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Full text of "An ecologically annotated checklist of the vascular flora at the Chesapeake Bay Center for Field Biology, with keys"

M3S661+ 
3ot. 




AN ECOLOGICALLY ANNOTATED CHECKLIST OF 

THE VASCULAR FLORA AT THE CHESAPEAKE 

BAY CENTER FOR FIELD BIOLOGY, WITH KEYS 

by 

Daniel Higman 



Office of Ecology 

Smithsonian Institution 

Washington, D.C. 

May, 1968 



NOT TO BE CITED OR PUBLISHED WITHOUT PERMISSION 

OF THE HEAD OF THE OFFICE OF ECOLOGY, SMITHSONIAN 

INSTITUTION 






An Ecologically Annotated Checklist of the Vascular Flora 
at the Chesapeake Bay Center for Field Biology , with Keys 



Smithsonian Office of Ecology 
Daniel Higman 



Smithsonian Institution 

Washington, D. C. 20560 

May, 1968 



Introduction 

The 690 acres of land owned by the Smithsonian Institution at 
the Chesapeake Bay Center for Field Biology lie on the west shore 
of the Bay in Anne Arundel County, Maryland, approximately 7 miles 
south of Annapolis and 30 miles east of Washington, D. C. The 
Center consists of three tracts: Java Farm, Corn Island, and the 
southern part of Ivy Neck peninsula (referred to herein simply as 
Ivy Neck) . The topographic map (Figure 1) shows their relation- 
ship. Java Farm and Corn Island lie on Rhode River, on opposite 
sides of Muddy Creek estuary. Ivy Neck lies on West River. The 
topography of the Center ranges from rolling upland at Java Farm 
to nearly level lowland at Ivy Neck. There is also much variation 
in the soils and drainage. The vegetation includes extensive areas 
of hardwood forest, abandoned fields and pastures, and coastal salt 
marsh. Ivy Neck also contains cultivated fields and sandy beach 
areas. Thus the Center presents a broad spectrum of ecological 
systems. 

The Smithsonian Institution recently acquired the land, and 
in 1966 established a consortium with The Johns Hopkins University 
and the University of Maryland for a cooperative program of ecolog- 
ical research. One of the first projects at the Center has been a 
survev of the vascular flora and the preparation of an ecologically 



VICINITY OF THE CHESAPEAKE BAY 
CENTER FOR FIELD BIOLOGY 

ANNE ARUNDEL COUNTY, MARYLAND 




2. 



annotated checklist with artificial keys. This checklist provides 
basic information required in the planning of future projects. 

The floristic survey has concentrated on the areas of Java 
Farm and Ivy Neck, with less comprehensive coverage of Corn Island. 
The reason for this restriction is that the previous owner of the 
island is still in residence there, and much of the vegetation is 
subject to slight disturbance. Part of the island has been land- 
scaped and a grass turf is maintained. The chestnut oak forest 
vegetation on the rest of the island resembles that of Hog Island, 
which is part of Java Farm. 

As background information the physical environment, history of 
land use, and present vegetation at the Center are presented in the 
first part of this introduction. The second part will explain the 
checklist, the format of its keys, and the ecological annotations 
which accompany each entry. 

Physical Environment of the Chesapeake Bay Center 

The physiography of the Center ranges from rolling upland at 
Java Farm to gently south-sloping lowland at Ivy Neck. Java Farm 
has two steep north-south ridges near the headquarters area, of 
which the taller has an elevation of 100 feet. Elsewhere, the elevation 
averages 20 to 60 feet. Moderately steep forested slopes occur in 
all directions. The Farm lies at the mouth of the watershed of 
Muddy Creek, and is drained by the north fork of this creek and by 



2a. 

several springs. Although most of the farm is well drained, one 
abandoned pasture is vernally inundated until May or June. 

Muddy Creek becomes tidal near the junction of its forks and 
apparently grows increasingly saline toward its estuary, as reflected 
by a gradient in the vegetation. Salt marshes line much of the coast 
of Java Farm. One marsh at the mouth of Fox Creek drainage (near the 
head of Fox Creek estuary) changes abruptly from freshwater to salt. 

In contrast to Java Farm, Ivy Neck is virtually level and poorly 
drained. Three small streams drain the northern part, but on the 
peninsulas much of the soil is vernally saturated and the many small 
coves are closed by salt marshes. Severe erosion occurs along the 
coast, especially at the confluence of Rhode and West Rivers. 

The soils of the Chesapeake Bay Center range in texture from loamy 
sand to silt loam. Fine sandy loams predominate at Java Farm, silt loams 
at Ivy Neck. This distribution of soil types reinforces the differences 
in drainage. The soil maps (Figures 2 and 3) illustrate the distribution 
of 15 soil types, according to a soil survey of Anne Arundel County now 
being conducted by the U. S. Soil Conservation Service. Detailed des- 
criptions of the compositions of these types will not become available 
until the soil survey is published in 1969. However, three of the 
types were described in an earlier soil survey (Phillips, Perkins, and 
Winant, 1928). Brief descriptions of these three soil types are given 
below: 

1. Collington Fine Sandy Loam : Brown surface loam and 
underlying glauconite, both with a high iron content, friable 
but sticky. Substratum of fine sand, silt, and clay. Drainage 



SOIL TYPES AT JAVA FARM AND CORN ISLAND 




Primary Classification (numbers refer to specific types) 

Loam 
Sandy Loam 



mi S|1 ^ L ° am 



1\V**»»* Fine Sandy Loai 



Tidal Marsh 
Man Made 



Soils data from Anne Arundel County Soil Survey, Soil Conservation 
Service. Data from advanced field sheets, subject to change. 



Figure 2. 
Soil Types at Java Farm and Corn Island 

Loam 

762 Donlonton 

Sandy Loam 
334 Adelphia 
774 Colemantown 

Fine Sandy Loam 
323 Collington 
373 Monmouth 

763 Donlonton 

Silt Loam 
318 Marr 
341 Shrewsbury 
581 Bibb 
771 Colemantown 

Tidal Marsh 
4 

Man Made 



SOIL TYPES AT IVY NECK 




Primary Classification (numbers refer to specific types) 



777777: 



Loamy Sand 
Sandy Loam 
Fine Sandy Loam 




Soils data from Anne Arundel County Soil Survey, Soil Conservati 
Service. Data from advanced field sheets, subject to change. 



on 



Figure 3. 
Soil Types at Ivy Neck 



Loamy Sand 
377 Monmouth 

Sandy Loam 
334 Adelphia 

Fine Sandy Loam 
373 Monmouth 

Silt Loam 
401 Keyport 
411 Elkton 
771 Colemantown 

Tidal Marsh 
4 



3. 

excellent. Agriculturally important. Needs moderate amounts of 
lime. Much of the area formerly mapped under this type is now 
designated Monmouth Fine Sandy Loam. 

2. Keyport Silt Loam : Brown surface loam with a compact 
underlying hardpan one or two feet deep. Drainage poor. Deficient 
in phosphate and lime. 

3. Elkton Silt Loam : Similar to Keyport Silt Loam. 
Drainage and agricultural value poor. Much of the area now mapped 
under this type was formerly designated Keyport Silt Loam. 

Coastal plain sediments underlie virtually all of Anne Arundel 
County. At the Chesapeake Bay Center they are approximately 2,000 
feet thick. The most recent deposits are of Pleistocene age. These 
cover much of Ivy Neck and correspond approximately with the occurrence 
of Keyport silt loam. On Java Farm the Pleistocene deposits have been 
eroded away to reveal those of Miocene and Eocene age. These older 
sediments are composed of sand, gravel, marl, silt, and clay. Some 
contain artesian aquifers. The deeper strata go down to Lower Cretaceous 
age, and finally reach a crystaline basement rock of undetermined depth. 

The climate is characterized by mild summers and winters, 
moderated by the proximity of Chesapeake Bay. Approximate annual 
temperatures range from 1.6°C (35F) in January to 25.0°C (77°F) in 
July. The growing season is about 203 days, from mid-April to late 
October. Annual precipitation averages 44 inches, usually reaching 
a maximum in August, but may be quite variable for single months. 
The annual snowfall averages 21 inches (Mack, 1962). 



4. 
History of Vegetation and La nd Use 

The presettlement forest of Anne Arundel County probably consisted 
of mixed mesophytic hardwoods, with pine on the drier sites. In an 
attempt to reconstruct this forest, Braun (1950) places the boundary 
of her Oak-Chestnut and Oak-Pine forest regions approximately within 
the county. On the Maryland Coastal Plain these two regions correlate 
roughly with the Wicomico and Talbot Pleistocene terraces, both of which 
gccur at the Chesapeake Bay Center. The canopy of Braun' s Oak-Chestnut 
forest includes American chestnut, beech, white oak, Spanish oak, red 
maple, and pignut hickory. The Oak-Pine forest differs from this pri- 
marily in having much more sweet gum, less chestnut, and persistent 
stands of loblolly and Virginia pines on the drier sites. On the upland 
the Oak-Pine forest also contains black, scarlet, and post oaks; on the 
lowland are loblolly pine, sweet gum, sour gum, red maple, pin and 
willow oaks, beech, and tuliptree. Shelford (1963) describes a similar 
canopy composition for the area, but adds shagbark and mockernut hick- 
ories and blackjack oak. A historical reference to Ivy Neck (Kelly, 
1965) mentions a stand of tuliptree on a hilltop near the Center and 
one of white oak on the adjacent lowland during the 1650' s. Virtually 
all of the above species except shagbark hickory now occur at the 
Center (see next section) . 

The composition of the presettlement forest was subject to several 
influents, but at present it is difficult to draw conclusions as to 
their relative importances. Shelford (1963) describes the inhibitive 
effect of the selective consumption of nuts and berries by deer, bears, 



4a. 

squirrels, etc., and of the selective browsing of tree seedlings by 
the deer. However, Hairston, Smith, and Slobodkin (1960) point out 
that in order for a community to persist the herbivores must be limited 
by predation below the level at which they deplete the vegetation, or 
the depleted species will be replaced by more resistant ones. Major 
predators in the presettlement forest included bears, cougars, wolves, 
bobcats, and foxes (Shelford, 1963). The last two still persist in the 
vicinity of the Center. 

Storms and hurricanes, aided by the county's normally heavy precip- 
itation, probably caused periodic damage. Craven (1926) notes five major 
storms between the years 1658 and 1787; other big storms have been re- 
corded at 10- to 20-year intervals in the late 19th Century. 

Probably the most important disturbances to the presettlement forest 
were caused by Indians. Indian occupation at the Chesapeake Bay Center 
is documented by 22 heaps of discarded oyster shells, 11 of which are 
large enough to indicate permanent campsites. Fragments of pottery 
permit five of these sites to be dated within the interval 250 B.C. to 
1200 A.D. Other artifacts indicate that besides oysters the Indians ate 
deer, gathered nuts and other fruits, and probably cultivated corn. 
They killed the small game and cut the young trees for firewood, 
moving on when these resources were temporarily exhausted (H. T. Wright, 
unpublished data). By 1608, however, these sedentary Indians had disa- 
ppeared, apparantly driven away by the warlike Susquehannocks , and the 
western shore of the Bay north of the Patuxent River was uninhabited 
(Marye, 1955). 

Marye describes the Susquehannock practice of setting recurrent 



4b. 

forest fires, principally ground fires, to encourage the growth of grass 
for deer and elk. Early settlers held these fires partly responsible for 
huge areas of "barrens," or "sapling land," on the Maryland Piedmont, 
and for an extremely thin shrub layer in the forest of the Coastal Plain. 
The Indians also set fires to drive game and to clear village sites 
(Middleton, 1953). Early settlers imitated the practice of forest 
burning to benefit their cattle and to clear fields (Marye, 1955). 

However, the importance of forest fires should not be overestimated. 
Fire did not prevent the thin-barked tuliptree or yellow-poplar from 
being a characteristic species, as evidenced by the names Tulip Hill 
(Kelly, 1965), Poplar Neck, Poplar Knoll, etc. given by early settlers. 
The nuts of other fire-sensitive trees, such as beech and hickory, were 
eaten by the Indians who left the shell heaps and probably also by the 
later Susquehannocks. The normally heavy rainfall and numerous streams 
in Anne Arundel County probably kept the forest fairly moist and limited 
the spread of ground fires. 

Colonial settlement in the county began about the year 1650, and 
tobacco soon became the principal crop. It was raised throughout the 
vicinity of the Chesapeake Bay Center (Kelly, 1965). As tobacco con- 
sumes much nitrogen and potash, only freshly cleared land produced good 
crops, and the forest was rapidly cleared to yield the best crops 
obtainable (Craven, 1926). Soil erosion and stream siltation became so 
serious that in 1704 and 1743 laws were passed against the clearing of 
stream banks (Middleton, 1953). For this reason, and because of rough 
terrain or inaccessability, part of the present forest on Java Farm 
(along Muddy Creek and on Fox Point and Hog Island) may have escaped 



5. 

from cultivation, although it was almost certainly lumbered, burned, 
and browsed by cattle. This forest has not been cultivated at least 
since 1846. 

Colonial cultivation methods encouraged erosion and the development 
of hardpan. After a few tobacco crops the land was briefly farmed to 
corn and wheat, then abandoned. Tobacco exports periodically flooded 
the British market, producing severe depressions and the abandonment of 
fields (Craven, 1926). Reaccumulation of soil nutrients probably was slow. 

Before 1800 no fertilization or renewal of the soil was attempted. 
The monopoly of arable land for tobacco deprived livestock of corn and 
pasturage. Cattle browsed the forests and probably grazed the salt 
marshes. There is no available record of the marshes having been culti- 
vated, mowed, or reclaimed. 

Between 1800 and 1850 the fertilization of fields with manure, marl, 
and gypsum developed and slowly became standard practice. Soil erosion 
was checked. Large tobacco plantations gave way to small farms where 
more efficient use of fertilizer was possible and crops were diversified. 
General prosperity continued until the Civil War (Craven, 1926). A 
postwar depression crippled agriculture until 1880, after which grain 
and truck farming slowly recovered. 

Java Farm served as a dairy from 1915 until its abandonment in 
1945. Although the forest there was not lumbered during this period, 
fallen logs were removed every spring. Cultivated fields were rotated 
between corn and barley, but from 1937 to 1945 alfalfa was largely 
substituted for corn. The present meadow north of the headquarters 



6. 

area was used as pasture. No cultivation, burning, or mowing of the 
marshes took place. Since the dairy was abandoned in 1945, it has 
remained unused. No fires or tenant farming disturbed the development 
of the vegetation. A broad spectrum of communities now occurs. 

Portions of Ivy Neck are still under cultivation to corn and 
wheat. One field was abandoned in 1963, but was recultivated in 1967. 
Both Scaffold Peninsula (between Scaffold and Cheston Creeks) and 
Cheston Peninsula (between Cheston Creek and Rhode River) were entirely 
cultivated until about 1900. The present deciduous forest on Scaffold 
Peninsula has apparently developed naturally since the abandonment of 
agriculture there. It was lumbered about 1942. The loblolly pine 
stand on Cheston Peninsula was planted in 1933 and has been left 
undisturbed. 

Present Vegetation Types 

The present vegetation of the Chesapeake Bay Center falls into 
six major categories: hardwood forest, coniferous forest, cultivated 
field, formerly cultivated field, freshwater marsh, and salt marsh. 
Within each category variations occur in the composition of the 
vegetation. These variations usually take the form of patterns of 
plant communities, referred to here as vegetation types. The 
boundaries of the types are not always sharply distinctive, especially 
where the vegetation is immature, but they form a mosaic within the 
hardwood forest and other main categories. 



6a. 

The present vegetation types provide baselines for studies of 
vegetation development. The similarities and differences among the 
types in each major category may reflect environmental character- 
istics or recent histories, but further research is required to 
establish correlations. Most of the Center has been abandoned from 
cultivation within the past 70 years or less, and the vegetation in 
these areas is still immature and changing considerably. The older 
hardwood forests appear to be mature and relatively stable. 

The two vegetation maps of the Center (Figures 4 and 5) are based 
on 28 vegetation types, which are listed in the legends of the maps. 
Details of the types are given in Table I, which includes lists of 
the more abundant plants and provides a basis for comparing the 
vegetation on Java Farm and Ivy Neck. There is less overlap between 
the vegetation types of the two areas than might be expected, 
probably in part because of the more level topography and poorer 
drainage at Ivy Neck, and in part because of differences in recent 
historical land use. No vegetation map of Corn Island has been prepared. 

The remainder of this report will explain the structure of the 
checklist and of its artificial keys. The ecological annotations 
which show the relationship of each species to its vegetation pattern 
will also be described. 

Table I follows. 



VEGETATION TYPES AT JAVA FARM 




Primary Classification (numbers refer to specific types) 

Fresh Marsh 



7%^ 

- -' c_l 



Hardwoods 



*/>;*.<* 3 Conifers 



Salt Marsh 



Abandoned Fields 



FOREST TYPES 

Hardwoods 

1A. Beech, Tuliptree 

IB. Beech, Tuliptree, Oaks, Hickories 

1C. Beech, Tuliptree, White Oak, 
Sycamore, Sweetgum 

2. Tuliptree, Black Oak, Blackgum 

3. White, Black, and Spanish Oaks, 

Sweetgum 

*4A. Chestnut Oak, White and Black Oaks, 
Hickories 

(4B to AD only at Ivy Neck) 

5. Spanish and Willow Oaks, Sweetgum, 
Tuliptree 

6A. Walnut, Sweetgum 

6B. Walnut, Sweetgum, Spanish Oak, Beech 

7A. Locust, Sweetgum, Elm 

7B. Locust, Black Oak, Sweetgum, Red 
Maple, Sassafras 

7C. Locust, Sweetgum, Tuliptree, 
Sycamore 

(7D to 7F only at Ivy Neck) 

8A. White Ash, Sycamore 

8B. White Ash, Sycamore, Red Maple, 
Elm, Sweetgum 

9. Tuliptree, Sweetgum, Red Maple, 
Sassafras 

10. Dogwood, Sweetgum, Red Maple, 
Sassafras 

(11 to 17 only at Ivy Neck) 



JAVA FARM 
LEGEND (Figure 4) 

Conifers 



18A. Virginia Pine predominant 

18B. Virginia Pine, Sweetgum, Tuliptree, 
Hickories 

*19A. Loblolly Pine, Sweetgum (pine 
predominant) 

(19B and 19C only at Ivy Neck) 

ABANDONED FIELD TYPES 

(20 and 21 are CULTIVATED FIELD 
TYPES, and occur only at Ivy Neck) 

22A. Reed Canary Grass 

22B. Kentucky Bluegrass 

*23. Goldenrod, Aster, Brambles, Poison 
Ivy, Honeysuckle, young hard- 
woods 

24A. Sweetgum, Cherry, Red Maple, Pin 

Oak, Elm, Sassafras, Persimmon, 
Dogwood, Tuliptree, Hornbeam 

24B. Virginia Pine predominant 

24C. Virginia Pine, hardwoods of 24A. 

(25 only at Ivy Neck) 

MARSH TYPES 

Fresh Marsh 

26A. Grass, Rose, Black Willow 

26B. Hempweed, Touch-me-not, Black 
Willow 

Salt Marsh 

*27A. Sea Myrtle, Salt Reedgrass, Salt 
Cordgrass 

*27B. Salt-meadow Grass, Alkali Grass 

*27C. Cattail, Marsh Mallow, Salt 
Cordgrass, Wild Bean 



*0ccurs also at Ivy Neck 



VEGETATION TYPES AT IVY NECK 




Primary Classification (numbers refer to specific types) 

Abandoned Fields 






Hard 



woods 



vVt««] Conifers 






Cultivated Fields 



Marsh 

Pond 



IVY NECK 
LEGEND (Figure 5) 



FOREST TYPES 



Hardwoods 



(1 to 3 only at Java Farm) 

*AA. Chestnut Oak, White and Black Oaks, 
Hickories 

4B. Chestnut Oak, White Oak, Hickories, Red 
Maple, Beech 

AC. Chestnut Oak, Black and Scarlet Oaks, 

Walnut 

AD. Chestnut Oak, White Oak, Virginia Pine 

(5 to 7C only at Java Farm) 

7D. Locust, Sweetgum, Persimmon, Tuliptree, 
Red Maple 

7E. Locust, Sweetgum, Walnut, Willow Oak 

7F. Sweetgum, Walnut, Black Oak, Red Maple 

(8 to 10 only at Java Farm) 

11A. White Oak, Sweetgum, Locust, Red Maple 

11B. White and Black Oaks, Sweetgum, Tulip- 
tree, Hickories 

11C. White and Spanish Oaks, Sweetgum, 
Tuliptree 

12. Persimmon, Locust, Cherry, Sycamore, 
Maples 

13A. Bitternut Hickory, White Oak, Persimmon, 
Tuliptree 

13B. Bitternut Hickory, White and Pin Oaks, 
River Birch 

14. Tuliptree, Sweetgum, Locust, River 

Birch 

15. White Oak, Sycamore, Walnut, Red Maple 

16. Willow Oak, Black and Blackjack Oaks, 

Locust 

17A. Cherry, Locust, Sweetgum 



FOREST TYPES 



Conifers 



(18 only at Java Farm) 



17B. Cherry, Locust, Black Oak, Mockernut 
Hickory 

*0ccurs also at Java Farm 



*19A. Loblolly Pine, Sweetgum (pine 
predominant) 

19B. Loblolly Pine, Sweetgum, Locust 

19C. Loblolly Pine, Virginia Pine, 
Sweetgum, Walnut 

CULTIVATED FIELD TYPES 

20. Pasture 

21. Cropland 

ABANDONED FIELD TYPES 

(22 only at Java Farm) 

*23. Goldenrod, Aster, Brambles, Poison 

Ivy, Honeysuckle, young hardwoods 

(2A only at Java Farm) 

25A. Locust, Sweetgum, Cherry, Red Maple, 
Sassafras, Mulberry, Elm, Persim- 
mon, Pin Oak 

25B. Virginia Pine, hardwoods of 25A. 

MARSH TYPES 

(26 only at Java Farm) 

*27A. Sea Myrtle, Salt Reedgrass, Salt 
Cordgrass 

*27B. Salt-meadow Grass, Alkali Grass 

*27C. Cattail, Marsh Mallow, Switchgrass 

28. Sea Rocket, False Indigo, Salt 
Cordgrass, Wild Bean 

POND TYPES 

Small Pond: Swamp Dock, Duckweed, Water 
Purslane 

Large Pond: Salt Cordgrass, Horned Pond- 
weed, Marsh Mallow, Sea Myrtle 



Table I. 
COMPARATIVE COMPOSITION OF VEGETATION TYPES AT JAVA FARM AND IVY NECK 
Java Farm Ivy Neck 



1A. 



IB. 



FOREST TYPES 



HARDWOODS 



Beech, Tuliptree. 

Mature upland hardwoods on 
gentle west- or south-facing 
slopes above tributary of Muddy 
Creek. Canopy mainly Fagus grand- 
ifolia ; less Liriodendron tulipi- 
fera, Quercus coccinea , and other 
hardwoods. Understory of canopy 
species, plus Cornus florida , Acer 
rub rum , etc. Shrub and ground 
floras include Euonymous americana . 
Epif agus virginiana , and Hypoxis 
hirsuta (none of these found in 
Type IB) . Rhus radicans and 
Lonicera japonica virtually absent. 

Beech, Tuliptree, Oaks, Hickories. 

Mature upland hardwoods. 
Fagus grandifolia and Liriodendron 
tulipifera throughout canopy; Li- 
quidambar styracif lua , Quercus 
alba , Q;. coccinea , 0^. velutina , 
Carya tomentosa , and fewer C^. fal- 
cata and _C. glabra . Composition of 
canopy variable. Understory of 
canopy species, plus Cornus florida 



Acer rub rum , Carpinus caroliniana , 
and infrequent sprouts of Castanea 
dentata . Shrubs include Viburnum 
prunifolium and infrequent Vaccini- 
um staminium . Rhus radicans and 
Lonicera japonica moderately abun- 
dant. Rich herbaceous flora, most 
species not found in Type 1A. 
Herbaceous flora seems to vary 
with composition of the canopy. At 
one point, near the head of the 
tidal portion of Muddy Creek, the 
shrub and herbaceous flora resem- 
bles that of Type 4A. 



11B. 



FOREST TYPES 



HARDWOODS 



No counterpart. 



White and Black Oaks, Sweetgum, 

Tuliptree, Hickories. 

Moderately mature lowland 
hardwoods; canopy resembles 
that of Type IB, but contains 
infrequent Robinia pseudoacacia 
and has less Fagus grandifolia . 
Main difference is in under- 
story and ground floras, 
which reflect poor drainage 
of Ivy Neck. (More Nyssa 
sylvatica , Viburnum prunifolium , 
Cercis canadensis , Lindera 
benzoin . Podophyllum peltatum , 
Arisaema atrorubens , etc.) Rhus 
radicans and Lonicera japonica 
moderately abundant. 

(Types 11A and 11C are 
described on the following pages.) 



7a. 



Java Farm 



1C. Beech, Tuliptree, White Oak, 

Sycamore, Sweetgum. 

Mature lowland hardwoods, on 
level bank of Muddy Creek near 
head of tidal portion and on 
bottom of tributary valley down- 
stream. Quercus alba prominant 
in canopy, also Fagus grandi- 
folia, Liquidambar styracif lua , 
Liriodendron tulipifera , and 
Platanus occidentalis . Under- 
story of Cornus f lorida on bank 
upstream; Lindera benzoin , Vi- 
burnum prunifolium , and V. den- 
otatum in tributary valley. 

2. Tuliptree, Black Oak, Blackgum. 
Moist lowland hardwoods, on 
gentle north-facing slope. 
Canopy of Liriodendron tulipi- 
fera and Quercus velutina 
throughout; Nyssa sylvatica pri- 
marily on the west side, Quercus 
alba on the east; few Pinus vir- 
giniana . Transition to Type 4A. 
Understory of Aralia spinosa , 
Acer rub rum , and Prunus serotina . 
Ground cover of Smilax rotundi- 
folia. 



Ivy Neck 



No counterpart, 



No counterpart. 



7b. 



Java Farm 



White Oak, Black and Spanish 

Oaks, Sweetgum. 

Mature hardwoods, on south- 
west-facing slope. Canopy of 
Quercus alba , Q. velutina , a 
few very big _Q- falcata , Liquid- 
ambar styracif lua , and Nyssa 
sylvatica . Understory of Cornus 
f lorida , Carya tomentosa , and 
Liquidambar . Ground cover of 
Rhus radicans and Lonicera 
japonica . 



4A. Chestnut Oak, White and Black 

Oaks, Hickories. 

Mature hardwoods of coastal 
zone. Canopy of Quercus alba , 
Q. prinus , Q. velutina , and 
Carya tomentosa , with fewer C;. 
falcata and _C. glabra . Mature 
Pinus yirginiana usually few. 

Understory typically of Ilex 
opaca , Cornus f lorida , Acer 
rubrum, and a few Pinus yirgin - 
iana (many young pines at Fox 
Point) ; also scattered Amelanch- 
ier arborea and Viburnum aceri- 
f olium . Castanea dentata sprouts. 

Ericaceous shrub layer char- 
acteristic: Kalmia latifolia , 
Gaylussacia baccata , G. frondo- 
sa , Vaccinium spp. Ground 
flora includes mosses, Hieracium 
venosum , & Deschampsia f lexuosa . 
Smilax rotundifolia usually 
sparse; Rhus radicans and Lon- 
icera japonica conspicuously 
absent. 



Ivy Neck 



No counterpart. Resembles Type 
11C on Scaffold Peninsula (described 
below), but the latter has a level, 
poorly drained habitat. 

11C. White and Spanish Oaks, Sweetgum, 

Tuliptree. 

Moderately mature; canopy of 
Quercus alba , _£. falcata , Liquid - 
ambar styracif lua , Liriodendron 
tulipifera , Nyssa sylvatica , and a 
few mature Pinus yirginiana . 

Understory chiefly Ilex opaca ; 
fewer Juniperus yirginiana , Acer 
rubrum , Viburnum prunifolium , and 
Carya cordiformis . Ground cover 
of dense Lonicera japonica and 
Rhus radicans . 

4A. Very similar in composition to 
that at Java Farm, and occupies the 
same habitat: a narrow zone where 
the bank drops steeply to the Bay 
(probably a zone of improved drain- 
age caused by a drop in the soil 
water table) ; the finer texture of 
soil at Ivy Neck seems to make little 
difference with this type. 

4B. Chestnut Oak, White Oak, Hickories, 

Red Maple, Beech. 

Differs from Type 4A in having 
Fagus grandifolia and Acer rubrum 
in the canopy, and a more hetero- 
geneous understory which seems tran- 
sitional to inland Types 11B and 11C. 
Understory includes Cercis canaden- 
sis , Sassafras a lbidum , Viburnum 
prunifolium , & Carya cordiformis . 
Rub us spp. and Campsis radicans also. 

4C. Chestnut Oak, Black and Scarlet Oaks, 

Walnut . 

Canopy and understory are more 
varied than in either 4A or 4B; has 
less Quercus prinus and almost no 
ericaceous shrubs. New canopy species 
include ^. coccinea , Juglans nigra , 
Liquidambar styracif lua , Liriodendron 
tulipifera , Asimina triloba , etc. 



7c. 



Java Farm 


Ivy Neck 


5. Spanish and Willow Oaks, Sweet- 
gum, Tuliptree. 

Mature lowland hardwoods adja- 
cent Hog Island salt marsh. 
Canopy of Quercus falcata. Q. 
phellos, Liquidambar styracif lua, 
and Liriodendron tulipifera. 
Understory of Cornus florida, 
Liquidambar, Aralia spinosa, and 
Viburnum dentatum; infrequent 
Quercus stellata and Pinus 
virginiana. Seems to be invad- 
ing drier areas of salt marsh. 

6A. Walnut, Sweetgum. 

Mature stand, probably persis- 
tent from cultivation, on steep 
esst- and west-facing slopes of 
ridge. Canopy of Juglans nigra 
only on east side; with Pyrus 
communis, Liquidambar styraci- 
flua, and Sassafras albidum on 
west side. Understory of Lindera 


4D. Chestnut Oak, White Oak, Virginia 
Pine. 

Differs from 4A in having in- 
frequent Pinus virginiana in canopy 
Hardwoods formerly lumbered. Pine 
abundant in understory, with Acer 
rubrum and Liquidambar styraciflua. 
Ilex opaca and ericaceous shrubs 
infrequent. 

No counterpart. 

No counterpart. Walnut grows 
infrequently along both sides of 
Cheston Creek estuary, in Types 
4C, 7E, 7F, and 19C, and on upper 
Scaffold Creek estuary in Type 15, 
but not abundantly enough to 
characterize a stand. 


benzoin on east slope, Rubus on 
west. Dense Lonicera japonica 
on both sides. 

6B. Walnut, Sweetgum, Spanish Oak, 

Beech. 

Moderately mature, at top of 
south-facing slope. Canopy of 
Liquidambar styraciflua, Juglans 
nigra, Quercus falcata, Fagus 
grandifolia, and Platanus occi- 
dentalis. Understory of Lindera 
benzoin and Cornus florida. 
Lonicera japonica on ground. 


No counterpart. 



7d. 



Java Farm 



7A. Locust, Sweetgum, Elm. 

Immature, on south- and 
southeast-facing slopes over- 
looking Fox Creek estuary. Can- 
opy of Robinia pseudoacacia , 
Liquidambar styraciflua , and 
Ulmus americana ; fewer Sassafras 
albidum and Quercus velutina , 
the latter mostly on the lower 
slopes. Understory of canopy 
species. Dense ground cover of 
Lonicera japonica . 

Also contains scattered Acer 
rub rum and Cornus f lorida . 

7B. Locust, Black Oak, Sweetgum, Red 
Maple, Sassafras. 
Immature, on south-facing 
slope near head of Fox Creek es- 
tuary. Canopy of Robinia pseu- 
doacacia and Liquidambar styra- 
ciflua , with fewer Quercus vel- 
utina , Acer rubrum, Cornus 
florida , and Sassafras albidum . 
Understory of canopy species, 
plus Ulmus americana . Ground 
cover of Lonicera japonica and 
Rhus radicans. 



7C. Locust, Sweetgum, Tuliptree, 
Sycamore. 

Moderately mature, along the 
shore of Muddy Creek estuary. 
Canopy chiefly Robinia pseudo- 
acacia , especially near Hog 
Island salt marsh; also includes 
Liquidambar styraciflua , Cornus 
florida , Liriodendron tulipifera , 
and Platanus occidentalis near 
the eastern end. Understory of 
canopy species. Ground layer 
of Rhus radicans , Smilax rotund- 
ifolia , and Lonicera japonica. 



Ivy Neck 



Types 7D, 7E, and 7F at Ivy Neck 
Neck resemble Types 7A and 7B at Java 
Farm in species composition. Chief 
difference is in the habitat: from 
moderately steep south-facing slope 
and fine sandy loam soil at Java Farm 
to poorly drained level lowland and 
silt loam soil at Ivy Neck. 

7D. Locust, Sweetgum, Persimmon, Tulip- 
tree, Red Maple. 
Immature, covers watershed of 
east fork of Scaffold Creek. Canopy 
seems to contain no Quercus velutina 
but does include Diospyros virginiana , 
Nyssa sylvatica , and Platanus occi- 
dentalis . Otherwise the same as at 
Java Farm (Robinia , Liquidambar , Ulmus ) 

Understory highly variable, in- 
cludes Sassafras albidum , Cornus 
florida , Lindera benzoin , Viburnum 
prunifolium , Acer rubrum , and Carya 
cordiformis . Shrub and ground layers 
of Rub us spp. , Rhus radicans , and 
Lonicera japonica . 

Type 11A, described on the next 
page, seems to be a transition be- 
tween 7D above and 11B (described 
on p . 7 ) . 

7E. Locust, Sweetgum, Walnut, Willow Oak. 
Immature, covers west bank of 
Cheston Creek estuary north of Type 
4B. Resembles Type 7F (p. 8a.) and 
differs from other variations of 
Type 7 in having Juglans nigra in 
the canopy. 

Canopy of Robinia pseudoacacia , 
Liquidambar styraciflua , Juglans nigra , 
and Quercus phellos . Understory of 
Robinia pseudoacacia , Cornus florida , 
and Sassafras albidum . Ground layer 
Lonicera japonica and Smilax rotund- 
ifolium. 



8a. 



Java Farm 



No counterpart, 



No counterpart, 



8A. White Ash, Sycamore. 

Moderately mature, follows 
bottom of Muddy Creek valley above 
tidal limit. Canopy mostly 
Fraxinus americana , fewer 
Platanus occidentalis , few species 
of Type 8B below. Understory of 
Lindera benzoin , with few Acer 
rub rum , Fraxinus , Liquidambar , 
Ulmus americana , and Carpinus car- 
oliniana . Ground layer of Rubus 
spp. , Vitis spp. , and Rhus radicans l 
Herbaceous flora mostly Impatiens 
capensis . Podophyllum peltatum , and 
assorted grasses. i 

8B. White Ash, Sycamore, Red Maple, 

Elm, Sweetgum. 

Similar to Type 8A but farther 
upstream. More heterogeneous 
canopy includes Acer rubrum , 
Ulmus americana , Liquidambar 
styracif lua . and Quercus palustris . 
Understory as in Type 8A, with 
more Ulmus americana and Carpinus 
caroliniana . Ground layer same. 



Ivy Neck 



7F. Sweetgum, Walnut, Black Oak, 
Maple. 

Immature, adjoins Type 7E. Can- 
opy has little or no Robinia, added 
Quercus velutina . Salix nigra , Acer 
rubrum . and Platanus occidentalis . 
Understory of Viburnum prunifolium , 
Prunus serotina, and Cercis cana- 
densis . Ground layer as in Type 7E. 

11A. White Oak, Sweetgum, Locust 

Red Maple. 

Immature, apparently a transi- 
tion between Types 7D and 11B. 
Canopy of Quercus alba , Liquidam - 
bar styracif lua , Nyssa sylvatica , 
Acer rubrum , and Carya spp. ; 
Robinia pseudoacacia becomes infre- 
quent southward; Ulmus americana 
infrequent. Understory varied, 
includes Rhus typhina . Ailanthus 
altissima . Cornus f lorida . 
Viburnum prunifolium . Morus alba , 
Cercis canadensis , etc. Ground 
cover of Lonicera japonica and 
Rhus radicans . 

12. Persimmon, Locust, Cherry, Syca- 
more, Maples. 

Moderately mature, follows 
drainage of Cheston Creek above 
tidal limit. Persimmon and cherry 
may be cultivated. Understory in- 
hibited by browsing cattle. 

Canopy of Diospyros virginiana . 
Robinia pseudoacacia . Prunus sero - 
tina . Platanus occidentalis . Acer 
rubrum . A. saccharinum . A. negundo , 
Liquidambar styracif lua . Nyssa syl - 
vatica . Understoyy of Viburnum 
prunifolium , Salix nigra . Cercis 
canadensis . Celtis occidentalis . 
Ground layer chiefly grass, or 
forbs in wet areas. 



8b. 



10. 



Java Farm 



Tuliptree, Sweetgum, Red Maple, 

Sassafras. 

Immature, covers north- and 
west-facing slopes of hill over- 
looking wet meadow. Canopy of 
Liriodendron tulipifera , Liqui- 
dambar styraciflua . Acer rub rum , 
and Sassafras albidum . Understory 
similar, plus Ilex opaca , Prunus 
serotina , Nyssa sylvatica , Cornus 
florida , Viburnum prunifolium . 
Ground layer of Lonicera japonica . 

Dogwood, Sweetgum, Red Maple, 

Sassafras. 

Immature, covers east- facing 
slope at head of Fox Creek estu- 
ary; merges with Virginia pine 
stand (Type 18A) on upper slope. 
Canopy of Cornus florida . Acer 
rub rum . Sassafras albidum . Li- 
quidambar styraciflua . Pinus vir- 
giniana . few Fagus grandifolia and 
Morus rubra . Understory similar. 
Ground layer of Smilax rotundi- 
folia , stopping sharply at edge 
of pine canopy. 

No counterpart. 



Ivy Neck 



No counterpart. 



No counterpart. 



13A. Bittemut Hickory, White Oak, 

Persimmon, Tuliptree. 

Moderately mature but canopy 
thin. Lower valley of Scaffold 
Creek (east fork) above tidal 
limit. Canopy of Carya cordiformis , 
fewer Quercus alba , Platanus 
occidentalis . Diospyros virginiana , 
and Liriodendron tulipifera . 
Understory thin, of Morus rubra , 
Juglans nigra , Ulmus rubra , Quercus 
palustris , etc. Shrub and ground 
layers very dense, of Rubus spp. , 
Smilax rotundifolia , and Lonicera 
japonica . 



8c. 



Java Farm 



No counterpart. (Habitat of 
Type 7C resembles that of 13B 
except that 7C has fine sandy 
loam soil; 13B has silt loam). 



No counterpart, 



No counterpart. 



Ivy Neck 



13B. Bitternut Hickory, White and Pin 

Oaks, River Birch. 

Moderately mature, borders field 
between forks of Scaffold Creek. 
Canopy of Carya cordiformis . Quer- 
cus alba . ,0,. palustris . Under- 
story of Cornus f lorida and 
Viburnum prunifolium . few Quercus 
alba . Q. stellata . Carya glabra . 
and Fagus grandifolia . Ground 
layer of mixed grasses, few woody 
vines . 

14. Tuliptree, Sweetgum, Locust, 

River Birch. 

Immature, covers drainage of 
west fork of Scaffold Creek. Can- 
opy of Liriodendron tulipifera . 
less Liquidambar styraciflua . 
Robinia pseudoacacia . Betula nigra . 
and Juniperus virginiana . Under- 
story of Viburnum spp. , Carya 
cordiformis . Quercus velutina , and 
^. palustris . Ground layer of 
Rhus radicans . 

15. White Oak, Sycamore, Walnut, Red 

Maple. 

Moderately mature, at head of 
west fork of Scaffold Creek estu- 
ary. Canopy of Quercus alba , 
Platanus occidentalis . fewer 
Acer rub rum . Juglans nigra , and 
Carya tomentosa . Understory of 
Liquidambar styraciflua . Morus 
rubra , Carya cordiformi Ground 
layer of Lonicera laponica . less 
Smilax rotundifolia and Rhus 
radicans. 



8d. 



Java Farm 



Ivy Neck 



No counterpart. 



No counterpart, 



No counterpart. (Habitat 
like that of Type 4). 



16. Willow Oak, Black and Blackjack 

Oaks, Locust. 

Immature, along east shore of 
upper Cheston Creek estuary, borders 
cultivated field. Canopy has Quer- 
cus phellos throughout j Diospyros 
virginiana near upstream end; Liq- 
uidambar styracif lua near middle; 
Quercus velutina . £. marilandica . 
Q. palustris . and Q% prinus near 
downstream end. Understory of 
Viburnum prunifolium . Prunus sero- 
tina . Maclura pomifera . Sassafras 
albidum . etc. Ground layer of 
Rubus spp. , Lonicera japonica . 
Rhus radicans . other vines. 

17A. Cherry, Locust, Sweetgum. 

Immature; coves behind salt 
marsh on lower Cheston Peninsula. 
Canopy thin, variable, includes 
Prunus serotina , Robinia pseudo- 
acacia . Liquidambar styracif lua . 
Cornus f lorida . Betula nigra . 
Liriodendron tulipifera . Carya 
tomentosa . Quercus velutina . 
Understory merges with canopy; one 
clump Rhus typhina . Ground layer 
of dense Lonicera japonica . 
Rhus radicans . other vines. 

17B. Cherry, Locust, Black Oak, 
Mockernut Hickory. 
Immature; on Cheston Point and 
low headlands adjoining salt marsh. 
Canopy of Prunus serotina , Robinia 
pseudoacacia . Quercus velutina , 
Carya tomentosa , ^. alba , Betula 
nigra . Understory on Cheston Point 
of Liquidambar st yraciflua and 
Ulmus americana ; on headlands of 
Ilex opaca and Viburnum prunifo - 
lium . Ground layer of Smilax 
rotundifolia on one headland; 
Rubus spp., Rhus radicans , and 
Lonicera japonica elsewhere. 



9a. 



Java Farm 


Ivy Neck 


CONIFERS 

18A. Virginia Pine predominant. 

Moderately mature; scattered 
stands usually on upper slopes 
or summits, exception at head 
of tidal part of Muddy Creek. 
Canopy of Pinus virginiana, may 
have few Liquidambar styraciflua, 
stand at bend of Fox Point Rd. 
has few Quercus velutina and Q. 
marilandica. Understory of 
mixed hardwoods, chiefly Liquid- 
ambar, Acer rubrum, etc. Ground 
layer usually Lonicera iaponica. 

18B. Virginia Pine, Sweetgum, Tulip- 
tree, Hickories. 
A mixture of Type 18A above 
and hardwood Type IB (p. 7 ). 
West-facing slope of ridge with 
water tank. Canopy on lower slope 
of Pinus virginiana and Liqui- 
dambar, latter gives way upslope 
to Liriodendron tulipifera, 
Carya tomentosa, and few Quercus 
velutina. Mature pine only on 
slope, summit has young pine and 
hardwood stands (Types 24A, B, C) . 
Understory all over slope of 
Liriodendron. Acer rubrum. Sass- 
afras albidum, and few Pinus 
virginiana. Shrubs only on lower 
slope: Vaccinium spp. , Myrica 
cerifera. Ground layer below of 
Mitchella repens and Lycopodium 
complanatum, of Rhus radicans on 
upper slope. 


CONIFERS 
No counterpart. 

No true counterpart; few mature 
Pinus virginiana remain of former 
stand on Scaffold Peninsula (now 
hardwood Type IIC) . This area 
resembles Type 18B to the extent 
that Type IIC resembles Type IB 
at Java Farm, see discussion on 
P« 7, 7b. 



9b. 



Java Farm 



Ivy Neck 



19A. Loblolly Pine, Sweetgum (pine 

predominant) . 

Mature; on south-facing slope 
of ridge with water tank, des- 
cribed for Type 18B. Canopy of 
Pinus taeda and Liquidambar 
styracif lua . Understory of 
Liquidambar . Liriodendron tulip - 
if era , and Acer rub rum . Ground 
layer of Rhus radicans . 

Also one mature Pinus taeda 
at headquarters area and one at 
west end of Fox Point Road; few 
young ones in old fields (Type 
23). 

No counterpart. 



No counterpart. 



19A. Loblolly Pine, Sweetgum (pine 

predominant) . 

Mature; planted in 1933 on 
Cheston Peninsula. Very dense; 
many trees down, rest with thin 
crowns; reproduction at stand 
borders. Canopy of Pinus taeda . few 
Liquidambar styracif lua and Lir- 
iodendron tulipifera . Understory of 
dense Liquidambar . Liriodendron . 
Cornus f lorida ; fewer Prunus serotina , 
Ulmus americana . and Quercus vel - 
utina . Ground layer of dense Rhus 
radicans and Lonicera japonica . 



19B. Loblolly Pine, Sweetgum, Locust. 
Immature; triangular area on 
Cheston Peninsula between 19A 
and coast. Thin canopy of Pinus 
taeda . Liquidambar styraciflua and 
Robinia pseudoacacia . Dense 
understory same as for Type 19A, with 
few young Pinus taeda . Dense 
ground layer of Rhus radicans . Lon - 
icera japonica , Camps is radicans , 
Vitis sp. 

19C. Loblolly Pine, Virginia Pine, 

Sweetgum, Walnut. 

Immature; on Cheston Peninsula 
between Type 19A and cultivated 
field. Canopy of Liquidambar 
styraciflua . fewer Pinus taeda . 
P_. virginiana . and Juglans nigra . 
Understory of Acer rub rum , Carya 
cordiformia . Ilex opaca . Nyssa 
sylvatica . Quercus alba . j£). palus - 
tris . and _C.. phellos . Shrubs: 
Myrica cerifera . Viburnum prun - 
ifolium . Ground layer of Rhus 
radicans and Lonicera japonica . 



9 c. 



Java Farm 



No counterpart. 



No counterpart. 



Ivy Neck 

CULTIVATED FIELD TYPES 

20. Pasture. 

Single pasture, grazed by dairy 
herd. Gentle south-facing slope, 
bordered on 3 sides by Cheston Creek 
drainage. Flora of Andropogon 
virginicus . Digitaria ischaemum . 
Trifolium repens . Taraxacum off- 
icinale , other forbs. 

21. Cropland. 

Cultivated to corn, barley, wheat, 
and sorghum. Wild flora mostly 
Ipomoea purpurea . 1. hederacea ; also 
(vernal) : Stellaria media . Draba verna , 
Lepidium spp. , Barbarea spp. , 
Cerastium spp. , etc. and (autumnal) 
Aster spp. ; restricted or infre- 
quent species: Datura stramonium . 
Echinochloa pungens ; Setaria 
lutescens often abundant near borders. 

One field on Scaffold Peninsula, 
described in text as "abandoned 
wheatfield" (since recultivated) 
was fallow 3 yrs. (1963-66); 60 
species were found there in 1966, 
especially Oenothera biennis . C% 
fruticosa , Gnaphalium obtusifolium , 
Cerastium viscosum . Dianthus armer- 
ia . Hypericum perforatum . Ambrosia 
artemisiifolia . Locally dense 
Trifolium pratense and T_. hybridum . 

Woody species found under forbs: 
Campsis radicans dense; Quercus 
velutina . Prunus serotina . and 
Vltis sp. few. 



9d. 



Java Farm 


Ivy Neck 


FORMERLY CULTIVATED FIELD TYPES 


FORMERLY CULTIVATED FIELD TYPES 


22A. Reed Canary Grass. 


No counterpart. (When the 


Former pasture in valley 


field described above was aban- 


north of headquarters area, 


doned, its north end adjacent 


marshy at the west end, drains 


Cheston Creek drainage had marshy 


into Muddy Creek. Very dense 


species like that of western part 


Phalaris arundinacea throughout; 


of Type 22A.) 


Juncus effusus, Scirpus rubri- 




cosus. Polygonum pensylvanicum 




and P. sagittatum at marshy 




end; few clumps of young Acer 




rubrum, Liquidambar styraciflua, 




and Rosa spp. Invasion from 




outside slow. 




22B. Kentucky Bluegrass. 


No counterpart. 


Small areas of dense Poa 




pratensis turf in former cul- 




tivated fields, being overrun 




by Rhus radicans. Associated 




forbs: Gnaphalium obtusifolium, 




Erigeron canadensis, Asclepias 




syriaca, Solanum carolinense. 





23. 



Cirsium discolor . 

Goldenrod, Aster, Brambles, 
Poison Ivy, Honeysuckle, 
scattered young hardwoods. 
Very heterogeneous vegetation 
throughout most former cultivat- 
ed fields. Forbs often more 
abundant than woody vines but 
often less so. Principal forbs: 
Solidago altissima. S_. gramini- 
folia, Aster pilosus, A . dumosus, 
Eupatorium serotinum, Rub us 
occidentalis, Lespedeza cuneata, 
Rosa micrantha, R_. multif lora, 
Allium vineale. Early spring 
forbs: Barbarea spp. , Draba 
verna, Lepidium spp. , etc. 
Principal vines: Rhus radicans, 
Lonicera japonica, Campsis rad- 
icans , Vitis vulpina . Many less 
frequent species. Trees scatter- 
ed or locally dense; see Type 24A, 



23. Goldenrod, Aster, Brambles, 
Poison Ivy, Honeysuckle, 
scattered young hardwoods. 
Similar to that at Java Farm 
but with fewer vines, more grass 
and forbs. Merges with Types 
25A, 25B. Grasses include 
Setaria lutescens . Andropogon 
virginicus . 



10a. 



Java Farm 



Ivy Neck 



24A. Sweetgum, Cherry, Red Maple, Pin 

Oak, Elm, Sassafras, 

Persimmon, Dogwood, Tuliptree, 

Hornbeam. 

Very dense young stands, of- 
ten predominantly Liquidambar 
styraciflua but often hetero- 
geneous. Covers parts of old 
fields and usually merges with 
Type 23. Principal species: 
Liquidambar , Prunus serotina , 
Acer rub rum , Quercus falcata . 
Sassafras albidum , Cornus f lor- 
ida . Less frequent: Lirioden- 
dron tulipifera (central upland), 
Diospyros virginiana (lowland) , 
Ulmus americana, JJ. rubra (near 
pier) , Carpinus caroliniana 
(forest border) , Celtis occiden- 
talis (all over). Understory 
usually none. Ground layer of 
dense Lonicera japonica and 
Rhus radicans in all stands. 

Special cases: 

South-facing slope at north 
border (adjacent Type 22A) is 
an old orchard; canopy of 
Liquidambar , Liriodendron . and 
Pyrus malus . Understory of 
Rubus spp. 

West-facing slope down to 
Muddy Creek near head of tidal 
portion has very dense Carpinus 
canopy; so does stand at end of 
Springhouse Road. 

24B. Virginia Pine predominant. 

Dense young stands of Pinus 
virginiana . Two occur on sum- 
mit and west-facing slope of 
ridge west of headquarters area, 
one in old field on northeast- 
facing slope near Fox Point Rd. 
Few Liquidambar in stands, no 
understory; ground cover of 
Rhus radicans and Lonicera 
■japonica . 

Pine also infrequent in Type 
23. 



25A. Locust, Sweetgum, Cherry, Red 
Maple, Sassafras, Mulberry, 
Elm, Persimmon, Pin Oak. 
Corresponds to Type 24A but 
has Robinia pseudoacacia usually 
abundant; Liriodendron . Carpinus , 
Ulmus rubra , and Celtis in- 
frequent to absent. 

Special cases: 

Stand at head of Scaffold Creek 
drainage includes Nyssa sylvatica , 
Platanus occidentalis . Carya cord- 
iformis , and shrubs Viburnum 
prunifolium and Sambucus cana- 
densis . 

Stand on Cheston Peninsula 
below Type 21 includes dense 
understory of Mvrica cerifera . 

Hedgerows between cultivated 
fields usually contain Celtis 
occidentalis , Liquidambar styra- 
ciflua , Maclura pomifera , Acer 
rub rum , or Viburnum prunifolium ; 
also Campsis radicans . 



No counterpart, 



10b. 



24C. Virginia Pine, hardwoods of 24A. 

Simultaneous growth of young 
Pinus virginiana and Liquidambar 
styracif lua in old fields. 
Stand overlooking head of Fox 
Creek estuary also has Robinia 
pseudoacacia , Ouercus palustris , 
Cornus f lorida , and Sassafras 
albidum . Stand at west end of 
field overlooking Muddy Creek at 
southwest corner of Farm has 
Liriodendron tulipifera and 
Aralia spinosa . 

Ground cover of Rhus radicans 
and Lonicera japonica . 



25B. Virginia Pine, hardwoods of 25A. 
Infrequent occurrence of Pinus 
virginiana throughout young hard- 
wood canopies between forks of 
Scaffold Creek estuary and on 
Cheston Peninsula between pine stand 
and cultivated fields. 

Ground cover of Rhus radicans 
and Lonicera japonica . 



MARSH TYPES 

Freshwater Marsh 

26A. Grass, Rose, Black Willow. 

Freshwater portion of marsh 
at mouth of Fox Creek drainage, 
separated from salt marsh by 
hedge of Rosa palustris and Smi- 
lax rotundifolia . Assorted 
grasses, scattered Salix nigra , 
clumps of Rosa palustris , Impat - 
iens capensis , and Scirpus spp. 

26B. Hempweed, Touch-me-not, Black 

Willow. 

Two sites: marshy streambed 
at western border of Farm and at 
base of Fox Point peninsula 
adjoining Fox Creek estuary. 
Both sites have dense Impatiens 
capensis and Mikania scandens , 
and scattered Salix nig ra and 
Smilax rotundifolia. Scutellaria 



MARSH TYPES 



No freshwater marshes occur 
at Ivy Neck. 



lateriflora and Rosa spp. grow 
at the first site, Sambucus 
canadensis at the second. 



10c. 



Java Farm 



Salt Marsh 

27A. Sea Myrtle, Salt Reedgrass, Salt 

Cordgrass. 

Covers the wettest and appar- 
ently most saline marsh areas 
and follows tide channels into 
apparently less saline areas. 
Chiefly Baccharis halimifolia , 
Spartina cynosuroides , JS. alter - 
nif lora ; less abundant species: 
Iva frutescens , Aster subulatus, 
A. tenuifolius , Limonium Carolin- 
ian urn , Phragmites communis . 

27B. Slat-meadow Grass, Alkali Grass. 
Covers more sheltered, inland 
areas of large marshes; often 
absent from smaller ones. Chief- 
ly Spartina patens , Distichlis 
spicata ; less abundant species: 
Solidago sempervirens , Eleochar - 
is halophila . 

27C. Cattail, Marsh Mallow, Switch- 
grass. 

Occurs at landward margins of 
marshes or throughout less saline 
ones. Chiefly Typha latifolia , 
— • artgustifolia , Hibiscus palus- 
tris , Kosteletzkya virginica , 
Panicum virgatum ; less abundant 
species: Acnida cannabina , 
Pluchea camphorata . 

Tidal portion of Muddy Creek 
has gradient of decreasing 
salinity. Species there not 
cited above: Scirpus americanus , 
S_. robustus (Hog I. Marsh); 
Atriplex patula , Dryopteris 
thelypteris (with Typha ) , Polygo - 
num hydropiperoides , Asclepias 
incamata. and Mikania scandens 
(at upstream end). 



Ivy Neck 



Salt Marsh and Beach 

27A. Sea Myrtle, Salt Reedgrass, 
Salt Cordgrass. 

Same as at Java Farm; Spartina 
cynosuroides infrequent, only at 
edge of water. 



27B. Salt-meadow Grass, Alkali Grass. 
Same as at Java Farm but areas 
often too small to map. 



27C. Cattail, Marsh Mallow, Switch- 
grass. 

Same as at Java Farm, but 
areas often too small to map. 



Salt marsh at head of Cheston 
Creek estuary has several species 
cited for tidal Muddy Creek. 

Trees occasionally found in 
salt marshes include Diospyros 
virginiana and Juniperus virginiana 
at several locations, Robinia 
pseudoacacia at Sand Point, Quercus 
falcata and (). phellos at Hog Island 
marsh, and Salix nigra at head of 
Fox Creek. The last three species 
occur near the dry land border. 



lOd. 



Java Farm 



No counterpart. 



Ivy Neck 



28. Sea Rocket, False Indigo, 

Salt Cordgrass, Wild Bean 
Sandy beach along Cheston 
Peninsula, and sandbars of salt 
marshes. Species include Cakile 
edentula . Amorpha fruticosa , 
Spartina alterniflora . Stro - 
phostyles helyola, Cenchrus 
tribuliodes , Ammophila arenaria, 
Asparag us officinale . 

Baccharis halimifolia dense 
on Sand Point. 



POND TYPES 

No counterpart (types 26A and 
26B may be temporarily innundated, 
but true ponds are lacking.) 



No counterpart, 



POND TYPES 

29A. Small pond on Cheston Peninsula, 
separated from Rhode River by an 
apparently stable sandbar. Vegetation 
indicates low salinity at present; 
species include Rumex verticilla- 
tus , Echinochloa walteri . Sparganium 
eurycarpum , Lemna minor , Spirodela 
polyrhiza , Ludwigia palustris . 

29B. Larger pond on Cheston Peninsula, 
separated from Rhode River by an 
eroding sandbar. Vegetation indi- 
cates a salinity equivalent to that 
of marshes; species include Spar - 
tina alterniflora , Zannichellia 
palustris , Hibiscus palustris , 
Baccharis halimifolia , Pluchea 
camphorata . 



11. 

Structure of the Checklist and Keys 

The checklist includes 553 species of vascular cryptogams and 
phanerogams, distributed among 98 families. They were collected at 
Java Farm in the autumn of 1965 and at both Java Farm and Ivy Neck 
during the growing seasons of 1966 and 1967. Collection will be 
started at Corn Island in 1968 and continued elsewhere in coordination 
with studies of vegetation development. An appendix (p. 228) is 
provided for the addition of new species. It now contains eight 
species collected during the preparation of this checklist. When the 
Center becomes further developed the checklist will be revised for 
final publication. 

The families represented in the checklist are indexed on page 16, 
and arranged according to the Engler and Prantl system. When a family 
is represented by more than one species artificial keys are provided. 
Although many of the keys are set up in a form similar to that used in 
Gray's Manual of Botany, 8th edition (Fernald, 1950), the keys developed 
for this checklist are less extensive than Fernald's, since they are 
restricted to the flora of the Center and its near vicinity. In 
addition, the terminology has been simplified and in some of the more 
complex keys the sequence has been revised. 

The keys in three families have been adapted from those of local 
taxonomic studies compiled for the Washington-Baltimore area, which 
includes Anne Arundel County (Hermann, 1946). These three families 
are the Gramineae (Gilman, 1957), the Cyperaceae (Hermann, 1941), 
(O'Neill, 1941), and the Umbelliferae (Dayton, 1942). The adapted 



11a. 

keys were modified to exclude species having a strictly Piedmont 
distribution and those restricted to habitats which do not occur at 
the Chesapeake Bay Center. Entirely new keys were prepared for some 
of the more complex taxa which have limited representation at the Center, 

There are two reasons for any similarities present between keys 
in the literature cited above and keys in the checklist. First, the 
dependability of the characters in the keys in the literature. Second, 
the need of a framework to facilitate the anticipated periodic revision 
of the keys as additional species are collected. Such revisions will 
be accomplished more readily if the organization of the checklist keys 
is designed to allow for them. 

Therefore, when a couplet in one of the keys in the literature 
separates a genus or species which has in fact been collected at the 
Center from one not yet discovered there but expected to occur in the 
vicinity, both halves of the couplet are included in the checklist key 
but the word "expected" follows the unused half and the taxa to which 
it refers are named in parentheses. This practice appears justifiable 
in view of the continued investigations to be conducted at the Center 
and the rich and fluctuating flora of the surrounding county, described 
by Stieber (1967). Stieber notes a great intermingling of northern, 
southern, and introduced species, the whole assembly subjected to wide- 
spread human disturbance. From field collections west of the Chesapeake 
Bay Center and an examination of the District of Columbia and Vicinity 
collection in the U. S. National Herbarium, Stieber has compiled a 
checklist of 647 vascular species for the county. His list cites 316 



12. 

species not yet discovered at the Chesapeake Bay Center; the writer 
has collected at the Center 209 species which are not included on 
Stieber's list for the county. This complementary collection rein- 
forces Stieber's observation on the need for further systematic 
floristic study of the region, and supports the writer's provision 
for the inclusion of additional taxa in the keys of the present list. 

To prevent the checklist keys from becoming topheavy with "expected" 
taxa, the writer has used the following criteria in selecting them: 

1. They must be named as established in F. J. Hermann's 

A Checklist of Plants in the Washington-Baltimore Area, 2nd. 
edition (Hermann, 1946) . 

2. They must be described in the available literature as 
having a distribution which includes the Maryland Coastal Plain, 
and must not be restricted to swamps or other habitats which 

do not occur at the Center. 

3. They must not be too numerous to keep the keys relatively 
simple and short. 

This system of including "expected" taxa in the keys has already 
facilitated the identification of several species listed in Appendix I. 
Further research at the Center may reveal other taxa not yet listed as 
"expected." The identification of new taxa may be confirmed by the 
use of Gray's Manual. 

Nomenclature 

The nomenclature of the checklist follows that of Gray's Manual 
of Botany, 8th edition, except in the family Gramineae; there, 



13. 

Gilman (1957) follows the nomenclature of A. S. Hitchcock's Manual 
of the Grasses of the United States. Whenever the nomenclature used 
conflicts with that of The New Britton and Brown Illustrated Flora 
(Gleason, 1952), the names from the latter are given in parentheses. 
Common names of species given by Gray's Manual are placed opposite 
the scientific names. Additional common names used by residents of the 
vicinity of the Chesapeake Bay Center are distinguished by the letter 
"(L)," for "local," or are listed separately in Appendix III. 

Annotations 
The ecological annotation which accompanies each species nas five 
categories: the general location (Java Farm or Ivy Neck), the estimated 
abundance of the species, its exact collection site or specific habitat, 
the dominant or canopy species of the collection site, and some of the 
associate species observed in the same location and stratum. 

The estimated abundance of an entry indicates the ease or redis- 
covering that species in the field; the four categories are: 
Abundant (plentiful throughout the habitat) 
Moderately abundant (evenly distributed but not plentiful) 
Infrequent (thinly scattered) 

One station (a single plant or very small, compact group) 
The last category is preferred to "Rare" or "Local" because the 
Center has not yet been studied in sufficient detail to permit a safe 
assumption concerning the restriction of distribution of species. 
Additional annotation data are being sought and are listed in Appendix II, 
When the checklist is revised a more precise evaluation will be made. 



14. 

The specific location of a species is described in relation to 
existing landmarks and to the numbered grid now being constructed 
for the entire Center (see Figures 6 and 7). The units of the grid 
are in hectares (a hectare equals 2.471 acres or 10,000 square meters). 
The hectare was chosen to facilitate the future establishment of sample 
plots, since it can easily be broken down into smaller metric units. 
Once the location of a species is established the reader may check the 
soil and vegetation maps (Figures 2 to 5) for additional details. 

The remaining annotation data summarize the vegetation of the 
collecting sites. The dominant species are listed when these are 
apparant. Also listed are "associate species" collected or observed 
at the same location and in the same stratum. Further investigation 
of the coincidence of these associate species should lead to more 
reliable correlations among them and with their habitats. Additional 
details of the vegetation may be obtained from Figures 4 and 5 and 
from Table I. 

The specimen collection numbers of each species follow its 
annotation. All specimens collected by the writer are preserved in 
the U. S. National Herbarium, Washington, D. C. Duplicate specimens 
will be filed at the Chesapeake Bay Center. A few additional specimens 
collected by Dr. H. David Hammond are kept in the Howard University 
Herbarium, Washington, D. C. 



HECTARE COORDINATES OF JAVA FARM 




HECTARE COORDINATES OF IVY NECK 
AND CORN ISLAND 




(Figures 6 and 7) 

Hectare Coordinates of the Chesapeake Bay Center fo r Field Biology 

These maps represent a grid system which provides a large number 
of fixed points for designating sampling stations and recording 
collections. Each square of the grid is 100 meters on a side and 
has an area of 10,000 square meters or 1 hectare (1 hectare = 2.471 
acres). The squares may be easily broken down into smaller metric 
units. Each of the larger squares (with heavier borders) contains 
100 hectare squares. 

The vertical grid lines run north and south at right angles to 
the baseline, not according to magnetic north. The heavy horizontal 
line crossing Java Farm is the baseline; trees and brush along this 
line have been cleared to make a relatively open footpath. 
Disturbance to the vegetation along the other grid lines has been 
kept to a minimum. 

Although the grid lines on these maps extend beyond the boundaries 
of the Chesapeake Bay Center, the actual surveying has been confined 
to the Smithsonian property. In the field the corners of each 
square are pinpointed either by concrete monuments or by pipes 
driven into the ground. The monuments are placed two hectares apart, 
and have brass plates bearing the numbers of the adjoining squares. 
Where pipes are used, stakes bearing the grid numbers accompany 
them. No markers have been planted in the estuaries. 



15. 



Literature Cited 



Braun, E. Lucy. 1950. Deciduous forests of eastern North America. 
Blakiston Press, Philadelphia. 596 p. 

Craven, Avery 0. 1926. Soil erosion as a factor in the agricultural 
history of Virginia and Maryland, 1606-1860. Univ. Illinois Press, 
Urbana. 179 p. 

Dayton, William A. 1942. Preliminary treatment of Umbelliferae, 
Washington-Baltimore Flora. Mimeographed. Distributed by the 
Conference on District Flora, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, 
D. C. 34 p. 

Fernald, Merritt L. 1950. Gray's Manual of Botany, 8th edition. 
American Book Co. , New York. 1632 p. 

Gilman, Elizabeth M. 1957. Grasses of the Tidewater-Piedmont region 
of northern Virginia and Maryland. Castanea 22: 1-105. 

Gleason, Henry A. 1952. The new Britton and Brown illustrated flora 
of the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. Lancaster 
Press, Lancaster, Pennsylvania. 3 vol. 

Hairston, Nelson G. , Frederick E. Smith, and Lawrence B. Slobodkin. 
1960. Community structure, population control, and competition. 
American Naturalist 94: 421-425. 

Hermann, Frederick J. 1941. Key to the genus Carex in the Washington- 
Baltimore area. Mimeographed. Distributed by the Conference on 
District Flora, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. 24 p. 

. 1946. A checklist of plants in the Washington-Baltimore area, 

2nd. edition. Mimeographed. Issued by the Conference on District 
Flora, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. 134 p. 

Kelly, J. Reaney. 1965. "Tulip Hill," its history and its people. 
Maryland Hist. Soc. Mag. 60: 349-403. 

Mack, Frederick K. 1962. Ground water supplies for industrial and 
urban development in Anne Arundel County. Maryland Dept. Geol., 
Mines, & Water Res. Bull. 26: 90 p. 

Marye, William B. 1955. The great Maryland barrens. Maryland Hist. 
Soc. Mag. 50: 11-23, 120-142, 234-253. 

Middleton, Arthur P. 1953. Tobacco Coast, a maritime history of the 
Chesapeake Bay in the Colonial era. Mariner's Museum, Newport 
News. 487 p. 



15a. 



O'Neill, Hugh T. 1941. Cyperaceae of the Washington-Baltimore area 

(exclusive of Carex ) . Mimeographed. Distributed by the Conference 
on District Flora, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. 8 p. 

Phillips, S. W. , S. 0. Perkins, and H. B. Winant. 1928. Soil survey 
of Anne Arundel County, Maryland. U. S. Dept. Agr. , Bur. Chem. 
and Soils. Ser. 28, no. 10: 29 p., map. 

Shelf ord, Victor E. 1963. The ecology of North America. Univ. 
Illinois Press, Urbana. 610 p. 

Stieber, Michael T. 1967. An annotated checklist of the vascular 

flora of Anne Arundel County, Maryland. Master of Science thesis, 
Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, D. C. 70 p. 



16. 

Families Represented at the Chesapeake Bay Center for Field Biology 



Division 




No. 






No. 




and Class 


Family 


Species 


Page 


Family 


Species 


Page 


Pteridophyta: 














Articulatae: 


Equisetaceae 


1 


18 


Nymphaeaceae 
Ranunculaceae 


1 
8 


106 
106 


Lycopodiinae: 


Lycopodiaceae 


1 


18 


Berber idaceae 
Magnoliaceae 


1 
1 


109 

109 


Filicinae: 


Ophioglossaceae 


2 


18 


Annonaceae 


1 


109 




Osmundaceae 


2 


19 


Lauraceae 


2 


110 




Polypodiaceae 


10 


19 


Papaveraceae 
Cruciferae 


1 
12 


110 

111 


Spermatophyta : 








Crassulaceae 


1 


116 


Gymnospermae : 


Pinaceae 


3 


23 


Saxifragaceae 
Hamamelidaceae 


1 
1 


116 
116 


Angiospermae: 








Platanaceae 


1 


116 


Monocoty- 








Rosaceae 


28 


117 


ledonae: 


Typhaceae 


2 


24 


Leguminosae 


33 


127 




Sparganiaceae 


1 


25 


Oxalidaceae 


3 


139 




Zosteraceae 


2 


25 


Geraniaceae 


2 


140 




Alismataceae 


2 


25 


Simaroubaceae 


1 


140 




Hydrocharitaceae 


1 


26 


Euphorbiaceae 


4 


140 




Gramineae 


75 


26 


Anacardiaceae 


5 


142 




Cyperaceae 


26 


55 


Aquifoliaceae 


1 


143 




Araceae 


2 


76 


Celastraceae 


2 


143 




Lemnaceae 


2 


App. 


Aceraceae 


4 


144 




Commelinaceae 


1 


76 


Balsaminaceae 


1 


145 




Juncaceae 


8 


77 


Vitaceae 


3 


145 




Liliaceae 


8 


79 


Malvaceae 


3 


146 




Dioscoreaceae 


1 


81 


Guttiferae 


4 


146 




Amaryllidaceae 


4 


81 


Cistaceae 


1 


148 




Iridaceae 


1 


82 


Violaceae 


5 


148 




Orchidaceae 


3 


83 


Passif loraceae 
Lythraceae 


1 
2 


149 
149 


Dicoty- 








Nyssaceae 


1 


150 


ledonae: 


Saururaceae 


1 


84 


Onagraceae 


7 


150 




Salicaceae 


3 


84 


Haloragaceae 


1 


152 




Myricaceae 


1 


85 


Araliaceae 


2 


152 




Juglandaceae 


4 


85 


Umbelliferae 


6 


153 




Betulaceae 


3 


86 


Cornaceae 


3 


156 




Fagaceae 


12 


87 


Pyrolaceae 


2 


157 




Ulmaceae 


4 


91 


Ericaceae 


9 


158 




Moraceae 


4 


92 


Primulaceae 


1 


162 




Urticaceae 


1 


93 


Plumbaginaceae 


2 


162 




Polygonaceae 


16 


93 


Ebenaceae 


1 


163 




Chenopodiaceae 


3 


98 


Oleaceae 


4 


163 




Amaranthaceae 


3 


100 


Gentianaceae 


2 


164 




Phytolaccaceae 


1 


102 


Apocynaceae 


1 


165 




Aizoaceae 


1 


102 


Asclepiadaceae 


2 


166 




Portulacaceae 


1 


102 


Convolvulaceae 


5 


167 




Caryophyllaceae 


8 


103 


Boraginaceae 


3 


168 



17. 



Division 




No. 


and Class 


Family 


Species 


Dicotyledonae : 


Verbenaceae 


4 


(continued) 


Labiatae 


16 




Solanaceae 


6 




Scrophulariaceae 


10 




Bignoniaceae 


1 




Orobanchaceae 


1 




Phrymaceae 


1 




Plantaginaceae 


4 




Rubiaceae 


7 




Caprifoliaceae 


8 




Valerianceae 


2 




Campanulaceae 


3 




Compositae 


72 



Page 



170 
172 
178 
181 
186 
186 
186 
186 
187 
190 
193 
193 
195 



Summary 



Division 


No. 


No. 


and Class 


Families 


Species 


Pteridophyta: 
Articulatae: 


1 


1 


Lycopodiinae: 


1 


1 


Filicinae: 


3 


14 


Spermatophyta : 
Gymnospermae : 


1 


3 


Angiospermae: 

Monocotyledonae : 


16 


139 


Dicotyledonae : 


76 


387 



Totals: 



98 



545 
13 species in Appendix I. 



558 



17a. 



Advent ive and Introduced Species at the Chesapeake Bay Center 



Pteridophyta ; 
Filicinae : 

Osmunda regalis L. 

Athyrium filix-femina (L.) Roth 

Spermatophy ta : 

Gymnospermae : None 

Angiospermae : 
Monocoty- 
ledonae : 

Gramineae 



Liliaceae 

Allium vineale L. 
Asparagus officinalis L. 
Hemerocallis fulva L. 
Narcissus poeticus L. 

pseudo-narcissus 
Ornithogalum umbellatum L. 



Dicotyledoneae : 

Salicaceae 



Anthoxanthum odoratum L. 

Arrhenatherum elatius (L.) Mert. & Koch 

Bromus commutatus Schrad. 

inermis Leyss. 

japonicus Thunb. 

racemosus L. 
Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. 
Dactylis glomerata L. 
Digitaria ischaemum (Schreb.) Muhl, 
Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. 
Festuca elatior L. 
Holcus lanatus L. 
Phleum pratense L. 
Phragmites communis Trin. 
Poa annua L. 

compressa L. 
Secale cereale L. 
Setaria glauca (L.) Beauv. 

faberii Herrm. 
Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. 
Triticum aestivum L. 

Cyperaceae 



X Populus eugenei Simon-Louis 



Scirpus validus Vahl. var. 
creber Fern. 

Commelinaceae 

Commelina communis L. 



Ulmaceae 

Ulmus procera Salisb. 
pumila L. 

Moraceae 

Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) Vent. 
Madura pomifera (Raf.) Schneid. 
Morus alba L. 



Polygonaceae 

Polygonum aviculare L. 

cespitosum Blume var. 
longisetum (DeBruyn) 
Stewart 
persicaria L. 
Rumex acetosella L. 
crispus L. 
obtusifolius L. 
pulcher L. 

Chenopodiaceae 

Chenopodium album L. 

Amaranthaceae 



Amaranthus hybridus L. 
spinosus L. 



17b. 



Dicotyledonae, continued: 
Aizoaceae 
Mollugo verticillata L« 



Caryophyllaceae 

Cerastium viscosum L. 
vulgatum L. 
Dianthus armeria L. 
Lychnis alba Mill. 
Silene noctoflora L. 
Stellaria media (L.) Cyrillo 

Ranunculaceae 

Clematis dioscoreifolia Levi. & Vaniot 
Ranunculus bulbosus L. 

Crucif erae 

Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. 
Barbarea verna (Mill.) Aschers. 

vulgaris R. Br. 
Cardamine hirsuta L. 
Draba verna L. 

Lepidium campestre (L.) R. Br. 
Nasturtium officinale R. Br. 
Sisymbrium officinale (L.) Scop. 

Crassulaceae 

Sedum sarmentosum Bunge 

Rosaceae 



Leguminosae 

Lespedeza cuneata (Dumont) G. Don. 

stipulacea Maxim. 
Medicago lupulina L. 
Melilotus alba Desr. 

officinalis (L.) Lam. 
Trifolium arvense L. 
hybridum L. 
pratense L. 
procumbens L. 
repens L. 
Vicia angustifolia Reichard 
sativa L. 

tetrasperma (L.) Moench. 
villosa Roth 



Duchesnea indica (Andr.) Focke 
Potentilla recta L. 
Prunus avium L. 

persica (L.) Batsch 
Pyrus communis L. 

malus L. 
Rosa canina L. 

micrantha Sm. 

multiflora Thunb. 
Rubus phoenicolasius Maxim. 



Simaroubaceae 
Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle 

Aceraceae 
Acer platanoides L. 

Malvaceae 
Abutilon theophrasti Medic. 

Guttiferae 
Hypericum perforatum L. 

Violaceae 

Viola kitaibeliana R. & S. var. 

rafinesquii (Greene) Fern. 

Onagraceae 
Ludwigia palustris (L.) Ell. 

Haloragaceae 
Myriophyllum spicatum L. 

Umbellif erae 



Daucus carota L, 



17c. 



Primulaceae 

Anagallis arvensis L. 

Oleaceae 

Syringa vulgaris L. 
Ligustrum vulgare L. 

Convolvulaceae 

Ipomoea hederacea (L.) Jacq. 
purpurea (L.) Roth 

Labiatae 

Glechoma hederacea L. var. 

micrantha Moricand 
Lamium amplexicaule L. 

purpureum L. 
Mentha spicata L. 
Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt. 

Solanaceae 



Compositae 

Achillea millefolium L. 
Anthemis arvensis L. 
Arctium minus (Hill) Bernh. 
Centaurea cyanis L. 
Chondrilla juncea L. 
Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L. 
Cichorium intybus L. 
Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. 

vulgare (Savi) Tenore 
Galinsoga ciliata (Raf.) Blake 
Hieracium scabrum Michx. 

venosum L. 
Lactuca canadensis L. 

floridana (L.) Gaertn. 
Pyrrhopappus carolinianus (Walt.) 

DC. 
Rudbeckia serotina Nutt. 
Sonchus asper (L.) Hill 
Taraxacum officinale Weber 



Datura stramonium L. 
Solanum nigrum L. 

sarachoides Sendtner 

Scrophulariaceae 

Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb.) Steud. 
Verbascum blattaria L. 

thapsus L. 
Veronica arvensis L. 

hederaefolia L. 

Plantaginaceae 

Plantago lanceolata L. 
major L. 

Caprif oliaceae 

Lonicera japonica Thunb. 

Valerianaceae 



Valerianella olitoria (L.) Poll. 



18. 

EQUISETACEAE 

Equisetum arvense L. Common Horsetail 

Java Farm. One station: rubble of ruined house at main building 
area. Hectare 2580. Higman 752. 

LYCOPODIACEAE 

Lycopodium complanatum L. var. flabelliforme Fern. Groundpine 

Java Farm. Moderately abundant on north- and west-facing slopes 
of ridge between Muddy Creek valley and main building area. Hectares 
2477, 2478, 2487. Canopy of mature Pinus virginiana , Fagus grandifolia , 
Liriodendron tulipifera , Liquidambar styraciflua . etc. Higman 489. 

OPHIOGLOSSACEAE 

Botrichium 

1. Sterile blade sessile, about midway on the stalk; 
plant fruiting in spring. (Also, divisions of the 
sterile blade spatulate and serrate or cleft) _B. virginianum 

1. Sterile blade on a petiole half the height of the 
stalk; plant fruiting in autumn. 

(Species typically has divisions of the sterile 

blade cleft into many linear notched teeth; in 

forma obliquum the divisions are broader and 

crenate-serrulate to entire) B. dissectum 

Botrichium virginianum (L.) Sw. Rattlesnake Fern 

Java Farm. Moderately abundant in mature upland forest west of 
Muddy Creek valley. Canopy of Fagus grandifolia , Carya tomentosa . 
Quercus alba , Liriodendron tulipifera , etc. Associate species: 
Botrichium dissectum . 

Ivy Neck. Moderately abundant in mature forest of central 
Scaffold Peninsula. Canopy resembles that at Java Farm but lacks 
Fagus grandifolia . Same associate species. Higman 1241. 

Botrychium dissectum Spreng. (typical) Grape Fern 

Java Farm. Infrequent in same habitat as J3. virginianum above. 
Also one station at north edge of Phalaris arundinacea meadow and base 
of south-facing slope (hectare 2469). Higman 155. 

_B. dissectum forma obliquum (Muhl.) Fern, 
(var. obliquum (Muhl.) Clute) 

Java Farm. One station along northern border between Muddy Creek 
Road gate and Muddy Creek. Associated with typical form above. 

Ivy Neck. One station on Cheston Peninsula, in mature stand of 
Pinus taeda . Hectare 5719. Higman 1101, 1102. 



19. 



OSMUNDACEAE 



Osmunda 

1. Sterile and fertile fronds bipinnate, the sterile with 

simple pinnules JO. regalis 

1. Sterile fronds once pinnate, with pinnatifid pinnae; 
fertile fronds separate, cinnamon-colored, densely 
wooly . . 0_. cinnamomea 

Osmunda regalis L. var. spectabilis (Willd.) Gray 

(var. not in Britton & Brown) Royal Fern 

Java Farm. One station: Ravine on east-facing slope between 
Fox Point Road and Fox Creek estuary. Hectare 3544. Canopy of Pinus 
virginiana . Associate species: Osmunda cinnamomea . Higman 516. 

C). cinnamomea L. Cinnamon Fern 

Java Farm. Principal station on north shore of Hog Island 
near junction with salt marsh. Hectare 3582. Canopy of Quercus 
prinus , ^. alba , etc. Second station in Hog Island salt marsh near 
border of mainland. Hectare 3572. Partial canopy of young 
Quercus falcata , C^. stellata . C;. phellos . Third station at east- 
facing slope between Fox Point Road and Fox Creek estuary. Hectare 
3544 (same site as (h regalis above) . Canopy of Pinus virginiana . 
Higman 104, 442, 515. 



POLYPODIACEAE 

1. Indusium obsolete. 

2. Fronds leathery, evergreen, simply pinnatifid. 
Expected ( Polypodium ) . 

2. Fronds herbaceous, deciduous, 2- to 4-times 
pinnate or pinnatifid. 

3. Rhizome short and stout, forming a crown; fronds 

lanceolate, in vase-like clumps Athyrium 

3. Rhizome slender, long and forking; fronds deltoid 

or broader, solitary or scattered Dryopteris 

1. Indusium present. 

4. Indusium formed by revolute margin of the frond. 
Expected ( Pellaea , Cheilanthes . Dennstaedtia ) . 

4. Indusium not formed by margin of frond, either dorsal 
or marginal. 



20. 

5. Indusium borne beneath the sorus, surrounding its 
base as a saucer-shaped structure. 

6. Fertile and sterile fronds similar, not rigid. 
Expected (Woodsia, Dennstaedtia ) . 

6. Fertile and sterile fronds very dissimilar, stiff, 
the sterile much larger, the fertile erect and rigid. 

7. Fronds forming tall vase-like clumps, the sterile 
and fertile simply pinnate. Expected ( Pteretis ) . 

7. Fronds solitary or scattered, the sterile 
coarsely pinnatifid, the fertile bi- 
pinnate Onoclea 

5. Indusium spreading above or outside the sorus. 

8. Indusium attached at center, orbicular to reniform. 

9. Indusium shield-shaped, without a sinus Polystichum 

9. Indusium reniform or with deep sinus... Dryopteris 

8. Indusium attached at margin, linear or oblong 
to crescent-shaped. (Also, sori parallel to 
oblique lateral veins) . 

10. Fronds deciduous, pinnate to tripinnate; 

stipes flat, angled or furrowed Athyrium 

10. Fronds evergreen, pinnate (in species 

collected); stipes slender, nearly terete... Asplenium 

Athyrium 

1. Fronds bi- to tripinnate; sori roundish or reniform; 

indusium crescent-shaped A. f ilix-femina 

1. Fronds simply pinnate or deeply bipinnatif id; sori 
straight or nearly so. Expected (A. pycnocarpon ) . 

A. f ilix-femina 

1» Rhizome compact, covered with persistent old stipe- 
bases; frond widest near middle; indusia toothed, if 
ciliate the hairs not gland-tipped. (Also, fertile 
fronds more leathery and contracted than the sterile; 
mature sori confluent) var. michauxii 

1. Rhizome horizontally creeping, with few or no stipe- 
bases; frond widest toward base; indusia ciliate, the 
cilia gland-tipped var. asplenioides 



21. 

A. filix-femina (L.) Roth var. michauxii 

(Spreng.) Farw. (var. michauxii Mett. ) Lady Fern 

Ivy Neck. One station: mature stand of Pinus taeda on Cheston 
Peninsula. Hectare 5719. Higman 1103. 

A. filix-femina var. michauxii form rubellum Farw. 
(A. angustum var. rubellum Butters) 

Java Farm. One station: along Muddy Creek entrance road, at 
culvert of small tributary of Muddy Creek. Hectare 2497. Canopy 
of Platanus occidentalis . Higman 480. 

A. filix-femina var. asplenioides (Michx.) Farw. 
(A. asplenioides A. Eaton) 

Java Farm. One station: floor of tributary valley of Muddy 
Creek, slightly upstream from Hog Island salt marsh. Hectare 3530. 
Canopy of Fagus grandifolia . Quercus alba , Liriodendron tulipifera , 
Liquidambar styracif lua . Higman 456. 



Dryopteris 

1. Rhizome slender, forking, long; fronds thin, annual, scat- 
tered; stipe slender, naked or with scales 1-6 mm. long. 

2. Fronds long-lanceolate, with 17 to 46 pairs of pinnae, 
the lowest pinnae shorter than to equalling the 
middle ones. 

3. Lateral veins of segments of sterile fronds 
forking; indusia glabrous or long-ciliate, 
not glandular JD. thelypteris 

3. Lateral veins of segments of sterile fronds 
simple; indusia finely glandular-ciliate. 
(Also, 23 to 46 pairs of pinnae) J3. noveboracensis 

2. Fronds triangular to triangular-ovate, simple or 

with 8-30 pairs of pinnae, the lowest pinnae longest. 
Expected (D. hexagonoptera ) , See Appendix I, p. 228. 

1. Rhizome stout, short; fronds firm to evergreen, forming 
terminal crowns; stipe stout, with abundant basal 
scales .5-3.5 cm. long. (Also, lowest pinnae mostly 
over 2 cm. long and 1 cm. wide; indusia not overlapping). 

4. Frond tripinnate or tripinnatif id, firm, evergreen; 

teeth of frond segments bristle-tipped I), dilatata 

4. Frond bipinnate or bipinnatif id, firm to leathery, 
deciduous; teeth of segments not bristle-tipped. 
(Also, sori not marginal; fertile fronds much 
taller and narrower than the sterile) D. cristata 



22. 



Dryopteris thelypteris (L.) Gray var. pubescens 

(Lawson) nakai 
(Thelypteris palustris Schott. 

var. pubescens (Lawson) Fern.) Marsh Fern 

Java Farm. Infrequent. Principal station in Typha latifolia 
salt marsh at upstream end of tidal portion of Muddy Creek. Hectare 
3403. Also in ravines on east-facing slope between Fox Point Road and 
Fox Creek estuary. Hectares 3543, 3544. Canopy of Pinus virginiana . 
Higman 286, 524. 

_D. noveboracensis (L.) Gray 
(T. noveboracensis (L.) Nieuwl) New York Fern 

Java Farm. One station: source of Fox Creek drainage at north 
boundary, west of new entrance gate. Hectare 2573. Canopy of young 
Ulmus americana , Liquidambar styraciflua . and Juglans nigra . 
Higman 317. 

E>. dilatata (Hoffmann) Gray 

(D. spinulosa (0. F. Muell) Watt, var.) Florist's Fern 

Java Farm. One station: near western apex of triangular area 
west of old Muddy Creek Road. Hectare 2470. Level ground adjacent 
marsh; canopy of mature Fagus grandifolia . A rare species in this 
region. Higman 251. 

D. cristata (L.) Gray Crested Woodfern 

Java Farm. One station: bottom of Muddy Creek valley. Canopy 
of mature Fraxinus americana , Platanus occidentalis . Higman 74. 



Onoclea 

Onoclea sensibilis L. Sensitive Fern 

Java Farm. Two stations: bank of Muddy Creek upstream from 
culvert of old entrance road. Canopy of Platanus occidentalis , 
Fagus grandifolia . Fraxinus americana . Also found along deep, narrow 
ditch of Fox Creek drainage. Higman 182, 325. 



Polystichum 

Polystichum acrostichoides (Michx.) Schott. Christmas Fern 

Java Farm. Infrequent to moderately abundant on shaded slopes. 
Found along trail at north border between Muddy Creek and old entrance 
gate, in forest overlooking Rhode River and north side of Fox Creek 
salt marsh, and on east-facing slope west of main buildings. Grows 
under a variety of hardwood canopies. Higman 160, 161, 237, 376, 497. 



23. 

Asplenium 

Asplenium platyneuron (L.) Oakes Ebony Spleenwort 

Java Farm. Infrequent. Found along trail at north border 
between Muddy Creek and old entrance gate, in old fields, and on bank 
overlooking salt marsh at northeast corner of Farm. 

Ivy Neck. One station on bank overlooking halophytic area at 
Sand Point, on Cheston Peninsula. Hectare 4860. Higman 143, 162, 
164, 209, 218, 470, 875. 

PINACEAE 

1. Leaves opposite or in 3's, scale-like; fruit 

berry-like , blue and glaucous Juniperus 

1. Leaves sheathed in fascicles; fruit a woody cone Pinus 

Juniperus 

Juniperus virginiana L. var. crebra Fern. & Grisc. Redcedar 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Moderately abundant along roads and 
fences, in old fields, and in a variety of hardwood forest types. 
Infrequent in dry, halophytic areas and salt marshes. Higman 112, 
259, 1130. 



Pinus 

1. Needles 14-25 cm. long; cone scales with stout spine.. P_. taeda 

1. Needles usually shorter than 12 cm. ; cone scales with awl-shaped 
spine. 

2. Needles in 3's. Expected (P. rigida . J?, serotina ) . 

2. Needles in 2's. 

3. Twigs glaucous; needles 7-12 cm. long; spine of cone 
scale 1 mm. long, weak. Expected (P. echinata ) . 

3. Twigs brown, not glaucous; needles 4-8 cm. 
long; spine of cone scale 2-3 mm. long, 
firm, straight or recurved P_. virginiana 



24. 



Pinus taeda L. Loblolly Pine 

Java Farm. Infrequent; mature stand on south-facing slope of 
ridge, west of main buildings and below water tank. Scattered through 
canopy of mature Pinus virginiana . Fagus grandifolia. and Quercus 
alba on adjacent west-facing slope. Young individuals scattered in 
old fields. 

Ivy Neck. Mature, planted stand on lower Cheston Peninsula. 
Higman 41, 415, 508, 574, 649. 

J?, virginiana Mill. Virginia Pine, 

Scrub Pine 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Frequently dominates understory of 
Quercus prinus forest; infrequent to moderately abundant in old 
fields, there associated with Robinia pseudoacacia . Liquidambar 
styraciflua , Acer rubrum, etc. 

Java Farm. Dominant or co-dominant on west-facing slope 
overlooking old entrance road, and along Fox Point Road near base of 
Fox Point Peninsula. Higman 265. 



TYPHACEAE 



1. Staminate and pistillate parts of the spike contiguous; 

pistillate part 1.5 to 3.5 cm. in diameter JJ. latifolia 

1. Staminate and pistillate parts of the spike separated; 

pistillate part 6 to 12 mm. in diameter JJ. angustifolia 

Typha latifolia L. Common Cattail 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Abundant or moderately abundant in 
salt marshes near heads of estuaries and at the landward margins 
of more saline marshes. Associate species: Dryopteris thelypteris 
(co-dominant in one marsh near head of tidal portion of Muddy Creek), 
Scirpus americanus (co-dominant in marsh at head of Cheston Creek estuary) . 
Hibiscus palustris , Kosteletzkya virginica , Panicum virgatum 
(infrequent at landward margins of other salt marshes). Higman 90. 

T_. angustifolia L. Narrow-leaved Cattail 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Infrequent to moderately abundant near 
landward margins of salt marshes. Associate species: Typha 
latifolia . Higman 211, 533. 



25. 

SPARGANIACEAE 

Sparganium 

Sparganium eurycarpum Engelm. Burreed 

Ivy Neck. One station: large clump on dried mud bottom of 
cut-off pond on Cheston Peninsula. Hectare 4880. Associate species: 
Rumex verticillatus , Sambucus canadensis , Sium suave . Higman 944. 

ZOSTERACEAE 

1. Flowers in spikes or on a long axis. 

2. Spike more than 2-f lowered, raised above the 

stipule in anthesis; carpels in fruit sessile Potamogeton 

2. Spike 2-f lowered, enclosed in the sheathing leaf 

base in anthesis; carpels in fruit raised on slender 
stalks. Expected ( Ruppia ) . 

1. Flowers axillary Zannichellia 

Potamogeton 

Potamogeton perfoliatus L. 

var. bupleuroides (Fern.) Farw. Pondweed 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Abundant in estuaries. Associate 
species: Myriophyllum spicatum . Higman 272, 1009. 

Zannichellia 

Zannichellia palustris L. Horned Pondweed 

Ivy Neck. One station: cut-off pond on Cheston Peninsula. 
Higman 1154. 

ALISMATACEAE 

1. Carpels in a single ring, strongly flattened; style 
on the ventral margin of the carpel, below the tip; 
flowers all perfect ; stamens 6 Alisma 

1. Carpels in dense heads; style apical; upper flowers 
staminate (or all either staminate or pistillate) ; 
stamens numerous Sagittaria 



26. 

Alisma 

Alisma subcordatum Raf . Mud-plantain 

Ivy Neck. One station: shore of small cut-off pond on Cheston 
Peninsula, south of Sand Point. Hectare 5800. Associate species: 
Rumex verticillatus , Cephalanthus occidentalis , Echinochloa walteri, 
Galinsoga ciliata . Higman 946. 



Sagittaria 

Sagittaria latifolia Willd. 

var. pubescens (Muhl.) J. C. Sm. Duckpotato 

Java Farm. One station: dry, sandy bed of north fork of Muddy 
Creek, upstream from culvert of old entrance road, near barrier of 
piling (collected during drought). Hectare 2467. Canopy of Platanus 
occidentalis , Fagus grandifolia , and Liriodendron tulipifera . Under- 
story chiefly Lindera benzoin . Associate species: Impatiens capensis . 
Polygonum arifolium . Also observed in the freshwater part of Fox 
Creek marsh. Hectare 3526. Higman 1056. 



GRAMINEAE 
Key to the Tribes 

1. Spikelets 1- to many- flowered; articulation above the glumes 
except in Oryzeae . 

2. Plants woody; culms perennial Bambuseae (Expected) 

2. Plants herbaceous; culms annual. 

3. Spikelets 3-f lowered, with 2 rudimentary florets 

below the perfect one Phalarideae (p. 28) 

3. Spikelets 1- to several-flowered, with no rudi- 
mentary florets below the perfect one (but 
sometimes above it) . 

4. Spikelets unisexual; plants monoecious. 

5. Pistillate spikelets embedded in joints of 

the rachis Tripsaceae (p. 28) 



27. 



5. Pistillate spikelets not embedded in the 

j oints of the rachis Zizanieae (Expected) 

4. Spikelets perfect or, if unisexual, the 
plants dioecious. 

6. Glumes minute or wanting; articulation 

below them Oryzeae (p. 28) 

6. Glumes, or at least one of them, well- 
developed; articulation above them. 

7. Spikelets sessile; rachis continuous 
except in Hordeum . 

8. Spikelets on opposite sides of the 

rachis; spikes terminal, solitary.... Hordeae (p. 29) 

8. Spikelets on one side of the rachis; 

spikes digitate or racemose Chlorideae (p. 31) 

7. Spikelets pedicellate, in open, con- 
tracted, or spikelike panicles, rarely 
in racemes. (Spikelets subsessile in 
Phleum ) . 

9. Spikelets usually 1-flowered Agrostideae (p. 33) 

9. Spikelets 2- to several-flowered. 

10. Glumes as long as the lowest 
floret, usually as long as the 
spikelets; lemmas awned from the 
back (awnless in Sphenopholis , 
awned between the teeth of a 
bifid apex in Danthonia ) Aveneae (p. 35) 

10. Glumes, or at least one of them, 
shorter than the first floret; 
lemmas awnless or awned from the 
tip, or from the back just below 
the tip, or from between the 
teeth of a bifid apex Festuceae (p. 37) 



28. 

1. Spikelets with 1 perfect terminal floret and one 

imperfect or sterile lower floret; articulation below 

the glumes. 

11. Spikelets paired, one sessile and perfect, the 
other pediceled and staminate, sterile, or 
wanting Andropogoneae (p. 45) 

11. Spikelets single (or in rows on one side of a 

continuous rachis in Digitaria and Paspalum ) Paniceae (p. 47) 

Phalarideae 

1. Lower florets reduced to small, awnless, scale-like 
lemmas, smaller than the fertile florets; glumes 
equal, sometimes winged on the keel Phalaris 

1. Lower florets consisting of awned, hairy, sterile 
lemmas exceeding the fertile floret; glumes very 
unequal Anthoxanthum 

Phalaris 

Phalaris arundinacea L. Reed Canary-grass 

Java Farm. Abundant in somewhat marshy 5-acre meadow north of 
main buildings. Infrequent on roadsides near main buildings. 
Higman 149, 772, 779, 826, 894. 

Anthoxanthum 

Anthoxanthum odoratum L. Sweet Vernal Grass 

Ivy Neck. One station. Miss A. Colhoun's garden. Higman 1155. 

Tripsaceae 

Tripsacum dactyloides L. Gamagrass 

Java Farm. Infrequent, along roads and in scattered clumps in 
old fields. Higman 25. 

Oryzeae 

Leersia 

1. Lower panicle branches fascicled; spikelets about 
5 mm. long; leaf sheaths and blades very harshly 
scabrous; rhizomes long and slender L_. oryzoides 

1. Lower panicle branches not fascicled; spikelets 
about 3 mm. long; leaf sheaths and blades scabrous 
but not very harsh, not ciliate; rhizomes short, 
thick, and scaly L_. virginica 



29. 



Leersia oryzoides (L.) Wx. Rice-Cutgrass 

Java Farm. One station: in freshwater part of Fox Creek 
marsh. Hectare 3516. Associate species: Rosa palustris , Aster 
puniceus , Impatiens capensis . Higman 246. 

_L. virginica Willd. Whitegrass 

Java Farm. Infrequent, in woods near bank of Muddy Creek upstream 
from entrance road culvert; also along Fox Creek drainage; also one 
station in old field south of old entrance road. Associate species: 
Onoclea sensibilis , Epilobium coloratum . Glyceria striata , Elephantopus 
carolinianus . Higman 141, 188, 326. 



Hordeae 

1. Spikelets solitary at each node of rachis. 

2. Spikelets placed edgewise to the rachis Lolium 

2. Spikelets placed flatwise to the rachis. 

3. Annuals, cultivated. 

4 . Glumes ovate , 3-nerved Triticum 

4. Glumes subulate, 1-nerved Secale 

3. Perennials, not cultivated; plants with creeping 

rhizomes Agropyron 

1. Spikelets usually more than 1 at each node of the rachis. 

5. Spikelets 1-flowered, 3 at each node, the middle one 
sessile and perfect, the lateral pair usually 
pediceled, often reduced to awns and simulating 
an involucre Hordeum 

5. Spikelets 2- to 6-flowered, all alike, usually 2 or more at 
each node. 

6. Spikes dense; glumes as long as the lemmas, 
simulating an involucre; spikelets ascending 
or slightly spreading Elymus 

6. Spikes loose; glumes reduced to minute awn; 

spikelets widely spreading Hystrix 



30. 
Lolium perenne L. Common Darnel 

Java Farm. One station: along north boundary fence, adjacent 
neighboring cornfield. Associate species: Clematis virginiana . 
Amaranthus hybridus , Ambrosia artemisiifolia . 

Ivy Neck. One station: waste ground around old house, near 
entrance road, above drainage of east fork of Scaffold Creek. 
Hectare 4658. Associate species: Elymus villosus , Plantago aristata . 
Higman 769, 863. 

Triticum aestivum L. Wheat 

Ivy Neck. One station: path to abandoned wheat field on upper 
Scaffold Peninsula. Hectare 4740. Escaped from cultivation. Associate 
species: Polygonum avicular , Polygonum pensylvanicum , Diodia teres , 
Cyperus strigosus . Higman 684. 

Secale cereale L. Rye 

Ivy Neck. One station: abandoned wheat field on upper Scaffold 
Peninsula. Hectare 4761. Associate species: Trifolium pratense , 
Trifolium hybridum . Higman 747. 

Agropyron repens (L. ) Beauv. Quickgrass 

Java Farm. Infrequent: grassy field south of main buildings. 
Associate species: Agrostis alba , Cirsium discolor . Poa pratensis , 
Asclepias syriaca . Also one station beside new entrance road. 
Higman 829, 950. 

Hordeum pusillum Nutt. Little Barley 

Ivy Neck. One station: unpaved trail between cornfields on 
upper Scaffold Peninsula. Hectare 4771. Associate species: 
Anthemis arvensis , Plantago virginica , Lepidium virginicum . Rumex 
acetosella . Higman 697. 



Elymus 

1. Glumes narrow, bristle-like; glumes and lemmas 

hirsute JE. villosus 

1. Glumes broadened near the base; glumes and lemmas 
glabrous or nearly so. 

2. Glumes about 1 mm. wide at the middle, the bases 
not bowed out; palea much shorter than the lemma. 
Expected (_E. riparius ) . 

2. Glumes 1.5-2 mm. wide at the middle, the bases 

bowed out; palea about equal to the lemma _E. virginicus 



31, 



Elymus villosus Muhl. Wild Rye 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Infrequent to moderately abundant; 
seems to prefer moderately moist, moderately shaded sites like 
borders of forest. No consistent associate species. One station 
at Java Farm: summit of ridge northeast of main buildings, under 
canopy of Juglans nigra . Three stations at Ivy Neck, near streams 
or estuaries. Liquidambar styraciflua canopy. Higman 831, 850, 
865, 871. 

Elymus virginicus L. Terrell Grass 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Infrequent: dry, sandy sites near 
salt marshes. Two stations at Java Farm: small salt marsh on 
Rhode River above pier. Associate species: Asplenium platvneuron , 
Triodia f lava , Rhus typhina , Celastrus scandens . One station at 
Ivy Neck: bank overlooking dry halophytic area at Sand Point, 
Cheston Peninsula. Hectare 4860. Higman 225, 227, 1108. 



Hystrix 

Hystrix patula Moench Bottle-brush Grass 

Ivy Neck. One station: side of low bank at southwest border 
of Sand Point marsh. Hectare 4870. Junction of sand and mineral 
soil; shaded by forest. Associate species: Elymus villosus . E. 
virginicus . Higman 940. 

Chlorideae 

1. Spikelets with more than 1 perfect floret. 

2. Spikes slender, numerous, racemose; spikelets short- 
pediceled. Expected ( Leptochloa ) . 

2. Spikes stout, few, digitate; spikelets sessile Eleusine 

1. Spikelets with only 1 perfect floret, sometimes addition- 
al imperfect florets above. 

3. Spikelets without additional imperfect florets. 

4. Spikes racemose; culms erect; spikelets articu- 
late below the glumes; salt marsh habitat Spartina 

4. Spikes digitate; culms creeping by rhizomes 
or stolons; spikelets articulate above the 
glumes ; terrestrial habitat Cynodon 

3. Spikelets with 1 or more imperfect florets above 
the fertile one. Expected ( Gymnopogon ) . 



32. 



Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. 



Goosegrass (L) , 
Wiregrass 



Infrequent, on unshaded waste ground. Java Farm. One station: 
rubbish pile at main buildings. Hectare 2580. Associate species: 
Datura stramonium , Amaranthus spinosus . S planum nigrum . 

Ivy Neck. One station: near artificial pond at source of 
Cheston Creek drainage. Hectare 4722. Associate species: Datura 
stramonium , Polygonum persicaria . Abutilon theophrasti . Potentilla 
norvegica . Higman 499, 1001. 



Spartina 

1. Plants robust, usually more than 1 m. tall; keel of 
glumes and lemmas hispid-scabrous or ciliate; blades 
flat (involute after drying), more than 5 mm. wide; 
spikelets more than 1 cm. long. 

2. First glume nearly as long as the floret; second 
glume with an awn up to 7 mm. long. Expected 
(S_. pectinata ) . 

2. First glume much shorter than the floret; second 
glume awnless, acute or mucronate. 

3. Margins of blades very harsh and scabrous; 

glumes strongly hispid-scabrous on the keel S^. cynosuroides 

3. Margins of blades glabrous or minutely 
scabrous; glumes sof t-hispidulous or 
ciliate on the keel S_. alternifolia 

1. Plants rather slender, usually less than 1 m. tall; 
keels of glumes scabrous; blades involute, less 
than 5 mm . wide S_. patens 

Spartina cynosuroides (L.) Roth. Salt Reedgrass 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Moderately abundant in salt marshes on 
Rhode River and lower estuaries, on seaward side. Associate species: 
Aster subulatus . Baccharis halimifolia . Scirpus robustus , Atriplex 
patula . Higman 59. 

_S. alternifolia Loisel. Salt-water Cordgrass 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Moderately abundant in salt marshes on 
Rhode River and lower estuaries, and in dry, halophytic areas such as 
Sand Point. Associate species: Baccharis halimifolia . Distichlis 
spicata . Cakile edentula . Higman 115, 285. 



33. 

_S. patens (Ait.) Muhl. High-water Grass 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Moderately abundant in drier, more 
inland parts of salt marshes and halophytic sandy areas. Forms dense 
carpets. Associate species: Distichlis spicata . Panicum virgatum . 
Iva frutescens. Acnida cannabina . Higman 270. 



Cynodon 

Wiregrass (L) , 
Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. Bermuda Grass 

Java Farm. One station: parking area at main buildings, in 
cracked pavement. Hectare 2580. Higman 823. 



Agrostideae 

1. Panicle dense, spikelike. (Also, glumes as long as the 
lemma; articulation above the glumes.) 

2. Glumes glabrous, awnless; spikelets 11-14 mm. long.... Ammophila 

2. Glumes with spreading trichomes, abruptly awned; 

spikelets not more than 4 mm. long Phleum 

1. Panicle somewhat open, not spikelike. (Also, lemma usually 
awned except in Cinna and some species of Agrostis ) . 

3. Fruit hardened; callus sharp-pointed. Expected 
(Aristida) . 

3. Fruit thin; callus not sharp-pointed. 

4. Glumes as long as the lemma or longer. 

5. Callus of lemma bearded. Expected 
( Calamagrostis ) . 

5. Callus of lemma not bearded. 

6. Lemma minutely awned from just below the 

apex; spikelets falling entire Cinna 

6. Lemma awnless or awned from the back or 

near the base; glumes persistent Agrostis 

4. Glumes usually shorter than the lemma. 

7. Rachilla not prolonged as a bristle behind 
the palea; grain enclosed in the lemma and 
palea at maturity. (Also, plant with slender 
rhizome unless first glume is obsolete) Muhlenberg ia 



34. 



7. Rachilla prolonged behind the palea as a bristle; 
or if not, the grain falling from the lemma and 
palea at maturity. Expected (Brachyelytrum ) . 



Ammophila 

Ammophila arenaria (L.) Link Sand-reed 

Ivy Neck. One station: beach on south shore of Sand Point. 
Hectare 4861. Higman 1153. 

Phleum 

Phleum pratense L. Timothy 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent in abandoned grassy field on Scaffold 
Peninsula. Hectare 4761. Associate species: Festuca elatior . 
Polygonum aviculare , Hypericum perforatum . Higman 810. 



Cinna 

Cinna arundinacea L. Wood Reedgrass 

Java Farm. Infrequent in Muddy Creek valley; canopy of Fraxinus 
americana , Platanus occidentalis ; understory of Lindera benzoin . 
Also one station at forest border of old field south of old entrance 
road; canopy of Fagus grandifolia and Quercus velutina . Higman 66, 
85, 134. 



Agrostis 

1. Palea much smaller than the lemma or wanting, 

nerveless. (Also lemma awnless; plants perennial.) 

2. Panicle diffuse, its long branches forking at or 
above the middle. Expected (A. hiemalis ) . 

2. Panicle open but not diffuse, its branches forking at 
or below the middle. 

3. Spikelets mostly 2-2.5 mm. long A. perennans 

3. Spikelets mostly 2.5-3.5 mm. long, crowded near 

ends of panicle branches. Expected (A. altissima ) . 



35. 



1. Palea at least half as long as lemna, 2-nerved. 

(Also, ligule 2-6 mm. long; panicle branches spikelet- 
bearing to base.) 

4. Panicle open; long stolons absent. 

5. Culms erect, with strong creeping rhizomes A. alba 

5. Culms decumbent; rhizomes wanting. Expected 
(A. stolonifera ) . 

4. Panicle narrow; long stolons usually present A, palustris 

Agrostis perennans (Walt.) Tuckerm. Upland Bentgrass 

Java Farm. Infrequent, along Fox Creek drainage and in large 
field adjacent road to pier. Higman 324, 334. 

A. alba L. 

(A. stolonifera L.) Redtop 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Infrequent in grassy abandoned fields. 
Associate species at Java Farm: Agropyron repens , Allium vineale, 
Cirsium discolor , Asclepias syriaca . Associates at Ivy Neck: Eleocharis 
intermedia , Carex scoparia , Agropyron repens . Higman 858, 951. 

A. palustris Huds. 

(A. stolonifera L.) Creeping Bentgrass 

Java Farm. One station: bank of tidal portion of Muddy Creek, 
near mouth of tributary stream. Hectare 3437. Associate species: 
Brasenia schreberi , Carex lurida, Polygonum punctatum . Higman 989. 

Muhlenberg ia 

Muhlenbergia schreberi Gmel. 

Java Farm. Infrequent, along Fox Creek drainage and vicinity. 
Associate species: Perilla frutescens . Duchesnea indica . Aster 
lateriflorus . Geum canadense . Higman 309, 318, 348. 

Aveneae 

1. Florets 2, one perfect, the other staminate. 

2. Lower floret staminate, with a long, bent, 

twisted awn; upper floret perfect Arrhenatherum 

2. Lower floret perfect, awnless; upper floret 

staminate, with a short , hooked awn Holcus 



36. 



1. Florets 2 or more, all alike except the reduced upper 
ones. 

3. Lemmas bifid, awned from between the lobes; 

florets several Danthonia 

3. Lemmas awnless, mucronate, or awned from the back; 
florets usually 2 or 3 (up to 6 in Avena ) . 

4. Glumes more than 1 cm. long. Expected (Avena ) . 

4. Glumes less than 1 cm. long. 

5. Glumes shorter than the florets; lemmas 
awnless or mucronate. 

6. Glumes unequal in shape, the second 

obovate and much broader than the first. 

(Also, plant 3-10 mm. high in species 

collected) Sphenopholis 

6. Glumes similar in shape, unequal in size. 
(Also, plant 3-6 dm. high). Expected 
( Koeleria ) . 

5. Glumes as long as or longer than the florets; 
lemmas awned from the back. 

7. Lemmas keeled, awned from near the apex; awn 
bent and twisted. Expected (Trisetum ) . 

7. Lemmas rounded on the back, awned from below 
the middle. 

8. Rachilla extending as a bristle 
behind the upper floret; plants 
perennial Deschampsia 

8. Rachilla not extending; plants delicate 
annuals. Expected (Aira) . 



Arrhenatherum 

Arrhenatherum elatius (L.) Mert. and Koch Fall Oatgrass 

Java Farm. Infrequent along roads near main building area, and 
in old fields. Associate species: Triosteum perfoliatum , Galium 
circaezans , Houstonia purpurea , Lychnis alba . Hignmn 661, 716, 
763, 778. 



37. 

Holcus 

Holcus lanatus L. Velvet-grass 

Java Farm. One station: road to springhouse. Hectare 3417. 
Associate species: Melilotus alba . Taraxacum officinale , Valerianella 
olitoria , Duchesnea indica , Rhus radicans . Higman 800. 

Danthonia 

Danthonia spicata (L.) Beauv. Poverty-grass, 

White Oatgrass 

Java Farm. One station near marshy west end of Phalaris 
arundinacea meadow, north of main buildings. Hectare 2467. Associate 
species: Glyceria striata , Lindera benzoin , Allium vineale, Carex 
Wanda. 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent along banks of upper Cheston Creek estuary. 
Canopy of Quercus velutina , Prunus serotina , Liquidambar styracif lua , 
Acer rubrum . Associate species: Hieracium venosum , Amelanchier 
intermedia , Elymus villosus . Higman 787, 843, 872. 



Sphenopholis 

Sphenopholis nitida (Bieler) Scribn. 

Java Farm. One station: shoulder of old Muddy Creek Road, near 
entrance gate. Hectare 2473. Higman 643. 

Deschampsia 

Deschampsia flexuosa (L.) Trin. Common Hairgrass 

Java Farm. Infrequent on Fox Point Road and moderately abundant 
at Fox Point under Quercus prinus canopy. Associate species: Rhodo - 
dendron viscosum , Gaylussacia baccata, Kalmia latifolia , Juncus 
tenuis , Baptisia tinctoria . Higman 435, 645, 802. 

Festuceae 

1. Plants dioecious Distichlis 

1. Plants not dioecious; flowers usually perfect. 

2. Plants more than 1.5 m. tall; salt marsh habitat... Phragmites 

2. Plants not more than 1.5 m. tall, usually shorter; 
terrestrial habitat. 



38. 

3. Lemmas with 3 prominent nerves. 

4. Lemmas pubescent on the nerves and callus, the 
midnerve extended as a short awn. 

5. Palea densely long-ciliate on upper half 
of keel; panicle with few spreading, 
few-flowered branches; sandy beach habitat. 
Expected (Triplasis ) . 

5. Palea not long-ciliate on upper half of 
keel; panicle large and open; roadside- 
old field habitat Triodia 

4. Lemmas not pubescent on the nerves and 

callus , awnless Eragrostis 

3. Lemmas with 5 to many nerves, these sometimes 
faint. 

6. Lemmas keeled. 

7. Spikelets with 1-4 empty lemmas below the 

fertile florets Uniola 

7. Spikelets with no empty lemmas below the 
fertile florets. 

8. Spikelets flat, nearly sessile, in 
thick 1-sided clusters at the ends 
of stiff branches Dactylis 

8. Spikelets only slightly flattened, not 
in 1-sided clusters. 

9. Spikelets more than 1 cm. long; 

lemmas awned Bromus 

9. Spikelets not more than 6 mm. long; 

lemmas awnless Poa 

6. Lemmas rounded on back. 

10. Nerves of lemma prominent, parallel. 
(Also, glumes not papery; all florets 
alike; spikelets usually green) Glyceria 

10. Nerves of lemma less prominent, converging 
toward the summit. 

11. Lemmas minutely bifid at apex, awned 

from between the teeth Bromus 

11. Lemmas acute, awned from the tip or 
awnless. 



39. 



12. Lemmas awned (except in J?, elatior 
and F. obtusa ) ; without cobwebby 
pubescence at base Festuca 

12. Lemmas awnless; with cobwebby 
pubescence at base (except in 
P_. annua , P_. autumnalis , and 
P_. compressa ) Poa 



Distichlis 

Distichlis spicata (L.) Greene Alkali-grass 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Moderately abundant in the more inland 
parts of salt marshes. Associate species: Spartina patens , Panicum 
virgatum , Iva frutescens . Higman 52. 



Phragmites 

Phragmites communis Trin. Reed 

Java Farm. One station in Hog Island salt marsh. Hectare 3583. 
Associate species: Spartina cynosuroides , Panicum virgatum . One 
other station reported in Corn Island salt marsh. Higman 441. 

Triodia 

Triodia flava (L.) Smyth 

(Tridens flavus (L.) Hitchc.) Fall Redtop 

Java Farm. One station: old field near Fox Point Road on north 
side, near stand of Pinus virginiana . Hectare 3533. Higman 363. 

_T. flava , forma cuprea (Jacq.) Fosberg Fall Redtop 

Java Farm. Infrequent in old fields. Also one station in 
cracked pavement at main buildings. Hectare 2580. Associate species: 
Euphorbia maculata , Juncus tenuis , Eupatorium serotinum . Higman 13, 
226, 341. 



Erogrostis 

Eragrostis spectabilis (Pursh) Steud. Love-grass, 

Tumble-grass 

Java Farm. Infrequent to moderately abundant in Fox Point Road, 
Associate species: Plantago aristata, Dianthus armeria. Digitaria 
ischaemum, Juncus tenuis. Higman 26, 365. 



40. 



Uniola 

Uniola laxa (L.) BSP. Spikegrass, 

(new comb. Chasmanthium laxum (L.) Yates) Spanglegrass 

Java Farm. Infrequent in Hog Island salt marsh. Associate 
species: Distichlis spicata , Panicum virgatum . Higman 342, 452. 



Dactylis 

Dactylis glomerata L. Orchard-grass 

Java Farm. Infrequent: stations beside old and new entrance 
roads. Associate species: Galium aparine , Carex blanda . Carex 
muhlenbergii var. enervis , Fragaria virginiana . Poa pratensis . 
Higman 640, 1107. 

Bromus 

1. Spikelets strongly flattened, lemmas keeled; awn 
short or wanting. Expected (_B. catharticus ) . 

1. Spikelets not strongly flattened, terete before 
flowering; awn usually present. 

2. Plants perennial; culms usually 1 m. tall or more. 

3. Creeping rhizomes present; panicle erect, 
contracted at maturity; lemmas glabrous; 
awn minute or wanting JS. inermi 



3. Creeping rhizomes wanting; panicle open, 
spreading or drooping; lemmas evenly pubescent; 
awn present. Expected (B. latiglumis ) . 

2. Plants annual; culms usually shorter than 70 cm. 

4. Lemmas narrow, acuminate, with a sharp callus 

at the base; awns usually more than 1.5 cm. long. 
Expected (B. tectorum ) . 

4. Lemmas broad, rounded above, without a sharp callus; 
awns usually less than 1 cm. long or wanting. 

5. Panicle contracted, its branches erect or 
ascending. 

6. Lemmas pubescent. Expected (J3. mollis ) . 

6. Lemmas scabrous or glabrous _B. racemosus 



41. 



5. Panicle open, its branches spreading or 
drooping. 

7. Lemma inflated, awnless. Expected 
(B. brizeaformis ) . 

7. Lemma not inflated, awned. 

8. Branches of panicle rather stiffly 

spreading, not drooping j3. commutatus 

8. Branches of panicle lax, drooping. 



9. Lemmas obtuse; awn flexuous; palea 
distinctly shorter than lemma 



lapomcus 



9. Lemmas acute, bifid; awn straight 
or nearly so; palea about as long 
as lemma. Expected (B. arvensis) . 



Bromus inermis Leyss. 



Awnless Bromegrass 



Ivy Neck. One station: beside trail to abandoned grassy field 
on Scaffold Peninsula. Hectare 4740. Associate species: Rumex 
crispus , Anagallis arvensis , Galinsoga ciliata . Mo Hugo verticillata , 
Oenothera biennis . Higman 854. 



racemosus L. 



Bromegrass 



Java Farm. One station: broken pavement in Fox Point Road. 
Associate species: Plantago aristata , Festuca myuros , Cyperus 
f ilicinus . Higman 1112. 



_B. commutatus Schrad. 
(B. racemosus L. ) 



Hairy Chess 



Java Farm. Infrequent along new entrance road and Fox Point 
Road. Also one station on south-facing slope east of Muddy Creek 
and adjacent north border. Hectare 2458. Associate species: Allium 
vineale, Juncus canadensis , Carex tribuloides , Plantago aristata . 
Higman 788, 891, 1136. 



_B. japonicus Thunb, 



Japanese Chess 



Java Farm. One station: old field on south side of Fox Creek 
marsh. Hectare 3524. Partial canopy of Pinus virginiana and 
Liquidambar styraciflua . Associate species: Erigeron annuus , Solidago 
graminifolia , _S. altissima . Higman 890. 



42. 

Poa 

1. Plants not more than 25 cm. tall; annuals. 

2. Lemmas with webby pubescence at base, distinctly 
3-nerved, the intermediate nerves faint, thickly 
pubescent on the lateral nerves and keel; plants 
pale green . _P. chapmaniana 

2. Lemmas glabrous at base, distinctly 5-nerved, 
somewhat pubescent on the lower half of all 

nerves, especially the keel; plants bright green... J?, annua 

1. Plants more than 25 cm. tall; perennials. 

3. Creeping rhizomes present. 

4. Culms very flattened, 2-edged; lemmas glabrous 

or nearly so at base. _P. compressa 

4. Culms rounded or slightly flattened; lemmas 
with webby pubescence at base. 

5. Blades shorter than the culm; lower branches 

of panicle in a whorl of 5 P_. pratensis 

5. Blades about equal to the culm in length; 
lower branches of panicle usually in 2's. 
Expected (P. cuspidata ) . 

3. Creeping rhizomes wanting. 

6. Lemmas glabrous at base, tips of lemma blunt 

and scarious P_. autumnalis 

6. Lemmas webbed at base. 

7. Lemmas slightly pubescent on the keel or 

glabrous on all nerves. Expected (P. trivialis ) . 

7. Lemmas pubescent on the keel and marginal 
nerves. 

8. Lower panicle branches spreading or reflexed 
at maturity; panicle erect, much longer 
than wide; intermediate nerves of lemma 
prominent P_. sylvestris 

8. Lower panicle branches not reflexed at 

maturity; panicle long, open; intermediate 
nerves of lemma faint. Expected 
(P_. palustris ) . 



43. 



Poa chapmaniana Scribn. Meadowgrass 

Java Farm. One station: broken pavement at main building 
area. Hectare 2580. Associate species: Poa annua , Juncus tenuis , 
Triodia flava . 

Ivy Neck. One station at border of cornfield on Scaffold 
Peninsula. Higman 587, 822. 

J?, annua L. Annual Bluegrass 

Java Farm. One station: broken pavement at main building 
area. Hectare 2580. Associate species: Poa chapmaniana above. 
Higman 1113. 

P_. compress a L. Wiregrass, 

Canada bluegrass 

Ivy Neck. Moderately abundant in grazed woods at head of 
Cheston Creek estuary. Canopy of Robinia pseudoacacia , Platanus 
occidentalis , Diospyros virginiana . Also one station on east bank 
of estuary. Higman 731, 734, 876. 

_P. pratensis L. Kentucky Bluegrass, 

Junegrass 

Java Farm. Moderately abundant; dominant species in the few 
remaining grass areas in old fields. Infrequent along roadsides at 
both Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Forms dense turf, invaded by Rhus 
radicans and Cirsium discolor . Higman 335, 547, 621. 

_P. autumnalis Muhl. ex Ell. Meadowgrass 

Java Farm. One station: Mature forest near old entrance road. 
Hectare 2474. Canopy of Fagus grandifolia , Quercus alba , Nyssa 
sylvatica , Liriodendron tulipif era , Liquidambar styracif lua . 
Higman 678. 

_P. sylvestris Gray Meadowgrass 

Java Farm. Infrequent; stations at old entrance gate and at bank 
of Muddy Creek upstream from entrance road. Canopy of mature Fagus 
grandifolia , Liriodendron tulipif era . Associate species (none at 
both stations) : Dactylis glomerata . Galium aparine , Glyceria striata . 
Higman 641, 791. 



Glyceria 
1. Spikelets linear, 1-4 cm. long G. septentrionalis 



44. 



1. Spikelets ovate, 2-7 %m. long. (Also, panicle open; 
lemmas prominently nerved; first glume less than 
1 mm. long; florets crowded toward ends of branches, 
often purplish) G. striata 

Glyceria septentrionalis Hitchc. Sweet Grass, 

Floating Eastern 
Mannagrass 

Ivy Neck. One station: moist, grazed woods at head of Cheston 
Creek estuary. Hectare 4733. Canopy of mature Platanus occidentalis , 
Diospyros virginiana , Liquidambar styraciflua . Robinia pseudoacacia . 
Associate species: Glyceria striata , Poa compressa , Carex crinita , 
Carex tribuloides . Higman 735. 

G_. striata (Lam.) Hitchc. Fowl Meadowgrass, 

Fowl Mannagrass 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Infrequent to moderately abundant in 
stream valleys, moist woodland, etc. Principal stations are at head 
of Cheston Creek estuary (described above) and at shore of Muddy Creek, 
upstream from culvert of old entrance road (Java Farm). Associate 
species besides those listed above: Panicum clandestinum , Lindera 
benzoin , Carex blanda , Duchesnea indica , Danthonia spicata . Higman 180, 
730, 732, 745, 756, 790. 



Festuca 

1. Blades usually 4-8 mm. wide, flat. (Also, plants 
tall perennials, not densely tufted; lemmas awnless 
except in J£. elatior forma aristata ) . 

2. Spikelets 8-15 mm. long, 6- to 11-f lowered; 

panicle contracted; lemmas acute F_. elatior 

2. Spikelets 4-6 mm. long, 2- to 5-f lowered; panicle 
diffuse; lemmas obtuse. 

3. Spikelets lanceolate, scattered at tips of 
branchlets; glumes and lemmas appressed. 
Expected (F. obtusa ) . 

3. Spikelets ovate, close together; glumes and 

lemmas loosely ascending _F. paradoxa 

1. Blades usually less than 1.5 mm. wide, involute or, 
if flat, less than 3.5 mm. wide. 

4. Plants annual; stamen 1. (Also, lemmas glabrous). 



45. 



5. First glume much shorter than the second; awns 

about 1 cm. long J_. myuros 

5. First glume 2/3 to 3/4 as long as the second; 

awns 3 to 5 mm. long JF. octof lora 

4. Plants perennial; stamens 3. (Also, culms densely 
tufted). 

6. Culms somewhat decumbent at base; base reddish, 

the basal sheaths becoming fibrous shreds F_. rubra 

6. Culms erect; base not reddish or shreding. 
Expected (F. ovina) . 

Festuca elatior L. Meadow-Fescue 

Ivy Neck. One station: abandoned grassy field on Scaffold 
Peninsula. Hectare 4772. Associate species: Phleum pratense , 
Trif olium arvense , Hypericum perforatum . Higman 809. 

Festuca paradoxa Desv. Fescue 

Java Farm. One station: beside new entrance road. Hectare 2582. 
Associate species: Panicum clandestinum , Vicia sativa , Lepidium 
campestre , Melilotus alba . Higman 833. 

_F. myuros L. 

Java Farm. One station: broken pavement on Fox Point Road. 
Associate species: Plantago aristata , Cyperus filicinus , Dianthus 
armeria . Higman 807. 

J£. octof lora Walt. Six-weeks Fescue 

Ivy Neck. One station: west shore of Cheston Creek estuary. 
Canopy of Quercus velutina, Acer rub rum , Juglans nigra , Liquidambar 
styracif lua . Associate species: Glyceria striata . Higman 742. 

_F. rubra L. Red Fescue 

Java Farm. Infrequent; road to springhouse. Hectare 3417. 
Associate species: Taraxacum officinale , Poa pratensis , Rhus 
radicans . Higman 1109, 1110. 



Andropogoneae 

1. Spikelets all alike, perfect. (Also, spikelets 
surrounded by copious soft hairs; lemmas awned) . 
Expected ( Miscanthus , Erianthus ) . 



46. 



1. Spikelets dissimilar, one of each group sessile and 
perfect, the other 1 or 2 pedicellate and either 
staminate, sterile, or reduced to a pedicel. 

2. Blades ovate; plant a weak, trailing annual. 
Expected ( Arthraxon ) . 

2. Blades linear, elongate; plant erect, stiff, 
perennial. 

3. Racemes terminal and axillary; rachis with 
several to many joints, promptly disarti- 
culating Andropogon 

3. Racemes terminal only; rachis with 2 or 3 
tardily separating joints. 

4. Fertile spikelet awnless (awn very early- 
deciduous) ; pediceled spikelets staminate 
or sterile Sorghum 

4. Fertile spikelet with a long, persistent, 
basally twisted awn; pediceled spikelets 
usually rediced to hairy pedicels Sorghastrum 



Andropogon 

1. Racemes solitary on each peduncle; internodes and 

pedicels club-shaped A. scoparius 

1. Racemes 2 to several on each peduncle, digitate; 
internodes and pedicels slender. (Also, 
pedicellate spikelet reduced to a pedicel or 
to empty glumes; racemes silky villous, not 
conspicuously aggregate at the summit of the culm) . 

2. Peduncles mostly 5 to 15 cm. long. Expected 
(A. elliottii , A_. ternarius ) . 

2. Peduncles not more than 1 cm. long. 

3. Upper sheaths conspicuously inflated. Expected 
(A. elliottii ) . 

3. Upper sheaths not inflated A. virginicus 

Andropogon scoparius Michx. Bluestem, Bunchgrass 

Java Farm. Infrequent in Hog Island salt marsh. Associate 
species: Panicum virgatum , Myrica cerifera , Diospyros virginiana , 
Distichlis spicata . Higman 287, 292, 302. 



47. 



Andropogon virginicus L. Broomsedge 

Java Farm. Infrequent in Phalaris arundinacea meadow and on 
adjacent south- and west-facing slopes. Associate species: Asplenium 
platyneuron , Hypericum mutilum , Paspalum laeve , Sorghastrum nutans . 
Higman 150. 



Sorghum 

Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. Johnson-grass 

Java Farm. Infrequent in old fields, especially near the pier. 
Associate species: Gnaphalium obtusifolium , Triosetum perfoliatum , 
Solidago altissima . Higman 144, 243. 

Sorghastrum 

Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash Indian Grass 

Java Farm. Infrequent in old fields; often solitary among dense 
Lonicera japonica and Rhus radicans . Higman 205, 207, 467. 

Paniceae 

1. Spikelets subtended by an involucre of 1 to many 
distinct or united bristles. 

2. Bristles united into a spiny bur permanently 

enclosing the spikelet . . . . Cenchrus 

2. Bristles separate, persistent, the spikelets 

deciduous Setaria 

1. Spikelets not subtended by an involucre. 

3. Glumes or sterile lemma awned Echinochloa 

3. Glumes and sterile lemma awnless. 

4. Fruit tough but flexible; margins of lemma 
not inrolled. 

5. Spikelets in slender, rather digitate terminal 

racemes Digitaria 

5. Spikelets in diffuse panicles. Expected 
(Leptoloma) . 



48. 



4. Fruit hard and rigid; margins of lemma inrolled. 
(Also, spikelets placed with the back of the 
lemma toward the rachis, or spikelets pedicellate 
in panicles) . 

6. First glume wanting; spikelets plano-convex, 

in spikelike racemes . Paspalum 

6. First glume present; spikelets not plano- 
convex, in panicles. 

7. Spikelets on short pedicels; second glume 
inflated like a sac near the base. 
Expected ( Sacciolepis) . 

7. Spikelets on long pedicels; second glume 

not inflated Panicum 



Cenchrus 

Cenchrus tribuloides L. Sandbur 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent on sandy beach on Rhode River shore of 
Cheston Peninsula. Associate species: Strophostyles helvola , Spartina 
alternif lora , Cakile edentula . Higman 1013. 



Setaria 

1. Bristles of involucre at least 5. (Also, panicle 
dense, spikelike). 

2. Plants with short, knotty rhizomes; spikelets 

about 2.5 mm. long; palea reduced; plant perennial. 
Expected (_S. geniculata ) . 

2. Plants without rhizomes; spikelets about 3 mm. 

long; palea developed; plant annual S^. glauca 

1. Bristles of involucre 1 to 3, or appearing more by 
abortion of spikelets. 

3. Bristles retrorsely scabrous. Expected 
(S . verticillata ) . 

3. Bristles antrorsely scabrous. 

4. Fertile lemma coarsely transversely rugose; 

spikelets about 3 mm. long S_. faberii 

4. Fertile lemma smooth or slightly rugose; spikelets 
not more than 2.5 mm. long. Expected OS. viridis ) . 



49. 



Setaria glauca (L.) Beauv. Foxtail Grass, 

(S. lutescens (Weigel) F. T. Hubbard) Yellow bristlegrass 

Java Farm. Infrequent in old fields. 

Ivy Neck. Moderately abundant near margins of cultivated fields. 
Associate species: Strophostyles umbellata , Echinochloa walteri . 
Polygonum persicaria , Eupatorium serotinum . Datura stramonium . 
Higman 140, 336, 1045, 1052, 1127. 

_S. faberii Herrm. Foxtail Grass 

Java Farm. One station: rubbish pile at main building area. 
Hectare 2580. Associate species: Eleusine indica . Datura stramonium . 
Also one station at north border, beside neighboring cornfield. 
Associate species: Clematis virginiana , Amaranthus hybridus . 

Ivy Neck. One station: pile of dry soil near artificial pond 
at head of Cheston Creek drainage. Hectare 4722. Associate species: 
Echinochloa pungens . Higman 5, 878, 1035. 



Echinochloa 

1. Second glume awnless (often acuminate in E. pungens) ; 
spikelets ovoid; fruit ovoid to oval; sheaths of 
leaves glabrous. 

2. Fertile (coriaceous) lemma obtuse to subacute, 

the tip soft and wilting; spikelets with appressed 
slender trichomes, pustular-based trichomes if 
present few and marginal. Expected (E. crusgalli ) . 

2. Fertile lemma acuminate, the tip firm; spikelets 
with conspicuous bristles, the trichomes usually 
pustular-based _E. pungens 

1. Second glume awned (awn shorter than that of sterile 
lemma); spikelets ellipsoid; fruit slenderly lanceolate 
to lance-ellipsoid, acute; sheaths of leaves usually 
hirsute, the hairs pustular-based . _E. walteri 

Echinochloa pungens (Poir.) Rydb. Barnyard Grass 

(E. crusgalli (L.) Beauv.) 

Java Farm. One station: marshy west end of Phalaris arundinacea 
meadow, north of main building area. Hectare 2467. Associate species: 
Erechtites hieracifolia , Juncus effusus , Polygonum pensylvanicum , 
Polygonum sagittatum . 



50. 



Ivy Neck. Infrequent at borders of cultivated fields: one 
station near artificial pond at source of Cheston Creek drainage; one 
in weedy field near forested valley of Scaffold Creek drainage. 
Associate species: Eleusine indica , Ludwigia palustris . Polygonum 
persicaria , Setaria glauca , Strophostyles umbellata . Higman 174, 255, 866, 
996, 1138. 

_E. walteri (Pursh) Nash 

Java Farm. One station: upstream limit of salt marsh on Muddy 
Creek, beyond margin of forest. Hectare 3430. Associate species: 
Echinochloa pungen s , Baccharis halimifolia , Cyperus strigosus , Asclepias 
incarnata , Eclipta alba , Scirpus validus var. creber. Higman 541. 



Digitaria 

Digitaria ischaemum (Schreb.) Muhl. Crabgrass 

Java Farm. Infrequent along Fox Point Road and in yard of burned 
house on road to springhouse. Associate species: Juncus tenuis , Rhus 
typhina , Paspalum setaceum . Higman 27, 387. 

Paspalum 

1. Racemes both terminal and axillary, the latter sometimes 
hidden in the sheaths; spikelets not more than 2 mm. 
long. 

2. Blades usually not over 8 mm. wide; spikelets 

about 1. 5 mm. long P_. setaceum 

2. Blades up to 20 mm. wide; spikelets at least 2 mm. 
long. (Also, culms erect; leaves sparsely to densely 
pilose) . Expected (P. pubescens ) . 

1. Racemes terminal on the primary culm or on leafy 
branches, not axillary; spikelets 2.5-4 mm. long. 

3. Spikelets conspicuously ciliate on the margins; 
leaves glabrous. (Also, culms geniculate at base). 
Expected (P_. dilatatum ) . 

3. Spikelets not ciliate; leaves pilose. 

4. Plants robust, usually 1-2 m. tall; spikelets 

4 mm . long P_. f loridanum . 

4. Plants not robust, less than 1 m. tall; spikelets 
usually under 3.5 mm. long. 



51. 



5. Spikelets orbicular, 3-3.2 mm. long. (Also, 
blades as long as or longer than the culm) . 
Expected (P. circulare ) . 

5. Spikelets longer than broad, mostly under 
3 mm. long. 

6. Sheaths and blades very pilose; culms 
ascending to erect. Expected 
(P . longipilum ) . 

6. Sheaths and blades glabrous or sparsely 

pilose; culms more spreading P_. laeve 

Paspalum setaceum Michx. 

Java Farm. One station: yard of burned house on road to 
springhouse. Hectare 3417. Partial canopy of Rhus typhina . Associate 
species: Digitaria ischaemum , Lonicera japonica , Trifolium repens , 
Lepidium virginicum , Clematis virginiana . Higman 386. 

JP. f loridanum Michx. , var. glabratum Engelm. ex Vasey 

Java Farm. Infrequent: one station on Fox Point Road; 
associate species: Juncus tenuis , Eragrostis spectabilis , Plantago 
aristata . Also one station in Hog Island salt marsh; associate species: 
Distichlis spicata , Andropogon scoparius , Panicum virgatum , Juncus 
dichotomus . Higman 18, 299. 

Paspalum laeve Michx. 

Java Farm. One station: south-facing slope north of Phalaris 
arundinacea meadow, north of main building area. Hectare 2458. 
Spreading Rhus radicans , Camp sis radicans, and Rub us spp. ; few grassy 
spots. Associate species: Lespedeza repens , Hieracium scabrum . 
Higman 165. 



Panicum 

1. Basal leaves similar to culm leaves, not forming 
winter rosettes. 

2. Plants annual. 

3. Spikelets warty, tuberculate. Expected 
(P_. verrucosum ) . 

3. Spikelets smooth. 

4. First glume about 1/4 as long as the spikelet, 
blunt, rounded, or truncate; sheaths glabrous; 
nodes glabrous p. dichotomiflorum 



52. 

4. First glume about 1/2 as long as the spikelet, 
acute or acuminate; sheaths hirsute or 
villous; nodes bearded. (Also, panicle 
erect; spikelets not more than 4 mm. long). 

5. Panicle more than 1/2 the entire length 
of plant. (Also, panicle as broad as 
long) spikelets 2-2.5 mm. long P. capillare 

5. Panicle not more than 1/3 the entire 

length of plant. Expected (P_. philadelphicum ) . 

2. Plants perennial. 

6. Plants without creeping, scaly rhizomes. 
Expected (P. agrostoides , P_. stipitatum ) . 

6. Plants with creeping, scaly rhizomes. 

7. Pedicels of spikelets usually over 3 mm. long. 

8. Panicle long and narrow; spikelets 5-6.5 
mm. long; sandy seacoast habitat. Expected 
(P. amarum ) . 

8. Panicle moderately diffuse; spikelets 

4.5 mm. long; salt marsh and tidal stream 

habitat. (Also, culms rigid, terete; 

sheaths not compressed) P_. virgatum 

7. Pedicels of spikelets 1-3 mm. long. (Also, 
panicle open; spikelets 3.3-3.7 mm. long; 
culms firm to soft; culms and sheaths 
compressed; terrestrial habitat) P_. anceps 

Basal leaves unlike the cauline ones, forming winter 
rosettes (except in P_. depauperatum , the leaves then 
crowded near the base) . 

9. Spikelets glabrous or nearly so. 

10. Spikelets about 3.5 mm. long. (Also, sheaths 
pilose; blades scabrous above, pilose beneath) . 
Expected (P_. depauperatum ) . 

10. Spikelets less than 3 mm. long. 

11. Spikelets 1.5 mm. long or less. (Also, ligule 

not over 1.5 mm. long; nodes bearded) P_. microcarpon 

11. Spikelets 2-3 mm. long. Expected (5 species, 
especially P_. dichotomum ) . (Also, blades 2 
cm. wide or more, strongly nerved, scabrous, 
round at base; spikelets 3 mm. long). 



53. 

9. Spikelets pubescent, some sparingly so. 

12. Spikelets 3 mm. long or more. 

13. Blades of leaves at midculm 15 times as 
long as wide. (Also, sheaths hispid or 
glabrous; spikelets pointed). Expected 
(Z* depauperatum ) . 

13. Blades of leaves at midculm seldom over 
10 times as long as wide. (Also, 
spikelets 3.5-4 mm. long or more). 

14. Blades velvety-pubescent beneath. 

Expected (P_. ravenelii , P_. boscii v. molle ) . 

14. Blades not velvety-pubescent beneath. 

15. Sheaths glabrous or minutely 
puberulent . 

16. Nodes bearded; spikelets 4 mm. 
long or more. Expected 
(P . boscii ) . 

16. Nodes not bearded; spikelets 

about 2.8 mm. long P_. commutatum 

15. Sheaths bristly. (Also, blades 

2 cm. wide or more) P_. clandestinum 

12. Spikelets less than 3 mm. long. (Also, blades 
usually over 5 mm. wide) . 

17. Spikelets attenuate at base; blades 
tapering from base to apex. Expected 
(P. angustif olium ) . 

17. Spikelets not attenuate at base; blades 
otherwise. (Also, sheaths not retrorsely 
pilose) . 

18. Ligule (1.5) 2-5 mm. long. 

19. Sheaths, or all but the lowest, 
glabrous. (Also, ligule 4-5 mm. 
long; spikelets 1.5 mm. long: leaf 
blades and axis of panicle glabrous 
or nearly so) . Expected (P. lindheimeri ) . 



53a. 



19. Sheaths pubescent. (Also, culms and 
spikelets usually so). 

20. Spikelets not more than 2 mm. long. 

21. Ligule 1-1.5 mm. long. Expected 
(.P . tsugetorum ) . 

21. Ligule 2-5 mm. long. 

22. Axis of panicle glabrous or puberulent. 
(Also, spikelets 1.3-1.6 
mm. long) . Expected (P_. meridionale ) . 

22. Axis of panicle pilose. 

23. Spikelets 1-1.3 mm. long. 
Expected (P. leucothrix ) . 

23. Spikelets 1.6-1.9 mm. long. 

24. Culms, sheaths, and blades 

velvety _P . lanuginosum 

24. Culms, sheaths, and blades 
spreading-pilose. Expected 
(P. huachucae ) . 

20. Spikelets about 2.5 mm. long. (Also, 
culms, sheaths, and blades densely 
villous). Expected (P. villosissimum ) . See Appendix 1. 

18. Ligule absent. 

25. Nodes bearded. 

26. Spikelets 1.3-1.5 mm. long 7_. microcarpon 

26. Spikelets 2 mm. long or more. 
Expected (P. mattamuskeetense ) . 

25. Nodes not bearded. 

27. Plant velvet-pubescent throughout. 
Expected (P. scoparium ) . 

27. Plant not velvety throughout. 

28. Sheaths pilose or hispid. 



54. 



29. Blades 2 cm. wide or more P_. clandestinum 

29. Blades less than 1 cm. wide. 
Expected (P. addisonii ) . 

28. Sheaths glabrous or puberulent . 

29. Spikelets spherical. (Also, blades 
cordate, white-margined). Expected 
(P_. polyanthes ) . 

29. Spikelets ovate. 

30. Spikelets 2.3-3 mm. long. 

30. Spikelets less than 2 mm. long. 
Expected (P. columbianum ) . 

31. Culms glabrous or nearly so; 

blades 1.5 cm. wide or more P. commutatum 



31. Culms puberulent; blades not over 
1 cm. wide. Expected (P. ashei ) . 

Panicum dichotomif lorum Michx. 

Java Farm. One station: border of salt marsh on tidal portion 
of Muddy Creek. Associate species: Spartina alternif lora , Rum ex 
verticillatus . Higman 290. 

P_. capillare L. Old -witch Grass 

Java Farm. One station: small old field north of main buiding 
area. Hectare 2580. Lonicera japonica and Vitis vulpina dominant. 
Higman 539. 

P_. virgatum L. var. spissum Linder Switchgrass 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Moderately abundant in salt marshes, 
especially the more inland parts. Associate species: Distichlis spicata , 
Pluchea camphorata , Spartina patens . Higman 89, 344, 440, 973, 1027, 
1050, 1051. 

P_. anceps Michx. 

Java Farm. Infrequent in woods between Muddy Creek and Phalaris 
arundinacea meadow, north of main building area. Canopy of Fagus 
grandif olia , Platanus occidentalis , and Quercus alba . Associate 
species : Lindera benzoin , Glyceria striata , Onoclea sensibilis , 
Duchesnea indica . Higman 181, 474, 1111. 



55. 



P_. microcarpon Muhl. 

Java Farm. Infrequent in Hog Island salt marsh, near landward 
margin. Associate species: Panicum virgatum . Cyperus filicinus . 
Juncus dichotomus . 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent on west shore of Cheston Creek. Associate 
species: Danthonia spicata , Hieracium venosum . Panicum commutatum , 
Rosa Carolina . Higman 303, 446, 847. 

_P. commutatum Schult. 

Ivy Neck. One station: west shore of Cheston Creek. Canopy of 
Quercus prinus . Quercus alba . Associate species: Danthonia spicata , 
Hieracium venosum , Panicum microcarpon . Higman 848. 

P_. clandestinum L. 

Java Farm. Infrequent along Muddy Creek valley and Fox Creek 
drainage. Associate species: Geum canadense . Carex blanda . Danthonia 
spicata , Muhlenbergia schreberi . Perilla frutescens . Higman 87, 
308, 322, 785, 832. 

Panicum lanuginosum Ell. , 

var. fasciculatum (Torr.) Fern. 

Ivy Neck. One station: abandoned unpaved road through forest on 
Scaffold Peninsula. Canopy of Quercus alba , Quercus velutina , Fagus 
grandifolia , Liriodendron tulipifera . Associate species: Houstonia 
purpurea , Juncus tenuis , Vernonia glauca . Higman 841. 



CYPERACEAE 

1. Flowers unisexual, the staminate and pistillate 
in the same or in different spikes (the latter 
resembling spikelets) . 

2. Achene naked, bony, supported on a disc. 
Expected ( Scleria ) . 

2. Achene enclosed in a sac (perigynium) borne in 
the axil of a bract or scale. (Also, culms mostly 
triangular; leaves with sheath, ligule, and midrib; 
spikes in axils of leafy or scalelike bracts, 

often aggregated into heads) Carex 

1. Flowers perfect, spikes essentially uniform. 

3. Spikelets 1-2-f lowered, with 2-many empty basal 
scales. Expected ( Rhynchospora ) . 



56, 



3. Spikelets many-flowered (if only 1-f lowered, the spikelets 
in densely glomerulate heads with 2-ranked scales), with 
1 of the lower scales empty (more in Eriophorum ) . 

4. Scales of spikelet strictly 2-ranked, folded 
lengthwise and keeled. 

5. Inflorescences terminal simple or compound umbels 
or glomerules; flowers without perianth bristles; 
achene without a tubercle or enlarged style-base Cyperus 

5. Inflorescences axillary, from leaf sheaths; 
flowers with a perianth of bristles; achene 
capped by a long tubercle. Expected (Dulichium ) . 

4. Scales of spiklet spirally arranged (sometimes 2- 

ranked in Eleocharis , with single terminal spikelets) . 

5. Achene crowned by a persistent bulbous tubercle. 

6. Culms naked, the basal colored sheaths 
usually bladeless; spikelet terminal; 
perianth of bristles often present Eleocharis 

6. Culms leafy or leafy-based; spikelets 2- 
many, in terminal or axillary inflorescences 
with leafy involucres; perianth wanting. 
Expected ( Bulbostylis , Psilocarya ) . 

5. Achene without a tubercle (Scirpus may have a small 
point on the achene, left by the fallen style). 

7. Flowers with one or more inner subtending scales 
or with dilated sepals. Expected ( Hemicarpha ) . 

7. Flowers without inner subtending scales or 
dilated sepals (may have bristle perianth) . 

8. Style dilated at base, deciduous below the 
enlargement; perianth wanting. Expected 
( Fimbristylis ) . 

8. Style terete, slender; perianth usually present. 

9. Perianth of 1 to 6 broad bristles. (Also, 
spikelets with an involucre of 1 erect or 
several spreading leaves) Scirpus 

9. Perianth of many long silky bristles. 
Expected ( Eriophorum ) . 



57. 



Carex 

(from Hermann, 1941) 

Key to Sections 

1. Spike one. 

2. Spikes with pistillate flowers above, staminate 
ones below, many- flowered; perigynia strongly 
inflated, sessile Squarrosae (p. 61) 

2. Spikes with staminate flowers above, pistillate 
ones below; perigynia not inflated. Expected 
( Phyllostachyae , Polytrichoideae ) . Species in 
expected sections are listed on p. 68a. 

1. Spikes more than one. 

3. Stigmas two; achenes lenticular. 

4. Lateral spikes sessile, short; terminal spike 

usually with both pistillate and staminate flowers. 

5. Culms arising singly or few-together from 

long-creeping rootstocks. Expected ( Divisae , 
Arenariae ) . 

5. Culms tufted, the rootstocks occasionally 
prolonged with short internodes but not 
long- creep ing . 

6. Spikes with staminate flowers above, 
pistillate ones below. 

7. Perigynia tapering into the beak or, 
if abruptly contracted, the culms 
flaccid and flattening in drying. 
Expected (Vulpinae ) . 

7. Perigynia abruptly contracted into the 
beak; culms not flaccid nor flattening 
in drying. 

8. Spikes usually 10 or fewer, 

greenish Eracteosae (p. 62) 

8. Spikes numerous, yellowish or 

brownish at maturity; leaf-sheaths 
often red-dotted ventrally. 



58. 



9. Perigynia plano-convex, thin, 
yellowish; bracts mostly much 
exceeding the spikes; leaf- 
sheaths usually transversely 
rugose ventrally . Multif lorae (p. 65) 

9. Perigynia thick-plano-convex 
or unequally biconvex, brown; 
bracts mostly shorter than the 
spikes; leaf-sheaths not 
transversely rugose. Expected 
( Paniculatae ) . 

6. Spikes with pistillate flowers above, 
staminate ones below. 

10. Perigynia with winged margins Ovales (p« 65) 

10. Perigynia without winged margins, 
at most thin-edged. Expected 
( Stellulatae , Deweyanae , Heleonastes ) . 

4. Lateral spikes peduncled or, if sessile, elongate; 
terminal spike usually staminate. 

11. Achenes constricted in the middle; scales 

3-nerved, long-awned Cryptocarpae (p- 66) 

11. Achenes not constricted in the middle; 

scales 1-nerved, not long-awned. Expected 
( Acutae ) . 

3. Stigmas three; achenes trigonous. 

12. Perigynia or foliage pubescent. 

13. Style continuous with the achene, persistent, 
indurated. Expected ( Paludosae ) . 

13. Style articulated with the achene, at 
length deciduous. 

14. Achenes closely enveloped by the 
perigynia; bracts sheathless or 
nearly so. 

15. Perigynia obtusely triangular or 
orbicular-triangular in cross- 
section; plant (except perigynia) 
glabrous Montanae (p« 66) 



59. 



15. Perigynia sharply triangular in 
cross-section; plant pubescent. 
Expected (Triquetrae ) . 

14. Achenes not closely enveloped by the per- 
igynia or, if so, the bracts strongly 
sheathing. 

16. Beak of perigynium strongly bidentate; 
leaves septate-nodulose. Expected (Hirtae ) . 

16. Beak of perigynium at most shallowly 

bidentate; leaves not septate-nodulose. 

17. Bracts long-sheathing, or at least 

the lower ones Laxif lorae (p» 66) 

17. Bracts sheathless or the lower ones 

short-sheathing. Virescentes (p* 68) 

12. Perigynia and foliage glabrous. 

18. Style not articulated, continuous with the 
achene, persistent, indurated. 

19. Perigynia subcoriaceous, firm. Expected 
( Paludosae ) . 

19. Perigynia membranaceous. 

20. Perigynia obconic or broadly obovoid, 
truncately contracted into long, 
subulate beaks Squarrosae (p. 61) 

20. Perigynia lanceolate to ovoid or globose- 
ovoid, not truncately contracted. 

21. Perigynia lanceolate or ovoid- 
lanceolate, tapering into the beak. 
Expected (Lupulinae , Collinsiae , 
Folliculatae ) . 

21. Perigynia broader, abruptly con- 
tracted into the beak, usually 
strongly ribbed. 

22. Perigynia finely and closely 

ribbed. Expected ( Pseudo-cyperi ) . 

22. Perigynia coarsely ribbed. 



60. 



23, Perigynia 7-10 mm. long; 

achenes 2-3 mm. long, 1.25- 

2.25 mm. wide Vesicariae (p. 68) 

23. Perigynia 10-20 mm. long; 
achenes 2.5-6 mm. long, 
2-4 mm. wide. Expected ( Lupulinae ) . 

18. Style articulated with the achene, at length 
deciduous. 

24. Achenes strongly constricted at base, 

rounded at apex; lower pistillate scales 
bract-like. Expected (Phyllostachyae ) . 

24. Achenes not strongly constricted at base, 
short-pointed at apex; lower pistillate 
scales not bract-like. 

25. Lower bracts sheathless or short- 
sheathing. Expected ( Shortianae , Atratae, 
Gracillimae ) . 

25. Lower bracts long-sheathing. 

26. Bracts bladeless or with 

rudimentary blades Laxiflorae (p. 66) 

26. Bracts with well-developed blades. 

27. Foliage, especially the sheaths, 
pubescent or puberulent. Expected 
(Gracillimae , Sylvaticae ) . 

27. Foliage glabrous. 

28. Beak of perigynium bidentate. 
Expected (Extensae ) . 

28. Beak of perigynium at most 
emarginate. 

29. Pistillate spikes elongate, 
linear to cylindric, on 
slender peduncles, the lower 
usually drooping; perigynia 
not sharply trigonous. 
Expected ( Gracillimae , 
Sylvaticae ) . 



61. 



29. Pistillate spikes short, oblong 
or linear, erect or, if drooping, 
either on long capillary peduncles 
or with the perigynia sharply 
trigonous. 

30. Perigynia with numerous 
fine impressed nerves. 
Expected ' (Qligocarpae , Griseae ) . 

30. Perigynia with few to many 
strongly raised nerves. 

31. Perigynia rounded at 
the base, suborbicular 
in cross-section, loosely 
enveloping the achenes. 
Expected ( Granular es ) . 

31. Perigynia tapering at 
the base, trigonous, 
closely enveloping the 
achenes. 

32. Rootstocks elongate, 
often with long 
horizontal stolons. 
Expected ( Paniceae ) . 

32. Rootstocks not 

elongate, without 

long horizontal 

stolons Laxif lorae (p. 66) 



Keys to the Species 



Section Squarrosae . 

1. Perigynia shorter than the rough-awned scales, 14-20- 
ribbed; terminal spike usually staminate, narrowly 
linear, .5-2.5 mm. long; ligule not longer than wide 
or slightly so; achenes about 1.5 mm. long _C. frankii 

1. Perigynia much longer than the scales, several-ribbed 
above; terminal spike with pistillate flowers above, 
staminate ones below; ligule much longer than wide; 
achenes 2.2-3 mm. long. 



62. 



2. Beaks of perigynia appressed-ascending; spikes 
oblong-cylindric; achenes obovoid, their sides 
concave; pistillate scales mostly blunt; style 
straight below. Expected (C. typhina ) 

2. Beaks of perigynia widely radiating; spikes oval 
or oblong-oval; achenes linear-oval, their sides 
almost flat; pistillate scales acute to short- 
awned; style strongly curved below C^. squarrosa 

Carex frankii Kunth Sedge 

Java Farm. One station: beside old entrance road near junction 
with road to springhouse. Hectare 3408. Associate species: Juncus 
tenuis , Agropyron repens , Verbascum blattaria . 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent; at edge of woods near drainage of Cheston 
Creek. Canopy of Liquidambar styracif lua , Platanus occidentalis , Diospyros 
virginiana . Higman 797, 859, 1020. 

(1. squarrosa L. Sedge 

Ivy Neck. One station: west bank of upper Cheston Creek estuary. 
Canopy of Quercus velutina , Acer rubrum, Juglans nigra , Liquidambar 
styracif lua . Higman 744. 



Section Bracteosae . 

1. Sheaths loose, mottled with green and white, usually 
septate-nodulose dorsally; leaf-blades 4.5-8 mm. wide. 
Expected (_C. aggregata , C^. sparganioides ) . 

1. Sheaths tight, not mottled or inconspicuously so, 
nor septate-nodulose dorsally (except sometimes in 
_C. leavenworthii ) ; leaf-blades 1-4.5 mm. wide. 

2. Perigynia distended and spongy at the base, usually 
wide-spreading or reflexed at maturity. 

3. Beaks of perigynia smooth, scarcely exceeding 
the acuminate, deciduous scales. Expected 
(C . retroflexa ) . 

3. Beaks of perigynia minutely serrulate, much 

exceeding the obtuse or somewhat acute, persis- 
tent scales. 

4. Stigmas long, slender, seldom twisted, light 
reddish; perigynium tapering into the beak; 
leaf-blades 1-2 mm. wide C. rosea 



63. 



4. Stigmas short, stout, strongly twisted or 
contorted, deep red; perigynium abruptly 
contracted into the beak. 

5. Leaf-blades (1.5) 2.5 (3) mm. wide; perigy- 

nia 3.3-4.5 mm. long, 6-20 per spike C. convoluta 

5. Leaf -blades 1 (1.75) mm. wide; perigynia 
2.3-3 mm. long, 2-6 per spike. Expected 
(C_. radiata) . 

Perigynia not distended and spongy at the base, 
mostly ascending. 

6. Inflorescence ovoid or oblong-ovoid; spikes 
densely capitate. 

7. Scales much shorter than bodies of the 
perigynia. 

8. Perigynia broadest below the middle, 
round-tapering at the base, with raised 
margins ventrally; beaks long, serrulate.. C.. cephalophora 

8. Perigynia broadest at the truncate-cordate 
base, flat ventrally; beaks short, smooth. 
Expected (C. leavenworthii ) . 

7. Scales slightly shorter to longer than bodies 
of the perigynia. 

9. Culms lax; perigynia faintly nerved 
dorsally. Expected (C. mesochorea ) . 

9. Culms stiff, erect; perigynia usually 

strongly nerved or ribbed dorsally; stigmas 

long , slender. . £. muhlenbergia , 

var. enervis 

6. Inflorescence oblong or linear-oblong to 

elongate and interrupted; spikes not capitate. 

10. Spikes all aggregated; inflorescence 1.5-4 
cm. long; sheaths concave or convex at 
the mouth. 

11. Scales reddish-brown to purplish-red; 
perigynia few nerved dorsally; sheaths 
not thickened at the mouth. Expected 
(C . spicata ) . 



64. 



11. Scales greenish; perigynia strongly 

ribbed dorsally; sheaths thickened at 
the mouth. 

12. Perigynia strongly nerved and low 

convex ventrally, the margins usually 
slightly raised. Expected 
(C . muhlenbergii ) . 

12. Perigynia nerveless or basally nerved 
ventrally, the margins not raised 

at maturity C_. muhlenbergii , 

var . enervis 

10. Spikes not aggregated, the lower ones sep- 
arate; sheaths truncate and thickened at 
the mouth. Expected (C. virens ) . 

Carex rosea Schk. Sedge 

Java Farm. Infrequent; two stations: Along old entrance road 
under canopy of mature Fagus grandifolia , Quercus alba , Liriodendron 
tulipif era , etc. Also at summit of south-facing slope overlooking 
Fox Creek salt marsh, in small depression: canopy of Robinia pseudoacacia 
and Ulmus americana ; ground cover of Lonicera japonica . Higman 676, 765. 

C_. convoluta Mack. Sedge 

(C. rosea Schk.) 

Java Farm. One station: mature forest west of Muddy Creek, 
near old entrance road. Hectare 2474. Canopy of Fagus grandifolia , 
Liriodendron tulipif era , Quercus alba , Acer rubrum , etc. Higman 1098. 

C^. cephalophora Muhl. ? Sedge 

Java Farm. One station: shore of Muddy Creek upstream from 
old entrance road. Hectare 2467. Canopy of Fagus grandifolia , 
Platanus occidentalis , Liriodendron tulipif era ; Understory of Cornus 
f lorida , Lindera benzoin . Associate species: Carex blanda , Duchesnea 
indica , Glyceria striata , Onoclea sensibilis . Higman 1096. 

C_. muhlenbergii Schk., var. enervis Boott. Sedge 

Java Farm. Infrequent, along new entrance road. (Collected 
before resurfacing. Associate species: Carex blanda , Melilotus alba , 
Ranunculus bulbosus , Vicia sativa , Lepidium campestre .) Higman 623, 
1094, 1095. 



65. 

Section Multif lorae . 

Carex valpinoidea Michx. Sedge 

Ivy Neck. One station: strip of moist woods at source of Cheston 
Creek drainage. Hectare 4752. Canopy of Platanus occidentalis , 
Diospyros virginiana , Robinia pseudoacacia . etc. Associate species: 
Carex crinita , Glyceria striata . Poa compressa . Higman 736. 

Section Ovales . 

1. Wing of perigynium abruptly narrowed near middle of 
body; sterile culms strongly developed, their leaf- 
blades numerous, spreading, not clustered at the apex. 

2. Tips of perigynia appressed or ascending; peri- 

gynia thin, barely distended over the achenes _C. tribuloides 

2. Tips of perigynia recurved or spreading; perigynia 
firm, obviously distended over the achenes. 
Expected (C_. cristatella ) . 

1. Wing of perigynium not narrowed near middle of body; 
sterile culms often poorly developed, their leaf- 
blades erect or ascending, clustered toward the apex. 

3. Perigynia obovate, widest near the top. Expected 
(C. longii . _C. albolutescens , C_. alata ) . 

3. Perigynia not obovate, widest near middle or base. 

4. Leaf-sheaths green and strongly nerved ventrally 
nearly to the mouth. Expected (C_. hormathodes ) . 

4. Leaf-sheaths strongly white-hyaline ventrally. 

5. Perigynia lanceolate to narrowly ovate- 
lanceolate, 3 to 4 times as long as wide £. scoparia 

5. Perigynia ovate-lanceolate or broader, at 
most twice as long as wide. Expected (£. 
tenera , _C. normalis , C_. festucaea . C. molesta ) . 



Carex tribuloides Wahl. Sedge 

Java Farm. One station: beside Fox Point Road, approx. hectare 
3523. Associate species: Eragrostis spectabilis , Dianthus armeria , 
Juncus tenuis . Euphorbia maculata , etc. Higman 733, 893. 

Ivy Neck. See next page. 



66. 



Ivy Neck. One station: moist woods at head of Cheston Creek 
drainage. Hectare 4752. Canopy of Platanus occidentalis, Diospyros 
virginiana , Robinia pseudoacacia , etc. Associate species: Carex 
crinita , Glyceria striata , Poa compressa , Carex vulpinoidea . 
Higtnan 733, 893. 

_C. scoparia Schk. Sedge 

Ivy Neck. One station: north end of grassy abandoned field 
near Cheston Creek drainage. Hectare 4762. Associate species: Carex 
frankii , Juncus effusus , Juncus dichotomus . Higman 879. 



Section Cryptocarpae . 

Carex crinita Lam. ? Sedge 

Ivy Neck. One station: moist woods at source of Cheston Creek 
drainage. Hectare 4752. Canopy of Platanus occidentalis , Diospyros 
virginiana , Robinia pseudoacacia , etc. Associate species: Carex 
vulpinoidea , Carex tribuloides , Glyceria striata , Poa compressa . 
Higman 729. 

Section Montanae . 

Carex emmonsii Dewey Sedge 

Java Farm. One station: low, mossy bluffs at head of short, 
broad valley tributary to Muddy Creek, south of Fox Point Road. 
Hectare 3531. Canopy of mature Quercus alba , Quercus velutina , Carya 
tomentosa , and Pinus virginiana . Associate species: Luzula echinata , 
Carex digitalis . Higman 614, 615. 

Section Laxif lorae . 

1. Bract-sheaths, base of culms, and staminate scales 
strongly red-tinged. Expected (C. plantaginea ) . 

1. Bract-sheaths not red-tinged, base of culms rarely 
so; staminate scales greenish white to dull reddish 
brown. 

2. Perigynia sharply triangular, short-tapering at 
base, closely 35-50-nerved. 

3. Spikes erect, nearly sessile; leaf-blades smooth 
except on margins, the larger 12-25 mm. wide, 
those of fertile culms much smaller than those 
of the sterile. Expected (C. platyphylla ) . 



67. 



3. Spikes drooping on filiform peduncles; leaf 
blades hispidulous on the veins, 2-12 mm. 
wide, those of the fertile culms moderately 
smaller than those of the sterile. 

4. Staminate spikes sessile or subsessile, 
inconspicuous; pistillate ones close to- 
gether; lowest bract exceeding the inflor- 
escence. Expected (C. abscondita ) . 

4. Staminate spikes peduncled, conspicuous; 
pistillate ones scattered; lowest bract 
not exceeding the inflorescence. 

5. Pistillate spikes without a staminate 
flower at the base; leaf-blades 2-5 mm. 
wide , erect , green C_. digitalis 

5. Pistillate spikes with 1 or 2 staminate 
flowers at the base; leaf-blades 5-12 mm. 
wide, weak, glaucous-green. Expected 
(C. laxiculmis ) . 

2. Perigynia obtusely triangular at least below, 
long-tapering at the base. 

6. Bract-sheaths entire or slightly serrulate on 
the edges. Expected (C. stylof lexa , 
_C . laxif lora ) . 

6. Bract-sheaths strongly serrulate on the edges. 

7. Sterile shoots reduced to tufts of leaves, 
not forming culms; leaf-blades 7-30 mm. 
wide; pistillate scales broadly obovate- 
orbicular. Expected (C. albursina ) . 

7. Sterile shoots forming conspicuous culms; 
leaf-blades 3-12 mm. wide; pistillate scales 
mucronate to long-awned. 

8. Culms not red-tinged at base; lower 

pistillate spikes not on long capillary 

peduncles; staminate scales usually 

greenish white or slightly reddish 

brown; staminate spike sessile or very 

short-peduncled; perigynia obovoid, 

3-4 mm. long C^. blanda 



68. 



8. Culms red-tinged at base; lower pistillate 
spikes on long capillary peduncles; stam- 
inate scales strongly tinged with reddish 
brown; staminate spike long-peduncled; 
perigynia broadly obovoid, 2.5-3.2 mm. 
long. Expected (C. gracilescens ) . 

Carex digitalis Willd. Sedge 

Java Farm. One station: low, mossy bluffs at head of short, 
broad valley tributary to Muddy Creek, south of Fox Point Road. 
Hectare 3531. Canopy of mature Quercus alba , Quercus velutina , Carya 
tomentosa , and Pinus virgiriiana . Associate species: Luzula echinata , 
Carex emmonsii . Higman 1129. 

C_. blanda Dewey Sedge 

Java Farm. One station: moist wooded bank of Muddy Creek, upstream 
from culvert of old entrance road. Hectare 2467. Canopy of Platanus 
occidentalis , Fagus grandifolia , Liriodendron tulipif era , 6tc. ; 
understory of Cornus florida , Lindera benzoin . Associate species: 
Carex cephalophora , Onoclea sensibilis , Duchesnea indica , Glyceria 
striata . 

Ivy Neck. One station: east shore of Scaffold Creek. Canopy 
of Quercus alba , Quercus velutina , Carya tomentosa . Understory of 
Viburnum prunifolium . Higman 546, 786. 



Section Virescentes . 

Carex swanii (Fern.) Mack. Sedge 

Java Farm. Moderately abundant under mature canopy of Fagus 
grandifolia , Quercus alba , Quercus velutina , Liriodendron tulipif era , 
Carya tomentosa , and Liquidambar styracif lua . Collected at shoulders 
of old Muddy Creek Road, near old entrance road, and on slopes over- 
looking Muddy Creek and its upper tidal portion. Higman 698, 712, 
987, 992. 



Section Vesicariae . 

Carex lurida Wahl. Sedge 

Java Farm. Infrequent along tributary streams of Muddy Creek (tidal 
portion). South-facing slope. Canopy of Fagus grandifolia , Quercus 
velutina , Carya tomentosa , and Liriodendron tulipifera . Associate species: 
Saururus cernuus . 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent, in salt marsh at head of Cheston Creek 
estuary. Associate species: Typha latifolia , Scirpus americana . 
Higman 399, 738, 986. 



68a. 
Species of Carex in Expected Sections 
Phyllostachyae : _C. willdenowii Schkuhr, jC. lames ii Schwein. 
Polytrichoideae : _C. leptalea Muhl. 
Arenariae : _C. arenaria L. 
Divisae : _C. divisa Huds. 

Vulpinae : _C. stipata Muhl. , C. stipata v. maxima Chapm. , _C. laeyivaginata 
(Kukenth.) Mack. 

Paniculatae : C_. decomposita Muhl. 

Deweyanae : _C. bromoides Schkuhr 

Stellulatae : C_. seorsa Howe, J3. interior Bailey, C. howei Mack. , 
C_. incomperta Bickn. , jC. atlantica Bailey 

Heleonastes : _C. canescens L. var. disjuncta Fern. 

Acutae : _C. emoryi Dewey, C_. stricta Lam. , _C. stricta var. strictior 
(Dewey) Carey, C_. torta Boott 

Paludosae : _C. riparia var. lacustris (Kukenth.) Mack. 

Triquetrae : _C. hirtifolia Mack. 

Hirtae : _C. lanuginosa Michx. , £. hirta L. , C. yestita Willd. 

Lupulinae : _C. grayii Carey, <Z. intumescens Rudge, C_. louisianica Bailey, 
_C. lupulina Muhl. , C. lupuliformis Sartw. 

Collinsiae : C_. collinsii Nutt. 

Folliculatae : C_. folliculata L. 

Pseudo-cyperi : C_. hystricina Muhl. , C_. comosa Boott 

Shortianae : C. shortiana Dewey 

Atratae : _C. buxbuamii Wahl. 

Gracillimae : _C. gracillima Schwein. , _C. prasina Wahl. , _C. davisii Schwein & Torr. 

Sylvaticae : _C. oblita Steud. , C_. debilis Michx. , _C. allegheniensis Mack. 

Extensae : _C. viridula Michx. 

Granulares : _C. haleana Olney, _C. granularis Muhl. 

Oligocarpae : _C. oligocarpa Schkuhr, _C. hitchcockiana Dewey 

Griseae : C_. amphibola Steud. , C_. grisea Wahl. , _C. glaucodea Tuckerm. 

Paniceae : _C. woodii Dewey 



69. 



Cvperus 
(from O'Neill, 1941) 

1. Achene lenticular, flat with an edge facing the 
rachilla; styles bifid; spikelets very flat. 

2. Spikelets 1.5 to 2 mm. long, 1-f lowered, congested 
into a solitary cluster of dense, sessile heads. 
Expected (C. tenuifolius ) . 

2. Spikelets 3 to 20 mm. long, 3- to 40- flowered, 
digitate in an umbel-like panicle. 

3. Achene suborbicular , black, transversely 

wrinkled. (Also, spikelets yellow, 2-2.5 mm. 
wide.) Expected (C. f lavescens ) . 

3. Achene obovate to oblong-obovate, purplish- 
brown, not wrinkled. 

4. Spikelets 1 to 1.5 mm. wide. Expected 
(C . polystachyos var . texensis ) . 

4. Spikelets 2 to 3.5 mm. wide. 

5. Rachilla winged, the wings forming a 
collar .2 to .3 mm. wide at the base 
of the achene; salt marsh habitat C_. f ilicinus 

5. Rachilla wingless; freshwater marsh 
habitat. Expected (C. rivularis ) . 

1. Achene 3-angled; styles trifid; spikelets thicker 
in the center. 

6. Rachilla readily disarticulating into 1-fruited 
joints. Expected (C. odoratus ) . 

6. Rachilla not articulated or articulating only 
at the base. 

7. Rachilla wingless; stamens 1 or 2 (3 in 
C^. f ilicinus ) . 

8. Glumes long-awned, conspicuously 9- to 
13-nerved; plants scented. Expected 
(C . inf lexus ) . 

8. Glumes obtuse to mucronate, 3-nerved; 
plants odorless. 



70. 



9. Glumes 9- to 11-nerved; stamens 3 _C. filicinus 

9. Glumes 3-nerved; stamens 1 or 2. Expected 
(C . pseudovegetus , _C. fuscus ) . 

7. Rachilla winged; stamens 3. 

10. Spikelets not all deflexed, the uppermost 
ascending or spreading, 3- to 40-f lowered 
(sometimes 2-f lowered in _C. ovularis ) . 

11. Achenes .8-1 mm. long; glumes 3- to 7- 

nerved. Expected (C. dentatus , C_. erythro - 
rhizos ) . 

11. Achenes 1.3-3 mm. long; glumes 7- to 
many-nerved. 

12. Achenes 2.2-3 mm. long, 3 to 5 times 
as long as wide; glumes 4-5.5 mm. 
long. Expected (_C. refractus , 
C. lancastriensis ) . 

12. Achenes 1.3-2 mm. long (rarely 2.2 
mm. in £. ovularis ) , ovoid to oblong; 
glumes 1.5-4 mm. long (rarely 4.5 mm. 
in _C. strigosus ) . 

13. Spikelets 2- to 3-f lowered, 

densely congested into subglobose 

heads at the ends of the rays; 

achenes 1.8-2.2 mm. long £. ovularis 

13. Spikelets 5- to 40-f lowered, not 
in subglobose heads; achenes 
1.3-2 mm. long. 

14. Spikelets nearly flat; achenes 
linear, 1.5-1.8 mm. long; 
glumes 3.7-4.5 mm. long.... _C. strigosus 

14. Spikelets subterete or sub- 
quadrangular; achenes ovoid 
to oblong, .5-1.2 mm. long; 
glumes 1.5-3.5 mm. long. Ex- 
pected (C. esculentus , _C. grayii ) . 

10. Spikelets all deflexed at maturity, 1- or 
2-flowered. Expected (_C. retrofractus , 
_C. dipsaciformis ) . 



71. 



Cyperus f ilicinus Vahl. 

Java Farm. Infrequent. One station in Hog Island salt marsh 
on inland side. Hectare 3572. Associate species: Panicum virgatum , 
Juncus dichotomus , Osmunda cinnamomea , Distichlis spicata . 

Also one station on Fox Point Road; associate species: Festuca 
myuros , Plantago aristata , Lepidium virginicum , Juncus tenuis , Digitaria 
ischaemum , Cyperus ovularis . Higman 438, 804. 

_C. ovularis (Michx.) Torr. 

Java Farm. Infrequent along Fox Point Road. Associate species 
same as for _C. f ilicinus . 

Ivy Neck. One station: marshy north end of grassy abandoned 
field on Scaffold Peninsula. Hectare 4762. Associate species: Juncus 
ef fusus , Juncus dichotomus , Phleum pratense , Trifolium pratense , 
Agrostis alba , Carex frankii . Higman 17, 490, 1099. 

_C. strigosus L. 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Moderately abundant in a variety of 
habitats; seems to prefer unshaded sites whether dry, moist, or 
slightly saline. Collected at old entrance gate of Java Farm, Spartina 
patens community of Fox Creek salt marsh, old field south of Fox Point 
Road (associate species: Lespedeza cuneata ) , upstream limit of salt 
marsh on Muddy Creek, and border of cornfield on Cheston Peninsula. 
Higman 97, 124, 154, 256, 1006, 1032. 



Eleocharis 

1. Spikelet not thicker than the culm; scales persistent. 
(Also, culm quadrangular, not septate). Expected 
(E. quadrangulata ) . 

1. Spikelet much thicker than the culm; scales 
deciduous. 

2. Achenes lenticular or biconvex, styles 2-cleft. 

3. Uppermost sheaths white, scarious and loose 
at the mouth; dwarfed annual usually less than 
10 cm. tall. Expected (E. olivacea ) . 

3. Uppermost sheaths greenish or reddish, opaque, 
tight-fitting at the mouth; plant 10-130 cm. 
tall. (Also, achenes whitish to tawny or 
brown at maturity) . 



72. 



4. Tubercle only slightly constricted from the 
achene; plants densely tufted annuals 
without long, firm rhizomes or stolons. 

5. Perianth bristles wanting or rarely as 
long as the achene; tubercle less than 
1/4 as high as achene. Expected 
(E. engelmanni ) . 

5. Perianth bristles longer than the achene 
and tubercle; tubercle 1/3 to 1/2 as 

high as achene. _E. obtusa 

4. Tubercle deeply constricted from the achene; 
plants not densely tufted, with long, firm 
rhizomes or stolons. 

6. Basal scales of spikelet 2 or 3, the 
lowest not encircling the culm. Expected 
(E. palustris ) . 

6. Basal scale 1, encircling the culm. 

7. Spikelet closely many-flowered; scales 
broadly obtuse or rounded, opaque, 
appressed. Expected (E. calva ) . 

7. Spikelet loosely 5- to 30-f lowered; 
scales acute or subobtuse, lustrous, 
loosely ascending E_. halophila 

2. Achenes trigonous, styles 3-cleft. 

8. Achenes with shallow to deep honeycomb reticula- 
tion, or with prominent longitudinal ridges. 
Expected (E. acicularis , E_. tortilis ) . 

8. Achenes smooth or minutely roughened. 

9. Perianth bristles longer than the achene 

and tubercle; plant a tufted annual. (Also, 

mouth of sheath oblique; spikelets lanceolate; 

achene smooth) E_. intermedia 

9. Perianth bristles shorter than the achene; 
plant perennial with long, slender rhizomes. 
(Also, culms flat, scales acuminate or 
attenuate) . Expected (E. compressa ) . 



73. 



Eleocharis obtusa (Willd.) Schultes? (immature) Spikerush 

Ivy Neck. One station: abundant in salt marsh at head of Cheston 
Creek estuary. Hectare 4753. Associate species: Typha latifolia , 
Scirpus validus . Higman 741. 

_E. halophila L. Spikerush 

Java Farm. Two stations in salt marshes: Hog Island marsh (pure 
stand north of Hog Island, hectare 3582) and Typha latifolia marsh 
at junction of forks of Muddy Creek (hectare 3436). Higman 298, 677. 

JE. intermedia L. Spikerush 

Ivy Neck. Two stations near drainage to Cheston Creek estuary: 
north end of grassy abandoned field on Scaffold Peninsula (hectare 
4762) and beside artificial pond above Cheston Peninsula (Murray property) 
Higman 881, 883, 994. 



Scirpus 

1. Involucre subtending the inflorescence consisting of a 
single bract resembling a continuation of the culm; 
culms leafless or basally leaved. 

2. Inflorescence without long branches, either a spike, 
a spikelet, or a cluster of spikelets; culms 3-angled, 
or if terete less than 3 mm. thick at the base. 

3. Plants tufted, annual, without rhizomes; mature 
achenes black or blackish. Expected (S. smithii , 
_S. purshianus ) . 

3. Plants mostly solitary or scattered, perennial, 
with long rhizomes; mature achenes whitish, drab, 
or brown. (Also, rhizome hard; upper leaf sheaths 
closed; spikelets solitary or clustered, ovoid, 
reddish-brown to dark brown; scales ovate to 
orbicular, the margins irregular). 

4. Involucre linear, 2-15 cm. long, acute; upper 
sheath concave but not notched at orifice, with 
a long, linear, sharp-pointed blade _S. americanus 

4. Involucre lance-triangular, 1-3.5 cm. long, 

blunt; upper sheath V-notched at orifice, with a 
lanceolate, blunt-pointed blade 8-15 mm. long. 
Expected (S . olneyi ) . 



74. 



2. Inflorescence with long branches; culms terete, 3 
to 20 mm. thick at the base. (Also, style 2-cleft; 
achenes plano-convex; scales reddish to deep brown). 

5. Scales glabrous, not gummy or spotted, the green 
midrib projecting as an awn; basal sheath mem- 
branaceous , with scarious margin _S. validus , 

var. creber 

5. Scales pubescent, with many gummy dots, midrib 
mucronate; basal sheath firm, with fibrillose 
margin. Expected (S_. acutus ) . 

1. Involucre of 2 or more flat leaves; culms leafy. 

6. Culms sharply 3-angled, solitary or scattered; 
spikelets 1 to 5 cm. long, 5 to 11 mm. thick. 
(Also, midribs of scales awned) . 

7. Achenes equilaterally 3-angled; freshwater marsh 
habitat. Expected (S. f luviatilis ) . 

7. Achenes plano-convex to obtusely 3-angled; salt 
marsh habitat. (Also, spikelets reddish-brown, 

blunt or rounded at apex; ligule scarious) S_. robustus 

6. Culms obtusely angled, or sometimes sharply at 

summit; spikelets 2 to 15 mm. long, 1 to 3 mm. thick. 
(Also, spikelets 35 to over 100, in decompound 
umbelliform panicles). 

8. Bristles retrorsely barbed; culms solitary or few; 
stolons thick and scaly. 

9. Bristles barbed nearly to base; lower sheaths 
reddish. Expected (S_. expansus ) . 

9. Bristles barbed only above the middle; all 
sheaths greenish. 

10. Bristles twice as long as achene; spikelets 
reddish-brown. Expected (S. polyphyllus ) . 

10. Bristles not exceeding achene; spikelets 

pale to dark brown. (Also, scales round). S_. atrovirens 

8. Bristles smooth or with few hairs; culms tufted; 
stolons absent. 

11. Bristles barely exceeding the scales. 
Expected (S. lineatus ) , 

11. Bristles greatly exceeding scales at maturity. 

(Also, lateral spikelets in the ultimate fascicles 
pedicelled, central one sessile; spikelets reddish- 
brown, ovoid) S. rubricosus 



75. 



Scirpus americanus Pers. Bulrush 

Java Farm. Infrequent in Hog Island salt marsh, at shore of 
Muddy Creek estuary. Associate species: Atriplex patula , Polygonum 
punctatum , Aster puniceus . 

Ivy Neck. One station: beach at Sand Point, on Cheston 
Peninsula. Associate species: Cakile edentula , Spartina alternif lora . 
Higman 295, 451, 937. 

_S. americanus Pers. (extreme form) 

Ivy Neck. Salt marsh at head of Cheston Creek estuary. Associate 
species: Typha latifolia , Scirpus validus , Carex lurida , Juncus 
bufonius , Eleocharis sp. Higman 856. 

_S. validus Vahl. , var. creber Fern. Bulrush 

Java Farm. Infrequent in Hog Island salt marsh. Associate 
species: Scirpus americanus , Pluchea camphorata , Distichlis spicata , 
Panicum virgatum . 

Ivy Neck. Moderately abundant in salt marsh at head of Cheston 
Creek estuary. Co-dominant with Typha latifolia . Less frequent in moist 
woods of Cheston Creek drainage, under canopy of Platanus occidentalis , 
Diospyros virginiana , Liquidambar styraciflua . Higman 257, 294, 737. 

_S. robustus Pursh. Bulrush 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Infrequent in salt marshes. Collected 
at Fox Point and at the head of Cheston Creek estuary. Also observed 
along the tidal portion of Muddy Creek. Associate species: Typha lat - 
ifolia , Pluchea camphorata , Scirpus americanus , Iva frutescens . Higman 
56, 857. 

_S. atrovirens Willd. Bulrush 

Ivy Neck. One station: moist woods at Cheston Creek drainage. 
Mature canopy of Platanus occidentalis , Diospyros virginiana , and 
Liquidambar styraciflua . Associate species: Carex crinita , Glyceria 
striata , Poa compressa , Eupatorium coelestinum , Carex vulpinoidea . 
Higman 728. 

_S. rubricosus Fern. Bulrush 

Java Farm. Infrequent; stations in the freshwater part of 
Fox Creek marsh and at the marshy west end of the Phalaris arundinacea 
meadow north of the main building area. Associate species: Juncus 
effusus , Polygonum pensy lvanicum , Impatiens capensis , Aster praealtus , 
Salix nigra , Sambucus canadensis . Higman 190 495. 



76. 

ARACEAE 

Arisaema 

1. Lateral leaflets very rounded on lower side, tapering 
to base on the upper side; tube of spathe 3.5-7.0 cm. 
long, summit flange 2-8 mm. broad, hood 3-6 cm. broad; 
fruiting head 3-6 cm. long A. atrorubens 

1. Lateral leaflets narrowed subequally at base, not 
especially rounded on the lower side; measurements 
of other parts usually smaller than above but slightly 
overlapping A. triphyllum 

Arisaema atrorubens (Ait.) Blume Jack-in-the-pulpit 

Java Farm. Infrequent; prefers moist, shaded sites. Along old 
entrance road under canopy of Liquidambar styracif lua , Fagus grandifolia , 
Ouercus alba , Acer rubrum , etc. Associate species: Podophyllum peltatum . 

Also along moist terrace of Muddy Creek under canopy of Fraxinus 
americana and Platanus occidentalis . 

Ivy Neck. Moderately abundant in similar habitats, especially 
source of Scaffold Creek, under canopy of Liquidambar styracif lua , 
Acer rubrum , Robinia pseudoacacia , etc. Associate species: Viola spp. , 
Podophyllum peltatum , Claytonia virginica . Higman 72, 600. 

A. triphyllum (L. ) Schott Small Jack-in-the- 

pulpit 



as 



Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Habitats and associate species the same 
for A. atrorubens above. Higman 544. 



LEMNACEAE 

1. Floating frond flattish, ovate to circular; rootlets 
present, 1 to several. 

2. Rootlet 1; frond 1- to 5-nerved, green beneath Lemna 

2. Rootlets 2 or more; frond 4- to 15-nerved, purple 

beneath Spirodela 

1. Floating frond ellipsoid to globose (like green rice) ; 
rootlets absent. Expected (Wolffia , Wolff iella) . 



76a. 



Lemna 



Lemna minor L. 



Duckweed 



Ivy Neck. Abundant on surface of small cut-off pond near Sand 
Point on Cheston Peninsula. Hectare 4870. Associate species: 
Spirodela polyrhiza above. Higman 1225. 



Spirodela 
Spirodela polyrhiza (L. ) Schleid. 



Water- flaxseed 



Ivy Neck. Abundant on surface of small, fresh to slightly 
saline cut-off pond near Sand Point on Cheston Peninsula. Hectare 
4872. Associate species: Lemna minor , Rumex verticillatus , 
Sparganium eurycarpum . Higman 1226. 



COMMELINACEAE 



Commelina 



Commelina communis L. 



var. ludens (Miquel) C. B. Clarke 



Dayflower 



Java Farm. Infrequent along Old Muddy Creek Road and in ditch at 
entrance gate. Partly shaded by adjacent canopy of Fag us grandifolia , 
Quercus alba , and Liriodendron tulipifera . Associate species: Poly- 
gonum spp. , Oxalis stricta , Galium aparine . Dactylis g.lomerata . Geranium 
carolinianum , Sphenopholis nitida . Tovara virginiana . Hieracium scabrum . 
Higman 352. 



PONTEDERIACEAE 
Heteranthera 



Heteranthera reniformis R. & P. 



Mud-plantain 



Ivy Neck. One station: muddy bank of artificial pond at source 
of Cheston Creek drainage, on Murray farm. Associate species: Gratiola 
neglecta . Ranunculus sceleratus . Higman 874. 



77. 

JUNCACEAE 
1. Leaves and young steins pubescent; capsule 1-locular... Luzula 
1. Leaves and young stems glabrous; capsule 3-locular . . . . Juncus 

Luzula 

Luzula echinata (Small) F. J. Herm. Woodrush 

Java Farm. Infrequent on moist, south-facing forested slope 
overlooking upper tidal portion of Muddy Creek, One station adjacent 
to Typha latifolia salt marsh and one at source of tributary stream. 
Canopy of Quercus alba , ^. velutina , Carya tomentosa , Liriodendron 
tulipifera , etc. Associate species: Carex emmonsii . Higman 717, 1097, 



Juncus 

1. Individual flowers subtended by a pair of bracteoles 
as well as the bractlet at base of pedicel. 

2. Inflorescence terminal, subtended by one or more 
slender divergent leaves. 

3. Leaf sheaths tapering to summit, not auricled; 
inflorescence at least one quarter height of 
plant J_ . bufonius 

3. Leaf sheaths auricled at summit; inflorescence 
less than one quarter height of plant. (Also, 
auricles entire; rhizome short, hidden by 
tussock; tips of sepals not appressed to capsule) . 

4. Auricles prolonged, scarious, lance- 
triangular ; leaves flat J_. tenuis 

4. Auricles rounded, not lance-triangular; 
leaves terete or only channeled on upper 
side J_. dichotomus 

2. Inflorescence apparently lateral, the subtending 

leaf like a continuation of the stem J_. ef fusus 

1. Individual flowers subtended only by a bractlet at 
base of the very short pedicel. 

5. Leaves not septate. Expected (J_. repens , _J. biflOrus ) . 



5. Leaves septate. (Also, heads of flowers not 
spherical) . 



78. 

6. Heads hemispherical to nearly spherical J^. canadensis 

6. Heads less than hemispherical J^ acuminatus 

Juncus bufonius L. Toad-rush 

Ivy Neck. Principal station in marsh at head of Cheston Creek 
estuary. Hectare 4753. Co-dominant with Eleocharis palustris . 
Adjacent to stands of Typha latifolia and Scirpus validus . 

Infrequent at forest border of cornfield; there associated with 
Juncus tenuis . Higman 739, 838. 

J_. tenuis Willd. Bog-rush 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Moderately abundant on dry, unshaded 
areas (fields, bluffs overlooking Rhode River near Sand Point, etc.), 
roadsides, and cracked pavement. Wide variation of associate species. 
Higman 24, 173, 796, 824, 837, 839. 

Juncus tenuis , f. anthelatus (Wieg.) F. J. Herm. 

Java Farm. One station in broken pavement at Fox Point. Hectare 
3557. Canopy of Quercus prinus . Higman 434. 

J_. dichotomus Ell. Bog-rush 

Java Farm. One station: in Hog Island salt marsh. Hectare 
3582. Associate species: Panicum virgatum . 

Ivy Neck. One station: marshy north end of abandoned wheat- 
field. Hectare 4762. Associate species: Juncus effusus , Carex 
frankii . Carex scoparia , and Scirpus atrovirens . Higman 304, 749. 

—' e f fusus L. , var. solutus Fern. & Wieg. Soft Rush 

Java Farm. Infrequent at marshy west end of meadow north of 
main buildings. Hectare 2468. Associate species: Phalaris 
arundinacea (dominant) , Polygonum saggitatum . and Scirpus rubricosus . 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent at marshy end of abandoned wheatfield. 
Hectare 4762. Associate species: Carex scoparis . Eleocharis 
intermedia . Higman 748, 880. 

^J. canadensis J. Gay Bog-rush 

Java Farm. One station: bank of Muddy Creek above entrance 
road culvert. Hectare 2467. Open canopy of Platanus occidentalis , 
Fagus grandifolia . and Liriodendron tulipifera . Understory of 
Cornus f lorida and Lindera benzoin . Associate species : Glyceria 
striata . Panicum clandestinum, and Duchesnea indica. Higman 792. 



79. 

_J. acuminatus Michx. Bog-rush 

Ivy Neck. One station: dry bank of artificial pond on upper 
Cheston Peninsula. Associate species: Echinochloa pungens . Higman 997, 

LILIACEAE 

1. Flowers or inflorescence terminal. 

2. Flowers solitary. Expected (Lilium , Erythropium ) . 

2. Flowers in clusters. 

3. Plant woody, evergreen; leaves rigid, erect, with 
marginal shreddy fibers. Sandy shore habitat. 
(Also, flowers white, campanulate, in a 
panicle) Yucca 

3. Plant herbaceous, not evergreen; leaves not rigid, 
without marginal shreddy fibers. Inland habitat. 

4. Flowers 1 dm. long or more, very showy. 

5. Flowering stem arising from fibrous roots; 

leaves basal Hemerocallis 

5. Flowering stem arising from a scaly 
bulb; leaves cauline. Expected ( Lilium ) . 

4. Flowers considerably smaller. 

6. Flowers in umbels. 

7. Flowers white or pink; leaves basal; 

plant onion-scented Allium 

7. Flowers greenish yellow; leaves 
cauline; plant odorless. Expected 
( Medeola ) . 

6. Flowers in racemes, corymbs, or panicles. 

8. Styles 3. Expected (Amianthium , Stenanthium ) . 

8. Style 1, sometimes cleft at tip. 

9. Base bulbous; leaves linear, basal; 
fruit a capsule. (Also, perianth 
segments white with broad green 
midribs) Ornithogalum 

9. Base not bulbous, arising from 
long rhizomes; leaves oblong to 
ovate, cauline; fruit a berry Smilacina 



80. 

1. Flowers or inflorescences axillary. 

10. Plant thorny, a woody vine, often with tendrils... Smilax 

10. Plant thornless, herbaceous, without tendrils. 

11. Leaves reduced to small scales; plant extremely 

branched Asparagus 

11. Leaves normally developed. Expected (Uvularia ) . 
See Appendix I. 

Yucca 

Yucca filamentosa L. Adam's Needle 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent on sandy beach facing Rhode River, well 
north of Sand Point. Higman 1076. 

Hemerocallis 

Hemerocallis fulva L. Day Lily 

Ivy Neck. One station: yard of abandoned house north of 
entrance road. Hectare 4720. Persistent after cultivation. 
Higman 961. 

Allium 

Allium vineale L. Wild Onion, 

Field Garlic 
Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Moderately abundant to abundant in old 
fields and in moist, moderately shaded areas near freshwater marshes 
and streams. Higman 784. 

Ornithogalum 

Ornithogalum umbellatum L. Star of Bethlehem 

Java Farm. One station: large field along north border. 
Hectare 3508. Dense Rhus radicans . Higman 1146. 

Smilacina 

Smilacina racemosa (L.) Desf. False Solomon's Seal 

Java Farm. Infrequent to moderately abundant in mature forest 
beside old entrance road. Canopy of Fagus grandifolia , Quercus alba , 
Liriodendron tulipifera , etc. Associate species: Dentaria laciniata , 
Dentaria heterophylla , Claytonia virginica . Higman 412, 668. 



81. 



Smilax 

1. Leaves whitened or glaucous beneath; berries blue _S. glauca 

1. Leaves green beneath; berries blue-black S^. rotundifolia 

Smilax glauca Walt. 

Java Farm. Infrequent on Fox Point. Canopy of mature Quercus 
prinus . Associate species: Baptisia tinctoria , Epigaea repens , 
Gaylussacia baccata . Higman 1072. 

_S. rotundifolia L. Greenbriar 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Abundant on the landward borders of 
salt marshes, often forming a dense barrier. Apparently delimits the 
saline and freshwater parts of marshes. Associate species: Rosa palus- 
tris , Typha latifolia , Hibiscus palustris . Higman 269. 

Asparagus 

Asparagus officinalis L. Asparagus 

Java Farm. One station: lawn at main building area. Hectare 2580. 
Associate species: Medicago lupulina , Melilotus alba , Allium vineale . 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent on sandbars, landward borders of salt 
marshes, and muddy shores of Cheston Creek and Scaffold Creek estuaries. 
Higman 740. 

DIOSCOREACEAE 

Dioscorea 

Dioscorea villosa L. Yam 

Java Farm. One station: beside old entrance road. Hectare 2474. 
Mature canopy of Fagus grandifolia , Quercus alba , Liriodendron 
tulipif era , etc. Associate species: Claytonia virginica , Dentaria 
heterophilla , Smilacina racemosa , Viola papilionacea . Higman 699. 

AMARYLLIDACEAE 

1. Perianth and fruit glabrous; base a truncated bulb. 
(Also, flowers loosely spreading or nodding; 
perianth with a slender tube and campanulate or 
cup-like crown and a spreading limb) Narcissus 



82. 



1. Perianth pilose on the outside; base a corm, rhizome, 
or tuber. (Also, tube of perianth covering ovary 
and perianth segments converging to form a beak over 
the fruit; leaves linear, usually pubescent) Hypoxis 



Narcissus 

1. Flowers yellow; crown about as long as perianth- 
segments N_. pseudonarcissus 

1. Flowers white; crown much shorter than perianth- 
segments N. poeticus 

Narcissus pseudonarcissus L. Daffodil 

Java Farm. One station: steep east-facing slope of ridge 
near north border, north of new entrance road (yard of old house). 
Hectare 2562. Canopy of mature Juglans nigra . Persistent after 
cultivation. Higman 552. 

_N. pseudonarcissus L. , var.? 

Ivy Neck. One station: yard of old house between entrance road 
and source of Scaffold Creek drainage. Hectare 4658. Persistent after 
cultivation. Higman 586. 

_N. poeticus L. Poets' Narcissus 

Java Farm. One station: summit of steep ridge near north 
border, north of new entrance road (yard of old house). Hectare 2562. 
Canopy of mature Juglans nigra . Persistent after cultivation. 
Higman 601. 



Hypoxis 

Hypoxis hirsuta (L.) Coville Stargrass 

Java Farm. One station: bank of tributary of Muddy Creek, 
near old Muddy Creek Road. Hectare 2491. Canopy of mature Fagus 
grandifolia . Associate species: Claytonia virginica , Smilacina 
racemosa . Higman 670. 

IRIDACEAE 

Sisyrinchium 

Sisyrinchium angustifolium Mill. Blue-eyed Grass 

Java Farm. One station: mound of charcoal in yard of burned house 
on road to springhouse. Hectare 3417. Partial canopy of Rhus typhina . 
Associate species: Trifolium repens , Lepidium virginicum . Higman 709. 



83. 



ORCHIDACEAE 

1. Inflorescence a terminal spike; stem with narrow, 
clasping leaves. (Also, basal leaves fleshy and 
evergreen, with white veins) Goodyera 

1. Inflorescence a raceme or of one terminal flower; 
flowers borne on a scape. 

2. Flowers remotely racemose, exceeded by leafy bracts; 
lips of corolla pink and white; flowers 2 to 3 cm. 
long Orchis 

2. Flowers solitary, terminal, without leafy bracts; 
lip of corolla pink or roseate, inflated, drooping, 
3.5 to 7 cm. long Cypripedium 



Goodyera 

Goodyera pubescens (Willd.) R. Br. Rattlesnake-plantain, 

Latticeleaf 

Java Farm. Infrequent in mature forest west of Muddy Creek. 
Canopy of Fagus grandifolia , Liriodendron tulipifera , Quercus alba . 
Also one station in mature forest at Fox Point. Canopy of Quercus 
alba , Quercus prinus . Higman 250. 



Orchis 

Orchis spectabilis L. Showy Orchis 

Java Farm. One station: mature forest west of Muddy Creek, 
near old entrance road. Canopy of Fagus grandifolia , Quercus alba , 
and Liriodendron tulipifera . Associate specie*: Dentaria heterophilla , 
Claytonia virginica , Smilacina racemosa . Rare species. Higman 654. 



Cypripedium 

Cypripedium acaule Ait. Lady-slipper, 

Moccasin flower 

Java Farm. Infrequent: two stations under canopy of mature 
Fagus grandifolia and Quercus alba . One station near apex of 
triangular area west of old Muddy Creek Road, near freshwater marsh. 
One on northeast-facing slope between old entrance road and main 
building area, north of water tank. Rare species. Higman 476, 669. 



84. 



SAURURACEAE 



Saururus 



Saururus cernuus L. Lizard' s-tail 

Java Farm. Infrequent, in valleys of tributaries to Muddy Creek. 
Canopy of Quercus alba , Fagus grandifolia , etc. Higman 397, 985. 



SALICACEAE 

1. Leaves linear to lanceolate, acute; aments ascending 

or divergent Salix 

1. Leaves broadly ovate or triangular, acuminate; aments 

arching or drooping Populus 



Salix 

The species included in this key are those from the Washington- 
Baltimore flora (Hermann, 1946) which the available literature does 
not report as restricted to the Piedmont. Of these seven species, 
three (S. nigra , _S. sericea , and _S. tristis ) are represented from the 
Maryland Coastal Plain in the U. S. National Herbarium. Only _S. nigra 
has been found at the Chesapeake Bay Center to date. This key should 
facilitate the search for additional species there. 

1. Leaves entire or sparingly undulate-crenate, narrowly 
oblanceolate to obovate; plant a shrub. (Also, aments 
preceding the leaves; staminate and pistillate 
flowers each with one basal gland.) Expected (S_. 
humilis , _S . tristis ) . 

1. Leaves closely serrulate, linear-lanceolate to 
broadly lanceolate; plant a tree (shrubby in _S. 
sericea ) . (Also, scales of ament pubescent.) 

2. Aments sessile, preceding the leaves; scales 

blackish, persistent; capsules silky-puberulent ; 
staminate flowers each with one basal gland. 
(Also, leaves acuminate, glaucous and silky 
beneath; stamens 2.) Expected (S_. sericea ) . 



84a. 



2. Aments on leafy peduncles, accompanying the leaves; 
scales yellow, deciduous; capsules glabrous; 
staminate flowers each with two basal glands. 

3. Petioles not glandular above at apex; stamens 3 
to 8; pistillate flowers whorled. (Also, leaves 
long-acuminate) . 

4. Leaves glaucous beneath. (Also, leaves somewhat 
pubescent, especially on midribs). Expected 
(S. caroliniana ) . 

4 . Leaves green beneath S^. nigra 

3. Petioles glandular above at apex; stamens usually 2; 
pistillate flowers spirally arranged. 

5. Leaves glabrous at maturity, with 4 to 6 teeth 
per cm. of margin; capsules short-pedicelled. 
Expected (S_. fragilis ) . 

5. Leaves silky-pubescent, with 7 to 9 teeth per 

cm. of margin; capsules sessile. Expected (j^. alba ) . 

Salix nigra Marsh. Black Willow 

Java Farm. Infrequent, in freshwater portion of marsh at mouth of 
Fox Creek drainage and at the landward margin of small marsh on the north 
side of Fox Point peninsula. Hectares 3526, 3557. Associate species: 
Rosa palustris . 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent, in moist wooded strip at source of Cheston 
Creek estuary. Hectare 4733. Canopy of Diospyros virginiana , Robinia 
pseudoacacia , Platanus occidentalis , etc. Higman 465, 493, 525, 589. 

Populus 

1. Leaves ovate, short-acuminate, wooly when young but 

glabrate at maturity; teeth remote, deltoid, unequal P_. grandidentata 

1. Leaves triangular, acuminate, glabrous at all ages; 

teeth numerous , equal X P_. eugenei 

Populus grandidentata Michx. Big-toothed Aspen 

Java Farm. One station: rubbish pile on north side of headquarters, 
near big steel shed. Hectare 2489. Associate species: Paulownia 
tomentosa , Celtis occidentalis. Higman 913. 



85. 



X _P. eugenei Simon-Lewis Carolina Poplar 

(P. deltoides Marsh, x J?, nigra L. var. italica Muench.) 
(X P_. canadensis Moench var. eugenei (Simon-Lewis) Schelle) 

Ivy Neck. One station: two large trees in yard of old house near 
entrance road. Hectare 4658. Higman 1089, 1142. 



MYRICACEAE 

Myrica 

Myrica cerif era L. Wax Myrtle 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Moderately abundant along shores of 
estuaries, under a variety of hardwood canopies. Infrequent on sand- 
bars and at margins of salt marshes. Higman 572. 

JUGLANDACEAE 

1. Leaves with 10 to 17 leaflets; nut with fleshy indehiscent 
husk and irregularly furrowed shell; pith of branchlets 
separating into thin plates Juglans 

1. Leaves with 5 to 9 leaflets; nut with dry, partly or 
wholly dehiscent husk and smooth bony shell; pith of 
branchlets continuous Carya 

Juglans 

Juglans nigra L. Black Walnut 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Infrequent to moderately abundant in mature 
canopies, usually associated with Liquidambar styraciflua in canopy and 
Lindera benzoin in understory. Dominant at Java Farm on steep east- and 
west-facing slopes of ridge near north boundary (hectare 2562) ; co- 
dominant with Quercus falcata , Fagus grandifolia , Platanus occidentalis , 
and Liquidambar styraciflua on south-facing slope above Muddy Creek 
(hectare 3415, 3416). Co-dominant at Ivy Neck with Quercus prinus at two 
points on shore of Scaffold Peninsula (hectares 5704, 5745). Higman 159, 755, 

Carya 

1. Terminal buds yellow, somewhat lanceolate. (Also, leaf- 
lets 5 to 9, lanceolate to lance-ovate) _C. cordiformis 

1. Terminal buds brown, ovoid-acute. 

2. Leaflets 5; young branchlets glabrous jC. glabra 

2. Leaflets 7 to 9; young branchlets tomentose C. tomentosa 



86. 



Carya cordiformis (Wang.) K. Koch Bitternut Hickory 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Infrequent to moderately abundant in 
understory of mature forest, under canopy of Quercus alba , Fagus 
grandifolia , Quercus velutina , Liriodendron tulipifera , etc. Most 
abundant near top of south-facing slope overlooking tidal portion of 
Muddy Creek. Higman 170, 247, 403. 

_C. glabra (Mill.) Sweet Pignut Hickory 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Infrequent in understory of mature 
forest, like C. cordiformis above. Also observed under canopy of Quercus 
prinus . Associate species: Cornus florida , Acer rubrum . Carpinus 
caroliniana , Carya tomentosa , Liquidambar styraciflua . Higman 521. 

C_. tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt. Mockernut Hickory 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Infrequent to moderately abundant in 
understory and canopy of mature forest. Associated with C_. cordiformis 
and C_. glabra above. Higman 418, 419, 420. 



BETULACEAE 



1. Bark smooth, with rounded ridges (muscular) ; fruit 
a nutlet at the base of a lobed, leafy bract; nutlet 
wingless Carpinus 

1. Bark smooth only on younger trees, without rounded 

ridges; fruit a number of small winged nutlets grouped 
into a cone, without leafy bracts. 

2. Pith of branchlets triangular; cones woody, persis- 
tent , ovoid Alnus 

2. Pith of branchlets circular; cones cylindrical Betula 



Carpinus 

Carpinus caroliniana Walt. Hornbeam, 

Blue Beech 

Java Farm. Infrequent to moderately abundant in the understory 
of mature hardwood forest, under canopy of Fagus grandifolia , Quercus 
alba , Liriodendron tulipifera , etc. Seems to prefer slopes overlooking 
streams and freshwater marshes. Higman 187, 1105. 



87. 



Alnus 



Alnus rugosa (Du Roi) Spreng. Smooth Alder 

(A. serrulata (Air.) Willd. , var. vulgaris ) 

Java Farm. One station: base of Fox Point peninsula, on north side. 

Hectare 3557. Canopy of Nyssa sylvatica . Quercus velutina , Quercus 

alba . Quercus prinus , Pinus virginiana . Associate species: Aralia 
spinosa , Prunus serotina , Acer rubrum . Higman 650. 



Betula 

Betula nigra L. River Birch, 

Red Birch 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Infrequent along banks of estuaries, 
bottom of Muddy Creek valley and on Fox Point Road. Occasionally found 
under Quercus prinus canopy. Higman 651, 1106 



FAGACEAE 

1. Leaves simple, sharply and regularly serrate, acuminate; 
fruit a nut in a spiny bur. 

2. Leaves oblong-ovate; leaf buds linear-lanceoloid and 

sharply pointed; bark pale gray; large tree Fagus 

2. Leaves oblong-lanceolate; leaf buds short and blunt; 

bark dark brown; stump sprouts only Castanea 

1. Leaves lobed, or if simple, entire or with round- 
tipped teeth; fruit a smooth acorn with a basal cup... Quercus 



Fagus 

Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. Beech 

Java Farm. Moderately abundant in mature canopy, especially on 
upland west of Muddy Creek and on north- and west-facing slopes of ridge 
between old entrance road and main building area. Less frequent on 
lower south-facing slopes overlooking the tidal portion of Muddy 
Creek. Associate species: Quercus alba , Quercus velutina , Lirioden- 
dron tulipif era , Liquidambar styracif lua . 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent in southern part of Quercus alba forest 
on Scaffold Peninsula. Higman 277, 558. 



88. 

Castanea 

Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh. Chestnut 

Java Farm. Infrequent in mature mixed hardwood forest, occurring 
only as stump sprouts. Collected under canopy of Fagus grandifolia and 
its associates, also one station on Hog Island under canopy of Quercus 
prinus . Higman 107, 402. 

Quercus 

1. Lobes or teeth of leaves not bristle-tipped; 
acorn cup with puberulent scales, rust- 
puberulent within. 

2. Leaves not lobed, or with sinuses less than 
1/3 of distance to midrib. (Also, leaves 
puberulent beneath; acorn puberulent above). 

3. Acorns on peduncles 2-7 cm. long, exceeding 
petioles; leaves much paler and densely 
stellate-tomentose beneath, often shallowly 
lobed. Expected (Q_. bicolor ) . 

3. Acorns sessile or nearly so; leaves slightly 
paler and moderately stellate-puberulent 
beneath, coarsely serrate with sharp or 
rounded teeth (never lobed) . 

4. Leaves sharply serrate (tips of teeth 

round); acorn 1.5-2.0 cm. long, subglobose. . . C;. muehlenbergii 

4. Leaves dentate with broadly rounded teeth; 

acorn 2^3 cm. long, ovoid-ellipsoid C^. prinus 

2. Leaves lobed with sinuses more than 1/3 of distance 
to midrib. 

5. Mature leaves glabrous, whitened beneath, 
irregularly lobed (lobes ascending) ; acorn 
ovoid-ellipsoid, 2-3 cm. long, glabrous Q. alba 

5. Mature leaves densely stellate-pubescent 

beneath, lobed like a cross; acorn ovoid, 1-1.5 

cm . long , puberulent above £. stellata 



89. 

1. Lobes of leaves (or tip in Q. phellos ) 
bristle- tipped. 

6. Leaves unlobed, entire. (Also, leaves glabrous 
beneath, acorn globose, 10-15 mm. long; acorn 
cup very shallow, with appressed scales, nearly 
sessile) £. phellos 

6. Leaves lobed, the lobes usually cleft. 

7. Leaves broadly obovate, shallowly 3-lobed. 
(Also, leaves rounded at base, minutely 
rust-puberulent beneath; acorn cup turbinate, 
with tomentose scales, covering about 
1/2 of nut) Q. marilandica 

7. Leaves oblong or elliptic in general outline, 
moderately to deeply 5- to 7-lobed. 

8. Base of leaf blade rounded to petiole, often 
unevenly; basal lobes broadly divergent, 
terminal one long and narrow. (Also, acorn 
cup deeply saucer-shaped, covering 1/3 of nut, 
its scales appressed, rounded) C^. falcata 

8. Base of leaf blade tapering to petiole; 
lobes all ascending-spreading. (Also, 

leaves often pubescent only in axils of 
veins beneath) . 

9. Acorn cup turbinate, covering more than 
1/3 of nut; leaf buds tomentose. 

10. Upper scales of acorn cup loosely 
imbricated, forming a fringe, 
pubescent (^. velutina 

10. Upper scales of acorn cup appressed, 
becoming glabrous. (Also, leaf sinuses 
often broadly circular; acorns often 
with pale concentric rings around the 

tip) _£. coccinea 

9. Acorn cup saucer-shaped, covering about 
1/4 of nut; leaf buds usually glabrous 
(or tomentose above in £. rubra ) . 

11. Leaves lobed moderately, bottom of sinus 
rarely more than 2/3 the distance from 
lobe-tip to midrib; acorn cup 1.5-3 cm. 
wide; nut 2-3 cm. long. (Also, bark 
often with pale gray streaks on upper 
trunk; forest habitat). Expected 

(£. rubra). 



89 a. 



11. Leaves lobed deeply, bottom of sinus often 
3/4 or more the distance from lobe-tip to 
midrib; acorn cup 1-1.6 cm. wide; nut 1-1.3 
cm. long. (Also, lower branches often 
spreading downward; frequently in old field 
habitat) Q. palustris 

Quercus muehlenbergii Engelm. ? 

(£. prinoides Willd. var. acuminata (Michx) Gl.) Yellow Oak 

Java Farm. Infrequent, large trees overhanging Rhode River 
(Fox Creek estuary). Adjacent forest canopy of Robinia pseudoacacia 
and Ulmus americana dominants. Higman 766. 

_£. prinus L. Chestnut Oak 

Java Farm. Co-dominant with Quercus alba in canopy at Fox 
Point and Hog Island. Hectares 3558 and 3592. Associate canopy 
species include Carya glabra and Carya tomentosa . Understory 
dominants are Pinus virginiana (at Fox Point under thin canopy) 
and Kalmia latifolia (at Hog Island). Understory associates include 
Ilex opaca , Acer rub rum , and Liquidambar styracif lua . Ericaceous 
shrubs numerous. Also one station in bottom of Muddy Creek valley, 
with canopy dominant Fagus grandifolia . Hectare 3403. 

Ivy Neck. Dominates most of the shoreline of lower Scaffold 
Peninsula, usually on banks 6 to 10 feet above the estuary. Co- 
dominants include Quercus alba , Carya tomentosa . Acer rub rum , and 
locally Fagus grandifolia . On Cheston Peninsula (west shore) 
Quercus velutina usually co-dominates. Understory resembles that 
at Java Farm. Higman 261. 

Quercus alba L. White Oak 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Moderately abundant inmost hardwood 
canopies, on dry to moderately moist sites. Co-dominant on upland 
with Quercus velutina . Acer rubrum . Liriodendron tujipifera. Carya 
tomentosa . Fagus grandifolia . etc. Often co-dominant with Quercus 
prinus on estuary shores. Higman 263. 

C;. stellata Wang. Post Oak 

Java Farm. Infrequent on banks of tidal portion of Muddy Creek, 
under canopy of Quercus velutina and Quercus alba . One station on 
Fox Point, under canopy of Quercus prinus . Prefers the shoreline, 
overhanging the water. Also adventive in Hog Island salt marsh. 
Higman 260, 275, 460. 



90. 



£. phellos L. Willow Oak 

Java Farm. One station in Hog Island salt marsh. Hectare 3572. 
Associate species: Pinus virginiana , Juniperus virginiana , Liquidambar 
styraciflua , Quercus stellate , Quercus palustris , Myrica cerifera . 
Higman 278, 591. 

^. marilandica (L.) Muench. Black-jack Oak 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Infrequent , associated with Pinus virginiana . 
Also at Java Farm: one station west of Old Muddy Creek Road, in canopy 
of Liriodendron tulipifera and Fagus grandifolia . Higman 407 . 

.Q. falcata Michx. Spanish Oak , Red oak (L) 

Java Farm. Moderately abundant in canopy of bottomland forest at 
northwest corner of Hog Island salt marsh. Hectares 3561, 3571. Adventive 
into the marsh. Infrequent on south-facing slope along tidal portion of 
Muddy Creek, with dominants Quercus alba . Fagus grandifolia , and Quercus 
velutina . Also one station on Fox Point. Hectare 3558. Canopy there of 
Quercus prinus . 

Ivy Neck. One station on east bank of Scaffold Peninsula. Canopy 
of Quercus alba . Quercus velutina . Higman 91, 262, 404. 

J^. velutina Lam. Black Oak 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Moderately abundant in most mature hardwood 
canopies, especially on upper slopes and moderately dry sites. Also 
moderately abundant on estuary shore of Cheston Point, where Quercus prinus 
would be expected. Higman 588. 

^. coccinea Muench. Scarlet Oak 

Java Farm. Infrequent in canopy of mature upland forest west of 
Muddy Creek; also on ridge west of main building area and on south-facing 
slope overlooking meadow, north of main buildings. Canopy dominants include 
Fagus grandifolia . Quercus alba, Liquidambar styraciflua . and Liriodendron 
tulipifera . Higman 414, 557. 

C\ palustris Muench. Pin Oak 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Moderately abundant adventive in abandoned 
fields; associate species: Acer rubrum . Liquidambar styraciflua , Cornus 
florida . etc. Also at Java Farm: infrequent in valley of Muddy Creek, 
under canopy of Platanus occidentalis and Fraxinus americana. Higman 
75, 169. 



91. 



ULMACEAE 



1. Leaves entire, glabrous, prominently 3-veined at base, 
very oblique at base, usually with insect galls; 
buds appressed to stem; fruit a dark green drupe...... Celtis 

1. Leaves serrate or dentate, pubescent or roughened 
on both surfaces (except U. pumila ) , moderately to 
slightly oblique at base, without insect galls; buds 
somewhat spreading; fruit a samara Ulmus 

Celtis occidentalis L. Hackberry^ Sugarberry (L) 

Java Farm. Moderately abundant in old fields and along roadsides, 
especially those with oyster shell paving. Prefers calcareous soil. 

Ivy Neck. One station at old house, between entrance road and 
source of Scaffold Creek drainage. Hectare 4658. Higman 367, 370, 
463, 473, 483, 633, 773. 



Ulmus 

1. Leaves smooth, simply serrate, very slightly oblique 

at base; samaras entirely glabrous U. pumila 

1. Leaves rough or harsh above, doubly serrate, definitely 
oblique at base; samaras pubescent. 

2. Leaves slightly folded at the midrib, very harsh 
above, ciliate; buds and branchlets downy pubescent; 
samaras pubescent only in the center IJ. rubra 

2. Leaves flat, moderately scabrous above, glabrous; 
buds and branchlets glabrous or sparingly pilose; 
samaras pubescent only on the margins IJ. americana 

Ulmus pumila L. 

(not in Britton & Brown) Dwarf Elm 

Ivy Neck. One station: edge of bank above Rhode River, just 
north of Sand Point. Hectare 4769. Associate species: Maclura 
pomif era , Liquidambar styraciflua . Higman 1074. 

IJ. rubra Muhl. Slippery Elm 

Java Farm. Infrequent near northeast corner and in vicinity of 
pier. Associate species: Fraxinus tomentosa , Ulmus americana , 
Celtis occidentalis . Higman 347, 391, 619, 771. 



92. 



JJ. americana L. American Elm 

Java Farm. Infrequent in old fields north of main building area. 
Associate species: Celtis occidentalis . Liquidambar styraciflua . 
Quercus palustris . One station along shore of Muddy Creek estuary 
east of Hog Island salt marsh. Associate species there: Robinia 
pseudoacacia . Cornus florida , Liquidambar styraciflua . Prunus avium , 
Morus rubra . 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent in Quercus alba forest of central Scaffold 
Peninsula. Higman 428. 



MORACEAE 

1. Leaves entire; branches with axillary spines; staminate 
flowers in rounded racemes; mature syncarp (fleshy 
aggregate fruit) 7 to 15 cm. in diameter, with a dry 
rind Maclura 

1. Leaves coarsely serrate, often lobed; branches 

spineless; staminate flowers in long aments; mature 
syncarp 1 to 2 cm. thick. 

2. Buds with 2 or 3 scales; syncarp globose, with 

protruding fruits Broussonetia 

2. Buds with 3 to 6 scales; syncarp cylindric or 

ellipsoid, juicy, the fruits not protruding Morus 



Maclura 

Maclura pomifera (Raf.) Schneid. Osage Orange 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent to moderately abundant along coast of upper 
Cheston Peninsula, both on the Cheston Creek and Rhode River sides. 
Also in hedgerows and along drainage of Cheston Creek above the estuary. 
Higman 869, 1010. 



Broussonetia 

Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) Vent. Paper Mulberry 

Java Farm. One station: west fence of field at northeast corner 
of Farm. Hectare 3600. Associate species: Liquidambar styraciflua , 
Ulmus americana . Ulmus rubra . Higman 346, 1137. 



93. 



Morus 

1. Leaves densely pubescent on veins and surface beneath. . M. rubra 

1. Leaves pubescent only in axils of veins beneath M. alba 

Morus rubra L. Red Mulberry 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Infrequent in understory of a variety 
of mature hardwood canopies; seems to prefer low stream banks, poorly 
drained woods, etc. Higman 425, 527, 770. 

M. alba L. White Mulberry 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Infrequent, same habitat as Morus rubra 
above. Higman 479. 

URTICACEAE 

Boehmeria cylindrica (L.) Sw. False Nettle 

Java Farm. Infrequent along old entrance road near culvert of 
Muddy Creek and along new entrance road near culvert of Fox Creek 
drainage. Both sites densely shaded by adjacent forest. Associate 
species: Lycopus virginicus , Cryptotaenia canadensis , Agrimonia 
microcarpa , Elephantopus carolinianus . Higman 458, 978. 

POLYGONACEAE 

1. Outer sepals wide-spreading or reflexed, inner ones 

(valves) enlarged in fruit Rumex 

1. All sepals equal, erect or ascending and petaloid. 

2. Styles 2, deflexed and hooked, persistent on achene 
as rigid beaks; flowers remote on terminal raceme, 
deflexed in fruit Tovara 

2. Styles 2-3, not deflexed or hooked, deciduous; 

flowers in dense raceme, not deflexed in fruit Polygonum 



Rumex 

1. Leaves hastate, with 2 spreading basal lobes; racemes 
red or yellowish; flowers dioecious; plant spreading 
by slender horizontal rootstocks R. acetosella 



94. 



1. Leaves without basal lobes, entire or with crisped 
or uneven margins; racemes greenish, brown in fruit; 
flowers monoecious or perfect; vertical taproot. 

2. Margins of leaves entire, not crisped or uneven. 
(Also, margins of valves entire). 

3. Salt marsh or sub-aquatic habitat; leaves 
narrowly elliptic; fruiting pedicels clavate 
and ref lexed R. verticillatus 

3. Terrestrial habitat; leaves oblong-lonceolate, 
with cordate bases in one species; fruiting 
pedicels slender, not ref lexed. Expected 

(R. altissinjtus ) . 

2. Margins of leaves undulate or crisped. 

4. Valves entire or obscurely dentate. (Also, 
valves broadly ovate; leaves with crisped 

or crumpled margin) II. crispus 

4. Valves with long teeth. (Also, habitat not saline; 
margins of leaves slightly uneven). 

5. Plant 2-7 dm. high; length of panicle more 

than 1/2 height of plant R. pulcher 

5. Plant 6-15 dm. high; length of panicle less 

than 1/2 height of plant R. obtusifolius 

Rumex acetosella L. Red Sorrel 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Infrequent to moderately abundant in 
dry, open soil (abandoned fields, roadsides, etc.) Higman 590, 
759, 1083. 

_R. verticillatus L. Water Dock 

Java Farm. Moderately abundant in salt marshes along Muddy 
Creek. Associated with Panicum virgatum . Scirpus spp. 

Ivy Neck. Moderately abundant in estuarine salt marshes and at 
coastal overflow ponds on Cheston Peninsula. Higman 289, 945. 

R. crispus L. Sour Dock 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent in abandoned wheatfield. Also one station 
in dry, sandy halophytic marsh on tip of Scaffold Peninsula. Higman 
688, 852, 915, 975. 



95. 



R. pulcher L. Dock 

Java Farm. One station: grassy patch at entrance gate. Hectare 
2463. Associated with Cyperus strigosus . Perilla frutescens . Trifolium 
spp. Higman 1084. 

R. obtusifolius L. Bitter Dock 

Java Farm. One station: on Fox Point Road just before turn eastward 
to Fox Point; in front of old barn. Hectare 3543. 

Ivy Neck. One station: abandoned road through forest on Scaffold 
Peninsula. Canopy of Liquidambar styraciflua . Robinia pseudoacacia . 
Nyssa sylvatica , Morus rubra . Higman 523, 976. 



Tovara 

Tovara virginiana (L.) Adans. 

( Polygonum virginianum L.) Virginia Knotweed 

Java Farm. Infrequent; seems to prefer moist, partly shaded sites. 
At entrance gate; along entrance road under canopy of Quercus alba , 
Fagus grandifolia , Liquidambar styraciflua , etc. ; on moist valley of 
Muddy Creek under canopy of Fraxinus americana and Platanus occidentalis : 
and at main buildings. Higman 38, 65, 354, 538. 



Polygonum 

1. Plant prostrate-spreading; flowers in axillary 

fascicles P_. aviculare 

1. Plant erect; flowers in spiciform racemes or panicles, 
or capitate. 

2. Stem prickly; leaves sagittate or hastate. 

3. Leaves sagittate; inflorescence capitate P_. sagittatum 

3. Leaves hastate, the basal lobes horizontally 
spreading; inflorescence a short raceme or 

panicle P_. arifolium 

2. Stem smooth; leaves elliptic. 

4. Ocreae (sheathing stipules) without marginal cilia. 



96. 



5. Leaves strigose; peduncles and axis with 

stalked glands P. pensylvanicum 

5. Leaves glabrous to scabrous; peduncles and axis 
glandless. (Also, ocreae short-strigose; base 

of plant creeping) P_. hydropiperoides 

4. Ocreae with marginal cilia (lower ocreae may 
have top torn off). 

6. Plant annual, with fibrous roots. 

7. Mature calyx glandular-punctate. 

8. Calyx greenish; achene dull. 
Expected (P. hydropiper ) . 

8. Calyx white; achene lustrous P_. punctatum 

7. Mature calyx glandless. 

9. Leaves ciliate on margins and lower 
veins; spikes terminal, 3-5 mm. thick; 
cilia of ocreae equal to or longer 

than the sheath P_. cespitosum , 

var. longisetum 

9. Leaves glabrous, or sparsely strigose 
beneath; spikes in panicles, 7-11 mm. 
thick; cilia of ocreae shorter than 
the sheath. (Also, leaves often with 
purple blotch above but this 
character not consistent) P_. persicaria 

6. Plant perennial, with subligneous forking 
rootstocks. 

10. Mature calyx glandular-punctate P. punctatum 

10. Mature calyx glandless. 

11. Calyx pink; leaves glabrous to 

scabrous; ocreae short-strigose P_. hydropiperoides 

11. Calyx white; leaves strigose; ocreae 

strigose-hirsute _P. setaceum 



See also Appendix I., p. 229: P_. cristatum . 



97. 



Polygonum aviculare L. Smar tweed 

Ivy Neck. One station: unpaved road to abandoned wheatfield. 
Hectare 4740. Associated with Diodia teres , Leapedeza stipulacea . 
Polygonum pensylvanicum , Cyperus strigosus . Higman 1059. 

J?, sagittatum L. Smar tweed 

Java Farm. Two stations: freshwater part of Fox Creek marsh 
(associated with Aster puniceus , Lycopus virginicus , Leersia oryzoides , 
Solidago graminifolia , Impatiens capensis ) , and in marshy western end 
of Phalaris arundinacea meadow north of main buildings (associated with 
Polygonum punctatum , P_. pensylvanicum , Scirpus rubricosus) . Higman 152. 

J?, arifolium L. Smar tweed 

Java Farm. One station: low bank of Muddy Creek, adjacent to 
west end of meadow above. Hectare 2467. Canopy of Platanus occidentalis , 
Fagus grandifolia. Liriodendron tulipif era . Understory of Lindera 
benzoin , Cornus f lorida . Higman 1055. 

P_. pensylvanicum L. Smartweed 

Java Farm. One station: large clump at marshy western end of 
Phalaris arundinacea meadow north of main buildings. Hectare 2467. 
Associates: see JP. sagittatum above. 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent in open fields, unpaved roads. Associated 
with Strophostyles umbellata, Desmodium perplexum , Lespedeza stipulacea , 
Oenothera biennis . Higman 151, 1023, 1123, 1124. 

P_. hydropiperoides Michx. , 

forma leucochranthum A. H. Moore 

(form not in Brit ton and Brown) Smartweed 

Java Farm. One station: border of salt marsh at upstream end of 
tidal portion of Muddy Creek. Hectare 3403. Associated with Mikania 
scandens , Pluchea camphorata . Lobelia cardinalis . Hibiscus palustris , 
Typha latifolia . Higman 80. 

P_. punctatum Ell. Smartweed 

Java Farm. Infrequent in fresh and brackish marshes. Stations 
in Hog Island salt marsh, muddy shore of tidal portion of Muddy Creek, 
in Fox Point salt marsh, and at marshy west end of Phalaris arundinacea 
meadow north of main buildings. 

Associates in freshwater marsh: see _P. sagittatum above. 

Associates in salt marshes: Aster puniceus . Atriplex patula , 
Scirpus americanus , Distichlis spicata . Kosteletzkya virginica . 
Higman 58, 153, 449, 990, 1245. 



98. 

_P. punctatum , var. 

Leptostachyum (Meisn.) Small 

(variety not in Britton and Brown) Smartweed 

Java Farm. One station: large abandoned field south of entrance 
road and east of road to springhouse. Solidago graminifolia . Rubus spp. 
Rhus radicans , and Lonicera japonica dominant. Higman 132. 

P_. cespitosum Blume, var. 

longisetum (deBruyn) Stewart Smartweed 

Java Farm. Three stations: along entrance road between gate and 
Muddy Creek (canopy of Quercus alba . Fagus grandifolia . Liquidambar 
styraciflua , etc.; associate species Desmodium spp., Agrimonia microcarpa , 
Elephantopus caroliniana , Tovara virginiana ) ; two stations along Fox 
Creek ditch (canopy of Juglans nigra . Liquidambar styraciflua ; associate 
species Perilla frutescens , Duchesnea indica . Eupatorium serotinum . 
Geum canadense ) . 

Also observed along stream at northeast border of farm. Higman 
35, 223, 314, 922. 

Polygonum persicaria L. Smartweed 

Ivy Neck. One station: near small barn on south bank of artificial 
pond, Cheston Peninsula. Hectare A723. Dry, unshaded. Associate 
species: Potentilla norvegica . Ipomoea hederacea . Abutilon theophrasti , 
Eleusine indica . Higman 1002. 

_P. setaceum Baldw. 
(P. hydropiperoides . var. setaceum (Baldw.) Gl.) Smartweed 

Java Farm. One station: north boundary fence, adjacent neighbor's 
cornfield. Associate species: Ambrosia trif ida . Clematis virginiana . 
Amaranthus hybridus . Higman 1243. 



CHENOPODIACEAE 

1. Leaves alternate, or the lower opposite in Atriplex . 
flat, neither reduced to scales nor spine-tipped. 
(Also, plants erect; stems and branches green 
with white longitudinal stripes; flowers in small, 
spicate clusters) . 

2. Terrestrial habitat; flowers perfect; calyx 
5-parted. (Also, leaves narrowly to broadly 
lanceolate , entire to dentate) Chenopodium 

2. Salt marsh habitat; flowers unisexual, monoecious or 
dioecious; calyx absent in pistillate flowers, these 
enclosed by two appressed bracts. (Also, in species 
collected, leaves hastate; spikes reddish) Atriplex 



99. 



1. Leaves opposite and reduced to scales, or alternate 
and spine-tipped. Expected (Salicornia , Salsola ) . 



Chenopodium 

1. Leaves and inflorescence glandular, 

aromatic. Expected (£. ambrosioides , _C. botrys ) . 

1. Leaves and inflorescence not glandular but often 
farinose (covered with mealy substance in dry 
specimens) . 

2. Principal leaves deltoid or rhomic to broadly 
ovate, their margins serrate or sinuate. (Also, 
seeds all horizontal if collected in late autumn) . 

3. Leaves with lustrous upper surface, coarsely 
serrate margin, and long petiole, usually not 
farinose; inflorescence short, spreading, 
branched. Expected (C. murale ) . 

3. Leaves with dull or glaucous upper surface, 
sinuate-dentate margin, tapering to short 
petiole, slightly to densely farinose; 
inflorescence of dense clusters, these 
forming long, short-branching, continuous 
or interrupted spikes. (Spikes may be shorter 
than leaves in C. rubrum ) . 

4. Terrestrial habitat. 

5. Leaves glaucous above, densely farinose 
beneath; young stem greenish; fresh calyx- 
lobes barely keeled. (Also, leaves and 
inflorescence often red in late autumn; 
leaves subtending the individual spikes 
narrowly linear, unlike the serrate cauline 
leaves) C_. album 

5. Leaves dark green or yellowish, slightly 
farinose beneath; young stem red or purple; 
fresh calyx-lobes strongly keeled. Expected 
(€ . paganum ) . 



100. 

4. Salt marsh habitat. (Also leaves and 

inflorescence red at maturity. Seeds often 

vertical) .C. rubrum 

2. Principal leaves lanceolate, elliptic, 
narrowly ovate or oblong, the margins 
usually entire (often sinuate in C. glaucum ) . Ex- 
pected (C. glaucum , t C. leptophyllum , C_. lanceolatum ) . 

Chenopodium album L. Lamb's Quarters 

Java Farm. One station: entrance road near road to springhouse. 
Hectare 3408. Dry, unshaded site. 

Ivy Neck. One station: abandoned wheatfield. Hectare 4772. 
Higman 982, 1121. 

_C. rubrum L. Goosefoot 

Java Farm. Probably in salt marsh near Fox Point Peninsula. 
(Collected by H. David Hammond). 



Atriplex 

Atriplex patula L. , var. 

hastata (L.) Gray Spearscale 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Moderately abundant in salt marshes. 
Associate species: Polygonum punctatum , Distichlis spicata , Scirpus 
robustus , Kosteletzkya virginica . Rumex verticillatus , Pluchea 
camphorata , etc. Higman 60, 276, 282, 450. 



AMARANTHACEAE 

1. Leaves alternate, anthers 2-locular. (Also, 
flowers unisexual; filaments separate). 

2. Salt marsh habitat; flowers dioecious; leaves 
lance-linear; spikes remotely flowered in loose, 
spreading panicle Acnida 

2. Terrestrial habitat; flowers monoecious; leaves 
lance-ovate; spikes densely flowered in compact, 
erect panicle Amaranthus 

1. Leaves opposite; anthers 1-locular. Expected 
(Iresine) . 



101. 

Acnida 

Acnida cannabina L. Water Hemp 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Infrequent in salt marshes, seems to 
prefer drier parts of marsh, also sandbars or low hummocks. Associate 
species: Distichlis spicata , Spartina patens . Panicum virgatum , 
Baccharis halimifolia , Gerardia maritima, Juniperus virginiana . Higman 
99, 971. 

Amaranthus 

1. Spines absent from axils of leaves; utricle 
circumscissle, the top falling off as a lid. 

2. Plant slender; blades of principal leaves .5 
to 7 cm. long; flowers in small axillary 
clusters; stamens 2 or 3. Expected (A. albus ) . . 

2. Plant stout; blades of principal leaves 5 to 
30 cm. long; flowers monoecious in terminal and 
axillary simple or panicled spikes; stamens 5. 

3. Calyx of pistillate flowers about 3 mm. long, 
the bracts 2 to 3 times this length. 
Expected (A. retrof lexus ) . 

3. Calyx of pistillate flowers 1.5 to 2 mm. 
long, the bracts slightly longer to twice 
as long. 

4. Lateral spikes of terminal panicle divergent; 
bracts red or purple; utricle longer than 
calyx. Expected (A. cruentus ) . 

4. Lateral spikes of terminal panicle ascending 
to erect; bracts green to red-tinged; 
utricle shorter than to equalling the 
calyx A. hybridus 

1. Spines paired in axils of leaves; utricle bursting 

irregularly A. spinosus 



102. 



Amaranthus hybridus L. Prince's Feather, 

Amaranth 

Java Farm. One station: north boundary fence, adjacent to 
neighbor's cornfield. Associate species: Clematis virginiana , 
Ambrosia trif ida . 

Ivy Neck. One station: rubbish pile between old house and 
tobacco barn, near road. Hectare 4658. Associate species: Juncus 
tenuis , Barbarea vulgaris , etc. Higman 1037, 1117. 

A. spinosus L. Thorny Amaranth 

Java Farm. One station: rubbish pile near old house, at main 
buildings. Hectare 2580. Associate species: Solanum nigrum , Eleusine 
indica , Datura stramonium , Juncus tenuis , Melilotus alba . Higman 500. 



PHYTOLACCACEAE 

Phytolacca americana L. Pokeweed, 

Pokeberry 

Java Farm. Infrequent around main buildings and in abandoned fields. 

Ivy Neck. Apparently an initial dominant in abandoned fields on 
Scaffold Peninsula. Moderately abundant in stands of young Liquidambar 
styracif lua and Acer rubrum. Infrequent in hardwood forests of Scaffold 
and Cheston Peninsulas, under canopy of Liquidambar styracif lua , Juglans nigra , 
Robinia pseudoacacia , Nyssa sylvatica , etc. Higman 3. 

AIZOACEAE 

Mollugo verticillata L. Carpet-weed 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent in cornfields. Associate species: Ipomoea 
hederacea , Barbarea verna , Draba verna, Lepidium virginicum , etc. 
Higman 958, 1062. 



PORTULACACEAE 

Claytonia virginica L. Spring Beauty 

Java Farm. Moderately abundant in mature forest in vicinity of old 
entrance road and gate. Canopy of Acer rubrum , Quercus alba , Liquidambar 
styracif lua . etc. Associate species: Sanguinaria canadensis , Dentaria 
laciniata , Desmodium spp. Higman 562. 



103, 



CARYOPHYLLACEAE 

1. Sepals distinct; petals, if present, without basal 
claws . 

2. Leaves with scarious stipules. Expected ( Spergularia ) . 

2. Leaves without stipules. 

3. Petals not apically notched or deeply 2-cleft. 
(Petals may be absent in Sagina ) . Expected 
(Sagina , Arenaria, Holosteum ) . 

3. Petals apically notched or 2-cleft. 

4. Styles 3; capsule ovoid or ellipsoid; 

flowers solitary or in cymes Stellaria 

4. Styles 5; capsule cylindric; flowers not 

in umbels but may be clustered Cerastium 

1. Sepals united into a tube; petals, if present, with 
basal claws. 

5. Petals absent. (Also, calyx a hard cup; flowers 

green, sessile in upper axils). Expected (Scleranthus ) . 

5. Petals present. 

6. Petals red-violet; calyx with scarious or leafy 

basal bracts Dianthus 

6. Petals white or pinkish; calyx without 
basal bracts. 

7. Styles 5; capsule opening by 5 or 10 teeth... Lychnis 

7. Styles 2 or 3; capsule with 3, 4, or 6 valves. 

8. Calyx 10-nerved; styles 3; capsule 3- or 

6-valved Silene 

8. Calyx obscurely nerved and cylindric or 
5-nerved and ovoid; styles 2; capsule 
4-valved. Expected ( Saponaria ) . 



104. 



Stellaria media (L) Cyrillo Chickweed, 

Starwort 

Java Farm. Infrequent to abundant along roadsides and in sparsely 
shaded old fields. Principal station near junction of old entrance 
road and base line. Canopy of Platanus occidentalis and Fraxinus 
americana . Associate species: Ranunculus sceleratus , Duchesnea 
indica , Lonicera japonica . 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent in cornfields and abandoned grassy field. 
Higman 550, 753. 



Cerastium 

1. Plants perennial, with long, matted, creeping basal 
branches. (Also, bracts of inflorescence scarious- 
margined or the lowest ones herbaceous). 

2. Basal leafy branches herbaceous, without axillary 

tufts , their leaves hirsute C_. vulgatum 

2. Basal leafy branches becoming dry and withering 
but persistent, with conspicuous axillary tufts, 
their leaves not hirsute. Expected (C. arvense 
var. villosum ) . 

1. Plants annual or winter-annual, without creeping 
basal branches. 

3. Leaves narrowly oblong to oblanceolate; capsules 
2-3 times as long as sepals; sepals oblong, blunt 
or acute. Expected (C. nutans ) . 

3. Leaves broadly elliptic to ovate or obovate; 
capsules 1-2 times as long as sepals; sepals 
lance-attenuate. 

4. Bracts of inflorescence scarious-margined. 
Expected (C. semidecandrum ) . 

4. Bracts of inflorescence herbaceous. (Also, 

sepals scarious-margined) C. viscosum 

Cerastium vulgatum L. Mouse-ear Chickweed 

Ivy Neck. Abundant in fallow cornfields. Associate species: 
Cerastium viscosum , Stellaria media , Draba verna, Barbarea vulgaris , 
etc. Also one station on dike through salt marsh at head of Cheston 
Creek estuary. Higman 868. 



105. 

_C. viscosum L. Mouse-ear Chickweed 

Java Farm. Infrequent in grassy old fields between south side 
of main building area and old entrance road. Associate species: 
Poa pratensis , Cirsium vulgare . Asclepias syriaca . 

Ivy Neck. Moderately abundant in fallow cornfields. Associated 
with C. vulgatum above. Higman 636. 

Dianthus 

Dianthus armeria L. Deptford Pink 

Java Farm. Infrequent along unshaded portions of Fox Point Road 
and new entrance road, and in old field south of Fox Creek marsh. 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent along tractor trails and in abandoned 
grassy field. Higman 23, 722. 

Lychnis 

Lychnis alba Mill. White Campion 

Java Farm. Infrequent to moderately abundant in grassy old 
fields south of main building area. Associate species: Cerastium 
viscosum above. Higman 8, 662. 

Silene 

1. Calyx glabrous or virtually so. 

2. Stem not sticky; calyx somewhat inflated, its 
nerves not prominent. 

3. Leaves in whorls of 4; petals fringed S^. stellata 

3. Leaves opposite; petals 2-lobed. Expected 
(S. cucubalus , S. nivea ) . 

2. Stem with sticky areas; calyx tight around the capsule, 
its 5 to 10 straight nerves prominent. (Also, 
flowers in loose panicles, with long pedicels; 
petals inconspicuous or wanting) _S_. antirrhina 

1. Calyx pilose. (Also, plants annual, without 
persistent bases; calyx prominently 5- to 10- 
nerved; inflorescence an open cymose panicle) _S. noctof lora 

Silene stellata (L.) Ait. Starry Campion 

Java Farm. One station: large mound on bottom of Muddy Creek 
valley, between old entrance road and Muddy Creek. Hectare 2497. 
Canopy of Quercus alba , Quercus velutina , Fagus grandifolia , Carya 
glabra . Higman 1041. 



106. 



_S. antirrhlna L. Catchfly 

Ivy Neck. One station: southern part of grassy abandoned field 
on Scaffold Peninsula. Hectare 4772. Higman 693. 

_S. noctof lora L. Catchfly, Campion 

Java Farm. One station on Fox Point Road. Higman 803. 

NYMPHACEAE 

Brasenia schreberi Gmel. Water-shield 

Java Farm. One station on shore of tidal portion of Muddy Creek, 
near mouth of small tributary below springhouse. Hectare 3437. 
Growing on soft mud. Associate species: Panicum virgatum , Pluchea 
camphorata . Polygonum punctatum . Higman 998. 

RANUNCULACEAE 

I. Pistils forming follicles (pods opening down one 
side) or berries. Expected (Caltha, Coptis , Aquil - 
egia . Delphinium , Aconitum, Cimicifuga . Actaea ) . 

1. Pistils forming achenes or utricles borne in heads 
or dense spikes. 

2. Plant a vine; leaves opposite; sepals 4, petaloid 

(petals absent); styles long and plumose Clematis 

2. Plant erect; leaves alternate or radical, the 

upper sometimes opposite or whorled; sepals 3 to 20. 

3. Petals 5, yellow; sepals 5 Ranunculus 

3. Petals absent or represented by modified 
stamens; sepals 3 to 20. 

4. Leaves all alternate; flowers in racemes, 
panicles, or corymbs. (Also, leaves 2- to 
3-temately compound; flowers dioecious).... Thalictrum 



107. 



4. Leaves at summit of stem or peduncle opposite 
or whorled, forming an involucre; flowers 
solitary or in umbels. 

6. Basal leaf 1, involucral leaves compound 
(3 leaflets); roots tuberous; sepals 5 to 
10, petaloid. (Also, sepals white or pink). 
Anemonella 

6. Basal leaves several, basal and involucral 
leaves simple roots not tuberous; sepals 
4 to 6. 

7. Involucral leaves unlobed, near the 
flower, sepals bluish, white or pink; 
plant stemless. Expected ( Hepatica ) . 

7. Involucral as well as basal leaves with 
3 to 5 deeply lobed divisions; involucral 
leaves remote from the flower; sepals 
greenish-yellow; plant with stem Anemone 



Clematis 

1. Leaflets toothed or dissected; sepals 6 to 12 mm. 

long; achenes pilose or villous-hirsute C_. virginiana 

1. Leaflets entire or wavy-margined; sepals 10 to 17 mm. 

long; achenes appressed-silky C_. dioscoreif olia 

Clematis virginiana L. Virgin's Bower 

Java Farm. Infrequent in old fields, among Rhus radicans and 
Lonicera japonica . Higman 130, 710, 1038. 

_C. dioscoreifolia Levi & Vaniot Clematis 

Java Farm. One station: steep southeast-facing slope at shore of 
Rhode River, slightly below pier. Hectare 3610. Shaded by Robinia 
pgeudoacacia . Associate species Lonicera japonica . Higman 1039. 



Ranunculus 

1. Basal leaves simple or lobed, cauline ones divided; 
roots fibrous, without corm. 

2. Habitat aquatic or amphibious; plant fleshy; the 

lower and middle cauline leaves long-petioled R.. sceleratus 



108. 



2. Habitat terrestrial; plant not fleshy; cauline 
leaves short-petioled to sessile. (Also, achene 
beakless; basal leaves shallowly dentate or 
crenate) R. abort ivus 

1. Basal and cauline leaves compound; roots spreading 

from sub-globose corm R. bulbosus 

Ranunculus sceleratus L. Cursed Crowfoot 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent along Cheston Creek drainage and near artificial 
pond at source of the drainage. Canopy of Platanus occidentalis , 
Diospyros virginiana , Liquidambar styraciflua . Higman 877, 1157. 

R. abortivus L. Small-flowered Crowfoot 

Java Farm. Two stations, both shaded and apparently well-drained; 
at north boundary west of new entrance gate, and along cut bank of old 
Muddy Creek Road. Higman 580, 605. 

_R. bulbosus L. Common Buttercup 

Java Farm & Ivy Neck. Moderately abundant along dirt roads, and 
in old fields not yet swamped b y Rhus radicans . Prefers moderately dry, 
sunny or partly shaded areas. Higman 627, 1147, 1148. 



Thalictrum 

Thalictrum dioicum L. Meadow Rue 

Ivy Neck. One station: steep bank overlooking Rhode River, slightly 
above Sand Point. Hectare 4749. Higman 1012. 



Anemonella 

Anemonella thalictroides (L.) Spach. 

Ivy Neck. One station in poorly-drained forest of central Scaffold 
Peninsula. Canopy of Liquidambar styraciflua , Acer rubrum, Liriodendron 
tulipif era , Fagus grandifolia , Juglans nigra , Quercus alba , Carya cordiformis , 
etc. Higman 570, 631. 



109. 



Anemone 

Anemone virginiana L . Anemone , 

Wind-flower 

Java Farm. Infrequent on summit of ridge, northwest of water 
tank. Canopy of Pinus taeda , Fagus grandifolia . Quercus alba , C;. 
velutina , Carya tomentosa , etc. Higman 504. 



BERBERIDACEAE 

Podophyllum peltatum L. May Apple, Mandrake 

Java Farm. Moderately abundant in bottom of Muddy Creek valley, 
under canopy of Fraxinus americana and Platanus occidentalis . Less 
frequent on slopes of valley, under canopy of Fagus grandifolia . Quercus 
alba , Liriodendron tulipifera , etc. Associate species: Claytonia virginica , 
Smilacina racemosa , Viola papilionacea . 

Ivy Neck. Moderately abundant in valley of Scaffold Creek 
drainage, and less frequently in central Scaffold Peninsula. Canopy of 
Liquidambar styracif lua , Acer rubrum, Liriodendron tulipifera , 
Platanus occidentalis , etc. Higman 628. 

MAGNOLIACEAE 

Liriodendron tulipifera L. Tulip-tree, 

Yellow-poplar 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Infrequent to moderately abundant in 
a variety of mature hardwood canopies. Seems to prefer moderately 
moist upland, sides of stream valleys, etc. Associate species: 
Quercus alba , Fagus grandifolia , Acer rubrum , Carya cordiformis , 
Quercus velutina . Cornus florida . Higman 266, 1122. 

ANNONACEAE 

Asimina triloba (L.) Duval Pawpaw, Papaw 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent in mixed hardwood forests of Scaffold and 
Cheston peninsulas. Small clump between cornfield and Sand Point salt 
marsh. Higman 573. 



110. 



LAURACEAE 

1. Leaves usually with 1 or more lobes; flowers 
in peduncled corymbose racemes, appearing with 
the leaves; fruit a blue drupe, its pedicel 
thickened at the end Sassafras 

1. Leaves not lobed; flowers in sessile clusters, 
appearing before the leaves; fruit a red drupe, 
its pedicel not thickened Lindera 



Sassafras 

Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees. Sassafras 

Java Farm. Moderately abundant in old fields and along fences. 
Associate species: Acer rubrum , Quercus palustris , Liquidambar 
styraciflua . Infrequent in mature mixed hardwood forest. 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent at margins of fields. Higman 382, 584. 



Lindera 

Lindera benzoin (L.) Blume, Spice-bush 

L_. benzoin , var. pubescens 



•i" iasasas » »■»■■■■ k ~" » 
(Palmer & Steyerm.) Rehd. 



Java Farm. Abundant in valley bottom of Muddy Creek. Canopy of 
Fraxinus americana and Platanus occidentalis . Associate species: Cornus 
florida , Rubus sp. Infrequent to moderately abundant in forested valleys 
of tributaries to Muddy Creek. Higman 73, 559, 583, 632. 



PAPAVERACEAE 

Sanguinaria canadensis L. Bloodroot 

Java Farm. One station: along old entrance road under canopy 
of mature Fagus grandifolia , Quercus alba , Liriodendron tulipifera , 
etc. Associate species: Dentaria laciniata , Dentaria heterophylla , 
Claytonia virginica , Viola papi,lionacea . Desmodium spp., etc. 
Higman 560. 



111. 

CRUCIFERAE 



li Petals yellow or orange. 

2. Leaves all simple, not deeply divided. Expected 
( Erysimum , Rorippa , Conringia , Camelina ) . 

2. Leaves, at least the lower, deeply divided, lyrate, 
or pinnate. 

3. Petals 1 to 2 cm. long. Expected ( Raphanus , 
Brassica ) . 

3. Petals .5 to 10 mm. long. 

4. Cauline leaves clasping the stem by pinnati- 

fid bases Barbarea 

4. Cauline leaves not clasping, or if so their 
bases entire or shallowly dentate. 

5. Sepals erect at anthesis; petals 6 to 10 mm. 
long; ovary and fruit beaked. Expected 
( Brassica ) . 

5. Sepals spreading at anthesis; petals 
shorter; ovary and fruit beakless. 

6. Dry habitat; sepals and ovary linear. 
(Also, terminal segment of the pinnat- 
ifid cauline leaves bluntly to sharply 
serrate; flowers pale yellow) Sisymbrium 

6. Damp to aquatic habitat; sepals and 
ovary ovate to elliptic. Expected 
( Rorippa ) . 

1. Petals white, purple, or pink. 

7. Petals purple to pink; leaves palmately 

3-divided; plant perennial with fleshy rhizomes; 

forest habitat Dentaria 

7. Petals white; leaves simple or pinnate; plant usually 
annual or biennial without rhizomes; roadside and 
field habitat. (Raphanus , above, may have whitish to 
pale purple petals, lyrate leaves). 



112. 



8. Leaves simple, not deeply divided. 

9. Basal rosettes present. ( Lepidium may 
have a false rosette of cauline leaves) . 

10. Cauline leaves absent; flowering 
stem a scape. (Also, petals cleft 
to middle) Draba 

10. Cauline leaves present. 

11. Leaves sagittate at base. 

Expected (Capsella , Arabis ) . 

11. Leaves not sagittate at base. 
(Also, ovary linear; petals 
spatulate; plant annual with 
slender taproot) Arabidopsis 

9. Basal rosettes absent. 

12. Plants halophytic, succulent Cakile 

12. Plants not halophytic or succulent; 
old-field habitat. 

13. Cauline leaves clasping the stem, 
sagittate. 

14. Ovary notched at summit; style 
absent or very short. 

15. Plant pubescent; petals 1.5 

mm. long Lep id ium 

15. Plant glabrous; petals 2-4 
mm. long. Expected (Thlaspi ) . 

14. Ovary not notched, but subglobose 
or cordate; style filiform. 
Expected (Cardaria ) . 

13. Cauline leaves not clasping. 

16. Ovary short, lanceolate to ovate; 
petals 1 to 2 mm. long or 
absent Lepidium 

16. Ovary long, linear or 
cylindric. 



113. 



17. Cauline leaves deltoid-ovate, 
cordate, long-petioled; plant 
onion-scented. Expected 
(Alliaria ) . 

17. Cauline leaves tapering to base, 
sessile or nearly so; plant 
odorless. (Also, blades of petals 
not raised above sepals; cauline 
leaves blunt-toothed) Cardamine 

8. Leaves deeply pinnatifid, lyrate, or pinnate. 

18. Petals 1 to 2 cm. long. Expected 
(Cardamine , Raphanus ) . 

18. Petals not over 8 mm. long, or absent. 

19. Ovary lance-oblong to round or ob- 

cordate. Expected (Teesdalia , Lepid- 
ium , Coronopus , Armoracia) . 

19. Ovary slenderly linear. 

20. Wet or aquatic habitat; petals 

4 to 5 mm. long Nasturtium 

20. Dry habitat; petals shorter Cardamine 



Barbarea 

1. Uppermost leaves coarsely and irregularly dentate; 

lyrate lower leaves with 1 to 4 pairs of lateral lobes. _B. vulgaris 

1. Uppermost leaves lyrate-pinnatif id; lyrate lower 

leaves with 10 to 20 lateral lobes B. verna 



Barbarea vulgaris R. Br. Winter Cress 

Java Farm. Moderately abundant in old fields, in areas not yet 
covered by Rhus radicans and Lonicera japonica . Also along roadsides 
and around headquarters. Associate species: Draba verna , Stellaria media , 
Arabidopsis thaliana , Cerastium vulgatum . 

Ivy Neck. Moderately abundant in cultivated fields. Same associate 
species as as Java Farm. Higman 596. 



114. 



_B. verna (Mill.) Aschers. Winter Cress 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Moderately abundant. Associated with 
_B. vulgaris above. Higman 575, 617, 1082. 



Sisymbrium 

Sisymbrium officinale Scop., var. leiocarpum DC. Hedge Mustard 

Ivy Neck. One station: pasture behind mule shed, north of 
Cheston Creek drainage. Higman 724. 

Dentaria 

1. Bracts of inflorescence more or less hirsute; 

flowering stem usually without a basal leaf D. laciniata 

1. Bracts of inflorescence glabrous (occasionally 
densely hirsute) ; flowering stem with basal 
leaf; leaves violet beneath „ EL heterophylla 

NOTE: These species are difficult to distinguish., may hybridize. 

Dentaria laciniata Muhl. Toothwort 

Java Farm. Infrequent, along old entrance road under mature 
canopy of Fagus grandifolia , Quercus alba , Liriodendron tulipif era , etc. 
Associate species: Claytonia virginica , Sanguinaria canadensis , Viola 
papilionacea , Smilacina racemosa , etc. Higman 1081. 

_D. heterophylla Nutt. Toothwort 

Java Farm. Infrequent, associated with I), laciniata . Higman 561. 



Draba 

Draba verna L. Whitlow Grass 

Ivy Neck. Abundant in cultivated fields and along tractor trails, 
Associate species: Cerastium vulgatum , Barbarea vulgaris , Arabidopsis 
thaliana , etc. 

Java Farm. Infrequent to moderately abundant. Roadsides and 
open fields. Higman 555. 



115. 



Arabidopsis 



Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. 

(Sysimbrium thalianum Gray) Mouse-ear Cress 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Infrequent to moderately abundant. Same 
habitat as Draba verna above and associated with it. Higman 582, 624. 



Cakile 

Cakile edentula (Bigel.) Hook. Sea Rocket 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent to moderately abundant on sandy bars and 
beaches of Cheston Peninsula. Associated with Spartina alternif lora . 
Higman 860, 936. 



Lepidium 

1. Plant densely short-villous; cauline leaves 
sagittate-clasping at the base, oblanceolate 
to obovate in shape, entire or shallowly serrate _L. campestre 

1. Plant glabrous or nearly so; cauline leaves tapering 
to base, very variable in shape and serration. 

2. Petals equaling or longer than the sepals L_. virginicum 

2. Petals shorter than the sepals or wanting. 
Expected (L. densif lorum ) . 

Lepidium campestre (L.) R. Br. Field Cress 

Java Farm. Infrequent along new entrance road. Associate species: 
Dactylis glomerata, Lepidium virginicum , Melilotus alba, Vicia sativum , 
Trifolium repens . Higman 637. 

L_. virginicum L. Pepper Grass 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Infrequent along roads and tractor trails. 
Associate species: Juncus tenuis , Trifolium repens . Higman 681, 
704, 708, 794. 



Cardamine 

Cardamine hirsuta L. Bitter Cress 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent to moderately abundant in cultivated fields. 
Associate species: Draba verna , Cerastium vulgatum , Stellaria media , etc, 
Higman 554, 634. 



116. 

Nasturtium 

Nasturtium officinale R. Br. Water Cress 

Java Farm. One station: bank of tidal portion of Muddy Creek 
at mouth of tributary from springhouse. Canopy of Fagus grandifolia 
and Quercus velutina . Higman 616. 

CRASSULACEAE 

Sedum sarmentosum Bunge Stonecrop 

Ivy Neck. One station: stone flower box in yard of old house 
(persistent after cultivation). Higman 721. 

SAXIFRAGACEAE 

Penthorum sedoides L. 
(put in Crassulaceae by 

Britton and Brown) Ditch Stonecrop 

Ivy Neck. One station: mud bottom of dry overflow pond on 
Rhode River shore of Cheston Peninsula. Associate species: Sparganium 
eurycarpum . Higman 1015. 

HAMMELIDACEAE 

Liquidambar styracif lua L. Sweet Gum, Sweetgum 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Infrequent to moderately abundant in 
canopy and understory of all hardwood forest types. Adventive in 
abandoned fields, often forming very dense stands. Higman 63. 

PLATANACEAE 

Platanus occidentalis L. Sycamore 

Java Farm. Dominates canopy along upper Muddy Creek near culvert 
of old entrance road and at source of tributary near junction of old 
entrance road and springhouse road. Hectares 2466, 2476, and 2497. 
Associate with canopy dominant Fraxinus alba along Muddy Creek valley 
bottom. Also one station at main building area. 

Ivy Neck. Dominates canopy along drainage of Cheston Creek 
estuary. Hectares 4722, 4732, 4752. Co-dominants include Diospyros 
virginiana and Liquidambar styraciflua . Higman 459. 



117. 

ROSACEAE 

1. Trees or woody shrubs. 

2. Ovary inferior; fruit a pome or berry. 

3. Plant not spiny; mature carpels papery. 

4. Flowers in racemes; pome small, berry-like... Amelanchier 

4. Flowers in corymbed or umbellate cymes, 
very showy; pome large and fleshy (a 
berry in P_. melanocarpa ) Pyrus 

3. Plant with long spines; mature carpels 

hard, with 1 to 5 bony nutlets Crataegus 

2. Ovary superior; fruit a follicle, capsule, 
or drupe. 

5. Plant a shrub; fruit dehiscent, a follicle 
or capsule. (Also, flowers white in dense 
elongate panicles in species collected; 
cultivated) Spiraea 

5. Plant a tree; fruit indehiscent, a drupe. 

(Also, flowers in racemes or corymbs) Prunus 

1. Herbs or semi-woody shrubs, the latter thorny. 

6. Ovaries partly or entirely enclosed by the calyx. 

7. Plant herbaceous. 

8. Calyx covered with stiff, hooked bristles; 
petals 5, yellow; leaves pinnately 
compound Agrimonia 

8. Calyx without hooked bristles; petals none, 
flowers greenish; leaves palmately cleft. 
Expected (Alchemilla ) . 

7. Plant a thorny shrub. (Also, flowers white 
and pink, showy; calyx an open cup, ripening 
as a fleshy lip; leaves pinnately compound) Rosa 

6. Ovaries not enclosed by the calyx. 



118. 



9. Plant a thorny shrub; fruit a cluster of 

juicy drupelets Rubus 

9. Plant herbaceous; fruit achenes. 

10. Plant prostrate-spreading. 

11. Receptacle pulpy, enlarged in fruit 

(strawberry-like); leaflets 3, digitate. 

12. Petals white; bractlets of 
calyx similar to the narrow 
lobes Fragaria 

12. Petals yellow; bractlets of calyx 
much broader than the lobes, 3- 
toothed. (Also, plant very pilose; 
stipules 3-divided) Duchesnea 

11. Receptacle dry, hairy, not enlarged in 
fruit; leaflets 5, palmate. (Also, 

petals yellow) Potentilla 

10. Plant erect. (Also, receptacle hairy). 

12. Petals yellow; receptacle flatish; leaves 
oblanceolate to narrowly obovate, coarsely 
serrate, never lobed Potentilla 

12. Petals white; receptacle conic-cylindric; 
leaves broadly oblanceolate or rhombic, 
serrate, the lower often lobed or cleft. 
Geum 



Amelanchier 

1. Racemes ascending; sepals divergent in fruit; 
petals 7-12 mm. long; leaves blunt or acute at 
apex, glabrous beneath, round at base A. canadensis 

1. Racemes drooping; sepals tightly reflexed in fruit; 
petals 1-2 mm. long; leaves acuminate at apex, 
tomentose beneath, round or cordate at base A. arborea 



119. 



Amelanchler canadensis Medic. Shad-bush, 

Service Berry 

Ivy Neck. Two stations: head of Scaffold Creek estuary and east 
bank of Scaffold Peninsula. Canopy of Quercus alba , Carya tomentosa , 
Fagus grandifolia , Acer rub rum . Higman 594, 844. 

A. arborea (Michx. f.) Fern. Shad-bush, 

Service Berry 

Java Farm. One station: Hog Island. Hectare 3592. Canopy of 
Quercus prinus . Associate species: Rhododendron nudiflora , Nyssa 
sylvatica , Gaylussacia baccata . Cornus florida . Higman 117. 

Pyrus 

1. Leaves glandular along upper midrib; petals less 
than 1 cm. long and 7 mm. broad; fruit small and 
berry-like P_. melanocarpa 

1. Leaves not glandular; petals 1-2 cm. long and 0.8-1.5 
cm. broad; fruit large and fleshy. 

2. Leaves and branchlets glabrous; fruit pear-shaped, 

yellow P_. communis 

2. Leaves and branchlets white-tomentose; fruit 

apple-shaped , red P_. malus 

Pyrus melanocarpa (Michx.) Willd. 

(Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Ell.) Chokeberry 

Java Farm. One station on Fox Point, under canopy of Quercus prinus . 
Also observed on Hog Island. Hectares 3558, 3592. Higman 532. 

P_. communis L. Pear 

Java Farm. Infrequent on steep west-facing slope overlooking 
meadow, adjacent northern boundary. Persistent after cultivation. 
Canopy of Juglans nigra . 

J?, malus L. Apple 

Java Farm. Infrequent on south-facing slope overlooking meadow, 
adjacent northern boundary. Persistent after cultivation. Open canopy also 
includes Liriodendron tulipif era and Robinia pseudoacacia . 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent on borders of cultivated fields. Presumably 
cultivated. Higman 157, 506, 578, 597, 604. 



120. 



Crataegus 

Crataegus pruinosa (Wendl.) K. Koch Hawthorn, Red Haw 

Ivy Neck. One station on east shore of Scaffold Creek; canopy 
of Quercus prinus , J^. velutina , and Carya tomentosa . Another station 
on east shore of Cheston Creek; small area of Quercus phellos -mixed 
hardwoods. Higman 656, 1073. 

Spiraea 

Spiraea prunifolia Sieb. & Zucc? Spiraea 

Ivy Neck. Two stations near old houses. Hectares 4720, 4658. 
Persistent after cultivation. Higman 593, 1144. 

Prunus 

1 . Flowers in long racemes P_. serotina 

1. Flowers umbellate or corymbed. 

2. Ovary and fruit tomentose P_. persica 

2. Ovary and fruit glabrous, not glaucous P_. avium 

Prunus serotina Ehrh. Black Cherry 

Java Farm. Infrequent to moderately abundant in old fields and 
along roadsides. Associate species: Sassafras albidum , Acer rubrum , 
Quercus palustris , Liquidambar styracif lua . Cornus f lorida . 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent in old fields between east and west forks 
of Scaffold Creek estuary, in forest at source of Scaffold Creek 
drainage (east fork), and in forest of central Scaffold Peninsula. 
Moderately abundant on Cheston Point and in coves behind salt marsh 
there. Associate species: those at Java Farm plus Robinia 
pseudoacacia , Rhus typhina , Quercus velutina . 
Higman 139, 644. 

Prunus persica (L.) Batsch Peach 

Java Farm. One station at main buildings. Hectare 2580. Persistent 
after cultivation. Higman 598, 867. 



121. 



J?, avium L. Sweet Cherry 

Java Farm. Infrequent along shore of Muddy Creek and Fox Creek 
estuaries. Associate species not definite, may include Robinia 
pseudoacacia , Liquidambar styraciflua , Ulmus rubra , Cornus florida . 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent along shores of estuaries and at Cheston 
Point, not associated with Quercus prinus canopy. Also one station 
(presumably cultivated) beside old house on upper Scaffold Peninsula. 
Higman 422, 424, 585, 767, 1163, 1164. 



Agrimonia 

1. Larger leaflets of middle and upper leaves lance- 
acuminate, sharply serrate, villous and copiously 
white-glandular-dotted beneath. (Also, axis of 
raceme minutely glandular) A. parvif lora 

1. Larger learlets of middle and upper leaves ovate- 
oblong, coarsely dentate, either villous or glandular- 
dotted but not both. 

2. Axis of raceme minutely glandular, glabrous or 
nearly so; rachis and lower leaflet surfaces 
glabrous A. rostellata 

2. Axis of raceme glandless, pubescent; rachis 
and lower leaflet surfaces pubescent. 

3. Larger leaflets broadly obtuse at apex; 

mature hypanthium about 2 mm. long A. microcarpa 

3. Larger leaflets acute to blunt at apex; 
mature hypanthium about 3 mm. long. 
Expected (A. pubescens ) . 

Agrimonia parviflora Ait. Agrimony 

Java Farm. Infrequent in grassy fields between south side 
of main building area and old entrance road. Associate species: 
S planum carolinense , Cirsium discolor , Erigeron annuus , Verbascum 
thapsus . Asclepias syriaca . 

Ivy Neck. One station: drainage into Cheston Creek estuary. 
Hectare 4743. Canopy of Robinia pseudoacacia . Diospyros virginiana . 
Platanus occidentalis . Associate species: Elephantopus carolinianus . 
Cuphea petiolata . 

A. rostellata Wallr. Agrimony 

Java Farm. Infrequent along abandoned trail between old entrance 
gate and Muddy Creek, parallel to north boundary. Canopy of mature 
Fagus grandifolia . Carya tomentosa . Quercus alba , Liriodendron tulipifera, 
etc. Higman 1079. 



122. 



A. microcarpa Wallr. Agrimony- 

Java Farm. Infrequent along old entrance road between gate and 
Muddy Creek. Canopy same as for A. rostellata above. Associate species: 
Lactuca f loridana , Eupatorium purpureum , Desmodium paniculatum , 
Desmodium glutinosum , Elephantopus carolinianus , Polygonum cespitosum 
var. longisetum . Higman 32. 



Rosa 
1. Styles united into a column equalling the stamens. 

2. Stipules entire; leaflets 3. Expected (R. setigera ) . 

2. Stipules fringed like a comb; leaflets 7 or 9 R. multif lora 

1. Styles free (sometimes partly united) and shorter 
than the stamens. 

3. Sepals persistent in fruit; foliage not 
glandular-aromatic. Expected (£.• cinnamoaea ) . 

3. Sepals deciduous in fruit, if persistent, the 
foliage glandular-aromatic. 

4. Mature hips 2 cm. long or more, ellipsoid- 
ovoid, the achenes often visible through the 
walls. (Also, leaves glabrous, glandless, 
not aromatic) R. canina 

4. Mature hips usually 1 cm. long or shorter 

(1.5 cm. long in R. micrantha ) , ovoid-subglobose, 
opaque. 

5. Leaves glandular beneath at least, oval- 
ovate, the teeth glandular or gland-tipped; 
hips sparsely glandular-hirsute to 
glabrous; sepals fringed like a comb. 

6. Sepals persistent until fruit is entirely 
ripe (only sure distinction) ; leaflets 
strongly glandular above; styles 
pubescent. Expected (R. eglanteria ) . 

6. Sepals promptly deciduous in fruit; 
leaflets sparsely glandular above; 
styles glabrous or nearly so R. micrantha 



123. 



5. Leaves glandless, narrowly elliptic- 
obovate; hips and sepals glandular- 
hirsute; sepals entire or with 2 
narrow lateral divisions. 

7. Stipules upwardly dialated, the 
spreading adnate part of the pair 
3-10 mm. broad. Expected 
(R. virginiana ) . 

7. Stipules with parallel sides, the 
adnate part .5-2 mm. broad. 

8. Sepals entire; leaflets glabrous, 
or pilose only on veins beneath; 
cauline thorns stout and recurved R. palustris 

8. Sepals with 2 narrow lateral 

divisions; leaflets pilose beneath; 

cauline thorns slender and straight.... R. Carolina 

Rosa multif lora Thunb. Rose 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Infrequent, usually on banks of streams 
and in nearby old fields. Associate species: Gratiola virginiana , 
Trifolium repens , Tripsacum dactyloides , Panicum clandestinum . Viburnum 
prunifolium, Rhus typhina , Celastrus scandens . Higman 221, 328, 680, 
703, 727. 

R. canina L. Dog Rose 

Ivy Neck. One station: steep bluff above sandy shore of Rhode River 
on Cheston Peninsula, north of Sand Point. Associate species: Amorpha 
frutescens , Rhus typhina , Verbascum thapsus , Daucus carota , Atriplex 
patula, Plantago lanceolata , Juncus tenuis , Solidago sempervirens , 
Cirsium discolor , Arctium minus . Higman 368, 1162. 

R. micrantha Sm. Sweetbrier 

Java Farm. Infrequent in old fields. Associate species: Rosa 
palustris , Solidago altissima , Rhus radicans . Higman 377, 761. 

R. palustris Marsh. Swamp Rose 

Java Farm. Infrequent along shores of streams and estuaries, 
landward margin of salt marsh on tidal portion of Muddy Creek, and 
scattered along Fox Creek drainage and adjacent fields. Associate species: 
Salix nigra . Rosa micrantha , Myrica cerifera . Viburnum prunifolium . 
Higman 291, 368, 379, 466, 861. 



124. 



R. Carolina L. Rose 

Ivy Neck. One station: east shore of Scaffold Peninsula. 
Canopy of mature Quercus prinus , Quercus alba , Carya tomentosa , 
Acer rubrum, Fagus grandifolia . Higman 846. 



Rubus 

1. Flowers 3-4 cm. broad, with spreading petals; 
fruit often drying in the receptacle without 
falling; leaves pale green beneath, pilose 
on both sides; stems and petioles very bristly R. hispidus 

1. Flowers much smaller, with calyx lobes exceeding 
petals; fruit readily falling from receptacle; 
leaves densely white-woolly beneath, nearly 
glabrous above; stems and petioles pubescent 
or glabrous. 

2. Stems, petioles, pedicels, and calyx with dense 
red glandular hairs; leaflets red-veined; 
fruit red R. phoenicolasius 

2. Stems glabrous but often very glaucous; petioles 
and pedicels slightly pilose with non-glandular 
hairs; calyx tomentose; leaflets green-veined; 
fruit purple-black R. occidentalis 

Rubus hispidus L. Dewberry, Bramble 

Java Farm. One station: border of mixed hardwood forest at end 
of road to springhouse. Hectare 3427. 

Ivy Neck. One station: prostrate in cornfield on Scaffold 
Peninsula and in adjacent forest. 

(May be infrequent to moderately abundant at forest borders.) 
Higman 658. 

R. phoenicolasius Maxim. Wineberry 

Java Farm. One station: near northeast border fence. Hectare 
2550. Summit of steep west-facing slope (old orchard); dense 
canopy of Juglans nigra , dense ground layer of Lonicera japonica . 
Also in small ravine at base of slope, adjoining meadow. Higman 781. 



125, 



R. occidentalis L. Black Raspberry 

Java Farm. Dominant in many old fields, forming dense clumps. 
Seems to compete well with Camp sis radicans and Lonicera japonica . 
Also scattered in grassy areas. Higman 702, 648. 



Fragaria 

Fragaria virginiana Duchesne Strawberry 

Java Farm. Three stations: grassy triangle at entrance gate, 
washed-out culvert on upper Fox Creek, and open glade at end of 
springhouse road. All sites moderately moist, moderately sunny, and 
moderately free of Rhus radicans and Lonicera japonica . Associated 
with Viola spp. , Duchesnea indica, assorted grasses. Higman 622. 

Duchesnea 

Duchesnea indica (Andr.) Focke. False or Indian 

Strawberry 

Java Farm. Moderately abundant to abundant in same habitat as 
Fragaria virginiana above. Also found in bottom of Muddy Creek valley, 
under canopy of Fraxinus americana and Platanus occidentalis ; associate 
species there include Ranunculus sceleratus and Allium vineale . 

Ivy Neck. Moderately abundant along Cheston Creek drainage. 
Canopy of mature Platanus occidentalis , Robinia pseudoacacia . Higman 
177, 313, 609, 783. 

Potentilla 

1. Stem erect, 2-9 dm. high. 

2. Leaves digitately 5- to 7-foliate; teeth of larger 
leaflets narrowly deltoid, ascending toward the 
apex; petals notched at apex; flowers 15 to 25 
mm. broad P_. recta 

2. Leaves palmately 3-foliate; teeth of larger 
leaflets broadly acute, spreading; petals only 
slightly notched at apex; flowers 3 to 10 mm. 
broad P_. norvegica 



126. 



1. Stem prostrate-trailing. 

3. Rhizome short and blunt, max. 2 cm. long; 

stipules of basal leaves with oblong-lanceolate 

flat auricles; leaves small at anthesis P. canadensis 

3. Rhizome irregularly enlarged, max. 8 cm. long; 
stipules of basal leaves with linear-lanceolate 
inrolling auricles; leaves expanded at anthesis.... P_. simplex 

(NOTE: These last two species look very similar in the field and on 
herbarium sheets, and distinguishing characters cannot be fully trusted.) 

Potentilla recta L. Five-finger 

Java Farm & Ivy Neck, One station each: both on open, unshaded 
roadsides. Higman 720. 

P_. norvegica L. Five-finger 

Java Farm. One station at border of parking lot, main building area. 
Hectare 2580. 

Ivy Neck. One station: near old barn on south side of artificial 
pond at source of Cheston Creek drainage. Hectare 4723. Associate 
species: Ipomoea hederacea . Datura stramonium , Cyperus strigosus , Abutilon 
theophrasti , Eleusine indica, Polygonum persicaria . Higman 932, 998. 

P_. canadensis L. Five-finger 

Java Farm. One station: near old entrance gate. Hectare 2463. 
Canopy of mature Fagus grandifolia , Quercus alba , Quercus velutina, 
Liriodendron tulipifera , Carya tomentosa . etc. Higman 664. 

P_. simplex Michx. Five-finger 

Java Farm. One station: along old Muddy Creek Road. Same 
habitat as J?, canadensis above. Hectare 2472. Higman 665. 



Geum 

Geum canadense Jacq. 

Java Farm. Moderately abundant along new entrance road, 
especially near culvert of Fox Creek drainage. Associate species: 
Panicum clandestinum , Duchesnea indica , Agrimonia microcarpa , Lonicera 
japonica . Site is partly shaded by Juglans nigra and Liquidambar 
styraciflua . Continued next page. 



127. 



Less frequent in forest north of Fox Creek marsh and in Muddy 
Creek valley near old entrance road. Both areas have dense, mature 
canopy and a dense ground layer of Lonicera japonica . Associate 
species at both locations: Elephantopus carolinianus . Higman 184, 
248, 830. 



LEGUMINOSAE 

1. Stamens completely separate, (monadelphous at base 
in Amorpha ) . 

2. Stamens inserted on the calyx. 

3. Herbs; flowers yellow; petioles with 1 or 

more glands Cassia 

3. Trees; flowers white or pink; petioles without 
basal glands. 

4. Plants thorny. Expected (Gleditsia ) . 

4. Plants thornless. 

5. Leaves bipinnate, with ovate leaflets; 

flowers white, not papilionaceous; legumes 

thick and woody, 1 dm. or more in length.. Gymnocladus 

5. Leaves simple, cordate; flowers pink, 
papilionaceous, appearing before the 
leaves; legumes not woody, approx. 
5-7 cm. long Cercis 

2. Stamens inserted on the corolla. 

6. Shrubs; sandy shoreline habitat; leaves 

with 13 to 35 leaflets; corolla of 1 violet 

petal; legumes resin-dotted Amorpha 

6. Herbs; inland habitat; leaves with 3 
leaflets; corolla of 5 yellow petals 
(papilionaceous); legumes not resinous Baptisia 

1. Stamens monadelphous or diadelphous. Herbs, 
except Robinia. ( Wisteria and Cytisus omitted) . 



128. 



7. Anthers of 2 forms; legume dehiscent. (Also, 
stamens monadelphous) . Expected (Luplnus ) . 

7. Anthers uniform. (Stylosanthes has 2 forms but 
legume is indehiscent) . 

8. Leaflets denticulate or serrulate. 

9. Inflorescence a head; petals persistent 

in fruit Trifolium 

9. Inflorescence a raceme or spike; petals 
deciduous in fruit. 

10. Legume straight; plant about 1 m. 

tall Melilotus 

10. Legume curved; plant (in species 

collected) low and spreading Medicago 

8. Leaflets entire. 

11. Trees, thorny. (Also, 3 to 10 pairs of 

leaflets) Robinia 

11. Herbs, thornless. 

12. Plant not a vine, without tendrils 

nor twining. (2 species of Lespedeza 
are prostrate and spreading). 

13. Leaflets 5 or more, up to 

approx. 25; legume dehiscent. 
Expected (Aeschynomene , Tephrosia ) . 

13. Leaflets 3; legume indehiscent. 

14. Leaflets stipellate (with 
appendages like stipules) ; 
calyx 2-lipped; flowers 
purple to pink; legume 
adhesive Desmodium 

14. Leaflets not stipellate; 

calyx subequally 5-toothed; 
flowers yellow or whitish; 
legume not adhesive. 



129. 



15. Flowers whitish with purple markings; 
stamens diadelphous; calyx persistent 
in fruit. (Some species have apetalous 
flowers also) Lespedeza 

15. Flowers yellow; stamens monadelphous (2 
kinds of anthers) ; calyx deciduous in 
fruit Stylosanthes 

12. Plant a vine, trailing or twining, may have 
tendrils. 

16. Tendrils terminating the pinnate leaves; 

leaflets 10 or more Vicia 

16. Tendrils absent; leaves odd-pinnate, with 3 
to 9 leaflets. 

17. Leaflets usually 5 to 9, ovate- 
lanceolate Apios 

17. Leaflets 3. 

18. Corolla yellow. Expected ( Rhynchosia ) . 

18. Corolla blue or purple to white. 

19. Style not bearded. 

20. Flowers both petaliferous and 
apetalous, the latter attached 
to roots; calyx of petaliferous 
flowers without small bracts 
at base of pedicel; calyx teeth 
subequal Amphicarpa 

20. Flowers all petaliferous; 
calyx with small bracts at 
base of pedicel; calyx 2- 
lipped, deeply cleft. 
Expected ( Pueraria ) . 

19. Style bearded. 

21. Style bearded at summit 
around stigma. Expected 
( Centrosema ) . 

21. Style bearded along upper 
surface. 



130. 



22. Flowers numerous in racemes or 

panicles; keel spirally coiled Phaseolus 

22. Flowers 1 to few in heads or short 

racemes; keel curved but not spirally 
coiled. 

23. Flowers 4-6 cm. long. Expected 
( Clitoria ). 

23. Flowers .6-2.5 cm. long. ( Also, 
keel long and blackened; flowers 
creamy with pink tinge; legume 
linear , flat ) Strophostyles 

Cassia fasciculata Michx. Partridge Pea 

Java Farm. Infrequent along Fox Point Road. Associate species: 
Daucus carota , Verbascum thapsus , Plantago major , Prunella vulgaris , 
Ambrosia artemisiifolia , Erigeron canadensis . 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent on tractor trails and field borders. 
Higman 16. 



Gymnocladus 

Gymnocladus dioica (L.) K. Koch Kentucky Coffee-tree 

Ivy Neck. One station: large tree by parking area, north of 
entrance road. Hectare 4720. Probably cultivated. Higman 1047, 1053. 



Cercis 

Cercis canadensis L. Redbud 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent in forest of central Scaffold Peninsula. 
Canopy of Quercus alba , Quercus velutina , Nyssa sylvatica , Liriodendron 
tulipifera , Carya tomentosa , etc. Understory includes Rhus typhina . 
Higman 595. 



Amorpha 

Amorpha fruticosa L. False Indigo 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent along landward margin of sandy beach, at shore 
of Rhode River. Associate species: Baccharis halimifolia . Higman 1063. 



131. 

Baptisia 

Baptisia tinctoria (L.) R. Vr. Wild Indigo 

Java Farm. One station: Fox Point, at end of road. Hectare 3558. 
Canopy of mature Quercus prinus , Quercus alba . Associate species: Liatris 
graminifolia . Higman 431. 

Trifolium 

1. Flowers sessile in head. 

2. Heads cylindric, not subtended by opposite 

leaves; flowers pale gray; calyx long-villous T_. arvense 

2. Heads subglobose, subtended by opposite leaves; 
flowers pink or reddish; calyx densely short- 
pilose T_. pratense 

1. Flowers pedicellate in head. 

3. Flowers yellow, becoming brown with age T. procumbens 

3. Flowers white to reddish-pink. 

4. Stems repent or creeping, the peduncles 

ascending ; flowers white _T. repens 

4. Stems erect or ascending; flowers pink or 

reddish T_. hybridum 

Trifolium arvense L. Rabbit-foot Clover 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent along tractor trail beside grassy abandoned 
field. Associate species: Hypericum perforatum , Festuca elatior , 
Trifolium hybridum , Rudbeckia serotina . Higman 813. 

T. pratense L. Red Clover 

Ivy Neck. Moderately abundant in central part of grassy abandoned 
field. Associate species: Trifolium hybridum , Verbascum blatteria , 
Oenothera fruticosa . Higman 545, 695. 

JJ. pratense , var. sativum (Mill.) Schreb. 

Java Farm. Infrequent along new entrance road. Associate species: 
Vicia sativa , Melilotus alba . Higman 203. 



132. 



_T. procumbens L. Hop Clover 

Java Farm. One station: south-facing slope adjacent north border, 
overlooking meadow. Hectare 2458. Open canopy of Pyrus malus , Robinia 
pseudoacacia , Liriodendron tulipifera . Fairly dense Rhus radicans 
and Lonicera japonica . Higman 1119. 



JJ. repens L. White Clover 

Java Farm, Infrequent to moderately abundant along old entrance 
road and road to springhouse. Higman 673, 705, 706. 

T. hybridum L. Alsike Clover 

Ivy Neck. Moderately abundant in grassy abandoned field. Associated 
with JJ. pratense above. Higman 687, 689, 817. 



Melilotus 

1. Petals yellow M. officinalis 

1. Petals white M. alba 

Melilotus officinalis (L») Lam. Yellow Sweet Clover 

Java Farm. Moderately abundant around main buildings and along 
sunny roadsides. 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent, around farm buildings. Higman 511, 700. 

M. alba Desr. White Sweet Clover 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Same habitat as M. officinalis above; 
somewhat more abundant. Associate species: Cirsium discolor , Osclepias 
syriaca , Verbascum thapsus . Higman 361. 

Medicago 

Medicago lupulina L. Black Medick 

Java Farm. One station: weedy lawn beside parking area at main 
buildings. Hectare 2580. Associate species: Melilotus alba. Higman 701, 



133. 

Robinia pseudoacacia L. Black Locust, 

Yellow Locust (L) 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Infrequent to moderately abundant in 
old fields and immature forest, often associated with Liquidambar 
styraciflua . Absent to infrequent in mature hardwood forest. Formerly 
cultivated at Java Farm, on south- and west-facing slopes overlooking 
meadow. Higman 264, 696, 1046. 

Desmodium 

1. Stamens monadelphous; stipe of loment (legume) 
equal to or exceeding the pedicel, more than 3 
times as long as calyx. 

2. Inflorescences axillary and terminal; flowers 
white. Expected (D. pauciflorum ) . 

2. Inflorescences terminal only; flowers rose to 
purple. (Also, flowering stem leafless or 
nearly so). 

3. Flowering stem leafless at base; leaves at 
apex of a sterile stem. Expected 
(D. nudf ilorum ) . 

3. Flowering stem arising from a basal whorl 

of leaves I) . glutinosum 

1. Stamens diadelphous (9 and 1) ; stipe of loment 
shorter than the pedicel, not over twice as long 
as calyx. 

4. Stipules ovate-attenuate, cordate at base, 

conspicuous. Expected (D. ochroleucum , _D. canescens ) . 

4. Stipules linear to lance-ovate-attenuate, often 
deciduous. 

5. Loments with 1 to 3 articles. (Also, flowers 
not longer than 6 mm. ; bracts not longer than 
3 mm.) Expected (D- rigidum , _D. ciliare , D. marilandicum ) . 

5. Loments with 4 or more articles (occasionally 
only 3). 

6. Leaflets linear-lanceolate to lance-ovate, 
not ciliate, nearly glabrous; stem glabrous 
or nearly so I) . paniculatum 

6. Leaflets rhombic to ovate, ciliate, 

pilose on both surfaces; stem puberulent 
and/or pilose. 



134, 



7. Venation of leaflets conspicuously 
reticulate. 

8. Flowers 6.5-13.5 mm. long; primary 
bracts up to 12 mm. long; loments 
sessile or nearly so I), canadense 

8. Flowers and bracts smaller; loments 
on stipes. 

9. Leaflets tomentose beneath, velvety 
to touch, pilose above. Expected 
(D. viridif lorum ) . 

9. Leaflets appressed-pilose on both 

surfaces D . glabellum 

7. Venation of leaflets inconspicuous. 

10. Plant prostrate. (Also, stipules 
ovate- to lance-attenuate) . 
Expected (I), humifusum ) . 

10. Plant erect. (Also, stipules linear- 

to lance-attenuate) I), perplexum 

Desmodium glutinosum (Muhl.) Wood Tick Trefoil 

Java Farm. Infrequent to moderately abundant along old entrance 
road. Canopy of mature Fagus grandifolia , Quercus alba , Liriodendron 
tulipifera , etc. Associate species: Agrimonia microcarpa , Lactuca 
floridana var. villosa , Eupatorium purpureum , Elephantopus carolinianus , 
Smilacina racemosa. Tovara virginiana . Dentaria laciniata , etc. 
Higman 34, 36. 

JJ. paniculatum (L.) DC. Tick Trefoil 

Java Farm. Infrequent along old entrance road. Associated 
with D_. glutinosum above. Higman 33. 

D. canadense (L.) DC. Tick Trefoil 

Java Farm. Infrequent -along old entrance road. Associated 
with p_. glutinosum above. Higman 40. 

D. glabellum (Michx.) DC. Tick Trefoil 

Java Farm. Infrequent along old entrance road. Associated 
with D_. glutinosum above. Higman 39. 



135. 



D. perplexum Schub. Tick Trefoil 

(not in Britton and Brown) 

Java Farm. One station in large field south of old entrance 
road and east of road to springhouse. Hectare 3419. Rhus radicans 
and Solidago altissima dominate. Associate species: Lespedeza cuneata , 
Eupatorium serotinum . Cyperus strigosus . Clematis virginiana . Daucus 
carota . 

Ivy Neck. One station in fallow field between entrance road and 
Scaffold Creek drainage. Hectare 4668. Associate species: Setaria 
lutescens , Eupatorium serotinum , Echinochloa pungens , Strophostyles 
umbellata . Higman 119, 834. 



Lespedeza 

1. Stipules and bracts broad and scarious; calyx lobes 
broad; annuals. (Stem prostrate in species 
collected) . 

2. Flowers and fruits in tiny axillary clusters. 
Expected (L. striata ) . 

2. Flowers and fruits in long, bracted spiciform 

racemes L_. stipulacea 

1. Stipules and bracts narrow to awl-shaped; calyx lobes 
narrow; perennials. 

3.Petalif erous flowers in racemes or panicles; apetalous 
ones present; calyx shorter than the legume, 
flowers violet. 

4. Peduncles of petalif erous flowers 2 to 4 
times as long as the subtending leaves. 

5. Stems erect or ascending. Expected 
(L. violacea) . 

5. Stems prostrate, spreading. 

6. Stems and leaf lets, densely pubescent L_. procumbens 

6. Stems and leaflets glabrous or nearly so L. repens 

4. Peduncles of petalif erous flowers equal to or 
shorter than the subtending leaves. Expected 
(L. nuttallii , _L. virginica , L. intermedia ) . 



136. 



3. Petaliferous flowers in heads, spikes, or 
axillary racemes; apetalous ones absent 
(except in _L. cuneata , in which the calyx equals 
the legume); flowers white with purple markings. 

7. Inflorescences at summit of stems and branches; 

calyx very pilose. Expected (L. capitata , L,. hirta ) . 

7. Inflorescences axillary along erect branches; 

calyx nearly glabrous L. cuneata 

Lespedeza stipulacea Maxim. Bush Clover 

Ivy Neck. One station: on dirt road leading to abandoned wheat 
field. Also old house by tobacco barn. Higman 1022. Hectares 4658, 4740, 

L. procumbens Michx. Bush Clover 

Java Farm. One station: level bank above upper Fox Creek; open 
area dominated by Rubus spp. and Tripsacum dactyloides . Higman 323. 
Hectare 2593. 

L. repens (L.) Bart. Bush Clover 

Java Farm. One station: south-facing slope adjacent north 
boundary, overlooking meadow. Open canopy of Pyrus malus , Liriodendron 
tulipif era , and Robinia pseudoacacia . Dense ground cover of 
Lonicera japonic a and Rhus radicans except in a few spots like this 
station. Higman 163. Hectare 2459. 

L_. cuneata (Dumont) G. Don Bush Clover 

Java Farm. Infrequent to moderately abundant in old fields 
dominated by Rubus spp., Solidago altissima , Camps is radicans , Lonicera 
japonica , Rhus radicans , etc. Higman 123, 372. 

Stylosanthes 

Stylosanthes biflora (L.) BSP. Pencil-flower 

Java Farm. Collected by H. David Hammond. 

Vicia 

1. Peduncle very short or wanting. (Also, flowers 
purple) . 

2. Flower 1.8-3 cm. long; mature legumes brown, 

terete V. sativa 

2. Flower 1-1.8 cm. long; mature legumes black, 

somewhat flattened V. angustif olia 



137. 

1. Peduncle equal to or longer than the leaflets. 
3. Flowers 1 to 8, 3-8 mm. long. 

4. Legume beakless, not oblique V_. tetrasperma 

4. Legume beaked, oblique at the tip. 
Expected (V. hirsuta ) . 

3. Flowers 3 to 40 or more, .8-2 cm. long 

(if less than 8 in number, then 1.5-2 cm. long). 

5. Calyx teeth deltoid; flowers scattered in 
racemes. Expected (_V. caroliniana ) . 

5. Calyx teeth lance-attenuate to linear; 
flowers strongly overlapping. 

6. Plant glabrous or appressed-pilose. 
Expected (V. dasycarpa ) . 

6. Plant villous, the lower calyx teeth 

ciliate V_. villosa 

Vicia sativa L. Vetch 

Java Farm. Infrequent along new entrance road. Associate species: 
Melilotus alba , Trifolium pratense , Lepidium campestre . Ranunculus 
bulbosus . Higman 635. 

V. angustifolia Reichard Vetch 

Java Farm. Infrequent along old entrance road, near main 
building area. Lonicera japonica and Rhus radicans dominant. 
Higman 1165. 

V. tetrasperma (L.) Moench. Vetch 

Java Farm. Infrequent along old entrance road, near main 
building area. Higman 1166. 

V. villosa Roth, var. glabrescens 

(variety not in Britton and Brown) Vetch 

Ivy Neck. One station in grassy field near parking area and old 
house. Hectare 4720. Higman 719. 

Java Farm. One station beside entrance road. Higman 1246. 



138. 



Apios 

Apios americana Medic. Wild Bean, 

Ground-nut 

Java Farm. One station: salt marsh along tidal portion of 
Muddy Creek, upstream from Hog Island marsh. Hectare 3540. Associate 
species: Spartina alternif lora , Pluchea camphor ata , Kosteletzkya 
virginica . Higman 283. 



Amphicarpa 

Amphicarpa bracteata (L.) Fern. Hog Peanut 

Java Farm. Infrequent along banks of Muddy Creek (fresh-water) . 
Canopy of Fraxinus americana ; understory of Lindera benzoin . 
Higman 92, 1044. 

Phaseolus 

Phaseolus polystachios (L^ BSP. Wild Bean 

Java Farm. One station: valley of Muddy Creek, upstream from 
culvert at old entrance road, near Phalaris arundinacea meadow. 
Hectare 2467. Canopy of Platanus occidentalis, Fagus grandifolia , 
Quercus alba . Understory of Lindera benzoin . Ground layer of Lonicera 
japonica . Higman 178. 

Strophostyles 

1. Principal leaflets ovate, may be somewhat 3-lobed, 

acuminate; stem glabrous or spreading-pilose J3. helvola 

1. Principal leaflets very narrowly ovate, unlobed; 

stem retrorsely pilose for 1-2 dm. back from tip only. 
S^. umbellata 

Strophostyles helvola (L.) Ell. Wild Bean 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent on sand bars and beaches at the Rhode River 
shore of Cheston Peninsula. Associate species: Cenchrus tribuloides , 
Spartina alternif lora . Higman 1014. 

_S. umbellata (Muhl.) Britt. Wild Bean 

Ivy Neck. One station: fallow field between entrance road and 
forested valley of Scaffold Creek drainage. Hectare 4668. Associate 
species: Desmodium perplexum , Echinochloa pungens , Eupatorium 
serotinum, Setaria lutescens . Higman 1116. 



139. 

OXALIDACEAE 

Oxalis 

1. Plant stemless, the leaves and scapes basal; petals 
purple or white. Expected (0. violacea) . 

1. Plant with leafy stem; petals yellow. 

2. Petals 12-18 mm. long. Expected (0. grandis ) . 

2. Petals 5-11 mm. long. 

3. Stems prostrate, rooting at the node; stipules 
broad, brownish. Expected (0. corniculata ) . 

3. Stems ascending, not rooting above the base; 
stipules narrow or wanting. 

4. Fruiting pedicels straight, erect or 
ascending. Expected (0. europaea ) . 

4. Fruiting pedicels deflexed, the capsules 
erect. 

5. Lower internodes of flowering stems 
glabrous or strigose; styles 1-2 mm. 
long. 

6. Capsule densely puberulent, 15-25 

mm . long () . stricta 

6. Capsule glabrous or remotely pilose, 

8-12 mm. long 0_. filipes 

5. Lower internodes spreading pilose; 

styles 3-4 mm. long 0^. f lorida 

Oxalis stricta L. Wood Sorrel, Sheep Sorrel 

Java Farm. Infrequent to moderately abundant in old fields. 
Higman 760. 

0_. filipes Small Wood Sorrel, Sheep Sorrel 

(combined with (). stricta in Britton and Brown) 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Infrequent to moderately abundant in 
old fields; infrequent in open forest. Higman 171, 390, 396, 1115. 

JD. florida Salisb. Wood Sorrel, Sheep Sorrel 

(combined with 0_. stricta in Britton and Brown) 

Java Farm. One station: side of ravine, of tributary to tidal 
portion of Muddy Creek. Hectare 3437. Canopy of Juglans nigra , Fagus 
grandifolia . Quercus alba, Quercus velutina . Higman 718. 



140. 

GERANIACEAE 

Geranium 

1. Leaves .5-1.5 dm. wide, glabrous; rhizome at base 
of stem; petals much exceeding calyx; beak of mature 
style-column up to 2-3 cm. long G_. maculatum 

1. Leaves not over .5 dm. wide, hirsute above, hirsute 
on nerves below; rhizome absent, taproots present; 
petals about equalling calyx; beak of mature style- 
column 1-2 mm. long G_. carolinianum 

Geranium maculatum L. Wild Geranium, 

Crane's-bill 

Java Farm. Infrequent; along old entrance road under mature 
canopy of Fagus grandifolia , Quercus alba . Higman 625. 

G_. carolinianum L. Wild Geranium, 

Crane' s-bill 

Java Farm. One station in open, grassy triangle before entrance 
gate. Hectare 2463. Associate species: Ranunculus bulbosus . Duchesnea 
indica , Fragaria virginiana , Cyperus strigosus . Higman 642. 



SIMAROUBACEAE 

Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle Tree of Heaven 

Java Farm. One station in old field, approximate hectare 3508. 
Rhus radicans abundant. Higman 1238. 

EUPHORBIACEAE 

1. Flowers with a calyx, not in a calyx-like involucre. 

2. Stamens 2 or 3; styles simple. Expected 
(Phyllanthus ) . 

2. Stamens 5 to many; styles divided. 

3. Pubescence of branched or stellate hairs. 
Expected ( Croton , Crotonopsis ) . 

3. Pubescence of simple hairs or absent. (Also, 
flowers monoecious, the staminate ones very 
small, in spikes; stamens 8 to 16; pistillate 
flowers at the base of the spikes; styles 3, 
the stigmas cut-fringed, red) Acalypha 



141. 



1. Flowers without a calyx, in a calyx-like involucre. (Also, 
staminate flowers culstered around a single pistillate 
one; styles 3, each 2-cleft; outer structure (cyathium) 
surrounding the involucre and bearing 4 or 5 glands, 
these often with petaloid appendages ) Euphorbia 

Acalypha virginica L. Three-seeded Mercury 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent along trail to artificial pond, above source 
of Cheston Creek drainage. Associate species: Galinsoga ciliata , Gratiola 
neglecta , Ranunculus sceleratus , Perilla f rutescens . Higman 1065. 

Euphorbia 

1. Leaves entire, symmetrical; appendages (on glands of 
cyathium) broadly obovate, petaloid; inflorescence 
terminal, umbellate E. corollata 

1. Leaves serrulate, oblique at base; appendages narrow 
or rudimentary; inflorescence of axillary clusters. 

2. Stem semi-prostrate, villous; appendages white, 

narrow; ovary and capsule strigose _E. supina 

2. Stem erect or ascending, glabrous; appendages 
pink to maroon, very small; ovary and capsule 
glabrous (purple spot on leaves is not a 
consistent character) _E. maculata 

Euphorbia corollata L. Flowering Spurge 

Java Farm. Infrequent in old fields among dense Rubus sp. , 
Rhus radicans , and Lonicera japonica . Higman 137, 388. 

_E. supina Raf . Milk-purslane 

(not in Britton and Brown) 

Java Farm. One station on Fox Point Road. Associate species: 
Digitaria ischaemum , Eragrostis spectabilis , Juncus tenius . Higman 28. 

_E. maculata L. Wortweed , Eyebane 

Java Farm. Infrequent in cracked pavement at main building area and 
along Fox Point and old entrance roads. Higman 14, 120, 543, 983. 



142. 

ANACARDIACEAE 

Rhus 

1. Plant a woody vine, or with woody stems ascending 
1 meter or higher; leaflets 3; flowers in axillary 
panicles; drupes whitish R. radicans 

1. Plant an erect woody shrub; leaflets 11 or more; 

flowers in terminal pyramidal panicles; drupes reddish. 

2. Rachis of leaves winged; leaflets entire or 

nearly so R. copallina 

2. Rachis of leaves not winged; leaflets coarsely 
serrate. 

3. Branches, petioles, and drupes with long, 

dense pubescence R. typhina 

3. Branches and petioles glabrous, drupes minutely 

pubescent R. glabra 

Rhus radicans L. Poison Ivy 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Ubiquitous, but conspicuously infrequent 
under Quercus prinus canopy along estuary shores. Absent from salt 
marshes, but invading sparsely wooded sandbar at Sand Point, Cheston 
Peninsula. 

R. radicans , forma malanotrichocarpa 
(A. H. Moore) Fern. 

Java Farm. Old field near Fox Creek drainage. Dense, ascending 
woody stems 3 to 5 feet tall. Near southern limit of known range. 
Higman 375. 

R. radicans , var. vulgaris (Michx.) 
DC. , forma negundo (Greene) Fern. 

Java Farm. Twining on tree north of Fox Creek marsh. Near northern 
limit of known range. Higman 768. 

R. copallina L. . Dwarf Sumac 

Java Farm. One station in valley of Muddy Creek, upstream from 
culvert of old entrance road. Canopy of Fagus grandifolia , Quercus 
alba , Liriodendron tulipifera , etc. Hectare 2457. 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent, in ditch through cornfields on Scaffold 
Peninsula, also on west shore of Scaffold Peninsula under canopy of 
Liquidambar styracif lua , Acer rubrum, etc. Higman 179, 851. 



143. 

R. typhina L. Staghorn Sumac 

Java Farm. Infrequent, usually in scattered clumps; observed 
around main buildings, around burned house on road to springhouse 
(charcoal-covered soil), and along Rhode River shore near pier. 

Ivy Neck. One clump near Cheston Point, and scattered nearby. 
Associate species: Prunus serotina , Robinia pseudoacacia . Infrequent 
in forest of central Scaffold Peninsula. Associate species there: 
Quercus alba , Liquidambar styracif lua , etc. Higman 222, 360. 

R.. glabra L. Smooth Sumac 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent along top of bluff overlooking Rhode 
River, on Cheston Peninsula. Hectare 4768. Associate species: 
Maclura pomifera . Liquidambar styraciflua . Higman 1011. 

AQUIFOLIACEAE 

Ilex opaca Ait. American Holly 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Infrequent to moderately abundant along 
estuary shores, under canopy of Quercus prinus and Quercus alba . 
Occasional in mature upland forest or even in old fields. Higman 
288, 522. 

CELASTRACEAE 

1. Plant a shrub, 1-1.5 meters high; leaves opposite; 
capsule 5-valved, reddish-pink; seeds bright 
orange Euonymus 

1. Plant a woody vine; leaves alternate; capsule 

3-valved, yellow-orange; seeds red Celastrus 

Euonymus americanus L. Strawberry Bush 

Java Farm. Infrequent, triangular area west of old Muddy Creek 
Road. Hectare 2472. Canopy of Fagus grandifolia and Liriodendron 
tulipifera . Higman 409. 

Celastrus 

Celastrus scandens L. Bittersweet 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. One station each, both at top of bank 
overlooking Rhode River. Also found on an old field fence at Java 
Farm. Hectares 3407, 3600, 4890. Associate species at all sites: 
dense Rhus radicans. Higman 219, 496. 



144. 

ACERACEAE 

Acer 

1. Leaves pinnately compound; young branches bright 

green; samaras forming a sharp, inverted V A. negundo 

1. Leaves simple, palmately lobed; young branches not green; 
samaras forming a broad, inverted U or divergent. 

2. Leaves 7-lobed, broader than long; sap milky; 

samaras widely divergent; leaves green beneath A. platanoides 

2. Leaves (3-) 5-lobed, usually longer than broad; 

sap clear; samaras forming an inverted U or moderately 
divergent; leaves white beneath. 

3. Lobes extending more than halfway to midrib, 
sides of terminal and sometimes lateral 
lobes divergent; buds, flowers, petioles, 
young branches, and samaras yellowish-green A. saccharinum 

3. Lobes usually extending less than halfway to 
midrib, sides of all lobes converging; buds, 
flowers, petioles, young branches, and samaras 
(especially young) reddish to bright red A. rubrum 

Acer negundo L. Boxelder 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Infrequent in old fields and at margins 
of forest. Higman 427, 577, 620. 

A. platanoides L. Norway Maple 

Java Farm. One station: single seedling on trail along north 
boundary from old entrance gate to Muddy Creek. Hectare 2471. 
Canopy of Quercus alba , Liriodendron tulipifera , Acer rubrum, Fagus 
grandifolia . Carya tomentosa, etc. Higman 1078. 

A. saccharinum L. Silver Maple 

Ivy Neck. One station: several large trees along marshy border of 
pasture (source of Cheston Creek). Hectare 4733. Grazing cows have 
prevented understory development and have deposited considerable manure. 
Canopy of Robinia pseudoacacia . Diospyros virginiana . Higman 1071. 

A. rubrum L. Red Maple 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Aggressive invader of abandoned fields, often 
co-dominant with Liquidambar styracif lua . Infrequent to moderately abundant 
in almost all forested areas, especially moister ones. Higman 417, 556. 



145. 

BALSAMINACEAE 

Impatiens capensis Meerb, 

f. immaculata (Weath.) Fern, and Schub. Touch-me-not 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Abundant in very moist, forested areas, 
especially the upper Muddy and Scaffold Creek valleys. Higman 76. 

f. albiflora (Rand and Redf.) Fern, and Schub. 

(I_. biflora Willd.) Touch-me-not 

Java Farm. One station: freshwater part of Fox Creek marsh. 
Hectare 3516. Higman 242. 



VITACEAE 

1. Leaves simple, may be lobed; bark loosening in 

ropy shreds, without lenticels Vitis 

1. Leaves with 5 palmate leaflets; bark tight, with 

many lenticels Parthenocissus 



Vitis 

1. Leaves ovate-squarish, with dense rusty pubescence 

beneath; grapes 1.5-2.5 cm. diameter V_. labrusca 

1. Leaves cordate at base, acuminate at tip, glabrous 
except for conspicuous tufts in axils of veins, 
beneath; grapes 3-9 mm. diameter V. vulpina 

Vitis labrusca L. Fox Grape 

Java Farm. Infrequent in bottom of Muddy Creek valley. Canopy 
of Fraxinus americana . Associate species: Rubus sp., Lonicera japonica . 
Higman 67. 

V. vulpina L. Frost Grape 

Java Farm. Moderately abundant in old fields. Associate species: 
Rhus radicans , Camps is radicans , Lonicera japonica . Higman 166, 374. 



Parthenocissus 

Parthenocissus quinquef olia L. Virginia Creeper 

Java Farm. Infrequent in old fields and at borders of freshwater 
marshes. Associated with Rhus radicans, Lonicera japonica, etc. 
Higman 86, 224. 



146. 



MALVACEAE 

1. Salt marsh habitat; flowers white or pink-violet; 
carpels 5. 

2. Flowers 8-12 cm. broad; petals white with red 
bases; leaves broadly ovate, 3-lobed, felt- 
pubescent Hibiscus 

2. Flowers 6-8 cm. broad; petals roseate; leaves 

cordate-ovate; stellate-puberulent Kosteletzkya 

1. Roadside habitat; flowers yellow-orange; carpels 

12-15 Abutilon 

Hibiscus palustris L. , forma 

peckii House Rose Mallow 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Moderately abundant at shoreward margins 
of wet salt marshes and marshy estuaries. Associate species: Typha 
latif olia , T\ angustif olia , Kosteletzkya virginica . Iva frutescens , 
Baccharis halimifolia , Panicum virgatum , etc. Grows just seaward 
of the Smilax rotundif olia zone. Higman 78. 

Kosteletzkya 

Kosteletzkya virginica (L.) Presl. Seashore Mallow 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Moderately abundant in same habitat 
as Hibiscus palustris above. Higman 57, 281. 

Abutilon 

Abutilon theophrasti Medic. Velvet-leaf 

Ivy Neck. One station: border of cornfield beside old barn south 
of artificial pond, near source of Cheston Creek. Hectare 4723. 
Associate species: Datura stramonium , Plantago major , Eleusine indica, 
and Polygonum persicaria . Higman 1000. 

GUTTIFERAE 

1. Sepals 4, in 2 unequal pairs; petals 4 Ascyrum 

1. Sepals 5; petals 5 Hypericum 

i 
Ascyrum hypericoides L. St. Andrew's Cross 

Ivy Neck. One station: abandoned road near southern border of 
central mixed hardwood forest, Scaffold Peninsula. Canopy of Quercus 
alba , Quercus velutina , Fagus grandifolia , etc. Higman 968. 



147, 



Hypericum 

1. Flowers flesh-color or mauve, clustered in axils and' 
top of stem. Expected (H. virginicum ) . 

1. Flowers yellow, in terminal cymes. 

2. Stamens 20-100 or more. 

3. Stamens in 3 to 5 clusters; styles 3; capsules, 
petals, sepals, and leaves with black dots or 
lines (oil vesicles) , leaf dots may also be 
translucent. 

4. Plant very branched; leaves very numerous, 
elliptic-linear, usually with axillary 
fascicles on whole stem and branches; 
petals with black marginal dots; sepals 
5-6 mm. long, acuminate H. perforatum 

4. Plant branched only at summit for cyme; 
leaves remote, elliptic-ovate, seldom with 
axillary fascicles except on upper stem 
near cyme; petals with black lines; sepals 
2-3 mm. long , acute or blunt H. punctatum 

3. Stamens not in clusters; styles united into 
a sharp beak; capsules, petals, sepals, and 
leaves without oil vesicles or black markings. 
Expected (H. densiflorum ) . 

2. Stamens 5 to 12, if up to 20 the flowers are 
very small. 

5. Leaves spreading, not linear-subulate. 

6. Leaves ovate-deltoid or round-oblong, the 

upper cordate or clasping at base H. mutilum 

6. Leaves lanceolate or linear to narrowly 
obovate, tapering to sessile or short- 
petioled base. Expected (H. canadense ) . 

5. Leaves appressed or strongly ascending, linear-subulate. 
Expected (H. gentianoides ) . 



148. 

Klamath-weed , 
Hypericum perforatum L. St. John's-wort 

Java Farm. One station: western part of main building area. 
Hectare 2499. Associate species: Erigeron canadensis , Achillea 
millefolium , Setaria faberii , Flantago lanceolata . 

Ivy Neck. Moderately abundant in abandoned wheatfield, 
especially near road. Higman 7, 812, 955, 956. 

H. punctatum Lam. St. John's-wort 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent along abandoned road through forest of 
Scaffold Peninsula. Canopy of Quercus alba , Liriodendron tulipif era , 
Liquidambar styracif lua , Carya tomentosa , Nyssa sylvatica . 
Higman 928, 929. 

H. mutilum L. St. John's-wort 

Java Farm. One station: border of Phalaris arundinacea meadow, 
north of main building area. Hectare 2560. Higman 156. 



CISTACEAE 

Lechea racemulosa Michx. Pinweed 

Ivy Neck. One station: south shore of Scaffold Peninsula. 
Hectare 5763. Canopy of Quercus prinus . Higman 1049. 

VIOLACEAE 

Viola 

1. Stemless; petioles and peduncles rising from thick 
rhizome; flowers blue to violet. 

2. Sepals ciliate. 

3. Petioles and both or only the lower leaf surfaces 

villous V_. sororia 

3. Petioles glabrous; only upper leaf surface villous 

or strigose V. septentrionalis 

2. Sepals glabrous (rest of plant same except bearded 

lateral petals) V. papilionacea 

1. Stem leafy, rising from taproot; flowers white 

to bluish V. kitaibeliana , 

var. raf inesquii 



149. 



Viola sororia Willd. Wooly Blue Violet 

Ivy Neck. Abandoned road through central Scaffold Peninsula. 
Canopy of Quercus alba , Quercus velutina, Nyssa sylvatica , Liriodendron 
tulipifera , Carya tomentosa . Higman 599. 

V. septentrionalis Green. Violet 

Java Farm. Infrequent along old Muddy Creek Road. Canopy 
of Fagus grandifolia , Quercus alba . Higman 548. 

_V. papilionacea Pursh. Meadow Violet 

Java Farm. Moderately abundant on steep east-facing slope 
adjacent north border. Hectare 2573. Canopy of Juglans nigra . 
Higman 581, 602, 629, 630. 

V. kitaibeliana R. and S., var. 

raf inesquii Fern. 
(V. raf inesquii Greene) Wild Pansy 

Java Farm. Infrequent on south-facing slope adjacent north 
border, overlooking meadow. Hectare 2550. Open canopy of Liriodendron 
tulipifera , Pyrus malus , Robinia pseudoacacia . Found in scattered 
grassy areas. Higman 1150. 

(NOTE: All violet species except the last appear to be moderately 

abundant throughout the more moist forested areas, especially on 

Java Farm. No clear pattern of distribution has yet been determined.) 



PASSIFLORACEAE 

Passiflora lutea L. Passion-flower 

Ivy Neck. One station: west side of southern Cheston Peninsula. 
Low bluff overlooking big salt marsh. Hectare 5749. Canopy of Quercus 
velutina and Carya tomentosa . Higman 1075. 

LYTHRACEAE 

1. Flowers regular or nearly so. 

2. Calyx short, campanulate to globular. Expected 
(Rotala, Ammannia) . 

2. Calyx tubular. (Also, petals white; leaves 

linear) Lythrum 

1. Flowers irregular, the tubular calyx spurred at 
base on the upper side. (Also, petals purple; 
leaves ovate-lanceolate) Cuphea 



150. 

Lythrum 

Lythrum lineare L. Loosestrife 

Java Farm. One station: Fox Creek salt marsh. Hectare 3527. 
Iva frutescens and Distichlis spicata dominant. Higman 61. 

Cuphea 

Cuphea petiolata (L.) Koehne Blue Waxweed 

Ivy Neck. One station: moist woods along Cheston Creek 
drainage. Hectare 4752. Canopy of Platanus occidentalis , Diospyros 
virginiana , and Liquidambar styracif lua . Associate species : Duchesnea 
indica , Eupatorium coe lest in urn , Ranunculus sceleratus , Viola sp . 
Higman 1005. 

NYSSACEAE 

Nyssa sylvatica Marsh. Black Gum, 

Sour Gum 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Infrequent to moderately abundant in a 
variety of mixed hardwood oanopies, especially oaks. Higman 109, 421, 520, 

ONAGRACEAE 

1. Flowers 2-merous; fruit indehiscent, bristly Circaea 

1. Flowers 4-merous (5- or 6-merous in Jussiaea ) ; 
fruit dehiscent. 

2. Fruit indehiscent, with 1 to 4 seeds. 
Expected ( Gaura ) . 

2. Fruit a dehiscent capsule (loculicidal) , 
many-seeded. 

3. Leaves alternate; petals showy; capsule 

stoutly cylindric Oenothera 

3. Leaves opposite; petals inconspicuous or 
absent; capsule linear-cylindric or short 
and angled to terete. 

4. Stamens 4; capsule short; seeds glabrous Ludwigia 

4. Stamens 8; capsule linear-cylindric, its 
valves widely splitting; seeds with apical 
tufts of hair, like the bristle pappus on 
achenes of Compos itae Epilobium 



151. 

Circaea 

Circaea quadrisulcata (Maxim.) 

Franch. and Sav., var. canadensis 

(L.) Hara Enchanter's Nightshade 

Java Farm. One station: along old entrance road between inter- 
sections with Fox Point road and springhouse road. Hectare 3409. 

Ivy Neck. One station: moist woods at Cheston Creek drainage. 
Hectare 4752. Canopy of Diospyros virginiana . Platanus occidentalis , 
Liquidambar styraciflua . Associate species: Eupatorium coelestinum , 
Duchesnea indica , Cuphea petiolata , Ranunculus sceleratus . Higman 
821, 855. 



Oenothera 

1. Leaves lyrate-pinnatif id; stem leafy to base, often 

branching at base. (Also, capsule 2-3 cm. long) 0_. laciniata 

1. Leaves entire or shallowly serrate; stem often nearly 
leafless below the middle, branching above the middle. 

2. Calyx tube 1.8-4.4 cm. long; capsules 1-3.5 cm. 
long, lance-cylindric, nearly sessile, appressed 
ascending _0. biennis 

2. Calyx tube .5-1.5 cm. long; capsules 6-11 mm. 
long, short-ellipsoid, tapering to slender 
stipes 5-15 mm. long* ascending-spreading Q. fruticosa 

Oenothera laciniata Hill Evening Primrose 

Ivy Neck. One station in abandoned field on Scaffold Peninsula. 
Hectare 4761. Associate species: Hypericum perforatum , Trifolium 
pratense , Trifolium hybridum , Eupatorium serotinum , Plantago virginica . 
Higman 690. 

_0. biennis L. Evening Primrose 

Java Farm. One station on Fox Point Road. 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent in grassy abandoned field on Scaffold 
Peninsula. Associated with 0. laciniata above. Higman 145, 954, 1018. 

_0. fruticosa L. Evening Primrose 

Ivy Neck. Moderately abundant in abandoned field on Scaffold 
Peninsula. Associated with _0. laciniata and 0_. biennis and their 
associates above. Higman 1114. 



152. 



Ludwigia 

1. Leaves alternate; stems erect; flowers pedicelled; 

petals yellow, conspicuous L_. alternifolia 

1. Leaves opposite; stems ascending to depressed; 
flowers sessile; petals purple to green, or 
wanting _L. palustris 

Ludwigia alternifolia L. Seedbox 

Ivy Neck. One station: marsh at head of Cheston Creek estuary. 
Hectare 4753. Associate species: Typha latifolia , Scirpus americana , 
Panicum clandestinum , Eleocharis intermedia . Higman 1100. 

L. palustris (L.) Ell., var. 

americana (DC.) Fern, and Grisc. Water-purslane 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent on muddy shore of artificial pond near 
source of Cheston Creek drainage. Hectare 4723. Associate species: 
Eleocharis sp. , Echinochloa pungens , Limnobium spongia , Gratiola 
neglecta , Juncus acuminatus , Ranunculus sceleratus . Higman 995. 



Epilobium 

Epilobium coloratum Biehler Willow-herb 

Java Farm. Two stations: old field on north side of main 
buildings, dominated by woody vines. Hectare 2580. Also in deep 
ditch of Fox Creek drainage. Hectare 2583. May be infrequent 
elsewhere. Higman 195, 327. 

HALORAGIDACEAE 

Myriophyllum spicatum L. Eurasian Water Milfoil 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Abundant in estuaries, especially 
Muddy Creek estuary. Found along Muddy Creek to upstream limit 
of salt marsh vegetation. (Virtually disappeared in 1967). 

ARALIACEAE 

1. Leaves 2-or 3-times compound; plant a thorny shrub 

(in the species collected) Aralia 

1. Leaves simple, palmately lobed; plant a thornless 

woody vine Hedera 



153. 

Aralia spinosa L. Hercules' Club 

Java Farm. Principal station on north side of Fox Point Road, 
near base of peninsula and head of Fox Creek estuary. Hectare 3556. 
Abundant in understory. Canopy of Quercus velutina, Quercus alba , 
Nyssa sylvatica , and Pinus virginiana . 

Also observed in Hectares 3415, 3530, and 3554. Scattered 
infrequently under a variety of hardwood canopies. 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent in forest on lower Scaffold Peninsula. 
Canopy of mixed hardwoods. Higman 395. 

Hedera 

Hedera helix L. English Ivy 

Java Farm. Principal station north of Smithsonian property, on 
north-facing slope above stream, near road to pier. Hectare 2599. 
Canopy of mixed hardwoods; understory of Ilex opaca . Also on north 
bank of Fox Point. Hectare 3558. Canopy of Quercus prinus . Higman 1239. 

UMBELLIFERAE 

(From Dayton, 1942) 

1. Leaves without blades, reduced to hollow, linear, 

cylindrical, septate petioles. Expected (Lilaeopsis ) . 

1. Leaves with blades well-developed. 

2. Leaves simple (only the basal ones in Zizia ) . 

3. Stems creeping, rooting at the nodes Hydrocotyle 

3. Stems erect. Expected (Eryngium , Zizia ) . 
2. Leaves compound. 

4. Leaves, or most of them, palmately compound. 

5. Umbellets globose; fruit burlike, with 

hooked bristles Sanicula 

5. Umbellets not globose; fruit not burlike 
nor bristly. 

6. Umbels conspicuously irregular; flowers 
white; calyx teeth and involucels absent; 
fruit narrowly oblong, bony, often curved. Cryptotaenia 



154. 



6. Umbels regular; flowers yellow; calyx 
teeth and involucels prominent ; fruit 
oblong or oval. Expected (Zizia ) . 

4. Leaves not palmately compound. 

7. Leaves ternately compound or decompound. 
Expected (Zizia . Chaerophyllum , Osmorhiza ) . 

7. Leaves pinnate or pinnately decompound. 

8. Plants annual. 

9. Plants glabrous; leaf segments filiform; 
fruits glabrous; involucral bracts 
pinnately parted Ptilimnium 

9. Plants rough-pubescent; leaf segments 
lanceolate; fruits with hooked bristles; 
involucral bracts small, lanceolate, 
sometimes absent. Expected ( Torilis) . 

8. Plants biennial or perennial. 

10. Plant pubescent. 

11. Plant bristly-hispid; involucre 
conspicuous, of leafy, pinnately 
parted bracts; fruit oblong, 
barbed-bristly on the winged 
ribs Daucus 

11. Plant closely pilose above; 
involucre absent; fruit oval 

or ovate, pubescent (not barbed), 
winged laterally, flattened 
dorsally. Expected (Angelica). 

10. Plant glabrous. 

12. Flowers yellow; plants mesophytic, 

in fields, etc. Expected (Pastinaca ) . 

12. Flowers white; plants hydrophytic, 
poisonous. 

13. Fruit wavy-ribbed; involucre 
and involucels of ovate- 
acuminate bracts; calyx teeth 
absent. Expected (Conium ) . 



155. 

13. Fruit with straight ribs or winged; 
involucre and involucels of narrow 
bracts or the former absent; calyx 
teeth present (may be minute) . 

14. Fruit winged laterally, flattened 
dorsally. (Also, roots tuberous; 
leaves simply pinnate; leaflets 
entire or remotely toothed; 
calyx teeth evident) . Expected 
(Oxypolis ) . 

14. Fruit not winged laterally. 
(Also, umbels compound; fruit 
ovate to oblong, or orbicular 
in Cicuta ) . 

15. Leaves simply pinnate; stems 
corrugated; involucre present; 
fruit with prominent corky 
ribs and broad red-brown furrows; 
calyx teeth minute Slum 

15. Leaves twice or thrice pinnate; 
stems terete; involucre usually 
absent; fruit with rounded corky 
ribs and dark furrows ; calyx 
teeth prominent. (Also, leaf veins 
tend in direction of notches 
between teeth) . Expected (Cicuta ) . 

Hydrocotyle 

Hydrocotyle verticillata Thunb. Water Pennywort 

(Collected by H. David Hammond) . 

Java Farm. Probably along Fox Point Road. 

Sanicula 

Sanicula canadensis L. Black Snakeroot 

Java Farm. One station: new entrance road, near culvert of 
Fox Creek drainage. Hectare 2573. Canopy of Juglans nigra and 
Liquidambar styracif lua . Higman 69, 310. 

Cryptotaenia 

Cryptotaenia canadensis (L.) DC. Honewort, Wild Chervil 

Java Farm. Moderately abundant along old entrance road, from 
entrance gate nearly to main building area. Canopy of Quercus alba , 
Fagus grandifolia . etc. over most stations. Higman 793, 820, 933, 980. 



156. 

Ptilimnium 

Ptilimnium capillaceum (Michx.) Raf. Mock Bishop-weed 

Java Farm. One station: shore of Muddy Creek near upstream 
limit of salt marsh. Hectare 3403. Associate species: Panicum 
virgatum , Baccharis halimifolia , Aster subulatus , Cyperus strigosus . 
Higman 254. 

Daucus 

Daucus carota L. Wild Carrot 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Infrequent; in grassy old fields, along 
roadsides, etc. Higman 138, 199, 953. 



Sium 

Sium suave Walt. Water Parsnip 

Ivy Neck. One station: margin of cut-off pond on Rhode River shore 
of Cheston Peninsula. Hectare 5300. Associate species: Sambucus 
canadensis , Rum ex verticillatus , Sparganium eurycarpum . Higman 948. 

CORNACEAE 

1. Flowers green or purple, in a close cyme or head, 
with a large 4-bracted white or pink involucre; 
fruit red C. florida 

1. Flowers white or creamy, in open cymes, without 
involucre; fruit blue or white. 

2. Leaves alternate, but appearing whorled by 

crowding at tips of branches C_. alternifolia 

2. Leaves opposite, not crowded at tips of branches. 

3. Cymes long, loosely paniculate; leaves 1 to 
4 cm. broad. (Also, pedicels bright red). 
Expected (C. racemosa ) . 

3. Cymes compact, broad and flat-topped; 
leaves 1.5 to 13 cm. broad. 



157, 



4. Pith of branches 1 to 2 years old white. 
Expected (3 species). 

4. Pith of branches 1 to 2 years old brown. 
(Also, leaves smooth above, appressed 
puberulent beneath; fruit blue) C_. amomum 

Cornus f lorida L. Flowering Dogwood 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Infrequent to moderately abundant in 
abandoned fields; associate species: Liquidambar styraciflua , Acer 
rubrum , Quercus palustris . Also infrequent to moderately abundant in 
mature upland forest of old entrance road , under canopy of Quercus 
alba , Fagus grandifolia , Liriodendron tulipif era , etc. Higman 33, 603. 

C_. alternifolia L. f . Green Osier, 

Pagoda-dogwood 

Java Farm. One station: west slope of Hog Island. Canopy of 
Quercus alba and Quercus prinus . Associate species: Kalmia latifolia , 
Viburnum acerifolium . Hectare 3592. Higman 103. 

C_. amomum Mill. Red Willow 

Java Farm. Infrequent in valley of Muddy Creek under canopy of 
Fraxinus americana, and in freshwater marsh at western boundary, west 
of old Muddy Creek Road. 

Ivy Neck. One station near source of a tributary to the east 
fork of Scaffold Creek estuary. Hectare 4677. Associate species: 
Acer rubrum , Liquidambar styraciflua . Higman 71, 186, 413. 



PYROLACEAE 

1. Leaves green, well-developed; plant self-supporting. 

2. Stem leafy; flowers in a corymb. (Also, in 
species collected, leaves thick and shiny, 
with white veins) Chimaphila 

2. Stem scapose, leafy only near base; flowers in 
a raceme. Expected ( Pyrola ) . 

1. Leaves white, scaly; plant saprophytic or root- 
parasitic. 



158. 

3. Plant white, fleshy, odorless; flowers 1 or 
few, nodding; petals 4 to 6, separate; calyx 
of 2 to 5 bracts; deciduous forest habitat Monotropa 

3. Plant purple-brown, somewhat fleshy, sweet- 
scented when fresh; flowers several in a 
raceme, nodding at first; petals united; calyx 
of 5 regular sepals; pine forest habitat. 
Expected ( Monotropsis ) . 



Chimaphila 

Chimaphila maculata (L.) Pursh. Wintergreen, 

Waxf lower 

Java Farm. Infrequent to moderately abundant on forested slopes 
overlooking Muddy Creek valley and Fox Creek estuary. Canopy 
usually of Quercus alba , Acer rubrum , Liquidambar styracif lua . and a 
few Pinus virginiana . Higman 94, 884. 



Monotropa 

Monotropa unif lora L. Indian-pipe, 

Corpse-plant 

Java Farm. One station: among leaf litter at base of dead 
Quercus alba , along north boundary between old entrance gate and 
Muddy Creek. Higman 1182. 



ERICACEAE 

1. Ovary inferior; fruit a dark blue to black berry. 
(Also, corolla 5-cleft; stamens 10). 

2. Leaves with many amber glandular dots; ovary 

10-locular; anthers not awned at base Gaylussacia 

2. Leaves not glandular-dotted; ovary either 5 
locular and the anthers awnless, or ovary 10- 
locular and anthers awned at base Vaccinium 

1. Ovary superior; fruit a capsule, berry-like in 
Gaultheria . 

3. Plant prostrate and trailing, sub-herbaceous. 



159. 

4. Leaves acute at base, glabrous or sparsely 
bristly beneath; fruit berry-like, red. 
Expected (Gaultheria ) . 

4. Leaves round to cordate at base, red-hirsute 
beneath; fruit a capsule. (Also, stems, 

petioles, and capsules hirsute) Epigaea 

3. Plant an erect shrub. 

5. Corolla globose, ovoid, or tubular; capsule 
loculicidal. (Also, anthers open at apex; 
flowers white, in lateral racemes or 
umbelliform clusters). Expected (Lyonia , 
Leucothoe ) . 

5. Corolla funnelform, campanulate, or saucer- 
shaped; capsule septicidal. 

6. Corolla funnelform, irregularly lobed; 

capsule cylindric, 10-25 mm. long. (Also, 

flowers pink, leaves deciduous in species 

collected) Rhododendron 

6. Corolla saucer-shaped, regular; capsule 

depressed-globose, less than 10 mm. long.. Kalmia 



Gaylussacia 

1. Leaves copiously glandular-dotted on both sides; 

fruit black, not glaucous G_. baccata 

1. Leaves moderately glandular-dotted, on underside 

only; fruit dark blue, glaucous G_. frondosa 

Gaylussacia baccata (Wang.) K. Koch Black Huckleberry 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Moderately abundant under canopy of 
Quercus prinus , along banks of estuaries and on Hog Island. Also 
at Java Farm, infrequent on slopes overlooking Muddy Creek valley 
(hectares 2467 and 3415) under canopy of Fagus grandifolia and 
Quercus alba . Associate species: Kalmia latifolia . Rhododendron 
nudif lorum . Vaccinium staminigm . Higman 106, 110, 475, 675. 

G_. frondosa (L.) T. and B. Dangleberry 

Java Farm. Infrequent on Hog Island (hectare 3592) under 
Quercus prinus canopy. Associated with G_. baccata and its associate 
species, above. Higman 111. 



160. 



Vaccinium 



1. Leaves not more than 1 cm. long, rounded at both 
ends; stem trailing; corolla cleft to below the 
middle, its lobes recurved. Expected (V. macro- 
carpon ) . 

1. Leaves 2-7 cm. long, acute at both ends (or some 
apically rounded in V. vacillans ) ; stem erect; 
corolla shallowly cleft. 

2. Flowers subtended by leafy bracts much smaller 
than the foliage leaves, in panicles or racemes; 
anthers 2-awned on the back. (Also, leaf veins 
thinly puberulent on both sides; corolla white)..... _V. stamineum 

2. Flowers not subtended by bracts, in small racemes 
or corymbs; anthers awnless. 

3. Leaves finely and sharply serrulate (also 
entire in V. corymbosum ) . 

4. Leaves narrowly elliptic, 2-3 cm. long, not 
over 1 cm. wide. Expected (V. angust if olium ) . 

4. Leaves broadly elliptic or ovate, 4-6 cm. 
long, 2 cm. wide or more. (Also, corollas 

pink; berries blue to black, glaucous) _V. corymbosum 

3. Leaves entire, occasionally slightly serrulate 
near the apex. (Also, corolla usually pink to 
reddish, cylindric to urceolate; berry blue to 
black, 5-8 mm. dia) . 

5. Leaves elliptic to oval, the smaller lateral 
ones more circular; twigs often bright green. 

(Also, berry dark blue, faintly glaucous) V. vacillans 

5. Leaves all elliptic or ovate, acute; twigs 
dull green or brownish. 

6. Leaves very tomentulose beneath, especially 
on the veins; berries shiny black, not 
glaucous. 

6. Leaves sparsely puberulent or glabrous 
beneath; berries dark blue to blue-black, 
glaucous. 



160a. 



7. Leaves 3-5 cm. long; corolla 5-6 mm. 
long, dull white; berry 5-8 mm. dia. 
Expected (V. caesarlense ) 

7. Leaves 5-8 mm. long; corolla 7-12 mm. 

long, bright white; berry 6-12 mm. dia... V. corymbosum 

Vaccinium stamineum L. Deerberry 

Java Farm. Infrequent along old Muddy Creek Road and on upland 
slopes of Muddy Creek valley. Canopy of Fagus grandifolia . Quercus 
alba , Quercus prinus . Associate species: Gaylussacia baccata . 
Higman 647, 671 

V. vacillans Torr. Low Bilberry 

Java Farm. Moderately abundant on Fox Point peninsula. Hectare 
3559. Canopy of Quercus prinus . Associate species: Rhododendron 
nudiflorum . Vaccinium stamineum . Gaylussacia baccata . Kalmia latifolia . 
Higman 1240. 

V. corymbosum L. High-bush Bilberry 

Ivy Neck. One station: southern shore of Scaffold Peninsula. 
Hectare 5763. Canopy of Quercus prinus , Quercus alba . Carya tomentosa, 
and Fagus grandifolia . Higman 845. 



Epigaea 

Epigaea repens L. Mayflower, Trailing 

Arbutus 

Java Farm. Infrequent at Fox Point and Hog Island. Hectares 
3559 and 3592. Canopy of Quercus prinus . Associate species: 
Gaylussacia baccata . Kalmia latifolia . Vaccinium staminium . Higman 
105, 567. 



161. 



Rhododendron 



1. Flowers preceding the leaves or accompanying the 
young ones. 

2. Plants colonial, with subterranean stolons; corolla 
buds with rows of stalked glands; corolla glabrous 
within. Expected (R. atlanticum ) . 

2. Plants not strikingly colonial; corolla buds 
glandless; corolla tube pubescent within. 

3. Leaves pubescent beneath; flowers fragrant. 
Expected (R. maximum , R. atlanticum ) . 

3. Leaves glabrous beneath or with strigose midrib; 
flowers not fragrant. (Also, pedicels and calyx 
not glandular; corolla tube pilose without) R. nudif lorum 

1. Flowers expanding after the leaves. 

4. Young branchlets and leaves glabrous; calyx lobes 
not glandular; ovary densely glandular-villous. 
Expected (R. arborescens) . 

4. Young branchlets bristly or strigose; leaves bristly 
on the midrib beneath; pedicels and calyx lobes 
glandular-hirsute; ovary strigose, not glandular R. viscosum 



Rhododendron nudiflorum (L.) Torr. Election-pink, 

Pinxter-f lower 

Java Farm. Infrequent on Fox Point (hectare 3559; canopy of 
Quercus prinus ) and on west-facing slope overlooking Muddy Creek 
(hectare 3415; canopy of Fagus grandifolia and associates). Canopy 
at both sites includes Quercus alba , Q. velutina . and Carya tomentosa , 
Associate species at both stations: Gaylussacia baccata , Kalmia 
latifolia , Vaccinium spp. Higman 102, 401. 

R. viscosum (L.) Torr. Swamp Honeysuckle 

Java Farm. Infrequent at Fox Point. Hectare 3559. Canopy and 
associates as for R. nudiflorum , above. Higman 646. 



162. 

Kalmia 

Kalmia latifolia L. Mountain Laurel 

Java Farm. Infrequent to moderately abundant on moderately 
steep, usually west-facing slopes overlooking Muddy Creek and its 
tributaries. Canopy of Fagus grandifolia . Quercus alba , Liriodendron 
tulipifera . 

Dominates understory on steep west-facing slope of Hog Island, 
under canopy of Quercus alba and Quercus prinus . Less frequent 
under the same canopy at Fox Point and along estuary shoreline at 
Ivy Neck. Associate species: Gaylussacia baccata . Higman 801. 

PRIMULACEAE 

Anagallis arvensis L. Scarlet Pimpernel 

Ivy Neck. One station: beside tractor trail to abandoned 
field on Scaffold Peninsula. Hectare 4740. Associate species: 
Galinsoga ciliata . Mollugo verticillata , Diodia teres . Polygonum 
aviculare . Higman 835. 

PLUMBAGINACEAE 

Limonium 

1 . Calyx tube glabrous L_. carolinianum 

1. Calyx tube pubescent at base and part way up the 

angled sides L_. nashii 

Limonium carolinianum (Walt.) Britt. Sea Lavender 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Infrequent in flooded parts of salt 
marshes. Associate species: Spartina alterniflora . Spartina cynosuroides , 
Baccharis halimifolia . Higman 993. 

L_. Nashii Small Sea Lavender 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Infrequent in flooded parts of salt 
marshes. Associated with L_. carolinianum above. Higman 212. 



163. 

EBENACEAE 

Dicspyros virginiana L. Persimmon 

Java Farm. Infrequent in old fields. Associate species: 
Quercus palustris , Acer rub rum . Liquidambar styraciflua . 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent in old fields as above. Also moderately 
abundant in canopy along drainage of Cheston Creek. Associate species 
there: Robinia pseudoacacia . Platanus occidentalis m Liquidambar 
styraciflua . 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Infrequent in salt marshes, apparently 
the less saline parts. Associate species: Panicum virgatum . Typha 
latifolia . Also on sandbars. Higman 116, 158, 233, 293, 383, 512, 746. 

OLEACEAE 

1. Plant a large tree; leaves pinnate; fruit a samara.... Fraxinus 

1. Plant a woody shrub or small tree; leaves simple; 
fruit a wingless capsule, drupe or berry. 

2. Fruit a loculicidal capsule. (Also, plant 
cultivated or escaped; flowers lilac-purple; 
leaves ovate, acuminate, entire, petioled, 
truncate or subcordate at base) Syringa 

2. Fruit a drupe or berry. 

3. Petals linear, nearly separate. Expected 
(Chionanthus ) . 

3. Petals united, funnelform corolla with broad 
lobes. (Also, panicles terminal, erect; 
stigma 2-lobed; berry 2-locular) Ligustrum 

Fraxinus 

1. Leaflets definitely on wingless petiolules. (Also, 
leaflets acuminate, with round or broadly acute base; 
samaras with a distinct flat wing and terete body) . 

2. Leaflets abruptly acuminate, equilateral at base, 
oblong to ovate or obovate; samaras 3-5 cm. long, 
the wing 4-7 mm. broad, the body .7-1.6 cm. long. 

(Also, leaflets may be serrulate near summit) J_. americana 

(Typical species has glabrous branchlets, pet- 
ioles, and lower surfaces of leaflets; var. 
biltmoreana has these pubescent and the 
leaflets white beneath) . 



164. 

2. Leaflets long-acuminate, inequilateral at base, 
lanceolate to oblong or elliptic; samaras (4) 5.5 
(7.5) cm. long, the wing 6-12 mm. broad, the body 
1-3 cm. long. (Also, branchlets, petioles, and 

leaf rachiese velvet-tomentose) F\ tomentosa 

1. Leaflets sessile, or subsessile on winged petiolules. 
(Also, leaflets lanceolate to oblong, with broadly 
acute base) . 

3. Leaflets entire or undulate, rarely serrulate, 
often inequilateral at base, on winged petiolules; 
samaras 4-7.5 cm. long, wing extending to middle 
of body. (Also, leaflets usually 7). 

(Typical species has pubescent branchlets, 

petioles, panicles, and lower surfaces of 

leaflets; var. subintegerrima has these 

glabrous) F_. pennsylvanica 

3. Leaflets conspicuously serrate, equilateral at base, 
sessile; samaras 2.5-4 cm. long, 6-10 mm. broad, the 
body poorly defined, wing extending to base. 
Expected (F. nigra ) . 

Fraxinus americana L. , var. 

biltmoreana (Beadle) J. Wright White Ash 

Java Farm. Canopy dominant along bottom of Muddy Creek valley 
above tidal portion. Associate species: Platanus occidentalis . 
Liquidambar styracif lua , Ulmus americana . Acer rubrum . Understory 
chiefly Lindera benzoin . Higman 1043. 

J_. tomentosa Michx. Red Ash 

Java Farm. One station in old field near junction of old 
entrance road and road to springhouse. Hectare 3407. Associate 
species: Liquidambar styraciflua . Higman 389. 

Syringa 

Syringa vulgaris L. Lilac 

Ivy Neck. One station: yard of reconditioned house near parking 
area. Hectare 4720. Cultivated. Higman 1145. 

Ligustrum 

Ligustrum vulgare L. Privet 

Java Farm. One station: main building area. Hectare 2580. 
Persistent after cultivation. Higman 828. 



165. 

GENTIANACEAE 

1. Leaves alternate, mostly petioled, compound or 
crenate. Expected (Menyanthes , Nymphoides ) . 

1. Leaves opposite, sessile, simple, entire. 

2. Style filiform; corolla rotate. (Also, 

corolla pink, 5-parted; leaves thin, cordate- 
ovate, clasping) . . Sabatia 

2. Style short to absent; corolla campanulate. 

3. Calyx lobes 2, resembling leaves. (Also, 

corolla white, 4-lobed; leaves thick, cuneate- 

obovate) Obolaria 

3. Calyx 4- or 5-parted, not resembling leaves. 
Expected (Gentiana, Bartonia ) . 



Sabatia 

Sabatia annularis (L.) Pers. Rose-pink, 

Bitter-bloom 

Ivy Neck. One station: along abandoned road through central 
Scaffold Peninsula. Hectare 5722. Canopy of Quercus alba , Quercus 
velutina , Liriodendron tulipifera . Associate species: Aureolaria 
virginica . Vernonia glauca . Amphicarpa bracteata . Higman 964. 



Obolaria 

Obolaria virginica L. Pennywort 

Java Farm. One station: mature forest west of Muddy Creek and 
south of old entrance road. Canopy of Fagus grandifolia . Quercus 
alba . Carya tomentosa , Quercus velutina . Liriodendron tulipifera . 
Higman 653. 



APOCYNACEAE 

Apocynum cannabinum L. Dogbane, 

Indian Hemp 

Java Farm. Infrequent in old fields. Associate species: 
Solidago altissima . Rubus sp. , Lonicera japonica . Rhus radicans . 
Higman 232 » 



166. 



ASCLEPIADACEAE 



Asclepias 

1. Corolla red to purple; hoods (5 in a crown on tube 
of stamens) orange or purple. 

2. Tidal stream habitat; umbels several, forming 
a corymb. (Also, leaves tapering to tip; stems 
and lower leaf surfaces glabrous or nearly so) ..... A. incarnata 

2. Moist to dry forest habitat; umbels 1 or few, 
scattered. Expected (A. tuberosa . A. rubra) . 

1. Corolla and hoods greenish, yellowish, white, or 
tinged purple. 

3. Leaves narrowly linear, with revolute margins. 
Expected (A. verticillata ) . 

3. Leaves lanceolate to oblong or obovate. 

4. Leaves membranaceous, long-attenuate. 
Expected (A. quadrifolia ) . 

4. Leaves firm, thicker, blunt-tipped. 

5. Leaves sessile and clasping at base. 
Expected (A. amplexicaulis ) . 

5. Leaves short-petioled, not clasping. 

6. Leaves glabrous, tapering to petioles; 
flowers 8-12 mm. long, white with purple 
center. Expected (A. variegata ) . 

6. Leaves minutely tomentose below, rounded 
at base; flowers 12-25 mm. long, hoods 
greenish to whitish or purplish. .......... A. syriaca 

Asclepias incarnata L. , var. 

pulchra (Ehrh. ) Pers. Swamp Milkweed 

Java Farm. Infrequent along tidal portion of Muddy Creek. 
Associate species: Typha latifolia , Smilax rotundifolia , Aster subulatus , 
Scirpus validus . Higman 268. 



167. 

A. syriaca L. Common Milkweed 

Java Farm. Moderately abundant along old entrance road near 
main building area and in grassy fields south of main buildings. 
Associate species: Cirsium discolor , Rubus sp., Erigeron canadensis , 
Verbascum blattaria . Higman 359, 825. 

CONVOLVULACEAE 

1. Parasitic; stem yellowish or reddish; leaves reduced 

to scales; flowers tiny, cymose-clustered. Cuscuta 

1. Not parasitic; stem green; leaves normal; flowers 
much larger, few-clustered to solitary. 

2. Stigmas 2, linear-filiform to subulate or slenderly 

ovoid Convolvulus 

2. Stigma 1, capitate or with 2-3 globular lobes.... 

Cuscuta 

Cuscuta gronovii Willd.? Dodder, 

Strangleweed 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Infrequent to moderately abundant 
in salt marshes. Parasitic on Iva frutescens and Baccharis halimifolia . 
Higman 62 . 

Convolvulus 

Convolvulus sepium I, . Hedge Bindweed, 

Wild Morning-glory 

Ivy Neck. One station: salt marsh at southwest end of Scaffold 
Peninsula, on mud flat adjacent water. Hectare 5761. Associate species: 
Panicum virgatum . Acnida cannabina . Gerard ia maritima . Higman 814, 
969. 



Ipomoea 

Stem and sepals glabrous, tips of sepals obtuse 

or blunt; stigma lobes or 2; locules of capsule 

2. (Also: corolla white with purple in tube, 

4.5 to 8 cm. long; leaves unlobed or with 2 short, 

rounded basal lobes) I . pandurata 



168. 



1. Stem and sepals pubescent, tips of sepals acute to 
linear or bristle-tipped; lobes of stigma and locules 
of capsule 3 (2 in 1^ lacunosa ) . 

2. Sepals densely yellow-villous near base, short- 
hirsute above, tapering to long linear tips; 
leaves densely hirsute on both sides, the lobes, 
if present, with narrow U-shaped sinuses I_. hederacea 

2. Sepals moderately to sparsely pilose, with broadly 
acute or bristle tips; leaves strigose or sparsely 
pilose, the lobes, if present, with broadly obtuse 
sinuses. 

3. Sepals moderately hirsute at base, sparsely so 
above, with broadly acute tips; peduncles long; 
leaves never lobed, strigose on both sides..... I. purpurea 

3. Sepals sparsely pilose, with bristle tips; 
peduncles short; leaves sparsely pilose, the 
lobes, if present, with broadly obtuse sinuses. 
Expected (I_. lacunosa ) . 



Ipomoea pandurata (L.) G. F. W. Mey. 



Wild Potato-vine 



Ivy Neck. One station: plowed, fallow cornfield on Cheston 
Peninsula. Higman 1028. 



I. hederacea (L.) Jacq. 



Blue Morning-glory 



Ivy Neck. Moderately abundant in cornfields. Associate species: 
Barbarea vulgaris , _B. verna, Cerastium vulgatum , etc. Higman 999, 1007, 1016, 



I_. purpurea (L.) Roth. 



Common Morning-glory 



Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Infrequent along unshaded roadsides, 
and in cornfields at Ivy Neck. Associated with _I. hederacea above. 
Higman 1021, 1064. 



B0RAGINACEAE 

1. Ovary unlobed, surmounted by the style. (Also, 

leaves oval, 2-5 cm. long, petioled; spikes bractless, 
5-12 cm. long; sepals 2-3 mm. long). Expected 
(Heliotropium ) . 

1. Ovary deeply lobed, the 1-locular divisions forming 
nutlets around the base of the style. 



169. 



2. Attachment of nutlet strongly plug-like, leaving 
a pit on the gynobase (enlarged receptacle). (Also, 
corolla campanulate or rotate, blue, or yellowish in 
Symphytum ) . Expected ( Lycopsis , Borago , Symphytum ) . 

2. Attachment of nutlet flat or concave, leaving no pit. 

3. Stigmas 2 or style bifid. (Also, leaves linear- 
elliptic to narrowly oblanceolate) . Expected 
( Echium , Onosmodium , Lithospermum ) . 

3. Stigma 1, simple. 

4. Nutlets attached near the apex, strongly 

divergent. (Also, leaves lanceolate to broadly 

ovate, 10-15 cm. long, very bristly, the 

cauline sessile (clasping in species collected); 

racemes paniculate; carpels very hirsute; 

corolla white in species collected . Cynoglossum 

4. Nutlets attached near the middle or base, 
erect and parallel. 

5. Flowers of the raceme not subtended by 

leafy bracts; nutlets smooth. (Also, plant 

not over 5 dm. high; cauline leaves sessile, 

narrowly oblanceolate-spatulate, very 

pilose; calyx somewhat irregular; corolla 

blue or white, 1-3 mm. broad) Myosotis 

5. Flowers, at least the lower, with leafy 

bracts; nutlets prickly, rough, or wrinkled. 
(Also, cauline leaves elliptic to ovate, up 
to 2 dm. long, smoothish, petioled) . 

6. Nutlets covered with hooked prickles. 
(Also, racemes about 1 dm. long, with 
small bracts; nutlets globose, 3 mm. long. Hackelia 

6. Nutlets wrinkled, not prickly. (Also, 
flowers in scorpioid cymes; corolla 
blue, 1-2 cm. long). Expected (Mertensia) . 



Cynoglossum 

Cynoglossum virginianum L. Beggar's-lice 

Java Farm. Infrequent to moderately abundant in mature forest 
south of old entrance road and west of Muddy Creek. Canopy of Fagus 
grandifolia , Quercus spp. , Liriodendron tulipifera . Carya tomentosa , etc, 
Associate species: Podophyllum peltatum , Claytonia virginica , Galium 
aparine, Orchis spectabilis , Viola papilionacea . etc. Higman 666. 



170. 



Myosotis 

Myosotis verna Nutt. Scorpion-grass 

(species not in Britton and Brown) Forget-me-not 

Ivy Neck. One station: abandoned grassy field on Scaffold 
Peninsula. Associate species: Trifolium hybridum . Trifolium 
pratense , Oenothera fruticosa , Hypericum perforatum , Eupatorium 
serotinum , etc. Higman 1085. 



Hackelia 

Hackelia virginiana (L.) Johnst. Stickseed 

»ar' s-lice 



Java Farm. Infrequent; principal station in small stream valley 
on Rhode River shore, slightly below pier. Hectare 3519. Canopy 
of Robinia pseudoacacia , Liquidambar styraciflua , Ulmus americana . 
Associate species: Lonicera japonica (dominant species of ground layer), 
Verbesina occidentalis . Rich collecting area. Higman 674. 



VERBENACEAE 

Verbena 

1. Spikes panicles at apices of stems and branches; 
corolla limb 2 to 4.5 mm. broad. 

2. Spikes very slender (also interrupted in all 
species collected); fruiting calyces remote. 

3. Leaves obtuse to subacute, pinnatifid or 
deeply incised; calyx glandular. 
Expected (V. officinalis ) . 

3. Leaves acuminate, regularly serrate; calyx 
not glandular. (Also, corolla white to 
bluish, with limb 2 mm. broad) . 

4. Leaves narrowly ovate, 3 to 13 cm. long, 
serrate-dentate, harshly scabrous above; 
fruiting calyx 2.5 to 3 mm. long, its 
lanceolate lobes converging into an acute 
beak above the schizocarp (pericarp which 
splits into nutlets); nutlets 1 to 1.3 
mm. long, reticulate above V. scabra 



171. 



4. Leaves oblong-ovate to lanceolate, 
8 to 20 cm. long, doubly crenate- 
serrate, strigose on veins beneath; 
fruiting calyx 2 to 2.3 mm. long, its 
deltoid subulate-tipped lobes equal to 
or shorter than the schizocarp; 
nutlets 1.5 to 2 mm. long, not reticulate.... V. urticifolia 

2. Spikes thicker, pencil-like, continuous; fruiting 
calyces imbricated. (Also, corollas violet- 
blue; mature calyx overtopping the schizocarp, 
with incurved teeth) V. hastata 

1. Spikes single or in 3's at tips of stems or branches; 
corolla limb 5 to 6 mm. broad. (Also, in species 
collected, leaves narrowly lanceolate to oblanceolate, 
3 to 10 cm. long, serrate; fruiting calyx 4 to 
5 mm. long, with acuminate lobes; corolla purple) V. simplex 

Verbena scabra Vahl Harsh Vervain 

Java Farm. One station: along old entrance road. Canopy of 
Quercus alba , Fagus grandifolia , and Liriodendron tulipifera . 
Higman 897. 

V. urticifolia L. White Vervain 

Java Farm. One station: western end of main building area. 
Hectare 2489. Near wooden shed among dense Rhus radicans and Camp sis 
radicans . Higman 4. 

V. hastata L. Blue Vervain, 

Simpler' s Joy 

Java Farm. One station: clump of trees in Hog Island salt 
marsh. Hectare 3582. Canopy of Quercus falcata , Quercus stellata , 
Prunus serotina , Liquidambar styraciflua . Associate species: Panicum 
virgatum, Osmund a cinnamomea , Juncus dichotomus . Higman 305. 

_V. simplex Lehm. Vervain 

(V. angustifolia Michx.) 

Ivy Neck. One station: southern part of abandoned grassy field. 
Hectare 4772. Associate species: Rudbeckia serotina , Trifolium 
hybridum . Ambrosia artemisiifolia , Oenothera fruticosa . Higman 815. 



172. 

LABIATAE 

1. Ovary 4-lobed, not deeply divided. 

2. Corolla regular, with 5 subequal lobes. (Also, 
flowers solitary at ends of terminal pedicels; 
stamens long-exerted; stem glandular-pubescent).... Tricho sterna 

2. Corolla irregular, the upper lip apparently 

wanting Teucrium 

1. Ovary deeply 4-divided. (Also, corolla irregular, 
with upper lip present or, if regular, 4-lobed). 

3. Stamens included in the corolla tube, not 
directly visible. Expected ( Marrubium ) . 

3. Stamens exerted from the corolla tube, directly 
visible. 

4. Upper lip of corolla helmet-shaped or 

concave. (Also, stamens always 4, ascending 
under the corolla lip, exceeding it only 
in Agastache ) . 

5. Calyx with a helmet-like projection 
on the upper side, closed in fruit. 
(Also, flowers blue to purple, usually 
in leafy-bracted racemes or panicles 
but axillary in one species) Scutellaria 

5. Calyx without a helmet-like projection on 
the upper side, open in fruit except in 

Prunella . 

6. Stem prostrate to ascending; leaves 
cordate to reniform at base. (Also, 
flowers lilac to blue-violet) . 

7. Flowers distinctly pediceled, 

usually 3 per axil; upper stamens 

longer than the lower; corollas 

blue-violet „ . Glechoma 

7. Flowers sessile, in dense terminal and 
axillary verticils; upper stamens shorter 
than the lower; corollas pink- or 
red-violet Lamium 

6. Stem erect; leaves acute, rounded, or 
shallowly cordate at base. 



173. 



8. Flowers axillary. Expected (Leonurus, 
Ballota ) . 

8. Flowers in terminal spikes, clusters, 
or heads; if axillary, the subtending 
leaves reduced and clustered into 
a terminal spike. 

9. Spike very dense (may be somewhat 
interrupted in Nepeta ) . 

10. Calyx distinctly 2-lipped, 
closed in fruit. (Also, 
flowers blue-violet, in 
clusters of 3 subtended 
by round bracts) Prunella 

10. Calyx nearly regular, open in 
fruit. Expected ( Nepeta , 
Agastache ) . See Appendix I. 

9. Spike loose or interrupted. 
(Also, calyx regular; flowers 
pale purple or pink) , 

11. Plant glabrous; flowers single 
in axils of small bracts. 
Expected ( Physostegia ) . 

11. Plant pubescent; flowers in 
small, dense cymes subtended 
by small bracts Stachys 

4. Upper lip of corolla not helmet-shaped 
or concave. 

12. Flowers in dense cymes or heads. 

(Also , corolla purple to white) Pycanthemum 

12. Flowers in panicles, racemes, spikes, or 
clusters, inflorescence terminal or 
axillary. 

13. Flowers in loose terminal racemes 

or panicles. (Also, leaves ovate or 
ovate-oblong, serrate, acuminate, 
with long petioles) . 



174. 

14. Plant annual, without a rootstock; 
calyx villous; corolla purple (at 
Chesapeake Bay Center) or white; stamens 
4. (Also, leaves purple beneath) Perilla 

14. Plant perennial, with large woody rootstock; 
calyx nearly glabrous, minutely glandular; 
corolla pale yellow; stamens 2. (Also, one 
of the 5 corolla lobes much enlarged and 
deeply fringed; stamens and style long- 
exserted) Collinsonia 

13. Flowers in spikes or clusters, terminal 
or axillary. 

15. Stamens 2. 

16. Flowers axillary, in dense clusters. 

17. Corolla regular, 4-lobed. 

(Also, leaves coarsely dentate, 

acuminate at both ends; strong 

mint odor) Lycopus 

17. Corolla irregular, 2-lipped. 

Expected ( Hedeoma , Monarda, and 
Blephilia ) . 

16. Flowers in an interrupted spike. 

(Also, in species collected, leaves 

basal , lyrate-pinnatif id) Salvia 

15. Stamens 4. 

18. Corolla regular, 4-lobed. (Also, 
in species collected, flowers in 
an interrupted spike; strong 
mint odor) Mentha 

18. Corolla irregular, 2-lipped. 
(Also, flowers axillary). 
Expected ( Melissa , Satureja ) . 

Trichostema 

Tricbostema dichotomum L. Bluecurls, 

Bastard Pennyroyal 

Java Farm. Infrequent in old fields, more abundant near young 
Pinus virginiana stands invading these fields. Hectares 3513, 3535. 
Associate species: Solidago juncea . Solidago nemoralis . Higman 378, 462, 



175. 



Teucrium canadense L. Germander, 

Wood-sage 

Java Farm. One station: new entrance road. Canopy of mature 
Quercus alba , Fagus grandifolia , Liriodendron tulipifera . Higman 918. 



Scutellaria 

1. Racemes not 1-sided; base of stem without stolons. 

2. Cauline leaves round- to oblong-ovate or the 
lower deltoid, all dentate or serrate. 

3. Principal leaves cordate at base, villous. 
Expected OS. ovata ) . 

3. Principal leaves not cordate, if shallowly 
so, not villous. 

4. Principal leaves rhombic-ovate, 3 to 6 cm. 
long. (Also, lower leaves slender-petioled, 
median and upper ones cuneate to short— winged 
petioles; 2 to 5 pairs of leaves below the 
single or panicled terminal racemes; corolla 
1.4 to 2 cm. long) S^. elliptica 

4. Principal leaves ovate or ovate-oblong, 

4 to 14 cm. long. Expected (S.. serrata , _S. incana ) . 

2. Cauline leaves ovate and crenate below, oblong 
to linear-lanceolate and entire above, 
successively narrower to summit of stem. (Also, 
petioles of upper leaves short, not winged, 
3 to 8 pairs of leaves below the terminal 
raceme or leafy panicle of them) S_. integrifolia 

1. Racemes 1-sided; base of stem with creeping rhizomes 
developed from stolons. (Also, in species collected, 
racemes in upper axils as well as terminal, their 
bracts not minute) . 

5. Stolons not forming tubers; lower leaves regularly 
serrate, with slender petioles; stem with 
incurved-ascending pubescence at least on the 
angles; leaves round to subcordate to base, 
acuminate to tip S^. lateriflora 

5. Stolons, leaves, or stem pubescence otherwise. 
Expected (J3. parvula . _S. nervosa , _S. saxatilis ) . 



176. 

Scutellaria elliptica Muhl. Hairy Skullcap 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent in west-central Scaffold Peninsula. 
Canopy of Quercus alba , Quercus velutina , Liriodendron tulipifera , 
Liquidamba r styraciflua , Carya tomentosa . Higman 1093. 

j>. integrifolia L. Skullcap 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent in west-central Scaffold Peninsula. 
Associated with S_. elliptica above. 

Java Farm. One station: south-facing slope east of Muddy Creek, 
adjacent north boundary of Center. Hectares 2458, 2459. Partial 
canopy of Liquidambar styraciflua , Pyrus malus . and Liriodendron 
tulipifera . Dense Rhus radicans on ground, with few grassy patches. 
Higman 545, 849. 

_S. lateriflora L. Mad-dog Skullcap 

Java Farm. Infrequent in freshwater marsh at western apex of 
triangular area west of old Muddy Creek Road. Hectare 2470. 
Higman 405. 

Glechoma 

Glechoma hederacea L. , Ground-ivy, 

var. micrantha Moricand Gill-over-the-ground 

Java Farm. One station: gravel fill of old Muddy Creek Road, 
beside stream culvert south of entrance gate. Hectare 2491. Shaded 
by adjacent canopy of Fagus grandifolia ; growing among dense Lonicera 
japonica . Higman 566. 

Lamium 

1. Upper or bracteal leaves sessile, reniform; flowers 

6-10 per whorl; calyx teeth converging L_. amplexicaule 

1. Upper or bracteal leaves petioled, ovate-subrhombic; 

flowers 3-7 per whorl; calyx teeth divergent L. purpureum 

Lamium amplexicaule L. Henbit, 

Dead-nettle 

Java Farm. Infrequent around parking apron, main building 
area. Hectare 2580. Associate species: Juncus tenuis . 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent to moderately abundant in cornfields and 
around old tobacco barn near entrance road. Hectare 4658. Associate 
species: Draba verna , Stellaria media , Cerastium vulgatum . 
Higman 553. 



177, 



L. purpureum L. Purple Dead-nettle 

Java Farm. One station: edge of old Muddy Creek Road, on top 
of stream culvert south of entrance gate. Hectare 2491. Near station 
for Glechoma hederacea, but drier. Higman 565. 



Prunella 

Prunella vulgaris L. Selfheal, 

Carpenter-weed 

Java Farm. Infrequently along Fox Point and eld entrance roads. 
Partial shading on springhouse road by Celtis occidentalis , Liquidambar 
styracif lua , and Prunus serotina . Associate species: Melilotus 
alba . Higman 20, 118. 



Stachys 

Stachys palustris L.? Hedge-nettle 

Woundwort 

Java Farm. One station: salt marsh at northeast corner of Farm, 
above pier. Hectare 3620. Flooded at high tide. Associate species: 
Spartin a cynosuroides , Baccharis halimifolia , Limonium carolinianum , 
Aster subulatus. Higman 216. 



Pycanthemum 

Pycanthemum flexuosum (Walt.) BSP. Mountain-mint, 

Basil 

Java Farm. One station: old field dominated by Aster spp,, 
Rub us spp. , Solidago altissima , Rhus radicans , Lonicera japonica , etc, 
Hectare. 3501. Higman 364. 



Perilla 

Peril la frutescens (L.) Britt. Beefsteak-plant 

Java Farm. One station: grassy triangle at entrance gate to 
old Muddy Creek Road. Hectare 2463. Associate species: Cyperus strigosus , 
Duchesnea indica , Fragaria virginiana . Ranunculus bulbosus , Daucus 
carota . 

Ivy Neck. One station: tractor trail to artificial pond, above 
source of Cheston Creek Drainage. Hectare 4721. Associate species: 
Mentha spicata , Ambrosia trifida , Galinsoga ciliata . Higman 1031, 1061. 



178. 



Collinsonia canadensis L. Horse-balm, 

Stoneroot 

Java Farm. One station: mature forest south of old entrance 
road. Hectare 2484. Canopy of Quercus alba , Fagus grandifolia , 
Liriodendron tulipifera, etc. Higman 1206. 



Lycopus 

Lycopus virginicus L. Water-horehound , 

Bugleweed 

Java Farm. Infrequent along bank of Muddy Creek, upstream from 
old entrance road. Hectare 2467. Canopy of Fagus grandifolia , 
Platanus occidentalis , Quercus alba . Understory of Lindera benzoin . 

Also infrequent in freshwater part of Fox Creek marsh. Hectare 
3516. Higman 977, 1209. 



Salvia 

Salvia lyrata L. Cancerweed, 

Lyre-leaved Sage 

Java Farm. One station: mature forest along old entrance road, 
near wellhouse. Hectare 2487. Canopy of Fagus grandifolia , Quercus 
alba , Liriodendron tulipifera , etc. Higman 819. 



Mentha 

Mentha spicata L. Spearmint 

Ivy Neck. One station: partly shaded border of tractor trail 
to artificial pond north of Cheston Peninsula, near source of Cheston 
Creek drainage. Hectare 4712. Associate species: Ambrosia trifida , 
Chondrilla j uncea , Solanum carolinense , Cichorum intybus . Higman 1026. 



SOLANACEAE 
1. Plant a shrub. Expected ( Lycium ) . 
1. Plant a forb or vine. 



179. 



2. Corolla fuimelform, 7 to 10 cm. long, white 

with purple tinge; fruit a large, spiny capsule.... Datura 

2. Corolla rotate to campanulate, much shorter, white 
or yellow (sometimes purple, but not in species 
collected); fruit a berry. 

3. Anthers forming a tube around the style; 
calyx deeply 5-parted, not inflated over 
berry in fruit Solanum 

3. Anthers separate; calyx 5-lobed only at the 
summit, inflated and loosely covering 
the berry in fruit. 

4. Sepals united, calyx with round or cordate 
base in fruit; corolla yellow or yellowish- 
green, with dark center; ovary 2-locular; 
berry juicy Physalis 

4. Sepals free, sagittate-based; corolla 
pale blue; ovary 3- to 5-locular; berry 
dry. Expected ( Nicandra ) . 



Datura 

Datura stramonium L. Jimsonweed 

Java Farm. One station: trash pile near ruined house, main 
building area. Hectare 2581. Associate species: Melilotus alba , 
Aster spp. , Eleusine indica , Solanum nigrum , and Amaranthus spinosus , 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent: edge of cornfield near old barn south 
of artificial pond, north of Cheston Peninsula. Hectare 4733. 
Associate species: Eleusine indica , Abutilon theophrasti , 
Potentilla norvegica , Ipomoea app. Higman 501, 1008. 



Solanum 

1. Calyx lobes very spiny, covering the berry. 
Expected (S_. rostratum , _S . sisymbriifolium ) . 

1. Calyx not spiny, not covering the berry. 

2. Plant a woody vine or climbing shrub; berries 

red. (Also, corolla violet; leaves often basally 
lobed) . Expected (S_. dulcamara ) . 

2. Plant herbaceous, not a vine; berries yellow, 
green, or black. 



180. 



3. Stem and leaf veins with yellow spines; 

berry orange-yellow. (Also, corolla violet 

or white; stein hirsute) S_. carolinense 

3. Stem and leaf veins spineless; berries black or 
green. (Also, corolla white). 

4. Stem glabrous; berries black. 

5. Leaves thin, translucent; berries 

shiny. Expected (S_. americanum ) . Appendix I. 

5. Leaves rather thick, opaque; berries 

dull _S . nigrum 

4. Stem very spreading-hirsute; berries 

green ^. sarachoides 

Solanum carolinense L. Horse-nettle 

Java Farm. Infrequent in old fields, especially in the vicinity 
of main buildings. Associate species: Poa pratensis , Agrimonia 
parvif lora , Verbascum blattaria , Cirsium discolor , Asclepias syriaca , 
Gnaphalium obtusifolium . Higman 45, 133. 

_S. nigrum L. Black Nightshade 

Java Farm. One station: rubbish pile near ruined house, 
main building area. Hectare 2580. Associate species: Datura stramoneum , 
Amaranthus spinosus , Eleusine indica . Higman 498. 

S_. sarachoides Sendtner 

Java Farm. Infrequent on recently bulldozed area at main 
buildings. Hectare 2580. Higman 1216. 



Physalis 

1. Plants annual, without rhizomes. 

2. Plant glabrous, glabrate, or puberulent. 
Expected (P_. ixocarpa ) . 

2. Plant villous. (Also, leaves ovate, obliquely 

rounded or cordate at base; berry yellow). J?, pubescens 



181. 



1. Plants perennial, with deep-seated rhizomes. 
(Also, corolla yellow, often with dark center; 
berry red, yellow, or green). 

3. Leaves, petioles, and pedicels puberulent; 

calyx glabrous when mature P_. subglabrata 

3. Leaves, petioles, pedicels, and calyx villous 
or hirsute. 

4. Leaves cordate or broadly rounded at base; 
pubescence very dense, often glandular. 
Expected (P. heterophylla ) . 

4. Leaves cuneate or gradually tapering to base; 
pubescence not very dense, not glandular. 

5. Leaves oblanceolate, oblong, or subspatulate; 
fruiting calyx not depressed at base; berry 
yellow or green. Expected (P. lanceolata ) . 

5. Leaves ovate or ovate-lanceolate; fruiting 

calyx deeply depressed at base; berry red.... P_. virginiana 

JP. pubescens L. Ground-cherry 

Java Farm. Collected by David Hammond. 

Physalis subglabrata Mackenz. and Bush Ground-cherry 

(P. longifolia Nutt.) 

Java Farm. One station: new entrance road, near culvert of 
Fox Creek drainage. Hectare 2573. Partial canopy of Juglans nigra 
and Liquidambar styraciflua . Associate species: Geum canadense , 
Duchesnea indica , Agrimonia microcarpa . Panicum clandestinum . 
Higman 1034, 1181. 

P_. virginiana Mill. Ground-cherry 

Ivy Neck. One station: abandoned grassy field on Scaffold 
Peninsula. Hectare 4772. Associate species: Campsis radicans , 
Oenothera fruticosa . Higman 1088. 



SCROPHULARIACEAE 

1. Plant a tree; leaves 1.5 to 4 dm. wide; cordate. 
(Also, leaves opposite, tomentose; petioles and 
young stem hollow except at the nodes) Paulownia 



182. 



1. Plant herbaceous or only slightly woody; leaves 
much narrower, not cordate. 

2. Corolla nearly regular. 

3. Leaves opposite (whorled in Veronicastrum ) , the 
upper sometimes alternate; stamens 2 or 4, 
the filaments not bearded. 

4. Corolla yellow or roseate to red-purple, 
campanulate to funnelform. (Also, plant 
dries black) Gerardia 

4. Corolla bluish to dark blue-purple, 
rotate or salverform. 

5. Corolla rotate, almost tubeless; 

capsule obcordate or notched at apex; 

flowers axillary or in terminal racemes. . . . Veronica 

5. Corolla salverform; capsule blunt or 
acute at apex; flowers in spikes. 
Expected (Buchnera , Veronicastrum ) . 

3. Leaves all alternate; stamens 5, with 3 
or more filaments bearded. (Also, flowers 
in spikes or racemes, yellow or white) Verbascum 

2. Corolla 2-lipped. 

6. Leaves, or at least the upper ones, 
alternate. 

7. Leaves pinnately cleft or dissected. 
Expected (Castilleja , Pedicularis ) . 

7. Leaves entire or palmately lobed. 

8. Flowers in racemes or spikes; leaves 

linear to lanceolate, entire Linaria 

8. Flowers axillary; leaves broadly ovate, 
undulate or lobed. Expected (Kickxia , 
Cymbalaria ). 

6. Leaves all opposite. 



183. 



9. Flowers in racemes, spikes, panicles, 

or cymes. Expected ( Chelone , Penstemon ) . 

9. Flowers solitary in axils of leaves or 
bracts. 

10. Pedicels with 2 bracts just beneath 
the calyx. (Also, stamens 2; 
flowers small, yellow or white) Gratiola 

10. Pedicels naked at summit. Expected 
(Mimulus , Micranthemum , Lindernia , 
Bacopa ) . 

Paulownia 

Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb.) Steud. Princess-tree 

Java Farm. One station: young tree on rubbish pile near northwest 
corner of main builidng area. Hectare 2489. Associate species: 
Populus grandidentata . 

Ivy Neck. One station: young tree on west shore of large 
cut-off pond on Cheston Peninsula. Hectare 5800. Associate species: 
Phytolacca americana . Higman 1054. 



Gerardia 

1. Corolla pink or purple; capsules rounded at summit, 
often mucronate. 

2. Terrestrial habitat. Expected. (G. purpurea , G_. obtusifolia ) . 

2. Salt marsh habitat. (Also, stem .5 to 3 dm. 

high, glabrous; leaves linear) G_. maritima 

1. Corolla yellow, may have reddish tinge, dries 

black; capsules acute G_. virginica 

Gerardia maritima Raf . Gerardia 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent in sandy, halophytic area at Sand Point on 
Cheston Peninsula (hectare 4861) and in salt marsh on southwest shore 
of Scaffold Peninsula (hectare 5761). Associate species: Acnida 
cannabina , Solidago semperv irens , Panicum virgatum . Higman 972. 



184. 



G. virginica (L.) BSP. 

(Aureolaria virginica (L.) Pennel) 

( Aureolaria flava (L.) Farw. ) Downy False Foxglove 

Java Farm. One station: ruined house at Fox Point. Hectare 
3558. Canopy of Quercus prinus and Quercus alba . Associate species: 
Gaylussacia baccata , Vaccinium vacillans . 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent along southern shore of Scaffold Peninsula. 
Hectare 5762 to 5764. Canopy and associate species as at Java Farm. 
Also one station along abandoned road through central forest on 
Scaffold Peninsula. Hectare 5732. Canopy of Quercus alba , Fagus 
grandifolia , Liriodendron tulipifera , Carya tomentosa , etc. Higman 350. 



Veronica 

1. Flowers sessile; sepals lanceolate, short-pilose, 
differing in length by about 1 mm. ; corolla blue- 
violet; lower leaves round or oval, dentate, the 
upper ones lanceolate to linear V. arve.nsis 

1. Flowers pediceled; sepals cordate-ovate, ciliate, 
equal; corolla lilac to blue; all leaves reniform to 
suborbicular , with 2 or 4 big lateral teeth V. hederaefolia 

Veronica arvensis L. Corn Speedwell 

Java Farm. Infrequent, along road to springhouse. Hectare 3417. 
Associate species: Valerianella olitoria , Duchesnea indica , Viola 
spp. , Melilotus alba . Higman 608. 

Veronica hederaefolia L. Ivy-leaved Speedwell 

Java Farm. Infrequent along road to springhouse. Very calcareous 
soil. Hectare 3417. Associate species: Valerianella olitoria , 
Veronica arvense , Duchesnea indica . Higman 564, 629. 

Also along bank of Muddy Creek, upstream from culvert of old 
entrance road. Hectare 2467. Aspect dominant species of ground layer 
in early spring. Canopy of Fagus grandifolia , Platanus occidentalis , 
Quercus alba . Understory of Cornus florida , Linder a benzoin . 



Verbascum 

Stems and leaves tomentose; leaves entire, decurrent 

down the stem; flowers in a dense, cylindrical 

spike . _V. thapsus 



185. 



Stems and leaves glabrous, or the upper stem 
glandular-pubescent; leaves doubly serrate, 
the lower petioled, the upper partly clasping; 
flowers in a loose raceme 



V. blattaria 



Verbascum thapsus L. 



Common Mullein, 
Flannel-plant 



Java Farm. Infrequent in a variety of old field and roadside 
habitats, especially near main building area. Principal hectares 
3409, 3500, 2590. Associate species: Asclepias syriaca , Cirsium 
discolor , Solanum carolinense , Poa pratense (dense turf) , Verbascum 
blattaria , Melilotus alba , Daucus carota , Gnaphalium obtusifolium . 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent in side of steep bank along shore of 
Rhode River above Sand Point. Associate species: most of above plus 
Juncus tenuis , Atriplex patula , Plantago lanceolata , Arctium minus , 
Amorpha fruticosa , Rhus typhina , Solidago sempervirens . Higman 43. 



Verbascum blattaria L. , 

V. blattaria forma albiflora (Don) House 



Moth-Mullein 



Java Farm. Infrequent in old fields south of main building area. 
Associated with V. thapsus above. 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent in grassy abandoned field on Scaffold 
Peninsula. Hectare 4762. Associate species: Trifolium pratense , 
Trifolium hybridum , Oenothera fruticosa . 

Only the white-flowered form occurs at Java Farm; both white- 
and yellow- flowered forms occur at Ivy Neck, sometimes on the same 
plant. Higman 47, 789, 811. 



Linaria 



Linaria canadensis (L.) Dumont 



Old-field Toadflax 



Ivy Neck. Moderately abundant in cultivated fields and along tractor 
trails. Associate species: Draba verna . Arabidopsis thaliana , 
Cerastium vulgatum . Stellaria media , etc. Higman 657. 



Gratiola 



Gratiola neglecta Torr. 



Hedge Hyssop 



Infrequent along both forks of drainage to Cheston Creek estuary, 
and beside artificial pond. Hectares 4752 and 4712 respectively. 
Canopy of Liquidambar styracif lua , Platanus occidentalis , and 
Diospyros virginiana at the first station; second station partly 
shaded by nearby canopy. Associate species: Ranunculus sceleratus , 
Limnobium spongia , Galinsoga ciliata , Glyceria striata . Higman 725, 873. 



186. 



BIGNONIACEAE 

Campsis radicans (L.) Seem. Trumpet-vine 

Java Farm. Aggressive invader of old fields; seems to thrive 
where Rhus radicans and Lonicera japonica are not too abundant. 
Much less frequent than Rhus radicans in forest. 

Ivy Neck. Abundant to moderately abundant in old fields on 
small peninsula between forks of Scaffold Creek estuary. Abundant 
in ground layer of forest at source of Scaffold Creek drainage 
(east fork). Invading abandoned grassy field on Scaffold Peninsula. 
Higman 1. 

OROBANCHACEAE 

Epifagus virginiana (L.) Bart. Beech-drops 

Java Farm. Moderately abundant under mature Fagus grandifolia 
canopy, especially west of old Muddy Creek Road. Hectare 2480. 
Higman 249. 

PHRYMACEAE 

Phryma leptostachya L. Lopseed 

Java Farm. Infrequent along old entrance road near gate to 
old Muddy Creek Road, hectare 2463. Canopy of Fagus grandifolia , 
Quercus alba , Liriodendron tulipif era . Quercus coccinea, Liquidambar 
styracif lua , Carya tomentosa. etc. Associate species: Desmodium 
paniculatum . Desmodium glutinosum . Elephantopus carolinianus , 
Agrimonia microcarpa . Viola papilionacea . Smilacina racemosa, etc. 
Higman 931. 

PLANTAGINACEAE 

Plantago 

1. Spike cylindric. 

2. Leaves obovate or spatulate. 

3. Leaves scabrous; scape glabrous. (Also, 
bracts of spike shorter than to equaling 
calyx) P. ma.j or 

3. Leaves villous; scape villous P. virginica 



187. 



2. Leaves linear, with margined semiclasping petioles. 
(Also, bracts of spike linear, much longer than 
the flowers; bracts, sepals, and scape villous).... P_. aristata 

1. Spike ovoid-conic, tapering to apex. (Also, leaves 
lanceolate to lance-oblong; bracts of spike broadly 
ovate, scarious, with villous green midribs) P_. lanceolata 

Plantago maj or L. Common Plantain 

Java Farm. Infrequent around main buildings and along Fox 
Point Road. Higman 19. 

P_. virginica L. Hoary Plantain 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent in abandoned field on Scaffold Peninsula, and 
along adjacent tractor trails. Associate species: Hypericum perforatum , 
Trifolium arvense , Hordeum pusillum . Rumex acetosella , Juncus tenuis , 
Lepidium virginicum , Trifolium pratense . Higman 692. 

P_. aristata Michx. Bracted Plantain 

Java Farm. One station: broken pavement along Fox Point Road 
near sharp left turn onto peninsula. Hectare 3543. Associate species: 
Eragrostis spectabilis , Festuca myuros . 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent along tractor trail beside abandoned field 
on Scaffold Peninsula. Associated with Plantago virginica above. 
Higman 806. 

_P. lanceolata L. Ribgrass, 

English Plantain 

Java Farm. Infrequent around main building area. Hectare 
2590. Associate species: Juncus tenuis , Cyperus strigosus , 
Achillea millefolium , Erigeron canadensis , Triodia f lava . Euphorbia 
maculata . Higman 12, 1092. 



RUBIACEAE 

1. Plant a woody shrub; flowers in large spherical 

heads Cephalanthus 

1. Plant herbaceous; flowers not in heads. 

2. Leaves whorled Galium 

2. Leaves opposite. 



188. 



3. Stem prostrate-trailing; leaves evergreen; 
flowers paired, their ovaries united; fruit 
a berry. (Also, flowers white; leaves 
round-ovate; berries red) Mitchella 

3. Stem erect (somewhat procumbent and spreading 
in Diodia ) ; leaves deciduous; flowers cymose, 
solitary, or clustered, if paired, the ovaries not 
united; fruit a capsule. 

4. Corolla rotate. (Also, flowers sessile in 
axillary clusters). Expected (Hedyotis ) . 

4. Corolla funnelform or salverform. 

5. Flowers axillary, 1 to 3 per axil, 

sessile; leaves without stipules Diodia 

5. Flowers in terminal cymes, or (not 
in species collected) solitary and 
peduncled; leaves connected by rounded 
stipules Houstonia 



Cephalanthus 

Cephalanthus occidentalis L. Buttonbush 

Java Farm. One station at west end of Phalaris arundinacea 
meadow, north of main building area. Hectare 2468. Associate 
species: Juncus effusus , Erechtites hieracifolia , Polygonum sagittatum , 
Polygonum pensylvanicum . 

Ivy Neck. One station on sand bar of cut-off pond on Rhode River 
shore of Cheston Peninsula. Hectare 4880. Associate species: Sium 
suave , Rumex verticillatus , Asparagus officinalis , Sambucus canadensis . 
Higman 175, 947. 

Galium 

1. Ovary and fruit smooth, muricate, or granular. 

Expected (G_. ye rum , G_. mollugo , G_. obtusum , G_. concinnum ) . 

1. Ovary and fruit bristly. 

2. Leaves 6 to 8 per whorl; stems weak, reclining. 



189, 



3. Stem harsh on the angles; leaves 8 per 

whorl, linear to narrowly oblanceolate G_. aparine 

3. Stem smooth; leaves 6 per whorl, narrowly elliptic. 
Expected (G. trif lorum ) . 

2. Leaves 4 per whorl; stems ascending, not reclining. 

4. Flowers on distinct pedicels terminating the 
branches of the panicle. Expected (G. pilosum ) . 

4. Flowers sessile along the loosely divergent 
branches of the inflorescence. (Also, leaves 
oval or elliptic) G. circaezans 

Galium aparine L. Cleavers, 

Bedstraw 

Java Farm. Infrequent in bottom of Muddy Creek valley, 
above tidal portion. Canopy primarily Fraxinus americana . Also one 
station at shoulder of old Muddy Creek Road, near entrance gate. 
Associate species: Duchesnea indica , Poa sylvestris , Geranium 
carol in ianum . Higman 95, 639. 

G. circaezans Michx. Wild Licorice 

Java Farm. Infrequent along old entrance road, west of Muddy 
Creek. Canopy of Fagus grandifolia , Carya tomentosa , Quercus alba , 
Liriodendron tulipifera , etc. Associate species: Houstonia purpurea , 
Arrhenatherum elatius. Higman 777. 



Mitchella 

Mitchella repens L. Partridge-berry 

Java Farm. Infrequent to moderately abundant beneath canopy of 
mature Fagus grandifolia , especially along old entrance road near wellhouse. 
Hectares 2477, 2478, and 2487. 

Ivy Neck. One station: west shore of Cheston Creek estuary. 
Hectare 5704. Canopy of mature Quercus prinus . Higman 93, 774. 



Diodia 

Diodia teres Walt. Buttonweed 

Ivy Neck. One station: tractor trail to grassy abandoned field 
on Scaffold Peninsula. Hectare 4740. Higman 1019. 



190. 

Houstonia 

Houstonia purpurea L. 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Infrequent in mature hardwood forest, 
either under canopy of Fagus grandifolia , Quercus alba , Liriodendron 
tulipifera , etc. or along estuary shorelines under Quercus alba and 
Quercus prinus . Found along north boundary of Java Farm west of 
Muddy Creek, on north shore of Fox Point peninsula, along old entrance 
road west of Muddy Creek, and along west shore of Cheston Creek 
estuary. Higman 776, 840, 887, 974. 

CAPRIFOLIACEAE 

1. Corolla funnelform to campanulate, irregular; 
style long; stigma capitate. 

2. Plant a shrub or woody vine. 

3. Corolla funnelform to tubular; ovary 2- 
or 3-locular; fruit a berry. (Also, plant 
a woody vine in species collected; flowers 
fragrant and showy) Lonicera 

3. Corolla short-campanulate to salverform; ovary 
4-locular; fruit a berrylike drupe, with only 
2 nutlets maturing Symphoricarpos 

2. Plant herbaceous. (Also, leaves over 1 dm. 
long; flowers axillary, sessile; corolla 
tubular, yellowish to dull red; fruit a 
dry orange-yellow berry) Triosteum 

1. Corolla rotate to open-campanulate, regular, deeply 
5-lobed; style absent; stigmas 1 to 5. 

4. Plant a woody shrub or small tree; leaves simple; 

fruit a drupe with 1 stone Viburnum 

4. Plant a semi-herbaceous shrub, the stems with 
large white pith; leaves pinnately compound; 
fruit a berry, with 3 or more seed-like 
nutlets Sambucus 



Lonicera 

Lonicera japonica Thunb. Japanese Honeysuckle 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Usually abundant throughout old fields, 
along roadsides, and as a dense ground cover in both pine and hardwood 
forest. Associate species: Rhus radicans , Campsis radicans , Vitis 
vulpina . Conspicuously infrequent (as are its associates) along 
estuary shores under canopy of Quercus prinus . Higman 121. 



191. 



L. japonica, var. chinensis 
(P. W. Wats) Baker 

Java Farm. Infrequent, in old fields near Fox Point Road and 
new entrance road. Associated with typical form above. Higman 202, 



Symphoricarpos 

Symphoricarpos occidentalis Hook. Snowberry, Wolf berry 

Ivy Neck. Two stations: east and west coasts of Cheston Point forest. 
Canopy of Pinus taeda , Robinia pseudoacacia , Liriodendron tulipif era . 
Higman 1090. 

Triosteum 

1. Leaves perfoliate below, the upper tapering to 
base, glabrous or puberulent above; flowers 
3 or 4 per axil T_. perfoliatum 

1. Leaves all tapering to base, strigose above; 

flowers 1 per axil T_. angustifolium 

Triosteum perfoliatum L. Tinker 's-weed, 

Horse-gentian, 
Feverwort 

Java Farm. Infrequent to moderately abundant on east- to south- 
facing slopes overlooking Rhode River, north of Fox Creek drainage. Hectares 
3517, 3518. Canopy of Liquidambar styraciflua . and usually Robinia 
pseudoacacia and Ulmus americana . Associate species: Verbesina 
occidentalis . 

Also, infrequent in old fields near the above area. Hectares 
3507, 3508, 3509. Dominant species: Rhus radicans , Lonicera 
japonica . Solidago altissima . Rubus spp. Scattered Ulmus americana , 
Ulmus rubra . Higman 230, 762. 

T_. angustifolium L. Horse-gentian, 

Feverwort 

Ivy Neck. One station: beside abandoned road down Cheston 
Peninsula. Hectare 5719. Very thin canopy of mature Pinus taeda , 
moderately dense understory of Liquidambar styraciflua and other hardwoods, 
very dense ground cover of Rhus radicans and Lonicera japonica . 
Higman 1077. 



192. 

Viburnum 

1. Leaves palmately 3-lobed, much dotted beneath; 

petioles stipulate at the base V. acerifolium 

1. Leaves unlobed, orbicular to ovate, not dotted 
beneath; petioles not stipulate. 

2. Leaves coarsely dentate, orbicular to oblong- 
ovate, usually pubescent V_. dentatum 

2. Leaves serrulate, ovate, glabrous V_. prunifolium 

Viburnum acerifolium L. Maple-leaved Viburnum, 

Arrow- wood 

Java Farm. Infrequent; one station on south-facing slope overlooking 
tidal portion of Muddy Creek, under canopy of Quercus alba , Quercus 
velutina , Fagus grandifolia , Liriodendron tulipif era , and Carya 
tomentosa . Also one station on Hog Island, under canopy of Quercus 
alba and Quercus prinus . Hectares 3429 and 4502. Higman 100, 457. 

V_. dentatum L. Southern Arrow-wood 

Java Farm. Locally abundant, in broad valley tributary to 
tidal portion of Muddy Creek. Hectare 3530. Canopy of Quercus alba , 
Fagus grandifolia , and Liriodendron tulipifera . Associate species: 
Viburnum prunifolium , Lindera benzoin . 

Also, infrequent in old fields near Fox Point Road. Hectare 
3523. Dominant species: Rub us spp., Lonicera japonica , Rhus radicans . 
Associate species: Diospyros virginiana . Liquidambar styraciflua . 
Celtis occidentalis . Higman 371, 455, 514. 

V. prunifolium L. Black-haw (L) , 

Sweet-haw 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Infrequent to moderately abundant along 
roadsides, in o]d fields, and under a variety of hardwood canopies, 
including Juglans nigra and Quercus prinus . More frequent and 
widespread than either V. acerifolium or V. dentatum . Higman 220, 
429, 464, 507, 638. 

Sambucus 

Sambucus canadensis L. Elderberry 

Java Farm. Infrequent; stations at main building area, west end 
of marsh meadow north of main buildings, and in freshwater marsh of Fox 
Creek drainage. Hectares 2580, 2468, adn 3516, respectively. Station 
at main buildings may be persistent from cultivation. Associate species 
at both other stations: Juncus effusus . Polygonum pensylvanicum . Associate 
only at marsh meadow: Phalaris arundinacea (dominant). Associates only 
at Fox Creek: Salix nigra . Aster praealtus , Rosa palustris . 



193. 



VALERIANACEAE 

1. Leaves pinnate or deeply parted; plants perennial. 
Expected (Valeriana ) . 

1. Leaves entire or dentate near the base; plants 

annual Valerianella 



Valerianella 

1. Bracts (subtending the cymes) ciliate, or at least 
the outer ones. 

2. Petals blue; fruit glabrous, its fertile locule 

turgid and ridged on the back , V. olitoria 

2. Petals white; fruit minutely hirsute, its fertile 

locule flat on the back V_. radiata 

1. Bracts not ciliate. Expected (V. patellaria ) . 

Valerianella olitoria (L.) Poll. Corn-salad, 

Lamb's-lettuce 

Java Farm. Infrequent to moderately abundant along road to 
springhouse and in yard of old house there. Hectare 3417. Associate 
species: Veronica arvensis , Duchesnea indica , Trifolium repens . 
Higman 607. 

V. radiata (L.) Dufr. Corn-salad 

Lamb's-lettuce 

Java Farm. Same location as V. olitoria above; same associate 
species. Higman 1126. 



CAMPANULACEAE 

1. Corolla regular; anthers not united into a tube; 
stigmas 2 or more. (Also, capsule opening by pores 
on the sides) . 

2. Corolla rotate; capsule slender-cylindric Specularia 

2. Corolla campanulate; capsule obconic or turbinate 
to subglobose. Expected ( Campanula ) . 

1. Corolla irregular; anthers united into a tube; 

stigma 1, often fringed Lobelia 



194. 



Specularia 

Specularia perfoliata (L.) A. DC. Venus' Looking-glass 

Java Farm. Infrequent along right-of-way to new entrance gate, 
around main buildings, and at east (drier) margin of Phalaris 
arundinacea meadow. Variety of associate species. Higman 723, 782. 

Lobelia 

1. Flowers 18-45 mm. long, including the hypanthium; 
corolla tube with longitudinal openings near the 
base. 

2 . Flowers bright red L_. cardinalis 

2. Flowers blue or purple. Expected (L. puberula ) . 

1. Flowers 7-18 mm. long, including the hypanthium; 
corolla tube without openings. 

3. Leaves linear to narrowly lanceolate. Expected 
(L. nuttalli ). 

3. Leaves oblong-lanceolate or ovate. 

4. Stem long-hirsute; bracts of raceme leafy 
below, gradually reduced upward. (Also, 
flowers bluish-white) L_. inf lata 

4. Stem densely short-pubescent near base; bracts 
of raceme all reduced from cauline leaves. 
Expected (L. spicata ) . 

Lobelia cardinalis L. Cardinal-flower 

Java Farm. One station: On Muddy Creek at transition between 
forested stream valley and upstream limit of salt marsh. Hectare 
3413. Associate species: Quercus falcata , Panicum virgatum , Typha 
latif olia , Rosa palustris , Mikania scandens, Pluchea camphorata . 
Higman 83. 

L_. inf lata L. Indian-tobacco 

Ivy Neck. One station: along abandoned road through central 
Scaffold Peninsula. Approx. hectare 5722. Canopy of Quercus alba , 
Quercus velutina , Liriodendron tulipifera , Carya tomentosa . Associate 
species: Vernonia glauca , Amphicarpa bracteata . Higman 966. 



195. 

COMPOSITAE 

Key to Tribes 

1. Disc-flowers absent (immature ray-flowers at center 

of head may appear discoid); sap milky.. Cichorieae (p. 196) 

1. Disc-flowers present, ray-flowers present or absent; 
sap clear. 

2. Disc-corollas deeply cleft, resembling rays 
(true ray-flowers absent). (Also, anthers 
caudate at base; plants often prickly) Cynareae (p. 201) 

2. Disc-corollas with small terminal lobes or truncate. 

3. Receptacle with chaffy bracts. (Also, pappus 
of awns or chaff, or absent). 

4. Outer and sometimes inner phyllaries herbac- 
eous; style-branches usually with pointed, 
hirsute appendages; leaves usually opposite.. Heliantheae (p. 202) 

4. All phyllaries scarious-margined; style- 
branches truncate, pubescent only at the tip, 

not appendaged; leaves alternate Anthemideae (p. 207) 

3. Receptacle naked (occasionally with slender 
fimbrillae in Astereae (Solidago ) and in 
Helenieae ) . (Also, pappus usually of capillary 
bristles) . 

5. Style-branches long and appendaged. 

6. Pappus of awns, scales, or absent. (Also, 
style-branches usually with pointed, 

hirsute appendages) Helenieae (p. 209, 

Expected) 

6. Pappus of capillary bristles. 

7. Ray-flowers absent; disc-flowers 
white or lavender; style-branches 
cylindrical or clavate, glabrous or 
nearly so. 



196. 



8. Style-branches hispidulous, with 
pointed tips; anthers sagittate; 
heads in cymes or glomerules; 
leaves without resin dots, alternate... Vernonieae (p. 209) 

8. Style-branches glabrous, with 
round or obtuse tips; anthers 
round-based; heads in corymbs 
(racemes in Liatris) ; leaves with 
resin dots, opposite or whorled 
(alternate in Liatris ) Eupatorieae (p. 210) 

7. Ray-flowers present; disc flowers 
yellow; style-branches narrowly 
lanceolate, hirsute on the outside Astereae (p. 213) 

5. Style-branches short, not appendaged. 

9. Phyllaries entirely herbaceous. (Also, 
phyllaries in only one series; style- 
branches truncate, pubescent only at tip; 
pappus bristles capillary, very soft, 
copious; leaves alternate (except in 
Arnica ) Senecioneae (p. 224) 

9. Phyllaries partly or entirely scarious. 

10. Anthers sagittate, appendaged at base; 
pappus of capillary bristles; ray- 
flowers absent in genera collected. 
(Also, plant usually wooly, except 
in Pluchea ) Inuleae (p. 225) 

10. Anthers not sagittate, unappendaged; 
pappus a low crown or absent ; ray 
flowers present in genera collected Anthemideae (p» 207) 



Cichorieae 

1. Pappus chaffy or of both chaff and bristles. 

2. Flowers yellow; pappus of both chaff and 
bristles. Expected ( Krjgia ) . 

2. Flowers blue or white; pappus of small 

chaffy scales Cichorium 



197. 

1. Pappus of many bristles. 

3. Pappus plumose. Expected ( Hypochoerls ) . 
3. Pappus capillary or scabrous. 

4. Achenes with short, hard points above. 

5. Stems leafy; heads small, few-flowered.. Chondrilla 

5. Stems scapose; heads broad, many-flowered.... Taraxacum 

4. Achenes usually smooth (fluted and somewhat rough 
all over in Pyrrhopappus ) . 

6. Achenes flat or flattish; leaves, or 
most of them, sharply cleft to pinnatifid. 

7. Achenes tapering to acute or blunt 
summit, beakless; flowers 80 or 
more per head; leaves spiny Sonchus 

7. Achenes tapering to a stout, broadened summit 
or to a filiform beak; flowers 6 to 30 

per head; leaves not spiny except in 

one expected species Lactuca 

6. Achenes columnar or nearly so; leaves entire to 
remotely dentate or serrate, not pinnatifid. 

8. Achenes with long, slender beak. 
(Also, involucre double, the outer 
phyllaries short; pappus often rust- 
colored but ivory-white in specimens 

collected) Pyrrhopappus 

8. Achenes beakless (but may taper to 
apex) . 

9. Phyllaries in a single series. 
Expected ( Crepis ) . 

9. Phyllaries in 2 or more series. 

10. Flowers white or pink; inflorescence 
a branching raceme or panicle 
of drooping heads; involucre 
cylindric. Expected (Prenanthes) . 



198. 



10. Flowers yellow; inflorescence 
a corymb or panicle of erect 
or ascending heads; involucre 
campanulate or broader Hieracium 



Cichorium 

Cichorium intybus L. , including 

forma alba Neum. Chicory 

Java Farm. One station at junction of old entrance road and 
road to springhouse. Hectare 3408. 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent at borders of cornfields on Cheston 
Peninsula. Also along tractor trail to artificial pond. Hectare 
4721. Higman 952. 



Chondrilla 

Chondrilla juncea L. Skeleton-weed 

Ivy Neck. Two stations: along trail from parking area and 
trail to artificial pond, above drainage to Cheston Creek. Hectare 
4721. Associate species: Cichorium intybus . Mentha spicata , Ambrosia 
trif ida , Agrostis alba . Higman 1024, 1218. 



Taraxacum 

1. Mature achenes tuberculate only above the middle. 

2. Leaves dissected to midrib; achenes reddish. 
Expected (T. erythrospermum ) . 

2. Leaves not dissected to midrib; achenes 

brownish T_. officinale 

1. Mature achenes tuberculate to base T_. latilobum 

Taraxacum officinale Weber Dandelion 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Infrequent along roadsides, usually in 
unshaded locations. Higman 487, 579. 

T. latilobum DC. (combined with T. officinale 

in Britton and Brown) Dandelion 

Java Farm. One station: entrance gate on old Muddy Creek Road. 
Hectare 2463. Associate species: Taraxacum officinale , Galium aparine , 
Trifolium pratense . Geranium carolinianum , Commelina communis . Higman 
1131. 



199. 

Sonchus 

Sonchus asper (L.) Hill Sow-thistle 

Java Farm. One station: base of tile silo at main building area. 
Hectare 2590. Higman 827. 

Lactuca 

1. Achenes tapering to a stout, broadened summit; 
flowers blue. 

2. Pappus tawny or olive. Expected (L. biennis ) . 

2 . Pappus white L_. f loridana 

1. Achenes tapering to a filiform beak; flowers 
yellow. 

3. Heads 5- to 8-f lowered; achenes 5- to 7-ribbed 
on each face, oblanceolate to narrowly obovate. 
Expected (_L. scariola , _L. saligna ) . 

3. Heads 12- to 20-f lowered; achenes 1- to 3- 
ribbed on each face* oblong, elliptic, or 
oval. (Also, beak jointed) _L. canadensis 

Lactuca floridana (L.) Gaertn. , 

var. villosa (Jacq.) Cronq. Lettuce 

Java Farm. One station: along old entrance road between gate at 
old Muddy Creek Road and culvert of Muddy Creek. Canopy of Fagus 
grandifolia , Quercus alba . Liriodendron tulipifera . Carya tomentosa . 
etc. Associate species: Eupatorium purpureum , Agrimonia microcarpa , 
Desmodium paniculatum , I), glutinosum , IK glabellum . Elephantopus 
carolinianus . Higman 30. 

L_. canadensis L. Lettuce 

Java Farm. One station in old field. Hectare 3504. Associate 
species: Solidago rugosa . jS. altissima . Aster lateriflorus . Higman 331. 

Pyrrhopappus 

Pyrrhopappus carolinianus (Walt.) DC. False Dandelion 

Ivy Neck. One station: tractor trail to abandoned field on 
Scaffold Peninsula. Hectare 4740. Associate species: Anagallis 
arvensis . Galinsoga ciliata . Rumex crispus . Higman 957. 



200. 



Hleracium 

1. Involucre barely Imbricated; phyllaries equal. (Also, 
stem scapose or cauline leaves few; rhizome present) . 
Expected (H. pratense , H. florentinum ) . 

1. Involucre clearly imbricated; phyllaries unequal. 

2. Branches of inflorescence with basal bracts; 
inflorescence a panicle or corymb. 

3. Leaves chiefly basal at anthesis, broader than 
the scattered or absent cauline ones; bracts 
minute. (Also, tips of rays fringe-cut) H. venosum 

3. Leaves extending regularly up the stem; bracts 
leafy. 

4. Stem glabrous except at villous base; branches 
of inflorescence glabrous. Expected 
(H. paniculatum ) . 

4. Stem and branches of inflorescence densely 
pubescent. (Also, panicle may be short- 
cylindric; peduncles densely glandular) H. scabrum 

2. Branches of inflorescence without bracts; inflores- 
a cylindric panicle. Expected (H. gronovii ) . 

Hieracium venosum L. Rattlesnake-weed, 

Poor Robin's Plantain 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Infrequent, chiefly along estuary shores 
under canopy of Quercus prinus , Quercus alba . Carya tomentosa, etc. 
Associate species: Gerardia virginica . Gaylussacia baccata . Vaccinium 
vacillans , Epigaea repens . Also found along bank of tidal portion of 
Muddy Creek, under canopy of Fagus grandifolia and Quercus spp. 
Hectare 3551. Shrub layer at this point resembles that under Quercus prinus . 
Higman 655, 842. 

_H. scabrum Michx. Hawkweed 

Java Farm. Two stations: one on south-facing slope over abandoned 
pasture. Hectare 2458. Scattered Liquidambar styracif lua , Liriodendron 
tulipifera . and Pyrus malus . Spreading ground cover of Lonicera laponica . 
also Rubus spp. and Rhus radicans . Second station at old entrance gate. 
Hectare 2463. Edge of canopy of Fagus grandifolia . Quercus spp. , Carya 
tomentosa . Liriodendron tulipifera . etc. Associate species there: 
Geranium carolinianum . Galium aparine . Commelina communis . Higman 191, 353. 



201. 



Cynareae 

1. Involucre not spiny; flowers blue, the marginal 

ones resembling rays Centaurea 

1. Involucre spiny; flowers pink or red-violet, all 
alike. 

2. Leaves not spiny, the lower ones cordate; 

phyllaries spiny, with hooked tips.... Arctium 

2. Leaves spiny, narrow at base; phyllaries spiny, with 

straight tips Cirsium 



Centaurea 

Centaurea cyanus L. Cornflower, 

Bachelor's Button 

Ivy Neck. One station: tractor trail to abandoned field on 
Scaffold Peninsula. Hectare 4740. Associate species: Anagallis 
arvensis , Galinsoga ciliata , Pyrrhopappus carolinianus , Taraxacum 
officinale , Rumex crispus . Higman 808. 



Arctium 

Arctium minus (Hill.) Bernh. Common Burdock 

(A. minus Schk. ) 

Java Farm. One station: rubbish pile at main building area. 
Hectare 2580. Associate species: Eleusine indica , Datura stramonium , 
S planum nigrum , Amaranthus spinosus , Phytolacca americana . Higman 6. 



Cirsium 

1. Flowers perfect. 

2. Upper half of stem and branches with long, 

prickly wings decurrent from the leaves C_. vulgare 

2. Upper half of stem and branches not long-winged. 

3. Leaves green beneath. Expected (C. muticum ) . 

3. Leaves with dense white felt beneath. 



202. 



4. Heads subtended by spiny leafy bracts; 
peduncles short, leafy. 

5. Principal cauline leaves deeply pinnatifid 

into linear-lanceolate lobes C_. discolor 

5. Principal cauline leaves entire or shallowly 
lobed. Expected (C. altissimum ) . 

4. Heads not subtended by leafy bracts; 

peduncles long, with scattered and reduced 
bracts. Expected (C. virginianum ) . 

1. Flowers dioecious. (Also, leaves green both sides).... C. arvense 

Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Tenore Bull Thistle 

Ivy Neck. One station: edge of cornfield on Cheston Peninsula, 
near head of Cheston Creek estuary. Hectare 4755. Associate species: 
Datura stramonium , Abutilon theophrasti . Higman 1220. 

_C. discolor (Muhl.) Spreng. Thistle 

Java Farm. Moderately abundant along old entrance road south 
of main building area, and in grassy parts of old fields. Hectares 2590, 
3500, 3504. Associate species: Poa pratensis (dense turf) , Asclepias 
syriaca , Apocynum cannabinum , Erigeron canadensis , Aster dumosus . 
Higman 44, 337. 

_C. arvense (L.) Scop. Canadian Thistle 

Java Farm. One station: beside old entrance road just south of 
main building area. Hectare 3500. Associate species: Cirsium discolor , 
Asclepias syriaca , Verbascum thapsus , V. blattaris . Higman 888. 



Heliantheae 

1. Ray flowers absent. 

2. Shrub; salt marsh habitat; heads monoecious, the 
pistillate flowers 1 to 5, marginal, without 
corolla; the staminate flowers numerous, 
central, with lobed corolla Iva 

2. Herbs; terrestrial habitat; heads dioecious, the 

pistillate ones clustered below spikes of staminate ones; 
pistillate heads 1- or 2-flowered; staminate heads 
5- to 20-f lowered. 



203. 

3. Sandy beach habitat; phyllaries of staminate 
involucre not united; fruiting head a very 
prickly bur, 2-seeded; leaves simple. Xanthium 

3. Roadside and field habitat; phyllaries of 
staminate involucre united; fruiting head not 
burlike, 1-seeded; leaves lobed or dissected. 

(Also , staminate heads inverted) Ambrosia 

1. Ray flowers present. 

A. Disc flowers sterile; ray flowers fertile. 
Expected (Polymnia , Silphium . Parthenium ) . 

4. Disc flowers fertile; ray flowers fertile or 
sterile. 

5. Leaves decurrent down the stem. 

6. Ray flowers sterile; phyllaries bent 
downward, few; leaves p innately 
veined; flowers pale yellow Actinomeris 

6. Ray flowers pistillate; phyllaries imbricated, 
many; leaves 3-nerved; flowers golden-yellow. 
Verbesina 

5. Leaves not decurrent. 

7. Achenes turbinate, 5-angled. (Also, leaves 

opposite; rays white; disc yellow) Galinsoga 

7. Achenes flat, 4-angled or, if 5-angled, 
subterete and slender. 



8. Receptacle conical to columnar; leaves 

alternate. (Also, rays orange; disc brown) 



Rudbeckia 



8. Receptacle flat or slightly convex; 

leaves opposite in all genera collected 
or expected. 

9. Flowers white.; chaff of receptacle 
bristly; pappus a minute bristly 
crown Eclipta 

9. Flowers yellow; chaff of receptacle 
broader, flattish; pappus of teeth, 
deciduous scales, or wanting. 



204. 



10. Pappus of retrorsely or antrorsely 
barbed awns or teeth (barbs not 
always apparent on immature 
flowers). (Also, achenes ciliate 
along the margins) Bidens 

10. Pappus of unbarbed teeth, of scales, 
or wanting. Expected (Heliopsis , 
Coreopsis ) . 

Iva 

Iva frutescens L. Marsh-elder, 

Highwater-shrub 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Moderately abundant in salt marshes, 
especially the more inland parts. Associate species: Distichlis 
spicata , Solidago sempervirens . Aster subulatus , Spartina patens . 
Hibiscus palustris . Higman 53, 114. 



Xanthium 

Xanthium pensylvanicum Wallr. Cocklebur 

(not included in Britton and Brown) 

Ivy Neck. One station: sandbar of cut-off pond on Rhode River 
shore of Cheston Peninsula. Hectare 5800. Associate species: Spartina 
alternif lora , Asparagus officinalis , Strophostyles helvola . Higman 
1030. 



Ambrosia 

1. Leaves entire or palmately cleft, opposite; staminate 
involucres unilaterally 3-ribbed; fruits 3 to 12 mm. 
long A. trif Ida 

1. Leaves pinnately lobed to bi- or tri-pinnatif id, 
both opposite and alternate; staminate involucres 
obscurely radiate-veined; fruit smaller than 
above A . artemisiifolia 

Ambrosia trif ida L. Giant Ragweed 

Buffalo Weed 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Infrequent to moderately abundant along 
unshaded or partly shaded roads, tractor trails, and field margins. 
Wide variety of associate species. Higman 252, 311, 1025. 



205. 



A. artemisiifolia L. Common Ragweed, 

Hog Weed 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Infrequent to moderately abundant along 
unshaded or partly shaded roads and field margins. Wide variety of 
associate species. Higman 1167. 



Actinomeris 

Actinomeris alternifolia (L.) DC. 

(Verbesina alteraifolia (L.) Britt.) Wing-stem 

Java Farm. One station: source of stream which runs under new 
entrance road at junction with road to pier. Hectare 2599. Canopy of 
Quercus velutina and Juglans nigra . Associate species: Impatiens 
capensis . Higman 228. 



Verbesina 

Verbesina occidentalis (L.) Walt. Crown-beard 

Java Farm. Moderately abundant in moist, partly shaded areas, 
especially forest glades and forest margins of fields. Most abundant 
in hectares 2479, 2561, 3429, and 3508. Often in virtually pure stands. 

Higman 147. 



Galinsoga 

Galinsoga ciliata (Raf.) Blake 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent along tractor trails and roadsides. 
Hectare 4740. Also along trail to artificial pond on Murray farm. 
Associate species: Perilla frutescens . Taraxacum officinale . Daucus 
carota . See also Appendix II. Higman 836, 1060. 

Rudbeckia 

Rudbeckia serotina Nutt. Black-eyed Susan 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent to moderately abundant in abandoned field 
on Scaffold Peninsula. Hectares 4762, 4772. Wide variety of associate 
species. Also one station beside cultivated field on Cheston Peninsula. 
Higman 816, 1242. 



206. 

Eclipta 

Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk. 

Java Farm. One station: growing in rotted stump beside tidal 
portion of Muddy Creek, near upstream limit of salt marsh vegetation. 
Hectare 3413. Accessable only by boat at high tide. Associate species: 
Pluchea camphorata , Scirpus validus , Smilax rotundifolia , Typha 
latifolia . Higman 258. 



Bidens 

1. Primary leaves bi- or tri-pinnate; achenes linear, 

very unequal, the inner 2 to 3 times as long as the outer 

and inner involucre B^. bipinnata 

1. Primary leaves once-pinnate or simple; achenes 

broadened from base to summit, the inner not over 
1/3 longer than the inner involucre. 

2. Primary leaves simple or with 3 to 5 coarse 
lobes, without distinct leaflets. 

3. Achenes with a convex cartilaginous summit. 
Expected (B. laevis, B. cernua ) . 

3. Achenes truncate or concave at summit, 
not cartilaginous. 

4. Mature central achenes strongly 4-angled. 
(Also, leaves undivided or with divergent 
basal lobes; phyllaries ascending or 
loosely spreading) Ji. connata 

4. Mature central achenes flattish, with slender 
or obscure midribs. Expected (B. comosa ) . 

2. Primary leaves deeply pinnate-divided or with 
distinct leaflets. 

5. Rays wanting or shorter than outer involucre; 
leaflets uncleft. Expected (B. f rondosa ) . 

5. Rays showy, conspicuously longer than outer 
involucre; leaflets pinnately incised or 
coarsely serrate. 



207, 



6. Outer involucre of 8 to 12 smooth or 
finely ciliate spreading, acute or 
blunt phyllaries 4 to 7 mm. long. 
Expected (B. aristosa ) . 

6. Outer involucre of 12 to 25 puckered or 
coarsely serrate ciliate spreading or 
ref lexed-curling acuminate phyllaries 
7 to 20 mm. long .B. polylepis 

Bidens bipinnata L. Spanish Needles 

Java Farm. Infrequent to moderately abundant along roadsides and in 
cracked pavement at main building area. Associate species: Juncus 
tenuis . Aster dumosus , Perilla frutescens , Lamium amplexicaule, 
Melilotus alba . Higman 77, 357. 

_B. connata Muhl. . var. petiolata (Nutt.) Farw. Beggar-ticks, 
(B. tripartita L.) Stick-tight 

Java Farm. One station: sand bar in bed of Muddy Creek, upstream 
from culvert of old entrance road. Hectare 2467. Canopy of Fagus 
grandifolia , Platanus occidentalis , Quercus alba ; understory of Lindera 
benzoin . Associate species: Impatiens capensis . Higman 168. 

_B. polylepis Blake Beggar-ticks, 

Stick-tight 

Java Farm. One station: forest margin of old field east of 
road to springhouse. Hectare 3428. Adjacent canopy of Fagus 
grandifolia and Quercus velutina . Associate species: Verbesina 
occidentalis . Higman 148. 



Anthemideae 

1. Receptacle chaffy, at least toward summit or center. 

2. Heads numerous in close corymbs; achenes 
oblong, flattened; receptacle flattish 
(prolonged in fruit) Achillea 

2. Heads solitary at tips of branches and 

branchlets; achenes terete, angled, or ribbed; 

receptacle conical ". Anthemis 



208. 



1. Receptacle naked. (Also, disc flowers yellow). 

3. Heads in spikes, racemes, or panicles. (Also, 
rays and pappus absent). Expected ( Artemisia ) . 

3. Heads solitary or in corymbs. 

4. Receptacle conical, at least in fruit. (Also, 
rays and pappus absent) . Expected (Matricaria ) . 

4. Receptacle flattish or low-convex. 

5. Ray flowers present; pappus none; achenes 
5- to 10-nerved. (Also, rays white 
(in species collected) or yellow) Chrysanthemum 

5. Ray flowers absent; pappus a low crown; achenes 
3- to 5-angled. Expected (Tanacetum) . 



Achillea 

Achillea milleforium L. Common Yarrow 

Java Farm. Infrequent to moderately abundant at main building 
area, in grassy fields south of main buildings (hectares 2499, 3409), 
and in triangular area at entrance gate on old Muddy Creek Road 
(hectare 2463). Associate species: Poa pratensis (turf), 
Erigeron canadensis , Plantago lanceolata , Duchesnea indica , Cyperus 
strigosus . Higman 10, 517. 



Anthemis 

Anthemis arvensis L. , var. 
agrestis (Wallr.) DC. 
(variety not in Britton and Brown) Corn-chamomile 

Ivy Neck. One station: beside tractor trail on Scaffold 
Peninsula, between cornfield and grassy abandoned field. Hectare 
4771. Associate species: Hordeum pus ilium , Plantago virginica . 
Linaria canadensis . Specularia perfoliata . Higman 694. 



Chrysanthemum 

Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L. Ox-eye Daisy 

Java Farm. Infrequent in old fields. Dominant species: Rhus 
radicans , Rubus spp. , Solidago spp., Lonicera japonica . Associate 
species: Oxalis stricta , Rumex acetosella . Lespedeza cuneata , 
Barbarea vulgaris . Higman 652, 758. 



209. 

Helenieae 
No species collected from this tribe; Helenium spp. expected. 

Vernoneae 

1. Heads not in glomerules, several-flowered; phyllaries 
uniform, imbricated; corolla regularly 5-cleft; 
pappus double; leaves not rosulate Vernonia 

1. Heads in glomerules, 2-5 flowered; phyllaries alternately 
flat and folded; corolla slightly irregular; pappus single; 
basal leaves rosulate . Elephantopus 

Vernonia 

1. Phyllaries long-acuminate or with a filiform appendage. 

2. Pappus purplish; phyllaries ovate below appendage, 

with broad scarious margin V. noveboracensis 

2. Pappus creamy; phyllaries lanceolate below appendage, 

with slightly scarious margin JV. glauca 

1. Phyllaries obtuse or acute. Expected 
(V. altissima ) . 

Vernonia noveboracensis (L.) Michx. Ironweed 

Java Farm. Infrequent: one station at north margin of freshwater part 
of Fox Creek marsh (hectare 3515) ; one station in old field south of 
old entrance road and east of road to springhouse (hectare 3418) ; 
one station near Muddy Creek, at upstream limit of salt marsh vegetation 
(hectare 3413). Higman 84, 129, 484. 

V. glauca (L.) Willd. Ironweed 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent: along abandoned road through central 
Scaffold Peninsula. Hectare 5732. Canopy of Quercus alba , Liriodendron 
tulipif era . Quercus velutina . Carya tomentoga . Associate species: 
Amphicarpa bracteata . Lobelia inflata . Gerardia virginica . Higman 965. 



210. 



Elephantopus 

Elephantopus carolinianus Willd. Elephant ' s-foot 

Java Farm. Infrequent to moderately abundant in moist, shaded 
areas, especially near streams; grows under a variety of dense, mixed 
hardwood canopies. Associate species vary, include: Panicum 
clandestinum . Aster vimineus . Perilla frutescens , Muhlenberg ia 
schreberi , Asplenium platyneuron . Polystichum acrostichoides . Aster 
acuminatus , Glyceria striata , Geum canadense , Onoclea sensibilis . 
Higman 37, 183, 236, 306, 471, 1003. 

Eupatoreae 

1. Leaves alternate; heads in racemes or spikes 

(Also , flowers rose-purple) Liatris 

1. Leaves opposite; heads in corymbs. 

2. Twining vine; phyllaries 4; flowers 4 Mikania 

2. Erect, not twining; phyllaries more than 4; 

flowers 3-40 Eupatorium 

Liatris 

Liatris graminifolia (Walt.) Willd. Button-snakeroot , 

Blazing-star 

Java Farm. One station: Fox Point. Hectare 3558. Canopy of 
Quercus prinus , Quercus alba . Associate species: Gerardia virginica , 
Epigaea repens , Gaylussacia baccata . Higman 430. 

Mikania 

Mikania scandens (L.) Willd. Climbing Hempweed 

Java Farm. Infrequent to moderately abundant in moist habitats, 
fresh or slightly saline. Moderately abundant near landward borders 
of salt marshes; associate species there: Iva frutescens , Pluchea 
camphorata , Polygonum hydropiperoides , Panicum clandestinum , Hibiscus 
palustris , Kosteletzkya virginica . 

Also moderately abundant in marsh at west corner of Farm, hectare 
2470. Associate species there: Scutellaris lateriflora . Infrequent in 
old fields, hectares 2580, 3418. Associate species there: Eupatorium 
serotinum , Solidago altissima , Aster novi-belgi . Higman 81, 146, 
196, 408. 



211. 



Eupatorium 

1. Receptacle conical; base of stem with prostrate 

superficial stolons; flowers blue-violet E. coelestinum 

1. Receptacle flat; base of stem without superficial 
stolons; flowers white to purple. 

2. Involucre cylindric, the outer phyllaries 
closely imbricated, purple to creamy white. 
(Also, leaves usually whorled in 3's to 5's, 
lanceolate to ovate) . 

3. Inflorescence round-topped; lower leaf 

surfaces and upper stem with glutinous dots 
(sometimes absent in _E. purpureum ) . 

4. Leaves palmately 3-veined; involucre and 
flowers purple. Expected (E. dubium ) . 

4. Leaves pinnately veined; involucre and 
flowers white to pale lavender. (Also, 
stem with dark purple nodes; fresh plant 
strongly vanilla-scented) E. purpureum 

3. Inflorescence flat-topped; lower leaf 
surfaces and upper stem not glutinous- 
dotted. (Also, stem deep purple or purple- 
spotted; florets 8-20). Expected 
(_E. maculatum ) . 

2. Involucre lax, the outer phyllaries not closely 
imbricated, green. (Also, leaves alternate or 
opposite, whorled only in E. hyssopifolium , and 
then linear to narrowly lanceolate) . 

5. Leaves sessile or nearly so. 

6. Heads with 10 to 40 flowers. 

7. Leaves perfoliate, lanceolate, acuminate.. E. perfoliatum 

7. Leaves with truncate or round bases, ovate, 
acute to blunt. Expected (E. aromaticum ) . 

6. Heads with 5 to 7 flowers. 

8. Leaves broadly subtruncate, round or 
cordate at base. Expected (E.- album) . 

8. Leaves tapering to base. 



212. 



9. Phyllaries with conspicuously scarious 
tips, the inner ones equalling the 
flowers. Expected (E. album ) . 

9. Phyllaries without conspicuously 

scarious tips, shorter than the flowers. 

(Also, leaves linear and entire to 

lanceolate and serrate, all but the 

lowest with dense axillary fascicles, 

leaves often in 3's). ....... . E. hyssopifolium 

5. Leaves definitely petioled. (Also, heads 
with 8 to 40 flowers). 

10. Outer phyllaries oblong, densely pubescent, 
not mucronate-tipped; phyllaries in 2 
or 3 lengths E. serotinum 

10. Outer phyllaries acute or blunt, glabrous, 
mucronate-tipped; phyllaries equal in length 
_E. rugosum 

Eupatorium coelestinum L. Mistf lower, Blue Boneset 

Java Farm. One station: abandoned road along north border 
between Muddy Creek and entrance gate at Muddy Creek Road. Hectare 2465. 
Canopy of Fagus grandifolia , Quercus alba , C\ velutina , Liriodendron 
tulipif era . Associate species: Agrimonia rostellata , Houstonia purpurea . 

Ivy Neck. One station: west fork of Cheston Creek drainage, adjacent 
abandoned field on Scaffold Peninsula. Hectare 4752. Canopy of 
Platanus occidentalis , Diospyros virginiana , Liquidambar styraciflua . 
Associate species: Duchesnea indica . Higman 1057, 1086. 

Eupatorium purpureum L. Sweet Joe Pye-weed 

Java Farm. One station: along old entrance road between Muddy 
Creek and gate at Muddy Creek Road. Canopy of mature Fagus grandifolia . 
Quercus alba . Liriodendron tulipif era , etc. Associate species: Lactuca 
floridana . Agrimonia microcarpa . Desmodium glutinosum , Elephantopus 
carolinianus . Higman 31. 

E. perfoliatum L. Thoroughwort , 

Boneset 

Java Farm. One station: bottom of Muddy Creek valley, approx. 
hectare 2486. Canopy of Fraxinus americana , Platanus occidentalis ; 
understory of Lindera benzoin . 

Ivy Neck. One station: moist area along abandoned road on Cheston 
Peninsula. Approx. hectare 4799. Canopy of Juglans nigra , Pinus Jtaeda, 
P_. virginiana , Liquidambar styraciflua . Higman 68. 



213. 



_E. hyssopifolium L. , var. 

laciniatum Gray Thoroughwort 

Java Farm. One station in old field north of Fox Point Road; 
hectare 3501. Also, one station at south margin of old field between 
Fox Point Road and Hog Island salt marsh; hectare 3585. Dominant 
species at both stations: Rhus radicans , Lonicera japonica , Solidago 
altissima . Rub us spp. Higman 136, 423. 

_E. serotinum Michx. Thoroughwort 

Java Farm. Infrequent to moderately abundant in old fields; dominant 
species: Rhus radicans , Lonicera japonica . Solidago altissima . 
Rubus spp. Also one station on Muddy Creek at upstream limit of salt 
marsh vegetation, and one beside new entrance road at the culvert of 
Fox Creek drainage. Higman 79, 127, 315, 338, 1017, 1067. 

_E. rugosum Houtt. , forma 

villicaule Fern. White Snakeroot 

Java Farm. One station: old fields south of main buildings, 
near old entrance road. Hectares 3408, 3409. Poa pratensis turf being 
invaded by dense Rhus radicans , Lonicera japonica . and Campsis radicans. 
Higman 488. 



Astereae 

1. Shrubs; ray flowers absent; disc flowers dioecious.... Baccharis 

1. Herbs; ray flowers present (very small in a few 
species); disc flowers perfect. 

2. Ray flowers yellow (white in Splidago bicolor, 
the rays then small, ascending; heads small, 
in a dense panicle) . 

3. Pappus of disc flowers either of chaffy 
awns or of double bristles (long inner 
bristles, short outer ones). Expected 
(Chrysopsis , Grindelia ) . 

3. Pappus of disc flowers a single series of 

slender bristles Solidago 

2. Ray flowers white, pink, purple, or blue. 



214, 



4. Pappus none or very short. (Also, rays 

pistillate, lilac; aspect resembling Aster ) . 
Expected (Boltonia) . 

4. Pappus of many long slender bristles. 

5. Involucre slenderly cylindric or ovoid; 
disc flowers pale yellow to white; achenes 
very silky. (Also, phyllaries appressed, 
cartilaginous, whitish, with short, 
spreading green tips; leaves ciliate) Sericocarpus 

5. Involucre saucer-shaped or hemispherical 

to campanulate; disc flowers yellow or sometimes 
purplish; achenes glabrous or pubescent, not 
silky. 

6. Phyllaries definitely imbricated, the 

outer series as long as the inner Aster 

6. Phyllaries not imbricated or very 
slightly so, in one series or with a 
very short outer one. Erigeron 



Baccharis 

Baccharis halimifolia L. Sea-myrtle 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Abundant to moderately abundant in 
salt marshes, especially the wetter areas near tidal channels. Associate 
species: Spartina alternif lora , S_. cynosuroides . Often parasitized by 
Cuscuta gronovii . 

Other habitats: Java Farm. One station in old field, near 
tributary of Fox Creek drainage. Hectare 3503. Dense Rubus spp. , 
Lonicera japonica , and Rhus radicans . 

Ivy Neck. One station on sandy beach of Rhode River, on Murray 
property. Hectare 4704. Associate species: Amorpha fruticosa . 
Higman 215, 253, 362. 



Solidago 

1. Inflorescence a flat-topped corymb, the heads 
not racemosely arranged on the branches. 

2. Leaves not glandular-punctate, the basal petioled 
and usually much larger than the upper; heads 
pedicelled; ray-flowers 6 to 10, fewer than the 
disc-flowers; receptacle naked. Expected (S. rigida ) 



215. 



2. Leaves glandular-punctate, all sessile and 
similar in size; heads sessile in small glomerules; 
ray-flowers 6 to 20, more than the disc-flowers; 

receptacle f imbrillate S.. graminifolia 

1. Inflorescence of axillary clusters or a terminal 
panicle. 

3. Inflorescence of axillary clusters. (Also, basal 
leaves small and soon deciduous, not forming 
rosettes; achenes hairy). 

4. Stem terete, glaucous when fresh; primary 

leaves lanceolate to narrowly oblong, sessile... _S. caesia 

4. Stem angled, not glaucous; leaves ovate, 
contracted to a winged petiole. Expected 
(S_. flexicaulis ) . 

3. Inflorescence a terminal panicle. 

5. Branches of panicle not recurved, panicle 

not nodding at summit; heads spirally arranged 
on the branches, not strongly 1-sided. 

6. Cauline leaves gradually decreasing in 
size upward; basal rosettes wanting. 
Expected (jS. puberula , _S . speciosa ) . 

6. Cauline leaves sharply decreasing in 
size upward; basal rosettes present, of 
large leaves. 

7. Tips of phyllaries strongly recurving. 
Expected (_S. squarrosa ) . 

7. Tips of phyllaries appressed-ascending 
or slightly spreading. 

8. Leaves pilose or bristly on one 
or both surfaces. 

9. Rays silvery white; outer phyllaries 
with green tips and contrasting 
whitish bases and margins j>. bicolor 

9. Rays yellow; outer phyllaries with 

less contrast S. hispida 



216, 



8. Leaves glabrous or minutely puberulent. 
Expected (S. puberula , _S. erecta) . 

5. Branches of panicle recurved, panicle nodding at 
summit; heads borne on the upper side of the 
branches . 

10 . Salt marsh habitat S^ sempervirens 

10. Terrestrial habitat. 

11. Cauline leaves rapidly decreasing in 
size upward; basal rosettes usually 
present; cauline leaves 5 to 40. 

12. Leaves sharply serrate; 
petioles winged, ciliate; 
plant otherwise glabrous 
or scabrous S_. juncea 

12. Leaves crenate to subentire; 
petioles wingless; stems and 
leaves with dense grayith 

puberulence S^. nemoralis 

11. Cauline leaves very gradually 

decreasing in size upward; basal 
rosettes absent; cauline leaves 
20 to over 100. 

13. Leaves pinnately nerved, 
without 2 conspicuously 
prolonged lateral nerves. 

14. Stem glabrous or nearly 
so, or puberulent only 
in lines. Expected (S. odora , 
_S. elliottii ). 

14. Stem villous or scabrous- 
pubescent throughout. 
(Also, conspicuous leafy 
bracts present on branches 
of panicle) S_. rugosa 

13. Leaves with 2 conspicuously 
prolonged lateral nerves, 
plus the midrib. 



217, 



15. Summit of stem below panicle 
glabrous or sparsely pilose. 
Expected (S_. glgantea ) . 

15. Summit of stem below panicle densely 

pilose, most of stem closely puberulent. 

16. Leaves sharply serrate; involucres 
2 to 2.8 mm. high; phyllaries 
slenderly tapering. Expected 
(S_. canadensis ) . 

16. Leaves remotely serrate or 
subentire; involucres 3 to 
5 mm. high; phyllaries linear, 
blunt-tipped S^. altissima 

Solidago graminifolia (L.) Salisb. Flat-topped Goldenrod 

Java Farm. Moderately abundant in old fields. Dominant species: 
Rhus radicans , Camps is radicans , Lonicera j aponica , Solidago 
altissima , Rub us spp. Scattered young mixed hardwoods. 

Also, one station in freshwater part of Fox Creek marsh. Hectare 
3516. Associate species: Aster puniceus , Leersia oryzoides . Higman 125, 
245, 384. 

S_. caesia L. Blue-stem Goldenrod 

Java Farm. Infrequent along old Muddy Creek Road and around 
entrance gate there. Hectare 2463. Canopy of mature Fagus grandifolia , 
Liriodendron tulipif era . Higman 385, 406. 

jS. bicolor L. White Goldenrod 

Ivy Neck. One station: west shore of Cheston Creek estuary. 
Hectare 5725. Canopy of Quercus prinus , jQ_. alba , Carya tomentosa , 
Acer rubrum , Fagus grandifolia . Higman 1068. 

_S. hispida Muhl. Goldenrod 

Java Farm. One station: Fox Point. Hectare 3558. Canopy of 
Quercus prinus , _Q. alba . Associate species: Liatris graminifolia , 
Epigaea repens , Gaylussacia baccata . Higman 1133. 

_S. sempervirens L. Seaside Goldenrod 

Java Farm. Infrequent in salt marshes. Associate species: 
Spartina patens , Distichlis spicata , Baccaris halimifolia . Higman 213. 



218. 



^. juncea Ait. Early Goldenrod 

Java Farm. One station: stand of young Pinus virginiana in old 
field. Hectare 3523. Associate species: Trichostema setaceum . 
Higman 381. 

c , 

_S. nemoralls Ait. Goldenrod 

Java Farm. One station: old field north of Fox Point Road. 
Hectare 3523. Partial canopy of Pinus virginiana , Liquidambar styraciflua . 
Dense Lonicera japonica and Rhus radicans . Associate species: Solidago 
juncea , Lespedeza cuneata , Rosa palustris , R. micrantha . Higman 373. 

_S. rugosa Ait. Goldenrod 

Java Farm. Infrequent to moderately abundant in old fields. 
Dominant species: Rhus radicans , Lonicera japonica , Rubus spp. , Solidago 
altissima . Associate species: Lespedeza cuneata , Aster dumosus , 
A. vimineus , Eupatorium serotinum . Scattered trees: Liquidambar 
styraciflua , Cornus florida , Sassafras albidum . Higman 330, 349, 437. 

_S. altissima L. Goldenrod 

Java Farm. Abundant to moderately abundant in old fields. 
Often co-dominant with Rhus radicans . Lonicera japonica , and Rubus spp. 
Associate species: same as for Solidago rugosa and _S. graminifolia 
above. Higman 142, 200, 350. 



Sericocarpus 

Sericocarpus asteroides (L.) B. S. P. White-topped Aster 

Java Farm. One station: Fox Point. Hectare 3558. Canopy of 
Quercus alba . Quercus prinus . Associate species: Baptisia tinctoria , 
Gaylussacia baccata, Vaccinium vacillans , Kalmia latifolia , Hieracium 
venosum , Deschampsia f lexuosa , Liatris graminifolia . Higman 436, 1178. 

Aster 

1. Salt marsh habitat. 

2. Phyllaries ovate-acuminate, with broadly scarious 
margins; rays conspicuous, pale purple; stolons 
present A. tenuifolius 

2. Phyllaries linear, with very narrowly scarious 
margins; rays inconspicuous, purple; stolons 
absent A. subulatus 






- 



219' 



Terrestrial or freshwater marsh habitat. 

3. Phyllaries without herbaceous tips, strongly 
scarious. (Also, leaves oblong-lanceolate to 
oblong-oblanceolate, serrate above the middle, 
long-acuminate) A. acuminatus 

3. Phyllaries with herbaceous tips, their margins 
always partly herbaceous. 

4. At least the basal leaves cordate and petioled. 
Expected (A. cordifolius , A. sagittifolius ) . 

4. None of the leaves both cordate and petioled. 

5. Bases of cauline leaves auriculate-clasping. 

6. Involucre g landular -hairy . Expected 
(A. patens , A. novae- angliae ) . 

6. Involucre not glandular. 

7. Leaves either tapering to an abruptly 
widened base or glaucous and leathery. 
Expected (A. prenanthoides . A. laevis ) . 

7. Leaves tapering to a narrowly auriculate 
base, neither glaucous nor leathery. 
(Also, plant up to 2.5 m. tall; stem 
and branches of inflorescence hirsute 
or villous; phyllaries linear-attenuate, 
with scarious margins ) A. puniceus 

5. Bases of cauline leaves attenuate or rounded, 
not auriculate-clasping. 

8. Leaves whitened or silvery -si Iky on both 
sides. Expected (A. concolor ) . 

8. Leaves green. 

9. Phyllaries very hard and stiff except 
at their herbaceous tips. (Also, 
phyllaries and upper leaves subulate- 
tipped; upper leaves with axillary 
fascicles ; stem pilose) A. pilosus 

9. Phyllaries pliable throughout. 



220. 



10. Phyllaries narrowly herbaceous, 
with strongly recurving tips; 
rays blue-violet A. novi-belgii 

10. Phyllaries scarious-margined, the 
midribs herbaceous; rays white 
(except in A. praealtus ) . 

11. Branches of stem widely spreading 

(arched-ascending in A_. lateriflorus ) ; 
phyllaries appressed-ascending, 
with herbaceous tips conspicuously 
broader than midribs. (Also, 
leaves glabrous, minutely strigose 
above and/or pubescent on lower 
midrib) . 

12. Lobes of disc-corollas 
about .5 mm. long, about 
1/3 total length of throat; 
ligules 10 to 30. 

13. Pedicels very leafy, 
3 to 5 times as long 
as heads; whole plant 
extremely leafy; heads 
scattered on branches, not 
in 1-sided racemes; seems 
to prefer open field 
habitat A. dumosus 

13. Pedicels nearly leafless, 
1/2 to 2 times as long as 
heads; plant moderately 
leafy; heads numerous, 
definitely in 1-sided 
racemes; seems to prefer 
moist, partly shaded 
habitat A. vimineus 

12. Lobes of disc-corollas 
1 to 1.5 mm. long, about 
2/3 total length of throat; 
ligules 7 to 14 A. lateriflorus 



221. 



11. Branches of stem more ascending than 

spreading; phyllaries loosely ascending, 
with herbaceous tips only slightly 
broader than midribs. (Also, leaves 
with sterile axillary fascicles). 

14. Ligules blue-violet; network of 
leaf veins distinct, with 
isodiametric areolae. (Also, 
leaves always entire) . . . A. praealtus 

14. Ligules white; network of leaf 
veins obscure, with long areolae. 
(Also, leaves either entire or 
serrate) A. simplex 

Aster tenuifolius L. Aster 

Java Farm. One station: Fox Creek salt marsh. Hectare 3527. 
Associate species: Baccharis halimifolia , Spartina cynosuroides . 
Higman 96. 

A. subulatus Michx. Aster 

Java Farm. Infrequent in salt marshes and along tidal part of 
Muddy Creek. Associate species: Solidago sempervirens , Distichlis 
spicata , Cyperus strigosus , Spartina patens . Higman 210, 267, 447. 

A. acuminatus Michx. ? Aster 

Java Farm. One station: south margin of old field west of road 
to springhouse. Hectare 3416. Dense Lonicera japonica , Rhus radicans , 
and young Liquidambar styracif lua . Also in rubbish on roof of barn. 
Higman 393, 356. 

A. puniceus L. Aster 

Java Farm. One station: side of steep bank of Fox Creek drainage. 
Approx. hectare 2593. Moist, shaded site. Associate species: Panicum 
clandestinum , Onoclea sensibilis , Leersia virginica . Higman 321. 

A. pilosus Willd. Aster 

Java Farm. Infrequent in old fields; collected in hectares 3523 
and 3585. Dense Rhus radicans , Lonicera japonica , and Rubus spp. 
Partial canopy of Diospyros virginiana , Liquidambar styracif lua , 
Quercus palustris , Prunus avium , and Viburnum prunifolium . 

Also one station in rubbish on roof of barn, main building area. 
Accessable from tile silo. Hectare 2590. Higman 355, 426, 513. 



222, 



A. novi-belgii L. Aster 

Java Farm. One station: main building area. Hectare 2580. 
Associate species: Daucus carota , Achillea millefolium , Epilobium 
coloratura . Higman 197. 

A. dumosus L. Aster 

Infrequent to moderately abundant in old fields. Collected 
in hectare 3506, near south border of large field mostly covered 
by Rhus radicans . Associate species: Cirsium discolor , Eupatorium 
serotinum , Aster vinimeus , Poa pratensis . Higman 339. 

A. dumosus L. , var. 

subulaefolium T. and G. Aster 

Java Farm. One station: roadside at main building area. 
Hectare 2580. Associate species: Aster novi-belgii , Achillea millefolium , 
Daucus carota . Higman 198. 

A. vimineus Lam. Aster 

Java Farm. Infrequent to moderately abundant along bottom of 
Muddy Creek valley, upstream from tidal portion: also in marshy 
west end of Phalaris arundinacea meadow north of main buildings 
(hectare 2468) and along Fox Creek drainage. All stations moist and 
shaded. Canopy and associate species vary. Also one station in 
old field, approx. hectare 2572. This station dry, unshaded. 
Rhus radicans , Lonicera japonica , and Solidago altissima dense. 
Higman 194, 208, 329, 1042. 

A. vimineus Lam. , 

var. subdumosus Wieg. Aster 

Java Farm. One station: along Fox Creek drainage. Hectare 2583, 
near new entrance road. Canopy of young Juglans nigra , Liquidambar 
styracif lua . Associate species: Elephantopus carolinianus , Panicum 
clandestinum, Muhlenbergia schreberi , Ambrosia trifida, Perilla 
frutescens , Sanicula canadensis . Higman 307. 

A. lateriflorus (L.) Britt. Aster 

Java Farm. One station: along Fox Creek drainage, upstream from 
culvert, near north boundary of Farm. Hectare 2473. Canopy of 
Ulmus americana, Juglans nigra , Liquidambar styracif lua . Associate 
species: Dryopteris noveboracensis , Muhlenbergia schreberi . Higman 316. 



223. 



A. praealtus Poir. Aster 

Java Farm. One station: freshwater part of Fox Creek drainage 
marsh. Hectare 3526. Associate species: Impatiens capensis , 
Sambucus canadensis , Salix nigra , Scirpus rubricosus . Higman 492. 

A. simplex Willd. Aster 

Java Farm. One station: south-facing slope above tidal portion 
of Muddy Creek. Source of small tributary; hectare 3426. Canopy 
of Liquidambar styraciflua . Fagus grandifolia . Liriodendron tulipif era . 
Juglans nigra . Associate species: Carex lurida . Saururus cernuus . 
Higman 398. 



Erigeron 

1. Involucre campanulate; rays minute and in several 
rows, or wanting. 

2. Stem glabrous except sometimes at base; leaves 
bristly-ciliate only at base; phyllaries with 
a dark purple apical spot. Expected (_E. pusillus ) . 

2. Stem spreading-hirsute throughout; leaves 
bristly-ciliate to tip, hispid; phyllaries 

without dark apical spot E. canadensis 

1. Involucre saucer-shaped to hemispheric; rays 
spreading, conspicuous. 

3. Cauline leaves sessile, with rounded or sub- 
clasping bases; disc-corollas 2.5 to 4.5 mm. 
long; pappus simple. 

4. Long, superficial stolons present; heads 
1 to 7; rays about 50; disc corollas 3.5 
to 4.5 mm. long. Expected (E_. pulchellus ) . 

4. Long, superficial stolons absent; heads 

more numerous; rays 100 or more; disc-corollas 

2.5 to 3.5 mm. long. (Also, stem long- 

pilose below) _E. philadelphicus 

3. Cauline leaves tapering to base; disc corollas 
1.5 to 2.5 mm. long; pappus of disc-flowers 
double, with a minute outer series. 



224. 



5. Leaves coarsely cleft or serrate, ovate to 
lanceolate, bristly-ciliate; rays longer than 
width of disc _E. annuus 

5. Leaves entire, linear-lanceolate to broadly 
oblanceolate, minutely strigose to glabrous; 
rays equal to or shorter than width of disc E. strigosus 

Erigeron canadensis L. Horseweed, Fleabane, 

Hogweed, Butterweed 

Java Farm. Infrequent in old fields south of main building 
area. Hectares 2499, 3409. Associate species: Poa pratensis 
(dense turf) , Achillea millefolium , Plantago lanceolata , Cirsium 
discolor , Hypericum perforatum , Asclepias syriaca , Verbascum thapsus . 
Higman 11. 

E. philadelphicus L. Fleabane 

Ivy Neck. One station: abandoned grassy field on Scaffold 
Peninsula. Hectares 4761, 4772. Associate species: Trifolium 
pratense , _T. hybricum , Oenothera fruticosa . Higman 726. 

E. annuus (L.) Pers. White-top, 

Daisy Fleabane 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Infrequent to moderately abundant in 
old fields. Also scattered along old entrance road between Muddy 
Creek culvert and main building area. Variety of associate species, 
including: Bromus japonicus , Agrimonia parviflora , Solidago altissima , 
Solanum carolinense . Often among dense Rhus radicans and Lonicera 
japonica . Higman 48, 750, 889, 892. 

JE. strigosus Muhl. White-top, 

Daisy Fleabane 

Java Farm. Infrequent in old fields south of main building 
area and south of Fox Point Road. Associate species vary, include: 
Solidago graminifolia , Cyperus strigosus , Lespedeza cuneata , Verbascum 
thapsus . Higman 49, 122. 



Senecioneae 

1. Heads monoecious or subdioecious, the hermaphrodite 
(bisexual) flowers sterile, the pistillate ones 
fruiting. Expected (Tussilago ) . 

1. Heads with all or nearly all flowers fertile. 



225. 



2. Cauline leaves opposite; pappus finely barbed. 
(Also , flowers yellow) . Expected (Arnica ) . 

2. Cauline leaves alternate; pappus capillary, 
soft. 

3. Ray-flowers absent; corollas white. 

4. Outer and inner flowers hermaphrodite; 
corollas 5-cleft. Expected ( Cacalia ) . 

4. Outer flowers pistillate only; corollas 

with 2- to 4-toothed limb Erechtites 

3. Ray-flowers usually present (as in species 
collected) ; corollas yellow or yellow with 
red tips Senecio 



Erechtites 

Erechtites hieracifolia (L.) Raf. Fireweed 

Java Farm. Infrequent: two stations in old fields south of main 
buildings (hectare 2499) and on north side of Fox Creek drainage (hectare 
3505). Also observed in Phalaris arundinacea meadow, north of main buildings 
(hectare 2468). Associate species vary with site. Higman 50, 537. 



Senecio 

Senecio obovatus Muhl. Groundsel, Squaw-weed 

Java Farm. One station: source of small tributary valley of 
Rhode River, on Fox Creek estuary south of pier. Hectare 3508. 
Canopy of Robinia pseudoacacia . Liquidambar styracif lua , and Ulmus 
americana . Dense ground layer of Lonicera japonica . Associate species: 
Verbesina occidentalis . Higman 1151. 



Inuleae 

1. Salt marsh to freshwater aquatic habitat; flowers 
pink to purple; phyllaries slightly scarious. 
(Also, phyllaries ciliate; plant camphor-scented) Pluchea 

1. Terrestrial habitat; flowers white or yellowish; 
phyllaries moderately to very scarious. 



226. 



2. Plants dioecious, with all heads either pistillate 
or staminate; basal rosettes present, the cauline 
leaves much smaller; leaves and stem densely white- 
wooly Antennaria 

2. Plants not dioecious, the heads with outer 

pistillate very slender flowers and inner perfect 

flowers; basal rosettes absent; leaves and stem 

moderately pilose Gnaphalium 



Pluchea 

Pluchea camphorata (L.) DC. Stinkweed 

Java Farm and Ivy Neck. Infrequent in salt marshes near shoreward 
margin, and along upstream shores of estuaries. Associate species: 
Typha latifolia , _T. angustifolia , Hibiscus palustris , Mikania scandens , 
Panicum clandestinum . Higman 82, 113, 217. 



Antennaria 

Antennaria plantaginifolia (L.) Hook. Everlasting, 

Ladies ' -tobacco 

Java Farm. Infrequent on eroded banks at Fox Point (hectare 3558) 
and along old Muddy Creek Road near old entrance gate (hectares 2472, 
2482). Canopy of Quercus prinus and ^. alba at Fox Point; associate 
species there: Epigaea repens . Canopy at Muddy Creek Road of Fagus 
grandifolia , Liriodendron tulipifera , Quercus alba . Higman 568. 



Gnaphalium 

1. Inflorescence a corymb; phyllaries very white; 

bristles of pappus free to base G_. obtusifolium 

1. Inflorescence a spike; phyllaries pale brown; bristles 

of pappus united at base G_. purpureum 

Gnaphalium obtusifolium L. Catfoot, Cudweed 

Java Farm. Infrequent in old fields. Principal station in 
grassy area south of main building area. Hectares 2499, 3409. 
Associate species there: Verbascum thapsus , So Ian urn carolinense , Agrimonia 
parvif lora . Cirsium discolor , Asclepias syriaca , Erigeron annuus , Erigeron 
strigosus , Verbascum blattaria , Apocynum cannabinum , Erechtites 
hieracifolia . Higman 51, 229. 



227. 



G_. purpureum L. 



Purple Cudweed 



Java Farm. One station: south-facing slope between grassy meadow 
and north boundary of Farm. Hectares 2458, 2459. Partial canopy of 
Pyrus malus . Liriodendron tulipifera . and Liquidambar styraciflua . 
Collected in small grassy area, one of several among dense Rub us spp. , 
Lonicera japonica . and Rhus radicans . Associate species: Trifolium 
procumbens . Higman 1120. 



228. 
APPENDIX I. 

Additional Species Collected at the Chesapeake Bay Center for Field 
Biology During the Preparation of this Checklist 

POLYPODIACEAE 

Dryopteris hexagonoptera (Michx.) Christens. Broad Beech-fern 

( Thelypteris hexagonoptera (Michx.) Weatherby) 

Java Farm. One station: mature forest south of old entrance road, 
on western side of north fork of Muddy Creek, near a small tributary. 
Hectare 2475. Canopy of Fagus grandifolia , Quercus spp. , Liriodendron 
tulipifera , Carya tomentosa , etc. Higman 1208. 

GRAMINEAE 

Eragrostis pectinacea (Michx.) Nees 

Java Farm. One station: parking area at headquarters, in cracked 
pavement. Higman 911. 

Panicum villosissimum Nash 

Ivy Neck. One station: border of cornfield on Cheston Peninsula, 
adjacent young stand of mixed hardwoods. Higman 925. 

LILIACEAE 

Uvularia perfoliata L. Merry-bells 

Java Farm. One station: mature forest south of old entrance road, 
on western side of north fork of Muddy Creek. Hectare 2493, about 50 ft, 
southeast of grid marker. Canopy of Fagus grandifolia , Quercus spp. , 
Liriodendron tulipifera , Carya tomentosa , etc. Higman 1247. 

DIOSCOREACEAE 

Dioscorea quaternata (Walt.) J. F. Gmel. Yam 

Java Farm. Infrequent in mature forest south of old entrance road, 
on western side of north fork of Muddy Creek. Canopy of Fagus grandi- 
folia , Quercus spp., Liriodendron tulipifera , Carya tomentosa , etc. 
Higman 1210. 



229. 



ORCHIDACEAE 

Tipularla discolor (Pursh) Nutt. Cranefly Orchid 

Ivy Neck. One station in mixed hardwood forest on central Scaffold 
Peninsula. Canopy of Liquidambar styraciflua , Quercus spp. , Lirioden- 
dron tulipifera , Carya tomentosa , etc. Higman 1253. 

ULMACEAE 

Ulmus procera Salisb. English Elm 

Java Farm. One station: abandoned field on shore of Fox Creek 
estuary, near pier. Approx. hectare 3610. Associate species: 
scattered Ulmus rubra , Ulmus americana , Acer negundo, Liquidambar 
styraciflua . Dense ground cover of Rhus radicans and Lonicera japonica . 

POLYGONACEAE 

Polygonum cristatum Engelm. & Gray Cornbind 

Java Farm. One station: beside old entrance road at culvert of 
small stream, on east side of north fork of Muddy Creek. Hectare 2497. 
Canopy of Platanus occidentalis . Associate species: Galium aparine , 
Commelina communis , Duchesnea indica . Higman 1207. 

BERBERIDACEAE 

Berberis thunbergii DC. Japanese Barberry 

Java Farm. One station: bank of north fork of Muddy Creek, north 
of old entrance road. Canopy of Platanus occidentalis . Higman 1250. 

CRUCIFERAE 

Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic. Shepherd's Purse 

Java Farm. One station: recently cleared area at headquarters, 
near concrete silo. Higman 1256. 



230. 

LABIATAE 

Agastache nepetoides (L.) Kuntze Giant Hyssop 

Java Farm. One station: north-facing slope overlooking small 
stream which drains into Fox Creek estuary. Hectare 3518. Canopy of 
Robinia pseudoacacia , Liquidambar styracif lua , and Ulmus americana . 
Higman 1040. 

Lycopus europaeus L. Bugleweed 

Ivy Neck. One station: margin of small cut-off pond on Cheston 
Peninsula, below Sand Point. Hectare 4870. Associate species: Rumex 
verticillatus , Echinochloa walteri . Higman 1232. 

SOLANACEAE 

S planum americanum Mill. Nightshade 

(not in Britton & Brown) 

Ivy Neck. One station: crest of sandbar of small cut-off pond on 
Cheston Peninsula, below Sand Point. Hectare 4870. Associate slecies: 
Spartina alterniflora , Tripsacum dactyloides . Higman 1222. 



231. 



APPENDIX II. 

Additional Annotations for Species in this Checklist 

OSMUNDACEAE 

Osmunda regalis L. 

Java Farm. One station in Muddy Creek valley near upstream 
limit of salt marsh. Hectare 2493. Canopy of Fagus grandifolia . 

PINACEAE 

Pinus virginiana Mill. 

Java Farm. Infrequent at northwest border of Hog Island salt 
marsh. Hectare 3571. Associate species: Quercus falcata , JJ. phellos , 

GRAMINEAE 

Echinochloa walteri (Pursh) Nash 

Ivy Neck. Moderately abundant in marshy inland part of Sand 
Point, and on inland shores of cut-off ponds on Cheston Peninsula 
below Sand Point. Hectares 4860, 4870, 5800. Associate species: 
Panicum virgatum , Scirpus spp. 

COMMELINACEAE 

Commelina communis L. 

Java Farm. One station along old entrance road, near culvert 
of small tributary to Muddy Creek. Hectare 2497. Canopy of Platanus 
occidentalis . 

DIOSCOREACEAE 
Dioscorea villosa L. 



Java Farm. Infrequent in mature forest south of old entrance 
road. Approx. hectare 2485. Canopy of Fagus grandifolia , Liriodendron 
tulipifera , Quercus spp. , Carya tomentosa . 



232. 

CARYOPHYLLACEAE 

Silene antirrhina L. 

Java Farm. Principal station near southern border of main 
building area, near brick wall (now mostly destroyed) . Very 
infrequent in old fields. 

ROSACEAE 

Amelanchier arborea (Michx. f.) Fern. 

Java Farm. Infrequent on Fox Point. Hectare 3558. Canopy 
of Quercus prinus . 

ONAGRACEAE 

Ludwigia palustris (L.) Ell. 

Ivy Neck. Muddy shore of small cut-off pond on Cheston 
Peninsula south of Sand Point. Hectare 4870. Associate species: 
Galinsoga ciliata , Rumex verticillatus . 

RUBIACEAE 

Mitchella repens L. 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent in forest of central Scaffold Peninsula. 
Canopy of Quercus alba , Liriodendron tulipif era , etc. 

CAMPANULACEAE 
Specularia perfoliata (L.) A. DC. 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent at borders of cultivated fields. 

COMPOSITAE 

Pyrrhopappus carolinianus (Walt.) DC. 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent in pasture between forks of Cheston Creek 
drainage. 



233. 



Galinsoga ciliata (Raf.) Blake 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent on margin of marshy area in interior of 
Sand Point, and at borders of cut-off ponds on Cheston Peninsula 
below Sand Point. Hectares 4860, 4870, 5800. 

Eupatorium perfoliatum L. 

Ivy Neck. One station along Cheston Creek drainage. Hectare 
4743. Canopy of Diospyros virginiana . Robinia pseudoacacia . 

Verbesina occidentalis L. 

Ivy Neck. Infrequent on inland shore of small cut-off pond 
on Cheston Peninsula below Sand Point. Hectare 4870. 



234. 



APPENDIX III. 

Common Names of Plants at the Chesapeake Bay Center , Local to 

that Vicinity 
(additional local names are being sought) 

Abutilon theophrasti Hemp 

Cyperus strigosus Nut Grass 

Solanum carolinense Poor Man' s Potato 

Robinia pseudoacacia Yellow Locust , 

Shipmast Locust 

Celtis occidentalis Sugarberry 

Quercus falcata Red Oak 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION LIBRARIES 



3 ^Dflfl DD31b3fl3 T 

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An ecologically annotated checklist of t