 
formerly paid for all at once, or on what thou art now gradually 
maklng thine own by use.* — 167. The sense is : even he who really 
possesses land has to buy artides of food as well is thyself . — 170. 
Connect ii#^tt« jua. — 171. Vieina jurgia, *quarrels with neighbours.' 


Permutet dominos et cedat in altera jura. 

Sic quia perpetuus nulli datur ubus, et heres 175 

Heredem alterius velut unda supervenit undam y 

Quid vici prosunt aut horrea ? Quidve Calabris 

Saldbus adjecti Lucani, si metit Orcus 

Grandia cum parviS; non exorabilis auro ? 

Gemmas, marmor, ebur, Tyrrhena sigilla, tabellas, 180 

Argentum, v^stes Gaetulo raurice tinctas, 

Sunt qui non habearit, est qui non curat habere. 

Cur alter fratrum cessare et ludere et ungi 

Praeferat Herodis palmetis pinguibus, alter 

Dives et importunus ad umbram lucis ab orta 185 

Silvestrem flammis et ferro mitiget agrum, 

Scit Genius, natale comes qui temperat astrum, 

Naturae deus humanae, mortalis in unum 

Quodque caput, vultu mutabilis, albus et ater. 

Utar et ex modico, quantum res poscet, acervo 190 

Tollam, nec metuam quid de me judicet heres, 

Quod non plura datis invenerit ; et tamen idem 

Scire volam, quantum simplex hilarisque uepoti 

Discrepet et quantum discordet parcus avaro. 

Distat enim, spargas tua prodigus an neque sumptum 195 

Invitus facias, neque plura parare labores, 

Ac potius, puer nt festis Quinquatribus olim, 

Exiguo gratoqne fruaris tempore raptim. 

Peiuperies immunda domus procul absit : ego utrum 

Nave ferar magna an parva, ferar unus et idem. 200 

174. In alteramraj * into another'8 possession/ so that another shall 
have the * right * to dispose of il. — 177. Vici, scil. rustici = villae, 
As to Calahrif, etc, see Epode i. 27. — 178. MetiU See Carm. iv. 
14, 31. — 179. Grandia for grandes. — 180. Tyrrhena tigUla, little 
brazen images of the gods, manufactured chiefly in Etruria. They 
^re used as ornaraents of rooms, and many of them have been 
preserved to our time, — 181. Gaetulo murice. See Carm. ii. 16, 35. 
— 183. Cessare = otiari. Tlngi. See Satires i. 6, 123.— 184. Herod 
the Great, king of Judaea, possessed extensive forests of palra-trees, 
which brought hira a great profit (hence called pmguw.)— -186. That 
18, is making his estate more prontable by burning or cutting down 
trees. — 188. Mortalin, etc. When a man dies, his Genius dies with 
him, or, as here expressed, it is ' mortal for every single head.' 
Moreover, the Genius alters its visace, as the man does his, 
cheerful (albus), or sad (ater.) — 192. JJatis = quam relieta. — 193. 
I wisb to find out the difierence, and then to attend to it. I would 
enjoy life without being a spendthrift, and be frugal, but not mi- 
serly. — 197. Ac potiua, *but rather.' Quinquatrus^ a festival of 
Minerva, ceiebrated on the' 18th of March. The boys had a share 
in the celebration of it, and had therefore a holiday from school ; 
hence, in the next line, exiguo gratoque tempore = exiguis feriis. 
— 199. Utrum. Supply mentally nihU interest.-— 200. The ship 


Non agimur tamidis velis Aquilone secundo, 

Non tamen adversis aetatem ducimus Austris; 

Yiribus, ingenio, specie, virtutej loco, re 

Extremi primorura, extremis usque priores. 

"Non es avarus : abi.'' Quid? cetera jam simul isto 205 

Cum vitio fugere ? Caret tibi pectus inani 

Ambitione ? Caret mortis formidine et ira ? 

Somnia, terrores magicos, miracula, sagas, ^ 

Nocturnos lemures portentaque Thessala rides ? 

Natalesgrate numeras? Ignoscis amicis? 210 

Lenior et meiior fis accedente senecta ? 

Quid te exempta levat spinis de pluribus una ? 

Yivere si recte nescis, decede peritis. 

Lusisti satis, edisti satis atque bibisti. 

Tempus abire tibi est, ne potum largius aequo 215 

Rideat et pulset lasciva decentius aetas.' 

here is income. Unus et idem, * consistentiy.* — 204. Hence Horace 
belongs to the upper part of the middle class. — 205. Transition to 
other vices, leaving avarice. A philosopher says to Horace abi^ as if 
he had noihing more to do with him. — 209. The lemuret are de- 
parted spirits, who appear to the living, and trouble them during the 
night. The Romans had a festival called Lemuria in the month of 
May. — 210, NataleSy etCt 'dost thou count thy birthdays with 
gratitude to the ^ods V and hence, art thou not afraid of death 7 — 
212. Smnis = vitiis. — 213. Decede peritis ; ihat is, die and make 
room ior wiser men. — 216. Lasciva decentius aetas; that is, youth, 
youn^ people, who may frolic with more propriety than Horace, 
who 18 now advancing in years. 



This poem has catised more difierenco of opinion among^ the com« 
mentaton than any other of Horace^s writings. Some have con. 
sidered it as intended to be a complete system of the principles 
of poetioal oompoeition ; others as merely a friendly letter ; and 
both parties have fbund eomething to oensure in it The tnith 
liea between tbe two opinions. Aa Horace in «everai of hia 
epistlea has treated of philoaophical doctrines, particularly those 
of the Stoics, and in others haa pronounoed some judg-ments 
resrarding* the art of poetry, so here, in the easy &irm of a lctter 
to friends, he givee his views of the art, fbrmed by the experi. 
ence of a life dedicated to the Muses. Hence this book is a 
satirical didactic poem, in which need be ezpected neither philo- 
sophical fi>rm and arrangement, nor any great flight of fancy. 
This epistle, if not the last of our poefs writings, is at least a 
work of his mature age, compoeed probably between 11 and 8 
B. c, and we may suppose him to have lefl it as a kind of rule 
by which he wished posterity to try hia poetry. The epistle is 
addressed to L. Piso, consul in 15 b, c, a man distinguished as a 
general and statesman, and particularly fbr the ability with 
wfaich he discharged the duties of prarfeetu* urbi ; and to his 
two sons, the elder of whom was from seventeea to twenty years 
of age at the time that Horace wrote it — a period of life at 
which interest in poetry very commonly develops itselfl 

HuMANo capiti cervicem pictor equinam 

Jungere si velit et varias iuducere plumas 

Undique oollatis membris, ut turpiter atrum 

Deeinat in piscem mulier formosa superne ; 

Spectatum admissi risum teneatis, amici ? 5 

1. From the beginnmg to line 45 Horace speaks of the necessity 
of preserving unity and harmony in a poem, and of the choice and 
arrangement of tfcie subject. — 2. Jnducere, *to lay on* with the 
pencil. The dative membris is eoverned by this verb. — 3. Con- 
nect turpiter atrum, We often nnd on ancient wall-paintings such 
monsters as Horace here de8cribe&— 5. Speetatum ia the supine.— 
25 • (293) 


Creditd, Pisones, isti tabulae fore iibrum 

Persimilem, cujus velut aegri somnia vanae 

Fingentur species, ut nec pes nec caput uni 

Reddatur formae. * Pictoribus atque poetis 

Quidlibet audendi semper fuit aequa potestas.' 10 

Scimus, et hanc veniam petimusque damusque vicissim, 

Sed non ut placidis coeant immitia, non ut 

Serpentes avibus geminentur; tigribus agni. 

Inceptis gravibus plerumque et magna professis 

Purpureus late qui splendeat onus et alter 15 

Assuitur pannus ; quum lucus et ara Dianae 

£t properantis aqnae per amoenos ambitus agros, 

Aut flumen Rhenum, aut pluvius deecribitur arcus. 

Sed nnnc non erat his locus. £t fortasse cupressum 

Scis simolare : quid hoc, si fractis enatat exspes 20 

Navibus, aere dato qui pingitur? Amphora ooepit 

Institoi ; currente rota cur urceus exit ? 

Denique sit quidvis, simplex duntaxat et onom. 

Maxima pars vatum, pater et juvenes patre digni, 

Decipimur specie recti : brevis esse iaboro, 25 

Obscurus fio ; sectantera lenia nervi 

Deficiunt animique ; professus grandia turget; 

Serpit humi tutus nimium timidusque procellae; 

Qui variare cupit rem prodigialiter unam, 

Delphinum silvis appingit, fluctibus aprum. 80 

In vitium ducit culpae fuga, si caret arte. 

Aemilium circa ludum faber nnus et ungues 

£xprimet, et molles imitabitur aere capiilos, 

Infelix operis summa, qoia ponere totum 

7. Vanae speeUa s nunutra. — 8. Uni formae, ' so as to make it a 
form of one kind.* — 9. An objection. — 10. Aequn, *just, reasonable.' 
— 12. Coeant =s eonjungantur. — 15. The poet allades to the practioe 
of inserting maeniloquent passages unconnected with the main aub- 
ject, to serve the purpose of show, like a purple patch in a garment 
of less gaudy colour. He now fumishes examples. — 18. Fluwien 
Bhenum. Compare Sat. i. 10, 37 ; and Gram. ^ 210, note 1.— 19. Ei 
fortasse eupreeeum, elc, a proverbial expression, taken from a paioter 
who could not paint anythins weli but a cypress. A shipwrecked 

Esrson engaged him to paint the shipwreck, and he asked whether 
o might not introduce a cypress.— -21. Amjpkoraj eU., another iUos- 
tration. A potter inteoda to make an amj^orat but ajfier he has put 
hia wheel in motion, a jar comes forth. — 28. JSttus, he who seeks 
to remain on safe ground, and abstains from anv flight of iancy.— 
29. ProdigialUer, * so that the readers may think him a prodigy of 
genius.' — ^32. A person, to excel, must be skilled not in oqe branch 
of an art mereiy, but in the whole. The Aemilius ludut was a 
fencing-school not far from the Circus Maximua, which had been 
built by an Aemilius Lepidus. Xlnus (s unice, ' more skilfully thaa 


Nesciet. Hunc ego me, si qui^ componere cnrem, 35 

Non magis esse velim; quam naso vivere pravo 

Spectandum nigris oculis nigroque capillo. 

Sumite materiam vestris, qui scribitiS; aequam 

Viribus, et versate diu, quid ferre recuserit, 

Qoid valeant humeri. Cui lecta potenter erit res, 40 

Nec facundia deseret hunc nec lucidus ordo. 

Ordinis haeo virtus erit et venus, aut ego fallor, 

Ut jam nunc dicat jam nnno debentia dici, 

Pieraque difTerat et praesens in teropus omittat. 

Hoc amet^ hoc spemat promissi carminis auctor. 45 

In verbis etiam tenuis cautusque serendis, 

Dixeris egregie, notum si cailida verbum 

Reddiderit junctura novum. Si forte necesse est 

Indiciis monstrare recentibus abdita rerum, ' 

Fingere cinotutis non exaudita Cethegis 50 

Continget, dabiturqne licentia sumpta pudenter. 

£t nova fictaque nuper habebunt verba fidem, si 

Graeco fonte cadent parce detorta. Quid autem 

Caecilio Plautoque dabit Romanus ademptum 

Virgilio Varioque ? Ego cur, acquirere pauca 55 

Si possum, invideor, quum lingua Catonis et Etmi 

Sermonen patrium ditaverit et nova rerum 

Nomina protulerit ? Licuit semperque licebit 

Signatum praesente nota producere nomen. 

any othcr') belongs to the verbs. — 37, Spectandum, * beautiful.*— 
39. Vertatey scil. animo = cogitate. — 40. Potenter =» ita ut poteuM 
eju$ git, *8uitable to his powers.' — 46. Frorn this line to hne 72 
Horace speaks of the mode of expression and choice of words. In 
9er1n8 serendi» ; that is, in construetion. — 49. IndieitB =s verbiM: if it 
be necessary to form a new wordi becaase the idea to be expressed 
was unknown before {abdita rerum.) — ^50. Cinctutie Cethegi». Com- 
pare Epist. u. 2, 115, and following, where the Cetbegi and the, 
Clatones are named as repres^ntatives of the ancient Romans. Cinc- 
tutus is one who wears the cinctus, a sort of apron stretching from 
betow the breaet to the knee : it supplied the place of a tunica, and 
was in so far more convenient than it, that it allowed free motion to 
the hands. Hence vei^ non exaudita cinctutin Cethegie are words 
wtiich the ancient Romans did not know. — 51. DaHtur ^exeuea' 
hitur. — 52. Hahebunt fidem ; that is, will meet with approvaL 
Connect »i cadent detorta (= deducta) Graeeo fonte, * if tkey shall be 
formed on the analosy of the Greek language.' This has referenee 
chieily to corapounds. But this mnst oe done parce, * sparinglv.' 
— 54. Caecilio. See Epiet. ii. 1, 59. The sense is: if the older 
poets were allowed to coin new words, modern poets have the 
same privilege. — 56. Invideor for the regular mihi invidelur. See 
Gram. i 264, note 1, and Zumpt, $ 413. — 59. Signatum praesente 
mota, * marked with the stamp of the present day ;' a figure taken 


Ut silvae foliis pronos mutantur in annos^ 60 

Prima cadunt ; ita verboram vetUB interit aetat, 

£t juvenum ritu fbrent modo nata virentqne. 

Debemur morti nos nostraque : sive reeeptus 

Terra Neptunus classes Aquilonibus arcet, 

Regis opus, Bterilisve diu palus aptaque remis 65 

Vicinas urbes alit et grave sexitit aratrum, 

Seu cursum mutavit iniquum frugibus amnis, 

Doctus iter melius. Mortalia facta peribunt, 

Nedum sermonum stet honos et gratia vivax. 

Multa renasoentur, quae jam cecidere^ cadentqua, 70 

Quae nunc sunt in honore vocabula, si volet usus, 

Quem penes arbitrium est et jus et norma loquendi. 

Res gestae regumque ducumque et tristia bella 

Quo scribi pbssent numero, monstravit Homerua. 

Yersibus impariter junctis querimonia primum, 75 

Post etiam iridusa est voti sententia compos. 

Quis tamen exiguos elegos emiserit auctor, 

Grammatici certant, et adhuo sub judioe lis est. 

Archilochum proprio rabies armavit iambo : 

Hunc socci cepere pedem grandesque cothumi, 80 

Alternis aptum sermonibns, et populares 

Vincentem strepitus, et natum rebus agendis. 

Musa dedit fidibus divos puerosque deorum 

from money. — 60. Pronos in annos, ' as the years draw to an end ;' 
that is, in autumn. — 61. Before prima cadunt supply el tU. — 63. The 
sense ia : we uid our works muBt perish, even though they are wm 
great as those of Augustus and Juhus Caesar. Augustus, in 37 
B. c, that he might exercise and prepare his fleet for the war with 
Sextus Pompeius, free from the danger of storms, connected the 
Lacua Lucrinus and Avernus with the aea, and thus formed a moet 
secure haven. The form of the land has now been quite altered by 
earthquakea. Caesar had forraed the design of draining the Pomp- 
tine marshes, and had made a beginning. Finally (line 67), Augas* 
tus had made improvemenls in the tourse of the Tiber, wbich 
formerly used often to overiiow its banks and lay waste the fielda. 
— 69. Connect stei vivax. See Sat. ii. 1, 53. — 73. From this line to 
line 98 Horace speaks of the kind of verse which must be suitable 
to the character of the poetry. — ^75. VerBibus impariter junctis ; that 
iSf a bezameter foUowed by the shorter pentameter. The adverb 
impariter ia an Hea^ Xey^fiaov. This metre waa at first used only in 
the elegy proper— ^hat is, only in poems of lamentation ; for the 
word IXcyM is derived from the old Greek wail 1 1 Aiyc. After- 
wards, both the metre and the name were applied also to cheerful 
poetry iaentetaia voti compoe.) — ^77. That is, who was the first writer 
of elegtes, a kind of poetry in which no high flight is allowed (henoe 
exiguo»)^ is uncertain. — ^79. Compare EpMe 6, 13, and Epitt. i. 19, 
25.— 80. See Bpitt. ii. 1, 174.^1. AUemis sermonUm» ; that ia, for 
the diabgtte. The chonia haa lyric measures.— 83. Horace goes 


£t pugilem yictoreni et equum oertamine primum 

£t juvenum curas et libera vina referre. 86 

Descriptas seryare vices operumque colores 

Cur ego si nequeo ignoroque poeta salutor ? 

Cur nescire pudens prave quam discere malo? 

Versibus exponi tragicis res comica non vult. 

Indignatur itero privatis ac prope socco 90 

Dignis carminibus narrari coena Thyestae. 

Singula quaeque locum teneant sortita decentem. 

Interdum tamen et vocem comoedia tollit, 

Iratusque Chremes tumido dehtigat ore j 

£t tragicus plerumque dolet sermone pedestri 95 

Telephus et Peleus, quum pauper et exul uterque 

Projicit ampuUas et sesquipedalia verba, 

Si curat cor spectantis tetigis&e querela. 

Non satis est pulchra esse poemata; dulcia sunto. 

£t, quocunque volent, animum auditoris agunto. 100 

Ut ndentibus arrident, ita flentibus aflent 

Humaoi vultus : si vis me flere, dolendum est 

Primum ipsi tibi ; tunc tua me infortunia laedent, 

Telephe vel Peleu ; male si mandata loqueris, 

Aut dormitabo aut ridebo. Tristia maestum 106 

Vultum verba decent, iratum plena rainarum. 

Ludentem lasciva, severum seria dictu. 

Format enim riatura prius nos intus ad omnem 

Fortunarum habitum, juvat aut impellit ad iram, 

Aut ad humum maerore gravi deducit et angit; 110 

over the various kinds of iyric poetry, hymns, paeans, songs of vic- 
tory, love-songs {juvenum curas), and drinking-songs. — 86. Descrip' 
tas vices ; that is, the various kinds of verse assignea by the Greeks, 
whose rule is founded on nature, to certain kinds of poetry. Operum 
coloreSf bpth the styles and metres suitable to each kind of poetry. 
Compare* line 92. — 90. Indignatur, like non vult in the preceding 
line, =fion dthet. Frivatis =vulgar{bus. — 91. The feast at which 
the sons of Thyestes, killed by Atreus, were served up before their 
father, was a subject that demanded the expression of the highest 
passion, and was therefore a favourite with the ancient tragediana. 
— 94. See Satires i. 10, 40.--95. Plerumque=persaepe. — 96. Tele- 
phus, the son of Hercuies by Auga ; Peleus, father of Achilles, who 
billed his half-brother Phocus. Both were banished, and lived 
long ia exiIe.-^97. Ampulla is figuratively used like the Greek 
X^KvOoi, of an ornate and ambitious style of language. Com- 
pare Epist. i. 3, 14. — 98. Curat tetigisse. Gram. % 371, note 2. — 
99. From this line to line 113, Horace speaks of the expression of 
the passions. — 103. TuTic^ * in that case.* Laedentf * will touch.* 
— 104. MaUt etc. If the words which the poet has put into thy 
mouth (has, as it were, committed to thee to give to the public) are 
bad, and not suitable to the character. — 108. Language, being the 
ezpressionof the iuward passion, should correspond with it. — 110. 


Post effert animi motus interprete lingna. 

Si dicentis enint fortants absona dicta, 

Romani tollent equites peditesque caehinnam. 

Intererit mnltam, Davusne loquatnr an heroa^ 

Maturusne senex an adhuc £k>rente juventa 115 

FerviduB, et matrona potens an sedula nutriz, 

Mercatorne vagus oultome virentis agelli, 

Colchus an Assyrius, Thebis nutritns an Argis. 

Aut faraam sequere aut sibi convenientia finge. 

Scriptor honoratum si forte reponis Achillem ; 120 

Impiger, iracundus, inexorabilis, acer 

Jura neget sibi nata^ nihil non arroget armis. 

Sit Medea ferox invictaque, flebilis Ino, 

Perfidus Ixion, lo vaga, tristis Orestes. 

Si quid inexpertum scenae committis et audes 125 

Personam formare novam ; servetur ad imnm 

Qualis ab incepto processerit et sibi constet. 

Difficile est proprie communia dicere ; tuque 

Rectius Iliacum carmen deducis in actus, 

Quam si proferres ignota indictaqne primns. 130 

Publica materies privati juris erit, si 

Non circa vilem patnlumque moraberis orbem, 

Nec verbum verbo curabis reddere fidus 

Interpres. nec desilies imitator in artum) 

Unde pedem proferre pudor vetet aut operis lex. 135 

Adhumum dedueit=hwmle9 reddit, affiigU, — 113. Eqwtes pediieaque, 
the whole Roman people. — 114. From this line to iine 135, Horace 
speaks of the characters, and the consistent representation of them. 
Vavus, See Satires i. 10, 40. — 118. In the warof the Seven agtinst 
Thebes — a favourite subject with the ancient tragedians — the Ar- 
gives were opposed to the Thebans. — 119. Either foilow. tradition, 
or, if you invent a story, malse one quite consistent in ali its parts. 
— '120. Examples. Honoratum = clarum. jRtfpon», ' bringest again 
npon the staffe,* Achilles having been a character in many trage- 
dies. — 122. Jura neget $ibi ftafa, * he must declare that laws were 
not made for him.' Armi$, dative.-^123. Ino was wife of Athamas, 
and mother of Learchus and Melicertes. Athamas, being driven 
mad by the gods, Isilled Learchus ; whereupon Ino, with her other 
8on Melicertes, threw herself into the sea, and was changed into a 
sea>goddes8.-*124. Ixion treacherously killed his father*in-law Bio- 
neus. Io'8 sad story is weil known, as also that of Orestes. -^ 128. 
Proprie dicere is ' to represent so that each character retains its pe- 
culiarities.' Communia are general characters, which any poet may 
represent ; for instance, an avaricious, angry, or cruel man, and the 
iike. To represent these weil is difficult. — 131. Publica materies is 
a subject which so many tragedians have handled, that it has be- 
come public property. This may be made a poet*8 own if he leaves 
the beaten track {JMtulum orbem)^ and does not transiate merely. 


Nec sic incipieSy ut scriptor cyelicus olim : 

^ Fortunam Priami cantabo et nobile bellum.' 

Quid dignum tanto feret hic promissor hiatu ? 

Parturiunt montes, nascetur ridiculus mus. 

Quanto rectius hic^ qui nil molitur inepte : 140 

< Dic mihi Musa virum, captae post tempora Trojae 

Qui mores hominum multorum vidit et urbes.' 

Non fumum ex fulgore, sed ex fumo dare lucem 

Cogitat, ut speciosa dehinc miracula proraat, 

Antiphaten Scyllamque et cum Cyclope Cbarybdin: 145 

Nec reditum Diomedis ab interitu Meleagri) 

Nec gemino bellum Trojanum orditur ab ovo } 

Semper ad eventum festinat et in medias res 

Non secus ac notas auditorem rapit et, quae 

Desperat tractata nitescere posse, relinquit, 150 

Atque ita mentitur, sic veris falsa remiscet, 

Primo ne medium, medio ne discrepet imum. 

Tu, quid ego et populus mecum desideret, audi : 

Si plausoris eges aulaea manentis et usque 

Sessuri, donec cantor * Vos plaudite' dicat, 155 

Aetatis cujusque Botandi sunt tibi moreS) 

Mobilibusque decor maturis dandus et annis. 

If he translates, he will bring himself into a position where he 
cannot take a single step for niniself — ezhibit his own talents. — 
136. From this line to line 152 we have a slight disression in regard 
to the ezcellence of Homer'8 poems. Scriptor cyclicua. Cyclic was 
the tfame given by the Alezandrian grammarians to those epic poets 
who took their subjects from the * circle ' of traditions regarding 
the Trojan war, describing either the occurrences before the open- 
ing of the Iliad, or those aiter the death of Hector. What partica- 
lar cyclic poet is here alluded to is uncertain. — 140. Hic ; ilomer. 
There foUows a translation of the first two liues of the Odyssey. 
Compare JSpift. i. 2f 19. — ^145. As to Antiphates, see Odvssey z. 
100; as to Scylla 'and Charybdis, Odyssey zii. 85; nnd as to 
the Cyclops, Odyssey iz. 187. — 146. The scholiasts observe that 
this ailudes to the Thebaia of Antimachus, a contemporary of 
Piato, who celebrated the return of Diomedes to Aetolia after 
the conquest of Thebes by the Epi^oni. Meleaeer, the son of 
King Oeneus of Calydon, died when nis mother Aithaea, angry at 
ihe slaughter of her brothers after the Calydonian hunt, threw 
into the fire a piece of wood on which his life depended. — 147. 
Gemino ah ovo. The story of Leda is well known. — 151. MentituTf 
* invents.'-^153. From this line to line 192 we have precepts regard- 
ing dramatic poetry, referring particularly to the observance oT the 

hileB et maturi anni are youth and age. Decor, ' suitable words and 


Reddere qui yoces jam scit puer et pede certo 
Signat humatn, gestit paribus colludere, et iram 
Coliigit ac pooit temere, et mutatur in horaB. 160 

Imberbis jovenis tandem custode remoto 
Gandet eqais canibusque et aprici gramine Campi, 
Cereus in vitium flecti, monitoribus asper, 
Utilium tardus provisor, prodigus aeris, 
Sablimis cupidusque et amata relinquere pemix. 165 

Conversis studiis aetas animusque virilis 
Quaerit opes et amicitias, inservit honori, 
Commisisse cavet, quod mox mutare laboret. 
Muha senem circumveniunt incommoda, vel quod 
Quaerit et inventis miser abstinet ac timet uti, 170 

Vel quod res omnes timide gelideque ministrat, 
Dilator, spe longus, iners, pavidusque futuri, 
Difficilis, queruluS; iaudaior temporis acti 
Se puero, castigator censorque minorum. 
Multa ferunt anni venientes commoda secum, 175 

Muita recedentes adimunt : ne forte seniles 
Mandentur juveni partes pueroque viriles. 
Semper in adjunctis aevoque morabimur aptis. 
Aut agitur res in scenis aut acta refertur. 
Segnius irritant animos dernissa per aurem, 180 

Quam quae sunt ocuiis subjecta fidelibus et quae ^ 
Ipsi sibi tradit speotator : non tamen-intus 
^ Digna geri promes in scenam, multaque tolles 
Ex oculis, quae mox narret facundia praesens, 
Ne pueros coram populo Medea trucidet, 186 

Aut humana palam coquat exta nefarius Atreus, 
Aut in avem Procne vertatur, Cadmus in anguem. 
Quodcunque ostendis mihi sio, incredulus odi. 
Neve minor neu sit quinto productior actu 

actions.* — 158. That is, a child who has just learned to speak and 
walk. — 159. Paribut =-ae^ualibu$, *hi8 equals in age.* — 163. C«- 
reu$ =/fl«7t».— 164. Utiliumt money. — 168. Commisig^e for eom- 
mittere. Gram. % 371, note 2, — 172. Spe longus : it is long befora 
he begins to hope.— 174. Minorum = juniorum. — 175. The scho- 
liasts tell us that the ezpression anni veniunt was used tiil the agu 
of forty-six, after that anni abeunt. — 180. Demis$a, $cil. in animum. 
— 182. Intu$ digrta geri; such as cruel deeds and metamorphoses. 
2ntu$, * within tbe house.' — 184. Facuftdia praesen$, * the eloquent 
speech of those who have seen them.' — 187. Frocne. See Carm. 
\y. 12, 6. The history of Cadmus was a favourite sobject witli 
Eunpides. — 189. The Greeks divided every drama imo irfHlX«yof, 
1- !i?" three iirus6Sia, and the Alexandrian grammarians applied 
thw division universally. Hdoce the Romans, too, required five 


Fabula, quae posci vult et spectata reponi. 190 

Nec deus intersit, nisi dignus vindice nodus 

Inciderit : nec quarta loqui persona laboret. 

Actoris partes chorus officiumque virile 

Defendat^neu quid medios intercinat actus, 

Quod non proposito conducat et haereat apte. 195 

Ille bonis laveatque et consilietur amice, 

£t regat iratos, et amet pacare tumentes, 

lile dapes laudet mensae brevis, ille salubrem 

Justitiam legesque et apertis otia portis, 

II le tegat commissa, deosque precetur*et oret, 200 

Ut redeat miseris, abeat fortuna superbis. 

Tibia non ut nunc orichalco juncta tubaeque 

Aemuia, sed tenuis simplexque foramine pauco 

Adspirare et adesse choris erat utilis atque 

Nondum spissa nimis comp»Iere sedilia flatu : 206 

Quo sane populus numerabiliS) utpote parvus 

£t frugi castusque verecundusque, coibat. 

Postquam coepit agros extendere victor, et urbes 

Latior amplecti murus, vinoque diurno 

Placari Genius festis impune diebus, 210 

Accessit numerisque modisque licentia major. 

Indoctus quid enim saperet liberque laborum 

Rusticus urbano confusus, turpis honesto '^ 

Sic priscae motumque et luxuriem addidit arti 

Tibicen traxitque vagus per pulpitavescem ; 215 

acts in every tragedy. — 190. Construe thus : quae apectata vult posct 
et reponij * whicn, once exhibited, means to be catled for again and 
repeated.* As to reponif compare line 120. — 192. In the ancient 
drama only three persons used to be on the sta^e speaking. A fourth 
might appear, but only to receive commands in silence, or to per- 
form some act. — 193. From this line to line 219 Horace speaks of 
the chorus and the lyric parts of a tragedy. Virile for pro virUi 
parte, Partes defendai =partes tueatur, *.act the part.' — 197. Tu- 
meTUes = superbos. — 199. Otia portis apertis. Gompare Carm. iii. 
5, 23. — ^202. The flute inthe most ancient times was simple, and had 
but three finger-holes. In time, however, a mouthpiece of brass 
iorichalcum) was put upon it, which made its tones as loud as those 
of a trumpet, and the number of holes was increased, so that it 
could brins forth more notes, and ezecute pieces alone, for for- 
merly it had been used merely as an accompaniment to the choral 
sipging (adspirare et adesse.) — 205. Spissa sedilia. Compare Epist. 
i. 19, 41, and line 381 of this book.— 208. Victor. Perhaps Arhens, 
too, afier ihe Persian wars, is meant, but principaliy the Roman 
people. — 209. Diumo, beginning during the day, before evening. — 
211. Modis, 'measures.* — 212. Quid saperet, * how could he have 
any taste?' See Gram. % 349. — 214. Motuf seems to refer to the 
quicker tirae, the numeri of line 211. — 215. Vagus. The flute-player 
now marched up and down the stage, blowing by himself, whereas 


« Sic etiam fidibas YQces crevere severis, 
£t talit eloquium insolitum facundia praecep6| 
Utiliumque sagax rerum et divina futuri 
Sortilegis non discrepuit sententia Delphis. 
Carmine qui tragico vilem certavit ob hircum, ^ 220 

Mox etiam agrestes Satyros nudavit et asper 
Incolumi gravitate jocum tentavit eo, quod 
IUecebris erat et grata novitate roorandus 
Spectator functusque sacris et potus et exlex. 
Verum ita risores, ita commendare dicaces 225 

Conveniet Satyros, ita vertere seria hido, 
Ne, quicunque deus, quicunque adhibebitur heros, 
Hegali conspectus in auro nuper et ostro, 
Migret in obscuras humili sermone tabernas, 
Aut dum vitat humura, nubes et inania captet, 230 

Effutire leves indigna tragoedia versus, 
Ut festis matrona moveri jussa diebus, 
Intererit Satyris paulium pudibunda protervis. 
Non ego inornata et dominantia nomina solum 
Verbaque, Pisones^ satyrorum scriptor amabo, 235 

Nec sic enitar tragico difierre colori, 
Ut nihil intersit I^vusne loquatur et audax 
Pythias emunoto lucrata Simone talentum, 

be had formerly but accompanied. — 216. The senae is: the style of 
the choral odes had to be raised as weil as the inatrumencal music ; 
they roee to a kind of aublime obacurity, like the Delphic oraclea. 
These remarka on the chonis seem to apply only to the Greek tra- 
gedy, for we have reason to believe that it never played an import- 
ant part in the Roman. •* 220. From this line to line 250 Horace 
apeaks of the drama tatyricum, a kind of poetry peculiar to the 
Greeks, amoog whom it was exhibited in connection with tragediea 
ae a comic afterpiece. Vilem oh hircum. Tragedies at Atbens were 
alwaya put in competition with others, and the author of the victor- 
ioos play received a goat, which was then sacrificed to Dionysius, 
in whose honour dramatic exhibitions were held. The Greek word 
foragoat is Tpdy^St whence thc name Tragedy. — 221. In the satj^ric 
drama satyrB were represented, who werealmoat naked, having 
only an apron of goat-skin. Hence nudavii = nudos induxii. — 
222. Incolumi gravitate, *without injuring the severe dignity of 
tragedy.' — 225. Commendare^ ' to make them please the spectators.' 
JkisoreSt the players, who laugh to cause laughter. — 226. Seria, 
* tragic aubjectfl. — 231. Indiena =i qitae non debet. — ^232. Moveri = 
Stdtare. Although to be a dancer was disrespectable, still at cer- 
tain festivals the rules of religion required women of rank to dance 
in public,^ just as the Salii, who were men of distinction, used to 
celebrate a aolemn dance in honour of their god Mars. — 233. PauU 
lumt * aomewhat.' — 234. VominarUia =s vulgaria. — 237. Vavusne- 
See Une 114. — 238. Pythiae, the name of a cunning feroale slave in 
a comedy of Lucilius, who cheated ber master out of somo uioney. 


An custos famuluBqae dei SilenuB alumni. « 

£x noto fictum carmen sequar, ut sibi auiTis 240 

Speret idem, sudet multum fru8traque laboret 

Ausus idem : tantum series juncturaque pollet^ 

Tantum de medio sumptis accedit honoris. 

Silvis deducti caveant, me judice, Fauni, 

Ne velut innati ttiviis ac paene forenses 245 

Aut nimium teneris juvenentur versibus unquam, 

Aut immunda crepent ignominiosaque dicta : 

Offenduntur enim, quibus est equus et pater et res, 

Nec si^uid fricti ciceris probat et nucis emptor, 

Aequis accipiunt animis donantve corona. 250 

Byllaba longa brevi subjecta vocatur iambus, 

Pes citus, unde etiam trimetris accrescere jussit 

Nomen iambeis, quum senos redderet ictus 

Primus ad extremum similis sibi : non ita pridem, 

Tardior ut paullo graviorque veniret ad aures, 255 

Spondeos stabiles in jura patema recepit 

Commodus et patiens, non ut de sede secnnda 

Cederet aut quarta sociaiiter. Hic et in Atti 

Nobilibus trimetris apparet rarus, et Enni 

In scenam missos cnm magno pondere versua 260 

Aut operae celeris nimium curau^ue carentis 

Aut ignoratae premit artis crimine turpi. 

Non quivis videt immodulata poemata judex, 

£t data Romanis venia est indigna poetis. 

Idcircone vager scribamque licenter ? An omxiei 265 

Visuros peccata putem mea, tutus et intra 

Spem veniae cautus : vitavi denique culpam, 

-—239. Dei; namely, Bacchua. — 240. Ex noto fictum, 'formed of 
well-known materials and well-known words and phrases.* This 
the writer mast so arrange that it shall be interesting and beyond 
imitation. — 244. Faunij who were also characters in the satyric 
drama. — 246. Juvenari^ *to speak and act as ^juvetiig,^ is an iitaJ^ 
'Kty6fitvov, formed by Horace on the analogy of the Greek vtavtt^tvQai. 
—248. Quihut est equus =s equites Romani; eee JEpist. ii. 1, 185. Qui- 
bue e$t pater =s ingenui; for libertini were consiaered by Roman law 
to have had no father. Quibus est res (Jamiliaris) == divites. — 251. 
From this line to line 308, Horace sneaks of versification, and cen- 
suree the Latin poets for their carelessness in this respect. — 252. 
The sense ia : as the iambus was a quick foot, two were thrown 
into one me/rum. Aecrescere jussit = additum est. — 253. Quum, 'al- 
though.* — ^258. Socialitert ' like a«ocm«,' an /lrra| Xcy^ficvov. HiCf the 
iambus in the second and fourth foot. — 261. Construe thus : premit 
turpi crimine aut operast ete.-^aut artis ignoratae. The fact tnat the 
iambus is but seldom found in the second and fourth foot of Ennius'8 
trhnetera, Bhows that he was either too hurried and carelesa in hia 
wrtting, or not thoroughiy acquainted with his art. •— 267. Denique, 


Non ]audem merui. Vos exemplaria Graeca 

Nocturna versate manu, versate diurna. 

At vestri proavi Plautinos et numeros et 270 

Laudavere sales, nimium patienter utrumque 

Ne dicam stulte mirati. si modo ego et vos* 

Scimus inurbanum lepido seponere dicto, 

Legitimumque sonum digitis callemus et aure. 

Ignotum tragicae genus invenisse Camenae 275 

Dicitur et plaustris vexisse poemata Thespis, 

Quae canerent agerentque peruncti faecibus oca. 

Post hunc per^onae pallaeque repertor honestae 

Aeschylus et modicis instravit pulpita tignis 

£t docuit magnumque loqui nitique cothurno. 280 

Successit vetus his comoedia non sine multa 

Laude, sed in vitium libertas excidit et vim 

Dignam lege regi ; lex est accepta, chorusque 

Turpiter obticuit, sublato jure nocendi. 

Nil intentatum nostri liquere poetae, 285 

Nec minimum meruere decus vestigia Graeca 

Ausi deserere et celebrare domestica facta, 

Vel qui praetextas vel qui docuere togatas* 

Nec virtute foret clarisve potentius armis 

Quam lingua Latium, si non offenderet unum 290 

Quemque poetarum limae labor et mora. Vos, O 

Pompilius sanguis, carmen reprehendite, quod oon 

Multa dies et multa litura coercuit atque 

Perfectum decies non castigavit ad unguem. 

'at bcst, in this case.'— 270. Comparc Epist. ii. 1, 170. — 274. Digi- 
tis ; that is, by the beat with the finger. — 276. Tkespis. Compare 
Epist. ii. 1, 163. Flaustris vexisse poimatat 'Xo have exhibited his 
plays upon a wagon,' and thus, as it were, to have carried them 
about the country. — 281. Vetus comoedia, of which wo still have 
Aristophanes as a representative. It satirised individuals by name, 
whereas the raiddle and new comedy confined themselves to classes 
of characters. — 283. Lex est accepta, towards the end of the Pelo- 
ponnesian war. — 287. Domestica, * of national, Roman heroes.' — 
288. Praetextae, properly praetextalae^ scU. fQhulae^ are plays 
which had praetextati^ great men, heroes, as their personae ; that 
is, tragedics with a Roman subject. Togatae are those in which 
ordinary Romans, men dressed in the common toga^ figured. — 292. 
PompUius sanguis, the nominative for the vocative. Gram. ^311, 
note. The persons addressed are the Pisones, who belonged to the 

fens Calpurnia, which traced its origin to Calpus, son of King Numa 
^ompilius. — 293. Multa dies = longum tempus. Litura. Compare 
Epist. ii. 1, 167. — 294. Construe thus: decies ad unguem castigavit 
perfectum. The phrase ad ungues is taken from a statuary, who, 
after joining several pieces of marble, draws his nail along to feel 
whether the joining is as nearly aa possible undiscoverable. T^- 


Ingenium misera quia fortunatios arte 295 * 

Credit et excludit Banos Heiicone poetas 

'Democritus, bona pars non ungues ponere curat, 

Non barbam, secreta petit loca, balnea vitat. 

Nanciscetur enim pretium nomenque poetae, 

Si tribus Anticyris caput insanabile nunquam 300 

Tonsori Licino commiserit. O ego laevus, 

Qui purgor bilem sub yerni temporis hora^. 

Non alius faceret meliora poemata : verum 

Nii tanti est. Ergo fungar vice cotis, acutum 

Reddere quae ferrum valet exsors ipsa secandi ; 305 

Munus et officium nil scribens ipse docebo, 

Unde parentur opes, quid alat formetque poetam, 

Quid deceat, quid non, quo virtus, quo ferat error. 

Scribendi recte sapere est et principmm et fons : 

Rem tibi Socraticae poterunt ostendere chartae, 310 

Yerbaque provisam rem non invita sequentur. 

Qui didicit, patriae quid debeat et quid amicis, 

Quo sit amore parens, quo frater amandus et hospes, 

Quod sit conscripti; quod judicis officium, quae 

Partes in bellum missi ducis, ille profecto 315 

Reddere personae scit convenientia cuique. 

Respicere exemplar vitae morumque jubebo 

Doctum imitatorem et vivas hinc ducere voces. 

Interdum speciosa locis roorataque recte 

Fabula nullius veneris, sine pondere et arte, 320 

Valdius oblectat populum meliusque moratur, 

Quam versus inopes rerum nugaeque canorae. 

iigare here = expolire. Perfectum = ita ut perfectum sit. — 297. 
JJemocritus. See Epist. i. 12, 12. — 300. TrSms Anticyris, 'by all 
tbe hellebore of three Anticyras.' Anticyra, an island abounding 
in hellebore, which was considered as a reraedy for insanity. Con- 
nect caput ituanabile trihus Anticyris.-^ 301. Licinus, the scholiasts 
inform us, was a well-known barber at Rome, who so distinguished 
himself by his faostility to Pompey, that Caesar made faim a senator. 
O ego laemu, etc. The sense is : I'm a stupid man, for instead of 
acting like those great geniuses, I physic myself with hellebore 
every spring. Sprmg was the season recommended by physieians 
for taking hellebore. — 304. Nil = non, Hence nU tanti est, * I caie 
not.' — 307. Opes ^facultas scribetidi. — 309. From this line to line 
332 Horace illustrates his first precept ; namely^ahat poets must 
know the world well, and must train their minds to high and noble 
currents of thought. — 310. Socraticae ckartae, the writinffs of philos- 
ophers of the Socratic school— Plato, Xenophon, and otners. — 314. 
Uonscripti=8enatori8. — 317. Vitae morumgue, a hendiadys, *of the 
manner in which men live.* — 319. Speciosa locis, scU. communibns, 
* glittering wirh common places.* Morata recte, * in which the de- 
lineation of character is good.* — 320. Veneris, genitive of quality. — 
26» V 


Graiis ifigeninm, Graiis dedjt ore rotundo 

Musa loqoi, praeter laudem nuUios avans. 

Romani pueri iongis rationibus assem d25 

Discunt m partes centum diducere. ' Dioat 

Filius Albini, si de quincunce remota est 

Uncia, quid superet. Poteras dixisse.' < Triens.' ' Ea ! 

Rem poteris servare tuam. Redit uncia, quid fitt' 

< Semis.' At, haec animos aerugo et cura pecuU 330 

Quum semel ilnbuerit, speramus carmina nngi 

Posse linenda oedro et leyi servanda cupresso ? ' 

Aut prodesse volunt, aut deleotare poetae, 

Aut simul et juounda et idonea dicere vitae. 

Quidquid praeotpies, esto brevis, ut cito dicta 835 

Percipiant animi dooiles teneantque fideles. 

Omne supervaouum pleno de peetore manat. 

Ficta voluptatis causa sint proxima veris : 

Ne, quodcunque volet^ posoat »ibi fabula Ofedi, 

Neu pransae Liamiae vivum puerum extrahat alvo. 340 

Centuriae seniomm agitant expertia frogis, 

Celsi praetereunt austera poemata Ramnee : 

Omne tulit punctum, qui misouit utile duloi, 

Lectorem delectando pariterqae monendo. 

Hic meret aeca liber Sosiis, hio et mare transit, 345 

323. Rotundo here = erudito, — ^324. NuUms for nuUius rtL Tbe use 
of the neuter alone is very remarkable. — 326. We have here a ape- 
cimen of the style of teaching and examination in the Roman 
Bchools. From aieat to dixiise are the master's words.— •327. Quin» 
eunx 18 ^, unda J^, trien» ^ or ^, and Mntu |. See Zumpt, v 871. 
— 328. rotera» dtxisse, 'thou couldat say it some time ago,' «nd 
therefore try now. £uf * very good, bravo !* — 329. -Kciit, seil. fa- 
miliarem. Sedit uneia ; that is, if an uncia be added to the quin- 
cunxt inatead of being taken away. — 330. Peculiumf properly a 
Blave'8 savings, here savings generally. — 332. That is, which shall 
go down to posteritjr. Books thought worthy of preservation were 
rubbed over with oil of cedar, and laid up in boxes of cypress- 
wood, to keep them from moths. — 333. From this line to line 346 
we have the second precept — namely, that in a gopd poem the use- 
ful must be combined with tbe agreeable. — 3'3i. Idonea vitae=s 
utilia. — 340. Lamia was a woman with the feet of an ass -~ a kind 
of monster created by the imaginations of the Romans. She 
was believed to feed on living children, by sucking their blood ; 
bence to be a sort of vampire. — 341. Horace compares the applaose 
and dissatisfaction of the spectators in a theatre to the votm^ in 
the comitia. In each class the centuries of the seniors and iuniors 
were separated. Hence centuriae seniorum, * the older men. -4gt- 
tant, as in prose exagitantf * censure.' Expertia frugit arc poems 
merely dulcia, not u({7ta.^342. The knighls were in anctent times 
divided into the three tribes of Ramnes, Titienses and Luce- 
res; hence Ramnee here = eguiteg Romani^ ot 'rhe younger 
men.' — 343. As to omne tulit punctum, see EpiMt. li. 2, 99. — 345. 


£t loognm npto scriptori prorogat aevnm. 

Sunt delicta tamen, quibus ignovisse veliraus : 

Nam neque chorda sonum reddit, quem vuU manaa et 

Poscentique gravem persaepe remittit acutum, 
Nec semper feriet» quodcunque minabitur, arcns. 350 

Verum ubi plura oitent in carmine, non ego paucis 
OfTendar maculis, quas aut incuria fudit. 
Aut humana parum cavit natura. Quia ergo est ? 
Ut scriptor si peccat idem iibrarius usque, 
Quamvis est monitus, venia caret ; ut citharoedus 355 

Ridetur, chorda qui semper oberrat eadem : 
Sic mihij qui multum cessat, fit Choerilus iile, 
Quem bis terve bonum cum risu miror ; et idem 
Indignor, quandoque bonus dormitat Homerus; 
Verum operi longo fas est obrepere soranum. ^ 360 

Ut pictura, poesis erit; quae, si propius stes, 
Te capiat magis, et quaedam, si longius abstes ; 
Haec amat obscurum, volet haec sub luce videri, 
Judicis argutura quae non formidat acumen ; 
Haec placuit semel, haec decies repetita plaoebit. 365 

O major juvenum, quamvis et voce paterna 
Fingeris ad rectum et per te sapis, hoc tibi diotom 
Tolle memor. certis medium et tolerabile rebua 
Recte concedi (consultus juris et actor 
Causarum mediocris abest virtute diserci 870 

Meseallae, nec scit, quantum Cascellius Aulus, 
Sed tamen in pretio est) : mediocribus esse poetis 
Non homines, non di, non concessere columnae. 
Ut gratas inter mensas symphonia discors 

Meret aera So$U8y * makes money for the Sosii.' See Epiat. i. 20, 2. 
•^347. From this line to Une 384 Horace illustrates the truth 
that small faults may be excused, but that a poem mediocre 
throughout cannot be tolerated. — 349. Gravenit * bass.' — 352. 
Fudit keeps to the figure of the blots, caused, as it were, by 
•Ome liquid ponred out. — 354. . Scriplor librariutt a slave whose 
business was copying books. The booksellers kept great num« 
bers. Idem, neuter, ss in eadem re, — 357. Cessaii 'neglects his 
duty, makes blunders.' Compare Epist. ii. 2, 14. Choerilns : see 
JSpist. ii. 1, 232, and foUowing. — 358. Bie terve^ 'in two or three 
passages.' — 359. Quandoque = quandoeunque. — 361. Comparison 
of poetiy with patntins. — 363. Abstare is an Sva^ Xsy^ptsvov. — 366. 
Major juvenum, the elder of the Pisones, who, as it appears, at- 
tempted poetry. — 368. Tolle = suscipe, *take it up, an(f keep it in 
remembrance.' — 371. Aulus Cascellius, a lawyer of great learning, 
Boraewhat older than Horace. — 373. Columnae, the pillars before 
ihe bookshops, on which the new works used to be hung up. — 374. 
The wealthy Romans kept bands, wbicb performed during dinner. 


£t craBsnm nngaentam et^Sardo cum melle papaver 375 

Ofiendunt) poterat duci quia coena sine istis, 

Sic animis natum inventumque poema juvandifli 

Si pauUum summo deceBsit, vergit ad imum. 

Ludere qui nescit, campeBtribns abstinet armis, 

Indoctusque pilae discive trochive quiescit, 380 

Ne spissae risum toUant impune coronae ; ' 

Qui nescit, versus tamen audet fingere. Quidni? 

Liber et ingenuus, praesertim census equestrem 

Summam nummorum, vitioque remotus ab omni. 

Tu nihil invita dices faciesve Minerva : 385 

Id tibi judicium est, ea men^. Si quid tamen olim 

Scripseris, in Maeci descendat judicis aures 

£t patris et nostras, nonumque prematur in annam, 

Membranis intus positis : delere licebit, 

Quod non edideris ; nescit vox missa reverti. 390 

Silvestres homines sacer interpresque deorum 

Caedibus et victu foedo deterruit Orpheus, 

Dictus ob hoc lenire tigres rabidosque leones. 

Dictus et Amphion, Thebanae eonditor urbis, 

Saxa movere sono testudinis et prece blanda 395 

Ducere, quo veilet. Fuit haec sapientia quondam, 

Publica privatifl secemere, sacra profanis^ 

Concubitu prohibere vago, dare jura maritis, 

0>ppida moliri, leges incidere ligno. 

Sic honor et nomen divinis vatibns atque 40O 

Carminibns venit. Post hos insignis Homerus, 

Tyrtaeusque mares animos in Martia belia 

'—375. The honey of Sardinia and Corsica was considered the 
worst. At the dessert white pepper roasted used to be served up 
with honey. — 379. Campettribus, *of the Campus Martius.' — 382. 
Nescit, 9cil. venus fingerc^Zd^. Censut equeatrem summam. . Tbe 
accusative is unusual, but the constniction inust be explained on 
the analogy of the construction of induo, exuo, and the iike. See 
Gram. ^ 259, 1, wiih note. — 385. From this line to line 407 Horaoe 
showa that a poet must have talent, without which nothing truly 
great can be produced, and must also strive after the highest ex- 
cellence. Invila Minerva, a proverbial expreasion of one who 
attempts anything for which nature has not given him capacity. — 
386. !rt6i. He is addressing the elder Piso. — 390. Nescit = non 
potest. — 391. Examples of the sublime power and influence of poets. 
—392. Victufoedo, eating raw fleah. — 394. Vietut, tcU. eat. — 397. 
Publica privatie $ecernere, to establish the notion of property. — 399. 
Leges incidere li^no. Laws were engraved on wood in the earliest 
times; as, for instance, in the oldest lesislative enactraents at 
Athens. Afterwards tables of stone and brass were used.—- 401. 
Insignit, scil.fuit.^^iOZ. Tyrtaeus, an Athenian poet, who, during 
the becond Messenian war, was sent to help the Spartans, and by hm 


Versibus exacuit ; diotae per carmina sortes, 
£t vitae monstrata via est, et gratia regum 
Pieriis tentata modis, ludusque repertus^ 405 

' £t longorum operum finis : ne forte pudori 
Sit tibi Musa lyrae sollers et cantor Apollo. 
Natura fieret iaudabiie carmen an arte, 
Quaesitum est : ego nec studium sine divite Tena, 
Nec rude quid possit video ingenium ; alterius sio 410 

Altera poscit opem res et conjurat amice. 
Qui studet optatam cursu contingere metam, 
Multa tulit fecitque puer, sudavit et alsit, 
Abstinuit Venere et vino j qui Pythia cantat 
Tibicen, didicit prius, extimuitque magistrum. 415 

Nec satis est dixisse: ^£go mira poemata pango; 
Occupet extremum scabies; mihi turpe relinqui est, 
£t quod non didici, sane nescire fateri.' 
Ut praeco, ad merces turbam qui cogit emendasi 
Assentatores iubet ad lucrum ire poeta 420 

Dives agris, dives positis in fenore nummis. 
Si vero est, unctum qui recte ponere possit 
£t spondere levi pro paupere, et eripere artis 
Litibus implicitum ; mirabor, si sciet inter 
Noscere mendacem verumque beatus amicum. 425 

Tu seu donaris seu quid donare voles cui, 
Nolito ad versus tibi factos ducere plenum 
Laetitiae ; clamabit enim ^ Pulchre, bene, recte,' 
Paliescet super his, etiam stillabit amicis 
£x oculis rorem, saliet, tundet pede terram. 430 

war-songs so raised their courage and enthusiasra that they were 
▼ictorious. Mares =:foHe8. — 403. Sorte», * the answers of oracles/ 
particularly that of Delphi. — 404. Gratia regum, ete. Pindar, for 
instance, gained Hiero'8 favour. — 405. Liidus^ dramatic poetry, 
whicQ is an end of — that is, a recreation after — labour. — 406. iV« 
forte pudori, etc. It appears that the elder of the young Pisones, 
after having made some not very successful attempts in poetry, was 
beginning to despise the art as unworthy of a statesman. — 408. 
From thts lipe to the end Horace shows that talent alone, without 
art, is insudicient to make a man a poet. An author, in formins his 
own opinion of his work, must beware of flatterers. — 409. Venat 
tcil. ingenii. — 414. Pythiacantat, ^sings in the Pythian games.' — 
417. Oceupet extremum scabie». The phrase is takeri from boys at 
play, who, when starting in a race, used to declare that the wmner 
shouid be embraced, and the hindmost should take scahies ; that is, 
be disgraced.— 418. Sane, ' really.'— 427. Tibi = a tc— 429. Very 
bumorous. Pallescet, * he will turn pale with horror,* when the 
hero of the poem is in misfortune ; stillabit rorem ; that is, wili 
weep; and when the hero is successful, he will leap and dance. — 


Ut qui conducti plorant in funere, dicunt 

Et iaciunt prope plura dolentibud ex animo, sio 

Derisor v6ro plus laudatore movetur. 

Reges dicuntur multis urgere culullis 

Kt torquere mero, quem perspexisse laborant, 435 

An sit araicitia dignus : si carmina condes, 

Nunquam te fallant animi sub vulpe Jaientes. 

Quintilio si quid recitaren, ^ Corrige sodes 

Hoc, aiebat, et hoc' Melius te posse negares 

Bis terque expertum frustra, delere jubebat 440 

Et male tornalos incudi reddere versus. 

Si defendere delictum quam vertere malleg, 

Nullum ultra verbum aut openim insumebat inaoem, 

Quin sine rivali teque et tua solus amares. 

Vir bonus et prndens versns reprehendet inertes, 445 

Culpabit duros, incomptis allinet atrum 

Traverso calamo signum, ambitiosa recidet 

Ornamenta. parum claris Itlcem dare coget, 

Arguet amojgue dictum, mutanda notabit, 

Fiet Aristarchus : non dicet, * Cur ego amicam 460 

Offendam in nugis V Hae nugae seria ducent 

In mala derisum semel exceptumque sinistre. 

Ut mala quem scabies aut morbus regins urget 

Aut fanaticus error et iracunda Diana, 

Vesanum tetigisse timent fugiuntque poetam, 455 

431. It was customary at Roman iiinerals to hire mourning women 
{praeficae), who wept and lamented more than the real mourners 
iquam qui dolent «c animo.) As to the custom, compare Carm, ii. 20, 
22. — 433. Derisor; namely, the flattererjust described ; for he is in- 
wardly laughing at your poem.— 434. Xjrgere and.<oryi*<re, ezpres* 
sions properly used of tyrants, who torture their victims ; here, ' to 
try,* or * prove.' — 437. Sub vulpe. Those flatterers, likc the fox, 
have a smooth face, but a bad heart. — 438. Quintilius, a sincere and 
upright critic, is contrasted with the flatterers.— 439. Negares = si 
nesaret. — 444. Quin is used, because the idea of hindrance -^ or 
rather of non-hinderance— is contained in the preceding line. — 445, 
Jnerte$, * which have no strength of thought.'-^47. Signum is the 
mark called obelus, which the Alexandrian grrmmarians uaed to put 
at Buch passages of the ancient authors as they thought unworthy 
of the writer, and consequently deserving to be struck out. It is 
called ater, as indicating a sentence of condemnation. To make the 
obeluSf the stylus had to be held crosswise : hence traverso calamo. — 
450. Aristarcnus of Samothrace, who lived in Alexandria about 154 
B.c., was so celebrated as a commentator on the Homeric poems, 
that his name was uaed for * critic' in general. — 453. Morbu» regiut, 
*jaundice.* The origin of the name is uncertain. — 454. FaruiiicuB 
error, * frenzy,* such as that of the priests of Cybele. Quem urgei 
iracunda Diana (here as goddess of the moon) ; tbat iB, a lapatic.*— 


Qui sapiunt : agitant paeri incautique sequuntur. 

Hic dum sublimis yersus ructatnr et errat, 

Si veluti merulis intentus decidit auceps 

In puteum foveamve ; licet * Succurrite' longum 

Clamet 'lo cives !' non sit, qui tollere curet. 460 

Si curet quis opem ferre et demittere funem, 

Qui scis, an prudens huc se projecerit atque 

Servari nolit? Dicam Siculique poetae 

Narrabo interitum. Deus immortalis haberi 

Dum cupit Empedoc^s, ardentem frigidus Aetnam 465 

Insiluit. Sit jus liceatqae perire poetis. 

Invitum qui servat, idem facit occidenti. 

Nec semel hoc fecit, nec si retractus erit, jam 

Fiet homo et ponet famosae mortis amorem. 

Nec satis apparet, cur versus factitet, utrum 470 

Minxerit in patrios cineres, an triste bidental 

Moverit incestus : certe furit, ac velut ursus, 

Obiectos caveae valuit si frangere clathros, 

Indoctum doctumque fugat recitator acerbus ; 

Quem vero arripuit, tenet occiditque legendo, 475 

Non missura cutem, nisi plena cruorls, hirudo. 

456. AgUant = exagitanU— 457. Sublimis, *with his head raised 
proudiy erect.' Erratf to be taken literally, * goes up and down.' 
— 459. Langum clametj a poetical expression for multum clamet. — 

462. Qui scis auy *how do you know whether not?' — 465. 

Empedocles of Agrigentum, a Pythagorean philosopher and a poet. 
It is said that, in order that he might be supposed to have become 
a god, he leaped into the cratBr of Etna, but that unfortunateiy one ' 
of his shoes was thrown up, and revealed the manner of his death. 
— 467. Occidenti = atque is qui occidit. See Zuropt, ^ 704. — 469. 
Fiet homo, an allusion to EJmpedocles, who wished to be a god, and 
not to die Hke other men. — 470. Perhaps the mad poet was driven 
by the gods to his rage for writing verses as a punishment for some 
crime. — 471. Bidental, properiy a place struck by iightning, and 
therefore enclosed as sacred. — 472. MovertJt = violarit. 





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BLANC9IABB A5D LEA'S FUB1J0ATI0N&— (^^U^ <»^ 'Sb^ BmI») 






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80 necessary to a Tolume of this kind, the publishers haTe .aTailed themselTes 
of the serrices of a gentleman whose sdentiflc acqtiirements enable them, with 
confidence, to Toneh Ibr its eorreetness. Tarious errors wtiich had escaped the 
author^s attention haTe thus been rectified, andsome omiasions supplicd; wfaile 
a series of questions and examples is appended to each suttJect, with tfae Tiew 
of impressing upon tfae student the applicalion bf the prindples laid down in 
the text, to practical purposes. 

In OTder to supply the wants of those who desire to procnre separate manuals 
on the Tarious sutiiects embraced in this work, it has been arranged fbr binding 
«Ither in three parts, or as a whoie. The First Pari embtaoea Mechanics; the 
Seoond, Hydrostatios, HydrauUcs, Pneumatics, and Sound; the Third, Optics. 







In one large Tolume, imperial quaito» handioBiely and stfongly bovnd, irlth 
twenty-eix plates, engraved and colonred In the best style, together with 112 
pagee of Deseriptiye Letter-pre«s, wad a yery copioua Index. 

This splendid Tolume will flll a Toid long liBlt ia tbiB oonntrj, where no work 
haa been attainable preaentlng the regnlts of the important sdenoe of Pfayeioal 
Oeography in a distinct and tangible form. The reputation of the author, and 
the uniTersal approbation wlth which hiB Atlas haa been reoeiTed, are sufficient 
guarantees that no care has been spared to render the book oomplete and trust' 
worthy. The engraTing, printing, and colouring, will all be Ibund of the best 
and moet aocnrate deseription. 

Aa but a anaU edition hai been prepared, the puUiahera lequeet all who may 
dedre to procure oopies of the work to send orden through thelr bookHwHen 
without delay. 

The book before us ie, in ehort, a graphio encyclopsedia of the sdenoee — an 
atlas of human knowledge done into maps. It ezemplifief tiie truth whioh it 
expressee — that he who runs may read. The Thermal Laws of Leslie it enun- 
dates by a bent line running acroes a map of Europe^ the abetract researcheB 
of Gauss it embodies in a few parallel ourTee winding oyer a section of the 
globe; a formula of Laplaoe it melts down to a little patch of menotint shadow; 
a problem of the transoendental analTsiB, which ooTers pages with deflnite inte- 
giikls, it makes plain to the eye by a uttle stippling and hatching on a giTon de> 
gree of longitudel AII poesible relations of time and spaoe, heat and oold, wet 
and dry, frost and snow, TOlcano and storm, onrrent and tide, plant and beast, 
race and religion, attractlon and repulsion, glacier and aTalanche, fossil and 
mammoth, riTer and mountain, mine and forest, alr and doud, and sea and 
sky — all in the earth, and nnder the earth, and on tbe earth, and aboTe the 
earth, that the hewrt of man has oonoelTed or his head understood — are bronght 
together by a marTeltons mieroooem, and planted on theee little sheeta of paper 
— -ihus making themselTes dear to oTory eye. Jln short, we haTO a summary 
of all the cros»«|uestion8 of Nature ibr twenty centuries — and all the answers 
of Nature herself set down and speaking to us Tolnminous system dan* un 
mot .... Mr. Johnston is well known as a geographer of great aocuracy and 
reeearoh; and it is certain that this work will add to hia reputation ; for it is 
beautifUlIy engraTed, and acoompanied with explanatory and tabular letter- 
preas of great Talue.— Xomlon Mhenoeum. 






noH fn iroEiuir oovQuwr to shi diakh or low XAmmu». 

Tn two Tmy nMt roliimefl, erown Sro, extn dotii, to mateh the "JAreB of the 

Ghsnoellon,'* cf the same anthor. 

In thlB work the anthor has diflplayed the same pattent faiTestigatlon of hl»* 
torical ftetfl, depth of reeeardi, and qnick appreeiation of oharacter which hare 
rendered his previons Tolumes so deeerredly popular. Though tho " LiTOS of 
the Chanoellors" embraoe a long line of illustrions personages intimately oon* 
neeied with the history of England, they leaTe someUiing stul to be filled np to 
oomplete the pioture, and it is this that the anthor has attempted in the present 
worlu Althouffh it natnrally presents greater interest to lawyers thaa to fhe 
reet of the pubuc, still the Tast amount of curions personal details oonoeming 
the eminent men whoee bi(«raphies it oontains, the liTelr sketches of intenst- 
Ing periods of histoiy, aod the grm>hie and TlTid siyle of the author, reodAr tt 
a work of great attraction Ibr the stndent of history and general reader. 

Althongh the perlod of hlstory embraoed In these Tolnmes had been pre* 
Tiously traTersed by the reoent work of the noble and leamed aathor, and a 
great portion of its moet ezdting inddents, espedally those of a oonstitutional 
natnre, there narrated, yet in "The LiTes of the Chief Jnsttoes" thero is a f^md 
both of interestlng Information and Taluable matier, whidi renders the bocdc 
well worthy of perusalby oTery one who desires to obtain an aoquaintanoe with 
the oonstitutional history of hls oountnr, or aspires to the rank of dther a 
statesman or a lawyer. Few lawyers of Lord CampbeU's eminenoe oould haTO 
produoed such a work as he has pnt forth. None but lawrers of his ezperlenoe 
and aoquirements oould haTe oompiled a work comUning the same interest as a 
iiafrtl ti o n, to the pnblio generally, with the same amount of praetieal Infinrn»* 
tioui toK pro&ssional aspirants more partlcularly^^Htofmia. 





noM THX SABUxn THfxs ro tbx vdqv or xuvo aioEas ir. 


Seoond Edition, with BeTislons and Addltions. Complete In seren hawdsoino 
erown octaTO Tolumee, extra doth. 

Of tbe solid merlt of the work our Judgment maj be gathered ftom what has 
already been said. We will add, that firom its inflnite fVind of aneedote, and 
happy Tarlety of strle, the btjok addreeses itself with eqoal daims to the mere 
general reader, as to the legal or historical inquirer; and wbile we aToid the 
stereotyped oommonplaoe of aArming that no library oan be oomplete withont 
it, we feel oonstrained to aflSord it a higher tribute by pronoundng it entitled to 
X a distingaished plaoe on the sheWes <^ eTery sdiolar who is fortnnate endkigh 
to possess it — IVater^M Magcuine. 

A work whidi wiH take its plaoe in onr Ubrarlee as one of the most briniant 
and Taluab}e oontrlbutkms to the Uteratnre of the present dsj^Athenmm, 





From the NonnaD ConqQest to the Accession- of tlie Bouse of EanoYer. 

inUi AnMdotoB of fhelr Conrts, now flrBt pnblished ttcm Offlcial Seooxds, Pri- 
Tate as well u PubUc 

mnr xdition, with abditionb akd ooriubctions. 


In dx Tolnmes, erown octaro, beantifuUy printed, and bonnd in Tarions styles. 
9opie0 of fhe dnodeoBmo cdition in twelTe Tolnmee may atill be had. 

These Tolumee haTe the ftsdnation of a romanoe nnited to the integrity of 

A moat TalnaUe and entertidning work. — Chronide, 

This interesting and wel Written work, in which the KTere truth of history 
takes almoBt the wildnees of romance, will oonstitute aTaluable addition to our 
Uogn^^hical litoratnre.— iforn^lTeraZd. 




^ two handflome 12mo Tolumes, with a Portrait and fiio^mile of a letter from 
John Adama. AIso, a handsome Library Edition, in two beautifully printed 
octaTo Tolumes. 

In ite present neat and oonTenient form, the work is eminently fitted to as- 
irame the podtion which It merits as a book for CTerr parlour-table and for eTery 
flreeide where there is an appredation of the kindlmees and manliness, the in- 
tellect and the affection, the wit and liTeliness which rendered William Wirt at 
onoe so eminent in the world, so brilliant in sodetT, and so loTing and loTod in 
the retirement of his domeetic drcle. Uniting ali theee attractions, it cannot 
fidl to ftnd a plaoe in oTei^ priTate and public library, and in all coUections of 
hooks for the use of schools and coll^^ ; for the young can haTC before them no 
hrighter example of what ean be aocomplished by industry and reeolntion, than 
the lifo of Willlam Wirt, as unconsdously related by himself in these TOlnmee. 


BY W. F. LYNCH, U. S. N., 

Commander of th^ Expedition. New and oondensed edition, with a Map, from 
actual sunreys. In one neat royal 12mo Tolume, extra doth. 

This Edition oontains all the substanoe of the former Tolume, from the time 
the expedition reached Lake Tiberias till its departure from Jerusalem, em> 
hradng all the explorations upon the riTcr Jordan and the ]>ead Sea. Some 
matter in the preliminaiy and ooncluding chapters has been omitted or con> 
densed, and the two maps of the former edition haTe been reduced in one, pre- 
serTing, howeTer, all the more important features of the oountzy described. In 
its present form, therefore, afforded at about one-thfaxl the prk» of the more 
oostly issue, in a neat and handsome TOlume, admirably adapted for parlour or 
fixecdde reading, or for distriet school, Sabbath sohool, and other librariee, the 
publishers confidentl/antidpate a Texy extensiTe demand. 

Oopiee may still be had of the Fine Edition, in one Tery large and handA>me 
octaTo TOlume, with twenty-eight beantiAil plates, and two maps. 13 




In lbiixtt«ii )arg« oetaTO ▼olomes of oTor six hondred doulile^oliuguMd ptsHl 
each. For gale very low, in yarious styles of binding. 
Some years haring elapsed sinoe the original thirteea Tolnmes of the ENCT- 
CLOPiEDIA AMERIOANA were published, to bring it up to the present daj, 
with the hlstory of that perlod, at the request of numeroua Bubflcribeni uie 
puUishOTS have issued a 




In one large octaTO Tolume of OTer 660 double-columned pages, whlch maj be 

had separately, to oomplete sets. 


THE ENCTCLOP^IA OP GBOGRAPHT, oomprising aCompIete Deseription 
of the E^h, Physical, Statistical, CiTil and Political; exhibiting its Relation 
to the HeaTenly Bodies, its Physical Strueture, the Natural History of each 
Couutry, and the ludustry, Commeroe, Political Institutions, and ClTil and 
Social State of all Nations. 

BT HUGH MURRAT, P. R. S. E., 4c 

Assisted in Botany, by Professor Hooker; Zoology, &c., by W. W. Swalnson; 

Astronomy, &c, by Professor Wallaoe; Geology, &c, by Professor Jameson. 

ReTised, with Additions, by Thomas G. Bradfoiu). The whole brought up, by 

a Supplement, to 1843. In three large octaTO TOlumes, Tarious styles of 


This great work, fiimlBhed at a remarfcably cheap rate, oontidns about nine* 
teen hundred large imperial pages, alid is illustrated by eigbty-two small maps, 
and a ooloured Map of the United States, after Tanner^s, together with about 
EisTen Hundred Wood Cuts, executed in the best style. 






Author of " John Howard and the Prison World of Europe," ftc In one Tery 
neat Tolume, royal 12mo, extra cloth. 

The Tolume before us demands espedal notioe for two reaaons— in fhe first 
place, it is an elaborate biography of William Penn, exhibiting great research, 
and bringing together a large amount of curious and original information ; in 
the seoond, it makes an undeniable exposure of blunders conunitted by Mr. 
Maoaulay in referenoe to its hero, which will go &r to oompromise his oharacter 
as a historian. This latter sultioct is of much intereet and importanc^ as Mr. 
Bixon discusses Mr. MaoftuIay's charges againstPenn, andYeinstates the charao- 
ter of the latter on that moral elcTatlon trom whidx it had been moflt imiaaUy 
and oazelesBly OTerthrown^.iiMen«im. U 



A BcriM of iMautiAilIy printed Tolomefl on Tarioiu branches of sclenoe, tj fh» 
moat eminent men In thelr TespeciiTe departmentR. The whole printed in 
fh« handiomest style, and profuaely embellished in the most effldent maat* 



BT SIR HBNRT T. BE LA BECHE, 0. B., F. l^ S., 

In one Tery laige and handsome octaTO TOlnmoi with OTer three hnndxed 

We haTe here presented to U9, hy one admirably qnalilled for the taBk, the 
xoost complete compendium of the sdenoe of geology eTer produced, in which 
thc different fiicts which fall under the cogniBance of this branch of natural 
sdenoe are arranged under the different causes by which they are produoed. 
From the style in which tbe sul^ect ia treated, the work is calculated not only 
for the use of the professional geologist, but for that of the uninitiated reader, 
who will flnd in it mueh curious and interesting information on the dianges 
which the surfaoe of our globe has undergone, and the hJstory of the Tarious 
striking appearanoes which it presents. Yoluminous as the work is, it is not 
rendered nnreadable firom its bulk, owing to the jndidous subdiTision of its 
oontents, and the copious index which is appended.— Jbftn BuO. 

This ample Tolume is based upon a fbrmer work of the anthor, ealled Bbw to 
Cbserve in Oeoiogy ; which has long been out of print, bnt in its daT gaTe rise 
to soTeral other directions for obeerring. The alteration of the title is somo- 
thing more than a nominal change; it eztends the book ftom the indiTidual to 
the general obserTer, showing what Juu been sdentifically seen in the globe, in- 
atead of what an indiTidual might see. It is a surrey of geologieal &cte through- 
oat the worid, daBstiied aooording to their iuX\ue^apedaU>r. 

TJ&CHNOLOGT; or, Ghxhistbt Appuxd to tbx Abts akb to MAinrPACTUBS. B7 
Dr. F. Knapp, Professor at the TJniTersity of Giessen. Edited, with nnmerouB 
Notes and Additions, by Dr. EDinnn) Konaldb, and Dr. Thoxab RiCHAKDMnr. 
First American Edltion, with Notes and Additions, by Professor WALTsa B. 
JoBKBON. In two handsome octaTO Tolumes, printed and illnstrated In the 
highest style of art, with about 500 wood engraTings. 

BLEMENTS OF CHEMISTRT; induding the Application of the Sdence to the 
AitB. By Thoiub Qbahax, F. R. S., Ac. Edited by Robkbt Bbidobs, M. B. 
Second American, from the seoond and enlarged London edition. In two 
partiy iarge 8to» with aeTeral hundred wood-cats. (Part L in preas.) 



Lihrary of lUwtrated Sdenlific Works. — ( CorUinued, ) 





AmrHOE 0¥ "mmjLX rmnaouon," Ac 

Third Edition, greatly enlarged and improyed. In one yery lumdflome toIhiim^ 
large 8to, of 1100 pages, with S21 beautiftil wood«ntB. 

A tmly magniiioent work. In itself a perftct phydologioal Bbadj.—Jtank- 
inffs Abttraet. 

It is impraeticable for ns to gtve an analyBia of the varied oontents o(f thls 
moet uMful Tolume. Its production has been a iabour of love with ita aathoTy 
and has sutgected him to much thought, and to no little toil, without the ez- 
pectation of pecuniary proflt. It is to be hoped, howerer, that so mueh abilitjr, 
seal and industry, may meet with their rewaid, and that Atture editiona maT- 
remunerate him for productive exertions, so benefidal in their results to others. 
We'may remark, in oondusion, that the work is beautiAilly gotten up in the 
English fashion, and that the illustrations are in the first style of art — The 
Medical Examiner. 

INO. By Professor Juuvs Wkbbaoh. Translated and Edited by Profeoaor 
GoBOOV, of Glasgow. Pirst Amerioan Edition, with Additions, bj Profenor 
WALtKE B. JoHHSOH. In two ootavo Tolumes, beantifally printed, with 900 
lllnstrationa on wood. 

The most Talnable oontribntion to praetical sdenoe that has yet appeaz«d la 
this oountry. — Afhenaum. 

Unequalled by anything of the kind yet produoed in this oountry ~ the Buwt 
standard book on meehanics, machinery and engineering now eztant.— iV. T» 

In every way worthy of being reoommended to onr readers. — JF>an£2£n Intti- 

PRACnCAL PHABMACT: Gomprising the Arrangements, Apparatos, and 
Hanipulations of the Pharmaoeutical Shop and Laboratory. By FHANca 
HoHH, Ph. Dn Assessor Pharmad» of the Royal Pmssian CoUege of Medieine^ 
CoUents; and Thbophilus Rkdwoob, Professor of Pharmat^ in the Pliamuip 
oentical Sodoty of Great Britain. Edited, with extensiTe Additions, by Pro- 
Ibisor Wk. Pboctob, of the Philadelphia CoIIege of Pharmacj. In one hand- 
sraaely prlnted ootsTO Tolnme^ of 570 pages, with OTor 600 engraTings on wood. 

Edited, with Additions, by B. EoLBsrKLD Gbiitith, M. D. In one large and 
handsome octaTo Tolume, with 660 wood-cuts, and two ooloured plates. 
The style in which the Tolume is published is in the highest degree eredltable 

to the enterpriae of the puldishers. It oontains nearly 400 engraTings, executed 

In a style of extraordinary eleganoe. We oommend tbe book to general taTOor. 

It is the best of its kind we haTe oTer seen.— JV. T. Cmrixr and Enmtirtr. 




AXM vvBvamsa vmva. tbi abovb titu, 




TBB object of this pablication ii to imcieiit a aeriet of elementary worki 
■aited to the wants of the beginBer, as well as accurate texts of the more pro- 
minent aneient writers, revised in accordance with the latest investiga» 
tioiM and MS8., and the most approved principles of modern criticism— 
Tliese are accompanied with notes and illustrations introduced sparingiy. 
aToiding on the one hand the errur of overburdenine the work with commen- 
tary, and on the otlier thatof leaving the student entirely to hisown resouroes. 
The main object has been to awaken the 8cholar's mind to a senae of the beau- 
ties and peculiaritics of his author, to assist him where assistance is neces. 
aary, and to lead hini to think and to investisate for himself. For this pur- 
pose maps and other engravinffs are given wherever useAil, and each autbor 
iB accompanied with a biographical and critical sketch. The form in which 
the Tolumes are printed is neat and convenient. while it admits of their being 
Bold at prices unprecedentedly low, thus placing them within the reach of many 
to whom the cost of classical works has hitherto proved a bar to this depart« 
ment of study. It wiU be seen, therefore, that the Beries combines tlie foUow- 

I. A graduallv ascending seriea of School Books on a unifbrm plan, so «i to 
eonstitnte within a definite nuinber. a complete Latin Curriculum. 

& Certain arrangements in the rudimentary volumes, which will inrare a 
f^ emoant of knowledge in Roman Uterature to those who are not designed 
fbi motcBBJoox.\ liie^ and who ibeiefore wiU not require to eztend their studiea 
to the advanced portion of tlie series. 

3. The tezt of each author will be snch aa has been conatitated by tlie noBt 
recent collations of manuacripls, and will be prefaced by biographical and cri- 
iical «ketcbes in English, that pupils may be made aware of tlie eharacter and 
peculiarities of the work they are about to stody. 

4. To remove difllcultieB. and sustain an interest in the tezt, ezplanatory 
liotes in English will be plaoed at the fbot of each page, and euch comparisoiM 
drawn as may serve to anite tlie liistofy of tbe past with tlie realitiea of 
modem times. 

5. The workB, generally, will be embeUished with mapt and illaftrative 
engravings,— accompaniments which will greatly aseist the studenfs compre 
liension nf the nature of the countries andleading circumstances described. 

» 6. The respective volumes will be issued at a price considerably lese thaa 
that nsually charged ; and as the tezts are from tlie most eminent sources, and 
the whole series constructed upon a determinate plan, tbe practice of Issuing 
new and altered editions, wliich is oomplained of alike by teadien and papils, 
witl be altogether avoided. 

Tlie series consists of the ibk lowing Tolttffles, which hava reoently appaarad 


Schiiiitz aiid Zmiipt'» Classtcal Sisries— CoiitiaiMd. 

GALLICO. — With an Introduction, Notes, and a Geographiciil 
Index in English. AIso, a Map of Gaul. and Illustrative Engravings. Is 
one taandaonie 18bio. volume, of 233 pages, extra cloth, price 50 ola. 


Introduction and Notei. In one handaome 18mo. volume, of 438 pagea, 
•ztra ctotta, price 75 cta. 


— With Introduction and Notes in English. Also, a Map of Nuoiklia, and 
other Illustrative £nfraving& In one taaodfloma 18mo. volume, of Itf 
pagea, extra cloth, price 50 cts. 

(lY.) I4ATIN GRAMMAR.— By Leonhard Schmitz. Ph. D., 
F. R. S. E., Rector of the High School, Edinburgh. In one bandaome 18ma 
volume, of 318 pagvB, aeatly balf-bouiid, price 60 cta. ' 


hibri aui Snpersunt VIII. With a Map, Introduction, English Nrtea, 
Scc In one bandaome 18mu* volume, of 326 pagea, price ^ cts. 


With Introdttction, English Notes, itc Ibe. In one handaome 18mo. toIubm, 
of 300 pagea, price 60 cta., (jntt ittued.) 

XXI. XXll. With Two Maps. an Introdoction, and Bngjish Notes. In 
one handaome l8mo. volume, of 350 pagM, price 70 cents, {noto ready^) 

GUAGE*— By Dr. Kaltschmidt. In Two Parts, Latin-Engliah, 
and English-Latin. Forming one large and eloBely-printed volume, royal 
18mo. of 850 double-column pages, strongly bound: price, %l 35. 
Part 1., Latin-English, of nearly 500 pagea : price, UO cts. 
Fart LI., English-Latin, of nearly 400 pagea : price, 75 cts. 


By Leonhard Schmitz, Ph. D., F. R. 8. £., &c. In one handaome 18mo. vo- 
lume, (nMr/y ready.) 

(X.) Q. HORATII FLACCTCARMIN A.— In one handsome 
180:10. volume, (pr^aring.). 


bandaome 18mo. Tolume, {fr^arinf.) 


TIBf*— In one handaome 18mo. volame, (yreparing.) 

ZiATIN.— In one bandsome 18mo. volome, (preparing.) 

ART«— In one large and handsome 18mo. volume, (preparing.) 

The numerouB advantages whieh thls series possesses have secured Ibr It 
the unqualified approbation of almost every one to whom it has been sub- 
mitted. Prom araong «everal hundred recommendations, with whicb ther 
have been favored, the publiahers present a few from tbe fbllowinc j^ynjnfffit 
■cbolars and practical teachers. * 

•eluKite ftttil kvaftiiC» Classieal Series— Gontiiiiied. 

Fr»m PRor. J. F. RKHAftiMOR, MttMBon UHwenilf, Oet 37, 1849. 

I fcsve the Gnmmw at onoe a Teiy cweAil examinatioD, and have no hesitatioii ia 
«aving that, for tbe use of snhool and ooUege claises, I cousider the work snperior to an^ 
eiher Latin Grammar in our laniuag^e with which I am acquainted. I have already 
directed one of my classes to porcnase oopies of it. I shall ahso introduce in the cours* 
of tbe year yoar editinn of Virgil and probably aiao that of Ciesar, both of which I prefet 
I» «mr othen as toct books Ibr ourclasses. 

Ftom Prop. J. J. Owbn, Pree Academyy JVew Tork, Jivg, 31, 1849. 

I am highly pleased with voar excellent publieations of the abore series, and as an evi- 

^Moe of cfae estimation in which I hold them, on my reoommendation, your Virgil has 

ktan ad<4>ted as a text-book in the Free Academy in this eity. I shall be happy to oom* 

jMmd your series to aU with whom I may have auy influenoe. 

JiVm PRor. J. B. HoDSOir, OberKn OoUege, O., OeU 12, 1850. 

I have examined the seriesof £lemeotanr Classics puhlished by Lea «b Blanchard. and 
take great pleasure in sayin? that I regard them as admirably adapted to secure the obiect 
proposed. The.text is ahighly approved one and the typography has been rarely exoelled 
m works of this sort fbr cleamess and beauty. I have detected fewer mistakes in the 
pnntiiw and punctuation of these books than in almost anv works of a similar character 
Uiatl fiave seen. Tbe mapa too are agraat help— «n inaispensabie one iudeed to tho 
great majority of students who have no ancientaUaso-in understandiug the geograpbical 
allusions contained m tbe text. The aelection of notes is jodicious ; and the whole 
design and execation of the aeries commend it to the notioe of those who wish to becomo 
indepeadeat and self-relying scholars. 

From PRor. J. Packarb, Tkooiogieeil SeminATft FaiffM eoiuntft FirginUt 
MtreA^ 1850. 
Tbe size of the volume, the beauty and correctness of the text, and the jndidoaa 
BOtes, nfit too oopioos to supersede the industry of the pupil, seem to me to leave nothing 
to be desired. I donbt not your enterprise wiu be rewarded by your editions taking the 
aiace of othen now iu use, to which there are many objections, and I will do what in me 
liee to proomte Uieir drcnlation. 

From PROr. J. S. BoNSALL, Frederiek CoUege, Ml^ JMcrcA 18, 1850. 

Having used the first three volumes of the senes for roore than a year, I am finee to 

■ay, that I prefer them to any sohool editions of ^ aame authort with which I am 

«o^ttainted. ~ 

From PRor. J. Forstth, CoUege ef JVew Jert ey, Mareh 19, 1850. 
I am happy in being able to say that every suocessive volome has confirmed me in the 
Jodgment formed on thoee fint inued, and renews my delight that you have resolved to 
place the wbole of this admirable series of elaasical auttwn wiUiin the reach of Amen 
can students. The Grrammar is abeady in ose in this coilege; and I shall emdiallr 
recommend oar students to procure your editions of soch authora aa we read. 

From T. J. Sawtkr, Esq., CUnton Uheral JnsUtvte, Mareh 98, 185a 
We have paid them the compliraeat of making them our text-books and introdoeiaff 
them at once into this institute. In size and prioe, in design and execution, they seem 
to me better fitted for schools of this class than any otben that have fiftUen under mj 
obeervation. A neat and accurate text, and brief. but expltoit notes, constitute the prin- 
eipal characteristics of a good classk»! school book. These distii^ieh yoar aeriesi and 
gm them a claim to general diffusion. 

From tke Ret. J. J. Smtta, A. M., Suesex Oourt JSniM, Fo., japrii^, 1850. 

While at the head of the Fetenbarg Qassical Institute, I introdnced yonrCMar, Virgil 
aod SaUust, as being in my judgment the best school editions of these works that I have 
■aen. Smce I have been in my present pastoral charge, I have been the means of havias 
tbe Cmar and Sallust introdooed into two sehoc^ in this coanty. These works «rs a 
happy medium between the mere text anii the overloaded annotations which zender 
eome editions bat the dandestine refnge of idle achool^^bojs. 

rvvm PRESIOENT Manlt, Vnivoroity 4^ jSlabama^ Marek S9, 1850. 
8o£ur as 1 may be oonsalted, or have inflaenoe, I ritaQ aeek te reoommend the nae of 
thie well-edited aad cheap seriea, in all the prepontonr acbools of otnr rsgioii. 

BeluBlU aB4 ZMpl^s C9as«ieal SeriB»^-Go«kte«e«. 

#Vmi A. W. Fiks, EflQ., JTmMteidk. Jlfe, {)»eMi*er U. 1848. 
I b«T» cxamiiied with moch care and hiRh aatisfitction, the firat five Tolames of jvai 
•diUoa of Dn. Schmite anJ Zampt's elaaacnl aeriee. The plan and eKeGntk» o£ the aenea 
are ezcellent. The notes appended to tbe aeveral anthora OTinoe fnlly ihe aoond judf- 
Bient aod aocimte r^itidsm of the leanied editora. They aie sttlBeientV oopioas to nie«t 
tbe wttUs of tbe stodent, without, at the same time, by their fulness, enouaraKiiier babili 
" " . -— - sthant""^ " ^ '' " - 

of indolence. I bave. for more than thirty years, been coastantly musageA in teaehnf 
tbe elasaics, and 1 bsTe not seen any edition of the Latin aathora, wuaUy read in ow 
academies, which I could cmnmend ao conlldently, as the ODe yoa are pobushing; 

JV0» E. EvsRrrr, £■«., JVbw OrlMM, Deeemier 14, 1849. 
All tbese poblicatioas aie ▼alnable aeqaisitions to oar claasical and sdiool Ubrariea. I 
m paitieaiarly pleaaed with tbe Vitcil ; tbe notes are a store of leamins ; tbey farnidi 
tbe stodent with soch hiats on the manBera and costoms of the HiNnans as eannot iail tn 
■erre as iroportant aids to the stndy of Roman history, at the same time that tb«y thnHr 
new light on tbe text of tbe rreat poet. They aeem to me to be model notaa : tbey ars 
■either so copioas as to enable the stndent todispenae with the ezeretse of jadgmentaad 
taste, aor so meagre as to leaTe difficalt passages oaejplained. 

Frem Tboxab CBAn. £fl«., Cambridge, Mus,^ Septemier S8, 1849. 
I take fnaX pleasare in recommending the Tsrioas rolames of Scbmitz and Zampt% 
Classical Beiies, which haTo appeared in this ooontry, aa admirably adapted for the asa 
of acbools. The character of tbe editon is a goarantee of tbe accuracr of the text aad 
the oorrectneas of the annotations. Tbe notes an prepared widi earefttl acholarahip anl 
nioe diserimination. and the anumnt of information giTen on historieal and graramatical 
points is sufficient to satisfy the wants of the leamer. while it is not so great aa to be 
prejudidal to his habito of study. We hare introduoed the editioos of CMar and of Yir- 
gil, oompcised in this saries, into tbe High Sehool intliia ciQr. 

FHm R.B.7BCBUDI, Ebq., Mifolk Aeademy, Maff 31, 1849. 
t reoeiTed the foaith Tolame of yoor clasaical series and take greal pleasore in infera* 
ing you they baTO been the text-books reoommended in this school smce Uieir first t^ 
pearance. I hsTe found the text aiid lypagraphical exeoution equal, and in many rB ap eots 
superior to any other editions that I haTe seen. But tbeir eheapness is destined to make 
them take the plaoe of all other school editions. Of oourae it will take time to assume 
the plaoe of works already in oae, bot I belieTO Ailly, at no dJMant daj theae Trill be tha 
■ole editions in general ose. 

JVom A. MoRBB, Eaq., ^ntueket Mgh Sekod, Julf 90, 1849. 

After a somewhat minute examination of the same, in whicb I haT« oompared tbem, 
lins by line, with other editi«ns,edited by diflerent gentlemen, which my classes are now 
readinr, I haTe no besitation in giTing to the aeries, edited by Dn. Scfamitx and Zompt, 
a deciued preference to any with which I am acquainted. 

IDrom R. H. Bali., Esq., MMkumberland Aeademiff^ JiPenemher 38, 1849. 

This edition of the classics, so fiur, I greatly prefer to any other I haTe seen, for tbe nao 

of schools. It combines tbe adTantares of textuid correctaess, cheapness, and pre-emi* 

nent ability in the annotations, three things eraecially desirahle in schocd booka. 1 baTn 

adopted thia series, as far as issued, to the excluaion of all others. 

Frmn tke Rxt. £. A. DAXAxmLm, I^ieeopal mgk Sekool «f F3iyfota, JVboMi' 

I haTe examined tbem with some cara, and haTe pleasure in statinir that they nrs 
Indksioasly and carefatly prepared fbr the use of schools and collefi:es. The notes are to 
tiw point, and -what notea to classical authore should be, not so fuU as to amount to n 
translation of the text, or so meagre as to giTe no satisfactory infbrmation to the stodent. 
As the best eTidence of my approTal, I would state that it is my purpoae to introdaoa 
them, as ooeasion maj arise, mto the institutton uod« ^^—-^•--- 

them, as ooeasion maj arise, mto the institutton uoder mj direction. 

Frvm Z. D. T. Kinoblbt, Esa., West Point, JV. F., Jfovemker 6, 184a 
I am Tery much pleased with the Casar aad Vixinl, and preenme I shaU be eQoalljr ■• 
with the Sallust. t riiall adopt theae Latin bodu for my achool 

From Pnor. A. F. Rqsb, Betkemy CoUege, rirginia, Deeomter 7, 1848. 

My opinion of the CaBsar yoo haTe already had expressed. and I will oaiij add thnt BHf 

interest in the oompletlon of the serieB haa been enhanced by th« Tolumes vrhkSi w6m 

toTB fbfrwaxdsd QM. iBhaUneonnMndthemfiNradoptionasuiestandardooaneiBaHB 

Sckmitx and Znmpt^s Classical Series— ContiaiieiL 

Fnm J. a BoKBALL, Esq., Fnderiek Odlege^ JUd^ Feb. 5, 184& 
I have ezamined them, and find them oa all pointo what the reputatioB of the emfaMiiii 

•dilon led me to expeoi from them, aod wbat they design the books to be. 
I know not that i can give you a better proof of the estimation in whieh I hold thoM, 

ttMB by cimpljr nying that I am alrea<ly nung Caaar and Virgil of the aeriee in my eLaMM^ 

aad ezpect very aoon to introdooe Salliist. 

From PRor. N. L. Limdslbt, Cun^erland Univerritf^ Tenn.t JViw. 32, X648. 

i am rery favonrably impresBed with the merite of Schmitz and Zumpfs classical Mriae. 
Sofar as myenga^ements have permitted me to examine the " Vinal" and "SaUaat,** I 
ua indooea to beheve that they are superior to the other editions in common/He. 

1 ahall take pleasore in reoommending them to teacherB and stndenta in thia vicinily. 

JVem PRor. Gbssmkr Harrmon, Univereity qf yirginia, JVov. 3, 1848. 
I very deddedly appmve of the plan of publishing cheap editions of the classica, witk 
teief notes, for the use of schoola, and aliaU recommend tbia «lition to my frienUs, as soit- 
able for this object. 

Frvm pRor. W. 8. TtleR, Amheret College, Mue., Dee. 35, 184a 
The notes are pertinent and pithy, as weU as accnrate and leamed, and contrast to 
great advantage wiih some wbose ohief recommendation is, that they are designed to 
•tone for the indolenoe of the student by the supererogatory works of the editor. 

From JoBM S. Hart, LL.B., Central mgh Sckoel, PkUadefykim, Dec. 14, 1848. 

I have examined, with much satisfaction jrour editions of Viiigil and Sallust, being oon- 
thiuations of your reprint of Schmitz and Zumpfs classical series, and take pleasure ia 
renewing the reoonmiendationwhich I gave to the plau of the series on the appearance 
of Cssar, The nutes are admirably adapted to the precise wants of the learner, giving in 
amall space all the neoessaiy focihties, without supersediog the neoessity of diiigent and 
accurate stody. 

From C. W. Evbrrst, Esq., Rutory School^ Hamden^ Gt., Dee. 7, 1848. 
From Ihe brief ezaraination I have been able to give them, I feel very much pleaaed 
witb them, both as regarUa the execution of your own part of the plan, and also that of 
yoar able editors. Such text-books are much needed. Instead of them, we have been 
mnndated with editions, tou often wretchedly printed, and more frequently ruined by a 
mulUplicty of noces. Acoept my thanks fur your kindness in sending me the works, and 
be snre i shaJi be happy to adopt them as text-books in my schuoi. 

From Wh. B. Potts, Oneigshurg, Pa., JVoo. 28, 1848. 
I have devoted snfficient time to the examination of yoar editions of Gnsar, Virgil, and 
Sallost, to enable nie to form an estimate of their respective merits. I do nut hetutate to 
•ay that the uniformity and eheapness of the works, with the notes of the leamed editors, 
avraciently illustrative of the style and sentiments"of the authors, and yet not so volumi* 
Roos as to obviate ihe necessity of careful study on the part of the student, must recum- 
■wnd iLem to the fovourable considenition of those engaged in teachiug ttiis interesting 
bnuBCh of titerature. We ahatl oertaiuly adopt this series m the academy. 

JiVom Wm. Garnbtb, E»^., J^rfolk, Va., JVbv. 30, 184a 

I ratum you my thanks for tbe copies of Virgil and Sallust sent to me. The profeasor 

of languages in the Norfolk academy has introduced them in this school, aad we thiali 

they will be used in all sch^ols, as soon as luown to them. I ahail recommecd thoaa !• 

aU ihe teachers of nqr acqnaintance. 

From Wh. Demn», Esq., WUmingtmt^ DeL, JVbv. 11, 1848. 
I have received the Casar and Virgil of the classical senes now in couraeof publleatioa 
yo«, and have for aome time been nsing the Cnsar with a dasa. I am satisfied that 
ure b^ter school editioas of thooe aathors than aoy othim that I have ever seoa» 

FHm G. W. Mbbkbr, Esq., Chicago, [tt.^ Jan. 17, 1840. 
I shaU be happy to recommeDd tliem as the best and most aoenzate editioiis of Hm 
wosks J hare ever seeh. 



MuBiiix asd Zimpfs Gtessical Series — Contiaaed. 

JVv» Prof. A. & Packard. Bvwdnn OoUeg^ Br^nawUk, JUe., JUkrcA 8. 1848. 
I oumot nfnda kmger from oommnmcatinir to joa Um higbtf faTonrablo imprMnoa 
«rhich they hare made opon nie. I see nothing to desire in the general stjle of thew 
■ibtiona. 1 know of no etlien, which for neatnesa aod cheapnees* aad safficient helps for 
the student, surpass them. 1 am exceedin^lv pleased with the good taste, clear and pn»- 
cise statements, and sound scholarship, which distiapush the notes. As ac^l eiMBioa^ i 
regard them as mode]s. 

From PRor. J. Forsttb, Jr. OoUeff$ tf JV*. J.^ Frinceto», JFV6. 7, 1849. 

tfaat you have already received are fully desenred. The cheapness and convenient fbnii 
of theae volumes, and espedally the characler of the noies, maJce tham predaely tfae kiad 
«f tezt book which I should put into the hand ci the younf dassical stodent. I shall re- 
oommend the students of ihis coUege to procnre your edition of sueh of the Latu «nthors 
as we are accustomed to read. You have my best wishes for yoor success in your pnuse> 
wortby enterprise. 

JiVom PRor. M. L. Stoevbr, Penn. ColUge^ OettjfeVnrg^ Pa., Jan, , 1849. 
The aoeuracy of the text, and the Judioiousneas. of the abt«i. as well n» th* dieapoeii 
ef the Tolumes, render ihis edicran of the ciassics most deservins of public attention. 

fVm N. BiSHOP, EsQ., Smt. pf Puhlic Sckoeta, mnd Prineipal efBSgk Sdkool, Pre- 
videnee, R. /., Abv. 29, 1848. 

I have had the honoor of reoeivinr the three firrt yolames of yonr ** daaaienl Seijea." 

I am much pleased with the size of ihe books, and their cheapaes» ; the correcfnest of the 
tezi, and ibe dunracter of the notes. I mean, of oourse. the oomparative oorrectness of 
the tezt, as perfect accuracy is rarely attained amoog us, even in uur own languaee, moch 
less in that of others. I shall take pleasore in recommeDding your ** Classical ^ries" to 
all the schools in the viciaity of this city. and shall ioiroduce them into the Claasical D»- 
partments of our High Schoul at the earliest opportunity for changes in tezt-books. 

i>Vom PRor. JoBif Whsbler, Jtebury Univereity, OreeneuetUt /«., I>0e.8, 1848b 
As far as I have ezamined, I am well pleased with them. The notes appear to be what 
they ooKht, ezplanations of difficult passages. and not eztended translations, so comoKNi 
and sn deirimenta] to classical attainnient. The mouest remarks of the editors on dis- 
puted passages are worihy of notice and imitatun. iu these remarks, I refer prindpaUj 
to the editioi^ of Virgil, wbich 1 have ezamined more than the others. aod which I oonst 
der lar supenor tn any other editinn eztant in our conntry. Tbe cheapness of the serie* 
is a valuaole consideration ; and the publishers deserve aud doubtless will receive a har- 
vest of ihanks from many a student whose iuteUect and desire of knowledge are supenor 

to his purse. 

fVom A. Cijfi>BBLi., Preeideni qf Beikany College, Fa., JVb». 22, 1848. 

I have just glanced, with much pleasure, over yoar editlon of Virgii, being tbe s 
Tolume of Schmitz and Zompfs Classical Series. 

This is just tbe thing I have long desired to see— a neat, handsome, correet. and cheap 
edition of the Latin Ciassics, reUeved from the eztraneous and unwieldy lors of proaiac 
docturs. The addenda or notes in the margin of this handsome vc^ume are just such aa 
the student needs. The series will doubtless meet with very general favour from all 
teachers and ieamers, becaose of its clear, accurate, and beautifuItypoKraphy, its geneiml 
good taste, its cheapness, and its jndicioos adaptatioa to the genius and wants of the age. 

Frem Charlbs Whbblbr, Pree. ef R^ter CoUege, 7\iy2or Cy., Fo., J!>«e. 1, 1848. 

The neatness and beauty, and, as far as I have ezanuned, the correctness of ezecotioa, 
together with the lucid arraogement of the notes, must, I think, commend yoar editiont 
to public natronage. I am deUghted to see Vtr^i^ my favourite poet, ao bandsomely eze- 
euted. I bave recommended yoar series to our students, as i esteem them worthy of a 
decided preference. 

liVvmCHRiBToraBR MoROAH, EsQ. Sitp. Oem. Scheol», Mbanf, JVt K, Jktf 27, 1849. 
The high oharaoter of tbe gentlemen who soperintend the pabHcatioa, for deep and 
raried erudition, is a sufllcien^gaarantee for the correctness of the tezt The briefnotes 
are soggesiive, rather than tranalative, and much better than the labored ezpneitions 
which can7 the student along, instead of pointing out the way. Trheoheapneaa aad eon» 
venient size of the books, to saj nothuv of their literBry mertt, cannot ftil to brihr them 
nso general oae. 

Sel&mitB and Znmpfs Classical Series— Coatinaed» 

#Ww Pftor. JoKN lyiuoir, Prtp. Dep, Dickintt* CtlUge^ CarUsU, Dte. 8, 1841^ 
I iiave ezamined the three Tolamet wich eonsiderable care, and can cire ibem my n»> 
^ualified approbation. The plan is judicious, and the ezecution worthy of all praise. Th« 
notea comprue all that a stadent needs, and all that he should have ; and their positin 
•t *Jm foot orth« paga is just wliat it should be. 

JViMi PRor. E. £. WiLBT, Emorf andHenrff ColUge^ Fo., JVbo. 30, 1846. 
Flrom tbo cursory esammation giTen them, I most s^r that I have been highly icratified. 
Soch a series as you propose giTm^ to the public, is certainly a great desideratum. Our 
olassical text-books have heretofure been rendered entirely too ezpensiTa, by the oustly 
ilresses in which they have appeared» and by ihe eztensive display of notes appended ; 
nuuiy of which, tlibugh learneJ, are of little worih to tbe student in elucidating the tozt. 
It wili a0urd me pleasure to introduoe into my department such books of your series aa 
may be in our course. 

From S. H. Tatlor, Esq., Andovtr^ Mtts.^ Oct, 30, 1648. 

The notes seem to me very accurate, and are not so numeroos as to do for the stadent 
what he ooj^ht to do fur himsei£ I can with safety, therefore, recommend it to my pupila. 

lYom. pRor. M. M. Caxpbkll, Principal qf the Grammar Schopl^ huliana Uni- 
versitjf, JVbo. 6, 1848. 

1 like the plan of yoor seriea^ 1 feel sure it will sucoeed, and thua displace some of the 
leamed luniber of our schools. The notes, short, plain, and apposite, are placed where 
they ought to be, and famish the learaer just about help euough. 

FVom Philip Lindslbt, D. D., Pres. qftke Univertitjf qf JfashviUe, JVbo. 27, 1848. 
The classical series, edited by Drs. Schmitz and Zumpt, has already acqutred a hi^h 
and well-uierited reputation on both sides of the Atlantic. I have carefully ezamined 
yoor editions nf Csesar and VirnL I think them admirable text-books for schools, and 
preferable to all others^ I shall aTail myself of eveiy suitable oocasion to reoommeiMl 

FVom B. SAJiroRD, £b«., BridgewoUr^ Mass, Jan. 17, 1849. 
1 haTe ezamined, with ooneiderabte oare, both the Ctesar and the Virgil, aod am muoh 
pleased with the plan and ezecution of the seriee thus far. I am particularly g ratified 
with the propriety and judgment displayed by the edttors in the preparation of the notes: 
avoiding, as I tliiuk, tlxe proliziiy and profuseness of some of our ciassicai wurks, and, at 
tbe same time, the barrenness aiid ueficieucy of others ; civing a body of aimotatiotw 
better suited to aid the teacher in imparting a knowiedge ot the langoage, than is to bo 
Ibond in any edition heretofore in use. 

From PRor. Sturoess, Hanover ColUge, /nJtaKO, Dee. 30, 1848. 

Tlie mere name of the editors is a sufficient and most ampie guarantee of tne acearaoy 
of the tezt, the judicious choice of various readings, and the conformity of those adopted 
tothelatest invesugations of USS.,and the resulttof the most enlightened criticism. 
The notes I have not ezamined very carefully, ezceot those of ttie Virgil. They are ad- 
mirable, eztremely condensed, and ooiiveying a gi ^at deal of most valvable criticism in 
the brieftet possible way. Ibey are pnrucularly valuable for their Mtbeiioia remarks, 
and the frequent refereuces to parallei passnges in the same author. l^he prsUminaiy 
^ ia «xoelient, and of great vaiue to the stuuent. The Sailust appears to be of the same 

neral character, aud ihe notes to fumish just saoh heip as the diligent student reaUy 
— eds. I ttunk that in bringing out such a oourse i^ a cheap rate you are ounferring a 

eat boon on the cooutry, and additionai houonr on your press, ahrea^y so dtstmguished 

r the votec of its issues. 

firom Kbv. Robt. Alltk, Prooidenet Cenferonct Stminarf, R. /., Dte. 25, 1848. 
I am much pleased with Ihe general character of these works. The tezt in its genenU 
tharacur is highly salisfitctoiy, the notes are reallr illustraiive, and adinirably calculated 
te assist tlie student in acquinng a knowledge of the inatter m the tezt, the manners and 
oostoma of the Umes. aitd the histoiy and cfaaraoters uf the aotors m ttte soeaes. l'he 
topography and extemai appeanuioe of the works are sach as please tlie eya and improve 
tlio taste. You certainly deserve encoaragemAnt, and we stiali do what lies in onr pow« 
lo extand tfcte oirculatioa of the workai ^ 


great I 

Scliiiiitz and Zumpt^fl Classical Series— ClotttiBuea. 





f onniaf om laira rogral ISmo. Tolmiie of asOram^doMly priBted in doalhe ccHamam 

jtttOt Part L Latin-ERgliah, in one bandeome rolame, itrongtj boiuid, of 

nearly 500 pagee.— Price, 90 ets. 

Fart n. Ei^iali-Latjn, naarly 400 peeea, bomd to matdL— Prioe, 75 da. 

Wbile several valuable and eopiout Latin Lezicons have within a Ibw 
yeara been published in thia country, a want haa long been felt and acknow- 
ledged of a good School DtcnoitAKT, which within reaaonable compaaa and 
at a moderate prioe ahould preaent to the atudent all the inftnrmation requisite 
fbr hia purpoeea, aa elucidated by the moat recent inveatigationa, and at the 
lame time unincumbered with erudition uaefbl only to the advanced acbolar, 
and increaaing the aize and coat of tbe work be]rond the reach of a large por- 
tlon of tbe community. It ia with this view eapecialjy tbat the preaent work 
haa been prepared, and the namea of ita diatinguished authors are a sufficient 
guarantee that this intention bas b en skilfully and accurately carried out. 

The present volume bas been compiled by Dr. Kaltschmidt, the well-known 
German Lexiccwrapher, from the best Latin Dictionaries now in iise through» 
out Burope, and has been carefiilly reviaed by Dr. Leonhard Scbroitz. Learned 
discussions and disquisitions could not be introduced, as incompatible with 
the objects for which the Dictionary is intended. and because they would have 
swelled considerably the bulk of tbe volume. On the other band, it has been 
thought advisable to give, as fttr as possible, the etymology of each word, not 
only tracing it to its l<atin or Greek root, but to roots or kindred forois of 
words oocurring in the cognate languages of the great Indo-Germanic fbmily 
This feature, which distinguishes the present Dictionary firom all others, can- 
not fbil to awaken the leamer to the interesting fbct of tbe radieal identity of 
many apparently heterogeneous languages, and prepare him at an early stage 
Ibr the delightful study of comparative philology. 

The aim of the publisbers has been to carry out the autbor^s views as fbr as 
possible by the form and arrangement of the volume. The type, thongh clear 
and well printed, is small, and tbe size of the page such as to present an im> 
mense ainount of matter in the compass of a single handsome 18mo. volume, 
nirnished at a price far below what ia usual with such works, and thus placing 
within the reach of the poorest stodent a neat, convenient. and complela 
Lexicon, embodying the investigations of the most distinguished scholan of 

Fr»m. D. H. Tbxfle, Esq., C&tcff o, Octoher, 1849. 

At my rsoomroendation a elass in Salluat provided theinaelvet with SchmitKVi editina 
ef this author, and are just complsting tbe woric. The jadicioosnesa of the annotationa 
both in amount and character, hare been ao evident, that I ahall reooromend the book t» 
Aitmv olaaaes aboTe every otber edition I know of. I am inclined to the saine opinioa 
eonoemlnir the Commentame of Caaar, and shall test it as aoon as poaaible in the aohool- 
TDom. Tbe Grammar haa pleased me exceedinfrly, aod I ahaU, as soon aa possible, intr»- 
'doce it. to the exclosioa of others, except for oocasiooal referenoe. The extrenie neat- 
nesB or these works, notwitbatandinir their oheapnesa, is a ooiMideration of no little 
importance, and shoald, ss it doubtless wiU, add to the &TMr with which ^ey wiU be 

jnwa» Paor. Rocbb, TVaiisyfeaiua UiUvrsUM, Lexinftm, Ky jtarck 31. 1849. 

Whaterer influenoe roy positioa may fdre me, shall be most cheerfiiny cmployed in 

briagins into general ase in the West these very valaable works. 1 trost that yoa wiU 

prosecate to a olose the nroposed series, aad that the executioa of thooe f^ - 

«omplete a Latm Curhcaium may m aa neat and hi aU raspscts as uasae 
ttat oftboss alrsady pabUshed. .