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I '^ I ^^ ' ^ f 




















:>^ >^ ]?• r//'^^ 7- 

Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1846, 

By Habpkb dc Bbothkbs, 

In the Clerk's Office of the Southern District of New Yorlc 





ETC*) ETC«y 









The plan pursued, in preparing the present edition 
of the Eclogues and Georgics of Virgil, is the same 
^ith that which was recently followed in the case of 
the Mneidf and which has met with the approbation 
of so many instructors. Every obstacle that might 
have tended to impede the progress of the young stu- 
dent has been- carefully removed, whether of a gram- 
matical or metrical nature ; and, besides this» a large 
body of useful information has been introduced from va- 
rious quarters, especially on the subjects of ancient bot- 
tiiy and husbandry, reference being made, at the same 
time, to the most approved systems of modem times. 
The best commentaries have been consulted for this 
purpose, and in particular the valuable body of notes ac- 
companying the German version of Voss. Some of 
these last have already appeared in the edition of Val- 
py, but to a very limited extent, and in many instances 
marred by inaccuracies. In the present work, how- 
ever, they are given with far more fullness of detail, 
and consequently with far more of utility to the learn- 
er. Indeed, if the editor had contented himself with 
merely giving the commentary of Voss in an English 
garb, with a few necessary alterations, he would have 
been doing a very acceptable service. But, in addi- 
tion to the rich materials obtained from the source just 
mentioned, the commentaries of Heyne, Wagner, 
Spohn, Wunderlich, Forbiger, and many other Conti- 
nental scholars have been carefully consulled, ^t^d^. 


while whatever was valuable has been incorporated 
into the present work, it is believed that every diffi* 
culty has been honestly, if not always successfully met 

The text is based upon that of Heyne, as emended 
and improved by Wagner,4hough in several instances 
the editor has not hesitated to deviate from these high 
authorities, and follow less eminent, but in these par- 
ticular instances surer guides. As a whole, however^ 
Wagner's improved edition of Heyne's text is undoubt^ 
edly the best that can be named at the present da^. 
The larger work has already been referred to in the 
preface to the ^neid, and is a splendid monument of 
German scholarship. An abridgment has recently ap- 
peared from the Leipsic press, containing in a brief 
compass all the excellent features of the main work; 
and the editor is happy to state that he received t 
copy of this smaller edition, from his learned friend Dr. 
Wagner, in sufficient season to avail himself of it for 
the purpose of rendering the present publication motd 

The editor takes this opportunity also of expressing 
his acknowledgments to his learned friend. Professor 
Brisler, for the aid he has rendered in carrying the 
present work through the press, and in removing all 
those typographical inaccuracies which often interposd 
so serious an obstacle to the learner. The Professoi^s 
well-known care and acutenessyin thiis as well as other 
respects, will, it is conceived, be a full guarantee foi^ 
the general correctness of the work. 

Columbia CoUege, Feb. 25th, 1846. 

KoTX.— After the Annotations were printed off, the editor W9otSif» 
ed a copy of " Keigbtley's Notes on the Bucolics and Georgict of VirgiL'' 
On a carefol examination, honrerer, of that tohiuMB, he has 9e«n aoTMBMI 




1. Tityre, tu» patulae recubans sub tegmine fagi^ 
Silvestrem teimi mnsam meditaris avensL, &c« 

^Qg roi kywv IvdfMevcv dv' &pea rdg icaXdg aZyaf, 
^cjvdg elgatuv * H> d' imb dpvaiv ^ iwiH neviuug 
'A&d fieXiadofuvog KoreKiicXiaOf dele Kofuira, 

Tkeocr,, Idyll., vii., 87, ieqq. 

7, Namque erit ille mihi semper deus ; illius aram 
Ssepe tener nostris ab orilibus imbuet agnus. 

Ba)fidv iT alfid^et Kcpabg rpdyog ovrog 6 fiakd^f 
TepfiivBov rpdrycjv ltax<iTOV dxpifiova. 

Id,, Epigr,, i., 6, 

11. Non equidem invideo ; 
KoU rot ri (pBovedi • 

Id,, Idyll,, \., 62, 

46. Fascite ut ante, boves, pueri ; submittite tauros. 

Vioax^ pcoolv v<l>evTeg, int cretptuai 6e ravpwf . 

Id,, Idyll,, ix., 3. 

52. FdrtUBate senex I hie, inter flumina noU 
^t fontes flaeipB^ Aigus captabis opacunii &c. 


rd 6' kyyvBev lepdv Mcjp 
"^v^i^v l( &vTpoio Karutpiievov KeXdpvcSev. 
Tol 6t irori OKiepaXg dpodofAviaiv aWaXUaveg 
Timyeg kaXayevvreg ixov novov • d cT dkoXvyc^ 
TfiXoSev kv TTVKCvalai jSdrcjv rpv^tanev dicdvBaig. 
'Aecdov Kdpvdoi Kot dKavdcdsgy iareve rpvyd^ * 
IIcjTCjvro ^ovOal nepl mdcucag dfut>l niXiaacn * 
ndyr* &adev ^ipeog fidXa nlovog, ghtSs (T 6n<opag. 

Id.f Idyll. , vii., 136, teqq^. 

6. O cmdelis Alexi ! nihil mea carmina curas T 

^£2 XsvitH VaXoTua^Ti rdv ifuXioin^ &TTo6dkXxi ; 

Id.^ IdyU,j xi., 19. 

7. xnori me denique coges. 

imdy^aoBfu fAS noiri<nlg. 

Id., Idyll., iii.y 9. 

9. Nunc yirides etiam occultant spineta lacertos. 

*AvlKa Srj koI aavpog tv aliiaauiLai, Kodevdei. 

Id., Idyll., yii.» 22. 

18* Alba ligustra cadunt, yaccinia nigra leguntur. 

AevKdv rb Kptvov iarl^ fiapalvercu, ivUa ttittt^ • 
'A de x^f»>v XevKa, Kal raKsrai dviica naxO^' 

Id,, Idyll., xxiii., 30, seq. 

Kal rd lov niXav kvrt, ical & yparrrd vaKLvSog • 
'AAA' iimag tv roig ar&pdvotg rd irpdra Xiyovrai. 

Id., IdyU^y X., 28, seq. 


fmrn > 

19. Despectus tibi sum, nee, qui sim, que^s, Alexi ; 
Quam dives pecoris, nivei quam lacds abandnnBy &c« 

*All* clvrof , ToiovTog ^wv, fiord ;t^A£a pdoKt^^ 
K^KTovTi^v TO Kpdriarov dfieXyofuvog ydXa itlvbi * 
Tipof (T ob Xet-nu fi^ out* iv Mpet, oih^ kv ditti^f 
Ob x^H^^^^vog dicpij * Tiipaol <f' imBpctx^ie^ altL 
Tvpiadev cT a)f ovrt^ enlaraficu cSde KvicAi^Tranr, 
Tiv, 70 {jdXov ykvKVfmXov, dfjui K^HMitrrdv &e£6f»>P, 
UoXXdiu wKTd^ dcjpL 

^. tantum libeat mecum tibi sordida nira 

Atque humiles habitare casas, et figere cerros, &c. 

'E^evdoig, TaXdreiay Kot i^evSolaa XdOoio 
('Qimep eyu)v vvv i)6e icod^fievof ), oIkoS' dnev&fjv • 
UoifuUvev d' kSiXoig avv ^filv, ofia xai ydX* d/i^Ayev, 
Kot rvpbv nd^cu, rdfjiicov dpiiieiav kvelaa. 

Id., Idyll,, xi., 63, seq^. 

16. Est mihi disparibus septem compacta cicutis 
Fistala, Damoetas dono mihi quam dedit olim. 

'H [MV rot Kiffdv ovpiyy^ ex<»> ivvedtpoivoVj 
Aevicdv Kopbv ^;^OMTav, laov KdrtD, laov avaSev. 

Id., IdylL, viii., 21, seq. 

0. Praeterea duo, nee tuti mihi valle reperti, 
Capreoli, sparsis etiam nune pellibus albo, &e. 

^ [Mv roi XevKav didvfiaroKov alya ^vXdaaa, 
Tdv fie Kai a Kipfivcjvog ^EpiSaKig a fieXavoxpi^g 
Jdrti ' Kol duHjCJ ol, enet t6 [loi kydiaBpytn^ 

Id.^ IdylLf iii., 34, seqq. 

^Kta^t, PXBBA^ms tiitfvtm^ 

60. Qyn&m fbgii) i^h^ demens t habitttftrnt dt qtioqae siln 

'£2(: JMi^^ Ai&wOo^ iv dyHem fr6fyrii> i^iOwep • 

Ka^ 'PpVyi^ hfdficvoev iv &pemv " abrb>P 'Adhyvvu 
'£i^ Spvft^loi ^k€MB^ Kot kv Spvfjuol^iv ^icXavoev. 

Id,, Idyll,, XX., 3^ seqq* 

63. Tort a leaena luptim sequitur; lupus ipse capellan 
Florentem cytisum sequitur lasciva capella, &c. 

^A al^ rd¥ Kvttoov^ 6 kvKoc rav alym ^M^cet, 
'A yipavog r&porpov • kyd^ d* km riv fUfidmifuu, 

Id., IdylL^ X., 30, 9eq. 

'69. All, Corydon ! Corydon ! quite te dementia cepit ! 
Semiputata tibi frondosll vitis in ubno est, &c. 

"^Q KvicXcixl), Kv/cAco^ nji rag ^ivag iicTTendTCUTcu ; 
Afic' ivOCl^v TaXdp(/ig r< TrAcico^c, «a^ t^oA^dv o^MRTfiBj 
Toi^ ipvtaai, ^povg, jdxBL ksv ttoXv jxdXXop ixi 

Tdv itapeoiwaf ^fji^Xye ' ri rbv ^^svyovra dt^HM^tg ; 

Id., Idyll,^ xi., 72, seqq. 


1. M. Die mihi, Damoeta, cujum pecus % an Melibcei' 
D. Non ; verum JEgonis : nuper mihi tradidit Mgo\ 

B. ElTii fioit, & tiopMosv, rtvogml HAeg ;. ij pa ^iX6v6a 

Id,, Idyll., iv., 1, 9eq, 

3. Hie aliewM cfreg cvutos bis malgM in hon^x 
fit Buoctis peeori, et lac saUucitm: agiiis. 

^ 3rd '^e Kpvtdav ra TtoBeorc^pa irdamg dfUXyt^i 

• ••••.• 

^n;, ^ei) * ficuievvrai Kai rat poe^^ ci roXaof hXyiw^ 
t^ *Ai6av^iisa not rv icaxdg iipdaaao viica/g. 

Id.f Idt/lLf iv., 3. 

28. Vb ergo, inter nos, quid possit uterque, vicissim 
Sxperiamiirt ego lianc vitulain(he forte recuses, &;c 

Xp^O^^ iuv igtielVf XP^^^^ KaraBelvat aeOXov ; 

Id,, Idylhy viiL, 11. 

klyd ri TOIL diiffd 4v^^t6hov if rplg 4/u<^^«l| 
^4, W ^oia* ipi^s, iroTafiiX^erat kg 6vo ttcAAo^ • 

^ Id., Idyll,, i., 25, #^^. 

'AAAd T^ ftav dfiaelg'yTi 6^ rh nXiov i^et d viiujv ; ' 

.Id,, IdylUt viii^ J.7. 

32. De grege non ausim quidquam deponere tecum : 
fist mihi oamque domi pater, est injusta npvercn ; 
Bisque die nvaieraQt ambo pecus, altw et bs^ps. 

Ov ^aw noKd ifivbv • kTrtl ;k;aAe7r<%' ^' 6 irarrjp pxv 
X' ik fuirrip * rd de /fdAa itodioTrepa Travr' df^$i/iWVTi, 

Id., Idyll,, viii., 15, 8eg[. 

36. pocula pottam 

Fagina, c»l«ftum divini opus Alcifnedentis : 
Lenta quibus torno facili superaddita vitis, &.c. 

'A/i^4i»c(> yc9T*H^-^ £T& 'yAt;0dvoto nordadov 



Kiaad^.iXixpva<fi ic&coviofiivog' & 6k' tear* airdv 

Kapnm iXi^ dkelTcu dyaXXofteva KpoKoevri, 

• • -• • • • 

Ovdi ri 7ra ttot^ x^Xo^ l^ibv Myev, iXX\lTi kutcu 


Id.^ Idyll. f i., 27) 9eq^c[. 

44* Et nobis idem Alcimedon duo pocula fecit, 
£t molli circum est ansas amplexus acantha. 

'EvT^ 6i fioi yavXdg Kvnctpiaatvqg, hnl de upar^ 
^pyov Upa^iTekevg * r^ 7rcu6t 6e ravra tpvXda^ci. 

Id.f IdyU,^ T., 104, 9e^. 

Havrd 6* ifupi dinctg irEpineTrrarai irypd^ itcavBog^ 
AloXucdv ri 'Satifta - ripa^ ici rv ^ufibv Arv^ai, 

Id^ IdyU., i., 56^ seq. 

60. Ab Jove principium, Musse : Jovis omnia plena. 

'Hic Aidf itpx^fi^oOa^'KaX k^ Aia Xrjyere lAolaai. 

Id.f Idyll,t xvii.) 1. 

62. Et me Phoebus amat : Phcebo sua semper apud me 
Munera sunt, lauri, et suave rubens byacinthus. 

Kal ydp ^[1^ ^QnoXXdiv <f>iXiei fjtiya' KcU KoXbv airrt^ 
Kpidv ^a> PocKCi - rd 6i Kdpvea Kal dij i(l>ifmet. 

Id., Idyll., v., 82, seq, 

64. Malo me Galatea petit, lasciva puella. 
Et fugit ad salices, et se cupit ante yideri. 

BdXXei Kal fidXoiai rdv alnoXov d KXsaplara, 
Td^ olyoc ni^XsvvTa, koI d6v ri irorrnvXidaSsi^ 

U.yJdyU.t V.p 88, iej. 


06. At mihi sese offert okro, tneus ignis, ]AxnyntaB, 
Nodor at jam sit canibos Qon Delia nostris. 

Kiifii yap 6 KpariSag rdv noifiiva Aeiof xmavrQv 
'Ekijuuvu * Xinctpd 6i nap* aifx^va aeier* iOeipa. ' 

Id,, Idyll., Y,, 90, je£. 

68. Parta meae Vcneri sunt munera ; namque notavi 
Ipse locum, aerias quo con'gessere palumbes. 

KifyCli jLiev dwHJ r^ 7rapdiv<^ airriica ^tdsaav, 
"£« to; ApKevOcj icaOeXfov * njvei ydp i^ladet. 

Id., IdylL, v., 96, seq. 

70. Quod potut, pueio, siWestri ex arbore lecta, 
Aurea mala decern misi ; eras altera mittam. 

'Evtdi rot Sixa ftaXa <f>ip(o * rrfvcj dd xadelXov, 
^Q jti' kiciXev KadeXelv rv • Kal avpiov aXXa roi olad. 

Id., Idyll., iii., 10, seq. 

96. Tityre, pascentes a flumine reice capellas : 
Ipse, ubi tempus erit, omnes in fonte lavabo. 

AZyef kiial '^apaelre Kepovx^^sg * avpiov vfifie 
Udaag tycl) Xovcci ^vdapiTtSog evSodi Kpdvag. 

Id,, IdylLy v., 145, seq. 


The following passages of Isaiah may he here cited, not 
(u having been imitated by Virgil in any way, but as con- 
taining a strong resemblance in imagery to various parts 
of this remarkable JSclogue, 

r , 

6. Jam redit et Virgo, redeunt Satumia regna ; 
Jam noya progenies cobIo demittitur altO| occ. 




Kol i^Xevoerai pdMd^ he rijg pi^tg^ ^Iwaai^ luU fou 
dog in 1% f^'^ d¥a6^erM, 

'Kal AvaTm&tferui kfi^ avrbv irvevfui rov Oeov, irvtvfia 

rcvevfia yvwottii^ teal evaeteictg. 

Isaiah^ xi., 1, seq. 

'On natdlav lyewrfiri inuv^ vlog Kid idoOrj ^Iv, ov 
4 ^PX^ h^^wfjOri tnl rov &fiov avrov, Koi Kakelrai rd 

8. Tu modo nascenti puero* quo ferrea primum 
Desinet, ac toto «urget gens aurea mundoy &c. 

"EvdfpavOrjru) 6 ovpavdg ivdtdev^ Kot at v&l>iX(u fkivd- 
rcjaav duuuoovviiv * dvare^rti} ij 7^i ^^ /SAoorf^ad- 
r4> IXeo^, 

Isaiah, xlv., 8. 

13. Te duce si qua manent sceleris vestigia nostri, 
Irrita perpetui solvent formi^e terras, &c 

d^ci yap elprpniv knl Toi>g dpxovrctg, icat i)yUiav ayr^, 

MeydXfi rj ipx^l airw, nai i% ^fiff^^ «{rrd© «6c fo. 
riv 6ptov iiri rbv '&p6vov Aavtd, koX r^v PaaiXeiav 
aijTov, KaropBuiaaL ahrr^y^ koX dvrikafiiaOai kv KpCfior 
ri Kal iv diKoioo'vvij, ind rov vvv koX elg r^ alcJvcL 

Isaiah^ ix., 6, seq, 

16. At tibi prima* puer, nullo munuscalii cultu, 

ErrantBs bederas passim cum baccase tellus, &;c» 

Kal ^ do^a rov Kttdvov irpb^ ot ij^ei, iv KvnaptootJ 
Kal newaj nal ki6p(fi fya^ 6o^ai rbv T6nov rbv 


ivBelriii i>g Kpivav, 

Jbaiakf xxxt«, L 

2vfido&Kfi9riatrea X^ko^ fierd ipvbf^ luU irdpdaXi^ 
awavanavaertu ^^i luii fioffx^tov koI ravpo^ Kot 
Xicjv qfia fioaKtfi^(H)VTai, Koi ncudiov lUMfity &(ei av- 

naidia airC^ foovroi* itat Aiuv &^ povg tpdyerctt 

KaZ iToidiov vfjmcv titl rjfMrfXuiV danldcjv, K€tl inl 
Koirffv iKyovcuv doTddfQV r^ X^^ htitak&L 

aai obdeva inl rd 6po^ rd ayi6v fiov * 8r& IvenX^aOij 
1^ trvftmura rtw yvCdvai rb'p K'Opi&i^^ &g Mcop noXv ico* 

Isaiah, xL, 6^ ieqq. 

28. MolH pauihitiin fiaveseet campus aristd, 

Incultisque rubens p e ndebit sentibus uva, &c. 

"EoTCM 7J iwSpog e£f eXtj' icat elg rijv 6itl)(!Joa¥ yTJv 

nriyrj vdaro^ itfrai, iicel evippoavvt] dpvicjVy inavket^ 

Kokdiwv §uU ikti. 

Jbaiaif xxxr^ 7. 

Kat dvrl TTJg aTOtdrjg dvadTjaerac Kvndptaaog, Avrl 
6i r^f Kovv^fj^ dvad^OBTtu pvpclvrj. 






20. Exstinctum nymphae crudeli funere Dapbnin 

Flebant : vos coruli testes, et flumina, nymphiSf &6 

Ko^ N^fjulxu Kkaiovaiv ^OptiMtq • h (T ^K^podlra^ 
Kvaaidva TrXoKOfudag, dvd dfWficig dXdXriTM 
HevdaXiaj vrjirXeKTog^ dodvdaXo^'cd 6i pdrai viv 
^EpxofJ^vov iceipovTiy koX Updv alfM dphrovrai, 
*0^ 6^ KiM>KV€vaa di* dyxea fuucpd ^opetroi, 
'Aaavpiov pod^ioa noaiv, ical naZda ita^svaa. 

24. Non ulli pastos illis egere diebus 

Frigida, Daphni, boves ad flumina; nulla neo am* 

. nem 
Libavit quadrupes, nee graminis attigit herbanu 

*Q.pea d* karlv S/^f^a^ koI at pSe^^ at nort raOpoi^ 
HXaadSfjtevat^ yodovTi^ Kal ovk kOeXmm vefieadai. 

Mosehus, Idyll^ iuL, 23, «ef • : 

27. Dapbniy tuum Poenos etiam ingemuisse leones 
Interitum, montesque feri silvseque loquimtur. 

T^vov i^dv '&Qeg, Ttjvov Xvtcot &pvaavro^ 
T^ov x^ '« dpvfwlo X£civ dviicXavce 'dav&ina. 

Theocr., IdyU,^ i., 71, teq» 

32. Vitis ut arboribus decori est, ut vitibus uteb, 

Ut gregibus tauri, segetes ut pinguibus arvis, &c. 

T^ dpvt rid pdXavoi K6a\io^y rpi (mXtdi ndXa^ 
T^ )3ot d* i [JtoaxfKf r<^ /ScaicdA^ al P6e^ abral. 

Id., Idyll., viii., 79, seq. 


38L Pro xnolli violi, pro purpureo narcisso, 
Carduus, et spinis surgit paliurus acutis. 

Nvv la jti^v <l>opioiTe Pdroi^ ipopioire 6* dxavdoi, 
'A 6k KoXd vdpitiaaog in' dpiceiiOaiai KOfidacu. 

Id.^ IdyU.^ i., 132, teq. 

43. Dapbnis ego in silyis, bine usque ad sidera notus, 
Foimosi pecoris custos, formosior ipse. 

/^cujnfi^ kyCnf Sde TTJvog, 6 rag pSag i>6e vo/i€V6>v, 
Ldipvig 6 Tc!>g ravp(og Kal iroprtag cide mrMi^v, 

Id., Jdyll., L, 120, ieq. 

46. Tale tuum carmen nobis, divine poeta, 

Quale sopor fessis in gramine ; quale, per sestum, 
Dulcis aquae saliente sitim restinguere rivo. 

*Adv ri rd tlfiSvptafia koI a ntrvg, alnoXe, rriva, 
"A norl ralg nayalai fiekiaSsrac • &dv 6i Kai ri) 
IvpCadeg • fierd Ildva rd Sevrepov adXov dnoLaij • 

Id,^ Idyll., i., 1, seqq. 

66, Sis bonus O, felixque, tuis ! en quatuor aras ! 
Ecce duas tibi, Dapbni, duas altaria Phoebo ! &c. 

^KyedvaKri ttXoov di^TjfievG) ig Mvrikdvav 
'ilpia ndvra yevocro, Kal evnXoov 3pfiov LKOcro. 
K^WjT^vo Kar^ dfiap^dvrjdLvov, rj podoevra, 
*E. Kai XsvKoicjv ari<pavov irepi Kparl <t)vXda<T(»}v, 
Tdv HreXeariKdv olvov dnb Kparrjpog dtpv^co, 
Hop TTVpi KEKXifievog • Kvafiov 66 ng kv irvpl <l>pv^el, 
X* d aritdg eaaelrai nenvKaofieva ear* erri irdxvv 
Kvv^g, r\ da(t>o6eX(M) re, TToXvyvafinTiD re aeXivu), 
Kai mofiai fiaXaKtijg, fiefivafievog ^AyedvaKrog, 
Kvralaiv KvXUsaai Kal kg rpvya ;^€tAof lpetd(i)V. 


xviii omsx r AasAaiui iiiitatxd. 


AiXrjaevvn Si f$ot dvo noijUveg ' ti^iUv^'Axafii¥t6gf. 
"Elg 6iy Avtumlra^ ' b 6i TiTvpog iyyvOev f^ael. 

Id., Idyll,, yii., 61, atq€[* 

83. nee quso 

Saxosas inter decarrunt flumina valles. 


T^v' imb Toc nirpa^ MmruXeideTai inpo&ev {^6;^. 

Id., IdylL, i,, 7, seq. 

88. At tu Bome pedum, quod, me qumzi asepe rogaret, 
Non tulit Antigenes (et erat turn dignus amari), 
Formosum paribus nodig, atque aere, Menalca. 

^Q^ i<^dfiav iniradeg • 6 6* alnoXog, dSv yeXd^ag^ 
Tdv roi^ IfpOf Kopvvav 6<opvTT0fmif ovveicev iaol 
Hdv in* dXaOei^ irenXttafUvov kK Atdf ipvog. 

M., IdylL, vii^ 43. 


31. Namque canebat, uti magnum per inane coacta 
Semina terrarumque animaeque marif que fuis8ent,&c 

"HsLds <r dq yala Kal ohpavbg ifde '&dXcuTaa 
Tonplv M dAA^AoMTi [u^ owapfjp&ra (iop^f 
Uelictog i^ ^Xooio diiicptSev itiMfiii^ liwara ' 
'H(5' cb^ IfgrreSov aUv kv alBepi riit^iap ix^vaiy 
"AiTTpa^ 9eXfjfvaifi re, mX i^eXkOiB stiXsvOot * 
Ovptd d* cjg iver&Xe, kqI d>g Trorttfwl KsXMovrt^, 
Airr^i "^vfiipi^i, koX kpftrerd ndvr^ tyivovro. 

ApoU. Rhod.j L, 496, teqq. 

44. His adjungit, Hylan nautss quo fonte relictum 
Clam&agent, ut liuus, Hyla I Hyla I omne sonareu 

Tptc fJttv^Xop 4i;<isv, &rcw jOa^f ^^w^t A<k^ • 
T^f <r dp' 6 YTtuf ^TitijKoucrcv • dfHud ^ liwro ^vd 
'Ef vdaro^ ' TraptCnv 6e fidXa axedbv eldero nopfno. 

Theocr,, Idyll,, xiiL, 58, teqq^. 

62. Tuiki PhaSthontiadas musco circumdat amarsB 
Corticiiy atque solo proceras erigit alnos. 

'HAfdde^^ rava^aiv kXiyiUvat alyetpoKn, 
MvpovTdi Kiwpdv fiiXeai yoov * Ik Sh ^>aeivdg 
'BXiKTpofd Xitddag pXeipdpciv irpoxiovotv Ipa^e. 

ApolL Khod,, iv.y 604, aeqq. 


L Forte $ub argiMi ixmsedeFat ilice Dapbnis, 

Cotopulerantque greges Corydon et Thymis in unum, 
Thyrsis otos, Corydon distentas lacte capellas ; 
Ambo florentes setadbus^ Arcades ambo, 
Et cantare pares, et xespondere parati. 

Ao^tdt Tw ;^aptein-4 awTivTero j3(»)KoXeovTt 
lILika 76^6)1/, C^^vri, Kar* &pGa fMitpd Me^Ahut^, 
"AlKfxd Twy' iyrfiv TwpfHnpix^f «^»^ dvoto, 
'Afi^ rvpladsv dsdwi^tiw^, afulM deidev* 

TAeecr^, JdylL^ viii., i., ieqq. 

37. Nerine Galatea, tbymo mihi dulcior Hyblae, 
Candidior cycnis, beder4 formosior alb&, &c» 

^Q XevKd TuXdreia ri rbv ^Xiovr* d7ro64XA^4 
AevKorlpa naKra^ TTOTidTJVy dnaXo}Tepa dpvog, 
M6(JX(»> yavpoTepa, <f>iap(»yrepa 6fi<t>aKog (bfidg • 
<>otT^f (T avd* ovTWf , I^KKa yXvKvg vrrvog ex'Q f*^ ' 
Olx;q <r evQvg lolo* hKKa yXvKvg v-rrvoq dv^ fic. 

It?., Idyll., xi., 19, $eqq. 


Yvnm 1 . 

45. Muscosi fonteSy et somno moUior herba, 

Et quae vos tara viridis tegit arbutus umbri, &e. 

etpia T^e nanjael^f ' 

AIk' iv$xig, iirvoi ftaXaiuorepa. 

Id., IdyU.j y.y 50. 

Kpdvai icat Pordvcu, yXvKspbv (pvr&v, alnep dficHav 

Movaiadei ^dtpvig ralaiv drfioviai^v, 
Tovro rb poiKoXiov TTiaivere * ktjv ri MevdXKo^ 

TfitvcT dydyxj, ;^atpG)v atpdoya irdvra vifwi. 

Id., Idyll., viii^ 37, ieq^. 

49. Hie focus, et taedae pingues, bic plurimus ignis 
Semper, et assiduft postes fuligine nigri, &c. 

^EvtI dpvbg ^Xa jiotf suil imb anod^ dicdfidrov nvp. 
Kcuofjtevog d* vTrd revg koI tov yjwxdv ivexolfiov. 

Id,, Idyll., xi.9 51, seq. 

53. Stant et juniperi, et castanese birsutse. 

Strata jacent passim sua quaque sub arbore poma, &c 

TlavTa lap, navra 6i vo[jloC, navra 6k ydkoKTo^ 
OvOara TrTJiBovaiv, koI rd via Tpi<l>eTdt, 

*Ev0' d KaXd ndtg imvioaerai ' al 6* &v d^^ipirg, 
Xd) noifidv ^ripbg rrivdOi, ^ at Pordvcu. 

Id., Idyll., viiL, 41» seqq. # 

70. Ex illo Corydon, Corydon est, tempore, nobis. 

K^K TovTO) ^d<pvig napd noifiiai irpdrog iyBvro. 

Id., Idyll., viii, 92. 



32. O digna conjancta Tiro ! dum despicis onmes, 

Diunque tibi est odio mea fistula, duxnque capellao, 

TivdlMTKiDf %ap^(7aa Kopa, r(vog ovveica ^^evyeig * 
Ovvexd fAOi Xaaia fiev d<l>fn;g inl iravrl yternint^ 
*1£4 irro^ reraTM norl '^drepov ^ fila (uucpd * 
£2^ 6* d<pdaXiA^ IneoTiy irAareia 6^ f>ig ini XE^^* 

Id^ Idt/ll,f xi., 30, seqq. 

37. Sepibas in nostris panram te roscida mala, 

Dux ego vester eram, vidi cum matre legentem, &c» 

'ILpdaBrpf {lev ly<>)ya reov^f i^opa, &viica npaTov. 
*HvOeg iji^ avv [larpiy i^eXoia^ iaKivdiva (pvXka 
^^ 6peog dperpaadai * kyC) d' 66dv dyejiovevov, 
Havaaa&ai d* i^idwv rv koI varepov ovde t£ ?r6) vvv 
'Eic T^vci) dvvofjuu * 

Id,f Idyllic xi., 25f seqq. 

43. Nunc scio, quid sit Amor : duris in cotibus ilium 
Aut Tmaros, aut Hhodope, aut extremi Garamantes, 

Kvv tyvG)v rbv IS^ptora • Papv^ ^eog • ^ ^a Xeaiva^ 
Maadov kSriXa^eVy 6pv[jup ri fxcv iTpcuf>e pdrrip. 

]d.f Idyll,, iii., 15, $eq* 

52 Nunc et oves ultro fugiat lupus ; aurea durao 
Mala ferant quercus ; narcisso floreat alnus, &c. 

. ^vv la piev fftopioire Pdroi, <lH>peotT$ d' aicavSaty 
'A 6e icaXd vdptuaaog eir* dpnevdoiac Kopdacu * • 
. Udvra & IvoAAa yevotro, ical & nirvg 6xyag ivtUuu^ 



K^f 6p^(i)v Toi ajcc57re^ dnjSdm, yapvaaivro, i- 

iii., JKyi^^ i., 132, «WfcX^ 

59. Praeceps aerii specula de monds in undas ' - 

Deferar ; exfxemum hoc munus morientis babeto. 

Tdv Pairav imM^ Ig icvfuira r^a itXevfuu^ 
^Qnefi r4^ dvvw^ aKonidaderat "OXtu^ 6 yp^-rnvg ' 
K^fica ^ 'iTaBdv(^^ r6 ys [tav rebv iM rirvKTou 

Id., Idyll., iii.,'25, teqqm 

C4. Effer aquam, et molli cinge baec altaria vitt&i 
Verbenaeque adole pingues, et xnasciila tura ; 
Conjugis ut magicis sauos avertere sacris 
Experiar sensus. 

n^ jiMM ral dc^oi ; i^ipe Biarvki * irfi (K nd ^IXrpa; 

*Qg Tov ifioi fiapvv evvra ^IXov icaradvaoijuu ivSpa, 

Id., Idyll., u., 1, seqq. 

80. Limns ut hie durescit, et base ut oera liqyescit 
Uao eodemque igni ; sic uostro Dai^mis amor*. 


'2^ Tovrov rbv KOpbv iyCli avv 6a£fiovi rdfCG), 
*S2c rdKotG" im' Itpurog 6 U^v6tog tthriwa AeA^. 

Id., IdyU^ ii^ S89 9eq. 

82. Sparge molam, et fragiles incende bitumine lauros. 
Dapbnis me malus urit: ego banc in Daphnide 

"XX^rd rot icpdrov Twpt rdKerai - ^XX* inliraooe^ 

11.9 Idyll, ii^ 1^ uq. 


AMa* ;^ lif aifrd Xaicu fUya, ilt.X, 

Id.^ Idt/ll, ii., 23, ieq. 

9L Ebs olim exuvias mihi perfidos ille refiqmt, 
Pignora cara Bui. 

*tt 'yci vw TiXXoioa tun' dyp^ kv m)pi paXXw. 

ld,y Id^U^ iL, 53, #fg« 

101. Fer cineres, Amaryllis forajs ; rivoque flaenti 

Transque caput jace, nee respexeris : Hs egoDaphnin 

^HfM 6^ avXXi^aaa k6viv Twpd^ dfi^n6ki»w rig 

'FiipdriJ ev {idXa irdaav vnep noTCLfwlo tpipoiffa, 

^Fcjyddag Ig nirpcLg, ifTrepovptov • irp 6e veeaOcu 


Id^ Idyll,, xxiv., 91, ieqq» 

1. Quo te Moeri, pedes 1 

Zifux(^» ^f^ d^ T^ fAeaofiepiav Trddo^ ikKeig ; 

Id^ Idt/lLf vii., SI. 

^3. Tityre, dum redeo, brevis est via, pasce capellas ; 
Et potum pastas age, Tityre ; et, inter agendum, Sec 

Kajfidadcj n^rl Tav ^AiuipvXkLda * raX de [loi alyeg 
BdoKovToi Kar* 6pog, koI 6 TLrvpog avrdg iXavvei, 
TiTvp\ ifiiv rd KoXdv 7:e<l)iXafiive^ pooKe rdg alyof , 
Kai TTOTi rdv Kpdvav dye, Tlrvpe • ical rbv ivopxay 
Tdv Ai6vKbv isvdiuiva ^vkdaaso, (i^ tv Kopv^, 

Id,, IdylL, iii., 1, $eqq. 


T«fM . f 

39. Hue ades, O Galatea! quis est nam ludus in undist 
Hie ver purpureum : varios hie flumina circum, te| 

'AA.X' d(l>lKev TV iroO* itfie, Kat k^el^ ovdiv iXaaaov * 
Tdv yXavicdv 6i '&dkaoaav la 110x1 x^P<fov dpexfiijy* ;■ 
"Adcov kv T&VTp<t> Trap' ifdv rdv vvtcra dia^eig. 
'£vT^ ddtpvtu Trjvel, kvrt padivcu Kvirdpiaaoif 
'EvtI niXa^ KiOffog, Ivr* &fjtneXog a yXvKVKOfmog 
^EvtI ^pvxp^v {;6(i>p, t6 fioi & noXvdivdpeog Alrva 
AevKog Ik x^^^i norbv dfJt6p6<noVf npotijri • 
Tig K&v rCivde ^dkaaaav ix^iv ij tcyiJtad^ iXoiro ; 

Id,, Idyll; xi.y 4!^, seqq, ' 

54* lupi Moerin videre priores. 

Ov <pdery^^ ; Xvkov el6eg {incuse rig) d>g awf>6g elTrev. 

Id., Idyll,, xiv., 22. 

57. Et nune omne tibi stratum silet aequor ; et omnes» 
Aspice, ventosi ceciderunt murmuris aurae. 

'Hvide aiyq, [liv novrog, ciyCinm d* d^rof. 

Id,, Idyll., ii.^ 38. 

rd 6e viv KoXd icvfiaTa (jxuvei, 
*A(rt%a Kax^dadovra iir' alyiaXolo ^ioiaav. 

Id., Idyll., vi., 11, se^. 

59* Hine adeo media est nobis via ; namque sepulcmm 
Incipit apparere Bianoris. 

KovTTCi) rdv fuadrav 66dv dwfieg, ov6t rd odfia 
'Afjuv tQ Bpaaida KaTe(f>aivsro • 

Id,, Idyll., Tii.y 10, «ej* 



9. Quae nemora, aut qui vos saltus habuere, puellso 
Nal'deSy indigno quum Gallus amore peribat, &c. 

Ud TTOK* op' ^0\ ^Ka Ad<l)vig irdKero, frd noicd Nvfupcu ; 
*H Kara Urfveio) jcaAa refnreaf tj xard Uivdu) ; 
Ov yap dij i^oraiud ye fxeyav poov elxer* 'AvaTrw, 
QW Alrvcig (TKonidv^ ov& "AKiSog lepdv vdcap, 

Tijvov puv -dQegf ttjvov Xvkoi d)pvaavTO, 
Tijvov x^ 'ic dpvfioio keo)v dveicXavae 'davdvra, 

HoXhii ol nap^ nooal poeg, noXXol 6e re ravpoij 
UokXai (T av Safidkai Kal noprieg udvpavTo. 

Id.^ IdylLf i., 66, 9eqq, 

L8. Et formosus oves ad flumina pavit Adonis. 

^QpaZog ;^;' "^di^viq^ knei Kal fidXa vofievei, 
Kai TTTUKog (idXXei, icat dfjpla rdXXa diuncsi. 

Id,, Idyll.j i., 109y seq. 

.9. Venit et upilio, tardi venere bubulci ; 

Uvidus bibema venit de glande Menalcas, &c. 

Ilvd' '"Epfidg TTpdriarog drr' (jjpeog, elne d^, ^d^i^ 

Tig TV KaraTpvx^i ; rCvog,o) ^yadi, roaaov ^paaocu; 

^vOov Toi l3u)Tai, roi noifieveg, (bnoXoi tjvOov, 

UavTeg dvT/pwTevr, tC irdSoi KaKov • Tjvd* 6 nptTyrrof , 

K7J<l>a, ^d(f>VL rdXav, ri rv raKeai ; d 6e re Kcjpaj 

Tldaag dvd Kpdvag, ndvr^ dXoea noaal (JHypelrac 


Id., Idyll,, i., 77, seqq. 

35. Atque utinam ex vobis unus, vestrique fuissem 
Aut custos gregis, aut maturae vinitor uvse, &c. 




At^' in* ifiev fwotf ivaplOiiiog w^eAef fjfiev, 
"ilg rot lywv ivdfievov dv* &pea rag KaXdg alya^^ 
^ojvdg elgatcjv *- rv 6* vno dpvalv ^ vnd TrsvKcug 
'Adv [leXiadofievog KaTSKeitXiao, ^ele Kojuara. 

Id,y IdylL, vii., 86, seq^ 

39. "Et nigrse violae sunt, et vaccinia nigra. 

Kal TO lov neXav kvri, koZ d ypanrd vaKivdog. 

Id., Idyll., X., 28 

65. Nee si frigoribus mediis Hebrumque bibaxhus, 
Sitboniasque nives biemis subeamus aquosae. 

"EXrig 6* 'Hdwvwv fiev kv cjpsac x^^f^o,'^^^ iieaaio, 
'^dpov Trap TTOTafibVyTerpafifiivog kyyvBev apKTCD. 

Id.y Idyll, f vii., Ill, seq 


43. Vere novo, gelidus canis quum montibus bumor 
Liquitur, et Zepbyro putris se gleba resolvit, &c. 

Evr' dv d^ TTpojTiOT* dporog 'dvrjTolaL (feaveCrj^ 
Arj TOT* l(tiopfiTjd7ivaL, biuog dfjuoeg re Kai avTog, 
Kvrpf Kal dieprjv dpocjv, dpoTOio KaO^ ^pTjv, 
Tlpojt fidXa onev6G)v, Iva toi nXrjdGxnv dpovpcu, 

Hcsiod, Op,, 456, seqq. 

47. Ilia seges demum votis respondet avari 

Agricolae, bis quae solem, bis frigora sensit, &c. 

*H 6h KaTepyaota kv tco vedv kut* dii(j>oTepag r. 
S>pag Kal ^ipovg Kal x^^H'^'^og, oncjg x^^^^^V * 
ijkicjd^ 7} yrj, 

TheophraaUf Cam. Plant,^ iii.| 25. 


62. ac patrios cultusque Habitusque locorum. 

4^cuji yap tov fieXXovra dpOcog yec^py^qaeiv r^v <l>vaiv 

Xpfjv(u npioTov TTJg yrig elSevac • dpOug ye, (tf^rfv iydf, 

ravra keyovreg, 6 yap fiij eldcjg 5 re SvvaTot ij yi] <l>i' 

peiVf ovd* 6 Ti anelpeiv, olofiac, ov6* 5 tc (fivrevuv 6u 

eideii] av. 

Xen.y (Econ., xvi^ 2. 

77. Urit enim lini campum scges, iirit avenae, &c. 

'EmKopnc^eriu a(fi66pa 6 alyi^Gyip rrfv yrjv, xaC iari 
TToXvppi^ov Kal TTokvKaXa^ov. 

Theophrast, Caus. Plant., iv. 


80. Ne Baturare fimo pingui pudeat sola. 

Kal rj Konpog 6e per/dXa poTjOel, to) dcaSepiiatveiv Kal 


Id., Hist. Plant., viii. 

95. neque ilium 

Flava Ceres alto nequidquam spectat Olympo : 

Ovg 6e ksv eviisLdrjg re Kal tXaog avydaariat, 
KelvoLg ev [lev apovpa (pepec ardxvv. 

Callim.^ H. in Dian., 129, seq. 

, HI. Quid, qui, ne gravidis procurabat culmus aristis, 
' Luxuriem segetum teneri depascit in berba, &c. 

I 'Ev de ralg dyadalg ^wpat^*, TTpbg to firj (pyXXofjiavelVy 

V » 

' emvepovoi KaC enLKelpovoL tov gltov, 

Theophrast,, Hist. Plant,, viii. 

• 121, Pater ipse colendi 

Haud facjlem ease viam voluit. 



Kpv^avreg ydp Iji^ovat •&€ol fiiov ivOfKimoiau 

• • • • * ^ • 

'AAAd Zfivf €Kpv\pe, xo^(Jd[ievog (fipealv ^atv, 

Hesiod, Op., 42, 47. 

124. Nee torpere gravi passus sua regna vetemo. 

Tw 6i •&eol v€fjieaC)ai xal dvepeg, 6g kbv depydg 
Zo)^, K7j<lyfiveoai Kodovpoig elKeXog dpy^v. 

Hesiody Op., 391, seq. 

125. Ante Jovem nulli subigebant arva colonic &;c. 

Uplv fiev ydp ^d^eoKov knt x^ovl (jwk* dvdpioncjp 
'N6a<t>iv arep re Kaiswv, naX drep x^^^'^^olo TtdvoLO^ 
^ovaoiv t' &pyake<i)v, aXr' dvdpdat KTjpcbg iditikav. 

Id.,^p,, 90, seqq. 

131. ignemque removit. 

Kpvtpe dk TTvp, 

Id., Op., 50. 

138. Plei'adas, Hyadas, claramque Lycaonis Arcton. 

JlXTjlddag d^ *Td6ag re, r6 re aSevog 'ilpicjvog. 

Horn., II., xyiii., 486. 

158. Heu ! magnum alterius frustra spectabis acervunii 
Concussaque famem in silvis solabere quercu. 

[I'fl TTCjg rd fiSTO^ ;]^;aT^f6W 
UTCjaa'dg dXXoTplovg olKovg, Kal firfiev dvvaayg, 

Hesiod, Op., 392, seq. 

162. Vomis, et inflexi primum grave robur aratri, 

Tazdaque iEHeusin^e matris Yolyentia plaustra, &c. 




"OXfiov fjtev Tprnddrfv rdftveiv, vnepov 6i rpiTrrjxpv^ 
"A^ovd 1^' kixramdriv' fidXa yap vv roi appsvov ovrw 
EZ 6e Kev dKTanodTjv and Kai a^vpav ks rdfioiOj 
Tpianldafiov d' d^iv rdfiveiv 6eKa6ojp(»> dfid^'Q. 
IL6X7J kiTi KaimvXa mXa • <t>epetv de yvrpf, 6t* &v 

l^lg olKOVf tear* 6pog di^Tjfievog, rj aar* apovpav, 
Hpivivov • dg yap povalv dpovv dxvp<OTaT6g kariv • 
Evr' dv 'AdTjvaLTjg 6[jU$)dg kv kkvfiari irrj^ag 
Tofupoiacv TreXdoag npogap'qpeTaL larodori'i, 
Aoid 6e -deaOat dpoTpa, TTOvrjadfievog Kara oIkov, 
AvToyvov Kai tttiktSv • iirei ttoAv kmov ovt(»), 
"El x^ irepov y d^aig, ^repov k* ini poval pdXoio • 
Ad^v^ iT if TTTekeTjg dKiwraroc larodoijeg, 
Lpfvbg eXufia, ixpivov di yvrjfv, 

Id.j Op,^ 421, seqq^. 

167. Omnia quae multo ante memor provisa repones. 

Twv npoadev fieXeTTjv ^j^e/zev olKifia '^iadcu. 

Id,, Op,, 455. 

L87. Cbntemplator item, quum se nux plurima silvis 
Induet in florem, et ramos curvabit olentes, &c. 

Uplvoi d' ov, Kapnolo KaraxSeeg, ov6e fieXa^vai 
2;t^vot dnetprjTOL • TravrTj 6e re iro^^bg dkcjevg 
Alel TTairralvei, urj ol "depog Ik %epof ^Ppt/- 

Aratus, Diosem., 312, seqq* 

221. Ante tibi Eoas Atlantides abscondantur, &;c. 

JLXTjLddcjv ^ArXayevecjv tnLTsXXoiievdcjv 
"ApxsaO^ dfiTiTOV • dporoio de, dvaoiievdoyv, 

Hesiod, Op., 381, seq. 



225, Multi ante occasum Maiae coepere ; sed illos 
Exspectata seges vanis elusit avenis. 

EZ 6i Kev TjeXloio TpoTralg dpo'Qg x^ova dlav^ 
"Hfievog diMTjaeig, dXlyov nepi X^^P^^ iepyiov, 
^AvTca 6eap,evG)v Keicovip,evog, ov fmXa ;!^a/p6)v • 
Olaeig d' iv tpopfiC) • iravpot 6i oe drifjaovrad,. 

Id,, Op,, All, seqq. 

233. Quinque tenent coBlum zonae : quarum una coru8C< 
Semper sole rubens, et torrida semper ab igni, &;c 

HivTB 6e al ^(ovcu frepi^kadeg ^aneiprjVTO^ 
A2 6vo fiev yXavKolo KeXaivoripov Kvdvoio, 
'H 6e Ilia xptKpapri re Kot Ik irvpog olov kpv^p^, 
*H iiev erpf fieadTTj, kiciicavro 6e itdaa nepl npo 
TvirrofievTf <pX(ryii6iatv, hrei pa dvavpoi in* avrrpf 
KeKXcfiivai dicrlveg decOepeeg TTvpocjoLV, 
Al 6e dvG) kKarepOe nokoLg TTepmeTrrTfvlcUy 
Alei <l>pLKake(u, alel d' vSarc fioyeovacv • 
Ov [liv v6g>p, dXX* avrdg drr' ovpavoSev icpvaraAAoj 
Ketrof dv* dp^i ndxifigai, Txepi'^VKrog 6e TerviCTau 
'AAAd rd p,ev ;^€p(7a£a Kal dfidara dvdpcjnoiai • 
Aoial 6* dXXai eaaiv ivavrlai dXXrj^aiai, 
"itleaaijyvg "depeog re Kal veriov KpvordXXov, 
"Afjufxo evKpriroi re Kal bfinvtov d^drjaKOvaai 
lS.apndv ^EkevoivTjg A7jp,i]Tepog • ev 6i [iiv dvdpeg 
^AvrCnodeg valovat, 

Eiatosth,, ap, Achill, Tat,, p. 153 {ed, 
' Bemhardy, p. 144). 

242. Hie vertex nobis semper sublimis : at ilium, &c. 

Kat piv TxepaivovGL 6vo> ttoXol dp(j>0Tep(jd6ev • 
'AAA,' 6 pev ovK enlonrog • 6 d' dvrlog i/c (iopiao, 
*T'il)6dev (jjKeavolo • dvd) 6i piv dptpig exovaai 
"ApKTOi dpa rpox^oaai, rb drj KaXeovrai dpa^au 

Aratm^ Pkcen,, 24, seqq. 


Td^ 6i 6i' dfuf^OTepag, oti] iroTafiolo dnoppoj^, 
ElkelTai, fiiya ^avfia, Apd/cwv, nepl t' diKftl t' iayc!>^ 
"Mvpiog • al d* apa 61 onelpTjg eicaTepde <f>vovTai 
'ApKTOi, Kvaveov netpvkayfiivai (biceavolo. 

Id,, PAcBn.f 45, seqq. 

'ApKTOv •&*, fjv Kal afm^av imKXTjaiv KaXeovaiv^ 
■Ht* avTov (JTpe<t>ercu, koX r* ^Qpltova doKevec^ 
Olrj (P ofifiopog ioTL Xoerpiov 'QKeavolo, 

Hom,<t IL, xviii., 487, seqq. 

59. Frigidus agricolam si quando contlnet imber ; 

Multa, forent quae mox coelo properanda sereno, &c. 

•Qp^ X^ifieplXI* ^TTOTS Kpvog dvipag epycjv 
'Ia%dvet, Ivda iC &OKVog dvijp fieya oIkov 6^X}joi, 

Hesiod, Op., 492, seq. 

77. quintam fuge, pallidus Orcus, 

Snmenidesque satae ; tum^partu Terta nefando, &c. 

HefiiTTag 6* i^aXiaadat^ ^-net xo^Xenat re Kot alvcU, 
'Ev TTfi/iTTT^ yap <l>aatv 'Epivvag dfjupmoXeveiv, 
"OpKOV rivwiiivag rbv *^pig reice tttjii^ kniopicocg. 

Id,j Op., 800, seqq. 

81. Ter sunt conati imponere Pelio Ossam, 

Scilicet atque Ossae frondosam iavolvere Olympum, 

'Oaaav irr' OvAv/ztto) fiifiaaav ^ifiev^ avrdp In^ "Oaaxi 
ILtiXlov elvoaL(l)vXXov, tv* ovpavbg dfidarbg eli] • 
^AXX' 6Xeaev ALog vlog, ov rjvKOfiog tekb Arfdii, 

Horn., Od., xi., 315, seqq. 

99. Nudus ara, sere nudus. 


yvfiv&if onelpeiv, yvitvbv 6e pfx^uVf 

Hesiod, Op., 390, seq. 

325. Et pluvi^ ingenti sata laeta boumque labores 


^e Tiv* 6fi&pov 

"AKmeraVy 6aTe fioCdV Kard fivpia ^Kkwrev ipyd. 

ApM, Rhod., iy.y 1282, seq. 

332. Aut Atho, aut Rhodopen, aut alta Ceraunia. 

"H "Add), fj 'Fodonav, ^ Kavicaaov iaxordonn-a* 

Theocr., Idyll,, viL, 77. 

341. Turn pingues agni, et turn moUissima Tina. 

Hijuog Ttidrarat r' aly6f , koX olvog apiarog. 

Hesiod, Op>, 583. 

356. ContinuOy ventls surgentibus, aut freta ponti 
Incipiunt agitata tumescere, et aridus altis, &c. 

S^/ua 6e roir AvifWLO kol oldcUvcvaa ^Xaaaa, 
Ttyv6<j6(o • Kai [icucpdv kn^ alyiaXol podovre^f 
^AjctcU t* elvdXioi, Imor* evdioi iixftBoaoL 
TtyvovT€u, KOfWipal re l3o<*>fiev(u ovpeog axpcu* 

Aratus, Diosem,, 111, seqq* 

362. Cumque marinae in sicco ludunt fulicae. 

TLoXXaKi d* dypidSeg vrjffocu, ^ elv dXl dlvai 
AlOvtcu x^p<^o^f^ rivdaaovTCU Trrepvyeaatv, 

Id,, Diosem,, 186, seqq. 

363. notasque paludes 
Deaent atque altam su'pra volat ardea nubem. 


KcU d' &v inl ^rfp^v 5r' ^fHodtdg trb Kard icdafiov 
'Ef dAdf epxi]Tcu (pcjv^ irepi irokXa XeXriica>g^ 
Kivvfiivov K€ -^dXaaoav vnepipopeocT^ dvifioio. 

Id,, Diosem.f 181, seqq. 

5. Saepe etiam Stellas, yento impendente, videbis 
Praecipites coelo labi, noctisque per umbram 
Flammarum longos a tergo albescere tractus. 

Kai 6cd vvtcra fiiXcuvav 8r' daripeg dtaaoMC 

Tap^sa, Toi <J' hinBev (wiiot imoXevKoLvtiyinaif 

Audixficu iceivoig avTTjv 66dv kpxofjiivoio 


Id.f Diosem,, 194, seqf» 

3. Saepe levem paleam et frondes volitare caducas, 
Aut summS. nantes in aqua coUudere plumas. 

*H(J7 Kai TraTTTTot, XevKi^g yripecov dKdvdrjg, 
^Tjfi^ tyevovT* dvefiov, KQxprjg dXbg dmrore ttoXXoI 
"Ajcpoi iiTCTrXeLGxn, rd fiev Trdpog, aXXa d' dmaaa. 

Id., Diosem,, 189, seqq, 

0, At Boreae de parte trucis quum fulminat, et quum 
JBurique Zepbyrique tonat domus ; omnia plenis, &c. 

Airrdp St* ^f evpoio nai e/c votov darpdrrrqaiv, 
'AXXore <r kn ^e<j>vpoio, Kai dXXoTS ndp Popeao, 
A^ TOTS rig neXdysL evi SeiSce vavrCXog dvTjpj 
I/Ltj [iiv, T^ fiev l^'q niXayog, t'q 6* bk ALog vdcjp. 

Id,, Diosem., 201, seqq. 

aut ilium surgentem vallibus imis 
Aerriae fugere grues. 

Ov6' inpov yepdvcjv p/iKpal artx^g avrd KeXevda 
TeCvovraL • arpotpaSeg 6e naXifiireTeg aTTOviovrat. 

ld,i Diosem,, 299, seqq. 


TerM I 

375. ant bucula ccelum 

Suspiciens patulis captavit naribus auras. 

Kai fioeg fjdi] roi ndpog vdarog kvdioio^ 
Ovpavdv elgavidovreg,' dn' aWepog djatppTjaavro. 

Id., Diosem.y 222, seqq. 

377. Aut arguta lacus circumvolitavit binindo. 

*H Xinvrpf nepl drfid ;^;eAtdovef Ataaovrcu 
Vaarepi rvtrrovacu avrcjg elXvfiivov vdcjp. 

Id., Diosem,, 212, seq* 

378. Et veterem in limo ranae cecinere querelam. 

*H iiaXXov dBiXal yeveal, vSpoiaiv bvuap, 
AvTodev k^ vdaTog narepeg poocoai yvpivaw. 

Id., Dioaem,, 214t, seq. 

379. Saepius et tectis penetralibus extulit ova 
Angustum formica terens iter. 

"Kal KoiXrig fivpfirfKeg dxTJg if ^sa iravra 
Odaaov dvriveyKavTO, 

Id., Diosem., 224t, seq. 

380. Et bibit ingens arcus. 

*H didvfiT] efoMTfi 6id [leyav ovpavdv Ipig. 

Id., Diosem., 208. 

382. Corvorum increpuit densis exercitus alis. 

Kat 7T0V KopaKeg Slovg araXayfiovg 
^6)V^ ^fiifirjoavTO avv vdarog kpxofiivoLo. 
*H nori Kai Kpcj^avre I3apeii;i diaaaKi <I>g)v^ 
Moucpdv iiTif^pot^evai Ttva^dfxevoc irregd iwKvd. 

Id.) Diosem., ^^^^ &ec|<^. 



)83. et quae Asia circum 

Dulcibus in stagnis rimantur prata Caystri. 

Twv <J', CaKTr' dpvidcjv nererjviov ^dvea troXXd^ 
^Aaiio iv Xeifjuijvi, Kavarpiov dfupi peeSpa, 
"Ev^a Kai svOa nort^vrcu dydXkofieva nrepvyeaotv, 

Hom,y II, f iL, 459, seqq. 

385. Certatim largos humeris infundere rores. 

HoXXdiu kiftvcucu, 7j elvdXiai &pvideg 
"AttXtjotov kXv^ovtcu ^viifievcu vddreaaiv. 

Aratus, Diosem,, 210, seq. 

388. Turn comix plena pluviam vocat improba voce, 
£t sola in sicc& secum spatiatur arena. 

*H TTOV Kat XaKEpv^a Trap' rjlovc irpovx^'^^'Q 
XeL(iarog dpxofievov X^P^^ v7reKvil)e KopcjvTj, 

Id,^ Diosem., 217, seq. 

390. Nee noctuma quidem carpentes pensa puellae 
Nescivere hiemem, test& quum ardente viderent 
Scintillare oleum, et putres concrescere fungos. 

*H XvxVOi'O fivKTjTeg dyeLpcjvrai ixepl fiv^av, 
'NvKTa Kara anoTiriv • fijjd^ ffv vnb x^^l^^'^o^ upxj 
At';^v6)v aXXoTE fiev re <f>doq tcand KOGfiov dpojpy, 
"AXXore (5' dtoacjjaiv dno ^Adye^ , rjVTS Koxxpai 
Ilofi<t)6kvyeg • [irjd^ el kev kTvavT6<f>L fiapiiacpcjaiv 


Id,, Diosem,, 244, seqq> 

^95. Nam neque tum stellis acies obtusa videtur. 
'^jiog 6* ovpavodEv KaSapov (pdog diidXvvrjTCU, 

Id,, Diosem.^ 26i» 



397. Tenuia nee lanse per coslum Tellera ferri. 

UoXXdKi d' ipxoiiev(t)v verHv ve<f>ea npondpoidev^ 
Ola ndkiara ndKoufiv koiKora IvddXkovrcu. 

Id,, JDiasem,, 206, seq. 

400. Inmnindi meminere sues jactare maniplos. 

oldk oveg ^ofyvTut inifiapycUvovaiu. 

Id,, Diasem,, 391. 

401. At nebulae magis ima petunt, campoque recumbunt 

"El ye ficv ijepoeoaa ndpe^ opeog psydXoio 
Jlvd[ieva TelvTjTcu vefpeXi], dxpai dk koXcjvcu 
^alv($)VT(U KaSapaX, [idXa kev rod* vnevdiog elrfg, 
"EvSiog it' eli]g, Kal, 5tc TrAareof nepl ttovtov 
^aivT/TCU xOafiaXij ve<t>eki], (ii]6^ vrj)6Bi KvpiQ, 
'AAA' avTOv TrXaTafjuiivi 7rapadkC6i]Tcu dfioti]. 

Id,, Diosem,, 256, seqq. 

410. Turn liquidas corvi presso ter gutture Toces 
Aut quater ingeminant. 

avTop IneiTa fieraSpda KeKXriyovreg, 
HXeiorepoi <r dyeXTjSdv inrjv koltolo fiedcjvraif 
^(»>v7ig ep,7TX€ioi, %(MpeiV «e rig (btaaoLTO, 
Ola rd phf poocjac, Xiyatvoiiivoiaiv dfjLola. 

Id., Diosem., 272, seqq. 

428. Si nigrum obscuro comprenderit aera comu 
Maximus agricolis pelagoque parabitur imber. 

''AAAo^^ 6* dXko lieXcuvofiivxi, doKeeiv veroTo. 

Id., DiQ9em.<i 72. 

Yevmfk ^t s T^ailo Aemper xubil auvo* Shcabe. 

138. ^ i|aQqpie, et e:i|driegD8, et quiiin Be condetinwidM^ 
Si^pi^ d^aUili; sojem certiflsima ngna sequus^tinry Ace 

- ^EbX£^ Si ToipeXiTW iicdtepOev lAnog * 
* ^^^jtl^ ii0<!id fldlAAov ^OMcora afifiora kutm 
^Jifiip&npoVf 6vvovT^' Kot tc mpdrifg dvtdvri. 

441 nia idtt^Msceiitem xDaeoliB yariayerit (ntimiy Sec 

Id., Diosem,, 90, seq. 


medioque refugerit orbe. 

'AAA' ovx ^rnrdre KolXog ieiddfjLevog Trcptr^AAty. 

J<i., Diosem., 96. 

445. Ant ubi sub lucem, densa inter nubila, sese, 
Diversi rumpent radii. 

OikJ* dnoT^ d/cTtvwv, at [liv votov, al de poprja 
X^i^oiuvai PdkXcjou 

Id., Diosem,, 97, seq. 

450. Hoc etiam, emenso quum jam decedet Olympo, 
Profuerit meminisse magis. 

'Eanepioig Kal fidXXov dXTjdea rsKfiripcuo • 
'Eanepadev yap diidg arjfmiveTai kfifieveg ahL 

Id.f Dioiem.^ 158, <eq. 



454. Sin maculae incipient rutilo immiscerier igni, -: 

Omnia tum pariter vento nimbisque videbis. 

Ef Tt nov ^ KOI ipevdog kmrpixBh old re iroXXd 
*EXKOfievG)v ve<f>e(t)v ipvdpaiverac dXXodev &kXa • 
"H el nov f^Xavelf Kai aoi rd fiev vdarog ioTO} \ 

^rffiara fiikkovTO^f rd d' kpevdea mvr* dvifioio, 
"Elye fiev djuporipoig aiivSig Kexp(»>(Jfievog elijt 
Kai Kev v6G)p (popeoi, koI vTTTjvefuog ravvocro. 

Id,, Diosem,, 102, seqq. 

458. At si quum referetque diem, condetque relatum, &c. 

EZ 6' avTCjg icaOapov [iiv exoi PovXvaiog dipri^. 
Avvoi 6* dvi<j>eXog iiaXaKTjv vnoSeieXog alyXijv^ 
Kat fj^v knepxofievrjg ijovg id^ vnevSiog efiy. 

Id,y Diosem,^ 93, seqq. 

9. Principio arboribus varia est natura creandis, &c. 

At yeveaeig rdv SivSpav Kai dXtog rwv 0vra)v, rj av- 
rofiaroc, 7} and anep\w,rog, rj dnb p(^i]g, ij dnd napa- 
onddog, 7] and dxpefiovog, rj dnb KXcjvog, ^ dn' avrov 
rov arekixovg kariv, ^ Irt roiv ^vXov KaroKonevTog 
elg fjLLKpd • Kai yap ovrcjg dvcupvercu, 

TheqphrasLf Hist. Plant., ii., 1. 

12. ut molle siler, lentaeque genestse, 

Populus, et glaucS, canentia fronde salicta. 

^ckel Tovg k<f>v6povg Kai kXcjdeig, olov alyeipog, Xev" 
Ki), hia, Kai dkcjg rd napd rovg noraiiobg (Iwdfieva. 

Id., Hist. Plant., VT.^ 1« 


22. Sunt alii, quos ipse via sibi repent usus. 

Al 6e &Xhu TSxvTig ^ irpocupeaecjg, 

■ Id., Hist. Plant., ii., 1. 

42. Non ego cuncta meis amplecti versibus opto ; 
Non, mihi si linguae centum sint, oraque centum, 
Ferrea vox. 

"nXrfi^v (T ovK &v kyC} (ivdrjaofiac, ov6* dvofiTjvo) • 
Ovd' el [wi dexa fiev y^aacu, dena di crofiaT' eZcv, 
$G>v^ d' a^pi]Krog. 

Horn., II. y ii., 488, seqq^ 

57. Jam quas seminibus jactis se sustulit arbos, &c. 

"Anavra 6k %e/pa) rd ifc onepfiaTog d)g knCnav • iv 6i 
Tolg rjfiipoLgj olov poa, ovkti, afLneXog, diivydaki], Kal 
yap oXa yevi] fieraSakXei^ k. t. X. 

Theophrast., Cam. Plant.^ 1. 

66i Herculeaeque arbos umbrosa coronae. 

"Kparl 6* 1^g)V kevKav, 'HpaicXeog lepdv ipvog. 

Tkeocrit, Idyll, j ii., 122. 

105. Q.uem qui scire velit, Libyci velit aequoris idem, &c. 

'AAA' laog yap 6 fioxOog^ en* ^6vi Kvfiara iierpelv, 
"Oaa* avefiog x^fx^ovde fierd yXavmg dXbg d>dei. 

Id., Idyll., xvi., 60, seq. 

' 116. Sola India nigrum fert ebenum. 

IJiOV 6e Kat tj idem] rrig ^IvdcKrjg X(^pag. 

Theophrast., Hist. Plant., iv., 1. 



225. Multi ante occasum Maiae coepere ; sed illoB 
Exspectata seges vanis elusit arenis. 

"El 6e Kev rfeXloio rpoiralg dpoxjg xl^ova 6lav^ 
"Kfievog dfATjaecg, dXlyov ixepl x^H^^ ke.prf(M>Vj 
^AvTia 6eafjiev(jjv KSKovifievog, oi/ fidXa ;i^a£pa)i/ • 
Olaeig <J' iv <popfi(^ • Travpoi 6e as ^rfyaovrcLi. 

Id., Oj)., 477, seqq. 

233. Quinque tenent caelum zonae : quarum una corusco 
Semper sole rubens, et torrida semper ab igni, &;c. 

HivTS 6e at ^dvcu nepiu^ddeg ktmelprpfTO^ 
Al 6vo fiev yXavKolo KsXcuvoTepov icvdvoiOf 
'H 6k Ilia \pa<l>ap7i tb kol kK irvpdg olov kpvdp^, 
*H fiev eTjv [leaaTi], iKSKavro 6t ndaa nept npo 
TvTrroiieyi} (pkoyiiolaiv, hrei pa avavpoc In* avrrpf 
KeK^iliivai dtcrlveg detdepieg 7Tvp6($>aLV, 
Al 6e 6vu) ifcaTspde iroXotg nepcneTrnfulcu, 
Alet <l>pLKaXeaL, alet d' vdari [xoyiovaiv * 
Ov fiev v6<t}p, dXX^ avrbg dti* ovpavoBev KpvaraXXog 
Kelrai dv* diKpl ixdxvxi^iy iTepi\j)VKTog 6e rirvKTOi. 
'AAAa TcL [lev x^paala icai dpJbara dvdptonoiat • 
Aoial 6* dXXai eaaiv evavriai dXXriXaLat, 
'Meaa'qyvg i^epeog re Kal veriov tcpvaraXXov, 
"Aficlxi) evKpTjToi re Kal 6iinviov dXdrjaKOvaa^ 
Kapnov ^EXevaCvrjg ArjiirjTepog • iv 66 fiiv dv6peg 
^AvTlno6eg vaiovai, 

Eratosth,, ap, AchiU, Tat., p. 153 {ed, 

Bemhardy, p. 144). 

242. Hie vertex nobis semper sublimis : at ilium, &c. 

Ka£ fiLV TTepacvovai 6vg) ttoXoc dfKlyoTepcjdev • 
'AAA,' 6 fiev ovK encoTTTog • 6 d' dvriog kK fiopeao, 
*Tip6dev d)Keavolo • 6v(i) 6e fiiv dfMplg exovaai 
^ApKTOi dfia Tpox6(»>aL^ to 6^ KaXeovrai dfia^ai. 

Aratus^ P^iceu,, ^\^ &eqq» 


Tag 6e 6i' dfupOTepc^, oh\ Trorajiolo dno^cj^j 
"ElkeiTaiy fieya ^vfjui, Apaxfov, irepl r* d/ti^/ t* iayC^g 
Mvplog ' aX d* apa 61 aTrelprjg kicdTBpOe (ftvovrcu 
'ApKTOi, Kvaveov Tre^kayfievac cj/ceavolo. 

Id., Phcen.^ 45, seqq. 

'ApKTOV i9', fpf KOI afui^av kniKXTjaiv KaXiovaiv, 
■jBt* avTov OTpeipeTiu, kclI t' ^ilpiu)va doKevei, 
Oiff (T dfJt[iop6g iarc Xoerpiov 'QKeavolo. 

Som.<, II., xviii., 487, seqq. 

259. Frigidus agricolam si quahdo continet imber ; 

Multa, forent quae mox ccelo properanda sereno, &c. 

"Qpy X^if^p^V* 67r6Te Kpvog dvipag epycjv 
'Io%dvef, evOa iC aoKVog dvrjp fiiya oIkov 6<j>eX}joi. 

Hesiod^ Op., 492, seq. 

211, quintam fuge, pallidus Orcus, 

Eamenidesque satae ; turn, partu Terra nefando, &c. 

UenTTTog 6* k^aXeaaOat^ eirel x^Xenai re kol aivat. 
'Ev TzifinT'Q yap (paoLV '"Epivvag d[jL(f)LnoXevetv, 
'OpKov Tcvvvfievag rbv *'^pig teke tttwi* eindpKOtg. 

Id., Op., 800, seqq. 

281. Ter sunt conati imponere Pelio Ossam, 

Scilicet atque Ossae frondosam involvere Olympum, 

"Ooaav err' OvXvfin(t) [isfiaaav i^e/zev, avrdp kii* *'Ooaxi 
UtiXiov elvoal<f)vXXov, tv* ovpavog dfidarbg elrj * 
'AA^' oXeaev Aiog viog, bv rjvKOfjLog teks Atjtg). 

Horn., Od., xi., 315, seqq. 

299. Nudus ara^ aere nudaa. 



revovai fidXXov, Kal KOLVoripcjg kv tw i]pi • rare ydp 
7] re yrj divypogy teal. 6 rjkiog i&epfjuilvov dyei^ kcu 6 
drjp [laXaKog kari Kal kpauidrfg • uar* k^ ifndvruiv eZ- 
voi T^v itcTpixf^v Kal TTjv evikooTiav, 

Id,, Cans. Plant,, iii. 

825. Turn pater omnipotens foecundis imbribus ^tber 
Conjugis in gremium laetse descendit, et omnes, &c. 

'Epfi fiev dyvbg ovpavbg rpcjacu x^^'^^y 

*^p<og de yaZav Xa^tdvei ydpm) tvxbIv* 

"Ofidpog d' dif evvdevrog ovpavov neacjv 

'^Kvae ydiav • i) 6e rlKTera^ pporolg 

M^Awv re pdaicag koX plov ^rjii^rpiov ' 

Aev6p<t)v Tig cjpa 6* kK vori^ovrog ydficv 

Tekeiog koTL • 

Msch.y Fragm, Danaid. 

347. Sparge fimo pingui. 

*H 6k Konpog 5ti fiev Kal fiavol rijv yTJv koX Siadep- 
imivei, dt' wv dfuJMTepiov tj ei^dXcuJTia, tpavepdv. 

TheophrasU, Caus. PlanU^ iii. 

348. Aut lapidem bibulum, aut squalentes infode concbas. 

^TTTotdXXovai Kdro) XiBovg, dncjg avppo^ yivrjTai rov 
vdarog, Kal Mpovg ovtoi Kara'^vxovai rag f)i^ag * ol 
6e KXrjfiaridag vnorideaaiv, ol 6e Kepa/iov. 

Id,, ibid. 

365. Carpendae manibus frondes. 

Td roiavra rovrcjv rj ralg ;n;ep<7ev axpaipeiv, cjgnep 
kXexOi] re, Kal KeXevovaiv, rj rolg aidripoig Ci>g iXa* 

Id,, ibid. 



375. pascuntur oves avidaeque juvencae. 

XaAcTTo^ 6i ical at k7TL6oaKrj(Teig, hri avvenucdovaiv 
dfia ry TOfiy xal d<pa4peaei. 

Id., Cans. Plant., v. 

431. taedas silva alta ministrat. 

Kapn(Hl>opov(nv al nevKat kol 6g^o<l>opov(n ' iMpnO' 
<t>opovai [lev yap evSvg vea^, 6^o<l>opovat 6k varepov 
TToAAo) Trpea&vrepai yiv6[ievQir. 

14., Hist, Plants ix., 2. 



11. Aonio rediens deducam vertice Musas. 

QeXyofievag <l)6piuyyi Karrfyaye UiepiTjOev, 

Apoll. Rhod., i., 31. 

75. Continuo pecoris generosi pullus in arvis 
Altius ingreditur. 

OvTG) 6e Kal eartv 6 fieTecopt^cjv eavrbv Innog a<f>66pa 
rj KaXbv, i] ^avfiaordv, tj dyaarov, k. t, X. 

Xen., de Re Equest., xi., 9. 

76. et mollia crura reponit. 

vypdiv 6e rolv OKeXolv yavpicjfievog fpeperai. 

Id.f ibid.j X., 16. 

79. illi ardua cervix. 

'Ano ye izrjv tov arepvov 6 fiev avxi'^ avrov fiTj, (og- 
TTep KaTTpov, TrponerTjg 7Te<l>vKoi, aXX*, ugnep dXenrpV" 
dvo^f dpObg npog ttiv Kopv(l)fiv i]Kol. 

Id.j ihid,^ !•) Q« 



87. At duplex agitur per lumboB spina. 

*Oa<pv^ i) dtivXri rrig imXrig^ KabiyKCLdrjoScu fiahucQ- 
repa, Kal IdeZv ridtav. 

Id,, ibid,^ i., 11. 

103. Nonne vides, quum praecipiti certamine campum, Sec 

"ApfMTa (T aXXore [lev xfiovl niXvaro 7Tovkv6oTBip^j 
"AAAiJre 6* dt^aaice [zerrjopa • toI cT ^XaTfjpeg 
"Earaaav kv 6i<j>poiai • Trdraaae di ^vfjidg kKdarav, 
"i^iKijg Ufievcjv • ainXovTo de olaiv ^Kdarog 
"InnoLgf ol 6e TTerovro Kovlovreg Tredloio. 

Som.^ 11. , xxiii., 368, seq^. 

237. Fluctus uti medio coepit quum albescere vento, &c. 

"^^Ig (J* St* kv alyiaXQ TroAvT^ei' KVfia ^aXdfforjg 
"OpvvT^ inaaavTepoVf ^etpvpov imoiavriaavrog • 
ITovTO) iiev ToL npcjTa tcopvaaereu, avrdp enecTa 
Xipau) pTjyvvfjLevov fieydXa ppefj/u^ dp^i 6e t* aicpag 
KvpTOV ibv Kopvfpovrai, dntmrvei cJ' dXdg &xvfiv, 

Hom.y II., iy., 422, seqq. 

266. Scilicet ante omnes furor est insignia equarum. 

A^ fiev ovv limoi al ^^riXeuu iTmopuvovatv, bBev koZ 
knt TTjv pXaa(l>7jfiiav rb bvop>a avruv kirKpepcvaiv 
ibTTO fiovov rdv fwwv. 

Ariatot., SzsL An., vi. 

277. Diffugiunt ; non, Eure, tuos, neque solis ad ortus, &c 
Oeovm 6t ovre npbg ^6), ovts Trpbg dvapug, dXXd rrpog 


Id,, ibid; tL 


(57. Turn sol pallentes baud unquam discudt umbras, &cr 

ovde TTor' avToi>^ 
'HeXto^ tjxiidcjv knidipKercu dKrlveaaiVj" 
OvG* 67rdr' dv areixQOi Trpdg ovpavbv dcrrepdevray 
Ov6* hrav dtp knt ycuav dir^ ovpavoOev TrporpoTnyrcM. 

Horn,, Od., xi,, 15, seqq. 

114. Disce et odoratam stabulis accendere cedrum, &c. 

Noi fiTjv Kol PcLpvo&fiog inl <f>Xoyi fioiprjOeiaa 
Xak6dvi], &KV7iarig re, koX f} npioveaat TOfMlrj 
KiSpogjTTOvXvodovai KaTa'\f)rixBBlaa yevetoig, 
'Ev <l)X(yyi'Q KanvijXdv ayei Kat <l>v^ifjLov dSfiriv, 
Tolg dij xVP^f^^ KolXa koL vXi]<t)peag evvdg 
Keivijaeig, doTredoj 6i Treauiv {frrvoio Kopiat^, 

Nicand,, Ther,, 51, seqq. 

128. Qui, dum amnes ulli rumpuntur fontibus, et dum, &c. 

'X)f dri Toi rb irplv fiev em PpoxOcjSe'C kcfivy 
"AaneiGTOV Parpaxoiai (pepei kotov • dXV drav vdcjp 
^ecpiog d^rjvqcL, rpvyrj 6* kvl TrvOfMEVC XtfjLvrjg, 
Kai rod* oy' kv %ep<70) reXeOei ipcupapog re Kat axpovg, 
OdX7TG)V ijeXiio fiXoovpbv defiag • kv 6e KeXevdocg 
TXioaaxi TTOKpvydTjv vifierat diip'qpeag 6yfiovg. 

Id., ibid,, 366, seqq. 

1. Protenus aerii mellis coBlestia dona. 

MiXc 6e rb mnrov Ik tov depog, Kat fidXiara rdv 
aarpijjv iTnToXalg, Kal Urav KaTaoKfjipxi ^sLpiog. 

Arist,, Hist. An.y ix. 



13. Absint et picti squalentia terga lacerti, 

FiDguibus a stabulis, meropesque, aliseque yolucres 
&c. . 

^AdiKovai di avrdg ftdXiara al re a(l>fJKeg, kcu ol al 
ylOakoi icaXovfieva rd bpvea * en 6k ;^eA£dd)i/ itdt [li 
paip, Qrjpevovac 6e ical ol reXfuiTicuoi f^drpaxoi frpdt 
rd vd<M)p avrdg dnavruxjag .... mvovai <J* cLv fiev \ 
TTOTaiAog TT^i^alov ovdafiodev dXXoOev rj tmevdev . , 
<l>VTeveiv 6e avfjufeepsL nept rd Ofi'^mi dxpddag, Kvd 
(lovg, TToav MTjSiKTjVf tvplav, a);^oi;f , iivpplmjv, iiTjKa 
va, ^pTTvXXov, duvyddXriv, 

Id, J ibid, 

39. fucoque et floribus oras 

Explent, coUectumque hsec ipsa ad munera gluten 

"Eari 6k nept t^v kpyaaiav avroyv, Kal rbv pioi 

TToXXfj TTOiKiXla, '^nei6dv ydp 7rapa6o6y avrcug ica 

Bapbv t6 ofiTjvogj olico6oiiovai rd KTjpia ^ipovaai, tw 

re aXXcjv dvdeo>v, kol dTrd twv 6ev6p(ov rd 6dKpva 

Ireag, Kal irTsXiag, teat dXXcjv KoXXo)6eaTdT<i)v • roi 

TG) 6e Kal TO l6aipog 6iaxpiovai tQv &XX(i)v 'BrfpUi 


Id,^ ibid,f ix. 

49. Aut ubi odor coeni gravis. 

^vaxepaivovai 6e, uanep elpriTcu raXg 6va(»>6£(nv 6c 

[uilg, Kal ralg tQv fivpiov. 

Id,, ibid,, ix. 

54. et flumina libant 

Summa leves. 

Al 6e v6(op ^epovaiv elg rovg KVTTopovg, Kal fuyvi 

OVCl T^) fUXlTl, 

Id., ibid.f IX. 



63. et cerinthse ignobile gramen. 

*E(TTt 6e avToig kol aXXri Tpo(f>rl, fjv KaXovai riveg 
KTjpivOov • eari 6e tovto vnodeearepov, Kat yXvicvri}' 
ra ovkMi] exov koiiI^ovol 6i tovto Tolg atciXeai^ 
Koddnep Tbv KTjpov, Id,, ibid, 

64. Tinnitusque cie. 

AoKovai 6k ;^a/pe4v al fteXcTTai Kal tw KpoTid • dt6 
KOI tcpoTOvvTeg (pcLoiv adpol^eiv avTdg elg to ofiijvog 
doTpaKoig T£ KOI \l)6<f>oig. Id,, ibid. 

92. Nam duo sunt genera : hie melior, insignis et ore, &c. 

Ulai 6i yivri twv fieXiTrdv TrXeicj, Kodd-nep elpijTCU 
TTpdTepov • 6vo [lev, ^^efiovc^v • 6 fiev PeXHiov, ttv^ 
pog • • • • • • ^ (J' dpioTTf, fiiKpd, OTpoyyvXrf Kat noir 

kCXt] ' aXXrjf fiaKpd, dfiola t^ dvdpTjvy. Id., ibid. 

96. Namque alias turpes hoiTcnt, ecu, pulvere ab alto 
Cum venit, et sicco terram spuit ore viator 

Mrjd* oic' dTr' avaXioav CTOudTCJV TTTvcjfieg dnaaToi. 

Callim., H, in Cer,, 6. 

158. Namque alias victu invigilant, et foedere pacto 
Exercentur agris : pars inter septa domorum, &c. 

"Eilai d' avTolg TSTayfievai ecj)* sKaoTov t(ov epycjv 
.... Kal al fiev Krjpla ipyd^ovTai, al 6e to fieXi, al 
d' epidaKTjv • Kal al fikv ixXaTTOvoL KTjpla, al 6e v6o)p 
<f>ipovaiv elg Tovg KVTTapovg, Kal fiiyvvovai rw fieXi* 
Ti' al (5' ctt' epyov epxoVTac .... Kal Toijg acprfKag 
dnoKTUvovat orav fiTjKeTC x^PV o^^ar^' .... a/ fxev 
TTpea&vTepai rd elao) ipyd^ovrac, fcal daavTtpai eloi^ 


dccL rd efcTG) fiivuv al 6h vitu i^inOev iftefxyvai^ 
elai XeioTspai . « . . atp>* 6>v 6e <t>€pov(nv, iari rdSt 
^vfioVj aTpaKTvkXlgf fieXlXayrov, d(7<l>6deXog, [ivf>plvri 
^Xecjgf dyvogj andprov, 

Aristf Hist. An,y ix., 40. 

184. Omnibus una quies operum, labor omnibus unus. 
Mane ruunt portis ; nusquam mora : rursus, easdem 

^OpdpCai 6t (TKonQaiv, ia>g &v fita kyelpxf Pofid^aaai 
6lg rj Tpig • rdre cT ^tt* epyov ddpocu TreTOvrai • Ka 
kXdovaa4, TTdXiv, ^opv6ovai rd Trpurov - Kard fiiiLpOi 
(T 7ITT0V, ^(og dv Ilia TrepineroiievTi l3ofjL6^axif cjgne^ 
OTjfmLvovaa KoOevdeiv • elr* k^amvrig aicimCiai. 

Id., ibid. 

191. Nee vero a stabulis pluvia impendente recedunt 
Longius, aut credunt coelo adventantibus Euris, &c 

UpoyivaxjKovai de Kal x^f'f^'^<^ ^<^^ vdcjp al fiekirrcu 
arifieiov de, ovk dnonirovTai yap, dXX* kv t^ ev6i\ 
avTOv dvecXovvrac .... drav 6* dvefiog § lieyo^^ ^ 
pdfvai XiOov k<f>^ iavralg, epfia irpbg to irvevfM, 

Id.f ibid. 

197. Ilium adeo placuisse apibus mirabeie morem. 

Quod nee concubitu indulgent, nee corpora segnec 

Hepl de TTjv yeveatv rwv iieXirrCiv ob rdv avrbv Tp6 
7T0V navreg 'OnoXafiddvowjiv • ol fiev ydp ipaatv o 
rlKreiv, ov6* dxeveadai rdg [leXhrag^ dkkd (pepet 
rbv yovov, koI (pepeiv ol [iev drtb rov dvOovg tov ica?i 
kvvrpoVf ol dk dnb rov avOovg tov KaXdfiov, aXXi 
6k dnb rov dvOovg TTJg ikcUof, Id,, ibid. 

no. Praetereft i«g6m hob bic MgypimBf et ingens 

Ljdia^ nets pc^tiH Paithoratii,aut Medns Kydttspes, 

01 di'paaiXelg oh ireTOvrcu l^o), idv firj fier* SXov rov 
ka/juw, ovT* enl (iooKifp, Tjirr' &XXc^ * <lHiai de icai idv 
inankmvfiOi 6 iuffteapubQ^ iviyvevovaa^ /ueroMV, f«f 
dv €vp4a)ai rbv ^efiova r^ 6<Tfi^ * kiyercu 6k ical ^- 
peodcLi abrbv ^Mb rtfv itffiovj &Tav iriTtoOai [i^ dvvri' 
TOi * iuU kdv &Tx6hrfr(u^ imdXkvaSai rbv dtf^afidv. 

Jd.f ibid. 

1. Bis gravidos cogunt foetus, duo tempora messis^ &c. 

T^ di rov fieXirog kpyaal^ dirrol luupol elaiv, lap 
Kol fiCT&rrciipov, k(U roig k^aipovtrc nepl rov fieXiro^ 
Tore fidxovTcu fidXiara • at 6i tOtttovocu dmdXkinf- 
rai, did rb firj dvvaoOcu rb Kevrpov &vev rov ivripov 
i^aipeladcu .... &rav 6i rd nripla i^-cupcjaiv ol fU' 
XiTTOvpyolj dnoXetTTOvaiv avraX^ rpo^v did ;^«fMil)va. 

J<i., ibid. 

>1. Si yero, quoniam casus apibus quoque nostros. 
Vita tulit, tristi languebunt corpora morbo, &c. 

Td dk voariiuira ifimwru [MXiara elg rd evdiJ'ifovvTa 
tQv Ofirpfidv, 6 re KaXovfievog Kkripog ' tovto yiverfu 
kv T<o i6d<f>ei, OKO^^riKia fUKpd, d<p* ii>v av^Ofievov, djcr- 
TTcp dpdxyia Kariax^i' Tb aiiTJvog 5Aov, Kcit a'fjneTcu rd 
Ktipia .... &XXo di voaTjfm, olov dpyla rig ylvercu 
rdv iieXirridv icaX 6va<o6ia rdv (jfirpfidv .... brav 6t 
KpifUiVToi i^ dX^-qXciv iv rd) afiTfvei, ai]fielov ylvercu 
rovTo bri dnoXei^l}ei' dkXd KaraipvoCioi rb aiirivog 
ofy^ ykvKtl ol fieXiTTOvpyol irav tovt* oXaSoyifTai. 

Id.^ ibid, 



255, Turn corpora luce carentum 

Exportant tectis, et tristia funera ducunt. 

*Edv 6i law rig iiTToBdviQ^ l^dyovaiv 6[ioi<»>g. 

Id,, ibid. 

259. Ignavseque fame et contracto £rigore pigras. 

•AAAo 6k vdoTffia olov dpyla rig yivercu rdv (leXii 


Id,f ibid. 

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B U C L I C A. 




TiTTBE, tu, patulae recubans sub tegmine fagi, 
SilTestrem tenui musam meditaris avena : 
Nos patriae fines et dulcia linquimus arva ; 
Nos patriam fugimus : tu, Tityre, lentus in umbrSL, 
I Formosam resonare doces Amaryllida silvas. 6 


Meliboee ! deus nobis haec otia fecit : 

Namque erit ille mihi semper deus ; illius aram 

Saepe tener nostris ab ovilibus imbuet agnus. 

Ille meas errare boves, ut cernis, et ipsum 

Ludere, quae vellem, calamo permisit agresti. 10 


Non equidem invideo ; miror raagis : undique totis 
Usque adeo turbatur agris. En ! ipse capellas 
Protenus aeger ago ; banc etiam vix, Tityre, duco. 
Hie, inter densas corulos, modo namque gemellos, 
Spem gregis, ah ! silice in nuda connixa reliquit. 15 

Saepe malum hoc nobis, si mens non laeva fuisset, 
De coelo tactas memini praedicere quercus. 
[Saepe sinistra cava praedixit ab ilice comix.] 
Sed tamen, iste deus qui sit, da, Tityre, nobis. 


Urbem quam dicunt Romam, Meliboee, putavi 20 

Stultus ego huic nostrae Binulem, quo saepe solenuia 


Pastores ovium teneros depellere fcBtus : 

Sic canibus catulos similes, sic matxibus hacdos 

Noram ; sic parvis componere magna solebam. 

Verum haec tantum alias inter caput extulit urbes, 25 

Quantum lenta solcnt inter vibuma cupressi. 


Et qusB tanta fuit Romam tibi caussa videndi ? 


Libertas : quae, sera, tamen respexit inertem, 

Candidior postquam tondenti barba cadebat : 

Respexit tamen, et longo post tempore venit, 30 

Postquam nos Amaryllis habet, Galatea reliquit. 

Namque, fatebor enim, dum me Galatea tenebat. 

Nee spes libertatis erat, nee cura peculi : 

Quamvis multa meis exiret victima septis, 

Pinguis et ingratae premeretur caseus urbi, 35 

Non unquam gravis aere domum mihi dextra redibat. 


xTxirabar, quid moesta deos, Amarylli, vocares ; 

Cui pendere suii patereris in arbore poma : 

Tityrus hinc aberat. Ipsae te, Tityre, pinus, 

Ipsi te fontes, ipsa haec arbusta vocabant. 40 


Quid facerem 1 ncque servitio mo exire licebat, 

Nee tam praesentes alibi cognoscere divos. 

Hie ilium vidi juvenem, Meliboee, quotannis 

Bis senos cui nostra dies altaria fumant. 

Hie mihi responsum primus dedit ille petenti : 45 

Pascite, ut ante, boves, pueri; submittite tauros. 


Fortunate senex ! ergo tua nira manebunt, 
Et tibi magna satis ; quamvis lapis omnia nudus, 
Limosoque palus obducat pascua junco. 
Non insueta graves tentabunt pabula foetas, 50 

iVec maJa vicini pecoris coiitagia\«&e;xiX. 


Foitanate senex ! hie, inter flumina nota 

Et fcmtes sacros, frigus captabis opacum. 

Hinc tibi, quae semper, vicino ab limitc, sepes 

Hyblseis apibus florem depasta salicti, 55 

Saepe levi eomnum suadebit inire susurro ; 

ISmc alta sub rupe canet frond ator ad auras : 

Nee tamen interea raucas, tua cura, pEdumbes, 

Nee gemere aeria cessabit turtur ab ulmo. 


Ante leves ergo paseentur in aethere cervi, 60 

£t freta destituent nudos in littore pisces ; 

Ante, pererratis amborum finibus, exsul 

Aut Ararim Parthus bibet, aut Germania Tigrim, 

Quam nostro illius labatur pectore vultus. 


^ At nos hinc, alii sitientes ibimus Afros ; 65 

Pars Scythiam, et rapidum Cretae veniemus Oaxen, 
Et penitus toto divisos orbe Britannos. 
En ! unquam patrios longo post tempore fines, 
Pauperis et tuguri congestum cespite culmen, 
Post aliquot, mea regna videns mirabor, aristas 1 70 

Impius haec tam culta uovalia miles habebit ? 
Barbarus has segetes ? en, quo discordia cives 
Perduxit miseros ! en, quis eonsevimus agros ! 
Insere nunc, Meliboee, piros, pone ordine vites. 
Ite, meae, felix quondam pecus, ite, capellae. 75 

Non ego vos posthac, viridi projectus in antro, 
Dumosd pendere procul de rupe videbo ; 
Carmina nulla canam ; non, me pascente, capellae, 
Florentem cytisum et salices carpetis amaras, 


Hie tamen banc mecum poteras requiescere noctem 80 
Fronde super viridi : sunt nobis mitia poma, 
Castaneae molles, et pressi copia lactis ; 
Et jam Bumma procul villarum culmina fumant, 
Majoreaque caduut altia de montibus umbrge. 





FoRMosuM pastor Corydon aidebat Alexin, 
Delicias domini : nee, quid speraret, habebat. 
Tantum inter densas, umbrosa cacumina, fagos 
Assidue veniebat : ibi haec incondita solus 
Montibus et silvis studiojactabat inani : 

O crudelis Alexi ! nitiil mea carmina curas 1 
Nil nostri miserere 1 mori me denique coges. 
Nunc etiam pecudes umbras et fiigora captant ; 
Nunc virides etiam occultant spineta lacertos ; 
Thestylis et rapido fessis messoribus aestu, 
Allia serpylluinque, herbas contundit olentes : 
At mecum raucis, tua dum vestigia lustro 
Sole sub ardenti, resonant arbusta cicadis. 
Nonne fuit satius, tristes Amaryllidis iras 
Atque superba pati fastidia ] nonne Menalcan i 
Quamvis ille niger, quamvis tu candidus esses. 
O formose puer ! nimium ne crede colori : 
Alba ligustra cadunt, vaccinia nigra leguntur. 
Despectus tibi sum, nee, qui sim, quaeris, Alexi ; 
Quam dives pecoris, nivei quam lactis abundans. 
Mille meae Siculis errant in montibus agnse : 
Lac mibi non sestate novum, non fiigore defit : 
Canto, quae solitus, si quando armenta vocabat, 
Amphion Dircaeus in Actaeo Aracyntho. 
Nee sum adeo informis ; nuper me in littore vidi, 
Cum placidum ventis staret mare : non ego Daphnini 
Judice te, metuam; si nunquam fallit imago. 
O tantum libeat mecum tibi sordida rura 
Atque humiles habitare casas, et figere cervos, 
Haedorumque gregem viridi compellere hibisco 1 
Mecum una in silvis imitabere Faua canendo. 


Pan primus calamos cera conjungere plures 
Instituit ; Pan curat oves oviumque magistros. 
Xec te pceniteat calamo trivisse labellum : 
Haec eadem ut sciret, quid non faciebat Amyntas t 35 
Est mihi disparibus septem compacta cicutis 
Fistula, Damcetas dono mihi quam dedit olim, 
Et dixit, moriens, Te nunc habet ista secundum. 
Dixit Damcetas : invidit stultus Amyntas. 
Praeterea duo, nee tuti mihi valle reperti, 40 

Capreoli, sparsis etiam nunc pellibus albo, 
Bina die siccant ovis ubera ; quos tibi ser\'o. 
Jam pridem a me illos abducere Thestylis orat ; 
Et &ciet, quoniam sbrdent tibi munera nostra. 
Hue ades, O formose puer ! tibi \ilia plenis, 45 

Ecce ! ferunt Nymphae calathis ; tibi Candida Nais, 
Pallentes viblas et summa papavera carpens, 
Narcissum et florem juhgit bene olentis anethi : 
Turn, casiaL atque aliis intexens suavibus herbis, 
MoUia luteola pingit vaccinia caltha. 50 

Ipse ego cana legam tenera anugine mala, 
Castaneasque nuces, mea qi .as Amaryllis amabat : 
Addam cerea pruna ; honos erit huic quoque pomo : 
Et vos, O lauri ! carpam, et te, proxima myrte ; 
Sic positae quoniam suaves miscetis odores. 55 

Rusticus es, Corydon ; nee munera curat Alexis ; 
Nee, si muneribus certes, concedat lollas. 
Heu ! heu ! quid volui misero mihi ! floribus austnim 
Perditus, et liquidis immisi fontibus apros. 
Quem fugis, ah, demens ? habit&runt di quoque silvas, 60 
Dardaniusque Paris. Pallas, quas condidit arces 
Ipsa colat : nobis placeant ante omnia silva3. 
Torv'a leaena lupum sequitur ; lupus ipse capellam ; 
Florentem cytisum sequitur lasciva capclla ; 
Te Corydon, O Alexi ! trahit sua quemque voluptas. 65 
Adspice, aratra jugo referunt suspensa juvenci, 

A 2 


Et sol crescentes decedens duplicat umbras ; 

Mc tamcn urit amor ; quis enim modus adsit amori 1 

Ah, Cory don ! Cory don I quae te dementia cepit ! 

Scmiputata tibi frondosa vitis in ulmo est. 70 

Quin tu aliquid saltem potius, quorum indiget usus, 

Viminibus mollique paras detexere junco ? 

Invcnies alium, si te bic fastidit, Alexin. 

^>ii>i>>>i»0t>t>mf^^^^tt>0^tt^t^»t*0> ^ >»mi*>^0>^^^^^f*f>*<^^^*>^^^^^^f»0>^>t*0>0tt»0^>0it>0^>0ti^y0t0t^»m0it»t^t0t0>0>t^>tmt»0>0»0* 



^_ ^lUjijuB »■■ ■TrTr»r>'f ^«"rTrTrrTrTi»Tg<TrrTrirrTT'»~i~i~rT~rv'o~~~'~~~~~~^^~^^^~~'~Ti 


Quern mea carminibus meruisset fistula caprum 7 
Si nescis, meus ille caper fuit ; et mihi Damon 
Ipse fatebatur, sed redd ere posse negabat. 


Cantando tu ilium 1 aut unquam tibi fistula cera 25 

Juncta fuit] non tu in triviis, indocte, solebas 
Stridenti miserum stipula disperdere carmen 1 


Vis ergo, inter nos, quid possit uterque, vicissim 
Experiamur ] ego banc vitulam (ne forte recuses. 
Bis yenit ad mulctram, binos alit ubere fcetus) 30 

Depono : tu die, mecum quo pignore certes. 


De grege non ausim quidquam deponere tecum : 

Est mihi namque domi pater, est injusta noverca ; 

Bisque die numerant ambo pecus, alter et hsedos. 

Verum, id quod multo tute ipse fatebere majus, 35 

Insanire libet quoniam tibi, pocula ponam 

Fagina, caelatum divini opus Alcimedontis : 

Lenta quibus tomo facili superaddita vitis 

DifFusos hedera vestit pallente corymbos. 

In medio duo signa : Conon, et— quis fuit alter, 40 

Descripsit radio totum qui gentibus orbem, 

Tempora quae messor, quae curvus arator baberet 1 

Necdum illis labra admovi, sed condita servo. 


Et nobis idem Alcimedon duo pocula fecit, 

Et moUi circum est ansas amplexus acantbo ; 45 

Orpheaque in medio posuit, silvasque sequentes. 

Necdum illis labra admovi, sed condita serva 

Si ad vitulam spectas, nihil est, quod pocula laudes. 


Nunquam hodie effugies : veniam, quocumque vocftris. 
Audiat haec tantum vel qui venit, — ecce ! Palsemon. 50 
^ Ef&ciam, posthac ne quemquam yoce lacessas* 

BucoLicoir ECL. in. 


Qnin age, siquid babes ; in me mora non erit ulla. 
Nee quemquam fugio : tantum, vicine Palsemon, 
Sensibus haec imis, res est non parva, reponas. 


Dicite : quandoquidem in molli consedimus berbA. 66 
£t nunc omnis ager, nunc omnis parturit arbos, 
Nunc frondent silvae, nunc formosissimus annus. 
Incipe, Damceta ; tu deinde sequere, Menalca. 
Altemis dicetis; amant altema Camoenae. 


Ab Jove principiam, Musae : Jovis omnia plena : 60 

lUe colit terras ; illi mea carmina curas. 


Et me Pboebus amat : Phoebo sua semper apud me 
Munera sunt, lauri, et suave rub«ns byacintbus. 


Malo me Galatea petit, lasciva puella, 

Et fugit ad salices, et se cupit ante videri. 65 


At mihi sese offert ultro mens ignis, Amyntas, 
Notior ut jam sit canibus non Delia nostris. 


Parta meae Veneri sunt munera ; naraque notavi 
Ipse locum, aeriae quo congessere palumbes. 


Quod potui, puero, silvestri ex arbore lecta, 70 

Aurea mala decem misi ; eras altera mittam. 


quoties, et quaB nobis Galatea locuta est ! 
Partem aliquam, venti, diviim referatis ad aures ! 


Quid prodest, quod me ipse animo non spemis, Amynta, 
Si, dum tu sectaris apros, ego retia servo 1 75 



Phyllida mitte mihi ; meus est natalis, lolla : 
Cum faciam vitula pro frugibus, ipse venito. 


Phyllida amo ante alias : nam me discedere flevit, 
Et, Longum, formose, vale, vale, inquit, lolla. 


Triste lupus stabulis, maturis frugibus imbres, 
Arboribus venti, nobis Amaryllidis irae. 


Pulce satis humor, depulsis arbutus haedis, 
Lenta salix foe to pecori, mihi solus Amyntas. 


Pollio am at nostram, quamvis est rustica, musam : 
Pierides, vitulam lector^ pascite vestro. 


Pollio et ipse facit nova carmina : pascite taurum. 
Jam comu petat, et pedibus qui spargat arenam. 


Qiii te, Pollio, amat, veniat quo te quoque gaudet ; 
Mella fluant illi, ferat et rubus asper amomum. 


Qui Bavium non odit, amet tua carmina, Maevi ; 
Atque idem jungat vulpes, et mulgeat hircos. 


Qui legitis flores et humi nascentia fraga, 

Frigidus, O pueri ! fugite hinc, latet anguis in herba. 


Parcite, oves, nimium procedere ; non bene ripae 
Creditur : ipse aries etiam nunc vellera siccat. 


Tityre, pascentes a flumine reice capellas : 
Ipse, ubi tempus erit, omnes in fonte lavabo. 



Cogite oves, pueri : si lac praeceperit aestus, 
Ut nuper, firustra pressabimus ubera palmis. 


Heu ! heu ! quam pingui macer est milii taurus in ervo ! 
Idem amor exitium pecori, pecorisque magistro. 101 


His certe neque amor caussa est ; yix ossibus Haerent. 
Nescio quis teneros oculus mihi fascinat agnos. 


Die, quibus in terris, et eris mihi magnus Apollo, 

Tres pateat coeli spatium ncn amplius ulnas. 105 


Die, quibus in terris inscripti nomina regum 
Nascantur flores ; et Phyllida solus habeto. 


Non nostrum inter vos tantas componere lites : 

Et vitula tu dignus, et hie ; et quisquis amaros 

Aut metuet, dulces aut experietur amores. 110 




SiCELiDEs Musse, pauUo majora canamus ! 
Non omnes arbusta juvant humilesque myricaB : 
Si canimus silvas, silvae sint consule dignae. 
Ultima Cumsei venit jam carminis aetas ; 
Magnus ab integro saeclorum tiascitur ordo. 5 

Jam redit et Virgo, redeunt Satumia regna ; 
Jam nova progenies coelo demittitur alto. 
Tu modo nascenti puero, quo ferrea primum 
Desinet, ac toto surget gens aurea mundo. 
Casta, fave, Lucina : tuus jam regnat Apollo. 10 

Teque adeo decus hoc aevi, te consule, inibit, 
Pollio, et incipient magni procedere menses. 
Te diice, si qua manent sceleris vestigia nostri, 
Irrita perpetua solvent formidine terras. 
Tile deum vitam accipiet, divisque videbit 15 

Permixtos hero as, et ipse videbitur illis ; 
Pacatumque reget patriis virtu tibus orbem. 
At tibi prima, puer, nullo munuscula cultu, 
Errantes hederas passim cum baccare tellus, 
Mixtaque ridenti colocasia fundet acantho. 20 

Ipsae lacte domum referent distenta capellae 
libera, nee magnos metuent armenta leones. 
Ipsa tibi blandos fundent cunabula flores. 
Occidet et serpens, et fallax herba veneni • 

Occidet ; Assyrium vulgo nascetur amomum. 25 

At simul heroum laudes et facta parentis 
Jam legere, et quae sit poteris cognoscere virtus, 
Molli paullatim flavescet campus arista, 
Incultisque rubens pendebit sentibus uva, 
Et dune quercus sudabunt roscida mella. 30 

Pauca tamen suberunt priscae vestigia fraudis, 


Quae tentare Thetim ratibus, quae clngere muris 
Oppida, quae jubeant telluri infindere suIccns. 
Alter erit turn Tiphys, et altera quae vehat Argo 
Delectos heroas ; erunt etiam altera bella, 35 

Atque iterum ad Trojam magnus mittetur Achilles. 
Hinc, ubi jam firraata virum te fecerit aetas, 
Cedet et ipse mari vector, nee nautica pinus 
Mutabit merces : omnis feret omnia tellus. 
Non rastros patietur Humus, non vinea falcem ; 40 

Robustus quoque jam tauris juga solvet arator. 
Nee varioB discet mentiri lana colores : 
Ipse sed in pratis aiies jam suave rubenti 
Murice, jam croceo mutabit vellera luto ; 
Sponte sua sandyx pascentes vestiet agnos. 46 

Talia fiaecla, suis dixerunt, currite, fusis 
Concordes stabili fatorum numine Parcae. 
Aggredere O magnos, ad erit jam tempus, honores, 
Cara deClm suboles, magnutn Jovis incrementum ! 
Adspice convexo nutantem pondere mundum, 50 

Terrasque, tractusque maris, coeluraque profundum, 
Adspice, venturo laetentur ut omnia saeclo ! 
mihi tarn longae maneat pars ultima vitae, 
Spiritus et, quantum sat erit tua dicere facta : 
Non me carminibus vincet nee Thracius Orpheus, 55 
Nee Linus ; huic mater quamvis, atque huic pater, adsit, 
Orphei Calliopea, Lino formosus Apollo. 
Pan etiam, Arcadia mecum si judice certet, 
Pan etiam Arcadia dicat se judice victum. 
Incipe, parve puer, risu cognoscere matrem : 60 

Matri longa decem tulerunt fastidia menses. 
Incipe, parve puer : cui non risere parentes. 
Nee deus hunc mens^, dea nee dignata cubili est. 






Cur non, Mopse, boni quoniam convenimus ambo, 
Tu calamos inflare leves, ego dicere versus, 
Hie corulis mixtas inter considimus ulmos 1 


Tu major; tibi me est aequum parere, Meualca; 
Sive sub incertas Zephyris motantibus umbras, 5 

Sive antro potius succedimus : adspice, ut antrum 
Silvestris raris sparsit labrusca racemis. 


Montibus in nostris solus tibi certat Amyntas. 


Quid, si idem certet Phoebum superare canendo ? 


Incipe, Mopse, prior : si quos aut Phyllidis ignes, 10 
Aut Alconis habes laudes, aut jurgia Codri : 
Incipe ; pascentes servabit Tityrus haedos. 


Imrao haec, in viridi nuper quae cortice fagi 
Carmina descripsi, et modulans altema notavi, 
Experiar : tu deinde jubeto certet Amyntas. 15 


Lenta salix quantum pallenti cedit olivae, 
Puniceis humilis quantum saliunca rosetis ; 
Judicio nostro tantum tibi ccdit Amyntas. 


Sed tu desine plura, puer ; successimus antro, 

Exstinctum nympbae crudeli funere Dapbnin 20 


Flebant : vos, coruli, testes, et flumina, nymphis : 

Quuxn, complexa sui corpus miserabile gnati, 

Atque deos atque astra vocat crudelia mater. 

Non ulli pastes illis egere diebus 

Frigida, Dapbni, boves ad fiumina ; nulla nee amnem 25 

Libavit quadrupes, nee graminis attigit herbam. 

Daphni, tuum Poenos etiam ingemuisse leones 

Interitum, montesque feri silvaeque loquuntur. 

Dapbnis et Armenias curru subjungere tigres 

Instituit ; Dapbnis thiasos inducere Baccbi, 30 

£t foliis lentas intexere mollibus hastas. 

Vitis ut arboribus decori est, ut vitibus uvae, 

Ut gregibus tauri, segetes ut pinguibus arvis ; 

Tu decus omne tuis. Postquam te fata tulerunt, 

Ipsa Pales agros, atque ipse reliquit Apollo. 35 

Grandia saepe quibus mandavimus hordea sulcis, 

Infelix lolium et steriles nascuntur avense ; 

Pro molli viola, pro purpureo narcisso, 

Carduus, et spiuis surgit paliurus acutis. 

Spargite humum foliis, inducite fontibus umbras, 40 

Pastores : mandat fieri sibi talia Dapbnis. 

Et tumulum facite, et tumulo superaddite carmen : 

" Dapbnis ego in silvis, hinc usque ad sidera notus, 

Formosi pecoris custos, formosior ipse." 


Tale tuum carmen nobis, divine po'eta, 45 

Quale sopor fessis in gramine ; quale, per aestum, 

Dulcis aquae saliente sitim restinguere rivo : 

Nee calamis solum aequiparas, sed voce, magistrum. 

Fortunate puer, tu nunc eris alter ab illo. 

Nos tamen haec, quocumque modo, tibi nostra vijcissim 

Dicemus, Dapbninque tuum toUemus ad astra ; 51 

Dapbnin ad astra feremus : amavit nos quoque Dapbnis. 


An quidquam nobis tali sit munere majus % 


Et puer ipse fuit cantsui dignus, et ista 

Jam pridem Stimicon laudavit carmina nobis. 55 


Candidus insuetum miratur limen Olympi, 

Sub pedibusque videt nubes et sidera DapbniSii 

Ergo alacris eilvas et cetera rura voluptas 

Panaque pastoresque tenet, Dryadasque puellaa ; 

Nee lupus insidias pecori, nee retia cervis 60 

Ulla dolum meditantur : amat bonus otia Dapbnis. 

Ipsi laetitia voces ad sidera jactant 

Intonsi montes ; ipsse jam carmina rupesj 

Ipsa sonant arbusta : Deus, deus ille, Menaica ! 

Sis bonus O, felixque, tuis ! en quatuor aras ! 65 

Ecce duas tibi, Daphni, duas altaria Fhoebo ! 

Pocula bina novo spumantia lacte quotannis, 

Craterasque duo statuam tibi pinguis olivi ; 

Et, multo in primis hilarans convivia Baccbo, 

Ante focum, si frigus erit, si messis, in umbrA, 70 

Vina novum fundam calathis Ariusia nectar : 

Cantabunt mibi Damoetas et Lyctius ^gon ; 

Saltantes Satyros imitabitur Alpbesiboeus. 

Haec tibi semper erunt, et quum sollemnia vota 

Reddemus nympbis, et quum lustrabimus agros. 75 

Dum juga montis aper, fluvios dum piscis amabit, 

Dumque thymo pascentur apes, dum rore cicadae ; . 

Semper honos nomenque tuum laudesque manebunt. 

Ut Baccho Cererique, tibi sic vota quotannis 

Agricolae facient : damnabis tu quoque votis. 80 


Quae tibi, quae tali reddam pro carmine dona ! 
Nam neque me tantum venientis sibilus austri. 
Nee percussa juvant fluctu tam littora, nee quae 
Saxosas inter deeurrunt flumina valles. 


HUc te nos fragili donabimuB ante cicut4 : 85 

BircoLicoir ecl, v. 17* 

Haec nos, Formosum Corydon ardebat Alexin : 
Hsc eadem docuit, Cujum pecus 1 an Moliboei 1 


At tu same pedum, quod, mo quum sa^po rogaret, 
Kon tulit Antigenes (et orat tum dignus amari), 
Formosum paribus nodis atquo asre, Mcnalca. 90 





Prima Syracusio dignata est ludere versu 
Nostra, neque erubuit silvas habitare, Thalia. 
Quura canerem reges et proelia, Cynthius aurem 
Vellit, et admoiiuit : Pastorem, Tityre, pingues 
Pascere oportet oves, deductum dicere carmen. 5 

Nunc ego (namque super tibi erunt, qui dicere laudes, 
Vare, tuas cupiant, et tristia condere bella) 
Agrestem tenui meditabor arundine musam. 
Non injussa cano. Si quis tamen hsec quoque, si quis, 
Captus amore, leget ; te nostrae, Vare, myricsB, 10 

Te nemus omne canet : nee Phcsbo gratior ulla est 
Quam sibi quse Vari prsescripsit pagina nomen. 

Pergite, Pierides. Chromis et Mnasylus in antro 
Silenum pueri somno videre jacentem, 
Inflatum hestemo venas, ut semper, laccho. 15 

Serta procul, tantum capiti delapsa, jacebant; 
Et gravis attrita pendebat cantharus ansi. 
Aggressi (nam saepe senex spe carminis ambo 
Luserat) injiciunt ipsis ex vincula sertis. 
Addit se sociam, timidisque supervenit -^gle ; 20 

-^gle, Naiadum pulcherrima; jamque videnti 
Sanguineis frontem moris et tempera pingit. 
Ille dolum ridens, Quo vincula nectitis ? inquit : 
Solvite me, pueri ; satis est potuisse videri. 
Carmina, quae vultis, cognoscite ; carmina vobis, 25 

Huic aliud mercedis erit. Simul incipit ipse. 
Turn vero in numerum Faunosque ferasque videres 
Ludere, turn rigidas motare cacumina quercus ; 
Nee tantum Phoebo gaudet Pamasia rupes, 
Nee tantum Rhodope miratur et Ismarus Orphea. 30 

Namque canebat, uti magnum per inane coacta 


Semina terrammque animeeque marisque fuissent, 

Et liquidi simul ignis ; ut his exordia primis 

Omnia, et ipse tener mundi concrcverit orbis ; 

Turn durare solum, et discludero Neroa ponto 35 

Cceperity et rerum pauUatim sumere formas ; 

Jamque novum terrse stupeant lucescere solcm, 

Altius atque cadant submotis nubibus imbres ; 

Incipiant silvas quum primum surgere, quumque 

Rara per ignaros errent animalia monies. 40 

Hinc lapides Pyrrbse jactos, Satumia regna, 

CaucasiaBque refert volucres, furtumque Fromethei, 

His adjungity Hylan nautae quo fonte relictum 

ClamasBenty ut littus, Hyla ! Hyla ! omne sonaret ; 

Et fortunatam, si nunquam armenta fuissent, 45 

Pasiphaen nivei solatur amore juvencL 

Ah virgo in&lix ! quaa te dementia cepit ? 

Pnstides impl^runt falsis mugitibus agros : 

At non tam turpes pecudum tamen uUa secuta est 

ConcubituSy quamvis cello timuisset aratrum, 50 

Et saepe in levi qusesisset comua fronte. 

Ah virgo infelix ! tu nunc in montibus crras : 

lUe, latus niveum molli fultus hyacintbo, 

Ilice sub nigra pallentes ruminat herbas ; 

Aut aliquam in magno sequitur grego. Claudite, Nympbae, 

Dictaeae Nympbae, nemorum jam claudite saltus, 66 

Si qua forte ferant oculis seso obvia nostris 

Errabunda bovis vestigia ; forsitan ilium, 

Aut berba captum viridi, aut armenta secutum, 

Perducant aliquae stabula ad Gortynia vaccae. 60 

Tum canit Hesperidum miratam mala puellam. 

Tum Pbaetbontiadas musco circumdat am eras 

Corticis, atque solo proceras erigit alnos. 

Tum canit, errantem Permessi ad flumina Galium 

Aonas in montes ut duxerit una sororum ; 65 

Utque viro Pbcsbi cborus assurrexerit omnis : 


Ut Linus heec illi, divino carmine pastor, 

Floribus atque apio crines omatus amaro, 

Dixeiit : Hos tibi dant calamos, en ! accipe, Mui^ 

Ascraeo quos ante seni ; quibus ille solebat 70 

Cantando rigidas deducere montibus omos : 

His tibi Grynei nemoris dicatur origo ; 

Ne quis sit lucus, quo se plus jactet Apollo. 

Quid loquar, ut Scyllam Nisi, aut quam fama secuta est, 

Candida succinctam latrantibus inguina monstris, 75 

Dulichias vexasse rates, et gurgite in alto 

Ab ! timidos nautas canibus lacerasse marinis ; 

Aut, ut mutates Terei narraverit artus : 

Q,uas illi Philomela dapes, quae dona pararit ; 

Quo cursu deserta petiverit, et quibus ante 80 

Infelix sua tecta supervolitaverit alis ] 

Omnia quae, Pboebo quondam meditante, beatuB 

Audiit Eurotas, jussitque ediscere lauros, 

Ille canit ; pulsae referunt ad sidera valles : 

Cogere donee oves stabulis, numerumque referre 85 

Jussit, et invito processit. Vesper, Olympo. 





Forte sub argut& consederat ilice Daphnis, 

Compulerantque greges Corydon et Thyrsis in unum, 

Thyrsis oves, Corydon distentas lacte capellas ; 

Ambo florentes eetatibus, Arcades ambo, 

Et cantare pares, et respondere parati. 5 

Hue mibi, dnm teneras defendo a frigore myrtos, 

Vir gregis ipse caper deerraverat ; atque ego Daphnin 

Adspicio : ille, ubi me contra videt, Ocius, inquit. 

Hue ades, O Melibcee ! caper tibi salvus, et haedi : 

£t, si quid cessare potcs, requiesce sub umbri. 10 

Hue ipsi potum venient per prata juvenci ; 

Hie virides tenera praetexit ar undine ripas 

Mincius, eque sacr4 resonant examina quercu. 

Quid facerem ] neque ego Alcippen, neque Phyllida, ha- 

Depulsos a lacte domi quae clauderet agnos ; 15 

Et certamen erat, Corydon cum Thyrside, magnum : 
Posthabui tamen illorum mea seria ludo. 
Altemis igitur contendere versibus ambo 
Coepere : altemos Musae meminisse volebant. 
Hos Corydon, illos referebat in ordine Thyrsis. 20 


Nymphae, noster amor, Libethrides, aut mihi carmen, 
Quale meo Codro, concedite ; proxima Phoebi 
Versibus ille facit; aut, si non possumus omnes. 
Hie arguta sacra pendebit fistula pinu. 


Pastores, hedera creseentem ornate poetam, 25 


Arcades, invidia rumpantur ut ilia Codro : 
Aut, si ultra placitum laudarit, baccare frontem 
Cingite, ne vati noceat mala lingua futuro. 


Saetosi caput hoc apri tibi, Delia, parvus 
Et ramosa Micon vivacis comua cervi. 30 

Si proprium hoc fuerit, levi de marmore tota 
Puniceo stabis suras evincta cothumo. 


Sinum lactis, et hsec te liba, Priape, quotannis 
Exspectare sat est : custos es pauperis horti. 
Nunc te marmoreum pro tempore fecimus ; at tu, 35 
Si fetura gregem suppleverit, aureus esto. 


Nerine Galatea, thymo mihi dulcior Hyblae, 

Candidior cycnis, hedera formosior alba, 

Quum primum pasti repetent praesepia tauri, 

Si qua tui Corydonis habet te cura, venito. 40 


Immo ego Sardoniis videar tibi amarior herbis, 
Horridior rusco, projectSl vilior dlgk; 
Si mihi non haec lux toto jam longior anno est. 
Ite domum, pasti, si quis pudor, ite, juvenci. 


Muscosi fontes, et somno moUior herba, 45 

Et quae vos rara viridis tegit arbutus umbrd, 
Solstitium pecori defendite : jam venit aestas 
Torrida ; jam laeto turgent in palmite gemmae. 


Hie focus, et taedae pingues, hie plurimus ignis 
Semper, et assidua postes fuligine nigri : 50 

Hie tantum Boreas curamus fidgora, quantum 
Aut numerum lupus, aut torrentia fiumina ripas. 



Stant et juniperi, et castaneae birsutsB , 
Strata jaceni: passim sua qudque sub arbore poma; 
Omnia nunc rident : at, si formosus Alexis 55 

Montibus bis abeat, vidcas et flumina sicca. 


Aret agar ; vitio moriens sitit aeris horba ; 
Liber pampineas invidit collibus umbras : 
Phyllidis adventu nostrae nemus omne virebit, 
. Jupiter et laeto descendet plurimus imbri. 60 


Populus Alcidas gratissima, vitis laccbo, 
Formosae myrtus Veneri, sua laurea Phoebo : 
Phyllis amat corulos : illas dum Phyllis amabit. 
Nee myrtus vincet corulos, nee laurea Phcebi. 


Fraxinus in silvis pulcherrima, pinus in hortis, 65 

Populus in fluviis, abies in montibus altis 
Saepius at si me, Lycida formose, revisas, 
Fraxinus in silvis cedat tibi, pinus in hortis, 


Haec memini, et victum fi-ustra contendere Thyrsin, 

Ex illo, Cory don, Cory don est, tempore, nobis. 70 





Pastorum musam Damonis et Alphesiboei, 

Immemor herbarum quos est mirata juvenca 

Certantes, quorum stupefactae carmine lynces, 

Et mutata suos requierunt flumina cursus ; 

Damonis musam dicemus et Alpbesibcei. 5 

Tu mibi seu magni superas jam saxa Timavi, 
Sive oram Illyrici legis aequoris ; en ! erit unquam 
Ille dies, mibi cum liceat tua dicere facta? 
En ! erit, ut liceat totum mibi ferre per orbem 
Sola Sopbocleo tua carmina digna cotbumo 1 10 

A te principium ; tibi desinet : accipe jussis 
Carmina ccepta tuis, atque banc sine tempora circum 
Inter victrices bederam tibi serpere lauros. 

Fiigida vix coelo noctis decesserat umbra. 
Cum ros in tenersL pecori gratissimus berba ; 15 

Incumbens tereti Damon sic ccspit olivae : 


Nascere, praeque diem veniens age, Lucifer almum ; 
Conjugis indigno Nisae deceptus amore 
Dum queror, et divos, quamquam nil testibus illis 
Profeci, extrema, moriens, tamen alloquor bora. 20 

Incipe Maenalios mecum, mea tibia, versus. 
Maenalus argutumque nemus pinosque loquentes 
Semper babet ; semper ps^torum ille audit amores, 
Panaque, qui primus calamos non passus inertes. 
Incipe Maenalios mecum, mea tibia, versus. 25 

Mopso Nisa datur : quid non speremus amantes 1 
Jungentur jam grypbes equis; aevoque sequenti 
Cum canibus timidi venient ad pocula damae. 


Mopse, novas incide faces : tibi ducitur uxor. 

Sparge, marite, nuces : tibi deserit Hesperus CEtam. 30 

Incipe Maenalios mecum, mea tibia, versus. 

digno conjuncta viro ! dum despicis omnes, 

Dumque tibi est odio mea fistula, dumque capellae, 

Hirsutumque supercilium, promissaque barba ; 

Nee curare detan credis mortalia quemquam. 35 

Incipe Maenalios mecum, mea tibia, versus. 

Sepibus in nostris parvam tc roscida mala. 

Dux ego vester eram, vidi cum matre legentem : 

Alter ab undecimo tum me jam acceperat annus ; 

Jam fragiles poteram ab terra contingere ramos. 40 

Ut vidi, ut perii ! ut me mains abstulit error ! 

Incipe Maenalios mecum, mea tibia, versus. 

Nunc Bcio, quid sit Amor : duris in cotibus ilium 

Aut Tmaros, aut Rhodope, aut extremi Garamantes, 

Nee generis nostri puerum, nee sanguinis edunt. 45 

Incipe Maenalios mecum, mea tibia, versus. 

Saevus Amor docuit natorum sanguine matrem 

Commaculare manus : crudelis tu quoque, mater : 

Crudelis mater magis, an puer improbus ille ] 

Improbus ille puer : crudelis tu quoque, mater. 60 

Incipe Maenalios mecum, mea tibia, versus. 

Nunc et oves ultro fugiat lupus ; aurea durae 

Mala ferant quercus ; narcisso floreat alnus ; 

Pinguia corticibus sudent electra myricae ; 

Certent et cycnis ululae ; sit Tityrus Orpheus, 66 

Orpheus in silvis, inter delphinas Arion. 

Incipe Maenalios mecum, mea tibia, versus. 

Omnia vel medium fiant mare. Vivite, silvae I 

Praeceps aerii specula de mentis in undas 

Deferar ; extremum hoc munus morientis habeto. 60 

Desine Maenalios, jam desine, tibia, versus. 

Haec Damon : vos, quae respondent AlphesibceuB, 
Dicite, Pierides ; non omnia possumus omnes. 


26 BucoLicoN ECL. vni. 


Effer aquam, et molli cinge baec altaria vitt^, 

Yerbenasque adole pingues, et mascula tbura: 65 

Oonjugis ut magicis sanos avertere sacris 

Experiar sensus : nihil hie, nisi carmina desunt. 

Ducite ab urbe domum, mea carmina, ducite Dapbnin. 

Carmina vel ccbIo possunt deducere Lunam : 

Carminibus Circe socios mutavit Ulixi : 70 

Frigidus in pratis cantando rumpitur anguis. 

Ducite ab urbe domum, mea carmina, ducite Daphnin. 

Tema tibi haec primum, triplici diversa colore, 

Licia circumdo, terque banc altaria circum 

Effigiem duco : numero deus impare gaudet. 75 

Ducite ab urbe domum, mea carmina, ducite Daphnin. 

Necte tribus nodis temos, Amarylli, colores ; 

Necte, Amarylli, modo ; et, Veneris, die, vincula necto. 

Ducite ab urbe domum, mea carmina, ducite Daphnin. 

Limus ut hie durescit, et haec ut cera liquescit 80 

Uno eodemque igni ; sic nostro Daphnis amore. 

Sparge molam, et fragiles incende bitumine lauros. 

Daphnis me malus urit : ego banc in Daphnide laurum. 

Ducite ab urbe domum, mea carmina, ducite Daphnin. 

Talis amor Daphnin, qualis, quum, fessa juvencum 85 

Per nemora atque altos quaerendo, bucula, lucos. 

Propter aquae rivum viridi procumbit in uM, 

Perdita, nee serae meminit decedere noeti ; 

Talis amor teneat, nee sit mihi eura mederi. 

Ducite ab urbe domum, mea carmina, ducite Daphnin. 90 

Has olim exuvias mihi perfidus ille reliquit, 

Pignora cara sui, quae nunc ego limine in ipso, 

Terra, tibi mando : debent base pignora Daphnin. 

Ducite ab urbe domum, mea carmina, ducite Daphnin. 

Has herbas atque haee Ponto mihi lecta venena 95 

Ipse dedit Moeris : nascuntur plurima Ponto. 

His ego saepe lupum fieri, et se condere silvis 


Moerin, ssepe animas imis excire sepulcris, 
Atque satas alio vidi traducere messes. 
Dacite ab urbe domum, mea carmina, ducite Daphnin. 
Far cineres, Amarylli, foras ; rivoque fluenti 101 

Transque caput jace, nee respexeris : his ego Daphnin 
Aggrediar ; nihil ille deos, nil carmina, curat. 
Dacite ab urbe domum, mea carmina, ducite Daphnin. 
Adspice ! corripuit tremulis altaria ilammis 105 

Sponte susl, dum ferre moror, cinis ipse. Bonum sit ! 
Nescio quid certe est ; et Hylax in limine latrat. 
Credimus? an, qui amant, ipsi sibi somnia fingunti 
Parcite, ab urbe venit, jam parcite, carmina, Daphnis. 





Quo te Moeri, pedes 1 an, quo via ducit, in urbem 1 


O Lycida, vivi pervenimus, advena nostri. 
Quod nunquam veriti sumus, ut possessor agelli 
Diceret, Haec mea sunt ; veteres, migrate, colonL 
Nunc victi, tristes, quoniam Fors omnia versat, 6 

Hos illi, quod nee vertat bene, mittimus haedos. 


Certe equidem audieram, qua se subducere colles 
Incipiunt, mollique jugum demittere clivo, 
Usque ad aquam et veteres, jam fracta cacumina, fagos, 
Omnia carminibus vestrum serv&sse Menalcan. 10 


Audieras 1 et fama fuit ; sed carmina tantum 

Nostra valent, Lycida, tela inter Martia, quantum 

Cbaonias dicunt, aquila veniente, columbas. 

Quod, nisi me qu&cumque novas incidere lites 

Ante sinistra cava monuisset ab ilice comix, 15 

Nee tuus hie Moeris, nee viveret ipse Menalcas. 


Heu ! cadit in quemquam tantum scelus ? heu, tua nobis 

Paene simul tecum solatia rapta, Menalca? 

Quis caneret Nymphas ? quis humum florentibus herbis 

Spargeret? aut viridi fontes induceret mnbra? 20 

Vel quae sublegi tacitus tibi carmina nuper, 

Quum te ad delicias ferres, Amaryllida, nostras ? 

" Tityre, dum redeo, brevis est via, pasce capellas. 


St potam pastas age, Tityre ; et, inter agendum, 
Occizrsare capro, comu ferit ille, caveto.'' 25 


Immo haec, quae Yaro necdum perfecta canebat ? 
"Vara, tuum nomen, superet modo Mantua nobis, 
Mantua vsb miserae nimium vicina Cremonae ! 
Cantantes sublime ferent ad sidera cycni." 


Sic tua Cymeas fugiant examina taxos ; 30 

Sic cytiso pastas distendant ubera vaccae : 

Incipe, 81 quid babes. £t me fecere poetam 

Pierides ; sunt et mibi carmina : me quoque dicunt 

Vatem pastores.: sed non ego credulus illis ; 

Nam neque adbuc Vario videor, nee dicere Cinn^ 35 

Digna, sed argutos inter strepere anser olores. 


Id quidem ago, et tacitus, Lycida, mecum ipse voluto, 
Si valeam meminisse ; neque est ignobile carmen. 
" Hue ades, O Galatea ! • quis est nam ludus in undis ] 
Hie ver purpureum : varies hie flumina eireum 40 

Fundit humus Acres : hie eandida populus antro 
Imminet, et lentae texunt umbracula vites. 
Hue ades : insani feriant sine littora fluetus." 


Quid, quae te pura solum sub noete canentem 
Audieram ] numeros memini, si verba tenerem. 45 


" Daphni, quid antiques signorum suspieis ertus ? 
Ecee I Dionaei proeessit Caesaris astrum ; 
Astrum, quo segetes gauderent frugibus, et quo 
Dueeret apricis in eellibus uva eelerem. 
Insere, Daphni, pires ; earpent tua pema nepetes." — 50 
Omnia fert aetas, animum quoque. Sa3pe ego longos 
Cantando puerum memini me eondere soles : 

C 2 


Nunc oblita milii tot carmina. Vox quoque Mcerin 

Jam fagit ipsa : lupi Mcerin Videre priores. 

Sed tamen ista satis referet tibi saepe Menalcas. 55 


Caussando nostros in longum ducis amores : 

Et nunc omne tibi stratum silet eequor ; et omnes, 

Adspice, ventosi ceciderunt murmuris aurse. 

Hinc adeo media est nobis via ; namque sepulcrum 

Incipit apparere Bianoris : hie, ubi densas 60 

AgricolaB stringunt fix)ndes, bic, Moeri, canamus ; 

Hie haedos depone ; tamen veniemus in urbem : 

Aut, si, nox pluviam ne colligat ante, veremur, 

Cantantes licet usque (minus via laedit) eamus. 

Cantantes ut eamus, ego boc te fasce levabo. 65 


Desine plura, puer ; et, quod nunc instat, agamus : 
Carmina turn melius, quum vetierit ipse, canemus. 




ExTREMUM Hunc, Arethusa, mihi concede laborem : 
Pauca meo Gallo, sed quae legat ipsa Lycoris. 
Carmina sunt dicenda : neget quis carmina Gallo 1 
Sic tibi, quum fluctus subterlabere Sicanos, 
Doris amara suam non intermisceat undam. 6 

Incipe : BoUicitos Gralli dicamus amores, 
Dam tenera attondent simae virgulta capellae. 
Non canimus surdis : respondent omnia silvae. 

Quae nemora, aut qui vos saltus habuere, puells 
Nai'des, indigno quum Gallus amore peribat ] 10 

Nam neque Pamassi vobis juga, nam neque Pindi 
Ulla moram fecere, neque Aonie Aganippe. 
Ilium etiam lauri, etiam flevere myricge : 
Pinifer ilium etiam, sola sub rupe jacentem 
Maenalus, et gelidi fleverunt saxa Lycaei. 15 

Stant et oves circum ; nostri nee poenitet illas ; 
Nee te poeniteat pecoris, divine poeta : 
Et formosus oves ad flumina pavit Adonis. 
Venit et upilio ; tardi venere bubulci ; 
Uvidus hibema venit de glande Menalcas. 20 

Omnes, Unde amor iste, rogant, tibi ] Venit Apollo : 
Galle, quid insanis 1 inquit : tua cura Lycoris 
Perque nives, alium, perque horrida castra, secuta est. 
Venit et agresti capitis Silvanus honore, 
Florentes ferulas et grandia lilia quassans. 25 

Pan deus Arcadiae venit ; quem vidimus ipsi 
Sanguineis ebuli baccis minioque rubentem : 
Ecquis erit modus ] inquit : Amor non talia curat : 
Nee lacrimis crudelis Amor, nee gramina rivis, 
Nee eytiso saturantur apes, nee fronde capellae. 30 


Tristis at ille, Tamen cantabitis. Arcades, inquit, 

Montibus haec vestris, soli cantare periti 

Arcades. O mihi turn quam molliter ossa quiescant, 

Vestra meos olim si fistula dicat amores ! 

Atque utinam ex vobis unus, vestrique fuissem 35 

Aut custos gregis, aut maturss vinitor uvse ! 

Certe, sive naihi Phyllis, sive esset Amyntas, ■ 

Seu quicumque furor (quid turn, si fuscus Amyntasl 

Et nigrae violae sunt, et vaccinia nigra) 

Mecum inter salices lenta sub vite jaceret ; 40 

Serta mihi Phyllis legeret, cantaret Amyntas. 

Hie gelidi fontes ; hie moUia prata, Lycori ; 

Hie nemus ; hie ipso tecum consumerer aevo. 

Nunc insanus amor duri me Martis in armis, 

Tela inter media, atque adversos detinet hostes. 45 

Tu proeul a patria (nee sit mihi credere tantum) 

Alpinas, ah dura ! nives, et firigora Rheni, 

Me sine sola vides. Ah te ne frigora laedant ! 

Ah tibi ne teneras glacies secet aspera plantas ! 

Ibo, et, Chaleidieo quae sunt mdhi condita versu 50 

Carmina, pastoris Siculi modulabor avena. 

Ceitum est in silvis, inter spelaea ferarum, 

Malle pati, tenerisque meos ineidere amores 

Arboribus : crescent illae ; crescetis, amores. 

Interea mixtis lustrabo Msenala Nymphis, 55 

Aut acres venabor apros : non me ulla vetabunt 

Frigora Parthenios canibus circumdare saltus. 

Jam mihi per rupes videor lucoaque sonantes 

Ire ; libet Partho torquere Cydonia comu 

Spicula : tamquam haec sit nostri medicina furorisy 60 

Aut deus ille malis hominum mitescere discat. 

Jam neque Hamadryades rursus, nee carmina nobis 

Ipsa placent : ipsae, rursum concedite, silvan. 

Non ilium nostri possunt niutare labores. 

Nee, si frigoribus mediis Hebruxnque bibamus^ 65 


SUiODiasque nives hiemis subeamus aquosae ; 

JTeCy siy quum moiiens alt4 liber aret in ulmo, 

ilthiopuin versemufl oyes sub sidere Cancri. 

Omnia yincit Amor ; et nos cedamus Amori. 

Haec sat erit, divae, vestrum cecinisse poetam, 70 

Dum sedet, et gracili fiscellam texit hibisco, 
Pierides : vos haec facietis maxima Gallo ; 
Gallo, cujus amor tantum mibi crescit in boras, 
Qaantum vere novo viridis se subjicit alnus. 
Surgamus: solet esse grayis cantantibus umbra; 75 

Juniperi grayis umbra : nocent et frugibus umbrao. 
Ite domum, saturae, yenit Hesperus, ite, capelte* 


G E R G I C N. 


Quid faciat Isetas segetes, quo sidere terrain 

Vertere, Maecenas, ulmisque adjungere vites 

Conveniat ; quae cura bourn, qui cultus habendo 

Sit pecori ; apibus quanta experientia parcis : 

Hinc canere incipiam. Yos, O clarissima mundi 6 

Lumina ! labentem coelo quae ducitis annum : 

Liber, et alma Ceres, vestro si munere tellus 

Chaoniam pingui glandem mutavit arista, 

Poculaque inventis Achelo'ia miscuit uvis ; 

Et vos, agrestum praesentia numina, Fauni, 10 

Ferte simul Faunique pedem Dryadesque puellae : 

Munera vestra cano. Tuque O, cui prima frementem 

Fudit equum magno tellus percussa tridenti, 

Neptune ! et cultor nemorum, cui pinguia Ceae 

Ter centum nivei tondent dumeta juvenci ; 15 

Ipse, nemus linquens patrium saltusque Lycaei, 

Pan, ovium custos, tua si tibi Maenala curae, 

Adsis, O Tegeaee ! favens ; oleaeque, Minerva, 

Inventrix ; uncique, puer, monstrator aratri ; 

Et teneram ab radice ferens, Silvane, cupressum : 20 

Dique deaeque omnes, studium quibus arva tueri, 

Quique novas alitis noh ullo semine fruges, 

Quique satis largum ccelo demittitis imbrem ; 

Tuque adeo, quem mox quae sint habitura deorum 

Concilia, incertum est ; urbesne invisere, Caesar, 25 

Terrarumque velis curam, et te maximus orbis 

Auctorem frugum tempestatumque potentem 

6E0RGIC0N LIB. I. 85 

Accipiat, cingens matem^ tempora myrto ; 

An deus immensi venias maris, ac tua nautad 

Numina sola colant, tibi serviat ultima Thule, 30 

Teque sibi generum Tethys emat omnibus iindis ; 

Anne novum tardis sidus te mensibus add as, 

Qua locus Erigonen inter Chelasque sequentes 

Panditur : ipse tibi jam brachia contrahit ardens 

Scorpius, et cceli justa plus parte relinquit : 35 

Quidquid eris (nam te nee sperent Tartara regem. 

Nee tibi regnandi veniat tam dira cupido, 

Quamvis Elysios miretur Grsecia campos, 

Nee repetita sequi curet Proserpina matrem), 

Da facilem cursum, atque audacibus adnue cceptis ; 40 

Ignarosque viae mecum miseratus agrestes, 

Ingredere, et votis jam nunc assuesce vocari. 

Vere novo, gelidus canis quum montibus bumor 
Liquitur, et Zephyro putris se gleba resolvit, 
Depresso incipiat jam turn mihi taurus aratro 4»5 

Ingemere, et sulco attritus splendescere vomer. 
Ilia seges demum votis respondet avari 
Agricolae, bis quae solem, bis frigora sensit; 
lUius immensae ruperunt horrea messes. 
At prius, ignotum ferro quara scindimus aequor, 50 

Ventos et varium coeli praediscere morem 
Cura sit, ac patrios cultusque habitusque locorum ; 
Et quid quaeque ferat regio, et quid quaeque recuset. 
Hie segetes, illic veniunt felicius uvae ; 
Arborei foetus alibi, atque injussa virescunt 55 

Gramina. Nonne vides, croceos ut Traolus odores, 
India mittit ebur, molles sua thura Sabaei ; 
At Chalybes nudi ferrum, virosaque Pontus 
Castorea, Eliadum palmas Epirus equarum ? 
Continue has leges, aetemaque foedera, certis 60 

Imposuit natura locis, quo tempore primum 
Deucalion vacuum lapides jactavit in orbem, 


Unde homines nati, durum genus. Ergo age, terrae 

Pingue solum primis extemplo a mensibus anni 

Fortes invertant tauri, glebasque jacentes 65 

Pulverulenta coquat maturis solibus aestas : 

At, si non fuerit tellus foecunda, sub ipsum 

Arcturum tenui sat eritsuspendere sulco : 

Illic, officiant laetis ne fingibus berbae ; 

Hie, sterilem exiguus ne deserat humor arenam. 70 

Altemis idem tonsas cessare novales, 

Et segnem patiere situ durescere campum. 

Aut ibi flay a seres, mutato sidere, farra, 

Unde prius Isetum siliqua quassante legomen, 

Aut tenues foetus viciae, tristisque lupini 75 

Sustuleris fragiles calamos silvamque sonantem. 

Urit enim lini campum se^es, urit avenae ; 

Urunt Letbaeo perfusa papavera sonmo* 

Sed tamen altemis facilis labor : arida tantum 

Ne saturare fimo pingui pudeat sola, neve 80 

Effoetos cinerem immundum jactare per agroa. 

Sic quoque mutatis requiescunt foetibus arra ; 

Nee nulla interea est inaratae gratia terras. 

Saepe etiam steriles incendere profiiit agr6s> 

Atque levem stipulam crepitantibus urere flammis : 85 

Sive inde occultas viyes et pabula terrae 

Pinguia concipiunt; sive illis omne per ignem 

Excoquitur vitium, atque exsudat inntilis humor ; 

Seu plures calor ille vias et caeca relaxat 

Spiramenta, novas veniat qua succus in herbas ; 90 

Seu durat magis, et venas adstringit hiantes, 

Ne tenues pluviae, rapidive potentia solis 

Acrior, aut Boreae penetrabile frigus adurat. 

Multum adeo, rastris glebas qui frangit inertes, 

Vimineasque trahit crates, juvat arva ; neque illoni 95 

Flava Ceres alto nequidquam spectat Oljmpo : 

Et qui, proscisso quae suscitat sequore terga, 


Bmsos in obliquum yerso perrumpit aratro, 
Exercetque frequens tellurem, atque imperat arris. 

Humida solstida atque hiemes orate serenas, 100 

Agricolae ; hibemo Isetissima pulvere farra, 
Lsetus ager : nullo tantum se Mysia cultu 
Jactat, et ipsa suas mirantur Gargara messes. 
Quid dicam, jacto qui semine comminus arva 
losequitur, cumulosque ruit male pinguis arense, 105 

Deinde satis fluyium inducit rirosque sequentes ] 
Et, quum exustus ager morientibus sestuat herbis, 
Ecce ! supercilio divosi tramitis undam 
Elicit : ilia cadens raucum per levia murmur 
Saxa ciet, scatebrisque arentia temperat arva. 110 

Quid, qui, ne grayidis procumbat culmus aristis, 
Luxuriem segetum tenera depascit in herbd, 
Quum primum sulcos sequant sata 1 quique paludis 
Collectum humorem bibul^ deducit aren& 1 
Prsesertim, incertis si mensibus amnis abundans 115 

Exit, et obducto late tenet omnia limo ; 
Unde cavae tepido sudant humore lacunae. 
I'Nec tamen, haec quum sint hominumque boumque labores 
Versando terram expert! , nihil improbiip anser, 
Strymoniaeque grues, et amaris intuba fibris, 120 

Officiunt, aut umbra nocet. Pater ipse colendi 
Haud facilem esse viam voluit ; primusque per artem 
Movit agros, curis acuens mortalia corda, 
Nee torpere gravi passus sua regna vetemo. 

Ante Jovem nulli subigebant arva coloni : 125 

Ne signare quidem aut partiri limite campum 
Fas erat : in medium quaerebant ; ipsaque tellus 
Omnia liberius, nullo poscente, ferebat. 
Hie malum virus serpentibus addidit atris, 
Praedarique lupos jussit, pontumque moveri ; 130 

Mellaque decussit foliis, ignemque removit, 
Et passim rivis currentia vina repressit : 


Ut varias usus meditando extunderet artes 
Paullatim, et sulcis frumenti qusereret herbam ; 
Ut silicis venis abstrusum excuderet ignem. 135 

Tunc alnos primum fluvii sensere cavatas ; 
Navita turn stellis numeros et nomina fecit, 
Plei'adas, Hyadas, claramque Lycaonis Arcton. 
Turn laqueis captare feras, et fallere visco, 
Inventim, et magnos canibus circumdare saltus : 140 
Atq^ alius latum funda jam verberat amnem, 
Alta petens ; pelagoque alius trabit humida Una* 
Turn ferri rigor, atqup argutae lamina serrae 
(Nam primi cuneis scindebant fissile lignum), 
Tum variae vener(^artes : labor omnia vicit 145 

Improbus, et duris urguens in rebus egestas. 
Prima Ceres ferro mortales vertere terram 
Instituit, quum jam glandes atque arbuta sacrsB 
Deficerent silvag* et victum Dodona negaret^ 
Mox et frumentis labor additus, ut mala culmos 150 

Esset rubigo, segnisque borreret in arvis 
Carduus : intereunt segetes; subit aspera silya, 
Lappaeque tribulique ; interque nitentia culta 
Infelix loliumjBt steriles dominantur avenae. 
Quod, nis^ et assiduis terram insefctabere rastris, 155 

Et sonitu terrebis aves, et ruris opaci 
Falce premes umbras, votisque vocaveris imbrem ; 
V^* Heu ! magnurii alterius frustra spectabis acervum, 
Concussaque famem in silvis solabere quercu, \ 

Dicendum et, quae sint duris agrestibus arma, 160 

Qui 8 sine nee potuere seri, nee surgere, messes : 
Vomis et inflexi primum grave robur aratri, 
Tardaque Eleusinae matris volventia plaustra, 
Tribulaque, traheaeque, et iniquo pondere rastri ; 
Virgea praeterea Celei vilisque supellex, 165 

Arbuteae crates, et mystica vannus laccbi : 
Omnia quae multo ante memor provisa repones, 


Si te digna manet divini gloria ruris. 

Condnuo in silvis magnft vi flexa domatur 

In burim et curvi formam acdpit ulmus aratri : 170 

Hnic a stirpe pedes temo protentus in octo, 

Binae aures, duplici aptantur dentalia dorso. 

Caeditur et tilia ante jugo levis, altaque fagus 

Stivae, quae cumis a tergo torqueat imos ; 

Et suspensa focis explorat robora fumus. 175 

Possum multa tibi vetenim praecepta referre, 
Ni refiigisy tenuesque piget cognoscere curas. 
Area cum primis ingenti aequanda cylindro, 
£t vertenda manu, et creti solidanda tenaci, 
Ne subeant herbae, neu pulvere victa fatiscat. 180 

Tum variae illudant pestes : saepe exiguus mus 
Sub terris posuitque domes atque horrea fecit ; 
Aut oculis capti fodere cubilia talpae ; 
Inventusque cavis bufo, et quae plurima terrae 
Monstra ferunt ; populatque ingentem farris acervum 185 
Curculio, atque inopi metuens formica senectae. 
Contemplator item, quum se nux plurima silvis 
Induet in florem, et ramos curvabit olentes : 
Si superant foetus, pariter frumenta sequentur, 
Magnaque cum magno veniet tritura calore : 190 

At, si luxuria foliorum exuberet umbra, 
Nequidquam pingues palea teret area culmos. 
Semina vidi equidem multos medicare serentes, 
Et nitro prius et nigra perfundere amurca ; 
Grandior ut foetus siliquis fallacibus esset. 195 

Et, quamvis, igni exiguo, properata maderent, 
Vidi lecta diu, et multo spectata labore, 
Degenerare tamen, ni vis humana quotannis 
Maxima quaeque manu legeret : sic omnia fatis 
In pejus ruere, ac retro sublapsa referri ; 200 

Non aliter, quam qui adverse vix flumine lembum 
Remigiis subigit, si brachia forte remisit, 
Atque ilium in praeceps prono rapit alveus amni. 

40 6EORGX0ON UB. I. 

Pneterea, tarn sunt Arcturi sidera nobis, 
Haedorumque dies servandi^ et lucidus Anguis, 205 

Quam quibus in patriam yentosa per aequora yectis 
Pontus, et ostriferi fauces tentantur AbydL 
Libra die somnique pares ubi fecorit horas, 
Et medium luci atque umbris jam dividit arbem, 
Bxercete, viri, tauros ; serite hordea campis 210 

LTsque sub extremum brumae intractabilis imbrem. 
Nee non et lini segetem, et Cereale papaver 
Tempus humo tegere, et jamdudum incumbere aratris; 
Dum sicca tellure licet, dum nubila pendent. 
Yere fabis satio : tum te quoque, Medica, putres 215 
Accipiunt sulci, et milio yenit annua cura, 
Candidus auratis aperit quum comibus annum 
Taurus, et adyerso cedens Canis occidit astro. 
At, si triticeam in messem robustaque farra 
Exercebis humum, solisque instabis aristis ; 220 

Ante tibi Eose Atlantides abscondantur, 
Gnosiaque ardentis decedat Stella Coronas, 
Debit a quam sulcis committas semina, quamque 
Invitae properes anni spem credere terrae. 
Multi ante occasum Maiae ccepere ; sed illos 225 

Exspectata seges yanis elusit ayenis. 
Si vero viciamque seres yilemque pbaselum. 
Nee Pelusiacae curam adspemabere lentis ; 
Haud obscura cadens mittet tibi signa Bootes : 
Incipe, et ad medias sementem extende pruinas. 230 

Idcireo, certis dimensum partibus orbem 
Per duodena regit mundi sol aureus astra. 
Quinque tenent ccelum zonae : quarum una corusco 
Semper sole rubens, et torrida semper ab igni ; 
Quam circum extremae dextri laeyaque trahimtur, 235 
Caerulea glacie concretae atque imbribus atris ; 
Has inter mediamque duae mortalibus aegris 
Munere concessaD diy<im : et yia secta per ambas. 


ObliqauB qua se aignorum yerteret ordo. 

Mundua ut ad Scythiam Rhipacasque arduus arces 240 

CoDsurgit, premitur Libyse dcvexus in Austroa. 

Hie vertex nobia semper sublimis : at ilium, 

Sub pedibusy Styx atra yidet, Mancsque profundL 

Maximos hie flexu sinuoso clabitur Anguis 

Circum, perque duas, in morem fluminis, Arctos, 245 

Arctos Oceani metuentes sequore tingui. 

Illic, ut perhibent, aut intempesta silet nox, 
^ Semper et obtenti densentur nocto tenebne ; 

Aut redit a nobia Aurora, diemque rcducit ; 

NoBque ubi primus equis Oriens afflavit anhelis, 250 

Ulic sera rubena accondit lumina Vesper. 

Hinc tempestates dubio prsediscere coclo 
I Possumus ; bine messisque diem, tcmpusque serendi ; 

£t quando infidum remis impellero marmor 

Conveniat ; qiihndo armatas deducere classes 255 

Aut tempestivam silvis evcrtere pinum. 
Nee frustra signorum obitus speculamur et ortus, 
( Temporibusque parem diversis quatiior annum. 
I Frigidus agricolam si quando continet imbor, 

Malta, forent quae mox coelo properaiida scrcno, 260 
I Maturare datur : durum procudit arator 
• Vomeris obtusi dentem ; cavat arborc lintres ; 
I Aut pecori signum, aut numcros impressit acervis. 
/ Exacuunt alii vallos, furcasquc bicomes, 

Atque Amerina parant lentee rctinacula viti. 266 

Xunc facilis rubefi tcxatur fiscina virgu ; 

Nunc torrete igni fruges, nunc frangitc saxo. 

Quippc etiam festis quicdam exercere diebus 

Fas et jura sinunt ; livos deducere nulla 

Religio vetuit, segeti praetcndere sepem, 270 

Insidias avibus moliri, incendere vepres, 

Balanlumque gregem fluvio mersare salubri. 

Siepe oleo tardi costas agitator aselli 
' D2 




42 6E0RGIC0N LIB. I. 

Vilibus aut onerat pomis ; lapidemque, revertens, 
Incusum, aut atrse massam picis, urbe reportat. 275 

Ipsa dies alios alio dedit ordine Luna 
Felices operum : quintam fuge ; pallidus Orcus, 
Eumenidesque satae ; turn partu Terra nefando 
Cceumque lapetumque creat, saevumque Typhoea, 
Et conj urates ccelum rescindere fratres. 280 

Ter sunt conati imponere Pelio Ossam, 
Scilicet atque Ossae frondosum involvere Olympum ; 
Ter pater exstructos disjecit fulmine montes. 
Septima post decimam felix, et ponere vitem, 
£t prensos domitare boves, et licia telas 285 

Add ere ; nona fug89 melior, contraria furtis. 

Multa adeo gelidi melius se nocte dedere, 
Aut quum sole novo terras irrorat Eous. 
Nocte leves melius stipulse, nocte arida prata 
Tondentur ; noctes lentus non deficit liumt>r. 290 

Et quidam seros hibemi ad luminis ignes 
Pervigilat, ferroque faces inspicat acuto : 
Interea, longum cantu solata laborem, 
Arguto conjux percurrit pectine telas ; 
Aut dulcis musti Yulcano decoquit humorem, 295 

Et foliis undam trepidi despumat aheni. 

At rubicunda Ceres medio succiditur sestu, 
Et medio tostas aestu terit area fruges. 
Nudus ara, sere nudus : biems ignava colono. 
Frigoribus parte agricolee plerumque fruuntur, 300 

Mutuaque inter se laeti convivia curant. 
Invitat genialis hiems, curasque resolvit : 
Ceu pressae quum jam portum tetigere carinse, 
Puppibus et laeti nautae imposuere coronas. 
Sed tamen et quemas glandes tum stringere tempus, 305 
Et lauri baccas, oleamque, cruentaque myrta ; 
Tum gruibus pedicas, et retia ponere cervis, 
Auritosque sequi lepores ; tum figere damas, 


Stnppea torquentem Balearis yerbera fund®, 

Qmim nix alta jacet, glaciem quum flumina tnidnnt. 310 

<2,uid tempestates auctumni et sidera dicam 1 
Atqne, ubi jam breviorque dies et moUior aBBtas, 
0,1188 yigilanda yirifl I Tel» quum ruit imbrifenim ver, 
Spicea jam campis quum messis inhomiit, et quum 
Fromenta in yiridi stipuli lactentia turguent I 315 

Ssepe ego, quum flayis messorem induceret airis 
Agricola, et firagili jam stringeFet hordea cubno. 
Omnia ventorum concurrere pixslia vidi, 
Quae gravidam late segetem ab radicibus imis 
Sublime expulsam eruerent; ita turbine nigro 320 

Ferret biems culmumque levem stipulasque Tolantes. 
Soepe etiam immensum cobIo venit agmen aquarum, 
Et foedam glomerant tempestatem imbribus atria 
Collectae ex alto nubes ; ruit arduus aether, 
Et plavii ingenti sata lasta boumque labores 825 

Diluit ; implentur fossae, et cava flumina crescunt 
Cum sonitu ; fervetque fretis spirantibus aequor. 
Ipse Pater, media nimborum in nocte, corusca 
Fulmina molitur dextr& : quo maxima motu 
Terra tremit ; fugere ferae ; et mortalia corda 330 

Per gentes humilis stravit paver : ille flagranti 
Aut Atho, aut Rhodopen, aut alta Ceraunia telo 
Dejicit ; ingeminant austri et densissimus imber ; 
Nunc nemora ingenti vento, nunc littora plangunt. 

Hoc metuens, cceli menses et sidera serva ; 335 

Frigida Satumi sese quo Stella receptet ; 
Quos ignis coelo Cyllenius erret in orbes. 
In primis yenerare deos, atque annua magnae 
Sacra refer Cereri, laetis operatus in herbis, 
Extremae sub casum hiemis, jam vere serene. 340 

Tum pingues agni, et tum mollissima vina ; 
Tum somni dulces, densaeque in montibus umbrae. 
Cuncta tibi Cererem pubes agrestis adoret ; 


Cui tu lacte favos et miti dilue Baccbo, 

Terque novas circum felix eat hostia fruges, 3i& 

Omnis quam chorus et socii comitentur ovantes, 

Et Cererem clamore vocent in tecta; neque ante 

Falcem maturis quisquam supponat aristis, 

Quam Cereri, torta redimitus tempora quercu, 

Det motus incompositos, et carmina dicat. 350 

Atque, haec ut certis possemus discere signis, 
jEstusque, pluviasque, et agentes frigora ventos ; 
Ipse Pater statuit, quid menstma Luna moneret; 
Quo signo caderent austri ; quid saepe yidentes 
Agricolae propius stabulis artnenta tenerent. 355 

Continuo, yentis surgentibus, aut freta ponti 
Incipiunt agitata tumescere, et aridus altis 
Montibus audiii fragor ; aut resonantia longe 
Littora misceri, et nemorum increbrescere murmur. 
Jam sibi turn a curvis male temperat unda carinis, 360 
Quum medio celeres revolant ex sequore mergi, 
Clamoremque ferunt ad littora, quumque marinas 
In sicco ludunt fulicae, notasque paludes 
Deserit, atque altam supra volat ardea nubenu 
Saepe etiam Stellas, vento impendente, videbis 365 

Praecipites coelo labi, noctisque per umbram 
Flammarum longos a tergo albescere tractus ; 
Saepe levem paleam et frondes volitare caducas, 
Aut summa nantes in aqua colludere plumas. 
At, Boreae de parte trucis quum fulminat, et quum 370 
Enrique Zephyrique tonat domus ; omnia plenis 
Kura natant fossis, atque omnis navita ponto 
Humida vela legit. Nunquam imprudentibus imber 
Obfuit : aut ilium surgentem vallibus imis 
Aeriae fugere grues ; aut bucula, caelum 37^ 

Suspicions, patulis captavit naribus auras ; 
Aut arguta lacus circumvolitayit birundo, 
Et yeterem in limo ranse cecinere querelam. 


Sa?pius et tectis penetralibus extulit ova 

Angustum formica terens iter ; et bibit ingenB 380 

Arcus ; et^ e pastu decedens agmine magno, 

Corvonim increpuit densis exercitus alls. 

Jam varias pelagi Tolucres, et quae Asia circum 

Dulcibus in stagnis rimantur prata Caystri, 

Certatim largos huzneris infundero rores, 385 

Nunc caput objectare fretis, nunc currcre in undas, 

Et studio incassom yideas gestire lavandi. 

Turn comix plen& pluviam vocat improba Yoce^ 

Et sola in sicci Becom spatiatur areni. 

Nee noctuma quidem carpentes pensa puellse 390 

Nescivere hiemem, testa quum ardente viderent 

Scintillare oleum, et putres concrescere fungos. 

Nee minus ex imbri soles et aperta serena 
Prospicere, et certis poteris cognoscere signis : 
Nam neque tum stellis acies obtusa videtur, 395 

Nee fratris radiis obnoxia surgere Luna, 
Tenuia nee lanae per coelum vellcra fern ; 
Non tepidum ad solem pennas in littore pandunt 
Dilectae Thetidi alcyones ; non ore solutos 
Immundi meminere sues j act are maniplos : 400 

At nebulae magis ima petunt, campoque recumbunt ; 
Solis et occasum servans de culmine summo 
Nequidquam seros exercet noctua cantus, 
Apparet liquido sublimis in acre Nisus, 
Et pro purpureo poenas dat Scylla capillo : 405 

Qudcumque ilia levem fugiens sec at aethera pennis, 
Ecce ! inimicus atrox magno stridore per auras 
Insequitur Nisus : qua se fert Nisus ad auras, 
Ilia levem fugiens raptim secat aethera pennis. 
Tum liquidas corvi presso ter gutture voces 410 

Aut quater ingeminant ; et saepe cubilibus altis, 
Nescio qua praeter solitum dulcedine laeti. 
Inter se in foliis strepitant : juvat imbribus actis 


46 6E0R6IC0N LIB. I. 

Progeniem parvam dulcesque revisere nidos. 

Haud equidem credo, quia sit divinitus illis 415 

Ingenium, aut rerum fato pi*adentia major : 

Verum, ubi tempestas et cobH mobilis humor 

Mutavere vias, et Jupiter uvidus austris 

Densat, erant quae rara modo, et, quae densa, relaxat ; 

Vertuntur species animorum, et pectora motus 420 

Nunc alios (alios, dum nubila ventus agebat) 

Concipiunt : bine ille avium concentus in agris, 

Et laetae pecudes, et ovantes gutture corvL 

Si Tero solem ad rapidum, lunasque sequentes 
Ordine, respicies, nunquam te crastina &llet 425^ 

Hora, neque insidiis noctis capiere serenae. 
Luna revertentes quum primum colligit ignes. 
Si nigrum obscuro comprenderit aera comu, 
Maximus agricolis pelagoque parabitur imber : 
At, si virgineum suffuderit ore ruborem, 430 

Ventus erit : vento semper rubet aurea Phoebe. 
Sin ortu quarto, namque is certissimus auctor, 
Pura, neque obtusis per caelum comibus ibit, 
Totus et ille dies, et, qui nascentur ab illo 
Exactum ad mensem, pluvi^ ventisque carebunt ; 435 
Votaque servati solvent in littore nautae 
Glauco, et Panopeae, et Inoo Melicertae. 

Sol quoque, et exoriens, et quum se condet in undas, 
Signa dabit : solem certissima signa sequuntur, 
Et quae mane refert, et quae surgentibus astris. 440 

Ille ubi nascentem maculis variaverit ortum, 
Conditus in nubem, medioque refugerit orbe, 
Suspecti tibi sint imbres ; namque urguet ab alto 
Arboribusque satisque Notus pecorique sinister. 
Aut ubi sub lucem, densa inter nubila, sese 445 

Diversi rumpent radii, aut ubi pallida surget 
Tithoni croceum linquens Aurora cubile ; 
Heu ! male turn mites dofendet pampinus uvas : 


Tam miilta in tectis crepitans salit horrida grando. 

Hbc etiam, emenso quum jam dcccdet Olympo, i50 

Profuerit meminisse magis ; nam sscpc videuius 

Ipsius in Yultu varios errare colorcs : 

Caenileus pluviam denuntiat, igncus Euros ; 

Sin maculae incipient rutilo immiscericr igni, 

Omnia turn pariter vento nimbisque videbis 455 

Fervere : non ilia quisquam me nocte per altum 

Ire, neque ab terra moneat convellcrc funem. 

At, 81, quum referetque diem, condctque relatum, 

Lucidus orbis exit, frustra terrebere nimbis, 

Et claro silTas cemes aquilone moveri. 460 

Denique, quid vesper serus vehat, unde serenas 

Ventus agat nubes, quid cogitet humidus Auster, 

Sol tibi signa dabit. Solem quis dicere falsum 

Audeat 1 Ille etiam caecos instare tumultus * 

Saepe monet, fraudemque et operta tumescere bella. 465 

Ille etiam exstincto miseratus Caesare Romam ; 

Q,uum caput obscura nitidum femigine texit, 

Impiaque aetemam timuerunt saecula noctem. 

Tempore quamquam illo tellus quoque, et aequoi*a ponti, 

Obscenaeque canes, importunaeque volucres, 470 

Signa dabant. Quoties Cyclopum efFervere in agros 

Vidimus undantem ruptis fomacibus ^Etnam, 

Flammarumque globos liquefactaque volvere saxa ! 

Armorum sonitum toto Germania cceIo 

Audiit ; insolitis tremuerunt motibus Alpes. 475 

Vox quoque per lucos vulgo exaudita silentes 

Ingens ; et simulacra, modis pallentia miris, 

Visa sub obscurura noctis ; pccudesque loquutae, 

Infandum ! sistunt amnes, terraeque dehiscunt ; 

Et moestum illacrimat templis ebur, aeraque sudant. 480 

Proluit, insano contorquens voitice silvas, 

Fluviorum rex Eridanus, camposque per omnes 

Cum stabulis armenta tulit. Nee tempore eodem 

48 6E0RGIC0N LIB. I. 


^ristibus aut extis fibree apparere minaces, 

Aut puteis manare cruor cessavit, et altae 485 

Per noctem resonare, lupis ululantibus, urbes. 

Non alias coelo ceciderunt plura serenp 

Fulgura ; nee diri toties arsere cometae. 

Ergo inter sese paribus concurrere telis 

Romanas acies iterum videre Pbilippi ; 490 

Nee fuit indignum superis, bis sanguine nostra 

Ematbiam et latos Haemi pinguescere campos. 

Scilicet et tempus veniet, quum finibus illis 

Agricola, incurve terram molitus aratro, 

Exesa inveniet scabrft rubigine pila, 495 

Aut gravibus rastris galeas pulsabit inanes, 

Grandiaque effossis mirabitur ossa sepulcris. 

Dl patriiylndigetes, et Romule, Vestaque ndtater. 
Quae Tuscum Tiberim et Romana Palatia servas, 
Hunc saltern everso juvenem succurrere saeclo 500 

Ne probibete ! Satis jam pridem sanguine nostro 
Laomedonteas luimus perjuria Trojae. 
Jam pridem nobis ccsli te regia, Caesar, 
Invidet, atque bominum queritur curare triumpbos : 
Quippe ubi fas versum atque nefas ; tot bella per orbem, 
Tam multae scelerum facies ; non uUus aratro 506 

Dignus bonos ; squalent abductis arva colonis, 
Et curvas rigidum falces conflantur in ensem ; 
Hinc movet Eupbrates, iHinc Germania, bellum ; 
Vicinae ruptis inter se legibus urbes 610 

Arma ferunt ; saevit toto Mars impius orbe : 
Ut, quum carceribus sese efiudere quadrigae, 
Addunt in spatia, et, frustra retinacula tendens, 
Fertur equis auriga, neque audit curruB babenas. 


G E R G I C N. 

■ J ■ ■■ ■ ■ I 


Hactenus arvonim cultus et sidera coeli ; 

Nunc te, Bacche, canam, nee non silvestria tecum 

Virgulta, et prolem tarde crescentis olivse. 

Hue, pater O Lenaee ! tuis hie omnia plena 

Muneribus ; tibi pan^ineo gravidas auctumno 6 

Floret ager, spumat plenis vindemia labris ; 

HuCy pater O Lenaee ! Yeni» nudataque musto 

Tingue novo mecum dereptis crura cothumis. 

Principio, arboribus varia est natura creandis. 
Namque alise, nullis hominum cogentibus, ipsa) 10 

Sponte 3U& Yeniunt, camposque et flumina late 
Curva tenent : ut moUe siler, lentaeque genestae, 
Populus, et glauci canentia fronde salicta. 
Pars autem posito surgunt de semine : ut altsd 
Castaneae, nemorumque Jovi quas maxima firondet 15 
£sculu8, atque, habitae Graiis oracula, quercus. 
Pullulat ab radice aliis densissima silva ; 
Ut cerasis, ulmisque : etiam Pamasia laurus 
Parva sub ingenti matris se subjicit umbra. 
Hos Natura modes primum dedit : bis genus omne 20 
Silvarum £ruticumque viret. nemorumque sacrorum. 

Sunt alii, quos ipse via sibi reperit usus. 
Hie, plantas teneras, abscindens de corpore matrum, 
Deposuit sulcis : bic stirpes obruit arvo, 
Quadrifidasque sudes, et acuto robore vallos : 25 

Silvarumque aliae pressos propaginis arcus 
Exspectanty et viva sua plantaria terra ; 



Nil radicis egent alise, summumque putator 

Haud dubitat terrse referens mandare cacumen. 

Quin et caudicibus sectis, mirabile dictu i 30 

Truditur e sicco radix oleagina ligno. 

£t saspe alterius ramos impune yidemufl 

Vertere in alteriuSy mutatamque insita mala 

Ferre pirum, et prunis lapidosa rubescere ccxma. 

Quare agite, O, proprios generatim discite cultus, 35 
Agricolae ! fructusque feros mollite colendo ; 
Neu segnes jaceant terrae. Juvat Ismara Baccho 
Conserere, atque oled, magnum vestire Tabumum. 

Tuque ades, inceptumque xmk decoire labomem^ 
O decus ! O famse merito pars maxima nostrsd, 40 

Maecenas ! pelagoque volans da vela pttentu 
Non ego cimcta meis amplecti Tersibus opto | 
Non, mihi si linguae centum sint, oraque centum, 
Ferrea vox : ades, et primi lege littons oram ; 
In manibus terras : non bic te carmine ficto^ 45 

Atque per ambages et longa exorsa, tenebo. 

Sponte sua quae se tollunt in luminis auras, 
Infoecunda quidem, sed laeta et fortia surgunt t 
Quippe solo natura subest. Tamen haec qnoque, si quis 
Inserat, aut scrobibus maudet mutata subactis, 50 

Exuerint silvestrem animum ; cukuque frequent! 
In quascumque voces artes, haud tarda sequentur. 
Nee non et sterilis^quae stirpibus exit ab imis, 
Hoc faciet, vacuos si sit digesta per agros : 
Nunc altas frondes et rami matris <^>acanty 56 

Crescentique adimunt foetus, uruntvie ferentem. 
Jam, quae seminibus jactis se sustulit arbos, 
Tarda venit, seris factura nepotibus umbram ; 
Pomaque degenerant succos oblita priores ; 
Et turpes avibus praedam fert uva racemes, 60 

Scilicet omnibus est labor impendendus ; et omnes 
Cogendae in sulcum, ac mult& mercede domandae. 


Bed troncis olesB melius, pzopagine vites 
lespondent, solido Paphias de robore myrtuB. 
Piantis et duras conili nascuntur, et ingcns 65 

Praxinus, Herculeaeque arbos umbrosa coronae, 
Chaoniique patris glandes : etiam ardua pa]ma 
Kasdtur, et casus abies yisura marinos. 
I Inseritur vero et nucis arbutus horrida fcetu, 
if Kl Bteriles plataid malos gessere Yalentes : 70 

I Castaneae Bigas, omusque incanuit albo 
I Flore piriy glandemque sues firegere sub ulmis. 
I Nee modua inserere atque oculos imponere simplex. 
J Nam, qua se medio trudunt de cortice gemmae, 
U St tenues rompunt tunicas, angustus in ipso 75 

I Fit node sinus : hue alien^ ex arbore germen 
I Includunt, udoque decent inolescere libro. 
' Aut rursum enodes trunci resecantur, et alte 
I Finditur in solidum cuneis via ; deinde feraces 

Plantae immittuntur : nee longum tempus, et ingens 80 
Exiit ad caelum ramis felicibus arbos, 
Miraturque novas frondes, et non sua poma. 

Praeterea, genus baud imum, nee fortibus ulmis. 
Nee salici, lotoque, neque Idaeis cyparissis : 
Nee pingues unam in faciem nascuntur olivse, 85 

' Orcbades, et Radii, et amara Pausia bacca ; 
I Pomaque, et Alcinoi silvse : nee surculus idem 

Cnistumiis Syriisque piris, gravibusque volemis : 
' Non eadem arboribus pendet vindemia nostris, 
I Quam Metbymnaeo carpit de palmite Lesbos. 90 

Sunt Thasiae vites ; sunt et Mareotides albae ; 
1 Pinguibus bae terris babiles, levioribus illae ; 
£t passo Psitbia utilior ; tenuisque Lageos, 
Tentatura pedes olim, vincturaque linguam ; 
Purpureas, Preciaeque : et — quo te carmine dicam, 95 
Rhaetical nee cellis ideo eontende Falemis. 
Sunt et Aminaeae vites, firmissima vina. 

52 -^EOftGICON LIB. n* 

Tmolius assurgit quibus, et rex ipse Pbanaeus ; 
Argitisque minor, cui noni certaverit ulla, 
Aut tantum fluere, aut totidem durare per annos. 100 
Non ego te, dis et mensis accepta secundiB, 
Transierim, Rhodia, et tumidis, Bumaste, racemis* 
Sed neque, quam multse species, nee, nomina quae sint, 
Est numerus ; neque enim numero comprendere refert : 
Quern qui scire velit, Libyci velit aequoris idem 105 

Discere quam multae Zepbyro turbentur arense ; 
Aut, ubi navigiis violentior incidit EuruS, 
N6sse, quot lonii veniant ad iittora iluctos. ^ 
Nee vero terrae ferre omnes omnia possunt. 
Fluminibus salices, crassisque paludibus alni 110 

Nascuntur ; steriles saxosis montibus omi : 
Littora myrtetis lastissima : denique apertos 
Baccbus amat colles, aquilonem et frigora taxi. 
Aspice et extremis domitum cultoribus oi4>ein, 
Eoasque domes Arabum, pictosque Gelonos; 115 

Divisae arboribus patriae : sola India nigrum 
Pert ebenum ; solis est thurea virga Sabaeis. 
Quid tibi odorato referam sudantia ligno 
Balsamaque, et baccas semper frondentis acandii ? 
Quid nemora JEthiopum, molli canentia lan& ? 120 

Velleraque ut foliis depectant tenuia Seres 1 
Aut quos, Oceano propior, gerit India lucos, 
Extremi sinus orbis 1 ubi aera vincere summum 
Arboris baud uUae jactu potuere sagittae : 
Et gens ilia quidem sumtis non tarda pbaretris. 125 

Media fert tristes succos tardumque saporem 
Felicis mali ; quo non praesehtius uUum, 
Pocula si quando saevae infecere novercae, 
[Miscueruntque berbas et non innoxia verba,] 
Auxilium venit, ac membris agit atra venena. 130 

Ipsa ingens arbos, faciemque simillima lauro ; 
Et, si non alium late jactaret odorem, 

occnaioox ub. ix. SS 


Lsunu erat ; folia liaud nUia labentia yeiitu ; 

Hos ad prima tenax : animas et olentia Medi 

Qra forent illo, et senibos medicantur anhelis. 135 

Sed neque Medomin, silvaB ditiBsimay teira. 

Nee pulcher Gang^ atque auro turbidus Hennus, 
Laadiboa Italias certent ; non Bactra, neque Indi, 
Totaque tbniifezifl PanchaJia pinguis arenis. 
Hasc loca turn taiiri spirantes naribus ignem 14() 

InreiteTe, aatis imnianiw dontibus bydri ; 
Nee galeis ddudsque viiOm seges borruit basda : 
Sed grayidsB firuges et Bacchi Massicus bumor 
Implevere ; tenexit oleee armentaque laeta. 
Hine bellator eqaus campo sese arduus infert : 145 

Hinc albi, Clitumne, greges^ et maxima, taums, 
Vicdxnay saepe tuo perfuai Aqmine sacro, 
Romanos ad templa dedtm duxere triumpbos. 
Hie Ter aasidnntn, atque alienis mensibus asstas ; 
Bis gravidaa pecudes, bis pomis utilis arbor. 150 

At rabidae tigres absunt, et saeva leonum 
Semina ; nee miseros fallunt aconita legentes ; 
Nee rapit immensos orbes per bumum, neqae tanto 
Squameus in spiram tractu se coUigit anguis. 
Adde tot egregias urbes, operumque laborem, 155 

Tot congesta manu praeruptis oppida saxis, 
Fluminaque antiques subterlabentia muros. 
An mare, quod supra, memorem, quodque alluit infi:a 1 
Anne lacus tantos 1 te, Lari maxime, teque, 
Fluctibus et fi-emitu assurgens, Benace, marine ] 160 
An memorem portus, Lucrinoque addita claustra, 
Atque indignatum magnis stridoribus aequor, 
Julia qua ponto longe sonat unda refiiso, 
Tyrrbenusque fretis immittitur aestus Avemis 1 
Haec eadem argenti rivos serisque metalla 165 

Ostendit venis, atque auro plurima fluxit. 
Hasc genus acre virOm, Marsos, pubemque Sabellam, 


54 6E0AGIC0H LIB* U* 

Assuetumque malo Ligarem, VoiacoBque rerutos^ 
Extulit ; hasc Decios, Marios, magnosqne Camillos, 
Sqipiadas duros bello, et te, maxime OsesaTy 170 

Qui nunc, extremis Asiae jam victor in oria, 
Imbellem avertis Rpmanis arcibus Indnm. 
Salve, magna parens fiugum, Satumia tellus 1 
Magna virum : tibi res ahtiquae landis et aitis 
Ingredior, sanctos ausus recludere fontes, 175 

Ascraeumque cano Romana per oppida carmen. 

Nunc locus arvorum ingeniis ; quae robora cuique, 
Quis color, et quaa sit rebus natura ferendis. 
Difficiles primum terras, collesque maligni. 
Tenuis ubi argilla, et dumosis calculus arris, 180 

Palladia gaudent silva vivacis oliyae. 
Indicio est tractu surgens oleaster eodem 
Plurimus, et strati baccis silvestribus agri. 
At, quas pinguis humus, dulcique uligine lasta, 
Quique frequens herbis et fertilis ubere campus ; 185 
Qualem saepe cav^ montis convalle solemus 
Dispicere (hue summis liquuntur rupibus amnes, 
Felicemque trahunt limum), quique editus austro, 
Et micem curvis invisam pascit aratris ; 
Hie tibi praevalidas olim multoque fluentes 190 

Sufficiet Baccho vites : hie fertilis uvae ; 
Hie laticis, qualem pateris libamus et auro, 
Inflavit quum pinguis ebur Tyrrhenus ad aras, 
Lancibus et pandis fumantia reddimua exta. 
Sin armenta magis studium yitulosque tueri, 195 

Aut foetus ovium, aut urentes cnlta capellas ; 
Saltus, et saturi petito longinqua Tarenti, 
Et qualem infelix amisit Mantua campum, 
Pascentem niveos herboso ilumine cycpos : 
Non liquidi gregibus fontes, non gramiua deenmt ; 200 
Et, quantum longis carpent armenta diebus, 
Exigu4 tantum gelidus ros nocte reponet. 


Nigra, fere et presso pinguis sub Tomene terras 

Et cni putre solum (namque hoc imitamur arando), 

Opdma fruxnentis : 1109 uUo ez aequore cemes 205 

Pfaira domum tardis decedene plaustra juvencis : 

Ant, nude iratus silTam derexit arator, 

Et nttmora evertit multos igqaya per annos, 

Antiqaaaqoe domos ayimn cuxn stirpibus imis 

Eruit : illee altum nidis petiere relictis ; 210 

At niflis enituit impulso vomere campus. 

Nam jejuna quidem diyosi glarea ruris 

Vix huxniles apibus casias roremque miniatrat : 

Et tophus scaber et nigiis ezesa chelydris 

Cieta negant alios »que serpentibus agros 216 

Dulcem ferre cibum, et curvas praebere latebras. 

Quae tenuem exiialat nebulam fumosque Yolucres, 

Et bibit humorsin, et, quum vult, ex se ipsa remittit; 

Quaeque suo viridi semper se gramine vestit, 

Nee scabie et salsa laedit rubigine ferrum : 220 

nia tibi laetis intexet vitibus ulmos ; 

Ilia ferax oleo est ; illam experiere colendo 

Et facilem pecori, et patientem vomeris uncL 

Talem dives arat Capua, et vicina Vesevo 

Qra jugo, et vacuis Clanius non aequus Acerris. 225 

Nunc, quo quamque mode possis cogposcere, dicam. 
Rara sit, an supra morem si densa requiras ; 
Altera frumentis quoniam favet, altera Baccho ; 
Densa magis Oereri, rarissima quaeque Lyaeo : 
Ante locum capies oculis, alteque jubebis 230 

In solido puteum demitti, omnemque repones 
Rursus humum, et pedibus summas aequabis arenas. 
Si deeiiint, rarum, pecorique et vitibus almis 
Aptius, uber erit : sin in sua posse negabunt 
Ire loca, et scrobibus superabit terra repletis, 23/> 

Spissus ager ; glebas cunctantes crassaque terga 
Exspecta, et validis terram proscinde juvencis. 


Salsa autem tellus; et quae perhibetur amara, 

Frugibus infelix (ea nee mansuescit arando/ 

Nee Baccho genus, aut pomis sua nomina servat) 240 

Tale dabit specimen : tu spisso vimine qualos, 

Colaque praelorura fumosis deripe tectis ; 

Hue ager ille malus, duleesque a fontibus undse, 

Ad plenum ealcentur: aqua eluetabitur omnis 

Seilieet, et grandes ibunt per vimiua guttae ; 245 

At sapor indieium faciet, manifestus et ora 

Tristia tentantum sensu torquebit amaror. 

Pinguis item quae sit tellus, boe denique pacto 

Discimus : baud unquam manibus j aetata fatiseit, 

Sed picis in morem ad digitos lenteseit babendo. 250 

Humida majores berbas alit, ipsaque justo 

Lsetior. Ab nimium ne sit mibi fertilis ilia, 

Neu se prsevalidam primis ostendat aristis ! 

Quae gravis est, ipso taeitam se pondere prodit ; 

Qu2eque levis. Promtum est oeulis pra)diseere nigram, 

Et quis eui eolor. At seeleratum exquirere frigus 256 

Diffieile est : piceae tantum, taxique nocentes 

Interdum, aut bederae pandunt vestigia nigrae. 

His animadversis, terram multo ante memento 
Excoquere, et magnos serobibus eoncidere montes, 2G0 
Ante supinatas aquiloni ostendere glebas, 
Quam laetum infodias vitis genus. Optima putri 
Arva solo : id venti eurant, gelidaeque pruinae, 
Et labefaeta movens robustus jugera fbssor. 
At, si quos baud uUa viros vigilantia fugit, 265 

Ante loeum similem exquirunt, ubi prima paretur 
Arboribus seges, et quo mox digesta feratur ; 
Mutatam ignorent subito ne semina matrem. 
Quin etiam cceli regionem in eortiee signant ; 
Ut, quo quaeque modo steterit, qu& parte ealores 270 
Austrinos tulerit, quae terga obverterit axi, 
Restituant : adeo in teneris consueseere multum est. 


CoHibui^y an piano melius sit ponere viteni, 
Quaere prius. Si pinguis agros metabere campi, 
De&sa sere ; in denso non segnior ubero Bacchus : 275 
&n tomulis accliire solum collesque supinos ; 
bdulge ordinibus, nee secius omnia in unguem 
Aibonbus positis secto via limite quadret. 
Ut seepe, ingenti bello quum longa cohortcs 
Explicuit legio, et campo stetit agmen aperto, 280 

Directaeque acies, ac late fluctuat omnia 
Mie renidenti tellus, nee dum borrida miscent 
PrGelia, sad dubius mediis Mars errat in armis : 
Omnia sint paribus numeris dimensa viarum, 
Non animum modo uti pascat prospectus inanem ; 2S5 
Sed quia non alitor vires dabit omnibus sequas 
Terra, neque in vacuum poterunt se extend ere ramL 

Forsitan at, scrobibus quae sint fastigia, quseras. 
Ausim vel tenui vitem committere sulco : 
Altior ac penitus terrae defigitur arbos ; 290 

Jlsculus in primis, quae, quantum vertice ad auras 
£therias, tantum radice in Tartara tendit. 
Ergo non biemes illam, non flabra, neque imbres 
Convellunt ; immota manet, multosque nepotes, 
Multa virum vol vans durando saecula, vincit : 295 

Tum, fortes late ramos et brachia tendons 
Hue illuc, media ipsa ingentcm sustinet umbram. 

Neve tibi ad solem vergant vineta cadentem ; 
Neve inter vites corulum sere : neve flagella 
Summa pete, aut summa destringe ex arbore plantas ; 
Tantus amor terrae ! neu ferro laede retuso 301 

Semina ; neve oleae silvestres insere truncos : 
Nam saepe incautis pastoribus excidit ignis, 
Qui, furtim pingai primum sub cortice tectus, 
Robora comprendit, frondesque elapsus in altas 305 

Ingentem ccbIo sonitum dedit ; inde sequutus 
Per ramos victor perque alta cacumina regnat, 

58 OBOEGICOlf UB* d. 

Et totum involvit flanunis nemus, et ruit atraxn 

Ad coelum, picei crassus caligine, nubem : 

Praesertim si tempestas a vertice silvis 310 

Incubuit, glomeratque ferens incendia ventus^ 

Hoc ubi, non a stirpe valent, caesaeque reverti 

Possunt, atque ima similes revirescere terrd : 

Infelix superat foliis oleaster amaria* 

Nee tibi tarn prudens quisquam persuadeat auctor, 316 
Tellurem Borea rigidam spirante morerL 
Rura gelu turn claudit hiems, nee, semine jacto, 
Concretam patitur radicem affigere terrae. 
Optima yinetis satio, quum Yere rubenti 
Candida venit avis, longis invisa colubris ; 320 

Prima vel auctumni sub frigora, quum rapidus Sol 
Nondum biemem contingit equis, jam praetent aestafl. 
Ver adeo frondi nemorum, ver utile silvis : 
Yere tument terras, et genitalia semina poscunt. 
Turn pater omnipotens foecundis imbribus ^ther 325 
Conjugis in gremium laetae descendii, et onmes 
Magnus alit, magno commixtus corpore, fcetus. 
Avia tum resonant avibus yirgulta canoris» 
Et Venerem certis repetunt armenta diebus ; 
* Parturit almus ager ; Zepbyrique tepentibus auris 330 
Laxant arva sinus ; superat tener onmibus bumor^ 
Inque novos soles audent se germina tuto 
Credere : nee metuit surgentes pampinus Aiistros, 
Aut actum coelo magnis Aquilonibus imbrem ; 
Sed trudit gemmas, et frondes explicat omnes. 335 

Non alios prim& crescentis* origine mundi 
lUuxisse dies, aliumve babuisse tenorem 
Crediderim : ver illud erat ; ver magnus agebat 
Orbis, et bibemis parcebant ilatibus Euri ; 
Quum primae lucem pecudes bausere» virOmque 340 
Terrea progenies duris caput extulit arris, 
Immissaeque feree silvis, et sidera coelo* 



Xec les hone tenerae possent perferre laborem, 
Si non tanta quies iret frigusque caloremquo 
hter, et exciperet, coeli indulgentia teiruH. 345 

Quod superest, quaecumque premcs virgulta per agros. 
Sparse fimo pingui, et multa memor occule terrft ; 
Aat lapidem bibiilum, aut squalcntes infodc conchas : 
Inter enim labeutur aquae, tenuisque subibit 
Halitus, atque animos tollent sata. Jamquc repcrti, 350 
Qui saxo super, atque ingentis pondcre testas, 
Urguerent : hoc effuses munimen ad imbres ; 
Hoc, ubi hiulca siti findit canis aestifer arva. 

Seminibus positis, superest didiicere terram 
Saepius ad capita, et duros jactare bidentes ; 355 

Aut presso exercere solum sub vomere, et ipsa 
Flectere luctantes inter vineta juvencos : 
Turn leves calamos, et rasae hastilia virgae, 
Fraxineasqae aptare sudes, furcasque valentes : 
Viribus eniti quarum, et contemnere ventos 360 

Assuescant, summasque sequi tabulata per ulmos. 

Ac, dum prima novis adolescit frondibus aetas, 
Parcendum teneris : et, dum se laetus ad auras 
Palmes agit, laxis per purum immissus habenis, 
Ipsa acie nondum falcis tentanda ; sed uncis 365 

Carpendae manibus frondes, interque logendae. 
Inde, ubi jam validis amplexae stirpibus ulmos 
Exierint, tum stringe comas, turn brachia tonde ; 
Ante refonnidant ferrum : tum denique dura 
Exerce imperia, et ramos compesce fluentes. 370 

Texendae sepes etiam, et pecus omne tenendum, 
Praecipue dum frons tenera imprudensque laborum : 
Cui, super indignas hiemes solemque potentem, 
Silvestres uri assidue capreaeque sequaces 
Illudunt, pascuntur oves avidaeque juvencae. 375 

Frigora nee tantum can a concreta pruina, 
Aut gravis incumbens scopulis axentibus aestas, 


Quantum illi nocuere greges, durique venennm 

Dentis, et admorso signata in sdrpe cicatrix. 

Non aliam ob culpam Baccbo caper omnibus aria 380 

Caeditur, et veteres ineunt proscenia ludi, 

Prsemiaque ingeniis pagos et compita circum 

Tbesidae posuere, fitque inter pocula laeti 

Mollibus in pratis unctos saluere per utres. 

Nee non Ausonii, Troja gens missa, coloni 385 

Versibus incomtis bidunt, risuque soluto, 

Oraque corticibus sumunt borrenda cavatis ; 

Et te, Baccbe, vocant per carmina laeta, tibique 

OsciUa ex alta suspendunt mollia pinu. 

Hinc omnis largo pubescit vinea foetu ; 390 

Complentur vallesque cavae saltusque profundi, 

Et quocumque deus circum caput egit bonestum. 

Ergo rite suum Baccbo dicemus bonorem 

Carminibus patriis, lancesque et liba feremus ; 

Et ductus comu stabit sacer bircus ad aram, 395 

Pinguiaque in veribus torrebimus exta columis. 

Est edam ille labor curandis vitibus alter, 
Cui nunquam exbausti satis est : namque omne quotannis 
Terque quaterque solum scindendum, glebaque Yersis 
Sternum frangenda bidentibus ; omne levandum 400 
Fronde nemus : redit agricolis labor actus in orbem, 
Atque in se sua per vestigia volvitur annus. 
Ac jam olim, seras posuit quum vinea frondes, 
Frigidus et silvis aquilo decussit bonorem ; 
Jam tum acer curas venientem extendit in annum 405 
Rusticus, et curve Satumi dente relictam 
Persequitur vitem attondens, fingitque putando. 
Primus bumum fodito, primus devecta cremate 
Sarmenta, et vallos primus siib tecta referto ; 
Postremus metito. Bis vitibus ingruit umbra ; - 410 

Bis segetem densis obducunt sentibus berbae ; 
Durus uterque labor. Laudato ingentia rura : 

airaoioox ub. n. 61 

Engaam colito. Nee non etiam aspen nud 

'Rnnna per silTain, et ripis fhivialis arundo 

CBditur, xncoltiqae exercet cura salicti. 415 

Jun yinctaB yites ; jam fJELlcem arbusta reponunt ; 

Jun canit extremos efibatiu Tinitpr antes : 

SoDicitanda tamen tellas, pulvisque morendus ; 

Et jam maturia metaendus Jupiter uvis. 

Contra^ non alia est oleis coltura ; neque ill» 420 
Pro cu rvam exapectant fidcem rastrosque tenaces, 
Qmun semel bsBaeront anris, aurasque tulerunt. 
Ipsa satis telliis, qanm dente lecluditur unco, 
Sufficit hnmorem ; et graridas, cum Tomere, fruges. 
Hoc pingaem et placitam Paci nutritor olivam. 425 

Poma quoqae, at primum truncos sensere valentes, 
Et vires habuere suas, ad sidera raptim 
Vi prcypiift nituntor, opisque haud indiga nostrsB. 

Nee minus interea fcetu nemus omne gravescit, 
Sanguineisque inculta rubent aviaria baccis. 430 

Tondentur cytiJai, tsedas silva aJta ministrat, 
Pascunturque ignes noctumi, et lumina fundunt. 
Et dubitant homines serere, atque impendere curam ? 
Q,uid majora sequar 1 salices humilesque genestae, 
Aut illae pecori frondem, aut pastoribus imibras 435 

Sufficiunt ; sepemque satis, et pabula melli. 
Et juvat undantem buxo spectare Cytorum, 
Naryciaeque picis lucos : juvat arva videre 
Non rastris, Jhominum non uUi obnoxia curae. 
Ipsae Caucasio steriles in vertice silvae, 440 

Quas animosi Euri assidue franguntque feruntque, 
Dant alios aliae fcetus ; dant utile lignum 
Navigiis pinos, domibus cedrumque cupressosque : 
Hinc radios trivere rotis, bine tympana plaustris 
Agricolae, et pandas ratibus posuere carinas. 445 

Viminibus salices foecundae, frondibus ulmi, 
At myrtus validis bastilibus, et, bona bello, 



62 HEOfteicoN UB. ii« 

Comus ; Ituraeos taxi torquentur in arcus. 

Nee tiliae leves aut tomo rasile buxum 

Non formam accipiunt, ferroque cavan^r aeuto. 450 

Nee non et torrentem nndam levis innatat alnus, 

Missa Pado ; nee non et apes examina oondunt 

Cortieibusque cavis yitiosaeque ilicis alveo. 

Quid memoranduni seque Bacebeia dona tulerunt ? 

Baeebus et ad culpam caussas dedit : illei furentea 455 

Centauros leto domuit, Rboetumque, Pholumquat 

Et magno Hylseum Lapitbis cratere minantem* 

O fortunatos nimium, sua si bona norint, 
Agrieolas i quibus ipsa, proeul discordibus armky 
Fundit bumo faeilem vietum justissima tellua. 460 

Si non ingentem foribus domus alta superbis 
Mane salutantum totis Yomit aedibus iindam ; 
Nee varios inbiant pulebra testudine postee, 
lUusasque auro Testes, Epbyreiaque aera; 
Alba neque Assyrio fiieatur lana yeneno, 465 

Nee casia liquidi comimpitur usus olivi : 
At secura quies, et neseia faUere vita, 
Dives opum variarum; at latis otia fundis, 
Speluneae, vivique laeus ; at frigida Tempe, 
Mugitusque bourn, moUesque sub arbore sonmi 470 

Non absunt : illie saltus ae lustra ferarum, 
Et patiens operum, exiguoque assueta, juyentus ; 
Saera deiim, sanetique patres : extrema per illos 
Justitia, exeedens teiris, vestigia feeit. . 

Me vero primum, dulces anfie omnia, Musas, 475 

Quarum saera fero, ingenti percnssos amore, 
Aecipiant, eoelique vias et sidera monstrent ; 
Defeetus solis varios, lunseque labores ; 
XJnde tremor terris ; qua vi maria alta tumeseant 
Objieibus ruptis, rursusque in se ipsa residant ; 480 

Quid tantum Oeeano properent se tinguere soles 
Hibemi, vel quae tardis mora noetibus obetet. 


Sol, liaA ne possim natnzw aecedepe partei » 

Frigidua oBfldterit cirenm pnecordia aanguii ; 

Km mihi, et rigui placeant in vallibut amnes : 485 

Flnmina amem ailTasque ingloriiis. Oy ubi campi, 

SpercheoBqae, et, ▼iiginibus bacchata Lacsenu, 

Taj^geta! O, qui me gelidis in Tallibns Hsemi 

Sistat, et ingirati ramonun protegat umbri 1 

Felix, qui potuit renim cogooscere cauaiaa ; 490 

Atqne xnetua omnea, et inexorabile fatum, 
Sabjecit pedibu2» atxepitumque Achezontia avari 1 
Fartonatos et illey deoa qui novit agrestes, 
Panaque, Silvanumque aenem, Nympbaaque aoroiea I 
Dbm non populi fiucea, non purpura regum 495 

Flezity et infidoa ag^tana diacordia firatreay 
Ant conjurato deacendena Dacua ab latro; 
Non res Romanae, perituraque regna : neque ille 
Ant doluit mia^ana inopem, aut invidit habentL 
Q,uos rami fructus, quos ipsa volentia rura 500 

Sponte tulere suA, carpsit ; nee ferrca jura, 
Insanumque forum, aut populi tabularia vidit* 

Sollicitant alii remis freta caeca, ruuntque 
In ferrum ; penetrant aulas et limina regum : 
Hie petit excidiis urbem miserosque Penates, 505 

Ut gemma bibat, et Sarrano indormiat ostro : 
Condit opes alius, defossoque ineubat auro. 
Hie Btupet attonitus rostris : bimc plausus biantem 
Per cuneos (geminatus enim plebisque patrumque) 
Corripuit. Graudent perfusi sanguine fratrum, 510 

Exsilioque domos et duleia limina mutant, 
Atque alio patriam quaerunt sub sole jacentem. 
Agricola incurvo terram dimovit aratro : 
Hinc anni labor ; bine patriam parvosque nepotes 
Sufltinet ; bine armenta boum, meritosque juvencos. 515 
Nee requies, quin aut pomis exuberet annus, 
Aut foetu pecorum, aut Cerealis mergite culmi ; 


Proventuque oneret sulcos, atque horrea vincat. 

Venit hiems : tetitur Sicyonia bacca trapetis ; 

Glande sues laeti redeunt ; dant arbuta silvae ; 520 

Et varios ponit foetus auctumnus ; et alte 

Mitis in apricis coquitur vindemia saxis. 

Interea dulces pendent circum oscula nati ; 

Casta pudicitiam servat domus^ ubera yaccas 

Lactea demittunt ; pinguesque in gramine laeto 525 

Inter se adversis luctantur comibus hsedi. 

Ipse dies agitat festos ; fususque per berlbam. 

Ignis ubi in medio, et socii cratera coronant, 

Te, libans, Lenaee, vocat ; pecorisque magistris 

Yelocis jaculi certamina ponit in ulmo ; * 530 

Corporaque agresti nudant praedura palaestrae. 

Hanc olim veteres vitam coluere Sabini ; 
Hanc Remus et frater : sic fortis Etruria crevit ; 
Scilicet et rerum facta est pulcberrima Roma, 
Septemque una sibi muro circumdedit arces. 535 

Ante etiam sceptrum Dictaei regis, et ante 
Impia quam caesis gens est epulata juvencis, 
Aureus banc vitam in terris Satumus agebat. 
Necdum etiam audierant inflari classica, necdum^ 
Impositos duris crepitare incudibus enses. 540 

Sed nos immensum spatiis (ionfecimus aequor, 
Et jam tempus equClm fumantia solvere colla. 




It qiuoqae, magna Pales, et te, memorande, canemusy 
PMot ab AmphzyBO ; tos, silvse amnesque Lycei. 
Cetera, quae vacuas tenuiflscmt carmine mentes, 

I Omnia jam vnlgata: quia aut Eurysthea durum. 
Ant illaadati neacit Bnairidia aras 1 6 

Cd non dictoa Hylaa pner, et LaUmia Delos t 
fiippodameque, bumeroque Pelops inaignis ebumo, 
Acer equia 1 Tentanda via eat, quA me quoque poaaim 
Tollere bomo, yictorque virAm volitare per ora. 
Primua ego in patriam mecum, modo yita Bupezait, 10 

! Aonio radians deducam vertice Musas : 

[ Primus Idumseas raferam tibi, Mantua, palmas ; 

f £t viridi in campo templum da marmora ponam 
Propter aquam, tardis ingens ubi flaxibus arrat 
Mincius, at tenarsL prsetaxit arundina ripas. 16 

Id medio mihi Caesar ^rit, tamplumque tenabit. 
lUi victor ego, et Tyrio conspectus in ostro, 

I Centum quadrijugos agitabo ad flumina currus. 

} Cuncta mihi, Alpheum linquans lucosque Molorchi, 
Cursibus at crudo dacamat Graecia cestu. 20 

Ipsa, caput tonsae foliis omatus olivae, 
Dona feram. Jam nunc sollemnas ducare pampas 
Ad dalubra juvat, caesosqua videra juvancos ; 
Vel scana ut varsis discadat frontibus, utque 
Puq)uraa intaxti tollant aulaea Britanni. . 26 

In foribus pugnam ex auro solidoqua elaphanto 
GangaridQm faciam, victonsque arma Quirini ; 


66 GE0R6IC0N LIB. IH. 

Atque hie undantem bello magnumque'fluentem 

Niluniy ac navali surgentes sere columnas. 

Addain urbes Asiae domitas, pulsumque Niphaten, 30 

Fidentemque fuga Parthum veivisque sagittis, 

£t duo rapta manu diverso ex hoste tropaea, 

Bisque triumphatas utroque ab littore genteg. 

Stabunt et Parii lapides, spirantia Bigna, 

Assaraci proles, demissaeque ab Jove gentis 35 

Nomina, Trosque parens, et Trojae Cyntbiuf auctor. 

Invidia infelix furias amnemque seyerum 

Cocyti metuet, tortosque Ixi(»U8 cmgues 

Immanemque rotam, et non exsuperabile oaaram. 

Interea Dryadum silvas f altusque tequamur 40 

Intactos, tua, Maecenas, baud tnoUia jusMu 

Te sine nil altum mens inchoat. En I age, segnes 

Rumpe moras; vocat ingenti clamore Cithaeron, 

Ta^getique canes, domitrixque Epidaurus equorum : 

Et vox assensu nemorum ingeminata remugit. 45 

Mox tamen ardentes accingar dicere pngnas 

Caesaris, et nomen fami tot ferre per annos, 

Tithoni prim^ quot abest ab origine Caesar. 

Seu quia, Olympiac* miratus pramia palm», 
Pascit equos ; seu quis fortes ad aratra juvencos ; 50 
Corpora praecipue matrum legat. Optima torvae 
Forma bovis, cui turpe caput, cui plurima cervix, 
Et crurum tenus a mento palearia pendent ; 
Turn longo nullus lateri modus ; ombia magna. 
Pes etiam ; et camuris hirtae sub comibus aures. 65 

Nee mihi displiceat maculis insignis et albo, 
Aut juga detrectans ; interdumque aspera cc^mu, 
Et faciem tauro propior ; quaeque ardua tota, 
Et gradiens imi verrit vestigia caudli. 
^tas Lucinam justosque pati bymenaeos 60 

Desinit ante decem, post quatuor incipit annos ^ 
Cetera nee foeturae habilis, nee fortis aratris. 


Interea, aaperat gregibus dum laeta juyentas. 

Solve mares ; mitte in Y enerem pecuaria primufl, 

Atque aliam ex ali4 g^nerando suffice prolem, 65 

Optima quaeque dies miseris mortalibus aevi 

Prima fugit : subeunt morbi, tristisque senectus, 

Et labor, et duree rapit inelementia mortis. 

Semper eront, quarum mutari corpora malis : 

Semper enim refice ; ac, ne post amissa requiras, 70 

Anteveni, et sobolem armento sortire quotamiis. 

Nee non et pecori est idem dilectus equino. 
Tu modo, quos in spem statues submittere gentis, 
Prsecipuum jam inde a teneris impende laborem. 
Continue pecoris generosi puUus in arris 75 

Aldus ingreditur, et moUia crura reponit. 
Primus et ire viam, et fluvios tentare minaces 
Audety et ignoto seee committere pond ; 
Nee yanos horret strepitus. Uli ardua cervix, 
Argutumque caput, brevis alvus, obesaque terga; 80 

Luxuriatque toris animosum pectus. Honesd 
Spadices, glaucique : color deterrimus albis, 
Et gilvo. Tum, si qua sonum procul arm^, dederoi 
Stare loco nescit ; micat auribus, et tremit artus ; 
Collectumque tremens volvit sub naribus ig^nem : 85 

Densa juba, et dextro jactata recumbit in armo ; 
At duplex agitur per lumbos spina ; cavatque 
Tellurem, et solido graviter sonat ungula comu. 
Talis, Amyclaei domitus Pollucis habenis, 
Cyllarus, et, quorum Graii meminere poetsB, 90 

Martis equi bijuges, et magni currus Achilli : 
Talis et ipse jubam cervice efTudit equina, 
Conjugis adventu pemix, Satumus> et altum 
Felion hinnitu fugiens implevit su^uto. 

Hunc quoque, ubl aut morbo gravis, aut jam segnior 
annis, 95 

Deficit, abde dome ; nee turpi ignosce senectse. 

68 «E6BGIC0N LIB. JtU 

Frigidus jn Venerem senior^ fhistraque laborem 
Ingratum tiuhit ; et, si Tjuando ad proelia ventum est, 
Ut quondam in stipulis magnos sine viribus ignis, 
Incassum furit. Ergo animos sevumque notabis 100 

Praecipue ; bine alias artes, prolemque parentum, 
Et quis cuique dolor yicto, quae gloria palmse. 
Nonne vides, quum prsecipiti certamine campum 
Corripuere, ruuntque effosi carcere corms ; 
Quum spes arrectae juvenum, exstdtantiaque baurit 105 
Corda pavor pulsans ? illi instant verbere torto, 
Et proni dant lora : Tolat vi fervidus axis : 
Jamque bumiles, jamqne elati sublime yidentur 
Aera per vacuum ferri, atque assurgere in auras. 
Nee mora, nee requies ; at fulvae nimbus arenao 110 

Tollitur ; bumesctint spumiis flatuque sequentum : 
Tantus amor laudum, tantae est vietoria euree. 
Primus Ericbthonius currus et quatuor ausus 
Jungere equos, rapidusque rotis insistere vietor. 
Frena Peletbronii Lapithae g3rrosque dedere, 115 

Impositi dorso, atque equitem doeuere sub armis 
Insultare solo, et gressus glomerare^superbos. 
j^quus uterque labor : aequo juvenemque magistri 
Exquirunt, calidumque animis, et eursibus acrem ; 
Quamvis saepe fuga versos ille egerit bostis, 120 

Et patriam Epirum referat, fortesque Myeenas, 
Neptunique ips& deducat origine gentem. 

His animadversis, instant sub tempus, et omnes 
Impendunt euras dense distendere pingui, 
Quem legere dueem, et peeori dixere maritum ; 125 

Pubentesque seeant berbas, fluviosque ministrant, 
Farraque ; ne blando nequeat superesse labori, 
Invalidique patrum referant jejunia nati. 
Ipsa autem maeie tenuant armenta volentes ; 
Atque, ubi eoncubitus primes jam nota voluptas 130 

Sollieitat, frondesque negant, et fontibuB arcent; 


Scpe edam cutbu qnadont, et sole fatigant, 

Qaam graYiter tunsis gemit area fru gibus, et quum 

Snrgentem ad Zephyrum paleae jactantur inanes. 

K)c &ciant, nimio ne luxu obtuaior usus 135 

Sit genitali arvo, et sulcos oblimet inertes ; 

Sed rapiat sitienB Venerem, interiusquo recondat. 

Rureus cura patnim cadere, et succedere matrum 
lacipit. Elxactis giavidae quum mensibus errant, 
Non illas gravibus quisqnam juga ducere plaustris, 140 
Non saltu Buperare viam sit passus, et acri 
Carpere prata fug&t fluviosque innare rapaces. 
Saltibus in Tacois pascunt, et plena secundum 
Flomina : muscus ubi, et yiridissima gramine ripa ; 
Speluncaeque tegant, et saxea procubet umbra. 145 

Est lucos Silari circa, ilicibusque virentem, 
PlurimuBy Alburnum, volitans, cui nomen asilo 
Romanum est, oestrum Graii vertere vocantes ; 
Asper, actfrba sonans ; quo tota exterrita silvis 
Diffugiunt armenta : iUrit mugitibus aether 150 

Concussus, silvaeque, et sicci ripa Tanagri. 
Hoc quondam monstro horribiles cxcrcuit iras, 
Inachiae, Juno, pestem meditata juvencae. 
Hunc quoque, nam mediis fervoribus acrior instat, 
Arcebis gravido pecori, armentaque pasces 155 

Sole recens orto, aut noctem ducentibus astris. 

Post partum, cura in vitulos traducitur omnis : 
Continuoque notas et nomina gentis inurunt, 
£t quos aut pecori malint submittere faabendo, 
Aut aris servare sacros, aut scindere terram, 160 

Et campum horrentem fractis invertere glebis. 
Cetera pascantur virides armenta per herbas. 
Tu, quos ad studium atque usum formabis agrestem, 
Jam vitulos bortare, viamque insiste domandi, 
Bum faciles animi juvenum, dum mobilis setas. 165 

Ac primum laxos tenui de vimine circlos 


Cervici 6ubnecte ; dehiiic> ubi libera colla 

Servitio assuerint, ipsis e torquibus aptos 

Junge pares, et coge gradum ccmferre juyenooo. 

Atque illis jam saepe rotae ducantur inanea 170 

Per terrain, et summo vestigia pulvere signent : 

Post valido nitens sub pondere &ginua axis 

Instrepat, et junctos temo trahat aereus orbes. 

Interea pubi indomitse non gramina tantom. 

Nee vescas salicum frondes, ulvamque palustrem, 176 

Sed frumenta manu caxpes sata. Nee tibi fcBtse, 

More patrom, nivea implebunt mulctraria vaccse, 

Sed tota in dulces consument ubera natOB* 

Sin ad bella magis studium turmasque ieroeeB, 
Aut Alphea rods praelabi flumina Pisse, 180 

Et Jovis in luco currus agitare volantes ; 
Primus equi labor est, animos atque arma yidere 
Bellantum, lituosque pati ; tractuque gementem 
Ferre rotam, et stabulo frenos audire sonantes ; 
Tum magis atque magis blandis gaudere magistri 185 
Laudibus, et plausae sonitum cervicis.amare. 
Atque bsec jam primo depulsus ab ubere matris 
Audeat, inque vicem det mcdlibus ora capiatris 
Invalidus, etiamque tremens, etiam inscius s&vi* 
At, tribus exactis, ubi quarta accesserit aestas, 190 

Carpere mox gyrum incipiat, gradibusque sonare 
Compositis, sinuetque altema Tolumina crurum ; 
Sitque laboranti similis ; tum cursibus auras, 
Tum vocet, ac, per aperta volans, ceu liber habenis, 
JEquora, vix summi vestigia ponat aienA : 195 

Qualis Hyperboreis Aquilo quum densus ab oria 
Incubuit, Scythiaeque hiemis atque arida differt 
Nubila : tum segetes altae campique natantes 
Lenibus horrescunt ilabris, summaeque sooorem 
Dant silvae, longique urguent ad littora fluctus : 200 

lUe volat, simul arva fiiga, simol sequora verieDS. 

eEOteicoir xjb. m. 71 

Hie yel ad Elei nietas et maxima campi 

Sudabit spatia, et ftpumas aget ore cruentas ; 

Belgica vel moUi melius feret esseda collo. 

Turn demam crass4 magnum farragine corpus 20G 

Crescere, jam domitis, sinito ; namque ante domandum 

Ingentes toUent animos, prensique negabunt 

Verbera lenta pati, et duris parere lupatis. 

Sed n<m uUa magis vires industria firmat, 
(^nam Venerem et eiect stimulos avertere amoris, 210 
Sive boum, sive est cui gratior usus equorum. 
Atque ideo taaros proc«l atque in sola relegant 
Pascua, post montem oppositum, et trans ilumina lata ; 
Aut intus olauBOs satura ad preesepia servant. 
C^orpit enim vires paullattm, uritque videiido, 216 

Femina ; nee nemc»:<um patitur meminisse, nee heibsB : 
Dulcibus ilia qiiidem illecebris et saepe superbos 
Comibus inter se subigit decemere amantes. 
Fascitur in magnd silvi formosa juvenca : 
lUi altemantes mult& vi proelia miscent 220 

Vulneribos erebris ; lavit ater corpora sanguis ; 
Versaque in obnixos urguentur comiia vasto 
Cum gemitu : reboant silvseque et longus Olympos. 
Nee mos bellantes una stabulare : sed alter 
Vietus abit, longeque ignotis exsulat oris ; . 225 

Multa gemens ignominiam, plagasque superbL 
Victoris, tum, quos amisit inultus, amores ; 
Et stabula aspeetans regnis excessit avitis. 
Ergo omni eura vires exercet, et inter 
Dura jacet pemix instrato saxa eubili, 230 

Frondibus hirsutis et earice pastus aeutft ; 
Et tentat sese, atque irasci in comua discit 
Arboris obnixus truneo, ventosque lacessit 
IctibuSy et spajs4 ad pugnam proludit areniL 
Fosty ubi eoUeetum robur, viresque refectse, 235 

Signa movety prsBcq>sque oblitum fertur in hostem : 


72 .6E0K6IC0N LIB. IH. 


Fluctus uti medio coBpit quum albescere ponto^ 

Longius, ex altoque sinum txahit; utque, Tolutus 

Ad terras, immane sonat per saxa, neque ipso 

Monte minor procumbit ; at ima exaestuat imda 240 

Verticibos, nigramque alte subjectat arenam. 

Omne adeo genus in terris hominumque.ferarumque,, 
Et genus aeqUoreum, pecudes, pictaeque volucres, 
In furias ignemque ruunt : amor omnibus idem. 
Tempore non alio, catulorum oblita, leaena 245 

Saevior erravit campis ; nee funera vulgo 
Tam multa informes ursi stragemque dedere 
Per silvas : tam saevus aper, timi pessima dgris. 
Heu ! male tum Libyae solis erratur in agris. 
Nonne vides, ut tota tremor pertentet equorum 250 

Corpora, si tantum notas odor attulit auras 1 
Ac neque eos jam firena virQm^ ileque verjbera saeya, 
Non scopuli rupesque cavae, atque objecta retardant 
Flumina, correptos undd. torquentia montes. 
Ipse ruit dentesque Sabellicus exacuit sus, 255 

Et pede prosubigit terram, fricat arbore costas, 
Atque hinc atque illinc humeros ad vulnera durat. 
Quid juvenis, magnum cui versat in ossibus ignem 
Durus amor 1 Nempe abruptis turbata procellis 
.Nocte natat caeca serus freta ; quem super ingens 260 
Porta tonat cceli, et scopulis illisa reclamant 
^quora ; nee miseri possunt revocare parentes. 
Nee moritura super crudeli funere virgo. 
Quid lynces Bacchi variae, et genus acre luporum, 
Atque canum 1 quid, quae imbelles dant proelia cervi 1 

Scilicet ante omnes furor est insignis equarum ; 266 
Et mentem Venus ipsa dedit, quo tempore Glauci 
Potniades malis membra absumsere quadrigae. 
Ill as ducit amor trans Gargara, transque sonantem 
Ascanium : superant montes, et flumina tranant. 270 
Continuoque, avidis ubi subdita flamma medullis, 


Vete magiB, quia yere calor redit ossibus, illas 

Ore omnes venas in Zephyrum staxit rupibus altis^ 

Exceptantque leves auras ; et saepe sine ullis 

CdDJugiisy yento gravidse, mirabile dictu ! 275 

Saia per, et scopulos, et depressas convalles 

Biffagiunt ; non, Eure, tuos, neque Solis ad ortus ; 

Id Borean Caurtunque, aut unde nigerrimus Auster 

Nascitur, et pluvio contristat frigoro ccclum. 

Einc demumy bippomanes vero quod nomine dicunt 280 

Pastores, lentum destillat ab inguine virus ; 

ffippomanes, quod saepe make legore novercae, 

J MiBcueruntque berbas et non innoxia verba. 
Sed fugit interea, fiigit irreparabilc tempus, 
Smgula dum capti circumvectamur amore. 2S6 

Hoc satis armentis. Superat pars altera curae, 
Lanigeros agitare greges, hirtasque capellas. 
Hie labor-; bine laudem fortes sperate coloni. 
Xec sum animi dubius, verbis ea v in cere magnum 
(^uam sit, et angustis hunc addere rebus honorem. 290 

r Sed me Famassi deserta per ardua dulcis 
Raptat amor : juvat ire jugis, qua nulla priorum 
Castaliam molli devertitur orbita clivo. 

Nunc, veneranda Pales, magno nunc ore sonandum. 
Incipiens, stabulis edico in mollibus herbam 295 

Carpere oves, dum mox frondosa reducitur aestas ; 
Et multa duram stipula filicumque maniplis 
Stemere subter humum, glacies ne frigida laedat 
Molle pecus, scabiemquc ferat, turpesquc podagras. 
Post, bine digressus, jubeo frondentia capris 300 

Arbuta sufficere, et fluvios praebere recentes ; 
Et stabula a ventis biberno opponere soli, 
Ad medium conversa diem : dum frigid us olim 
Jam cadit, extremoque irrorat Aquarius anno. 
Hae quoque non cur^L nobis leviore tuendae, 305 

Nee minor usus erit : quamvis Milesia magno 



74 6E0R6IC0N LIB. in; 

Vellera mutentur Tyrios incocta rubores. 
Densior bine soboles ; bine largi eopia lactis. 
Quam magis exbausto spumaverit ubere mulctray 
Lseta magis pressis manabunt flumina inammis. 310 

Nee minus interea barbas incanaque menta 
Cinypbii tondent birei, saetasque comantes, 
Usmn in castxorum, et miseris velamina nautifl. 
Paseuntur vero silvas, et summa Lyeaei, 
Horrentesque rubos, et amantes ardua dumos ; 315 

Atque ipsae memores redeunt in tecta, suosqiie 
Dueunt, et gravido superant vix ubere limen. 
Ergo omni studio glaeiem ventosque niyales, 
Quo minus est illis eurse mortalis egestas, 
Avertes ; victumque feres et virgea laetus 320 

Pabula ; nee tota elaudes fcenilia brumH. 
At vero, Zepbyris quum laeta vocantibas aestas 
In saltus utrumque gregem, atque in pascua mittet, 
Lueiferi prime eum sidere frigid a rura 
CarpatnuSy dum mane novum, dum gramina canent, 325 
Et ros in teneri peeori gratissimus berba. 
Inde, ubi quarta sitim eoeli eollegerit bora, 
Et eantu querulae rumpent arbusta eieadae, 
Ad puteos aut alta greges ad stagna jubeto 
Currentem ilignis potare eanaJibus undam; 330 

iBstibus at mediis umbrosam exquirere yallem, 
Sicubi magna Jovis antique robore quereus 
Ingentes tendat ramos ; aut sieubi nigrum 
Ilieibus crebris saeri nemus aceubet umbri : 
Tum tenues dare rursus aquas, et pascere rursus 335 
Solis ad occasum, quum £rigidus aera vesper 
T«^mper^f, et saltus reficit jam roseida luna, 
Littoraque aJeyonen resonant, aealanthida dumi. 
Quid tibi pastores Libyae, quid paseua versu 
Prosequar, et raris babitata mapalia teetis ? 340 

Saepe diem noctemque, et totum ex ordine mensem. 

QBOtoicow LIB* ur. 75 

Fucitar itque pecns longa in deserta sine ullis 
HoBpidis : tJEuitam campi jacet. Omnia secum 
AnoentariuB Afer agit, tectumque, Laremque, 
Axmaqoey Amycleeumque canem, Cressamque pharetram ; 
Non secus ac patriia acer Romanua in armis, 346 

InJQsto Bub fiiace viam qnum carpit, et hosti 
Ante exspectatum positis stat in agmine castris. 

At non, qoi ScythisB gentes, Maeotiaque unda, 
TmrbidiiB et torqnenB flayentea Ister arenas, 360 

Qolque redit medinm Rhodope porrecta sub axem. 
mic clausa tenent stabulis armenta ; neqne ullao 
Ant berbad campo apparent, aut arbore frondes : 
Sed jacet aggeribus niveis informis et alto 
Terra gela late, septemque assurgit in nhias : 355 

Semper biems, semper spirantes frigora Cauri. 
Tom sol pallentes hand nnquam discutit umbras ; 
Nee qnuxn invectus eqnis altum petit setbera, nee qunm 
Praecipitem Oceani rubro lavit aequore currum. 
Concrescunt subitae currenti in flumine crustae, 360 

Undaque jam tergo ferrates sustinet orbes, 
Fuppibus ilia prius, patulis nunc hospita plaustris 
^raque dissiliunt vulgo, vestesque rigescunt 
lodutae, caeduntque securibus bumida vina, 
Et totae solidam in glaciem vertere lacunae, 365 

Stiriaque impexis induruit borrida barbis. 
Interea toto non secius aere ningit ; 
Intereunt pecudes, stant circumfusa pruinis 
Corpora magna boum ; confertoque agmine cervi 
Torpent mole nov^, et summis vix comibus exstant. 370 
Hob non immissis canibus, non cassibus ullis, 
Puniceaeve agitant pavidos formidine pinnae : 
Sed frustra oppositum trudentes pectore montem 
Comminus obtruncant ferro, graviterque rudentes 
Caedunt, et magno laeti clamore reportant. 375 

Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub altd 



Otia agunt terrd, congestaque robora totasque 

Advolvere focis ulmos, ignique dedere. 

Hie noctem ludo ducunt, et pocula laeti 

Fermento atque acidis imitantur vitea sorbis. 380 

Talis, Hyperboreo Septem subjecta trioni, 

Gens effrena virOm Rhipaeo tunditur Euro, 

Et pecudum fulvis velatur corpora saetis. 

Si tibi lanitium curae, primum aspera silva, 
Lappaeque tribulique absint ; fuge pabula Iseta ; 385 

Continuoque greges villis lege mollibus albos. 
Ilium autem, quamvis aries sit candidus ipse, 
Nigra subest udo tantum cui lingua palato, 
Rejice, ne maculis infuscet vellera pullis 
Nascentum ; plenoque alium circumspice campo. 390 
Munere sic niveo lanse, si credere dignum est, 
Pan deus Arcadiae captam te, Luna, fefellit, 
In nemora alta vocans ; nee tu aspemata vocantem. 

At, cui lactis amor, cytisum, lotosque frequentes 
Ipse manu, salsasque ferat praesepibus herbas. 295 

Hinc et amant fluvios magis, ac magis ubera tendunt, 
Et salis occultum referunt in lact^ saporem. 
Multi jam excretos prohibent a matribus baedos, 
Primaque ferratis praefigunt ora capistris. 
Quod surgente die mulsere borisque diumis, 400 

Nocte premunt: quod jam tenebris et sole cadente, 
Sub lucem exportans calatbis, adit oppida pastor ; 
Aut parco sale contingunt, biemique reponunt. 

Nee tibi eura canum fuerit postrema : sed una 
Veloces Spartae catulos, acremque Molossum, 405 

Pasce sero pingui. Nunquam, custodibus illis, 
Nocturnum stabulis furem, incursusque luporum, 
Aut impacatos a tergo horrebis Iberos. 
Saepe etiam cursu timidos agitabis onagros, 
Et canibus leporem, canibus venabere damas. 410 

Saepe, volutabris pulsos silvestribus, apros 


Latratn turbabis agens, montesque per altos 
Ingentexn clamore premos ad retia ccn'um. 

Disce et odoTatam stabulis accendcro ccdrum, 
Gfllbaneoque agitare graves nidoro chclydrus. 415 

Saepe sub immotis prsssepibus, aut, mala tactu, 
Vipera delituit, ccelumque extcrrita fugit ; 
Aut, tecto assuetus coluber succedere et umbrae, 
Pestis acerba boum, pecorique aspergere virus, 
Fovit bumum. Cape saxa manu, cape robora, pastoi, 
Tollentemque minaa et sibila colla tumentcm 421 

Dejice : jamque fug&. timidum caput abdidit alte, 
Q,uum medii nexus extremaeque agmina caudae 
Solvuntur, tardosque trahit sinus ultimus orbis. 
Est etiam ille malus Calabris in saltibus anguis, 426 
Squamea convohrens sublato pectore terga, 
Atque notis longam maculosus grandibus alvum : 
Qui, dum amnes idli rumpuntur fontibus, et dum 
Vere madent udo terrae ac pluvialibus austris, 
Stagna colit ; ripisque babitans, hie piscibus atram 430 
Improbus ingluviem ranisque loquacibus explet ; 
Postquam exusta palus, terreeque ardore deliiscunt, 
Exsilit in siccum, et, fiammantia lumina torquens, 
Saevit agris, asperque siti, atque exterritus aestu. 
Ne mibi turn moUes sub divo carpere somnos, 435 

Neu dorso nemoris libeat jacuisse per beibas ; 
Quum, positis nevus exuviis, nitidusque juventa, 
Volvitur, aut catulos tectis aut ova relinquens, 
Arduus ad solem, et linguis micat era trisulcis. 

Morborum quoque te causas et signa docebo. 440 

Turpis oves tentat scabies, ubi fiigidus imber 
Altius ad vivum persedit, et horrida cano 
Bruma gelu ; vel quum tonsis illotus adhaesit 
Sudor, et birsuti secuerunt corpora vepres. 
Dulcibus idcirco fluviis pecus omne magistri 445 

Perfundunt, udisque aries in gurgite villis 


Mersatur, miasusque secundo defluit amni ; 

Aut tonsum txisti contingunt corpus amurdL, 

Et spumas miscent argenti, et sulfura viva, 

Idseasque pices, et pingues unguine ceras, 45Q 

Scillamque, elleborosque graves, nigrumque bitumen. 

Non tamen uUa magis praesens fortuna laborum est, 

Quam si quis ferro potuit rescindere jsummum 

Ulceris os : alitur yitium, vivitque tegendo, 

Dum medicas adhibere manus ad vulnera pastor 455 

Abnegat, aut meliora deos sedet omina poscens. 

Quin etiam, ima dolor balantum lapsus ad ossa 

Quum furit^ atque artus depascit&r aiida febns, 

Profuit incensos aestus avertere, et inter 

Ima ferire pedis salientem sanguine venam : 460 

Bisaltae quo more solent, acerque Gelonus, 

Quum fugit in Rbodopen, atque in deserta Getarum, 

Et lac concretum cum sanguine potat equino. 

Quam procul aut moUi succedere saepius umbras 
Yideris, aut summas carpentem ignavius herbas, 465 
Extremamque sequi, aut medio procumbere campo 
Pascentem, et serae solam decedere nocti ; 
Continue culpam ferro compesce, priusquam 
Dira per incautum serpant contagia vulgus. 
Non tam creber, agens hiemem, ruit aequore turbo, 470 
Quam multse pecudum pestes : nee singula morbi 
Corpora corripiunt ; sed tota aestiya repente, 
Spemque gregemque simul, eunctamque ab origine gen- 

Turn sciat, aerias Alpes et Norica si quis 
Castella in tumulis et lapjdis arva Timavi, 475 

Nunc quoque post tanto videait, desertaque regna 
Pastorum, et longe saltus lateque vacantes. 

Hie quondam morbo cobH miseranda coorta est 
Tempestas, totoque auctumni incanduit asstu, 
Et genus omne neci pecudum dedit, omne ferarum ; 480 



Comipitque lacus ; infecit pabula tabo. 

Nee via mortis erat simplex ; sed, ubi ignea venii 

Omnibus- acta sitis miseros adduxerat artus, 

Rursus abundabat fluidus liquor, omniaque in se 

Ossa minutatim morbo collapsa trahebat. 485 

Sa)pe in honore deOm medio stans hostia ad aram, 

Lanea dum nivei circumdatur infula vitta, 

Inter cunctantes cecidit moribunda ministros : 

Aut, si quam ferro mactaverat ante sacerdos, 

Inde nequ^ impositis ardent altaria fibris, 490 

Nee responsa potest consultus reddere vates ; 

Ac vix suppositi tinguntur sanguine cultri, 

Summaque jejuna sanie infuscatur arena. 

Hinc Isetis yituli vulgo moriuntur in herbis, 

£t dulces animas plena ad praesepia reddunt. 495 

Hinc canibus blandis rabies venit, et quatit aegros 

Tussis anbela sues, ac faucibus angit obesis. 

Labitur infelix, studiorum atque immemor berbas, 

Victor equus, fontesque avertitur, et pedp terram 

Crebra ferit : demissae aures ; incertus ibidem 500 

Sudor, et ille quidem morituris frigidus ; aret 

Pellis, et ad tactum tractanti dura resistit. 

Haec ante exitium primis dant signa diebus. 

Sin in processu coepit crudescero morbus, 

Tum vero ardentesi oculi, atque attractus ab alto 505 

Spiritus, interdum gemitu gravid ; imaque longo 

Ilia singultu tendunt ; it naribus ater 

Sanguis, et obsessas fauces premit aspera lingua. 

Profuit inserto latices infundere comu 

Lenaeos : ea yisa salus morientibus una. 510 

Mox erat hoc ipsum exitio, furiisque refecti 

Ardebant, ipsique suos, jam morte sub aegr&, 

(Di raeliora piis, erroremque hostibus ilium !) 

Discissos nudis laniabant dentibus artus. 

Kcce autem, duro fumans sub vomere, taurus 515 


Concidit, et mixtam spumis vomit ore cruorenii 
Extremosque ciet gemitus. It tristis arator,. 
Moerentem abjungens fratem& morte juvencum ; 
Atque opere in medio defixa reliquit aratra. 
Non umbrae altonim nemoram, non moUia possunt 520 
Prata movere animum ; non, qui per saxa volntus, 
Puiior electro, campum petit, amnis : at ima 
Solvuntur latera, atque oculos stupor urget inertes, 
Ad terramque fluit devexo pondere cervix. 
Quid labor, aut benefacta juvant 1 quid vomere terras 
Invertisse graves 1 atqui non Massica Bacchi 526 

Mimera, non illis epulae nocuere rep6stae : 
Frondibus, et victu pascuntur simplicis herbae ; 
Pocula sunt fontes liquidi, atque exercita cursu 
Flumina : nee somnos abrumpit cura salubres. 530 

Tempore non alio dicunt regionibus illis 
Quaesitas ad sacra boves Junonis, et uris 
Imparibus ductos alta ad donaria currus. 

Ergo sBgre rastris terram rimantur, et ipsis 
Unguibus infodiunt fniges, montesque per altos 535 

Content^ cervice trahunt strident! a plaustra. 
Non lupus insidias explorat ovilia circum. 
Nee gregibus noctumus obambulat : acrior ilium 
Cura domat. Timidi damae, cervique fugaces 
Nunc interque canes et circum tecta vagantur. 540 

Jam maris immensi prolem, et genus omne natantum, 
Littore in extremo, ceu naufraga corpora, fluctus 
Proluit ; insolitae fugiunt in flumina pbocae. 
Interit et, curvis frustra defensa latebris, 
Vipera, et attoniti squamis astantibus hydri. 545 

Ipsis est aer avibus non aequus, et illsB 
PrsBcipites alta vitam sub nube relinquunt. 
Praeterea, jam nee mutari pabula refert, 
Quaesitaeque noeent artes ; cessere magistri, 
Phillyrides Chiron. Amythaoniusque Melampus. 550 


SaBvit, et, in lacem Stygiis emima tenebris 
PiMda Tisiphoney Morboe agit ante, Metumqoe ; 
Inque dies ayidiun surgens caput altiuB effert. 
Balatu pecorum et crebria mugitibus amnes, 
Arenteaqne sonant zipas, collesque supini. 555 

Jamque catenratini dat stragem, atque aggerat ipsis 
In stabulis turpi dilapsa cadavera tabo ; 
Donee humo tegere, ac ^eis abscondere discxnt : 
Nam neque erat coiiis usus ; nee viscera quisquam 
Aut undis abolere potest, aut vincere flamnii ; 660 

Nee tondere quidem, morbo illuvieque peresa, 
Vellera ; iiec tolas possunt attingere putres. 
Verum etiam, invisos si quis tentirat amictus, 
Ardentes papulsB, atque immundus olentia sudor 
Membra seqnebatur; nee longo deinde moranti 565 

Tempore contactos artus sacer ignis edebat. 


G E R G I G N. 


pROTENUS aerii mollis ccelestia dona 
Exsequar: banc etiam, MaBcenas, aspice partem* 
Admiranda dbi levium spectacula rerum, 
Magnanimosque duces, totiusque ordine gentis 
Mores, et studia, et populos, et prcelia dicam* 6 

In tenui labor : at tenuis non gloria, si quern 
Numina laeva sinunt, auditque vocatus Apollo 

Principio, sedes apibus statioque petenda. 
Quo neque sit ventis aditus (nam pabula venti 
Ferre domum probibent), neque oves baedique petulci 10 
Floribus insultent, aut errans bucula campo 
Decutiat rorem, et surgentes atterat berbas. 
Absint et picti squalentia terga lacerti 
Pinguibus a stabulis, meropesque, aliaeque volucres, 
Et manibus Procne pectus signata cruentis. 15 

Omnia nam late vastant, ipsasque volantes 
Ore ferunt dulcem nidis immitibus escam. 
At liquidi fontes et stagna virentia musco 
Adsint, et tenuis, fugiens per gramina, rivus ; 
Palmaque vestibulum aut ingens oleaster inumbret ; 20 
Ut, quum prima novi ducent examina reges 
Vere suo, ludetque favis emissa juventus, 
Vicina invitet decedere ripa calori, 
Obviaque bospitiis teneat frondentibus arbos. 

In medium, seu stabit iners, seu profluet bumor, 25 
Transversas salices et grandia conjice saxa ; 
Pontibus ut crebris possint consistere, et alas 


Pandere ad aestivum solem, si forte morantes 
Sparserit, aut praeceps Neptuno immerserit Eunii. 
Haec circum, casiae virides, et olontia lato 30 

Serpylla, et graviter spirantis copia tbymbrss 
Floreaty iniguumque bibant violaria font em. 

Ipsa autem, seu corticibus tibi suta cavatis, 
Seu lento fuerint alvearia vimine tcxta, 
Angustos habeant aditus ; nam frigore mella 35 

Cogit hiems, eademque calor liquefacta remittit : 
Utraque vis apibus pariter metuenda ; neque illao 
Nequidquam in tectis certatim tenuia cera 
Spiramenta linunt, fucoque et floribus oras 
£xplent, collectumque haec ipsa ad munera gluten, 40 
Et visco et Phrygiae servant pice lentius Idas. 
Saepe etiam efibssis, si vera est fama, latebris 
Sub terri fovere larem, penitusque repertae 
Pumicibusque cavis exesaeque arboris antro. 
Tu tamen e levi rimosa cubilia limo 45 

Unge fovens circum, et raras super injice frondes. 
Neu propius tectis taxum sine ; neve rubentes 
Ure foco cancros ; altae neu crede paludi, 
Aut ubi odor coeni gravis, aut ubi concava pulsu 
Saxa sonant, vocisque offensa resultat imago. 50 

Quod superest, ubi pulsara hiemem Sol aureus egit 
Sub terras, coelumque aestiv& luce reclusit ; 
Illae continue saltus silvasque pcragrant, 
Purpureosque metunt flores, et flumina libant 
Summa leves. Hinc, nescio qua dulcedine laetae, 55 
Progeniem nidosque fovent : hinc arte recentes 
Excudunt ceras, et mella tenacia fingunt. 
Hinc, ubi jam emissum caveis ad sidera coeli 
Nare per sestatem liquidam suspexeris agmen, 
Obscuramque trahi vento mirabere nubem, 60 

Contemplator : aquas dulces, et frondea semper 
Tecta petunt. Hue tu jussos asperge sapores. 

84 6E0RGIC0N LIB. IT. 

Trita melispbylla, et cerinthae ignobile gramen ; 
Tinnitusque cie, et Matris quale cymbala circum : 
Ipsse consident medicatis sedibus ; ipsse 65 

Intima more suo sese in cunabula condent. 

Sin autem ad pugnam exierint (nam ssepe duobus 
Regibus incessit magno discordia motu, 
Continuoque animos vulgi et trepidantia bello 
Corda licet longe praesciscere : namque morantes 70 

Martins ille aeris rauci canor increpat, et vox 
Auditur fractos sonitus imitata tubarum ; 
Turn jtrepidae inter se coeunt, pennisque coruscant, 
Spiculaque exacuunt rostris, aptantque lacertos, 
Et, circa regem, atque ipsa ad praetoria, densae 75 

Miscentur, magnisque vocant clamoribus hostem) — 
Ergo, ubi ver nactae sudum camposque patent es, 
Erumpunt portis ; concurritur ; aethere in alto 
Fit sonitus ; magnum mixtae glomerantur in orbem, 
Praecipitesque cadunt (non densior aere grando, 80 

Nee de concussi tantum pluit ilice glandis. 
Ipsi per medias acies, insignibus alis, 
Ingentes animos angusto in pectore versant. 
Usque adeo obnixi non cedere, duto gravis aut bos, 
Aut hos, versa fuga victor dare terga subegit). 85 

Hi motus animorum, atque haec certamina tanta, 
Pulveris exigui jactu compressa, quiescent. 

Verum, ubi duct ores acie revocaveris ambos, 
Deterior qui visus, eum, ne prodigus obsit, 
Dede neci ; melior vacua sine regnet in aul^. 90 

Alter erit maculis auro squalentibus ardens ; 
Nam duo sunt genera : hie melior, insignfs et ore, 
Et rutilis clarus squamis ; ille borridus alter 
Desidia, latamque trahens inglorius alvum. 
Ut binaj regum facies, ita corpora plebis : 95 

Namque aliae turpes horrent ; ceu, pulvere ab alto 
Quum venit, et sicco terram spuit ore viator 

6E0S6IC0N LIB. IV. 85 

Aridus ; elucent alias, et fulgore coruscant, 

Ardentes auro et paribus lita corpora guttis. 

Haec potior soboles : hinc coeli tempore certo 100 

Dulcia mella premes ; nee tantum dulcia, quantum 

Et liquida, et durum Bacchi domitura saporem. 

At, quum incerta volant coeloque examina ludunt, 
Contemnuntque favos, et frigida tecta relinquunt, 
Instabiles animos ludo prohibebis inani. 105 

Nee magnus prohibere labor : tu regibus alas 
Eripe : non illis quisquam cunctantibus altum 
Ire iter, aut castris audebit vellere signa. 
Invitent croceis halantes floribus horti, 
Et, custos iurum atque avium, cum falce salignd 110 

Hellespontiaci servet tutela PriapL 
Ipse, tbymum pinosque ferens de montibus altis, 
Tecta serat late circum, cui talia cuibb : 
Ipse labore manum duro t^*at ; ipse feraces 
Figat hurao plantas, et,amico8 irriget imbres. 115 

Atque equidem, extremo ni jam sub fine laborum 
Vela traham, et terris festinem advertere proram, 
Forsitan et, pingues hortos quae cura colendi 
Omaret, canerem, biferique rosaria Paesti ; 
Quoque modo potis gauderent intuba rivis, 120 

Et virides apio ripae ; tortusque per herbam 
Cresceret in ventrem cucumis : nee sera comantem 
Narcissum, aut flexi tacuissem vimen acantbi, 
Pallentesque hederas, et amantes litlora myrtos. 
Namque sub CEbaliae memini me turribus altis, 125 

Qua niger humectat fiaventia culta Galaesus, 
Corycium vidisse senem, cui pauca relicti 
Jugera ruris erant ; nee fertilis ilia juvencis. 
Nee pecori opportuna seges, nee commoda Baccho. 
Hie rarum tarn en in dumis olus, albaque circum 130 

Liiia, verbenasque premens, vescumque papaver, 
Regum aequabat opes animo ; seraque revertens 


86 6E0&6IC0N Z^IB. IV. 

Nocte domum dapibus mensas onerabat inemptis. 
Primus vere rosain, atque auctumno carpere poma } 
Et,. quum tristis hiems etiamnum frigoro saxa 135 

Rumperet, et glacie cursus frenaret aquaruniy 
Ille comam mollis jam tum tondebat acanthi, 
^statem increpitans seram 2;ephyrosque morantes. 
Ergo apibus fcetis idem, atque examine multo. 
Primus abundare, et spumantia cogere pressis 140 

Mella favis ; illi tiliae, atque uberrima pinus ; 
Quotque in flore novo pomis se fertilis arbos 
Induerat, totidem auctumno matura tenebat. 
Ille etiam seras in versum distulit ulmos, 
Eduramque pirum, et spinos jam pruna ferentes, 145 
Jamque ministrantem platanum potantibus uml»:as. 
Verum haec ipse equidem, spatiis exclusus iniquis, 
Praetereo, atque aliis post me memoranda relinquo. 

Nunc age, naturas apibus quas Jupiter ipse 
Addidit, expediam ; pro qua mercede, canoros 150 

Curetum sonitus crepitantiaque aera secutse 
Dictaeo coeli regem pavere sub antro. 
Solas communes gnatos, consortia tecta 
Urbis habent, magnisque agitant sub legibus sevum ; 
Et patriam solae, et certos novere Penates ; 155 

Venturaeque hiemis memores a&state laborem 
Experiuntur, et in medium quaesita reponunt. 
Namque aliae victu invigilant, et foedere pacto 
Exercentur agris : pars intra septa domorum 
Narcissi lacrimam, et lentum de cortice gluten, 160 

Prima favis ponunt fundamina, deinde tenaces 
Suspendunt ceras ; aliae, spem gentis, adultos 
Educunt foetus ; aliae purissima mella 
Stipant, et liquido distendunt nectare cellas. 
Sunt quibus ad portas cecidit custodia sort! ; 165 

Inque vicem speculantur aquas et nubila coeli ; 
Aut onera accipiunt venientum, aut agmine facto 


Ignavnmy fiicos, pecuB a pioaepibus arcent : 

Fenret opus, redolentque thjmo fragrantia xnella. 

Ac veluti, lends Cyclopes fulmina massis 170 

Quum properanty alii taurinis fbllibus auras 

Accipiunt redduntque, alii stridentia tingunt 

Mm lacu ; gemit imposids incudibus ^tna : 

Illi inter sese magaft yi brachia tollunt 

In namerum, versantque tenaci forcipe ferrum : 175 

Non aliter, si parva licet componere magnis, 

Cecropias innatus apes amor urget habendi, 

Munere quamqne suo. Gxandsevis oppida cursD, 

Et munire favos, et dsedala fingere tecta : 

At fess8& muM referunt se nocte minores, 180 

Crura thymo plenas ; pascuntur et arbuta passim, 

Et glaucas salices, casiamque, crocumque rubentem, 

Et pinguem tiliam, et ferrugineos byacintbos. 

Onmibus una quies operum, labor omnibus unus. 

Maue ruunt portis ; nusquam mora : rursus, easdem 185 

Vesper ubi e pastu tandem decedere campis 

Admonuit, tum tecta petunt, turn corpora curant ; 

Fit sonitus, mussantque eras et limina circum. 

Post^ ubi jam thalamis se composuere, siletur 

In noctem, fessosque sopor suus occupat artus. 190 

Nee vero a stabulis, pluvia impendente, recedunt 

Longius, aut credunt coelo adventandbus Euris: 

Sed circum tutaa sub moenibus urbis aquantur, 

Excursusque breves tentant, et saepe lapillos, 

Ut cymbae instabiles fluctu jactante saburram, 195 

Tollunt ; his sese per inania nubila librant. 

Ilium adeo placuisse apibus mirabere morem, 

Quod nee concubitu indtdgent, nee corpora segues 

In venerem solvunt, aut foetus nixibus edunt ; 

Verum ipsae e foliis natos, et suavibus herbis, 200 

Ore legunt ; ipsae regem parvosque Quirites 

Sufficiimt, aulasque et cerea regna refingunt. 

88 6E0RGIC0N LIB. IV. 

Ssepe etiam duris errando in cotibus alas 
Attrivere, ultroque animam sub fasce dedere : 
Tantus amor florum, et generapdi gloria mellis. 205 

Ergo ipsas quamvis angusti terminus aevi 
Excipiat (neque enim plus septima ducitur sestas), 
At genus immortale manet, multosque per annos 
Stat fortuna domus, et avi numerantuf ayorum. 
Praeterea regem non sic -Slgyptus et ingens 210 

Lydia, nee populi Parthorum, aut Medus Hydaspes, 
Observant. Rege incolumi, mens omnibus una est ; 
AmissOy rupere fidem, constructaque mella 
Diripuere ipsae, et crates solvere favorum. 
Ille operum custos : ilium admirantur, et omnes 215 

Circumstant fremitu denso, stipantque frequentes ; 
Et saepe attoUunt humeris, et corpora bello 
Objectant, pulchramque petunt per vubiera mortem. 

His quidam signis, atque haec exempla secuti, 
Esse apibus partem divinae mentis et haustus 220 

JEtherios dixere : Deum namque ire per omnes 
Terrasque, tractusque maris, coelumque profundum ; 
Hinc pecudes, armenta, viros, genus omne ferarum, 
Quemque sibi tenues nascentem arcessere vitas : 
Scilicet hue reddi deinde, ac resoluta referri 225 

Omnia ; nee morti esse locum ; sed viva volare 
Sideris in numerum, atque alto succedere cobIo. 

Si quando sedem angustam servataque mella 
Thesauris relines, prius haustu sparsus aquarum 
Ora fove, fumosque manu praetende sequaces. 230 

Bis gravidos cogunt foetus, duo tempora messis ; 
Taygete simul os terris ostendit honestum 
Pleias, et Oceani spretos pede reppuKt amnes ; 
Aut eadem sidus fugiens ubi Piscis aquosi 
Tristior hibemas coelo descendit in undas. 235 

Illis ira modum supra est, lassaeque venenum 
Morsibus inspirant, et spicula caeca relinquunt 

6E0KGIC0N UB. IT. ' 89 

Affixae veiiisy animasque in vulnere ponunt. 
Sin, duram metuens hiemem, parcesquo futuro, 
Contososque animos et res miserabere fractas, 240 

At suffire thymo, cerasque recidere inanes, 
Q.uis dnbitet 1 nam saepe favos ignotus adedit « 
Stellio, et lacifugis congesta cubilia blattis, 
Immunisque sedens aliena ad pabula fucus ; 
' Aut asper crabro imparibus se immiscuit armis ; 245 

Aut dirum, tineae, genus ; aut invisa MinervsB 
Laxos in foribus suspendit aranea casses. 
Quo magis exlfaustae fuerint, hoc acrius omnes 
Incumbent generis lapsi sarcire ruinas, 
Complebuntque fores, et floribus horrea texent. 250 

Si Tero, quoniam casus apibus quoque nostros 
Vita tulit, tristi languebunt corpora morbo ; 
Quod jam non dubiis poteris cognoscere signis 
(Continue est aegris alius color ; horrida vultum 
Deformat macies ; tum corpora luce carentum 255 

Exportant tectis, et tristia fun era ducunt ; 
Aut illae pedibus connexae ad limina pendent, 
Aut intus clausis cunctantur in aedibus omnes, 
Ignavaeque fame, et contracto frigore pigrae : 
Tum son us auditur gravior, tractimque susurrant ; 260 
Frigid us ut quondam silvis immurmurat Auster, 
Ut mare sollicitum stridet refluentibus undis, 
iEstuat ut clausis rapidus fornacibus ignis) ; 
Hie jam galbaneos suadebo incendere odores, 
Mellaquie arundineis inferre canalibus, ultro 265 

Hortantem, et fessas ad pabula nota vocantem. 
Proderit et tunsum gallae admiscere saporem, 
Arentesque rosas, aut igni pinguia multo 
Defruta, vel Psythia passos de vite racemes, 
Cecropiumque tliymum, et grave olentia centaurea. 270 
Est etiam flos in pratis, cui nomen amello 
Fecere agricolae, facilis quaerentibus herba : 



Namque uno ingentem tollit dp cespite sUyam, 

Aureus ipse ; sed in foliis, quae plurima circum 

Funduntur, violas sublucet purpura mgrae ; ^ 275 

Saepe dedm nexis omatae torquibiis arae ; 

Asper in ore sapor ; tonsis in vallibus ilium 

Pa8tx)res et curva legunt prope flumina Mellae. 

Hujus odorato radices incoque Bacclio» 

Pabulaque in foribus plenis appone canistris. 280 

Sed, si quern proles subito defecerit omnis. 
Nee, genus undo novae stirpis revocetur, habebit ; 
Tempus et Arcadii memoranda inventa magistri 
Pandere, quoque modo caesis jam saepe juvencis 
Insincerus apes tulerit cruor ; aldus omnem 285 

Expediam, primft repetens ab origine, famam. 
Nam, qua Pellaei gens fortunata Canopi 
Accolit effuso stagnantem flumine Nilum, 
Et circum. pictis vehitur sua rura phaselis; 
Quaque pbaretratae vicinia Persidis urget 290 

[Et viridem ^gyptum nigrk foecundat arenft, 
Et diversa mens septem discurrit in ora 
Usque coloratis amnis devexus ab Indis] ; 
Omnis in h^c certam regie jacit arte salutem. 

Exiguus primum, atque ipsos contractus ad usus, 295 
Eligitur locus : hunc angustique imbrice tecti 
Parietibusque premunt arctis, et quatuor addunt, 
Quatuor a ventis, obliqu^ luce fenestras. 
Turn vitulus, bim^ curvans jam comua fronte, 
Quaeritur : buic, geminae nares, et spiritus oris, 300 

Multa reluctanti, obsuitur ; plagisque peremto 
Tunsa per integram solvuntur viscera pellem. 
Sic positum in clause linquunt, et ramea costis 
Subjiciunt fragmenta, tbymum, casiasque recentes. 
Hoc geritur, Zephyris primum impellentibus undas, 305 
Ante novis rubeant quam prata coloribus, ante 
Garrula quam tignis nidum suspendat hirundo. 


Interea teneris tepefactua in ossibus humor 

iSstuat ; et visenda modis animalia miris, 

Trunca pedum primo, mox et stxidentia pennis, 310 

Miscentur, tenuemque magis magis aera carpunt : 

Donee, ut aestivis effusus nubibus imber, 

Erupere ; ant ut nervo pulsante sagittae, 

Prima leves ineunt si quando prcelia Farthi. 

Quia deus banc, Musae, quis nobis extudit artem 1 315 
Unde nova ingressus bominum experientia cepit 1 

Pastor Aristaeus, fugiens Penei'a Tempe, 
Amissis, ut fama, apibus morboque fameque, 
Tristis ad extremi sacrum caput adstitit amnis, 
Multa querens ; atque blUs afiatus voce parentem : 320 
Mater, Cyrene mater, quae gurgitis hujus 
Ima tones, quid me praeclara stirpe deorum, 
Si modo, quern perhibes, pater est Thymbrasus Apollo, 
Invisum fatis genuisti 1 aut quo tibi nostri 
Pulsus amor 1 quid me CGelum sperare jubebas 1 325 

En ! etiam bunc ipsum vitae mortalis bonurem, 
Quem mibi vix fiiigum et pecudum custodia sollers 
Omnia tentanti extuderat, te matre, relinquo. 
Quin age, et ipsa manu felices erue silvas, 
Fer stabulis inimicum ignem, atque interfice messes, 330 
Ure sata, et validam in vites molire bipennem : 
Tanta meae si te ceperunt taedia laudis. 
At mater sonitum tbalamo sub fluminis alti 
Sensit : eam circum Milesia vellera nympbae 
Carpebant, byali saturo fucata colore ; 335 

Drymoque, Xantboque, Ligeaque, Pbyllodoceque, 
Caesariom effusas nitidam per Candida colla, 
[Nesaee, Spioque, Thaliaque, Cymodoceque] ; 
Cydippeque, et flava Lycorias ; altera virgo, 
Altera tum primes Lucinae experta labores ; 340 

Clioque et Beroe soror, Oceanitides ambae, 
Ambae auro, pictis incinctas pellibus ambae. 

92 6E0R6IC0N LIB. IV. 

Atque Epbyre, atque Opis, et Asia De'iopea, 

Et, tandem positis, velox Arethusa, sagittis. 

Inter quas curam Clymene narrabat inanem 345 

Vulcani, Maitisque dolos et dulcia furta ; 

Aque Chao densos divom numerabat amores. 

Carmine quo captae, dum fudis mollia pensa 

Devolvunt, iterum matemas impultt aures 

Luctus Aristsei, vitreisque sedilibiis omnes 350 

Obstupuere ; sfed, ante alias, Aretbusa, sorores 

Prospiciens, summa flavum caput extulit uhd&. 

Et procul : O geinitu non frustra exterrita tanto, 

Cyrene soror ! ipse tibi, tua maxima cura, 

Tristis Aristaeus Penei genitoris ad undam 355 

Stat lacrimans, et te crudelem nomine dicit. 

Huic, percussa nov& mentem formidine, mater, 

Due, age, due ad nos ; fas illi limina divom 

Tangere, ait: simul alta jubet discedere late 

Flumina, qua juvenis gressus inferret : at ilium 360 

Curvata in mentis faciem circumstetit tmda, 

Accepitque sinu vasto, misitque sub amnem. 

Jamque domum mirans genetricis, et bumida regna, 

Speluncisque lacus clausos, lucosque sonantes, 

Ibat, et, ingenti motu stupefactus aquarum, 365 

Omnia sub magn^ labentia flumina terrsl 

Spectabat, diversa locis ; Pbasimque, Ljcumque, 

Et caput, undo altus primum se erumpit Enipeus, 

Unde pater Tiberinus, et unde Aniena fluenta, 

Saxosumque sonans Hypanis, Mysusque Cai'cus, 370 

Et, gemina auratus taurine comua vultu, 

Eridanus, quo non aliiis per pinguia culta 

In mare purpureum violentior effluit amnis. 

Postquam est in tbalami pendentia pumice tecta 
Perventum, et gnati fletus cognovit inanes 375 

Cyrene, manibus liquidos dant ordine fontes 
Germanae, tonsisque ferunt mantilla villis. 

O90BGIC0N LIB^ IV. 98 

Pars epulis onerant mensas, et plena reponunt 

Focula : Panchaeis adolescunt ignibus arse : 

Et mater. Cape Madonii carchesia Bacchi ; 380 

Oceano libemus, ait. Simul ipsa precatur 

Oceanumque patrem rerum, Nymphasque sorores, 

Centum quae silvas, centum quae flumina servant ; 

Ter liquido ardentem perfudit nectare Vestam : 

Ter flamma ad summum tecti subjecta reluxit. 385 

Omine quo firmans animum, sic incipit ipsa: 

Est in Carpathio Neptuni gurgite vates, 

Caeruleus Proteus, magnum qui piscibus aequor 

Et juncto bipedum curru metitur equorum. 

Hie nunc Emathiae portus, patriamque revisit 390 

Pallenen : hunc et nympbae veneramur, et ipse 

Grandaevus Nereus ; novit namque omnia vates. 

Quae sint, quae fuerint, quae mox ventura trahantur ; 

Quippe ita Neptuno visum est, immania cujus 

Armenta, et turpes pascit sub gurgite phocas. 395 

Hie tibi, nate, prius vinclis capiendus, ut omnem 

Expediat morbi caussam, eventusque secundet. 

Nam sine vi non uUa dabit praecepta, neque ilium 

Orando flectes ; vim duram et vincula capto 

Tende : doli circum haec demum frangentur inanes. 400 

Ipsa ego te, medics quum sol accenderit flestus, 

Quum sitiunt herbae, et pecori jam gratior umbra est, 

In secreta senis ducam, quo fessus ab undis 

Se recipit ; facile ut somno aggrediare jacentem. 

Verum, ubi correptum manibus vinclisque tenebis, 406 

Tum variae eludent species atque ora feranim : 

Fiet enim subito sus horridus, atraque tigi-is, 

Squamosusque draco, et fulv^ cervice leaena ; 

Aut acrem flammae sonitum dabit, atque ita vinclis 

Excidet, aut in aquas tenues dilapsus abibit. 410 

Sed, quanto ille magis formas se vertet in omnes, 

Tanto, nate, magis contende tenacia vincla ; 


Donee talis erit mutato corpore, qualem 
Videris, incepto tegeret quum lumina somno. 

Hsec ait, et liquidum ambrosiae diffundit odorem, 415 
Quo totum nati corpus perduxit : at illi 
Dulcis compositis spiravit crinibus aura, 
Atque habilis membris venit vigor. Est speeus ingens 
Exesi latere in montis, quo plurima rente 
Cogitur, inque sinus scindit sese unda reductos ; 420 
Deprensis olim statio tutissima nautis : 
Intus se vasti Proteus tegit objice saxi. 
Hie juvenem in latebris, aversnm a lumine, nympba 
Collocat ; ipsa procul, nebulis obscura, resistit. 
Jam rapidus torrens sitientes Sirius InAos 425 

Ardebat coelo, et medium Sol igneus orbem 
Hauserat ; arebant herbae, et cava flumina sicciB 
Faucibus ad limum radii tepefacta coquebant : 
Quum Proteus, copsueta petens e fluctibus antra, 
Ibat ; eum vasti circum gens humida ponti - 430 

Exsultans rorem late dispersit amarum. 
Stemunt se somno diversae in littore pnocae : 
Ipse, velut stabuli custos in montibus olim. 
Vesper ubi e pastu vitulos ad tecta reducit, 
Auditisque lupos acuunt balatibus agni, 435 

Considit scopulo medius, numerumque recenset. 
Cujus Aristaeo quoniam est oblata facultas ;' 
Vix defessa senem passus componere membra, 
Cum clamore ruit magno, manicisque jacentem 
Occupat. lUe, suae contra non immemor artis, 440 

Omnia transformat sese in miracula rerum, 
Ignemque, horribilemque feram, fluviumque liquentem. 
Verum, ubi nulla fugam reperit fallacia, victus 
In sese redit, atque hominis tandem ore locutus : 
Nam quis te, juvenum confidentissime, nostras 445 

Jussit adire domus \ quidve hinc petis 1 inquit. At ille : 
Scis, Proteu, scis ipse, neque est te fallere quidquam ; 

6E0R6IC0N LIB. IV. 05 

Sed tu desine velle. Dedm praecepta secnti, 
Venimus bine lapsis quaesitum oracula rebus. 
Tantum effatus. Ad ba}c vates vi denique multsi 450 
Ardentes oculos intorsit lumine glauco, 
Et, graviter frendens, -eic fatis ora resolvit : 

Non te nullius exercent numinis irae : 
Magna luis commisea : tibi bas, miserabilis Orpbeus 
Haudquaquam ob meritum poenas, ni fata resistant, 455 
Suscitat, et rapt^ graviter pro conjuge Saevit. 
Ilia quidem, dum te fugeret per flumina prseceps, 
Immanem ante pedes bydrum moritura puella, 
Servantem ripas, alta non vidit in berbL 
At cborus aequalis Dryadum clamore supremos 460* 

Impldrunt montes ; fl^runt Rbodopeias arces, 
Altaque Pangaea, et Rbesi Mavortia tellus, 
Atque Getae, atque Hebrus, et Actias Oritbyia. 
Ipse, cava solans asgrum testudine amorem, 
Te, dulcis conjux, te solo in littore secum, 465 

Te,veniente die, te,decedente,canebat. 
Taenarias. etiam fauces, alta ostia I)itis, 
Et caligantem nigra formidine lucum 
Ingressus, Manesque adiit, regemque tremendum, 
Nesciaque bumanis precibus mansuescere corda. 470 
At, cantu commotae, Erebi de sedibus imis 
Umbrae ibant tenues, simulacraque luce carentum : 
Quam multa in foliis avium se millia c6ndunt. 
Vesper ubi aut bibemus agit de montibus imber ; 
Matres, atque viri, defunct aque corpora vitd 475 

MagnanimOm beroura, pueri, innuptaeque puellae, 
Impositique rogis juvenes ante ora parentum ; 
Quos circum limus niger, et deformis arundo 
Cocyti, tardaque palus inamabilis unda 
Alligat, et novies Styx interfusa coercet. 480 

Quin ipsae stupuere domus atque indma Leti 
Tartara, caeruleosque implexae crinibus angues 

96 6E0R6IC0N LIB. IV. 

Eumenides, tenuitque inhians tzia Cerberus ora, 
Atque Ixionii vento rota constitit orbis. 

Jamque, pedem referens, casus evaserat omnes, 485 
Redditaque Eurydice superas veniebat ad auras, 
Pone sequens; namque banc dederat Proserpina legem; 
Quum subita incautum dementia cepit amantem, 
Ignoscenda quidem, scirent si ignoscere Manes : 
Restitit, Eurydicenque suam jam luce sub ipsa, 490 

Immemor, heu ! victusque animi, respexit. Ibi omnis 
Effusus labor, atque immitis rupta tyranui 
Foedera, terque fragor stagnis auditus Avemis. 
Ilia, Quis et me, inquit, miseram, et te perdidit, Orpbeu, 
Quis tantus furor ? En ! iterum crudelia retro 495 

Fata vocant, conditque natantia lumina somnus. 
Jamque vale. Feror ingenti circumdata nocte, 
Invalidasque tibi tendens, beu ! non tua, palmas. 
Dixit, et ex oculis subito, ceu fumus in auras 
Commixtus tenues, fugit di versa ; neque ilium, 500 

Prensantem nequidquam umbras, et multa volentem 
Dicere, praeterea vidit ; nee portitor Orci 
Amplius objectam passus transire paludem. 
Quid faceret ] quo se, rapta bis conjuge, ferret ] 
Quo fletu Manes, qu^ Numina voce moveret 1 505 

Ilia quidem Stygia nabat jam frigida cymbal. 
Septem ilium totos perhibent ex ordine menses, 
Rupe sub aeria, deserti ad Strymonis undam, 
Flevisse, et gelidis haec evolvisse sub antris, 
Mulcentem tigres, et agentem carmine quercus : 510 

Qualis populea moerens Pbilomela sub umbra 
Araissos queritur foetus, quos durus arator 
Observans nido implumes detraxit; at ilia 
Flet noctem, ramoque sedens miserabile carmen 
Integrat, et moestis late loca questibus implet. 515 

Nulla Venus, non ulli animum flexere Hymenaei : 
Solus Hyperboreas glacies, Tanaimque nivalem. 


Arvaque Rhipaeis nunquam yiduata pruinis 
Lustrabat, raptam Eurydicen atque irrita Ditis 
Dona querens : spretse Ciconum quo munere matres, 520 
Inter sacra deilkm, noctumique orgia Bacchi, 
Discerptum latos juvenem sparsere per agros. 
Turn quoque, marmorea caput a cervice revulsum 
Gurgite quum medio portans (Eagrius Hebrus 
Volveret, Eurydicen vox ipsa, et frigida lingua, 525 

Ah miseram Eurydicen ! anima fugiente vocabat; 
Eurydicen toto referebant flumine ripae. 

Haec Proteus ; et se jactu dedit sequor in altum : 
Quaque dedit, spumantem undam sub vertice torsit. 
At non Cyrene : namque ultro affata timentem : 530 

Nate, licet tristes animo deponere curas. 
Haec omnis morbi caussa ; hinc miserabile NympbaSy 
Cum quibus ilia cboros lucis agitabat in aJtis, 
Exitium misere apibus : tu munera supplex 
Tende, patens pacem, et faciles venerare Napaeas ; 535 
Namque dabunt veniam votis, irasque remittent. 
Sed, modus orandi qui sit, prius ordine dicam. 
Quatuor eximios praestanti corpore tauros, 
Qui tibi nunc viridis depascunt summa Lycaei, 
Delige, et intacta totidem cervice juvencas. 540 

Quatuor his aras alta ad delubra dearum 
Constitue, et sacrum jugulis demitte cruorem, 
Corporaque ipsa boum frondoso desere luco. 
Post, ubi nona sues Aurora ostenderit ortus, 
Inferias Orphei Lethaea papavera mittes, 545 

Et nigram mactabis ovem, lucumque revises ; 
Placatam Eurydicen vituU venerabere caesa. 

Haud mora : continue matris praecepta facessit. 
Ad delubra venit ; monstratas excitat aras ; 
Quatuor eximios praestanti corpore tauros 550 

Ducit, et intact^ totidem cervice juvencas. 
Post, ubi nona suos Aurora induxerat ortus, 



Inferias Orphei mitdt, lucumque revisit. 
Hie vero, subitum ac dictu mirabile monstrum ! 
Aspiciunt liquefacta bourn per viscera toto 555 

Stri'flere apes utero, et ruptis effeivere costis ; 
Immensasque trahi nubes ; jamque arbore summi 
Confluere, et lentis uvam demittere ramis. 

HiEC super arvorum cultu pecorumque canebam, 

Et super arboribus ; Caesar dum niagnus ad altum 560 

Fulminat Euphraten bello, victorque volentes 

Per populos dat jura, viamque afTectat Olympo. 

lUo Yirgilium me tempore dulcis alebat 

Parthenope, studiis florentem ignobilis ot! ; 

Carmina qui lusi pastorum, audaxque juvent^, 565 

Tityre, te patulae cecini sub tegmine fegi. 







I. By BucoUca^ in Latin, are meant " B&colic Poems,'* there being 
an ellipsis here of poemata or carmina ; and the term Bueolica itself 
is of Greek origin, coming from BovKoXixd {scil. iroiifiara^ which 
last, again, is derived from povKoXio, " to tend cattle." The geni- 
tive plural will be Bucolicdrif from the Greek BovkoXucuv. 

IL Hence by *<BGcolics" are literally meant << poems on the 
tending of oxen and herds,*' and then, less strictly, " pastoral poems 
in general," in which the interlocutors are husbandmen, shepherds, 
shepherdesses, &;c. 

III. The term " Eclogue" {Ecloga) is also of Greek origin, cook- 
ing from kKhtyrjy t. e., *< that which is chosen out," or, '* a choice 
collection," especially of passages in authors, &c., such as the 
EclogcRt or ** Elegant Extracts," of Stobaeus.^ 

IV. By a later usage, the term Ecloga was made to apply, not to 
any particular selection from certain writings, but merely to a col* 
lection of poems, resembling one another in form and subject, with- 
out any reference to their being selections from other and more co- 
pious writings. It is in this sense that the term EclogtB is some- 
times applied, by the ancient grammarians, to the Satires of Horace.* 

V. By a still farther deviation from primitive usage, the appella- 
tion of Ecloga is thought to have been given to any small poem, on 
any subject whatsoever ; so that, if this opinion be correct, the term 
is here equivalent to cidelovi or ddvTiKiov.* 

VI. The question now arises, why the name of EdogueM was 
given to the Bucolic poems of Virgil. According to some, these 
productions were so called because they are merely selections, or, 
rather, imitations from Theocritus. This opinion, however, has 

1. CompAre Vmro, ap. Charis.^ p. 97, Putsch.., " Ecloga* ex AnntOi detcriftat/' 
S.Heyne, De Carm. Bucol.— Virg., Op., ed. Wagn.^ rol. i., p. 16. 
S.Concnlt, as aathoritiea in support of this opinion, Stat.t SUv., S prttf.; ^frtf»} 
AusoH., tiyU., 10 prmf. ; and, on the other ride, Smtckuff §d ^mmh., I. c. 



but little to recommend it. Others again, among whom are Heyne 
and many modem scholars, think that the term ** Eclogues" was 
given to the pastoral poems of Virgil, not by that poet himself, but 
by the grammarians of a later day, and that it merely means a col- 
lection of poems similar in form, and taming on similar subjects. 
A third class of scholars make the Eclogues of Virgil to have de- 
rived their name from their being so many short poems on pastoral 
themes. The best explanation, however, and at the same time the 
most natural one, is that of Voss, accordiqg to whom the Eclogues 
of Virgil are nothing more than so many selections, made by the 
poet himself, from various pastoral poems previously given by, him 

V to the world at different periods, and now for the first time appearing 

I in a consecutive form.^ 

VII. Thus much being premised, we now come to the subject of 
Bucolic or Pastoral poetry itself. From the earliest periods, the 
mode of life followed by the ancient Italians was agricultural and 
rustic ; and a love of raral retirement was prevalent among their 
descendants, so long as they were not totally corrapted by foreign 
manners and Oriental luxury. But the general habits of the Romans 
were practical and industrious. They resorted to the country life 
chiefly for the purpose of labour and lucrative toil, and not to pass 
their time in pastoral indolence or contemplation. Hence pastoral 
poetry was not indigenous at Rome, but was transplaqted from the 
valleys or mountains of Sicily or Arcadia, where, perhaps, it was 
the frait of solitude and leisure. 

VIII. But, though probably invented amid scenes of rural retire- 
ment, pastoral poetry has been chiefly cultivated in ages of refine- 
ment, when those who were assembled in courts and cities looked 
back with pleasure on the rustic occupations and innocent lives of 
their forefathers. Theocritus, who was bora and bred in Sicily, but 
flourished in the court of Alexandrea, under the Egyptian Ptolemies, 
was the chief writer of pastoral poetry previous to the time of Vir- 
gil, and his Idylls have been in all ages the great repertory of pas- 
toral sentiments and descriptions. 

IX. Virgil was the professed imitator of Theocritus ; his images 
are all Greek, and his scenery such as he found painted in the pages 
of the Sicilian poet, and not what he had himself observed on the 
banks of the Mincius. Yet, with all this imitation and resemblance, 
the productions of the two poets are widely different. Thus, the 
delineations of character in Theocritus are more various and live- 

1. Vosa, ad Edog.^ 10, 1, " Seine (ViigiPs) Eklogen, das ist, eine verbenerte Ava- 
waU seiner zentreo^ heraaifvgebwDeA Idyllan.? 


if ; whereas, in Yirgfl, the same want of diBcrimination of charac- 
ter, so frequently remarked in the ^neid, is observable also in his 
pastorals. His Thyrsis, Damon, and Menalcas, all resemble each 
other. No shepherd is distinguished by any peculiar disposition or 
humour ; they all speak from the lips of the poet, and their dialogue 
is modelled by the standard of his own elegant mind. 

X. A difference is likewise observable in the scenes and descrip- 
tions. Those of Theocritus possess that minuteness and accuracy 
80 conducive to poetic truth and reality ; Virgil's representations are 
more general, and bring only vague images before the fancy. In 
the Idylls ofTheocritus we find a rural, romantic wildness of thought, 
and the most pleasing descriptions of simple, unadorned nature, 
heightened by the charm of the Doric dialect. But Virgil, in bor- 
rowing his images and sentiments, has seldom drawn an idea from 
his Sicilian master vrithout beaatifying it by the lustre of his lan- 

XI. The diief merit, however, of Virgil's imitations lies in his 
judicious selections. Theocritus's sketches of manners are often 
coarse and unpleasing ; and his most beautiful descriptions are al- 
most always too crowded. But Virgil refined away whatever was 
gross, and threw aside all that was overloaded and superfluous. He 
made his shepherds more cultivated than those even of his own 
time. He represented them with some of the features which are 
supposed to have belonged to swains in the early ages of the world, 
when they were possessed of great flocks and herds, and had ac- 
quired a knowledge of astronomy, cosmogony, and music ; when the 
pastoral life, in short, appeared in perfection, and Nature had lav- 
ished all her stores to render the shepherd happy. 

XII. It would scarcely, at first sight, appear that a period of civil 
war, which desolated the provinces of Italy, and spread its horrors 
over the whole Roman Empire, should have tended to encourage 
the pastoral muse, whose gentle spirit it was more likely to have 
totally destroyed. Yet to circumstances thus seemingly unfavour- 
able we owe some of the most pleasing and interesting eclogues of 
Virgil, who has made the unfortunate history of his country sub- 
servient to the eflTorts of his genius. Where the mere outlines ol 
nature were to be represented, he has transcribed his similes and 
descriptions from his Grecian master. But in those pieces to which 
the distresses of the times, or other political considerations gave 
rise, he seems more elaborately to have exercised the faculty of in- 
vention, or to have applied the lines of Theocritus, as it were by a 
sort of parody, to the passing events of his own age, or his own . 



private history, dressing oat in pastoral colours the leading charac- 
ters and transactions of the day. 

XIII. The Eclogues of Virgil may be divided into two classes : 
1. those in which, by a sort of allegory, some events or characters 
of the time are shaded out under an image of pastoral life ; and, 2. 
those in which shepherds and rural scenes are simply and literaUy 
presented to ns. To the first class belong the 1st, 4th, 5th, and 
9th Eclogues. — {DuiUopf Hist. Rom. Lit., vol. lii, p. 97, Meqq.) 



Augustus having distributed the lands of Mantua and Cremona 
among the veteran soldiers, who had conquered with him at Phil- 
ippi, VirigiPs farm was seized along with those of his neighbours. 
The poet thereupon repaired to Rome, and, having recovered his 
patrimony through the favour of Augustus, wrote this Eclogue in 
testimony of his gratitude. Under the persons of Tityrus and 
Melibceus the bard intends to represent, on the one hand, the joy 
and gratitude of those Mantuan shepherds who were allowed to re- 
main on their lands ; and, on the other, the bitter feelings and com- 
plaints of the expatriated colonists. Still, however, we must not 
imagine, with most commentators, that Tityrus is meant for the 
poet Virgil himself Such an explanation would bring with it insu- 
perable difficulties, and would make a part of the Eclogue (v. 28-30) 
absolutely unintelligible. Tityrus, in fact, represents a slave, now 
somewhat advanced in years, who has had for some time the gen- 
eral superintendence of his master's farm, and been accustomed to 
convey at times the produce of the estate to the neighbouring city 
of Mantua. His master, Virgil, goes to Rome, in order to obtain 
from Augustus the restoration of his lands ; and Tityrus subse- 
quently repairs to the same place for the purpose of procuring man- 
umission from the former. Both succeed in their respective ob- 
jects : Virgil obtains his lands from Augustus ; Tityrus his freedom 
from Virgil, and is again placed by the poet over his farm. At the 
opening of the Eclogue, Tityrus appears as newly manumitted, and 
filled with as much joy at the restoration of his master's fields as if 
they really belonged to himself — {Wunderlich, ad loc. — Spohn, ad 
loc. — Id.f Prolegom. ad Carm. Bucol.) 

According to Voss, this Eclogue was composed in the autumn of 
A.U.C. 713, the poet being then in his 38th year. 


1-4. TUytt tth patulof dus. " Thou, Tityrus, redining beneath 
the shade of a spreading beech." The name Titjnrus is borrowed 
from Theocritos, Id,, iii., 8, Koi 6 Tlrvpof abrac kXa^i. The word 
is probably Doric, for Idrvpac, " a satyr," or companion of Bacchus, 
though Strabo distinguishes the Tlrvpoi from the Xdrvpoi, It sub- 
sequently became a frequent shepherd's name. — Tegmine, As it 
appears from Terse 72, that the time of this Eclogue was the be- 
ginning of autumn, this sitting of Tityrus in the shade, although the 
evening is now coming on (v. 82), will indicate the warmth of an 
autumnal day. The Italian shepherds pastured their flocks from 
the middle of Apnl until some time in November. — Fagi. The 
Fagus of the Latins is the 'O^va of Theophrastus (iii., 10), and the 
^tfyo^ of Dioscorides (i., 121). It must not, however, be confounded 
with the ^y6c of Theophrastus (iii., 8, 2), which last is a kind of 
oak, bearing an esculent acorn, and identical, perhaps, with the 
Quercus esculus of Linnaeus. Some critics object to the mention ot 
the beech in this passage, because there are no trees of that kind, 
at the present day, in the vicinity of Mantua. They forget, how- 
ever, that eighteen centuries have intervened. So, in the case of 
LebsCnon, but few of the noble cedars remain that once adorned 
the upper parts of the mountain. 

Silvestrem tenui tnusam^ &;c. <<Art practising a woodland -lay 
upon the slender pipe." The verb meditor is here employed some- 
what technically, to indicate the playing over again and again, in 
order to become perfect in any tune or piece of music, whether of 
one's own invention or not. (Compare Eclog., vi., 82, and Schrrud-' 
fddy Lot. Syn., ^ 126.) — Avend. Taken here, generally, for calamOf 
as appears from verse 10. The term properly denotes an oaten 
straw, and is then employed, in a more general sense, for any straw, 
pipe, stem, &c., and, finally, for a pipe, or flagelet. The earlier in- 
struments of this kind were made of very rude materials, and the 
name was retained after the materials had undergone, in process 
of time, a complete change. The pipe of Tityrus, on the present 
occasion, appears to have been of the simplest structure, and only 
a single one, not the syrinx or fistula, which consisted of several 
combined. (Consult Vossj ad loc., aul the note on Eclog., ii., 32.) 

3-5. Nos, Referring not only to himself, but to all others simi- 
larly situated. — Patria fines. *♦ The borders of our native canton." 
Observe that patria is here equivalent merely to **pagus patrius." 
So Voss (ad /oc.),**das vaterliche Dorf "— Pairiam. " Our native 
home." The repetitions in this passage are intended to mark strong 
feeUng.^LerUM. << Stretched at ease." From the same stem with 


Umret and signifying, originallj, '< pliant," << flexible, ** eaaj to bend," 
dbc. {Sckmidfeldi Lot. <Syn., ^ 367.) — Formo^am reaonare Amaryllida, 
** To re-echo the name of the beautiful Amaryllis." The name of 
a beautiful female slave to whom he was now attached. The former 
object of his affection had been Galatea. (Compare Terse 31.) 

6-10. MeliiHu. The proper name Meliboeus means, in fact, 
" herdsman," and comes from fii^^i and ^o0f , indicating one to 
whom oxen and herds are a care. — Deus. **A god." The poet 
flatters Augustus by calling him a god, some years before divine 
honours were publicly decreed to him by the senate. — Hoc otia. 
*' This peaceful repose." Referring to the peace and security 
brought about by Augustus after the storms of the civil war. Ob- 
serve the force of the plural. — Namque. '* And (well may I call 
him so), for," &;c. Compare the corresponding Greek form koi yap. 
— Mihi. " In my eyes." — Nostris. The language of a slaverer su- 
perintendent, speaking of things the care of which was intrusted to 
himself, while the ownership was in another. So meds in the next 
line. (Compare Eclog.y ix., 2, 12, 30.) — Imbuet. " Shall stain with 
its blood." Supply sanguine 8uo. It may be here remarked, that 
Augustus was first worshipped by diflferent cities of the empire, 
A.U.C. 718, after Sextus Pompeius was overthrown", and, subse- 
quently, in accordance with a formal decree of the senate, A.U.C. 
724. (Compare Horat., Od., iv., 5, 33.) 

Errare. "To range at will," i, c, to pasture at large, without 
any danger of being carried off* by plundering bands. — Et ipsum 
luderCf &c. " And myself to play what I pleased." For et ipsum 
me ludere. — Calamo agresti. " On my rural pipe." 

11-13. Non equidem invideo, &c. ** I do not envy thee ; indeed, I 
rather wonder (at thy lot)," t. c, I do not so much envy thy present 
repose, as wonder how it was brought about, considering the con- 
fusion and discord that everywhere prevgal over the neighbour- 
ing country. — Usque adeo turbatur agris. ** To such a degree does 
disturbance even prevail over the country,"*. «., so much disturbance 
is occasioned over the whole country by the violent conduct of the 
veterans in dispossessing the former proprietors. Observe that 
turbatur is here used impersonally. The prose construction here 
would commence with nam or quum. The terms adeot tantus^ talis^ 
&c., often connect, however, two sentiments in such a way, that 
^he presence of nam or quum is dispensed with. 

Protenus (zger ago. " Sick at heart, am driving forth," t. «., am 
iriving forth into the wide world, whither I know not. Protenus, 
IS Voss correctly remarks, is from porro and tenus, and, strictly 


r, refers to motion forth from any place. Thus in Cioens 
/>»., L, 34, Hannibal is said to have been ordered, in a dream, hj 
Jupiter, " ut psrgerei protenusy^* t. «., uno et perpehio tenore proeedere. 
iVo9s, md loc,) — JEger. Because stripped of all bis possessions bj 
the soldiery. Hejne, with less propriety, refers the term to bodily 
sickness. Our explanation, however, has the sanction of Voss, 
Wonderiicb, Spohn, Jahn, Doering, and Wagner. Others, again, 
make ager equivalent here to agrCf " with difficulty." But this has 
little to recommend it, especially as vix immediately succeeds. 

Dueo. The other she-goats he drives before him, but the one 
here referred to he with difficulty leads along by a cord, in conse- 
quence of its feeble health. 

14-15. Hie inter derutu contloty &;c. <' For here, amid the thick 
hazels, having jost brought forth twins, with many a throe, on the 
bare rock, alas ! she hath left behind her the hope of my flock.'* 
Obscnre the gesture indicated by Ate, as he points to the spot. — 
JhtuoB corulot. In the cold shade, away from the fostering warmth 
of the sun. And then, again, silke in nuddt on the bare, rocky 
ground, with no herbage spread beneath for a couch. Hence we 
see the force ofconnixa, ** having brought forth with many a throe," 
as marking a painful delivery, amid circumstances of great discom- 
fort. Servius trifles, therefore, when he makes connixa to be em- 
ployed here for enixa, merely to avoid an hiatus in the line. The 
she-goats generally bring forth twice a year : once in March, and 
again towards the beginning of winter. 

1&-19. Lava,. ** Stupidly infatuated," t. e., stupidly perverse, and 
disinclin'ed to regard the monition. Observe the peculiar force of 
IcmU here, which it gets from the idea of weakness and unlucki- 
ness commonly attached, in popular belief, to the left as opposed to 
the right. — De calo taUas. "Struck with lightning." Literally, 
** touched from heaven." — Quercus. According to Pomponius Sa- 
binus, an old commentator, who apparently gets his information 
from works now lost of the ancient grammarians, when fruit- 
trees were struck, it was regarded as an evil omen generally ; 
when olive-trees, it indicated sterility ; when oaks, exile% 

Sape sinistra^ &.c. " Often did the ill-omened crow," &C. This 
whole verse is deservedly regarded as spurious by both ancient and 
modern critics. It is wanting, also, in all the Paris MSS. Spohn 
very properly objects, moreover, to the awkward repetition in pra' 
dixit and Uice^ when pradicere and quercus have just preceded. The 
line belongs properly to another Eclogue. (Consult Eclog.j ix., 15.) 

Itte Deue, ^ That God o/ thine," t. e., that God to whom thoa 


BO fondly referrest thy present felicity. Observe here the force of 
iste, as the pronoun of the second person, and compare the remark 
of Wagner : " Hoc prtmomen semper a VirgiliOt ae neseio an ab omni 
probo scriptoref ad teeundam personam refertury {Quast. Virg., XYiii.» 
1.) — Da, '* Tell." Eqairalent to ed^ or die. 

20-26. Urbem quam dicunt, &c. Tityras, instead of answering 
directly who the deity in question is, deviates, with a pastoral sim- 
plicity, into a description of Rome itself. — Huic nostne. ** To this 
one of ours." Supply urbi. The reference is to Mantua. — Pas- 
tores. " We shepherds." He alludes to himself, among the num- 
ber of these, as driving occasionally to Mantua some of the young 
of the flocks, by his master's orders. — DepeUere. *^ To drive down." 
Andes, Virgil's native village, lay in the Mantuan territory, three 
miles distant from Mantua itself It stood on high ground, and 
hence the road was downward from Virgil's farm to the city. — 
N&ram. " I knew." Incorrectly rendered by some, "I thought." 

Verum hoc tantum, &c. "This one, however, rears its head 
among other cities, as much as cypresses do among the pliant 
wayfaring trees." His meaning is this : I thought that Rome was 
merely, on a large scale, what Mantua was on a small one ; that 
the two cities were the same in their nature or general character, 
but differed merely in size ; or, in other words, that the resem- 
blance between the two would be pretty much the same as that be- 
tween a young animal and its parent. I found, however, on visit- 
ing Rome, that it not only exceeded Mantua in size, but-also dif- 
fered from it in other respects as much as the tall and firm cypress- 
es do from the humble and pliant wayfaring trees. — Vibuma. The 
vibumumj or wayfaring tree, is a shrub with bending, tough branch- 
es, which are therefore much used in binding fagots. The name 
is derived by some from vico, " to bind." The ancient writers seem 
to have called any shrub that was fit for this purpose viburnum ; 
but the more modem authors have retained that name to ex- 
press only the wayfaring tree. (Martyn^ ad loc.) F6e translates 
viburnum by *« la viome,'' and seeks to identify it with the lantana of 
the Italians, or the Viburnum lantana of Linnaeus.— <i^ore de VirgUe^ 
p. clxxv.) 

28-30. QucB tanta causa. " What so strong inducement." — Lib* 
ertas. " Freedom," i. «., the desire of regaining my freedom. Con- 
sult introductory remarks.— (?u« sera, tam^n, &c. «* Who, late 'tis 
true (in her arrival), still, however, looked kindly upon me (at last), 
though indolent of spirit." The true force of inertem here may be 
deduced from verse 32, where he describes himself as careless of 


hiis little gains, and consequently of the means of procoring for 
himself an earlier freedom. The expression sera, tamen, &c., is the 
same, in fact, as sera quidem, aed venU tamen. Compare the Greek 
form of expression, &^ fitv, 6,7Ck* fiWev. — Respexit. When the dei« 
ties tamed their eyes towards their worshippers, it Was a sign of 
fsToor ; when they averted them, of displeasure. The gaze of the 
Goddess of Freedom had long been averted from him. 

Candidior postquam, &c. ** After my beard began to fall of a 
whiter hue unto me removing it." More literally, " unto me lop- 
ping it." A playful circumlocution for " after I was now beginning 
to grow gray with years." Supply mihi with tondenti. — Longo post 
tempore. Industrious and diligent slaves might obtain their ^ee- 
dom after five years* servitude, or even earlier, as Voss remarks, 
who refers to Cic,, Phil.y viii^ 11. This will serve to explain the 
excessive indolence of Tityrus in procuring his manumission. 
(Compare inertem, v. 28.) 

31-36. Nos habet. ** Holds possession of me," t. e., sways my af- 
fections. There was no marriage between slaves ; it was merely a 
eoniubemiumt or living together. — Galatea. The name of another 
female fellow-slave, with whom he had previously lived. — Nee eura 
peadi. " Nor care (taken by me) of my little gains." He spent 
his money as fast as he made it, and took no care to hoard up a 
sum by which he might purchase his freedom. A slave, strictly 
speaking, could have no property of his own. Since slaves, how- 
ever, were often employed as agents for their masters in the man- 
agement of business, it may easily be conceived that, under these 
circumstances, especially as they were often intrusted with prop- 
erty to a large amount, there must have arisen a practice of allow- ^ 
ing a slave to consider part of the gains as his own. This was his 
pectUium, and with it he might, with his master's consent, purchase 
his freedom, when it amounted to a certain sum. 

Quamvis multa meist &c. Alluding to the cattle and other ani- 
mals driven by him, from time to time, to Mantua, and there sold 
as victims for sacrifice. According to Fronto (Different. Vocab.), 
the term wctima means an animal of large size, as, for example, a 
calf; and Jiostia a smaller one, as a lamb. (Spohn, ad he.) — Meis 
septis. **From my enclosures." Not folds, but enclosures for 
larger animals.— J«^a/« vrbi. " For the ungrateful city." The 
city of Mantua is here called " ungrateful," because not giving him 
as high a price as he ought, in his own opinion, to have had, and 
thus stinting him in his means of procuring finery for Galatea. 
rConsult Spohn and WagruTf ad he.) Some commentators, with 



tnach less propriety, make ingratus equivalent here to tn/s/tx.— 
Gravis are. ** Heavy with money." 

37. Mirabar. "I used to wonder." Melibceos now finds out, 
from what Tityrus has just said, the cause of the grief of Amaryl- 
lis, namely, her lamenting the absence of Tityrus whenever busi- 
ness called him to the city. — Quid. " Why." Supply propter. — 
AmaryUi. Some commentators, regarding the whole of this Ec- 
logue as allegorical, and making Tityrus to be Virgil himself, fancy 
that the poet means Rome by Amaryllis, and ^antua by Galatea, 
And since they find the presence of AmaryUi^ therefore, in this 
line, militate against their theory, they read Galatea in place of it. 
Their view of the matter, however, is entirely erroneous, and there 
is no allegory at all. Meliboeus merely wond^s why certain rural 
labours were suspended. Now Galatea had been accustomed to 
be indolent, and this conduct, therefore, was not at all surprising 
in her case. But it was surprising in the case of Amaryllis, who 
had before this been quite active in her duties, and a careful house- 
wife. The common reading, therefore, must stand. 

Pendere. " To hang ungathered." — Poma. " The fruit," a general 
term for fruit growing on trees ; hence Pomona, the goddess of 
fruit. — Pimis. The pine-tree {Pinus pinea of linnseus) was planted 
in gardens, not only on account of its fruit and pleasing appearance, 
but also because it furnished the bees with wax and hive-dross, or 
erythace {IpvdaKri). It must be remembered, that the pine here 
meant is what is commonly called the stone pine. In the southern 
parts of Europe, and in the Levant, the seeds, which are large and 
like nuts, are eaten. The Spaniards are particularly fond of them. 
— {Fee, Flore de VirgUe, p. cxxx.) 

Pontes. The fountains here referred to indicate the pasture- 
grounds of Andes, which descended from the woody hills {Eclog.^ 
ix., 7) to the meadows watered by the Mincius, and which were ac- 
customed to be irrigated, either during the summer heats or before 
harvest. {Eclog., iii., 111.) By the rivulets that watered these 
grounds, Amaryllis used to sit in the shade, during the noonday 
heats, with her small flock, awaiting the return of Tityrus. — Ipsa 
hac arhusta. " These very copses." Arhtista is here equivalent to 
fruticeta, as Spohn and Wagner maintain, and as appears from v. 2 
and 14, seqq. Voss, with less propriety, refers the term to the spots 
of ground in which trees for training vines, especially elms, were 
planted at intervals of from twenty to forty feet, and the ground 
between them was sown with seed. 

41-44. Neque licehat. <* It was neither allowed me in any other 


way," t. e., I could not help it. I had to disregard the eDtreaties 
of Amaryllis, and betake myself to Rome, since I could obtain man- 
umission in no other way. — Nee tarn pnuentea, &c. *' Nor could I 
elsewhere find gods so propitious ;** more literally, ** become ac- 
quainted with." Observe the literal force of prasentest " present 
(and ready) to aid." Deified mortals, to whom, in their lifetime, 
sacrifices were offered, were thus addressed ; hence the allusion to 

Jvvenem, Alluding to Augustus, who was about twenty-two 
years old when the division of the lands was made among the sol- 
diers. — Quotatmu bit tenos, &jc. ** For whom my altars smoke 
twice six days every year," t. e., in honour of whom, unto whom as 
a deity. Heyne makes fumant equivalent here to fumalmtU, bat 
this is incorrect. Tityrus had set out for Rome in the beginning of 
July, as may be inferred from the mention of the ripe fruit in verse 
38, and the present dialogue took place in October of the same year. 
His altars, therefore, had already begun to smoke. Tityrus wor- 
ships Augustus, moreover, as a Lar domesHcusy not for twelve con- 
tinuous days, but one day every month, either on the Kalends, 
Nones, or Ides, for the Lares were worshipped at these periods. 
(Compare CatOt R- R. 143, 2 : ** Kalendis, Idibus, Nonis, festus dies 
cum eritf coronam in focum indat ; per eosdemque dies Lari familiari 
pro copid supplicet.*^) 

45-46. Hie mihi responsurrty &c. " He first gave an answer unto 
me, entreating him," i. e., he first gave this answer to my suit. Ob- 
serve here the peculiar force of primuSf which is equivalent, in effect, 
to demum or tandem. " He was the first one from whom I heard the 
words of safety ;" that is, from him at lengthy and not from any oth- 
er before him. (Consult Wagnery Qucest. Virg.y xxviii., 5.) — Respon- 
sum. Used here in its simple meaning of an answer to a request, 
and not, as some pretend, in the sense of a response from a pro- 
tecting divinity. 

Pueri. "Swains." — Submittite tauros, "Yoke your steers." 
Supply jugo. The meaning appears to be, in fact, " break them to 
the yoke ;" literally, " send them under the yoke." They who 
favour another interpretation should consider the following objec- 
tion of Wunderlich : **De supplendo grege si capiasy vide ne dicendum 
fuerit juvencos submitterey non tauros ; tauri enim jam advXtiy non 
submittendiigiturysedjamsubmissi. "Vitulossubmittere." Georg,, 
iii., 159. 

47-49. Ergo iua rwra manebunt ! " Thy fields, then, mil remain 
(for thee) '." t. e., will remain untoached by a ruthless soldiery. 


Obsenre the force oftua here, not indicating any ownership on the 
part of Tityrus, but referring to the fields of his master, to which 
Tityrus, from long residence and superintendence, had now become 
so familiarly attached. — Magna satis. He means, sufficiently ex- 
tensive for all his purposes of pasturing. 

Quanwis lapis omnia nudtiSt &c. ** Though the naked rock cover 
all the places (above), while the fen overspreads with muddy rush- 
es the pastures (below)." The farm of Virgil is here described as 
partly situated at the foot of stony and woody heights, and partly 
extending down to the banks of the Mincius, which, overflowing at 
times, and then stagnating, had rendered the parts bordering on it 
completely marshy, and overrun with rushes. The farm, therefore, 
is a poor one, and yet, poor as it is, the poet appears contented 
with it. 

60-53. Non insueta graves^ 6iC '^ifo unaccustomed food shall 
harm the languid mothers (of your flock).** The term/osto, as Voss 
remarks, properly indicated the mother, from the period of concep- 
tion to that of bringing forth. It is used, however, also with refer- 
ence to the period after delivery, as in P/in., H. N., viii., 19, and 
Columella^ vii., 3. On the present occasion, as the thoughts of Me- 
liboeus are constantly running on his own unhappy lot, and as his 
own she-goat has just brought forth, and still remains languid, it 
will be more natural to mike fata refer here to the period after de- 
livery. Hence the true force of the passage becomes apparent, and 
the line may be paraphrased as follows : " Thou, O Tityrus, art not 
like me, going forth into exile, dragging after thee this poor languid 
animal, that has just brought forth, and in whose case the constant 
change of pastures cannot but do harm.'* 

Inter flumina nota et f antes saeros. " At the well-known rivers 
and the sacred fountains." Wagner has an able and satisfactory 
note on the peculiar force of inter in this passage, and makes it, by 
a comparison with many other passages, equivalent to ad. By the 
flumina nota Heyne thinks are meant the Mincius and Po, which 
could both be seen in the distance from this part of the poet's farm. 
It is better, however, to refer the term to the small streams cross- 
ing his domains. The Mincius, as Voss remarks, forms quite a lake 
near the farm of Virgil, and the Po is too far off to be visited by the 
shepherd and his flocks. — Frigus opacum. "The cool shade.** 
Equivalent to frigus loci opad. 

54-59. ffinc tibij qua semper^ &c. " On this side, the hedge that 
divides thy land from thy neighbour*s, which is always fed upon, as 
to the flower of the willow, by Hyblaean bees, shall often invite thee 


to sleep with a gentle murmur," t. e., more freely, ** where Hyblas- 
an bees are always feeding upon the flower of the willow." The 
expression vicino ab limite sepes has given considerable trouble to 
the commentators. We have followed Heyne in making it equiva- 
lent to " agrum vicinum a tuo disterminana.*^ Oudendorp, however 
{ad Suet., Aug., 91), is in favour of construing hine ab vicino limite 
together ; t. e., ** ah ed parte, qua vicinus limes est." — Hyblais. A fig- 
urative expression to denote the best bees ; from Hybla, a town of 
Sicily, a short distance to the south of ^tna, and famed for its 
honey. -Depasta. Supply est. This verb here conveys the idea of 
feeding eagerly. — Salicti. Contracted from saliceti. Observe, that 
salictum (or salieetum), the place where willows grow, is here used 
for saHx, the willow itself. (Compare Georg., ii., 13.> The flowers 
of viillows, as Martyn observes, are catkins. They abound in chives, 
the summits of which are full of a fine, yellow dus^ that forms one 
of the materials out of which the bees are said to make their wax. 

Frondator. ** The pruner." In order to assist :the ripening of 
the grapes, the pruner removes the denser foliage of the tree, along 
which the vine is trained, and also some of the young leaves of the 
vine itself. The young leaves of the vine might be taken off either 
in the morning or evening ; but this was never to be done at mid- 
day. {Plin., H. N., xviii., 76.) The leaves, when taken off, were 
either used at once for fodder, or else were kept till winter. (Com- 
pare note on Eclog., ii., 70.) — Ad auras. " To the breezes," t. «., 
shall send forth his song upon the breeze. 

Tua cura. ** Thy delight," t. e., whose note thou delightestto 
hear. The pleasing though mournful cry of the wood-pigeon is al- 
luded to, also, by Longus (i., 12). — Gemere. " To coo," a term 
beautifully expressive of the mournfully plaintive note of the wood- 
pigeon and turtle-dove, especially the latter. The turtle-dove 
spends only three months in Italy, leaving that country about the 
middle of autumn. It loves the tops of trees and other elevated 

60-64. Ante leves ergo, 6cc. " Sooner, then, shall the nimble stags 
pasture high in air," i. e., take wings and feed on high. Tityrus, 
acknowledging the greatness of his obligations to Augustus, declares 
that the natural and fixed order of things ^ust be reversed before 
he can forget them. — Destituent nudos. " Shall leave bare," t. e., 
the fishes shall live on dry ground. 

Ante, pererratis amborum finibus, <Stc. " Sooner, the boundaries of 
both having been wandered across (by them), shall the Parthian, 
leaving his home, quaff the waters of the Arar, or Germaa^ lhA«A 


of the Tigris,? 6lq., i. e., sooner shall the Parthian, leaving the eoii'* 
fines of his land, and passing over the wide intervening portion of 
the globe, conoe to Genhany and quaff the waters of its rivers ; or 
the German, moving east, visit Parthia and drink of the Tigris. 
Two impossible cases are here alluded to. The intervening lands 
were under the Roman sway, and must be conquered by either na- 
tion before either could pass into the territory of the other. 

Extul. Used here generally for one who has left his native 
land. — Ararim. The Arar, afterward called Sauconna, is now the 
SaAne. This river properly belongs to Gaul ; but in the time of 
Virgil, the boundaries of Grermany and Gaul were far from being 
strictly settled. Besides, on the map of Eratosthenes, then in 
vogue, the Arar was made to unite the Rhone with the Rhine. 
(Consult VkerU Geogr. der Gr. und Rim., vol. iii., p. 65, 134, 135, in 
not.) It has been asked, how Virgil^s Titynis could know even 
the names of these rivers. This, however, is easily answered. 
The Germans and Parthians were at that time the two most formi- 
dable enemies of the Roman name, and disbanded soldiers, return- 
ing from those parts of the world, coukl easily and almost con* 
stantly spread the tidings of these two nations among the lower or 
ders at home. — Tigrim. As the Euphrates formed the nominal 
boundary of Parthia on the west, the Tigris would, of course, iall 
within the limits of that empire. 

lllius. Alluding to Augustus. 

65-67. At nos hinc. "We, however, will depart hence." Supply 
ihimus. He alludes to himself and all those similarly situated, who 
are driven from their homes, and compelled to wander forth in the 
wide world. Distant countries are then named as the scene of their 
wanderings, but through mere poetic amplification, in order to 
heighten the effect. — Afros. Supply in. The poets frequently use 
the names of nations in the accusative without the preposition. — 
Scythiam. Scythia was a general name ^iven by the Greeks and 
Romans to a large portion of northern Asia. It is here employed 
in poetic opposition to AfVica on the south ; and, in the same way, 
Britain, in the remote northwest, is named in opposition to Crete 
in the southeast. 

Et rapidum, &c. Observe that the conjunction et in this line 
stands opposed to the same conjunction in the succeeding verse, in 
the same way that alii and pars are opposed to each other. ( Wag- 
ner j Quast. Virg.y xxxiiii., 1.) — Oaxen. Commentators make a dif- 
ficulty here, because none of the ancient writers except Vibius 
Sequester (if he indeed deserve to be called ancient) make men- 

N0TK8 ON BCL06UB L 115 

tkm of a river in Crete named Oaxes. Some, therefore, propose 
to read Araxen, as referring to the Araxes, a riyer of Armenia 
Major ; while others think that the Oxus, a river of Soythia, is 
meant nnder the poetical appellation of Oaxes. These last join 
rwpidus ereta in construction, making creta the genitive of ereU^ 
'*chalk," and referring to the chalk or white clay by which its stream 
was discokmred. This, however, is puerile. There is every prob- 
ability that there was a river in Crete named Oaxes. There cer- 
tainly was a town in that island named Oaxos {Meurs. Cret,, p. 92),' 
and it is also known that Crete was sometimes called by the poets 
(Esxw. (ApolL Rkod.f i., 1 131.) Cramer seeks to identify the Oaxes 
with the Mylopotamo. {Anc, Greece, vol. iii., p. 381.) 

JSSr pemtM tota, 6cc. '< And to the Britons totally separated irom 
the whole worid.^ As the ocean encompassed the *< orhit terrarum,** 
and Britain lay beyond the ocean, it is said by the poet to lie be- 
yond the confines of the habitable world. 

68-74. En ! vnqvtan, dec ** Ah ! shall I ever, after a long inter- 
val of time, beholding (once more) my paternal fields, and the roof 
of my poor cottage formed of collected turf-— shall I ever hereafter 
look with a wondering eye on a few straggling ears of com, my 
(former fiourishing) domain t" Observe that en ! unquam is not, as 
some maintain, for unquamne^ but that the true force and pathos of the 
expression lies in en. — Post. Equivalent here to posthac. As regards 
the repetition in Umgo post tempore followed by post, consult Georg., 
ii, 259, seqq.j where a similar construction prevails. — Aristas. Er- 
roneously taken by some as equivalent here to messes^ i. e., annos, 
and supposed to be governed by post as a preposition. The clause 
merely refers to the desolation that will prevail from neglected hus- 
bandry under a lawless possessor. 

Impius miles. "A ruffian soldier." — Novalia. "Fields." Supply 
arva. Used here in a general sense for agros. According to Pliny, 
runalis (scil. ager or terra) meant a piece of ground that is sown 
every other year. (Consult note on Georg., i., 71.) — Barbarus. He 
means, in fact, a foreigner or alien, there being many foreigners, 
especially Gauls, at this time in the Roman legions. — En. " See !" 
— Discordia. In allusion to the civil contests. — Quis. ** For whom," 
t. e., for whose benefit. We have sown and cultured, that stran- 
gers may reap the harvest. 

Insere nunc. " Ingraft now." Bitter irony. Observe the force 
of nunc— Pone ordine vites. *« Plant thy vines in rows," i. «., in the 
form of a quincunx. (Compare Georg., ii., 277.) 

76-79. /(«, meat to. Meliboeus now proceeds to drive onward 


his flock, when Tityrns looks after him as he departs, and iHTites 
him to pass the night ander his humble roof. — Viridi projtctus in 
antra. " Stretched in some mossy cave." The period of the smn- 
mer heats is here indicated. — Dumosd pendere procul de rupe. In al- 
lusion to their feeding in the distance on the steep declivity of some 
rocky height. — Me pascetUe. ** As I feed you." — FlorerUem cytisum. 
** The flowering cytisus." Marking the season of spring, this plant 
blooming in early spring. The cytisus of Virgil is the MedUago 
marantfuBf according to Martyn, or the Medicago arborea, L., accord- 
ing to Sprengel, which, however, comes to the same thing. It is 
described by Virgil and ^ther ancient writers as being a great fa- 
vourite with bees and goats, and causing an abundant supply of 
milk. It grows to the height of three or four feet, and bears a pale 
yellow flower. It is a native of southern Italy, and a hot-house 
plant in more northern latitudes. — Carpetu. " Will ye pluck from 
my hand." 

80-84. Poteras requietcere, " Thou mightest have rested." Tity- 
rns observes Meliboeus now driving onward his flock, and calls to him 
as he departs. Hence the peculiar propriety of poteras in the indic- 
ative, as marking a thing that might have taken place, but actual- 
ly has not. {StaUb. ad Rvdd.^ L. G,, vol. ii., p. 379.) It is errone- 
ous, therefore, to say, as some do, that poteras is here employed for 
posses or poteris. — Fronde super viridi. " Upon a bed of freshly- 
gathered leaves." — Poma. Fruits in general. — Castarua moUes. 
" Soft chestnuts," t. e., mellow, full ripe, and sweet and mellow to 
the taste. The Italian chestnut ripens towards the end of October 
or beginning of November. (P/tn., H. N., xv., 23.) — Pressi lactis. 
" Of freshly-pressed curd," i. e., curd pressed for immediate use. 

Et jam summa procul^ &c. ** And now the topmost roofs of the 
farm-houses smoke in the distance." By villa is here meant, of 
course, not the residence of a wealthy landed proprietor, but a 
country or farm house occupied by a person of the middling class ; 
or, as we would say, a substantial farmer. This is shown also by 
the expression summa ctUminaf as indicating the peak, or highest 
part of the roof, with the smoke escaping there by a simple aper- 
ture. This marks at once an ordinary dwelling, where the even- 
ing meal is preparing, and where the smoke obtains egress by the 
windows, doors, and roof Chimneys were unknown in buildings 
of this class, and but very seldom employed in those of more costly 
construction. In these last, the rooms were sometimes heated by 
hot air, which was introduced by means of pipes from a furnace be- 
low, but more frequently by portable ftirnaces or brazien, in which 



coal or charcoal was burned. The following wood-cut reiiresents 
such a brazier, found at Cere in Etruria, and now preserved in the 
British Museum. 




In this Eclogue, Corjdon, a: shepherd, expresses his strong at- 
tachment for a youth named Alexis, which feeling, however, as he 
himself complains, is not reciprocated by the latter. 

Voss makes this piece to hare been composed by Virgil in the 
spring of A.U.C. 711, the poet being then in his 26th year. 

1-2. Ardebat Alexin. Observe here the employment of an accu- 
sative with an intransitive verb. Many verbs thus obtain a trans- 
itive force, because an action exerted upon another is implied, 
though not described in them. The poets allow themselves great 
latitude on this point. — Delicias domini. ** The favourite of his 
master." Alexis was of servile degree. His master was lollas, 
who is named in verse 67. — Nee, quid speraret, habebat. " Nor had 
he apparently what to-hope for,** t. e., any ground of hope that his 
attachment to Alexis was reciprocated. Voss considers quid here 
as an archaism for quod, while Heyne thinks that quid speraret is 
the more poetical form of expression. Both are wrong. Habeo 
quod is said of a thing that actually exists ; but habeo quid of that 
about which it is uncertain whether it exists or not, or of what 
kind it may be. Hence, non habebam quod sperarem means, I had 
no hope at all ; but non habebam quid 9perarem, 1 apparently had no 
hope, there appeared to be no hope. {Wagnerf ad loc.) 

8-5. Tantum assidue veniebat. " He only came continually," i. «., 
all that he did was to come continually. — Hoe incondita jaetabat. 
Supply carmina. ** He threw forth these undigested strains," t. e., 
strains thrown off on the spur of the moment, and showing the dis- 
ordered state of his feelings. Compare the explanation of Voss : 
*^ Biese kunstlosen Ergiisse der Leidenschafl warf er hin, wie sie 
fielen." — Studio inani. " With unavailing passion.** 

7-9. Coges. The future is here the true reading, not the pres- 
ent cogisy which, as Heyne thinks, has more force than the other. 
The meaning is, if you continue to treat me thus, you will drive me 
finally to despair. — Nunc etiam pecudes^ &c. The idea intended to 
be conveyed is this : All other things are quiet and inactive amid 
the blaze of noon ; I alone come hither amid the scorching heat in 
hopes to find you. — Captant. " Eagerly seek.*' — Virides lacertos. 
The green lizard is very common in Italy. This animal is men- 


tiooed by Theocritus (vii., 22) as markmg the time of noon by 
sleeping in the hedges. The green lizard, according to the best 
authorities, is found only in Guernsey and the south of Europe. It 
is a beautiful animal, and may be readily tamed, and taught to come 
to the hand for its food, and to drink from the hollow of the palm 
of any one to whom it is accustomed. 

1(^11. ThutylU. The name of a female slave. Compare Yoss : 
<* Eine jonge mitskkiTin," and also verse 43 of the present Eclogue.-^ 
Bafido fesBisy &c. ** For the reapers, esdiausted by the intense 
heat." Observe that rapd^t here is equivalent to vekemente. The 
sun is oalled rapidus by the poets, as moving along in rapid course ; 
then with the idea of rapidity of movement is connected that of ex- 
citement and heat, and at last fapidiu obtains the meaning which 
it has in Qur text. — Allia serpyllumquet &c. '* Bruises together 
garlic and wild thyme, savoury herbs." These herbs seem to have 
been used by the Roman farmers to recruit the exhausted energies 
of those who had laboured in the heat. Garlic was a great favour- 
ite, also, with the Roman soldiers and sailors. The inhabitants of 
the southern countries of Europe, who often experience the need 
of exciting the digestive powers, hold garlic in much higher estima- 
tion than those of more northern regions. 

' SerpyUwm. In Greek, ifmv?i.Xov, from Ip7ru» " to creep,** because 
part of it, falling on the ground, sends forth roots, and so propa- 
gates the plant. The ancients mention two kinds of serpyllum, afie 
of the gardens, and the other wild. The latter species is here 
meant, answering to our mother of thyme, or toUd thyme. 

12-13. Mecum. " In company with me,'* i. e., accompanying my 
sad strain. — Rauds resonant arbusta cicadis. ^* The thickets resound 
with the shrill cicade." Arhusta is here to be taken generally, not 
for the vine-grounds merely. — Cicadis. The cicada, in Greek rit' 
Ti^, is a species of insect frequently mentioned by the classical wri- 
ters. According to Dodwell, it is formed like a large fly, and is 
rounder and shorter than our grasshopper : it has long, transparent 
wings, a dark brown back, and a yellow belly. Its song is much 
louder and shriller than that of the grasshopper, as Dodwell terms 
the latter. This writer says that nothing is so piercing as their 
note ; nothing, at the same time, so tiresome and inharmonious ; 
and yet the ancient writers, and especially the poets, praise the 
sweetness of then: song, and Plutarch says they were sacred to tlie 
Muses. According to .£lian, only the male cicada sings, and that 
in the hottest weather. This is confirmed by the discoveries of 
modem naturalistSi according to whom the cicad» sing most in hot 


weather, and in the middle of the day. There is no English name 
for this insect, unless we take Lord Byron's ** cicala," from the 
French " cigale." 

14-16. Nonne fuit saiius, &c. " Was it not better (for me) to 
endure the sullen, passionate temper of Amaryllis, and her haughty 
disdain 1 was it not better to endure Menalcas V He thinks his 
condition was far preferable when he sought to gain the love of 
Amaryllis, and on this account patiently endured all her infirmities 
of temper ; or when he strove to secure the attachment of the young 
Menalcas, although he was dark of hue. — Nonne Menalcan. Supply 
pati, in the softened sense of ferre, the only thing to be endured in 
the case of Menalcas being his darkened hue. Observe that, in 
this passage, there is no need whatever of taking /ut^ for. fuisaety as 
some do. 

Quamvis tile niger. ** However dark of hue he might be." The 
dark complexion of Menalcas was merely a deeper shade of country 
brown. Compare Heyne : " Erat hie cdore/useo ut vema ruri nattis.^* 

17-18. Nimium ne crede colori. " Trust not too much in thy fair 
exterioj." Observe the earnestness indicated by the imperative. 
The expression ne credos would convey the prohibition in a milder 
form ; just as in English *' you should" is used for the imperative. 
— Alba ligustra cadunt, &c. "The white privet-flowers drop on 
the ground (neglected), t'he dusky hyacinths are gathered." Martyn 
is quite undecided whether the lignstrum of Virgil be the privet, or 
the great bindweed ; but he inclines to the former. This, in fact, is 
the more correct opinion. (Compare Fee, Flore de Virgile, p. Ixxviii., 
Billerbeck, Flora Classica, p. 4, seq.). — Vaccinia. The vaccimum is 
the same as the vdKtvOog of the Greeks. The iEolic form was ov- 
aKivOog, and the diminutive oicucCvdiov or oiaKiwiov, whence the 
Latin vaccinium. Martyn, after examining the point with great care 
{ad Georg.y iv., 183), thinks that the particular flower here meant 
under the name of hyacinth is the LUiumfloribus reflexis, or Marta- 
gon, and perhaps the very species that is called Imperial Martagon, 
(Compare note on Eclog., iii., 63.) 

19-20. Despectus tibi sum, &c. Corydon here boasts of his wealth, 
his skill in music, and the comeliness of his person, and seeks by 
means of these to remove the indiflference that Alexis feels towards 
him. — Qui sim. Observe that qui is here another form for quis. 
— Nivei qvum lactis, &c. By punctuating after pecoris, we have con- 
nected nivei with lactis, which seems the far more natural arrange- 
ment. White sheep, it is true, were preferred by the Romans, but 
here the point lies not in the colour, but in the fact of ownership^ 


the main idea being dive* pecoria sum. So, again, the epithet nivet, 
as applied to Uctis here, can hardly be considered tautological, wtien 
we have the same epithet similarly applied in TibuUus, Ovid, and 
others. Besides, in Greek, we find yviXa XevKov sanctioned by the 
authority of Homer and Theocritus. 

21-22. MiUe mea agrue. " A thousand lambs of mine.** — Siculis 
in moniibus. This language shows at once that tlie present Eclogue 
is merely an imitation of some Sicilian Greek pastoral, and that 
Spohn is wrong in maintaining that Corydon represents Virgil 
himself, and Alexis a slave of PoUio^s named Alexander. {Pro- 
Ugom. ad Carm.- Bucol.) — Lac mihi non aslatc novum^ 6cc. He has 
cows which yield him milk in winter and summer, so that it can bo 
served every day fresh at table. 

23-24. CaniOf qiuB solitus, &c. He compares himself in song to 
the Theban Amphion ; for he says that he sings the same strains 
that Amphion did, when the latter wished, by means of these, to 
recall his flocks from their pastures, and lead them home at eve. 
The shepherds were accustomed to mingle song alternately with 
the notes of the pastoral pipe. The strains ascribed here to Am- 
phion are some that were celebrated in early legends. — Amphion. 
Amphion and his brother Zethus were sons of Jove by Antiope, and 
heroes of the pastoral age of the Greeks. Amphion cultivated mu- 
sic with the greatest success, and, according to the legend, built 
the wall of Thebes, causing the stones to take their respective 
places in obedience to the tones of his golden lyre, which he had 
received from Mercury. 

DirccBus. Equivalent here to Thehanus, from Dirce, the wife of 
Lycus, king of Thebes, who treated with great cruelty Antiope, 
the mother of Amphion and Zethus, and was in consequence put 
to death by these latter. They tied her by the hair to a wild bull, and 
let the animal drag her until she was dead. After death she was 
changed into a fountain of the same name, near the city of Thebes. 
— In ActcBo Aracyntho. " On the Actaean Aracynthus." Aracynthus 
was a mountain on the confines of Boeotia and Attica, and the epi- 
thet Actczus seems to be equivalent to Atlicus, "Attic," and to re- 
fer to its lying partly within the latter country, which was called, 
also, ActiBa^ from its being on two sides shores i. e., ukt^. Hence 
Sextus {adv. Gramm., i., 12, p. 270) even calls it a mountain of At- 
tica : 'ApuKwdog 77/f 'Arn/f^f karlv 6pog. Amphion and Zethus hav- 
ing been abandoned after their birth, were found by a shepherd near 
Eleutherae, their natal place, on the confines of Bceotia and Attica, 



not far from Aracjmthus, and brought up by him.'-{ApoUod.f iii., 6, 
5. — Compare Paus., i., 38.) 

25-27. Nee sum adeo informis. " Nor am I so devoid of personal 
attractions." — In littore. He alludes to the clear, calm water near 
the shore, in some retired nook, where his image could easily be 
reflected from the surface. Compare the remarks of Voss in reply 
to the quibbling objection of Servius. — Placidum ventis. " Undis- 
turbed by the winds.'' Compare the explanation of Wagner : 
** ventis placatum^ stratum.** — Daphnin. Daphnis was famed in the 
legends of the Sicilian shepherds for his beauty, and w^as the son 
of Mercury. He led a pastoral life. — Si nunquam faUit imago. ** If 
my image never deceives me," t. e., if the image reflected from the 
water speaks truth, and I am sure it does. Observe the force of 
the indicative in denoting certainty. The subjunctive f allot is an 
inferior reading, and implies doubt. 

28-30. O tantum libeat, &,c. " O that it may only please thee to in- 
habit with me the country, that possesses no attractions (for thee)," 
t. e., which appears mean to thee in comparison with the splendour 
of a city life. Compare the explanation of Spohn : Sordida rura, 
quia carent munditicB urbance cultu." — Etfigere cervos. Heyne main- 
tains that this does not refer to hunting, because such an employ- 
ment is foreign to pastoral life, but to the fixing of forked beams, 
called cervif with which cottages were propped ; and this is also 
one of the interpretations given by Servius. Nothing, however, 
can be more erroneous. In the first place, hunting does belong to 
the pastoral life, as will readily appear from the following passages : 
Eclog., iii., 12 ; Georg.j iv., 404, seqq. ; Columell.y vii., 12 ; Geopon., 
xix., 1, seqq. ; Theocrit., v., 106. In the next place, Alexis is cer- 
tainly not invited to a scene of labour^ such as fixing up props ; and 
then, again, the dwelling of Corydon is described as already erect- 
ed, not as requiring erection. 

Hadorumque gregem, Sec. *^ And to drive the flock of goats unto 
the green hibiscus." Observe that kibisco is here in the dative, for 
ad hibiscum. (Consult Vossy ad loc.f and Gronov., Diatr., p. 8, seq.) 
By the hibiscus is meant the Althea officinalis^ a species of mallow, 
on which the young goats were accustomed to be fed after wean- 
ing. Sibthorp found it growing in the low, wet grounds of Greece. 
{Billerbeekf Flora Class., p. 176.) Some less correctly take kibisco 
for an ablative, and translate " to drive the flock of goats with a 
green switch." As Voss correctly remarks, compellere does not 
mean merely agere, but agere aliquo.'^Viridi. Keferriog to tho 

iroTSB OH xoLoauE It. 123 

jUiit u in B joDiif and tender atBte, and therefore fitter for brow»- 
ing upon. 

St-83. In lUmi. The scene now changes to the woodland pas- 
tures among the mouotaiDSi as opposed to (he meadows where the 
hibiscns growe. — Pan ;>rinitii calamct, &,c. The Fan's pipe, or Pan- 
dean pipe, was the appropriate musical instrument of the Arcadian 
and other Grecian shepherds, and was regarded by them as the in- 
Tention of Fan, their tutelary god, who wa« sometimes beard plaj- 
iDg apan it, as they imagined, on Mount Manalus. Its Greek name 
was uvptyf, its Latin appellation, fitlvSa. It was constructed either 
of cane, reed, or hemlock. In general, seven hollow stems or tbeee 
tdants were fitted together by means of wax, having been previously 
cut to the proper length, and adjusted so as to farm an octave ; but 
Kunetimes nine were admitted, giving aa equal number of notes. 
The annexed wood-cut represents Pan, holding in bis right hand a 
diinlung bom, and in his left a syrinx, which ia Btrengthened b; 
e bands. 

34-^9. A'es ti panitcat, &.c. " Nor let it repent thee," &a., i. «., 
Dor deem it unworthy of thee, or, io other words, an unbecoming 
employment. — Calamo tririsie labctlum. " To have rubbed thy lip 
against the reed," i. c, to bave passed the lip$ along tbe several 
apertures, tbe pipes, in blowing on them, being moved along the 
lips. — Quid non /aciebal Amyntas. Alluding to a well-known player 
on tbe syrinx in tbe neighbourhood, who lelt no means untried to 
equal the skiU of Cory don .^Dispuri^ teptem, &c. " Formed of 
seven hemlock stalks of unequal length, fastened together." — Da- 
vtattu. A celebrated performer on the syrinx, who left bis pipe as 
a legacy to Corydon. — Stcandum. " As a second owner," i. e., and 
one deserving to hold it as such. Compare the explanation of 


Voss : <' Von dir gebraucht, wird sie ihren Torigen Eigener mcht 

Dixit DarruEtas, &c. The repetition hete, dixit Damatas, lays a 
particular stress on the person of the speaker. — Invidit etiUtus 
Amyntas. Amyntas had foolishly hoped to inherit the pipe^ and had 
approached, under this view, the couch of the dying musician. 

40-44. Nee tutd wwAt, &c. " Found by me in a dangerous valley." 
Tlie danger arose from the wild beasts that frequented it ; and the 
risk encountered enhanced the value of the intended gift. — Sparsis 
etiam nunc^ &c. Observe the force of etiam nunc. In progress of 
time the animals change colour. According to Wdnderlich, hunt- 
ers affirm that young kids, recently bom, have their skins marked 
by white spots for the space of about six months. 

Et faciei. " And she will do so," t. «., will succeed in getting 
them from me. He avoids saying daboi lest this open avowal of 
intention may ofiend Alexis. — Sordent tibi. "Are paltry in thy 

( 45-47. Hucades. " Come hither." The shepherd being in doubt 
whether these presents of the pipe and kids are sufficient to attract 
Alexis, renews the invitation by ofiering him a gift of flowers, to 
be gathered by the hands of the Nymphs, &c. — Lilia. The white 
lilies are those which were most celebrated and best known among 
the ancients. 

NymphcB. The imagination of the Greeks peopled all the regions 
of earth and water with beautiful female forms called Nymphs, 
divided into various orders, according to the place of their abode. 
Thus, 1, the Mountain-Nymphs, or Oreades ('OpcmcJef), haunted the 
mountains {bpogy a mountain) ; 2, the Dale-Nymphs, or Napcece (Na- 
'KalaL)y the valleys (vdTrjy, a woodland vale) ; 3, the Mead-Nymphs, or 
Leimoniades {Aeipuviddec), the meads (keipuv, a mead) ; 4, the Water- 
Nymphs, or Naiades (Namdff), the rivers, brooks, and springs (vao), 
to flow); 5, the Lake-Nymphs, or Limniades (Aipviddef), the lakes 
and pools (kipvrj^ a lake) ; 6, the Tree-Nymphs, or Hamadryades 
{'ApaSpvu6ec)j who were born and died with the trees (apa and dpvf) ; 
7, the Wood-Nymphs, or Dryades (Apvtt(Jcf), who presided over the 
forests generally (Spvg) ; and, 8, the Fruit-tree Nymphs, or Meliades 
(M^yXmcJff), who watched over gardens, or flocks of sheep, accord- 
ing to the meaning of the term pfj'Kovy a tree-fruity or a sheep. 

Candida Na'is. "A fair Naiad," t. c, water-nymph. — Pallentes 
violas. " Pale violets." The plant here intended is, according to 
Martyn, the stock-gilliflower, or wall-flower, which all botanists, 
with one consent, allow to be what the ancients called Leucotum, 


formed from Xevncdv Iw, '* a white violet." Theophrastas says the 
Leuccium is one of the earliest flowers, appearing even in the win- 
ter, if the weather is mild, but if it is cold, somewhat later, in the 
spring. Pliny, in translating the passage of Theophrastus just re- 
ferred to, calls the flower in question viola alba. As, however, the 
wall-flower is of a yellow hue, it may be asked how the term " pale" 
comes to be applied to it here. The answer is easy. In the north- 
ern parts of the world, paleness is, indeed, a sort of faint, dead 
whiteness ; but in the warmer countries, where the people are in 
general of a more swarthy complexion, their paleness is rather yel- 
low than white. Hence the Greeks and Romans by paleness do not 
mean whiteness, but a yellow colour or sallowness. — Summa papavera, 
** The tops of poppies." The kind here meant is tbe common red 
poppy, which grows wild among the corn. 

48-50. Nareissum, «»The daflfodil." There can be no doubt that 
the narcusus of the ancients was some species of what we now call 
narcissus, or daflfodil. {Martyn, ad. Georg., iv., 12'Z.y-Anethi. The 
antthum of the ancients is our " dill." In Southern Europe it grows 
wild on the rocks. In England, on the other hand, it is sown in 
gardens, and is very like fennel, but diflfers from it in being an an- 
nual, smaller, not so green, and having broader and leafy seeds of 
a less agreeable flavour. The flower is yellow, like that of fennel, 
but smaller. Sibthorp found it both wild and cultivated in Greece. 
Its frequent use, according to the ancients, injured the sight and 
the physical powers generally. The seeds were deadly to birds. 
Dioscorides speaks of an unguentum anetkinum^ and a vinum anethi- 
num. {Diosc.y i., 62. — Zi., v., 41.) 

Casid. " With the casia." The casia here meant is not the aro- 
matic bark of the East, but a common and well-known European 
plant, namely, the Daphne cucororiy or Thymclaay called by some 
"spurge-flax," or "mountain widow- waile." {Martyn^ ad Georg., 
ii., 213.)— iIfo//ia luteoldy &c. " She sets oflTthe soft hyacinths with 
the yellow marigold." — Pingit. Variegates, diversifies, or decks 
out. — Vaccinia. (Compare note on verse 18.) — Caltha. It is hardly 
possible to determine what flower is here meant. Probability, how- 
ever, is in favour of the marigold. La Cerda is incorrect in making 
it the (3ov<p6aXfio^ of Dioscorides. 

51-52. Ipse ego cana^ &c. "I myself will gather quinces hoary 
with tender down." Some think that the apricot is here meant, 
but, according to Pliny, this fruit was not known in Italy till thirty 
years before his time, and was sold at a great price. The quince, 
or Malum Cydoniumt is a native of Crete, and obtains its name from 



the city of Cydon in that island. The kind here meant is the apple* 
shaped quince (" malum eotoneum minuSf** Bauh. pin., 434). It was 
a great favourite on account of its fine odour, and was placed in 
sleeping apartments around the heads of the images that stood 
there. Only one kind of quince was eaten raw, the Test were 
cooked or made into preserves. Modern botanists make three kinds, 
the apple-shaped, pear-shaped, and Portugal quince. 

Castaneasque nuces. In the southern parts of Europe chestnuts 
grow so abundantly as to form a very large portion of the food of 
the common people, who, besides eating them both raw and roasted, 
form them into puddings and cakes, and even bread. {Library 
of Ent. Knowl.y vol. ii., pt. i., p. 92.) It is« however, not the wild 
castanea which furnishes the nuts that are principally consumed ia 
the South of Europe and exclusively imported to more northern 
countries, but a number of cultivated varieties, the nuts of which 
are larger, and the kernels sweeter. {Penny Cyclop. ^ vol. vi., p. 350.) 

63-55. Cerea pruna. "Waxen plums." So called from their 
colour being yellow, like new wax. Hence the epithet cerina ap- 
plied to this species. Thus Pliny remarks : " Sunt et nigra .... 
pruna , . , . ac laudatiora cerina'* {H. N.^ xv., 13)> and so, also, Ovid 
{Met., xiii., 817): 

" Prunaque non solum nigro liveniia succo, 
Verum etiam generosa novasque imitantia ceras.** 

Honos erit huic quoque porno. ** Honour will be rendered to this 
fruit also." Thou wilt honour this fruit with thy approbation, even 
as Amaryllis bestowed her attention on the favourite chestnut. — 
Porno. Observe, as before remarked, that pomum is a general term 
for any fruit on trees, &;c. 

Lauri. " Bays." The Roman laurus is our " bay." Our laurel 
was hardly known in Europe, remarks Martyn, till the latter end of 
the 16th century, about which time it seems to have been brought 
from Trebizond to Constantinople, and thence into most parts of 
Europe. The laurel differs from the ancient laurus in two respects : 
it has no fine smell, and it is not remarkable for crackling in the 
fire. The first discoverers of the laurel gave it the name of lauro- 
cerasuSf because it has a leaf something like a bay, and a fruit like 
a cherry. — Proxima. "Next," i. «., referring to the intended posi- 
tion of the myrtle in the basket, next to the bay, and almost joined 
with it. That this is the true meaning of proxima here, is shown 
plainly enough by the very next line, quoniam sic positce. 

56-57. Rusticus. " A clown," t. «., a very dolt in offering snch 


gifts. — Munera, " Such gifts as thine." Alexis prefers the presents 
and the life of the city, and disdains rural scenes and rural gifts. 
(Compare verse 60.) — Si muncriifus certes, ** If tliou even contend 
with gifts/' t. e., seek to gain the favour of Alexis by other and 
more valuable gifts, such, namely, as would be likely to please aa 
inhabitant of the city.^Concedat Idlas, '' Will lollas, in all likeli- 
hood, yield to thee," t. c, thou hast little chance of surpassing the 
wealthy lollas in the splendour of thy gifts. Compare the explana- 
tion of Wagner : " Ccncedat, i. e,, cedat donorum amplUudine.** lollas 
was the master of Alexis. 

58-59. Heu ! heu ! quid volui, &c. Heyne thinks that Corydoa 
here alludes to his rank folly in making mention of gifts, when 
lollas is so well able to surpass him in these. Wagner, on the other 
hand, with far more propriety, makes the accusation of folly consist 
in this, that Corydon is throwing away his peace of mind on a hope- 
less object of pursuit, and one that will produce serious injury to 
him in the neglect of his private affairs. He begins, therefore, to 
return to a better mind ; when all of a sudden, true to nature, he 
flies back to his former passion. — Floribiis austrum, &c. " Lost (to 
all reason), I have let in the southern blast among my flowers, and 
the wild boars unto the crystal springs," i. «., I have acted with as 
much folly as if I had exposed my flowers to the destructive blast, 
or allowed my pure springs to be defiled and rendered turbid by the 
wild boars, anfmals of unclean habits, and fond of wallowing in the 
mire. Observe that perditus is here equivalent to perdilus amore^ i. 
<., amens. — Austrum. The sirocco, or hot wind of the south, is 
meant, so injurious in its eflects to both the vegetable and animal 

60-62. Quem fugis, &c. The train of thought is as follows : 
Whom dost thou shun \ Me 1 And because I am an inhabitant of 
the country 1 Why, the very gods themselves have dwelt there ! 
Ay, and men of royal lineage too. — iTi quoque^ &c. As, for instance, 
Apollo, while tending the flock of Adraetus, in Thessaly. — Darda- 
niusque. Referring to bis descent from the royal line of Dardanus. 
Paris, in early life, and before his true lineage was known, was a 
shepherd on Mount Ida. 

Pallas^ quas condidit^ &c. *' Let Pallas inhabit by herself the cita- 
dels she hath erected." Pallas Athene, or Minerva, the goddess 
of skilful inventions both in peace and war, first taught men to build 
dwellings and erect fortified cities. Hence she was styled iroXtov- 
Xoc, " city-protectress ;" TroAtdf, " guardian of the city ;" uKpaia^ 
** dwelling on heights •" these early cities being generally erected, 


for greater safety, on eminences, and having a citadel or fortress 
attached. This idea was prevalent throughout the whole Grecian 
world, but particularly so at Athens, where the uKpoiroXic, or citadel, 
was under her immediate protection. We must not, however, on 
the present occasion, limit arces in the text to Athens- merely, but 
give it a general reference to all citadels, that is, to all walled towns, 
in opposition to the free country ; and the idea intended to be con- 
veyed must be regarded as the following : Leave the cold and stem 
Goddess of Wisdom to dwell by herself in the walled cities which 
she has taught men to erect, and come and live with me amid the 
freedom of rural scenes. 

Condidit, Equivalent, in effect, to condere docuit. {Voss, ad loc.) 
— Ipsa. As regards the peculiar force of ipsa here, compare the 
explanation of Wagner: "ipsa, non tu cum ilia-" {Quast. Virg., 
xviii., 2, c.) — Nobis. Himself and Alexis. 

63-65. Sequitur. Used in a different sense here from that in 
verse 65, but still there lurks in both the common idea of seeking 
with earnestness. — Lupus ipse. " The wolf on its part." Equiva- 
lent to the Greek T^vko^ d* av. {Wagn.., Quasi. Virg., xviii., 2, a.) — 
Cytisum. (Consult note on Eclog.yi. ^79.) — Trakitsua quemque^ &c 
** His own particular inclination draws each one on ;" more liter- 
ally, " drags," as indicating the difficulty of resisting the impulse. 

66-67. Aratrajugo referuntf &c. "The steers are bearing hence 
the plough hung upon the yoke." In construction, join suspensa 
jugOf i. e.f suspensa ex jugo^ and not jv go referunt^ as Spohn directs. 
When the ploughman had finished his day's labour, he turned the 
plough upside down, and the oxen went home dragging its tail and 
handle over the surface of the ground. The plough may then be 
said to hang, as it were, on the ox-yoke. Comnare Horace {Epod.^ 
ilj 63) : 

" Videre fessos vomerem inversum loves 
Collo trakentes languido." 
Et sol crescentes, &c. " And the departing sun doubles the increas- 
ing shadows." Palladius informs us that the country people 
who were accustomed to compute their time by the length of the 
shadows proceeding from objects, had, during the longest days, i 
shadow of twelve feet at the tenth hour of the natural day, but a 
the eleventh one of twenty-three feet, nearly double. Hence tlw 
force of duplical in the text. (Pallad., iii., 327.) Observe that Co 
rydon's lament has lasted from noon till evening. 

70-72. Semiputata est. " Hangs half pruned." His indulgence i 
a fruitless attachment has caused the suspension of rural labours 


and done injury in consequence to his affairs. Vines were pruned 
twice every year : once in the summer season, and again in the 
fall. — Frondosi. Observe that not only the vine itself, but the tree 
also along which it was trained underwent pruning. — Ulnio. The 
elm was chosen particularly for the training of vines. 

Quvn tu aliquid, 6lc. ** Why dost thou not rather get ready to 
weave of osiers and pliant rush some one at least of those things 
the use of which is needed/' t. e., baskets, cheese-holders, and oth- 
er things of the kind that are wanted on a farm. Observe the 
force of saitenif ** some one at least j^^ no matter how small or unim- 
portant ; hence aliqitid saltern is the same as aiiquid quantumvis ex- 
iguum. — Detexere. Equivalent to texendo ahsolvere. — Alium. Ob- 
serve the force of alius here, as implying that there are many oth- 
ers as good as he, and equally attractive. Corydon, therefore, will 
not eventually miss him. 




This Eclogue exhibits a contest between two shepherds, in what 
has been called amcebaean yerse, in which the persons introduced 
recite or sing alternate strains, the one striving to excel the other. 
Menalcas and Damoetas, after indulging in some rustic raillery, re- 
solve to contend for the prize of two bowls, or cups, which they 
mutually stake, appointing, at the same time, a neighbouring shep- 
herd to be the judge of their performances. They boast of their 
respective fair ones, sing the praises of Pollio, and propose some 
absurd enigmas. The poet seems to have laid it down as an indis- 
pensable rule in these amoehsban verses, that the rival swains 
should answer each other in exactly the same number of lines. 
Through the whole Eclogue the Roman poet has closely imitated 
his Grecian predecessor Theocritus ; and it is the only one of his 
pastoral productions in which he has exhibited the coarseness of 
his original. {Dunlop, Hist. Rom. Lit.f vol. iii., p. 117.) The title 
" Palaemon" is given to the Eclogue from the name of the umpire. 

Voss makes this Eclogue to have been composed by Virgil in the 
spring of A.U.C. 712, the poet being then in his 27th year. 

1-6. Cujumpecus? " Whose flock (is this) 1" Ctt/ttm is here the 
neuter of the earlier pronominal adjective cujus, -a, -wm, " whose," 
&c. Though obsolete in the polished dialect of the city, it is here 
retained in the language of country life, where so many old forms 
are accustomed to linger. The resemblance in sound, and of course 
in meaning, between cujus and the English " whose" is very stri- 
king. (Compare Donaldson's Varronianus, p. 200, 233.) — An Meli- 
h(zi. «*Is it Meliboeus's 1" Observe that an here properly car- 
ries with it an air of doubt, and the true meaning of the clause is 
this, "It is not Meliboeus's, is iti" (Consult Beier, ad Ctc, Off., 
i., 15, ^ 48.) 

Tradidit. " Intrusted it to my care." .^gon sits by the side of 
Nesera, preferring his «uit, and intrusts his flock, meanwhile, to a 
hireling. — Infelix semper. The flock are here represented as ever 
unfortunate, both on account of their master, who neglects his af- 
fairs, and on account of their keeper, who is a mere hireling, and 
feels no interest for them. — Fovet. " Prefers his suit unto." 

Hie alienus custos. ** This hireling keeper." He is called aUemu ; 


literally, a mere stranger, one who knows little of the flock, and 
cares little for its comfort. — Bis mulget in hora. Dishonest under- 
keepers were accustomed to milk the flocks secretly, and dispose 
of the milk for their own advantage. This offence was punished 
in the time of Justinian with stripes and loss of wages.~*£^ succus 
pecori, 6lc, " And (thus) their strength is secretly taken from the 
mothers, and their milk from the lambs ;'* more literally, ** their 
juice is secretly taken from the flock," i. e., juice, or animal lymph, 
which gives strength to the mother, and a nutritive quality to her 
milk. {Edwards, ad loc.) Observe that, in place of et sticciis, the 
prose form of expression would be quo succus. 

7-9. Parcius ista viris, &c. " Still, however, bear in mind that 
these reproaches of thine ought to be made more sparingly against 
jDen." The term viris is meant to be emphatic here, and the 
meaning of the clause is as follows : What if I am a hireling ? still, 
however, I am a man, and stained by no unmanly vices ; which is 
more than thou canst say. Persons like thee should be cautious 
bow they heap reproaches upon those who are far purer than them- 

Novimus €t qui te, &c, " We know both who made thee a part- 
ner in guilt, when the very he-goats turned away their looks, and 
in what sacred grot, but the good-natured Nymphs (only) laughed," 
t. e., did not punish this act of profanation. The allusion is to some 
act of guilt, rendered doubly heinous by the sacred character of the 
place. With te supply corruperii^ or some equivalent term, which is 
here suppressed by euphemism. — Transversa tuentibus. We have 
given the version of Wagner. The common translation is, " while 
the he-goats looked askance." — Sacello. According to Festus, sa- 
cellum means properly a consecrated place open to the sky. Com- 
monly, however, it is taken to signify a small chapel. In the pres- 
ent instance, it appears to indicate a grotto sacred to the Nymphs, 
near some spring or fountain-head where the flocks were accus- 
tomed to repose during the midday heats. 

10-11. Tunc, credo, &c. Menalcas here answers ironically, that 
it was when he maliciously injured Mycon's vineyard, insinuating 
all the while that Damcetas was actually guilty of such an act. 
Maliciously injuring trees, and especially vines, was punished with 
a fine by the laws of the Twelve Tables. Subsequent legislators, 
however, inflicted the same punishment as in the case of robbery, 
namely, cutting off* the hand. We have adopted tunc with Jahn, 
instead of the common reading turn, the former expressing the time 
more specifically. (Compare LindemanUf de Adv. Lot. Spec., i., p. 
10, scqq.) 


Quum me arhustum^ &c. "When they saw me hack, the elm 
grove of Mycon and his young vines with malicious bill," ». c, when 
they, namely, the Nymphs. — Arhustum. Equivalent here to mari- 
tolas ulmos, and referring to the elms along which the vines were 
trained. The full-grown vines, therefore, suffer also. On the other 
hand, the viUs novella are the very young vines, only recently plant- 
ed, still lowly in size, and which have not, as yet, begun to twine 
around the trees. (Spohn, ad loc.) 

12-15. Aut hie, ad vctercs fagos, &c. Damcetas recriminates, and 
charges Menalcas with an act of equal maliciousness. — Fagos. 
(Consult note on Eclog., i., 1.) — Arcum el calamos. Bows and arrows 
would be required by the shepherds to defend their flocks against 
wild beasts and robbers, and would also be used in hunting. — Per' 
verse, ** Malignant.*' Compare the explanation of Forcellini : *• In- 
terdum est malevolus, malignus, lanquam si perversis obliquisque ocu- 
lis alterius bona aspiciat" 

Puero. Daphnis, as Voss correctly remarks. — Donata. Given to 
him by some third person. Observe the employment of the neuter 
here as referring to inanimate objects, namely, *• arcum et calamos.*^ 
— Aliqud. "In some way." Supply ra/ionc or ria. — Nocuisses. Sup- 
ply illis. 

16-20. Quid domini faciant, &.Q. This is commonly understood 
as meaning, What may be expected from their masters, when thiev- 
ish servants show so much presumption 1 and it is regarded as an 
attack on both his rival ^Egon and Damcetas. Wagner's explana- 
tion, however, is far better, and much more natural, namely : I 
see in thee a most audacious thief; what, then, has not a master 
to fear from such a servant 1 For it is most likely that he who, 
like thyself, makes free with the property of his neighbour, will re- 
strain himself in a tar less degree from those-things that are nearer 
at hand, and which invite to theft, namely, the property of his own 
master. How, then, shall masters be able to protect their own 
against such plunderers as these 1 In other words, " what are they 
to do 1" (quidfaciant 7) Do what they may, they cannot save them- 
selves. The foregoing explanation shows the propriety oifaciant 
as a reading, not facientj as some editions give it. 

Non ego te vidi, <fcc. He now proceeds to charge Damoetas with 
an act of theft, to which he himself was a witness. — Excipcre insi- 
diis. " Entrap."— %«5ca. The name of a dog, half dog, half wolf ; 
or, in other words, begotten by a wolf Pliny says that these were 
common in Gaul. {H. iNT., viii., 61.)— Qwo tiunc se proripii ille 1 
** Whither now is yon fellow taking himself off!" Observe the 


fbrce of Ule, as denoting one at some distance. — Tityre^ eoge pecut. 
Menalcas now calls out to Titjnrus, who had charge of Damon's 
goats, to gather together his flock, since a thief, Damcetas, was 
among them. — Tu post carecta latebas. Observe that carectum is 
properly a place covered with the carcx. ** Thou didst skulk behind 
the rushes.'* It is difficult, as Martyn observes, to determine what 
the carez itself is, from what the ancients have said of it. We 
must, therefore, depend upon the authority of Anguillara, who as- 
sures us that, about Padua and Vincenza, they call a sort of rush 
careze ; which seems to be the old word carex modernized. Caspar 
Bauhin says it is that sort of rush which he has called Juncua acu- 
tvs paniculd tparsa. It is therefore, adds Martyn, our eomnum hard 
rush^ which grows in pastures, and by waysides in a moist soil. It 
is more solid, hard, and prickly at the point than our common soft 
rush, which seems to be what the ancients called juncus. (Martyn, 
ad Georg.y iii., 231.) 

21-24. An mihif caniando, &c. " Could not that same one, on 
being beaten in singing, have given me up the goat, which my pipe, 
with its strains, had won V Damcetas admits the taking of the goat, 
but insists that it belonged. of right to him, as a prize fairly won in 
a contest of song. — Ille. Observe the force of this pronoun here in 
distinguishing or marking out : "that same one," t. e., that same 
Damon. — Carminibus. In these musical contests they commonly 
played on the pipe or syrinx, in the intervals between the two parts 
of a song ; hence the carmina, or " strains,'* are the parts of the 
song, aftei* which the music comes. — Fistula. (Consult note on 
Eclog., ii., 32.) 

Si ncscis. " If thou art unacquainted (with the fact, I will tell 
thee),** i. e., to let thee know. Equivalent to ut hoc scias^ or ne hoc 
ignores. -^Ipse fafebatur. Damon, according to the story of Damoe- 
tas, confessed to him in private that the goat was his of right, but 
excused himself from giving it up, and apparently for no other rea- 
son than that such a surrender on his part would be tantamount, 
to an open avowal of defeat. 

25-27. Cantando tu ilium 1 Supply vicisse le ais. — Fistula cerd junc- 
ta, 6lc. He doubts whether he was ever the owner of a syrinx. (Con- 
sult note on Eclog.y ii., 32.) — Non tu in triviis^ &c. •* Wast thou not 
accustomed, thou blockhead, to murder some wretched tune in the 
cross-ways, on a screaking straw 1'* — Triviis. By trivium is meant 
" a place where three ways meet ;" it then gets the signification of 
** a place of public resort,'' especially for the lower orders. — Siridenti, 
A verbal adjective, not a participle. Hence the remark of Spohn, 



*< noiii quae nunc stridet, sed quae omnino." — SiipuU. Referring to 
a pipe of simplest construction, made of a single straw or reed. 
(Consult note on Eclog.t i., Z.y^Disperdere. Equivalent to male 
perdere, just as dispeream is the same with male peream. (Compare, 
moreover, Propertiusi ii., 33, 10 ; ** Duro perdere verba sono.*^) 

28-31. Via ergo. "Art thou willing, then V* Observe that visne 
and vin* tu merely interrogate, but that vis and vis tu are meant to 
arouse. {Spohn^ ad loc.) — Vicissim. " By turns," t. «., in amosbeaa 
strain. (Consult Introductory Remarks to this Eclogue.)— i/anc 
vilvXam. " This heifer." Observe that vihda is here put for juven^ 
ca. — Ne forte recuses. To prevent his refusing the stake as a mean 
one, he enumerates the good qualities of the heifer. She comes 
twice to be milked, although she suckles twins. — Binos, For Dnos. 
The poets often use the distributive for the cardinal numbers.— 
Quo pignore. " For what bet." The same as quo pignore posit o, 

33-37. Injusta noverca. "A harsh stepmother." Theocritus, 
from whom this is imitated, is more true to nature : ivrd xa^eiroc 
i9' 6 iraTTjp fiev X' a /idrrip: ** Since both my father is cross, and my 
mother also." {IdyU.<, viii., \b,)^Bisque die numcranif &c. (Com- 
pare Ovidy Met., xiii., 824: "Pauperis est numerare pecus.") — Alter. 
" One or the other of them." Observe that the counting takes 
place in the morning when they are led out to pasture, and again in 
the evening when they return home. — Insanire. " To show thy 
mad folly (in contending with me)." Supply mecum eertando. 

Pocula fagina. " A pair of beechen cups." Observe the force of 
the plural. Drinking-cups, as Voss remarks, were usually in pairs : 
one for wine, the other for water ; and he refers, in support of his 
opinion, to Ctc, in Verr,, and also to Horace^ Sat., i., 6, 117, " lapis 
albus Pocula cum cyatho duo stLstinet." The cyathus here mentioned 
was a small ladle, by means of which the wine and water were 
mixed, or else taken from the crater, or large vessel, ready mixed, 
and transferred to the cups. 

Alcimedontis. According to Ciampi (Dissert. delV antica toreutica), 
this Alcimedon was not a shepherd, but a famous artist. Jahn, on 
the other hand, maintains that the name is a fictitious one ; while 
Sillig, again, inclines to the opinion that he was a contemporary of 
Virgil's. {Diet. Artif., s. v.) 

38-40. Lenta quibus tomo, 6lc, " A bending vine, superadded to 
which, mantles (with its foliage) the clustering berries, put forth 
everywhere in profusion by the pale ivy." On each cup was carv- 
ed in relief a vine intertwining with an ivy, and partially conceal- 
ing with its foliage the clustering ivy-berries scattered in rich pro- 


fusion around. — Tonto. Equivalent here to calo. — Facili. The 
same, in efiect, as doctd et peritd manu tractato. — Diffusos hedcrd pal- 
lente. Compare the explanation of Doring : " Ex hederd enatos, et 
hue iUuc dispertos" — PaUente. Marty n thinks that Virgil means 
here the kind of ivy with yellow berries, which was used for the 
garlands with which poets were crowned, or the Hedera baccu aur 
reis. The edges of the leaves approach to white. {Martyn, ad Ec- 
log.y vii., 38.) 

In medio. The intertwined vine and ivy enclose a circular space 
or field, on which are carved two figures. — Conon, A celebrated 
mathematician and astronomer, who flourished about the time of 
Ptolemy Philadelphus. He was a friend of Archimedes, and is 
mentioned by the latter in his writings as having a great knowledge 
of geometry. Conon was the proposer of the spiral which bears 
the nanoe of Archimedes. — Et quis fuit alter, A true example of 
pastoral simplicity. The shepherd forgets the name of the other 
mathematician, and describes him by his works. Commentators 
are divided in opinion as to the person meant. Voss is in favour 
of Eudoxus of Cnidos. The scholia published by Mai, besides Ara- 
tus and Eudoxus, name Archimedes, Hipparchus, Eudaemon, Eu- 
clid, and even Hesiod. Servius mentions Ptolemy among others ; 
but Ptolemy flourished 160 years later than Virgil. 

41-43. Descripsit radio, &c. ** Who described with his rod the 
whole sphere to the nations, (showing) what seasons the reaper, 
what the bending ploughman should observe." The radius is here 
the staflf or rod, used by the ancient mathematicians in describing 
the various parts of the heavens and earth, and in drawing geomet- 
rical figures in sand. — Totum orbem. The whole system of the 
heavenly bodies. — Tempera qua messor, &c. The reference is to 
prognostications of weather, arrangement of seasons, <Stc., as de- 
duced from the movements of the heavenly bodies ; at the rising or 
setting of what constellation, for example, the husbandman should 
commence certain labours, &c. — Curvus. Equivalent to curvato 
corpore incumbens aratro. 

Necdum illis labra admovi, 6lc. Imitated, again, from Theocritus, 
Jd., i., 59. Ovd* in na irorl x^^^og Ffiov ^lyev^ k. t. A. 

45-48. Et molli circuniy &c. Each of this second pair of cups has 
carved on it in relief the acanthus, which, after enclosing a field 
or area, is represented as twining around the handles. — Acantho, 
Linnaeus distinguishes two kinds of acanthus, namely, the Acan- 
thus mollis, and the Acanthus spinosus. The former is the modern 
Brankursine, and appears to be here meant. Its stem is about two 


feet high, and is covered from the middle to the top with fine, large 
white flowers, slightly tinged with yellow. The leaves are large, 
soft, deeply cut, hairy, and shining, and surround the lower part only 
of the stem. The A. spinosus, on the other hand, is a prickly plant. 
Thcophrastus mentions a third kind of acanthus, which appears to 
be the same with the Acacia AraHca, whence gum Arabic is obtained. 
Silvasque aequentes. Alluding to the fable of Orpheus, and his 
having, by the power of music, caused the very trees of the forest 
to follow him. — Si ad vitulam spectaSf &,c. *' If thou look to the 
heifer, there is no reason why thou art to extol thy cups," i. c, 
compared with the heifer, thy cups are far inferior, and not what 
thou hast boasted them to be. Menalcas had boasted of his cups 
in verse 35. Damcetas here replies to him, that his cups were by 
no means an equal stake with the heifer ; intending, at the same 
time, to convey this meaning : Do not talk, therefore, of staking a 
mere pair of cups, for I myself have a pair as good as thine ; but I 
consider them as forming too mean a stake. Match, rather, my 
heifer with another of the same value. 

49-51. Nunquam hodie effugies. Menalcas, misunderstanding, 
either actually or pretendedly, the drift of his opponent's remark, 
considers him as wishing to decline the contest, because the stakes 
are unequal. He tells him, therefore, that he is not going to get 
otr in this way ; that, rather than allow the matter to end so, he, 
Menalcas, will engage with him on his own terms, and will stake 
heifer against heifer, whatever the consequences may be. — Fcwiam, 
quocunque vocdris. ** I will come whithersoever thou mayest have 
called," i. e.jl will meet thee on thy own terms. He here express- 
es his willingness to contend with him for the stake of a heifer, 
having changed his previous resolve. {Heyne^ ad lac. ) 

Audiat h(Bc tanlum, &c. " Let even whoever it may be, that is 
coming, but hear these (strains of ours). See ! tis Palaemon," i. e., 
let any one that comes this way, no matter who, be the umpire in 
our dispute. — EJlciam, &c. " I'll bring it to pass, that thou shalt 
never hereafter," <Stc. This line is incorrectly punctuated in most 
editions, a comma being placed after, not before posthac. 

52-59. Quin agCy d:c. ** Come on then, if thou hast aught to 
sing," i. e.f if thou canst sing at all. — Nee quemquam fugio. " Nor 
do I shun any one," i. e., any opponent. Equivalent, as Voss and 
Wagner remark, to " nee te nee alium quemquam fugio." Heyne, 
with less propriety, supplies judicemy " Nor do I refuse any one as 
judge." — Sensibus Jubc imiSf 6lc. " Lay up these strains in thy deep- 
est thoughts, the wager is not one of small value," i. «., pay careful 


attention to onr respective strains ; the heifer which we each have 
staked forms a prize well worth contending for. 

DicUe. " Say on," i. «., begin. — Et nunc. "Now too." — IncipCy 
Damata, Damcetas, as the party attacked, has the privilege of 
singing first. This would be, in fact, an important privilege, since 
Damcetas might begin with softie strain previously composed by 
himself, and Menalcas would be compelled, by the rules of the con- 
test, to follow in imitation without a moment's delay. {VosSf ad, 
loc.) — Amant allerna Camosna. ** The Muses love alternate strains," 
i. e.y an amoebean contest, on account of the wide field which It 
affords for ingenuity, quickness of invention, and poetic skill. 

60-63. Jovis omnia plena. Imitated from Arattis, who has bor- 
rowed the idea from the Stoic doctrine of the ** Anima Mundi" or 
an intelligent spirit pervading the universe as its Soul. (Compare 
Georg., iv., 220, seqq.) — lUe colit terras. ** He fosters the fields." 
The meaning of Damcetas is this : All things are full of Jove, the 
country itself, too ; he fosters the vegetation of the fields ; he loves 
the shepherd's song. 

Et me Phabus amat. "And me Phoebus loves." Phcebus is here 
opposed to Jupiter, and the meaning of Menalcas is as follows : 
Jove, thou sayest, loves thy strains ; and Phoebus, I say in reply, 
loves those that are mine. It is better to be aided in song by Phce- 
bus than by Jove. Observe here the peculiar force of et^ which has 
not the force of alsoy as Wagner maintains. — Munera sunt. '* His 
appropriate gifts," i. c, the gifts that he loves. — Lauri. The bay 
was dear to Apollo, on account of the transformation of Daphne 
into that tree. In like manner, the hyacinth was a favourite with 
the god, because it sprang from the blood of his beloved Hyacin- 
thus, whom he accidentally killed with a quoit. As regards the an- 
cient LauruSf consult note on Eclog.i ii., 54. 

Suave rubens hyacinthus. " The sweet blushing hyacinth." The 
epithet rubens has reference to a sort of crimson hue, the colour 
of human blood. (Consult note on Eclog.f ii., 18, and also on verse 
106 of the present Eclogue.) 

64-66. Malo me petit. "Throws an apple at me;" literally, 
*' seeks (t. e., attacks) me with an apple." The apple, under the 
Latin name of which (malum) the Romans comprehended also the 
quince, the pomegranate, the citron, the peach, &c., was sacred to 
Venus, whose statues sometimes bore a poppy in one hand and an 
apple in the other. A present of an apple, or a partaking of an ap- 
ple with another, was a mark of affection, and so, also, to throw an 
apple at one. To dream of apples was also deemed by lovers a 



good omen. Observe that the two competitors here utter alter- 
nately five erotic couplets each, which do not contain, however, any 
actual reference to their own case, but are merely so many ioge- 
nious fictions. 

Salices. Willows were planted out in extensive grounds, for the 
purpose of affording willow-bands and props for vines. They were 
ranged in a quincunx, five or six feet apart, and in the intervals 
between them a kind of wild vine, called salicastrumy used to spring 
up, and run along the trees. (Plin., H. N., xxiii., 1, I5.y-Anle. 
"Before she hides herself among them." 

66-69. Mens ignis. ** My favourite." — Mea Veneri. " For my 
beloved." — Ipse. " With my own eyes," t. «., in my eagerness to 
make her a suitable present. — A'eria quo congessere palumbes. 
" Where the wood-pigeons, that build on high, have erected their 
nest." The wood-pigeon builds its nest on the tops uf high trees, 
and in cleils of the rock. (Compare note on Eclog.t i., 69.) — With 
congessere supply nidum. The term properly applies to the bringing 
together of materials for the nest. 

70-71. Quod potui. " All that I could do." To be construed at 
the end of the sentence — Lccla. " Picked." — Aurea mala decern, 
** Ten golden apples." The ordinary apple is meant, not, as some 
maintain, the quince. The latter fruit grows in gardens, whereas 
Menalcas selects his from a tree in the wood. He is said, too, to 
have *' picked them," that is, selected ripe ones, whereas the quince 
was loved more for its perfume than its taste. And then, again, 
quinces grow on low-sized trees ; but Amyntas, by his " quod po- 
tuit^^ shows that he culled his fruit with considerable difficulty, for 
it was picked from a lofty tree. Hence, too, the apples growing on 
high, and sent to the boy Amyntas, are intended to be opposed to 
the "A'eria palumbes*^ that are to be sent to Galatea. (*S/?oAn, ad 
loc.) Some commentators think that pomegranates are meant, but 
then the epithet would have been purpurea^ not aurea. • 

12-7b. Partem aliquam, venti, &c. The explanation of Servius is 
the true one : " Ita mecum dulce locuta est Galatea, ut deorum auditu 
ejus digna sint verba.^^ According to some, the shepherd prays that 
the winds may bear a portion of what she has said to him unto the 
ears of the gods, in order that they might be witnesses to her vows, 
and compel her to keep her word. Not so, however. He prays 
that some small portion of the many things she has told him may 
be wafted to the ears of the gods ; for, so delightful are these same 
things, that they will charm the very gods themselves. {Wagner^ 
ad loc.) 


Qtud prodestt ^. He complains that Amyntas, though enter- 
taining a regard for him, still will not let him share the dangers to 
which he exposes himself in the chase, but that, while the other is 
pursaing the wild boars, he is compelled to remain tamely at the 
nets, and watch if any animals are caught in them. — Servo. " I 
keep." The net-keeper was called, in Greek, Xtvoirrrjc- Hence 
Pollux remarks (V. Seg., 17), Xivonnj^f 6 ra kfinlTrropTa dnoaKOKoV' 

1^T7. PhyUida mitte miki, &c. He sarcastically requests lollas 
to send him his female slave Phyllis, in order that she may take 
part in the carousals attendant on the celebration of his birth-day. 
When the festival of the Ambarvalia, however, is to take place, he 
may come himself — Cum faciam vituldt 6cc. *' When I shall offer 
a heifer in sacrifice for the fruits of the earth ;" literally, ** when 
I shall make a sacrifice with a heifer." Supply sacra ailer faciam. 
Compare the similar usage in Greek, f>i^ai vn^p AavaQv (//., i., 444) ; 
and again, with the ellipsis supplied, Icpa j^i^ac (//., i., 147.) — Pro 
frugilnis. The festival of the Ambarvalia is alluded to. On this 
occasion the victim was led three times round the corn-fields be- 
fore the sickle was put to the com. This victim was accompanied 
by a crowd of merry-makers, the reapers and farm-servants dan- 
cing and singing, as they marched along, the praises of Ceres, and 
praying for her favour and presence, while they offered her liba- 
tions of milk, honey, and wine. 

78-79. PhyUida amo ante alias, &c. As a key to this passage, 
we must either suppose that Damoetas was hitting at Menalcas un- 
der the name of lollas, or else (what appears more natural) that 
Menalcas, for the sake of replying to his opponent, assumes the 
character and name of lollas for the time being. — Longum. " In 
long-drawn accents." Equivalent to voce in longum productd. 
Heyne, less correctly, explains it by in longum. The explanation 
we have given, and which is that of Jahn and Wagner, is confirmed 
by the repetition of vale. 

80-83. Trisie lupus stahulis. " The wolf is a sad thing for the 
folds." Damoetas now makes another topic the burden of his song, 
and declares that nothing is more dreadful in his opinion than the 
anger of Amaryllis. Menalcas answers, that nothing is more de- 
lightful to him than Amyntas. — Dulce satis humor. *' Rain is a de- 
lightful thing to the sown corn." — Depulsis arbutus hccdis. " The 
arbute to the weaned kids." With depulsis supply a lacte, and com- 
pare Eclog.f vii., 15, where the full expression is given. — Arbutus. 
The arbate, or wild strawberry-tree, bears a fruit that has very 


much the appearance of our strawberry, bat is larger, and has not 
the seeds on the outside of the pulp, like that fruit. The arbute 
grows plentifully in Italy ; and the poets have supposed that the 
early race of men lived on acorns and the fruit of this tree before 
the discovery and cultivation of com. It formed, also, a favourite 
food for the young kids. The berries of the tree, however, are 
hardly eatable. When taken in too great quantities, they are said 
to be narcotic ; and Pliny informs us that the term unedo was fa- 
miliarly applied to this fruit, because it was unsafe to eat more 
than one {unuSf " one," and edo, " to eat^ Plin., H. N.^ xix., 24). 

84-87. PvUio amat nostram, &c. Damoetas introduces a new 
subject, and boasts that PoUio is fond of his poetry. Menalcas 
seizes the opportunity thus afforded him of praising Pollio as being 
a poet himself — The individual here meant is the well-known 0. 
Asinius Pollio, a patriot during the times of the Republic ; then a 
favourite and devoted follower of Julius Caesar ; and ailerward a 
commander under Antony. While occupying the north of Italy for 
the Antonian party, he had become the friend and patron of Virgil. 
AAer triumphing over the Dalmatians, he led a private life under 
Augustus, and devoted himself to literary composition and the pat- 
ronage of literary men. At the time when the present Eclogue was 
composed, he is supposed to have just returned from a campaign 
against the Dalmatians, in which he had been very successful, and 
had gone to Rome to enjoy a triumph. Hence the allusion to a 
sacrifice for his safe and glorious return. 

Pieridesj vitulam, &c. " Ye muses, feed a heifer for your read- 
er." The muses were called Pierides from Pieria, a region of 
Macedonia, directly north of Thessaly, where they were born of 
Mnemosyne, the Goddess of Memory. — Vitulam. For a sacrifice, in 
commemoration of his triumph. — Lectori vestro. For him who 
deigns to read the works that owe their existence to the inspiration 
of the muses. The allusion is to Pollio, as the patron of poets and 
literary men in general. 

86-89. Facit nova carmina. <* Composes unrivalled strains." 
Pollio was not only distinguished as a public man, but also for his 
cultivation of the noblest branches of polite literature, namely, po- 
etry, eloquence, and history, in which last department Seneca pre- 
fers his style to that of Livy. — Jam cornu petat. " Which already 
butts with his horn." A young steer is to be immolated in his 
honour, according to Damoetas, as a type of his strains, full of fire 
and life. 

Gaudet. Supply venisse. Let him attain to the same honoars of 


BODg to which he rejoices that thou hast attained. In other words, 
let him become equally eminent as a poet. — Mclla fluant illi. '* May 
the honey flow for him in abundant streams." Observe the force 
of the plural.— ilmomttm. '*Amomum." A plant and perfume, 
with regard to which both commentators and botanical writers are 
▼ery much divided in opinion. The most probable explanation is 
that of Fee, who makes the plant in question the same with our 
Amomum racemosum. The Romans obtained their amomum from 
Syria, and it came into the latter country by the overland trade from 
India. The taste of the grains is represented by Charas as tart, 
fragrant, very aromatic, and remaining a good while in the mouth. 
(Fee, Flore de VirgUe, p. xvi.) 

90-91. Qui Bavium non odit, &c. Menalcas now changes the 
subject from the admirers of Pollio to his detractors ; and as Da- 
mcetas had wished all success to the former, so be expresses in his 
turn the greatest contempt for the latter. Bavins and Msevius are 
supposed by Voss to have criticised some of PoUio's tragedies, and 
in this way to have given offence to his admirers. Their names 
have come down to posterity as those of wretched poets, and de- 
tractors from eminent writers ; and yet, perhaps, some injustice 
has been done them, since they would seem to have belonged to 
that school (quite numerous at the time) who were admirers of the 
earlier Roman poetry, and strove to stem the torrent of Grecian 
novelties that were now pouring in on Roman literature. (Consult 
Voss, ad loc.) 

Jungat vulpes. " Yoke foxes to the plough." This and the ex- 
pression immediately following are proverbial ones, and are intended 
to denote what is palpably absurd. Compare Lucian ( Vit. Demonact., 
vol. i., p. 865, ed. 1687), rpdyov afiklyeLv. Menalcas here means 
that the admirers of Bavius and Majvius are capable of employing 
themselves in the grossest absurdities. 

92-95. Qui legilis flores, <fec. The subject again changes. Da- 
moetas imagines a party of shepherd boys busily employed in gath- 
ering wild flowers for chaplets, and picking strawberries. One of 
their number, on a sudden, springs back and calls upon his com- 
panions to run from the spot, telling them that he has just discov- 
ered a snake in the grass. — Humi nasccntia fraga. This epithet, 
humi nasccntia, observes Martyn, is very appropriate : it expresses 
the manner in which strawberries grow, for the plants which bear 
them trail upon the ground, and are, therefore, more likely to con- 
ceal serpents. — Frigidus. From the nature of the animal. Observe 
the peculiar and broken arrangement of the words, and the anapaes- 


tic rhythm, jmerif fugite hincy as intended to denote the agitation of 
the speaker. 

ParciUf oveSf nimiunit &c. Menalcas replies by a similar warning 
in the case of sheep, that have approached too near an unsafe bank 
of a river, and are warned off by the shepherd, who points to a ram 
that has fallen in and is now drying his fleece. — Nimium. ** Too 
far." — Non bene creditur. ** It is not safely trusted ;" more freely, 
*' it is not safe to trust." — Ipse aries. The ram himself, though the 
most prudent and cautious of the flock, has had a narrow escape. 

96-99. Tityre, pascenleSf &c. These couplets continue the sub- 
ject of taking care of the flocks. — A flumine reice. "Drive back 
from the river by flinging thy crook." (Compare the explanation of 
Voss, " mit dem Stabe zuriickzuwerfen.") Observe that reice is here 
contracted from rejicCf that is, reiice. 

Cogite oves, pueri, &c. The shepherd boys are here directed to 
gather the sheep into the cool shade, lest the heat should dry up 
the milk. — Praceperit. ** Shall have dried up." Observe that pra- 
cipere is here the same as antecapere, that is, to take away before 
the animal can be milked. 

100-103. Heu ! heu ! quam pingui, &c. Damoetas here laments 
that his herd is subject to the passion of love as well as himself 
Menalcas answers that love is not the cause of the leanness of his 
own sheep, but some fascination. — Pingui in ervo. "Amid the 
fattening vetch." The ervum is the bitter vetch, and corresponds 
to the dpoCog of the Greeks. It was of two kinds, sativum and sil- 
vesire. Dioscorides divides the former into the white and the red, 
from the colour of the respective flowers. The leaf is narrow, 
slender, and the plant bears small seeds in pods. It was good for 
fattening cattle. {Columell.f ii., 11.) The conmion, but less correct 
reading is arvo. 

His. "Unto these of mine." — Nescio quis teneros. "Some evil 
eye or other bewitches for me the tender lambs," t. c, my tender 
lambs. The superstition of the evil eye is here referred to. Voss 
states that nescio quis is here for nescio qui. Not so, however. 
Nescio quis is the same nearly ^s aliquisy and nescio qui equivalent 
nearly to nescio qualis. 

104-105. Die, quibus in terris, <Stc. Damoetas, to put an end to 
the controversy, proposes a riddle to his antagonist, who, instead 
of solving it, proposes another. Numerous explanations have been 
given to the enigma here stated, some making the reference to be 
to a well ; others to a pit in the centre of Rome, in the Comitium, 
&c. The best solution, however, is the one mentioned, amopg 


Others, by Servias, who informs us, that Asconius Pedianas heard 
Yirgil himself say, that he meant merely to allude to a certain C<elius, 
a spendthrift of Mantua, who, having run through all that he pos- 
sessed, retained merely enough ground for a sepulchre, and that 
this very sepulchre, embracing about three ells in extent, is what 
Damcetas refers to in the text, the whole enigma turning upon the 
similarity in form and sound between cee/i, *' of heaven," and Cali 
(t. «., Caslii) **of Coelius." {Voss and Wagner , ad loc.) Still, how- 
ever, all being uncertainty as to the poet's meaning, we must be 
content to translate cali as the genitive of cesium, i. e., ** of heaven.'' 

Magnus Apollo. If he solve this enigtna, he will be equal in divi- 
ning skill,^in the shepherd's eyes, to Apollo himself, the great god 
of divination and prophecy. 

106-107. Inscripli nomina regum, &c. '* Flowers are produced, 
inscribed with the n^mes of kings ;" literally, ** inscribed as to the 
names of kings." The allusion is to the hyacinth, which has, accord- 
ing to a poetic legend, the letters AI marked on its petals, not only 
as a note of sorrow for the death of Hyacinthus, but also as consti- 
tuting half the name of Ajax, t. e., Alac, the Grecian leaders being 
styled **kings^* ipaaiXelc) by Homer. (Consult note on Eclog., ii., 
18.) The hyacinth, as already remarked, is probably the Imperial 
Martagon. The flowers of most sorts of martagons, according to 
Martyn, have many spots of a deeper colour, " and sometimes," he 
adds, '* I have seen these spots run together in such a manner as 
to form the letters AI in several places." It remains but to add 
that, according to the poets, the boy Hyacinthus, who was unfortu- 
nately killed by Apollo, was changed by that deity into a hyacinth, 
which, therefore, was marked, as already stated, with these notes 
of lamentation to express Apollo's grief And it is also feigned 
that the same flower arose from the blood of Ajax when he slew 

108-110. Non nostrum. " It is not for us." Supply w/. Palaemon 
here declares that it is not in his power to decide which of the two 
has the better, and desires them, therefore, to make an end of the 

Et vUuld tu dignus, &c. Heyne marks this and the following line 
as spurious, although they are found in all the manuscripts. He 
raises various objections against them, none of which are of any 
great weight. The main difliculty, however, lies in the words 

" Et quisquis amores 
Aut metuet dulcesj aut experietur amaros,^* 
as they are given and punctuated in almost all the editions. What 


is meant by amores dulces metuere ? Wagner gives a long detail of 
various explanations by different editors, involving various changes 
of the common text, and then reads, as his own emendation, 

** Et quisquis amores 
Haul metuet, diUceSj aut experietur amarosy" 
and explains dulces, aut experietur amaros by aut dulces experietur 
aut amaros. This, however, appears harsh. We have adopted what 
seems a much milder remedy, namely, transposing amores and ama- 
ros, and slightly altering the punctuation. The meaning will then 
be as follows : *' And wtioever shall either fear unsuccessful, or 
shall experience sweet (and successful) love.'* 

Claudiie jam rivos, (Sec. *' Now close the rills, ye swains, the 
meads have drunk enough.'^ It is far more poetical to take these 
words in a figurative sense, and apply them to the contest which is 
just ended, and the meaning will then be as follows : ** Now close 
the refreshing rills of song, my thirsting ear has by this time drunk 
in enough." Most commentators, however, understand the words 
in question literally, and suppose that PMaemon, having given his 
decision, now turns to his own servants, who had been employed, 
meanwhile, in irrigating his grounds, and directs them to close the 
rills, since the meadows are now sufficiently watered. 




** This Eclogue, which is the noblest of them all, and exhibits 
the highest species of allegorical pastoral, is usually entitled 
' Pollio,* in consequence of being addreSsed to C. Asinius PoUio, 
the early patron of Virgil. It was written in the year of his con- 
sulship, which happened A.U.C. 714, and announces, as is well 
known, in a style of mysterious and prophetic grandeur, the birth 
of a child, under whose future rule the Golden Age was destined to 
be restored in Italy. Of all the prophecies uttered in the Roman 
Empire, those of the Cumsean Sibyl were the most celebrated ; and 
it seems probable that some prediction of that famous oracle served 
as the basis of the present piece. From the resemblance of its 
thoughts and images to those contained in the books of sacred 
poetry, it has been also conjectured that it partly owed its origin to 
a Greek version of those passages of Scripture in which the advent 
of the Messiah is announced. (LoirM, De Sacr. Poes. Hebr. Pra- 
lect.y xxi., p. 223, ed. Oxon.^ 1821). But, in fact, all the descriptions 
of a perfectly happy age, whether past or to come, have been nearly 
the same in Palestine, Greece, and Italy. Harmless wild beasts, 
innocuous serpents, fruits of the earth without culture, and gods 
holding communion with men, have been selected in every land as 
the ingredients of consummate felicity. 

" At the period of the composition of this Eclogue, a treaty had 
just been concluded at Brundisium between Augustus and Antony ; 
and a peace made at such a time, and after such an uninterrupted 
series of crimes and misfortunes, was sufficient in itself to inspire 
the mind of a young poet with brilliant prospects, and the splendid 
imagery belonging to the Golden Age. The idea, however, that this 
anticipation of perfect happiness was to be realized under the au- 
spicious rule of some heaven-born infant was probably derived from 
the East by the Cumaean Sibyl, or, rather, those who uttered pre- 
tended prophecies in her name, and was dexterously applied by Vir- 
gil to the future condition of the Roman Empire, and the blessings 
ft would enjoy under the sway of a child of the imperial family, who 
at that time had just been born, or was immediately expected to see 
the light. 

"It has, however, been a subject of much controversy what au- 

. - N 


Bpicioas babe was alluded to in this Genethliaeon. Senrias, in his 
commentary on Virgil, affirms that the Eclogue was written in hon- 
our of the birth of a son of Pollio, called Saloninus, who died in in- 
fancy ; from which ancient authority, the opinion that the Eclogut 
applied to a child of Pollio, became the most prevalent among com 
mentators, though some of them, particularly Rusus, the editor a 
the Delphin Virgil, have referred it not to Saloninus, but to Asinins 
Gallus, a son of Poll o, who lived to maturity. Notwithstanding, 
however, the authority of Servius, this theory is attended with in- 
superable difficulties. The poet speaks of the infant as the future 
ruler of the world, * Paeatumque reget pairiis virtuiibus orbem ;* and 
the whole composition is in terms too lofty to be applicable to a son 
of Pollio ; for who at that time could deserve to be called a child 
of the gods, and the illustrious offspring of Jupiter, except one from 
the lineage of the Csesars t At all events, such magnificent prom- 
ises would not have been held out to a descendant of Pollio, who 
belonged to the party of Antony, and was on cold terms with Au- 

** Besides, is it to be supposed, that if a child of Pollio bad been 
in the view of the poet, he would merely congratulate his patron on 
the accidental circumstance that the birth had happened during his 
consulship, and not have dedicated to him one line of compliment 
as the father 1 

" Others have erred still farther in applying this pastoral to Dru* 
BUS, the son of Li via, who was not born till A.U.C. 716, two years 
subsequent to the composition of this Ecldgue, which was written, 
as we have seen, in 714, during the consulship of Pollio. About 
this period, however, two important births took place in the Caesa- 
rean family. Seribonia, the wife of Augustus, whom he afterward 
divorced to make way for Livia, was, in the close of 714, shortly 
expected to give birth to a child, who subsequently became the no- 
torious Julia. The Eclogue, however, speaks of a boy ; and those 
who adopt the opinion that it applies to Julia, necessarily suppose 
that it was written in expectation of the birth, and not after the 
parturition. The expressions of the poet are somewhat equivocal, 
and may admit of either interpretation. His lines, < Casta fave Lu' 
cina,^ dec, and * Mairi longa decern tulerunt fastidia memet,* seem 
to have been written in the prospect of a birth ; but, on that sup- 
position, it appears singular that he should have hazarded such de- 
cided expressions with regard to the sex of the infant. 

** The only other choice that remains is the birth of Marcellas, 


the son of Octaria, and nephew of Angostiui, who was also born in 
714. This application of the subject of the Eclogue, which was 
first hinted at by Aseensius, in hid commentary on Virgil, is strongly 
insisted on by Catrou, and seems, on the whole, to be adopted by 
Heyne as the least objectionable theory. *In the year 714,* says 
the former of these critics, <wben Asinius PoIIio and Domitius Cal- 
▼inus were consols, the people of Rome compelled the triumvirs, 
Octavios and Antony, to conclpde a durable peace. It was hoped 
that an end would be thereby put to the war with Sextos Pompey, 
who had made himself master of Sicily,, and by the interruption of 
commerce had occasioned a famine at Rome. To render this peace 
more firm, Antony, whose wife Fulvia was then dead, married Cae- 
sar's sister Octavia, who had lately lost her husband Marcellus, and 
was* then pregnant with a child, who, after his birth, received the 
name of his father Marcellus, and, as long as he lived, was the de- 
light of his ancle Octavius, and the hope of the Roman people. It 
is he that is the subject of the Eclogue. Virgil addresses it to 
PoUio, who was at that time consul, and thereby pays a compli- 
ment at the same time to Caesar, Antony, Octavia, and Pollio.' 

*< This theory is perhaps more plausible than any of the others, 
but it is by no means free from objections ; for how should it have 
been supposed tRat Marcellus was to govern the universe, when 
Scribonia was pregnant, and when there was every prospect that 
Augustus would be succeeded in the empire by his own immediate 
issue 1 * The difierent claims,' says Gibbon, * of an elder and 
younger son of Pollio, of Julia, of Drusus, of Marcellus, are found 
to be incompatible with chronology, history, and the good sense of 
Virgil.' {Decline and Fall, c. xx.) 

" A late writer, who was sensible of the difficulties of all the 
schemes of interpretation which had been devised for expounding 
this Eclogue, has assumed that it was not intended as a predic- 
tion, announced by Virgil himself in his own person, but as the re- 
cital of a prophecy supposed to have been anciently delivered by 
the Cumeean Sibyl, and applied by the poet to Augustus Csesar. 
The author attempts to show, by a review of the transactions of 
the time, compared with the matter of the Eclogue, that the pre- 
diction could only have Augustus for its object ; for to whom else, 
it is asked, could the poet have thought of ascribing, at such a pe- 
riod, those splendid honours, and all those circumstances of glory, 
marked out in this exulting Eclogue 1" {Illustrations of Virgil's 
Fourth Eclogue.) 

" This fourth Eclogue is written in so elevated a tone of poetry, 


that some critics have rejected it from the number of Bucolic com- 
positions. All its images, however, are drawn from the country, 
or the superstitions of the age common to every part of the empire. 
In the melioration of the world which the poet foresees, everything 
refers to the condition of shepherds. He presents us with a rural 
scene, and a golden age, when the steer shall be unyoked, and the 
plough and pruning-hook laid aside, when honey shall drop from 
the sweating oak, and milk bedew the fields. It is this constant 
reference to rustic life, this restriction to rural imagery, and not 
the dignity or lowliness of sentiment and expression, which form 
the true criterion of pastoral composition." {DurUop, Hist. Rom. 
JUt., vol. iii., p. 106, seqq.) 

1-4. Sicelides Musa, &c. **Ye Sicilian Muses, let us sing of 
somewhat loftier themes !" i. e.y of themes loftier than those which 
usually form the subject of Bucolic song. The Muses are here called 
" Sicilian," because presiding over pastoral poetry, in which The- 
ocritus the Sicilian excelled. Hence Bion speaks of the SixeAop 
fiOuo^ {Idyll.y vii., 1), and Moschus also calls the Muses 7,iKeh,K€tl 
"iHolaai. {Idyll.y'm.) — Arbusta. "Vineyards." Spots of ground in 
which trees for training vines, especially elms, were planted at in- 
tervals of from 20 to 40 feet. — Myrica. " Tamarisks." The tam- 
arisk is in general low and shrubby, though it sometimes becomes 
a pretty tall tree. {Martyrif ad loc.) — Si camtnus silvas. The poet 
wishes his pastoral poetry to be worthy of Pollio, and the perusal 
of a Roman consul. 

5-7. Ultima Cumai, &c. He now begins the subject of the Ec- 
logue, which is a Sibylline prophecy of new and happy days about 
to come, the return of Astrsea to earth, and the renewal of the Gold- 
en Age. — Carminis. Observe that carmen is here equivalent in ef- 
fect to oraculumt since it denotes an oracle delivered in verse. The 
most celebrated of the ancient Sibyls, ten of whom flourished at 
different periods, was the Cumsan, so called from her residence at 
Cumse in Italy. These Sibyls were females, all supposed to be in- 
spired by Heaven, and who uttered, from time to time, obscure and 
mysterious predictions. One of these predictions, which had been 
given forth by the Cumaean prophetess, was generally supposed to be 
about this time approaching its accomplishment. A. series of ages 
had, according to poetic legends, now nearly elapsed, namely, the 
Golden, the Silver, the Brazen, and the Iron Age ; and it had been 
predicted by the Sibyl that the great order of these ages was now 

begin anew, the Golden Age returning first. Hence the language 



of the text, " the last era of Cumean song has now arrived,'' i. e., 
we have now reached the end of the Iron Age, and have attained 
unto that point of time when the ancient order of ages is again to 

Ab integro ruudtur. '* Is springing up anew/' Observe that mag- 
tins in this verse is nothing more than memorabilis or insignis. — 
Jam redit et Virgo, The allusion is to Astrsea (A/ic^), the daughter 
of Themis, and Goddess of Justice, who, during the Golden Age, had 
lived on earth among the human race, but had afterward fled to the 
skies, offended at the vices of men. She is now to return with the 
new Golden Age. — Saiurnia regna. ** The reign of Saturn." Sat- 
urn had reigned on earth during the first Golden Age. Hence by 
the reign of Saturn is meant, in fact, the age when Satqrn reigned, 
not a return of the very reign itself, for the promised child is to be 
the new ruler. — Nova progenies. " A new progeny," t. c, a new 
race of men, better and juster than those who went before, and 
therefore worthier of enjoying the blessings of the coming age. 

8-10. Nascenli puerofave. " Favour the birth of the boy." Ob- 
serve that nascenti is here equivalent merely to dum nascitur, and 
that no reference is intended to the present moment. — Quo. " Un- 
der whom." Supply sub. — Ferrea atas. The poet's own age is 
meant. — Mundo. For orbe terraruniy as in Lucan^ i., 160. — Lucina. 
The goddess presiding over child-birth. She is, strictly speaking, 
the same as Juno, but is often confounded with Diana, as in the 
present instance, by the Roman writers. — Tuus jam regnat Apollo. 
" Thy own Apollo now reigns," i. «., thy own brother Apollo. Ac- 
cording to the Sibyl, the Sun presided over the last age, and since, 
therefore, he now so presides, Lucina is entreated, for his sake, to 
favour the birth of the promised infant, who is to reign in his turn 
over the coming age. Apollo was unknown as a deity to the ear- 
lier Romans, and his name was wanting in the list of gods approved 
of by Numa. {Arnob.f adv. Gentes, ii., p. 95, ed. 1651.) At a later 
age, however, the attributes of Apollo and the Sun were blended 

11-14. Teque adeo, &c. "And in thy consulship, too, in thy 
consulship, O PoUio, shall this glory of the age enter upon his ca- 
reer." As regards the force of adeo here, consult Handy TurselL, i., 
p. 145. — Inibit. Supply cursum suum. — Magni menses. ** The far- 
famed months." Magni is here equivalent to illustres or insigncs. 
(Compare magnus ordo, in verse 5.) 

Te duce. " Under thy guidance," i. e.^ under thy consulship. 
The new age was to date from this. This sounds like very strong 



language for the poet to apply unto Pollio ; bat we must bear in 
mind that, at the time when this was written, the Romans by no 
means expected that all power would centre in the hands of Octa- 
vianus, but, on the contrary, still hoped that the ancient form of 
government would be restored, and with it their freedom. — Sceleris 
tesiigia nostri. Alluding to the guilt of the civil wars, and the tra- 
ces still remaining of that lamentable conflict. Heyne thinks that 
this was written subsequently to the treaty of Brundisium, at which 
time Sextus Pompey was still infesting the Italian seas. 

Irrita. "Completely effaced." Equivalent to abolita. — Fortni- 
dine. Alluding to the fear of Divine punishment, in consequence 
of the unholy nature of the contest. 

15-17. Ille deikm vitam, &c. "He shall receive (to enjoy) the 
life of the gods, and shall see heroes intermingled with gods, and 
shall himself be seen by them." This favoured child is to lead a 
life equal in felicity to that of the gods, and to lead it, too, in the 
midst of gods and heroes. The picture here presented is adum- 
brated from the poetic accounts of the Golden Age, when men, ac- 
cording to Hesiod, lived like gods (figre ^eol i^uov\ and when present 
deities intermingled with the human race. — Heroas. Those were 
called heroes who were not only the offspring of parents, one of 
whom was divine, but who also, on account of their exploits, were 
enrolled an)ong the gods after death. — Et ipse videhitur Ulis. Equiv- 
alent, in effect, to iis admixtus erit. 

Pacaiumque reget, &c. "And shall rule a world, hushed to re- 
pose, with all the virtues of his fathers," i. «., of his exalted line. 
Observe that patriis is here equivalent to majorum. A peaceful 
world forms one of the most usual features in poetic delineations 
of the Golden Age. 

18-20. At tibi prima^ puer^ <&c. He now foretells the blessings 
which are to attend the birth of the infant. Observe that by prima 
munusculat " her first gifts,*' are meant plants and flowers only. 
The grain-harvest is to appear during the adolescence of the favour- 
ed new-comer. (Consult verse 28.)— iVu//o cuUu. Alluding to the 
spontaneous productions of the Golden Age. 

Cum baccare. " With the baccaris." The nominative form, bac- 
earisj is to be preferred to that of baccar, from the circumstance of 
baccaris being found in Pliny, and paxKapic in Theophrastus, or, as 
it is otherwise written, puKxapic- It is doubtful what particular 
plant is here meant. Martyn leaves the point undecided. Sprengel 
is in favour of the Celtic Nard, or Valeriana Celtica^ L. If we ad- 
mit, however, what is very probable, that the baccaris of the ancient 


fcoUiiists \a the same with that of the Latia poet, we must decide 
for the Digitalis purpurea {Linn., gen, 101). The earlier commen- 
tators on Theophrastus and Dioscorides have confounded the aza.' 
rum with the baecmris, and have thus introduced, by a gross error, 
the- name kaccara (one of the appellations of the azarum) into the 
Italian langoage. {Fie, Flare de Virgile, p. xxiv.) 

CoheoMia, ** Colocasia.*' A species of Egyptian bean, but found 
also in the lakes of Asia, and particularly in Cilicia. According to 
Prosper Alpinns, the Egyptian name was Culcag. When this 
Eclogue was written the Colocasia was a rarity, newly brought 
from Egypt, and therefore the poet speaks of its growing commonly 
in Italy, as one of the glories of the happy age that was now begin- 
ning to dawn. According to F6e, it is the Arum Cdocasia {Linn., 
gen^ 1387). — Acantko. The acanthus here meant is the Acacia, an 
Egyptian tree, from which we obtain the gum Arabic. 

21-85. Ipsm. ** Of their own accord.'' The sheep will require 
no keeper, as there will be no fear from the wolves. Compare the 
Greek usage of ahroL, for aifrdfiaToi, in Theocritus. — Ipsa cunabula. 
** Thy very cradle.*' — Blandos, " Pleasing ;" literally, " soothing,*' 
t. e.f soothing to the senses by their perfume, and by their rich 
and varied hues, — Fallax herba veneni. ** The deceitful herb of poi- 
son," i. e., the poisonous plant calculated to deceive, from its simi- 
larity to some innoxious one. As regards the expression herba ve- 
neni, for herba venenata, or veitenum continens, compare poculum ve- 
neni in Solinus, poculum mortis in Cicero, poculum lactis in Tibullus. 

Assyrium vulgo nascetur amomum. " The Assyrian amomum shall 
grow in common." As regards the amomum, consult note on 
Eclog., iii., 89. The epithet " Assyrian" is here to be taken in a 
wider sense than ordinary, for Eastern regions generally. (Fom, 
ad loc.) 

26-30. At simul. " But as soon as.**^ Simul, for simul ac. The 
poet, having declared the blessings that shall attend the birth of 
this expected child, now proceeds to describe those which shall ac- 
company his youth. — Laudes. "The praises," t. e., the praise- 
worthy deeds. Compare the Homeric /cA^a livdpuv ijpuQv. II., 
xxii., 620. — Parentis. (Consult Introductory Remarks.) — Et quce 
sit poteris, &c. In verse 26, the reference is to poetry and history, 
as each celebrating the exploits of illustrious men, and thus open- 
ing up the common fountain-head of all the virtues. The youth is 
now to become acquainted with, not the mere lessons of human 
wisdom as derived from the precepts of philosophy, but with that 
Virtue which arises from emulating the virtue of another, that is, 


he will learn to know what the virtue of former heroes and of his 
own sire may have been, and will make this his model of imi- 

Molli paullatim, &c. (Compare note on verse 18.) — Flavescet. 
The allusion is still to spontaneous production, though not distinctly 
expressed. — Rubens uva. " The reddening grape," i. e., the ripen- 
ing cluster. — Ei dura quercus, &c. Honey is said to have dropped 
from trees in the Golden Age. (Consult Gemrg., i., lZl.)^Roscida 
nulla. The plural here marks abundance. Observe, moreover, the 
peculiar force of the epithet roscida, **dewy." The honey shall 
exude from the leaves and bark of the trees, and form globules like 
the dew. 

31-33. Pauca tatnen suberuntf &c. " Still, however, a few traces 
of ancient guilt shall remain." This will be the Heroic Age ; the 
Golden one will not yet have returned. By fraus is meant the de- 
viation, on the part of subsequent ages, from the purity and sim- 
plicity of the times of Saturn, or the Golden Age. For the poet's 
day, however, this is ancient guilt, and comprehends the art of 
navigation, the fortifying of cities, the culture of the earth, 6lc., all 
of which are so many traces of guilt, because they have all come 
in the stead of that simple life, when man was contented with little, 
when all was peace around him, and when he was not as yet com- 
pelled to cultivate the earth by the sweat of his brow. 

TTietim. Thetis, the sea-goddess, and one of the daughters of 
Nereus, is here put for the sea itself. — Telluri infindere suicos. 
Wakefield reads tellurem infindere sulcis, and Voss tellurem infindere 
sulco. Both, however, appear to have arisen from mere interpreta- 
tions, and are not sanctioned by the MSS. 

34-36. Tiphys, The pilot of Jason in the Argonautic expedition. 
He was cut off by sickness among the Mariandyni. — Altera Argo. 
With the return of past ages, the great events which characterized 
them will also return ; there will be a second Argonautic expedi- 
tion in quest of a second golden fleece ; there will be also a second 
war of Troy. 

37-39. Hinc, uhi jam, &.C. " After this, when now thy strength- 
ened age shall have brought thee to manhood." The poet, having 
spoken of the defects that shall remain during the childhood and 
youth of the expected infant, now comes to speak of the fullness 
of blessings that shall attend the completion of the Golden Age, 
when he shall have attained to the full stature of manhood. — Cedei et 
ipse mari vector. *< The mariner himself, also, shall withdraw from 
the sea." Servius makes vector equivalent hete to both qui vehitua 


and qui vehii, that is, both the trader and the mariner. There is 
no need, however, of any such remark The reference here is 
merely to the commander of the vessel, who conveys merchandise 
over the sea either for himself or for others. — Omnis feret omnia 
iellus. Every country shall bear all sorts of products, which will 
make navigation useless. 

40-45. Non rastros patietur humus, &c. In this new age the earth 
is to produce' everything spontaneously ; it will have no occasion 
to be torn by harrows, or the vine to be wounded by pruning-hooks. 
— Robustus. »*The sturdy." — Nee varios discet, &c. "Nor shall 
the wool learn to counterfeit various colours.'' He calls the col- 
ours, which are given to wool by art, false or counterfeit ones. — 
Ipse sed in pratis, &c. " But the ram himself, in the meadows, shall 
change the hue of his fleece, now with the sweetly-blushing purple, 
now, again, with the saffron-coloured woold," t. e., the ram shall 
have his fleece -tinged, without any process of art, sometimes with 
purple, and at other times with a rich golden or yellow hue. — Mib- 
rice. The murex is properly the shell-fish whence the ancient pur- 
ple was obtained. Here, however, it is taken for the colour itself. 
— Luto, By lutum is meant, according to Voss, the Reseda luteola, 
a plant yielding a safl^ron yellow. The French call it La Gaude, 
the English dyers about London term it woold. {Fee, Flore de Virgile, 
p. ci. — Martyn, ad loc.) 

Sandyx. " The vermilion." The poet does not refer here to a 
plant, as some suppose, but to a pigment formed of the mixture of 
sandaracha (red sulphuret of arsenic) with rubrica (reddle) in equal 
proportions. The meaning of the whole passage (v. 43-45) is sim- 
ply this : The sheep shall now feed on choicer herbage, and while 
feeding, they shall have their fleeces dyed by the hand of nature 
with the richest and most valuable hues. (Wagner, ad loc.) 

46-49. Talia sacla, suis, .&c. " The Parcas agreeing in the firmly- 
established order of Fate, have said to their spindles, run on such 
ages as these," i. e., proceed, ye ages, after this manner. The 
three fatal sisters, Clotho, Lachesis, and Atropos, are intrusted 
with the conduct of the thread of human life, which they cut oflf 
when the fatal hour is come. They are here introduced as com- 
manding the thread belonging to this glorious age to run on without 
interruption. Observe that each Fate has here her spindle, where- 
as, according to the common legend, Clotho holds the distaflT, La 
chesis spins, and Atropos cuts the thread : " Clotho colum reiinet, 
Lachesis net, Atropos occai." 

Aggredere magnos^ &c. Virgil having now brought his hero on 


to the AiII stature of manhood, calls upon him to assume his destined 
honours ; and then, breaking forth into a poetic rapture, he wishes 
that he himself may but live so long as to hare an opportunity of 
celebrating his actions'.— Deikm soboles. Observe that deikm is here 
used in the sense of dei alicujus.^-^Magnum Jomt inerementum. 
** Great increase of Jov^," t. e., increasing in power through the 
favour of Jove. Compare the explanation of Wagner : " Qui per 
Jovem incrementa capil ; cut Jupiter fa-oet^ adspirat.** 

50-63. Adspice convexo^ dec. The world is here represented as 
nodding or beckoning, to welcome, as it were, the approach of this 
happy age ; just as, in the case of a present deity, the earth is said 
to be moved and to tremble, as it were, with joy. Martyn errone- 
ously makes nutantem mean tottering to its fall. Our explanation, 
however, which is that of Heyne, Voss, Spohn, Wagner, and Wun- 
derlich, is confirmed evidently by verse 62. 

63-59. mihi tarn longa^ 6tjc. This is the prayer of the poet, 
not, as pome erroneously suppose, of the Sibyl. And as only the 
extreme portion of his existence can reach to these happy times, he 
therefore says, " lojiga pars ultima vita.^* — Spiritus et, quantum, &c. 
** And as much of (poetic) inspiration as shall suffice to tell of thy 
deeds." — Thracius Orpheus. The epithet " Thracian," applied here 
to Orpheus, is identical merely with " Pierian," and indicates a na- 
tive of the district 6f Pieria, which lay to the east of the Olympus 
range, to the north of Thessaly, and the south of ^Emathia or 
Macedonia. {Muller, Greek Lit., p. 27.) 

Linus. According to the common legend, an early bard, the son 
of Apollo and Terpsichore. (Consult, however, Anthonys Class. 
Diet., s. V.) — Adsit. *• Be present," i. «., on being invoked to lend 
aid.— OrpAci. The Greek dative, and of course a dissyllable. — 
Callinpea. Orpheus was the fabled son of Apollo and Calliope. 
Observe that Calliopea is from the Greek form KaXXioircLa, the more 
common form being Calliope, from KaXXioTrij. 

Pan etiam, &c. This deity was chiefly adored in Arcadia, where 
he was fabled to have been begotten. — Arcadia judice. Even though 
the Arcadian shepherds be the umpires, and who would, of course, 
feel every inclination to favour their national deity. Observe the 
repetition in verse 59, and the spirited eflfect which it produces. 
{Weichert, de Vers, aliquot Virg., <fec., p. 93, seqq.) 

60-63. Risu cognoscere matrem. " To know thy mother by thy 
smile," i. «., to show by thy smile that thou knowest thy mother, 
and to fill her bosom with joy by means of that smile, since it will 
ample reeompease (<>r the long period of previous discom- 



fort. Heyne errs in referring risu to the mother*8 smile. If this 
interpretation be adopted, the lines that follow lose all spirit. Wo 
have followedi on the contraryi the explanation of Servius and the 
early grammarians, which is also ably advocated by Wagner.-* 
Longr^ fattidia. *^ Long discomfort." 

Cut nim risere parentes. The idea of the poet is this : Begin by 
thy smile to elicit & smile from thy parents. This is all-important ; 
for he on whom his parents have not soiled at his natal hour is 
unworthy the baaquet of the gods and the hand of a goddess. 


156 ~ NOT£a ON ECLOOUB ▼« 



** Two swains are introduced in this Eclogue, paying honour by 
their verses to the memory of the shepherd Daphnis. The one 
represents the cattle as abstaining from their food for grief, the wild 
beasts of Africa lamenting, the fields withering, Apollo and Pales 
leaving the plains, and the nymphs mourning round his corse. la 
the latter part of the pastoral, the scene is changed to joy and tri- 
umph. The second shepherd, who takes up the song, represents 
Daphnis as now received into Olympus; pleasure and transport 
overflow the plains ; the very mountains break forth into songs ; 
altars are erected, and solemn sacrifices are performed to him, as^ 
to Ceres and Bacchus. 

** The whole pastoral thus consists of an elegy and an apotheosis : 
the first shepherd lamenting his decease, and the other proclaiming 
his divinity. But it is not agreed what person was meant to be 
figured under the name and character of Daphnis. Some have sup- 
posed that he was a fabulous Sicilian shepherd, the son of Mercury, 
who was believed to have been the inventor of pastoral poetry. 
Others have maintained that Daphnis denoted Quintilius of Cremo- 
na, the intimate friend of Horace and Virgil ; while Julius Scaliger 
thinks that the lamented shepherd represented Flaccus Maro, the 
brother of the poet. 

** The high and magnificent terms, however, in which Virgil sings 
of Daphnis, in that part of the Eclogue which celebrates his deifica- 
tion, preclude the idea that any private individual could be figured 
under the person of a shepherd, of whom he speaks as a god, tread- 
ing under foot the clouds and the stars. The greatness of the 
poet's conceptions, and the elevated tone he assumes, have led the 
greater number of commentators, and, among others, Joseph Scal- 
iger, to believe that he designed to bewail the death and celebrate 
the apotheosis of Julius Caesar. 

" These critics have explained the description of the mother of 
Daphnis embracing the dead body of her son as alluding to the tu- 
mults in the Forum and the lamentations over the dead body of 
Caesar, and the animals mourning and abstaining from food as re- 
ferring to those prodigies which were said to have occurred before 
his death. In the year of Rome 712, the triumvirs Antony, Octa- 
and Lepidus erected and consecrated a temple to Julius C«- 

NOTES ON E0L06UE V. 157 

Bar in the Forum ; carried about his statue in solemn procession, 
aloog with an image of Venus, in the Circensian games ; decreed 
supplications to him, on receiving the news of a victory, and or- 
dered that he should be worshipped as a god. 

*'It was in aUusion to this deification, as is now generally sup- 
. posed, that Virgil composed his fifth Eclogue. This opinion, how- 
ever, though commonly adopted, is not without difficulties. Thus, 
•'Virgil calls Daphnis jmerf a term by no means applicable to Julius 
Cssar, who was considerably above fifty at the time of his death. 
He also talks of his beauty, and of his mild, pacific disposition : all 
which, it must be admitted, seems more applicable to a youthful 
swain than to an old warrior. Menalcas, too, by wKom the poet 
evidently means to represent himself, says, *AmaoiC nos quoque 
Dapknis ;* but there is not the least reason to suppose that Virgil 
had been in any way favoured or protected by Julius Csesar. It is 
therefore probable that he may have had no farther intention in 
this Eclogue than to imitate the first idyl of Theocritus, in which 
two shepherds lament the fate of Daphnis, a Sicilian swain, who 
had pined away in striving to resist an unhappy passion. 

** However this may be, the Eclogue itself is one of the most ele- 
gant and pleasing of the number. The scenery of the spot where 
the shepherds sing is beautifully described, and is well adapted to 
the subject of the strain. There is also much delicacy and sweet- 
ness in the mutual praises bestowed by the swains on each other's 
verses." {Dunlop, Hist. Rom, Lit., vol. iii., p. 110, seqq.) 

This Eclogue has stood to all succeeding ages as the model of 
pastoral elegies. It was composed, according to Voss, in A.U.C. 
713, when Virgil was in his 28th year. Heyne, following the Ro- 
man manuscript, gives as the title of this Eclogue, ^^ Menalcas, Mop- 
sus.* . Wagner, however, adopts the title of the Palatine manu- 
script, namely, ** Daphnis ;" and we have followed his authority. 

1-7. Cur nan, Mopse, &c. " Since we are met together, Mopsus, 
both of us skilled, thou in playing on the slender reeds, I in singing 
verses, why do we not sit down herel" &c. Observe the con- 
struction of boni virith the infinitive, as in Greek, dyadol avplCcLv, 
&c. — Dicere. Equivalent to cantare. — Tu major. **Thou art the 
elder." Supply natu. 

Sub incertas Zephyris, &c. " Beneath the shade rendered un- 
certain by the zephyrs that continually disturb it," i. e., that con- 
tinually disturb the foliage, and thus render the shade uncertain and 
shiftQiiii ; Observe the frequency of action implied in motanHbug, 


158 K0T88 ON EGLOOCK V. 

We have adopted this form with Wagner, Voas, and others, hoth 
because it is more expressive than Heyne's mutantibtu^ and also on 
account of its being sanctioned by Servius and the greater number 
of MSS. — Potius. Mopsus expresses himself with great modesty 
and deference to Menalcas. He assents to his proposal of sitting 
under the trees, but hints an objection to the uncertainty of the 
shade ; and expresses a desire of going rather into a cave, which 
he very beautifully describes. 

Adspice, ut antrum, &c. " See how the wild vine has overspread 
the cave with its scattered clusters.*' The allusion is properly to 
the entrance of the cave. — Labrusea. The lakrusca, or wild vine of 
the ancients, probably did not differ specificaUy from that which 
was cultivated. As the want of pruning will spoil the bearing of a 
Tine, and at the same time suffbr it to run to wood, it must have 
been on the present occasion luxuriant in branches and leaves ; in 
other words, it was a real vine, running wild without any culture. 
This the poet expresses, by saying that the clusters were scattered, 
that is, few in number. The luxuriant Tine, therefore, made a 
thick and certain shade about the entrance of the cave. 

8-9. Monfibus in nostris, &c. Menalcas assents to the proposal 
of retiring to the cave, and the two shepherds discourse as they 
go along. Menalcas tells Mopsus, that in all their neighbourhood, 
none can contend with him but Amyntas ; and Mopsus is offended 
at the comparison. — Tibi eertcU. " Contends with thee." Observe 
the Hellenism in tibi for tecum. We have given eertat, with Wag- 
ner, as more complimentary than certet, the reading of Heyne and 
others. Certat marks the assertion of a fact ; whereas eertet here 
would be equivalent to " judicio meo certare potest.^* 

Quidy si idem eertet, &c. " What if that same one strive to con- 
quer Phcebus in singing V This is said with an air of pique, and 
is aimed at the arrogance of Amyntas. Mopsus means that Amyn- 
tas would contend with Apollo himself, the god of Song. 

10-15. Incipe, Mopse, prior, &c. Menalcas, perceiving that he 
had offended Mopsus, by comparing him with Amyntas, drops the 
discourse, and desires him to sing first, proposing, at the same time, 
some subjects for his poetry. Mopsus, however, chooses rather to 
sing some verses which he had lately made, and tells Menalcas that, 
when he had heard them, he might judge whether there was any 
comparison between him and Amyntas. Menalcas endeavours to 
pacify his anger, and declares that, in his opinion, Amyntas is far 
*^ip to him. 

^^ out PhylUdis ignes, 6ao, ** If thou bast either any lores 


of Phyllis (to tell of in song).** The names here introduced, nanaelj) 
Phyllis, Alcon, and Codrus, belong not to real characters, but to 
fictitious pastoral personages. Phyllis, therefore, must not be con- 
founded with the daughter of Lycurgus, king of Thrace, who was 
abandoned by Demophoon, nor Codrus with the early king of 
Athens.— >Ti/yne«. The name of a slave. Mopsus himself is the 
6on of a rich parent. 

In mrtdi cortice. On the bark, not taken off from the tree, as 
Voss thinks, but still remaining attached to it. — El modtUans alterna 
notavi, ** And setting them to music, with my voice and pipe al- 
ternately, I noted dowq the melody.'* (Compare the explanation 
of Spohn : *' ModuUtus sum et modidamen notavi. Modulamtn autem 
erat duplex, vodsy nam canlando recitandum erat carm^n^ et fistula, 
qtut. quasi intercalare carmtn, site modos musicos, eanebat, quo finito 
denuo eantus pergebat. Itaque quasi kac alterna erant, canere voce et 
inflare fistulam.**) Observe that alterna is here by a Hellenism used 
adverbially for altematim. 

16-19. Lenta salix, &c. The most remarkable property of the 
willow is its flexibility, whence the epithet lenta. On the other 
hand, the term pollens is no less proper for the olive, since its leaves 
are of a yellowish green colour. — Saliunca. " The saliunca.** It 
is generally supposed that the plant here meant is the Nardus Celti" 
ca, or French spikenard, a species of valerian. Dioscorides says it 
was called also by the Ligurian mountaineers, among whom it 
grew, by the name of 'AXtovTyta, which approximates closely in 
sound to Saliunca. It is now found in great plenty on the mount- 
ains that divide Italy from Germany, and also on the mountains 
about Genoa, near Savona. It is a very low plant, and has a fra- 
grant smell : hence, as the poet had opposed the willow to the ol- 
ive, which it somewhat resembles, though it is far inferior to it, 
so he now opposes the saliunca, or French spikenard, a low plant, 
of sweet smell, to the rose, a flower not only excelling it in odour, 
but also in beauty. It is said that the inhabitants of the Tyrol call 
the Nardus Celtica, in their own language, selinuck. {Martyn, ad 
loc.) — Desine plura. Supply dieere. 

20-23. Daphnin. (Consult Introductory Remarks.) — Crudelifu- 
nere, " By a cruel death,'* t. «., by a harsh and untimely fate. 
Equivalent merely to acerbd morte. IJe pined away through a hope- 
less passion. — Vocat crudelia. Heyne makes tocat equivalent here 
to invocat. Not so, however. The very explanation which Heyne 
condemns is the true one. The mother of Daphnis, namely, char* 
ges the gods and the stars with cruelty in not having saved hei^ 
son.— Afo/er* (Consult Introductory Remarka. " 


34-26, nbR vUi jmivt, &c. The shepherds, through grief, 
droTe not, during those days, tbeir herds to the paslurea, and, after 
they bad pastured, to the riTer'e stream. — Nulla ncc amnem, &c. 
Those who are of opinion that Julius Cssar is meant under Iba 
name or Daphnia quot« a foolish story from Saetoniua, who states 
that the horses which Ctesar had consecrated, when he crossed the 
Rubicon, and which had fed at large ever since, were observed on 
his death to abstain from their food. IJit. Cxi., c, 81.) 

27-28. Panot. " Carthaginian," t. t,, African. This, however, 
is merely an ornamental epithet, and has do particular reference 
to country. So, immediately after, we have Armaiiat tigrti, — Lo- 
guunlur. In the sense of narrata. (Compare Bion, Idyll., I, 38, 
'Upca ircivra Xiymrt, xot oi ipit;.) 

S9-31. Curru. Old form of the dative, for cHmii.—T'AiiioM iWu- 
cere Baccki. " The introduction of the sacred processions of Bac- 
chus." By Ihidtoi are here meant sacred procesaiooa, accompa- 
nied with dancing and song. The word is derived, according to 
some, from mSc, the ^olic for Si6c. Heyne makes inductrt equiv- 
alent here to the simple ducere, " to lead up." Wagner, however, 
explains it more correctly as follows : " Inducere dieituT de tit, qui 
novum marem inlmducutU, primi aliquid faciunl." — Bacchi. This is 
the true reading, not Baccho, as Brunck would prefer. The dative 
would imply, what the poet does not mean, namely, that the Ihiatut 
had not previously existed. Daphnis merely introduces them into 
quarters where they had not previously been adopted ; but they had 
been invented elsewhere long before. 

Etfdiit Unlaj, &c. A description of the Tkyrtu*. This was a 
pole carried by the worshippers of Bacchus in the celebration of 


hia orgiei. It was twisted round with branches of vine and ivjr, 
and was sometimes lemiinBted by the apple of the pine or fir-cone, 
that tree being dedicated to Bacchus, in consequence of the use of 
the taipentine which flowed from it, and also of its cones, in the 
mifking of wine. The monomeotB of ancient art, however, most 
coiUmonly exhibit, instead of the pine-apple, a bunch of vine or ivy- 
leaves, with grapes or tierries arranged in the form of a cone. The 
preceding wood-cut shows the head of a thyrsus, composed of the 
leaves and berries of the ivy, and surrounded by acanthus leaves. 

In the following cat, a fillet is tied to the pole just below the 
bead, and the pole itself is bare. This fillet was often used, and 
waa of a white coloar. 

33-35. VUU Hi arioribvs, &c. By the vine being a 
to the trees is meant its adorning the elms by which it was sup- 
ported. — r» dtcus omm tuis. " So wast thou the whole glory of 
thy friends." Supply erai. — Palea. The goddess who presided. 
over cattle and pastures among the ancient Romans. — Apollo. Apol- 
lo NoraiuB (Sd/iiof) is here meant. Ha was originally a local deity 
of the shepherds of Arcadia, and was transformed into, and identi- 
fied with, the Dorian Apollo during the process in which the latter 
became the national divinity ofthePeloponneaians. Hi^fuoi means, 
■* of or beloaging to a paatore, or shepherds." 

162 MfOTES ON )ECL06t7E V. 

36-37. CrrdfuUa *€Bpe qfuhut, &c. ** Often in those farrows in 
which we have sown plump barley, the unhappy darnel and steril 
oats are produced ;" more freely, »* wild oats." The ordinary text 
has dominantur instead of nascuntur; but the latter is the true 
reading, and is sanctioned by the earlier editions and MSS. The 
same line occurs again in the Georgics (i., 154), but there domU 
nantur is to be preferred, on account of the more elevated character 
of the poetry. 

Lolium. The darnel is a common weed in corn-fields. It is re- 
markable, however, as being the only well-authenticated instance 
of a plant belonging to the order of grasses in which narcotic or 
even deletei'ious properties have been found. The grains are said 
to produce intoxication in man, beasts, and birds, and to bring on 
fatal convulsions. According to Christison, darnel, when mixed 
with flour, and made into bread, has been known to produi;e head- 
ache, giddiness, somnolency, delirium, convulsions, paralysis, and 
even death. Hence, perhaps, the epithet of *'infelix" applied to 
it by Virgil, unless this be given to it from its unproductive nature. 
The botanical name is Lolium. temulentunii and the French name 
LHvraie, both having reference to its intoxicating properties. 

Sleriles avcn(B. The wild oats are not the common oats degen- 
erated by growing wild, but a quite different species : the chaff of 
them is hairy, and the seed is small like that of grass. It was the 
general opinion of the ancients that wheat and barley degenerated 
into darnel and wild oats, but they are both specifically different, 
and rise from their own seeds. {Martyn, ad loc.) 

38-39. Purpurea narcisso. Alluding, according to Martyn, to a 
species of white daffodil with a purple cup. This kind is said to 
bloom about the time of the autumnal equinox. {Martyn and Voss, 
ad loc.) — Paliurus. ** The paliurus." Christ's thorn ; supposed to 
be the thorn of which the crown was made that was put upon our 
Saviour's head. It grows abundantly in Italy in uncultivated places, 
and is very common in the hedges, for the strength of its thorns 
makes a very good fence. The botanical name is Rhamnus folio 
suhrotundoy fructu compresso. (Bauhin.) 

40-44. Spargite humum foliis. Flowers and leaves are to be 
scattered on the ground in honour of Daphnis, in accordance with 
a well-known custom. — Inducile fontibus umbras. "Form a shade 
over the fountains." Trees are to be planted around his grave, 
throwing their shade upon the stream that winds near it. Observe 
that the tomb is to be erected near some piece of running water, 
to keep the turf upon it ever fresh and verdant. Compare the de< 


•cripthm of the tomb to be constructed for the Culez : ** Rtmtm 
jfrapter aqua, viridi tub frondc latentem.** {Cul., 367.) — Tumulum. 
The tomb is to be a mound of earth. — Carmen. ** An inscription.'* 

Daphnis ego in silvis, &c. *' I am Daphnis, known throughout the 
woods ; known hence (also) even unto the stars/' i. e., not only 
known throughout the woods, but whose fame has also spread 
thence even to the skies. Compare the explanation of Servius : 
" in aUvis notuM et hinc usque ad ndera" — Ipse. " Myself." 

46-52. Scpor. " Deep sleep." Dcederlein, with yery little pro- 
priety, undertakes to show that sopor is merely the poetical expres- 
sion for sleep, somnus the usual one. (Lot. Syn., vol. v., p. 878 ) — 
Per astum, **Amid the summer heat." — Saliente rivo. "With 
some leaping rill," t. e., some living and gushing stream. — Calamis, 
« On the reeds," t. e., with the syrinx. (Compare note on Eclog, 
ii , V. 92.)—Magistrum. The allusion is not to Daphnis, but merely 
to some shepherd who had taught Mopsus the musical art. (JaAn» 

Alter ah tUo. " Second after him," t. e., next to him in point of 
akilL — Nos tamen, &c. Mopsus here modestly offers to sing some 
verses which he himself had composed on the subject. — Hac quo- 
cumque modo nostra, " These strains of mine, such as they are ;" 
literally, "in whatever way (we can)." — Tollemus ad astra. To 
be taken merely as a general expression for celebrabimus, and not at 
all referring to any honours of deification. 

53-55. Tali munere. "Than such a favour." — Puer. Daphnis. 
-^Ista carmina. " Those verses of thine." Observe- the force of 
ista. — StinUcon. The fictitious name of some shepherd. 

56-61. Candidus insuelunit &c. "Daphnis, arrayed in robes of 
refulgent light, gazes with admiration on the threshold of Olympus, 
all new to his eyes," t. e., on the entrance to the courts of heaven. 
Olympus is here taken for the arx caliy where the gods were be- 
lieved to dwell. — Ergo alacris voluptas. " A lively pleasure, there- 
fore," t. e., eager joy at beholding his apotheosis. — Dryadasque 
puellas. (Consult note on Eclog. ii., 64.) — Bonus. In the sense of 
benignus. — Otia. " Repose," i. e., a state of peace. 

63-64. Intonsi montes. " The woody mountains ;" literally, " un- 
shorn," and equivalent to incadui. — Carmina sonant. " Send forth 
loud strains." To the excited imagination of Menalcas the very 
rocks and vine-grounds seem to break forth into songs of joy. — 
Deus, deus ille, <Scc. " He is a god. that (Daphnis of ours) is a god, 
O Menalcas!" The cry of the rocks, &c. 

65-66. Bonus felixque, ** Kind and propitious." — En quatuor aras. 


Four altars are erected) two for Daphnis, and two for Phoebus ; that 
is, two for him who excelled all other mortals in song, and two for 
the god of song himself. Observe that Daphnis and Phoebus are 
not here avfi6ofioif i. e., worshipped on a common altar, but have 
each altars of their own. The plurality of altars is intended for 
more extensive sacrifices than ordinary. — Ecce duos tibif Daphniy &c. 
" Lo I two (altars) for thee, O Daphnis, two, arger ones,for Phoebus." 
Observe that altaria is here in apposition with aras understood. 
This passage shows plainly that the distinctive difference between 
ara and altare is here meant to be observed. Ara is an altar of 
smaller size, on which incense, fruits of the earth, and similar obla- 
tions are offered up ; altare is an altar of larger size, on which vio^ 
tims are burned. This serves to explain, also, what immediately 
follows. To Daphnis, as to a deified hero, no bloody offerings are 
to be made ; the oblations are to consist merely of milk, oil, and 

67-71. Bina. Observe the distinction between bina in this line 
and duos in the one immediately following. Two cups of milk are 
to be placed on each altar, but only one bowl of wine, the bowls 
being more capacious than the Cups. — Ety multo in primisf 6lc. 
" And especially enlivening the feast with abundant juice of Bac- 
chus ;" literally, " with much Bacchus." This is the customary 
feast after a sacrifice. — Vina novum fundamy &c. " I will pour forth 
from cups the Ariusian wine, a new kind of nectar," i. e., I will 
pour forth libations of the luscious Ariusian wine. The guests at 
banquets of this kind were accustomed, during the second course, 
to pour forth libations of the more generous kinds of wine. The 
use T)f foreign wines for such a purpose became very frequent with 
the Romans after A.U.C. 700. {VosSf ad loc.) 

Ariusia. The Ariusian wine was the produce of the craggy 
heights of Ariusium, in the island of Chios, extending three hun- 
dred stadia along the coast. It is extolled by Strabo as the best of 
all Greek wines (xiv., 1). From Athenseus we learn that the prod- 
uce of the Ariusian vineyards was usually divided into three dis- 
tinct species : a dry wine, a sweetish wine, and a third sort of a 
peculiar quality, thence termed avroKparov (i., 25). All of these 
seem to have been excellent of their kind, and are frequently al- 
luded to in terms of the highest conmiendation. — Calathis. The 
calathus was a cup shaped like a basket, which latter is the primi- 
tive meaning of the term. Such a basket may be seen in the fol- 
lowing cut. 


72-76. Lycttja. " The Lyctian," t. c, the Cretan. Lyclns waa 
one or the moat considerable cities of Crete, to the noitbeaat of 
pTBans. — Sallanta Stiyroi. This, orcoursc,wuuM be in good keep- 
ing with a f^stiva] in honour of a rustic deity. The Satjra were a 
MTt of demigoda that attended upon Bacchus, and are deacrrbed 
as having been half men, half goats. — Hoc tibi temper eniTit. "These 
(honours) shall be always th\ae."—Reddeiiau. '• We shall pay." — 
lAUtraMma* agroi. " We shall be making alustration of the fields." 
The allusion is to the Ambarvalia. (Consult note on Georg. i., 343.) 
The sacrifices to Daphnis, then, were to be perpetuated from year 
to year; that is, his apotheosia was to be commemorated at the 
festival of the nymphs, and also at that of the Ambarvaiia, both of 
which took place yearly. 

77-80. Thyme. The thyme of the ancients was not our common 
thyme, but the Thymut capilalai, qui Diascoridij, of Bauhin. It now 
grows in great plenty on the mountains of Greece. The Attic honey 
waa considered the best, because of the excellence of the Attic 
thyme, especially that growing on Mount Hymettus. The ancient 
thyme was more fragrant and agreeable to the taste than our own. 
— Dum Tore cicada. The cicada's feeding on dew is mentioned not 
only by the ancient poets, as, for example, Hesiod(pStu(.,/f(re., 395), 
and Theocritus (H.,iT., 16), but also by Aristotle, Pliny, ic. Thtts 
fhe latter states : " Habtnl in pcclore fislaloio guiddam aculcalum ; 
evToremUmhunt," ica. (H. iV., ii,,2S ) Aa regards the cicada itself, 
consult note on Edog. ii., 13, 

Dammthia tu quoqu-e votit. " Thou too shalt bind (thy suppliants) 
by yow3,"t. c, Shalt bind them to perform their vows, by granting 
their prayers. Daphnis will be a deity, and they who offer up their 
petition to him will be bound to the performance of tiiose things 
wiiich they promised to perform in case their prayers were granted. 
This, alter all, is equivalent merely to saying that Daphnis will be 


addressed in prayers, and will hear the prayers so addressed to 

82-90. Venientis sibilus austri. " The whisper of the rising South." 
— Pcrcussa. "Gently struck." — Ante. "First," i. c, before thou 
make a present unto me. — Cicuta. In the general sense of arun- 
dine or calamo. Servius seems to say that cicuta means, properly, 
the space between two knots in a reed. (Ad Eclog.t ii., 35.) — For- 
mosum Corydon, 6lc. The commencement of Eclogue ii. — Cujum 
pecuSf 6lc. The commencement of Eclogue iii. Some think, from 
this and the previous quotation, that Virgil means himself under 
the name of Menalcas. 

At tu sume pedum, &c. Mopeus at last insists upon his friend's 
acceptance of a shepherd's crook, the value of which he sets forth 
by telling him that another had earnestly desired it in vain, and also 
by describing the beauty of the crook itself — Quvm. " Although." 
— Non tulie. " Bore not away as liis own." — Formosum paribus 
nodis, &c. " Beautiful for its even knots and brass," i. e., for its 
even joints and the brass that adorns it. 




This Eclogue is addressed by Virgil to Vanis, who studied along 
with him at Naples, under Syro, the Epicurean philosopher. Two 
young Satyrs are introduced, who seize Silenus, while asleep in a 
cave, and compel him to entertain them with a song, which he had 
frequently promised them. The god immediately begins to give 
an account of the formation of the world, according to the system 
of Epicuru^. He then passes on to Deucalion's deluge and the 
reign of Saturn, and recounts some of the most celebrated fables 
and transformations of the primeval world. (J)unlop*s Rom. Lit., 
vol. iii., p. 118.) 

This Eclogue, according to Voss, was composed in the summer 
of A.U.C. 715, the poet being then in his 30th year. 

1-2. Prima Syracusio, dec. " My Muse was the first that deigned 
to sport in Syracusan strain." The poet here claims the merit of 
having been the first of his countrymen to introduce the pastoral 
poetry of the Greeks into Roman literature. As his model was 
Theocritus, the Sicilian poet, and a native of Syracuse, he calls this 
department of poetry the Syracusan, that is, Sicilian strain. — Dig- 
nata est. The Roman muse, that is, the Roman poets before Virgil, 
had treated of loftier themes. To treat of pastoral subjects, there- 
fore, was an act of condescension on the part of the Goddess of 
Song. Observe that in the explanation here given we have adopted 
the opinion of Voss, Spohn, and Wagner as to the force of prima. 
Heyne, with less propriety, understands it as referring merely to 
the first production of Virgil's own Muse. 

J'halia. This Muse is here named, with great propriety, as the 
patroness of bucolic song, since to her was ascribed the invention 
of husbandry, dec. Compare the scholiast on Apolionius, Arg., iii., 
1 : GuAeta ^e {PieyeraL evpijKivai) yeupyCaVj kuI t^v nepl ra <f>VTa Trpay- 

3-5. Quum caneremy &c. The exordium to this Eclogue appears 
to have been written by the poet for the purpose of excusing unto 
Varus what he was pleased to deem his own humble pawers of 
song. Varus, it would seem, had thought pastoral poetry too low- 
ly a theme for Virgil's muse, and had urged him to turn his atten- 
tion to epic subjects. The poet, however, judging his powers un- 


eqaal to sach a taak, thinks he ought to pursue those humbler topics 
for which nature appears to have intended him. 

Cynihius aurem veUiL ** Apollo twitched my ear." Apollo was 
called CynthiuSf from Mount Cynthus in the island of Delos, on 
which mountain he was bom. From the same cause Diana was 
called Cynthia. — Aurem veUit. In order to ensure attention to what 
was said. Obserre that vellit is here in the perfect. — Deductum 
carmen. " An unpretending strain." Deduetum here means, liter- 
ally, ** thin-spun," and is a metaphor taken from wool that is spun 
out thin. 

6-12. Super Hbi erunt. **Thou wilt have (poets) more than 
enough." — Vare. L. Alfenus Varus, a follower of Caesar's, and 
who had studied the Epicurean philosophy at Naples, along with 
Virgil, under the philosopher Syro. — TrisHa condere hella. "To 
build up the narrative of gloomy wars." Varus had taken an ac- 
tive part in the civil wars, having sided, as has been remarked, with 
Cssar« — Agrestem tenui, &c. (Compare Eclog., i., 2.) 

Non injuasa cano. " I sing no unbidden strains," t. e., I sing what 
Apollo orders me to sing, and this alone. Apollo had directed him 
(«. 5) to confine his attention to pastoral and humble themes. — Hac 
quoque. *< Even these (my strains)," i. e., even these unpretending 
strains of mine. — Captus amore. " Taken with love of mine," i. c, 
pleased with them. — Sibi qua prascripnt. ** Which has inscribed 
upon its front." Observe that pagina, in this sentence, is equiva- 
lent, in fact, to carmen. 

13-15. Pergite, Pierides. " Proceed, ye maidens of Pieria." As 
regards this appellation of the Muses, consult note on Eclog. iii., 85. 
The poet now proceeds to the subject of his Eclogue. — Chromis et 
Mnasylus. Two young satyrs, not shepherds. That they were not 
mere mortals, appears from their intimacy with Silenus {v. 18) as 
well as with JEgXe, No human beings could have come even into 
the sight of nymphs and woodland divinities without straightway 
losing their reason, and becoming what was termed vvfK^dXriTrToiy 
or lymphati. (Fom, ad loc.) 

Silenum. Silenus was a demigod, who became the nurse, pre- 
ceptor, and attendant of Bacchus. He was noted for his wisdom, 
but equally noted for intemperance. This deity was usually repre- 
sented as old, bald, and flat-nosed, riding on a broad-backed ass, 
in a state of intoxication, sometimes supported by satyrs, carrying 
his can in his hand, or else tottering along leaning on his staff of 
fennel. — Inflatum. ** Swollen," t. «., flushed and tumid, the efl^ect of 
copious drinking. laecho. lacchus, another name for Bacchus, is 
here used, by metonymy, for " wine." 



IS-I7. Stria. Hard drinkers were accustomed to wear garlands 
around their brows. — TaMun eapili delapia. " Having fallen to 
such a distance from his head," It is very hard to say what is 
here the true ineaninsof ionium. If we join it with ;>roni/, it makes 
a most harsh cnnstnictiOD ; if we render it " only," it dashes with 
pTiKitl unless this stand for ^uifo, which iatoo forced; if, wiihVoBs, 
we roake it equivalent to modo, "just," it appears frigid and tame. 
We have Tentnred, therefore, to regard il as standing for in (aniuot. 

Bl gratit Btlrila, &,c. "And his heavy flagon hung hy its weil- 
worn handle," i. e., hnng from his band. He still grasped the flag- 
on, though in a state of unconscious intoxication. The canlharut 
was ■ kind of drinking-cup furnished with handles. It is said bj 
Bome writers to have dsrlved its name from one Canliianis, who 
first made cups of this form. The caotharas was the cup sacred 
to Bacchus, who is frequently represented on ancient vases holding 
it in his band, as in the foUowing wood-cut. 

18-22. Amlo. The rarer form for amhot. {Raid., Irattl., vol. i., 
p. 57. td. SlaU6.).—IpMU tx Hrltt. " Made of bU very garlands."— 
Ttmiditqut miftntnit. " And comes suddenly upon the startled 
yonngiten." Wa have given taptrvenit here the meaning assigned 


to it by Forcellini and Scheller. Voss and others make it signify 
" encourages/' but with far less propriety.-*-Jam^e videnii. *' And 
to him now opening his eyes,'* i. e., aroused from his slumbers. — 
Sanguineis morisy &c. Servius thinks that this alluded to the red 
colour being sacred to the gods. Not so, however. The poet is 
mefely describing a girlish joke. 

Sati9 est potutsse videri. " It is enough that you appear to have 
been able," i. e., able to bind me. Compare the explanation of 
Heyne, *' videri me vincire poluisse." 

2&-30. Cognoscite. " Hearken unto." — Carmina vobis, &c. " You 
■hall have strains ; this one another kind of reward." Vobis refers 
to the young satyrs ; huic, to ^Egle; and mercedis is sportively used 
in allusion to the trick played upon him. 

Turn vero, &c. All nature is delighted with the wondrous strain. 
Not only do the Fauns dance and the wild beasts move sportively 
in joyous measure, but the very forest-trees wave their leafy tops 
in token of admiration. — Faunas. The Fauns were rural divinities, 
having partly a human body, partly that of a goat. — In numerum iiir 
dere. " Moving sportively to the measure," i. c, in cadence \f ith 
his song. 

Pamasia rapes. " The Pamasian rock," i. e., the rocky mount- 
ain of Parnassus. Mount Parnassus, in Phocis, was sacred to 
Apollo and the Muses. On it stood Delphi, famed for its oracle 
of the former. — Nee tantum Rhodope, &c. *• Nor do Rhodope and 
Ismarus so much admire Orpheus," t. e., as the Fauns, dec, ad- 
mired the strain of Silenus. — Rhodope, A mountain range of 
Thrace, forming, in a great degree, its western boundary. Here 
Orpheus mourned in plaintive strains the loss of his Eurydice. — 
Ismarus. A mountain of Thrace near the mouth of tjne Hebrus. 

31-34. Namque canebat, &c. Silenus begins his song with de- 
scribing the creation of the world according to the views of the 
Epicurean school of philosophy. Epicurus taught that the universe 
consists of two parts, matter and space, or vacuum, in which matter 
exists and moves ; and all matter, of every kind and form, is reducible 
to certain indivisible particles or atoms, which are eternal. These 
atoms, moving, according to a natural tendency, straight downward, 
and also obliquely, have thereby come to form the difierent bodies 
which are found in the world, and which differ in kind and shape, 
according as the atoms are differently placed in respect to one an- 

Vti magnum per inane, &c. '* How the seeds of earth, and air, 
and water, and, at the same time, of the pore ethereal fire, had 


(originally) been gathered together throughout the immense roid.*' 
By magnum irume is here meant the immensity of space, as exist- 
ing before the creation of the universe. In this are congregated, 
in wild confusion, the primordial atoms whence all things are to 
proceed. A long lapse of ages ensues, during which these atoms, 
or seeds of future being, float to and fro, some attracting, others 
repelling, until gradually the four elements arise from these their 
seeds, and the frame- work of the universe begins to be developed. 
Liquidi ignis. Observe that liquidus is here a Lucretian epithet, 
equivalent to punuy i. e.y athereus, the reference being to the fiery 
essence, in its pure and unadulterated state, and free from any ad- 
mixture of grosser particles, Uke pure and limpid water. (Compare 
Lucrel., vi., 204.) 

Ut his exordia primisj dco. " How, from these primal atoms, all be- 
ginnings, and the tender frame- work itself of the universe grew to- 
gether," i. e., gradually arose, — Exordia omnia. Compare the ex- 
planation of Wagner : ** Omnia exordia sunt singulae res ex atomo- 
rum concursu natae." — Tener. Because just created. 

85-40. Turn durare solum, &c. ** Then, how the earth began to 
consolidate, and to shut up Nereus by himself in the deep,'* t. e., to 
shut up the ocean-waters, &c. Supply ut before casperit. — Nereus, 
the sea-deity, the eldest son of Pontus and Terra, is here taken, by 
metonymy, for the waters of the sea themselves. The meaning of 
the poet is this, that the earth, by growing compact and sulid, 
forced the superincumbent water to retire from it, and to form the 
seas. — Discludere. "To shut up apart." — Panto. Observe that 
pontus is here used for the cavity of the sea, the great abyss. 

Jamque ruroum, <kc. " And then, how the earth is lost in aston- 
ishment at the shining of the new sun ;" more literally, " that the 
new sun begins to shine." — Suhmotis. " Lifted up on high." The 
clouds, before the separation of the elements, brooded over the 
earth. — Incipiant. We would expect inceperint here, just as we 
would stupuerint and ceeiderint in what immediately precedes ; but 
the present is more graphic. — Per ignaros mantes. " Over the 
mountains that had not seen them before." We have adopted igna- 
ros with Wagner, in place of the common reading ignatas. Observe 
that ignari mantes is equivalent to *' montes, qui antea animalia nan 

41-42. Hinc lapides Pyrrhce jactos. *• Then he tells of the stones 
thrown by Pyrrha." Observe that Pyrrhce is the dative here, by a 
Hellenism, for a Pyrrha. After the deluge of Deucalion, this indi- 
vidual and his wife Pyrrha, who were the only two human beings 


that were saved, were ordered by an oracle to cast stones be- 
hind them. The stones cast, accordingly, by Deucalion became 
men ; those thrown by Pyrrha became women. Silenus, having 
sung of the first formation of the world, proceeds to mention the 
renovation of it by Pyrrha, and its amelioration by Saturn and Pro- 
metheus. He then goes on to show the evil consequences that 
attend the perturbations of the mind, or, in other words, the indul- 
gence of the passions. The fables, therefore, that are thus intro- 
duced by him are not brought in at random, but serve to set forth 
the moral doctrine of Epicurus, namely, that we ought to avoid all 
perturbations of the mind. 

Satumia regna. *• The reign of Saturn," t. c, in Latium, during 
the Golden Age. Observe the force of the plural in marking a hap- 
py era. — Caucasiasqtu volueres. Prometheus, the son of lapetus, 
having formed a man out of clay, animated him with fire which he 
had stolen from the skies by applying a stalk of ferula to the char- 
iot-wheel of the sun. According to another legend, he made man- 
kind acquainted with the uses of fire, having stolen ^t for this pur- 
pose, in like manner, from the heavens. Jove, ofi!ended at. the deed, 
ordered him to be chained to Mount Caucasus, where an eagle or 
vulture preyed continually on his liver. 

43-44. Hylan nauta quo fonte, &c. " At what fountain left be- 
hind the mariners called for Hylas, so that the whole shore re- 
sounded Hylas ! Hylas !" According to the common account, Hy- 
las was a youth who accompanied Hercules in the Argonautic ex* 
pedition. He was lost in a fountain, whither he went to draw wa- 
ter, and hence was fabled to have been carried away by a Naiad. 
The Argonauts called a long time for him in vain, and hence, it is 
said, arose the annual custom of calling aloud for Hylas. The scene 
of this fable was the coast of Bithynia. Miller's explanation of 
the legend is evidently the true one. Hylas is merely a type of the 
tender beauty of spring destroyed by the summer heat. {Muller, 
Hist. Gr. Lit., p. 19.) 

Clamdssent. Observe the peculiar force of the subjunctive here, 
<* had called" for Hylas, as is said, t. e., as early legends tell. 

46-51. Pasipha^n. Pasiphae was the daughter of the sun, and 
wife of Minos, king of Crete. — Virgo in/elix. " Unhappy female." 
The term virgo is here used in a general sense for femina or mulier, 
as applied to a married female, and the mother of three children. — 
Pratides. " The daughters of Proetus." These were three in num- 
ber, and their father was King of Argolis. They were seized with 
insanity for contemning the rites of BacohuB. Another legend 


makes them to have been thus punished for casting ridicule on 
Juno and her temple. While under the influence of this phrensy, 
the Proetides roamed over the plains, the \i^oods, the wastes of Ar- 
golis and Arcadia, fancying themselves changed into cows. They 
were finally cured by Melampus. — Falsis mvgilibus. Because not 
coming from real animals. 

UUa, " Any one . of their number," i. e., of the Proetides. — 
Quamvi* collOf &c. *< Although she had feared the plough for her 
neck," (. e., was afraid of being yoked to the plough, while fancy- 
ing herself a heifer. 

54-56. Ilice sub nigra, &c. ** Ruminates the pale herbs beneath 
a dark-leaved holm oak." . The rumen, or paunch, is the first'of the 
four stomachs of those animals which are said to ruminate, or chew 
the cud. They at first swallow their food hastily, and afterward 
return it into their mouths to be chewed over again. The food so 
returned, in order to be chewed a second time, is called the cud, 
whence they are said to chew the cud. The grass, by being swal- 
lowed the first time, by a bull or other ruminating animal, loses its 
verdure in some measure, and becomes yellowish, whence Virgil 
calls the cud paUentes herbas. . As regards the peculiar force of pal- 
Unles, consult note on Eclog. ii., 47. — Aliquam. Supply vaccam. 

Claudite, Nympha. The supposed cry of Pasiphae. — Dictaa, 
" Ye Cretan." DictacB is here equivalent to Cretica, from Mount 
Dicte, in the Island of Crete, in a cave of which mountain the young 
Jupiter was concealed from the pursuit of Saturn. — Nemorum saltus. 
" The woody avenues of the forests." Compare the explanation 
of Heyne : " Nemorum saltus sunt hie aditus ad silvas, angusti 
fere, asperi et confragosi, quae loca proprie saltus dicuntur." Pa- 
siphae calls on the Cretan nymphs to close these avenues leading 
to the forests, lest the bull may escape by means of them. 

57-59. Ferant sese obvia. " May meet." — Errabundu bovis ves- 
tigia. For errabundi bovis vestigia. — S tabula ad Gortynia. " To 
the stalls of Gortyna." Gortyna, or Gortyn, was a city of Crete, 
next to Cnossos in splendour and importance. It stood in a plain, 
watered by the river Lethaeus, at a distance of ninety stadia from 
the Libyan Sea. The epithet Gortynia, however, would here seem 
to be used in a general sense for *' Cretan," s. e., well-known, or 

61-63. Turn canit Hesperidum, &c. " Then he sings of the maid- 
en that admired the apples of the Hesperides." The allusion is to 
Atalanta, daughter of Schoenus, king of Scyros, or, more correctly, 
according to another account, of lasion, king of Arcadia. She was 



remarkable for swiftness of foot, and was to be given in marriage 
to bim who should conquer her in the race. Hippomenes succeed- 
ed in the attempt, and Atalanta lost the race with him through her 
admiration of three golden apples obtained from the gardens of the 
Hesperides in Africa, and which her artful opponent threw out to 
divert her from her course. — Hesperidum. Consult Anthonys Class, 
Dict.f 8. y. Hesperides. Observe that Silenus cites the cupidity 
of Atalanta as another instance of the ** perturbations of the mind" 
already alluded to. (Consult note on line 41.) 

Turn Phaethontiadast &c. " Then he surrounds the sisters of 
Phasthon with the moss of a bitter bark, and raises the tall alders 
from the ground," t. e., he then sings, how the sisters of Phaethon, 
while mourning the untimely fate of their brother, were changed 
into alders. Virgil elsewhere (JEn., x., 190) makes them to have 
been transformed into poplars. Other authorities, again, say into 
larch- trees. The mad folly of Phaethon becomes another instance 
of " perturbation of mind." — Corticis. The noun cortex is both mas- 
culine and feminine. (Consult Ruddimann^ Inst.^ i., p. 39, ed. StaUb.) 

64-66. Turn canity errantem, &c. The poet, having represented 
the evil effects of unruly passions in these several examples, now 
represents the more happy condition of a wise man, who devotes 
himself to the quiet studies of literature. Under this character, he 
takes an opportunity of paying a most elegant compliment to his 
friend Gallus, who was himself an able poet. — Permessi. The Per- 
messus was a river of Boeotia, rising in Mount Helicon, and sacred 
to the Muses. The poet, to indicate that Gallus was attached to 
poetic studies, describes him as wandering amid the secret haunts 
of the Muses. — Galium. Cornelius Gallus, a distinguished Roman, 
who ranked among the chief of the Latin elegiac writers. He 
stood high in the favour of Augustus, and was at length intrusted 
with the government of Egypt ; but he was guilty of misgovern- 
ment, and, being tried and condemned, put an end to his existence. 

Aonas. "The Aonian." For Aonios. By the "Aonian Mount- 
ains," Helicon is meant, and the name is derived from the Aones, 
the first settlers in Boeotia. — Sororum. Referring to the Muses. — 
Phaibi chorus. The Muses again are meant. — Assurrexerit. They 
rose to do him honour. Compare II., i., 633, seqq., where the dei- 
ties of Olympus rise to receive Jupiter. 

67-73. Linus. Consult note on Eclog., iv., 56. — Divino carmine 
pastor. For the more prosaic divini carminis pastor. According to 
early fables, Linus was a shepherd, like Amphion and Hesiod. — 
Apio, ^* Celery.''-^Ascrao sent. "Totheoldmanof Ascra." The 


■Snsioii is to Hesiod, who was born at Ascra, in Bceotia. — Quibus 
Ule aoUbtUy 6m. The poet here ascribes to Hesiod what is usually 
mentioned in ancient legends as a feat of Orpheus. (Compare 
Eclog.j iii., 46.) 

Grynei nemoris. The Grynean grove took its name from Gry- 
n£nm or Grynea, one of the twelve cities of ^olis, situate on the 
coast of Lydia, northwest of Cumae. It was celebrated for the wor- 
ship of Apollo. The Celtic name for the sun is Grian. (Consult 
Diefenbach, CMca, vol. i., p. 138, n. 208.) — Origo. According to 
Servius, Euphorion, a poet of Chalcis, had treated of the Grynean 
grove, and Gallus had translated his poems into Latin verse. — Ne 
qui* tU lucusy &c. Apollo will delight in no grove more than this, 
after its praises shall have been sung by Gallus. 

74-77. Quid loquar, ui ScylUm Nisi, &c " Why need I say how 
he told of Scylla, daughter of Nisus, or (of that other Scylla), of 
whom it ia reported that, having her snow-white loins girt with 
barking monsters, she harassed the Dulichiaa ships,*' &c. The 
common text has " Quid loqtuir, ut Scyllam Nisi^ quant Jama, secuta 
esi" d&c., according to which, Virgil speaks merely of one Scylla, . 
and confounds the daughter of Nisus with the daughter of Phorcys. 
Another reading found in numerous MSS., and given also by Ser- 
vius, is as follows : *' Quid loquar out Scyllam Nisi quamfama secuta 
est,^* which, like the previous one, makes the poet confound the two 
ScyUas. As it is hardly possible that Virgil could have erred in the 
case of two such ordinary and well-known fables, we have adopted 
the emendation of Doering, which appears to remove the whole 

Ut Scyllam Nisi. Supply narraveritf and observe the ellipsis of 
filiam with Nisi^ in imitation of the Greek. The story of this Scylla 
is referred to by Virgil in the first book of the Georgics, v. 404. — 
Quam fama secuta est^ <kc. Literally, ** Whom report has (ever) 
accompanied (to the following effect, namely, that she),'* <$&c. Ob- 
serve, also, that the full expression in the text would be, ^' aut illam 
alteram Scyllam^ quam" &c. The reference now is to Scylla, 
daughter of Phorcys, who was transformed by Circe into a monster, 
having the upper part of her body that of a beautiful female as be- 
fore, but the lower part surrounded by barking sea-dogs. For the 
earlier description of Scylla, however, as found in Homer, consult 
Anthonys Class. Dict.^ s. v. 

Dulichias rates. Alluding to the vessel of Ulysses, which, though 
only a single one, is here, by poetical exaggeration, expressed in the 
plural. Dulichium was the principal island in the group called 


Echinades, lying opposite the mouth of the Achelous. Virgil would 
aeem to make it form part of the dominions of Ulysses, though Ho- 
mer spoaks of it as under the sway of Meges. (//., ii., 635.)— Can- 
ibus lacerdsse marinis. Virgil follows here a post-Homeric legend. 
Homer*s Scylla is a monster dwelling in a cave in the middle of a 
cliff, whence she stretches forth her six long neckSi and out of every 
ship that passes each mouth takes a man. 

78-81. Aut, ut mutatos Terei, &o. For. an account of the legend 
of Tereus, consult Anthonys Class. Diet., s. v. Philomela. Tereus 
was changed into a bird called tirojfj, or hoopoo. — Qims illi Philomela 
dopes. Philomela killed her own son Itys, and served up his flesh 
to his father Tereus. — Dona.. Referring to the horrid banquet. — 
Quo cursu deserta pelwerit. Philomela, on being pursued by Tereus, 
fled to the wilderness, and was changed into a swallow, while her 
Bister Procne became a nightingale. — Et quibus ante infelix, &c. 
" And with what pinions the unhappy woman flew about before her 
own abode." A beautiful allusion to the habits of the swallow. 

82-86. Phabo quondam meditante. *< When Phoebus practised of 
old,'* t. e., sang of yore. (Compare note on Eclog., i., 2.) — Audiit 
Eurotas. Phoebus, according to the legend, having become fond of 
Hyacinthus, son of CEbalus, and a native of Sparta, used to sit by 
the banks of the Eurotas and sing to the music of his lyre, or, in 
other words, to practise strains that might afterward prove pleas- 
ing to the youth. — Jussitque ediscere lauros. ** And bade its bay- 
trees treasure up ;" literally, " learn by heart.** The region around 
Amycls, the native city of Hyacinthus, and bordering on the Euro- 
tas, was famed, according to Polybius (v. 19), for its bay-trees. — 
Jlle. Siienus. 

Pulsa. Supply sonis. — Referunt. " Re-echo them.*' — Numerum- 
que referre. *' And to count anew the number," i. «., to recount 
tbe flock. (Compare Voss : ** und die Zahlung erneuern,** and con- 
sult Eclog., iii., 34.) — Jussit, "Ordered the shepherds." At the 
end of the first Eclogue, tbe evening was described by the smoke 
curling from the roofs ^f the farm-houses, and the lengthening of 
the shadows ; in the second, by the oxen bringing back the plough ; 
and here we have the rising of the evening star, the gathering of 
the sheep into the folds, and the counting of their number. 

Et invito processit Olympo. "And came forth from reluctant 
Olympus," i. e., and made his appearance in the reluctant sky. 
The very heavens were so delighted with the strains of Siienus, that 
they felt reluctant to yield to the close of day, and allow the star of 
evening to come forth in the sky. 

K0TS8 ON ECLOQUB Yll. 177 


In this Eclogue is represented nn amoebean contest between two 
shepherds, Corydon and Thyrsis. They are described as sitting 
under a tree in company with Daphnis, who seems to have been 
appointed an umpire between them. Meliboeus, happening to pass 
that way in search of a goat that had strayed, is espied by Daphnis, 
who calls to him, and insists on his staying to hear the dispute. 
The whole affair is related by Meliboeus. 

This Eclogue was composed, according to Yoss, in the spring of 
A.U.C. 716, when Virgil was in his thirty-second year. 

1-5. Suh argutd iljfe. ** Beneatii a whispering hohn oak." The 
soil rustling of the foliage by the vernal breeze is beautifully com- 
pared to a whispering sound. So with the Greek poets, a tree f6ei, 
avpl^eTat, ittXU^raij iffidvpi^ei. — In unum. Supply locum. — Florentes 
atatibus. ** In the flower of their dige^^-Arcadea ambo. ** Both 
Arcadians (in skill)." The Arcadians were celebrated for their 
skill in song, and hence Corydon and Thyrsis are complimented 
with the title of very Arcadians on account of their own skill in 
this respect. According to Polybius (iv., 20), the natives of Arca- 
dia were required by law to study the musical art until their thir- 
tieth year. In early boyhood they had to sing hymns and paeans to 
the heroes and gods of their country ; and at a later period they 
were taught the measures of Philoxenus and Tiraotheus. Voss 
makes Arcades in the text have an actual reference to Arcadian 
descent, and thinks that Corydon and Thyrsis may have been 
sprung from Arcadian slaves, who had been brought to Italy after 
the fall of Corinth. This, however, appears very far-fetched. 

Et cantare paresj &c. Referring to their skill in amoebean song. 
(Compare the accounts that are given of the modern impromsatori 
in Italy.) 

6-7. Hue, " To this quarter." Some editions have hicy an infe- 
rior reading. — Dum teneras defendoi &c. The season was early 
spring, when the weather is still cool, and the myrtles of Meliboeus 
being young and tender, stood in need of shelter. The Myrtuseom* 
munis I/alica of Bauhin, or common mjnrtle, grows plentifully in Italy ; 
but even in Italy it does not love cold, especially when planted in 
gardens. Some coQunentators think that the mention of the shady 


holm oak makes a 4ifficalty faerC) and points to a more adYanced 
season ; but thiS) in fact, proves nothing, since the holm oak is green 
all winter. {Martyn^ ad loc.) 

Vir gregit ipse caper. ** The he-goat himself, the husband of my 
flock." (Compare Theocritus, viii., 49 : ^Q rpaye, rdv XevKuv alyuv 
&vep.) Observe the force of ipse here, implying that he was followed 
by the rest of the flock {Wagner, Qtiast. Virg., xviii., 2, 6.); and 
hence we have, in verse 9th, " caper tibi salvus et hadi.*^ 

8>9. Contra. " On the other hand."— Co;)^ tibi salvus, 6lc. 
Daphnis, having observed them going astray, had driven them into 
a place of safety. — Si quid cessare potes. "If thou canst stay 
a while ;" literaUy, ** canst in any respect cease from or leave off 
thy present employment." — Ipsi. " Of their own accord," i. e., with- 
out any necessity of their being looked after by him. — Juvenci. 
** Thy steers." Yoss maintains that the steers of Daphnis are 
meant, not those of Melibceus. Spohn is of the same way of think- 
ing, and states as a reason for this opinion that shepherds were 
accustomed to tend only one kind of animals each, not different 
kinds. Both, however, are in error. The general tenour of what 
is said by Meliboeus plainly shows that the steers were his ; and, 
moreover, it appears very clearly from the third Eclogue (v. 3, 6, 
and 29) that the same shepherd could have charge of sheep, lambs, 
and cattle. 

12-16. Mincius. This river flows from Lake Benacus into the 
Po, and being a sluggish stream, has its banks marshy and covered 
with reeds. Mantua is situate on an island in it. — Sacra quercu. 
The oak was sacred to Jove. — Examina. " The swarms of bees." 
Examen is from exagmen, and denotes, properly, a swarm of young 
bees compelled to leave the parent hive and seek for new settle- 
ments. Here, however, it is to be taken in a general sense. — 
Neque ego Alcippen, &c. Alcippe was the fair companion of Cory- 
don, and Phyllis of Thyrsis. Melibceus means that he had no one 
to aid him in his domestic operations, as Corydon and Thyrsis had ; 
that he had neither an Alcippe, like Corydon, nor a Phyllis, like 
Thyrsis, to shut up for him the weaned lambs at home. 

Depulsos a lacte. " The weaned." For a literal translation, sup- 
ply mairis with lacte. Lambs just weaned required particular care, 
being still feeble and tender. — Et certamen erat, &c. " "While, on 
the other hand, it was a great contest, Corydon with Thyrsis," t. e., 
it was a most interesting amoebean contest that was about to take 
place ; no less a one than Corydon matched with Thyrsis. 

17-19. Posthaifui tamen, 6tc, " However, I made my grave con- 


cems yield to their sport.*' — AUemos Musm meministe voUbatU, 
** The Muses willed them to sing in alternate strain," t. e., ordered or 
directed them ; literally, *' the Muses willed that they remember 
alternate (verses)." Meminisse is here employed for cantarcj in al- 
lusion to the ordinary custom of poets, who represent themselves 
as merely learning strains from the Muses, and then uttering them 
as a simple act of memory. Voss reads volebam, which is recog- 
nised also by some MSS., and gives it the force of vellem. Hence 
he would translate as follows : ** Would, O ye Mases, that I may 
renvmber their alternate strains," t. e., grant unto me, Muses, 
to remember well their strains. Servius, who makes mention of 
this same reading, gives a similar explanation. The reading in our 
text, however, is preferred by Heyne, Schirach (p. 328), ScheUcr 
{Observ. in Prise, Script. <, &c., p. 314), and Wagner. 

31-23. Nyatphx, Observe that this term is here applied to the 
Muses. Hermann shows that the Muses belong to the general 
class of Nymphs, but that not all the Nymphs are Muses ; and, 
moreover, that the Nymphs of fountains, from their filling the mind 
with a divine inspiration, are frequently invoked by the poets in the 
stead of the Muses. {Herm., de Musis fluvial,, &c., p. ^.)—labeth' 
rides. The Muses are here called " Libethrian," from Libethrus or 
Libethruniy a fountain and cave on Mount Helicon, sacred to these 
deities. Observe that this first amoebean quatrain contains a prayer 
for poetry. Corydon entreats the Muses to give him such a power 
of verse as they have bestowed on Codrus, otherwise, he declares, 
he will give over the art. 

Codro. Codrus, a shepherd. He is supposed by some to be the 
same with the one mentioned in the fifth Eclogue (v, 11). The 
scholia published by Mai state that most persons considered Virgil 
to be meant under the name of Codrus ; others, Cornificius ; some, 
Helvius. — Proxima. Agreeing with carmina understood. — Aul^ si 
rum possumus omrus. " Or else, if we cannot all (do the same)," 
t. e.y if we cannot all compose strains next in merit to the verses 
of Phcebus. If we cannot all equal Codrus. — Hie arguta sacra, <Slc. 
They who abandoned any art or profession hung up and consecra- 
ted to some deity the instrument of the calling which they thus left. 

25-28. Pastores, hederd, &,c. ** Ye Arcadian shepherds, adorn with 
ivy the rising poet," i. c, deck him with the ivy crown. The prize 
for success in poetry was an ivy crown. Thyrsis is here supposed 
to mean himself, and he prays that the Arcadian shepherds, that 
is, the shepherds skilled in song, may foster his poetic skill by their 
praises, so that the malignant Codrus may burst with envy. — Cres- 


ctrUem. We have given this reading with Heyne, in opposition to 
Vo88, Wagner, and others, who prefer nascentem, a lection that oc- 
curs in several MSS. 

AtU^ si ultra placitum^ &c. ** Or, if he shall have praised beyond 
(his own) liking," t. e., immoderately and insincerely, and with the 
evident intention of injuring him whom he praises. The ancients 
believed that immoderate and insincere praises, bestowed with evil 
intent, brought upon the person praised the hurtful charm of an evil 
tongue, as it was termed. Thyrsis prays that the youthful bard 
(meaning himselO may be shielded from the evil effects of f^ch 
praise by the protecting influence of a chapletofbaccaris.— P/oci^um. 
Supply sibimet ipsi. Praise far beyond what he himself likes, and 
which he bestows only in the hope tffat it may do harm. — Baccare. 
As regards the 6a(%am consult note on Ectog., iv., 19. — Vatifuturo, 
" The future bard," i. «., the youthful poet who now addresses you, 
when in future days his powers shall have become fully matured. 

29-32. Saloai caput hoc apri, &c. A new character is now intro- 
duced, the young hunter Micon, who consecrates tp Diana, the 
Croddess of Hunting, a portion of the spoils of the chase, and prom- 
ises to erect a marble statue to her if she will make him always 
enjoy equal success in the hunt. The rules of amoebean song al- 
lowed this change of character, and the bringing in of the actions 
and words of others. — Delia. ** Delian goddess." Diana was so 
called from her natal island of Delos ; and from the same cause, 
Apollo was styled Delius.— -Parvus Micon. " The youthful Micon." 
We must here supply dicaty ** consecrates," an ellipsis of very com- 
mon occurrence in such cases. This consecrating consisted in sus- 
pending the offering from a tree. 

Vivacis cervi. " Of a long-lived 
stag." The stag was famed for 
its longeyity, a circumstance oft- 
en alluded to by both poets and 
prose writers among the ancients. 
(Compare Juv., xiv., 125 ; 0»., 
Met.,m., 194 ; Ctc.. Tusc, iii., 28, 
&c.) — Siproprium hocfueritt &c. 
*Mf this (success) shall be last- 
ing." Observe that hoc gets its 
peculiar force here from wjiat 
immediately precedes. — Tota. 
<*At full length," t. «., not a 
bust merely or herma.— C«Ui(r> 


MO. The shape and mode of wearing the eoihumut, or ** buskin," may 
be seen from the preceding cut, where two separate delineations 
are giTen fVom different statues. 

33-36. Sinum laetis, &c. <* It is sufficient for thee, O Priapns, 
to expect every year a jug of milk, and these cakes." By nnum 
(another form for which, in the nominative, is sinus) is meant a 
vessel with a (large protuberance or belly, like what we call a jug. 
Varro derives it from tinusy which appears hardly correct, since 
sinusf ^* a bosom," has tbe initial syllable short. Turnebus traces 
an analogy between it and divoc, ^* vortex."^ La£tis. The inferior 
deities did not use to have victims offered unto them, but milk, 
cakes, and fruit. — Liba. Cakes made of meal, oil, and honey, and 
accustomed to bie used in sacrifices. — Priape. Priapus was the god 
not only of gardens, but of fruttfulness in general. In this quatrain 
a shepherd speaks, and tells Priapus that, though, from his poverty, 
he may expecst only an offering of milk and cakes, yet if he will 
eause his flock to increase, instead of a marble statue he will make 
him a golden one. 

Pro tsmpore. «» From our present means." (Compare the Greek 
/« TOP irap^vTov.) — Sifetura gregem suppleverit. •* If increase shall 
have filled up the flock ;" literally, " if the bearing of young," &c. — 
Aureus esto. " Be thou of gold," t. c, thou shalt be of gold. This, 
of course, is mere ridiculous boasting, and is intended by the poet 
to be characteristic of the singer himself. 

37-40. Nerine Galatea. " O Galatea, daughter of Nereus." 
Galatea was a sea-nymph, one of the Nereides, and daughter of 
Nereus and Doris. Corydon, though a simple shepherd, addresses 
her here as the object of his love, and invites her to come to him 
at eYe.-^Thymo Hyblte. As regards the thymus of the. ancients, 
consult note on Eclog., v., 77, and, with respect to Hybla, the note 
on Eclog.f i., 55. — Hederd alba. Whatever plant the white ivy of 
the ancients was, it is plain from this passage that it was accounted 
the most beautiful. Virgil does not seem to have mentioned this 
species in any other place ; for, where he uses the epithet pallens, 
tX is most probable that he means the sort with yellow berries, 
which was used in the garlands with which poets were crowned. 

41-44. Immo ego Sardoniisy &c. <* Nay, indeed, may I appear to 
thee more bitter than Sardinian herbs." The reference here is to 
a poisonous herb of Sardinia, a species of ranunculus, or " crowfoot." 
According to Dioscorides, this herb, when taken inwardly, deprives 
a person of his understanding, and causes convulsions, with a dis- 
tortion of the mouth resembling laughter. Hence a ** Sardonic 


182 N0TB8 ON ECL06UB Til. 

laugh" became a common expression for a forced laugh, when the 
heart is all the while ill at ease. 

Rusco. ** Than butcher's broom/' This is a prickly plant, which 
grows in the woods. It is also called ** knee-holly." — Projectd alga. 
" Than sea-weed cast upon the shore," t. «., by the waves. We 
have, observes Martyn, several species of submarine plants, which 
are commonly called alga, fucus, or *' sea-wrack." But that which 
the ancients peculiarly called so grew about the island of Crete, 
and afforded a purple colour. . The submarine plants are frequently 
torn from the rocks by storms, tossed about by the sea, and at last 
thrown upon the shore. The alga^ when thus treated, in all prob^ 
ability loses its colour, and becomes useless. 

Si mihi non kae lux, 6lc. In this quatrain Thyrsis, in like manner, 
invites his loved one to come to him, and declares that, while wait- 
ing for her arrival, a single day appears to him longer tfasin a whole 
year. — Si qui* pudor. He chides his Cattle for their delay in return- 
ing from the pasturage, and in thus deferring his meeting with the 
object of his affections. 

45-48. Muscosi fontes, &,c. Gorydon eulogizes the benefits of 
coolness and shade to the cattle which are abroad during the heat 
of summer, as well as to those who tend them. Thyrsis, on the 
other hand, extols the comforts of warmth and a good fire within 
doors during the winter's cold. Observe that the epithet muscosi, 
** mossy," is very expressive of coolness, because moss will seldom 
grow where there is any considerable degree of heat. — Somno moU 
lior herba. " Herbage softer than sleep." A beautiful image, bor- 
rowed from Theocritus. (Compare Idyll., xv., 125 : TainjTec (nrvQ 

Ee qu(B vos' rard, &c. " And the green arbute that covers you with 
a thin shade." As regards the arbute tree, consult note on Ec- 
log. 3, 82. — Solstitium defendite. " Ward off the midsummer heat ;" 
literally, "the solstice." Observe that solstitium is the summer 
solstice; ^ruma, the winter solstice. — Gemma. "The buds." The 
gemma, oculi, or buds, are the first appearance of the young shoots 
of trees and shrubs. They discover themselves first in summer, 
being like scales closely enfolding each other In this state they 
remain during the winter, and in the following spring unfold them- 
selves, and produce the new shoots. This is spoken, therefore, of 
the spring season, when the buds of the vine swell, and prepare to 
develop themselves. 

49-52. Tadapingues. " Torches rich with resin." ByteArare 
here meant torches made of fir» pine, or other onctaooa wood that 


is easily ignit^d,^Et tusiduA pottesy dec. "Atid door-posts black 
with continued smoke .;'■ literaUy, «• continual soot. " We have here 
a description of a cottage, having no chimney of coarse, and the 
door-posts are^ therefore all blackened with the smoke that escapes 
in part from the doorway. (Consult note on Eclog.^ i., 83.) 

Curamus, " We care for," t. c, we regard or mind. — Numerum* 
•* The number of the sheep." The wolf cares nothing for the num- 
ber of the sheep, but attacks them at once, without heeding how 
many there may be of them. — Torrentia flumina. " Impetuous riv- 
ers." (Compare the Greek x^pa^ptt^ot, norofioL) 

63-56. StarU et juniperi, dec. ** Both junipers and rough chest- 
nuts stand thick to the view." The season now changes to autumn, 
when the juniper berries are ripe, and the chestnut in its rough 
outer covering everywhere meets the view. Hence the meaning 
of the whole passage is this : Mild autumn is on the mountains ; 
the forest and fruit trees are loaded with produce ; the mountain 
streams are full ; but without Alexis all would appear a desert. 
Observe here the force of stant, which is much stronger than sunt 
would have been. 

Sua qudqtu sub arhore, dec. ** Each under their own tree." Yoss 
reads «tta quaque^ making sua an ablative, and to be pronounced as 
a monosyllable {swd). Wunderlich, in his Epistle to Heeren (p. 7), 
a]:^roves of this. It is very unlikely, however, that a poet of the 
Augustan age would. adopt so rough and antiquated a mode of ex- 
pression. Ennius, it is true, often employs suo, suos, suas, suis, 
dec, as monosyUables {Hessely p. 32, 297), but Ennius and Virgil 
have very different ideas of the melody of verse. — Et flumina, 
" Even the rivers," i. e., the very mountain streams. 

67-60. Aret agety dtc. Thyrsis represents the whole face of na- 
ture as reviving at the approach of his Phyllis. — Vitio moriens sitit, 
dec. " The dying herbage thirsts by reason of the drought ;" liter- 
ally, " through the viciousness of the temperature," i. e., the excess- 
ive heat, and its attendant drought. — Liber pampineast dec A 
more poetical mode of expressing the idea already implied in aret 
ager : the vineyards, namely, are suffering from the heat, the leaves 
are becoming parched, and ** Bacchus has envied the shade of the 
irine to the hills," t. e., the vine gives no longer any shade. — Jupiter, 
Taken here figuratively for the sky or upper air. (Compare Georg., 
li., 325.) 

61-64. Populus Alcida gratissima, dec. Cory don now mentions 
some trees in which several deities delight, and declares that he 
prefers the hazel to any of them, becaase it ia the favourite of Phyl- 


lis. Tbyrsis answers by an apostrophe to Ljrcidas, and by telling 
him that the fairest trees shall yield to him if he will let him have 
his company o{ien.-^Alcida, The poplar was sacred to Hercules, 
because, according to the poets, he crowned his brows with the 
twigs of a white poplar, growing on the banks of the Acheron, when 
he returned from the lower world with Cerberus. — Laurea, . (Con- 
sult note on Eclog. 2, 54.) 

66-69. Fraxinus. The ash is called, by way of eminence, the 
husbandman's tree, nothing being equal to it for agricultural imple- 
ments, and for all sorts of poles, laddens, long handles, and other 
purposes which require strength and elasticity combined with com- 
parative lightness. — Pimu in hortis. The pine here meant is the 
Pimu tativa^ a manured pine, which is commonly cultivated in gar- 
dens. It is also found wild in Italy, particularly about the Ravenna. 
{Martyut ad loc.)—In fluviis, " On the rivers* banks." Equivalent, 
in fact, to adfluvios. (Compare Propert.f i., 2, 11.) 

Hoc numinif 6lc. Meliboeus now resumes his narrative, and in- 
forms us that Corydon gained the victory. — Ex illOf Coryd4in, dtc. 
*< From that time Corydon, Corydon is our man." A great differ- 
ence of opinion prevails with regard to this verse. I}eyne pro- 
nounces it spurious, and altogether unworthy of Virgil. Voss ex- 
plains it as follows : " from that time Corydon is a Corydon for 
me ; " making Corydon and excellence synonymous. We have given 
the explanation of Wagner, which appears to be the most natural 
one. The repetition of the proper name is meant to be emphatic, 
as in Eclog. f ii., 69: *<Ah, Corydon! Corydon! quae te dementia 
cepit !" 




This Eclogue, which is entitled the Pharmaceutria, or " Sorcer- 
ess," consists of two parts, which do not appear to have any con- 
nexion with each other, except that they seem to have been sung 
by two shepherds who were striving together for superiority in 
verse. The first part, imitated from the third Idyl of Theocritus, 
comprehends the complaints and lamentations of the shepherd Da- 
mon for the loss of his mistress Nisa, who had preferred his rival 
Mopsos. In the remaining portion, which is borrowed from the 
second Idyl {^ap/ioKevrpia). of the same poet^ the other shepherd^ 
who is called Alphesibceus, recites the magic incantations of a sor- 
ceress, who attempts by means of these to regain the lost affec- 
tions of Daphnis. - This concluding part, which gives name to the 
whole Eclogue, is valuable, not only for its poetical beauties, but 
for the information which it has preserved to us concerning several 
superstitious rites, and the heathen notions of enchantment. 

This Eclogue, according to Voss, was composed in the autumn 
of A.U.C. 715, when Virgil was in his 3l8t year. 

1-6. Pastorum musarriy &c. ** We will relate the songs of the 
shepherds Damon and Alphesibceus.'' Supply dicemusy which is ex- 
pressed shortly after in the 5th verse. Observe, also, that musam 
is here equivalent to carmina. — Juvenca. "The heifer." By sy- 
necdoche, for the entire herd, which consisted principally of female 
animals. {Voss, ad loc.) — Quorum stupefacta, &.c. ** At the strain 
of each of whom the lynxes were struck with silent wonder." The 
ancients, as Gesner remarks, gave the name of lynx to various an- 
imals. Martyn thinks that the ounce is here meant ; it would be 
more correct, however, to say the caracal. Voss is of opinion that, 
from the mention here made of lynxes, which, according to Pliny 
(xxviii., 8), were never found in Italy, and from the allusion to the 
tibia, in verse 21, 6lc., the scene of this Eclogue is laid in a foreign 
land ; and this land he makes to have been Thessaly, and the re- 
gion of Mount Pindus, both from the CEtean rising of Hesperus^ in 
verse 30, and from the magic rites of which mention is made, and 
for which the Thessalians were famous. 

Et mutata suos, &c. ** And the rivers, changed as to their courses, 
stood still." After the rivers had flowed to the spot where the po- 



etical contest took place, they stopped in their coaraes. {SeJarach, 
p. 564, and Vossi ad loc.) 

6-7. Tu mihi seu magni, &c. <* Whether thoa art now passing 
for me over the rocks of the great Timavus.'' This is addressed to 
Asinius Pollio, who was now on his return from the reduction of 
the Parthini, an Illyrian tribe. Pollio was the first that urged Vir- 
gil to the task of pastoral poetry, and the bard had already dedica- 
ted to him his fourth Eclogue. And now, when his early patron 
was returning home with so much glory, it was meet for the poet 
to send unto him again the tribute of his muse. — Mihi. To be con- 
strued with superasy not, as Heyne maintains, with accipe. It is what 
grammarians call the ** dativus etkieus" and indicates that a thing 
has a certain relation to ourselves also. In the present instance it 
denotes the joy which the poet feels on the safe and glorious re- 
turn of Pollio. 

Timavi. The Timavus was a celebrated stream of Italy, in the 
territory of Venetia, northeast of Aquileia, and falling into the 
Adriatic. The poet expresses his doubt in the text whether Pollio 
would be found, by the poetic tribute which he here sends, at the 
rocky mouth of the Timavus, or, at a far more distant point, coast- 
ing along the Illjrrian shore. — Superas. This can only be under- 
stood here in the sense of sailing over, and can have no reference, 
as some think, to a land march. 

8-10. Hie dies. Observe the force of tile here in marking the fu- 
ture. — Dicere. " To tell of," t. «., in epic, and more elevated strain 
than I now employ. — Erity ut liceat miU. ** Shall / ever be per milled ;'* 
literally, '* will it be that I shall be allowed." — Sola Sophocleo, &c. 
"Thy poems alone worthy of the buskin of Sophocles,*' t. «., thy 
dramatic productions alone worthy of being compared with the 
stately and dignified tragedies of a Sophocles. Pollio, as has al- 
ready been remarked, was the author of several tragedies, none of 
which, however, as we may infer from the present passage, had as 
yet seen the light. 

Sophocleo cothurno. The calhurnusy or buskin, worn by the an- 
cient actor in tragedy, is here taken figuratively for tragedy itself. 
The epithet Sophocleo must not be understood in such a sense as if 
Sophocles were the inventor of the tragic buskin. This part of the 
theatrical costume had been introduced by .^schylus. It contains 
merely a reference to the dramatist himself and his productions. 

II-I3. A te principiumt &c. " Frona thee (was) our commence- 
ment ; with thee (our song) shall end," t. «.; it was thou that didst 
first encourage me to write poetry, and to thee, therefore, shall the 


last efibrt of my muse be consecrated. — Inter victriees Uurot, Al- 
luding to Pollio's victory over the Parthini, and the triumph \vhich 
he was about to enjoy for it at Rome. The ivy here spoken of is 
the poetic Jcind, or the Hedera baccis aureis, with which bards were 
crowned, and hence, when Viiigil entreats his patron to permit this 
ivy to creep among his victorious bays* he desires him, in fact, to 
condescend to accept of these verses in the midst of his victories. 

14-16. Frigidd vix ecdoy &C. The first part of the Eclogue now 
begins. The poet represents the despairing lover, Damon, at early 
dawn, '* leaning on a tapering olive staff," and beginning his com- 
plaints with the first appearance of morning. — Incumhens teretif 6cc. 
Some commentators understand oHv(b here as eaid of a tree against 
which the shepherd was leaning, not of a stafiT over which he was 
bending. The usage of the language, however, is the other way, 
since, if Virgil intended to express this idea, he would have employed 
recumbensf and in that case, too, the epithet tereti would have lost 
all its force. 

17-20. Pneque vtmens age, *' And, preceding, usher in." A tme- 
sis for praneniensque age. — Ludfer. **Star of morning;" The 
^ug^dpoc of the Greeks. — Conjugis indigno NisiB^ &c. " Deceived 
by the faithless love of Nisa, who had promised to be mine." Con' 
jux is here not to be taken in its literal sense, neither is it equiva- 
lent merely to arnica, as Heyne maintains, nor to amatai as Jani as- 
serts, but it denotes one who had plighted her faith and promised 
to be his. Observe, moreover, that indigno amore properly means 
an " unworthy aflTection," that is, an affection unworthy of the re- 
liance of Damon, or, in other words, a faithless one. 

Quamquam nil testibus illisy &c. ** Although I have profited no- 
thing from their being witnesses," t. e., from their having been so 
often invoked by her as witnesses of the sincerity of her attach- 
ment. — Alloquor. "Call upon," i. c, invoke the aid of. Heyne, 
less correctly, explains it by ** incusandi eos causL^* 

21-26. Incipe Manalios mecum, &c. " Begin with me, my pipe, 
Maenalian strains," i. e., Arcadian, or pastoral strains, Msenalus be- 
ing a mountain-chain in Arcadia. This is a species of intercalary 
verse, examples of which are also found in Theocritus and Bion, 
and occurs, as will be perceived, at irregular intervals. It is em- 
ployed to usher in a stave or portion of the song, and is supposed 
to be immediately followed by some notes of the pipe, as a prelude 
to the particular portion of the song that comes after. There is 
nothing incongruous, it may be remarked, in the shepherd's leaning 
on a Btaff, and yet, at the same time, playing on the pipe, sinee thia 


Qould easily be done with one hand) the pipe being a single one, 
and of the simplest construction. The ancient painting which rep- 
resents Marsyas teaching the yonng Olympus to play on the pipe 
proves this conclusively. 

Manalus argutumque nemnuj &c. <* Menalus always has both a 
vocal grove and speaking pines." Heyne explains this by the 
whispering breezes^ as they play amid the foliage ; but Spohn and 
Wagner, with more propriety^ make it to be an allusion to the pas- 
toral music with which the grove continually resounds. Hence 
the expression in the next line, " Semper pastorumille audit amor es.** 
Msenalus was a mountain-range in the southeastern part of Arca- 
dia, sacred to the god Pan, and considered, on account of its ex- 
ceUent pastures, to be one of the favourite haunts of that rural deity. 

Qui primus calamosy 6lc. ** Who was the first that suffered not 
the reeds to be idle,*' t. e., he made them musical by the invention 
of the syrinx. (Compare Eclog., ii., 32.) 

26-28. Mopso Nisa datur. Damon now explains the ^ull cause of 
his grief, the nuptials of Nisa with his more fortunate rival Mop- 
Bus ; and, as he was every way unworthy of her, the most singular 
and unexpected unions may now, according to the disappointed 
lover, be expected to take place. — QuuL non speremus amantes? 
" What may not we who love now expect (to be able to take place) 1" 
t. e., we may now look for anything, no matter how strange, to 
happen. Supply /m posse after speremus. 

Jungentur. Supply eidem currui. {Voss, ad loc.) — Gryphes. "Grif- 
fons." Fabulous monsters, having the body of a lion, and the head 
and wings of an eagle. According to Herodotus (iii., 116), they 
guarded the gold found in the vicinity of the Arimaspians, a Scyth- 
ian race, from the attempts of that people to make themselves 
masters of it. (Consult Anthonys Class. Diet., s, v. Gryphes.) — 
JEvoque sequenti. " And in another age," t. e., and hereafter. 
Equivalent to in posterum, — Ad pocula. -"To drink." Equivalent 
to ad potum. Compare Georg., iii., 529, ** pocula sunt f antes liquidi." 

29-30. Nov(^ incide faces. The torches would be used, accord- 
ing to custom, in conducting the bride to her husband's abode. 
Observe that novas is here merely an ornamejital epithet.— Duci^r. 
" Is being led home," i. «., is about to be conducted to thy abode. — 
Sparge marite nuces. " Scatter the nuts, O bridegroom." The al- 
lusion is to an ancient custom among the Romans in the celebra- 
tion of marriages. When the bride was brought to her husband's 
abode, and led to the nuptial chamber, it was customary for the 
bridegroom to acatter nats among the company, especially the 


yotinger part of them, to indicate that he now bade farewell to 
friroloas parsQits, and entered upon graver duties. {Casaub. ad 
Pers.j Sat., i., 10.) 

TiH deserit Hetpenu CBtatn, ** The star of eve is forsaking CEta 
for thee," t. «., for thee eagerly desiring its approach. (Eta was 
a celebrated mountain-chain in Thessaly, the eastern extremity of 
which, in conjunction with the sea, formed the famous pass of 
Thermopylae. The evening star is here described as leaving CEta 
at the' close of day, that is, as appearing above its summits at eve. 

32-35. O digno ^onjuncta^ro^ dec. He commends the choice of 
Nisa ironically, and accuses her of broken vows. — Duthque capeUtB, 
** And while my she^goats are so too,** i. e., are also Objects of ha- 
tred unto fhee.—Hirsutumqtu MupercUiutn. Copied from Theocri- 
tus (/i., xi., 31), where Polyphemus tells Galatea that she does not 
love him because he has a great shaggy eyebrow, extending from 
ear to ear. — Curare tnortalia. ** Cares for human affairs," t. ^., con- 
cerns himself about the punishment of perjury, and tsoiisequently 
about thee. ^ " ^ 

37-42. Sepibus in noatris, *' Within our garden enclosure ;** 
literally, " in our hedges,'* t. e., in our garden enclosed by hedges. 
— Parvam. «* Then a little girl.** — Roscida. " Dewy,** i. «., sprin- 
kled with morning dew. — Dux. " Guide.*' — Cum matre. " With 
thy mother." — Alter ah undecimoy &c. " My twelfth year had then 
just received me," i. £., was then just begun. There is a great dif- 
ference of opinion among commentators with regard to the mean- 
ing of alter ah undecimo in this passage, some making it signify the 
^u>c//"M, others the thirteenth. The former is the more correct way 
of rendering. In such expressions, the term governed by ah must 
be considered as the first in the series ; so that, regarding unded' 
tnus here as the first term, and alter ah undecimo as the second, the 
year is the twelfth, and not the thirteenth. {Crombiej Gymnas., vol. 
i., p. 230, ed. 6.y^Acceperat. Heyne reads ceperat, which is infe- 
rior. We have given the lection of Wagner. 

Ut vidi, ut periiy &c. ^' As soon as I beheld thee, oh ! how I was 
undone ! Oh ! how a fatal error bore me away as its own !'* The 
first ut has a temporal force, the second and third belong to ex- 
clamations, {VosSf ad loc. — Tnrsell. de Partic., p. 1097, ed. Schwartz.) 
Heyne errs in explaining the passage by " cum vidi, turn stalim ex' 
arsi.^^ Voss correctly denies this to be Latin. The whole passage 
is imitated from Theocritus {Id., ii., 82), X' uq Uov, cic ifidvijv! vf 
ftev nepl ^vfibc id<^v ^etXalac ! and again {Id,, iii., 42), 'Of Wev, lif 
iftuvrj t «f if paOvv HXKtf ipura ! 


Error. In anusion to the bewildering influence of love. Henoethe 
force of absttdit: bore me away from myself, from my calmer selC 

43-45. Nunc sciot 6iC. (Compare Theocritus, Id., iii., 15 : NOv iyvu>v 
rbv 'Epura. )—Cotibu9. The earlier form for cautibut. ( Compare jPris' 
cioft, i., 9, 52, p. 562, ed. Putsch,, and Schneider, jLat. Or., i., 1, p. 59.) 
— Tmaros. A mountain of Epirus, called also Tomarus, at the foot 
of which stood Dodona. — Rhodope, A mountain-range of Thessaly, 
forming, in a great degree, its western boundary. — Garammntes. A 
people of Africa, occupying, as the ancients believed, the extreme 
parts of that continent beyond Gsetulia. (Compare ^n., 'vr., 365.) 
— Edunt. *' Bring forth,*' t. e.f give being to. The present is here 
employed for the past tense, in order to impart an air« of greater 
animation to the. narrative. ( Wunderlich, ad loc. ; Wagner ^ ad Eleg. 
ad Messal., p. 27.) 

47-50. Matrem. Medea is meant, who destroyed the two sons whom 
she had by Jason. This was done on account of the marriage of 
Jason with the daughter of Creon, king of (Corinth, and his conse- 
quent abandonment of Medea. — Crudelis tu guoque, &c. The shep- 
herd accuses the Gud of Love of cruelty, in having compelled a moth- 
er to destroy her own children ; but then he confesses, at the 
same time, that the mother also was cruel. After this he raises a 
question whether there were greater wickedness in Cupid, or great- 
er cruelty in the mother, and concludes, that the crime was equal. 

Crudelis mater magis, <S&c. Heyne thinks that this line and the 
one which follows are interpolations. They are successfully de- 
fended, however, by Wagner. 

52-^7. Nunc et ovcs, 6lc. Imitated from Theocritus (Id., i., 132- 
136). The shepherd now returns to the absurdity of this match of 
Nisa with Mopsus, and declares that nothing can seem strange 
after this unequal match. — Aurca mala. (Consult note on Eclog., 
iii., 71. — Narcisso. (Consult note on Eclog., v., 38.) — Pinguia cor- 
ticibus, &c. *' Let the rich amber exude from the bark of the tam- 
arisk." Amber, as well as any resin exuding from trees, may, with 
the same propriety, be termed *^pinguis," as wax and honey ; ht- 
erally, " let the fat amber," <Stc. 

Certent et cycnis, d:c. The ancients imagined that the swan sang 
sweetly at the time of its death.— 5i^ Tityrus Orpheus, &c. " Let 
Tityrus be another Orpheus : an Orpheus in the woods, an Arion 
amid the dolphins." Let Tityrus, rude in song, become a second 
Orpheus ; let him be as melodious as Orpheus was amid the wild 
beasts and the forests, as melodious as Arion was amid the dolphins 
iQ the sea. — Arion, A celebrated musician, apd native of Methym- 


ne, in the Iriahd of Lesbos. When sailing, on one occasion, from 
Tarentum to Corinth, with a large amount of money which he had 
accumulated by his professional skill, he was compelled by the sea- 
men to deliver up to them his treasures, and take his choice either 
of killing himself or of leaping into the sea. He chose the latter al- 
ternative, but begged of them to allow him to play one tune before 
he jumped overboard. To this they assented. Arion, accordingly, 
went through his performance, and then threw himself into the sea ; 
whereupon, says the legend, a dcdphin took him up on its back and 
bore him safely to land. 

58-60. Omma vel medium, dcC. ** Let all things become very mid- 
ocean," t. «., let the deep waters of the sea cover all things. The- 
ocritus has irdvra d* (vaXXa yivoivro, ** let all things, too, become 
completely changed."^ (Id., i., 134.) Can it be supposed that Virgil 
either did not understand this verse of TheocrituSt'or, possessing an 
incorrect copy of the Greek poet, pronounced the adjective IvaXa, 
enhdla ? or bow can we acconnt for ** Omnia vel mtdium fiant mare," 
in his imitation of Theocritus 1 (Hiekie, ad Theocr., i., 184.) 

VivUe. " Fare ye ^e\V*~-Speeuld. •* The top." So called from 
its being a look-out place, or place of observation. (Compare th)B 
corresponding usage in the Greek aKoniu.) — Extremum hoc munue, 
<&c. *' Take this last gift of a dying man." This is addressed to 
Nisa, and the reference is, not, as Heyne supposes, to this last po- 
etical effusion of Damon's, but to his death, which he thinks will be 
£.n acceptable offering to the cruel fair one. 

6*^-63. Vos, qua respondent, 6lc. The poet, having recited these 
verses oi* Damon's, declares that he is unable to proceed any farther, 
by his own unassisted endeavours, and therefore calls upon the 
Muses to relate the answer of Al[)hesiboeos. — Non omnia poesumus 
omnes. " We cannot a21 do all things." Omnis, multus, and words 
of similar import are often repeated in this way. (Consult Beier, 
ad Cic., de Off., i., 17.) 

64-65. Effer aquam, &c. Alphesiboeus assumes the character of 
a sorceress, who is about performing a magical sacrifice, in order 
to bring her beloved home, and regain his love which she had lost. 
These words of the sorceress are addressed to her assistant, whose 
name we afterward find to be Amaryllis. The water brought out 
is lustral water, to be employed in the sacrifice. — Et'molli cinge, dtc. 
The' fillet is here called soft because made of wool. Altars were 
adorned not only with fillets, but also with garlands and festoons. 
The fillets were used partly because they were themselves orna- 
mental, and partly for the purpose of attaching the festoon to the 


■lUr. The >Itu repreaenteil in ths folIowiDK cot ahowi the man- 
■MT in which the featooiis were conunonl; tiupeacied. 

Verltnaaqat piaguit. " The rich Vervain." Va-ltna ii Bometiroei 
em^doyed te denote a specific plant, namely, the Tervain, nhicb was 
held sacred among tbe RamaDS. At otbei times it is used to des- 
ignate any tierb braught from a consecrated place, and also an^ 
plants, &LC., used in decking altars. The epithet pingna shdws that 
the first meaning is Ibe one required by tbe present passage, — Mai- 
ctila ihura. "Male frankincense." The ancients called the best sort 
of frankincense maJt, As regards (he peculiar force of adoUrt, con- 
•ultncte on ^R.,!., 704. 

e8-.6a. Coi^agiM lit magicit, &c. " That I Inay try to subvert by 
magic rites the sound senses of him who once promised to b« 
mine," i. e., may inspire him vrith the phrensy of love, may tnm 
anay hia senses from (heir sound and ordinary coarse. Some un- 
derstand this to mean, may turn avray his senses from some other 
object of sffection ; but the epithet loniw appears to oppose this 
idea. As regards (be force of amjugii here, eonaull note on verse 
IS. — Niiil Ate, nitt earmiita datait. " Nothing is vranting here but 
fncantatioiiB," *. *., aU the macie preptnUoai are now made, and 


nothing is wanting bat the words that are to be sung by the sor- 
ceress, and that form the magic charm, or formula. 

69-71. Duciu ah urbe dtmatm, 6lc. Aq intercalary verse. (Con- 
sult note on verse 21.) It is here employed to introduce each time 
a new charm or incantation. — Carmina vel calo, 6lc. In this para- 
graph are enumerated the various powers of these superstitious 
verses or charms. — Circe. A celebrated enchantress, who turned 
the companions of Ulysses into swine. — UlixL Old form of the 
genitive. The old form of the nominative was Ulixeus (from the 
Greek 'Odvaaev^), the genitive of which was Utixeif contracted into 
Ulixcit whence by a slight change came Ulixi, — Caniando, For iti- 
carUando. — RumpUur, ** Is burst." (Consult John, ad loc.) 

73-75. Tema iiii hoc primum, &c. ** First I surround thee with 
these three pieces of list, distinguished from each other by three 
colours.*' By licia are meant the list at the end of the web. Ob- 
serve that while the sorceress otters these words, she binds the 
three pieces of Ust around a small image of Daphnis, which she 
holds in her hands, and afterward carries around the altar. — Efigi- 
em. ** Thy image." — Numero deu* impure^ &,c, " The deity delights 
in an uneven number." The number three was held sacred, and 
played an important part in sacred rites. 

77-81. Necie tribut nodis, 6lc. "Tie three colours with three 
knots," t. e., tie three threads or strings of different colours. — 
AmaryUi. Amaryllis is the name of her attendant. — Limiis ut hie 
durescitf &c. " As this clay hardens, and as this wax melts," &c. 
The sorceress has two images of Daphnis, one of clay, and the 
other of wax, both of which are placed in the same fire on the al- 
tar. The one of course hardens, the other melts ; and in the same 
way Daphnis is to become firm in his attachment to her, and yet, at 
the same time, to melt with love. 

82-83. Sparge molam, &c. *' Sprinkle the salted meal, and burn 
with bitumen the crackling bays." The sorceress now enters on a 
new charm. The salted meal is sprinkled upon the image or im- 
ages of Daphnis, and branches of bay, smeared with bitumen, are 
burned. The mola salaam as it was called, consisted of roasted bar- 
ley meal mixed with salt. This was sprinkled upon the head of 
the victim before it was killed ; and in the present instance is sprink- 
led on the image of Daphnis, the victim of the magic sacrifice which 
is now going on. The bays were burned, also, in order to consume 
the flesh of the person on whose account these rites were perform- 
ed ; and the bitumen was added to make a fiercer flame. — Lauros. 
With regard to the ancient laurus, consult note on Eclog. ii., M. 



In Daphnide. <<0a Daphnis," i. e., on the image of Daphnis. 
{Voss, ad loc. Compare Theocritus, Id.^ ii., 23 : kyoi cT kwl AiX^idi 
ddipvav Aldcj.) 

86-90. Daphnin. Supply teneatf which is expressed in verse 89. 
— Qualis, ** As is that." Supply is est. — Propter aqua rivum. " By 
some stream of water.*' — Ulvd. <* Sedge." Some editions have 
Jierbclt but, as Martyn remarks, ulvh seems a much more proper word 
in this place ; for the heifer is i;epresented as weary of her pursuit, 
and lying out obstinately in the fields. To have made her rest on 
the green grass, would have been rather a pleasing image, contrary 
to what was here evidently intended ; but it agrees very well with 
the design of this description, to suppose her lying down on the 
coarse sedge, in a marshy place, by the side of a slow rivulet. 

Perdita. " Distracted." Heyne thinks it doubtful whether this 
belongs to what goes before or comes after. No such doubt, how- 
ever, ought to exist, as the term is evidently an addition to what 
precedes, and is to be inclosed within commas, according to Wolfs 
{Principle of punctuation. — Sercenocti. An elegant expression. As 
if ordered by the shades of night to depart. The reading ser& nocte 
is far inferior. 

91-93. Has exuvias. " These articles once worn by him." Ex' 
uvicB is here a general term for any article worn on the person, 
whether of clothing or ornament. The sorceress proceeds to a new 
species of incantation, the burying of these exuviae of Daphnis under 
the threshold, to make him return to her. As regards the term ex- 
um<Bf consult note on JEn., iv., 495. — Debent hcec pignora Daphnin. 
" These pledges owe me Daphnis." She expects, as a natural con- 
sequence of her burying these pledges, that they will cause Daphnis 
to return. The exuvicR^ therefore, in this sense, are bound to give 
her Daphnis. 

95-100. Has kerhasy &c. She now proceeds to extol the power of 
the magical herbs and drugs which she has procured. — Hac Ponto 
lecta venena. " These drugs gathered in Pontus." Pontus, strictly 
speaking, was a country of Asia Minor, bounded on the north by 
the Euxine, and on the east by Colchis. Here, however, it is taken 
in a more general sense for Colchis itself, a country famed in an- 
tiquity for its poisons and magic drugs, and the native region of 
Medea, the celebrated sorceress. — Plurima. ** Very many such." 
— Lupum fieri. Compare the loup-garu of modern sorcery. — Satas 
messes. *' The sown crops," i. e.; the grain sown for future harvests. 
101-104. Fer cineres^ &c. ** Carry the ashes forth, Amaryllis, 
and throw them into the running stream, and over thy head ; nor 


look behind thee (while so doing)." The sorceress, not having had 
success in her previous incantations, now proceeds to her most 
powerful charm. The ashes here meant are those of the vervain, 
frankincense, bays, &c., that have been burned on the altar. The 
attendant is to turn her back while she throws these into the river, 
and she is to throw them, moreover, over her head. Servius says, 
that the ashes were thrown in this manner, in order that the gods 
might receive them without showing themselves, which last they 
only did on very special occasions, ** ex nimid necessitate," 

Aggrediar. "Will I assail,** i. e.j strive to conquer him to my 
love. — Nihil ille deos, d&c. The gods here meant are those accus- 
tomed to be invoked in magic rites. The sorceress seems, by the 
language here employed, to mean that hitherto there has not ap- 
peared any sign of good success in her incantations, and that she 
now depends more upon this scattering of the ashes than upon any- 
thing that has thus far been done. 

105-109. Aspice, d&c. The exclamation of the sorceress herself, 
who proceeds to aid Amaryllis in removing the ashes from the al- 
tar, but, before this can be efibcted, a flame breaks forth from the 
ashes that have just begun to be disturbed. — Ferre. "To carry 
them away." — Bonum sit ! " May it be a portent of good !'* — Nescio 
quid eerie est. *' 'Tis certainly something or other,'* i. «., it is cer- 
tainly an omen of something or other having happened, though, 
whether for good or evil, 1 know not. — Et Hylax. " Hylax too." 
The barking of the dog is a sign that he perceives his master com- 
ing home. — Ijpsi sihi somnia fingunt. Compare Publius Syrus : 
" Amans quod suspicaturf vigilans somniat." — Parcite. " Spare him," 
1. e., Daphnis. She entreats the charms to cease from their pow- 
erful influence over Daphnis, who is now coming unto her from the 
city. With parcite, therefore, supply illi. 




This Eclogue gives more insight than any of the others into the 
circumstances of the early life of the poet. Virgil, after haying 
been, for a short time, reinstated in his patrimony, was again dis- 
possessed by the violence of the centurion Arrius, and had himself 
nearly fallen a victim to the fury of that soldier. He, in the mean 
while, yielded to the force of circumstances, and took his departure 
for Rome, enjoining on the person who had charge of his farm to 
ofier no resistance, and to comply with all the orders of Arrius, 
as if he had been his legitimate master. The scene of the Eclogue 
is laid during this period. Moeris, who represents the villicus, or 
grieve, but, according to Catrou, the father of Virgil, is introduced 
carrying his kids from the farm to Mantua, for behoof, it may be 
supposed, of the intrusive centurion. Lycidas, a neighbouring 
shepherd, who is fond of poetry, meets him on the way. Mceris 
complains of the distresses of the times, and recounts his own mis- 
fortunes, and those of his master, Menalcas, by whom our poet rep- 
resents himself. This turns the subject to the poems of Menalcas, 
and each rehearses, from memory, some fragments of his verses. 
These are altogether unconnected, and are almost literally trans- 
lated from Theocritus, but they are among the happiest of Virgil's 
imitations, and assemble together some of the loveliest objects of 
wild, unadorned nature. {Durdop^ Hist. Rom, Lit., vol. iii., p. 114.) 

According to Voss, this Eclogue was composed in the summer 
of A.U.C. 714, Virgil being then in his 30th year. 

1-6. Quo te Moerij pedes ? " Whither do thy feet lead thee, Moeris 1 " 
Supply ducunt, which may be easily implied from diicit, which fol- 
lows. It is more usual, however, to omit the verb in the second 
clause of the sentence, and express it in the first. — Urbem. Man- 
tua. — O Lycida, vivi pereenimus, &.C. " O Lycidas, we have lived 
to see the time, when a total stranger, as the possessor of our lit- 
tle farm, what we never apprehended, should say," &c. ; more lit- 
erally, " we have come alive to that pass, that a stranger," &c. 
Hence, pervenimus is equivalent here to pervenimus eo. — Advena, 
Consult Introductory Remarks. — Nostri. If Mceris be the villicus, 
or superintendent, the term nostri here will be employed like nostrisj 
in. Eclog.f i., 8. — Quod nunquam^ &c, Wagner prefers quo nun- 


quaniy &c., t. e., quo muiquam veriii wmut f€rvemre,-—CdUnn, " Cu]« 
tivators of the soil,'* t. e., landholders. - « 

Victi. ** Overcome,'* t. e., constrained to yield to the power of a 
lawless soldiery. Alluding to the veterans, unto whom the lands 
had been assigned. — Quomam For* omnia versat, '* Since Fortune 
overturns all things.** — Hot t//i, &c. «* We are conveying these 
kids unto that man, and no good may the gift do him.** The new 
possessor is supposed to reside at Mantua, and the kids are a part 
of the produce of his newly-acquired farm. — Quod nee vcrtat bene. 
We have here given the arrangement of Wagner, as far more mu- 
sical than the old reading, bene vertaty which gave the line a most 
intolerable rhythm, namely, Hoe illi \ quod nic bene vertat \ mittimus 
hcedos. Observe that qUod nee vertat bene is an old form of impreca- 
tion, often occurring. — MUtimus. In the sense of ferimus, just as 
inferias mUtere is the same as ferre inferias. 

7-10. Subduccre. " To decline,*' t. e.y to terminate in the plain. 
We have here a description of Virgil's farm, which sloped down 
from the high grounds to the banks of the Mincius and the beech- 
trees planted there. (Compare Eclog.j i, 62.) — MoUique jugum de- 
mittere diva. ** And to slope their brow with easy descent." — Jam 
fracta cacumina. •* Now mere broken tops." The reference is to 
the effect of age, as clearly indicated by the particle jam. — Omnia. 
" All the grounds." — Menalcan. Virgil is supposed to mean him- 
self by Menalcas. (Consult Introductory Remarks.) 

11-16. Audieras ? et fama fuit. " Hadst thou heard t and there 
was even a report (to this effect)." We have placed an interro- 
gation after audieras^ with Wagner, as far more spirited than the 
common punctuation, which is a semicolon. — Ckaoniae columiae, 
** Chaonian pigeons," i. e., Dodonean pigeons. Dodona was a cele- 
brated city and oracle of Epirus, and as the Chaones were at one 
time the most powerful and warlike people of Epirus, and at an 
early period inhabited, among other places, Dodona, the epithet 
Chaonian becomes equivalent here to Dodonean. Now at Dodona, 
according to a legend alluded to by Herodotus, two black pigeons 
in early days gave oracular responses; and hence Chaonian be- 
comes in the text an ornamental epithet, and ** Chaonian pigeons" 
mean pigeons in general. 

Quod, nisi me, &c. " And had not a crow, on the left hand, pre- 
viously warned me, from a hollow holm-oak, to cut short the rising 
dispute in any way," i. e., on any terms. With qudcumque supply 
ratione or via. . As the Roman augur faced the south in taking au- 
spices, all omens on the left were lucky, coming as they did from 



the east, where the heavenly motions originated ; unless other ctr 
cumstances altered their character. In the present instance the 
omen becomes unlucky, because the note of the owl proceeds from 
a hollow or decayed tree. {Voss, ad loc.) Observe that, as the 
Grecian augur faced the north, omens on the righi were regarded 
as lucky by that nation, because the right aide faced the east ; the 
contrary being the case with the Romans. 

17-22. Cadii in quemquam, &c. "Does 80 great a crime enter 
into the mind of any onel" — Tua soUUul "Thy consolatory 
strains," i. e., thy strains so sweetly consoling to pastoral ears. 

Voss compares Eclog.t v., 20 and 40. — Qui* spargeretl in- 

duceretj &c. The idea intended to be conveyed is this : He can 
sing with so much truth and sweetness of these themes, as actually 
to seem to bring the objects themselves before the eyes of the hear- 
er. Compare Taubmann, ad loc. : " Caneret ed quidcm arte^ ut res 
ipsa* ante oculos ponere videatur.*^ 

Vel qua sublegi^ &c. " Or (sing those verses) which I on a late 
occasion, silently listening, gathered from thee not perceiving it." 
Compare the explanation of Heyne : ** Quis caneret ea, qua nupery 
tc non sentiente, ex te didici V* The ellipsis in the text is to be sup- 
plied as follows : vel quis caneret ea carmina, qua, &c. — Quum te ad 
delicias, &c. " When thou wast hieing to Amaryllis, the delight of 
all of us," t. e., of the whole neighbourhood, whom all, both old and 
young, admire. The speaker, it will be remembered, is somewhat 
advanced in years. (Compare verse 51.) 

23-25. Tityre, dum redeo, &.C. He now gives a specimen of his 
friend's songs. In this Eclogue, Virgil takes occasion to introduce 
several little pieces as fragments of his other writings. This be- 
fore us is a translation of a passage in Theocritus {Id., iii., seqq.). 
^—Dvm. "Until." — Brevis est via. "The distance is short," i. c, 
I am only going a little way. — Inter agendum, "While driving 
them." — Occursare. " How you come in the way of." 

26-29. Imtno hac. " Nay, those rather." — Vare, tuum nomen, &c. 
Another short specimen. The idea intended to be conveyed by it is 
this : If Mantua shall only be saved from destruction, thy name, O 
Varus, shall be celebrated throughout all the Mantuan territory. Va- 
rus would appear from this to have exerted his authority in shield- 
ing, to some extent, others besides Virgil from the violence of the 
veterans of Augustus. — Superet modo Mantua nobis. " If Mantua 
only survive for us," t. e., if we Mantuans only escape the ruin 
which threatens us from these lawless new-comers. 

Mantua va miserat &c. Cremona had unfortunately espoused 


the cause of Brutus, and thus peculiarly incurred the vengeance of 
the victorious party. But as its territory was not found adequate 
to contain the veteran soldiers of the triumvirs, among whom it 
had been divided, the deficiency was supplied from the neighbour- 
ing district of Mantua. — Cantantes cycni. The swan was fabled to 
sing beautifully at the approach of death, and hence the name of 
Varus will be wafted by the music of the dying swans, as they soar 
away into upper air, even unto the stars. What serves to heighten 
the effect of the image, is the circumstance that the country near 
Mantua abounded in swans. (Compare Georg.j ii., 199.) 

30-32. Sic tua Cyrneas, &,c. A well-known form of expressing 
a conditional wish. " Begin (to sing), if thou hast aught (to im- 
part in song) ; so (z. e., and if thou comply with my request) may 
thy swarms avoid the yews of Corsica ;*' literally, " the Cyrnean 
yews," Cyrnos (Kvpvog) being the Greek name of Corsica. Accord- 
ing to Servius, the Island of Corsica abounded in yew-trees, and 
Cyrnean is here to be taken as a general name for the whole spe- 
cies, even when growing elsewhere, as in the present instance near 
Mantua. The yew-tree is injurious in honey-making, the honey 
made of it being bitter, and the Corsican honey in particular was 
allowed, by common consent, to be very bad of its kind. Virgil, 
as appears from the present passage, ascribes this to the yew-trees 
which grew there ; Ovid, on the other hand, makes it to have been 
owing to the hemlock. — Cyiiso, Consult note on Eclog., i., 79. 

33-34:. Fierides. Consult note on jEc/o^., iii., 85. — Vatem. "In- 
spired." Observe here the distinction between poeta and vatcs, the for- 
mer having reference merely to poetic skill ; whereas the latter has 
more or less of a religious fdea connected with it, in addition to that 
of powers of song. {Daderlciuy Lat. Syn., vol. v., p. 101.) The ety- 
mology of vales is doubtful. Its un-Latin termination of-es for the 
masculine shows clearly that it is a word of foreign origin. It is 
to be deduced, most probably, from ^drjyf, Doric for ^^rjyc (compare 
^rpo-^^r^O' though, according to one of the ancient grammarians, 
its earlier form was vacius. {Aper, de verb. dub. in Gramm. Lat., p. 
2250, ed. Putsch.) 

. 35-36. Vario. Varius and Cinna were two eminent contemporary 
poets, and Lycidas says that he cannot look upon himself as a really 
inspired poet, because he is not yet able to write such verses as are 
worthy of the two individuals just named. Varius had distinguished 
himself by various poetic efforts, but his chief title to fame rested on 
his tragedy of Thyestes, now lost, which Quintilian says (x.,i., 98) 
was worthy of being compared with any similar production among 


the Greeks. He is eulogized by Horace {Od., i., 6). Cinna bad 
written a poem entitled ** Smyrna,** which it had taken him nine 
whole years to polish and correct. (Compare Cahdl., xcy., and 
consult, in particular, the two dissertations of Weichert, " De C 
Helvio Cinniy** Grimme, 1822.) 

Sed argutos inter, &c. ** But to scream like a goose among the 
tuneful swans." According to Serrius, the poet has here a hit at 
a contemporary poet named Anter. He is followed in this by Spohn, 
Voss, and Weichert. 

37-38. Id quidem ago, ** That Tery thing I am endeavouring to 
do,'* i. €., to begin some strain. The reference is to *^ incipe, si quid 
habea" in Terse 32. — Ne^ue. For non enim. 

39-43. Hue ades, O Galatea, &c. These five lines are an imita- 
tion of a passage in the lltb Idyl of Theocritus, where the Cyclope 
Polyphemus addresses the nymph Galatea. — Quis est nam ludus, 
&c. *' For what pleasure is there in the waters." Galatea is a sea- 
nymph, and she is here invited to forsake the ocean for the greater 
pleasures of the land, the beauties of which are then described. — 
Hie ver jmrpureum. ^* Here reigns the purple spring.^ The term 
** purple" is here equivalent merely to " bright," and the spring is 
so called from the bright-hued flowers which it pours forth. The 
Roman poets often use the adjective purjmreus in the sense of 
<* bright," "sparkling," *< beautiful," dec. (Consult Burmdnn, ad 
Anthol. Lot., vol. i., p. 267.) 

Candida populus. " The silver poplar :" called by the Greeks, i 
MvKtj. — Umbracula. "A thick bower." Observe the force of the 
plural. — Feriant sine. For sine utferiant. 

44-45. Quid, qua, dtc. " (But) what were those verses which I 
heard thee singing by thyself at the calm eventide." The refer- 
ence is to clear calm weather, or, in other words, to a serene even- 
ing. (Compare Burmann, ad loc.) — Sub. The literal force of this 
preposition here has reference to the shades of evening covering the 
earth. — Numeros. "The numbers," i. e., the rhythm or cadence, 
as marked off by the ictus. (Voss, ad loc.) 

^ 46-47. Daphni. Daphnis is here only a fictitious name of some 
pastoral acquaintance. — Quid antiquos, &c. He admonishes Daph- 
nis that there is no occasion for him to regard the old rules of ob- 
serving the heavens with respect to agriculture, because the new 
star of Caesar will be alone sufficient for the husbandmen. — Dioncei 
processit Casaris astrum. " The star of Dionean Cesar has come 
forth," t. e., has come forth from Olympus to run its course in the 
heavens. Dione was one of the Nereids, and, according to Homer 


(It., r.y 870), the mother of Venus by Jupiter. Venus was the moth- 
er of JSneas, who was the father of AscaDius, or Inlus, and from 
this last the Julian family claimed to be descended. Jolius Cesar, 
therefore, being of this race, is here called " Dionean Csesar." The 
star alluded to in the text is the famous Julium sidiu, so often re- 
ferred to by the Roman poets. A remarkable star, or, more cor- 
rectly speaking, comet, appeared for seven days together, after the 
death of Julius Cssar, which was regarded by the lower orders as 
a sign that his soul had been received into the heavens, the star 
having been the vehicle for transporting the same. Hence Au- 
gustus added a star to all the statues which he raised in com- 
memoration of the deification of his uncle, and hence, too, the star 
that appears so frequently on the medals of the Julian line. Halley 
conjectured that the comet of 1660 was this same one, and that its 
period was 675 years. . 

48-50. Quo segetes gauderent, 6lc. ** By which the sown fields 
might rejoice with their crops, and by which the grape might ac- 
quire its (proper) hue on the sunny hills." The influence of this 
new star is to be highly favourable to agriculture, and its subse- 
quent risings are to portend rich harvests. Observe the employ- 
ment of the imperfect subjunctive here to denote a repeated ac- 
tion, what is to take place year after year, where in Greek the 
optative would be used. — Duceret. Equivalent to duceret in «e, t. e., 
sensim acciperet. — Apricis in collibus. A sunny exposure is requi- 
site for the vine. — Inhere. ** Plant." Not " ingraft," because a 
tree, when ingrafted, produces fruit very soon *, whereas a slow 
production is here meant. 

51-54. Fert. " Bears away with it," %. c, consumes or destroys. 
— Animum quoque. " Even the memory itself" We must sup- 
pose that Moeris stops with his song at the end of line 50, from a 
failure of memory, and cannot complete what he had begun ; he re- 
marks, therefore, with a sigh, that old age is beginning to steal upon 
him. — Puerum. "When a boy." — Longos condere soles. "Spent 
long summer days ;" more literally, "closed long suns," i, c, saw 
long suns sink to rest. — Oblita mihi. " Are forgotten by me." Ob- 
serve the Hellenism in mihi for a me^ and also the passive usage of 
oblitus, the participle of a deponent verb. {Ruddimann, Inst.y vol. 
i., p. 289, ed. StaLlb.) 

Lupi Marin videre priores, " The wolves have seen Mceris first," 
1. e.^ before he has seen them, and this is the reason why he has 
lost his voice. This expression alludes to a notion which prevailed 
among the ancient Italians, that if a wolf saw any man first, it d«- 


prived him of bis voice for the time. If, on the other hand, the 
man saw the wolf first, the wolf became mute for the instant. Ser- 
vius informs us, that from this is derived the proverbial expression 
lupus infabuldt which is used when a person appears of whom the 
company have been talking, and who thereby cuts^ffthe discourse. 
In Theocritus (7(2., xiv., 22), a person who remains silent is said 
to have seen a wolf {Xvkov elSeg) ; but the^*e is evidently some error 
here in the text, and we must read, with Schaeffer, Av/coc el6e a', "a 
wolf has seen thee." 

Satis referei tibi. " Will repeat to thee often enough." 

56-62. Caussando nostrost &c. **By making these excuses, 
thou puttest off for a long time our gratification (in hearing thee)." 
Lycidas looks upon this loss of memory as a mere pretence, and 
therefore presses Moeris to go on. He urges the stillness of the 
evening, and their having gone half their journey already, as argu* 
ments for sitting down a little, and adds that they shall reach the 
city in good time. But if Moeris is afraid the night should prove 
rainy, he tells him they may sing as they go along, and offers to 
relieve him of his load. Moeris persists in not singing any more, 
and exhorts him to wait with patience for the return of Menalcas. 

Omne stratum silet aquor. ** The whole lake lies smooth and 
still." Referring to the lake into which the Mincius spreads near 
Mantua. — Omnes ventasij &c. " Every breath of murmuring wind 
is lulled." — Hinc adeo media, &c. " From this point, too, our jour^ 
nfey is equally divided," i. c, we have now accomplished one- half 
of our route. — Bianoris. Bianor, otherwise called Ocnus, son of 
the river-god Tiber, and of Manto, the daughter of Tiresias, is said 
to have founded Mantua, and to have called it after his mother. — 
Densas stringunt frondes. "Are stripping off the thick leaves." 
This was done in order to promote the growth of the vine, which 
the thick foliage of the trees around which they twined would oth- 
erwise have retarded. — Tamen. " Notwithstanding." 

63-67. Pluviam colligat ante. " Bring on rain before (we get 
there)." — Cantantes licet, &c. " We can pursue our route, singing 
all the while ; the way is (thus) less tedious." Heyne reads IcRdat, 
but the sense evidently requires the indicative. — Ut eamus. *«In 
order that we may (so) pursue it." — Hocfasce. " Of this burden." 
Referring to the kids which he was carrying. — Plura. Supply dicere. 

Et, quod nunc instat, &lq. ** And let us attend to that which now 
is pressing," t. e., which demands my immediate care. He alludes 
to the conveying of the kids to the new possessor of the farm.— • 
fyse. Menalcas. 




Cornelius Callus, the celebrated elegiac poet, was enamoured 
of a female called Lycoris, who, under the name of Cytheris, had 
been beloved by Marc Antony and Brutus. It was for her that 
Callus had composed his elegies ; but she had now forsaken him 
to follow a more favoured suitor, who was at this time employed 
on a military expedition beyond the Alps. Callus, who was then 
in early youth, felt deeply affected by her loss. Virgil accordingly 
introduces him in this Eclogue as a shepherd, who, reclining under 
a solitary rock in Arcadia, bewails the inconstancy of his mistress. 
The poet describes the swains of Arcadia, the rural deities, and 
even Apollo himself, as coming to Callus, and attempting, though 
vainly, to console him in his affliction. In his address to the shep- 
herds, he wishes that his lot had been humble like theirs ; and then, 
in his pathetic expostulations with his mistress, he presents a stri- 
king picture of the sufferings to which his unhappy passion had ex- 
posed him. The various resolutions of a desponding lover are suc- 
cessively described, and are such as disappointed passion naturally 
produces — wild, tender, and inconstant. He first thinks of renewing 
his poetical studies ; then suddenly determines to quit the world, 
and seek out some melancholy retirement, where he may conceal 
himself among the dens of wild animals, and console himself with 
carving the name of Lycoris on the trees. He next breaks into a 
resolution of employing himself in the pleasures of the chase ; but 
at length recollects, with a sigh, that none of these amusements 
will cure his passion. The plan of the Eclogue is a little fantas- 
tical, but it is written with much sweetness, and we find in it some 
of the most musical and touching verses that have flowed from 
Virgil. Dunlopt Hist. Rom. Lit., vol. iii., p. 120, seq. 

According to Voss, this Eclogue was composed in the spring of 
A.U.C. 717, Virgil being then in his 33d year. 

1-2. Extremum hunc, Aretkusa, &c. " Concede, O Arethusa, this 
last effort unto me," i. c, grant that this last effort of mine may be a 
successful one. Favour this my last attempt. (Compare the expla- 
nation of Wunderlich : " Pcrmitte ut in extremo hoc argumenlo elahorem, 
atque in eo me adjures.^') Voss supposes that Virgil was now begin- 
ning to bend his energies upon the poem of the Georgics, and that 


he gave to the world in this year (A.U.C. 717) a selection from his 
previous pastoral productions, under the title of Ecloga, or " Ec- 
logues," of which the present one was the last. — Aretkusa. Instead 
of invoking the Muses, the poet addresses a Sicilian nymph, Are- 
thusa, who presided over a fountain of the same name, in the island 
of Ortygia, off the coast of Sicily, and lying near and forming part 
of Syracuse. The propriety of this is shown by the circumstance 
of the present Eclogue being an imitation, in a great degree, of 
the first Idyll of Theocritus, a Sicilian poet. 

Pauca meo Gatto, &c. *' (Concede) a few things (unto me) for 
my Gallus, but which Lycoris herself may read. (Yes), songs are 
to be sung ; who will refuse songs to Gallus V* t. «., who will refuse 
to tell of him in songi We have adopted in this passage the punc- 
tuation recommended by Wagner {Eleg. dd Mesial., p. 68), and fol- 
lowed by him in his edition of Virgil. The old pointing has a period 
after laborem^ and a comma after Lycoris, so that, according to it, 
the meaning will be, *' a few strains are to be sung for my Gallus,'' 
&c. Tliis, however, is extremely awkward, and gives the Eclogue 
a double exordium in the first and second lines. 

Legal ipsa Lycoris. That she may blush, namely, for her perfidy 
and fickleness, and grieve at having abandoned one so constant and 

4-5. Sic tihi, &c. ** So may bitter Doris not intermingle her 
waters with thee, when thou shalt glide beneath the Sicilian 
waves." As regards the force of sic here, consult note on Eclog., 
ix., ZO.—^Doris amara, &,c. Boris, the daughter of Oceanus and 
Tethys, is here taken for the sea, and the legend alluded to by the 
poet is as follows : The god of the Alpheus, a river of Elis, became 
enamoured of the nymph Arethusa, who, flying from his pursuit, 
was turned by Diana, out of compassion, into a fountain. She 
made her escape under the sea to Ortygia, an island adjacent to 
Sicily, where she rose up ; but the Alpheus pursued her by the same 
route, and mingled his waters with hers at the fountain-head in the 
island just named. The poet here wishes that, in her passage un- 
der the sea, the briny waves of the latter may not intermingle with 
her pure and crystal waters. 

6-8. Sollicitos amores. "The anxious love," t. «., making his 
bosom the abode of anxiety and care. — SimcB capella. ** The snub- 
nosed kids." (Cotppare Theocritus, OL^al ip^poi.) — Non canimus 
9urdist &.C. Even if Lycoris will not listen, yet the song will be re- 
peated by echo in the woods. — Respondent. ** Re-echo." 

0-12. Qua ncmorOf &lg. Imitated irom Theocritus (i., 66). — No* 


ties. From the Greek NaMff . Hie reading Naiades mars the me- 
tre, since it is a quadrisyllable! from the Greek Naiadef. — Indigno 
amore. " By a love that he ill deserved/' t. e., he was worthy of a 
better and more fortunate passion. — Peribat. The indicative seems 
here*1required by the sense, and is far superior to the common read- 
ing periret. 

Pamassi. (Consult note on Eclog. , Ti., ^9.)—Pindi. Pindus, like 
Parnassus, was sacred to the Muses. The name was applied to a 
mountain range separating Thessaly from Epinis. As the Naides 
were fountain- nymphs, and are here mentioned in connexion with 
Parnassus and Pindus, the poet would seem to refer to the fount- 
ains and streams of these two mountain ranges. Voss thinks that 
the Muses themselves are meant. — Aome Aganippe. " The Aonian 
Aganippe," i. e., the Boeotian fountain of Aganippe. This was a 
celebrated fountain of Boeotia on Mount Helicon, sacred to the 
Muses. The epithet Aonian has reference to the Aones, the ear- 
lier inhabitants of Bceotia. We have given Aonie Aganippe with 
Heyne, as in cjoser accordance with the Greek form i^kovlri 'Ayo- 
viitnTj) than the common reading Aonia Aganippe^ or that of many 
editions, Aonict Aganippe^. 

13-15. Ilium etiam lauri^ &c. A strong expression, as Martyn 
remarks, of the poet's astonishment at the negleot which the nymphs 
showed of the distress of Gallus. He insinuates his surprise that 
the nymphs, who inhabited the hills and fountains sacred to Apollo 
and the Muses, should slight so excellent a poet, when even the 
woods and rocky mountains lamented his misfortunes. — Pinifer 
Manalus. The scene now changes to Arcadia, and the remainder 
of the Eclogue is adapted to Arcadian habits and customs. Maen- 
alus, as already remarked (note to Eclog.f viii., 22), was a mount- 
ain range in the southeastern part of Arcadia, sacred to the god 
Pan. — Lycai. Lycaeus was a mountain range in the southwestern 
angle of Arcadia, sacred to Pan, who had a temple on it, surround- 
ed by a thick grove. On the summit was an altar to Jupiter, that 
deity having been born there, according to an Arcadian legend. 
The presence of Gallus in Arcadia, however, must be regarded as 
a mere poetic fiction. (Consult Introductory Remarks.) 

16-18. Noslri nee panitet illas, &c. •* Neither does it shame them 
of us, nor, divine poet, let it shame thee of the flock ; even the 
beautiful Adonis fed sheep by the river's side." More freely, 
*• neither are they ashamed to share our griefs," &c. The mean- 
ing, according to Burmann, is simply this : the sheep are contented 
with us as their shepherds, they are pleased with our strains, and 



now, too, they disdain not to c(hare our sorrows. Do not thoUi 
therefore, regard the care of these as at all unworthy of thee, nor 
complain that I have here represented thee, my Gallus, under the 
character of a shepherd. Even the beautiful Adonis, the loved one 
of Venus, disdained not a shepherd's office. Observe that pcsniiere 
is here employed of things that we contemn, as in Cicero iAcad.f iv., 
22), *=* Quid aim Musarcki panitebat V^ — The critics have found fault 
with the position of the lines that have just been explained. Sca- 
liger thinks that they ought to be placed after verse 8 {Poet,, v., 5) ; 
and they are also objected to on the same ground by Heyne, Eich- 
stadt {Quasi. Philolog.), and Schutz {Jen. Lit., Anz., 1791, ch. 220, 
p. 332), the last of whom thinks that something has fallen out of 
the text after the words "Slant et oves circum,^* which some gram- 
marian has attempted unskilfully to supply. The explanation, how- 
ever, which we have given appears to remove every difficulty. 

19-20. Upilio. "The shepherd." Another form for o^Zio. From 
an early Greek form, OlIIOAIQN, from OinOAOS (compare aino' 
?iog), and for which, in the Hymn to Mercury (314), we find the form 
oindXoc, which is less in- accordance with analogy. {Dosderlein, Lat. 
Syn., vol. vi., p. 247.) — Buhulci. We have allowed this reading to 
stand, with Heyne and most other editors. Wagner, however, con- 
tends strenuously for suhulci, " swine-herds," which he even admits 
into the text. But the epithet tardi suits better the habits of the 
hubulciy in consequence of the slow movements of the cattle whom 
they tend. — Uvidus hibernd, &c. " Menalcas came all wet from the 
winter mast." Menalcas is here a swine-herd, or subulcus, and his 
garments are wet with the morning dew from the leaves of the 
forest, whither he has been to feed his swine on the mast that has 
been lying uncollected on the ground during the winter season, 
which has just passed away ; for that spring now prevails is plain- 
ly shown from the flowers that adorn the head of Sihranus {v. 25). 

21-23. Unde amor iste tibi. " Whence (comes) this thy passion 
unto thee 1" i. c, what maiden has inspired thee with this passion % 
Observe the force of iste, (Compare Theocritus, i., 78, tlvo^, c5 
*yadi, Toaaov ipaaaai ;)^Tua cura. "The object of thy anxious 
care;" more literally, "thy care," i. e., solicitude.— Pcrjitc nivcs, 
dec. (Consult Introductory Remarks.) Hence it appears that this 
Eclogue was written at a season when all things in Italy were 
decked with the garb of spring, while in the Alpine regions the 
snow still covered the ground. 

24-25. Agresti capitis honore. " With rural honour of head," i. «., 
crowned with rural honours. — Silvanus. An Italian deity, God of 


the Woods and Tielda.^^Florentes ferulas, 6lc, ** Shaking his flow- 
ering feralas and large lilies.*' , He wore, aaeording to the poet, a 
crown on this occasion, of the leaves and flowers of the ferula and 
the lily, which shook as he moved along. The ferula of the an- 
cients is onr fennel-giant, a large plant growing to the height of six 
or eight feet, with leaves cut into small seginents, like those of 
fennel, but longer. The flowers are yellow^ and grow in large um- 
bels. The stalk is thick and full of fungous pith, which was used 
by the ancients as a kind of tinder. The Greeks termed the ferula 
vapdrj^t and, according to the old classical legend, Prometheus, 
when he stole th*e fire from the skies, brought it to earth in the 
hollow of this plant. Fee thinks that the ferula of Virgil ought 
rather to be identified with the Ferula Orientalis of Toumeforti 
which that traveller met with very frequently in Greece. 

26-27. Ipsi. The poet here refers to Gallus and himself. They 
both beheld the glowing visage of the god, and both heard his 
words. — Sanguineis ehuli baccis, &c. " Glowing with the blood-red 
berries of the dwarf-elder and with cinnabar." The ebulus, dwarf 
elder, wall- wort, or dane-wort, is a sort of elder, and very like the 
common elder-tree, but differs from it essentially in being really an 
herb. It commonly grows to about the height of a yard. The 
juice of the berries is of a red purple colour. It has obtained the 
name of dane-wort, because it is fabled to have sprung from the 
blood of the Danes, when that people were massacred in England. 
The Greek name is ;fa/(iaitticTJ7. {Mariyn^ ad loc.) 

Minioque rubentem. The images of the rural deities were often 
coloured red by the Romans. (Compare Ovid, FasL^ i., 415 ; Id, 
ib., vi., 333, <&c.) — Minium is the native cinnabar, according to Mar- 
tyn and others, or the ore out of which the quicksilver is drawn. 
Minium is now commonly used, says Martyn, to designate red-lead ; 
but we learn from Pliny that the minium of the Romans was the 
millosj or cinnabarij of the Greeks. Adams thinks that the ancients 
had three kinds o( cinnabar : 1. The vegetable cinnabar, or sanguis 
draconis, being the resin of the tree called Draccena Draco ; 2. The 
native cinnabar, or sulphuret of quicksilver ; and, 3. The sil Atti- 
cum, or factitious cinnabar, which was very different from ours,' 
being a preparation of a shining arenaceous substance. {Adams, 
Appendix of Scientific Terms, &c., *. v.) 

28-32. Modus. Supply lamentationibus tuis, or something equiv- 
alent. — Amor. The God of Love is here meant. — Cytiso. Consult 
note on Eclog., i., 79. — Tristis at ille. Gallus, receiving no con- 
solation from the gods, as the partic le at jn jlirntriij noTriiirnn his 
discourse to the Arcadian shepherds ; expresses his desire of being 


recorded b7 them, and wishes that he himself had been in no higher 
station than they. — Tamen cantabiiis, &c. " You, however, ye Ar- 
cadians, will sing of these things on your mountains/' &c. Observe 
the force of tamen here : " though Love cares not for my sad fate, 
you, hotoevery O Arcadian shepherds," 6lc, The idea intended to 
be conveyed is this : much will it contribute to lessen my grief, if 
you, ye Arcadian shepherds, shall sing of this my unhappy fate, and 
make my ill-requited love the subject of your strains for the time 
to come. 

33-40. Quiescant. Some MSS. have quiescent ; less correctly, how- 
ever, it being uncertain whether the Arcadians will grant his re- 
quest. — Veatriqut gregis, "Of one of your flocks." — Quicumque. 
Supply alius. — Furor. " An object of ardent attachment." — Sifuseut 
Amyntas. " Even though Amyntas be dark of hue." Supply «7.— 
Vaccinia. Compare Eclog., ii., 18. — Salicea. The reference here 
is to willows along which vines are trained. (Compare Eclog.^ iii., 
65.) This custom appears to have been followed in some districts 
of Cisalpine Gaul, where other trees would not grow. It certainly 
does not suit, however, a mountainous region like Arcadia. 

Serta. ** Garland-flowers." Garlands are here taken for the 
flowers that are to compose them. — Hie gelidi fontes, 6lc. Gallns 
now tells Lycoris, in the most passionate manner, how happy they 
might both have been in the quiet enjo3rment of rural life ; whereas 
her cruelty has driven him into the perils of warfare, and has ex- 
posed herself to unnecessary fatigues. 

■44-48. Duri me^ &c. Heyne reads te without any MS. author- 
ity, thinking it absurd that Gallus should be represented, at one and 
the same time, as a shepherd in Arcadia, and a soldier in the midst 
of arms. But the poet mixes up all things in the present Eclogue, 
blending together Italian, ArcadiaA, and Sicilian aflairs ; be intro- 
duces, moreover, Silvanus, an Italian divinity, along "with Pan, an 
"^Arcadian one ; he makes, too, a Sicilian shepherd talk of traversing 
Mount Maenalus (v. 55), &c., so that the license in the present case 
is a very venial one. The reading me is, therefore, no doubt the 
true one, and is given by Voss, Wunderlich, Jahn, and Wagner. 

Nee sit mihi credere tantum ! " Nor be it for me to believe so 
monstrous a thing," t. e., that I could believe so cruel an act un- 
true, an act that indicates such utter inconstancy. Tantum is here 
equivalent to tantam, tam atroeem rem. Some editors make the pa- 
renthesis end at credere, and connect tantum as an adverb, " only," 
" naught but," with vides, — Nives, et frigora Rherti, Compare In- 
troductory Remarks— ilfis sine^ By anastrophe, for sine me. 

60-64. CktUcidico vcrtu. « In ChalcidxaB Terae.*" The alliaioii 


is to Eaphorion, a Greek poet of Chalcis, in the island of Euboea, 
born B.C. 274. He was greatly admired by many of the Romans, 
and some of his poems were imitated or translated by Gallus. — 
Pastons Skuli modtUabor avend. <* I will set to music on the pipe of 
the Sicilian shepherd.'' (Consult note on Eclog., v., 14.) The al- 
lusion is to Theocritus, the Sicilian poet, and author of pastorals. 
The meaning appears to be, that Gallus took the subject of his 'pas- 
torals from Euphorion, and that he copied more or less the manner 
of Theocritus. 

Cerium est maUe poH. '* I am resolved to prefer enduring my 
passion." Supply amores after pati. — SpeUea, From the Greek 
(77r^Xam. Virgil is followed, in using this form, by the author of the 
Clris {v. 466), by Claudian {Bell. Get., 354), and others. 

55-61. Interea mixiUf dtc. "Meanwhile I will roam over all 
Msnalus in company with the nymphs.'' He now, with all the wild 
fervour of a mind unsettled by passion, passes to the subject of 
hunting. — Mixtis Nymphis. For the more usual form of expression, 
**permixtus Nymphia." — MamUa. Consult note on Edog., viii., 22. 
— Acres apros. •* The fierce wild boars." — Parthenios saltus. Par- 
thenius was a mountain of Arcadia, forming the limit between this 
country and the Argolic territories. It still retains the name of 

Lucosque sonantes. ** And resounding groves." Referring either 
to the barking of the hounds, or the noise of the wind amid the 
branches of the trees. The latter is more in accordance with the 
usage of the poets. — Libel Partho torquere^ &c. " It delights me to 
discharge Cydoniar^shafls from a Parthian bow." The Cretans 
and Parthians were both famed for their skill in archery. A Cretan 
arrow and Parthian bow, therefore, are here employed to denote an 
arrow and bow the best of their kind. — Cydonia. Cydonia was one 
of the most ancient cities in the island of Crete, and stood on the 
northern coast of the northwestern part of the island. It was the 
most powerful and wealthy of the Cretan cities, and hence ** Cy- 
donian" is equivalent to "Cretan." — Sit. The common editions 
have sint, which is erroneous. The reference is to the use of the 
bow, not to the bow and arrows themselves. — Dciw ille. The God 
of Love. 

62-63. Jam neque Hamadryades^ &c. Gallus having amused him- 
self with the thought of diverting his passion, and then reflected 
on the insufficiency of those pastimes, declares that he will now 
give up all expectation of being delighted by the charms either of 
the country or of poetry. — Hamadryades. The Hamadryads are 



those Nymphs which belong to particular trees, and are bom and 
perish along with them. The name is deriTed from ufia, " together 
with," and dpiV, " a tree." (Compare note on Eclog., ii., 6.) — Con- 
cedite. *< Fare ye well." Equivalent here to vaUte. 

64-69. lUum. Referring again to the God of Love. — Nostri la- 
lores, '* Our labours." Referring to the toils of the hunt, which 
he finds to be all in vain, and that love cannot be rooted out by 
means of these. — Nee, sifrigoribu* mediis, 6cc. " Neither if we both 
drink of the Hebrus in the midst of the frosts, and endure the 
Sithonian snOws of humid winter." The Hebrus was a large river 
of Thrace, rising, according to Thucydides (ii., 96), in Mount Sco- 
mius ; but, according to Pliny (iv., 11), in Mount Rhodope. It falls 
into the iEgean, and is now the Maritza. — Sithoniasque nives. The 
Sithones were a people of Thrace, a cold and snowy country, so 
that « Sithonian" is here taken for " Thracian." Sithonia was the 
central one of the three promontories which lay at the southern 
extremity of Chalcidice, in what was afterward a part of Macedonia. 

Quum mortem alia, &;c. *' When the dying bark withers on the 
lofty elm." Observe that liber , properly the inner part of the bark, is 
here taken for the bark generally. — Versemus, " We tend ;" more 
literally, " we drive to and fro," i. «., from pasture to pasture. — 
Suh *sidere Cancri. " Beneath the constellation of Cancer," i. e., 
far to the south, and in the torrid zone. — Omnia vincit amor, &,c, 
Heyne thinks the connection here somewhat harsh. Not so. The 
line is meant to express the return to a sounder mind. Love con- 
quers all things ; and, since love conquers all things, come, let us 
too yield, nor wish to conquer him. 

70-74. Hoic sat erit, &c. We are now come to the conclusion of 
the piece, where the poet, who personates a goatherd {v. 7), tells the 
Muses that he has performed enough in this humble way of writing. 
He entreats the Muses to add dignity to his lowly verse, that it may 
become worthy of Callus, for wbom his affection is continually in- 
creasing ; and at last desires his goats to go home, because they 
have fed enough, and the evening approaches. 

Fiscellam. A basket for holding cheese or pressed milk. (Com- 
pare Tibutl., ii., 3, 15.) — Hibisco. Consult note on Eclog., ii., 30, 
74. — Maxima. " Of the greatest interest," i. «., most acceptable. 
^-Cujus amor, " The love for whom." 

76-77. Gravis. "Hurtful," i. c, bringing on rheumatic affec- 
tions, when the limbs have been relaxed by heat. — Juniperi gravis 
umbra. Alluding to the noxious exhalations which proceed from 
the Juniper-tree during the night. — Satura, **Ye well-fed."— > 
Hesperus. Consult note on Eelog., Tiii., 30. 



Lnjijvi-rjiAru~ i ~ > r ii — "* ---- i ----------------~-------------»^- -"-»"»""-----»• ----*---- ■~ i * > ^' m 





I. The term Georgica is of Greek origin, coining from TeupyiKd, 
and means, properly, <* things appertaining to tillage or agricul- 

II. The Greek word yeupyiKa is the nominative plural neuter of 
the adjective yeufryucdc, which is itself a derivative from yetafrySct 
** a husbandman," and this last is compounded of yea (the resolved 
form of y^), " earth,*' and ipyov, " work," or " labour." 

III. The genitive plural of Georgica will be Georgicbn, from the 
Greek form yefjpym&v. Some editions give the Latin form Oeorgi" 
eorum in the running titles to the different books of the poem ; but 
the Greek mode of expression is preferable. 

IV. ** The poem of Virgil, entitled the * Georgics^* is as remark- 
able for majesty and magnificence of diction as the Eclogues are 
for sweetness and harmony of versification. It is the most com- 
plete, elaborate, and finished poem in the Latin, or, perhaps, any 
other language ; and though the choice of subject, and the situa- 
tions, afforded less expectation of success than the pastorals, so 
much has been achieved by art and genius, that the author has 
chiefly exhibited himself as a poet on topics where it was diflicult to 
appear as such. 

V. '' Rome, from its peculiar situation, was not well adapted for 
commerce ; and from the time of Romulus to that of Caesar, agri- 
culture had been the chief care of the Romans. Its operations 
were conducted b^ the greatest statesmen, and its precepts incul- 
cated by the profoundest scholars. The long continuance, how- 
ever, and cruel ravages of the civil wars, had now occasioned an 
almost general desolation. Italy was, in a great measure, depop- 
ulated of its husbandmen. The soldiers, by whom the lands were 
newly acquired, had too long ravaged the fields to think of cultiva- 
ting them ; and, in consequence of the farms lying waste, a famine 
and insurrection had nearly ensued. 

YI. *' In these circumstances, Mecenas resolved, if possible, to 
revive the decayed spirit of agriculture, to recall the lost habits of 
peaceful industry, and to make rural improvement, as it had been in 
former times, the prevailing amusement among the great ; and he 


wisely judged that no method was so likely to contribute to these 
important objects as a recommendation of agriculture by aQ the in* 
sinuating charms of poetry. At his suggestioui accordingly, Virgil 
commenced his Georgica, «^hich poem was thus, in some degree, 
undertaken from a political motive, and with a view to promote the 
welfare of his country ; and as, in the Eclogue which announces 
the return of the Golden Age, he strives to render his woods wor- 
thy of a consul, so in his Georgics he istudied to make his fields 
deserving of Maecenas and Augustus. 

VII. ** But, though written with a patriotic object, by order of a 
Roman statesman, and on a subject peculiarly Roman, the imita- 
tive spirit of Latin poetry still prevailed, and the author could not 
avoid recurring, even in his Georgics, to a Grecian model. A few 
Terses on the signs and prognostics of the weather have been trans- 
lated from the Phenomena of Aratus ; but the Works and Days of 
Hesiod is the pattern which he has chiefly held in view. In refer- 
ence to his imitation of this model, he himself styles his Georgics 
an Ascraan poem ; and he appears, indeed, to have been a sincere 
admirer of the ancient bard. 

VIII. ** In the Works and Days, Hesiod, after a description of the 
successive ages of the world, points out the various means for pro- 
curing an honest livelihood. Of these, the proper exercise of agri- 
culture is one of the principal. He accordingly gives directions for 
the labours of the field, and enumerates those days on which the 
various operations of husbandry ought to be performed. It is chief- 
ly, then, in the first and second books of the Georgics (where Virgil 
discourses of tillage and planting) that he has imitated the Works 
and Days. Hesiod has not treated of the breeding of cattle, or 
care of bees, which form the subjects of the third and fourth books 
of the Roman poet ; but in the former books he has copied his 
predecessor in some of the most minute precepts of agriculture, as 
well as in his injunctions with regard to the superstitious observ- 
ance of days. 

IX. "Virgil's arrangement of his topicls is at once the most 
natural, and that which best carries his reader along with him. ftle 
begins with the preparation of the inert mass of earth, and^e 
sowing of grain, which form the most intractable parts of his sub- 
jectTQ^Then he discloses to our view a more open prospect and wi* 
der horizon, leading us among the rich and diversified scenes of 
nature, the shades of vineyards, and blossoms of orchardsHT He 
next presents us with pictures of joyous and animated existence. 
The useful herds, the courageous horse, the Nomades of Africa 
and Scythia pass before us, and the fancy is excited by images of 


the m^hole moTing creation J&Je at length concludes with those 
insects which have formed themselves into a well-ordered commu- 
nity, and which, in their nature, laws^nd government, seem most 
nearly to approach the human speciesj 

X. ** Many of Yirgirs rules, particularly those concerning the 
care of cattle, have been taken from the works of the ancient agri- 
cultural writers of his own country. Seneca, indeed, talks lightly 
of the accuracy and value of his precepts ; but Columella speaks of 
him as an agricultural oracle ; and\ll modern travellers, who have 
had occasion to examine the mode of agriculture even at this day 
practised in Italy, bear testimony to his exactness in the minutest 
particulars. His precepts of the most sordid and trivial descrip- 
tion are delivered with dignity, and the most common observations 
have received novelty or importance by poetic embellishment. 
This talent of expressing with elegance what is trifling, and in it- 
self little attractive, is one of the most difficult arts of poetry, and 
no poet ever knew better than Virgil * Angtistit hum addere rebut 
honor em.'' 

XI. ** But though Virgil has inculcated his precepts with as much 
clearness, elegance, and dignity as the nature of his subject ad- 
mits, and even in this respect has greatly improved upon Hesiod, 
still, it is not on these precepts that the chief beauty of the Geor- 
gics depends. With the various discussions on corn, vines, cattle, 
and bees, he has interwoven every philosophical, moral, or mytho- 
logical episode on which he could with propriety seize. In all di- 
dactic poems the episodes are the chief embellishments. The no- 
blest passages of Lucretius are those in which he so sincerely 
paints the charms of virtue, and the delights of moderation and 
contentment. In like manner, the finest verses of Virgil are his in- 
vocations to the gods, his addresses to Augustus, his account of 
the prodigies before the death of Caesar, and his description of 
Italy. How beautiful and refreshing are his praises of a country 
life ; how solemn and majestic his encomium on the sage, who had 
triumphed, as it were, over the power o^estiny ; who had shut his 
ears to the murmurs of Acheron, and dispelled from his imagina- 
tion those invisible and inaudible phantoms which wander on the 
other side of death ! 

XII. «* The judgment and poetic taste of Virgil were riper when 
he wrote the Georgics than when he was employed on the Ec- 
logues. If the lines commonly added as the concluding ones to the 
fourth book of the Georgics are genuine, Virgil was finishing this 
poem at Naples about the year B.C. 30." — {Dunlopf Hist. Rom. LU.^ 
yoL iii., p. 132, seqq.) 



Analysis of the Subject, 

I. ViEoiL announces to Maecenas the subject of each book of the 
poem: 1. Agriculture in general. 3. Vines and trees. 3. Manage- 
ment of cattle. 4. Bees. (v. 1-4.) 

II. Invocation of the gods (▼. 6-23), and of Augustus Ceesar (t. 

III. Commencement of the subject. Things to be attended to 
before sowing. (▼. 43-99.) 

(A.) The first appearance of mildness in the season should invite 

the husbandman to the labour of the plough, (v. 43-46.) 
(B.) FaUows. (V. 47-49.) 
(C.) Previous knowledge of the climate, nature of the soil, and 

of its habitual cultivation necessary, (v. 49-62.) 
(D.) The rich soil to be ploughed deep, and early in spring ; the 

poor with a shallow furrow, in autumn, (v. 63-70.) 
(E.) Strengthening of the soil : 1. By repose ; 2. By change of 

crop ; 3. By manuring ; 4. By burning the stubble, (v. 71-93.) 
(F.) Breaking down the cohesive clods with harrows and osier 

hurdles, and carefully pulverizing it; cross-ploughing, (v. 


IV. Things to be attended to after sowing, (v. 100-159.) 

(A.) Dry winters and moist summers to be prayed for. (v. 100- 

(B.) In shallow, sandy soils, the ridges to be levelled after sow- 
ing. (V. 104-106.) 

(C.) Irrigation of com crops, (v. 106-110.) 

(D.) Depasturing the winter-proud plants, (v. 111-113.) 

(E.) Draining, (v. 114-117.) 

(F.) Precautions to be exercised against the various plagues, 
which Jupiter, in ordbr to sharpen the inventive faculties of 
man, has caused to succeed the Golden Age ; namely, the dis- 
eases of plants, the growth of weeds, the encroachment of birds 
and vermin, the exuberance of shade, the continuance of 
drought. All these evils are to be averted by the sweat of the 
brow, and by piety towards the gods. (v. 118-169.) 

v. Requisites for both employments, as weU ploughing as aow- 
ing. (y. 160-^3.) 


(A.) Implements of husbandry, plough, wagons, sledges, harrows, 

baskets, corn-fan, &c. (v. 160-168.)— -A particular description 

of the plough. (▼.169-175.) 
(B.) Threshing-floor, (v. 176-186.) 
(C.) Attention to be paid to signs of fruitfulness ; and indication 

of some of these. (▼. 187-192.) 
(D.) Medicating seed. (v. 193-196.)— Selecting of seed. (▼.197- 


YI. Proper attention to be paid to times and seasons. (▼. 20i- 

(A.) Season for sowing barley, flax, esculent poppy. (▼. 208- 
214.)— Season for sowing beans, lucern, millet. (▼. 215-218.) 
— Season for sowing wheat and spelt. (▼. 219-226.)— Season 
for sowing vetches, lentils, &c. (▼. 227-230.) 

(B.) The course of the sun ; the celestial sphere described ; the 
zones, the two poles, 6lc. (▼. 231-251 .)— Utility of this knowl- 
edge for the husbandman. (▼. 252-256.) 

(C.) Employments to be attended to in rainy weather. (▼. 257- 

(D.) Empl03rments on festival days. (▼. 268-275.) 

(E.) Employments on the different days of the month. (▼. 276- 

(F.) Things to be done at night. (▼. 287-296.) — On a summer's 
night. (▼. 289-290.)— On a winter's night. (▼. 291-296.) 

(G.) Things to be done by day. (▼. 297-310.) — On a summer's 
day. (V. 297-299.)— On a winter's day. (▼. 300-310.) 

VII. The weather, and the means of protection against the same. 
(▼. 811-514.) 

(A.) Storms in autumn and spring particularly dangerous. (▼. 

(B.) Storms in summer. (▼. 316-321.) — Thunder-storms. (▼. 

(C.) In order to guard against all of these, the positions of the 

heavenly bodies must be carefully studied, (v. 335-337.) 
(D.) But more especially the gods must be propitiated ; the sa- 
cred rites of Ceres must be duly performed, both in spring (v. 

838-346), and before the harvest, (v. 347-350.) 
(E.) Various natural prognostics of change of weather are now 

given. (V. 351-437.)— Of wind. (v. 356-369.)— Of rain. (v. 

870-392.)— Of clear weather, (v. 393-423.) 
(F.) Prognostics of weather given by the moon. (▼. 424-437.) 



(G.) Prognostics of weather given by the san. (v. 438-463.) 
(H.) The sun even gives prognostics of political changes. Prod- 
igies that preceded the death of Julius Caesar, and the conse- 
quent miseries of Rome ; miseries without end, if the sacred 
plough be not restored to its due honours, if Augustus Caesar 
shall not continue to reign, and protect the cultivators of the 
fields under a pacific dominion, (v. 464-614.) 

1-4. Quid faciat latas segetes. " What may produce joyful har- 
vests," t. €,, abundant ones. Compare the language of Scripture : 
** The valleys shall stand so thick with corn, that they shall h»gh 
and sing." Pa. Ixv., 14.— The poet, in the four opening verses, 
unfolds the plan of the entire poem. The first book is to treat of 
agriculture in general ; the second, of vines and trees ; the third, 
of the management of cattle ; the fourth, of bees. — Quo ndere. 
" Under what constellation,'* t. «., at what season of the year. The 
dififerent periods proper for the performance of particular agricul- 
tural duties were known to the ancient husbandman by the rising 
and setting of particular constellations or stars. The movements 
of these served him as a kind of calendar. 

Terrain vertere, *• To turn up the ground with the plough,*' «. «., 
to plough the soil. Supply aratro. — Macenas, C. Cilnius Maecenas, 
the friend and minister of Augustus, and at whose request Virgil 
composed this poem. (Consult Introductory Remarks.) — Ulmisgue 
adjungere vites. " And to join the vines to the elms." The an- 
cients trained their vines along trees, it being thought by them that 
stages injured the quality of the fruit. The elm was the favour- 
ite tree for this purpose. Observe that, though alluding here spe- 
cially to vines, the poet refers, in fact, to the culture of trees in 

Qu(B cura bourn. " What is to be our care of cattle." Supply 
sit. — Qui culius habendOf &c. " What treatment is requisite for the 
keeping of flocks." Qui is here for quis. Observe, moreover, that 
the dative of the gerundive has here its proper force of suitable- 
ness or fitness, and thtit habendo pecori is equivalent, in fact, to »* %u 
recte habeatur pecu^" i. e., ut recte curetur. — Apibus quanta experieu' 
tiay &c. ** How much experience is needed for the frugal bees," 
t. e., for their rearing and care. Some editions have parvis, which 
is far less poetical and spirited. 

6-9. Hinc. " From these themes." Equivalent to ex his, or Juh 
rum partem, and intended as the language of modesty. (Compare 
the Homeric ruv &fi6dev. Od., i., XO.) — Vos, clarissima mundi iu- 


tntna, &c. " Be ye propitious to my strains, O ye most resplendent 
luminaries of the universe, that lead onward the year as it glides 
through the heavens." Grammatically speaking, vo^ here refers to 
ferte pedem (v. 11) in common with the other intervening nomina- 
tives ; but as this, if literally rendered, would make an incongruous 
image, we may, by the force of zeugma, suppose sitis propitii, or 
something equivalent, to be understood, and to this we may refer 
not only vos in the present line, but also the vos which is to be sup- 
plied with Liber and Cercf in the seventh. 

Mundi lumina. The reference is to the sun and moon, the solar 
system being supposed to comprise the universe. Some suppose 
mundi lumina to refer to Bacchus and Ceres, and, to suit this inter- 
pretation, place a comma after annum. This, however, is altogether 
erroneous. The several divinities are invoked in the order of their 
influence on vegetation and agriculture. First come the sun and 
moon, whose influence is greatest, and who govern the seasons 
of the entire year ; and then Bacchus and Ceres are invoked, the 
bestowers respectively of wine and corn, and who lead merely two 
parts of the year. 

Libert et alma Ceres. " (Tou, too), Bacchus and benignant Ceres." 
Supply et V08, i. c, and be ye, too, propitious, &c. — Vestro si mv^ 
nere. " Since, through your bounty." Si is here equivalent to si- 
quidem, or quandoquidem. — Tellus Chaoniam, &c. ** The earth ex- 
changed the Chaonian acorn for the rich ear," i. e.j for the ear of 
corn rich with swelling grains. By tellus are meant the dwellers on 
earth's surface, or, in other words, the early race of men. Accord- 
ing to the Greek legend, the primitive seat of man was in Epirus, 
around Dodona, and here the human race lived on acorns, until an 
acquaintance with agriculture gave them the means of a better sub- 
sistence. From acorns and simple water they then rose to the use 
of grain and wine, the fabled gifts respectively of Ceres and Bac- 
chus. — Chaoniam. The epithet " Chaonian" is equivalent here to 
" Dodonaean." (Consult note on Eclog., ix., 13.) 

Poculaque inventis, &c. ** And mingled (the contents of) Ache- 
loian cups with the newly-discovered juices of the grape," t. «., and 
mingled with water the newly-discovered wine. The Greeks and 
Romans generally drank their wine diluted with water. — Acheloia, 
According to the common interpretation, the Acheldus, a river of 
Fpirus, was celebrated as the first that broke forth from the sur- 
face of the early earth, and hence the name of the stream is taken 
figuratively for the element of water in general, and ** Acheloian 
«up8" mean merely " cups of water." Hermann, however, rejects 


the first part of this explanation, and makSs the name 'AxeX^Mc refer 
to water in general, because derived from x^^^Ct ** testa" the allU'* 
sion being to pure and running water as formed from the melting 
of a covering of ice. (De Mus. Fluv., dec, p. 17. Opiuc.f vol. ii., 
p. 304.) 

10-13. Pmsentia numina. ** Ye present divinities." The refer- 
ence is to divinities who are ever near at hand to aid the husband- 
man ; whereas other deities are to be invoked to come from afar. 
— Fauni. The Fauns and Dryads are here invoked as presiding 
arer pastures and woods. (Consult note on Eclog., vi., 27.) — Ferte 
fedem. ** Approach." — Dryadesque. (Consult note on Eclog., ii., 46.) 
'^Munera vestra. The reference is to all that precedes, namely, 
the gifts of grain, wine, herds, flocks, dec. 

Tuque, eui prima, 6lc. " And thou, O Neptune, for whom the 
earth, struck by thy mighty trident, first brought forth instanta- 
neous the snorting steed," t. e., and be thou, too, propitious to my 
■trains, O Neptune, at whose command, and on being struck by 
whose powerful trident, the earth produced in an instant the snort- 
ing steed, starting into life from her bosom. When Neptone and 
Minerva were contending as to which of the two should give name 
to the capital of Attica, the gods decreed that it should be called 
afler the one who produced what would prove the most useful 
gift to man. Neptune thereupon struck the ground with his tri- 
dent, and the war-horse leaped forth. Minerva then threw her 
spear, and from the spot where it fell sprang the olive-tree. Her 
gift was adjudged to be the more useful of the two, and the city 
was accordingly called Athens, from her Greek name *A6ijv7j. Such 
is the account given by Servius, by Ovid {Met., vi., 70), and by the 
scholiast to Statins {Theh., xii., 632). On the other hand, authori- 
ties much more worthy of reliance make Neptune to have pro- 
duced in this contest a well or fountain of salt water. {Herod., 
Tiii., 56. — Apollod., iii., 14, 1. — Varro, ap. Augustin., Civ. D., xviii., 
9. — Pausan., i., 26, &c.) Now it can hardly be supposed, that Virgil 
would have deviated from this latter account had he been referring 
to the contest in question ; and therefore since salt, or sea water, 
does not at all enter into the operations of husbandry, and since no 
mention is made by the poet immediately after of the olive of Mi- 
nerva, but only for the first time in line 18, we ought, in all likeli- 
hood, to refer the language of the text to the legend mentioned by 
Probus and Lucan (vi., 396), according to which Neptune, without 
any contest with any other deity, produced the first horse out of a 
rock struck by him in Thessaly, a country famed for its steeds* 


This view of the subject is embraced by Cerda, Voss, and Jahn, the 
latter of whom refers, also, to Bdttiger. {Amalth.f vol. ii., p. 310.) 
I Prima. Observe the poetic usage here of prima agreeing with 
tellust whereas in rendering we must regard it as if written primum^ 
and qualifying fudit as an adverb. Heindorff erroneously makes 
jmrna ielltu here the same as nova iellus. {Ad Hor., Sat., i., 3, 99.) 
— Fudit. Observe the peculiar force of fudit, literally, ** poured 
forth," in denoting the instantaneous result of an action. 

14-15. Et adtor nemorum^ &c. " And (thou, Aristaeus), guardian 
of the groves> through whose protecting care three hundred snow- 
white steers browse upon the pasture-grounds of Cea." Both ii»- 
tnorum and dumeta refer to pasture-grounds, covered in the former 
case with an open wood or grove, and in the latter with clumps of 
bushes, the leaves of which also afford nutriment to the cattle. Dit- 
tnefum, properly, is a place where bushes (dumi) grow. — Cui. Equiv- 
alent here to cujus heneficio, {Wunderlichj ad loc.) — Cea. Cea, or 
Ceos, an island of the JSgean, and one of the Cyclades, was famed 
for its rich pastures. The modem name is Zea. — Ter centum. To 
be taken here as a general indication of number, and denoting 
merely numerous herds. The reference in this whole passage is 
to Arist«eu8, son of Apollo and Cyrene, according to the common 
legend, who attained to the rank of a divinity, and was regarded as 
the protector of flocks and herds, of the vine, and of olive planta- 
tions. He taught men to hunt, and to keep bees, and also averted 
from the fields the burning heat of the sun, as well as other causes 
of destruction. 

16-20. Ipse. Observe the force of this pronoun here in assigning 
to Pan a dignity and rank superior to that of the Fauns, the Dryads, 
and even Aristaeus. — Nemus patrium. Pan was fabled to have been 
born in Arcadia. — Saltusque Lycai. " And the woody regions of 
Lycaeus." Mount Lycaeus, in the southwestern angle of Arcadia, 
was sacred to Pan, and famed for its woodland pastures. — Tua n 
tibif &c. *' If thy Maenalus be a care to thee." These words con- 
tain the reason why Pan should be present. So surely as Maenalus 
is dear to him, so surely ought he to be present to the bard who 
now invokes his aid. — McenaLa. (Consult note on Eclog., vii., 22.) 
—Tegeoie. " God of TegSa ;" literally, *' Tegeaean." Pan was so 
called from Tegea, a city of Arcadia, where he was worshipped 
with peculiar honours. It- lay in an eastern direction from the 
southern part of the Maenalian ridge. 

OUaque^ Minerva^ invcntrix. Consult note on line 13. — Uncique, 
pucTf monstrator aratri. ** And (thou, 0) boy, that didst point out to 



man the uses of the bending plough ;*' literally, *' pointer-out of the 
curved plough.'' The allusion is to Triptolemus, the son of Celeua, 
who was taught the art of husbandry by Ceres. On a medal of 
Caracalla, the reverse represents Triptolemus in a car drawn by 
dragons, and sowing. {BuonaroUit MedagL, p. 423. Compare Ovid, 
Trist., iii., 8.) Wakefield and others incorrectly suppose that Osiris 
is here meant. — Et teneram ah radice, &c. " And thou, Silvanus, 
bearing a tender cypress uptorn by the roots.*' Silvanus was an old 
Italian god of the Woods, and is thus represented, bearing a young 
cypress stem in his hands, on an ancient marble. {Boissard, p. vi., 
tab. 30.}— Ab radice. Hand, less correctly, connects ab radice in 
construction with teneram, making the meaning to be " wholly ten- 
der." {Ad Tursell., i., p. 24.) 

21-23. Studium quibus, &c. <* Whose fond employment it is to 
protect the fields." It was a principle of religion with the ancients, 
after the special invocation of particular deities, to conclude with a 
general one, lest any might, through forgetfulness, have been omit- 
ted. — Non ullo eemine. ** That spring spontaneous ;" literally, " not 
from any seed." The common text has nonnuUo, in direct violation 
of the sense, although Servius tries to explain it. — Fruges. A gen- 
eral term here for ** the productions of the earth." — Satis. <*0n the 
sown corn." Supply frumentis, the idea of which is suggested by 
fruges f in the previous line. Compare Georg., iii., 176, where the 
ellipsis is supplied : " Sedfrumenta manu carpes sata." 

24-27. Tuque adeo, Casar. " And thou too, O Caesar," i. «., and 
be thou, too, propitious to my strains, O Augustus. After invoking 
all the gods, who are supposed to take an interest in agriculture, 
the poet, by a stroke of courtly flattery, addresses himself to Au- 
gustus as a deity on earth, although it is still uncertain to what 
order of gods he is to belong ; whether, for example, he prefers 
being numbered among the divinities ruling the earth, the sea, or 
the boundless fields of air. Observe that adeo has here the force 
of etiam, and consult Wagner {Quasi. Virg., xxvi., 6). — Habitura 
sint. " Are to hold as their own," i. e., are to claim, and keep as 
one of their number. 

Urbesne invisere, Casar, &c. "Whether it be thy pleasure, O 
Caesar, to visit the cities, and to take upon thee the guardianship 
of earth," t. e., to visit the cities of the earth as a protecting divin- 
ity, and thus to be ranked among the ^ol voTiiovxoi. Observe the 
zeugma in the verb invisere : thus, invisere urbes is equivalent to in* 
spicere urbes, and then, from this same verb invisere, we obtain the 
general notion of habere or tuscipere for the next clause, UrrarunK 


€nram. Compare Bentley, ad Hor., Od.,i.,l, 7. — Maximus, " The 
vast." — Auctorem frugufHy &c. "Is to acknowledge thee as the 
parent source of all (earth's) productions, and the ruler of the chan- 
ges of the air." Observe here, again, the general force of frugunit 
as alluding to earth's productions generally. — Tempestatumpie. Not 
merely the changes of the seasons, but also the variations of the 
"(weather as affecting agriculture. Wakefield spoils the line by 
placing a comma after attctorem, making it thus equivalent to ducem, 
and consiTmng frugum with tempestatumque potenUm. 

Matema myrto. The myrtle was sacred to Venus, the fabled 
mother of ^neas, and from .^neas the Julian house claimed their 
descent through lulus. Augustus is to wear the maternal myrtle, 
in order to show his divine descent, and that his enjoyment of divine 
honours may excite the less surprise. 

28-31. Ac tua nauta, &c. ** And mariners are to worship thy 
divinity alone," t. e., are to regard thee as the chief god of the 
waters, and therefore to invoke thy protecting influence as superior 
to that of all others. — Numina ; more literally, " divine attributes." 
— Tibi serviat ultima Thule. " Whether farthest Thule is to pay thee 
homage." Thule was an island in the most northern part of the 
German Ocean, called ultima, " farthest," on account of its remote 
situation, and its being regarded as the limit of geographical knowl- 
edge in this quarter. It is supposed to coincide with Mainland, one 
of the Shetland Isles. — Tethys. Wife of Oceanus, and mother of 
the Oceanides, or Ocean Nymphs. If Augustus becomes god of the 
sea, Tethys would willingly give him one of her numerous daugh- 
ters in wedlock, and with her, as a marriage portion, the sway over 
her whole watery domain. The common text has Thetis errone- 
ously for Tethys. 

32-35. Tardis mensibus. "To the slow months of summer." 
The summer months are called " slow," on account of the length 
of the days. (Compare Manilius, ii., 202 : " cum sol adversa per astra 
JEstivum tardis attollat mensibus annum.") — Qua locus Erigonen, &c. 
" Where a place lies open (for thee) between Erigone and the claws 
(of the Scorpion) following after ;" literally, " where a place is un- 
folded." Erigone is Virgo. Servius says, that the Egyptians reck- 
oned twelve signs of the zodiac, and the Chaldsans but eleven ; 
that the Chaldeans allotted twenty degrees of the ecliptic to some 
signs, and forty to others ; whereas the Egyptians allotted just 
thirty to each ; and that the Chaldsans made the Scorpion to extend 
his claws into the place of Libra. It is certain that Libra was not 
universally received as a sign among the ancients. The Scorpion, 

234 irOTEB ON THB GE0K6ICS.---B00X L 

occapying two signs or places of the zodiac, held the balance on its 
projecting daws. Virgil was by no means ignorant of Libra, for he 
mentions it in another place (v. 208). He idkes advantage, however, 
of this difference among the ancient astronomers, and accommodates 
It poetically, by placing Augustus, instead of Libra, the emblem of 
Justice, between Virgo and Scorpio ; and describes the Scorpion as 
drawing back his claws to make room for him. {Martfm, mdlee.) 

Ardens Scorpius. ** The fiery Scorpion." The term ardewM here 
does not refer merely to brightness, but contains a reference also 
to the popular belief that those born under this constellation were 
of impetuous and warlike temperaments. (Compare ManiUutf iv., 
£17.) — Scorpius. Some editors prefer Seorpie», the Gredc form of 
the nominative. — Justd plus parte. As marking its reverence for 
the new-comer. 

86-43. Quidquid eris, &c. The idea intended to be conveyed is 
this : Whatsoever thou wilt be, do not at least feel inclined to be- 
come a god of the lower world, even though there lie the Elysian 
fields, so highly lauded by Grecian bards, and even though Proser- 
pina was so charmed with them as to be unwilling to return with 
her parent Ceres to the light of day. — Tartara. **The realms 
below." llie term has here a general reference to the lower 
world, induding, of course, the seat of punishment for the wicked. 
— Repetita. "Though sought to be regained,'' «. «., after her ab- 
duction by Pluto. Virgil probably alludes here to some version of 
the fable different from the common one ; since, according to the 
latter, Proserpina was detained by Pluto against her will 

Da facilem cursum. " O grant me a favourable course," i. e., 
grant that I may successfully accomplish the object of my strain.^ 
Adnue. ** Favour ;" more literally, " nod assent unto." — Ignarosqu* 
via mecuT/if &c. ** And having compassionated with me the hus- 
bandmen ignorant of the way, enter upon thy career," t. «., igno- 
rant of the true path of culture, via scil. colendi agros. — Jam nunc, 
" Even now ;" more literally, " already now," i. e., in anticipation 
of thy divinity. 

43-49. Vcre novo. " In the very beginning of spring." The poet 
now enters upon his subject. The first appearance of mild weath- 
er should invite the husbandman to the labours of the plough. The 
Romans reckoned their spring from the 7th or dth of February to 
the 10th of May. It began with the blowing of the wind Favonius, 
or Zephyrus. Virgil, however, here refers to the first mild days of 
the year, which sometimes preceded the actual opening of the 
spring, and, according to Columella, occurred often even in the mid- 


die of January. (Cofiem., zi., 3. Compare PaUad., ii., S.y^Oeli' 
du9 humor. " The snow." — CanU. ** Hoary," t. «., still corered 
with ice and 8now.-7-£/ Zephyro putrit, &c. ** And the mouldering 
clod unbinds itself beneath the influence of the western breeze." 
The ground, which had been fettered by the chains of winter, is 
now softened by the heat, and crumbles before the breeze. — De^ 
presso turatro, ** Beneath the plough deeply pressed into the earth." 
Deep ploughing is here reconmiended. The Roman husbandmen 
applied a weight occasionally to depress the plough in its course, 
when they wished to make a deep furrow. 

Ilia seges demum^ &c. ** That land eyentually answers the wish- 
es of the eager husbandman which has twice felt the sun, twice 
the cold." Seges is here equiralent to terra or ager. llie mean« 
ing of this passage has been strangely misunderstood by many. 
The usual custom with the Roman farmers was to plough the 
land three times, when it fell under the denomination of hard 
land. The first ploughing was in the spring, the second in the sum* 
mer, the third in autumn {tertiabatur, Colum., ii., 4). In this way 
the ground was exposed twice to the heat of the sun and once to 
the &08t. If, however, the soil was unusually hard and stubborn, 
a fourth ploughing took place at the end of autumn or beginning of 
winter ; and it is to such a process that the poet here alludes, the 
land having thus, in the course of its four uptumings with the 
plough, twice felt the sun and twice the cold. {Colum., L c.^-VosSf 
ad loc. — Heyne, ad loc.) — Ruperunt, " Have burst," t. «., have done 
this more than once. Equivalent, therefore, to rumpere aalent, 

50-56. At prvuz, ignotum^ ix.c. ** Before, however, we cleave with 
the share a soil, the qualities of which are as yet unknown." We 
come now to another branch of the subject. Before ploughing, we 
should get a knowledge of the climate, the nature of the soil, and 
its habitual cultivation. — Ventos. " The prevalent winds." — Vari- 
urn morem cadi. "The accustomed varieties of weather." Two 
thirds of Italy are made up of hills and mountains. From this 
circumstance, from its internal lakes and marshes, and from its 
being nearly surrounded by sea, no country, for the extent, was 
more subject to various and inconstant climature. Hence the im- 
portance of the precept given in the text. {Stawell, ad loc.) 

Ac patrios cultusquet 6lc. " And both the established modes of 
culture and peculiarities of soil." Observe the ixnepov irpdrepov in 
cultuaque haUtusque^ the mode of culture always depending upon, 
and being ascertained from the peculiarity of soil. Observe, also, 
that by patrios cuUus is meant, not the mode of culture handed 

326 NOTBfl ON THE 0B0K6ICS.— BOOK t* 

down from one's forefathers) as Voss explains it, but the natiTe a 
congenial mode. — Recutet. Supply ferre.—^Segete*, " Gram."-^ilr- 
borti fcHus, " The fruits of trees." - The reference is to all pro> 
ductions of this nature. — Injussa gramina. ** Unbidden grasses." 
Alluding to natural pastures, where the land is sown with do seeds. 
It is a singular circumstance that many seeds lie dormant in the 
earth till brought forward by a particular cultiyation or manure. 
It is known that silicious sand, limestone gravel, and other calca- 
reous manures have brought to light the finest carpets of white clo- 
ver. Poppy seeds have also been known to lie dormant for many 
years. (Tu/r« Hortehoeing Husbandry.) 

56-59. Tmolus. A mountain of Lydia, in Asia Minor, famed not 
only for its wine (Georg.y ii., 98), but also for its saffron. It is now 
called Bouz Dagh by the Turks. — Croeeoa odores. ** The odorif- 
erous saffron." — Molles sua thura Sabcn. ** The effeminate Sabsi, 
their own frankincense," t. «., the frankincense the peculiar prod- 
uct of their own land. The Sabei were a people of Arabia Felix, 
represented by some of the ancient writers, especially the poets, 
as one of the richest and happiest nations in the world, on account 
of the valuable products of their land. — Ckalybes nudi, " The Cha- 
lybes working, thinly attired, at the forge." Observe that nttdi here 
is merely equivalent to leviter vestiti. The Chalybes were a people 
of Pontus, in Asia Minor, who inhabited the whole coast from the 
Jasonian promontory to the vicinity of the River Thermodon, to- 
gether with a portion of the inner country. Their country was 
celebrated for its iron,and extensive iron-works ; and hence ;tdAvV> in 
Greek, and chalybs in Latin, became appellations for hardened iron, 
or steel. 

Virosaque Pontus castor ea. "And Pontus, the strong-smelling 
castor." Virosa. is neither " poisonous," as some maintain, nor 
" powerful," or " efficacious," as others choose to render it. Cas- 
tor is an animal substance obtained from the beaver, and was much 
valued as a medicine among the ancients, and even held a high 
place for a long time in the materia medica of the modems. For 
an account of this substance, consult Penny Cydopadia, vol. iv., p. 
124. — Eliadum palmas, &c. " Epirus, the mares that bear away 
the prize of speed at the Elian Games," «. «., at the Olympic Games, 
celebrated in Elis. Epirus was famed for its horses, and was 
hence called eijiTnro^ and eiiruXo^. The ancients regarded the 
mare as swifter than the horse. (P/tn., viii., 42, 6^.)^Epirus. 
Some editions read Epiros, the Greek form of the nominative. 
£piras lay to the west of Thessaly, and along the Hadriatic. - 


60-66. ConUnuo kar leges, &c. " Nature, at the very outset, im- 
posed these laws upon, and entered into ever-enduring compacts 
with particular quarters of the globe, what time Deucalion first 
cast the stones along the surface of the depopulated world." Con- 
iinuo has here the force of exiemplo or confestinu The laws and 
compacts referred to are, that particular lands are to require par- 
ticular modes of culture, and to yield particular products. — Deuca- 
lion. According to the Greek legend, the whole world having been 
covered by the waters of a deluge, Deucalion, the son of Prome- 
theus, and his wife Pyrrha, were the only two of the human race 
that were saved. Having applied for advice to the oracle at Del- 
phi, they were directed to throw behind them the bones of their 
mother ; that is, the stones they should pick up on the surface of 
the earth. On this having been done, the stones thrown by Detv- 
calion became men, and those cast by Pyrrha, women, and thus the 
world was re-peopled. Hence the play upon words in the Greek 
derivation of ^aof, "people," from Aaof, " a stone," to which even 
Pindar is not disinclined to refer. (01., ix., 66.) — Durum genus. 
** A laborious race," t. e., born for hard toil, as their origin from the 
hard stones plainly indicates. 

TerrtB pingue solum. " The soil that is rich," The rule here laid 
down is, that rich soil should be ploughed early and deep, and the 
correctness of this precept is supported by the authority of both 
Pliny (xviii., 26) and Columella (ii., 4).— Fortes. " The strong." 
Observe the peculiar propriety of this epithet, as indicating that the 
ploughing is to be heavy, and therefore requires strong bullocks. — 
Glebasque jacentes, &c. " And let the dusty summer bake with its 
mature beams tlie clods as they lie exposed to their influence.** 
After early and heavy ploughing of a rich soil, the ground must re- 
main upturned for the action of the midsummer sun. Observe, 
therefore, the peculiar force of maturis as indicating the heat of 

67-70. Facunda. ** Rich.*' The poet now treats of the manage- 
ment of a poor, thin soil. This must be ploughed only lightly, and 
late in the season ; since, if upturned during the summer, it would 
be too much parched and dried out by the heat of the sun. — Sub 
ipsum Arcturum. ** At the very rising of Arcturus.'* According tq 
Columella, Arcturus rose on the 5ih of September. Pliny, however^ 
makes it rise eleven days before the autumnal equinox, that is, a 
week later than Columella's account. — Tenui suspendere sulco. *♦ To 
turn it up in a slight furrow,*' i.e., to plough it lightly. 

niic. " In the former case (you will pursue the coarse I have 


recommended)," i. e., in the case of rich soils you will plough earij 
and deep, &c.— //«r6tf . " Weeds." The design of the first pre- 
cept is to prevent the growth of weeds, since, if the soil were allow- 
ed to retain its superabundant richness, a rank growth of weeds; 
Ac, would be the inevitable result.— iiltc. "In the latter case," 
f. e.t in the case of a poor, thin soil — ExiguuM humor. •* The seantf 
moisture."— Simlew arenani. " The steril, sandy soil." (Consult 
note on verse 67.) 

71-74. Alternig idem tonsas, dec. "You vrill also sutler your re- 
newed lands to lie fallow every other year, after having parted 
with their crops ;" more literally, •♦ after having been mowir." With 
novates supply terras. By novalis terra or ager is properly meant land 
that is cultivated for the first time after having been jusft cleared. 
Here, however, it is applied to land that lies fallow ewerj other 
year, and is in this way, as it were, renewed. (Consult note on JBe- 
log.t i, 71 .) The poet, in this passage, treats of the diflferent modes 
in which land may regain strength. 1st, by repose (v. 71); Sd, by 
altering the crop (v. 73) ; 3d, by manuring (v. 79) ; 4th, by burning 
the stubble (v. 84). — Et segnem situ dureseere eampum. "And the 
exhausted ground to begin to acquire new strength by repose." 
Strictly speaking, the soil that lies fallow is exposed to the inflo- 
ence of the weather, by which a fresh portion of the alkalies con- 
tained in it are again set free, or rendered s<^uble. — {Liebig's Agrv- 
cultural Chemistry^ p. 52.) 

Mutato sidere, *< In another season (of the following year)." 
Equivalent, as Jahn well remarks, to " alio {alterius) annt tempore.** 
Observe that sidere is here for sole, and compare Ovid {Met., ix., 286), 
**quum decimum premeretur sidere signum." The poet directs that 
the field which has been sown with beans, dec, in the spring of the 
previous year, be sown with far, or spelt, in the autumn of the fol- 
lowing year. (Compare v. 216, 220.)— Farra. " Spelt," the Trit- 
icum spelta of Linnaeus. It is a sort of corn, very like wheat, but 
the chaff adheres so strongly to the grain that it requires a mill to 
separate them, like barley. Dionysius of Halicarnassus informs us 
that the Greek ^ela (or ^ia) was the same with the Roman far, but 
Pliny treats of zea and far as two difierent sorts of grain. This 
seeming discordance, however, may be reconciled, by supposing 
that the latter writer had the two kinds of spelt in view. One is 
covered with a double chaff; which Virgil probably means by his 
epithet of "ro6u«^a" (v. 219). The other has a single chaff. The 
former appears to be the Ce^a, to which Theophraatus gives a simUar 


" Latum iiliqud qvassante Ugumen. ** The joyoae pnlse with ruat- 
ling pud/' A periphrasis for the simple term Ugumen. Virgil haf 
reference here to beans, which were esteemed the principal sort 
of pulse. Thus Plinj remarks, ** SequUwr natura leguminum, inter 
futtmanrmu honosfabU.^ The MUDDe author also quotes the pres- 
ent passage of Virgil, and snhstitiites f^ba for Ugumen. ( P/rn., xvii., 
9, 7 ; xYiii., 21, 60.)— QuoMssite; UteraUy, « shaking itself.*' Sup- 
ply se»€. In heavy land of good quality this succession of wheat 
and beans is still approved of, and may be repeated. {Valjnff ad 
loc.) , 

75-78. Temus fatue vieia, '* The small seeds of the vetch." 
The seeds of vetches or tares are very small in proportion to beans 
and lupines. — • Tristis, ** Bitter." The ancient writers on agri« 
culture agree that lupines, being sown in a field, are as dung to it. 
Columella says, that they will make the husbandman amends if he 
has no other manure. — SUvamque stmantem. ** And rattling crop." 
Alluding to the noise made by the dry stalks when gathered in. 

Urit. " Exhausts." De Lille has suggested the true interpreta- 
tion of the present passage. Virgil does not interdict the sowing 
of flax, oats, or poppies, as we may clearly see from verse 213, 
where he prescribes the time for sowing flax and poppies ; he only 
directs cultivators to bear in mind that these exhaust the ground. 
From their exhausting nature, therefore, they are bad crops in ro- 
tation after wheat. But as they must be raised, they may be taken 
alternately with other crops, the ground being also highly manured. 
{Stawell, ad loc.) — Papavera. The esculent poppy of the Romans 
appears to have been the same as that of our gardens, from the 
figure of its head in the hands of many statues of Ceres. Pliny 
mentions three sorts of poppies : the white, or esculent ; the black, 
the receptacle of opium ; and the red poppy, called chaas, from its 
red colour. This last kind Martyn thinks was the corn rose, or 
poppy weed. The head of the garden poppy is round, but that of 
the red poppy is long and slender. 

79-81. Sed tamen alterme, &c. ** Still, however, the labour (of 
cultivating these last) is an easy one, in alternate years." Supply 
annis with alternis. The meaning of the poet has already been 
stated, but may again be given : It is admitted that crops of flax, 
oats, and poppies exhaust the ground ; still, however, if you sow 
them every other year, other crops intervening, the task of their 
cultivation will be an easy one, provided, however, that you employ 
abundant manure.— i^mo pingui. " With fertilizing dung." The 
Romans made use of all kinds of vegetable and animal manorest 


230 HOTE0 OV THE 6E0R6ICS.— BOOK r. 

and also ashes. The latter they generaUy sprinkled afler the crops 
were sown. 

82-83. Sic quoque mutatitt &c. " In this way, too, the fields ob^ 
tain repose by the mere chanj^ng of their crops," «. e.f if you sow 
flax, or oats, or poppies, every other year, and something of a less 
exhausting nature during interrening years, the effect of these less 
exhausting crops will be as good as so many fallows for your land. 
Decandolle*s theory respecting the changing of crops is as follows : 
He supposes that the roots of plants imbibe soluble matter of every 
kind from the soil, and thus necessarily absorb a number of sub- 
stances which are not adapted to the purposes of nutrition, and 
must subsequently be expelled by the roots, and returned to the soU 
as excrements. Now, as excrements cannot be assimilated by the 
plant which ejected them, the more of these matters which the soil 
contains, the more unfertile must it be for the plants of the same 
species. These excrementitious matters may, however, still be 
capable of assimilation by another kind of plants, which would thus 
remove them from the soil, and render it again fertile for the first ; 
and if the plants last grown also expel substances from their roots, 
which can be appropriated as food by the former, they will improve 
the soil in two ways. {Liebig^s Agricultural Chemistry ^ p. 55.) 

Nee nulla interea^ &c. " Nor, in the mean time, have you the un- 
thankfulness of land untouched by the plough," t. e., you have in 
this case all the benefit of a fallow for your land, with the additional 
advantage of an actual crop ; whereas, in ordinary cases, when 
your land lies fallow, and untouched by the plough, it is unthankful, 
because during this time it yields you nothing. The error com« 
monly made in the translation of this passage arises from mista- 
king nee nulla as equivalent to aliqua^ and this last as a softened ex- 
pression for maxima. The truth is, however, that nee is a negation 
to the whole clause, nulla interea est inaratce gratia terrce^ and nuUa 
gratia are to be construed together. {Vossy ad loe.) 

84-88. Incendere agros. Stawell thinks that the possible results 
On which the poet calculates could not be supposed to take place 
from simply burning the stubble, and he therefore takes the lan- 
guage of the poet in the literal and more enlarged sense of paring 
and burning the superficial soil also. This, however, would hardly 
have been expressed so briefly had it really been the poet's mean- 
ing. He refers merely to the process of burning the stubble. — At- 
que Uvem stipulam^ &c. Observe how beautifully the rapid succes- 
sion of dactyls in this verse depicts the swiftness of the flame 
Bju^Bding over a stubble-field. 



She inde occultas virest &c. ** Whether the lands receive by this 

process secret strength and rich nutriment." This is, in fact, the 
true reason. The saline substances contained in the ashes form 
an exceedingly valuable manure ; and the destruction, also« of 
weeds and insects is a collateral advantage. In modern husbandry, 
the ashes obtained by burning the straw of oats, barley, wheat, and 
rye are often spread over land with great success. (Compare 
JohnsorCs Lecture* on Agricultural Chemutryt pt. iii., p. 356.) — Omne 
vilium. '^ Every vicious quality." — Atque exsudal inutilis humor, 
<* And the superabundant moisture exudes," t. «., is made to evap- 

89-93. Calor ille. ** The heat thus applied." Observe the force 
of the pronoun.— Cceca spiramenta. ** Hidden pores." — Novas veniai 
qua succusy 6lc. *< Where the sap may come to the tender blades.'' 
Observe the construction in vias. . . guaf and compare ^n., v., 590. 
^—Adstringit. " Binds closely." — Ne tenues pluvice. " Lest the fine 
rains do harm." Understand adurant, bat observe that out of the 
verb in this clause must merely be elicited the general idea of doing 
harm, so that adurant is here equivalent to noceant. The reference 
is to soft, penetrating rains, which may do harm by penetrating too 
deeply, and thus producing superabundant moisture. 

Rapidive potentia solis, &c. *' Or lest the too intense power of 
the scorching sun, or the penetrating cold of the north may parch." 
Observe that rapidi has here the force of vehementis. (Compare 
Eclog. yii.fW.) — Penetrabile. Used here in an active sense. (Com- 
pare JEn.f X., 481.) — Adurat. Cold can "parch and dry up as well 
as heat. 

94-96. MvXtum adeo. "Much, too." — Rastris glebas, &c. The 
process of carefully pulverizing the soil is here recommended. The 
Roman writers on agriculture term this oecatio and occare. Thus 
Varro remarks {R. R., i., 29), " Occare f id est comminuere, ne sk gU' 
ha^'^'' and Columella (xi., 2, 60), ^* Pulverationem fadunt, quam vocant 
rustici occationem, cum omnis gleba in vineis refringitur, et resolvitur in 
pulverem." — Vimineas crates. "The osier hurdles." The allusion 
is to a kind of bush-harrows (some of them were made of arbutus 
also), that were used to level the fields, as well as pulverize them, 
alter the rostrum, or iron- toothed instrument, had been employed. 
(Stawellf ad loc.) If, however, the soil was a light one, the osier 
hurdles alone were employed. — Flava Ceres. ** Golden Ceres," i. e., 
Ceres of golden-hued locks. An epithet is here applied to the god- 
dess of Agriculture, derived from the yeUow or golden hue of the 

232 iroTBs ON tbb oxoroics.— book i. 

ripening grain. — Nequidquam, **To no parpose," t. e., without be* 
•towing upon him a rich reward for his patient assiduity. 

97-99. Et quii proscisso, dtc. *' Aod (much does he also aid the 
fields) who, his plough being turned, again breaks in a cross direc- 
tion through the ridges, which he turns up when the surface is first 
cleaved (by the share)/* t. e., the ridges which he has already turn- 
ed up by his first ploughing. We have here a description of what 
is technically termed cross-ploughing. — Proseisso. Observe the 
force of ;?ro in this word, as denoting something previously done.— 
Imperat. " Lords it over." A term happily expressive of dauntless 
and unwearied assiduity. 

lOO-lOS. Hikndda soUtitia, &c. " Pray, ye husbandmen, far moist 
summers and fair winters." Observe that solatitium, which prop- 
erly denotes the summer solstice merely, is here taken poetically 
for the summer generally. The winter solstice is termed Iruma, 
which is also employed in the same figurative way for the winter 
in general. Pliny accuses Virgil of having made a mistake here in 
his advice ; but he might have spared his censure. There can be 
no doubt that Virgil's remark, as applied to a warm climate, is per- 
fectly well founded, since the efiTect of rain, in the months next fol- 
lowing the sowing of wheat, and in Italy of barley, must be to ren- 
der the young plants winter-proud ; whereas the influence of sum- 
mer showers must be as beneficial. ( Valpy, ad loc.) The poet's 
advice, moreover, is in full accordance with that contained in the 
old work quoted by Macrobius (<Sa/.,v., 20), where a father addresses 
his son in these words : *^Hiberno pulvere, vemo liUo, grandia farrOf 
CamilUt metes. ^* 

Hibemo latissima pulvere farra. " The corn is rendered most lux- 
uriant by the winter's dust," i. e., a fair and dry winter (followed, 
of course, by a moist summer) is the sure precursor of abundant 
harvests. — Nullo tanfum se Mysia culhi, &c. "Mysia prides not 
herself so much on any culture (as on this peculiarity of climate), 
and Gargarus itself (in consequence of this) looks with wonder on 
its own harvests." Mysia, in the northwestern angle of Asia Mi- 
nor, was remarkable for its fertility, and Gargarus, or the southern 
slope of Ida, was the most productive part of all Mysia. This fer- 
tility, according to the poet, was owing, not so much to any culture, 
as to the happy climate of the country, the winters being dry and 
the summers moist. Hence even Gargarus, though the most pro- 
ductive portion of the land, was astonished at the abundance of its 
products. We have given here the explanation of Voss. Wagner 
adopts one far less natural. A.ccoTd\nf^ to this commentator, the 


meanins is as follows : Mysla, thoogfa • land remarkaUe for its till- 
age, prides not itself so moeli on the r«siilts of that tillage, as thosa 
fields pride themselves on their fertility which are favoured with 
dry winters and moist suBmiera. To this, however, it may be re- 
plied, that the Romans, in speaking of the eoasts of Asia and Libya, 
always describe the tillage pursaed there as comparatively light, 
and requiring but little care on aeoonnt of the happy nature of the 
climate and the s(^. The assertion, therefore, that Mysia was a 
region remarkable for its tillage, seems entirely gratuitous. (Fo«#, 
ad loc.) 

Gargara. The plural form, neuter. The nominative singular is 
Gargarm. So in Greek, 6 Tdpyapoc and rd Tapryapa, The form rd 
Tdpyapov also occurs. Strictly speaking, GUirgarus was the name 
of one of the summits of Ida, the roots of which formed the prom- 
ontory of Lectum. 

104-105. Quiddkam, '< What shall I say of him.'* Supply i2e ml 
The meaning is, what shall I say that will prove sufficient praise 
for him who, dec. After stating the processes for pulverising the 
soil by means of larger implements, the poet now recommends at- 
tacking by hand the refractory clods, armed with beetles and dubs, 
breaking them to pieces, and levelling them to the surface. {Valpy, 
ad loc.) — Commirms arva inseqtatur. " Presses upon the fields in 
close conflict," t. e., enters on what is next to be done with close 
and persevering assiduity, and allows the fields not an instant's re- 
pose. — Ruit. <* Breaks up,** t. «., levels. Observe that ruo is not 
an intransitive verb employed here in a transitive sense, but that 
the verb in question was originally a transitive one, though this 
transitive meaning was subsequently confined, for the most part, to 
the poets, as in the present instance. 

Male pinguis arena. " Of the barren sand," t. e., of a barren, 
sandy soil. We have followed here the opinion of Frenzel {Archiv. 
fur Philol. und Pad., vol. i., p. 139), who regards nude pinguis as 
equivalent to infecunda. Voss, however, and many others, make 
male pinguis arena mean, *' of the too rich (and adhesive) soil," re- 
garding male pinguis as having the force of tdmis pinguis, and giv- 
ing arena the general meaning of *< soil.*' That the reference, 
however, is to a sandy soil, the succeeding verses, where irrigation 
is spoken of, very clearly show. 

106-110. iSa/i*. " Among the sown com." — Fluvium. «• A co- 
pious stream.** Used here in a general sense for any abundant flow 
of water. — Et, quum exustus ager, &c. " And (again), when the 
parched field pants with its dying herbage.*' In th& ^te^VssA^^^sA 



the poet refers to the process of irrigation after sowing ; and no^ 
he speaks of irrigation when the blade is up. — Supercilio divon trt 
mitis. ** Over the brow of some sloping track-worn eminence,** 
e., over the top of some gently-sloping eminence, the sides of whic 
are track-worn by the streams that have often before this bee 
made to descend by him on similar occasions. In the expressio 
tramiiisf therefore, we see a neat allusion to the unremitting car 
of the provident husbandman. The same idea is also implied i 
the epithet levior, in the succeeding line, where the reference is t 
stones worn smooth by the frequent descent of the water. — ScaU 
brisqne iemperat. " And refreshes with its bubbling streams." 

111-114. Quid. For quid dicam de eo. — Procumbat. <*Bendtoth 
ground," i. e,, be weighed down. — Luxuricm aegetum, &c. " Feed 
down the luxuriance of the crop while yet in the tender blade. 
This is to be done when the com is too luxuriant or winter-proud 
Theophrastus {Hist, Plant., viii., 7) and Pliny (if. N., xviii., 44, dtc. 
both acknowledge the practice. The latter also advises, that th 
corn in this condition should be combed before it is pastured, and 9an 
ling afterward; the first, with the design, probably, of thinning th 
crop ; the last, to open the surface of the field, which is liable to b 
hardened by the poaching of cattle. 

Sulcos aquant. *' Equalizes the furrows (with the intervening 
ridges)." Supply porcis. The ridge of land raised between tw^ 
furrows was technically called porca. {Varro, L, L., iv., 4.) Th 
period referred to is when the whole field is covered with verdure 
and furrows and ridges are thus brought upon a level, or, in othe 
words, are no longer seen. Heyne, less correctly, makes sulco 
here equivalent to porcas. — Quique paludis, &c. *' And of him, wht 
drains away the collected water of the fen by means of the bibuloui 
sand." The ordinary process of draining was to cut trenches 
called by Pliny and Columella collicice, and by Festus elicesf and ii 
this way lead ofl!" the water. Here, however, trenches appear t< 
be meant which are either cut through a sandy and absorbing soil 
or which lead the water off to ground of this kind. Some commen 
tators imagine that the poet refers to sand thrown on moist grounc 
and mixed with it, in order to suck up the superfluous moisture 
This, however, appears inconsistent with the plain meaning ofde- 

115-117. Prcesertim, incertis, &c. The husbandman must attenc 
particularly to draining, after an inundation has taken place. — In 
certis mensibu^. *' During those months when the weather is mosi 
^changeable." This language suits both the season of spring an( 

IfCfTBB ON THB 6B0&iaiGS.-«-B00K T. 235 

that of autumn. Here, howerer, the spring months are particularly 
meant. — Abundatu. *" Swelling with its waters." — Exit. " Over- 
flows its banks ;'* literally, " goes forth (from its accustomed bar- 
riers)." — Unde ciaa tepidot &c. " Whence the hollow undulations 
of the soil sweat with the warm (and noxious) moisture," t. e., from 
which same cause, too, it happens that the hollows, in different 
parts of the ground^ are filled with water, which stagnates, and 
emits, under the influence of a hot sun, noxious exhalations injuri- 
ous to health. The removal of this evil, therefore, will also require 
the earnest care of the husbandman. 

118-120. Hae sint verMondo terram experii, *<Have tried these 
various expedients in the cultivation of the earth." Ai^er all these 
toils of man and beast in the culture of the ground, other evilB still 
remain to be encountered, which the poet now proceeds to eno- 
nierate. — Improbtu, " Voracious." This epithet here refers to that 
which exceeds all ordinary bounds and measure, and is therefore 
injurious. The wild goose is here meant. This bird was execra- 
ted by the husbandman, as she still continues to be, for the burn- 
ing quality of her ordure, as well as for pulling up the herbage by 
the roots. The latter cause is the better founded of the two, and 
is here meant. (Compare PalladiuSf i., 30: *^Anser locis consUtM 
inimicus eat, quia sata el morsu Uedit et stercore") — Stiymoniaque 
grues. "And the Strymonian cranes," i. «., the cranes from Thra- 
cian climes. The Strymon was a river of Thrace, forming, at one 
time, the boundary of that country on the side of Macedonia. The 
cranes flying to the south on the approach of winter were supposed 
to come from the northern countries of Thrace. 

Et amaris intuba Jibris. " And the succory with its bitter roots." 
Intubum, or intubus, is commonly translated "endive," but the 
plant which Virgil means is " succory." The Greek name is aipic* 
Dioscorides says that there are two kinds of aepi^j one wild, and 
the other cultivated. The wild sort was called nUpic, probably from 
its bitterness, and is the species of plant which Virgil here refers 
to as having bitter fibres or roots. It is a pernicious weed among 
corn, and destroys the latter by the spreading of its roots. It is 
also a favourite food for wild geese, and therefore invites these 
destructive birds into the fields where it happens to grow. — Umbra. 
The shade not only of trees, but of useless or noxious plants. 

121-124. Pater. '* Jove. "-^Colendi viam. "The path of agri- 
culture." Supply terram after colendi. — Primusqite per artem, &c. 
" And he first aroused the fields through human skill," «. «., Jupiter 
first, of all the rulers of the universe, commanded the fields to bo 


cultiTated, and their latent energies to be nroued by the ddlftl 
labour of man. The meaniDg of the poet iS} that agricukure caoM 
in with Jove. Under the reigns of preyioos monarohs of the nni* 
verse, especially that of Saturn, his immediate predecessor, the 
earth yielded all things without culture. — Curis Meu€n» mortalia cardt. 
This account of the providential origin of some seeming evils is ai 
philosophical as it is beautiful. Want is the parent source of arti 
and inventions ; infirmities and weaknesses are the cause and ce- 
ment of human society. — Nte torpere gravit 6m, ** Nor suffered hii 
realms to lie torpid under heavy lethargy," t. e., nor allowed tho 
human race, now brought under his sway by the dethronement of 
Saturn, to continue to lead a life of torpid inaction. 
f 125-128. Ante Jotem, ** Before the reign of Jove," i, e., in tho 
Golden Age. The reign of Jove marks the commencement of the 
Silver Age, when agriculture began, and civil society was first or- 
ganized. — Ne signare quidem, &jc. " It was not even allowed to 
mark out or parcel off any portion of ground by a boundary." The 
true reading here is undoubtedly ne, as we have given it, and which 
is approved of by Bentley (ad Horat., Sat.y ii., 3, 262), Heyne, Wag- 
ner, and many others. The other reading is nee, which is followed 
by Voss and Jahn ; but the sense requires the emphatic ne, not 
the connecting nee. The poet means that not only before the time 
of Jove was there no culture of the fields, but even such a thing as 
separate property in fields was entirely unknown. 

In medium qucsrehant. " They sought (all things) for the common 
benefit." Observe that in medium is not, as some render it, <* in com- 
mon," but the meaning of the clause is, that they gathered the 
spontaneous productions of the earth into a common store for all. 
(Compare the explanation of Heyne : *< Quicquid aequirebant, paror 
bantf in commune parahant et afferebant.**) Voss compares this state 
of things with that of the bees, as described in the fourth book of 
the Georgics, v. 157. — Ipsaque, *» Of her own accord," i. e., with- 
out culture. — Nullo poscente, ** Since no one asked them at hex 
hands," i. e., since no one tilled her surface. 

129-134. JUe. " That deity." Referring to Jore.^Atris. For 
dirisi, as Jacobs correctly explains it. — Pradarique. " To prowL"— 
Moveri. " To be agitated (by storms)." Burmann thinks that the 
reference here is to agitation by means of oars, or, in other wordSi 
to navigation ; but, were this so, the 136th verse would be an idle 
repetition. — Mellaque decussit foliis. The leaves of the trees, daring 
the Golden Age, had yielded a honeyed dew for human sustenance ; 
but this was removed in the time of the Iron Age, and man ww 

X0TX8 ON THB 6E0HGI0S. — ^BOOK I* 237 

compelled to sedt for food by the sweat of his brow. It is no un- 
common thiog, observes Martyn, to find a sweet, j^otinous liquor 
on oak l^ves, which might give the poets reason to imagine that 
in the Golden Age the leaves abounded with honey. — Ignemque re- 
movit. '* And removed the fire (from view)." Fire had been known 
to the human race in the age of Saturn ; but Jove now removes it 
from view, and hides it in the veins of the flint (v. 135), in order 
that human ingenuity may be sharpened in the search for it, and 
that from its recovery may date the commencement of the arts, and 
the consequent comforts and amelioration of social existence. 

Et passim riois, &c. A species of Oriental metaphor, to indicate 
great abundance. Jove checks all these things, in order that man 
may be compelled to invent various arts, and thus obtain from his 
own labours what the earth had before this period spontaneously 
yielded ; in other words, in order that civil society might begin, 
mutual wants forming a common bond of union. — Ut varias usus, 
6lo. *< That experience, by dint of reflection, might gradually strike 
out various arts.'' 

135-138. Tunc alnos, &c. ** Then first the rivers felt the press- 
ure of the alders hollowed out (by the hands of man)," t. «., then 
navigation commenced. The alder is named as having afibrded 
the first rude means of transportation on the water, since it grows 
along the shores of rivers, and in marshy places, and wuuld there- 
fore be daost accessible for this purpose. — Stellis numeros, &.C. 
** Gave numbers and names to the stars." The stars would be a 
guide to the early navigators, and continued so, in fact, until the in- 
vention of the compass. The giving of *' numbers to the stars" 
means jnerely, as Jacobs remarks, that, for the purpose of distin- 
guishing between the diflferent constellations, they would count the 
number of stars in each. 

Plaadas, The Pleiades are a cluster of stars forming a constel- 
lation on the back or neck of Taurus. The rising of the Pleiades 
in the spring brought with it the spring rains, and opened naviga- 
tion. — Hyadas. The Hyades are a cluster of stars, forming a con- 
stellation at the head of Taurus. Their setting, at both the evening 
and morning twilight, was for the Greeks and Romans a sure pre- 
sage of wet and stormy weather, these two periods falling respec- 
tively in the latter half of April and November. {Jdsler, Stemnamen, 
pu 139. )^Claramque Lycaonis Arcton. ** And the bright bear of Ly- 
eaon." Alluding to the Ursa Major, or Greater Bear ; according 
to the poetic legend, Callisto, daughter of Lycaon, king of Arcadia, 
who was changed into this constellation. Hence the meaning of 


the clause, in fact, is this : " The bright bear, the daughter of Lje 
on." The student will observe the peculiar construction here, 
which the accusatives Pleiadas, Hyadas, and Arcton are put in i 
position with nomina. 

189-142. Fallere visco. ** To deceive (the feathered race) wj 
bird lime." The idea of aves is implied in /eras. — Atpu alius laiu 
du;. "And now one, seeking the deep places, lashes the bro 
river with a casting net.*' Fishing by net is here alluded to. ] 
aUa are meant the deep parts of the river wherein to sink the n 
more conveniently. Heyne and others connect alta peteru with f 
agoque, &c., and place a semicolon after amnem. This, howevi 
is very justly condemned by Wagner and others. The connecti 
que is not accustomed to be added to the second or third word i 
the clause, unless a preposition precede, as in Eelog., v., 57, *' <S 
pedilmsqiie,^* &c. — Humida Una. " His wet lines." This is coi 
monly supposed to allude to the drag-net, the lines of which are 
long, by reason of the depth of the water, that the fisherman's ei 
ployment seems to be nothing else but " trahere humida /tno." Mo 
probably, however, the reference is to the mode of fishing by lo 
line, with hooks baited and fixed to it at intervals : this is sunk 
a weight at one end, and buoyed at the other ; and after some hoc 
is again drawn up. ( Valpy, ad loc.) 

143-146. Tumferri rigor ^ &c. "Then (was discovered) the \ 
of tempering iron, and (then was invented) the blade of the grati 
saw." Supply inventus est with rigor, and inventa est with lanm 
Some, less neatly, supply venit, from verse 145, — Primi. " The eai 
race of men ;" literally, " the first men." — Labor improbus. «* P( 
severing industry." — Egestas. "Necessity." The pressure < 
human wants. 

147-149. Prima Ceres, &c. The connexion in the train of ide 
is as follows : Before the time of Jove there was no cultivation \ 
the fields. With the empire of Jove came in the various arts \ 
civilized life, and among others that of agriculture, as taught 1 
Ceres to man. — Quum jam glandes, &c. " When now the aeon 
and the arbutes of the sacred wood began to fail, and Dodona 
deny its accustomed sustenance to man." The early race of m< 
were fabled to have fed on acorns and other products of the tree 
and to have dwelt at this time round about Dodona, amid its grovi 
of oak sacred to Jupiter. (Compare note on Georg., i., v. 8.) — A 
huta. The arbutum, or wild strawberry, is the fruit of the arbutu 
or arbute-tree. (Compare note on Eclog., iii., 82.) According ' 
Martyn, the lower class of people in Italy frequently eat the fro; 


^hidi makes, however, a very sorry diet. — Defieerent. Observe the 
force of the subjunctive in this verb and negarett as referring to the 
accounts of others, that is, to the statements of early legends. 

150-164. Ut mala culmos, &,c. " Where the blighting mildew 
began to consume the stalks, and the lazy thistle to rear its prickly 
head in the fields." — Esset. Imperfect subjunctive of eio. Ob- 
serve here again, and also in horreret^ the force of the subjunotive 
in referring to the accounts of early legends. — Rubigo. The mil- 
dew or blight is a disease to which corn is very subject. Many 
modern writers take rubigo to mean ** smut," which is a putrefac- 
tion of the ear, and converts it into a black powder. But Virgil men- 
tions rubigo as a disease of the ttalk. — Carduus. Thistles are well 
known to be very injurious to com. 

Subit aspera silva, &,c. ** In their place arises a prickly wood, 
both burs and caltrops." According to Martyn, lappa seems to 
have been a general word to express such things as stick to the 
garments of those who pass by. We use the word ** bur," he adds, 
in the same manner, though what is properly so called is the head 
of the Bardana major, or burdock. — Tribuli. The tribtdus, or land 
caltrop, is an herb with a prickly fruit, which grows in common in 
Italy and other warm countries. — Nitentia cvlta. " The bright cul- 
tivated fields," t. «., amid the fields of grain shining brightly on the 
view. Supply loca. — Infelix lolium, &c. (Consult Eclog., v., 87.) 
— Dominantur. " Bear undisputed sway." 

155-159. Quod nisi. " Unless then ;" literally, " on which ac- 
count, unless." Supply propter with quod. — Assiduis rastris. " By 
continual applications of the rake." Here the poet concludes with 
a particular injunction to avoid the plagues which he mentioned 
several lines back (v. 119, seqq.). He recommends diligent raking 
to break down the clods afler ploughing ; the birds are also to be 
scared away, especially the geese and cranes ; and he advises, 
moreover, to restrain the overshadowing boughs, because shade is 
hurtful to the corn, ^^ umbra nocetJ*^ He puts the husbandman in 
mind, likewise, of the duty of praying for showers, because these 
depend on the will of the gods. # 

Ruria opaci premes umbras. *' Shalt check the luxuriant foliage 
of the shady country," t. e., the too dense foliage of the trees. Rus 
opacum is a poetic form of expression for arbaribus eonsitus ager, and 
hence for arborea simply. — Spectabis, Wakefield cites sperabis as 
the reading of a manuscript in the British Museum (ad Lucret., ii., 
2). — Concussdque famem, <Scc. The husbandman who neglects the 
advice which the poet gives will have to appease his hanger in the 


woods with the acorn shaken from the oaks, or, in other wordi, 
with the wild products of nature. Poetic exaggeration, to deoott 
the difficulty of procuring sustenance. 

160-164. Dicendum ei, qiut tint, to. '*I must mention, also, 
what are to be the implements for the hardy rnstics." Here the 
poet begins to describe the Tarious implements with which a hus- 
bandman ought to be proYided. — Vomit €t inflexi, 6lc, <* First the 
share, and the heavy timber of the curred plough.*' The common 
text erroneously places a comma after vomu. Observe that vomit 
here is an earlier and rarer form for vomer, and is likewise employ- 
ed by Cato (JR. R., 135, 2) and Columella (ii., 3, 26).— PnmiHi. 
This adverb is here used in the beginning of an enumeration, with- 
out turn or deindcy &c., following. — (rrave robur. Heavy timber 
would be required for the purpose, of deep ploughing in the rich 
Italian soil, the heaviness of the plough causing it, of coarse, to sink 
deeper. — Eleusina matris. Ceres, worshipped particularly at Eleo- 
sis in Attica, and the parent (mater) of agriculture. — VolventU. 
Used here intransitively, but having, in strictness, sese understood. 
Observe that tarda is poetic for tardum, u e., tarde. 

Tribulaquef traheaque. ** And sledges and drags.** The Roman 
husbandmen had three modes of extracting the com : the first and 
most usual, by means of the tribulum; the second, and less usual, 
by employing the trahea ; and the third, or least customary of aD, 
by means ofpertica, or flails. The tribulum (rplSo^a) consisted of 
a thick and ponderous wooden board, which was armed underneath 
with pieces of iron or sharp flints, and drawn over the corn by t 
yoke of oxen, either the driver or a heavy weight being placed npoa 
it. It served the purpose of both separating the grain and cutting 
the straw. The trahea, or traha, was either entirely of stone, or 
made of the trunk of a tree. Both the tribulum and trahea are still 
used in Greece, Asia Minor, Georgia, and Syria, and are described 
by various travellers in those countries. {Diet. Antiq., s. v.) 

Et iniquo pondere rastri. " And rakes of disproportioned weight," 
f. 6., of a weight almost exceeding human strength to manage. 
The raster bidens, or two-pronged rake, was the one most commonly 
employed. It was used to upturn the soil, and thus to perform, on 
a small scale, the part of a plough ; but it was much more com- 
monly employed in the work called occatio, that is, the breaking 
down of the clods after ploughing. Hence it was heavy (iniquo 
pondere). The following wood-cut, taken from a funereal monu- 
ment at Rome, represents a rustic holding a raster bideru. The 
other instnimenta are the/aZx, and^oZo, or spade. 


ISS-ieS. Virgca praltrta Celti, &c. " Besides these, the cheap 
o«iei (hmiture of CtlSas," i. e., baakeis, cheese-crates, &a., all 
made oat of osiers and other cheap or commoD materials, and the 
■It itself of making which was taught by Ceres to Celius, the 
flUhsr of Triptolemna. Virgea agrees with' lupelUx. Some refer 
it to «CM understood, which is far less poetical, and quite nnneeea- 
•ary. — ArbiUat craUi. The same with the viminia crate* mention- 
ed in Une 95. — Mytiica tannut lacchi. "The mystic fan of Bae- 
chiiB." The varami, or winnowing fan, was a broad basket into 
which the corn, mixed with chaff, was received after threshing, 
and was then thrown in the direction of the wind. It thus perform- 
«d with greater effect and conTenience the office of the winnowing 
•horel, Virgil dignifies this simple instrument by calling it myilU^ 
vanniu lacchi. Tbe rites of Bacchus, as Well as those of Ceres, 
having a continual reference to ttie occupations of rural life, the 
vantnu was borne in the processions celebrated in honour of both 
thece divinitiea. On an aruefisa in tbe British Musenm, the infant 
Bacchus is represented as carried in a vannus by two dancing 
Bacchantes. The vannus waa also used in tbe processions to 
carry tbe iostraments of sacrifice and the first-fiiiits or other olKr- 

ProBua repoua. Equivalent, in effect, to jmsidtbii el repont:— 
Si tt agna, die. " If thee the ^ory of divine agrioulture awaits,' 
i. «., if yon aspire to the tme glory of s well-cnltiTated farm. 



169-170. Continuo. ** In the first place.** — In silvis magna vt, 6v 
The order is, ulmusflexa in silvis magnd vi domatur in burini et act 
fit formam curvi aratri. Virgil's description of the plough, whic 
here follows, has given rise to much discussion, and still remaix 
open to the same. The annexed wood-cut shows the form of 
wheel-plough, as represented on a piece of engraved jasper of Ri 
man workmanship. It corresponds in all essential particulars wh 
that now used about Mantua and Venice, and is very probably tl 
same with that described by the poet. It shows distinctly tt 
coulter, the share-beam, the plough-tail, and the handle, or siioi 
{Diet, Anliq., s. v. Aratrum.) 

Domatur in hurim. *'Is subdued into the plough-tail," t. e., 
made to assume its form. The hurts might be made of any piec 
of a tree (especially the ilex, or holm oak), the natural curvature c 
which fitted it to this use ; but in the time and country of Virgi 
pains were taken to force a tree into that form which was mot 
exactly adapted to the purpose. 

171-172. Huic a stirpe, &c. " To this, from below, are fitted 
pole extended to eight feet, two earth-boards, and share-beams wit 
a double back,'* i. c, to the lower part of this, &c. — Temo, Th 
pole anciently used in ploughing did not difi!er from those employe 
for draught in general, and therefore needs no particular descrii 
tion. — BincB aures. The earth-boards, called also mould-boardj 
rose on each side of the plough, bending outward in such a manne 
as to throw on either hand the soil which had previously been loos 
ened and raised by the share. They were adjusted to the share 
beam, which was made double for the purpose of receiving then 
According to Palladius (i., 43), it was desirable to have plough 
both with earth-boards {aurita) and without them {simplicia). 

Denialia. These share-beams are supposed to have been in th 
form of the Greek letter A, which will serve to explain the ** duplii 


dortoy It is probable that the hurts was fastened to the left share- 
beam, and the atitay or handle, to the right. Virgil's plough will 
then resemble the modem Lancashire one, which is commonly held 
behind with both hands. When the plough was held either by the 
stiva, alone, or by the buris alone, a piece of wood (called manicula) 
was fixed across the summit, and on this the labourer pressed with 
both hands. {Vict. Ant., s. v, Arairum.) 

173-175. Tilia. The linden or lime tree is meant ; the Tilia 
Europaa of botanists. — Ante. " Beforehand. " — Altaque fagus ativa. 
'* And the tall beach for the plough handle." We have adopted 
here the conjecture of Martyn, namely, «<tv<e, along with Manso, 
Yoss, and Jahn. The common reading is stivaque, which is sought 
to be defended by Wagner, who regards /a^it^ atixaqxu as equiva- 
lent to stiva faginea. — Qua currus a tergo, &c. ** To turn the bot« 
torn of the vehicle from behind." Virgil, it will be seen, considers 
the stiva as used to turn the plough at the end of the furrow. Ser- 
vius, however, in his note on this line, explains stiva to mean " the 
handle by which the plough is directed. "^^—Curru^. This term indi- 
cates, of course, the wheel-plough. Wagner, however, reads cur- 
9US, and asserts, in defence of this lection, that the ancient plough 
had no wheels. (Consult note on hnfe 170.) 
Y\ Et suspensa focisy <&c. " And the smoke seasons the timber hung 
up at the hearths," i. c, and the wood is then hung up by the hearth 
for the purpose of being seasoned by the smoke. Many manuscripts 
have exploret ; but this is an erroneous reading, since the poet 
merely states what is customary, and lays down no precept. — Focis. 
The ancients suspended wood in the smoke arising from their 
hearths, for the purpose of seasoning. The focusj or hearth, in the 
humbler class of dwellings, was generally in the centre of the apart- 
ment, and the smoke escaped by means of an aperture in the roof, 
and also by the windows and door. — Explorat. Observe the pecu- 
liar force of this term here. The smoke " explores" the timber, 
for the purpose of ascertaining whether there be any chinks in it. 
(Compare the language of Servius : " Namque ad exudandum fumum 
adhibita (ligna), si rimas faciunt et scissurasy mala sunt et injirma") 

176-177. Possum multa tibi, &c. After mentioning the instru- 
ments of agriculture, the poet proceeds to give instructions con- 
cerning the making of the threshing-floor, and to impart some par- 
ticular precepts. — Veterum. " Of ancient writers," t. «., of ancient 
writers on husbandry. He alludes particularly to Cato and Varro, 
who wrote before him, and from whom he has taken the directions 
relating to the floor. — Tenuesquc piget cognoscerc euros, ** And art 


loth to become acquainted with (what seem to thee) unimportaol 
objects of care.*' 

178-180. Area. *' A threshing-floor." The threshing-floor wai 
a raised place in the field, open on all sides to the wind. Great 
pains were taken to make this floor hard ; it was sometimes paved 
with flint-stones {Colum.f l, 6), but more usoally covered with clay, 
and smoothed with a great roller. It was also costomary to cover 
it with the lees of oil, which prevented insects injuring it, or grass 
growing upon it. In the mild climate of Italy, remarks Yoss, where 
rain rarely, and even then not for any length of time, falls at the 
period of harvest, the threshing could easily be attended to in the 
open air. 

Et vertenda manu. Servius, observes Valpy, notices here the 
iarepoTMyiav. In point of time the earth must first be turned op, 
or worked, with the hand, and made solid, then levelled. — ?< creU 
solidanda tenaci. "And to be consolidated by means of tough 
day." We must be careful not to translate cretd here by our term 
" chalk." The word cretay in a general sense, means any whitish 
earth or clay, such as potter^s clay, pipe-clay, &c. S3munon8 says 
that there is no such thing as chalk to be found in Italy, and he 
therefore thinks that calcareous marl is here meant by the poet, 
there being an abundance of this in the same country. (Consult 
Diet. Antiq.y s. v. Creta.) — Neu pulvere victa fatiscat. "Nor lest, 
overcome by drought, it may gape in chinks," i. e., and to keep it 
also from growing dusty and chapping. 

18 1-183. Turn varicB illudunt pestes. " Then again, various plagues 
are likely to baffle (the labours of the husbandman)." Observe the 
force of the subjunctive in indicating the probable chance of a 
thing's occurring. — Exiguus mus. Quintilian praises the ending 
of this line, observing that not only the diminishing epithet, bat 
the ending of the verse with one syllable, beautifully expresses the 
littleness of the animal. {Martyn, ad loc.) — Suh terris posuitque 
domosy &c. Mr. Wagstaffsays {Bath Papers), that the tussocks of 
wheat seen to arise in many fields are owing to the granaries of 
these diminutive animals, which he has often found to contain near- 
ly a hatful of corn, which grow into a tuft if the owner be acci- 
dentally destroyed : these tufts he recomtnends to be divided, and 
transplanted in the spring. {Stawell, ad loc.) 

Aut oculis capti, &c. Virgil speaks here according to the popular 
opinion, when he makes the mule to be deprived of vision. This 
animal has eyes, but of a very diminutive size. The little eye is 
BO hidden in the fur, that its very existence was for a long time 


denied. It appears to be designed for operating only as a warning 
to the animal on its emerging into the light ; and, indeed, more 
acute Tision would only have been an encumbrance. {Penny Cy- 
clop., vol. xxiv., p. 18.) 

184-186. Invenhuque cavis hufo. " The toad, too, is found in hol- 
low places." The common toad {Rana bufo) usually sojourns in ob- 
scure and sheltered places, and passes the winter in holes, which 
it hollows for itself. With the exception of this species of burrow- 
ing, it does no harm to the husbandman. — Et qitaplurima terras <&c. 
** And (other) vermin, which the earth produces in very great abun- 
dance." — Cureulio, *iThe weevil." An insect of the beetle kind, 
which, both in its larva state and in its beetle form, proves very 
destructive to the grain, sometimes destroying one third or one 
fourth of the whole crop. The cureulio here meant, and to which 
this description here applies, is the Calandra granaria, the corn- 
weevil, or weevil proper, for the genus Cureulio of Linnaeus is now 
the type of a large family of insects. 

Inopi metuens aenecta. " Fearing for needy old age," t. e., and 
the ant busily employed in laying up its winter stores. The term 
« old age" is to be regarded here as equivalent to '< winter," it be- 
ing the popular belief that the ant seldom lives beyond one year, 
and that it supports itself in. the winter season on the stores which 
it has accumulated during the summer. The true state of the case, 
however, is as follows : Male and female ants survive, at most, till 
autumn, or to the commencement of cool weather, though a very 
large proportion of them cease to exist long before that time. The 
neuters pass the winter in a state of torpor, and, of course, require 
no food. This well-ascertained fact proves that the so-called fore- 
sight of the ants has no other object than the continuance of the 
species by perfecting and securing their habitations. These abodes 
are composed of blades of grass, ligneous fragments, pebbles, and 
shells of small volume, and of all objects which they meet with of 
easy transportation ; and as they often gather, for the same purpose, 
grains of wheat, barley, and oats, it has been popularly believed 
that they laid up provisions for winter, and a period of want. Tho 
only time, however, when the ants require food is during the sea- 
son of activity, when they have a vast number of young to feed. 

187-188. Contemplator item. " Observe also." The imperative 
of contemplor (2d person) is here employed in commencing a pre- 
cept, in imitation of Lucretius (ii., 113 ; vi., 189), who himself cop- 
ies from the similar usage of the Greek didactic poets in the case 
of ffxfnreo, ^paCeo, &C. — Quum Me nux plurima, 6lo, ** When tho 



almond-tree in the woods shall array itself very abundantly in blos- 
soms, and shall bend down its strong-smelling branches.'' Martyn 
insists that by nux is here meant, not the almond, but the walnut- 
tree, and he has <;ertainly bne argument in his favour, the strong 
smell of the branches, namely, being far more applicable to the wal- 
nut than to the almond. But then, again, the abundant flowering 
is in favour of the latter. Servius also declares for the almond-tree, 
and we learn likewise, from other ancient writers, that the husband- 
man was accustomed to draw from this same tree his prognostics 
of the coming harvest. {Theophylact., Probl. Nat., c. 16. Philo, de 
Vit. Mos., iii., p. 163, vol. ii., ed. Mang.) The difficulty in the pres- 
ent case arises from the circumstance of the term nux being em- 
ployed by the Roman writers in so extended a sense, to denote the 
almond, the walnut, the hazelnut tree, &c. Most commonly, how- 
ever, an epithet is added, to make the meaning more definite ; thus, 
nux juglanSf ^* the walnut ;" nux amygdala, ** the almond ;'* nux oveZ- 
lana, " the hazelnut or filbert," <&c. (Compare Fde, Flore de Vvrgile, 
p. clxxxvi.) 

Induct se in florem. Observe that in florem is not used poetically 
here for in flore, as some suppose, but is employed as a much 
stronger form of expression. Induere seflore means merely to deck 
or array one's self with flowers or blossoms, without any allusion 
to the number of the same, which may therefore be comparatively 
small ; but induere se in florem is to array one's self in a complete 
garniture or covering of these, as one envelops himself in a mantle; 
so that quite a change of appearance is thereby produced. {Vost, 
ad loc.) 

189-192. Si super ant fatus. " If the incipient fruit abound," t. «., 
if the blossoms be more numerous than usual. Observe here the 
force of the indicative, *<if the incipient fruit abound, as you plainly 
see it does.** — Fatus. The blossoms, which are of course to be suc- 
ceeded by the young fruit itself — Pariter. ** In equal quantity," i, e., 
if the blossoms abound, the com will likewise be abundant. — Tritu- 
ra. According to Heyne, this term is put here for messis ; it is bet- 
ter, however, to take it in its literal sense. The poet means that 
the threshing of the grain will be a laborious task, in consequence 
of the abundance of the crop, 

Atf si luxurid foliorum^ &c. " If, however, the shade be rendered 
exuberant by a luxuriance of foliage," t. c, if the almond-tree have 
a far greater number of leaves than of blossoms. We have adopt- 
ed exuberet, with one of the MSS. The context requires the sub- 
junctive here, to denote a possible or hypothetical case, just as it 


demanded the indicative in auperant (v. 189) to indicate one that 
had actually happened. — Pinguea paled. " Abounding only in chaff/' 

103-196. Semina vidi equidenif 6cc. The poet now enters upon the 
subject of medicating aeeds before sowing, &c. It must be borne 
in mind, however, that only the seeds of leguminous plants, or 
pulse, are meant, as plainly appears by the expression " siliquisfal- 
ladbus" subsequently employed. — Serenles. " When preparing to 
sow.*' Observe here the peculiar force of the present participle, as 
indicating the commencement of an action. — Et nitro prius, &c. 
** And steep them beforehand in a solution of nitre and dark olive 
lees." By *< nitre" is here meant, in fact, saltpetre ; though the an- 
cient writers commonly understood by rdtmrn^ or vlrpov, a carbon- 
ate of soda. — Amurcd. This term properly denotes the watery part 
of olives that flows out on pressing. (CatOy R. 22., 91. — VarrOf R. 22., 
i., 64.) It comes from the Greek Afidpyijf and is one of the words 
which, though written with a c, is to be pronounced with a g, 
{Serv.f ad loc. — Terent. Maur.y p. 2402.) 

Cfrandior ut fastuSf &c. ** In order that the produce might be 
larger in the pods, so apt to deceive." The pods often appear larger 
than usual when they are actually emptyi (Serv., ad loe.) Hence 
the peculiar propriety of the epithet faUacibus. Columella mentions, 
as another advantage resulting frOm the medicating of seeds, that 
the blade which springs up is less liable to injury from the weevil. 
{ColufiLy ii., 10.) 

Et,piamms, igni exiguoj &,c. " And yet, though they were soaked 
(in this mixture) over a scanty fire, being quickened (by the pro- 
cess), I have seen them, nevertheless," &c., t. e., though they were 
ioamersed in this preparation, made merely tepid over a slow fire, 
for the purpose of quickening them, and causing the seed to germi- 
nate more speedily by thus softening the outer covering and allow- 
ing the mixture to penetrate sooner, &c. In explaining this *nuch- 
contested passage, we have allowed the ordinary pointing to re- 
main, namely, a period after esset ; and have made a new clause 
begin at et, quamvis, &c. Brunck changes et into at, but for this 
there is no necessity, if we give et the meaning of " and yet." We 
have followed, therefore, the plainest and most natural mode of in- 
terpreting the passage, and have made it refer to a process in hus- 
bandry which is still followed at the present day. In so dorog, 
however, we have deviated from the great body of commentator^, 
who assign to the words in question a very different signification. 
Placing a comma after ewe/, and a period after maderenl, they con- 
nect et qiuLTKois, &.C., with what goes before, and, supplying tu after 


et, translate as follows : ** and in order that they might be apeedfly 
softened (by boiling) through means of a fire, howerer small/' i. e., 
and in order that they might be boiled soft more expeditioasly OTer 
even a small fire. In support of this opinion they refer to Plautus 
{Men., ii., 2, 51. — Pert., i., 3, 12), where madeo has the meaning oi 
eoquot and to another passage of the same writer {Men,, i., 3, 29), 
where tnadidus has the force of cactus. They cite also the follow* 
ing remark of Palladius {R. R., xii., 1) : *' Grttci asserunt, faba sem- 

ina nitratd aqua respersay cocturam non habere tUffieiUmf** 

and they compare with this the language of Didymus in the Geapoth 

tea (ii., 35), Iva «raAo( vpbc r^v i^aiv t^iv, Pp^X^ abrovf 

Han fUTu virpov. They add, also, that the Greek writers on hus- 
bandry make no mention whatever of steeping seeds in any warm 
preparation. To all this it may be answered, that the language of 
Virgil can hardly be explained by any usage of a comic writer, and 
that, even if the authority of Plautus be allowed in the present case, 
still it proves nothing positively, since he merely employs MMif« 
and madidus in the sens^ of softening or making tender (whence 
comes collaterally that of cooking), a sense that will apply equally 
well to the view that we have here taken of the passage, namely, 
the softening of seeds to enable them to imbibe more readily amix- 
ture in which they are steeped. As to Palladius and Didymus, 
their remarks are too general to warrant any application of them 
to the present case ; and the silence, moreover, of the Greek writers 
on husbandry is, after all, only a negative kind of argument, and, at 
best, quite unsatisfactory. It appears much more natural, too, to 
eonnect vidi lecta diu, <&c., with the previous line, than to make it 
the abrupt commencement of a new sentence. 

197-200. Spectala. " Looked to." ' Referring to the process of 
steeping, &c. — Vis humana. " Human industry." Imitated from 
Lucretius (v., 208). — Sic. " In this same way." — In pejus mere. 
"Hasten to decay." The infinitive is here used absolutely for 
the present indicative (with which, therefore, omnia is supposed to 
agree), and refers to what is accustomed to happen. A similar 
usage takes place in referri. {Wagner, Quasi. Virg., xxx., 4)— Ac 
retro suhlapsa referri. " And having lost, by degrees, their firm foot- 
hold, are carried backward." The literal meaning of suhlapsa is, 
" having slipped or slid gradually."— iic/ro referri. Instances often 
occur where, as in the present case, an adverb, the idea conveyed 
by which is already expressed by a preposition in composition with 
a verb, is made to accompany that verb for the sake of greater em« 
phasis. This is erroneously regarded by some as a kind of pleo- 


nastio usage. (Compare Grontn,^ ad Liv., xxi., 32, l.^^Ruhnk., ad 
Ter. Ad., iv., 1, 9. — Heusing.y ad Veehn. HelUndex., p. 163.) 

201-203. Adterao fiumtne svbigit. '* Impels against the stream.*' 
Observe the force of sub in composition, as denoting slow and toil- 
some progress. — Lembum, By lembus (Ae/i5of) is properly meant a 
small boat with a sharp prow. It was used especially by the lUyri* 
ans. {Schweigh., Ind, PoLyh.^ s. v.y^Brachia. "His sinewy ef- 
forts." — Alqu£ ilium inpraceps, &c. "And (if) the current (once) 
hurries him down the river with headlong speed," i, «., and if the 
current once gets the mastery over him. Some make atque equiv- 
alent here to statim, and translate as follows : " the current (there- 
upon) immediately hurries him down," dec. There is no necessity, 
however, for this. The whole difficulty disappears, if we merely 
supply «t afler atquCf from the previous member of the sentence, 
and regard atque ilium, &c., as intended to complete the idea ex- 
pressed by si Irachia forte remisit, 

204-207. PrcUerea, The poet now proceeds to inculcate the ne- 
cessity of an attention to astronomy, that is, to the rising and set- 
ting of certain constellations. This knowledge becomes as im- 
portant to the farmer as to the mariner, since it enables the former 
not only to foresee and prepare against stormy weather, but also 
to ascertain the true seasons for each rural work. — Arcturi sidera, 
" The stars of Arcturus." By Arcturus is properly meant a star of 
the first magnitude in the constellation of Bootes, near the tail of 
the Great Bear, the rising and setting of which were accompanied 
by violent storms, lasting, according to Fliny, for the space of five 
days. Virgil, however, in imitation of some of the earlier writers, 
employs the term here for the whole constellation. (Compare 
Idelerj Sttrnnamen, p. A7.)—H<Bdorum. The " kids," called by the 
Greeks ipi<poi, are two stars on the arm of Auriga. They also 
brought with them stormy weather. {Manil, i., 372. — Ideler, p. 
QA:.)'-Angui8. The constellation Draco, near the north pole, and 
again referred to at verse 244. It will be observed, that in the enu- 
meration here given of the stormy constellations, the poet names 
merely a few. There were others equally to be dreaded. 

Tarn sunt servandi, &c. "Are to be as carefully observed by us 
as (they are to be by those) by whom," &c., t. «., are to be as care- 
fully watched by the farmer as by the mariner. One peculiarly 
dangerous route by sea is then mentioned, as a type of dangerous 
navigation in general, that, namely, over the surface of the Euxine 
and through the straits of the Hellespont to the iEgean Sea. As 
the mariner on such a route anxiously watches the constellations 

S50 NOTES ON THE Oeo&GtOS.**-BOOK t* . 

on high, with equal care ought the husbandman to note their niov0* 
meats. — In patriam vectis. ** While borne homeward," i. «., through 
the Euxine and Hellespont towards the iEgean Sea. VecHs ia here 
equivalent to dum vehuntur. — PorUtis. " The Euxine deep." — Of 
triferi fauces Abydi. The Hellespont, or strait of the DardaneUet, 
is here meant, in the narrowest part of which, on the Asiatic shore, 
and belonging to Mysia, stood the city of Abydois, famed for its 
oysters. — Tentantur. " Are attempted," t. «., are sought to be trav- 
ersed. The term is well selected, as impl3ring danger in the attempt. 

208-2 1 1 . Libra die, &c. ** When the constellation of the Balance 
shall have made the hours of the day and of slumber equal," i. e., 
the hours of the day and the night. The autumnal equinox is 
meant, and the poet here exemplifies his precept respecting an at- 
tention to the movements of the heavenly bodies, and their connex- 
ion with rural labours. The time which he mentions for sowing 
barley is from the autumnal equinox to the winter solstice. In the 
time of Virgil, the former was about the 24th of September, and the 
latter about the 25th of December. With us, barley is sown in the 
spring ; but in warmer climates they sow it at the latter end of the 
year, whence it happens that their barley harvest is considerably 
sooner than their wheat harvest. (Martyn, ad loc.) — Die. Old 
form of the genitive of the 5th declension. The old form of the 
dative has a similar ending. {SchneideVy L. 6., iii., p. 356.)— £t 
medium luciy &c. *' And now parcels out one hemisphere unto light 
and (another) unto darkness," i. c, and now divides the world be- 
tween light and darkness. 

Hordea. Servius informs us that Bavius and Msevius censured 
Virgil for employing here the term hordea in the plural, and gave 
vent to their disapprobation in the following line : ** Hordea qui 
dixitf super est ut tritica dicat." As, however, barley is a grain of 
several species, the poet evidently meant to express this variety by 
a bold use of the plural. — Usque sub extremum, &c. ** Even up to 
the last shower of the winter solstice, that puts an end to the la- 
bours of the husbandman." Observe the employment of suh to de- 
note close proximity. The poet here recommends that the sowing 
of barley should be kept on while the showery weather of winter 
continues, and before the frost sets in. Still, however, as Pliny 
directs that barley be sown on dry days, Virgil's meaning must be 
that the farmer should avail himself of such days during the period 
here meant, and not sow while the rain was actually descending. 
It must be borne in mind, that in the Italian climate a ^eat part 
of the winter is merely rahiy. — Bruma intractabilis. By bruma is 


here meant the winter solstice, or the shortest day, which is its 
proper signification, though the term is often, applied, poetically, to 
the winter season in general: In explanation of the term intracta- 
bills, it may be remarked that, according to Varro (R. R., i., 36) 
and Columella (ii., 8), most of the employments of husbandry ceas- 
ed during the fifteen days that preceded the winter solstice and the 
fifteen days that came immediately after. 

212-214. Lini. Columella and Palladius agree with Virgil about 
the time of sowing flax. Pliny, however, says it is sown in the 
spring. In Europe and in this country it is generally sown in the 
Bpring, from March to May ; sometimes, however, in September 
and October. Id a dry and warm country, it is better to sow in au- 
tumn, as the rains of autumn favour its growth, and it acquires 
strength enough to resist the drought, should there happen ixt be 
any in the spring. On the other hand, in cold and moist countries 
sowing should be deferred until late in the spring, as too much 
moisture is hurtful. — Cereale papaver. * ' The poppy of Ceres. " The 
poppy was sacred to Ceres, the introduction of this plant having 
been ascribed to her ; and her statues were either crowned with it, 
or else represented her holding a few heads of poppy in her right 
hand. (Consult the remarks o( Knight, Inquiry into the Syrnb. Lang,, 
Ac. — Class, Journ., vol. xxiv., p. 42.) 

Jamdudum. " Straightway ;" literally, " long since," i. f ., long 
before receiving this admonition from me. — Aratris. Brunck, 
Wakefield, and Martyn read rastris, as given by some MSS , but 
aratris is clearly preferable. The poet merely intends to repeat an 
injunction respecting seasonable ploughing, not to make any allu- 
sion to harrowing. — Sicca tellure. "The ground still continuing 
dry." — Pendent. " Hang over as yet," i. e., have not as yet dis- 
charged their contents. 

215-218. Vere fabis saiio. None of the ancient writers on agri- 
culture agree with Virgil in his statement that the time for sowing 
beans is the spring. Varro says that they are sown about the lat- 
ter end of October ; while, according to Columella, it is not right 
to sow them after the winter solstice, and the spring is actually the 
worst time of all. This difference of opinion, however, admits of 
a very easy explanation. Virgil has in view the custom prevalent 
in his own native district. In the countries near the Po, beans 
were always sown in the spring, as Pliny expressly informs us 
(xviii., 12, 30), whereas in the more southern parts of Italy the 
autumn was preferred.— ilfcciica. " Medic plant." Supply herba. 
So in Greek, ^ Mjydt/c^, soil. iroa. The plant here meant is. the Lt*- 


eem, or Burguniy trefoil. It was called Medic, according to FRsf 
(xviii., 16, 43), because brought originally into Greece fnm Medii 
during the war of Darius. — Putrea sulci. " The crumbling funrom,' 
t. e., rendered friable by frequent ploughing, manuring, and ezpoeon 
to cold. — Et milio venit annua cura. " And its annual care coma 
for the millet." Millet is a coarse, strong grass, bearing heads of 
a fine round seed, a little larger than mustard seed. The pitnti 
though coarse, makes good food for horses and cattle, and the seed 
is equally good for them ; it is excellent for fattening poultry, aid 
is sometimes made into bread. I 

Annua euro. The millet requires planting annaally, whereas li- 
cem, on beingonce sown, remains in vigour for ten years and npwsd. 
Compare Plin., xviii., 26, 66, where, for tricenis, we most readibstf, 
on comparing his language with that of Columella (ii., 9) and Pal- 
lad ius (iv., 3). Columella censures Virgil for saying that beans and 
millet are to be sown at the same time. Virgil, however, docs not 
mean to be so understood. He merely states that beans are sown 
in the spring, that is, in February or March, and that millet is sown 
when the sun enters Taurus, that is, about the 17th of April, and 
when the Dog-star sets, which is about the end of the same month. 
This agrees with what other authors have said on the subject. 

Candidua auratiay <Scc. *< When the bright Bull opens the year 
with its gilded horns, and the Dog-star sets, giving way to the op- 
posing constellation." The Bull's opening the year expresses the 
sun's entering into Taurus. The commencement of spring is here 
meant, which is, in fact, the opening of the year for the husband- 
man, whence Aprilia, from aperio. The sun, according to Columella, 
entered the sign Taurus of the zodiac on the 15th day before the 
calends of May, that is, on the 17th of April. (According to mod- 
em computation, it is the 20th of April.) In the delineations of the 
zodiac there is a bright star on the point of each horn, whence the 
expression **auraHa comibua.*' The Bull, advancing with his horns 
lowered, is said, poetically, to open the year with them, and remove 
all intervening obstacles. 

Adverao cedena, dtc. According to Columella, the Dog-star sets 
in the evening of the day before the calends of May, that is, the 
last day of April. As this constellation sets on the celestial sphere, 
it has the Bull following after, as it were, with threatening horns, 
whence the epithet of adveraua applied to the latter. Observe that 
adverao aatro is the dative. Some read dverao aatro in the ablative, 
referring the words to the Dog-star itself, and translate as follows : 
"retiring with averted constellation," t. «., with its front turned 
*:waj firqm the advaociog bulL Thisi howeveri is far inferior. 

irOTSa ON THB OEOBGIC8. — ^BO<»L It 353^ 

tl>-4KM>. Atysi tritieeam in messem, Ac. The irUiatm of the an- 
denUi was not our common wheat, bat a bearded sort. The statues 
and medals of Ceres have no other wheat represented on them but 
that which isbearded.-^Farra. Consult note on verse 73. — Sdisque 
ifutabU artMiis. " And shall bend your attention to the bearded ears 
alone.'* The '* sola arista^** here referred to, stand opposed to what 
is mentioned in verse 227, and the general meaning of the whole 
passage is as follows : If, in the autumnal season, you wish, merely 
to sow that kind of grain which produces the bearded ear, you will 
not begin your sowing before the middle of November ; if, howev- 
er, you have determined to sow pulse also, you will then commence 
operations earlier, and at the very beginning of that month. 

221-224. Ante tibi Eoa Atlantides, <S^. ** Let (the Pleiades), the 
daughters of Atlas, be hidden for you in the morning, and let the 
Gnosian eonstellation of the blazing Crown depart (from the skies), 
before you intrust,*' &c. ; literally, ** let the morning Pleiades," &c., 
i. e.f let the Pleiades set in the morning, or, in other words, let 
them go down below the western horizon at the same time that the 
sun rises above the eastern. The Pleiades, according to mythology, 
were the daughters of Atlas, having been transformed into a cluster 
of stars. (Consult note on verses 138 and 225.) Their setting was 
on the eleventh of November. — Gnosia. The epithet ** Gnosian," 
equivalent, in fact, to ** Cretan," is here employed in reference to 
Ariadne, daughter of Minos, whose capital in the Island of Crete 
was Gnosus or Cnosus (Kvuodc), situate on the northern coast. 
After Ariadne had been abandoned by Theseus on the Island of 
Naxos, Bacchus, who chanced to see her there, became enamoured 
of and married her. At the celebration of their nuptials, all the 
deities made presents to the bride, and Venus gave her a crown, 
which Bacchus translated to the heavens and made a constellation 
of eight stars. 

Deeedat. The heliacal setting of the Crown took place on the 
18th or 19th of November. Some refer stella in the text to the 
brightest star in the constellation, and which is the first that sets ; 
but it is better to understand the term here of the entire constella- 
tion. A similar usage occurs in Cicero {eU Or., iii., 45), as well as 
in other writers. Some commentators maintain that Virgil means 
here the heliacal rising of the Crown, which took place about the 
middle of October, and, in accordance with this view, give deeedai 
the very forced interpretation of " emerge," t. «., depart from, or 
leave the sun's rays. — Invita. " Reluctant, as yet, to receive it," t . «., 
because it would, in that event, be intrusted too soon to its care. 


225-229. Muia ante occoBum, dtc. This and the sQCceeding line 
are to be taken parenthetically, and assign a reason why early sow- 
ing is to be avoided. By " the setting of Maia*' is meant the set- 
ting of the Pleiades, Maia being one of the group. The names of 
the rest were Merope, Celsno, Alcyone, Electra, Sterope, and Ta- 
ygete. — Sed iUos exspectdta teges, &c. " But the expected crop has 
mocked them with unprofitable wild oats.^' The MSS. flactuate 
here between avenu and aristis, and this latter has been reoeiTed 
by Heinsius, Heyne, and others. Still, however, avenis is far pr^ 
erable, and aristis evidently arose from an arbitrary change on the 
part of the copyists, who, not comprehending the force of aioemt 
here, altered it to arisiis. It appears, however, from Pliny (xviii., 
17, 44), to have been a belief on the part of some, that if one began 
to sow at too early a period, and before the rainy season which 
commenced at the setting of the Pleiades, the seed, weakened by 
long lying in the earth, degenerated into wild oats, or avena. 

Viciam. " The vetch." Pliny (xviii., 16, 37) agrees with Virgil 
in the sowing of the vetch at the beginning of November ; but Col- 
umella (ii., 10, 29) says that it was sown twice annually, once at 
the autumnal equinox, and again in the month of January. — Ft/em- 
que pkaselum. " And the cheap kidney bean." This species of 
bean is said to have been very common among the Romans, whence 
the epithet here applied to it. It was also called phaseolus, though 
Galen (Alim. /ac, i., 36) distinguishes between the two forms. 
Observe that phaselus is more correct- than faselusy the Greek ex- 
pressions being ^aff^yXof, ^aer^oAof, and ^aaloTLoc- — Peliisiaca. This 
epithet is here applied to the lentil, on account of the excellent 
quality of those produced in Egypt, of which country Pelusium was 
the key on the northeast. The lentils of Egypt were also as fa- 
mous for their abundance as for their excellence. The large vessel 
in which Caius brought the obelisk from the latter country to Rome 
had 120,000 modii of lentils for baM^at.—Cadens Bootes. " Bootes 
when setting." The constellation of Bootes set, according to the 
ancient writers, on the day before the calends of November, that 
is, on the last day of October. The sowing of vetches, kidney 
beans, lentils, &c., is then to begin. 

231-232. /(ictrco. " For this purpose." The poet here supposes 
the sun to make his annual journey through the heavens, and to di- 
vide the year into distinct portions, in order to mark more clearly 
the different periods oC rural labour ; in other words, the sun trav- 
els through the sky for the sake and in honour of agriculture. The 
bard then embraces this occasion to describe the five zones, the 


<odiaC) the northern pole, and the gloomy antipodes. — Orhem, " The 
•circle of the year." Supply annuum. — Per duodena mundi astra. 
-'As he moTes through the twelve constellations of the sky.'* Mun- 
ius here denotes the vault of heaven, through which the sun was 
supposed to move ; and the twelve constellations of the sky are the 
twelve signs of the zodiac. The position of orbem forbids our join- 
ing it in construction, as some do, with mundi. 
' Quinqv£ tenent codum zona. The ancient geographers, from the 
time of Eudoxus to that of Posidonius, divided the circuit of the 
"world, and therefore also each meridian, into 60 parts, each one of 
"Which was equal to six of our degrees. The four quarters of this 
great circle, containing respectively 15 parts, they subdivided each 
into 4, 6, and 6 parts, commencing this subdivision at the equator, 
and running on towards the poles. The first of these subdivisions, 
namely, the 4 parts, or 24 degrees, on each side of the equator, ex- 
tended in either direction to the tropics, and formed in their com- 
bined extent the torrid zone. The next subdivision, namely, the 
5 parts, or 30 degrees, formed the temperate zone in either hemi- 
sphere, extending on one side as far as the polar circle, or constel- 
lation of the Bear, and on the other as far as the antarctic circle. 
The remaining subdivision of 6 parts, or 36 degrees, from the 64th 
to the 90th degree, and lying on the side of the temperate zone in 
either hemisphere, belonged to the frozen zones. At a later day, 
namely, from the time of Posidonius, the boundaries of the two 
temperate zones were carried forward towards the poles, so that 
now the temperate zones consisted each of 7 parts, and reached to 
the 66th degree, while the torrid zone and the two frigid ones con- 
tained each 4 parts. Virgil imitates in his account Eratosthenes. 

Conisco sole rubens. The torrid zone is called »*red" by both 
Eratosthenes and Virgil, and the frigid zones " blue." This either 
had reference to the natural colour of fire and ice respectively, or, 
more properly, as Voss suspects, and Claudian (xxxiii., 244) seems 
to hint, to the red and blue colours employed to represent the torrid 
and frigid zones respectively on the geographical charts of the an- 
cients.— £/ torrida semper ah igni. " And ever parched by its fiery 
beams." The ancients thought the torrid zone uninhabitable, on 
account of excessive heat. It contains, on the contrary, a great 
part of Asia, Africa, and South America. Owing to the nature and 
situation of the countries in this zone, the heat is not everywhere 
the same. The warmest portions are the sandy deserts of Africa : 
far more temperate are the happy islands of the South seas, and 
still milder is the climate of Peru. This last country contains 

256 irOTBfl ON THS 610R6ICS.— -BOOK I. 

mountains from the siimmits of which the rertical sanbeams neT«r 
melt the perpetual snow. 

Quam etreumt &c. " Along this are extended two farthest ones, 
on the right hand and on the left." These are the two frigid zones, 
and by <* right hand and left" are meant respectively the two por- 
tions of the sphere between the north and south temperate zones 
and the poles. — Ctmcreta. ** Stiff." This term applies more par- 
ticularly to earuled glacier but still refers in some degree also to the 
idea of hail as an accompaniment of ** gloomy showers." 

Dua. The two temperate zones. — JEgri*. ** Unhappy." (Com- 
pare the Homeric deiXolei pporotai.) — Etvia secfa per ambaa. '* And 
a path has been cut between them." The allusion is to the zodiac, 
an imaginary ling or broad circle in the heavens, in the form of a 
belt or girdle, spreading about five or six degrees on each side of 
the ecliptic, and containing the twelve constellations or signs. — 
Per ambas. Observe here the usage of per for inter, and- compare a 
similar usage in verse 245. The sun does not move through any 
part of the temperate zones, his extreme northern and southern 
limits being the two tropics. 

240-241. MunduMf ui ad Scythiam, &,6. Virgil speaks here of the 
two poles of the world. He makes the north pole to be the eleva- 
ted one, because that only is visible in these parts of the earth ; 
and for the same reason he speaks of the south pole as being de- 
pressed. Observe that mundtts here, though to be rendered *♦ the 
world," is yet equivalent, in fact, to ca^itm, " the sky." — Scythiam, 
By Scythia is here meant, in poetic phraseology, all the more north- 
ern parts of Europe and Asia. (Compare Gearg., iii., 349.) — Rhipa^ 
asque arces. ** And the Rhipaean summits," t. e., the Rhipaean 
Mountains. The term arx is employed to denote any lofty eleva- 
tion, and, among others, even the summits of mountains and mount- 
ain-chains. The Rhipsean Mountains probably existed only in the 
imaginations of the ancient geographers and poets. If, however, 
they had an actual existence, they would seem to have been the 
same with the chain that separates Russia from Siberia. — Premitur 
Libya devexus in Austros. " So, sloping downward, is it depressed 
towards the southern regions of Africa," t. c, it is depressed towards 
the south pole, just as it is elevated towards the north.— Au^frM. 
The southern gales are here taken figuratively for the regions of 
the south. 

242-243. Hie vertex. « This pole." The north pole is meant. 
Observe the force of hie in denoting proximity. — Nobis semper sub- 
limis. " Is always on high for us," i. «., is always above our heads. 


The inhabitants of the northern temperate zone are here meant.— 
At ilium, suh pcdibutf 6lc. ** But the other, beneath our feet, the 
dark Styx beholds, and the manes far below," t. c, the other, which 
is beneath our feet. We have adopted here the punctuation of 
"Wakefield (a comma after illume and another afler pedilms)^ which 
appears to give the most natural sense. Some, however, connect 
sub pedibus with Siyxt and translate, *' the dark Styx beneath our 
feet;" while others render, "the dark Styx beholds beneath its 
feet." — Profundi. Voss regarjds this as a genitive, and translates 
** die Geister der Tiefe." It is far preferable, however, to consider 
it an epithet. 

244-251. Hie. At the north pole.^^^9t^t». The constellation 
Draco, which is represented as winding between the Great and 
Little Bears. — Circum, perque, ** Around and between." (Com- 
pare, as regards the force of per in this clause, the note on verse 
238.) — Arclos Oceani metuentes, &c. " The Bears fearing to be dip- 
ped in the waters of the Ocean," i. e., the Bears which never set. 
— Ulic. At the south pole. — Ut perhibent. " As they affirm," ». «., 
as some maintain. Martyn thinks that Virgil here alludes to an 
opinion of Epicurus, that the sun might possibly revive and perish 
every day ; admitting which opinion, there can be no antipodes, 
nor can the sun go to lighten another hemisphere. There is, how- 
ever, a fatal objection to this view, namely, that Epicurus was not 
a believer in the globular form of the earth, nor, of course^ in a 
southern hemisphere. — Aut intempesta silet nox. ** Either deepest 
night is silent," i. e., either the silence of deepest night prevails. 
Intempesta nox properly means *' unseasonable night," t. e., that part 
of the night which is peculiarly unfitted for any emplo3n[nent ; and 
hence "darkest night," "the depth of night," "midnight," &c. 
Compare Varro (L. L., vi.; 7), " Intempesiam [noctem] JEliiis dicehat 
quom tempos agendi nullum est;" and Servius (ad JEn., iii., 587), 
** Nox intempesta dicta est media, .... inactuosa,** <Scc. Compare, 
also, the explanation of Schutz (Ind. Cic. Lat.), " Quum intempesta 
nox esset'* (Cic. Phil., i., 3), "da es schon tief in der Nacht war ;" 
and likewise that of Schmalfeld (Latein. Synon., p. 249), *^ Intem- 
pesta nox," " die Zeit wenn Nacht schon stockfinster ist." 

Semper obtentd densantur noete. " Is ever thickened by the over- 
spread pall of night." We have placed a comma after nox in 
the previous line, and have thus connected semper with what comes 
after. Wunderlich and Jahn, however, remove the comma, and 
thus make semper belong to intempesta silet nox; but this wants 
spirit. — Densentur. We have given here the old form of the presh 



ent, from detueo, -ere. The MSS. Tary between this and ieHtamiwrt 
the ordinary form ; and this latter one is retained by Heyne, and 
approved by Wagner. Heinsius, however, maintams that, wher- 
ever there is a choice, detuentur ought to be preferred. — RedU a no- 
bis. ** Returns from us (to them),'* t. «., to those regions near the 
south pole. — Orietu. Supply «oZ. — Equi* affiavit anhelis. The breath- 
ing of the panting steeds of the sun is here poetically put for the 
breeze at 8unrise.-^jr//tc sera rubens, 6lo, "There the bloshiog 
evening kindles up her late fires," t. «., the constellations of the sky. 
Some, with less propriety, make Vesper to be the same with Hes- 
perus, or the evening star ; and as this is the first that appears, the 
bard, according to them, poetically describes this star as kindling 
up the other luminaries of the night. The epithet ruhens, however, 
militates against this, and points rather to the evening red, or col- 
our of sunset. {Vqss, ad loc.) 

262-256. Hine tempestatesj 6lc. ** Hence we have it in our power 
to ascertain beforehand the changes of season and of weather, even 
while the sky is still doubtful," t. e., from the approach or departure 
of the sun in the zodiac, we can tell beforehand the changes of sea- 
son, and the changes of weather also that are connected with these, 
even while the sky as yet gives no certain indication of such change. 
Observe here the peculiar force of tempestateSf. and the double idea 
involved in it. — Messisque diem. Alluding to the change from spring 
to summer. — Temptisque serendi. Autumn and winter as succeed- 
ing to summer. — Et quando infidum, &c. The change from winter 
to spring, when navigation commenced with the rising of the Plei- 
ades. — Infidum marmor. ** The bright but faithless surface of the 
deep." The term marmor is here applied to the sea, not with any 
reference to solidity, but as indicating a bright and polished surface. 
(Consult note on JSn., vii., 28.) 

Quando armatas^ &c. ** When to launch the well-equipped fleets." 
The reference is here not to vessels of war, with which, of course, 
agriculture has no connexion, but to fleets of traders, carrying to 
other and distant lands the agricultural products of that from which 
they sail. Hence armatcs is to be taken here in the sense of ** fitted 
for sea," and may be compared with a similar usage in the case of 
the Greek C>TT%ujfievai. — Deducere. Literally, " to draw down," as 
referring to the ancient custom of drawing up vessels on shore at 
the end of a voyage, and of drawing them down again to the sea 
on recommencing naval operations. — Tempestivam evertere. "To 
fell in due season," t. e., for naval timber, &c. 

257-262. Nee frustrot dtc. The poet still farther enlarges upon 

; K0TE8 ON THB OE0£GI0S.— BOOR I. 259 

^the importance of a knowledge of astronomy to the husbandman. 
F This knowledge) howeyer, as Yoss conjectures, was to be obtain- 
, ed not so much from actual obsenration, as from rustic calendars 
. constructed from the astronomical tables of Eudoxus, Meton, and 
. others.'— Parcm. " Equally divided."— C(m/i»«*. " Keeps within 
doors." — Mtdta maiurare. " To do many things in proper season," 
t. e., at leisure and in due season. Obserye that maiurare is " to do 
that for which it is theproper time ;" but properare is *< to do a thing 
in a hurry." — Forent properanda, "Would have to be done in 
haste." — Durum dentem. "The hard, tooth-like point." — Lintres. 
" Wooden vessels." Under this general designation are included 
all kinds of wooden-ware accustomed to be used in and around a 
farmer's abode, as also troughs for watering cattle, vessels for 
holding grapes, meal-tubs, &c. Some conunentators, however, 
give a very different meaning to lintresj and make it signify " wher- 
ries," on the supposition that such would be needed in the country 
adjacent to the Po during the inundations of that river. This, al- 
though the primitive* meaning of linteTf seems far less natural here 
than the one which we have adopted. 

263-265. Pecori signum. The way of marking cattle was by 
burning with liquid pitch, or tar. The mark was usually the mas- 
ter's name. This operation was commonly performed at the close 
of January and April. {Columella vii., 9. — Id., xi., 2, 14, and 38.) 
— Aut numeros impressii acervis. This was done by means of tick- 
ets or tallies affixed to the several heaps of grain, distinguishing 
the quantities and qualities of each. {Serv., ad loc.) — Vallosy furcas- 
que bicomes. " Stakes and two-pronged forks." These would be 
of use as props for the vines. They are among the number of 
those things which Columella directs the husbandmen to prepare 
during the winter season, when they were prevented from pursuing 
other work. (Colum., :si., 2.)—Atque Amerina pararU, 6lC. "And 
prepare the Amerian (willow) bands for the bending vine," ». «., 
prepare the willow twigs of Ameria to bind the vine. The best 
willows in Italy grew at Ameria, a city of Umbria, south of Tuder, 
and in the vicinity of the Tiber. {Colum., iv., 30.) 

266-268. Nunc facilis rubed, &c. " Now let the light basket be 
woven of the bramble twig." Servius thinks that by rubed virgd is 
meant such twigs as grow about Rubi, a town of Apulia, between 
Oanusium and Barium. But, in the first place, no mention is any- 
where made of this town's being celebrated for willows or osiers, 
and, in the next place, if the meaning of Servius were actually the 
true one, rubed in that event must be written rubid, — Nunc torrett 

260 N0TB8 ON TBB OK0K0I08.— BQOK I. 

igni, ^' Before the inYentioii of mills impelled by wind or wateTi 
when reducing the grain to meal waa a domestic manufacture, this 
operation was facilitated by slightly parching the grain. iVulp^, 
ad loc,)—Nunc frangite saxo, ** Now break it with the stone," t. <., 
now grind it. 

268-275. Quippe eiiam, &c. ** Nay, human and divine laws pe^ 
mit your carrying on certain works even on sacred days." Quippt, 
literally, has here the force of quum, " since," and the connexion 
in the train of thought is as follows : Be not surprised at my recom- 
mending to the husbandmen to pursue certain labours within doors 
during rainy weather ; since there are certain works that one may 
and ought to attend to even on sacred days.— i2ioM deducere, "To 
clear the channels," t. e., the channels or trenches that serve to ir- 
rigate the fields, or else to drain the meadows. Compare the lan- 
guage of Macrobius {Sat., iii., 3), " Quod autem Virgiliug aU deducere, 
nihil aliud est quam detergere ; namfestis dvehus rivQs veteres sordidaiot 
deter gere licet, ntmos facer e non licet." — NuUa rdigio, " No prec^ 
of religion." 

Segeti pratendere sepem. According to Columella, however, this 
was forbidden by the Roman priests : " Quamquam pontifices negeiit 
segetem feriis sepiri debere." (Colum., ii., 22.) — Avibus. Destruc- 
tive birds, as Voss remarks, alone are meant. (Compare verse 
119.) — BcUantumque gregem, &c. It was allowed, on a sacred day, 
to immerse the sheep in water, if their health required it ; but not 
to do this merely for the sake of cleansing the fleece. Hence the 
peculiar propriety of salubri, on the present occasion, as an epithet 
of fluvio. Observe, also, the skilful employment of balantum, it being 
well known that sheep make a great bleating when they are washed. 

Scepe oleo tardiy <&c. The rustics, busily employed at other times 
in the culture of their little farms, were allowed on sacred days to 
carry oil and fruit to market, and to bring back such articles as 
their immediate wants required. — Agitator, The rustic himself is 
meant, not a mere asinarius. — Vilibus. " Cheap." — Lapidem inat- 
sum. " The indented millstone," i. e., the stone to be used in do- 
mestic grinding. On this the surface was slightly chiselled and 
furrowed to catch and break the grain. {Valpy, ad loc.) — Pids. 
The pitch would be wanted for coating vessels ; and, besides this, it 
was thrown into the boiling must to improve the taste of the wine. 

276-280. Ipsa dies alios, &c. " The moon herself has given dif- 
ferent days in different order auspicious for work." The poet now 
proceeds to give an account of thQse days of the month which were 
reckoned either lucky or unlucky by the ancients, and in this takes 



Hesiod (Op. eL D.t 765, seqq.) for hie chief authority. — Quintam, 
Supply diem. Yosa, on account of quinUtm here in the feminine, 
reads ulias in the previous lind ; but he forgets the following verse 
of TiboUuSy where the two genders meet : *' Venit post muUoa una 
Serena dies.''* (iii., 6, 32.) — Orcus. ** Orcus." We must not con- 
found this deity with Pluto, as many have done. Orcus is the oath 
personified, and the son of £ris. He is the divinity, therefore, who 
punishes the false and perjured. {Hee.^ Op. et D., 804.)— ^um^ni- 
desque sata. Hesiod does not say that the Furies were born on 
this day, as Virgil ^ere narrates, but merely that they then go about 
to punish the wicked. Though the account of lucky and unlucky 
days here given by the Roman poet is imitated from that of Hesiod, 
yet the former deviates in many particulars from the latter. One 
of the most important is the following : Virgil says, " Avoid the 
fifth," meaning evidently the fifth day of the lunar month ; but 
Hesiod has it, " Avoid the Jiftha^^ {nifmra^ k^aXeaadai)t i. e., every 
fifth day, meaning the fifth day of each decade of the month of 
thirty days, or, in other words, the 6th, 16th, and 25th days of each 
month. {Vosstodloc.) As regards the unlucky character of the 
number 5, consult Gottling's note on Hesiod (Op. et D., 803). 

Partu nefando, ** By an unholy birth." — Great. Not for creavit, 
as Heyne maintains, but the simple present, employed purposely to 
impart more animation to the clause. (Compare Edog., viii., 45. 
— -WogTwr, ad EL ad Messal., p. 27, eeq.) — Ccnimque lapetumqiie, 
Cceus and lapetus belonged to the Titan race. They were the 
sons of Uranus and Gaea (Heaven and Earth), and brothers of Cro- 
nus, or Saturn, and were, together with the other Titans, hurled 
down to Tartarus by Jupiter. — Typhoea. Typhoeus, or Typhon, was 
a monster with a hundred dragon heads, whom Earth bore to Tar- 
tarus. He was confined by Jupiter under the Island of Sicily. — 
Fratres. Otus and Ephialtes, the giant sons of Aloeus, or, more 
correctly, of Neptune and Canace. They undertook to make war 
upon heaven, with the intention of dethroning Jupiter, and, in or- 
der to reach the skies, piled Mount Ossa upon Pelion, and Olympus 
upon Ossa. — Retdndere. " To tear down." 

281-283. Ter sunt conatiy <&c. Observe how skilfully the line is 
constructed, in order that its slow and toilsome march may make 
the sound an echo to the sense. — Scilicet atque Ossa, dec. ** Ay, 
and to roll up on Ossa the leafy Olympus." We have placed a 
comma after Ossam in the previous line, and have thus connected 
scilicet with the present verse, giving it the force of a strong aflirm- 
a:ion blended with bitter irony. A similar usage occcurs at verse 


ABS.—Frondotum. The Homeric kivoal(^^^ov. Virgil's ACCOimt IB 
imitated from the Odyssey (xi., 315, seqq.). — Ter pater ezstructot, 
6lc. This legend of the war between the giants and the gods ap- 
pears to have originated, from the appearance of things, after aa 
earthquake had torn asunder Ossa from Olympus, and had strewn 
the intenrening valley with fragments of rock. — DisjecU, ^ Scat- 

284-286. SepUma post decimam. '*The seyenteenth," t. e, (to 
adopt the Greek mode of computation), the seventh day after the 
first decade. (Compare note on verse 278.) Some, however, trans- 
late, " the seventh, next to the tenth," i. €., the seventh in the next 
less degree after the tenth ; but compare Manilius (ir., 449), where 
tertiapost decimam stands for ** thirteenth," and (v. 462) where sep- 
tima post decimam stands for " sevehteenth." — Ponere vitem. " To 
set out the vine." — Et licia telcB addere. ** And to annex the leashes 
to the warp," t. e., to begin to weave. (Consult Diet. Antiq.y An' 
tJum's ed., p. 955, a.) — Nonafuga melior^ &c. The ninth day would 
be favourable for the runaway, since the moon would then be of 
sufficient age to give a good light, and help him on his way. For 
this very reason, on the other hand, it would be unfavourable for 
the thief, who prefers darkness. {Vossy ad loc.) 

287-290. Multa adeo, <Scc. *<Many things, too, have succeeded 
better during the cool night." The poet now proceeds to mention 
what sort of works are to be done in the cool night, or early in the 
morning, both in winter and summer. — Dedere. There is no neces- 
sity whatever for our regarding this as the aorist (dare solent). It 
<5omes in more naturally as the simple perfect. — Sole novo. " At 
sunrise." — Eoiis. " The morning star," put here for morning itself. 
The term is of Greek origin ('Ewof, scil. aaTnp). — Leves stipula. 
The Roman husbandmen were accustomed to mow their grain in 
such a way as to leave one half of the stalk standing in the ground. 
These half stalks were called stipulcBj " stubble," and were either 
burned, for the purpose of fertilizing the soil, or else were cut down 
in the month of August, about thirty days after harvest. This stub- 
ble was better cut by night, since it was then moistened and soft- 
ened by the dew. (Columell.y vi., 3, 1.— /rf., xi., 2, 54.— Farro, i., 
50, &c.) — Nodes lentus non deficit^ &c. " The clammy dew fails not 
the hours of the night," i. c, abandons not the night. Some read 
noctis in the genitive, and make it depend on humors explaining the 
clause as follows : " Noctis humor non dejieitf scil. tondentes ;" but 
Fabricius correctly remarks, in condemnation of this, ** Nocii pro- 
prium est, ut sit humida ; non igitur humor noctis ; sed humor non 


^jiefieit noetes.** Pliny observes, that a dewy night is fittest for mow- 
"^ing. He also mentions the practice of watering the meadows the 
'day before cutting; to facilitate the labour probably (xTiii., 27). 
JTbe Romans commonly cut their meadows twice : the grass was 
before it withered, by which means the hay was more succu- 

'lont, and the meadow less exhausted. 

S91-^292. Seros bibemiad lumini*t &c. ** Sits up by the late fires 
, of winter light/' i. e., the fires that afibrd light during the nights of 
' "Winter. The freer version would be, ** sits up late by the light of a 
winter fire." The light that aids the rustic in his work comes from 
the logs that lie blazing on the hearth; and hence the peculiar 
beauty of the expression luminis ignes^ "fires of light," t. «., afford- 
ing light, the reference being now more to light than to purposes 
of warmth. — Facet inspicat, "Points torches." These would be 
used principally for going abroad after sunset. The kind here 
meant consisted of a single piece of wood, pointed and hoarded at 
the end in imitation of an ear of grain {spica). They were com- 
monly made of resinous wood, or else were coated with wax and 
tipped with -sulphur. Another species of torch was made of wood- 
en staves, or twigs, either bound by a rope drawn round them in a 
spiral form, or surrounded by circular bands at equal distances. 
The inside of this kind of torch may be supposed to have been filled 
with flax, tow, or other vegetable fibres, the whole being abundantly 
impregnated with pitch, rosin, wax, oil, and other inflanmiable sub- 

294-296. Arguto conjuxy &c. Consult note on ^n.y vii., 14. — 
Aut dulcis mUsti, &c. " Or boils down over the fire the liquor of 
the sweet must." Must is the new wine before it is fermented. 
We find in Columella, that it was usual to boil some of the must 
till a fourth part, or a third, or even sometimes half, was evapora- 
ted. The use of this boiled must was to put it into some sorts of 
wine to make them keep. Columella expressly directs the sweet- 
est must to be employed for this purpose, so that dulcis here is no 
idle epithet. {Colum., xii., 19, seqq. — Martyn, ad loc.) — Vulcano, 
The fire-god put figuratively for fire itself. — Undam trepidi aheni. 
" The wave of the tremulous caldron." The boiling must would 
resemble the waves of the sea, and the motion of the liquor would 
be communicated to the vessel itself. The term dheniy as employed 
here, would denote an ordinary vessel of bronze (copper and tin). 
Columella, however, reconunends that leaden ones be employed to 
prevent the formation of arugo. {Colum.y xii., 20.) 
297-S98. At rubicunda Ceres, dtc. " But the reddened grain it 


oat down in the midst of the heat of day." From the mention of 
works to be done in the night, the poet now passes to those whidi 
are to be performed in the daytime. The epithet rubieunda is here 
applied to the ripened grain, just as JUtmt is in verse 316* The 
colour meant in either case is a blending of zed and yeHow. — Meih 
astu. The true signification of these words has been very strange- 
ly mistaken by many. The meaning is neither '* in the midst of 
the sumroer^s heat," since such advice would certainly be snpeiila- 
ous, nor " during the heat of midday," for at that very time the 
reapers are at rest ; but the idea is simply this, that, as other works 
succeed better during the coolness of the night, or of early morn- 
ing, so reaping is better performed during the heat of day. — Sueci^ 
diiur. This term has here a special reference to the mode of reap- 
ing, the grain being cut off close under the ear, and a large portion 
of the stalk being consequently left in the ground. (Compare note 
on verse 289.) — Tostas. « Parched," t. e., by the heat, or, as Colu- 
mella expresses it, ** opportums soUbus torrefacta" (ii., 81). 

299*804. Nudus ara, dus. " Plough in thin attire, sow m thin at- 
the," i e.» do your ploughing and sowing in the warm part of the 
day, when bnt little clothing will be required. The poet, it will be 
remembered, speaks of ploughing and sowing, in a previous pass- 
age (v. 210), as commencing at the autumnal equinox. We roust 
be careful here not to regard nudus as implying absolute naked- 
ness. It merely denotes one, on the present occasion, who wears 
only his tunic or indutus. In this state of comparative nudity the 
ancients performed the operations of ploughing, sowing, and reap- 
ing. Cincinnatus was found thus thinly attired when he was called 
to be dictator, and sent for his togOt that he might appear before the 
senate. The accompanying wood-cut is taken from an antique gem 
in the Florentine collection, and shows a man ploughing in his to- 
nic only. 

Ignava, " Is a season of indolence." The part of the winter 
season here particularly alluded to consisted of the fifteen days 


both before and after the winter solstice (Compare note on Terse 
211.) — Porto. "What they have acquired," ». «., the stores previ- 
ously laid up. — Curant. ** Turn all their attention to."— (r«ma/t« 
kienu. ** The genial winter," t. «., the proper season of festivity. 
December was the month held sacred to each one's genius, and it 
was then, in particular, when the labours of the year were brought 
to a close, that the genius was propitiated by festal relaxation. 
{Ooid, Fast., iii., 68.) — Pressa canna. •* The heavily-laden barks." 
— Coronas. On the arrival and departure of vessels, garlands were 
hung at the stem, the images of the tutelary deities being kept 
there. This hne occurs again at JSn., iv., 418. 

305-310. Sed tamtfiy &c. Although winter is the season of inac- 
tivity, still certain things are to be attended to even then, and these 
the poet now proceeds to specify. — Quemas glandes. " Acorns." 
The epithet qusmas is by no means an idle one here. The Romans 
used the word glans in a general sense, to indicate the Ihiit of the 
beech, oak, or other forest-trees. — Stringert, " To strip off,** i. e., 
to gather. Voss is wrong in maintaining that stringer* applies 
properly to acorns merely, and cannot be extended to bay-berriest 
olives, dtc., except by a xeugma. The authorities in opposition to 
this are, Colo, R, J2., 66 ; Varro, R. R., i., 66 ; ColsmsU., xii., 38, 7. 
— Crueniaque myrta. Myrtle-berries are here called crusnta, from 

* their vinous juice. Bay-berries, and those of the wild myrtle, were 
employed to coomiunicate flavonr to some species of wines, and to 
oU. From the end of October to January was the season for ma- 
king oiL {Voss, ad loe.-^CohimeU,, xi., 2, 83, 6lo. — Valpy, ad loe.) 

Stuppea torquerUem, &jc. " Whirling the hempen thongs of the 
Balearic sling," t. e., causing the sling to revolve many times round 
his head, in order to increase the force of the blow. Observe that 
torquentem agrees in the accusative with sum mderstood before 
Jigere, and that this sum is in apposition with cohnum, understood 

' before stringere.—BaUaris. The inhabitants of the Balearic islands, 
now Majorca and Minorca, were celebrated for their skill in sling- 
ing, and hence the epithet " Balearic!' becomes an ornamental one 

. for the sling itself. 

311-316. Quid tempestates, &c. The poet, after briefly alludmg 
to the two stormy seasons of the year, namely, autumn and spring, 
proceeds to give a very graphic picture of a storm in harvest-time. 
-—Sidera. The stormy constellations of autumn are, according to 
Columella, Arcturus, rising on the 12th of September ; the Centaur, 
rising on the 23d of the same month ; the Kids, rising on the 27th ; 
and the Crown, on the 6th of the following month. The risings of 


all of these brought stormy weather. — Atque, uH jami &o. ** And 
of the vigilance that is to be exercised by the husbandmen, when 
now both the day is shorter and the summer heat nsore moderate." 
We have here only another description of autumn, when the nights 
begin to lengthen and the heat to diminish. The Roman autmna 
began on the 12th of August, when the eonsteUation of the Lyrs 
set, and continued until the 9th of November, when the sword of 
Orion set, and winter began. 

RuU, ** Rushes down." Yoss makes this signify, *< when spring 
closes," while Wunderlich explains it by "festifuU," Both, how- 
ever, appear to be in error. The term would seem to refer rather 
to the heavy rains of spring. — Spieea jam campU, 6lc. '<When 
now the bearded harvest ha» begun to bristle in the fields." — Et 
pium. Virgil often adopts this mode of beginning a new clause in 
the sixth foot of an hexameter, when he repeats the same partide 
which he has previously employed. — Laclentia, <* Milky;" more 
literaUy, ** filling itself with milk."— .^f/ipuZd. « The stem." Used 
here for eultmu, 

817-321. EtfragUijam ttringeret, 6tc. " And was now proceed- 
ing to reap the barley vnth its fragile stalk." The expression frtigUi 
hordea ctUmo is merely ornamental for hardea alone. The barley 
harvest preceded that of the other grain, and took place in June, 
towards the end of the month, when the fire-flies began to appear. 
{PdUad., vii., 2.— P/in.. H. N., xviii., 66.)-^Stringeret. Literally, 
'*was grasping." The term appears to be descriptive here of the 
reapers grasping the corn for the purpose of cutting. — Expulsam 
eruerent, " Would tear up and toss." — Ita turbine nigro, Ac. «♦ la 
this same way would a winter-storm bear onward in dark whirl- 
wind," <&c. The meaning is simply this, that the storm here de- 
scribed would uproot the heavy grain, and toss it far and wide on 
high, with as much ease as one sees a winter tempest bear before 
it the light pieces of straw and the flying stubble. 

322-327. Immeiuum agmen aquarum, "An immense march of 
waters."— JS:a; a//o. "From on high." This is Heyne's explana- 
tion, and much more natural than that of Voss, " from the deep," 
in which the change is too abrupt.— IZitii arduut other. " The lofty 
sky rushes down," i. e., the very cataracts of heaven seem to be 
opened, and the sky itself to descend.— £7^ jduvid ingenU, dec. «< And 
washes away with a deluge of rain the joyous crops and the laboars 
of the oxen," i. e., and all the fair results of the toilsome labours 
of husbandry. (Compare the ipya poQv of Hesiod, Op. et D., 46.) 
-^Cava fiundna. "The hollow rivers." By these are meant 

KOTES our TflS GXOBGICSd — ^BOOK I. 1267 


^ mountaiii stieanut which» during the heats of Bunmer, have their 
^ volume of water diminished) and flow between high rocky banks. 
. They now •* swell-' with the acoessions of the storm. — Fervetque 
^ fretiti &c. ".And the sorfaoe of ocean boils with its panting and 
^ agitated waters." Obserre th^ fireta is here nsed in a general 
•ense for the stonny waters of the sea at large, not merely for those 
confined within narrow straits. 

328-331. MedU Himkarum m node. "Amid a night of storm- 
. clouds.'* Nimbtia is a dark thunder-cloud. — MoUiur. '* Brandish- 
es." This verb always carries with it the idea of an energetic es- 
ercise of power. Virgil, on the present occasion, appears to imitate 
Lucretius, where the same ^pression is found, (yi., 262. Com- 
pare 264.) — Quo moiu. ** At which morement (of the godhead).'* 
— Fugere/era. *<The wild beasts have (led." Observe the pecu- 
liar use of the perfect in denoting an instantaneous action. In other 
"words, it is employed aoristically, the interval between the begin- 
ning and the. end of the action being so brief as to be regarded 
merely as a single point of time. The tease, therefore, is here 
strikingly expressive of alarm, and, as the consequence of this, of 
rapid flight.— Humt/w pavor. <« Lowly fear," t. «., making its pos- 
sessor entertain lowly and humble feelings. 

332-334. Atko. Greek form of the accusative. (Compare T^oe., 
Tii., 77, 1^ 'AOu, ^ 'Po66irav, 4 Kwnaaov hrxardevra) The weight of 
MSS. authority! however, is in favour of Atkon. Still the reading 
Aiho is commonly retained in the editions. Athos was a celebra- 
ted mountain -peninsula of Macedonia, between the Strymonian 
and Singitic Gulfs. It is now MmU Sanio.-^Rkoiopen, Consult 
note on EcUg., vi., 80. — Ceraunim, "Ceraunian heights." The 
Cerauoii or Acroceraunii Montes (in Greek Kepavvia or 'Acpocepav- 
vto, scil. 6pii) were a chain of mountains stretching along the coast 
of Northern Epirus, and forming part of the boundary between it 
and Illyricum. That portion of the chain which extended beyond 
Oricnm formed a bold promontory, and was specially termed Acro- 
ceraunia, from its snnunits (fiupa) being often struck by lightning 
(jcepavvdc). — Auairu In Italy the south wind brings.most frequent 
nia^-^PUnguni, " Moan." PUmgere properly means " to strike," 
t. «., as an indication of mourning, and is generally applied to those 
who beat their bosoms, dec., in token of excessive grief. By a bold 
but beautiful personification, it is here applied to the groves and the 
shore, as moaning beneath the lashings of the tempest. 

836-887. Hoc nuluena. After this description of a tempest, the 
poet pcopoMt twn methods of avoiding aoeYi UkialotVoitAa*. ^iva^Vi 


a careful obserration of the heayens ; the ether, by a proper wor- 
ship of the gods, especially of Ceres, the patroness of hasbandiy. 
-^Cadi mense* et sidera serva. ** Observe the months of the sky and 
the constellations." By ** the months of the sky'* are meant the 
twelye signs of the zodiac, through each of whioh the sun is about 
a month in passing. By " the constellations," on the other hand, 
are meant those which are accompanied by a change of weather at 
their rising or setting. The precept given by the poet is then as 
follows : Mark not only in what one of the twelve si^ns the sun 
may be at the time ; but observe, also, how the case stands with re- 
gard to those constellations that have an influence on the weather, 
as to their being near their rising or their- setting. Mark, too, he 
adds, the position of the planets, in what sign of the zodiac they 
may be, or with what other stars they may be in conjunction. In 
speaking of the planets, moreover, he selects two as representa- 
tives of the rest, one, namely, Saturn, the most remote from the sun, 
and having the longest revolution to make ; and the other, Mercury, 
the nearest to the sun, and having the shortest circuit, if we except 
the moon. 

Frigida. Because so remote from the sun. — Sese receptee. In what 
sign of the zodiac, or with what star in conjunction. Saturn, when 
in Capricorn, brought very heavy rains in Italy ; in Scorpio, hail ; 
in other signs, thunderings ; in others, storms of wind. — Quoa ignit 
calot &c. ** Into what circuits the Cyllenian fire may be wander- 
ing in the sky." We have adopted ealo^ with Voss and others; as 
preferable to the common reading call. — Ignis Cyllenins. Mercury 
is here meant, who was fabled to have been bom on Mount Cyllene 
in Arcadia, on the confines of Achaia. This star is here called ignut 
on account of its' brightness, just as it was denominated in Greek 
6 oriKtiiVy " the brilliant one." — Orhes. The meaning is, not with 
what other planets Mercury may be in conjunction, but in what 
one of his own circuits he may be at the time, for in his rapid course 
he would make many circuits, while Saturn, for example, would be 
performing but one. (Compare Wagner, ad loe.y-Erret. The term 
planet {i^TMvrjvn^) is derived from TrXavdw, " to wander." 

338-342. Annua magna, &c. " Repeat the annual rites unto the 
great Ceres, sacrificing on the joyous herbage." The poet here 
alludes to the Amharvalia, a festival in honour of Ceres, and which 
was so called because the victim was led around the fields {qtuti 
vicHma ambiret area) before it was sacrificed. In verse 345, Virgil 
mentions its being led three times around. — Refer. Observe the 
employment of this verb here to denote the performance of an act 


recnrriog at stated intervals. {Wunderlich, ad Geqrg., i., 249.) — 
Oparattu, For operant. Deponent verbs often employ the perfect 
participle as a present one. (Compare Wagner, Quasi. Virg., 
zzviiii., 3.) — Extrema tub easum kietni*. ** Just at thd expiration 
of the last days of winter." The time for the sacrifice in question 
was about the 22d of April, when the Pleiades rose, and brought 
with them, a more constant warmth.«— ifo//w«tma vina. The wine 
would now be mellowed down, having passed through the winter 
season. — Somni dulces. The slumbers of the shepherds are meant, 
on the woody mountains, unto which they drove their flocks at the 
rising of the Pleiades. {Vq99, ad loc.) 

344-360. Cui. *'In honour of whom," i. e., in libation unto 
whom. According to Voss, this libation of wine and honey was 
poured either upon the victim that was intended to be sacrificed, or 
upon the fire on the altar. — Felix hostia, " The propitiating vic- 
tim," t. e., that is of happy omen for the produce of the fields, since 
it propitiates the favour of the goddess. The victim ofi!*ered up on 
this occasion was a sow, called, in consequence, porca prffcidanea. 
{Cato, R. R., l^.y—Omnis choru9 et tocii. **The whole band of 
thy companions in full chorus." Put for omnis chortu socwrum. 
The Moeu are the companions and assistants in rural labours.-^ 
OvaaUeM. " With joyous feelings." Equivalent to UBta/nles.^^Vocent. 
** Let them invite." The expression vooare in tecla is here the same 
as ui miMtt inoocare. — Tortd rsdimitus tempera quercu. ** Having his 
temples encircled by the wreathed oak leaf." They wore wreaths 
of oak in honour of Ceres, because she first taught mankind the 
use of grain instead of acorns. — Det matue incompoettoM. *' He dance 
in uncouth measure." — Cereri. ** In honour of Ceres." 

351-356. Atque, Iubc ut certis, &c. After having insisted upon 
the importance of astronomical knowledge to the husbandman, the 
poet now proceeds to show in what way he may be able, even with- 
out this, to foresee, in a good measure, the changes^ of the weather, 
and to prevent the misfortunes that may attend them. The meth- 
od proposed is to watch the signs afiforded by the moon, and to 
draw prognostics likewise from natural phenomena, dec. — Hoc. 
Referring to what comes after, namely, aetus, pluviatj verUos, 6lc. 
— PoeaemuM. We have given this, with Voss, Wunderlich, and 
Wagner, as preferable to poesimuSf the common reading : pqaeemua 
denotes the intent of Jove ; poasimua 'merely a present result. 
( Wagner, ad loe.y^Agentes. " Driving onward with them." Equiv- 
alent to Muum advehenUs.—Siatuit, '* Appointed," i. e., as a fixed 

and ooDstaot law. 


970 NOTM Olf TBfe GEORalOB.-«-BOOK I* 

CadmmU. <* Should hSLV Obserre the use of eaiere for ruiUn, 
80 ID Greek, 0cf>iao weaovroc. {HeM.j Op. et D.t 547.>— Qntii m^ 
wdenles. AUuding to the frequent recarrence of what prognoetic 
-^FropUu ttahvdU. Not allowing^ them to go forth to their acciw- 
tomed and more distant pastnres.^oCon/tiiHo. ** In the first pbuse.** 
The poet now proceeds to enumerate the TarioiiS prof^ostics that 
give warning of approaching storms ; and he gives them, too^ in 
their natural order, beginning with the more remote ones, and end- 
ing with those that indicate the storm to be close at hand. The 
whole passage is in imitation of Aratns. 

857-364. Aridus fragor. «* A dry oraelding sound,-'* t. «., like that 
made by the dry branches of trees when they" break. — Atiia «ra<i- 
hu. ** Up- on the high mountains,** t. «., amid the forests high up 
on the mountains. — Mitceri. ** To be distnrbed," i «., by the dash* 
ing of the troubled wayes. Voss calls the attention of the reader 
to the peculiar beauty of the numbers in Terses 857-869. 

Jam siH twm c eurvisf &c. ** Now, then, does the waire with dif- 
ficulty restrain itself from the bending ships." Obsenre the con- 
struction of ttmpero. With the aocusatiTe, it means " to regulate,** 
"to arrange;*' but with the datiye, "to set bounds io,'* '*to te 
strain." The common text joins it, on the present occasion, with 
the dative isibi) and the ablative (esrtut*), but ^e have preferred 
inserting the preposition before the latter, with Heinsius, Bothe, 
Wagner^ and others, on good MSS. authority. The preposition 
with the ablative occurs^ moreover, at JEn.y it, 8. — CUtmortmque 
feruTU ad littora. " And bear loud outcries to the shores,** t. «., fly 
to land with loud cries.— ^^gii« altam supra volat, dto. This descrip- 
tion of the soaring flight of the heron is admirably true to nature. 

365-869. Stellas. According to the Geoponica (i., 11), and Pliny 
{H. iV^., ii., 36, xviii., 80), shooting stars portend a storm from the 
quarter towards which they proceed ; but, according to Aratus (v. 
194), Seneca {N. Q., i., 14), and others, from the quarter whence 
they shoot.— il ttrgo. " After them.**— Pa/«am. What Virgil says 
here of chaflT, falling leaves, and feathers, Aratus has said of the 
down of thistles. 

870-372. At^ Borea de parte, &e. The poet now proceeds to give 
the prognostics of rain, and again imitates, in so doing, the Gre- 
cian Aratus. The first of these is lightning and thunder from all 
parts of the heavens, three quarters being named for the whole 
number.— Fu/mtno/. " It lightens." The idea of thunder is also 
implied, fulmen being properly the lightning that strikes. — Bi quum 
Enrique, dio. " And when the home of Eurus and of Zephyrus 


'f eceli sends forth thunderings," u e., when it lightens and thunders 
f in the southeast and the west. As already remarked, the north, 

r.-, the southeast, and the west are here named as a part for the whole, 
.^Osims rurm naiant. ''All the fields swim."— -Ponto. <<0n the 
deep.'* Opposed to Tvrc Wakefield connects pos/o with AumuU ; 
bat the sails of the mariner are here wet with the rain, not with the 
water of ocean. 

373^78. iViuifturm tmjmutfiUt&M, dec. ** A rain storm has never 
done harm to Any who were not prcTiously apprised of its Qoming.'* 
The meaning is sihiply this, that so clear are the warnings and 
prognostics of the approach of rain that no one need erer be ofiT his 
guard. There is no neeessity whatever, therefore, of our reading 
ffrudeniibut here with Schrader. — Aut iUum aurgenUm, Stjc. ** Ei- 
ther the cranes, accDstomed to wing their way on high, have fled 
from it at its rising (and taken shelter) in the bottom of the valleys.*' 
Aristotle, in treating, of the ibresight of cranes, says, they fly on 
high that they may see afar off; and if they pereeive elooda and 
etorms, they descend and rest on the ground ! From this high flight 
of the cranes we see the propriety of the epithet «{rut; and we also 
find that pot their flying on, hi|^ bnt their descent, is to be esteem- 
ed a sign of rain« (iMsr/yn, ad loe,) — VtdHiu* imis. Incorrectly 
joined by some in construction wii\i Jturgentem. 

CtLptamt, "Has snuflTed xki^y^Arguta. " Twittering.''-«»Ctrv 
eumvolitamt, " Has skimmed around." — Et vetertm in Uwm. Virgil 
is thought to allude here to the metamorphosis of the Lyeian peas- 
antry into frogs, for insulting Latona. {Ovid, MeL, vi., 876.)— Ce- 
cinere. The poet has attempted to imitate by this word (prononnoed 
by the Romans kekinere) the note of the frog. (Compare the fipeitB^ 
tcexi^ of Aristophanes, Mtm^ SM>9, seq.). 

379-382. Sapius et tectitj dee. <^More frequently, too, has the 
ant, wearing^ (in this way) a narrow path, brought out its eggs flrom 
its hidden recesses." The poet now proceeds to mention certain 
prognostics of still more frequent occurrence than those already 
described. — AngUMtum Ureru Her, BeautifuHy deseriptive of the 
toilsome and unwearied efiR>rts of these insects, and of the long 
line of march formed by them in eoming forth from and returning 
to their homes. — Et bibit ingens aretu. It was an article of popular 
belief among the ancients that the rainbow drew up water with its 
horns. Aratus mentions the rainbow appearing double as a sign 
of rain, in which he is followed by Fliny.— -Cor9orum. The rook is 
meant. Some regard eonut here as the raven, others as the crow. 
Both, however, are wrong. The rook Ib a gregarions bird, bat thi» 


raTen and the crow are solitary ones; besides, the qnalities de- 
scribed at verse 410, seqq., are essentially different from those of the 
raven and the crow. — Jnerepuit densis alt*. ** Have made a load 
flapping with their thickly-crowded pinions.** Arattts has nrepd 
mfKvd, but nvKvd here answers better to the Latin crebro. Yirgil, 
on the contrary, means to express by densis 4he idea of a large 
number of birds in dense order. 

383-384. Jam varias pelagi voluerts, dee. " Now may yoa see 
▼arious birds of ocean, and those also which 'search for food through- 
out the Asian meadows, in the pocHs oif fresh water formed by the 
overflowings of the Cayster.** Another class of presages is here 
mentioned, consisting, namely, of those that are afforded by both 
sea-fowl and fresh-water birds. Wagner and others read varuB in 
the nominative. (Consult note on infiinderey v. 385.) — Et qum Asiot 
&c. Alluding to the fresh-water fowl, especially swans, that fre^ 
quented in great numbers the Asia pahu, a fenny tract of c^untfy 
in Lydia, formed by the River Cayster, near its mouth. Observe 
that Asia here has the initial syllable long, whereas in Asia, the 
name of the continent, it is short. — Qircum^ Used here like irepl 
often in Greek, to express not so much motion around as extension 
through space. (Kiikner, G. G., vol. iL,p. 260,edJJelf.)^RimaHtur. 
In the mode in which aquatic birds suck their food in morassy 
ground. {Valpy, ad loc.) — Caystri. The Cayster was a rapid river 
of Asia, rising in Lydia, and, after a meandering course, falling into 
the i£gean Sea near Ephesus. It is now called the Kitchik Minder, 
or Little Msander. 

385-^7. Certatim, &c. Alluding to their habit of ducking them- 
selves before rain. — Largos rores. " The plenteous water.** Ros, 
poetic for aqua. — Infundere. Wagner and others, who read varut 
in line 383, regard vari(B volueres either as the nominative absolute, 
or else infundere, objectare, &&, as absolute infinitives, for infundurU, 
objectant, &c.- — Currere in undas. This may be observed among the 
habits of the swan. {VaLpy, ad loc.) — Et stitdio iTtcassum^ &c. 
" And to act from an unavailing desire of washing themselves.*' 
Gestio is to manifest one's intention, wish, or desire, by position, 
bearing, and movement. The birds, on this occasion, seem active- 
ly employed in washing themselves ; but it is all without effect, 
their labour all seems unavailing, for they are no sooner out of the 
water than they plunge into it again, (Voss, ad he.) Tliere is no 
allusion here, as Voss correctly remarks, to any thickness or oili- 
ness of plumage that prevents the water from penetrating, and thoa 
renders the labour of the birds an unavailing one. 


. 388*t392. Comix improba. ** The impadent crow/' The term tm- 
praba refers particularly to the bold and continued croaking of the 
bird. Compare the explanation of Heyne : " datnore improbo, nimiOf 
continue erocilatione edque odiosd" So, alsOi Voss :- ** Schamlos ruft 
auch die Krah," &c. Some render improba " unlucky^'^ but leaa 
correctly. — Plena voce. " With thick-toned cry." Servius reads 
raucd for pUnd^ aQd is foUowed in this by some modem editors. 
But ra^ is a mere gloss, and not a yery correct one either. Vir- 
gil means a kind of thick, choking cry. Compare the language of 
Pliny (if. JY., ^., 12), who, in speaking of crows, observes, " Pesn- 
ma eorum Mtgmfica^, cum gbuiunt vocem, vtluii MlrangulatV^ — Plu- 
viam vocat. The ancients thought that crows not only predicted 
rain, but naturally called it. (Lucret., v., 1084, seq.y^Seia. Mark- 
ing its habits as a Bolitary, ^not gregarious bird. Commentators 
call attention to what they consider evident marics of alliteration ia 
this line. 

Nee noeturna, dec. We have adopted nee with Voss, instead of 
the common reading, ne. The former binds the passage more 
cloiBely to what precedes. Nee is also defended by Wunderlich, in 
his epistle to Heeren, p. 5. — Noetuma carpentes peiua. "While 
plying their nightly tasks.*' Carpere penaum properly means, ** to 
card a eeitain portion of wool that has been weighed out to one.'* 
It is often, however, as in the present case, applied in a general 
sense to the operation of spinning, or weaving. — Hiemem. ^ The 
approaching storm.** — Teatd. A lamp of terra cotia, or bs^d clay. 
— ScintUlare. " Sputter.** — Etputres conerescere fungo9. " And foul 
fungous excrescences grow about the wick.** Both the sputtering 
of the oil and the growth of these would proceed from a dampness 
of the atmosphere. 

393-394. Nee minus. After the signs of wind and rain, the poet 
now proceeds to give those of fair weather. — Ex imbri moU*, dco. 
** Sunny days, and fair open weather succeeding to rain ;"^ literally, 
" after rain.** Martyn reads eximbres, agreeing with soles, and ren- 
ders as follows : ** unshowery suns.** He thinks this more poetical 
than the common reading, and says it is certain that Virgil*s mean- 
ing could not be that the observations alluded to in the text are to 
be made during the rain, &c. But, in the first place, there is no 
good authority whatever for such a compound as eximbris ; and, in 
the next place, ex imbri does not signify, while it actually rains, but, 
rather, immediately after a shower, during which interval one may 
judge whether the bad weather is likely to continue or not. Virgil 
here gives us, as we have ahready remarked, certain prognostics of 

ft74 iroTBs on the osorgiob.-'Hiook r. 

the latter ; while protpieere plainly intimates aomeCtaiog fhtirre, and 
shows the poet*8 meaning to be, when the weather is not quite set* 
tied, but is going to change from bad to good. We find, too^ afte^ 
ward, at Terse 413, that the showers are but just oTer, when the 
rooks foretell a change, and promise fair weather. — {Hotdtvortk, 

395-403. Aci$9 obtuaa tidetur. ** Does their light appear dim." 
The first sign of fair, settled weather is the brightntes of the stars. 
— OinojM. *< Indebted." The second sign is here giTen; the 
moon, namely, arises with such air exceeding bnghtness, that one 
would rather think her light to be her own, than only borrowed 
from the sun. — Tenuia lana veUerm. **Thin fleeces of wool^like 
clouds.*' These fieecy, thin clouds are signvof rain. Their being 
no longer carried through the air is Virgil's third sign. Compare 
Plin. {H. N., xviii., «//.), " 8i nvhes ui veUera Umm spargentw nuUia 
ah orienU, aquam in triduum prasagiurU.*^ "^ Non tepidutn mi woUm, 
&c. The fourth sign of fair weather. — Aleyune*. ** The Halcyons.** 
CejhE and Alcyone, as a reward of their mutual afi*ection, were 
changed after death into halcyons, and, according to the poets, the 
gods decreed that the sea should remain calm while these birds 
built their nests upon it. The halcyon is our kingfisher ; but all 
that is said about its nest floating on the water, and the days of 
calm, is untrue. — Non ore sohUos. ** Nor do the filthy swine remem- 
ber to toss about with their mouth the loosened bundles of straw,** 
t. e., the swine no longer carry about wisps of straw in their 
mouths. Virgil's fifth sign. 

Nebula. "The mists.** Virgil*s sixth sign. Tendency down- 
ward of the mists.— r/ma. ** The low grounds.*' — Sdis et oecatUM, 
&c. " While the owl, watching the setting of the sun from the 
highest roof-top, plies to no purpose her late strains." The mean- 
ing is simply this, that the owl, which commonly indicates unfavour- 
able weather by her note, now utters that note to no purpose, since 
the signs of fair weather are so certain as not to be changed by any 
evil presage that may come from her. 

404-409. Apparei liquidoj &c. The seventh sign of iahr weather ; 
the sea-eagle pursuing the ciris. — Liquido. "Clear." — Nisua, 
Minos having laid siege to Megara, of which Nisus was king, be- 
came master of the fdace through the treachery of Scylla, the 
daughter of the latter. Nisus had a purple or golden lock of hair 
growing on his head, and, as long as it remained uncut, so long was 
his life to last. Scylla, having seen Minos, fell in love with him, 
and resolved to give him the victory. She accordingly cut off her 

K0TS8 Oir TAB UOK<UCB.-«-BOOX t. Mft 

fkther'8 precioas look as he slept, and he immediately died. The 
town was then taken by the Cretans ; bat Mhios, instead of reward- 
ing the maiden, disgusted' with her unnataral treachery, tied her by 
her feet to the stem of his Tessel, and thus dragged her along till 
Bhe was drowned. Nisns was changed after death into the bird 
called the tea, eagle (^dXidero^y, and Scylla into that named ciru (Kel- 
pic), and the fhther continually pursues the daughter, says the le- 
gend, to punish her for her crime. The oiris is commonly sup- 
posed to have been a species of lark ; but it is rather a solitary 
bird, with a purple crest, which continually haonts the rooks and 
ahores of the sea. 

Inimicus Mlrox. **An unrelenting foe." Many editors separate 
these two words by a comma, regarding each as an adjeetiTO. 
Wunderlich connects mtrox in an adverbial sense with tfwvfuifNr. 
— Se fert td aurmg. ** Mounts the sky."— ^Vgwiw. « Fleeing be- 
fore him." 

410^1«. Turn liquHa* cmnai, 6m. <«Then do the rooks, with 
compressed throat, redouble thrice or four times their dear notes." 
Eighth sign of fair weather. The clear, contented note of the 
rooks. Obserre that UfmiioM is h^re opposed to rancM, which lat- 
ter would, be the cry .of the birds in question if presaging rain. — 
Pre»9o guUmre, For the purpose of making the cry a more piercing 
one. — CubiUAu9 aUit, **In their lofty abodes." The gregarious 
disposition of the rooks, particularly during incubation, on the tope 
of lofty trees, is well known. — Nescio qud prater toliium, dec. ** In- 
fluenced by I know not what unusual feeling of delight, they make 
a rustling noise together among the leaves." We have recalled 
the preposition before /o2tw, with Jahn and Wagner. The common 
reading would make foliit the ubUiinu intirmtiunialisy and quite 
change the meaning. •- 

Imbribus actis. " The showers being over." Actis for ex^etit,^^ 
Haud equidcm credos &.C. " Not, I do indeed believe, because they 
have from on high any portion of intellect." Virgil here follows 
Epicurus in rejecting the doctrine of the Pythagoreans and others, 
namely, that all animals possessed a portion of the anima fmaiiij or 
great world-pervading spirit, and, consequently, were animated by 
an inteUeetoal principle.-^iittt rerum fato frudentia. Some liere 
follow the explanation given by Voss, who joins /oto rerum in con- 
struction ; so that the idea will be this, " an undersUnding sufRsrior 
to the fates," t. e., which the fates obey. He who predicto the fti- 
ture, seems, says Voss, by the certainty of his predietioo, to oom- 
mand the futuroi aa it were.; ao, according to the opiaioB whloh 


Virgil here opposes, the rooks seem not merely to amioiliice i 
coming change of weather, but actually to exercise some influeDoe 
oyer its coming ; to bring it, as it were, by their cry. The explana- 
tion of Heyne and others, howeyer, is far preferaUe, namely, ** or 
a knowledge of things, granted by fate, superior to what is allowed 
unto mortals." 

417-423. Verunif uH tempesta»t A^. *' But when the stormy and 
the fluctuating vapours of the sky, haye changed their coarses,** i 
«., when the storm and the rain have departed. — Et Jupiter uvUhb 
auttrisy dec. ** And the air, saturated with moisture by the eonthem 
winds (that have just ceased), condenses the things that just before 
were rare, and rarefies what were dense." Jupiter^ the lord of the 
air, is here put figuratively for the air itself.'— l/vtitww This is the 
true reading here, not humulust as some editions have it. Humidui 
is merely opposed to siccus or aridus, whereas uvidus is a far stronger 
term, and equivalent to " largiter humensy (Ck)nsult Wagner^ md 
loe.y^Austris. The southern winds are here named, as haviDg 
been the bearers of the rains that have just, ceased. — Vertuntur 
species animorum. " The images of their bosoms are completely 
altered," i. 0., their feelings become directly the reverse of what 
they had previously been, and as fair weather succeeds the storm, 
so, with them, pleasurable emotions take the place of opposite ones. 

Et pectora molus, dec. " And their breasts now receive different 
impressions (they received different ones from these while the 
wind was driving onward the clouds)." We have enclosed aliost 
dum nuJnla ventus agebat in a parenthesis, as recommended by Wun- 
derlich, and clearly required by the sense. We must supply concip- 
iebant with this second alios. Some render alios, alios " other than," 
but by what process is quite unknown. — Hirw tile coneentus, dtc. 
** Hence that choral harmony of the feathered race in the fields," i, 
e., when fair, serene weather succeeds to storm and gloom. — Ovan- 
tes. «' Exulting." 

424-431. Si vero solem ad rapidum, &c. Having shown how the 
changes of weather are predicted by animals, the poet now proceeds 
to explain the prognostics that are given by the sun and moon ; 
and begins with the moon. — Lunasque seguentes ordine. " And the 
phases of the moon as they follow on in order." — Crastina hora, 
" The morrow's hour," i. «., the morrow.~/n«iiiw. " By the de- 
ceitful appearance," i. «., fair and serene to the view at its com- 
mencement, but to end in storm and rain. 

LumL revertenteSf dtc. Aratus, who treats at large of the signs 
tflbrdad by the moon, makes especial mention of the third and 

MOTES ON THE OEOBTaiOlk— 40C« I« 277 

ibnith days, betweeiT which the first phase falls. {Diosem,.^ 49.) 
Virgil, therefore, following him, allades here to the third day of the 
moon's rising, when she first " collects her returning fires,!'.f . e., when 
her boms first become visible. To the mention of this third day suc- 
ceeds, at verse 43S, that of the fourth. — Si nigrum obseuro, dec. ." If 
she shall embrace a portion of dusky air with darkened horn." 
The first sign from the moon. If darkened when new, she betokens 
a rain storm.— Ore.- " Over her visage." For in ore. There is no 
need whatever of our either reading ora (t. e., quoad ora), or regard- 
ing ore, as it stands, for an old dative, instead of ori. Both of these 
expedients are mentioned by Voss, though he gives the preference 
to the latter, referring to the use of nutrte for nunrti in Aulus Gellius, 
i., 24! — Phabe. In Hesiod (Theog., 136), Phcebe is a daughter of 
Uranos and Qaea. In the later mythology, hpwever, after the son 
god had become confounded with Apollo, and received the appella^ 
tion of Phoebos, his sister, the moon-goddess, obtained the name of 
Phcebe («o^fty). 

483-4d7. Certitnmus auctor, ** The surest source of presage. "«- 
Ptero. ** Clear of radiance." — Neque obtuns eomibus. <* And with 
unblanted horns." Aratus (Diosem., 63) and Varro {ap. Plin., zviii., 
35, 79) both state, that if the horns of the moon appear blunted on 
the fourth night, storms of wind and rain are sure to follow. — K«- 
taque Mervaii, dec. Navigation, too, will be safe, if the moon ap- 
pear on her fourth night with horns not blunted. — GUueo, et Pan- 
opea, dec. **.To Glaucus and Panopea, and Melicertes the son of 
Ino." Three sea deities are here named, to whom the mariner 
will pay his vows on having made a voyage undisturbed by any tem- 
pest. Qlancns was a fisherman, who, observing that his fish, on 
tonching a' certain herb, recovered their strength, and leaped again 
into the water, had the curiosity to taste it himself; whereupon he 
immediately plunged into the water, and becaine a sea god. — Poit- 
opea. Panopea was one of the Nereids. — Inoo Melicerta. Ino was 
the daughter of Cadmus, and wife of Athamas, king of Orchomenus. 
Fleeing from the fury of her insane husband, who had already de- 
stroyed one of their children, she threw herself into the sea, with 
her son Melicertes, from the clifif of Moluris, near Cprinth. The 
gods took pity on her, and made her a sea-goddess, under .the 
name of Leucothea, and Melicertes, a sea-god, under the name oi* 

438-444. Sol quoque, dec. We come now to the signs afiforded 
by the sifh. The first three lines of this passage are closely imi« 
tated from as many of Aratus. (Dtofcm., 87-«9.>— J2«/er*. .«H* 

278 irons on the aEOBoic0.--BOOK x. 

brings on his retarn."— ft ^«. "And those which he gifv." 
Obsenre here the xeugma, refert being understood, in the senss of 
du. — NMsceniem ortum. ** His first rising," t. f ., his disk on his fint 
rising. — Meiioqut refugtrit orbe. **And shall haye receded from 
the view with the middle portion of his disk." The eign refeired 
to here is when the sun, to use Pliny^s language, appears concave 
or hollow, that is, when the outer edges mierely are bright, while 
the inner part is obscured with douds, and seems, therefore, to re- 
cede from the view. Compare the language of Aratus (XNomm., 
96), dirdre icoOof hi&ofuvoQ irrpireA^^, and also Pliny {H. N.^ ZTiil, 
36, 78), ** emcavuM oriens [sol] pluvias pradieU.'* 

Urgutt. ** Is pressing on." The advance of the stonp-wind ii 
compared to the rapid march of a mighty host. — Ab alio. '^From 
the deep.'* — Athoribugfue saHsque, dec. Observe the rapid aoceei- 
sion of dactyls, as typical of the onset of the southern blast. 

446--449. Aui ubi sub lueenif 6lc. The sign here meant is whea 
the rays of the sun scatter themselves in different directions at his 
first rising, among thick clouds, or, in other words, have a parted 
and broken appearance. — Sese divern rumpau. ** Shall break (and 
scatter) themselves in different directions." — Aui ubi pmlHda^ Ac A 
pale dawn is meant, which, as well as the preceding sign, is a pre- 
cursor of hail. — Tarn multa in teetis, 6tc, '* So thick does the ho^ 
rid hail leap rattling on the house-tops." 

450-457. Hoc eliam, &c. <* This, also, it will be more profitable 
for us to remember when the sun shall now be departing, the heav- 
ens having been traversed by it," t. e., it vnll be more important 
for us to watch the signs which the sun may give in the evening 
when setting, since these are more to be relied on than those 
which appear in the morning at sunrise. The latter soon disap- 
pear as that luminary advances in his course, whereas the former 
last for some time. Aratus also makes the evening signs more 
worthy of reliance. {Diosem.f 158.) — Ipsius in vtiUu errare, «* Stray- 
ing on his disk."— C<8rtt/«i«. What VirgU here calJa " dark blue," 
is, with Aratus, black, {Dioaem., 162.)— ^ro*. '* Southeastern 
blasts," t. «., storms of vnnd, especially from the southeast. This 
wind was particularly dreaded by the Italian husbandmen. — Sm 
macula incipient^ dec. A mingling of the dark blue spots with the 
red betokens wind and rain. — Pariter fervere. ** To be in a ferment 
alike," t. e.^ to be disturbed in equal degree. Observe that ferwtrey 
with the short penult, is here from the old stem-form ftroo, -fr«.— 
Non quisquam me moneat. " Let no one advise me." MonBai in tfae 
sense ofauetor sit, or nuuUai, 


466-460. At #t) gictcffi referctque diem, &c. A bright disk a^ morn* 
log and eyening betokens clear weather, and the bk>wing.of the 
cloud'dispelling north wind.^-^iVttn^. *< By any apprehension of 
tempests.**-— C2cro aptilime, ** By the clear wind of the north." 
The Bwth wind, in the summer season, brought a clear sky and 
serene weather. Hence the epithet clanu here applied to it. 

461-466. Deniqutf pad vesper serus veluU, die. In a word, adds 
the poet, we can learn with the utmost certainty from the sun what 
kind of weather the evening is going to bring with it, whether it 
will then be fair or rainy. — Serenas nubes. ** The serene clouds," 
t. e., those without rain, and betokening serene weather. — Cogiut, 
** Mfty be devising,"' t. e,, what mischief it may be preparing. — Fal- 
sum, *' A deceiver.'' £quiv,alent to /alleniem. — Cacoa tnatare ^u- 
nmlhu, . ** That secret commotions impend,'' u e., that commotions 
are secretly preparing. Tumultus is here used in a general sense 
for any popalar disturbance or outbreak. Strictly speaking, how« 
ever, it was the name given to a sudden or dangerous war in Italy 
or Cisalpine GauL — Tumescere. ** Are beginning to swell forth into 
the light." 

465-468. lUe edtm, &c. Having just observed that the sun fore- 
tells wars and tumults, the poet takes occasion to mention the won- 
derful paleness of the sun after the death of Julius Caesar, and then 
digresses into a beautiful account of the other prodigies which are 
said to have occurred at the same time. — Quum caput obacurd, dec. 
<• When he shrouded his bright head with a dark ferruginous hue." 
According to Plutarch {VU. Cos., e. 60), Plkiy (if. N., ii., 30), and 
Dio .Cassins (xlv., 17), the sun appeared of a dim and pallid hue 
after the assassination of Julius Cssar, and continued so during the 
whole of the year : £Aqv yap iKeivov rdv htavrop cjxp^ f*^v 6 kvk^m^ 
KM fuipfimpo-yac ohK ix<^v dv^eXXev. {Pint., I. c.) It is said, too, that 
for want of the natural heat of that luminary, the fruits rotted with- 
out coming to maturity. What Plutarch calls paleness, Virgil, it 
will be perceived, denominates, by a stronger term, ferrugo. This, 
of course, is the license of poetry. The phenomenon mentioned by 
the ancient writers is thought by some modern inquirers to have 
been occasioned by spots on the sun, and this is the more probable 
opinion. There appears, however, to have been an actual eclipse 
of the sun that same year, in the month of November. {Berlin. 
AstrotL Tafeln., ii, p. 131).) 

Jmpiaque eBtenmm, dec. " And an impious generation apprehend- 
ed etd%al night," i e., and the men of that impious age appre- 
hended» dee. The age is hero called impiottt because polluted by 


the assiMination of Cesar.— •(SarnXs. Employad here eomewhit 
after the manner of Lacretiiu. Thoa, taeU fenrum {Lmeni^ iE, 
764) ; kamuium sacl* {Id., t., 840). 

470-478. Obseen€B. •• Dl-omened ;*' literally, <• filthy,*' and thoi 
answering to the Greek popSopudnc- (Consolt JkBderUin, Lml, S^ 
ii., p. 62.) Appian mentions dogs howling like wolres, after tha 
death of Caesar ; and Orid speaks of dogs howling hy night in ths 
foram, and about private dwellings and the temples of the gedr-^ 
JmportuiuB, ** Presaging ill." — Signa iahtaU, '* Gave many a sign." 
Obsenre the force of the imperfect in denoting the frequent reoor* 
rence of an act. 

QuoiiiM Cyclofum, &e. <' How often did we aee JS^a, boilhig 
forth from its burst furnaces, pour a glowing deluge upon the fieUa 
of the Cyclopes." Livy, as quoted by Senrina, stdtBe that thera 
was a Tiolent eruption of iEtna a short time before the death of 
Caesar, and that not only the neighbouring eitiea, hot even Rhegiun 
suffered. — Cyckfum tigrtn. Homer makes the Cydopea to have 
dwelt on the western coast of Sicily. A later age, howeverr plaeed 
them, as the ministers of Vulcan, in the oayems of .£tna, or olae 
in the iEc^an isles. — Liquefaetaque saxa, *< And melted atones," 
t. e., lava. 

474-480. Armorum sonitutn, &c. Orid speaks of the claehing of 
arms, and the noise of trumpets and horns ; Appian alsO mentions 
great shouts in the air, clashing of arms, and rushing of horses. 
Perhaps this was some remarkable aurora seen about that time in 
Germany. — Alpet, Pliny states that the Alps were frequently sha- 
ken by earthquakes. (H. N., ii., 80, seq.) — Vulgo exaudita. «< Was 
commonly henrd." -^ Simulaera' modisj dee. "Spectres strangely 
pale." — Pecudea. "Cattle." By pecuiM the poet seems to niean 
oxen, for these are the cattle that are said to have spoken on this 
occasion. — Infaridum ! " Omen of unutterable horror." The puno- 
tuation of the best editions refers this back to pecuduque loc%u<z^ not 
to sisiutU amnes. 

SisturU amnes. "The rivers stop." Supply se. Observe the 
change from the past to the present tense. This is done to render 
the description more graphic, as if the poet were recounting what 
he sees actually taking place under his own eyes. — DekUeunt. 
** Gapes deeply downward." Ovid mentions an earthquake at 
Rome about this time. — Ei mcestum iUaeritnat, dec. " The mourn- 
ful ivory, too, weeps in the temples, and the bronze statues sweat," 
i. «., the statues of ivory and bronze shed tears, and pour ^t per- 
spiration in the temples where they stand. Appian says that some 


statads eren sweated blood. Ovid meDtions the iyory images 
sweating in tf thousand places, *' miUe locit lacrymavU ebwr^ {Met., 
XV., 792.) Tibulhis also speaks of the statues of the gods weeping, 
** El simulaer* DeHan Ittcrymas fuditse tepentes" (i., 3, 28). 

481-486. Proluit insdno, &c. << Eridanus, monarch of (Italian) 
rivers, whirling along with maddening eddy, washed away whole 
forests." Eridanus,' the Greek and eaiiier name for the Po. Ob- 
serve that^ttotorum here refers to the Italian rivers merely. — TuliL 
** Bore off." Dio Cassias relates that, shortly after Cttsar's death, 
the Po overflowed its banks, and then, suddenly receding again, 
left behind it a large number of water snakes 6n the adjacent 
country. — THstibus aut exHs, 6iC. ** Did either the extremities fail 
to wear a threatening appearance in the inauspicious entrails." 
Supply cesstnerunt. The exta were the heart, lungs, and liver, espe- 
cially the latter, which were examined by the diviners. The ex- 
tremity of any one of these, more particularly of the liver, was 
cadled JUnra, which is also the primitive meaning of the term. Thus 
Varro remarksj "AnHqui fibrum dicebarU extremum, « qtio in aagia 
fimbrie, et injeeore extremum fibra, fiber, dictum, (L. L., v., p. 85.) 

Puteis ntanare cruor, Ovid speaks of its raining blood : " Sape 
Inter nimbos gutta eeeidere cruenttB.'*^ {Met., xv., 788.) — Alta urbes. 
'* Lofty cities," t. e., cities built on elevated places, like Rome, for 
sxample, on her seven hilld. The omen, in this case, would con- 
sist principally in the wolves boldly entering such idaces. Another 
reading is aUe, '* to their very centre," but this is less forcible, 
^oss, however, takes atUB in an adverbial jsense, and gives it this 
lame meaning of alte. 

487-492. Non alias eedo, dec. Thunder and lightning in a dear 
sky were regarded as a peculiarly fearful omen. — Nee dirt toties, dec. 
Fiery meteors are said to have been seen about this same time, 
n^e poet, however, would seem to refer principally to .the star or 
yomet that appeared. (Compare note on Eclog., ix., A&.y^Ergo 
nier sese, dec. " Philippi, therefore, beheld Roman forces engage 
I second time with equal arms." Ergo marks the conclusion to 
vhich all these omens tended, namely, a.civil war. The train of 
deas, then, is as follows: These signs and portents could not 
trove false, and therefore a war ensued of such a nature that Ro- 
aan met Roman in equal arms, &c. — Iterutn. To be joined in 
oostruction with eoncurrere, Pharsalia had seen the first meeting, 
a the previous civil war ;■ and Philippi now beheld the second one, 
a this second intestine conflict. 
N€e/uU indignum wperis, dec. << Nor was it an nmnerited pon- 



ishment in the eyes of the gods," iuc., i, <., and our yicea richly de- 
served so severe a panishment as this, dec. — Bit sangi/tifu nottrt, 
6lc. ^tnathia was an earlier name for Macedonia. Here, how- 
ever, the poet, in employing it for Macedonia, takes the latter conn* 
try in its subsequent and fuller extent, after it had incorporated 
nnder the same name with itself both Thessaly and part of Thrace. 
Hence ^Emathia and the broad plains of Httmoa are the same u 
Thessaly, Macedonia, and Thrace.. Now, Pharaalia was in Thes- 
saly, and Fhiljppi in Thrace, whence the langoage of the text, 
*< hu sanguine nostro," dec.— Aemt campoi. The ridge of Hsmin 
formed the northern boundary of Thrace. Hence, by <* the plaioi 
of Hemus*' is meant the country of Thrace. 

403-497. SeiUcet ei tempuM vemet, dec. " Ay, and the time wiD 
come," dus. Analogous to the Qreek form of expression, iauu ^ 
9rov Kol, draVf k. r. A. Heyne and Wakefield join scilicet with whit 
precedes, but this wants force. — Finibiu, Poetic for tcrrit. — Moli- 
tiu. " While turning up." Used for tnoUens, (Consult note oo 
verse 889. — Exesa scaJtnra nUngine. '* All eaten with corroding rust." 
The handle of the Roman pilum, often made of cornel, was partly 
square, and 6\ feet long. The head, nine inches long, was of iron, 
and is therefore now found only in the state here described by Vir- 
gil. — Grandia 099a. In accordance with the popular belief that man- 
kind are in a progressive state of degeneracy. {Valpy^ ad loc.) 

498-503. Di patriif Indigetes, dec. " Te gods of my fathers, ye 
deified heroes of my native land, and thou, Romulus, and thou, 
Mother Vesta.'' We have placed a comma after />a/m, with Won- 
derlich, thus making the invocation refer to two classes of divin- 
ities, namely, the Di patriij or great national divinities, and tbe 
Indigetes, or deified heroes. To the first class would belong Vesta, 
to the second Romulus. As regards the omission of the connec^ 
ing conjunction, we may compare a similar construction near the 
commencement of the present book. (v. 4-10.) — Tiucum TiUrim, 
The Tiber is called « Tuscan" because forming, during a great part 
of its course, the eastern boundary of Etruria. — Romana PaUuia. 
"The Roman Palatium.'' On the Palatine hill Romulus was fa- 
bled to have laid the first foundation of Rome. Here was his 
abode, and here also Augustus resided. The Roman Palatiam 
then became identical, in the strains of poetry, with all that was 
glorious in the past and present annals of Rome. ■ 

Hune saltern juvenem. ** This youthful hero at least.'' Alluding 
to Augustus. Observe the force of saUem, Do not take from os 
Augustus at least, as in your good pleasure you have deprived us 

K0TB8 ON rtOi «B0B6ICS.-^B00K K 988 

of Jalhis. AagustM was at thia time about twenty-seTen yeqra of 
Age, and hence the term ptvenis applied to him.—- £v^«o. '* Ra- 

501-604. Satis jam pridem, &c. " Long since) indeed, have we 
vafficiently atoned with our blood for the fool peijury of Laome- 
dontean Troy," t. t., we have sufibred sufficiently already for the 
crimes of our fathers, as well as our own. Do not punish us any 
farther by taking from us Augustus, who can alone restore our ru- 
ined affhirs. — Laomedontea Tr6j<B.^ Alluding to the refusal, on the 
part of Leomedon, to keep his plighted faith with Apollo and Nep- 
tune, after they had built the walls of his city. — Perjuria. Observe 
the force of the plural here, and which we have endeayoored to 
«[preB8 by -the employment of an epithet. The Romans claimed 
jleseent from the Trojans, and therefore had to render atonement 
ibr the crimes of their forefathers. This atonement they had now 
paid by the bloodshed and desolation of their civil contests. 

Nehi9 U wnidet. ** Has envied us the possession of thee." The 
gods have long since been anxious that Augustus should leave the 
earth, and be enroUed in their number. Observe the force of jam 
pridem in converting inoidet into a perfect in our idiom. The same 
remark will apply to the present luimus in verse 502. — Hominum 
curare triumphot, " That thou carest (too much) for mere mortal 
triumphs." In the language of the courtly flatterer, to live and to 
enjoy triumphs are one and the same thing for Augustus. 

505-509. Quippe ubiy 6ui, '* Since here right and wrong are con- 
founded." Ubi is equivalent here to apud quos, t. e., homines^ but 
in our idiom it is best rendered by the meaning of hie, just as the 
relative often, near the beginning of a clause, may be translated by 
the personal pronoun. — Tot bella per orbem. Supply sunt. The 
language of the text would seem to suit the year of the city 717, 
when the war wa» prevailing between Octavianus and Sextus Pom* 
peins ; when misunderstandings were beginning to arise between 
the triumvirs; when Antony was prosecuting his unsuceessfiil 
expedition against the Parthians, and when a war had just been 
brought to a dose by Agrippa against the revolted Gauls and Ger- 
mans. {Heyne, ad loc,) 

Tarn waiUm seelerum fades, *' So numerous are the aspects of 
guilt." — Abduetis eolonis. To fill the ranks of war. — CoHjUaUur. 
** Are forged." Mare and amfiare are properly employed to denote 
the melting of metals. Here, however, the meaning is a more en- 
larged one. — Hine movet Euphratea, Alluding to the Parthians, and 
eiber Eattem nationa eombined with them, against whom Antony 


WIS ciriTing on war. — lUitic Grrmtiia, Ac. Alluding to the nrotl 
of Ibe Gallio and GenDBnic tribes. It bad juatbeeDqaeUed,iadM4 
b; Agrippa, but ia lepreaanted in the language of poetty as atill ei 

610-614. FiietRc nptU, &c. Some eomnieiitatqn refer tbia In 
eonuDOtioiia ia Etrnria, but the iuanrrection in that quarter tod: 
place the year after this, and was put an end to b; the tidings of tba 
victory over Seztoa Pompeins. It ia better, therefore, to r 
these words contain so allusion to civil disseaaion* in general-— 
I/A fuun careiribiu, dec. Tbe arcertt Were the " barriers" in the 
circus, nbenee the chariots started. The; wore *aulta, doeed ia 
front bj galea of open wood-worh (onaUt), which were opened ii> 
multaneouslj, upon tbe signal being given, by remoTJng a rope at- 
tached to pilasters of tbe kind called Hermit, placed for that purpose 
between each vault or stall ; upon which tbe gates were immedi- 
ately tbrowD open bj a number of men. Tbe fallowing cut (froin 
n marble in the British Museum) representa a set of four tartera, 
with Iheir Htmut and tancelli open, aa leA after the chariots had 
started, in which the gates are made to open inward. 

Aidunl in ipatia. "They add round to round." £aeh course 
or round of chariots in tbe circus, from one of tbe starting-places, 
or carctre; to tbe nuin, or goal, and back again, waa termed ijMi- 
ufli, and seven ef these had to be performed by the contending 
chariots before winning the race. The tpalia were made aroitnd 
the tpM*, or low wall, running lengthways down the course, and 
at each end of it were three wooden cylinders of a conical shape, 
resting on a base, and called meta. Aroand these meia, at either 
end of the tpiita, the chariats kept turning. Tbe language of the 
test is meant to axpreas the acoomplisbmeot of round alter round, 
and ia eqcivalent merely to iptlia ipatiii addunt. Compare Iha 
explanation ot FrtmndiWorttrb., L. Spr., i. ,. addo), "fugen Zwis- 
chenrsDntB anf Zwiaoheiutiuae." Ttie following wood-cot rep- 


inti the si^ound-plaa of a Rodibd eircas, with the tpin» Tunnins 
If tbe interior. ThelGtMraE E, attheestremitieBof theapiiiB, 
k the poaitioQ of the nuia i 



the Moving, copied from a maible in the Britiah K 
explain the fona of the meia. 


Analysis of the Subject, 

I. Recapitxtlation of the subject of the preyioniB Book, and brief 
exposition of that of the present one. (▼. 1-3.) 

II. InYocation of Bacchus, not only as the god of the Tinei but 
of fruits in general, (v. 4-8.) 

III. OrigDi of trees and plants, (r. 9^^.) 

(A.) NtUurtU origin, (v. 10-21.)— Of their own accord, (r. 10- 
13.)— From seed. (▼. 14-16.)— From the parent root. (t. 17- 

(B.) Artificial origin, (t. 22-34.)— From Backers. (▼.23.) — From 
settings, (v. 24-26.) — From layers. (▼. 26-27.) — From cut- 
tings. (▼. 28.)— From splittings of the parent trunk. (▼. 30.) 
—From grafting, (v. 32-34.) 

IV . Modes of culture proper for the difibrent kinds of trees and 
plants. (V. 35-82.) 

(A.) Introduction. (▼. 35-38.)— Address to Maecenas. (▼. 39- 

(B.) Mode of improving those that have a natural origin, (y. 

(C.) Mode of rearing those that have an artificial origin (v. 61-72), 

especially by means of inoculating and grafting. (▼. 73-82.) 

v. Differences in trees and plants. (▼. 83-135.) 

(A.) Differences arising from variety of species, (v. 83-108.) 
(B.) Differences arising from difference of soil. (▼. 109-113.) 
(C. ) Differences arising from difference of country, (v. 1 14-135.) 
(D.) Praises of Italy, (v. 136-176.) 

VI. Of soils. (V. 177-258.) 

(A.) Kind of soil fit for olive-trees, (v. 179-183.)— For the vine, 
(V. 184-194.)— For raising cattle, (v. 195-202.)— For com. 
(V. 203-21 1 .)— Soil suited for scarcely anything, (v. 212-216.) 
— Soil suited for almost any purpose, (v. 217-225.) 

(B.) Mode of telling each kind of soil. Whether loose or hard. (v. 
226-237.)— Salt and bitter, (v. 238-247.)— Fat. (v. 248-249.) 
—Moist. (V. 251-253 )— Heavy or light, (v. 254.)— Black. 
(V. 265.)— Cold. (V. 266-258.) 


VII. Culture of the vine. (v. 269-419.) 

(A.) Details concerning the Planting of the vine. (y. 259-353.) 
Digging of trenches to receive the young cuttings out of the 
nursery, (v. 259-264.) — ^Nursery of young cuttings, (v. 265- 
268.>— Setting out the slips, (v. 269-272.) — How close to- 
gether they ought to be. (r. 273-287.) — ^Depth of trenches. 
(V. 288-297.)— Other precautions to be exercised, (v. 298-314.) 
-—Proper time for setting out. (v. 315-d22.)^Prai8e8 of 
spring. (V. 323-345.) — General care to be taken of the set- 
tings. (V. 346-353.) 

(B.) After planting, the earth must be broken up, and drawn up 
around the roots, (v. 354-357.)— Pales, &c., must be prepared 
as supports for the young vines, (v. 368-361.)— The young 
shoots are to be merely nipped with the fingers at first, and not 
to be pruned with the pruning-lcnife until some time after, 
when they are stronger, (v. 362-370.) — Hedges are to be 
formed around the young vines as a protection against cattle, 
but more particularly against the goat, an animal sacrificed to 
Bacchus, on account of its being peculiarly injurious to the 
vine. (V. 371-396.)— The ground in the vineyard is to be 
ploughed three or four times every year, and, in fact, the labour 
of cultivating vineyards is shown to be never-ending, (v. 397- 

YIII. Care of other trees and plants much lighter than that of 
the vine. (v. 420-457.) 

(A.) The olive-tree. (v. 420-425.) 

(B.) Fruit-trees, (v. 426-428.) 

(C.) Wild forest-trees, (v. 429-463.) 

(D.) Preference given to these different kinds of trees over the 

vine, and its intoxicating and mischievous produce, (v. 458- 


IX. Blessings of a country life. (v. 458-540.) 

X. Conclusion of the Book. (v. 541-643.) 



1-3. Hactenus. " Thus far have I sung." Supply eecim. This 
line contains a brief recapitulation of the subject of the first book. 
— Nunc te, Baeche, '6cc. The poet next proceeds to state, with equal 
brevity, the intended subject of the second book ; namely, vines, 
forest-trees, fruit-trees, and of these last the olive in paiticnlar.— 
Baeche. Bacchus not only brought the vine into Greece from tbe 
shores of the Indian Ocean (iit&«n.,xv.,6), but ako introduced into 
that country all kinds of fruit-bearing trees. Hence we read of the 
fi^^a Aiovvaoio, or apples of Bacchus, supposed to be the quince ; 
and hence, also, his surnames of Kapnt/toc and Atvdplr^. — Sihe»' 
tria virguUa, " The young forest-trees." These were planted out 
in vineyards, for the vines to creep along, in place of stages. Hence 
the mention that is here made of them, in connexion with Baochos 
and the vine. Among the trees meant on the present occasion may 
be named the elm in particular, the poplar, the ash, &c. 

Tarde ereseentis oliva. The olive is specially named, but the 
other fruit-bearing trees are also meant, of which the olive is here 
made a kind of representative. The ancient Greek writers on agri* 
culture speak of the olive as a very slow grower, and have hence 
given it, among other epithets, that of inffUapiroc. Pliny quotes a 
passage from Hesiod, wherein the latter says that the planter of an 
olive-tree never lived to gather the fruit of it ; but Pliny adds, that 
in his time they planted olives one year, and gathered the fruit the 
next. Hesiod, however, spoke, no doubt, of sowing the pit or seed 
of the olive, whereas the Roman writer seems to mean the trans- 
planting of the truncheons. {Martyrij ad he.) 

4-8. Pater O Lencte. " O Lenaean parent.'* The term paUr is 
here applied to Bacchus, not with any reference to advanced years, 
for the god is always represented by the ancient artists with the 
attributes of youth (compare MiUUr, Arehaolog. der Kunst, p. 6e6), 
but merely as indicative of his being the beneficent author of so 
many good gifts unto men. — Lenae. Bacchus was called Lejueus, 
or " the god of the wine-press," from the Greek Avvaiog, of the same 
signification, itself derived from Xyvdc, " a wine-press." — Tibipam' 
pineo, &c. *^ For thee flourishes the field, loaded with the autum- 
nal produce of the vine ; for thee the vintage foams with its fuU 
vats." Observe here the force of /tW, " for thee ;" ». «., for thy 
honour, because brought about by thy power and auspicious infla- 


ence. — Pampinco auctumno. More literally, " with viny autumn.'' 
The reference is, as Wunderlich correctly remarks, to the period 
of the vintage, which is named, in fact, immediately after. 

Nudataque musto, &.C. This alludes to the custom, still continued 
in Italy, Spain, and Portugal, of treading out the grapes with the 
feet. — Cothurnis. Bacchus is frequently represented with richbufi- 
kins. {Muller, Arehaqjiog. der Kunst^ p. 667.) 

9-13. Princtpio. The poet begins with an account of the sever* 
al methods of producing trees ; and first he speaks of the three 
ways by which they are produced without culture ; spontaneously, 
by seeds, and by suckers from the parent root. — Arboribus varia «</, 
&.C. ** Nature varies in the production of trees ;" i. e., the natural 
origin of trees is various. The natural origin of trees is here op- 
posed to the artificial mode mentioned farther on (v. 22, seqq.). — 
Sponte sua, ** Of their own accord ;" i. e., by unassisted nature. 
The ancients were believers in the spontaneous generation of 
plants, a doctrine now exploded. — MolU siler. " The soft osier.** 
The siler i^ the osier, or Salix viUllina of Linnaeus. {Fee, Flore de 
Virgile, p. 153.) — Lenlaque genesta. "And the pliant broom." 
The genesta is the same with what is called the Spanish broom, 
and grows in great abundance in most parts of Italy. The ancient 
husbandmen used it for hedges ; the modem Italians weave baskets 
of its slender branches. The floWers are very sweet, last long, and 
afford an agreeable food for bees. (Plin., H. N., xvi., 37, 69.— ilfar- 
tyn, ad loc.) — Sulicta^ Put for salicesy the willow grounds for thft. 
trees themselves. (Consult note on Eclog., i., 55.) — Glaucd caneu' 
Hafionde. "White (beneath), with leaf of bluish-green (above).'* 
This is a' beautifully accurate description of the common willow. 
The leaves are of a bluish green above, while the under part is cov- 
ered with a white down. {Martyn, ad loc,) 

14-16. Posito de semine. " From seed deposited (by the parent 
tree itself)/' i- e., from seed that has fallen on the ground from the 
branches of the parent tree. — Costarica. Consult note on Eclog., i., 
82. — Nemorumque Jovi qtuB, &c. " And the aesculus, which, tallest 
of forest-trees, blooms in honour of Jove ;** t. e., is sacred to Jove. 
Nemorum is here put poetically for arborwm. So silvarum for arbo- 
runif V. 21, 26. The gender in maxima refers back, of course, to 
asculus, and we may compare with maxima nemorum the analogous 
form of expression, ** potentissimus Gallia" The asculus belongs 
to the quercus, or oak family, but what particular kind of tree id 
meant here remains altogether doubtful. Martyn is in favour of 
the bay oak. — Aique habita Graiis, &c. " And the oa](s deemed 





oracular by the Greeks.*' Alluding to the sacred oaks at Dpdo^a, 
that were fabled to impart oracles. 

17-21. PuUulat densissima silva. " A very thick growth of swd^ 
ers sprouts forth. " PuUulat here is a very appropriate term . Thus, 
Cato {R. R., 51) calls these suckers jnUli ; and Pliny {H. N.^ zril, 
10, 12) terms them pulluli. — CeroM. LucuUos brought the cherry- 
tree from Pontus, in Asia Minor, into Italy, having met with it, du- 
ring his campaigns against Mithradates, at Cerasus, from which 
city it took ils name. As, however, Servius expressly states that 
cherry-trees were known before this in Italy, we must suppose, with 
Yoss, that LucuUus brought over the improved or cultivated cher- 
ly. This view would harmonize with the language of Servius, 
who informs us that the cherries previously known in Italy were of 
an inferior quality, and were called coma, and thai subsequently 
this name was changed to coma-cerasa. Pliny, however, it should 
be added, expressly denies that cherries were known in Italy before 
the time of Lucullus. 

Vlfnis. Elms were in great request among the ancients, they 
being preferred before all other trees for supports to the vine. — Pm-*' 
fuuia laurus. The bay, as we have before remarked, was sacred to 
Apollo. The finest trees of this kind grew on Mount Parnassus, 
according to Pliny {H. N., xv., 30, 40). As Delphi, the seat of 
Apollo's celebrated oracle, was situate on the slope of Parnassus, 
there is a double allusion in the epithet Parnasia. — Se aubjieiu 
*' Rears its head." Sub^ in composition, here beautifully marks the 
gradual growth of the young tree. — Siharumy fnuicnmquey &c . "Of 
forest-trees, and shrubs, and the tenants of the sacred groves.*' 
Observe here the peculiar use of silvarum and nemorum, and com- 
pare note on verse 15. — Fruticum. This name is given to shrubs 
which do not rise into one clean stem, but break into a number ot 
small suckers. {Valpy, ad loc.) 

22-25. Sunt alii. *• There are other (modes of producing trees)." 
Supply modi arborum creandarum. Having mentioned the several 
ways by which plants naturally propagate their species, he now pro- 
ceeds to enumerate those methods which are employed by the art 
and industry of man. These are suckers, settings, layers, cuttings, 
splittings of the parent trunk, and grafting. — Quos ipse via, &c. 
" Which experience itself has found out in the march of improve- 
ment." Observe here the peculiarly elegant use of via to denote 
the " path" of improvement.— P/ante*. " Suckers."— Tcncra*. We 
have given teneras here with Manso, on the authority of a MS., as 
far preferable to the common reading teTtero.—Abscindens. " Pluck- 


in^ iway." The suckers are pulled up, or plucked away, not cut , 
and hence ahtemitru is the true reading here, not ahscidensy a» Hein 
sins giTes it Abtcido is to separate or remoTc by means of and 
sharp instrument ; tibscindot by any other means more or less for- 
cible. (Consult WagTur, adloe.) 

Hie 9tirpe» obruii arvo, dec. ** This one plants settings in the 
ground, (namely), both stakes split at the bottom into four, and 
poles with the wood sharpened to a point." The planting of set- 
tings is the fixing of the large branches, like stakes, into the earth. 
There are two ways of doing this, and they are both stated in verse 
f5. The " fuadrijidas wdes** is when the bottom is slit across both 
ways, and the " tuuto robore** is when it is cut into a point, which is 
called the coU^sfoot. {Benson^ ad loc.) 

26-37. Silvmrum. For arborum. Ck>mpare verse 16. — Pretsot 
frcfoginia tarcui, ** The bent-down arches of a layer.'' This is 
propagating by layers, which are called technically jM^d^^'ne^. The 
Roman agricultural writers use the term propagatio exclusively in 
t])|e sense of raising by layers, which is the mode most api^icable 
to Uie'vine. {Martynj ad loe.) — Et mva sud plantaria terra. " And 
nnrseries all alive in their native earth." The epithet viva refers, 
as Voss remarks, to their living as yet unsevered from the parent 
tree. Sud Urrd alludes to the earth in which the parent plant 

S8-30. Nil radicU egent ali<t. The poet here proceeds to describe 
propagation by cuttings, that is, by planting cuttings taken from the 
uppermost shoots. — Refereng. ** Restoring." Because it came 
originally from the earth through the medium of the parent tree. — 
Summum cacumen. "The topmost shoot." — Quin tt caudicibu* seC' 
its. ** Nay, even after the trunks are cut in pieces." Alluding to 
the mode of dividing the trunk itself, and planting it in pieces, as is 
practised with olives. The poet speaks of it justly as a wonder 
that olive-trees should thus strike roots from dry pieces of the 

32-34. Et sepe altervu, dec. The poet now speaks of propaga- 
tion by grafting, and subjoins two instances of the results of this 
process. With alteriiu supply generis arborum, or else arbori* sim- 
ply. — Impune. " Without injury." — Vertere. "To change." Sup- 
ply se. — Mutatam. " Having been altered by this process." — Ituita. 
" Ingrafted." The pear and apple will grow a year or two on each 
other*8 stocks, but the graft of both soon dies. {Valpy, ad loe.) — 
Et pranis lapidosa, 6lc. " And the stony cornels to redden on the 
Tiew with p^ums," t. e., the cornelian cherry-tree to bear, by graft- 


ing, red plums. Observe that coma, the fmit, is here pnt poeticat 
ly for the tree itself ; the result, however, that is here mentionedi 
namely, obtaining plums from cherry-trees, is pronounced impossi- 
ble by modern physiologists. The great principle on which success 
in grafting depends is, that the tree to which the graft is to be ap- 
plied must be within certain limits of physiological affinity to the 
other, so as to form a vital union. Hence the statements of the 
ancients having successfully grafted the olive on the fig, ploms oa 
pears, and the like, are not to be credited. Modem investigators 
explain to us that such incongruities cannot take place, and the 
truth of this position has been ascertained by repeated experi- 

In translating the words ** et prums lapidosa rubescere coma,'* we 
have followed Heyne, Voss, and Wunderlich. Martyn, however, 
takes a very different view of the matter, and translates as follows : 
** And stony cornelian cherries to glow upon plum stocks.*' He has 
been followed in this by Manso, Jahn, and others ; but it is difficult 
to conceive why, when the object of grafting is to improve, such a 
process as that of grafting a much inferior fruit on a tree yielding 
one of far better quality and nature should ever have been at- 

35-38. Proprios generatim cultus. " The proper modes of culti- 
vating trees according to their kinds," t. e., the culture proper to 
each kind of tree. — Mollite. " Tame." — Nm segnes jaceant terra. 
"Nor let (any) lands lie idle." The meaning is this : If you have 
any land of inferior quality, and unfit for raising grain, do not let it 
lie idle on that account, but plant it with vines and olive-trees, and 
in this way turn it to good account. — Jurat Tsmara Baccho. ** It is 
delightful to plant Ismarus thickly with the vine." Observe the force 
of con in conserercj to plant every part of Ismarus, to leave no part 
idle. Ismarus (plur. Jsmara) was a mountain of Thrace, near the 
mouth of the Hebrus, covered with vineyards. Its wine was of 
excellent quality, and with some of it Ulysses intoxicated Polyphe- 
mus. (Orf., i., 196.) — Tabumum. Taburnus, now Talmmo, or Ta- 
bor, was a lofty mountain in Samnium, the southern declivities of 
which were covered with olive grounds. — By stating the success 
attending the culture of Ismarus and Taburnus, the poet means to 
recommend similar attempts in other hilly spots. {Serv,, ad loc.— 
Valpy, ad loc.) 

39-41. Tuque ades, &c. The poet, having invoked Bacchus, and 
stated the subject of this book, now calls upon his patron Msecenas 
to give him his favouring aid. Yoss acutely remarks, that here. 


where the subject is the rearing of trees by haman art and skill, a 
mortal is invoked ; whereas, when reference was made to trees 
^produced by the power of nature, a deity, Bacchus, was the object 
of invocation. — Inceptumque unAy &c. " And, together with me, run 
down along my task begun." Observe that decurre here is a nau- 
tical terra, and has no relation to the movements of the circus. — 
Pelagoque volans, &c. ** And, moving swidly onward, give the sails 
to the sea as it opens on the view,*' t. e., animate me by thy favour- 
ing regard, and take a kind interest in these my strains, so shall my 
present attempt be brought to a rapid and successful close, and so 
will T brave, with thee for my patron, all the difficulties and dangers 
of this boundless them«. Burmann, Reiske, Wakefield, and Voss 
read volens^ but volans is far preferable, and carries with it the idea 
of a rapid and animated career. 

42-46. Non ego opto. " I do not aspire." — Cuncta. He means 
the whole range of so extensive a subject. — Ferrea, Like the Ho- 
^ meric mdripiriy and carrying with it the idea of strength and power. 
— Primi lege littoris oram. " Coast along the nearest shore." The 
poet invites his patron to accompany him in taking merely a brief 
survey of the most important parts of the subject. — In manibus. 
** Is near at hand." Compare the Greek form of expression, h 
X^poiv. {Apoll. Rhod., i., 1113.) — Carmine ficto, ** With a fictitious 
strain," i. «., with the fictions of epic verse. The poem is to be a 
didactic one, and is to deal in realities, not in the creations of the 
imagination. — Ambages et longa exorsa. " An idle circuit of wprds, 
and a tedious exordium." 

47-52. Sponte sua, &c. He recapitulates the several modes by 
.which wild trees are produced, viz., spontaneously, by roots, and by 
seed, and proceeds to show by what culture each sort may be me- 
liorated. — Auras, Consult note on JSn., vii., 660. — Lata. ** Luxu- 
riant." — Quippe solo natura suhest. " Since ^ native principle lies 
hid beneath the soil," t. e., since it is their native soil. The poet 
means that there is some hidden power in the earth which causes 
it to produce particular plants, and these, therefore, grow luxuriant 
and strong in that soil which is adapted to give them birth. — Ta- 
men hac quoque, &c. The way to tame these luxuriant wild trees 
is either to ingraft a good fruit upon them, or else to transplant- 

Mutata. *' Changed in situation," i. «., changed from their original 
position, by being thus transferred to trenches. Commentator* 
make a great difficulty here, by supposing mutata to refer to a 
change of nature ; and, as this cannot be efifected by transplanta- 



tion alone, they chan^ aut into at. Bat the only change meant by 
the poet is that of place, and, that a change of place alone will me- 
liorate wild fruits, we find expressly stated in Palladius (xii., 7, 11) 
and Theophrastus {De Caua. Plant., iii., 23). — Subactis. **I>ug for 
the purpose," t. «., well dug and carefully prepared. — ExuerinL 
**Will speedily put off.** Observe here the employment of the fu- 
ture perfect to denote a quickly-completed future action. (Compare 
Zumptf L. G.J ^ 611. — Billroth J L. G., (^ 224.) — In qtuucumqtte voces 
arte». "To whatsoever artificial modes of culture you may call 
them." Arte» here has reference to human art and industry, and 
is opposed to natura, or the natural mode of propagation. 

63-56. Nee non et sterilis, &c. ** The tree, too, that arises un- 
productive from the bottom of the parent stem." Supply arbos, 
which is expressed soon after in verse 67. The reference is here 
to a tree proceeding from a sucker. The mode of ameliorating 
these is by setting them out in open ground. With regard to the 
epithet sterilise as here employed, it must be remarked that two 
kinds of trees are actually meant by it ; those, namely, that produce 
nothing at all, and those, also, that produce fruit, but of so inferior 
a quality as to be of no value whatever. (Compare note on verse 
66.) — Hoc faciei. " Will do the same," t. e., will lay aside its wild 
and unproductive nature. — Nunc. " At present," t. «., in its native 
and wild state. — Crescentique adimunt fcttus, &c. "And take from 
it, while growing, all principle of increase, or else dry it up whfle 
bearing." Fatus here is not exactly equivalent to fruetusj as Heyne 
maintains, but rather, as Yoss explains it, to " dus Wachsthum, den 
Trieb des Holzes." — Urunlve. We have given this reading instead 
of the common uruntque. Two classes of trees, as already remark- 
ed, are evidently meant, the utterly barren, and those that do yield 
fruit, but poor and withered. Observe that uro here has reference 
to drying up the sap, and thus spoiling the produce. 

57-60. Jam. " Again." Jam is here used to mark a transition, 
and is equivalent to porro. {Tursell^ Partic. Lat., vol. iii., p. 137, ed. 
Hand.) — Qua seminibus jactis^ &:c. He now comes to the third class 
of wild trees, those, namely, that spring up from seed which has fall- 
en from the parent tree. — Seminibus jactis. " From seed scattered 
by the parent tree."— Tarda venit. " Comes on slowly." — Seris 
nepotibus. Ursinus, strangely enough, maintains that the late pos- 
terity of the tree are meant ; and, what is still more surprising, "he 
is followed by Manso. — Pomaque degenerant, &c. " And fruits de- 
generate," &c., f. c, and if the tree in question be a fruit-tree, the 
fruit always degenerates. Observe that poma is here used in a gen- 

HOTES ON THE GE0RGIC8.-«-B00K 11. 295 

eral sense for any kind of tree-frait. — Et twrpes avihus, &.G. If it 
' be not a fruit-tree, bat the vine, the latter falls- off and bears sour 
clusters, fit only to be a booty for birds. — Uva, Pat poetically for 

61-64. ScUicetj omn^s, &c. ** Thas, yoa will see, labour is to 
be expended upon all.'' Observe the force of seUicet here, as con- 
taining a general reference to what has just gone before. — Cogendct 
in suleum. ** Are to be compelled to take up their abode in a 
trench.'* — Sed truncis dea meli'as, &c. " But olives suoceed better 
by truncheons ;" literally, " answer better," t. e., answer or cor- 
respond to the wishes of the husbandman. The poet here speaks 
of the several ways of cultivating trees by human industry and 
skill — Trunda. Truncheons are the thick branches sawn in pieces 
of a foot or a foot and a half in length. These are to be planted as 
Aresh as possible. Trwicua is properly a trunk of a tree, divested 
of its head ; and hence these taUa, or branches with their heads 
eiit off, are called trunci. — Solido de robore, ** From the solid wood,'* 
t. «., by settings, or fixing the large branches like st^es into the 
earth. — Paphia. Myrtles are called Paphian, from Paphos, a city of 
Cyprus, where Venus was particularly worshipped. The myrtle 
was sacred to that goddess. 

65-68. PlantU. "From young plants," i «., from suckers in 
some eases, and from seedlings in others. Suckers alone cannot 
be meant here, since the oak, palm, and fir do not produee any, 
andi therefore seedlings, also, must be included under the term. 
The whole point is ably and fully discussed by Vose, and the usage 
ia the case of plarUa very clearly defined. (Voaa, Erklmruug'f &c., 
▼ol., iii., p. 280, aegq.) — Et dura. Many MSS. have edura, but et is 
required by what fuUows. — Herculeetqttt wrboa,. 6lo. ** And the um^ 
brageotts tree of the Herculean crown,'* i. e., the tree that spreads 
(brth its foliage for the crown of Hercules. The poplar is meant, 
a tree sacred to Hercules. (Consult note on Eclog., vii., 61.) — Chor 
onii patria. The tree referred to is the oak, sacred to Jupiter, who 
is here called the '< Chaonian father," from Chaonia, in Epirus, 
where bis famous oracle of Dodona was situated. (Compare note 
on Georg.f i., 8.) — Naacitur. " Is thus produced." — Caaua viaura 
marinoa. The abiea is our yew-leaved fir-tree, says Martyn. Its 
wpod was much used by the ancients in ship-buildiag. 

6^72. Inaeritur vero et, &c. " But both the rugged arbute is in* 
grafted with the offspring of the walnut, and planes, in themselves 
unproductive of fVuit, have borne (the produce of) vigorous apple- 
trsea," u $., arbates have been made^ by grafting, to bear walautii^ 


and plane-trees, apples. The truth of this assertion is utterly denied 
by modern physiologists. No such thing was ever done in any age 
or country ; and we must either, as Miller remarks, sappose the 
trees which now pass under these same appellations to be different 
from those known at that time under those names, or that we have 
here a mere license taken by the poet to embellish his poem. 
(Compare note on verse 34.) — ^We bare given verse 69 as Wei- 
chert proves it should be read. The common text has, "Inseritur 
vero exfatu nucis arbutus horrida" making a very rugged byperme- 
ter. (Consult Weichert, Comment, dt Versu poetarum epicor. AyperiM* 
trOf p. 25 ; and John, ad loc.) 

Cattanea fagns, &c. "The beech has bloomed with the flower 
of the chestnut, and the mountain-ash has been boary witli the 
white blossom of the pear-tree," t. «., the chestnut has been in- 
grafted on the beech, and the pear on the mountain-ash. Observe 
the zeugma in incanuitt which is understood, afler/a|rtM, in the sim- 
ple sense of floruit, for the chestnut bears no white flower. The 
common text hdiafagos, making castanea the nominative to gessert 
understood ; but, according to the lection which we have adopted, 
the clause, when completed, is eastanea fagus flore incanuit, making 
castanea the genitive, depending on florc. — Glandemque svea, &c 
The elm has borne acorns, having been ingrafted with the oak. 
On this whole subject of ingrafting, consult what has been said 
just above. — Fregcre. " Have crunched." 

73-82. Nee modits inserere, &c. ** Neither is the manner of in- 
grafting and of inoculating one and the same." Inserere and impo- 
nere are poetic, for inserendi and imponendi. The poet here shows 
the difference between grafting and inoculating. Inoculation, or 
budding, is performed by making a slit in the bark of one tree and 
inserting the bud of another into it. There are several ways of 
grafting now in use, but the only one which Virgil describes is what 
we call cleft-grafting, which is performed by cleaving the head of 
the stock, and placing a scion from another tree in the cleft. (Mar^ 
tyn, ad loc.) — Gemma. ** The buds." — Tenues tunicas. " The thin 
coats," i, e.y the thin membranes of the bark. — Angustus in ipso, Ac. 
** A small slit is made in the knot itself." Observe that nodus and 
gemma are here, in one sense, synonymous, the nodus being the pro- 
tuberance on the bark beneath which the gemma lies. — Germen. *• A 
bud." — Udo inolescere libro, "To grow into, and become united 
with the moist bark." 

Aut rursum. '^ Or, on the other hand." He now describes the 
process of ingrafting. — Enodes trunci, " Knotless stocks " Truuf 


here denotes the stem or stock of a young tree after the head has 
been lopped off*, and must not be confounded with the irunci men- 
tioned in verse 63. — Resecantur. The reference is to the incision 
made in the stock. — In solidum. ** Into the solid wood." Supply 
lignum^ or truncikm. — Feraces planta. "Fruitful scions," t. c, cut- 
tings from fruit-bearing trees. — Nee longum tempus, &c. "Nor 
does a long time elapse, when a tall tree goes forth," <&c. ; more 
literally, " nor is there a long time, and a tall tree has gone forth," 
dLC. On this use of e/, in connecting two clauses, when rapidity of 
action is intended to be expressed, consult the remarks of Hand 
{ad TurseU., vol. ii., p. 482, seqq.). The same idea of celerity is im- 
plied in the perfect, exiit. (Compare note on Georg., i., 330.) — JZo- 
mw felicibus. " With productive branches." — Et non sua poma. 
"And fruits not its own." 

83-86. Pratereat genus haud unum^ &c. In this passage the poet 
just mentions that there are several species of trees, and speaks 
of the boundless variety of fruits. — Loto. By the " lotus" is here 
meant, as Martyn thinks, the jujube, a native of the south of Eu- 
rope. The fruit is of the shape and size of an olive, and the pulp 
has a sweet taste like honey. — Idais cyparissis. The cypress is 
here called " Idaean," not from Mount Ida, in Troas, but from that 
in the Island of Crete, whence it came first to Tarentum, and spread 
thence over all Italy. (Plin.^ H, N., xvi., 33, 60.) Observe that m 
typarissus we have the Greek form {KV7rdpLaoog)t instead of the reg- 
ular Latin one, cupressus, — Nee pingues unam, 6lc. " Nor are the 
rich olives produced of one and the same form, the orchades, name- 
ly, and radii, and the pausia, with bitter berry." Out of the al- 
most innumerable varieties of the olive, the poet mentions only 
three : the Orchades^ of a round form ; the radiit long, and so called 
from its similitude to a weaver's shuttle ; and the pausia. The bit- 
ter berry of this last species is mentioned, because it is to be gath- 
ered before it is quite ripe, for then it has a bitter or austere taste ; 
but when it is quite ripe, it has. a very pleasant flavour. 

87-88. Pomaque el Alcinoi silvcB. " Apples, too, and the fruits of 
the garden of Alcinous (are not produced alike in appearance)", i. e., 
apples, and other fruits, also,' are equally marked by great varieties 
in appearance. Poma is here used, in a special sense, for a partic- 
ular kind of fruit, while by Alcinoi silva (literally, " the woods of 
AlcinouS)" i. e., fruit-trees) are meant other fruits in general ; and, 
in order to complete the clause, we are to suppose non unam in fa' 
dem nascuntur understood, nee being resolved into the negative rum 
with the connecting coDJunction. Alcinous was king of Phasacia, 


unothcr name for the Island of Coroyra, and vrma ikmoos fixll tei 
beauty of his gardens, of which Homer has left as a glawiBgA| Fa 
scription. (Orf., vii., ll^t seqq.) — Cnuiumiis, Syrtuque firiit^ 
The ** Crustuinian'* pears were reckoned the best sort GoliBdi W 
gives them the first place in his catalogaot and Pliny says theytRT t 
the best flavoured. They derived their name Orom Cni8tiimiHi.i| tb 
town of the Sabines, in the vicinity of Fidenae. The "STiiii^l F\ 
pears were also called Tarentiita, according to Columella. ThI fii 
" volcmi" derived their name fVom their size, since they wenHii u 
to fill the palm (vdatn) of the hand. Some translators, without if I q 
very definite authority, render the three names as follows: *'W#[ 
dcrij and Bergamot, and Pound pears.'* 

90-96. Methymnao. Methymna was a city of Lesbos, an iriail 
famed as well for the abundance as the excellence of its wun- 
Sunt Thasia vites. Thasus was an island in the uCgean, offtki' 
coast of Thrace, and opposite the mouth of the Nestos. The TiA- ' 
sian wine is mentioned by Pliny as being in high esteem.— ifm*- 
tides alba, " The white Mareotic ones." These vines grew nev 
the Lake Mareotis, in the vicinity of Alezandrea, in Egypt, and fin^ 
nished a light, sweetish, white wine, with a delicate perfume, nd 
of easy digestion. — HabiUs. " Adapted." — Et passo PsithU Mtdkr. 
" And the Psithian, better fitted for wine made of sun-dried grapes." 
With passo supply rmo. The passum was a wine made of half dried 
grapes, which were either allowed to remain on the vine until thef 
had shrunk to nearly one half their original bulk, or else were gath- 
ered when fully ripe, and, being carefully picked, were hung to diy 
in the sun, upon poles or mats, six or seven feet from the groond. 
— Lageos. This was a species of vine which, according to the old 
commentators, produced a grape of the colour of a hare (kdyeuKt 
from Aoycjf , " a hare"), and hence Servius terms it Uporaria. Little 
is known respecting it. 

Precia. ** The early ripe." Servius says these vines were call- 
ed precuEy quasi prtecogtuB, because their grapes soon ripened.— 
Rhatica. The Rhstian vine came from Rhstia, a country occupy- 
ing a part of the Alps, and lying to the north of Italy and east of 
Helvetia. Virgil here bestows high praise upon it, making it yield 
to the Falernian alone, partly from its intrinsic excellence, and 
partly out of compliment to Augustus, with whom the Rhaetian was 
a favourite wine. — Contende. " Presume to vie." — Falemis. The 
Falernian was the most famous of all the Italian wines. The vine- 
yards producing it lay on the southern declivities of the range of 
hiUsy which commenced in the neighbourhood of Sinuessa, and ex 


tended to a considerable distance inland. The best growth of the 
Palernian was the Massic. 

97-100. AminmcB vites. The Aminean Tines, according to the 
>est authorities, appear to have flourished originally at Amineum, 
ft place in Thessaly, and to have been subsequently brought from 
:bat quarter into Italy. (Consult Heyne^ Ad hc.y in Var. Led.) — 
Firmistima «tfui. *' A very firm-bodied wine," t. «., yielding a very 
Knn-bodied wine. Observe the peculiar apposition between vite* 
and vtiM. — TmoUus Asaurgit quibus, &c. ** Unto which the Tmolian 
DDOuntain, and the Phanean king himself, do homage ;" literally, 
'' arise,'* t. e., for the purpose of paying homage. The produce of 
Mount Tmolus, in Lydia, and that of the country adjacent to Phanse, 
a promontory in the Island of Chios, are both here said to acknowl- 
edge their inferiority to the Aminaean wine, though that of Tmolua 
was famed for its quality, while the Phansean wine was so superior 
as to be honoured with the title of royalty, and to be called by the 
poet the Phanaean king, i. «., the king among wines. We have 
given Tmeliug assurgit, <&;c., as sanctioned by the best MSS., for the 
common reading, Tmoliu ei asaurgit^ dec. ; with Tmoliua we must 
■apply mont. 

Argitisquc minor. *'And the smaller Argitis." Another kind 
of Tine, less prized than this, was, according to ColumeUa (iii., 2), 
folsely styled **the greater Argitis." The Argitis is thought to 
have derived its name from Argos, the capital of Argolis. More 
probably, however, it received its appellation from the white colour 
of its grape (apyd^t *' white"). Virgil here praises it for the abun- 
dance of juice which the grape affords, and for the extraordinary 
lorability of its wine. We may discover some analogy between it 
ftnd the best growths of the Rhine, which are obtained from a small 
white grape, and are remarkable for their permanency. {Mender- 
tmCa History of Ane. and Mod. Wines, p. 78.) — Certaverit. ♦* Will 
feel inclined to contend." The perfect subjunctive has here the 
force of a softened future. (Compare Zumpt, L. G., ^ 627.) — Tan- 
*umfluere. " In yielding so much juice." 

101-103. Non ego te transierim. '* I do not think I will pass thee 
)Ter in silence." Observe the employment of the peifect subjunctive 
'jo denote a softened future. {Zumpt, I. e.) — Dia et menaia aeeundia. 
* To the gods and second courses.*' The second course consisted 
}f fruits, and libations were accustomed to be then poured out to 
;he gods. The poet means, therefore, that the Rhodian was a fa- 
ronrite wine at desserts, and much used also in libations at such a 
;iine.— ^uauu/e. The Bomastus derived its dame from ita bearing 

800 irOTES ON THE 6E0RGICS. — ^BOOK It* 

large-sized grapes. The term is of Greek origin, poifftatrroc {^pfif 
ufintXog)t from (Bov, the intensive prefix, and fiaaroci *' the female 
breast." Another name is bumamma. 

103-108. Sed neque, quam tnuUa species, &c. ■ '* But neither is 
there a namber for as many species as exist, nor for the names 
vrhich they have, nor, in truth, is it of any value to attempt to em- 
brace them by number." Observe that neqtte enim is here for neque 
verOf the particle enim having in this combination a strong confirm- 
atory power. {Handy ad Tursell.y ii., p. 389, seqq.y^LihyH aquoris, 
" Of the desert plain of Libya." The reference is here to the sandy 
plains of the Libyan or African desert, not to the surface of the 
Libyan Sea. — Zephyro. '* By the western blast." — NavigOs vioUi^ 
tior incidit, " Falls with more than ordinary violence on the barks 
of the mariners." — loniifluntus. ** Ionian billows," t. «., billows of 
the Ionian Sea. The Ionian Sea lay between Lower Italy and 
Greece. At the Acroceraunian promontory in Epirus it contracts 
itself, and begins to form the Adriatic Gulf 

109-113. Nee vero, &,c. The poet now informs u| tbat different 
trees and plants require difi^erent soils. — Terra ferre omnes, dec, 
" Can every sort of land bear all sorts of trees." Supply after 
omnia the words genera arborum. — Fluminibus. " About rivers." 
Equivalent to ad Jlumina. — Myrtetis Icetissima. The myrtle is a 
tender plant, and avoids the cold mountains and other exposed 
places. It loves the warm sandy shores. (Compare Georg., iv., 
124: ^^ amantes lilora myrtosy) — Apertos colles. "The open, sunny 
hills." — Aquilonem. " A northern exposure." 

114-115. Aspice et extremis, &c. "Behold, also, the world sub- 
dued by the most distant cultivators," i. e., behold, also, the most 
distant parts of the cultivated globe. We are now told that difiTer- 
ent countries are distinguished fiom one another by the trees which 
they produce. — Pictosque Gelonos. "And the tattooed Geloni." 
The Geloni were a Scythian race, and accustomed, like many other 
barbarous tribes in their part of the world, to tattoo their persons. 
The Arabians and Geloni are mentioned by the poet as marking 
the extreme limits of the world, and his meaning, when para- 
phrased, will be this : Look from Arabia in the East to the far Gelo- 
ni in the North, and you will find that, throughout the whole inter- 
Tening tract, countries are distinguished from one another by par- 
ticular trees. 

116-119. India. The Arabians, in the poetical geography of 
Virgil, are ranked, as appears from the preceding verse, among the 
Indi iVosst ad loc.) — Ebenum. Virgil has been accused of a mis- 


^ ^^mmm, here, in saying that India alone produces ebony, since, accord- 
—Iff to other ancient writers, this species of wood grew also in 
Etibiopia, and, indeed, the best kind came from the latter country. 
.rbe poet, however, merely follows Theophrastus in this, who, in 
.yfieaking of the trees of India, says that ebony is peculiar to that 
.XMintry, Idiov km kSivri rye X^P^ ravTrj^. The whole difficulty 
jn-ises from the loose and unsettled way in which the ancient wri- 
.^ers were accustomed to employ the terms India and JSthiopia. 
Herodotus (iii., 97) mentions ebony as part of the presents brought 
Mn considerable quantities to the King of Persia by the people of 
.^Ethiopia : it formed part of the contributions, also, exacted by the 
xnonarchs of Egypt from the conquered tribes of iEthiopia and Asia, 
^Wilkinson, vol. iii., p. 169.) Dioscorides describes two kinds, one 
.^Bthiopian, which was considered the best, and the other Indian, 
"V^hich was intermixed with whitish stripes and spotted ; and hence 
commentators have disputed whether there were one or two kinds 
of ebony. But the fact is, that several trees yield this kind of wood, 
and all belong to the genus Diospyrus. Owing to the known geo- 
graphical division of this genus, the ancients must have derived 
their ebony either from the peninsula of India and the Island of 
Ceylon, or by the coasting trade from Madagascar, for no species 
of diospyrus has yet been discovered by botanists in the upper parts 
of Egypt, or in Abyssinia, though it is not improbable that some 
uiay be found, as the climate is well suited to their existence. 
Commentators, therefore, would seem to have been too hasty in 
condemning our poet. {Penny Cyclopedia, vol. ix., p. 254.) 

Solis est thurea virga Sabais. ** The Sabsei alone have the frank- 
incense-yielding bough." (Consult note on Georg.,i., 57.) — Sudantia, 
•♦ Exuding." — Bahama, The reference is to the resin or gum of 
the Amyris opobaUamum. {Valpy^ ad loc.y^Et haccas semper fron- 
dentis acanthi. '* And the gum globules of the ever-blooming acan- 
thus." The tree here meant is the Egyptian acacia, from which 
we obtain gum Arabic. A difficulty has arisen with regard to Vir- 
gil's use of the term ** baccce." Some suppose him to have meant 
the pods, some the round flowers, and some the beans, or seeds, 
contained in the pods. The poet, however, seems evidently to 
have had in view the globules of gum: {Martyn, ad loc. — Yates, in 
Class. Museum, n. vii., p. 20.) The acanthus, therefore, which is 
here meant, must not be confounded with the one mentioned in 
the fourth Eclogue (v. 20). Sir J. E. Smith makes VirgiPs acan- 
thus to be the holly ; but consult the remarks of Yates, p. 9, seqq. 
. 120-121. Nemora JEthiopum, 6lc. The allusion in this line is to 



the cotton-plant. The term *' JEtMopunif" howerer, must be tikal 
in a very general sense, since Pliny {H. N., xiz., 1, 2) speaks of tbi 
cotton-plant as growing in Upper Egypt, while Herodotus wd 
Arrian both mention it as indigenous in India. — VeUeraqueutfobih 
&c. "And how the Seres comb the fine fleeces from the leafB 
of trees." The Seres were a people of Upper Asia, and are so^ 
posed to have been identical with, or else closely bordering apoi 
the Chinese. They furnished the nations of the West with silk, ui 
the allusion here is to that product. The ancients, however, wm, 
in general, ignorant of the manner in which it was spun by s^ 
worms, and the popular belief among them was that the silk was a 
sort of down gathered from the leaves of trees. {Plin., N, H,y fi., 
17. With which compare, on the other hand, the surprisingly a^ 
curate account, considering his imperfect sources of informatioii» 
that is given by Aristotle, Hist, An., v., 19). 

122-125. Oceano propior. India, according to the popular belief 
of the day, was the farthest country of the world to the east, aid 
bordered directly upon the ocean. It, of course, according to tbii 
view, included Serica, or the country of the Seres. — Extremi nma 
orbis. ** The curvature of the extremity of the world (in that qaa^ 
ter)," t. e.f the extreme curvature of the world in the eastern quar- 
ter of the globe. Sinus here, as Voss remarks, does not denote a 
bay or gulf, for then the language of the text would be smut 
Oeeaniy but it means the swelling out, or bending forth of the earth 
in this quarter, in accordance with the peculiar notions then pre- 
vailing in relation to the shape of the world : *< der Bogen oder die 
Rundung des eiformigen Erdkreises im Osten." {Voss, ad loc.) 

Ubi aera vincere summunif &c. " Where no arrows have ever been 
able to surmount in their flight the airy summit of the tree;" 
literally, *• the highest air of the tree," i. e., where no arrow hat 
ever been able to surmount the lofly trees that grow there, so as to 
pass through the air at the top of the tree without touching the tree 
itself The most exaggerated accounts are given by the ancient 
writers of the size of the trees that grew in India. Pliny makes the 
same statement as Virgil, that some were too high for any arrow 
to be shot over them. {H. N., vii., 2. Compare, also, Strabo, xv., 
p. 694, Cos., and Diodorus SiaUus, xvii., 90.) — Non tarda, ** Not 
tmskilful." This verse has been suspected of being spurious by 
Heyne, Bryant, Brunck, and Manso. One reason for this opinion 
appears to be that the epithet tardus occurs again in the very next 
T,**^* In reply to this, Wagner cites the following instances of a 
similar repetition. ^n.,\., MMt^medioi— tfced\a^\ j&n.>^ .<.1%K^ V:^«b. 
*^^'^P^tUM); Gtorg.y i.,aOl Ccuroafit— cuTa«V 


IS(^135» TruU8 auecosi dtc. "The bitter juices and long-abi* 
ding flavour of the happy apple.'' The fruit here meant is the cit* 
ron, or the produce of the Citruw nudica, and belongs to the same 
family with the lemon and lime. It is called ^^fdix,^^ from its Aa;?^ 
and socceasfhl employment as a means of cure in cases of poison- 
ing. The ** tviaUt «ttcct" indicate, according to Fee, the bitter taste 
of the rind, for it is of the rind, as he thinks, that the poet here 
points out the medical uses : he makes no allusion to the refresh* 
ing effects of the citron, but only to its tonic action, and this latter 
could not refer to the juice, the properties of which were not, as 
yet, well known. {Flart de VirgUe, p. 106.) Martyn, also, is of 
opinion that the poet either refers to the outer rind, or to the seeds, 
which are covered with a bitter skin. The juice of the pulp is sub* 
•eid merely. 

Pr^uetUnu. ** More instantly efficacious. " — MiscuerurUque herbaSf 
du;. This line is quite out of place here, and belongs to Georg., iii., 
883. It relates to love-potions and magic incantations, which are 
ef course quite irrelevant here ; and, besides, it separates quo non 
prOMeniiuf uUum by too wide an interval from auxUium venit. — Agit, 
<« Expels.'' — Faciem. "In look," t. e., in general appearance.— 
Lmutus erat. " It would actually be a bay-tree." The indicativo 
ieral) is here employed instead of the subjunctive {eatet), to denote 
that, a part having already come to pass (faciem simiUima lauro), 
the whole would aehuUly have taken place, had not a particidar ob« 
stacle been thrown in the way {at non alium jactaret odorem). (Com* 
pare Zumpt, L. G., ^ 519, b.) 

Ad prima tenax. " Tenacious to the first degree." — AnimoM et 
oUnti€, 4tc. ** The Modes correct with this fruit their breaths and 
fetid mouths, and cure their asthmatic old men." — Illo, Supply 
wudo, not flore, 

136-139. Sed neque Medorwm, silvtB, 6lc. The poet, having spo- 
ken of the moat remarkable trees in foreign lands, takes occasion 
here to make a beautiful digression in praise of Italy. — Silva ditis^ 
sima. "Most richly abounding in trees." — Ganges, The well- 
known river of India. — Auro turhidu* Hermus. The Hermus, a 
Lydian river, receives the Pactolus, renowned for its golden sands, 
and empties into the Smyrnean Gulf. — Bactra, The capital of the 
rich region of Bactriana in Upper Asia, to the northwest of India. — 
Indi, Martyn thinks that Virgil here means ^Ethiopia, since he has 
already spoken of India, properly so called, in mentioning the Gan- 
ges. Poetic geography, however, must not be too strictly examin- 
ed. In mentioning the Ganges, the poet merely intended to dwell 


on the idea of a noble river watering a fair region ; now, howerer, 
he refers to the whole country generally. 

Totaque thuriferis, &;c. ** And all Pancbaia, rich with its incenie- 
bearing sands," t. «., the sandy soil of which yields richest incense. 
Pancbaia was a fabled island in the Indian Ocean, which Euhemeru 
pretended to have discovered. The poet borrows the name from 
Eubemerus, but evidently refers to Arabia Felix. 

140-144. H<Bc locay &c. The meaning intended to be conveyed 
is this, that Italy is no less fertile and rich a land than Colchis, and 
yet wants those monstrous creations which have rendered that re- 
gion so peculiarly ill-famed. — Tauri spirantes naribus ignem, Allt- 
ding to the story of Jason and the Argonautic expedition. .£ete8, 
king of Colcbis, agreed to give him the golden fleece, provided he 
could yoke the brass-footed bulls. These were the gifts of Yukun 
to iEetes, in number two, and breathing flame from their nostrils. 
Wben he had yoked these, he was to plough with them a piece of 
land, and sow the serpent's teeth which ^etes possessed, for Bli- 
nerva had given him one half of those the other half of which 
Cadmus sowed at Thebes. {Keightley's Mythology, p. 472.)— /jimtw 
tere. " Have upturned," t. e., with the plough. — Nee gaUis detuig' 
que, 6lc. " Nor has a crop of men bristled on the view with hel- 
mets and thick-clustering spears." After Jason had sown the ser- 
pent's teeth, a crop of armed men sprang up and prepared to attack 
him. Acting by the advice of Medea, however, he flung stones 
among them, and while they were fighting with one another about 
these, he fell upon and slew them all. 

Gravida fruges. ** Loaded harvests." — Bacchi MassicuM humor. 
The Massic was the best growth of the famed Falemian wine. 
(Consult note on verse 96.) — Tenent. For possident. 

145-148. Hinc bellator equus, &c. " Hence the war-steed, with 
neck raised proudly on high, rushes into the battle-field," i. «., from 
this land comes the war-steed that proudly rushes into the thickest 
of the fight. The poet here praises Italy for its fine steeds, and 
immediately after for its excellent cattle, &LC.—Albi gregea. «» Thy 
white herds." The cattle on the banks of the Clitumnus, a river 
of Umbria, and tributary of the Tiber, were of a milk-white hue, 
and were selected as victims in the celebration of a Roman triumph. 
— Maxima viciima. ''Greatest of victims." — Duxere. The bulls, 
being led before the triumphal chariot, are here said poetically to 
lead the triumph itself.— rm;?/a deiim. The temple of Jupiter on 
the Capitoline Hill, with its two additional shrines, or temples of 
Minerva and Juivo. 

N6T£S on the GfiO&OICS. — BOOK II. 305 

149-150. Hie ver assiduum^ &c. He describes the temperate and 
Lightful climate of Italy by saying it enjoys a perpetual spring, 
d summer-warmth in such months as make winter in other lands. 
Clients mensibus. **In months not its own/' t. e.y when winter 
^rns elsewhere. — Bis pomis utilis arbor. *lf we believe the ac- 
ants of ancient writers, there is less exaggeration in this than 
»ald at first appear. Varro (i., 7) and Pliny (if. i\r., xvi., 27, 60) 
th make mention of certain fruit-trees that bore twice a year ; 
d the latter mentions a vine that yielded grapes three times du- 
tg the same period. 

151-154. At rabida tigres absunt, &c. " Ay, but (what is more), 
e ravening tigers are far away." Observe here the peculiar force 

at. Virgil wishes to impress upon the reader that Italy enjoys 
B fecundity of warm climates without their general evils, namely, 
pers, lions, serpents, and poisons. — Semina, " Breed." — Nee mis- 
js fallunt, dec. " Nor does the wolfsbane deceive the wretched 
ings that gather it." Virgil here, by using the plural ocont/a, would 
lem, in fact, to refer to poisonous herbs in general under the name 
erely of one kind. The aconitum of the poet is the Aconitum nor 
llus of Linnaeus {gen. 928). As regards the meaning intended to 
t conveyed by the words of the text commentators differ. Dios- 
irides expressly states that the aconitum does grow in Italy, on 
e mountains of the Vestini (c. 78), and hence Servius thinks the 
ict's idea to be this, that the wolfsbane is too well known in Italy 

be gathered by mistake. More probably, however, Virgil merely 
eans that the plant in question is rare in Italy compared with 
her countries, especially with Pontus, where it was said to be in- 
genous. (Compare Pausan., v. 26. — Plin., H. N.y vi., 1, 1. — Ovid^ 
'et.t vii., 416, seq.) — Tanto iractu. "Of so great a length (as in 
her lands)." Wonderful accounts are given by the ancient wri- 
rs of the great size of the serpent in India, Africa, &c. (P/tn., 
'. iV., viii., 14.) 

155-160. Operumque Idborem, "And stupendous works." — Con- 
ista manu. " Built up by the hand of man." — Praruptis 9axis. 
hese are the early hill-cities of Italy, now generally supposed to 
ave been of Pelasgic or Etrurian origin. — Subterlabentia. " Gli- 
ing beneath," i. e., at the foot of. — Jlfarc, quod aupra^ &c. The two 
3as here alluded to are the Adriatic, or upper, and the Tyrrhenian, 
r lower sea. — Alluit. " Laves its shores." — Te, LMri maxime. 

Thee, Larius, greatest in length." The Lake Larius, now Lago di 
1omo, lay in Cisalpine Gaul, to the north of the Po, and east of the 
jake Verbanos. It is the longest of the ItaUaii\akeB«\\LQ3QL^'\!c£!^ 



rior to the others in breadth. — Assurgrens. "Arising at timttl ti 
The allusion is to sudden and violent storms, to which this IikiV tr 
subject. — Bcnace. Lake Benacus is meant, situate in CiBilpicI L 
Gaul, and from which the Mincius flows into the Po. It is now fill T 
Lago di Garda. I ii 

161-166. Lucrinoque addtta elaugtra, "And the barriers attli| h 
to the Luerine Lake." The allasion is to the famous Julian k»| I 
hour {Partus Juliu*)^ so called in honour of Augustus, aiide»|l 
structed by Agrippa under his orders. The Luerine was iUi|| 
in Italy, near Cumae, on the coast of Campania. According to Di 
Cassius (xWiii., 60), there were three lakes in this quarter, \fH 
one behind the other. The outermost one, however, or LacosT^ 
rhcnus, was properly only a bay. The middle one was the LnoiM^ 
and the innermost one, the Lake Avemus. The Luerine was ttf 
arated from the outermost lake, or bay, by a natural dike, eight stadi 
long, and of a chariot *s breadth. There was also a separation Ifr 
tween the Luerine and the Avernian Lakes. The outer dike,* 
the one between the Luerine and the outer bay, was, according k 
Strabo, accustomed, in storms, to be washed by the waves, tbi 
rendering it almost impassable on foot. Agrippa thereupon niiti 
it higher. Dio Cassius adds, that the same commander cut throng 
the dike at either end, where it joined the land. These two op» 
ings were then strongly fortified. Agrippa, at the same time, in^ 
an entrance through the intervening land into the Avernian JjiB, 
thus joining it with the Luerine, and cut down the thick forests tW I 
stood upon its banks. The whole interior space occupied by tbi I 
two lakes was called the Julian harbour, the two entrances tt 
which were in the outer dike. The object in forming this haiton 
was chiefly to procure a place along the coast fit for exercising ani 
training a body of seamen previous to the contest with SextH 
Fompeius. What the poet means here by claustra, however, ii 
quite uncertain. Pliny speaks of the "mare Tyrrhenum a lAtertM 
molibus seclnsum,** which probably means that the dike was made 
high enough by Agrippa to keep out the waters of the bay in tinfl 
of storms, entrances being, of course, left for the harbour itsdf. 
Perhaps, too, under the term claustra we are to include moles, oi 
breakwaters, constructed at each opening. 

Indignatum. " Giving vent to its indignatio^.'* — Julia qua ptnit9, | 
6lc. '^ Where the Julian wave resounds afar, the ocean pouring ini ' 
and the Tyrrhenian tide is let into the now troubled waters of 
Avernus." The meaning is simply this : the sea being kept oat bf 
the increased height of the dike, over which it could no looger wasU 


ftDTQ powerful currents set into each opening in the dike, where en- 
trance alone was permitted ; and a similar current ran from the 
Lucrioe Lake into the Avemian, disturbing its before quiet waters. 
The noise of the agitated waters forming the currents in question 
is ascribed by the poet to the indignation of the sea at not being al- 
lowed free ingres&— H<ec eadem argenti, &c. ** This same land has 
diadosed in her bosom veins of silver, and the metal of copper, and 
has flowed most abundantly with gold." Observe here the pecu- 
liar employment of the past tense. The working of mines in Italy 
was forbidden in the poet's time, and had been so long before by 
an express decree of the senate {Plin.y H. N., iil, 20, 24 ; xxxiii., 4, 
91, iac.) ; still, however, there were indications enough remaining 
to show that mining had formerly been carried on with success. 

167-168-. Gtnus acre virikm. ** A warlike race of inhabitants.**— 
Jlitarsos. The Marsi were a very valiant people of Italy, whose ter- 
ritoiy lay to the northeast of Latium, and southeast of the country 
of the Sabines. — Pubemgue Sabellam, ** And the Sabellian youth.'* 
Tlie Samnites, in particular, are meant. In strictness, however, the 
epithet Sabellian belonged to all the tribes that sprang from the old 
Sabine stock. (Compare Niebuhr, Rom. Hist., vol. i., p. 71, teqq.) — 
AMuehtmque malo^ &c^ ** And the Ligurian, accustomed to priva- 
tton." The Ligurians inhabited that part of Italy which lay along 
Ite shores of the Sinus Ligusticus, or Gulf of Genoa, having the , 
Yams on the west, and the Macra on the southeast, and bounded 
on the north by the Alps. Their soil was poor and stony, and sub- 
jected them to a life of privation and hardship. — Volseotque verutos. 
M And the Yolsci, armed with spit-like spear." The veru was a kind 
of spesr resembling a spit, whence its name. It was used by the 
Yolsci and Samnites, and was adopted from them by the Roman 
infantry. Its shad was three and a half feet long, its point five 
inches. — (Veget., ii., 16.) 

169-172. Decios, Marios, &.C. All names memorable in the his- 
tory of Rome. In the case of Marios and Camillos, where but a 
single individual of the name is conspicuous in history, the plural, 
noTertheless, is employed to denote all others who resembled them 
in character and exploits, and are therefore ranked with them un- 
der one and the same class and name. — Scipiadas duros heUo, " The 
Scipios, inured to war." The allusion is to the elder and younger 
Africanns. The term properly denotes " the sons of Scipio," i. «., 
the members of the Scipio family, tracing their descent from the 
Ibander of the line. As regards the form itself, compare the re- 
of Priscian : *« VtrgOms ncundum Gracam fofmam Scipiadea 

308 NOTBfl ON THE GEOROICfl — ^BOOK 11. 

dixit, dnb roH ^Kinlavot, quum Scipionides dieere debuk." (Frtte.,i| 
6, 33, p. 582, PuUck.)^Maximt, "Greatest of all." — Extrtm 
Asia in oris. After the fall of Antony, and the reduction of ^gjffit 
Caesar Octavianus, on his return by land through Syria and AM 
Minor (A.U.C. 724-5), visited the Eastern frontier, and then i» 
ceived an embassy from Phrahates, the sovereign of Paithia. {Bk 
Cass.f li., 8.) — Imbellem avertis, &c. ** Art turning away the hoB* 
bled Indian from the towers of Rome." By **Indum'* are here meant, 
according to Jahn and others, the Parthians and the other natiom 
of the remote East, who had furnished auxiliaries to Antony for tto 
battle of Actium. Humbled in spirit by the result of that conflict, 
they now sued for peace from the victor. Some think that theie 
lines were subsequently inserted by Virgil, when an embassy, u 
Suetonius states, came from India to Rome. But consult VoM, 
ad loc. 

17Z-176. Fruffum, " Of fertility."— So/ttmia. Alluding to the ft* I 
bled residence of Saturn in Latium, after he had been driven from ' 
the skies. — Magna virum. " Mighty mother of a valiant race." ■ Sap- 
ply parens. — Tihi. " For thee," i. c, in honour of thee. — Res w¥ 
tiqxKB laudis et artis. '* Themes of by-gone praise and skill," t. c, 
the subject of agriculture, held in high hondlir by our fathers, and 
skilfully acted upon by them. — Sanctos recltedere fontes. " To open 
up the hallowed fountains," i. c, to be the first Roman that hu 
ventured to draw poetic inspiration from such a source. — Aserttum- 
que canoj &c. " And (for thee) do I sing the Ascrean song through- 
out the Roman towns," i. c, and I follow, in this, the example of 
Hesiod, the bard of Ascra, who went from town to town of his na» 
tive land singing the song of agriculture, and teaching its precepts 
through the medium of verse. Hesiod was born at Ascra, in Bcb- 
otia, and hence his strain, as well as Virgil's in imitation of it, is 
called the Ascrean song. 

177-181. Nunc locus arvorum ingeniis. " Now is the place for the 
native characters of soils," i. c, now is the time to treat of the 
natures of different soils. Here the poet speaks of the different 
soils that are proper for olives, vines, pasture, and corn. — Robori. 
•♦ Strength," i. c, productive power. — Et qua sit rebus, &c. " And 
what the natural tendency of each to yield particular products."— 
Difficiles. ** Stubborn." Compare the explanation of Heyne : "jw- 
rum feraces, quasi morosa" ^^ Collesque maligni, **And hills that 
yield but scanty increase." Malignus is here opposed to largu*. 
So the expression solum benignum is employed, on the other hand, 
to denote one yielding abundant produce.— TVnuw argilla. ** A him- 


' day."^ Argilla is not our common clay, but potter's clay, which, 
Ck>lumella observes, is as hungry as sand. — Palladid gaudentf 
" Rejoice in a Palladian wood of the long-lived olive," i. e., 
best adapted to produce the long-lived olive, the tree of the god- 
Pallas or Minerva. The olive is remarkable for being a slow 
The kind of soil mentioned in the text does not, however, 
with the olive in all countries. Pliny tells us that a fat soil 
them in some places, and a gravelly one in others; The soil 
the Po, being subject to inundations, is damp : he, therefore, 
ftoommends hilly and stony grounds for the culture of the olive. 

182-187. Oleaster. " The wild olive." The Elaagnus angustir 
Ufa of Linnaeus. — Pinguis. "Fat." Virgil here recommends a 
%tf moist, fruitful soil for vines, in which he is said to differ from 
be other writers on agriculture,, who say that a very fruitful soil 
in\l make generally a bad vineyard. But Celsus, as quoted by 
Columella, and also Palladius, differ very little from our poet. He 
e(K>inmends a loose soil (rarissima qweque Lyao), they say it should 
»e rather loose than hard ; he recommends a rich soil {fertilis uber< 
4nnpus)y they say it should be rather rich than poor ; he recom- 
nends a rising ground {editus austro)y and so do they ; he recom- 
nends a moist soil, they say it should not be dry. {Martyriy ad loc.) 
^-^FertUis ubere. " Abounding in fertility." — Dispicere. " TJo look 
loiTi^n upon."— FcZicem limum, " The fertilizing mire." 

188-194. Editus. "Elevated." — Filicem. There are several 
kinds of fern. Martyn thinks that the one here meant is the female 
Ebrn, or brake, which covers most of the uncultivated, hilly grounds 
In Italy. Its branching, strong roots impede the plough. — Olim. 
M In time." — Sufficiet. " Will supply." — Hie fertilis uva. Supply 
^rit. — Hie laticis. "This will be rich in such liquor." The full 
form of expression is, hie talis laticis fertilis erit. — Pateris et auro. 
Hendiadys, for pateris aureis. — Libamus. " We pour forth in liba- 
tion." In libations, wines of the best quality were employed.— Jn- 
flavit quum pinguis, «&c. " When the obese Etruscan has inflated 
his ivory pipe at the altars." A sacrifice was commonly attended 
by a piper {tibicen), and this class of persons were generally Etru- 
rians. They always partook of the food offered up, so that " to 
live like a piper" became a proverb applied to those who main- 
tained themselves at the expense of other people. From their at- 
tachment to good fare, the Tuscan pipers, as Servius remarks, be- 
came very fat. — Ebur. The pipe was made of various materials, 
but principally of boxwood, bone, or ivory. Pipes of ivory, how- 
ever, were commonly employed at rich and 8nm^\.\xo\i% ^^wS^b^^ 


{Vos9, ad /oc— Compare Propert., iv., 6, 8.) — Fumantia rtidhmm J™ 
ta. " \Vc offer up the smoking entrails.'* Reddtre exta, is tben . 
iiical exprcHsion in sacrifices for offering up the entrails. AIM » 
sacrifices they were offered op roasted, at others either roaUri J . 
raw. The mode of offering was to put them upon dishes [lamr ^ 
or paters, and place these on the altars. "With regard to theefll ^ 
themselves, consult note on Georg.^ i., v. 484. — Pandia. '* Beodin 
Not from any weight, but merely of bent or curved form; ^A « 
Martial calls " cava'' (xi., 32, 19. Compare verse 445.) I 

195-202. Tucri. " To rear."— t7r€»/« cvlta. *' That witberM " 
young plants with their bite." The ancient agricultural wriieriM . 
that the saliva of animals of the goat kind is ▼enoroous to tn^l . 
especially to the olive. {Varro, R. JR., i., 8, 18. — Compare Pbul ■ 
H. X., XV., 8, 8, and viii., 50, 76.) Varro states, moreover, tWl . 
the ancient Romans, when they let a farm, were accustomed til , 
make an express stipulation that the tenant should not breed Ift , ^ 
because they destroyed the trees and bushes by browsing iipM| 
them. (Compare with this the remarks of Evelyn, as quoted 
Martyn : " Goats, or any other cattle, leave a drivel where tbeyl 
which not only infects the branches, but sometimes endangers * 
whole.'') As regards the peculiar force of urentts here, consult i 
on Geor^r,^ i., 77. 

Safari Tarenti. " Of the richly-stored Tarenlum." TareBtaBiil 
in Magna Grecia, in the northeastern angle of the Sinus Tare8li-| 
nus, was famed for its opulence. The adjacent region was cel^ 
bratcd for its wool. — Et qualem infelixj &c. Consult note on £rbfi 
i., Ab.—Herboao fiumine. " On its grassy river." The River Min* 
us is meant. (Compare Eclog., vii., 12.) — Non Uquidi gregibutt Ac. 
" Here, nor clear springs, nor grassy pastures, will be wanting to 
the flocks," i. e., in the regions just described, and in those othen 
that resemble them in their peculiar features. — Et, quantum Itmgiti 
dec. What the poet here says of the prodigious growth of tlie 
grass, in a single night*s time, seems incredible, and yet we are 
informed by Varro {R. R, i., 7, 10), that Caesar Vopiscus affinned 
that, at Rosea, near the Lake Velinus, a vine-pole, being stuck ia 
the ground, would be lost in the grass the next day. The same 
thing is stated by Pliny, H. N.j xvii., 4. {Martyn^ ad loc.) — Exigui 
nocte. ** In the scanty compass of a single night." 

203-209. Nigra fere, &c. Columella hlames the ancient writers 
on husbandry for insisting upon a black or gray colour as a sign 
of rich land. Evelyn, however, as quoted by Martyn, seems to 
recommend a black eaxv\ii oitk^ wicStw ^« \a \!ksi^ isA^iWsycAd b^ the 

N0TX8 ON THl! 6E0R6ICS. — ^BOOK II. 811 

'Ei presto pinguiSf &c. "And rich beneath the deeply- 
I share," t. e.y a rich, fat soil, into which the plough-share 
eeply.-T-i'tt^e. "Friable." — Namque hoc imitamur arando. 
ke the soil friable is the object sought to be effected by 
ng. A soil, therefore, which is friable, is by its very nature 
h the more fit for the purpose intended, since it supersedes 
!cssity of employing the plough. (Compare Wakefield, ad Lu' 
837.) — JViwi %dlo ex aquore. " From no surface." (Compare 
i., 50.) — Tardis, Moving slowly, not only from their very 
but also from the pressure of the heavy load. 
unde vratus, &c. " Or (that soil) from which the angry bus* 
in has cleared away a wood," <&c., t. «., that soil, also, is good 
Q which has just been cleared. — Iratus, Expressive of the 
>Q of the farmer, because trees have so long occupied land 
ight have been under the plough. {Valpy, ad loc.)—Ignava. 
ib have stood idly." — Eruitque. «« And has laid low." — AU 
^* The deep air on high." — At rudis enituiif &c. " But the 

unploughed field has (meanwhile) brightened on the view, 
be share driven deeply into its bosom." Observe here the 
•f aif and the beautiful employment of the perfect in this and 
ivious clause. The birds, 'tis true, have left their nests, and 

a shelter elsewhere, but then, hard "though their lot may be, 
id itself has been a gainer, and has already ^ even before, per- 
;heir flight has been finally stopped, improved under the ap- 
KVL of the share. — Enituit. The verb enifere, like the simple 
is employed to express the improvement which land receives 
ultivation. {Valpy, ad lac.) 

-213. Nam jejuna quidem, &c. " For the hungry gravel of the 
eld," &c. Virgil here condemns a sandy or gritty soil, but 
nt from that mentioned at verse 180. The epithet clivosi, too, 

1 force, since a field of this kind would not be able to retain 
in water. — Casias. This is the same plant mentioned in J?c- 
i., 69, and of which bees are fond. — Roremque. " And rose- 
' Another plant of which bees are fond, and which grows 
n a gravelly, poor soil. Dryden takes rorem here to mean 
," which the bees suck from the flowers, and this oiftnion is 
Ml also by Heyne, Schirach (p. 571), Manso, and others, prin- 
' on the ground that no other passage occurs where ros, with- 
e addition of marinusy stands for rosemary. In this they are 
:. Such a passage does* actually occur in Pliny {H. TV., xxiv.. 
Hoc que ex rore supra dicto nascitur ;" and, even if it had not, 
ference to a plant in " casias*^ is sufficient every way to show 
iar reference in rortm.]^ 



S14-S16. Et tophut scabcTj &c. "And (again) the rongli' 

and the whitish clay, hollowed out by the black chelydri, dril ^ 

that no other soil, in an equal degree with this, yields pleannf M ^ 

for serpents, and affords them crooked lurking-places/' Ow f* 

the personification in ntgant. The soil itself is made to spnl^if k 

stead uf the agricultural writers that describe such soils. 

meaning of the passage itself is this : that such land as ishne4 ^^ 

scribed is a favourite abode of serpents, and of little value forn K 

culture, just like the kind previously mentioned at verse IH-J ^ 

Tophus. Not rotten-stone, as Martyn thinks, but tufa, or the M ^ 

and porous surfacc-deposite from calcareous springs. — CkitM i 

By the chelydrus is strictly meant a kind of amphibious vtm ^ 

armed with a skin like the shell of a tortoise. It is more *| ' 

probable, however, that Virgil meant to use it here as a 

terra for any snake. — Creta. Consult note on Georg-., i., t. VHA ^ 

Cibum. The ancients believed that serpents fed on earth andcM i 

and this will serve to explain the term exeta in verse 214. biM ^ 

Gcoponica, vii., 12, serpents and other reptiles are said to Hie f i 

clay during the winter; and Silius Italicus (xvii., 449) speibi 

an African snake, **ferrenti pastu* arena." I J 

217-223. Qua tenuem cxhalat nehulam, &c. With qua sM 1 
terra. These verses, observes Holdsworth, contain a veiyeni ' 
description of the nature of the Campania Felix, which hasfnfll t 
ally a thin mist hanging over it some part of the day, that|^ o 
serves it from becoming dry, though continually cultivated.-i^ t 
mosque volucres. " And flying vapours." — Quteque suo viriiu ^k l 
Referring to land that runs quickly and naturally to grass. (Fm i 
ad loc.) — Scabie ct aalsd ruhigine. " With scurf and salt rust"-! j 
Oleo. For ad oleum. — Expericre. "You will find." — Fiafc»l I 
" Well adapted." — Patientem vomeris unci. Meaning a soil easyvl < 
be ploughed. I 

224-225. Capua. A rich and flourishing city of Campania, tA 
at one time the capital of the country. — Vicina Vesevo, &c. "I**, 
regions adjacent to Mount Vesevus." This is the same with Ve!i' 
vius, in Campania, about six miles southeast of Ncapolis, oriVa^ 
It appears to have been known also by the names of Vesvius si' 
Vesbius. In Virgil's days it was remarkable for the fertility of ths? 
country at its base, but was not in a state of volcanic activity, il-| 
though it possessed numerous indications of having once been so- . 
The poet, therefore, alludes merely to the fertility of the surround- 1 
ing country. The first great eruption on record took place on the 
24th of August, A.D. 79, when Herculaneum, Pompeii, and SUbis 
were buried under showers of volcanic sand, stoocB, and scoris- 


Ora. Aulas Gellius informs us that he had met with an account 
that Virgil originally wrote Nola here, but that being afterward not 
allowed by the people of that city to bring down some water to his 
farm in the neighbourhood, he altered Nola to ora. Gellius himself 
seems to give no great credit to this story. {NocL Att., vii., 20.) 
** It is not probable," observes Holdsworth, '* that Virgil ever thought 
of Nola in this place. The coast from Naples is very fruitful, and 
as Virgil is supposed hav6 written this at or near Naples, and had 
this coast every day in his view, is it likely that he should pay this 
eompliment to a distant town, and forget his favouHte country 1 I 
doubt whether the land about Nola merits the praises here given ; 
but if it does, it is comprehended under Clanius, near the banks of 
which it stands." 

Ei vacuig Claniusj &c. ** And the Clanius, unjust to depopulated 
Acerrae." Clanius was a river of Campania, rising in the Apen- 
iiiaes near Nola, and flowing at no great distance from Acerrae, 
which town at no period had many inhabitants, from the frequent 
and destructive inundations of this river. 

22&-232. Quamque. " Each kind of soil." Supply fcrram. — Rara 
sii, an supra, 6lc. '* If you seek to ascertain whether it be loose or 
unnsually hard." According to Julius Grsecinus, as quoted by Col- 
umella, densa signifies such a soil as admits the rain with difficulty, 
is easily crocked and apt to gape, and so let in the sun to the roots 
of the vines, and, in a manner, to strangle the young plants. This, 
therefore, mu8t*be a hard or stiff soil. Rara, on the other hand, 
lets the showers quite through, and is apt to be dried up by the 
aun. This, therefore, must be a loose soil. {Martyn, ad loc.) — 
Jknie. " First." — In solido. " Where the ground is solid." Supply 
loeo. — Demitti. "To be sunk." — Et pedibus summas, &c. "And 
will level with your feet the topmost portion of the soil." Observe 
that arena is often taken poetically for soil of any kind. (Compare 
Georg., i, 106.) 

233-237. Si deerunt, rarum, &c. " If soil shall be -wanting (to 
fill the pit), the ground will be loose." With deerunt supply arma, 
and observe the employment of uher in the simple sense of humus^ 
or solum. — In sua ire loea, " To go back to its former place," i. e., 
to fill the space previously occupied by it. — Superabit. " Shall re- 
main over," with the additional idea of rising above the surface or 
level of the adjacent ground. — Glebas cunctantes, &c. "Expect 
tluggish clods and stiff ridges," i. e., a hard soil, difficult to pulver- 
ize, and, when ploughed, rising in stiff ridges. (Valpy^ ad loc.y^ 
Terram proscinde. " Give the land its first ploughing." The first 


ploughing in the case of such land must be a deep one, ''mIs&jiI ^T 
vends." The term proscindere was a technical one with theRflHl lent 
farmers, and meant to plough ground for the first time. Thai V0I p 
remarks, " terram cumprimum arajit, proscindere appellant^ (A'll |itc] 
i., 29, 2.) f yw 

238-240. Salta autem tellus, &c. •* Salt" and " bitter" wentni ftei 
epithets applied by the ancient farmers to tinro difierent kiidi ^\ tjjA 
earth. {Pallad., ii., 13.) Diophanes, in the Geopanica (v. 7),»l 1^ 
ploys, in like manner, the terms irucpd and aXftvpd. The taste of thi \ fic 
earth was suppdbed to be communicated to the wine made fromthi I of 
grapes produced by it. {Geopon., I. c.) — Perhihetur, ** Is comniM^ f 
called." — Frugibus. *'For grain,'' especially corn. — MminnBL 
" Is meliorated ;" literally, " grows mild." — Nee Baccho genut, Aft 
•* Nor preserves the fame of its lineage unto the juice of the grapes 
nor their former reputation unto fruits," t. e., in a soil thus aboaDd- 
ing with salt both vines and fruit-trees degenerate. — SptemoL 
** An indication of its nature." 

241-247. Spisso vimine qualos. ** Baskets of thickly-woTen osien.* | 
— Cdaque pralorum, "And the strainers of the wine-pressei." 
These were also a kind of closely-woven baskets, made, as Coh- 
mcUa informs us, of Spanish broom, and through which the mmt 
was percolated. {Colum., xii., 19.) After having been used, thef 
were hung up in the smoke to preserve them from the efiects of 
moisture. — Hue. ** Into these." — Ad plenum. " Brim full." — Elu' 
tahitur. "Will struggle owiy— Sapor, Referring *to the taste of 
the expressed water. — Manifestxu, We have given here the panc- 
tuation adopted by Reiske, Wakefield, Jahn, and Wagner, by which 
manifesius is connected in construction with atnaror. The commoa 
text places a comma af\er manifestusf and thus joins it to sapor.-^ 
Ora tristia terUantum, <&c. " Will, by the sensation it produces, dii- 
tort into wry faces the countenances of those who taste it ;" liter- 
ally, " will twist the wry faces," &c. In expressing an action, epi- 
thets are oAen applied to objects which belong to them properly 
only while that action lasts. 

249-258. Hand unquam, 6lc. " It never crumbles when thrown 
about from one hand into the other." Compare the version of 
Y088 : " Aus einer Hande in die andere." — Lentescit. " Adheres. "-^ 
ITdbendo. " While held." Equivalent to dum manibuM hahetur. — Majo» 
res. " Of a larger size than ordinary." — Justo latior. " Prolific be- 
yond due measure." — Ah! nimium ne sit mt'Ai, &c. "Ah ! let not 
that too fertile soil belong to me." — Primis aristis. " At the first 
springing of the grain -," UleTally, " in the first ears."^ Taeitsm. 


«* Though silent," i. «., silently — Sceleratutn, "Hurtful." Equiva- 
lent here to noxium. 

Picea, "The spruce firs." The picea is our common fir, or 
pitch-tree, observes Martyn. — Taxique nocentet. " And the noxious 
yews." The leaves of the yews are extremely poisonous both to 
men and cattle. — Hedera nigra. The common ivy is meant. The 
epithet nigrds has reference merely to the colour of the berries, 
which are black, and perhaps, also, to its dark-green foliage. {Fie, 
Flore de Virgile^ p. 63.) — Pandunt vestigia. " DiscJose indications 
of it," 1. e., afford proof of this chilly nature of the soil by being 
found growing in it. 

259-261. His animadversisy &c: Having explained the several 
Borts of soil, he proceeds to give some instructions concerning the 
planting of vines ; and speaks of the trenches which are to be made 
to receive the plants out of the nursery ; of taking care that the 
ouTsery and vineyard should have a like soil ; and that the plants 
should be set with the same aspect which they had in the nursery. 
—MtUto ante. He means long before the spring, the time for plant- 
ing vines. — Excoquere. " To prepare," i. e., by exposure not only 
to the heat of the sun, but also to the cold and frosts. (Compare 
.Columella, xi., 3, 13 : " Sicut calor aestatis, ita vis frigoris excoquit 
terrain.") — Magnos scrobiims, 6lc. " And to cut the large hills all 
over with trenches." Observe the force of the preposition in com- 
position. Martyn conjectures magnis, of which Heyne approves, 
though he does not admit it into the text. But the true reading is 
magnos. The poet directs that the trenches be cut over the whole 
face of the hills, no matter how large these latter may be, and that 
no labour be spared. — Aquiloni ostendere. " To expose to the nor- 
thern wind," 1. e.j in order that they may become pervious to it, and 
be dried out and rendered friable. (Compare verse 262, Optima pU' 
tri, &c., and verse 263, id venti cur ant, &c.) 

262-268. Optima putri, &c. " Those fields are best (for the vine) 
with a crumbling soil." — Id. The rendering the soil, namely, crum- 
bling and friable. — Lahefacta jugera. " The loosened acres," i. «., 
the soil loosened by his spade. — Robustus. Observe the peculiar 
idea implied by this epithet, namely, that of deep digging. (Com- 
pare Georg., i., 66.) — Ante locum similem, &c. " Choose out the 
same sort of soil (as that of the parent vineyard), in which a young 
growth may first be prepared for the vines, and unto which they 
may afterward be removed for the purpose of being set out." The 
words locum similem refer, it must be borne in mind, to two separ- 
ate spots ; the first of these is the nursery where the cuttings of 





_ as 
the vines are first planted (uti prima pareiur arhoribus segei)\ 

the second is the new vineyard into which the young vines anil ^^ 

be removed from the nursery, and where they are to contiM 

Tiiis latter place is alluded to in the words et quo max digetUfenUL\ . 

Arboribua. Used here in a general sease for vitibut.^J^ 
feratur. These words have occasioned some trouble. Voss, u 
taking the meaning of the poet, reads seratur, Jahn, foUowiil 
"Weichert, explains them correctly by " Irans/eratur ui digenttt.i 
digesta «i/.'* — Mutatam ignoreni, &,c. " Lest the young planti k 
ignorant of their (new) mother (thus) suddenly changed," i. c,kc 
they do not take kindly to her ; or, in other words, in order tbt 
the young plants may not, at first, distinguish the change of aoi 
Matrem is here used to express the earth of the two spots indioUi 
by locum similem, 

269-272. Caliregionem. "The quarter of the sky." Theaspeel 
of the young plants, as to the north, east, 6lc., should also be le- 
garded, that the same may be preserved when transplanted to tb 
nursery or the vineyard. — Quaque. " Each slip," — Axi. " To tk 
north pole." — Adeo in teneris, 6lo. " Of so much foitee is habit it 
tender years." Supply annis. — This notion of the necessity to re- 
plant trees in exactly the same position, according to the points of 
the compass in which they had stood, appears to be of great aDti* 
quity. Theophrastus says, the position of trees must be regarded, 
as to north, east, or south (ii., 7). Columella also advises that al 
trees should be marked before they are taken out of the nurserTi 
and adds, that it is of great consequence to preserve the same as- 
pect to which they have been accustomed (v., 6). Pliny, on thfl 
other hand, thinks this care not to be requisite, because the men- 
tion of it has been omitted by Cato, and adds, that some affect tbe 
very contrary position in vines and figs, thinking that by this means 
the leaves grow thicker, to defend the fruit, and that it will not be 
so ready to drop off. (if. N., xvii., 11.) Miller avows that he could 
not discover the least difference in the growth of trees so placed j 
and others reversed. The most adventurous, as well as the most ' 
successful and intelligent of modern planters, Sir H. Stewart, de- 
clares that, afler long experience, he not only coincides in opinion « 
with Miller, but, in certain cases, recommends loosening the roots, ' 
and wheeling round trees in the spots where they stand. {Planter t 
Guide, 2d ed., 138, note 7, Edinh., 1828, quoted by Valpy, ad loc.) 

273-275. CoUibuSf an piano, <Sz;c. Here the poet shows the differ- 
ent way of planting a plain or a hill. In a plain the vines are to 
be planted close, hut oik «i toXL \\ve^ «i^ x^ >m '>L^\^ ^\ v««\Kt ^v ' 



S lances. — Melius sit. The question to be considered is not whether, 
as a general rule, the yine will flourish better on hills or on the 
'^ plain, but it is to be taken under one or the other of two aspects : 
** first, whether, considering the nature of your land, the intended 
^ Tineyard is likely to answer better on the acclivities or on the 
^* plain ; and, secondly, whether, according to the nature of the vine 
^ "Which you mean to plant, hilly or leyel land best suits it. {Valjry, 
^ md loc.)^Si pinguis agrosj &c. ** If you shall lay out the fields of a 
* rich plain," i. «., for a Tineyard. — In denso non segniorj%^c. " The 
^ vine is not the less productive in a closely-planted soil." Denso 
' vhere is equivalent merely to denso solo. 

276-278. Sin. Supply metabere. — Tumulis acclive. " Gently as- 
cending with rising grounds," t. «., rising in hillocks. — Supinos, 
•• Sloping." — Indulge ordinibus. " Make the rows wider." (Com- 
pare the explanation of Servius : " Ordines effice largiores.'**) — Nee 
secius omnis, <&c. ** Nor less (in either case), your vines being set 
out, let the path between each row be exactly even, a line being 
cut in the ground for that purpose," t. e., whether you plant wide 
or thick, observe always to plant at equal distances, for the reasons 
given afterward. The usual mode of arranging vines, young trees, 
6lc., was the quincunx, the form of which is here given : 

f» • • • 

• • • 

• • • • 

• • • 

• • • • 

The testimony of Pliny is express on this subject : ** In disponen- 
dis arboribus, arbustisque ac vineis^ quincuncialis ordinum ratio vulgata 
et necessariai non perflatu modo utilis, verum et adspectu grata, quoque 
modo iniueare, in ordinem seporrigente versu.*^ {H. iV., xvii., 11, 15.) 
The reference, also, to the arrangement of the Roman cohorts in 
battle, made by the poet immediately after, clearly points to the 
quincunx order. It is singular, therefore, that some commentators 
suppose Virgil to be here referring to a square, and, what is more, 
to be actually describing such an arrangement of trees. The poet, 
on the contrary, taking it for granted that the quincunx order in 
the case of vines, &c., was well known, merely calls the attention 
of the reader to the importance of equal spaces or distances between 
them ; and in this lies the point of comparison with the Roman 

In unguem. A metaphor borrowed from the custom of statuaries 
and other workers in marble, who draw the edge of the nail over 



the surface of their work, in order to detect any flaw in the j»| 
ing. It thus comes to signify " accurately/' •• exactly," Ac 

279-287. CohortcM explicuit. "Has deployed its cohorts," it, | 
has extended or drawn them out in battle array. A Roman fefii 
contained ten cohorts, which were usually drawn up in a qniocon 
order. — Sictil. " Has taken its station." — Direetaque acia. *Aii 
the lines have been marshalled." — Dubius errat. While it is as yet 
uncertain from what point and when the battle will begin. — Oni 
Mint paribus/&.c. *' In this same way let all parts of your y'vaepsi 
be measured off into avenues of equal size." With omnia Bupflr 
loea. — Animum pascat inanem. ** May idly gratify the mind."— b 
vacuum. *' Into free and open space." 

286-297. Forsitan et, gcrobibug, dec. The subject of this pan- 
graph is the depth of the trenches. The poet says the vine mif 
even be planted in a shallow trench ; but great trees require a cob- 
siderable depth, and of these he cites the aesculus as an ezamplet 
and takes the opportunity of giving a noble description of that tree. 
— Fastigia. " Their depths." The term properly refers to the 
elevation of their sides from the bottom. Compare the analogoos 
usage of altus. — Ausim. ** For my own part, I would yenture.** 
The Roman husbandmen seem not to have been well agreed about 
the depth of their trenches for planting vines. Virgil seems to 
approve of a shallow trench, but he speaks of it with caution. He 
dues not lay it down as an absolute rule, in which all were agreed, 
but only says that he himself would venture to do so ; in which he 
seems to hint that the common practice of his time was difierent 
— Alitor ac penitus, &c. ** A tree, (on the other hand), fixes itself 
deeper and far into the earth." Defigitur is here equivalent to i^ 
Jigit se. 

JEsculus. Consult note on verse 16. — Qu(tt quantum vertice, &c 
Repeated of the oak, at J5n., iv., 445, seq. Mr. T. A. Knight ob- 
serves, remarks Valpy, that the oak in few soils roots more than 
four or five feet. — Multosgue nepotes, &c. *' And outlasts many 
descents of men, rolling onward, as it continues to exist, many a 
generation," i. «., surviving while many generations roll by. Ob- 
serve the poetic construction in volvens siEcula, for dum tacula vol- 
tuntur. — Media ipsa. ** Itself in the midst." 

298-300. Neve tibi ad solemy &c. In this passage are several 
short precepts relating to vineyards, with a beautiful account of the 
danger of intermixing wild olives with the vines, lest a fire should 
kindle among them and destroy the vineyards. — Vergant viiuta. 
Columella, speaking of the aspect of a vineyard, tells us that the 


indents were greatly divided about it. He recommends a southern 

!t in cold places, and an eastern aspect in warm places, if they 

^be not subject to be infested with the east and south winds, as on 

tlie seacoast of Bsetica ; in which case, he says, they are better 

• -^opposed to the north or west. {Colum., iii., 12, 5.)—CortUum. The , 

^' hazel has a large, spreading root, which, together with its shade, 

^ * Would injure the vines. This seems to be the reason of roasting 

'/'the entrails of the goat on hazel spits. {Martyn, ad loe.) 

^ Neve flagella stimma pete, &c. << Neither seek after the extremi- 

' ties of the shoots, nor gather your cuttings from the highest part of 

■-' the vine." Two precepts are here given, to the following effect: 

Ist. You must not make use of the upper part of the shoot of the 

vine ; and, 2d. You must not take the shoots themselves from the 

top. Columella says that the best cuttings are those which are 

taken from the body ; the next, from the branches ; and the third, 

from the top of the vine, which soonest take, and are most fruitful, 

but soonest grow old. Miller observes, you should always make 

choice of such shoots as are strong and well ripened, of the last 

yearns growth ; and you should always cut off the upper part of the 

shoot itself, so as to leave the cutting about sixteen inches long. 

The upper part of the shoot, according to this same authority, is 

never so well ripened as the lower part, which was produced early 

in the spring, so that, if it does take root, it never makes so good 

a plant as otherwise, for its wood, being spongy and soft, admits 

the moisture too freely, whereby the plant will be luxuriant in 

growth, but (differing in this from Columella) never so fruitful as 

those whose wood is closer and more compact. 

301-302. Tantus amor terra: ! The meaning is, that those shoots 
which grow towards the middle, and are, therefore, nearer the earth, 
contract such a liking to it, that they take better in it. — Semina. 
** The shoots," whence other vines are to spring. A blunt knife 
not only increases the labour of the husbandman, but also tears the 
vines, and makes wounds that are not apt to heal. — Neve olece sit- 
vestres inseret &.e. " Nor plant among your vines stems of the wild 
olive," i. e.y as supports for the vines. We have followed here the 
explanation of Voss, Heyne, and others. Wagner, on the contrary, 
maintains that the poet refers to the grafting of domesticated olives 
on wild ones, and, in accordance with this view, reads olea stives- 
tris insere truncos. Nothing, however, appears more erroneous than 
this. The poet refers throughout to vines and vineyards. 

305-314. Robora. "The solid wood." — To/um nemus. "The 
whole vineyard." The vineyard is called in poetic language nemus. 


because resembling a grove in the numeroua trees that coTer it, 
and along which the vines are twining.— Buif. " Sends rapidly 
upward." — A vertice, " From on high." Voss very strangely rea- 
ders this, " from the summit of the hill which the vineyard has to 
I the north." — Silvis. Equivalent here to arboribuSf and referring to 
the trees in the vineyard. — Hoc ubi. Supply accidit. — Non a stirpe 
talentj &.C. They are without strength in the lower part of the 
stem, nor can they, even when cut, recover, and spring up agaia 
from the bosom of the earth, like unto their former selves." The 
stem of the vine, burned off near the ground, has no strength re- 
maining, nor, when the stem is cut away, can new sprouts coma 
forth from the roots. The wild olive, on the other hand, the cause 
of all the mischief, survives the disaster, and again puts forth its 
bitter leaves. — Infelix. "Unproductive." — Superat, "Survives 
(the disaster)." 

315-320. Tarn prudent persuadeat auctor, "Appear so sagacious 
an adviser as to persuade thee." — Rigidam. " Stiffened." — C/on- 
dit. " Binds up." — Semine jaeto. " If the young cuttings be then 
planted out." — Concretam patitur radicernt 6lc. " Suffers the fro- 
zen root to attach itself closely to the ground." With affigere sup- 
ply 96. — Candida venit avis^ &c. A poetic circumlocution for the 
stork, a bird of passage, which comes into Italy in the spring, or, 
according to Pliny, in the summer, meaning, probably, the com- 
mencement of that season. — Inmsa colubris. Pliny says that storks 
were held in such esteem in Thessaly, on account of their destroy- 
ing serpents, that it was a capital crime to kill one of these birds, 
and the punishment was the same as for murder. 

323-335. Adeo. " Too," or " still farther." Equivalent here to 
etiamt though with somewhat more of force. {Wagner, Quast, 
Virg., xxvi., 6.) — Genitalia. " Genial." — Turn pater omnipotenSf &c. 
" Then ^Ether, omnipotent father, descends in fertilizing showers," 
&c. .^ther, or the upper air, was poetically typified by Jupiter ; 
ihe earth, by Juno ; the fecundation of the earth by rain is there- 
fore represented as a marriage. — Et omnes magnus alit, &c. ** And 
vast in himself, commingled with her vast frame, nourishes all her 

Avia virgulta, "The retired thickets." — Parturit almus ager. 
" The benignant earth teems with being." — Superat. " Abounds." 
— Germina. This reading (supported by MSS. authority) is far 
preferable to gramina, the common lection. The context relates 
to the fruits of trees, &c., not to grain. — Trudit gemmas. ''Puts 
forth its buds.'* 


836-339. CrescetUis. Bentley {ad Manila ii., 428) conjectures 
HAseentisy which is certainly more poetical. — Aliumve habuisse teruh 
rem. The poet means that at the creation, and for a long time af- 
terward, there was a continuation of spring, in order that the dif- 
ferent races might have time to grow hardy before a more inclem- 
ent season should begin. — Crediderim. " For my part, I believe." 
Observe the force of the subjunctive in modifying an assertion.— 
Ver agebat. ** Enjoyed continuous spring." Observe the employ- 
ment of the imperfect to denote continuous action ; and as regards 
the phrase itself, compare the well-known expression, diem festum 
agere. — Quum prima peeudes, 6lc. " What time the first-created 
herds drank in the light of day." Yoss, with less correctness, 
makes prima equivalent here, in poetic idiom, to primum, ** first." — 
Terrea progenies. " The earth-born race." The common text has 
ferrca^ but this neither harmonizes with the context, nor with the 
ancient legends respecting the earliest race of men. The iron age 
came long afler. Besides, Lactantius {Inst., ii., 10) and Philargyr- 
ius read terrea ; and the latter remarks, in explanation of 'it, " Quia 
ereditum est primo homines e terri natos, a qua humo homines existi- 
movant dictos." This same reading meets with the approbation of 
Bentley {ad Horat., Epod., ii., 18), and has been admitted into the 
text by Voss, Jahn, and Wagner. — Buris. ** Rugged," i. «., not as 
yet softened down by culture. — Sidera. The stars were regarded 
by the earlier Greeks as animated ^nd divine in their natures. 
They were supposed to have been created afler the earth, and to 
be nourished by exhalations from the earth, the sea, and the world- 
encircling Oceanus. {Voss, ad loc.) 

343-345. Nee res hunc tenerce, &c. " Nor could the (as yet) ten- 
der productions of earth endure this toil," t. e., the toil and risk of 
growing up to maturity. These lines do not belong to the clause 
immediately preceding, namely, from verse 336 to 342 inclusive, 
but to the passage before this. They have no reference, therefore, 
to the infancy of the world, and the newly-created plants, as some 
suppose, but contain merely a general allusion to spring, and its 
grateful intervention, as a period of comparative repose, between 
the storms of winter and the scorching heats of summer. The 
meaning, therefore, is simply this, that the young plants could not 
grow up and become gradually hardy, did not spring intervene, as 
a season of quiet repose between winter and summer. There is no 
need, therefore, of our regarding possent, iret, and exciperet, as put 
respectively for potuissent, ivisset, and excepisset. 

Si non tanta quies, 6lc. ** Did not so long a period of repose in- 


terrene, and the indulgence of the sky foster (daring its contimi* 
ance) the earth,*' t. e., and a mild and indulgent skj, aa it that of 
spring. — Exeiperet. The idea of fostering is borrowed here from 
the taking up and fostering of a new-born infant* 

846^-348. Quod superest. ** As to what remains," i. e., to pursue 
the subject to its close. A form of expression borrowed from Lu- 
cretius (iii., 361 ; v., T70).-^Qtiacumque premest &c. " Whateref 
cuttings you shall put down throughout your grounds." Martyn 
makes the poet refer here merely to layers ; but premere may be 
used of planting in general, and it is to be so understood here. 
(Compare Columella^ iii., 15, 4; and Georg., ir., 131. )^-Sparge Jimo 
pinguif Slc. Columella informs us, that these directions about buiy* 
ing stones and shells are taken from Mago the Carthaginian, who 
also advises dunging, but adds that grape-stones ought to be mixed 
with the dung. {Colum., iii., 15, 4.) — Laptdem bibulum, " Bibulous 
stones," t. e.f pumice or BtLnd.atone.^'SqtuUentet'eonehM. <* Rough 
shells," t. e., such as would not lie closely together, but would allow 
of small openings between them, through which the air and water 
may come to the roots. Evelyn says, however, that such things 
as these ought to be removed after a competent time, else the ver- 
min, snails, and insects, which they produce and shelter, will gnaw 
and greatly injure the bark. 

349-353. Tenuisque suhibit hcditus, " And a fine vapour will pen- 
etrate them." This remark arises, probably, from the impression 
that a circulation of air is requisite for the root. — Atque animot lo^ 
lent sata. " And the plants will take courage," i. e., will become 
fresh and vigorous. — Jamque reperti, qui. " Some, too, have been 
found before this, who." — Ingentis pondere testa. " And with the 
weight of a great potsherd," t. c, and with a large and heayy pot- 
sherd. — Hoc effusos munimeriy &c. " This is a protection against 
heavy showers." Observe that hoc in this line, and hoc in the next, 
both refer to one and the same thing, and are not analogous to the 
Greek tovto fih> and tovto 6i. The stone and the potsherd both 
serve as a species of defence against heavy rains, and, besides this 
(a circumstance not mentioned by the poet), the potsherd being re- 
tentive of warmth, the young vine will escape any chilling by night 
— Hoc, uhi hiulca, &c. "This (is a protection) when the heat- 
bringing dog-star cleaves with thirst the gaping fields." 

364-357. Seminibus positis, <&c. " After the cuttings are planted, 
it remains to loosen the earth often at the roots, and to ply vigor- 
ously the hard two-pronged drags." The meaning of this passage 
is generally misunderstood. The common text has deiucere, which 


Is rendered " to draw up," or " gather." Such, however, is by no 
means the idea which the poet intends to express, and the true 
reading n undoubtedly diducere^ which gives a very good sense. 
The earth must often be loosened and broken up around the bottom 
of the cutting, but then this must be done gently, and without any 
Instrument, lest injury be done thereby to the tender stem. No 
verb expresses better than didttco the meaning here alluded to, 
namely, that of breaking up and loosening gently. On the other 
hand* the ground at a distance from the cutting is to be broken up 
by drags, or the plough; where force can do no harm. With regard 
to covering up the lower part of the stem with earth, the meaning 
assigned to dedtieere terram, &c., this, it may be observed, ought 
never to be done ; nay, even the trenches in which the cuttings 
are placed ought never to l)e filled with earth to the top, in order 
Chat the cuttings may send their roots downward. 

Capita. The term caput means the bottom no less than the top 
of anything. (Compare Gato, R.R.fdS: ^* circum capita adddto »ter» 
cus; circum capita sanito;" and compare JSn., vi., 360.) — Bidentes, 
By bidens appears to be meant an instrument with two hooked iron 
teeth, called by farmers a drag. — Luctantes juvencos. ** The oxen 
struggling with their work." This expression, and presso sub to- 
mere, in the previous line, are meant to imply deep ploughing in 

358-361. RastE hastilid virga:. "Spears of peeled rods," t. «., 
poles resembling spear handles, and from which the bark has been 
Stripped off. — Furcasque valentes. We have given valentes, with 
Brunck, Yoss, Jahn, and Wagner, on the authority of the best MSS. 
The common reading is furcasque Incomes. — Summasque sequi, Slc, 
** And follow the stages to the tops of the elms." Tabulata prop- 
erly means stories in a house, but is here applied to the boughs 
projecting laterally, and trimmed into stages, on which the vine 
branches were trained. {Valpy, ad loc.) 

363-366. Et, *• And also."— Sc agit. " Spreads itself."— I^artt 
per purum, &c. " Being sent onward through the open air, with 
Blackened reins." A metaphor taken from horse-racing, but cen- 
sured by some as a little harsh when applied to the growth of a 
tree. Lucretius, however, had used the same metaphor before 
our poet («. 785). — Per purum. Supply aero. — fysa. Supply 
vitis, which may be easily inferred from ** prima alas," &c., in 
verse 362.— Scd uncis carpenda, &c. " But the leaves are to bo 
nipped by the thumb and finger ;" literally, " by the bent hands.'.' 
---Jnterpte kgtnda. ** And are to be culled \ieiQ QOi^ itot^^^ ^^>d^% 

824 X0TE8 ON THE 6EO&GIC0. — ^BOOC II. 

is DO instance of tmesis for interlegenda, but inter is used adverbi- 
ally, as Wunderlich correctly remarks (ad vers. 351). 

368--370. Stringe comas. " Cut off the upper twigs." (Fm«, ai 
loc.y—Brachia tonde. **Lop off the side branches." — Ante, "Be- 
fore this." — Dura imperia. " A harsh empire." 

371-380. Texenda septs etianif &c. Here the poet speaks of ma- 
king hedges to keep out cattle, and especially goats, whence the 
he takes occasion to digress into an account of the sacrifices to 
Bacchus, the origin of the drama, &c. — Et pecus omne UnendttM. 
** And all sorts of cattle to be kept out ;" literally, "to be re- 
strained." Tenendum^ for continendum. — Front, The leaf taken for 
the vine itself. — Imprudensque laborum. ** And unaware of coming 
toils." By laborum are here meant the toils and hardships that are 
to be encountered by the young plant in coming to maturity, among 
which are particularly to be included the injuries it is liable to re- 
ceive from cattle. — Super indignas hiemes. ** Besides winters of 
unmerited severity," t. «., merciless or cruel ones. (Compare the 
explanation of Hey ne : ** quibus digna non est ; quas immerito patitur.**) 

Silvestres uri. "The wild bulls." Not to be confounded with 
either the bison or the buffalo. (Consult Dictionary of Antiquities, 
Anthoh's ed., s. v. Bisoitf Bubalis.) — Capreaque sequaces. " And the 
persecuting goats." — lUudunt. ** Do wanton injury." — Pa^cuniur. 
For quam pascuniur. "On which browse." — Cand concreta pruinL 
"Stiff with hoary frost." The poet means that neither frost, nor 
extreme heat, striking an arid soil on a rocky bottom, is so injuri- 
ous. By scopulis arentibus we must understand vineyards planted 
on a rocky soil, which, therefore, suffer most in dry weather. 
{MartyrVy ad loc.) — Aut gravis incumbensy &c. " Or the burning heat 
beating upon the thirsting rocks." — Durique venerium dentis. Con- 
sult note on verse 196. 

381-384. Ee veteres ineunt, &c. " And the ancient plays enter on 
the stage," i. c, and the early drama takes its rise. The sacrifice 
of the goat {rpdyoc) to Bacchus was intimately connected with the 
origin of tragedy (jpaytfidta) and other dramatic performances. 
{Diet. Antiq.y s. v. Tragadia^ ^c.)— Proscenia. In the ancient the- 
atres, the whole space from the scena, or rear wall of the stage, to 
the orchestra was termed the proscenium^ forming what we should 
call the real stage. — Prcemiaque ingeniisy &c. " (From this same 
cause), moreover, the Athenians proposed rewards for genius 
throughout the villages and the cross-roads." The allusion is still 
to the early history of the drama, when a goat was the prize given 
to the successful competitor, and the celebration took place at the 


c rmiDioDyBi&.—Thetid(i. Tbe Athenians, lo called, aa the descenii- 
. aols of Theseus, their aacient king. — Aljtu inttr poeula. Sec. Tha 
a ■Ituaioo ie now to the Attelia {inuKiaj, or the leaping upon the 
^ leatbem bag, one of tbo many kinds of amutements in which the 
Athenians indulged during the feslivalB in honour of Bacchas. 
I They eacriliced a goat to the god, made a winc'bsg out of the skin, 

■ ameared it with oil, and then tried to dance upon it. The various 
accidents accompanying Ibis attempt afforded great amusement to 
the speclators. He wbo succeeded was victor, and received the 
■kin of wine as his reward, — Vnetet per utm. " On the wine-skins 
Nueared with oil." 

SS6--387. Aatoniicidoia. The inhabitants of Italy are now meant, 
more particnlaily the Latins, who had become united into one peo- 
. pie with the Trojan followers of jGneas. The poets use the terra 
Auoonia as an appellation for all Italy. Strictly speaking, however, 
the name bekniged to the soutbem part of Italy, through which the 
Anaones, one of the ancient races of Italy, bad spread thcniselTes. 
Niebuhr makes the Ansones a portion of the great Oscan nation.— 
Yertiiu* iiKomtu iudunl, iu>. The Italian communities, too, re- 
marks the poet, have festivals in honour of Bacchus, accoropaaied 
with song and drollery. — Oraque corticibut lumunt, &c. " And pnt 
on bideoas masks made of hollow bark." Amid their mummeries 
on these occasions, they wore bark masks, of a hideous expression, 
for the parpose of scaring. 

36B-39a. Tibijtit oidSa, &.c. •• And in honour of thee hang up 
the mild oscilla on the tali pine." OiciUum, a diminutive through 
Mcufuin, from ot, means, properly, " a little face," and was the term 
applied to faces or heads of Bacchus, which were suspended in the 
vineyards to be turned in every direction by the wind. Whichso- 
ever way thej looked, they were supposed to make the vines and 
other things in that quarter frnitfUl. The left-hand figure in the 
annexed wood-cut is taken from an oscillura of while marble in the 


British Maseum. The hack of the head is wanting, and it is con* 
cave within. It represents the countenance of Bacchus with a mild 
and propitious expression {mollef honeslum). The metallic ring bj 
which the marble was suspended still remains. The other figure 
is from an ancient gem, representing a tree with four oscilla hoog 
upon its branches. From this noun came the verb oseillo, meaning 
<* to swing." Swinging [ptciUatio) was among the bodily exercises 
practised by the Romans. 

Vallcsque cavcBf saltusque profundi. Not only the vineyards, but 
the valleys and the fields in general, feel the propitious influence 
of the god. — El quocumgue. ** And every other quarter unto which." 
— Circum caput egit honestum. " Has swung around his propitious 

393-396. Dicemus. " Will we ascribe." — Suum honorem. " The 
honour that is his due," t. e., that belongs of right to him for all his 
favours unto man. — Carminibus patriis. " In ancient strains," t. «., 
in strains that have come down to us from otir fathers. The wor> 
ship of Bacchus was of early origin in both Greece and Italy. — 
Lancesqu^ et liba. " Both dishes (of first fruits) and sacred cakes.** 
Not, as Heyne says, dishes containing sacred cakes, but each dis- 
tinct from the other. The dishes contained fruits of all kinds ; the 
cakes were made of meal, milk, eggs, and oil, and, when done, were 
covered over with honey while yet warm. (Voss, ad loc.) — Ductua 
cornu. The victim was always led with a slack rope to the altar, 
for if it was reluctant to approach, this was deemed a bad omen. — 
Stabit Another favourable omen was the victim^s standing quietly 
at the altar. — Sacer. Because selected for the occasion. — In veri' 
bus colurnis. ** On hazel spits." Consult note on verse 299. 

397-402. Est etiam ille labor, &c. He now returns to the vine- 
yards, and shows what labour farther attends the culture of them, 
in frequent digging, dressing, and pruning. — Cut nunquam exhaustij 
&c. " Which can never be suflSciently gone through with." — JEter' 
num. " Continually." For in cBtemum, — Omne levandum, &c. " The 
whole vineyard is to be lightened of its leaves," t. «., the leaves of 
the vines throughout the entire vineyard must be thinned. This is 
done in order to give the sun a greater power in ripening the fruit. 
Observe the employment of nemus for vinea, and consult note on 
verse 308. — Redit actus in orbcm. " Returns in circling course."— 
Sua per vestigia. " Along her former footsteps." 

403-407. Ac jam olim. ** And now at length." — Decu^sit honorem. 
" Has shaken down their leafy honours." — Jam turn. *♦ Even then.** 
— Acer rusCicus. ** The diligent husbandman." The vine-dresser 


(vinitor) is, in fact) meant'^Et eurvo Satumi dente^ &c. << And, re- 
moving the useless roots, pursues with the curved hook of Saturn 
the vine now stripped of fruit and leaves, and forms it by pruning.^' 
Aitondens means cutting off the roots which grow near the surface 
of the ground, or day roots, an operation which the Romans term- 
ed ablagueatio. — Curvo Satumi dente. Saturn was represented hold- 
ing a pruning-hook, for the form of which, consult note on verse 

408-411. Primus humum fodiio, " Be the first to dig the ground 
(of the vineyard)." The poet here lays down certain precepts 
somewhat jn the manner of Hesiod and Cato. The substance of 
his advice is, be the first of your neighbours to enter on the work 
of the vineyard, be the last to gather in the produce. — Devecta ere* 
mato sarmenta. ** To bear away and burn the shoots that have been 
cut off." — VaUos, Those of the stakes that are no longer needed 
as props for the vines are to be carried away and put under cover, 
lest the rains rot them. (Varro, R. R,, i., 8, 6.) — Postremus tnetito. 
** Be the last to gather in the produce of your vines." The grapes 
are better the longer time they have to ripen. Meto and its deriva- 
tives are used to denote the gathering in of any kind of produce. 
Yirgil applies messis in the fourth Georgic {v. 231) to the taking of 
the honey. 

Bis vitibus ingruit umbra. The vines are twice overloaded with 
leaves, and therefore must be pruned twice a year. One of these 
periods is what is termed the summer dressing, when the young 
shoots are to be nipped with the fingers ; the other is the autumnal 
pruning. — Bis segetem densis, &c. " Twice do weeds overspread 
the ground with thick bushes." Observe here the employment of 
segetem for arvum^ i. e., vineam. There are two periods for weeding 
the vineyard, as there are two for pruning. 

412-415. Laudato ingentia rura, &4S. ** Praise a large vineyard, 
cultivate a small one." Virgil here imitates the sententious tone 
of Hesiod (Op. et /)., 643), where the latter says, v^* bTUyrjv aivelvp 
fieydXy d'hl ^oprta ^iadai, '* Praise a small ship, but place your la- 
ding in a large one." In the present instance, where the rule ap- 
pears reversed, the meaning is, that, in consequence of the care and 
trouble attendant upon the management of a vineyard, it is better 
to cultivate a small than a large one. The term laudato^ therefore, 
is to be regarded as a species of euphemism, when we decline a 
thing courteously, or, in other words, praise while we reject it. 
Admire, then, the splendour of a large vineyard, but do not wish 
to be the owner of one, since the possessor cannot extend his care 

828 NOTE0 ON THE GE0B6IC9.'— ^BOOK It. 

over a very large spot of ground. (Compare the explanation pf 
Heyne : "laudato, valerejube, aliis relinque, habeant iUi sibi,^ Con- 
sult, also, Columella^ i., 3, 8 ; iv., 3, 4.) 

Nee rum etiam. The poet now, in order to show what constant 
care the vineyard requires, proceeds to mention other things still 
that must be performed by the cultivator. — A»pera rusd mrnkna. 
" The rough twigs of butcher's broom." Martyn supposes that this 
plant was used in Yirgirs time to bind the vines. — Per nlvam. The 
plant in question grows in woods and bushy places. — Fluvialu, 
"That loves the rivers." — IncuUi salictu "Of the uncultivated 
willow," t. e., that springs up without the fostering care of man. 
Observe, again, the use of saJictum for salix. The twigs of the wil- 
low would be needed to bind the vines, and serve as materials for 

416-419. Jamvinctavites. He concludes this passage with show- 
ing that the labour of cultivating vineyards is perpetual. He has 
already mentioned a frequent digging of the ground ; the summer 
and autumn pruning ; and the tying of the vines. Now he ob- 
serves, that, when all this is performed, and the labour might seem 
to be ended with the vintage, yet the ground is still to be stirred 
and broken to dust ; and that storms are to be feared, even when 
the grapes are ripe. — Jam falcem arbusta reponunt. "Now the 
(vine-clad) trees no longer require the pruning-hook ;" literally, 
*• lay aside the pruning-hook," i. «., cause it to be laid aside, and no 
longer needed. Arbusta may either mean here the trees along 
which the vines are trained, or the vines themselves. 

Jam camt extremost &c. " Now the worn-out vine-dresser sings 
of farthest rows," i. c, sings of labours ended by his having reached 
the last rows in the vineyard, or expresses in song his joy at 
having reached the last rows. The reading here is extremely 
doubtful. We have adhered to the ordinary text, with considerable 
hesitation, however, on account of the meaning required to be given 
to effaatus. Wagner, on the other hand, reads Jam canit effatos ex- 
tremus vinitor antes ; but here, again, extremusy in the sense of q\d 
ad finem laborum perventt, is still harsher than effoetus vinitor.^SoUi' 
citanda. Equivalent to fodienda.-^Movendus. "To be stirred up." 
This operation was termed pulveratioy and was thought to assist in 
ripening the grape. (Plin., H. JV., xvii., 9, 5, and 22, 35.) In the 
Geoponica (iii., 10, seq.) it is likewise stated, that the dust of July 
and August ripens the grape, and makes it large of size. —Jupiter. 
The lord of the air, and, therefore, the parent of storms. 

420-421. Contra, non tiUa, dtc. " On the other hand, there is no 


m (requiied) for tbe otiTes." HaTiog ahown the great labour 
ih Btteods tbe care of the viDejard, he now oppotea the olive 
U, which requires hardly any cnlture. He aays tbe Bame of 
rrait-trees, ice., which are produced abundantly ; and thence 
ifere that, if nature affbrde us »o many useful planta, we ought 
Lo be baclcward in turning our attention unto the cnltare of 
). — FracHTcam faUcm. "The pruning-hook curved in front." 
lower figure in the annexed wood-cut is taken from the MSS. 
olnmeUa, and represents the pruning-hook of the vine-dresser. 
enrvature in tbe fore part of the blade ia expressed by Virgil 
e phiMe praciaTa/aix, 

3-i26. Auraaqut tulenatt. "And huTe stood the blasts."— Jp> 
" Of itself." Equivalent to iponle tv-i. — Satii. " Unto the 
g plants." Not the adverb, but the dative plural (»fl(a, -omm), 
referring to the young olive plants, the verb itro referring as 
to planting as to sowing. (Compare verses 27S. 399.) — DtnU 
"By the crooked tooth of the drag." — Et graBidoM, cum to- 
, fruge: "And (yields) a heavy crop of olives when (il is 
ed) by the share." With cum supply reeludittir from tba pre- 
t clause. According to Columella (v., B, 12), tbe olive gronnds 
ired ploughing twice a ycar.^Hbc nutriioT. " On this account, 
ire." Nulrilor is said lo be an old form for nutri. Thua, Fris- 
remarks that the early Romans used bttlor for iello, comperior 
omptria, copviar far copvlo, &c., and so, also, mitHar for nuJrto 
, S, se i p. 798, PntKh.'}. It is more thu probabb, however, 


that these are all to be regarded as instances of the 
one time of a middle voice in Latin. Hence mt/riforwiU 
signify " nurture for thyself" — Plaeitam Pact. " Dear to 
The olive was the emblem of peace, whence its epithet of fic(^ 
(.En., Tiii., 1 16.) Observe that Pan is written with a capital km 
because a personification. 

426-428. Poma. " Frait-trees." The reference is to finiMfli 
in general. Obseive, also, that the fmit, pomunij is heieprtii 
the tree itself, pomus. Columella, in his chapter <* ie Mrbonkujt' 
miferu" (v., 10), speaks of figs, pomegranates, apples, pean,ai' 
berries, and several other sorts of fruit. {Martyn, ad be) ^ 
again, Pomona, as already remarked, was the goddess of fraitti 
general (pomorum). — Ut primum truncot, dec. "As soon asdQ 
have felt their trunks to be vigorous." There is no reference a 
grading hero, as some suppose. The words of the text are vfSt 
alcnt merely to ^^ubi semel adoleverurU.^* — Hahuere. "Haves 
quired."— i?fl;>/«>7i niluntur. " Shoot upward." 

429-432. Xcc minus interea, dec. Here he speaks of wild trea 
which grow in the woods. — Fatu. " With its (wild) fruits ;" Bb 
ally, "with produce." — IncuUa aviaria. "And the nncuhinM 
haunts of birds." Aviarium is here used in a different sense fin 
its ordinary one. (CcAipare Servius : ** Aviaria ; secreia nemtn 
qua aves frequentant.") — Cytisi. The cytisus has been already n 
ferred to. (Consult note on Eclog., i., 79.) Goats are said tot 
very fond of it. Columella also speaks of it as an excellent fodde 
causing abundance of milk, and as being useful also to hens u 
bees. — Tadas. Torches w^ere made of any combustible voo 
Pliny mentions a sort of pine or fir, under the name of tada, wbii 
was chiefly made use of at sacrifices. (Compare Eclog., vii., 48. 

433-436. Sererc, aique impendere curam 1 ** To plant (such 
these), and to bestow care (upon them also)1" As regards tl 
meaning of serere here, consult note on verse 299. — Quid naJL 
Mequar ? dec. ** Why need I go on and treat of greater things 1 t 
willows and the humble broom, these afiford," dtc. Observe tbe for 
imparted to the sentence by the insertion of ilia, which thus re 
ders salices and genista nominatives absolute. The meaning inten 
ed to be conveyed by the whole passage is this : Why go on ai 
relate the advantages to be derived from the larger kind of tret 
when even willows and the broom are not without their utility 1 
Aut ilia. Servius states that many were accustomed to read 
tilia, thus bringing in the " lindens" as a third instance. 

487-439. Et juvai undantenif dec. " It is delightful, too, to bebo 


Cjtonu wiTiog with the box." CjioruB vaa a mountaiii of Paph- 
lagODla, 00 the coagt, famaua for its grovea of box, and hence the 
laagiuge of Catullus in alluding to it, " Cylore buxifcT." (iv., 13.) 
Near it stood a city of the same oame, but aUo called Cftorom. — 
Naryttaque picv lueot. "And thegrovea of Narjcian pitch," Na- 
Tjx, ot Narycium, was a city of the Loori Opuntii, in Greece, and 
tho birthplace of Ajax, the son of Oileus. A coloay sent out from 
this place migrated to Italy, acd founded the city of Locri, near the 
promontory of ZephyriQin, and in the loner extremity of Bruttium, 
In theTicioily of this latter city stood the great forest of SJia, con- 
■iating chiefly of fir-trees, and celebrated for the quantity of pitch 
-which it yielded. It ia to this voody region that Virgil refers in 
the text, and the pilch-trees, or fire, are called " Narycian," in alio- 
Bioa to the Narycian origin of the adjacent city of Locri. — Area. 
" Productive fields." — Ohnoxia. " Indebted." 

4i0-44fi. Sttrila. " Though barren of aught that may nartore." 
Obserre here the force of simlii, meaning merely devoid of edible 
fmit, or, as Heyne expresses it, lintfrvttv tduli. Ihe tttriUt tilva, 
therefbic, aro opposed to the arborit fngiftra. — Silva. " Forest- 
treea." — Pentuque. "And bear away," i. «., upon the blast. — Dani 
tiioM uiiafictiLM. " Yield each their difierent produce." — Cidrumqnf, 
*■ And the Juniper." The tree here meant is not what we know by 
Uie Dame of cedar, but a species of juniper, the Junipenu oxt/cedrus 
oTPerkioMn. (Consnlt Xartya, ad loc.) 

Bne nuHot Irivert rolit, &.c. "From trees inch as these the 
husbandmen have rounded spokes for wheels, from these (they have 
fbrmed) solid wheels for wagons, aod have laid the bending keela 
fitr ships." Observe that kinc contains a reference to forest-treea 
generally, the lighter kind being used for one purpose, the heavier 
far another. There is no immediate conneTcion, therefore, between 
tmpnnetjM and Hinc radiaw irivert, &c., since Serviua expressly 
•tatea that apokes were not made out of cypress wood. Tympana. 
By hfmp»tuttK a meant a solid wheel, without spokes, as appears in 
the fbllowiog wood-cut, taken {torn a bas-relief at Rome. 




Trivere. Observe the peculiar force of this tense, which 
it hero into close connexion with an aoristic meaning, " haye roM ^ 
cd ofr, (and arc still accustomed to do so)." The same reinui[4 P^ 
apply to posucrc. I "• 

g 416-450. Viminihus saiices, dec. The twigs of the willow, ■!»[ 
fore remarked, were used to bind the Tines, form hedges, or evi^ I ^ 
Bures, and make all sorts of wicker-work. — Frondibus ulmL nl lil 
cattle were fed in part on the leaves of the elm. (Co/«Di.,T.,l,t]f ^ 
— At myrius validis hastilibust &c. The myrtle and the cornel v* I ^ 
botli used for the shafts of spears, darts, &c. — Itureto». The luni F 
were an Arab race in Coelesyria, beyond the Jordan, famed fortkei I i 
skill with the bow, to which Cicero also alludes. (PAi/., ii.,M) 
Ilcnce " Iturean*' becomes merely an ornamental epithet bert- 
Torno rasile buxum. ''The box-wood easily polished by mean if 
the turning lathe." Box-wood is weU known to be turned iotii 
variety of utensils. 

451-457. Alnus. The wood of the alder, which is lighter tta 
that of many other kinds of trees, was the first, according to Ai 
poets, that was employed for the purposes of navigation. (Coasik 
Georg., i., 136.) — Missa Pado. " Sent onward by the Po," i. «.,*! 
the rapid current of that stream. (VosSf ad loc.) Heyne and oik- 
ers, less correctly, make the meaning to be *^ launched on the Pl' 
The alder abounded on the banks of this stream. — Cortieibuft 
carts. The allusion is to hives made of bark. (Compare Gtarf^ 
iv., 23.)—Vitio8aque ilicis alveo. " And in the body of the deciyeA } 
holm oak." The reference is now to a natural hive. (Compui I 
Georg.f iv., 44.) 

Quid memorandum aque^ <&c. *' What have the giAs of Bacchu 
produced equally deserving of mention V i. e., what are the advan- 
tages connected with the vine that deserve equal mention with 
these ! — El ad cuipam caussas dedit. ** Has even given occasions for 
crime," i. «., supplied the promptings unto lawlessness and crime. 
The poet now proceeds to give a memorable instance of this, in the 
quarrel between the Centaurs and Lapithse, brought about byiatoz- 
icatiun, at the nuptials of Pirithoiis and Hippodamia. — Furentet. 
** Raging under his influence," i. «., maddened by intoxication.— 
RhatumquCt PholumqvCf &,c. Names of Centaurs who fell in the 
conflict. — Craterc. As regards the ancient mixers, consult note on 
JEn., i., 724. 

458-460. O fortunatos nimiumt dec. ** Ah, the too happy husband- 
men, if they only know the blessings that are theirs !" The poet, 
having just mentioned a scene of bloodshed and confusion, changed 


the rabject suddenly to a beautiful description of the innocent and 
peaceful pleasures of a country life. — Fundit kumo, " Pours forth 
from her bosom ;" literally, *' from the ground." Observe that Ait- 
tnus is here connected with ielluSf just as we have solum terra in 
Lacretius, y., 1188. — Facilem victum. " The easy sustenance of 
life." — JiutUsima tellus. "The most just earth." The earth is 
here called " most just/' because making a most fair and liberal re- 
turn for the labours bestowed upon her by the husbandman. 
- 461-465. Si noTL Opposed to at in verse 467. — Mane salutantum, 
&c. ** Pours forth from every part of the structure a vast tide of 
morning visitants." It was customary with the Romans for clients 
to attend the levees of their patrons at an early hour in the morn- 
ing. — TotiB adibus. Showing the large number that had attended. 
— Nee varies inhiant, &c. " If they gape not in silent wonder at 
door-posts diversified with beauteous tortoise-shell," t. «., at splen- 
did portals inlaid with tortoise-shell. The Romans were accustom- 
ed to adorn not only the entrances, but the interior of their dwell- 
ings with tortoise-shell, procured principally from India (P/tVi., H, 
N., VL, 11, 13), ivory, coloured horn, and various kinds of beauti- 
fully-grained and high-priced woods. (Compare Ovid, Met.y ii., 737. 
— -ZJuean., x., 119.) — Illusasque auro vestes. "And couch-coverings 
profusely adorned with gold." These were the vestes stragula, a 
species of tapestry spread upon couches, chairs, &c., and richly 
embroidered with gold. They were generally of splendid colours, 
being dyed either with the kermes or the murex. Sometimes the 
figures were woven into them with threads of gold. — Ulusas. Ob- 
serve the peculiar force of this term ; the gold is added in such pro- 
fusion as to look like a very mockery of riches. 

Efhyreiaqvke ara. " And vessels of Corinthian bronze ;" literally, 
** of Ephyrefan bronze," Ephyra having been an old name of Cor- 
inth. (P/f'n., H. N.f iv., 4, 5.) The common story of the accidental 
origin of this compound metal at the burning of Corinth by Mura- 
mius is not true, as some of the artists who wrought in it lived a 
long time before the event alluded to. Pliny particularizes three 
kinds of Corinthian bronze. The first, he says, was white {candi- 
dum), the greater proportion of silver that was employed in its com- 
position giving it a light colour. In the second sort, or quality, gold 
was introduced, in sufficient quantity to impart to the mixture a 
strong yellow or gold tint. The third was composed of equal pro- 
portions of the different metals. (P/m., H. N.j xxxiv., 3.y-Assyrio 
veneno. «* With Assyrian dye." The Tyrian purple is meant. T^re 
was in Syria, but the Roman poets frequently confound Syria with 


Assyria. — CasiA. The cassia here meant is that obtained from tk 
cinnamon-tree, and must not be confounded with the plant of tho 
same name mentioned in Edog., ii., 49. — Unu olivi. "The me 
of the pure oil," t. c., the pure oil itself. Obserye the peculiar 
phraseology of usus olivi, instead of oleum quo ulutUuTf and compan 
Orelli, ad Horat., Od., iii., 1, 42. 

467-474. At secura quiesj &c. ** But, then, security and quiet.** 
Observe the opposition expressed by at, which is here equivalent to 
attamen, and with how much effect it is repeated lower down. Ob- 
serve, too, that guies, and all the nominatives that follow, refer to 
absunt in verse 471. — Nescia fallere, "Ignorant of guile,*' t. e., 
free from all deceit, marked by purity of principle, and a total ab- 
sence of fraud and deception. For other, but far inferior explaoft- 
tions, consult Forbiger, ad loc. — Opum. ** Resources.'*-:— LoKt 9tk 
fundis, " Cahn repose amid open fields.** This ia meant to be in 
opposition to the confinement of a city life. There is no propriety 
whatever in the translatwn which some give to kuis fundis, namely, 
" broad or large farms.'* The poet has already cautioned against 
extensive possessions in verse 412. The reference is merely to 
open fields affording a wide and pleasing prospect. — Viviqu€ laau, 
" And living lakes," t. «., with water constantly fresh and running, 
or, as Heyne expresses it, " aqua perenni," i. t., fed by perennial 
springs ; not artificial. 

Frigida Teinpe. "Cool vales." Tempe properly denotes the 
beautiful vale in Thessaly, between Ossa and Olympus, through 
which fiowed the river Peneus. Here, however, it is taken for 
secluded and shady vales in general. — Molles somni. " Gentle 
slumbers," t. c, sweet and tranquil. — Saltua ac lustra ferarum, 
" The woodland haunts of wild beasts." Hendiadys for " wood- 
lands and the haunts of wild beasts." The allusion is now to the 
pleasures of the chase. — Sacra deum, sanctique patres. ** The sacred 
rites of the gods, and parents held in reverence," t. e., there the 
rites of religion are observed, and obedience and respect are paid 
to parents and old age. — Extrema vestigia. " The last prints of her 
footsteps.*' Astrsea, the goddess of justice, came down to earth ia 
the Golden Age, and took up her abode among men. When the 
wickedness of the Brazen Age compelled her to retire, she fled first, 
according to Aratus, from the cities into the country, and went 
finally from the latter back again to the skies. {Arat., PA^m., 
100, seqq.) 

475-482. Me vero primum, &c. The poet here declares his nat- 
ural inclination to be towards philosophy and poetry. He states 


tiimself to be the priest of the Muses ; and prays them to instract 
tiim in astronomy ; to teach him the causes that dim the light of the 
Bun and moon, of earthquakes, of the flux and reflux of the sea, and 
of the unequal length of days and nights. The next wish is, that, if 
he cannot obtain this, he may enjoy the calm pleasures of a country 
life. — Dulcet ante omnia. We have followed here the punctuation of 
Toss, by which these wm-ds are referred to the Muses. Heyne, 
however, takes anU omnia in connexion with aecipiantf construing 
as follows ; primum ante omnia aceipiant me ; but he is sufficiently 
answered by Wagnet. — Quorum sacra fero. " Whose sacred things 
I am bearing," t. e., whose priest I am. This is properly said of a 
priest proceeding to sacrifice, and then of a priest generally. — Cali' 
fue via$ et sidera. " The pathways of the stars in the sky." Hen* 
diadys for ** the pathways and stars of the sky." 

Defectus solis varios, "The various causes that dim the light 
of the sun." This is commonly rendered, " the various eclipses 
of the sun," but such a version is too limited. The poet refers 
to all the causes that^may in any way serve to dim the brightness 
of that luminary. {Vose, ad loc.) — Lunaque labores. **And the 
eclipses of the moon." — Qua vi. " By what motive power." — Tu- 
nUseant, Referring to the tides. — Quid tantum Oceano, &.C. Why 
the days are so short in winter and so long in summer. — Vel qua 
tardis, &c. " Or what hinderance retards the late-coming nights 
of summer." 

483-485. Sin, has ne possim, &c. " If, however, the chill blood 
around my heart shall have prevented me from drawing near to 
these parts of nature," t. e., if, however, the want of proper talent 
to grapple with them shall have debarred me from examining into 
these loftier themes. The poet here follows an earlier and popular 
article of belief, that the vital principle of man was in the breath 
{anima), but that the thinking and perceptive power, or, in other 
words, the soul, was in the blood. Hence, by the expression ** the 
chill blood around his heart," he means a dullness or partial torpor 
of the intellectual faculties, or, in other words, a want of talent. — 
Rigui in vallUmt amnes. " The streams that irrigate in the valleys," 
t. e., the cool mountain-streams that descend into and refresh the 
shady valleys. — Inglorius. " Inglorious," t. «., without any of the 
fame arising from the successful culture of philosophy. 

486-489. 0, uH campi, &c. " Oh (to be) where are the plains, 
and the Spercheus, and Taygetus, revelled upon by the virgins of 
Sparta ! O (for him) who shall place me in the cool vales of Hae- 
mus, and shelter me by the deep shade of many a bough !" Com- 


roentators generally regard this passage as interrogative, and, in M 
doing, deprive it of more than half its beaaty. The whole is i 
deeply-breathed wish on the part of the poet to be, in reality, when 
his fancy has so oflen wandered. Oh how longs my heart, he ex- 
claims, for some fair retreat wherein I may dwell during the rest 
of my days, either for the plains of Thessaly or the verdant sum- 
mits of Taygetus, or the cool and shady vales of Thrace ! — ComjR, 
Spercheosque. This may be rendered more freely by hendiadyi, 
" the plains laved by the Spcrcheus." The allusion is to a river 
of Thessaly, flowing from a part of the chain of Pindos, and enter- 
ing the sea to the north of Mount (Eta. — Taygeta. Taygetus (in 
the plural Taygeta, Tav/era, sc. bpri) was a range of mountains 
running from Arcadia into and through Laconia, and terminating 
in the sea at the promontory of Tsenarus. Travellers prononnce 
the plain of Lacedaemon, and Mount Taygetus, in its immediitfl 
vicinity, as forming the finest locality in Greece. {DodweWt TVsr, 
vol. ii., p. 410.) 

Humi. Moant Haemus formed the northern boundary of Thrace. 
The modern name is Balcan. It was covered with forests, and con- 
tained many beautiful and shady vales. (Compare Georg., i., 49S.) 

490-492. Felixj qui potuity &c. "Happy is the man who has 
been able to learn the causes of things." Observe that potuit is 
not used here aoristically, as some maintain, for potest^ but is the 
regular perfect, denoting an action now past, but the result of which 
is here described. The same remark will apply to subjecit, &c. I 
The meaning of the whole passage, of which this line forms the 
commencement, is simply as follows : Happy, in the first place, is 
the philosopher ; in the second, the husbandman. Under the notion 
of a philosopher, Virgil describes an Epicurean, having been him- 
self bred in the tenets of that sect ; and in three lines he has sum- 
marily expressed the cold and gloomy doctrines which characterized 
that school in relation to a future state : that there is no Divine 
providence, no destiny nor divination, and no immortality of the 
soul. {Bentley, Phil. Lips., ^ 20. — WWrJt*, ed. Dyce, vol. iii., p. 327.) 

Rerum caussas. Referring to the causes of meteors, thunder, 
lightning, &c., and of such things on earth as are seemingly per- j 
teutons and miraculous. In the Epicurean scheme, the ignorance 
of causes was regarded as the sole cause of religious fears. {Bent- ' 
ley, I. c.) — Inexorahile fatum. The poet means, in fact, that tb« 
Epicurean dottrine had trampled down the whole notion of destiny 
and divination {eifiap/LiivTjv kox fiavrinriv). — Slrepitumque Acherontis 
cvari. " And the roar of greedy Acheron." Acheron, one of the 



'ivers of the lower world » is here put for that lower world itself, 
lever satiated, but always greedy for the souls of the departed. 
Divested of its poetic dress, we have here another article of Epi- 
curean belief, namely, that the soul dies with the body. {Bentley^ 
oc. cit.) 

493-404. Fortunatus et ilUj 6lc. The next lower degree of hap- 
nness, in the eyes of the Epicurean poet, is that enjoyed by the 
>iou8 husbandman, who worships the rural divinities. This, also, 
;o the eye of the philosopher, is only superstition under another 
ispect, but then it is superstition of the most innocent kind, since 
;he deities in question are invoked merely to protect his flocks and 
lerdB, and foster bis crops, &.c. — SUvanumque. Consult note on 
tjfeorg.f i., 20. — Nymphasque sorores. "And the sister-Nymphs." 
The nymphs idl formed one sisterhood. With regard to their sev- 
snl sabdivisions, consult note on Eclog., ii., 46. 

495-497. Ftexit ** Has moved," t. €., has indoced to abandon 
tiii calm and peaceful mode of life. — Fratres. Alluding to Tiridates 
and Pbrahates, the rival claimants for the Parthian throne. They 
both appealed to Augustus, in A.U.C. 724. — Aut conjuraio, &c. 
■( Or the Dacian, descending from the conspiring Ister," i. e., from 
the banks of the Danube, ever the seat of conspiracy against the 
Roman power. The term hter is here used to designate the Dan- 
ube in general; strictly speaking, however, Ister was the name 
merely of the eastern part of the Danube, after its junction with 
the Savus or Saave. — Conjurato. The Dacians, Getae, and other 
!>arbarous tribes, ceased not, whenever the Danube was frozen 
}ver, to cross and devastate the Roman territories, until they were 
sfiectnally checked in the consulship of Q. Tubero and PauUus Fa- 
)iu8, A.U.C. 742, and in the following year, and fortifications were 
lirown up along the banks of the stream. {SueL, Aug., 21.) 

498-503. Non res Romana, &.C. " Not the Roman power, and 
cingdon^destined to fall beneath it." (Compare the explanation 
}f Wagner : " bcUa Romanorum cum exteris gesta, et his exitiosa.^^)—' 
Neque iUe aut doluit, &,c. " Nor has he ever had occasion either to 
sommiserate and grieve for the needy one, or to envy the rich." 
Virgil does not mean, that his occupant of the country is wrapped 
up in stoical indiflference to the weal or wo of his fellow-men, but 
that, dwelling far away from the scenes of a city-life, he neither 
has his feelings harrowed by a view of the miseries connected with 
It, nor his envy excited by its luxuries and magnificence. — Habenti, 
Literally, •« him that has." (Compare Cic., Ep, ad Fam., vu., 29, 
and Euripidest Here. Fur., 636, ixovaitf, ol & oi.) 



Ferreajura, dec. " The iron-hearted laws, and the fomm maddened 
by noiay litigation, or the record-offices of the people." By fer- 
reajura the poet means the rigid and unbending exercise of justice^ 
that knows neither friend nor foe ; and, by ifuajtumque forum, VA- 
gatioDs in general. From scenes such as these the hasbandoiao is 
ftr away. So, again, he has not undertaken to farm any portHm of 
the public revenues, nor has he at all connected himself with any 
other branch of the public receipts or expenditures. He has oefer 
seen, therefore, the "popuH tabularia.^* These were places where 
the public records were kept, especially the tabuUB ceiMoritf, or 
agreements made by the censors with the farmer^ of ffae poUie 
revenue, &c. There were various tabularia in Rome, all of whiefc 
were in temples. 

603-604. SoUicitatU a/u, &c. In this passage the poet shows tk 
superiority of agriculture over many other employments of nm; j 
and, first, he exhibits three classes of individuals to oar view, the 
trader, the warrior, and the flatterer of the great and powerM— 
Freta coca. ** Seas full of hidden dangers," t. e., rocks, shoab, 
sudden storms, dco. {Voss, ad he.) Some, less correctly, render 
cftea "unknown," "hitherto Unexplored." — jRitunf^iie in femm. 
" And rush to arms ;" more freely, " and others, again, rush to 
arms." Obsenre that a second class are here meant, and not those 
referred to in " aollicitant alii,^* &c. — Penetrant aulas, dtc. " They 
penetrate the courts," &c., t. e., a third class make their way uto 
the dwellings of the rich and powerful, through the crowds of flat- 
terers who besiege, like them, the mansions of the great. 

605-506. Hie petit excidiis, &c. " This one seeks (to involve) in 
utter ruin his native city, and her wretched Penates," i. «., his 
country and all her most sacred rites and institutions. Mark An- 
tony is supposed by some to be here alluded to, who had, in con- 
junction with Cleopatra, sought the overthrow of Augustus and of 
Rome. — Gemma. " From a gem-formed cup." The luxffious Ro- 
mans used cups made of onyx, beryl, crystal, amber, and other 
costly materials, to all of which the term gemma, taken in a more 
extended sense, may be made to apply. (Compare Voss, ad loc.y^ 
Sarrano. " Tyrian." Sarra was the earlier Latin name for the 
city of Tyre. The Oriental form was Tsor, or Sor, for which the 
Carthaginians said Tsar, or Sar, and the Romans, receiving the 
name from these, converted it into Sarra, whence they also formed 
the adjective Sarranus, equivalent to Tyrius. Servius erroneously 
deduces Sarranus from Sar, which, according to him, was the 
Phcenician name for the murex, or shell-fish that yielded the purple. 


608-510. Hie stHpet attonUus roatris^ &c. ** This one stands lost 
in stupid amazement at the eloquence of the rostra,'' i. e., is seised 
with an eager desire for oratorical fame, while he listens with 
amazement to the powerful eloquence of some individual who is 
haranguing the people from the rostra. — Rottris. The stage in the 
forum, from which the orators addressed the people, was called 
KostrOf or ** the Beaks." It was originally called templum, because 
consecrated by the augurs, but obtained its name of rottra at the 
conclusion of the great Latin war, when it was adorned with the 
beaks {rostra) of the ships of the Antiates. (Liv., viii., 14. — Flor,f 
L, 11. — Plin., H. N.f xxxiv., 5, 11.) 

Hunc plausus kiantem^ &c. ** This one, his lips parted in silent 
wonder, the applause (that rolls) along the seats of the theatre, 
(for it is the redoubled applause of both the commo^s and the 
fathers) has aroused," t. e., this other, on hearing the loud burst 
of applause with which all classes greet the entrance into the 
theatre of some popular favourite, is seized himself with a strong 
desire of conciliating the favour of the people.— iftan/cm. Literal- 
ly, " gaping (with wonder)."— Cun«o». The term cuntu$ was ap- 
plied to the compartment of seats in circular or semicircular thea- 
tres, which were so arranged as to converge to the centre of the 
theatre, and diverge towards the external walls of the building, 
with passages between each compartment. Hence the name eu- 
fi£iM, applied to each of these compartments, from its wedge-like 
form. — Geminatus enim. For geminatus enim pUtuus est. 

510-515. Gaudent pcrfusi sanguine fratrum. " Others, again, take 
delight in being bedewed with their brothers' blood," t. «., delight in 
civil conflicts, and in shedding fraternal blood. The participle is 
here employed, according to the grammarians, for the infinitive 
mood, in imitation of the Greek idiom. The literal construction, 
however, is, in reality, as follows : " Being bedewed, d&c., rejoice 
thereat." — Agricola incurvo, &,c, ** The husbandman (meanwhile) 
has been turning up the earth with the bending plough." Observe 
here the beautiful use of the perfect. While all these scenes of 
violence, and bloodshed, and misdirected energies are passing with- 
out, the husbandman, within the precincts of his little farm, has 
been calmly pursuing the peaceful employments of rural life, and 
discharging the duties which he owes to his country and to those 
around him. — Hinc anni labor. " With this commences the labour 
of the year." Heyne, less correctly, regards anni laltor as referring 
to the annual products of agricultural labour. 
Hinc patriam, ^. ** From this he sustains/' &.o. Heyne ob- 



jects to patriam, and would pref^ parentem, but he is well answer* 
ed by Wagner : ** Quidni aulem patriam 1 nonne eigrorum protentu 
omnes cives aluntur ?" There is also, as the same critic remarks, a 
pleasing opposition between the infatuated citizens who seek to 
ruin their country, and the husbandman whose labours sustain it 
--^MerUosque juvencos. "And well-deserving steers," t. e., who 
have merited all his care by their faithful participation in his laboon. 

516-518. Nee requies, quin, 6lc. ** Neither is there any intennis- 
sion, but the season of the year is either exuberant in fruits," &c; 
literally, " neither is there any intermission, so that the year be not 
either exuberant," 6lc., i, e., there is no intermission to the year's 
being either exuberant, &c. Observe that ^utn, in a literal trans- 
lation, is equivalent here to ut non. (Zumptt L. G., ^ 539.) — Cert' 
alts mergite culmi. "With the sheaf of Ceres* stalk," t. e., with 
sheaves of corn. — Proventu. "With increase." — Vineat, "More 
than fills," t. €., proves too large for. 

519-522. VenU hems. " Winter has come." Here, again, ob- 
serve the beautiful change of tense, by which the change of season 
is bronght at once before the view. Voss makes venit here for iiM 
vent/, and the clause to be uttered, as it were, interrogatively, which 
quite destroys all its spirit. — Sicyonia bacca. By "the Sicyonian 
berry" the olive is meant. Sicyon, an old city of the Peloponnesus, 
not far from Corinth, towards the northwest, was famed for the ol- 
ives produced in its vicinity.— Tra/^e/w. " In the oil-mills." For 
a description of these, consult Cato, R. R„ 20. (Compare, also, 
Varro, L. L., v., 31, and R, R., i., 55, b.)—Glande sues, <Stc. Wun- 
derlich {ad TibulL, i., 3, 40) connects glande in construction with 
redeuntt incorrectly, however; the order is glande Iceti. — Arhuta. 
Consult note on Eclog., vii., AQ.—Ponit. " Lays down," ». «., sup- 
plies. — Coquitur. ** Ripens." 

523-526. Circum oscula. " Around his lips put forth to kiss.*' 
A beautifully expressive term. Oscula is here equivalent to ora ad 
osculandum porrecta.—Casla pudicUiam, &c. "The chaste abode 
preserves all its purity," z. e., purity of principle reigns unimpaired 
throughout the chaste abode.— Demiitunt. " Hang down." 

527-531. Ipse dies agitat festos. " The farmer himself celebrates 
festal days." — Ignis ubi in medio. " Where there is a fire burning / 
in the midst," t. «., on a rustic altar in the centre of the group.— 
Cratera coronant. " Crown the wine," i. «., deck with garlands the 
mixer containing the diluted liquor. Buttmann, in his Lexilogus 
(page 293, seq., ed. Fishl.), has very satisfactorily shown, that we 
are not, in rendering these words, to think of the Homeric imaTi- 


feedat froroio, ** to fill high with wine," since Virgil, in that case, 
would have written vinoque caronant. — Lenae. ** Oh ! god of the 
wine-press." Consult note on verse 7. — Pecorisque magistris, &c. 
** And sets on foot, for the keepers of his herd, trials of skill with 
the fleet javelin (against a mark) placed on an elm." Heyne makes 
certamina equivalent here to ctrtaminis pramia, according to which 
explanation the farmer places the ** prizes of the contest" on the 
elm ; but Wunderlich is more correct in regarding cerianun pono as 
precisely analogous to the Greek ayiiva npoT(6nfii, " I institute a 
contest." — Agresti palastra. "For the rustic wrestling-match." 
We have adopted palattr<B with Wagner, as far superior tq the com- 
mon reading palattrd. The dative is required here, not the abla- 

632-536. Sabini. The old Sabine race were remarkable for grav- 
ity of character and purity of morals. — Cretiu " Grew in power." 
This result was efiected, according to the poet, by the fostering 
care bestowed upon agriculture. — Scilicet et Boma^ &c. ** Ay, and 
Home has become (by this means) the fairest of created things," i. 
€.t the mistress of the world. (Compare the Greek, ;rP9^ koX^io' 
TOP.) As regards the force of scilicet here, compare note on Geor'g., 
i, t82.Septeinque una sibi, 6lc. « And though a single city has 
encircled seven heights for herself with a wall." The reference is 
to the seven hills of Rome. 

636-642. Sceptrum Dictai regis. Alluding to the reign of Jove, 
who is here called the Dictiean monarch, because concealed and 
nurtured during infancy in a cave of Mount Dicte in Crete, in order 
to escape the hands of Saturn, who wished to swallow him. — Ante 
impia qtuun, &c. The eating of flesh came in with the Brazen Age. 
Mankind, up to that period, lived upon the productions of the earth. 

Jn terris. In Latium, during the Golden Age. Hence Saturn is 

here called ** golden" {aureus)^ in allusion to that age. — Necdum etiam 
audierant, &,c. Nor had they heard, as yet, of wars and bloodshed. 
These came in with the Brazen Age. — Sed nos immensum spatiis, 
Ac. ** But we have traversed in our course a fleld of vast extent." 
A figurative allusion to^ho races of the circus. The whole course 
was called spatia, because the match included more than one circuit. 
(CoDSult DOte on Georg., i., 613.) — Tempus, Supply est. 


843 iroTBB ON tM 6feoliGtM^^^K>6k hl 

Anmlyta of the Subfeei. 

I. Gencbal statement of the contents of the book, nuiidy,fhi 
management of eattle and of domestic animals, (t. 1-S.) 

II. Novelty of the sabject, as eontrasted with the trite andtti- 
loos topics that hare occupied the attention of prerions baids. (r. 

III. On completing this theme, the poet promises to celebntetkB 
Tictories of the Romans, under the anspices of Angnstos, ia u 
epic production, (v. l©-39.) 

IV. Invocation of Mttoenas. (▼.40-48.) 

V. The poet now enters on his sobject, and treats of hones ud 
cattle. (V. 49-285.) 

(A.) The cow : her form. <v. 61-59.)— Her age. (t. 60-71.) 
(B.) The horse, and its characteristics. (▼. 72-74.) — Coosidend 

as a colt. (▼. 75-82.) — As now grown up. (▼. 83-94.)— The 

age and spirit of a horse to be diligently considered. (▼. 9^ 

101.)— And also his fitness for the chariot- race. (▼. 102-lU.) 

—And for riding, (v. 115-122.) 
(C.) The preparing of steeds for the propagation of their species : 

Of the sire. (v. 123-128.)— Of the dam. (▼. 129-137.) 
(D.) Care of the female after conception. (▼. 138-145.)— Care 

to be especially taken in guarding against the gad-fly, or asilus. 

(T. 146-156.) 
E.) Care to be taken of calves, (v. 167-178.) — Of colts, (t. 

(F.) Of preserving the strength of horses and bulls, (v. 209-216.) 

— Description of a combat between two steers, (v. 217-241.) 
(G.) Violent efiTects of love in animals and in men. (v. 242-265.) 

— Especially in mares, (v. 266-270.)— Wind-conception, (v. 


VI. Of sheep and goats, (v. 286-478.)— Introduction, (v. 286- 

(A.) Care of sheep in the winter season, (v. 294-299. )^Care 
of goats during the same season, (v. 300-305.) — Goats of no 
less value than sheep, (v. 306-321.) 

(B.) How sheep and goats are to be managed when the weather 
grows warm. (v. 322-338.) 


(C.) Pastoral life of the AfHcans. (t. 339-348.)— Of the Scythi- 
ans. (V. 349-383.) 

(D.) Directions about taking care of the wool. (y. 384-393.)*- 
Care of the milk. (v. 394-403.) 

(E.) Protection afibrded by dogs, and care to be taken of them. 
(V. 404-413.) 

(F.) Precautions to be taken against serpents. (▼. 414r-439.) 

(G.) Diseases to which sheep and cattle are subject : The scab. 
(T. 440-463.)— The pestilence, (v. 464-473.) 

VIL Description of the great pestilence which attacked the flocks 
and herds in Noricum, &c. (v. 474-566.) 

(A.) Origin and general nature of this disease, (v. 478-485.) 
(B.) Infection of particular classes of animals : 1. The weaker 
kind, such as sheep, calves, dogs, swine, (y. 486-497.) — 2. 
The stronger animals, such as horses (v. 498-^14) ; cattle (▼. 
51&.536).— 3. Wnd animals. (▼. 537-540.)— 4. And, finaUy, 
fishes, serpents, and birds, (t. 541-547.) * 
<C.) Inutility of the remedies em|doyed. (▼. 548-^550.) — Increas- 
ing violence of the distemper. (▼. 551-558.)— The skin of the 
dead animals useless, and the wool possessed of poisonous 
properties, (v. 559-566.) 


1-S. Te, qucque^ magna Pales, 6cc. The poet, intending to make 
the management of cattle and domestic animals the subject of his 
third boolc, unfolds his design by saying that he will sing of Pales, 
the goddess presiding over cattle and pastures ; of ApoHo, who fed. 
the herds of Admetus, on the banks of the Amphrysns ; and of the 
woods and streams of Lyceus, a mountain of Arcadia, famous for 
its sheep. He then expresses his contempt for the fabulous poems, 
the subjects of which, he says, are all trite and vulgar, and hopes 
by bis theme to soar above all other bards. — Pale*. Pales was the 
goddess presiding over cattle and pastures. Her festival, called 
the Palilia, was celebrated on the 21st of April, and was regarded 
as the day on which Rome had been founded. — Et te, memorande, 
See. " And of thee, deserving of every mention, O shepherd from 
the Amphrysus." The allusion is to Apollo, who, when banished 
for a period from the skies, for killing the Cyclopes, and ordered 
by Jnpiter to become a servant to a mortal man, chose for that pur- 


pose Admetus, king of Phers, in Theesaly, and served him for a 
whole year, tending this prince*8 flocks and herds on the banks of 
the Arophrysus. — Ab Amphryso. An imitation of the Greek idiom, 
vo/iei>C 'hfi^pCmidev. The ordinary Latin form of expression would 
be Pastor Amphrysie, ** Amphrysian shepherd." — Lyctin. Consult 
note on Eclog., x., 15. 

3-6. Cetera. ** The other themes." — Omnia jam vidgata. " Are 
all by this time become common," i. e., trite or threadbare. — Euryt- 
thea durum. " Eurystheus, severe in his exactions." Referring to 
the legend of Hercules, and Eurystheus, who imposed upon him his 
memorable labours. — Aut UlaudaH Busiridis aras. ** Or the altan 
of Busiris, in whom there is naught deserving of praise," t. e., of 
the in every way execrable Busiris. Compare the explanation of 
Voss : ** an welchem man nichts zu loben weiss." The tmc force 
of Ulaudatus here is well expressed by Aulus Gellias (ii., 6) : **qui 
neque mentione aut memorid uUd dignust tuque unquam mtmioraMdna 
est.*' Busiris, who is represented in Greek legends as ao execrable 
tyrant, was king of Egypt, and, in consequence of an oracle, offered 
up all strangers on the altar of Jove. He was destroyed by Hcrcn- 
les, whom he had attempted to immolate in this same way. 

Cut. " By whom." Grsecism for a quo. — Hylas. He was the 
favourite of Hercules, and accompanied that hero on the Argonao- 
tic expedition. Having gone, however, to a fountain on the coast 
of Mysia, for the purpose of drawing water, he was laid hold of and 
kept by the nymphs of the spring, into which he had dipped his urn. 
— Latonia Delos. Delos, an island in the iEgean Sea, and one of 
the group of the Cyclades, was fabled to have floated about under 
water, until Neptune ordered it to appear and stand firm, for the 
purpose of receiving Latona, who was delivered on it of Apollo and 
Diana. Hence the epithet ** Latonian." 

7-9. Hippodameque. Hippodame, or Hippodamea, was daughter 
of CEnomaus, king of Pisa, and famed for her beauty. Her father 
promised her in marriage to the one who should conquer him in the 
obariot-race, but all who failed to so conquer were to lose their 
lives. Pelops won the race. — Humero insignis cburno. " Distin- 
guished for his ivory shoulder." This was tht) shoulder, according 
to the legend, which Jupiter gave to Pelops, to replace the one that 
had been eaten by Ceres in a fit of abstraction, at the Well-known 
banquet given by Tantalus, the father of Pelops, to the gods.— 
Acer equis. *' Spirited in the management of steeds." Referring 
to his skill in managing the four-horse chariot in the race with 


Tenianda via est, Ac. The poet means, that some theme must 
also be selected by him, in the management of which be may dis- 
tance all preceding poets.^^Ftc/or^ue vtnAm, 6lc. ** And hover, vic- 
torious, o*er the lips of men." Imitated from Ennius, ** Vdito vivus 
per ora wriim." 

10*12. I*rmu9 ego in patriam, &c. As the first Roman poet that 
has sung of mral themes, he will lead the Muses, if his life be 
spared, from the summit of Helicon into Italy, his native land ; 
and, as the first Mantuan that has cultivated poetry, he will bring 
glory, also, on his native province. — Aonio vertice. **■ From the Aoni- 
an summit," t. e., from the summit of Helicon, one of the favourite 
abodes of the Muses. Helicon was in Boeotia, and the epithet 
*' Aonian" is here applied to it, because Aonia was the earlier name 
of Boeotia, from the Aones, its inhabitants after the Ectenes, which 
last were the first dwellers in the land. — Deducam Musas. To lead 
down the Muses into one's native land is equivalent to being the 
first, in one*s own country, conspicuous for success in the poetic art 
generally. Or in some particular department of it> — Primus Idumaas 
refsramj 6lo. " I will be the first to bear away for thee, O Mantua, 
the Idumean^palm," t. e., I will be the first of thy sons, O Mantua, 
to reflect glory upon thee by success in the poetic art. The palm 
was the symbol of victory, and hence to bear away the palm is the 
same as to bear away victory itself The epithet " Idumean," 
moreover, is simply an ornamental one, the palm-trees of Idumea, 
on the confines of Palestine and Arabia, being particularly celebra- 
ted. Indeed, the pahns of Judea generally were in high repute, 
and hence Pliny says, **Judaa inclyta palmis." {H. N., xiii., 4, 6.) 

13-18. Templum de marmore ponam. The conquering poet will 
erect a temple near his native place to Ciesar Octavianus, aa his 
tntelary deity. This temple is to be, in fact, none other than the 
noble poem of the JBneid, in which Augustus is to stand enshrined 
for the admiration of coming ages. {Voss, ad loc.) — Propter, Old 
idiom for prope. (Compare Eclog. , viii., 87. ) — Pratexit. " Fringes." 
— Mihi Casar erit. " Shall my Caesar be." The dathms etkieus 
may here be rendered by the possessive pronoun. — Templumque 
tenebit. <* And shall hold the temple as his own," i. e., no other 
divinity shall share it with him. — HH, ** In honour of him." The 
consecration of this temple is to be accompanied by splendid games. 

Conspectus. " Conspicuous." Those who presided over public 

games wore the praetexta, a white robe bordered with purple. — 
Centum quadrijugos, 6lc. " Will urge onward in the race a hundred 
foar-horae chariots by the river's banks," t. e.» will urge onward as 

'846 Notxfl t>n TBC atmsiCM.— ^oons. 

ln*titDtOTofttaBStiiiM,(>r, la otbnworda,wiU eaBMlobeMnl 
The poet'B gBtiM* are modelled after thoM of tbe HetnuHOil 
In these lt«t, ihe uanal nnmber UiBt itarted for eaeh neawH 
and tweaty-flre nces were mn in each Anj. Htsoca hw ki 

10^0. Ckncte mtti, &0. The meaning of the alkgtnf in 
(ina to be more apparent. All Qreeco ia to come a&d cart 
the poet'a games, acluowledging thera bj this Yeiy act to be i^ J 
Tier to ber own Olympian and Nemesn ooitteats. The paet't fan I 
Ihea, are Dotbing more than tbe heroic deeds of tbe Romiat &* I 
£neas to ADputus, n* intended to be sung by Virgil in bis JEmHk 
and which even Greece herself will cenfese to be ftr belsn lit 
moat brilliant sehieYanenta of any of ber own aons. — A^ta^ 
Tbe Olympic games were celebrated on the bnnka of the A^fcCi 
and are, thererore, bere referred to. llie Alphetu flowed tbraqk 
Arcadia and Ella. — Lueotqiu Mtilcnlu. Motoichoa iraa a shBrberl 
who lived near Cleonte, in Argolis, and hoaphnbty entertained Hff' 
eules wben the latter ma going after the Nemeaa Lon. It WM ■ 
eommemoiation of tbe deatraction of this animal that the Ncbni 
lamea were either institnted or ie*iTed. They are, Uoeflae, 
meant here. Observe, also, that the other Oreeian ganea in 
meant to be comprehended nnder the two that aro menlioDed tl 
the poet. 

Cnidocatu. "With the ox-faide cestns." Cwlu signified tka 
thongs, or bands, of ox-hide, which were tied round tbe hands fi 
boxers, in order lo render tbeir blows more powerfol. As mr K- 
bide was originally used for this parpose, we see tbe propriety irf 
the epithet avitt* here emidoyed by the poet. Leather was aftn- 
ward substitQled. Tbe cestos became moat formidable, wbeo, m 
was the case in later times, it was covered with koota and naib, 
and loaded with lead and iron. Tbe followiiig wood-cot represeati 
figures of the ceetos. 

M-SS. TM«« e&M. "Ofaa shorn ofi«*."TtMMr«iirMiH 


I .or tmuUUy was made of leayes only, stripped or shorn from the 

I boagh, and was so called in contradistinction to the cororuL nexilis, 
in which the whole branch was inserted.-— Pomt. ** Offerings." — 

I Jam nunc. ** Now, even now.'* The poet, under the influence of 
his ardent feelings, fancies the intended games already begun, and 

; speaks of the movements connected with them as actually going 
on. — SoUemnes ducere pampas. " To lead the solemn procession." 
The poet's intended games are here again modelled after those in 
the circus. The Circensian games always commenced with a 
grand procession {pompa), in which all those who were about to 
exhibit in the circus, as well as persons of distinction, bore a part. 
The statues of the gods formed the most conspicuous feature in the 
show, and were paraded upon wooden platforms and carriages. 

Vel scena ut versis, &c. " Or how the scene shifts with changing 
front." Scenic exhibitions are also to form part of the ceremonies 
at the consecration of the poet's temple. The reference here is to 
"What was technically called scena versatilis, when by means of ma- 
chines, termed in the Greek theatres irepleucroi, and which resem- 
bled in form a prism, a total change of scenery was produced by a 
single turn. Opposed to this was the scena ductilisy when the scen- 
ery parted, and disclosed behind it the interior of a dwelling, &c. — 
Utque purpurea, <Slc. ** And how the inwoven Britons raise the pur- 
ple curtain." On the aulaa, or curtain of Virgil's intended stage, 
are to be represented Britons, forming part of the texture, and 
which appear to rise fVom the ground and raise the curtain as it 
ascends. The curtain was raised at the end of the ancient perform- 
ances, and lowered at the beginning. When lowered, it was rolled 
up on a roller under the stage. — Britanni, The Britons had sent 
ambassadors to Caesar Octavianus, when in Gaul, and preparing an 
expedition against them (A.U.C. 727), and had sued for peace. 
Koman pride, therefore, regarded them from that period as a con- 
quered race. They are here represented, then, on the aulaa, part- 
ly to gratify national pride by this allusion to a recently subjugated 
race, and partly on account of the great stature which common re- 
port ascribed to them and the Germans. 

26-29. Elephanto. The term elephanius is used here, in imitation 
of the Greek, for ebur, — Gangaridttm. The Gangaridioe were an In- 
dian nation, dwelling near the mouth of the Ganges, and, in poetic 
language, said to dwell on the farthest confines of the Eastern 
world. Being regarded as subject to the Parthian rule, and the 
Parthians having acknowledged the power of Augustus by deliver- 
ing up the Koman standards taken from Crassus, the poet may here 


be allowed, in the ardour of the moment, to speak of aeontntilkl 
this distant people, which had no existence whatever in sober nil 

ity. Quirini. Under the name of Quirinus (an appellation propeb 

of Romulus) Augustus is, in fact, meant. — Atgue kic. ReferriDgu 
anotlier part of the tcmplc-gateway, so that one of the r<titf,oc 
sides uf the folding-door, would represent the conflict with theGaa- 
gnrids, the other the Nile. — UnJantem bello, &c. " Swelling wto 
the waves of war, and flowing onward with a copious tide of Ti- 
ters." An allusion to Marc Antony, and the great preparation 
made by him in Egypt and throughout the East, but which hadbm 
brought to naught by the battle of Actium. — Navali surgentu, &c 
Servius states, that Augustus constructed four columns from the ^ 
beaks of the ships captured at Actium, iflrhich Domitian aAervnri \ 
placed in the Capitol, and which were remaining when Serria 
wrote, in the age of Arcadius and Honorius. {Vossy adloc.) 

30-33. Urhes Axi<s domitas. Voss thinks that certain cities of 
Asia Minor are here meant, which had been punished by Augustas 
for withstanding his authority. — PuUumque Niphaten. **And tfie 
vanquished Niphates." Niphates, a mountain of Armenia, is here 
put for that country itself, and the poet is supposed to refer to the 
establishment of Tigranes on the Armenian throne, by the Romaa 
forces under Tiberius, while Augustus himself was present in Loi^'er 
Asia. — Fidentemque fuga Parthumy &c. The Parthians were famed 
for their skill in discharging the bow while flying from an enemj. 
— Duo tropaa. One for the victory over Cleopatra (A.U.C. 723), 
and the other for the reduction of the Cantabri in Spain (A.U.C. 

Bisque triumphatast 6lc. ** And the nations twice triumphed over 
on either shore." The nations here meant are tho Eastern com- 
munities on the one hand, and the Cantabrians on the other. The 
two triumphs in the former case are, first, that over Cleopatra ; and, 
secondly (what to a Roman was equivalent to a triumph), the re- 
covery of the standards from the Parthians. So in the case of the 
Cantabrians, they had been first overcome A.U.C. 729, and, be- 
coming again tumultuous, were punished a second time by Carisios 
and Tumius, A.U.C. 732. 

34-36. Parii tapides, &c. " Parian marble, breathing statues," 
t. e.f breathing statues of Parian marble. Pares, one of the Cyc- 
lades, was famed for its statuary marble. The statues on this oc- 
casion are to be those of the progenitors of the Julian line. — Atsa- 
raei proU$. " The descendants of Assaracns/' t. e., the progenitors 
of the Julian line. This family claimed descent from Iulus» son of 

nOTEM Oir TffS GEORGlOfl. — ^BOOK III. 349 

^neas. AnchiseSt father of iBneas, was son of Capys, and Capys 
was son of Assaracns. Assaracus, again, was son of Tros, Tros of 
£richthonia8, Erichthonius of Dardanus, and Dardanus of Jupiter. ' 

Troja Cyntkim attctor. A statue of Apollo is to be added to the 
group. This god was called Cyntbius, from Mount Cyntbus in De- 
les, where be was born. Together with Neptune be built the walls 
of Troy, and is hence styled by the poet ** Troja auctor." This is 
all done to flatter Augustus, who had Apollo for his tutelary deity, 
and was even believed by the ignorant multitude to be his son. 
(^Voss, ad loc.) 

37-39. Jnvidia irtfelix. Alluding to those who envied the glory 
of Augustus, of whom there must have been many at Rome, the 
former partisans of the opposite side. — Metuet. This verb is equiv- 
alent here, in fact, to *• ierrebitur adspectu" i. e., ** videbit.^^ Envy 
shall be driven down to Tartarus, and there tremble at the punish- 
ment that is to come upon it. — Tortosque Ixionis angues. Ixion 
was fastened to a wheel beset with serpents : ** rdigalus ad rotam 
circumfusam serpentibusy (Serv. ad JEn.f vi., 601.) — Et non exsu- 
perabile saxum. ** And the not-to-be-conquered stone (of Sisyphus)," 
t. e.f the ever-rolling stone. 

40-45. Inlerea, ** Meanwhile," i. e., before the temple is reared. 
Jntaetoi. " Untouched." Because no Roman poet had as yet at- 
tempted such a theme as the management of cattle, &c. — Tua, haud 
tnollia jussa. " Thy by no means easy commands," i. c, a difficult 
task, which tby commands have enjoined upon me. — Nil altum tn- 
ehoat. ** Enters upon nothing lofty," t. e., undertakes no lofty 
theme. — En ! age^ segnes, &.c. Not addressed to Maecenas, as 
Heyne thinks, but, as Cerda, Ruseus, Yoss, and Wagner maintain, 
by the poet to himself. — Vocat ingenti clamor e Citharon^ &c. The 
meaning of the figure is, that the true interests of this branch of 
husbandry earnestly demand the poet^s attention. — Citkaron. A 
mountain of Boeotia, midway between Thebes and Corinth, and 
feeding numerous herds of cattle. — Taygetique canes. Mount Ta- 
ygetus, in Laconia, was famed for its hunting grounds and its hounds. 
The reputation of the Spartan hunting dogs generally was very high 
among the ancients. — Epidaurus. Epidaurus, in Argolis, and, in- 
deed, all Argolis itself, enjoyed a great name for fine breeds of hor- 
ses. (Compare Horace, Od., i., 7, 9 : «« Apium dicit equU Argos**y-' 
Et vox assensu nemorum, &c. «* And the cry, redoubled by the con- 
spiring assent of the groves, rolls echoing along." 

46-18. Mox tamen ardentes, &c. Hurd regards these three lin^ 
as sporiotts (ad Horat., Ep. ad Aug., 18). Watson, too^ thinks the 


expression " ardientes pignas^^ unworthy of the Augustan age. Ik 
objections of both» however, are clearly hypercritical.— ilttayi 
dicere. Observe the UDUSual construction of aceingar with the » 
iinitive, instead of ad, with the gerund {ad dieendumy-^Ttt p 
annos, TithonU <Scc. " Through as many years as Cesar is dnK 
from the first origin of Titbonus," t. e., from Tithonus, 8ifl# . 
Titliunus, son of Laomedon, was among the most distingaisbedof I 
tliat family, from which iEneas was descended. The poet, there- 1 
fore, names him, though not one of the direct ancestors of ADga- 
tus. {Valpy, ad loc.) 

49-^3. Seu quisf Olymjnaca, <S&c. Here the poet enters upontbt 
subject of this book, and, in the first plaee, describes the marfa d 
a good cow. — Olympiaca palma. ** Of the Olympian prize." Thi 
Olympic games, as the most celebrated, are here made to repraei 
the ancient games generally. The palm was a general sjrmbol of 
victory, and the victors, besides wearing the crown peculiar to the 
games in which they had contended, carried a branch of pahn i& 
their bands. Hence palma here for victoria. — Fortes. " Sturdj" 
— Pracipue. " With especial care." 

Optima torta forma bovis, &.c. *^ The form of the stem-eyed cov 
is best," 6lc. Though the poet here does not directly say so, yet 
he evidently means the expression of the eye, or, as we would 
term it, the look to be taken into account ; and therefore tbe 
meaning of tbe passage, when given freely, will be this : " the best I 
kind of cow is that which has a stem and lowering look," &c 
(Compare the description of a good cow given by Varro, where be | 
speaks of the **oculit magnis et nigris." R. R., ii., 5, 7.) — Turp- 
" Disproportionately large." We have here expressed by a sin|^ 
term the blended idea conveyed by the Greek povc Eifpv/iirunoct and 
the language of Columella, "rwc ab aspectu decoros^* (vi., 1, 2). — Plu- 
rima cervix. " A fleshy, strong neck ;" literaUy, " a very large i 
neck." As cattle were at this period bred principally for the par- 
pose of draught, strength was tbe first requisite. The descriptioQ ! 
of a good cow here given is not to be understood, therefore, as of a 
good milker, or of a breed disposed to fat. {Valpy , ad loc.) 

54-69. Turn longo nulltis, &c. " And then, again, (there should 
be) no ordinary limit to her long side," t. c, her side should be un- 
usually long. Compare the Greek (SadiinXevpoc, ** deep-flanked." 
— Pet etiam. Etiam is here emphatic, as an extraordinary case, 
because, in other creatures, generally, a large foot is far from being 
a beauty.-^itfocv/tt insignis et alba. *' If she be marked with spots 
of white." Hendiadys for maculiM albis. — Aspera comu. ** Throat- 


];.- ening with her horD»" «. «., showing the vigoar of her frame by her 

e: threatening movements. — Faciem. <* In general appearance." Ob- 

f serve that faciea is not merely indicative here of the look, but of 

g shape, frame, form» &c. Hence Voss renders the clause, " Nicht 

f. uii&hnlich dem Stier an Otttalt;*^ whereas, in verse 61 above, he 

-; translates the words " Optima torva forma bovia^^ as follows : '*Trot- 

. siges Aruektu sei die Kuh." — Ardua. " Tall." 

^ 60-65. JEUu iMdnaxh &c. ** The age for breeding and proper 

f anion." — Cetera. ** The rest of their time," «. e., either before the 

iburth year, or subsequent to the tenth. With cetera supply atas. — 

Falura. '* For bearing." — Fertis. ''Strong enough." — Gregibu*. 

The number of females in a herd, or flock, exceeding that of males ; 

this term is to be applied to the cows. ( Valpy, ad loc.) — L<F4a ju- 

venUu, The period referred to is from the fourth to the tenth year. 

— -PnmiM. Compare Georg.y iL, 408. — Pectiaria, The pastures 

put poetically for the herd. — Si^ffiee. ** l§ecure." 

66-71. Optima quaque diea^ &c. "Each best time of life flees 
first away from wretched mortals." A sentiment applying prop- 
erly to the human race is here extended to cattle also. — Rapit, 
** Hurries them ,away." — Quorum mutari, &c. Columella says, the 
best breeders are to be selected every year. — Semper enim refice. 
** Therefore continually replace ;" literally, " refit," i. «., the herd. 
Supply armentum. Enim is here regarded as equivalent to igiturt 
and may be so rendered conveniently enough. In truth, however, 
it is the very term to bo employed here ; since in the words temper 
erunt quarumy &c., there lurks some such an idea as this, |< semper 
inquire f qua loves rejicienda sint." {Wunderlich, ad loc.) 

Act ne post amissa requiras, ** And, that you may not afterward 
seek (when it is too late) for those that you have lost," i. e., seek 
to supply their place. — Anteveni, et soholem, &c. *' Be beforehand, 
an4 choose for the herd young accessions every year." Observe 
that sortior is here taken in the general sense of choosing and sub- 
stituting. — Sobolem. fleferring to the young females brought into 
the herd of cows every year, to supply the places of those that have 
been removed. Compare the version of Voss : " und verjiingc die 
Heerd' in jahrlichem Anwachs.^'-^Armento. The herd is still con- 
sidered as consisting of females. Compare note on verse 63. 

72-74. Nee non et pecori, &c. <* The same discrimination is also 
to be exercised for a breed of horses." — Quos in spem statues, 6cc. 
** On those whom you shall determine to bring up for the hope of 
the race," t. e., thoso on whom you are to depend for the increase 
of their species. Observe that quos is here for iis quos. — Su6nnii- 



tere. Consult the remarks of Heytie on this rerb. — Continuo peeo' 
ris generont &c. " In earliest youth the colt of a generous breed 
walks high on his pasterns throughout the fields.*' There is no 
reference here to loftiness or pride of carriage, but merely to pecu- 
liarity of gait. Compare Varro, ** Cruribus rectis et ciqwdihu!'^ 
(R. R., ii.t 7)t and Columella, "JEqualibus atque ultis reetisque eru- 
rilnis*' (vi., 29). — Et moUia crura reponii, " And places flexile limbs 
in alternate succession on the ground.'-' By mollia crura are meant 
crura non rigide protenta ; JUxibUia. Compare Yoss : *' und setzt 
die geschmeidigen Schenkel." It is the same, moreover, as the 
vypuc Kofinrtiv yovara, and the ifypC^ tol^ uKi^ai xpv^at. of Xeno- 
phon, Eq., i., 6 ; x., 15. 

77-83. Prifnus et ire viam, &.C. Servius understands this of the 
co]t*8 walking before his dam ; but it seems a better interpretation, 
that he is the first among other colts to lead the way. — Ignoto ponti. 
** To some unknown bridge." Some MSS. hare ponto, but the com- 
mon reading is sufiiciently defended by two passages from Cola- 
mella cited by Heinsios. {Colum., Ti., 2 ; ri., 29.) — Nee vanos korret 
ttrepitus. Observe here the force of tfano^ : unmeaning, empty 
sounds he heeds not, but he is delighted with the din of arms.— 
Argutumque. "Neatly formed and quick in moving." {Vos9, ad 
toe.) — Ohesaque terga. " And brawny back," ». «., broad and brawny. 
'—Luxuriatque torts animosum pectus. ''And his spirited breast 
swells Iu3curiant1y with prominent muscles." — Honesti spadiceM, glau- 
eique. " Those held in most esteem are of a bright bay and gray 
colour." Spadix is from the Greek amiSi^, which signifies, first, a 
branch of a palm plucked off with the fhiit ; and then, the fruit of the 
palm being of a shining red, anadi^ is employed as an adjective, to 
' denote that colour. Spadix^ therefore, in the present case, may be 
rendered " bright bay." 

Glaucique, Servius explains very clearly the colour that is here 
meant, by comparing it to that of a cat's eyes : ** Glauci autem sunt 
felineis ocuHs^ id est, quodam splendore perfusis." He means a bright 
gray. — Gi/ro. «* Sorrel." Servius calls this "a honey colour" 
(melinus color) ; but as there are diffjarent shades in the colour of 
honey, the matter is left quite uncertain. Martyn translates it 
" dun ;" but Valpy's opinion appears the more correct one, who 
thinks that gilvus was more probably a shade of the colour termed 
sorrel. (Compare gilvus with the German gelb, " yellow.") 

84-88. Stare loco. " To stand still."— TrcmiV artus. " Quivers 
in every limb." — Ignem. Beautifully applied to the ardent breath- 
ing or smoke of his nostrils. — 2)«n«a juba, &c. So Columelto, 

KOTSS ON THfi GSOAGtCS. — SOOK tit. 853 

" Derua juhat et per dextram partem profusa.^-^At duplex agitur, &c. 
" But a double spine runs along his loins ;" literally/** is driven." 
A double spine is mentioned by all the ancient writers on the sub- 
ject as the sure mark of a good horse. {Varro, R. U., ii., 7, 6.— i 
Columella vi., 29, 2. — Geopon.f xvi., 1.) In a horse that is in good 
case, the back is broad, and a fullness of flesh near the spine is in- 
dicated, by which two ridges are formed, one at each side of the 
bone. This is what the ancients mean by a double spine. (Valpy^ 
ad loc.) — Solido comu. The poet means that he must have hsurd 

89-94. Talist Cyllarus. Supply erat. The celebrated steed Cyl- 
larus, one of those given to the two brothers by Juno, is commonly 
spoken of in connexion with the name of Castor, since he was, it 
seems, the horseman, whereas Pollux was famed for his skill with 
the cestus. Sometimes, however, each of the brothers is repre- 
sented sitting oti horseback. — Aymclcei. Castor and Pollux were 
bom, or, according to another account, brought up at Amyclae, in 
LiEiconia, whence the epithet ** Amyclean," bestowed on each of 
them. — El magni currxis Achilli. ** And those that drew the chariot 
of the mighty Achilles.'* Currus is here put for the steeds that 
drew it. A similar usage prevails in Greek, in the case of &pfta. 

Talis et ipse, &c. ** Such, too, was Saturn himself, when he 
poured forth the horse's mane along his neck, swift of movement 
at the coming of his spouse ;" more literally, ** poured (t. e., spread) 
a mane along his equine neck.'* Saturn having become enamoured 
of the ocean-nymph Philyra, and dreading the jealousy of his wife 
Rhea, changed the former into a mare, and himself into a horse, and 
thus became the father of Chiron the centaur. — ConjugiM, Ehea. 
— Pelion. Consult note on Georg., i., v. 281. 

95-96. Hunc quoqtie, &c. Having given this spirited description 
of the characteristics of a ^ood horse, the poet now observes that, 
if the animal happens to be sick, or if he grows old, he is to be 
confined at home, and restrained from keeping company with others 
of his species. The age, therefore, and spirit of the horse are to be 
diligently considered. From this the poet passes gracefully into a 
fine description of a chariot race, and an account of the inventors 
of chariots, and of the art of riding on horseback. — Chaw. ** En- 
feebled." — Abde domo. ** Hide at home," i. e., remove from the 
pastures and the stud, and keep him at home, in the stable, for do- 
mestic purposes. With domo supply in, so that in domo becomes 
equivalent to in slabtUo. The verb abde, moreover, is intended to 
suoIl the change from a life of freedom and enjoyment to one of 



comparative obscurity. (Compare Voss^ ad loe.) — Nee turpi ignoiu 
senectde. " Nor be indalgent to inglorious age," t. «., do not, throngk 
a mistaken kindness, allow him, now that his powers are enfeebled, 
and inglorious old age has come upon him, to ^continue to ipamin 
the pastures where he can be no longer of any service. We have 
given here the explanation of Voss and others, which is far more 
natural than the one recommended by Gronovius, Ouwens, &Cm 
and advocated, also, by Hand {ad Stat., SUv.j p. 59), namely : <* Spare 
his not inglorious age." 

97-102. Laborem ingratum traJiit, Consult Heyne, ad loe. — 
Pralia. Compare JEn., xi., 736. — Quondam. "At times." — Ltcas^ 
sum. " Impotently." — Animas avumque, " Their spirit and age." 
Aristotle says, that the best age of a horse is from three years old 
to twenty. Varro says it should not be younger than three, nor 
older than ten. — Hinc alias artes, &c. " And then their other qual- 
ities, and the (other) offspring of their parents," i. e., and what 
description of colts may have proceeded from the same sire. Some 
commentators understand the words prdem parentum in a different 
sense, as equivalent to "prdem quam procreqnl" or **puUoSf quorum 
parentes jam fasti sunt.^* But this, though sanctioned by great 
names, is decidedly inferior. — Et quis cuique dolor, &c. ** And what 
degree of dejection there is to each on being conquered, what glo- 
rying from victory," i. «., and how they bear defeat or victory. 

103-112. Campum corripuere. "They hasten over the plain." 
The aorist here implies what is accustomed to be done, and is there- 
fore rendered as a present. (Compare JEn., v., 145, where this is 
repeated.)— Carccre. " From the barrier," i. e., the starting-place. 
(Consult note on Georg., i., 512.) — Exsultantiaque haurit, &c. " And 
agitating excitement causes their throbbing hearts to heave." 
haurit beautifully describes their heavy breathing, exhausting, as it 
were, the air from their lungs. — Pavor. In its primitive and genu- 
ine meaning, this term indicates a palpitation common either to 
fear or joy, or any violent emotion. {Crombie, Gymnas., vol. i., 
p. 220.)^Verbere torto. " With the twisted lash."— ProTii. " Bend- 
ing forward. "— Vi. To be joined in construction with volat. Wake- 
field, however {ad Lucret., v., 434), connects it with fervidus.-^Ful- 
v(B nimbus arence. " A storm-cloud of yellow dust." Imitated from 
Homer : vno 6h oripvoiai kovItj 'larar' aeipo/iivrj Ctare ve^oc ve '&veX)uL 
{II., xxiii., 365.) — Spumis flatuque, " With the foam and the 

113-117. Erichthonius. King of Attica, and, according to one 
account, the son of Vulcan and Atthis, the daughter of Cranaos. 


Fable made the lower part of his body to have terminated in a 
snake. He is said to have been the first that used the four-horsed 
chariot. — Rapidusque rotis insistere, 6lc, ** And to stand victorious 
upon the rapid wheels ;" more freely, " and to tread victorious 
th^ rapid cai."—PeUthronn Lapitha, Tlie Lapithse are called " Pe- 
lethronian," either from Mount Felethronium, in Thessaly, a branch 
of Pelion, near which they dwelt ; or from Pelethronium, a city of 
Thessaly, where the art of breaking horses was invented {Serv.f ad 
loe.)\ or from Pelethronius, one of the Lapiths who invented bridles 
and housings for steeds. (Plin., H. N., vii., 56, 57. — Hygin., Fab., 
374.) — Gyroaque, "And the wheelings of steeds," t. e,, the art of 
riding round in a circling course, and thus, by dint of frequent 
wheelings, rendenng the horse perfectly obedient to the rein. — 
Dtdere. " Invented." 

hmiUare »olo. " To spurn the ground," t. e,, to bound prancing 
aloDg.-^£< gretsus glotnerare superbos. " And move proudly onward 
at a full, round pace." We have given here the explanation of 
Valpy. Compare that of Lemaire : " Greesus glomerare, t. e., 
eoUigen reductis tt in arcum replicatis cruHbus arUerioribw, dum paste- 
rurra t€nduntur." 

118-122. JEquua uterque labor. The meaning commonly, and we 
conceive correctly, assigned to these words is this, that, whether 
the horse be broken to the saddle or to draw, the labour is alike. 
For a different explanation, however, consult Heyne, ad loc. — 
JEfue. "With equal care." — Juven^mque, "A horse young in 
years." Supply equum. — Magutri. " They who have the care of 
steeds." For some remarks on the magistri of flocks and herds, 
consult note on verse 549. — Calidumque animis. ** And ardent in 
apiriV' i. «., full of mettle.— ilcr«m. " Eager."— (?«amri». The 
connexion in the train of ideas is as follows : these qualities are all 
important, and, if a steed do not possess them, he is accounted of 
DO value, although he may oAen have put to flight the foe, &c. 

Et pajhiam Epirum re/erat. " And may tell of Epirus as his na- 
tive country," i. e., may boast of being from the country of Epirus. 
The horses of Epirus were in high repute. — Fortesque Mycenas. 
The steeds of Mycense, and, indeed, of all Argolis, enjoyed a high 
character. (Compare note on verse 44.) — Neptunique ipsa, dec. 
** And -may deduce his pedigree from the very original of Neptune," 
«. e., (rom Neptune himself, as its original source. The allusion w 
to the legend of Neptune and Ceres. In order to avoid him, the 
goddess changed herself into a mare, whereupon the god also as- 
Muned the equine form, and the famous steed Arion was produced. 

856 iroTss oir thb oiosoics. — ^book m. 

123-129. Mm mdmadttnUy &e. What here follows has refer- 
ence, according to the best oommentators, to the bull as well m 
the horse. — JhuUau tub Umpu. " They are very dfligeot about tlie 
time (of generation).** — Dento pingui. ** With firm fat." Obserre 
that pingui is here put for pinguedine. — Pubentesque kerhas. " Fnll- 
grown herbs," i. e., herbs covered with the down of maturity, and 
full of juices. Many editors read florentes, on MSS. aathority ; in 
defence of which lection, consult the remarks of Wagner. — Fhm- 
osque ministratU. ** And supply him with plenty of water.'* — For- 
raque. Consult note on Georg.^ i., 73. — Superesse. **To prbie 
adequate to.** — Invalidique patrum, &c. ** And lest the pany off- 
spring plainly declare the feebleness of their sires.** Jejuma prop- 
erly refers here to feebleness resulting from want of suflteient feed- 
ing. — Ipsa autem macie^ &c. '* On the other hand, they pnrposdy 
attenuate the females, by means of a scanty diet." Obserre that 
amunta here refers to both the mares and cows, and compieaie note 
on Terse 63. 

132-137. QuatiurU. ** They shake them," t. e., work them hard. 
— iSofe. "In the sun,'* —■ Tunsis frvgibut, "With the threshed 
grain.*' The beginning of the Roman harvest was about the latter 
end of their June, and the threshing time will fall in the month of 
July. — PalecB jactantur inanes. " The empty chaff is tossed to and 

138-142. Rursus cura patrum caderCf &c. After conception, the 
whole care is to be transferred to the female. The asilus, a terri- 
ble plague to the cows in Italy, is then mentioned by the poet— 
Cura patrum, " The care (hitherto) bestowed on the sires." — Bmt' 
sus, succedere. "In its turn to succeed." — Scdtu superare viam, 
" To clear the path with a leap." We have here a caution against 
allowing the pregnant animals to leap. — Et acri carpere, dtc. " And 
to gallop over the meadows ;" more literally, " and to traverse the 
meadows in rapid flight." — Saltibus in vacuis pascunt. "Their 
keepers feed them (at such times) in lonely and quiet pastures." 
Compare, as regards the force of vacuia here, the explanation of 
Heyne : " Saltus vacui, in, quibus sola, quieta, otiosa paseantur.'* 
We have preferred, therefore, to render it by a double epithet.— 
Pascunt. In the sense of pascere solent, and referring to the armen- 
tarii, or keepers of the herd. The common text has paseant^ which 
is objectionable on the score of Latinity, whether it be taken in an 
intransitive sense, or be referred, as Voss maintains, to the keep- 
ers. (Consult Wagner, ad loc., and Wakefield, ad Lucret., ii , 996.) 

146-148. Est lueot Silari ctrco, dco. " Aboat the groves of the 



Silarns, and (Moant) Albnrnus bloomiof with bofan oaks, there is 
In very great abundance a flying insect, the Roman name of which 
is asilus, (while) the Greeks have turned it (into their language) by 
calling it oettrtu." — Silari. The Silarus was a river of Lucania, in 
Italy, dividing that province from Campania. The modern name is 
the Silaro. Its banks were greatly infested by the gad-fly. — Albur' 
num. Albnrnus was a ridge of mountains in Lucania, near the junc- 
tion of the Silarus and Tanager. — VoUtatu^ More literally, ** a fly- 
ing thing." Taken here as a kind of substantive. — usilo. Observe 
that eailo is here in the dative, in imitation of the Greek idiom, in- 
stead of the nominative. The asilus is called by Varro the taba* 
nus. It appears to be identical with the modem Breeze, This wing- 
ed insect still retains in Italy the name of Asillo, and occasions in- 
tolerable pain to the cattle, by perforating their hides with its sting, 
and depositing in the wound an egg, which is there hatched. (Jfar- 
fyM, ad [oc.) — (Estrum, The Greeks called it olarpoc, in the accu- 
sative ciarpovy whence, in Latin, oM^rvf and a»trum. 

149-151. Asper. "Wrathful," i. «., of angry sting. What the 
poet ascribes, in popular language, to the angry feelings of the in- 
sect, is, in ikct, an instinct of nature, which prompts it to this mode 
of depositing its ova. • The sting is composed of a tube, through 
which the egg is emitted, and of two " augers," which make way 
(or the tube to penetrate into the skin of the cattle. These augers 
are. armed with little knives, which prick with their points, and cut 
with their edges, causing intolerable pain to the animal that is 
wounded by them. At the end of the sting, moreover, as at the 
end of that of wasps, bees, and hornets, there exudes a venomous 
liquor, which irritates and inflames the fibres of the wounded nerves, 
and causes the wound to become fistulous. This fistula seems to 
be kept open by the egg, after the manner of an issue. The egg is 
batched within the fistula, and the worm continues there till it is 
ready to turn to a chrysalis, receiving its nourishment from the 
liquid that flows from the wounded fibres. These worms remain 
nine or ten months under the skin, and then, being arrived almost 
to maturity, they come out of their own accord, and creep into 
some hole, or under some stone, and there enter into the state of a 
chrysalis, in which condition they lie quiet for some time, and at 
last come forth in the form of the parent fly. {Martyn, ad loe.) 

Aeerha sonans. *' Making a sharp, whizzing noise ;" more literaDy, 
'< sounding sharply." Acerba, for acerbe. The insect has two mem- 
branaceous* wings, with which it makes a sharp whizzing. — Diffu' 
giutU armenta. Homer represents the suitors when fighting with 


be allowed, in the ardour of the momont, to apeak of a contest vik 
this distant people, which had no e^cistence whaterer in sober lot 
ity. — Quirini. Under the name of Quirinus (an appellation propeiij 
of Romulus) Augustus is, in fact, meant. — Algue hie. Referring ts 
another part of the temple-gateway, so that one of the vahtt ct 
sides of the folding-door, would represent the conflict with tbeGti- 
garids, the other the Nile. — Undantem hello, 6cc. " Swelling vitk 
the waves of war, and flowing onward with a copious tide of vi- 
ters." An allusion to Marc Antony, and the great preparatiou 
made by him in Egypt and throughout the East, but which had been 
brought to naught by the battle of Actium. — Navali stirgentUt &c. 
Servius states, that Augustus constructed four columns from the 
beaks of the ships captured at Actium, ^hich Domitian aflennid 
placed in the Capitol, and which were remaining when Senriu 
wrote, in the age of Arcadius and Honorius. {Voss, ad loc.) 

30-33. Urhes Asia domitas. Voss thinks that certain cities of 
Asia Minor are here meant, which had been punished by Augustas 
for withstanding his authority. — Pulsumque Niphaten, "And tbe 
Tanquished Niphates.*' Niphates, a mountain of Armenia, is here 
put for that country itself, and the poet is supposed to refer to the 
establishment of Tigranes on the Armenian throne, by the Romaa 
forces under Tiberius, while Augustus himself was present in Lower 
Asia. — Fidentemque fuga Parthumy &c. The Parthians were famed 
for their skill in discharging the bow while flying from an enemy. 
— Duo tropaa. One for the victory over Cleopatra (A.U.C. 723), 
and the other for the reduction of the Cantabri in Spain (A.U.C. 

Bisque triumpkataSf &.C. " And tbe nations twice triumphed over 
on either shore." The nations here meant are the Eastern com- 
munities on the one hand, and tbe Cantabrians on the other. The 
two triumphs in the former case are, first, that over Cleopatra ; and, 
secondly (what to a Roman was equivalent to a triumph), the re- 
covery of the standards from the Parthians. So in the case of tbe 
Cantabrians, they had been first overcome A.U.C. 729, and, be- 
coming again tumultuous, were punished a second time by Carisins 
and Tumius, A.U.C. 732. 

34-36. Parii lapides, 4&c. " Parian marble, breathing statues," 
i e.f breathing statues of Parian marble. Pares, one of the Cyo- 
lades, was famed for its statuary marble. The statues on this oc- 
casion are to be those of the progenitors of the Julian line. — Assa- 
raci prole*. " The descendants of Assaracus/* i. e., the progenitors 
Of the JoUan line. Thia family claimed descent from Iulu8» son of 



^neas. Anchises, fkiher of ^neas, was son of Capys, and Capys 
was son of Assaracns. Assaracas, again, was son of Tros, Tros of 
Srichthonias, Erichthonius of Dardanus, and Dardanus of Jupiter. 

TVojm CyrUhifu duetor, A statue of Apollo is to be added to the 
gxoup. This god was called Cynthius, from Mount Cynthus in De- 
los, where he was born. Together with Neptune he built the walls 
of Troy, and is hence styled by the poet ** Troja attctor." This is 
all done to flatter Augustus, who had Apollo for his tutelary deity, 
and was even believed by the ignorant multitude to be his son. 
{Vos», adloc.) 

37-39. Invidia infelix. Alluding to those who envied the glory 
of Augustus, of whom there must have been many at Rome, the 
former partisans of the opposite side. — Metuei. This verb is equiv- 
alent here, in fact, to " terrehitur adspectu" i. e., " tidebit." Envy 
shall be driven down to Tartarus, and there tremble at the punish- 
ment that is to come upon it. — Tortosquc Ixionis angutt. Ixion 
was fastened to a wheel beset with serpents : " rdigatus ad rotam 
circumfusam Merpeniibuay (Serv. ad JEn.f vi., 601.) — Et non exsu- 
perabile saxum. ** And the not-to-be-conquered stone (of Sisyphus)," 
t. e., the ever-rolling stone. 

40-45. InUrea, ** Meanwhile,*' t. e., before the temple is reared. 
IntaetoM. '* Untouched." Because no Roman poet had as yet at- 
tempted such a theme as the management of cattle, &c. — Tua, haud 
moUia-jussa, ^* Thy by no means easy commands," t. e., a difficult 
task, which thy commands have enjoined upon me. — Nil altum in- 
ehoat. ** Enters upon nothing lofly," t. c, undertakes no lofty 
theme. — En! age, tegnes, &c. Not addressed to Maecenas, as 
Heyne thinks, but, as Cerda, Ruseus, Voss, and Wagner maintain, 
by the poet to himself. — Vocat ingenti clamore Cith<Bron^ &c. The 
meaning of the figure is, that the true interests of this branch of 
husbandry earnestly demand the poet^s attention. — Citharon. A 
mountain of Boeotia, midway between Thebes and Corinth, and 
feeding numerous herds of cattle. — Taygetique canes. Mount Ta* 
ygetus, in Laconia, was famed for its hunting grounds and its hounds. 
The reputation of the Spartan hunting dogs generally was very high 
among the ancients. — Epidaurus. Epidaurus, in Argolis, and, in- 
deed, all Argolis itself, enjoyed a great name for fine breeds of hor- 
ses. (Compare Horace, Od.^ i, 7, 9 : •* Aptum dicit equit Argos.")'-^ 
Et vox assensu nemorum, &c. " And the cry, redoubled by the con- 
spiring assent of the groves, rolls echoing along." 

46-48. Mox tamen ardentea, &c. Hurd regards these three linto 
as spurious (ad Horat, Ep. ad Aug., 18). Watson, too, thinks the 


expression " ardtntes fugnat'' unworthy of the Augustan age. Th 
objeclioDs of both, however, are clearly hypercritical.— ied^f 
dicere. Observe the UDUSual construction of aceingar with the » 
finiiive, instead of ad with the gemnd {ad dieendum). — Tdp 
cancv. Tithmtu (S^c. " Through as many years as Cssar is db 
from the first origin of Tithonas,'* i. «., from Tithonos, nnfij. 
TithoDUs, son of Laomedon, was among the most distingnidiedif 
that family, from which ^neas was descended. The poet, then- 
fore, names him, though not one of the direct ancestors of Aa|iB- 
tus. {^Valpy. ad loc.) 

49-53. Seu quis, Olympiacdy 6iC. Here the poet enters npontht 
subject of this book, and, in the first place, describes the marfaiif 
a good cow. — Olympimca palma. " Of the Olympian prize.** 1^ 
Olympic games, as the most celebrated, are here made to repront 
the ancient games generally. The palm was a general symbol of 
viciory, and the victors, besides wearing the crown peculiar to tie 
games in which they had contended, carried a branch of palm i& 
their bands. Hence palnut here for victoria, — Fortes. ** Sturdy." 
— Pracipue. " With especial care." 

Optima /orttf forma bovis, &c. " The form of the stemmed eow 
is best,** &c. Though the poet here does not directly say so, p 
he evidently means the expression of the eye, or, as we wookl 
term it, the look to be taken into account ; and therefore the 
meaning of the passage, when given freely, will be this : ** the best 
kind of cow is that which has a stem and lowering look,** &c 
(Compare the description of a good cow given by Varro, where be 
speaks of the "oculis magnis et nigris.** R. R., ii., 6, 7.) — Turft. 
** Disproportionately large.** We have here expressed by a single 
term the blended idea conveyed by the Greek pave evpvftirurrocj and 
the language of Columella, *^necab aspectu decoros^* (vi., 1, 2). — Pin- 
rima cervix. *' A fleshy, strong neck ;** literaDy, " a very large 
neck.** As cattle were at this period bred principally for the par- 
pose of draught, strength was the first requisite. The description 
of a good cow here given is not to be understood, therefore, as of a 
good milker, or of a breed disposed to fat. ( Valpy, ad loc.) 

54-69. Turn longo nullus, &c. ** And then, again, (there should 
be) no ordinary limit to her long side,** i. e., her side should be un- 
usually long. Compare the Greek paBvnXevpoct " deep- flanked." 
— Pes etiom. Etiam is here emphatic, as an extraordinary case, 
because, in other creatures, generally, a large foot is far from being 
a beauty. — Maculis insignis et albo. " If she be marked with spots 
of white.** Hendiadys for mactt/w aZ^. — Asperacomu. **'l1ireat- 


ening with her horD»'* t. «., showing the vigoar of her frame by her 
threatening movements. — Faciem. '^ In general appearance." Ob- 
serve that faciea is not merely indicative here of the look, but of 
shape, frame, form» &c. Hence Voss renders the clause, " Nicht 
nnahnlich dem Stier an Otttalt;*^ whereas, in verse 61 above, he 
translates the words " Optima torva forma bovia*^ as follows : '*Trot- 
siges Aruektu sei die Kuh." — Ardua, " Tall." 

60-65. JEtas Lucituuih &c. " The age for breeding and proper 
anion." — Cetera, " The rest of their time," t. e., either before the 
fourth year, or subsequent to the tenth. With cetera supply tttas. — 
Fatura, " For' bearing." — Fortis. " Strong enough." — Gregibua. 
The number of females in a herd, or flock, exceeding that of males ; 
this term is to be applied to the cows. ( Valpy^ ad loc.) — Litta ju- 
Dentas. The period referred to is from the fourth to the tenth year. 
— Primus. Compare Georg.^ iL, 408. — Pecuaria, The pastures 
put poetically for the herd. — St^e. ** l§ecure." 

66-71. Optima quaque diet, &c. ''Each best time of life flees 
first away from wretched mortals." A sentiment applying prop- 
erly to the human race is here extended to cattle also. — Rapit. 
** Hurries them away." — Quorum mutari, &c. Columella says, the 
best breeders are to be selected every year.— iScmp«r enim refice. 
" Therefore continually replace ;" literally, " refit," i, «., the herd. 
Supply armentum. Enim is here regarded as equivalent to igitur, 
and may be so rendered conveniently enough. In truth, however, 
it is the very term to bo employed here ; since in the words semper 
erunt quorum, &c., there lurks some such an idea as this, ** semper 
mquire, qua loves rejicienda sint." {Wunderlicht ad loc.) 

Ac, ne post amissa requiras. '* And, that you may not afterward 
seek (when it is too late) for those that you have lost," i. e., seek 
to supply their place. — Antevenif et soholemy &c. *' Be beforehand, 
aii4 choose for the herd young accessions every year." Observe 
that sortior is here taken in the general sense of choosing and sub- 
stituting. — Sobolem. Referring to the young females brought into 
the herd of cows every year, to supply the places of those that have 
been removed. Compare the version of Voss : " und verjungc die 
Heerd' in jahrlichem Anwachs.^'—rArmento, The herd is still con- 
aidiered as consisting of females. Compare note on verse 63. 

72-74. Nee non et pecori, &.Q. " The same discrimination is also 
to be exercised for a breed of horses." — Quos in spem statues^ &c. 
<* On those whom you shall determine to bring up for the hope of 
the race," i. «., thoso on whom you are to depend for the increase 
of their species. Observe that quos is here for Us quo*. — Suirnox- 


tere. Consult the remarks of Heyne on this rerb. — C<mtinnof» 
ris penerosi, &c. " In earliest youth the colt of a generoas M 
walks high on his pasterns throughout the fields.*' There ii ■ I A 
reference here to loAiness or pride of carriage, hut merely to pe» I je 
liarity of gait. Compare Yarro, " Cmribus reeiis et cequalM* 1 C 
{R. /?., ii., 7), and Columella, "JEqudHbus atque altis reeHtqmcn- j c 
ribus^' (vi., 29) — Et nuUia cntrn reponU. " And places flexile fiiki I i 
in alternate succession on the ground." By moUUi crura are metft I \ 
crura non rigide protenia ; flexibilia. Compare Voss : '* und Mtt 1 i 
die gcschmeidigeH Schenkel." It is the same, moreoTer, as tte M 
vypuc KOfiTTTf tw ybvara^ and the vypo^ rol^ aKiXcat xpn^^ of 1m- | 
phon, Eq.f i., 6 ; x., 15. I 1 

77-83. Primug et ire viam, &c. Senrins understands this of tki | > 
coitus walking before his dam ; but it seems a better interpretitiOB, 
that he is the first among other colts to lead the way. — Ignolofmti 
** To some unknown bridge." Some MSS. have potUo, but theeoo- 
mon reading is sufliciently defended by two passages from Goli' 
mcUa cited by Heinsios. ( Co/khi., tI., 2 ; Ti., 29.) — \ee vanos imd 
ttrepiius. Observe here the force of vanof .- nnmeaniog, eatfi 
sounds he heeds not, but he is delighted with the din of amn— 
Argutumque. "Neatly formed and quick in moving." (Voutd 
loc.y—Obesaque terga. " And brawny back," t. e., broad and brawDj. 
^-LuTuriaique torts animasum pectus. "And his spirited breist 
swells luxuriantly with prominent muscles." — Honesti spadieeSfgta- 
cique. ** Those held in most esteem are of a bright bay and gnj 
colour." Spadix is from the Greek cnrddif, which signifies, first, a 
branch of a palm plucked off with the firuit ; and then, the fruit of the 
palm being of a shining red, otzo&l^ is employed as an adjective, to 
denote that colour. Spadix, therefore, in the present case, may be 
rendered " bright bay." 

Glaucique. Servius explains very clearly the colour that is here 
meant, by comparing it to that of a cat's eyes : " Glauci autem sunt 
felineis oculis, id est, quodam splendor e perfusis.** He means a bright 
gray. — Gilvo. "Sorrel." Servius calls this "a honey colour" 
(rnelinus color) ; but as there are difierent shades in the colour of 
honey, the matter is left quite uncertain. Martyn translates it 
" dun ;" but Yalpy's opinion appears the more correct one, who 
thinks that gilvus was more probably a shade of the colour termed 
sorrel. (Compare gilvus with the German gelb, " yellow.") 

84-88. Stare loco. " To stand still."— TVemiV artus. " Quivers 
in every limb." — Ignem. Beautifully applied to the ardent breath- 
ing or smoke of his nostrils. — Densa juba^ dtc So Columella, 

] KOTSS ON THfi GEOAGtCS. — SOOK tit. 353 

.," Derua juhat et per dextram partem proftua.^-^At duplex agitur^ &c. 
.*' But a doable spine runs along his loins ;*' literally,^** is driven." 
A double spine is mentioned by all the ancient \iTiters on the sub« 
,ject as the sure mark of a good horse. {VarrOi R. R.j \i., 7, 5. — 
Colufnell., vi., 29, 2. — Geopon.j xvi., 1.) In a horse that is in good 
ease, the back is broad, and a fullness of flesh near the spine is in- 
dicated, hy which two ridges are formed, one at each side of the 
bone. This is what the ancients mean by a double spine. {Valpy, 
md loc.)^Solido comu. The poet means that he must have hard 

89-94. TaliSf Cyllarus. Supply erat. The celebrated steed Cyl- 
larus, one of those given to the two brothers by Juno, is commonly 
spoken of in connexion with the name of Castor, since he was, it 
seems, the horseman, whereas Pollux was famed for his skill with 
the cestus. Sometimes, however, each of the brothers is repre- 
sented sitting oti horseback. — Aymclcn. Castor and Pollux were 
bom, or, according to another account, brought up at Amyclse, in 
Laconia, whence the epithet << Amyclean,'* bestowed on each of 
them. — El maghi currxis Achilli. ** And those that drew the chariot 
of the mighty Achilles.^* Cumis is here put for the steeds that 
drew it. A similar usage prevails in Greek, in the case of upfia. 

Talis et ipse, &c. *< Such, too, was Saturn himself, when he 
poured forth the horse^s mane along his neck, swift of movement 
at the coming of his spouse ;" more literally, ** poured (i. e., spread) 
a mane along his equine neck.'' Saturn having become enamoured 
of the ocean-nymph Philyra, and dreading the jealousy of his wife 
Rhea, changed the former into a mare, and himself into a horse, and 
thus became the father of Chiron the centaur. — Conjugis. Rhea. 
— Pelion. Consult note on Georg., i., v. 281. 

95-96. Hunc quoque^ &c. Having given this spirited description 
of the characteristics of a ^ood horse, the poet now observes that, 
if the animal happens to be sick, or if be grows old, he is to be 
confined at home, and restrained from keeping company with others 
of his species. The age, therefore, and spirit of the horse are to be 
diligently considered. From this the poet passes gracefully into a 
fine description of a chariot race, and an account of the inventors 
of chariots^ and of the art of riding on horseback. — Gravis. " En- 
feebled." — Abde domo. *' Hide at home," i. «., remove from the 
pastures and the stud, and keep him at home, in the stable, for do- 
mestic purposes. With domo supply in, so that in domo becomes 
equivalent to in stabulo. The verb abde, moreover, is intended to 
mak the change from a life of freedom and enjoyment to one of 



.fable made the lower part of his body to have termiDated in a 
make. He is said to have been the first that used the four-horsed 
jliariot. — Rapidusque rotis insistere, &c. " And to stand victorious 
jpon the rapid wheels ;" more freely, " and to tread victorious 
^fa^ rapid car." — Pdethrmm Lapiika, Tlie Lapiths are called << Pe- 
jetbronian," either from Mount Felethronium, in Thessaly, a branch 
>f Felion, near which they dwelt ; or from Pelethronium, a city of 
rbessaly, where the art of breaking horses was invented {Scrv.t ad 
Soe.) i or from Pelethronius, one of the Lapiths who invented bridles 
uid housings for steeds. (P/tn., H. N., vii., 56, 57. — Hygin.^ Fab., 
B74.) — Gyroaque, ** And the wheelings of steeds," i. e., the art of 
riding round in a circling course, and thus, by dint of frequent 
■vbeelings, rendenng the horse perfectly obedieut to the rein. — 
Dc^o-tf. ** Invented." 

^utiUare 9olo. ** To spurn the ground," t. e., to bound prancing 
Blong.-^£^ gressus gUmurare superbos, " And move proudly onward 
at a full, round pace." We have given here the explanation of 
Valpy. Compare that of Lemaire : '* Gressus glomerare, t. «., 
eoUigere reduciis et in arcum replicatis cruribus arUerioribus, dum paste- 
riora tindtintur,** 

118-132. JEquus uterque labor. The meaning commonly, and we 
conceive correctly, assigned to these words is this, that, whether 
the horse be broken to the saddle or to draw, the labour is alike. 
For a different explanation, however, consult Heyne, ad loc. — 
JESque, "With equal care." — Juvenemque. <<A horse young in 
years." Supply equum, — Magistri. " They who have the care of 
steeds." For some remarks on the magistri of flocks and herds, 
consult note on verse 549. — Calidumque animis. "And ardent in 
spirit," i. e., full of mettle.— ilcr«m. " Eager."— Quamrw. The 
connexion in the train of ideas is as follows : these qualities are all 
important, and, if a steed do not possess them, he is accounted of 
DO value, aUkough he may often have put to flight the foe, &c. 

Et patriom Epirum reftrat. " And may tell of Epirus as his na- 
tive country," i. e., may boast of being from the country of Epirus. 
The horses of Epirus were in high repute. — Fortesqiu Mycenas. 
The steeds of Mycense, and, indeed, of all Argolis, enjoyed a high 
character. (Compare note on verse 44.) — Neptuniquc ipsa, dec. 
<< And may deduce his pedigree from the very original of Neptune," 
i, «., from Neptune himself, as its original source. The allusion is 
to the legend of Neptune and Ceres. In order to avoid him, the 
goddess changed herself into a mare, whereupon the god also as- 
sumed the equine form, and the famous steed Arion wais produced. 


123-129. His mmaitertUt to. What here follows has icfef 
ence, according to the best oonmieiitators, to the ball as wdli 
the horse. — liutant tub lempUM. " They are very diligent about di 
time (of generation)." — Denao pingui. " With firm fat." Obiem 
that pingui is here put for piiigiudine. — Puhentesque herbas, '*FA 
grown herbs/* t. £., herbs covered with the doton of roatiintj,al 
full of juices. Many editors read florentes, on MSS. anthority; a 
defence of which lection, consult the remarks of Wagner.— FhR- 
osque ministratU. ** And supply him with plenty of water."— Fff- 
raquc. Consult note on Georg.^ i., 73. — Superease. "To piM 
adequate to." — Invalidiqut patrum, dec. " And lest the pony ^ 
spring plainly declare the feebleness of their sires.*' JepoMja^ 
erly refers here to feebleness resulting from want of snfficieatiee^ 
ing. — Ipsa auUm tnacie, dec. **• On the other hand, they porpoMif 
attenuate the females, by means of a scanty diet." Observe tU 
armenta here refers to both the mares and cows, and compare dM 
on verse 63. 

132-137. Quatiunt. " They shake them," t. e., work themhnd. 
—Sole. " In the sun." — Tumis frvgibus. " With the thrMtai 
grain." The beginning of the Roman harvest was about the Iitttt 
end of their June, and the threshing time will fall in the month tf 
July. — Palca jactantur inanes, " The empty chaff is tossed to ail 

138-142. Rursus cura patrum cadere, 6cc. Afler conception, th 
whole care is to be transferred to the female. The asilus, a tenh 
ble plague to the cows in Italy, is then mentioned by the poet^ 
Cura patrum, ** The care (hitherto) bestowed on the sires." — Rm^ 
8US succedere. "In its turn to succeed." — Saltu superare rM» 
" To clear the path with a leap." We have here a caution agaiait 
allowing the pregnant animals to leap. — Et acri carpere, dtc. " Aal 
to gallop over the meadows ;" more literally, "and to traverse tlH 
meadows in rapid flight." — Saltibus in vacuit pascuru. "Their 
keepers feed them (at such times) in lonely and quiet pastures.* 
Compare, as regards the force of vacuis here, the explanation of 
Heyne : " Saltus vacui, in guibus soiat qvietctf otiosa pascantur* 
We have preferred, therefore, to render it by a double epithet.— 
Pascunt. In the sense ofpascere solent, and referring to the arm» 
tarii, or keepers of the herd. The common text has pascant, which 
is objectionable on the score of Latinity, whether it be taken in an 
intransitive sense, or be referred, as Voss maintains, to the keep* 
ers. (Consult Wagner , ad loc., and Wakefield^ ad Luoret., ii , 995.) 

146-148. Est lucoa SUmH dreot dee. " About the groves of the 


^'^ilBTQS, and (Moant) Albarnos blooming with holm oaks, there is 
H -rery great abundance a flying insect, the Roman name of which 
'■% asiltUf (while) the Greeks have turned it (into their language) by 
calling it oestrus "'■^Silari, The Silarus was a river of Lucania, in 
nialj, dividing that province from Campania. The modern name is 
-^:tie SiUro. Its banks were greatly infested by the gad-fly. — Alburn 
^•juin. Alburnus was a ridge of mountains in Lucania, near the j unc- 
7;iOn of the Silarus and Tanager. — Volitaiu. More literally, " a fly- 
-jlig thing.*' Taken here as a kind of substantive. — tuilo. Observe 
siiat msUo is here in the dative, in imitation of the Greek idiom, in- 
^itead of the nominative. The asUus is called by Yarro the taba* 
" mus. It appears to be identical with the modem Breeze. This wing- 
£Bd insect still retains in Italy the name of Asillo, and occasions in- 
tolerable pain to the cattle, by perforating their hides with its sting, 
mad depositing in the wound an egg, which is there hatched, (ilfar- 
r^lffH, md [oc.) — (Estrum, The GSxeeks called it olarpo^, in the accu- 
sative otarpoVf whence, in Latin, om/tim and astrum. 

149-161. Asper. "Wrathful," i. «., of angry sting. What the 
ijf poet ascribes, in popular language, to the angry feelings of the in- 
z aeot, is, in foct, an instinct of nature, which prompts it to this moda 

- of depositing its ova. - The sting is composed of a tube, through 
is. which the egg is emitted, and of two " augers," which make way 

Cor the tube to penetrate into the skin of the cattle. These augers 
!«: ate. armed with little knives, which prick with their points, and cut 
L with their- edges, causing intolerable pain to the animal that is 
X wounded by them. At the end of the sting, moreover, as at the 

- end of that of wasps, bees, and hornets, there exudes a venomous 

- liqnor, which irritates and inflames the fibres of the wounded nerves, 
I and causes the wound to become fistulous. This fistula seems to 

be kept open by the egg, after the manner of an issue. The egg is 
r hatched within the fistula, and the worm continues there till it is 
ready to turn to a chrysalis, receiving its nourishment from the 
liquid that flows from the wounded fibres. These worms remain 
nine or ten months under the skin, and then, being arrived almost 
to maturity, they come out of their own accord, and creep into 
some hole, or under some stone, and there enter into the state of a 
chrysalis, in which condition they lie quiet for some time, and at 
last come forth in the form of the parent fly. {Martyn, ad lac.) 

Acerha sonans. " Making a sharp, whizzing noise ;" more literaUy, 
** sounding sharply." Acerboy for acerbe. The insect has two mem- 
branaceous- wings, with which it makes a sharp whizzing. — Diffu-" 
giunt arwunta. Homer represents the suitors when fighting with 


be allowed, in the ardonr of the moment, to apeak of a contest vih 
this distant people, which had no existence whatever in sober loi' 
ity. — Quirini. Under the name of Quirinus (an appellation propeiif 
of Romulus) Aui^stus is, in fact, meant. — Atqu€ kie. Referring tt 
another part of the temple-gateway, so that one of the vdtt^ cr 
sides of the folding-door, would represent the conflict with the Gan- 
garids, the other the Nile. — Undantem bello, &c. ** Swelling witk 
the waves of war, and flowing onward with a copioos tide of wi* 
ters." An allusion to Marc Antony, and the great preparation 
made by him in Egypt and throughout the East, but which had ben 
brought to naught by the battle of Actium. — Navali surgentett && 
SerYius states, that Augustus constructed four columns from tbe 
beaks of the ships captured at Actium, Which Domitian afterwari 
placed in the Capitol, and which were remaining when S<irTiBi 
wrote, in the age of Arcadius and HonOrius. {Voss, ad loc.) 

30-33. Urbes Asia domitas. Voss thinks that certain cities of 
Asia Minor are here meant, which had been punished by Augustus 
for withstanding his authority. — PuUumque NiphaUn. "And the 
Tanquished Nipbates." Niphates, a mountain of Armenia, is here 
put for that country itself, and the poet is supposed to refer to the 
establishment of Tigranes on the Armenian throne, by the Roman 
forces under Tiberius, while Augustus himself was present in Lower 
Asia. — Fidentemque fuga Parthum, <&c. The Parthians were famed 
for their skill in discharging the bow while flying from an enemy. 
— Duo tropaa. One for the victory over Cleopatra (A.U.C. 723), 
and the other for the reduction of the Cantabri in Spain (A.U.C. 

Bisque triumphatas, <S&c. " And the nations twice triumphed over 
on either shore.*' The nations here meant are the Eastern com- 
munities on the one hand, and tbe Cantabrians on the other. The 
two triumphs in the former case are, first, that over Cleopatra; and, 
secondly (what to a Roman was equivalent to a triumph), the re- 
covery of the standards from the Parthians. So in the case of tbe 
Cantabrians, they had been first overcome A.U.C. 729, and, be- 
coming again tumultuous, were punished a second time by Carisios 
and Tumius, A.U.C. 732. 

34-36. Parii lapides, &c. " Parian marble, breathing statues," 
i e., breathing statues of Parian marble. Pares, one of the Cyc- 
lades, was famed for its statuary marble. The statues on this oc- 
casion are to be those of the progenitors of the Julian line. — Ast^- 
rod proUs, " The descendants of Assaracus/* t. «., the progenitors 
of the Julian line. This family claimed descent from lulus, son of 


xorfES oir m georgios. — book hi. 349 

uCneas. Anchisest father of ^neas, was son of Capys, and Capys 
"was son of Assaracns. Assaracus, again, was son of Tros, Tros of 
Crichtbonias, Erichthonius of Dardanus, and Dardanus of Jupiter. 

TVoja Cynthifu auctcr, A statue of Apollo is to be added to tbe 
group. Tbls god was called Cyntbius, from Mount Cynthus in De- 
los, wbere be was bom. Together with Neptune he built the walls 
of Troy, and is hence styled by the poet " Troja auctor." This is 
all done to flatter Augustus, who had Apollo for his tutelary deity, 
and was even believed by the ignorant multitude to be his son. 
{Voss, adloc.) 

37-39. Invidia ivfelix. Alluding to those who envied the glory 
of Augustus, of whom there must have been many at Rome, the 
former partisans of the opposite side. — Metuet. This verb is equiv- 
alent here, in fact, to **terrebitur adspectu,** i. e., "videbit.^* Envy 
shall be driven down to Tartarus, and there tremble at the punish- 
ment that is to come upon it. — Tortosque Ixionis angues. Ixion 
was fastened to a wheel beset with serpents : ** rdigatus ad rotam 
eireumfusam serpentibusy (Serv. ad JEn., vi., 601.) — Et non exsu' 
perabile saxum. ** And the not-to-be-conquered stone (of Sisyphus)," 
t. «., the ever-rolling stone. 

40-45. Interea, <* Meanwhile," t. e., before the temple is reared. 
JrUactos. ** Untouched." Because no Roman poet had as yet at- 
tempted such a theme as the management of cattle, &c. — Tua, hand 
nteUia-jussa. " Thy by no means easy commands," i. «., a difficult 
task, which thy commands have enjoined upon me. — Nil altum tn- 
cTioat. " Enters upon nothing lofly," i. e., undertakes no lofty 
theme. — En ! age^ segnes, &c. Not addressed to Maecenas, as 
Heyne thinks, but, as Cerda, Rusus, Yoss, and Wagner maintain, 
by the poet to himself. — Vocat ingenti clamore Citkaron^ &c. The 
meaning of the figure is, that the true interests of this branch of 
husbandry earnestly demand the poet's attention. — Citharon. A 
mountain of Bceotia, midway between Thebes and Corinth, and 
feeding numerous herds of cattle. — Taygetique canes. Mount Ta- 
ygetus, in Laconia, was famed for its hunting grounds and its hounds. 
The reputation of the Spartan hunting dogs generally was very high 
among the ancients. — Epidaurus. Epidaurus, in Argolis, and, in- 
deed, all Argolis itself, enjoyed a great name for fine breeds of hor- 
ses. (Compare Horace, 0/i., i., 7, 9 : " Aptum dieit equU Argosy)^-^ 
Et vox assensu nemomm, &c. *< And the cry, redoubled by the con- 
spiring assent of the groves, rolls echoing along." 

46-48. Mox tamen ardentes, &c. Hurd regards these three linds 
as sparious {ad Horai., Ep. ad Aug., 18). Watson, too, thinks the 


try. The tuba was straight ; the lUutu was slightly cnrred at th0 
extremity, as in the following wood-cut from Fabretti * 


Traciuque gemaUem^ &c. " And to bear with the wheel that rat- 
tles as it is dragged along/' — Et stabulo frenoty &c. Varro, also, 
says that colts should be accustomed to the sight of bridles hang- 
ing in their stalls, and also to the sound of them when rattled.— 
Blandis laudibut. "The coaxing praises."— P^a«*«8 eerncU. "(X 
his patted neck." 

187-189. Atque hae jam primo, &c. " And these things let him 
venture to do, when now first weaned," &c., t. e., as soon ai 
weaned. Observe here the peculiar force of jam primo, equiTalent, 
in fact, to statim ac. — Audeat, We have given this reading with 
Heyne and Yoss. The common text has audiat. r— Inqut vieem id 
moUibiiSf &c. " And let him yield his mouth by turns to the soft 
halter," t. «., and let him change about, and become accustomed, 
also, to the halter. — Inscius avi. " Not confident in his strength." 
When the horse has attained the age which imparts vigour, he may 
be termed conscius aiatis : before he has attained that age, he is 
insciiis atalis or ttoiy not confident in his strength. {Valpy, ad loc.) 

190-195. Atf tribus exactisy &c.- Varro says, some would break 
a horse at a year and a half old, but he thinks it better to wait till 
he is three years of age. Columella makes a distinction between 
those which are reared for domestic labour and those which are bred 
for races. He says the fornier should be tamed at two years, and 
tlie latter not till they are past three. — Carpere mox gyrum incipiat. 
" Let him straightway begin to wheel in circular course." Com- 
pare note on verse 115. — Gradibusque sonare composilis. "And to 
advance to the sound of measured steps," t. «., with sounding hoofs 
and regular steps ; literally, " to sound forth with regulated steps." 
— Sinuetque alterna volumina crurum. " And let him arch the alter- 
nate flexures of his legs," i. «., let him bend his legs alternately in 
trotting, or, in other words, let him trot. When a horse trots he 
makes semicircles with his legs, first on one side of the body, and 
then on the other, so that the hind and fore feet on the same side 
^occasionally touch. To this VirgU here alludes ; and that he is here 


ening with her horn,'* t. e., showing the vigour of her frame by her 
threatening movements. — Faciem. '* In general appearance." Ob- 
serve that faciea is not merely indicative here of the look, but of 
Bbape, frame, form, 6lc. Hence Yoss renders the clause, " Nicht 
unahnlich dem Stier an Oatalt;*^ whereas, in verse 51 above, he 
translates the words " Optima torva forma bovis^^ as follows : **Trot< 
siges Ansehns sei die Kuh." — Ardua. ** Tall." 

60-65. ^toM Ludnamt &c. ** The age for breeding and proper 
union." — Cetera. ** The rest of their time," t. «., either before the 
fourth year, or subsequent to the tenth. With cetera supply tttas. — 
FaturcR. , "For' beating." — Fartis. "Strong enough." — Gregibus. 
The number of females in a herd, or flock, exceeding that of males ; 
this term is to be applied to the cows. ( Valpy, ad loc.) — Lata ju- 
verUas. The period referred to is from the fourth to the tenth year. 
'^Primus, Compare Georg., iL, 408. — Pecuaria, The pastures 
pat poetically for the herd. — Si^e. " iSecure." 

66-71. Optima quaque dies, 6cc. "Each best time of life flees 
first away from wretched mortals." A sentiment applying prop- 
erly to the human race is here extended to cattle also. — Rapit. 
" Hurries them ^away." — Quorum mutari, &c. Columella says, the 
best breeders are to be selected every year. — Semper enim rejke. 
*' Therefore continually replace;" literally, "refit," i. e., the herd. 
Supply armentum. Enim is here regarded as equivalent to igitur, 
and may be so rendered conveniently enough. In truth, however, 
it is the very term to bo employed here ; since in the words temper 
erufU quorum, &c., there lurks some such an idea as this, ** semper 
in^ire, qua botes rejicienda sint" {Wunderlich, ad loc.) 

Ac, tie post amissa requiras. " And, that you may not afterward 
seek (when it is too late) for those that you have lost," i. e., seek 
to supply their place. — Anteveni, et sobolem, 6tc. " Be beforehand, 
and choose for the herd young accessions every year." Observe 
that sortior is here taken in the general sense of choosing and sub- 
stituting. — Sobolem. Referring to the young females brought into 
the herd of cows every year, to supply the places of those that have 
been removed. Compare the version of Yoss : " und verjunge die 
Heerd' in jahrlichem Anwachs.^' — ArmetUo. The herd is still con- 
sidered as consisting of females. Compare note on verse 63. 

72-74. Nee non et pecori, <&c. " The same discrimination is also 
to be exercised for a breed of horses." — Quos in spent statues, dec. 
" On those whom you shall determine to bring up for the hope of 
the race," t. e., thoso on whom you are to depend for the increase 
of their species. Observe that quos is here for iis quos. — Submit* 



ence here to Roman castoms. The Rornaqs, it is trne, adopted tte 
Gallic essedum, but this was done for conveaience and luxury, not 
for war. The essedum is here called " Belgic ;" it was used, how- 
OYcr, by the Gauls generally, and also by the Britons and the Ge^ 
mans. — MoUi. {Equivalent here to domito. 

205-208. Crassd farragine. *' With the fattening mixed prom> 
der." By farrago was meant a mixed provender of wheat, bran, 
and barley-meal. The epithet crassi is explained by Heyne, whom 
we have followed, as equivalent to ** qua crassos reddit.** — Jmmiem' 
Uis. "When they are now broken in.'*'— Anie demandum. ** Be- 
fore breaking them in," i. e., if you give them this mixed proTender 
before they are broken. The gerund is supposed by some to bi 
taken here in a passive sense, but without any necessity. — Lupatit, 
Lupatum was the name applied to a species of curb, or bit, wbieh 
had unequal iron teeth, like those of wolves. When thehorse was 
unruly, they taught it submission by the ose of such a bit. The 
poet, therefore, means to depict a very headstrong steed, which ooold 
not be governed even by means such as these. 

210-223. Cceci amoris. Compare, .as regards cad, the ezplafta- 
tion of Heyne : " non, oculis captif ted occuUi, clam per venat et mm 
savientisy — Oppositum. Compare the remark of Burmann : ** op- 
positum, quia impedit conspectum vaccarum.'* — Salura ad pra»ejiuL. 
<' At the full stalls," t. e., the satisfying stalls. — Videndo, " By their 
beholding her." Another imaginary instance of the gerund used 
in a passive sense. — Dulcibus ilia quidem, &c. " She indeed, to(s 
by her sweet allurements, often drives," &c. There must be no 
comma after illecebris, since the words all form a continuous clause. 
— Pascitur in magna silvd. ** There feeds, (for example), in some 
extensive forest," &c. We have retained the common reading 
silvd, for which Brunck, Voss, Heyne, Jahn, and Wagner give Sili, 
against the express authority of all the MSS., and relying merely oa 
a remark of Servius, who states that some read Sild for silvd. B; 
Slid is meant a forest of vast extent, in the country of the Bruttii, 
to the south of Consentia. It is more than probable, however, that 
the whole line is spurious. The similarity of termination that pre- 
vails throughout gives it a very awkward sound, and, besides this, 
it comes in quite unnecessarily, since the leading idea has already 
been implied. In JEn., xii., 716, however, the case is quite differ- 
ent, on account of the presence of taburno in the line. — AUernanttL 
Compare the version of Voss : " Wunde mit Wund' abwechselnd.*'-^ 
In obnixos. " Against one another fiercely struggling."— Xionfii 
Olympus, *' The distant heavens." 

KOTSS OV THfi OSOSGtCS. — BOOK tit. 853 

** Derua juta, et per dextram partem profusa."-^At duplex agitury &c. 
** But a double spine runs along his loins ;" literally/*' is driven." 
A double spine is mentioned by all the ancient writers on the sub< 
ject as the sure mark of a good horse. {Varro, R. R., ii., 7, 5. — 
Columell.t vl, 29, 2, — Geopon.f xvl, 1.) In a horse that is in good 
case, the back is broad, and a fullness of flesh near the spine is in- 
dicated, by which two ridges are formed, one at each side of the 
bone. This is what the ancients mean by a double spine. {Valpy^ 
ad loc.) — Solido comu. The poet means that he must have hard 

89-94. Tdlisj Cyllarus. Supply erat. The celebrJEited steed Cyl- 
larus, one of those given to the two brothers by Juno, is commonly 
spoken of in connexion with the name of Castor, since he was, it 
seems, the horseman, whereas Pollux was famed for his skill with 
the cestus. Sometimes, however, each of the brothers is repre- 
sented sitting on horseback. — Aymclai. Castor and Pollux were 
bom, or, according to another account, brought up at Amycls, in 
Laconia, whence the epithet " Amyclean,'* bestowed on each of 
them. — Et magni currtis AchiUi, " And those that drew the chariot 
of the mighty Achilles." Currtu is here put for the steeds that 
drew it. A similar usa^e prevails in Greek, in the case of &pfia. 

Talis et ipse, &c. ** Such, too, was Saturn himself, when he 
poured forth the horse*s mane along his neck, swift of movement 
at the coming of his spouse ;" more literally, " poured (t. «., spread) 
a mane along his equine neck." Saturn having become enamoured 
of the ocean-nymph Philyra, and dreading the jealousy of his wife 
Khea, changed the former into a mare, and himself into a horse, and 
thus became the father of Chiron the centaur. — Conjugis. Ehea. 
— Pelion. Consult note on Georg., i., v. 281. 

95-96. Hune quoque, &c. Having given this spirited description 
of the characteristics of a good horse, the poet now observes that, 
if the animal happens to be sick, or if he grows old, he is to be 
confined at home, and restrained from keeping company with others 
of his species. The age, therefore, and spirit of the horse are to be 
diligently considered. From this the poet passes gracefully into a 
fine description of a chariot race, and an account of the inventors 
of chariots, and of the art of riding on horseback. — Gravis. " En- 
feebled." — Abde domo. *' Hide at home," i. c, remove from the 
pastures and the stud, and keep him at home, in the stable, for do- 
mestic purposes. With domo supply in, so that in domo becomes 
equivalent to in stabulo. The verb abde, moreover, is intended to 
msik the diange from a life of freedom and enjoyment to qida ^1 



comparative obscurity. (Compare Vosst ad loe,y~^Nec turpi igmn 
senecta, " Nor be indulgent to inglorious age,** t. e., do not, throflg^ 
a mistaken kindness, allow him, now that his powers are enfeefaW, 
and inglorious old age has come upon him, to ^continue to roamii 
the pastures where he can be no longer of any senrice. We ban 
given here the explanation of Yoas and others, which is fax nan 
natural than the one recommended by Gronovios, Oawens, &&. 
and advocated, also, by Hand (ad Suu., SUv.^ p. 59), namely : " Spin 
his not inglorious age.** 

97-102. Laborem ingratum trdhit. Consult Heynet ^ ^-^ 
Pralia. Compare JEn., zi., 736. — Qwmdam. '< At time8.**~£icii' 
sum. " Impotently.** — Animos avutnque, ** Their spirit and age.' 
Aristotle says, that the best age of a horse is from three years oU 
to twenty. Yarro says it should not be younger than three, na 
older than ten. — Hinc alias arUs, &.C. " And thea their other qoA 
ities, and the (other) offspring of their parents,** t. e.» and wbit 
description of colts may have proceeded from the same sire. Soom 
commentators understand the words proUm parentmn in a difibrent 
sense, as equivalent to "prolem quam procreant,** or "puUos, quonm 
parenles jam fasti sunt.** But this, though sanctioned by greit 
names, is decidedly inferior. — Et quis cuique dolors Ac. " And whit 
degree of dejection there is to each on being conquered, what fit- 
rying from victory,** i. e., and how they bear defeat or victory. 

103-1 12. Campum corripuere. " They hasten over the plais." 
The aorist here implies what is accustomed to be done, and is there* 
fore rendered as a present. (Compare JEn., v., 145, where thisii 
repeated.) — Carcere. " From the barrier,** t. £., the starting-plaoe. 
(Consult note on Georg.^ i., 612.)— Exstdtantiaque haurit, dec. <' Ail 
agitating excitement causes their throbbing hearts to heave." 
Haurit beautifully describes their heavy breathing, exhausting, as it 
were, the air from their lungs. — Pavor. In its primitive and genn- 
ine meaning, this term indicates a palpitation common either to 
fear or joy, or any violent emotion. {Crombie, Gymnas.^ vol. I, 
p. 220.)—Verhere torto. " With the twisted lash.**— Prcmi. " Bend- 
ing forward.** — Vi. To be joined in construction with volai. Wak^ 
field, however {ad Lucret., v., 434), connects it with fervidus. — Fd- 
v<E nimbus arena. " A storm-cloud of yellow dust.** Imitated frOB 
Homer : vtto 61 aripvoioL kovItj 'lorar* ietpofiivfj ucre vi^ igk ^eA/& 
(i?., xxiii., 365.) — Spumis flatuque, " With the foam and the 

113-117. Erichthomus. King of Attica, and, according to one 
account, the son of Vulcan and Atthis, the daughter of Cranan. 

KOTBfl ON THE 6E0S6IC8. ^BOOK UZ. 355 

Fable made the lower part of his body to have terminated in a 
anake. He is said to have been tbe first that used the four-horsed 
chariot. — Rapidusftie rotis intisterej &c. " And to stand victorious 
upon the rapid wheels ;" more freely, " and to tread victorious 
th^ rapid car." — PeUthromi LapUha. Tlie Lapithe are called '' Pe- 
letbronian," either from Mount Pelethronium, in Thessaly, a branch 
of Pelion, near which they dwelt ; or from Pelethronium, a city of 
Thessaly, where the art of breaking horses was invented (Scrv.f ad 
loe.) ; or from Pelethrqnios, one of the Lapiths who invented bridles 
and housings for steeds. (Plin.y H. iV., vii., 56, 57. — Hygin., Fab., 
%7A.)-^Gyro»que, ** And the wbeelings of steeds," i. e,, the art of 
riding round in a curcling course, and thus, by dint of frequent 
'Wheelings, rendenngthe horse perfectly obedie&t to the rein. — 
Dedere. " Invented." 

IntuUare moIo. ** To spurn the ground," t. e., to bound prancing 
along.-^Ei gressus glomerare superbos, ** And move proudly onward 
at a full, round pace." We have given here the explanation of 
Yalpy. Compare that of Lemaire : " Gressus glomerare, t. «., 
eoUigere reduetis et in arcum replicatis crurilnu anierioribus, dum postC' 
riora tefulun/ur." 

118^122. JEqutu uterqtu labor. The meaning commonly, and we 
conceive correctly, assigned to these words is this, that, whether 
the horse be broken to the saddle or to draw, the labour is alike. 
For a different explanation, however, consult Heyne, ad loc — 
JEque, "With equal care." — Juveitemque. "A horse young in 
years." Supply equum. — Magutri. " They who have the care of 
steeds." For some remarks on the magistri of flocks and herds, 
consult note on verse 549. — Calidumque animis. ** And ardent in 
spirit," t. e.t full of mettle. — Acrem, " Eager." — Quamvis. The 
connexion in the train of ideas is. as follows : these qualities are all 
important, and, if a steed do not potoess them, he is accounted of 
BO value, although he may often have put to flight the foe, <&c. 

Et patriam Epirum referat. " And may tell of Epirus as his na- 
tive country," i. e., may boast of being from the country of Epirus. 
The horses of Epirus were in high repute. — Fortesqiu Mycenas. 
The steeds of Mycenae, and, indeed, of all Argolis, enjoyed a high 
character. (Compare note on verse 44.) — Neptunique ipsa, &c. 
<' And may deduce his pedigree from the very original of Neptune," 
t. e., from Neptune himself, as its original source. The allusion is 
to the legend of Neptune and Ceres. In order to avoid him, the 
goddess changed herself into a mare, whereupon the god also as- 
sumed the equine form, and the famous steed Arion wais produced. 


therewith, and not innoxious charms.^ Alluding to filteira and hi- 
cantations, fur the parpose of exciting an impure passion in the 
breasts of others. Heyne instances the case of Phedni and Hip- 
polytns, which, however, is hardly in point. (Consult, as regards 
the line itself, the note on Gtorg.^ ii., 1S8.) 

Singula dum capHy, die. "While enamoured (of oar theme), we 
are borne around (and examine minutely into) each particular (con- 
nected with it)." Compare the explanation of Heyne : •• JDimi mih 
hm fuBc de armeniorum euro, ngUUUim periraclamusj singuU perltuirm' 
mus, capii Aoncm rerum studio^ 

286-288. Hoc satis arnuntis. The poet now proceeds to treat of 
sheep and goats. He states, how well aware he is of the difficulty 
of managing properly in verse so humble and undignified a theme ; 
still, such Is his ardour in the cause of poesy, that he is willing to 
encounter the risk of failure, being animated, besides, by the eon- 
sciousness that he is the first Roman bard that has attempted to 
clothe such a subject in Terse. — Agiiart. **To manage;*' t. «., to 
treat of the management of. — Hine laudem, dec ** Hence hope for 
praise, ye active husbandmen ;** i. e., for such praise as a prudent and 
attentive master of a farm ought to aspire to. — Fortes. Not mere- 
ly ornamental here, as Heyne maintains, but equivalent, rather, to 
strenuif or laboiHosi. 

289-293. Nee sum animi dubius. ** Nor am I at all ignorant ;** 
literally, " doubtful in mind." — Verbis ea vincere. " To master these 
things in (poetic) language," t. e., to express them in language that 
may comport with the true dignity of verse. — Angustis rebus. ** To 
lowly subjects." — Pamassi deserta per ardua. ** Along the lonely 
heights of Parnassus." Virgil here speaks of himself as pursuing 
a course untravelled by any Roman poet before him, and therefore 
to a Roman a lonely and an arduous one. — Juvat ire jugis, dec. 
" It delights me to roam over the mountain tops, where no beaten 
track of earlier bards turns away by a gentle descent to Castalia," 
i. «., where all is wild and lonely, and no path, travelled by earlier 
bards, leads gently downward to the fountain of Castalia. The poet, 
acknowledging the difficulty of his subject, expresses, at the same 
time, his delight in handling it. It is one that wiU lead him along 
the rugged heights of Parnassus, far away from the paths of other 
bards, and far away, too, from the Castalian fount, the source of 
poetic inspiration, the descent to which will be for him a new and 
a difficult one ; that is, it will cost him much time and labour to 
adapt so novel a theme as the present one to the requirements of 
aong, and draw from it poetic inspiratioiL 

notAs ok thx OBOS6ZCB.— -book ieu 867 

Castaliam. The Castalian fount, on Parnassus, was sacred to 
the Muses, and to poetic inspiration. AboTe the city of Delphi 
were two lufly rocks called Phafdriades. Between these rocks the 
Castalian spring flowed from the upper part of the mountain, and 
the water was in ancient times introduced into a hollow square, 
where it was retained for the use of the Pythia and the priests of 
the Oracle of Apollo. Virgil, it will be perceiTod, talks of ie^ceni- 
ing to this fount, bis rugged theme having carried him away, in the 
first instance, among the hfgher and more rugged regions of the 

294-299. PaU$. Consult note on Terse 1. — Magnohunc or<, d:c. 
** Now must I sound forth in elevated strain," t. «., now most I 
raise my strain. The allusion is to what has just been stated In 
▼erse 289, dec. He now resdves to clothe bis humble theme, if 
possible, in elevated language. — StabuHs in moHibus, dto. '* To feed 
in soft folds," i. e., to be foddered in soft sfaeepfidds. The Habuim 
here meant are corered ones. Tor the winter. They were to' be 
bntlc facing the south, low, the length exceeding the breadth, and 
the gromd strewed wHh plenty of straw, &c. {CoimmelU, ▼tt.,'8.— . 
Varro, if., 2. — Geajwn., xviii., 2.) — JEstas. The farmer must wait 
for the settled weather of summer, when the sheep can pasture 
securely in the open air. — Mulid $tipuU, dec. *' With plenty of 
strew, and bundles of ferns." The agricultural writers are partic- 
ularly eareftil to give instructions about keeping the shtfep cleiitt 
and dry hi their folds. Varro says, the pavement shodd fm 1M 
sloping, that it may easily be swept clean, because wet spoihr thtf 
wool and breeds disorders among the sheep. He adds, tbat freilll 
litter should be often given them, that they may Ke soft and dean. 
(Ftfrro, /. c.) 

MoUe peeus. Columella Bay», that sheep, thongfi they are the best 
diothed of all animals, are nevertheless the most impatient of cold. 
(CoJKm., l. e.)Se(xbiem. ** The scab." Columella observes, that 
no animal is so subject to the scab as sheep. He addjB,'tbat it 
usually arises on thehr being hrjnred by cold rain or frost ; or after 
Shearing, if they are not Mrell washed, or if they are permitted to 
feed in woody piaees, where they are wounded with brambles and 
briars ; or if they are folded where mules, or horses, or asses have 
stabled ; or if they are lean for want of sufficient pasture, than 
which nothing sooner brings the scab. (Co^tem., rii., 5, 5.>— TV- 
petque podagras. <* Arid the offensive foot-rot." By podagnt ep« 
pear to be here mieant what Columella has described under the 
name of dM. He iaya there are two sortar: one, when there ia 


filth and galling in the parting of the hoof; the other, when there 
is a tubercle in the same place, with a hair in the middle and a 
worm under it. {Cdum., vii., 3, 11.) 

300-304. Nine digressua. ** Having left these/* t. e., leaving the 
aheep. — Frondcntia arbiUa. " Arbute leaTes." These form a &- 
Toorite food for goats. Strictly speaking, arbutuM is the arbote- 
tree, and arlnUum is its fruit : here, however, as in many previous 
instances, the fruit is taken for the tree itself. (Consult, as regards 
the arbute, the note on Eclog., vii., 46.) — A veniis. ** Away fron 
the winds." The cold northern blasts are especially meant. — Dum 
oUm jam. " Until at length now." The common text has ^inuR, 
for which we have given dum, with Voss, on the authority of one 
of the MSS. The sense clearly requires the change. The goats 
are to be foddered and protected, not when Aquarius sets, bat du- 
ring the whole winter, until he sets. Aquarius rises about the 
middle of January, and sets about the middle of February, which 
would be near the close of the agricultural year, that commenced 
in the spring. This would also be near the end of the old Roman 
year, which began with March. — Irrorat, " Pour forth his waters." 
Alluding to the representation of Aquarius on the zodiac, as empty- 
ing a water-urn, as well as to the circumstance of its being a rainy 

305-307. Ha qtioguCf &c. Goats are to be tended with no less 
care than sheep, and will be found to be of no less value. The ad- 
vantages arising from goats are then enumerated at verse 308, 
&c. — Quamvis Milesia magnOf &c. " Although the fleeces of Mile- 
tus, on having been dyed with the crimson hues of Tyre, are ex- 
changed for a large sum," i. e., goats are no less valuable than 
sheep, even though the fleece of the latter command so high a 
price on being stained with the Tyrian dye. — Milesia. Miletus, the 
most celebrated of the Ionian cities, was situate on the southern 
shore of the bay into which the River Latmus emptied, and about 
eighty stadia south of the embouchure of the Meander. It was 
famed for its fine fleeces, and its woollen cloths and carpets were 
especially esteemed. — Mutcntur, There is no reference here to 
mere barter, but to actual purchase. Compare Columella, vii., 9 : 
" Lacteus porcus art mutandus est," — Incocta rubores. A Hellenism 
for incocta ruboribus. 

308-313. Hinc. Referring to goats. The advantages connected 
with these animals now begin to be enumerated. — Largi copia lac- 
tis. The milk of the goat is excellent, and has been thought pecu- 
liariiy serviceable for consomptive persoos. — Lata magit pressist 


by the very collars, and make them step together.*' This particu- 
lar instruction, of fastening the bullocks by the collars, may seem 
Buper^uous to those who are not informed, that it was customary, 
also, among the ancients to yoke the bullocks together by the 
horns. This is mentioned by Columella as being in use in his 
days in some of the provinces, though he says it was justly con- 
demned by most writers on agriculture.— ^ilp<o«. Used here in its 
earlier signification. The obsolete apere^ whence it comes, is ety- 
mologically connected with &irru, necto. Compare the remark of 
Festus : *' CompreHendere arUiqui vinculo apere dicehant ; unde aptus 
iSf qvi convenienter alicui junctu* eat." (Dodcrletrif Lot. Syn.f iii., 274.) 

170-178. Rota inanes. '* Empty wagons." — Summo vestigia, &c. 
These words are employed for the purpose of denoting the light- 
ness of the carriage, which the young bullocks are first put to draw. 
The weight is to be so inconsiderable, that it will not cause them 
to make deep impressions in the dust. — Nitens. "Labouring." 
After they have been tried with empty vehicles, they are to be put 
to draw such as are heavy. — Temo ctreus. " The brass-bound pole ;" 
more correctly, " bronze-bound." — PttK indomita. "For the un- 
tamed bullocks." — Vescas. "Slender." Philargyrius explains it 
by " iemras et exiles.^^ — Ulvamgue palustrem, " And marshy sedge." 
{Martyn, ad loc.) — Frumenta sata. " Corn in the blade." Equiva- 
lent to herhas novella segetis. (Compare Varro, R, R., ii., 5, 17.) 

Fata, " Which have calved." — More patrum. They who lived 
in the earlier ages subsisted much upon milk, and therefore defraud- 
ed their calves of great part of their natural nourishment. This 
practice Virgil condemns, and advises those who breed calves to 
let them suck their fill. Compare Varro, R.R.,u.,% 17 ; Colum., 
Tii, 4, 3; and the Geoponica, xviii., 3, where a similar rule is laid 
down. — ConMument ubera tota. ** Will expend the entire contents 
of their udders." 

179-186. Sin magis studium. " But if inclination prompt you rath- 
er." — Turmatque. " And troops of horse." Each /urma consisted 
of thirty men, and was divided into three decuria. — Alphcaflumina 
PiMS. " The Alphean streams of Pisja." The Alpheus flowed by 
the pity of Pisa, and the Olympic games were celebrated on its 
banks. — Jovis in luco. Alluding to the sacred grove Altis, at Olym- 
pia, planted, as legends tell, by Hercules, and which he dedicated 
to Jupiter. In a part of this grove was the race-course. — Primus 
equi labor. " The first labour of the steed," i. e., the first thing to 
be learned by the steed!— ilniwio*. " The fierceness." — Lituosque. 
The lUmiSt or " clarion," was peculiar to cavalry ; the tuba, to infan- 



itsr.** The planet Venns, when it appears in the evening, is calM 
Vesper, or Hesperus ; but when in the morning, Lucifer, or Pfaos' 
pfaorus. The latter of these two is from the Greek ^uc^dpoCf and 
means the same as Lucifer, namely^ *' the light'bringer.'*— PV^piili 
rura eurpamut, ** Let us take to the cool Heids.? The common 
form of expression is earpere inam, earpere iter; here, howeTer, the 
local substantive rura takes the place of the ordinary one, and eor- 
pamus rura becomes the same as carpamus vmm ad rura,. {HejfUt 
ad loc. — Freund, Worterb., vol. i., p. 679, $ 4.) The explanation giv- 
en by Servius, and which some adopt, makes carpamus equivalent 
here to earpere cogamus animalia/ This, however, is extremdj 
harsh. — Canent. ** Is hoary to the view." Alluding to the whitish 
or silvexy appearance of the grass, as the drops of dew stiii rat 
upon it. 

327-330. Ubi quarta sitinif &c. "When the fourth homr of the 
sky shall have brought on thirst ;" literally, *' shall have collected 
or accumulated thirst." The Romans did not reckon the day, ac- 
cording to our mode, fVom midnight to midnight, but from sunrise 
to sunset. Each day, whether long or short, was divided into 
twelve hours. At the equinox, therefore, the fourth hour would 
correspond to our ten in the morning ; but at the solstice it would 
be at half an hour after nine in Italy, where the day is then, acconi- i 
ing to Pliny, fifteen hours long. — Rumpent arhuta. ** Shall rend I 
the vine-clad trees.*' A figurative allusion to the loud and shriE 
note of the cicadcsy an insect that begins its song as soon as the son 
grows hot. (Consult note on Eclog., ii., 13.)— -Arbusta. The vine 
grounds are meant. (Consult note on Eclog.^ v., 64.) — Jligrtu m- 
nalibus. ** In oaken troughs." The construction is currentem ilig' 
nis canalibus. 

331-335. JEstibus mediis. "In the heat of noon." — Exqudrere. 
Depending, like potare, on jubeto. — Jocit querent. Compare Georg., 
ii., 16. — Antiquo robore. ** With aged strength." — Sacra accubet um- 
brd. " Lie near, with its sacred shade," t. e., stand near, and with 
bending branches, cast a deep shade over the ground. Observe the 
beautiful personification in accubet. — Turn tenues dare rursus aquas, 
&c. ** Then (order the keepers) to give them again the limpid wa- 
ter." Supply, before dare, the words jubeto cuttodes. This will 
save any necessity of regarding dare and pascere as infinitives put 
for imperatives, as Wunderlich maintains. 

337-338. Roscida luna. " The dewy moon," t. «., the dew that 
falls while the moon is shining. This was ascribed to the moon 
herself, as the producing cause. Other poets, however, ascribe the 


talking of the trot» is fieirther obvious fVom his allusion to the gallop, 
which immediately follows, namely, ium cvrsibus auras, <kc. The 
Greek word for " to trot" is dtarpoxd^eiVf ♦* to make two wheels." 
{Donaldson, New CrafyluSf p. 225.) 

193-201. Tarn cursibus auras, &c. "Then, then let him chal- 
lenge the winds in swiftness," i. «., then let him learn to gallop. 
Observe the force imparted to the clause by the repetition of turn. 
The common text has Provocet for Turn vocet, but vocet of itself has 
the meaning here of provocet. — Per aperta aquora, " Over the open 
plains." — Hyperboreis. Used here merely in the sense of Borealibus, 
** Northern." The Hyperborean regions, strictly speaking, are 
those ** beyond the northern wind," and which were fabled, there- 
fore, to enjoy always a mild climate. Here, however, the poet is 
speaking of a wind-storm from the north, comparing with the rapid 
inarch of this the fleetness of the young steed. — Densus. " Exert- 
ing all its energies." Compare the explanation of Heyne: **qui 
magnd cum vi et impetu UUefertur" — Scythiaque hiemis, dec. " And 
scatters before it the storms of Scythia and the rainless elouds." 
The poet here describes a violent storm of wind from northern re- 
gions, driving before it and breaking up the wintry clouds, but un- 
accompanied by rain: 

Campique natantes. " And the waving fields of corn." A beau* 
tiful image, the undulating motion of the ears of corn being com- 
pared to the waves of the sea. — Horrescunt'lenihus jlahris. The ex- 
pression "lenibusflabris*^ appears to be somewhat inconsistent with 
the idea of a powerful blast. Heyne seeks to explain it by the re- 
mark that on the surface of the ground the blast would be less vio- 
lent. JWagner ingeniously refers it to the whispering sound emitted 
by the waving grain, whereas the lofty tree tops send forth a louder 
noise. {Quast. Virg., xxxv., 3.) — Longique urguent, &c. "And 
the waves come pressing on from afar to the shores." Observe here 
the peculiar force of longi, equivalent to " qui e longinquo veniunt.^* 
— Ille. Referring to the wind.— Fu^a. " In its rapid course." 

202-204. Hie. "Such a steed as this." — Ad Elei metas, &c. 
" Will either sweat at the goals and the long courses of the Elean 
plain," i. «., will either take part with spirit in the Olympic contests. 
These games, celebrated in Elis, on the banks of the Alpheus, are 
here put for games generally. — Metas. Consult note on Georg., i., 
V. 610-14. — Spatia. Consult note on Georg., ii., verse 641. — 
Belgiea vel molli, &c. " Or will, better (than any other), bear the 
Belgic war-car with obedient neck," i. e., he is such a steed as the 
Belgs woul4 employ to drag the war-chaiiot. T\xeTe \a xia x^tet- 




ence here to Roman castoms. The Komaqs, it ia true, adopted the 
Gallic essedum, but this was done for coDvenience and luxuiy, not 
for war. The esscdum is here called ** Belgic ;" it was used, ho«> 
ever, by the Gauls generally, and also by the Britons and the Oe^ 
mans. — MdU. Equivalent here to domte. 

205-208. Crassd farragine. *' With the fattening mixed prorei- 
der." By farrago was meant a mixed provender of wheat, bnii» 
and barley-meal. The epithet crassd is explained by H^ne, whom 
we have followed, as equivalent to ** qua crassos reddit.** — Jamimih 
Uis. "When they are now broken in." — Ante dmnandum. ^Be* 
fore breaking them in," i. e,, if yon give them this mixed proTender 
before they are broken. The gerund is supposed by some to b$ 
taken here in a passive sense, but without any necessity. — Lupatit, 
Lupatum was the name applied to a species of curb, or bit, whidi 
had unequal iron teeth, like those of wolves. When the-hoise was 
nnruly, they taught it submission by the use of such a bit. The 
poet, therefore, means to depict a very headstrong steed, which oould 
not be governed even by means such as these. 

210-223. Caci amoris. Compare, as pegards c^ect, the ezplaiba- 
tion of Heyne : " rum, oadis capti, sed occuliif dam per venms et ofts 
scnierUis.'*^ — Oppositum. Compare the remark of Burmann: " op- 
posit um, quia impedit conspcctum vaccarum." — Satura ad pnuepia. 
"At the full stalls," i. e., the satisfying stalls. — Videndo, " By their 
beholding her." Another imaginary instance of the gerund used 
in a passive sense. — Dulcibvs ilia quidem, &c. " She indeed, too, 
by her sweet allurements, often drives," &c. There must be no 
comma after Ulecebris, since the words all form a continuous clause. 
— Pascitur in magna silvd. " There feeds, (for example), in some 
extensive forest," &c. We have retained the common reading 
silvd, for which Brunck, Yoss, Heyne, Jahn, and Wagner give Sild, 
against the express authority of all the MSS., and relying merely on 
a remark of Servius, who states that some read Sild for silvd. By 
Sild is meant a forest of vast extent, in the country of the Bruttii, 
to the south of Consentia. It is more than probable, however, that 
the whole line is spurious. The similarity of termination that pre- 
vails throughout gives it a very awkward sound, and, besides this, 
it comes in quite unnecessarily, since the leading idea has already 
been implied. In -^n., xii., 715, however, the case is quite differ- 
ent, on account of the presence of to^nw in the line. — AUernantet. 
Compare the version of Voss : " Wunde mit Wund' abwechselnd.'*-^ 

Inobnixos, "Against one another fiercely struggling." Longut 

Olympus, " The distant heavens." 


tMkSSS. Una stabulare. «* To dwell together in the same stall." 
Observe here the employment of atabulare in an intransitive sense, 
for the more usual ttabulariy the deponent verb. Daring the win- 
ter season the ancient husbandmen kept their cattle in covered 
stalls, but during the summer in uncovered ones : the latter are 
here meant.—- iftt^^c gtmen*. ** Groaning much and often." The 
plural muUa carries with it the idea of repetition, which would not 
have been the case if the singular multum had been used. (Con- 
sult KrUZf €d SdU. Cai.i xxvii., i.— iSremi, ad Nep. Epam.y vi., 1.) — 
Adspectans. ** Often gazing at,** i. «., often turning to gaze at. Ob- 
serve the force of the frequentative, implying that the animal keeps 
turning again and again to look at his former abode, as he slowly 
retires — Excessit. ** He has left at last.'* This beautiful use of 
the perfect is in good keeping with the idea implied in adspectans. 

829-231. Et inter dura jakt pemix^ d&c. " And obstinately lies 
amid the hard stones, on an unspread couch,** i. «.^on the bare ground. 
Instrato is here equivalent to non slrato, and instraio culnli is the same, 
in fact, as nudo solo. — Pemix. The greater number of, and the best 
MSS., and nearly all the early editions, read pemixj which has been 
adopted in consequence by Yoss, Jahn, and others. The old gran>- 
marians, too, recognise it, and derive it from pemiior {pemixus or 
pemisus)^ giving it the force of perseverane. {Serv.t ad he.) The 
common reading is pemox. (Consult Wagner^ ad loc.^ and also 
VodcrUin, Lat. Syn., vol. ii., p. 126.) — Frondibus hirstUis, dec. The 
poorest kind of nourishment is here denoted, which the animal con- 
sumes without exerting himself to procure better. — Carice acutA. 
** Sharp rushes.*! The carex appears to be the* same with the 
common hard rush. The soft rush was called juncus, {Martyn^ 

232-234. Et tentai ses^f &c. *<And makes frequent trial of his 
strength, and, pushing against the trunk of some tree, learns to 
collect his wrath into his horns.** — Irasci m eomua. We have 
given here the explanation of Voss, which is approved of by Wag- 
ner. For a different view of the phrase in question, consult Don- 
aldson {New Crat.y p. 217), who thinks it explicable from the idiBa 
of " looking towards.** Compare, also, Elmsley^ ad Eurip.y Baech., 
742, and the passages there cited in relation to the Greek form of 
expression, etc icipac, which Virgil appears to have copied here.— 
Vcntosque lacessit ictihus. "And dares the winds with many a 
blow.*' Lemaire thinks, that the poet means here to express the 
same idea that is contained in the gladiatorial term ventilari^ 
namely, to make a flourish of arms before eiilai\x^i on x\a %fiX^^fti 


conteai.—Sparsd arend. Referring to the habit of the animal of 
throwing up the sand with its feet before engaging. 

236-241. Signa movet. <*It begins the march." A mihtary 
phrase. When the army took up its line of march, it was said to 
move forward the standards. — Longius. "Afar." We have placed 
a comma after this word, with Voss, thus connecting it with what 
precedes, and making it -an imitation of the Homeric or Epic idiom. 
-^Ex altoque sinum trahit. *< And draws its hollow bosom from the 
deep." A beautifully accurate description of a surge swelling up- 
ward. — SubjectaL " Raises up." 

242-249. Adeo, *< Indeed." — JEquoreum, " InhabitiDg the ocean 
plains." — Picta, *<0f painted plumage."— Jn furitts ignemque, 
*<Into maddening fires." Observe the hendiadys. — Idem, "Has 
the same power." Supply e«^. — Infortnes. "Unshapely.'* — Sam 
aper. Compare note on verse 255. — lAbyar Africa was regarded 
by the ancients as abounding in the fiercest wild beasts, the heat 
of the climate increasing their savage nature. 

250-257. Pertentet. "Thrills through."~St tantum notas, dec. 
The prose form of expression would be, si tanimm aura noium attuU 
erunt odorem.-—Jam. " Any longer now." — Montes. " Immense 
stones," t. e.f fragments of mountain rocks. Schrader rashly con- 
jectures pontes, which Wakefield as rashly receives into the text 
— SabeUicus sv^. " The Sabine boar," «. «., the boar from the Sa- 
bine mountains. Servius says, that Virgil here means the tame boar, 
having already spoken of the wild one in verse 248, and that he 
wishes to show, that, on occasions such as those alluded to in the 
text, even domestic animals may be roused to fury. Wagner, on 
the other hand, maintains that Virgil here nods. {Qvast. Virg.f 
xxxx., 2.) Voss agrees, in effect, with Servius, and supposes that 
a boar from a forest-herd is meant, as distinguished from a wild 

Prosuhigit. " Tears up." Compare Servius : **fodit et pedibus 
impellit aUernis.^^ — Humeros. The common text has humerosgue, 
which Heyne, among others, adopts. It is rejected, however, by 
Wagner and others. {Quast. Virg., xxxv., 23.}—Durat. For in- 

258-266. Quid juvenis, &c. Supply /ffctV. Lest it should be ob- 
jected that these are merely animals, not governed by reason, the 
poet now refers to the effect of this same passion upon man ; and 
he instances the case of Leander. ( Valpi/f ad loc. ) — Ntmpe, " Why, 
to be sure." — Abruptis procellis. " By bursting storms." — FrtU. 
Alluding to the Hellespont.— ./wg^cn* porta cali. " The vaat portal 


of the sky." Poetio, tor calum tpnets. — ReelamanL <* Resound.'*— 
^ec moritura super, &c. . ** Nor the maiden, too, about to perish by 
a cruel death." Obsenre here the force of super, " too," ** besides." 
Voss construes it with crudeU funere, but incorrectly. (Compare 
^n., iv., 308.>— Ftr^o. AHuding to Hero, the loved one of Lean- 
der, who, in despair at his death, threw herself down from her 
tower, and perished in the sea. 

Lynces varus Baechi. ** The spotted ounces of Bacchus." The 
ounce, the tiger, and the leopard are said to haye been the animals 
by which the chariot of Bacchus was drawn on his triumphal return 
from India. (Consult note on Eclog,, viii., 3.) — Quid, gius imbeUes, 
6lc. '* Yilij tell what conflicts the unwarlike stags wage (at times 
Buch as these)," i, e., when under this influence. 

266-268. Seilicetantsomius,6cc., *<Thefuryofthe mares, indeed, 
is conspicuous above that of all (other animals)." Observe here 
the force of «ct/ic«/. Why mention other instances, when the most 
remarkable of all, indeed, is that of the mares. — Mentem. ** That 
same madness." — Quo tempore GloMci, &c. " What time his Pot- 
nian mares tore Glaucus limb from limb with their jaws." Alluding 
to the legend of Glaucus, son of Sisyphus, and a native of Potnie, 
in Bceotia, to the southwest of Thebes. He was torn in pieces by 
the four mares that drew his chariot. — Quadriga. Equivalent here 
to equa, .with a reference, at the same time, to number. 

269-273. Gargara. Consult note on Georg., i., 102. — Ascanium, 
Ascanins is properly the name of a lake in the western part of Bi- 
tbynia, near the head waters of theSinus Cianus. Here, however, 
a river of the same name, and issuing from it, is supposed to be 
meant. Of such a river mention appears to have been made by the 
poet Euphorion, from whom Virgil is thought to have copied on this 
occasion. (Compare Slrab., ziv., p. 099, C.)'^Flumina tranant. 
Imitated from Lucretius (i., 15). — CorUinuoque. *< And straight- 
•^ay." — Ore omnes versa, ico. Consult Martyn*s note on the whole 
of this subject. 

278-286. In Borean Caurumqiu. <* (But) towards the north and 
the northwest." Compare Aristotle, Hist, An., vi., 18 : ^iavut, 6k 
ftvTS irpog iu, oijTe itphg dvafiu^, uXXa repog ixpKrov ^ vorov. — Pluvio 
frigore. Compare Georg., iv., 261. — Frigidus Auster, In the Vat- 
ican JAS.sidere appears for/ri^or^, of which Heinsiusand Burmann 
do not disapprove ; but sidere certainly appears out of place, when 
the allusion is merely to the effects of the southern blast. — Hippo- 
manes. Consult Martyn, ad he., and Bayle, Diet., vol. x., p. 356, 
Eng^ cd. — Miscusruntquc herbas, ^c. ** And hsv« m\i^A4 V^E^w^ 


366 NOTKS oir thb geokgigi. — ^book m. 

therewith, and not innoxious charms.*' Alluding to filters and in- 
cantations, for the purpose of exciting an impure passion in the 
breasts of others. Heyne instances the case of Pbsdra and Hip- 
polytus, which, however, is hardly in point. (Consalt, as regards 
the line itself, the note on Georg., ii., 188.) 

Singula dvm capti„ die. ** While enamoured (of our theme), we 
are borne around (and examine minutely into) each particular (con- 
nected with it)." Compare the explanation of Heyne : •* Dum cm- 
nia hoe de armeniorum eurd tigiUatim pertractamu9, singuU. perltuinr 
mus, capii karum rerum studio" 

S86-288. Hoe satis armentis. The poet now proceeds to treat of 
sheep and goats. He states, how well aware he is of the difficulty 
of managing properly in Terse' so humble and undignified a theme ; 
still, such is his ardour in the cause of poesy, that be is willing to 
encounter the risk of failure, being animated, besides, by the con- 
sofousnesft that he is the first Roman bard that has attempted to 
clothe such a subject in Terse. — Agitart. **To manage;'* i, «., to 
treat of the management of. —Hine laudem, dee. " Hence hope for 
praise, ye actiTO husbandmen ;'* t. e., for such praise as a pmdent and 
attentive master of a farm ought to aspire to. — Fortes. Not mere- 
ly ornamental here, as Heyne maintains, but equivalent, rather, to 
strenui, or laboiiosi. 

289-293. Nee sum animi duhms. '* Nor am I at all ignorant ;'* 
literally, " doubtful in mind." — Verbis ea vincere. " To master these 
things in (poetic) language," i. e., to express them in language that 
may comport with the true dignity of verse. — Angustis rebus. " To 
lowly subjects." — Pamassi deserta per ardua. ** Along the lonely 
heights of Parnassus." Virgil here speaks of himself as pursuing 
a course untravelled by any Roman poet before him, and therefore 
to a Roman a lonely and an arduous one. — Juvat ire jugis^ dec. 
^ It delights me to roam over the mountain tops, where no beaten 
track of earlier bards turns away by a gentle descent to Castalia," 
«. e., where all is wild and lonely, and no path, traveUed by earlier 
bards, leads giently downward to t he fountain of Castalia. The poet, 
acknowledging the difficulty of his subject, expresses, at the same 
time, his delight in handling it. It is one that will lead him along 
the rugged heights of Parnassus, far away from the paths of other 
bards, and far away, too, from the Gastalian fount, the source of 
poetic inspiration, the descent to which will be for him a new and 
a difficult one ; that is, it will cost him much time and labour to 
adapt so novel a theme as the present one to the requirements of 
song, and draw from it poetic inspiiatioo. 

Korid OK TBS oEosoxcs.^— 'BOOK m. 867 

Castaliam. The Castalian fount, on Parnassas, was sacred to 
the Mases, and to poetic inspiration. Above the city of Delphi 
"were two lufly rocks called Phsdriades. Between these rocks the 
Castalian spring flowed from the npper part of the mountain, and 
tfae water was in ancient times introduced into a hollow square, 
^rhere it was retained for the use of the Pythia and the priests of 
the Oracle of Apollo. Virgil, it will be perceived, talks of ieseend- 
ing to this foant, bis rugged theme having carried him away, in the 
first instance, among the higher and more rugged regions of the 

294-299. Pc2ef. Consult note on verse 1. — Magnohune wt^ 6dc. 
** Now must I sound forth in elevated strain," t. «., now must I 
raise my strain. The aUusion is to what has just been stated in 
▼erse 289, 6m. He now resolves to clothe his humble theme, \t 
ix>ssible, in elevated language. — Stdbulis in mollihu^ Ac. <* To feed 
In soft folds," i. e., to be foddered in soft sheepibMs. The Mta^uU 
here meant are ebrered ones, for the winter. They were to be 
huilt facing the south, low, the length exceeding the breadth, and 
the groirad strewed with plenty of straw, dec. {Columella^ vfl.,'8.— . 
Varr&y it., 2. — Oeopwi.^ xviii., 2.) — JEstas. The farmer must wait 
for the settled weather of summer, when the sheep can pasture 
securely in the open air. — Multd $tipuUy &c. *' With plenty of 
Btrsw, and bundles of foms." The agricultural writers are partic- 
ularly careful to give instructions about keeping the shtfep clean 
and diy in their folds. Varro says, the pavement should be feid 
eloping, that it may easily be swept clean, because wet spoihr the 
"Wool and breeds disorders among the sheep. He adds, that fresbi 
litter should be often given them, that they may lie soft and dean. 
(yarro^ I. c.) 

MoUe pteu9. Colnraella say^ that sheep, thonf^ they are the best 
clothed of all animals, are nevertheless the most impatient of cold. 
(Co^Kfti., /. e.)'-ScaMem. ^ The scab." Columella observes, that 
no animal is so subject to the scab as sheep. He adds/ that it 
usually arises on their being injured by cold rain or firost ; or after 
[Shearing, if they are not well washed, or if they are permitted to 
feed in woody places, where they are wounded with brambles and 
briars ; or if they are folded where miiles, or horses, or asses have 
stabled ; or if they are lean for want of sufficient pasture, than 
which nothing sooner brings the scab. (Co/am., vii., 5, 5.) — Tur- 
pesque podagras. " Arid the ofibnsive foot-rot." By podagra ap- 
pear to be here nteant what Columella has described under the 
name Cftdni. He says there lire' two aotta: one^ when fher» Is 


filth and galling in the parting of the hoof; the other, when there 
is a tubercle in the same place, with a hair in the middle and a 
worm under it. (Colum., vii., 3, 11.) 

900-^04. Hine digressus. ** Having left these,'^ «. e., leaving tlie 
sheep. — Frondentia arbuta. " Arbute leaves." These form a fo- 
voorite food for goats. Strictly speaking, arhuttu is the arbate- 
tree, and arbiUum is its fruit : here, however, as in many previoas 
instances, the fruit is taken for the tree itself. (Consult, as regards 
the arbute, the note on Eclog.^ vii., 46.) — A ventis, '* Away from 
the winds." The cold northern blasts are especially meant. — Dum 
olim jam. <* Until at length now." The common text has ^anuR, 
ibr which we have given dum, with Voss, on the authority of one 
of the MSS. The sense clearly requires the change, The goats 
are to be foddered and protected, not when Aquarius sets, but da- 
ring the whole winter, untU he sets. Aquarius rises about the 
middle of January, and sets about the middle of February, which 
would be near the close of the agricultural year, that commenced 
in the spring. This would also be near the end of the old Roman 
year, which began with March. — Irrcrat, <* Pour forth his waters." 
Alluding to the representation of Aquarius on the zodiac, as empty- 
ing a water-urn, as well as to the circumstance of its being a rainy 


305-307. H<z quoqiUf &c. Goats are to be tended with no less 
care than sheep, and will be found to be of no less value. The ad- 
vantages arising from goats are then enumerated at verse 308, 
&c. — Qtiamvis Milesia magno, &c. ** Although the fleeces of Mile- 
tus, on having been dyed with the crimson hues of Tyre, are ex- 
changed for a large sum," i. e., goats are no less valuable than 
sheep, even though the fleece of the latter command so high a 
price on being stained with the Tyrian dye. — Milesia. Miletus, the 
most celebrated of the Ionian cities, was situate on the southern 
shore of the bay into which the River Latmus emptied, and about 
eighty stadia south of the embouchure of the Msander. It was 
famed for its fine fleeces, and its woollen cloths and carpets were 
especially esteemed. — Muteniur, There is no reference here to 
mere barter, but to actual purchase. Compare Columella, vii., 9 : 
" Lacteus porcus are mutandus etV^ — Incocta rubores. A Hellenism 
for incocta ruboribus. 

308-313. Hinc. jEleferring to goats. The advantages connected 
with these animals now begin to be enumerated. — Largi copia lac- 
tis. The milk of the goat is excellent, and has been thought pecu- 
liarly serviceable for consumptive persons. — Lata magis prcssist 

, NOTBB ON TBfi GKOBfltOtf. ^BOOE III. 369 

. dec. " So mach the more will copioas streams flow from their 
.(compressed udders." Supply tarn before magis. — Nee minus inte' 
rea, &c. « Nor less, meanwhile, do the shepherds shear the beards 
and hoary chins, and the long waving hair of the Cinyphian goat/' 
The Cinyps, or Cinyphus (K/wyr, Herod. ; K/vw^, Plol., Sirab.), was 
a small river of Africa, below Tripoli^ falling into the sea south- 
west of tha promontory of Gephals. The country around this 
stream was famous for a breed of long-haired goats, perhaps of the 
same species with the Angola goats of modem days. — Tondent, 
Supply ptutoreB. 

Usum in coMtrorumj &c. The hair of goats was employed to 
make coverings for military engines against the fire-arrows of the 
foe, ropes of various kinds, cloaks for travellers, clothing for mar- 
iners, &c. 

314-321. Paacuntwr gUwu, Observe the Greek construction of 
the accusative, and compare Georg.^iy., 181 ; **p<ucuntur arhUay 
The she-goats are specially referred to here, as appears from tpta 
in verse 316. — Lyc«s. ConsVilt note on Edog., x., 15. — Rubos. 
According to Martyn, the rubus is the bramble, or blackberry bush. 
— Ipsm. "They, of their own accord,'* t. c, not driven as sheep 
are. — Sno8. ** Their kids."— Quo minus est illisy &c. The sense of 
the whole passage appears to be this : that, as goats give us so lit- 
tle trouble, browsing upon any wild bashes, which sheep will not 
touch ; as they wander over the rocks and precipices, where other 
cattle cannot tread ; as they come home of their own accord, with- 
out requiring the care of a shepherd, we ought, in justice, to take 
care of them, and allow them a sufficient quantity of food in win- 
ter, and strive, at the same time, to shelter them against the cold. 

Latus, " Cheerfully." — Fanilia. - " Your stores of hay ;" more 
literally, " your hay-lofts." The poet thus far speaks of winter 
treatment. He begins in the next verse to lay down rules for the 
management of both sheep and goats during the warm season. 

322-326. Zephyris quum IcUa vocantibus, &c. ** When the warm 
weather, rejoicing in the zephyrs that invite it, shall send each 
flock," <&c., t. 0., shall send both your sheep and your goats. — 
JEstas. Not the summer, but the warm weather generally, and in- 
cluding, of course, the mild springtide. The zephyrs, or western 
breezes, began to blow as early as February, and the warm weath- 
er set in about the rising of the Pleiades, or the middle of April. — 
Mittet. A far better reading than mUtes, which would require a 
comma after astast and ao ellipsis of eriit or est^ after lata. 

Lueiferi jmmo cum nitn. " At tho fixftt nMim ol X\y^ HkonsOk^ 


Btar." The planet Venns, when it appears in the evening, is caflei 
VeapeTi or Hesperus ; but when in the morning, Lucifer, or FIiob' 
phorus. The latter of these two is from the Greek ^tac^dpoc^ aid 
meant the same as Lucifer, namely; "the light-4>ringer." — FriguU 
rura ettrpamus. ** Let us take to the cool fields." The oommon 
form of expression is earpere tiam, earpere iter ; here, howerer, the 
local substantive rura takes the place of the ordinary one, and eir- 
pamus rura becomes the same as earpamias mam ad rura.. (ibyiK, 
ad loc. — Freundf WiSrterh.t voL i., p. 679, ^ 4.) The explanation fir- 
en by Servius, and which some adopt, makes carpanata equivaleDt 
here to earpere eogamuM animalia.^ This, however, is extremely 
harsh. — Canent. *< Is hoary to the view." Alluding to the whitish 
or silvery appearance of the grass, as the drops of dew still rest 
upon it. 

337-330. Uhi quarta stHm, 6lc. "When the fourth honr of the 
sky shall have brought on thirst ;" literally, " shall have collected 
or accumulated thh^." The Romans did not reckon the day, ac- 
cording to our mode, Arom midnight to midnight, hot from sunrise 
to sunset. Each day, whether long or short, was divided into 
twelre hours. At the equinox, therefore, the fourth hour would 
correspond to our ten in the morning ; but at the solstice it would 
be at half an hour after nine in Italy, where the day is then, accord- 
ing to Pliny, fifteen hours long. — RumperU arhusta. "Shall read 
the vine -clad trees.*' A figurative allusion to the loud and shrill 
note of the cicada, an insect that begins its song as soon as the son 
grows hot. (Consult note on Eclog., ii., IS.y^Arbusta, The vine 
grounds are meant. (Consult note on Eclog., v., 64.) — Hignis ca- 
nalibus, " In oaken troughs.*' The construction is currentem ilig- 
nis canalibus. 

331-335. Mstihus mediis. "In the heat of noon." — Exqvirere. 
Depending, like potarcj on jubeto. — Jovis quercus. Compare Georg., 
ii., 16. — Antiquo robore. " With aged strength." — Sacra accubet urn- 
brd. *« Lie near, with its sacred shade," t. e., stand near, and with 
bending branches, cast a deep shade over the ground. Observe the 
beautiful personification in accubet. — Turn tenues dare rursus aquas, 
&c. " Then (order the keepers) to give them again the limpid wa- 
ter." Supply, before dare, the words jubeto custodet. This will 
save any necessity of regarding dare and paseere as infinitives put 
for imperatives, as Wunderlich maintains. 

337-338. Roscida luna. " The dewy moon," i. e., the dew that 
falls while the moon is shining. This was ascribed to the moon 
herself, as the produoiag causa. Other iKWtSi however, ascribe the 


dew to the influence of the stars. Thus we have, in the PerrifiU- 
tiin Veneris, v. 20, ** Humor iUe quern serenis tistra rortuU naetilnu/' 
-^Alcyonen, Consult note on Gtorg.y i., 398. — Acalantkida. ** With 
the goldfinch.*' The Acalanthis ('AicaAaf^c) is the same with the 
Acanthis ("Aicavdi^), a name which seems to be derived from cucop- 
0a, ** a prickle,'* because it lives among thorns, and eats the seeds 
of thistles. Hence, in Latin, it is called earduelity from carduui, **sl 
thistle," whence some call it the ikutlefinck, while others, from a 
beautiful yellow stripe across its wing, term it the goUfinck, {Mtar* 
iyn^ ad loc.) 

8d9-341. Quid libi, 6lc. Having just mentioned the care of keep- 
ing sheep and goats within doors, the poet now takes occasion to d^ 
gress into an account of the African shepherds, who wander with 
their flocks over the vast deserts of that country, without any set- 
tled habitation. — Et rarif kabilata, 6lc. ** And the portable huts in- 
habited by them, with their roofs appearing here and there,** i. e., and 
their portable huts, few and straggling. These were a kind of but, 
or cabin, with a round top, which were conveyed to and fro on 
wheels, and accompanied the flocks. In the Mneid (i., 421, and 
iT., 269), the term employed to denote these structures is mdgalu^ 
with the initial syllable long. Here, howevier, we hare m&paliot 
with the first syllable short. Both words are Punic, and both, ac- 
cording to Servius, mean the same thing. {Ad Mn.<, !▼., 269.) Ge- 
senios, however, considers magalia to be the original term, and 
fkapMiia to have been formed from it by a species of corruption. 
(PhiBH. Man , p. 392 ) The magalia, or nuipalia, are commonly sop- 
posed to have been peculiar to the Numidians. It would seem, 
however, that they were employed by the nomadio tribes of Africa 

342-348. Sine uUis hospitiis. " Without any fixed abode." Com- 
pare the explanation of Heyne : " Hospitia tuatittr eerUB aedet ae 
domus, quo se recipiantV — Jacet. " Lies all around." — Ttetum/que, 
Alluding to the portable hut mentioned above. — Amyclaum. Amy- 
clae was a city of Laconia, the whole of which country was fhmed 
for its dogs. The term ** Amyclcan," therefore, is here employed 
to designate merely a dog of excellent breed. — Creeeamque' 
tram. By a '* Cretan quiver*' is here, of coarse, meant one excellent 
of its kind, as in the case of the " Amyclsean hound'* just mention- 
ed. The Cretans were famed for their skill in archery. 

Injusto Mub fasce. " Beneath an oppressive load.*' The weight 
of baggage, &c., borne by a Roman soldier on the march was sixty 
ponnds, without including their armour. {VegeLt i, 19.— Die., TWc., 

972 Norm on thb oeobgics. — book in* 

iL, 16.)-— iin/e extpeetatum. ''Before he is expected." Compm 
Odd, Met., !▼., 790: **Ante expecteUum tacuit temen,*' and again 
(▼iii., 6), "Ante expectatum, partus tinuere petUot.** — Stai kotti 
<*Takea hia atation against the foe." 

849-951. At non, qua, 6lc, <' Not ao, however, where are the 
Scythian nations," <Scc. ; i. e., not, however, in this way are the 
flocks tended in Scythia, &c. The custom of the northern ahep- 
herds, says the poet, is quite different from that of the African ones, 
in consequence of the total difference of climate. The full ex- 
pression would be, At mm ita pascitur, itque peeus. — Maoiim unit. 
The Palus Mseotis, or Sea of Azof, is meant. — Ister. The ordinary 
text has HtMter, (Conault note on Georg., ii., 497.) — Qudqne redit tu- 
dmm, &0. "And where Rhodope returns, stretched out beneath 
the very pole." Observe here the force of redit. Rhodope was a 
mountain range of Thrace, forming, in a great degree, ita western 
boundary. It then turns off to the east, and is there joined with the 
range of Haemus, and then again, parting from it, it returns to the 

354-359. Aggeribus rdveis infornds, ''Deformed with heaps of 
snow." — Septemque assurgit in ulnas. ** And rises to seven eUs," 
t. e., the snow covers the ground to the depth of seven ells. This 
is one of the instances cited by Wagner, where the finite verb with 
the copulative, in the second clause of a sentence, takes the place 
of a participle. Thus, septemque assurgit in ulnas is equivalent to 
septem assurgens in ulnas. ( Wagner ^ Quast. Virg. , xxxiiii. , 3.) — Pal" 
lentes umbras. "The pale shades." Umbra here refers to the 
clouds and nebulous matter with which the air is continually filled, 
and, at the same time, darkened. — Rubro aquore. " In the reddened 
surface of ocean," t. e., in the western ocean, reddened by his set- 
ting rays. 

360-366. Subita crustce. " Sudden crusts," t. e., of ice.^Ferratot 
orbes. "Iron-shod wheels." Compare verse 173. — Patulis nunc 
hospita plaustris. The common text, has the point after patulis, ma- 
king it agree with puppibus. We have adopted, however, the punc- 
tuation recommended by Burmann, according to which patulis be- 
comes an epithet of plaustris, and far more significant. — JEraque 
dissiliunt vulgo. " Bronze vessels burst asunder as a common oc- 
currence," i. e., it is a very common thing for bronze vessels, con- 
taining water, to burst from the intensity of the frost. 

Caduntque securibus, &c. "And they cleave with axes the (at 
other times) fluid wine." This freezing of wine has by some been 
regarded as a mere poetic Action. Ovid, however, who waa ban- 


ished to a rigoroas climate, also mentions it {Trist, \\l, 10, 23). In 
modern times, too, parallel instances are often cited. Captain 
Monck, a Dane, who wintered in Greenland in 1631 and 163S, re- 
lates that no wine or brandy was strong enough to be proof against 
the cold, but froze to the bottom, and that the vessels split in pie- 
ces, so that they cut the frozen liquor with hatchets, and melted it 
at the fire. Maupertuis, who, with some other French academicians, 
in .1736, measured a degree of the meridian under the arctic circle, 
says that brandy was the only, liquor that could be kept sufficiently 
fluid for them to drink. He mentions, also, that the spirit of wine 
froze in their thermometers. 

Et tota 9olidamy &c. <* Entire pools, also, turn into solid ice." 
Lacuna means, properly, any hollow in the ground containing water. 
Some critics object to lacuna as a mere repetition after line 360, and 
Bothe accordingly conjectures lagemt in place of it. But the poet 
is merely obsenring here a regular gradation. First, the rivers are 
bridged over, and then the large ponds and lakes become one mass 
of ice. Besides, it is rather difficult to conceive how the vessel it- 
self {Ugena) can become solid ice, along with its contents !— Verier €, 
Used as an aorist, and equivalent here to vertere solerU. Supply ««.— 
IndmniiL ** Stiffens." • For indurescere soleL 

867-370. Non seeius ninguit. **It snows as severely ;" literally,. 
^'.it snows not otherwise," t. e., the snow is in character, and is as 
heavy and incessant as the cold is severe. Compare the explana- 
tion of an anon3rmous critic in Seebode*s Bibl. Crit,, t. viii., vol. 
ii., p. 1192: **Non seeius, i. e., quam samm frigug, tarn muUa xunt 
iis9«f." — Pruims, For nivibus. — Nona, For tiwotito. Some, how- 
ever, regard it as equivalent to recent lapsa, {Seebod., Bib. Crit., L 
e.)-^09 non immissis canibus, <Scc. ** These they hunt, not by means 
of dogs set upon them, nor by means of any nets ; neither do they 
drive them onward stricken with the terrors of the crimson plo- 
mage." Observe the zeugma in agitant, this verb beooming equiv- 
alent to venaniur when construed with canibus and cassibiUf though, 
in fact, only one operation, after all, is meant. In hunting, it was 
usual to extend nets in a curved line of considerable length, so as 
in part to surround a space, into which the beasts of chase were 
driven through the opening left on one side. This range of nets 
was flanked by cords, to which feathers, dyed scarlet, and other 
bright colours, were tied, so as to flare and flutter in the wind. The 
hunters then sallied forth with their dogs, dislodged the animals 
from their coverts, and by shouts and barking drove them, first 
within the fitrmidOf as the apparatus of strings and feathers was call* 



ed, and then, as they were scared with this appearanee, Ixrithin the 
circuit of the nets. (CJompare JEn., iv., 131.) 

373-383. Oppontum montem. " The opposing mass of snow."— 
Graviter nidetUes. *' Loudly braying." This term, here applied to 
stags, is also applied to lions (JEn., yii., 16), and to Cacus {JEn., 
viii., 284). — Ipti in defoMsis specubiu, dte. The mode of life pursued 
by the ancient Thraeians and Sannatse, and iii part, also, by the Ger* 
mans, is here ascribed to the northern nations generally. Observe, 
moreover, the force of ipn here. While all other things are lucked 
up in the frozen embrace of winter, they themselves give loose to fes- 
tal joys. — Advohere. For advolvire soletU.-^Dedere. For dare soletd, 

Ducunt, "They prolong." — Et pocnla laii^ dec. ''And, joyous, 
imitate wine by means of fermented liquor and the add services." 
'QyfermeiUum is meant, in particular, beer made from steeped and 
fermented grain. — Sorbis. From the juice of the service-tree an aeid 
liquor was made, resembling cider. — Poada titea. Poetic for vi- 
num, — Hyperbcreo. Consult note on line 196. — Septem suhjecta tri- 
out. Tmesis, for suhjecta SeptenUrioni. — Rhipao tunditur Mwn, 
"Are buffeted by the Rhipsean southeastern blast." The south- 
east is put here for any stormy blast, and the epithet <* Rhipasan" is 
merely added to mark a cold and northern one. (Consult note on 
Georg.y i., 240.) 

384-893. Si tibi lanitium cura^ &c. The poet here gires direc- 
tions about taking care of the wool. He observes, that prickly 
places and rich pastures are to be avoided, and then gives direc- 
tions about the choice of the sheep, and particularly of the rams. — 
Aspera silva. "Prickly bushes." — Lappaque tribulique. Consult 
note on Georg., i., 153. — Pabula lata. Wool of sheep fed on poor 
pasture is still observed to be of finer staple than that of the same 
breed on rich pasture. {Valpy, ad loc.) — Continuoque gregesy &c. 
" And from the very beginning choose flocks that are white with 
soft wool." The rules laid down in this verse, and in those that 
immediately follow, are in full accordance with the remarks of the 
ancient agricultural writers. Compare Geopon., xviii., 6. — Varroy R. 
R.y ii., 2, A.—Colum., vii., 2, e.—Pallad., viii., 4, %—lUum auiem, 
quamvis, &c " That ram, however, even though he be white all over, 
reject, unto whom," dtc. With iUum supply arietem, so that, in trans- 
lating', ariesy in the succeeding clause, becomes equivalent merely 
to iUe. Observe, too, that ipse distinguishes the whole ram from a 
particular part, and is to be rendered accordingly. — Nigra subest 
udoy 6lc, Aristotle (Hist. An.y vi., 19) asserts, that the colour of 
the veins under the ram's tongue goyerns the colour of the 


}amb*8 fleece. This Ck>laiiiella (tU., 3) and others repeat. {Mar» 
tyHf ad loe.) 

Muntre ntvf 9 Umm, dec. " Captirated by the snow-white allare- 
ment of a fleece," i, e., bj the alluring appearance of a snow-white 
fleece, or of snowy wooL Macrobius («. S8) has preserred a fable 
of Selene, or Lana, following Pan transformed' into a white ram. 
Compare Philargyrios {ad loe.), ** Pan cum Liuia amore flagrarei, ut 
UU fmmufsua mdtrtHwr, mveia velUnbug se drcumdediL^^-^Adspemata. 
Supply €9. 

394-397. At, eui laciU amm't &c. This paragraph infortns us, 
that those who feed sheep for the sake of their milk, must supply 
them with abundance of proper nourishment.— Cy/uvtii. Consult 
pote on Edog., i., 79. — Lotos. "Water-lilies." The lotus here 
meant is the Lsfut dqutuieuo, under which head the ancients compre- 
hended three Egyptian plants of the water-lily tribe. The lotus 
mentioned in the second book of the Georgics (o. 84) is quite difier- 
eaL—Salsas. «< Sprinkled with salt." Compare Voss : ** mit Salz 
bestreutes." — Hine'ei afnant flusios magis, ** Hence they both love 
the riyers more," i. «., this both makes them fonder of drinking. — 
Teitdunt. Tor distsndunt. As early as the days of Aristotle, we 
find the opinion prevalent that drinking makes sheep fatten. {Arist. , 
Hist. An., Viii., lO.y^Ei sails occuJUum, dec. ** And they return in 
their milk a faint savour of the salt." 

398-400i MuUi jam excretos, 6cc. " Many, moreover, separate and 
keep apart," t. «., separate, and carefully keep so. Observe that 
jam, as Heyne remarks, is equivalent here to porro. — Excretos. 
Not from excresco, as some maintain, but from excerru), and hence 
excretos prokibeni is the same as exeemunt et prohhent. — Primaqua 
ferratis, dec. " And they fix spiked muzzles of iron around the 
snout." These are still in use to prevent calves from sucking. 
They are not such as to confine the mouth of the young animal, for 
then it could not eat ; but they are iron spikes fastened about the 
snout, which prick the dam if she oflTers to let her young one suck. 
— Ora. Observe the literal construction of the clause: *< they fix 
the snouts in front with spiked muzzles of iron." 

401-403. Premwit. '' They put under press," t. e., for making 
cheese. — Calatkis. ** In basket-shaped vessels." Calathus properly 
means a basket somewhat in the shape of a lily, that is, narrow at bot- 
tom, and swelling out and bending over at the top. Here, however, a 
milk vessel of the same form is meant, made either of wood or 
metal *, Servios says, of bronze. Martyn erroneously confounds this 
species of vessel with the ordinary wh0y-haiik!Q\,/QBn^ m \&]i^usi% 


cheese.—ildic oppidc ptutor. As the meaning of this whole pn- 
sage has heen much contested, it may be as well to state what a^ 
pears to be its tnie sense. The milk obtained in the monuog wd 
during the daj is put under press at night, and converted into i 
kind of cheese far presemi use. Yihat is obtained, howerer, in tfas 
eTening, remains cool during the night, and is either taken to thi 
city in the cool of the morning for sale, or else pressed and salted 
for vinier-ekeest. Schirach soggests, indeed, a different ezplau* 
tion. He thinks that the milk obtained in the evening was cos- 
verted into butter for the winter. A singular opinion. Butter ap- 
pears to have been very Uttle known to,- or used by, the Greeks anl 
Romans till the time of Galen, that is, at the end of the secoai 
century. It appears, also, that when they had learned the art 4f 
making it, they employed it only as an ointment in their baths, and 
particularly in medicine. Pliny {H. jY., zzviii., 19^ recommends it, 
mixed with honey, to be nibbed over children's gums, in order to 
ease ths pain of teething, and also for ulcers in the mouth. Tbo 
Romans, in general, seem to have used butter for anointing tba 
bodies of their children, to render them pliable. (Tertull., ed», Mv 
ctoM., iii., 13.) If we except a single passage of Diosoorides {MmL 
jUed.j it., 81, p. 107), we find no proof whatever that it was used by 
the Greeks and Romans in cookery, or in the preparation of food. 
This is easily accounted for, by the ancients having entirely aoeos- 
tomed themselves to the use of oil ; and, in like manner, butter at 
present is very little employed in Italy, Spain, Portugal, and tbo 
southern parts of France. 

404-407. Nee tibi aura comcm, dec. Immediately after the shecf 
and goats, the poet makes mention of dogs ; some of which are neces- 
sary to defend the folds against robbers and wolves, and others aio 
of service in hunting. — l^iia. ** Together with the flock." — Spartm 
catvlos. Compare note on verse 345. — Molostum. This breed bad 
its name from Molossis, a district of Epirus. Martyn thinks that 
the Molossian dog was the same with the English mastiff. Ac- 
cording to Aristotle, there were two kinds of Molossian dogs : one, 
used for hunting, was not different from the common sort of dog; 
but that which was used by the shepherds was large of sixe, and 
fierce against wild beasts. {Hist. An., ix., 1.) — Sero pingui. «< With 
fattening whey.'* Columella, in like manner, remarks : ** Omnes 
sine discrimine canes ordeace& farind cum sero commode pascU** (vii, 
12, 10). Yarro, in giving directions to feed dogs with bread and 
milk, assigns this reason for it : " Quod to consuali cibQ alt, « peeon 
mm dto dcacttciua.'' (^R. R.^ iL, ^.^ 


408^18. A tergo. While the shepherd is leading his flock, ac- 
ording to the costom in Italy, the sheep-stealers might easily come 
€hiDd and pick op a sheep, were there not dogs to watch. — Jmpo- 
atos Iberos. ** The restless iberi/' By the Iberi are meant the 
Ipaniards, who were so infamous for their robberies and thefts of 
his kind, thattheir name' is here employed to designate cattle thieves 
a general. The term impacatos refers to their restless and only 
alf-subdaed state. — Onagros. Wild asses were not known in 
taly, and these animals are merely mentioned here by way of poetio 
mbellishment, and, Mnce they are remarkable for speed, their 
ame, in all probability, is introduced in order to express the excel- 
mce of the dogs, {Valpy, ad loc.) The wild ass was found espe* 
ially in Phrygia, Lycaonia, and other warm countries. At the 
resent day, it is met with most frequently in Syria. (Fom, ad loc.) 

Volutahrit jndsos silvestribus* ** Dislodged from their sloughs in 
\ie woods." Volutabrum properly signifies the muddy places in 
rhich swine delight to roll. — Turbabis agens. ** You shall drive in 
larm ;** more literally, " driving onward, you shall al&rm."— Prcm«*. 

Shall urge onward.'' 

414-415. Disce et odoratam^ &c. The poet now proceed? to show 
lie injuries to which cattle, &c., are subject, and begins with a 
triking account of serpents. — Cedrum. Consult note on Georg., fi., 
43. — Galbaneoque agitare^ &c. "And to drive away with the 
strong) perfume of Galbanum the fetid chelydri.'' The chelydms 
^as an amphibious kind of serpent. (Compare note on Georg., ii., 
S14.) It was remarkable for the very venomous nature of its bite, 
nd for its exceedingly oflTensive smell. — ixalbaneo. Galbanum is 
tie concreted juice of a plant called Bubon galbaniferum. Dioscori- 
68 describes it as growing iil Syria, and the juice, or gum, as having 

very strong smell, so that it drives away serpents with its fumes. 
Ilia gum resin, at the present day, conies in l&rge, soft, ductile 
lasses, of a whitish colour, becoming yellowish with age, and hav- 
)g an acrid, bitter taste, with a strong, disagreeable odour. 

416-420. Sub immotis pmsepibus. " Under the mangers that 
ave not (for a long time) been moved," i. e., that have not for a 
>ng time been swept and cleaned. Columella recommends, in a 
articular manner, the diligent sweeping and cleansing of the sheep- 
otes, &c., not only to free them from mud and dung, but also from 
oxious serpents. — Mala tactu. " Of harmful touch ;" literally, 
harmful to be touched."— Cos/um. " The light," i. c, the light let 
1 when the collected filth, dec, is removed. — Aut, tecto adsuetuM 
oluber, dec. " Or that snake, the cruel plague of kine, which is ac- 


878 V0TS8 on tbb gborgics.-*— book nr. 

customed to creep beneath a roof and itito some shadj place, hii 
kept close to the ground.'' Martyn thinks that the serpent here 
meant is what Pliny calls the boa^ an opinion altogether untenable. 
Voss, with more probability, declares infaTour of the collared ad- 
der, or Cohtber natrix of Linnaeus. 

421-4B4. ToUentem minas, &c. /^ Rearing his angry head, and 
causing his hissing neck to swell (with ire)."— Jam^ice/v^i imiiumt 
dec. "And now, in his flight, has he hidden deeply his coward 
head, while his middle folds, and the tortuous moveineDts of the 
extreme tail, are relaxed, and the farthest winding drags along its 
lingering spires." The snake, in its flight, manages to bury its head 
deeply in the earth, but still there remains enough of its body be- 
hind on which a blow may easily be inflicted. . 

425<434. Est «/fafii iUe mahu, dec. It is universally agreed that 
the poet here describes the Cheraydmsi which abounded in Calabria. 
The name is derived from x^^* " land," and ^dejp, ** water,** and 
refers to the amphibious nature of the reptile. — Rumpunhtrfont^iu, 
** Burst forth from their springs.** Rumpmntur is here for run^mU 
se, or erumpunt. 

Hie pUcilnu atram, dtc. The construction is well explained by 
Wagner, as follows : " Hie guidem, in stagnis, piseUnis ingluviem a- 
pUtf sed postguam exusta pcUus, in agris scnit, homines et peeudit 
mordens." There is no need, therefore, of our reading hine for kkf 
as some propose, on the authority of a single MS. — Asper. " Ex- 
asperated.*' — Exterritus. " Rendered wild.** Compare Voss : **mii 
Hitxe vervoilderty 

436-439. Dor so nemoris, " On some wooded acclivity.*' Com- 
pare Burmann : ** Locum in nemore editiortm et idea sieciorem puto m* 
teUigi, in quo tanquam in ptdvino jaeens quis dormuU. ' * — Catulos. <' Its 
young.*' — Et Unguis micaty 6lc. Literally, " and makes a rapid quiv- 
ering motion with its three-forked tongue in its mouth,'* t. e., makes 
its three-forked tongue quiver rapidly in its mouth. 

440-444. Morhorum quoque, dec. The poet now describes the dis- 
eases to which sheep are subject. — Scabies. Consult note on verse 
299 — Ad vivum persedit. " Has pierced them to the quick ;** more 
literally, " has sunk or settled down.*'— iZ/ofu*. " Not having been 
washed off." — Et hirsuti secueruntj &c. They would be peculiarly 
exposed to being wounded by brambles in their recently shorn state. 

445-461. Magistri. "The keepers." (Consult note on verse 
549.) — Missusque secundoy &c. "And is sent to float down the 
stream ;** literally* " and being sent, floats down,'* ^cc. — Tristi. 
*' Bitter.** — Amured. Consult note on Gcorg., i., 194. — Spumas or- 

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genti. '* Litharge.*' This is a semi-crjstaltine protoxide of lead, 
obtained in separating silver from lead ores. — Et sulfura viva. 
*« And natiye solphur." We have given the reading of Wagner, in 
preference to the ordinary one, •* vivaque svlfura,** which makes an 
awkward hypeTmeter.—ldcBasqite pices. " And Idaean pitch." Pitch 
is called "Idiean," because pitch-trees abounded on Mount Ida. 
The ancients had two kinds of pitch, one called aridaj or sicca, what 
we propeiiy term piich ; and the other called liquiday the same as 
oar tar. The latter is here meant. Plkiy says it is an excellent 
remedy for the scab in cattle. {H. iV., xxiv., 7, 24.) 

Ffhgues ungvine ceras. ** Wax fat with unctuous properties,** i. 
e., fat, unctuous wax, or, in other words, wax and oil forming ce- 
rate. — Scillamque, " And squills.'* The squill, or sea-onion, is a 
large bulbous root, like an onion, but much exceeding it in size. It 
grows on the seashore. — Ellehorosque graves. ** And strong helle- 
bore." There are two kinds of hellebore, the white and the black. 
The former is meant here. Columella expressly mentions the 
white hellebore as one of the ingredients in the liniment which he 
recommends for the scab, (vii., 5, 7.) — Bitumen. Bitumen, or, as 
the Greeks called it, ua^akro^, is a fat, sulphureous, tenacious, in- 
flammable substance, issuing out of the earth, or floating upon wa- 
ter. Pliny also mentions a mixture of bitumen and pitch as good 
for the seab in sheep. 

458-456. Magis prasens forhrna laborum, "More ready remedy 
fbr their suflferings.** — Tegendo. " By being covered.** A genuine 
instance of the gerund in a passive sense. — Medicas. ** Healing." 
— Aut meliora deos, &.C. '< Or sits supine, asking the gods (in prayer) 
for better omens (of health),** i. e., sits supine, praying the gods for 
aid, and trusting to prayer alone. 

457-469. Dolor, "The malady.*'— /nc«woi astus. "The kin- 
dled inflaibmation." — Et inter imaferire pedis, &c. " And to strike 
the vein spouting with blood between the under parts of the foot.**" 
— Bisalta. A people of Macedonia, between the Lake Bulbe and 
the Strymon. They were of Thracian origin. — Acer que Gelonus. 
"And the fierce Gelonian.** (Compare Georg., ii., 115.) — Quum 
fugit in Rhodopen, &c. " When he roams towards Rhodope, and 
into the deserts of the Gets.** Observe ihsit fugit here refers, not 
80 much to any actual flight before a foe, as to the rapid movements 
generally of wandering hordes, mounted on fleet steeds, and chan- 
ging their settlements from time to time, either in quest of new pas- 
tures, or in consequence of intestine commotions. (Compare Voss^ 
ad loe.y~Rhodopen, Consnlt note on Terse 851. A distinction 


must be drawn here. The Geloni were much nearer the solitndci 
of the Getie than Mount Rhodope, and, in prder to arrive at the lat- 
ter, would have to cross the Danube and Mount Haemus. The Bi- 
saltae, therefore, roam towards Rhodope, and the Geloni into the 
deserts of the Getas. (Consult Wagner, ad loc.y—De»erta Getarwtu 
By this is meant the tract' of country between the Danube and 
Tyras (or Dniester), foiming part of what is now Lower MoLdama. 

Et lac eancretum, 6lc. This custom of drinking milk and horse'a 
blood is ascribed by Bionysius the geographer to the Massagetc, 
a Scythian people. Pliny mentions the Sarmatae as mixing millet 
with the milk of mares, or with the blood drawn out of their legs. 
{H. iV., xviii., 10, 24.) 

464-469. Quam proaU, &jc, ^ Whatever one (of your sheep) yoa 
shall see (standing) at a distance from the rest.*' — Carpentem igngf 
vius. " Cropping more lazily (than usual).*' — Exlremam, '* haal in 
order,'* t. «., behind the rest. — Et sera solam decedere nocii. *' And 
by herself to yield to the late night," i. «., to return alone late at 
night. — Continue cuLpaanferro compesce. " Without a moment's de- 
lay, check the evil by the steel," i. e., kill the sheep, and thus check 
an evil that would otherwise contaminate the whole flock. Culpam 
is here equivalent to causam morbi, or malum simply. — Incauium vul- 
gu8, " The unwary flock." 

470-471. Non tarn creber, &c. " No whirlwind, driving along the 
wintry storm, pours down on the surface of the deep so many a 
thick-coming rain-drop, as many as are the plagues of flocks and 
herds." We have given here the interpretation of Wagner, which 
appears decidedly superior to that of Heyne. The latter makes 
the meaning to be this : ** non tarn crebri etfrequentes turbines in mari 
exoriuntur.''* But creber is here to be regarded as referring to the 
thick, dense rains, and aquore is merely added by way of embellish- 
ment, storms at sea being by far the most formidable of any. Ru- 
ere, moreover, is often applied to the rapid descent of rain. The 
order of construction, therefore, according to Wagner, is as fol- 
lows ; non turbo, agens hiemem, tarn creber rut/, and not non tarn creber 
turbo, agens hiemem, ruit. 

Pestes. The poet cannot mean that pestilence or murrain is as 
common among the flocks and herds, as the rain-drop is thick- 
coming in tempests. Pestis, in truth, is here to be regarded as a 
more general word, and includes all the several great misfortunes 
that attend them. {Marty n, ad Iqc.) 

472-473. Tota astiva. " Whole flocks and herds." JEstiva {sciL 
hca, or pascua) properly denote the summer quarters of cattle, taken 


lere for the cattle tbemsel? es.-— iSpefiifve gregemque, &c. '< Both the 
roung ones and their dams together;'* literally, '*both the hope 
ind the flock at the same time." Observe how beautifully spent is 
ttere employed to designate those on whom the flock is to place its 
tiope of perpetuity, namely, the young. — Cunctamque ab origine gen- 
lent. ObserYe that the poet prefers here, to a simple apposition, 
ihis epexegetical clause with the connecting conjunction, in order to 
add force to the sentence. {Wagner^ Qutout. Virg., zxxiii., 7.) Simi- 
lar instances occur at Terse 541 of this book, and in JEn., vii , 85. 

474-477. Turn sciat. " Then may one know the truth of this," 
j. e., that whole flocks and herds are wont to be swept away by pes- 
tilence. Observe the foirce of tern, and its emphatic employment 
at the beginning of the sentence : then may one learn fully this sad 
tmth, when he has witnessed the desolation that still, ailer so long 
an interval, prevails from this cause amid the mountain-pastures of 
the Alps, the None hills, and the fields adjacent to the River Ttm- 
aYas. — Noriea cmMteUd in tumtUis, " The Noric mountain-abodes on 
the hills," t. «., the mountain-abodes on the Noric hills. Observe 
that easteUa here are not fortified places, or strong-holds, but mere- 
ly the mountain-habitations of the shepherds, perched, like so many 
eastles, high up on the elevated grounds. — Norica, Noricum was a 
region of ancient Germany, corresponding to the modern Styria, 
Cannlhiat Salzburg^ and part of Austria and Bavaria. It was bound- 
ed on the north by the Danube, and on the south by Ill3nricum and 
Gallia Cisalpina, where it bordered upon the A\pa,-^Iapydis arva 
Timati. <*And the fields of lapydian Timavus." The Timavus 
was a small though celebrated stream of Italy, in the territory of 
Venetia, northeast of Aquileia, and falling into the Adriatic. It is 
here called ** lapydian," from the lapydes, a people of lUyrioom, 
whose territory reached at -one time to its banks. 

Post tanto. "After so long a time ;" literally, " so long after." 
For tanto tempore post.—Regna. " Realms." Equivalent, in fact, to 
agroSy or pascua. 

478-481. Hie quondam. The poet now proceeds ta give an ac- 
count of a fearful pestilence that swept away whole flocks and 
herds from the regions just described. His description of this ca- 
lamity is adumbrated, in some degree, from the account given by 
Lucretius of the plague at Athens, and in which this latter poet 
had Thucydides for his model. The Athenian pestilence, how- 
ever, affected both man and beast ; whereas, the one described by 
Virgil confined its ravages to animals. They who think that the 
poet is here delineating the Athenian plague are altogether wrong. 

382 N0T8S ON THE GEOKGICfl. — BOOK in. - 

Hie pumdam morho ctUi, (Sec. " Here, in former days, a wretched 
season arose, through the Titiated state of the atmosphere, and 
burned with all the heat of aatamn/' — Tologue auctumn