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Full text of "Economic entomology"

SOUTH KENSINGTON MUSEUM ^^^ 

SCIENCE HANDBOOKS, 



BRANCH MUSEUM, BETHNAL GREEN. 



ilCONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY, 



ANDREW MURRAY, F.L.S. 



APTERA, 




Prepared at the request of the Lords of the Committee of 
Council on Education, and Published for them 



HAPMAN AND HALL, 193, PICCADILLY. 




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SOUTH KENSINGTON MUSEUM SCIENCE HANDBOOKS. 



ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY. 
APTERA. 



This is the first of a series of Handbooks i7itended to serve in the 

first instance as guides to the diffei-ent branches of the Collection of 

Eco7iomic Entomology which is in course of formation at the Bethnal 

Green Branch of the South Kensington Museum, by order of the 

Lords of the Cof?wiittee of Council on Education ; and in the next 

flace as practical treatises on the subject for the use of the public 

generally. The Collection has now become large enough to furnish a 

basis for sttch a work^ and the order in which it is proposed to take 

up the other subjects is that followed ift the published list of the 

contents of the collection, viz., the Aptera {spiders, mites, 6^r.), which 

form the stibject of this ha7idbook ; then the Bugs ; the Locusts, 

Grasshoppers, Cockroaches, and Earwigs ; the Two-winged Elies ; 

the Bees, Wasps, 6^^. ; the Dragon-flies and May-flies ; Butterflies 

and Moths ; and, lastly, the Beetles. 



ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY. 



BY 



/ 



ANDREW MURRAY, F.L.S. 



-APTERA. ^itt'- 




iiiUril 




Prepared at the request ofvmtl&rdsM/^ie Committee of Council on 
Education, and published for them 

BY 

CHAPMAN AND HALL, 193, PICCADILLY. 



Ud'f^ 



6 



CONTENTS OF CASES DESCRIBED IN 

VOL. I. 

CASE I. 
CRUSTACEANS (likely to be mistaken for Insects). 

NO. SEE PAGE 

1. Oniscus asellus, specimens {15) 8 

2. Do., enlarged figure ,, 

3. Porcellio scaber, specimens {12) lo 

4. Do,, enlarged figure . . ,, 

5. Armadillo vulgaris, specimens (12) ,, 

6. Do., enlarged figure extended ,, 

7. Do., enlarged figure rolled up ,, 

INSECTS. 

MyRIAPODS— JULIDiE. 

8. Glomeris limbata (?), specimen (i) . 14 

9. Do., enlai-ged figure . „ 

10. SphseropcEus (Zeplironica, Gj-ay) castaneus, specimens (3) . . . 15 
ii. Do., enlarged figure 

12. Sphaeropoeus heterostictus, specimen (i) 

13. Do., enlarged figure . 

14. Spha;ropoeus glabratus, specimen (i) . . , , . . . 

15. Orchid injured by such insects, figure 

16. Julus guttatus, specimens in phial . . . . . . . 16 

17. Do., enlarged figure 

18. Carrot injured by tliem, figure 

19. Lily roots injured by them, preserved in glycerine ; specimens in 

phial 

20. Do., model 

21. Julus terrestris, specimen (i) .1; 

22. Do. enlarged figure 

23. Parsnip root injured by them ; model 

24. Julus londinensis, specimens (l ?) 1 8 

25. Do., enlarged figure 

26. Julus nitens, specimen (i) 

27. Do., enlarged figure 



CONTENTS, 



NO. 
28. 
29. 

31- 
32. 
33- 

34. 
35. 
36. 
37. 



Spirostreptusjavanicus? specimen (i) 

Do., figure 

Spirostreptus annulatipes, specimens (2) 

Do., figure ...... 

Polydesmus complanatus, specimens (4) 

Do,, enlarged figure .... 

Polydesmus dorsalis, aff. Thomsoni, specimen (i) 

Do., enlarged figure .... 

Brachycybe rosea, California, specimen (i) 

Do., enlarged figure .... 



PAGE 

19 



CASE II. 

MYRIAPODS {coiitumed). 

SCOLOPENDRIDAE. 
Mecistocephalus punctifi'ons, East Indies, specimen (i) 
Geophilus longicornis, specimens (2) . . 

Do., enlarged figure . . 
Geophilus subterraneus, specimens in phial 

Do., enlarged figure 

Illustrative vignette of phosphorescent light of do. . 
Scolopendra ceylonensis, Ceylon, specimens (2) . 
Scolopendra platypoides, Brazil, specimens (2) 
Scolopendra placese, Brazil, specimens (2) 
Scolopendra variegata, Demerara, specimens (2) . 
Scolopendra angusticollis. Old Calabar, specimens (2) 
Scolopendra leachii, Cape Verd Islands, specimen (i) 
Scolopendra tuberculidens, E. Indies, specimens (2) 
Scolopendra caruleo-viridis, Australia, specimens (2) 

Do., enlarged figure 

Cryptops hortensis, specimen (i) . 

Do., enlarged figure 

Lithobius forficatus, specimens (4) . 

Do., enlarged figure ...... 

Cermatia capensis, Cape of Good Hope, specimen (i) 

Do. , enlarged figure 

Cermatia smithii. New Holland, specimen (i) 

Do,, enlarged figure 

CASE III. 
SCORPIONS AND THEIR ALLIES 

Chelifer museorum, specimens (8) 

Do., enlarged figure 

Chelifer geoffroyi, specimens (3) 

Do., enlarged figure 



26 



27 



28 



30 



34- 
»> 
35 



CONTENTS. 



NO. 

5- 

6. 

7. 
8. 

9- 
10. 
II. 
12. 

13- 

14. 

15- 

16. 

17. 

18. 

19- 
20. 
21. 



I. 
2. 
3- 
4- 

5- 
6. 

7- 
8. 

9. 
10. 

12. 

13- 

14. 

15- 

16. 

17- 
18. 

19- 
20. 



Scorpions (species of Androctonus), newly born, from Rangoo 
specimens (3) 

Do., enlarged figure .... 
Androctonus priamus (?), Java (?), specimens (2) 
Androctonus, Sp., East Indies, specimen (i) 
Buthus, Sp., Cape, specimens (2) . 
Butlius coesar, E. Indies, specimens (2) 
Buthus afer, specimen (i) 
Buthus imperator, figure natural size 
Phrynus ceylonicus, specimen (i) . 

Do., figure natural size 
Telyphonus giganteus, specimen (i) 

Do., figure natural size 
Telyphonus proscorpio, specimens (2) 

Do., figure natural size 
Galeodes araneoides, specimen (o) 

Do., figure natural size 
Illustrative vignette, camel 



CASE IV. 
SPIDERS. 

Mygale avicularia. Tropical S. America, specimen (o) . . . 52 

Do., sketch of insect, natural size „ 

Mygale californica, California, sketch of ditto 53 

Do., specimens of do ,, 

Mygale fasciata, Java, sketch of insect 54 

Do., specimen (o) . . ,, 

Mygale klugii. Eastern Andes, specimen of insect, said to be very venomous ,, 

Do., sketch of ditto „ 

Mygale versicolor, specimen of insect .... 

Do., sketch of do. , natural size 

Mygale erichsoni, Java, specimen of insect . . . 

Do., sketch of do 

Mygale convexa. West Africa, specimen of insect . 

Atypus sulzeri, sketch of insect, the only British representative of 

the Mygalidse 55 

Cteniza ionica, trap-door spider from South of Europe, nest of . 56 

Do., sketch of insect ,, 

Actinopus nidulans, nest of, with specimens in the nest (2 broken) . ,, 

Do., sketch of insect enlarged „ 

Do,, specimens of do. , male and female (2) . . . . ,, 
Nemesia eleanora, diagram to show the double-branched nest of, 

with an outer and inner trap-door. South Europe . . . 60 



38 



39 



40 



VI 



CONTENTS, 



CASE V. 
TRAP-DOOR NESTS OF SPIDERS. 

From South of France. Presented by Lady Jardine. 

NO. SEE PACK 

1. Nemesia ccementaria, cork trap-door nest made by do., door indi- 

cated by a straw in it 60-64 

2. Do. Do., key to, door coloured 

3. Do., specimen of maker of cork trap-door nests (male) . 

4. Do., cork trap-door nest made by do., door indicated by a straw 

5. Do. Do., key to, door coloured . . . . 

6. Do., cork trap-door nest, straw in door 

7. Do. Do., key to, door coloured 

8. Do., specimen of female insect, maker of cork trap-door nest 

9. Do. , cork trap-door nest, straw in door 

10. Do. Do., key to, door coloured 

11. Nemesia eleanoi^a, wafer trap-door nest with two doors, and an old 

inner tube door in lower right-hand corner 

12. Do. Do., key to, outer doors coloured brown, old inner tube 

door blueish 

13. Do., diagram showing a section of two doors of nest . . . 

14. Do., wafer trap-door nest with two entrances, part of old inner 

tube door in lower left-hand corner 

15. Do. Do., key to, outer doors coloured brown, old inner tube 

door blueish 

16. Do., wafer trap-door nest with two entrances, a straw in each 

door 

17. Do. Do., key to, doors coloured 

18. Do., specimen of male insect, maker of wafer trap-door nests 

19. Do., wafer trap-door nest with two entrances, an old door of the 

inner second tube shown in upper corner to the left, a part of 
tube in upper right-hand corner 

20. Do. Do., key to, the outer doors coloured brown; an inner 

door removed from second tube coloured white and blue ; part 
of the tube shown in right-hand upper corner coloured pale 
brown ........... 

21. Do., wafer trap-door nest with two entrances, a straw in each 

door 

22. Do. Do., key to, doors coloured . . . . . . 

23. Do., specimen of female insect, maker of wafer trap-door nests ; 

from Cannes 

24. Do., wafer trap-door nest, injured and artificially repaired . . 

25. Do. Do., key to, door coloured 

26. Cteniza fodiens, magnified sketch of (one of the makers of cork 

trap-door nests 



CONTENTS. vii 



NO. SEE PAGE 

27. Magnified sketch of a cork trap-door 65 

28. Nemesia eleanora, magnified sketch of insect, maker of the wafer 

trap-door nests ,, 

29. Magnified sketch of wafer trap-door ,, 



CASE VI. 
SPIDERS {contimied). 

1. Mygale detrita, sketch of insect 65 

2. Do., specimen of do. ........,, 

3. Latrodectes malraignatus, sketch of do ,, 

4 . Lycosa tarantula, sketch of do 68 

GENERA OF BRITISH SPIDERS. 
Family Dysderidae. 

5. Oonops pulcher, sketch of do 69 

6. Dysdera crocata (rubicunda, Bl. ), specimen of do. . . . . 70 

7. Do,, sketch of do ,, 

8. Harpactes hombergii (Dysdera hombergii, ^/.), sketch of do. . . ,, 

9. Segestria senoculata, sketch of do ,, 

Family Drassidae. 

10. Micaria puhcaria (Drassus micans, -5"/.), sketch of do. . . . ,, 

11. Drassus blackwallii (sericeus, ^/.), sketch of do. . . . . 71 

12. Clubiona pallidula (epimehis, i?/.), sketch of do ,, 

13. Chira can thum nutrix (non ^/.), sketch of do ,, 

14. Hecaerge maculata, sketch of do ,, 

Family DiCTYNlDAE. 

15. Eresus cinnabarinus, sketch of do ,, 

16. Dictyna arundinacea (Ergatis benigna, 5"/.), sketch of do. . . 72 

17. Do., sketch of cocoons of do. . . . . . . . ,, 

Family Agelenidae. 

18. Argyroneta aquatica, sketch of do ,, 

19. Amaurobius ferox (Ciniflo ferox, j5/.), sketch of do 75 

20. Amaurobius (Ciniflo) mordax, sketch of do 77 

21. Agelena labyrinthica, sketch of do ,, 

22. Tegenaria guyonii (Tegenaria domestica, ^/.), sketch of do. . . 78 

Family SCYTODIDAE. 

23. Scytodes thoracica, sketch of do 79 



\'m 



co^'T£^^TS. 



CASE VII. 
GENERA OF BRITISH SPIDERS {continued). 
NO Family Pholcidae. 

1. Pholcus phalangoides, sketch cf insect 

Family THERIDIIDAE, 

2. Theridion tepidariorum, sketch of do. 

3. Do. riparium, sketch of tent and cocoons of do. , • 

Family Lixyphiadae. 

4. Lin)-phia montana (marginata, ^/,^, sketch of insect , . • 

5. Walckenaeria pratensis, sketch of do 

6. Do. , sketch of do 



SES TAOS 

• 79 



So 



82 



Family Epeiridae. 

7. Eperia quadrata, sketch of do 84 

8. Do. arbustormn, Koch (bicomis, Bl.) ., 

9. Do. diademata (diadema, Bl. ), sketch of do 85 

Family Uloboridae. 

10. Uloborus walckenaeras (Veleda lineata, Bl.)^ sketch of do. . . 86 

Family Thomisidae. 

11. Xysticus pini (Thomisus audax, ^/.), sketch of do 83 

12. Thomisus onustus (abb reviatus, ^/.), sketch of do 

13. Disea dorsata (Thomisus floricolens, j5/.), sketch of do. . 

14. Philodromus margaritatus (palHdus, ^/.), sketch of do. . . . 

15. Micrommata\-irescens{Sparassus smaragdulus,^/.),sketchofdo.,male 

16. Do., sketch of do., female 

Family Lycosidae. 

17. Dolomedes fimbriatus, sketch of insect 89 

18. Trochosa cinerea (Lycosa allodroma, ^/.), sketch of do. ... 91 

Family Sphasidae, 

19. Oxyopes lineatus (Sphasus lineatus, ^/. ), sketch of do. . . . „ 

Family Salticidae. 

20. Epiblemum scenicum (Salticus scenicus, -5"/.), sketch of do. . . 92 

21. Heliophanes cupreus (Sal ticus cupreus, J?/.), sketch of do. . . . ,, 

22. Ballus depressus (Salticus obscurus, ^/.), sketch of do. . . . ,, 

23. Salticus fonnicarius, sketch of do ,, 



CONTENTS. ix 

CASE VIII. 

MITES. 

^^ Tromeidiinae (Tetraxychidae, Spinning IMites). seepage 

1. Tetranychus telarius, red spider, sketch of lan-a .... 97 

2. Do. do., sketch of male ., 

3. Do. do., sketch of female ,, 

4. Tetranychus lintearius, magnified sketch 104 

5. Tetranychus, sp., on oak, magnified sketch .... 107 

6. Tetranychus fici, sketch of leaf attacked , 

7. Do., magnified sketch of insect ,, 

8. Tetranychus tiliarum, magnified sketch of insect , , 

9. Do., leaf of lime attacked by do ., 

10. Tetranychus socius, magnified sketch of do. 108 

11. Tetranychus eriostemi, leaves of Eriostemon neriifolium attacked by do. 109 

12. Do., magnified sketch of leaf shewing the mischief . . • »} 

13. Do., twig shewing mischief on do. . . . . . . ,, 

14. Do., magnified sketch of do. ,, 

15. Do., magnified sketch of insect ,, 

16. Tetranychus autumnalis, magnified figure of young stage . • >> 

17. Do., magnified figure of perfect insect, under side . . . . ,, 

18. Tetranychus trombidinus, enlarged figure of insect . . . .114 

19. Raphignathus ruberrimus do. ,, 

20. Megamerus celer do. . . . .116 

21. Tetranychus ? americanus do. ,, 

22. Tetranychus ? irritans do. ....,, 

23. Petrobia lapidum, enlarged figure of young iiS 

24. Do,, enlarged figure of perfect insect ,, 

25. Eupodes celer, enlarged figure of young 121 

26. Do., enlarged figure of perfect insect . . . . • »> 

CASE VHP. 
I. Specimens of web of Tetranychus Imtearius on furze bush, from 

Weybridge. The red dust on the web is dead mites . . . 104 

CASE IX. 

MITES {continued). 

Trombidiidae, Rankest Mites. 

1. Linopodes longipes, magnified sketch of insect 122 

2. Linopodes ravus do. 123 

3. Linopodes cursorius do. .... 

4. Rhyncholophus cinereus do. .... 

5. Rhyncholophus phalangioides do. .... 

6. Rhyncholophus major do. .... 



X CONTENTS, 

NO. SEE PACK 

7. Smaridia papillosa, magnified sketch of insect . . .... 127 

8. Pachygnathus velatus do. . . . . . 128 

9. Trombidium parasiticum do. 129 

10. Trombidium holosericeum (phalangii, Dug.), magnified sketch of 

larva ,, 

11. Do., magnified sketch of perfect insect . . . . . . ,, 

12. Do., specimen of do. • >> 

13. Do., magnified sketch of perfect insect, copied from figure by 

Walckenaer ,, 

14. Do., z/^r. trigonum, magnified sketch of perfect insect . . . 133 

15. Trombidium curtipes do. . . 134 

16. Trombidium fuliginosum do. . . ,, 

17. Trombidium bicolor do. . . 135 

18. Trombidium fasciculatum do. . . ,, 

19. Do. do., specimens of do. (4) . . . . • ,, 

20. Trombidium tinctorium, magnified slcetch of do. . . . . ,, 

21. Do. do., specimens of do. (o) ,, 

22. Trombidium gryllarium, magnified sketch of larva of do., feeds on 

Rocky Mountains locusts 136 

23. Trombidium sericeum, magnified sketch of do, , perhaps male insect 

of preceding ... . 138 

24. Trombidium miniatum, magnified sketch of pei-fect insect . . . 139 

25. Trombidium aurantiacum, do. of larva . . . ,, 

26. Erythrseus mricola, do. of perfect insect . . 141 

27. Actineda comigera, do. do. . • ,> 

CASE X. 

MITES {contimced?) 

Bdellidae. 

1. Molgus longicornis, England, sketch of insect 143 

2. Scirus insectorum, magnified sketch of larva of do 145 

3. Scirus hexophthalmus, France, magnified sketch of do. . . . 146 

4. Scirus obisium, France, magnified sketch of do. ....,, 

5. Scirus vestitus, magnified sketch of do ,, 

Hydrachnidae (Fresh Water Mites). 

6. Limnochares aquaticus, Europe, magnified sketch of mature insect . 148 

7. Eylais extendens, Europe, magnified sketch of freshly hatched 

larva ............ 150 

8. Do. do. do ,, 

9. Hydrachna geographica, magnified sketch of insect . . . . 152 

10. Diplodontus scapularis, Europe, magnified sketch of larva . . 153 

11. Do. do. do. , 



CONTENTS. 



XI 



12. Hydrochoreutes globulus, magnified sketch of first stage of larva 

13. Belostoma grandis, E. Indies, specimens with nymphs of Hydrachna 

adhering to various parts of its body (2) . 

14. Hydrochoreutes globuhis, magnified sketch of water-bug shewing 

larva in the nymph stage adhering to it . 

15. Do., magnified sketch of nymph stage of do. 

16. Do., magnified sketch of mature insect .... 

17. Atax Bonzi, magnified sketch of newly developed larva 

18. Atax globator, Europe (Denmark), magnified sketch of male 

insect 

19. Do., magnified sketch of female 

20. Atax buccinator, Denmark, magnified sketch of insect 

21. Atax miniata, Europe, magnified sketch of insect 

22. Atax varipes do. do. . . . 

23. Atax histrionicus, Europe, magnified sketch of male . 

24. Do. do. magnified sketch of female .... 

25. Pontarachna punctulum, Mediterranean, near Naples, magnified sketch 

of insect 



153 



154 
155 



156 



CASE XI. 

MITES {continued), 

Gamasidae. 

1. Gamasus coleoptratorum, magnified figure of . 

2. Do. specimens (2) . . . . 

3. Gamasus marginatus, magnified sketch . 

4. Do., specimen (i) 

5. Gamasus quadripunctatus, magnified sketch . 

6. Do., specimen (i) 

7. Gamasus crassipes, magnified sketch 

8. Gamasus tetragonoides, do. 

9. Gamasus podager, do. ..... 

10. Do., specimen (1) 

11. Uropoda vegetans, magnified figure 

I2i Do., specimens 

13. Sejus marinus, magnified sketch . 

14. Halarachne halichseri, magnified sketch of larva 

15. Do. do., perfect insect 

16. Dennanyssus nitzschii, magnified sketch 

17. Dermanyssus avium, magnified sketch of empty 

18. Do., specimens of do. (2) . 

19. Do. Vignette of chickens (" realistic chick ") 



158 
>> 

159 

j> 

161 



162 



167 



169 



Xll 



CONTENTS, 



NO, 

20. Dermanyssus avium, magnified sketch of insect full fed 

21. Do., specimen of (i) 

22. Dermanyssus pipistrellse, magnified figure 

23. Dermanyssus agilis, magnified sketch . 

24. Pteroptus (Tinoglischrus) audouinii, magnified sketch 

25. Pteroptus (Diplostaspis) vespertilionis, do. 

26. Do., specimens (o) 

27. Argas pipistrelte, magnified sketch . 

28. Do. reflexus, do. 

29. Do. persicus, do 

30. Do. americanus, do. ...... 

31. Do. moubata, do 

32. Ornithodoros coriaceus, magnified sketch , , 

33. Do. talaje, do. do. ... 



SEE PAGE 
169 



172 

178 
179 



I So 
181 



1S2 
»> 
183 



CASE Xll. 

MITES {cotitinued). 

IxODiDAE (Ticks). 

1. Ixodes erinaceus, male, enlarged figure, Britain . , . .190 

2. Do., specimens (5) • • . 

3. Do., female, half full, enlarged figure 

4. Do., specimens in phial (11) 

5. Do., female, full fed, enlarged figure 

6. Do., specimens in phial (5) 

7. Ixodes marginatus, male, enlarged figure 192 

8. Do., specimens (3) 

9. Do., female, enlarged figure 

10. Do., female, specimens (7) 

11. Ixodes ricinus, from Continent, enlarged sketch copied from Koch's 

figure 193 

12. Ixodes reduvius, enlarged figure of female, copied from Audouin's 

figure 

13. Ixodes trabeatus, enlarged figure of female, do. .... 

14. Ixodes bovis, male, enlarged figure, N. America . . . . 

15. Do., female, do 

16. Do., specimen (i) 

17. Ixodes brevipes, Ceylon, Steppes of Aral, enlarged figure of female . 194 

18. Do., specimens (2) 

19. Ixodes distipes, Tunis, enlarged figure of female . ... 

20. Do., specimen (i) ........ . 

21. Ixodes transversalis, from under orbit of Python, enlarged figure . . 195 



CONTENTS, 



xm 



NO. SEE PAGE 

22. Ixodes transversalis, enlarged sketch of head of Python, to show 

where I. transversalis taken from 195 

23. Hyalomma comnger, Kol.^ do 196 

24. Adenopleura compressum, enlarged figure of do., W. Africa . . 200 

25. Amblyomma rostratum, Old Calabar, enlarged figure of . . . 201 

26. Do., specimen (i) ,, 

27. Amblyomma rotundatum, the Carapato from Brazil, enlarged figure of ,, 

28. Do., specimen (i) ,, 

29. Amblyomma pacificum, Sandwich Isles, enlarged figure of . . . 203 

30. Do., specimen (i) ,, 

31. Ophiodes ophiophilus, S. Africa, enlarged figure of . . . . 204 

32. Ophiodes gervaisii, male, enlarged figure ,, 

33. Do., female, do ,, 

34. Ophiodes gracilentus, from Python Sebae, enlarged figure . • ,, 

35. Ophiodes flavomaculatus, from Python Sebae, enlarged figure . . ,, 

36. Do., vignette sketch of Python Sebae, from W. Africa . • >» 



CASE XIII. 
MITES {co7iti7itiecf), 
Halacaridae (Marine Mites) and Oribatidae. 
Halacarus ctenopus, magnified sketch of insect, British sea shores 
Ilalacarus falcatus, magnified sketch of insect .... 

Halacarus sculptus, do 

Halacarus rhodostigma, magnified sketch of insect . 

Halacarus notops, magnified sketch of insect 

DamKus geniculatus, magnified sketch of embiyo, common in Europe 

fresh from egg of do. ........ 

Do., magnified sketch of larva .... 

Do. , sketch and specimens of perfect insect 
Damceus auritus, magnified sketch of perfect insect 

Leiosoma nitens, do., France 

Notaspis bipilis, do., very common in France 
Oribata orbicularis, do., common near Paris . 
Oribata globula, do., near Paris .... 

Pelops acromios, magnified sketch of larva, near Paris 

Do., magnified sketch of perfect insect 
Nothras spiniger, magnified sketch of larva, common 

Continent 

Do,, magnified sketch of perfect insect . 
Nothrus horridus, do., very common amongst moist mosses in France 
Hermannia crassipes, magnified sketch of larva, common near Paris . 



on the 



208 

j> 

209 
210 
211 

>> 
216 

>> 
217 

2^8 
219 



220 
221 



xiv CONTENTS. 

NO. SEE I'AGE 

20. Hermannia crassipes, magnified sketch of perfect insect . . .221 

21. Cepheus vulgaris, do., common on the Continent 

22. Eremaeus tibiahs, magnified sketch of larva, France 

23. Hoplophora contractilis, magnified sketch of larva 

24. Do., magnified sketch of perfect insect .... 

25. Do., contracted 



222 



CASE XIV. 

MITES {continued). 
AcARiDAE, 1st Section, Tyroglyphidae (Cheese Mites, &c.) 

1. Hypoderas brevis, enlarged sketch of insect taken from under the skin 

of Ardea nyticorax ......... 229 

2. Hypoderas lineatus, enlarged sketch of insect 230 

3. Hypopus (Acarellus) muscre, do. ..... 250 

4. Hypopus (Acarellus) pulicis, do. ,, 

5. Trichodactylus xylocopre, do. 252 

6. Homopus elephantis do. 253 

7. Rhizoglyphus echinopus (dujardinii), magnified sketch of larva and 

pupa 257 

8. Do,, magnified sketch of male, after Claparede . . . . ,, 

9. Do., magnified sketch of female do. ....,, 

10. Do. do. after Robin ,, 

11. Rhizoglyphus robinii, magnified sketch of insect .... 259 

12. Tyroglyphus entomophagus, sketch showing do. in various stages, 

and its eggs, &c. 263 

13. Do., magnified sketch of insect ......,, 

14. Tyroglyphus siro, do. ......... 267 

15. Tyroglyphus longior, do. 270 

16. Tyroglyphus malus, magnified figure of insect 275 

17. Glyciphagus prunorum, magnified sketch of insect .... 277 

18. Glyciphagus cursor, do 278 

19. Glyciphagus hippopodos, do 279 

20. Glyciphagus spinipes, do 281 

21. Glyciphagus plumiger, do. 283 

22. Glyciphagus palmifer, do . . . 284 

23. Cheyletus eruditus, sketch of under side magnified .... 286 

24. Heteropus ventricosus, magnified sketch of perfect insect newly 

developed 290 

25. Do., much magnified sketch of female parasite in the nests or 

Anthophora retusa . „ 



CONTENTS, XV 

CASE XV. 

MITES {conti?med). 

^^ Sarcoptidae (Itch and Louse Mites.) ^^^ ^^^^ 

1. Sarcoptes scabiei, eggs of do., one opened showing the embryo . 292 

2. Do., magnified diagram of the itch-insect's burrow in the human 

skin, with the insect at the further end and egg-shells and debris 

behind ,, 

3. Do., magnified sketch of male, upper side ,, 

4. Do., of female, under side ,, 

5. Sarcoptes cati, magnified sketch of male ( S. cuniculi, 6*1?^/., S. minor, 

Furst.) 302 

6. Sarcoptes mutans, magnified sketch of male, upper side . . . 305 

7. Do., male, side view ,, 

8. Do., female, under side . . . . . . . . ,, 

9. Psoroptes equi (Dermatokoptes communis, Furst.), magnified sketch 

of male, upper side 308 

10. Symbiotes bovis, magnified sketch of male, underside (Dermatophagus 

bovis, Furst) 313 

11. Sarcoptes nidulans, magnified sketch of i-nsect 314 

12. Myobia musculi, magnified sketch of male ..... 315 

13. Do., magnified sketch of mandibles, adapted for holding hairs . ,, 

14. Listrophorus gibbus, magnified sketch of insect .... 325 

15. Listrophorus leuckarti, do. ,, 

16. Myocoptes musculinus, magnified sketch of male and female . . 326 

17. Do., magnified sketch of female . . , . . . . ,, 

18. Dermaleichus, j/., magnified sketch of male 328 

19. Do., sp.ydo. of female. ,, 

20. Dermaleichus pici-majoris, do. of male 329 

21. Do., do. of female. . . . . ,, 

22. Dermaleichus chelopus, magnified sketch of insect . . . • ,, 

23. Demodcx folliculorum, do. . . . . ,, 

24. Do., magnified sketch of sebaceous follicle and bulb of human 

hair, showing the place where Demodex folliculorum is found . ,, 

CASE XVI. 

MITES {continued). 

Phytopti, Gall Mites. 

1. Phytoptus taxi, sketch of yew-tree twig with buds attacked by do. . 354 

2. Magnified sketch of Phytoptus taxi , 

3. Do. of section of bud of yew tree attacked by do. . . . ,, 

4. Do. specimen from which sketch taken ,, 



xvi CONTENTS. 



NO. SEE PAGE 

5. Phytoptus coryli (Calycophthora avellanae, Amer.)^ hazel buds at- 

tacked by do , . . 354 

6. Do., sketch of buds so attacked ,, 

7. Phytoptus persicae, sketch of twig and buds of peach tree suffering 

from *'le meunier," supposed to be a species of Phytoptus . . ,, 

8. Phytoptus ribis, currant buds attacked by 355 

9. Do., sketch of do „ 

10. Do., magnified sketch of first stage of larva . . . . „ 

11. Do., do. of second stage „ 

12. Phytoptus tilice, lime tree leaf nail gall, specimen of gall on leaf . 356 

13. Do., sketch of leaf with galls ,, 

14. Do., magnified sketch of galls „ 

15. Do., magnified section of a gall • • >j 

16. Do., magnified figure of the insect, copied from Dujardin's 

figure . „ 

17. Phytoptus (Volvulifex) aceris, sycamore leaf bearing galls of do. . ,, 

18. Do. sketch of leal with do „ 

19. Do., sketch of leaf of variety of sycamore (P. Leopoldi), with 

galls on do ,, 

20. Do., specimen of do ,, 

21. Do., under side of sycamore leaf, showing galls on do. . . ,, 

22. Do., sketch of do. ,, 

23. Do., magnified section of gall of do „ 

24. Phytoptus myriadeum (Cephaloneon myriadeum, Br.'), specimen of 

leaves of common maple, with galls on do 357 

25. Do., sketch of do „ 



CASE XVII. 

MITES {conti7iued). 

Phytopti {contimted). 

1. Phytoptus (Typhlodromus) pyri, sketch of leaf of pear tree bearing 

galls of do. 358 

2. Do., specimens of do ,, 

3. Do., magnified section of gall of do ,, 

4. Do., magnified sketch of larva of do., after Scheuten . . . „ 

5. Do., perfect insect, do. ,, 

6. Phytoptus attenuatus (Ceratoneon attenuatum), leaves of sloe bearing 

galls of do. • . . . „ 

7. Do., sketch of do „ 

8. Phytoptus (Volvulifex) pruni, leaves of plum bearing galls of do. . 360 

9. Do., sketch of leaf of do . . . „ 



CONTENTS. 



xvii 



SEE PAGE 

Phytoptus ( Volvulifex) pruni, magnified section of gall of do. , showing 

no inhabitants and filled with hairs . . . . . . 360 

Phytoptus salicis, leaves of black sallow bearing galls of do. . -361 

Do., sketch of do ,, 

Do., magnified sketch of do ,, 

Do., magnified section of gall of do. ,, 

Do., magnified sketch of insect . . . . . . . ,, 

Erineum tilise, a growth on the lime-tree leaf produced by hyper- 
trophy, and often mistaken for work of an insect . . . . 374 

^cidium abietinum, a fungus growing on leaf of Picea cephalonica, 

sometimes mistaken for insect work . . •. . . • ,, 

Do., magnified sketch of do. ,, 

Roestelia lacerata, a fungoid growth on hawthorn leaf . . . , , 

Do., magnified sketch of do. ,, 

Roestelia cancellata, first stage of a fungus growth on pear tree leaves, 

often mistaken for insect work ,, 

Do., sketch of do. . ,, 

Do., second stage of growth on pear tree leaves, upper side of 

leaf ,, 

Do., under side of leaf ,, 



CASE XVIII. 
ANOPLURA— Lice. 

Mallophaga. 



1. Menopon pallidum, specimens 

2. Do., enlarged figure .... 

3. Do., illustrative vignette (cocks and hens) 

4. Menopon perdricis ..... 

5. Do., enlarged figure 

6. Do., illustrative vignette (partridge) 

7. Menopon fulvo maculatum, specimens 

8. Do., enlarged figure 

9. Do., illustrative vignette (quail) 

10. Trinoton lurid um, specimens 

11. Do., enlarged figure 

12. Do., illustrative vignette (duck) . 

13. Nirmus cameratus, specimens 

14. Do., enlarged figure . 

15. Do., illustrative vignette (black cock and grey hen) 

16. Nirmus claviformis, specimens . 

17. Do., enlarged figure 

18. Do., illustrative vignette (carrier pigeon) 



376 



377 



378 



179 



XVIU 



CONTENTS, 



NO. 

19. Goniocotes hologaster, specimens 

20. Do., enlarged figure .... 

21. Do., illustrative vignette (fowl dusting) 

22. Goniodes falcicomis, specimens of young insect 

23. Do., enlarged figure . 

24. Do. , specimens of mature insect 

25. Do. , enlarged figure of do. . 

26. Do., illustrative vignette (peacock) 

27. Goniodes stylifer, specimens 

28. Do., enlarged figure 

29. Do. , illustrative vignette (turkey) 

30. Goniodes numidianus, specimens . 

31. Do., enlarged figure 

32. Do., illustrative vignette (guinea fowl) 

33. Goniodes colchici, specimens , 

34. Do., enlarged figure 

35. Do., illustrative vignette (pheasant) 

36. Goniodes dissimilis, specimens 

37. Do., enlarged figure . 

38. Do., illustrative vignette (fowl) 

39. Goniodes tetraonis, specimens . 

40. Do., enlarged figure 

41. Do., illustrative vignette (grouse) 

42. Lipeurus stellaris, specimens 

43. Do., enlarged figure 

44. Do., illustrative vignette (pigeons) 

45. Lipeurus variabilis, specimens . 

46. Do., enlarged figure 

47. Do., illustrative vignette (chickens) 

48. Lipeurus jejunus, specimens . 

49. Do. enlarged figure 

50. Do. illustrative vignette (geese) 

51. Lipeurus polytrapezius, specimens 

52. Do., enlarged figure 

53. Do., illustrative vignette (teal) 

54. Ornithobius cygni, specimens 

55. Do., enlarged figure 

56. Do., illustrative vignette (swan) 



SEE PAGE 
380 



CONTENTS. xix 

CASE XIX. 

AN O P LU R A {contimied). 

Mallophaga (conti7tued) and Haematopina. 

NO. "" ■^ SEE PAGE 

1. Trichodectes similis, specimens 383 

2. Do., enlarged figure 

3. Do., illustrative vignette (red deer) 

4. Trichodectes longicornis, specimens (4) . . . . . . 

5. Do., enlarged figure 

6. Do., illustrative vignette (fallow deer) . , . . . . 

7. Trichodectes sphasrocephalus, specimens ..... 

8. Do., enlarged figure 

9. Do., illustrative vignette (sheep) 

10. Trichodectes scalaris, specimens 384 

11. Do., enlarged figure 

12. Do., illustrative vignette (cov/) ....... 

13. Trichodectes equi . 

14. Do., enlarged figure . . . . . . . . . 

15. Do., illustrative vignette (horse) 

16. Trichodectes latus, specimens (4) 

17. Do., enlarged figure 

18. Do., illustrative vignette (dog) . . . . , . , 

19. Trichodectes subrostratus, specimens (4) 

20. Do., enlarged figure . . . 

21. Do., illustrative vignette (cat) 

22. Hsematomyzus elephantis, specimen (i) 385 

23. Do., enlarged figure 

24. Do., illustrative vignette (elephant) 

25. Hsematopinus acanthopus, specimens (2) 386 

26. Do., enlarged figure ......... 

27. Do., illustrative vignette (field mouse) 

28. Haematopinus spinulosus, specimens (eggs and insects) . . . 

29. Do., enlarged figure of ditto ....... 

30. Do., illustrative vignette (brown rat) . . . ... 

31. Hsematopinus ventricosus, specimens (2) . . , . 

32. Do., enlarged figure . 

33. Do., illustrative vignette (rabbit) ...... 

34. Hsematopinus lyriocephalus 

35. Do., enlarged figure ........ 

36. Do., illustrative vignette (hare) . 

37. Hsematopinus suis, specimens (3) . 

38. Do., enlarged figure 

39. Do., illustrative vignette (sow) 

40. Haematopinus vituli, specimen . . . . . . . . 387 



XX 



CONTENTS. 



NO. 

41. Hsematopinus vituli, enlarged figure 

42. Do., illustrative vignette (calf) 

43. Hsematopinus eurysternus, specimens (several) 

44. Do., enlarged figure .... 

45. Do., illustrative vignette (cattle) 

46. Hsematopinus asini, specimens (4) 

47. Do., enlarged figure 

48. Do., illustrative vignette 

49. Haematopinus piliferus, specimens (4) 

50. Do., enlarged figure . 

51. Do., illustrative vignette (dog) . 

52. Hsematopinus quadrumanus, specimens (4) 

53. Do., enlarged figure 

54. Do., illustrative vignette (monkey) 



SEE PAGE 

3S7 



388 



389 



13. 

14. 

15- 

16. 

17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 



CASE XX. 

ANOPLURA {continued). 
Pediculi, Lice of Man. 

Phthirius inguinalis, crab louse, specimens of insect .... 389 

Do., sketch of do ,, 

Pediculus vestimenti, the body louse, European variety, specimens 

of insect 394 

Do., sketch of do . . . ,, 

Do., specimen of insect on a glass slide . . . . • ,, 

Do., anterior claw of do., much magnified . . . . ,, 

Pediculus capitis, head louse, European variety, specimens of insect (o) 399 

Do., sketch of do ,, 

Do., specimen of insect on a glass slide ,, 

Do., anterior claw of do. , much magnified . . . . . ,, 

Do,, vignette sketch, European race ,, 

Pediculus capitis, Esquimaux variety, specimens of insect (o) and 

vignette sketch of do ,, 

Do., specimen of insect on a glass slide ,, 

Do., of anterior claw, much magnified , . . . • . ,, 

Do. , vignette sketch, Esquimaux , , 

Pediculus capitis, Californian variety, specimens of insect . . 400 

Do., sketch of do ., 

Do,, specimen of insect on a glass slide ,, 

Do., of anterior claw, much magnified ,, 

Do., vignette sketch, Californian Indian ., 

Pediculus capitis, Andian variety, Quito, specimens of insect . . . , 

Do., sketch of do . . • », 



CONTENTS. 



XXI 



(o) 



KO. 

23. Pediculus capitis, Andian variety, specimen of insect on a glass 

24. Do. , of anterior claw, much magnified 

25. Do., vignette sketch, South American Indian . 

26. Pediculus capitis, Fuegian variety, specimens of insect (o) 

27. Do., sketch of do 

28. Do., specimen of insect on a glass slide 

29. Do., sketch of anterior claw, much magnified . 

30. Do., vignette sketch, Fuegians .... 

31. Pediculus capitis. West African variety, specimens of insect 

32. Do., sketch of do 

33. Do. , specimen of insect on a glass slide 

34. Do., of anterior claw, much magnified 

35. Do., vignette sketch, West African Negro . 

36. Pediculus capitis, Mozambique variety, specimen of insect 

37. Do. , sketch of do 

38. Do., specimen of insect on a glass slide 

39. Do., of anterior claw, much magnified 

40. Do., vignette sketch, Mozambique Africander. . 

41. Pediculus capitis, specimens of insect, Hindoo variety 

42. Do., sketch of do 

43. Do., specimen of insect on a glass slide 

44. Do., of anterior claw, much magnified 

45. Do., vignette sketch, Hindoo Brahmin 

46. Pediculus capitis, Australian variety, specimens of insect . 

47. Do., sketch of do 

48. Do., specimen of insect on a glass slide 

49. Do. , of anterior claw, much magnified 

50. Do., vignette sketch, Australian .... 

51. Vignette sketch, Causes of vermin: Dirt and over crowding 

52. Do., Causes of vermin : Misery .... 

53. Do., Causes of vermin : Disease 

54. Do., Remedies, Cleanliness, &c. .... 



SEE PAGE 

slide. 400 



CASE XXI. 
THYSANURA.— (Spring-tails). 

COLLEMBOLA. 

1 . Smynthurus fuscus, sketch of insect 406 

2. Papirius omatus, do. 408 

3. Do. fuscus, do. ......,, 

4. Orchesella cincta, specimens of insect ,, 

5. Do. sketch of do ,, 

6. Do. do. 



CONTENTS. 



NO. SEE PAGE 

7. Tomocerus longicornis, sketch of insect 409 

8. Do., sketch of magnified scale of do. . . . ,, 

9. Tomocerus plumbeus, sketch of insect ,, 

10. Seira buskii, do. 410 

11. Do., sketch of scale of do. magnified ,, 

12. Templetonia crystallina, sketch of insect „ 

13. Beckia argentea, do. ,, 

14. Lepidocyrtus curvicollis do. ,, 

15. Do. magnified scale of do. . . . . ,, 

16. Degeeria annulata, sketch of insect 411 

17. Isotoma viatica, sketch of insect ,, 

18. Isotoma grisea, do 412 

19. Achorutes purpurascens do. „ 

20. Podm-a aquatica do. ,, 

21. Lipura fimetaria do. ,, 

22. Anoura muscoruni do. ..,,,,. 414 

23. Anoura granaria do. „ 

LEPISMIDAE. 

24. Campodea staphylinus do. 415 

25. Japyx solifugus do. ,, 

26. Lepisma saccharina do. 416 

27. Do,, sketch of magnified scale of do. , . . „ 

28. Machilis maritima, sketch of insect . . . . , , . „ 

29. Do. sp., sketch of magnified scale of do. ....,, 



CONTENTS, 



XXI 11 



"^^ THE FOLLOWING NEW GENERA AND SPECIES ARE DESCRIBED 
IN THIS VOLUME. 

PAGE 

Julus nitens i8 

Polydesmus dorsalis .......... 20 

Brachycybe rosea . . . . . . . . . . .21 

Scolopendra angusticollis . . . . . . . . . 27 

Scolopendra coeruleoviridis . . . . . . . . • 27 

Tetranychus eriostemi 109 

Genus Petrobia 118 

Gamasus quadripunctatus . . . . . . . .,161 

Gamasus podager ........... 161 

Argas moubata . .' 182 

Ixodes brevipes . . . . . , , . . . -194 

Ixodes distipes . . . . . . . . . . , 194 

Genus Xiphiastor . . . . . . . . . . ,201 

Xiphiastor rostratus .......... 201 

Amblyomma pacificum ......... 203 

Genus Ophiodes ........... 204 

Fa?nily Halacaridse 208 



ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY. 



INTRODUCTION. 



Economic Entomology is the science that treats of insects 
which affect man and his interests. In a wide sense every insect 
may be said to affect man, for those which appear to have no 
direct relation to him, may still affect him by giving pleasure by 
their external beauty, or instruction by their anatomy and physiology, 
but so far as regards the collection in the Bethnal Green Branch 
of the South Kensington Museum, of which this work is the 
exponent, the term has been used in its more restricted significa- 
tion as applicable only to insects that directly affect him in his 
material interests — under which head the personal comfort of 
himself and his dependents, the profit to be made from them, or 
the damage done by them, are included. 

The number of insects that directly contribute to his benefit is 
small; but that of those that directly injure him and the objects 
in which he has an interest is very great — as is the number of 
those that indirectly assist and benefit him by waging war upon 
these enemies. 

There are unfortunately no means of distinguishing by a short 
definition the former from the latter. In mammals, we can tell 
by the teeth whether any species is carnivorous or herbivorous ; 
and at first sight it would appear that we should be able to do the 
same with insects by the parts of the mouth. If herbivorous, we 
,hould set them down as hurtful ; while those that are carnivorous 
should be regarded as our friends, for they principally feed on 

A 2 



4 JNTR OD UCTION. 

vegetable-devouring insects. Many difficulties, however, stand in 
the way of our determining which belong to one class and which 
to the other, for paradoxical exceptions, which can only be likened 
to the occurrence of herbivorous carnivora or carnivorous her- 
bivora, or both at one and the same time, or at one time one 
and at another the other, from time to time meet us, and there 
are no means of saying ^/r/<?7V whether and when we are dealing 
with such a case or not. Nothing but experience can enable us 
to do so, and it is one of the objects of the collection to which 
this is to serve as a Guide to assist those who desire it to acquire 
that information. 

It may be proper to say a word or two in explanation of some 
of the peculiar features of the collection and the reasons for their 
adoption. The collection being destined for the instruction of 
the people, it was of course desirable that it should be displayed 
in such a manner as would be readily accessible and easily 
examined, and upright cases open to view have been thought best 
adapted for this purpose. The colours of insects are so evanescent 
under exposure to the light, and the specimens themselves are 
so fragile and subject to decay, that they are generally kept in 
closed drawers or cases. The experience which the Museum 
authorities have had with a case of silk-spinning moths, which are 
so preserved in a locked case (accessible on application), has 
shewn, however, that a collection so preserved would be practi- 
cally sealed to the great majority of the visitors to the Museum. 
They will not take the trouble to apply to see it. The collection 
has therefore been made open to the public view, and the incon- 
veniences thence arising are endeavoured to be removed by 
occasional renewal of specimens and by giving along with each 
insect a coloured representation of it, more or less magnified 
according to the size of the insect — which, in the case of minute 
insects, would be absolutely indispensable to allow their appear- 
ance to be seen at all, and in larger ones has the advantage of 
allowing the various parts to be more distinctly seen, and the 



INTRODUCTION. 5 

important ones to be brought more prominently into view. No 
figure, however, can convey a knowledge of the creature equal to 
that to be derived from a glance at the specimen itself. The 
purpose has been, therefore, always to place specimens of the 
actual insect alongside of the coloured figures; and where this has 
not been done, the omission is to be referred to the incomplete- 
ness of a collection only in progress of formation, not to intention 
or neglect. For the same reason models of injuries done to 
perishable objects have been added. 

The system of displaying the collection in cases, if it has its 
advantages to the public, has one serious inconvenience to the 
maker of the collection. He cannot go straight forward with his 
subject as in the pages of a book, leaving ofif in the middle of a 
word or a subject at the bottom of the page or case. Each case 
requires to be treated as a separate subject or chapter of a subject 
or paragraph of a chapter. It must, to a certain extent, be 
complete within itself. A new subject cannot be well introduced 
on the last line of the case, even although the subject is finished : 
and still the case must be filled. 

This special difficulty has been met without the introduction 
of irrelevant matter, occasionally by the addition of kindred 
species, which throw light upon the relations of the insects under 
consideration (although they may themselves have no strict right 
to a place under the head of Economic Entomology), and at other 
times by the introduction of vignettes and tail pieces. These 
have been intentionally made rather of a bright and cheerful 
character with the view of catching the eye of the passer-by, who 
might not otherwise deign to pay any attention to what he may 
consider a dry and uninviting subject, and with the hope that 
when so arrested he may extend his observations to the surround- 
ing objects. 

It is unnecessary to say that neither the collection nor this 
work has any pretensions to being a work on Systematic 
Entomology. Those who wish for information on that subject 



6 INTRODUCTION. 

must have recourse to the authors who treat of it It Is only 
when (as in the case of the mites, for example,) there is no 
general work treating of a particular branch of the subject that it 
has then been gone into with some greater attempt at detail ; but 
the collection is arranged according to the most approved modem 
system, with this qualification, that it has sometimes, though 
rarely, been made to bend so far as to bring together the species 
of one group, that attack one particular kind of plant, instead of 
dispersing them among several according to their structural 
peculiarities. 

Where a cypher (o) is appended to any object in the Catalogue, 
it means that specimens are intended to be placed in the col- 
lection but have not yet been procured. 

Andrew Murray. 



HURTFUL ANIMALS ALLIED TO OR LIKELY 
TO BE MISTAKEN FOR INSECTS. 

CASE CRUSTACEANS. 

The collection begins with two or three species of crustaceans 
which are injurious to the horticulturist. These are not insects, 
but they occupy the nearest and most projecting point of the great 
region of the animal kingdom which lies next them. It is as if 
two great continents lay opposite to each other, one inhabited by 
insects and the other by crustaceans ; and as a traveller in begin- 
ning the account of his journey starts with the port from which 
he sailed, so it is desirable, in treating of insects, to begin by 
endeavouring to trace the source from which they most probably 
originally came. By doing so we shall connect the two kindred 
nations of crustaceans and insects together. Starting from the 
crustaceans we shall reach the insects through two routes or 
I resting-points — islands, as it were, lying in the ocean between their 
r respective continents, viz., the Spiders and their allies, and the 
Thysanura and theirs, both lying much nearer the insect coast 
than the crustacean — so near, indeed, that there need be no hesi- 
tation in classing them among insects, which accordingly has been 
done here, and yet so distinct that they cannot be so placed with- 
out explanation and qualification. 

The Crustaceans, then, consist of that class of animals of which 
the crab, lobster, and shrimp are our most familiar examples 
They possess many characters which are common to insects, such 
as an external skeleton or shell, articulated bodies and limbs, 
and the same mode of articulation ; but are, for the most part, 
sufficiently different in appearance from them. Some, however, 



8 CRUSTACEANS. 

CASE, bear considerable resemblance to some insects, and perhaps the 
family of Oniscidse comes nearest to them of any. They belong 
to the order Isopoda, or equal-footed crustaceans, which, unlike 
the crab and lobster with unequal claws, are provided with feet of 
equal size on each side of the body. The Oniscidse have nu- 
merous segments and feet, and a number of them possess the 
faculty of rolling themselves up in a ball like a pill. 



Order ISOPODA. 

Family ONISCIDSE. 

Nos. Oniscus asellus {Linn.). — 1. Specimens (6), (15); 2. Enlarged figure of 
ditto. 







Oniscus cisellus (rather magnified). Antenna of Oniscus aselius. 



This and its allied species are known as wood-lice or slaters 
in this country, and sow-bugs in America. They are very com- 
mon, and may be found under stones or in moist and dark places 
of concealment. The present species does not roll itself up in a 
ball, in this respect differing from some of the others. Its external 
antennse (for, unlike insects, most crustaceans have four antennae, 
while insects have only two) consist of eight joints, the last elbow 
of the antennae being divided into three, while the allied genera 
Porcellio and Armadillo have only seven, the last elbow being 
divided into two. Like other crustaceans, it carries its eggs in a 
thoracic pouch, and a whole family of young ones freshly hatched 
may be found huddled up on the under side of the mother. They 
are almost omnivorous, and are no doubt of considerable use as 



ONISCID.^,. 9 

CASE scavengers, clearing away both vegetable and animal detritus ; but 
they do not confine themselves to dead or decaying matter. They 
also attack living plants, peaches, melons, mushrooms, and any- 
thing that is juicy, doing more mischief by disfiguring the fruit 
than by the quantity they consume. They are also very partial 
to orchids, eating the young fibrils of the roots, especially of such 
as Cattleyas, that require to be kept dry when not in active 
growth, but which, nevertheless, make a good deal of root-growth 
at that period. When numerous they will destroy almost every 
root that is made on the surface of the pots, rendering the 
growth which follows small and weak. To them, too, is often 
due the loss of some spreading plants in the open border, such as 
saxifrages, primroses, strawberries, &c., which afford a shelter for 
them under the cover of their leaves. When a plant of this habit 
is seen to languish and droop, an examination under the covering 
leaves will often show a family of young Onisci sheltered by them 
which have eaten all round the neck of the root. 

They are difficult to dislodge from our hot-houses, for wherever 
a crevice or chink exists there they find shelter, and they even 
make galleries through the sphagnum and moss in which some 
orchids are grown. No wholesale mode of destroying them is 
known. They must be cut off in detail, and the same sort of 
contrivances which are had recourse to to entrap earwigs and 
surface larvae must be used against them. Scooped-out potatoes 
or apples, placed like little domes, into which they can creep up, 
or put into pots under a little moss and little heaps of decaying 
plants, turfs, or pots filled with horse droppings in a half dry state 
(to which they are very partial), may be left in the houses at 
night and examined, and the creatures destroyed, every morning, 
and so by care and attention their numbers may be thinned ; but 
they are so numerous and universally distributed that no complete 
cure can be looked for, fresh recruits constantly coming in from 
without. The walls of the orchard and of the houses should be 
carefully pointed to remove the crevices in which they hide. 



lo CRUSTACEANS. 

CASE PoRCELLio SCABER (Zrt/r.).— No. 3. Specimens (12); 4. Enlarged figure 
Nos. of ditto. 

3. 4- 





Porcellio scaber (natural size). Antenna of Porcellio scaber. 

External antennae, seven-jointed. Rougher than Onlscus asel- 
lus, and browner and more varied in colour. There are several 
species, two of which have the power 'of rolling themselves up 
like a ball, the rest have not. 

Nos. Armadillo vulgarls (Zm«.).— 5. Specimens (12) ; 6. Enlarged figure of 
5~7- ditto ; 7. Enlarged figure of insect rolled up as a ball. 





Armadillo vulgaris rolled up as a ball. Armadillo vulgaris. Antenna of Armadillo vulgaris. 

(natural size). 

In this genus, as in Porcellio, the last elbow of the outer an- 
tennae has two joints instead of three, and the insect has the 
power of contracting itself into a ball. It is larger, smoother, and 
of a more uniform slatey-blue colour than the others. Its habits, 
and the mischief it does, are much the same as those of the com- 
mon Oniscus, and the remarks made on it also apply to this and 
the species of PorcelHo. 



INSECTS. 



II 



CASE 
I. 



INSECTS-Generalities. 



The general arrangement adopted in this work is the fol- 
lowing : — 



1. Aptera, or Wingless Insects 

(Spiders, Mites, Lice, &c.) 

2. Hemiptera, or Bugs. 

3. Orthoptera (Earwigs, Cock- 

roaches, Locusts, &c.) 

4. Diptera, or Two-winged flies. 



5. Hymenoptera (Eees, Wasps, 

&c.) 

6. Neuroptera (Dragonflies). 

7. Lepidoptera (Butterflies and 

Moths.) 

8. Coleoptera (Beetles). 



At the commencement it may be proper to note the following 
generalities, for the benefit of those to whom the subject is new. 
Insects, in their most complete character, pass through four 
stages or phases of existence — the ^gg^ the larva (maggot or 
caterpillar) stage, the chrysalis, and the perfect stage. In none 
of these, except the larval or caterpillar stage, does the insect 
increase in size. It is not unusual to hear people speak of a 
small beetle or moth being the young of a larger one that is 
otherwise like it, but after insects have come out of the chrysalis 
stage they never grow — all the growth is done in the earlier stage 
when they are caterpillars. If we sometimes meet with two 
insects of the same species but of different size, the difference is 
due to the supply of food which the caterpillar had during its 
growth, and is only a parallel case to an ill-nourished child growing 
up into a stunted man. Some insects, as the Aptera, pass only 
through three stages : the egg, the younger state, and the perfect 
form — and some of the intermediate orders also attain perfection 
without passing through more than two. 

The egg is usually deposited, but in some few cases it is hatched 
in the body of the parent ; in some others it is, at one period 
of the year, deposited as an egg, and at another the progeny is 
brought forth alive. In others again it is sometimes the one and 
sometimes the other. In the larval stage the insect casts its skin 



12 GENERALITIES. 

CASE or moults several times, after each casting attaining a sudden and 
rapid increase of size. The larva does not always take the form 
of a caterpillar or maggot. In some orders (the Aptera, Hemiptera, 
and Orthoptera) it assumes a good deal of the appearance of the 
perfect insect. In this imperfect metamorphose it changes its 
skin as the caterpillars do, and it does not assume a different 
form for the chrysalis state. 

In .the other orders the larva, on its last change of skin, assumes 
a new form known as the chrysalis, or pupa, in which state it lies 
dormant and nearly motionless, shut up like a body in a shroud, 
until the last change takes place, when it comes out as the perfect 
insect. This chrysalis, in some cases, merely consists of the 
hardened skin of the animal itself, and is left unprotected and 
bare in the open air, or in the earth or other place of conceal- 
ment, but in other cases a cocoon or case is made by the larva 
for it previous to and in anticipation of the change — in some 
spun like the cocoon of the silk-worm, in others composed of 
fragments of earth or bits of wood, &c., glued together. 

It is to be borne in mind that in Natural History no rule or 
definition is of absolute and invariable application. Unexpected 
deviations which puzzle the naturalist and refuse to be bound 
by his rules, occur in every order. These must be treated as 
exceptions. 

APTERA (Wing-less Insects). 

The Aptera are arranged in the four following orders, viz. : — 



1. Myriapoda (Centipeds, &c.). 

2. Arachnoids (Spiders, Scorpions, 

and Mites). 



3. Thysanura (Springtails). 

4. Parasitica or Anoplura (Lice). 



Order MYRIAPODS. 

The order of Myriapods is distinguished by the mature animal 

being divided into numerous segments, each bearing two or four 

feet, terminated by a single claw. In the young state they have 

all fewer segments, and at first only three pairs of feet. Some 



MYRIAPOD^. 13 

CASE have no eyes ; but the majority are provided with two clusters of 
single eyes varying in number. It is divided into two great 
sections, the most important character of which, so far as the 
economic entomologist is concerned, is that the one (with two 
curious exceptions, the Sugentia, where the mandibles are con- 
verted into a sucking apparatus, and the Pauropoda, which are 
wholly aberrant), has its jaws or mandibles formed on the ordi- 
nary plan adopted in insects that bite their food, while the other 
has them formed out of its fore-legs into something half-leg, half- 
jaw, after the fashion of the falces of spiders, with a sharp point 
and a hollow duct up their core, which is connected with a poison 
gland, as in the spider. The former of these sections compose 
the Chilognaths (meaning jaw-jawed insects) or Diplopods, the 
latter the Chilopods (meaning foot-jawed insects) or Scolopen- 
dridae. This difference in the character of their jaws is a very 
important one for the horticulturist, as in this instance it is a 
character by which he ought to be able to distinguish between 
his friends and his enemies. The Julidae have their jaws per- 
fectly adapted for biting vegetables as well as any other matter. 
The Scolopendridse have not, and the same principle that enabled 
Cuvier to determine the nature of his fossil vertebrates, whether 
carnivorous or herbivorous, equally applies to the organs of 
feeding in these insects. Both, to be sure, are equally under the 
ban of horticulturists, because both are found by them in injured 
roots of plants, and they credit both alike with the damage done, 
although the one actually did it or helped to do it, and the other 
only came there to prey upon the insects that were busy doing 
it. Curtis, although himself regarding the Scolopendrse as carni- 
vorous, mentions that the late Mr. Hope " attributed the Potato 
disease to the attacks of the wire-worm, and also to a small Scolo- 
pendra which he had found in myriads infesting diseased Potatoes 
at Southend,'' and Curtis adds that he himself " observed them in 
rotten Potatoes in August 1845; and in September 1848 Geo- 
phalus electricus was running about in every direction when the 



14 JULID^, 

CASE Potatoes were forked out." But an examination of the structure 
of their mouth and jaws, at once shows that the Scolopendridse 
could never be vegetable feeders. There are two principles which 
it is safe to say Nature never deviates from. She never does any- 
thing without a purpose, and she never wastes her labour. If she 
endows an animal with any special structure or apparatus, it is for 
some end. Now it is obvious that if the centipedes feed on the 
roots of plants, they must sin against both of the above principles 
in Nature's code. A poison bag and a poison tooth can be of no 
possible use to a herbivorous animal ; therefore, as it would be a 
useless waste of apparatus to give it something which was of no 
use to it, the animal possessing these tools cannot have been in- 
tended to be herbivorous. 

Section Chilognatha {Diplopoda mare). 

Mandibles not perforated, but adapted for ordinary biting and chewing. 
The anterior six feet are placed one on each side of each segment, the re- 
mainder two on each. 

Family JULID^ (commonly called Snake MilHpeds), 
Nos. Glomeris limbata {Linn.).—%. Specimen (i) ; 9. Enlarged figure of ditto. 

It will be seen from the specimens of 
this species how closely the genus resembles 
Oniscus, and especially Armadillo, in out- 
ward appearance, notwithstanding the wide 
difference between a crustacean and an in- 
sect. It seems one of those transition cases 
^SuSSr of which many instances occur in nature. 

Its habits are similar to those of the Onisci. 

The insects with the aspect of Oniscus have been divided into 

two sections, according to whether the eyes (which are simple and 

not compound) are disposed in a curved line or in a cluster, so as 

to be like the compound eyes of other insects. The above belong 




MYRIAPODS. 15 

CASE to the former ; the following to the latter. The species limbata 
is black with a narrow yellow margin. 

Nos. Sph^ropceus castaneus {Newp.). — 10. Specimens (3) ; 11. Enlarged figure 
^°' "■ of ditto. The difference between the structure of the antennae of the 

Oniscidse and these insects is shown in the woodcut. 

Nos.. Sph^ropceus HETEROSTICTUS {Newj).). — 12. Specimens (i) ; 13. Enlarged 
figure of ditto. 

Nos. Sph^ropceus glabratus {Newp.?). — 14. Specimen (i) ; 15. Sketch of an 



M, 15 



Orchid injured by such insects. 




'^ 



Sphaeropocus glabratus (natural size). Antenna of Sphceropoeus castaneus. 

This and the preceding species were found by a nurseryman 
amongst a number of plants imported by him from the East 
Indies. 

Genus Julus {Linn^, 
The small thread-like Juli do not look very like the short, stumpy 
Glomeris ; but a little examination will show that Julus is only a 
very long and somewhat modified Glomeris. In their youngest 
stage they have few segments and only three pairs of legs, which 
appear respectively on the second, third, and fifth segments. 



Young Julus -with only six legs (magnified). Julus a little older, with 14 legs (magnified). 

As they grow older, the number of segments and legs increases at 
each change of skin, until they reach maturity, when the number 
of segments may reach to fifty and upwards. As already said, the 
Juli or snake Millipeds are general feeders, consuming both 



1 6 yULID^. 

CASE decaying and living animal and vegetable substances. They 
prey upon slugs, small snails, insects and their larvae and pupae, 
earth-worms, &c. So far they may be regarded as friends ; but, 
unhappily, they also feed on living vegetables, and various plants 
are often seriously injured by their attacking their roots. In 
particular they feed upon our root crops, potatoes, carrots, &c. 
It has been said that although often found in holes in our 
root crops, it may be that the holes were already there before 
they came, and that they have only come to feed on the soft 
parts of a diseased or decaying root. The truth may be that a 
sound healthy tuber has too tough a coat for them to penetrate, 
but when they get into the juicy interior of soft pulpy roots, 
such as bulbs, the case is different ; they can have no difficulty 
in making their way into them or in consuming the tender fibres 
of the roots of herbaceous plants. 

It is very doubtful whether any means have been found of 
getting rid of these insects. Sprinkling soot and nitrate of soda 
over the land and watering it with lime water have been recom- 
mended, but apparently without much success. It is difficult to 
damage the insect without damaging the plant it is attacking too. 
So far as greenhouses, hothouses, and outhouses are concerned, 
they may be kept tolerably free from them by care, cleanliness, 
aii^ the adoption of such traps as have been already referred to ; 
but the open fields are less under control. 

Nos. JULUS PULCHELLUS, {Leach)^ (supposed to be J. guttatus, Fab.). — 
16—20. jg^ Specimens (several in a phial) ; 17. Enlarged figure of ditto ; 

18. Sketch of carrot injured by ditto ; 19. Lily roots injured by ditto, 
preserved in glycerine ; 20. Model of lily roots injured by them. 

^mmmsfim^ This is an insect as to 

whose hurtful properties 
there can be no doubt. It 

Julus pulchellus (natural size and magfnified). is probably the mOSt in- 

jurious of all the snake 
Millipeds, as it is the commonest. It is a- small, long, thread-like 



/ 



MYRIAPODS. 17 

CASE species, too minute and slender to allow anything to be done 
against it by direct manipulation. When viewed under a magnify- 
ing-glass it will be seen to be a very pretty little animal, like a 
pale thread, about the thickness of a pin, with a double row of 
bright crimson spots on it, and when put in spirits it stains the 
liquid of a purple hue, to which it itself turns after death. It has 
no eyes, which has led to its being regarded as belonging to 
another genus. This is the species which most frequently forces 
itself upon the attention of horticulturists, and Hlies seem espe- 
cially the object of its attacks. 

The specimens of lily scales (No. 19) were presented to the 
collection by Mr. George F. Wilson, F.R.S., from plants which 
were entirely disintegrated by them, and a correspondent of 
one of our horticultural periodicals {The Garden) not long ago 
stated that on turning out some pots of Eucharis amazonica and 
Vallota, which were not thriving, he found, besides acari, a 
quantity of this species of snake milliped busy about the roots. 
Further investigation showed that the roots of some of the sickly 
plants had been perforated by these msects, which had also eaten 
their way into the body of the bulbs themselves. Curtis, from his 
own knowledge, specifies the roots of the scarlet runner, the roots 
of the cabbage tribe generally, and the roots of young wheat, as 
having been attacked, and Mr. Wilson Saunders notes that he 
had observed that the young roots of heart's-ease were injured by 
this species. 



Nos. JULUS TERRESTRis {Linn.).—2\. Specimens of ditto (i); 22. Enlarged figure 
*^~^3- Qf ciitto . 23. Model of parsnip root in which they were found feeding. 



^^ ggm^S ^^^iit:^ 



Juliis terrestris (natural size). Antenna of Julus terrestris (magnified). 

This does similar mischief to the last. It is one of the largest 
British species— reaching an inch in length— and is distinguished 



i8 



yULID^. 



CASE from that which comes nearest to it (Julus Londinensis) by having 
rather longer antennae and by the pre-anal segment of the tail 
being mucronate (terminating in a sort of spike) instead of simply 
rounded or nearly so. 



Nos. 

24. 25- 



Julus londinensis {Leach). — 24. Specimens (i?) ; 25. Enlarged figure of 
ditto. 




Julus Londinensis 
(natural size). 



This is very similar to the preceding species, 
and differs chiefly from it in having the apex 
of the tail rounded, or nearly so, instead of 
having the pre-anal segment pointed. It has 
been found at the roots of wheat plants, appa- 
rently feeding upon them. 
Besides the above there are several other species of Julus found 
in Britain, viz. : Julus pilosus, which Curtis found at cabbage 
roots ; Julus punctatus, which is met with in moss and old woods, 
and probably in gardens; and Julus latistriatus, which has been 
found infesting a garden. 

There are also many exotic species, of which one or two 
examples are added to the collection to give the student a better 
general idea of the different forms the family assumes. Thus — 



Nos. Julus nitens {Murr.\\.%.).—2^. Specimen (i) ; 27. Enlarged figure of ditto. 
26, 27. 

This is an exotic species found amongst 
a number of recently imported plants in a 
nurseryman's hot-houses — supposed to be 
from the East Indies. It is about double 
the length and thrice the thickness of Julus 
terrestris, is of the same leaden-coloured 
hue, but is very highly polished and shining. 
It has a row of dark spots all down the 

middle of each side, and its legs and antennae are bright light 

red. 




Julus nitens (natural size). 



MYRIAPODS. 19 

CASE Spirostreptus javanicus (^;-.).— 28. Specimens (i); 29. Enlarged figure 
.VJs of ditto. 

28, 29. 

A large exotic species from Java, placed here to shew the large 

size to which the species reach in tropical climates, and thereby 

to shew the characters of the Juli more distinctly. 



Nos. Spirostreptus annulatipes (yV^/..?).— 30. Specimens (2) ; 31. Enlarged 
figure of ditto. 



30,31 




Spirostreptus annulatipes (natural size). 

This is probably a climatal variety of Newport's Spirostreptus 
annulatipes. That species comes from West Africa, this from 
Natal. The banded legs and other characters agree, but the fine 
rugae on the segments spoken of by Newport are less numerous. 

Genus Polydesmus (Latr.). 
This genus is the transition link between the Snake Millipeds 
and the Centipeds. The species are flat and compressed, and 
the segments are usually more or less granulated or nodose on the 
back. The British species is small, but the exotic ones reach two 
inches or more in length. Their exterior is very hard and im- 
penetrable, but the joints and limbs are very fragile and easily 
detached. They have the same mode of development as the Juli, 
the early three pair of legs, however, appearing on the second, 
fourth, and fifth segments, instead of on the second, third, and 
fifth. They have also the same habits, and like them, have been 



2Q JULID^. 

CASE found in numbers eating the roots of various plants. Anemones, 
pansies, and onions are mentioned as having been injured. The 
treatment indicated is the same as that for the Juli. 

Nos. PoLYDESMUS COMPLANATUS {Linn).—Z2. Specimens (5) ; 33. Enlarged figure. 

In its earlier stage it is 
from a quarter to half an 

Polydesmus complanatus (young and full grown, iucll long, aud when matUrC 

natural size). 

reaches nearly an inch in 
length. It is of a pale whitish lilac colour. It has a worse 
character among horticulturists than even the Juli. 

Nos. Polydesmus dorsalis, {Murr. n. s.) (aff. Thomsoni) (Zz^r.).— 34. Specimens 



34, 35 



(i) ; 35. Enlarged figure. 




Polydesmus dorsalis (natural size). 

A large tropical species two inches in length — not unlike the 
West African species P. Thomsoni ; of similar dimensions, but the 
segments are almost free from granulations, and a whitish stripe 
runs up the middle of the back the whole length of the body. 

Family SUGENTIA. 

Parts about the mouth consolidated into a tubule fitted for sucking up liquid 
food. 

Most authors have regarded this modification of the parts of 
the mouth as of so much importance that they have treated the 
species possessing it as a distinct order or family equal in value 
to the Chilognatha, or Chilopoda. The importance of such a 
modification is not the same in all orders, and the lower we s:o 



MYRIAPODS, 



ii 



CASE in the scale the less is its value. In this case, too, the insects 
themselves are to all outward appearance so similar to the Poly- 
desmi that we have difficulty in separating them from that genus, 
and cannot accept the idea of giving them any higher rank than 
a family of the Chilognatha. In like manner we must propor- 
tionately reduce the value of the sections composing it. It has 
been divided by those who regard it as an order into the families 
of Polyzonidag, with simple eyes, and Siphonophoridse, without 
eyes ; which again has been subdivided into the genus Siphono- 
phora with a long rostrum, and Brachycybe with a short one ; 
but as the reader goes along he will learn to distrust the value 
of modifications of the eyes as a character of any importance. 
Eyes in fact seem to be a sort of unessential accident that 
may be present or absent, large or small, few or many, without 
much disturbing the harmony of the relations of the rest of the 
creature's economy. In some cases such modifications are not 
even of generic value. The other characters of this section, how- 
ever, are of more importance. 



Genus Brachycybe ( Wood). 

Head very short, much shorter than the antennae, rostrum acute. 

Brachycybe rosea, {Mttrr. n.s.). — 36. Speci- 
mens (i) ; 37. Enlarged figure. 

This is a very beautiful species that we 
found in California in rotten stumps. It 
is white with a rosy blush, very flat, and 
with the segments numerous, broad, and 
very short (in other species 47 in number) ; 
it reaches from a quarter to one and a 
half inches in length \ the segments are 
compacted very close together, and so 
broad that they wholly conceal the legs 
below; there is a slight but handsome 
granulation on the back of the segments. 




Brachycybe rosea (natura 
size and magnified). 



22 SCOLOPENDRID^. 



CASE Section Chilopoda. 



Mouth provided with foot jaws. 



Family SCOLOPENDRID^ (Centipeds). 

GeophilidtE.— Small, long, and narrow species, with numerous feet (40 or 
more). Eyes none. Antennae with 14 joints. 



No. I. Mecistocephalus punctifrons {Newp.). — 1. Specimen (i). 

This is an East Indian species, bearing considerable similarity 
to our own British kinds. 



Nos. Geophilus longicornis [Leach).— 2. Specimens (2); 3. Enlarged figure of 
^' 3- ditto. 




Geophilus longicornis, magnified. 

This is a common species in Britain. The insect itself is like 
a long yellowish or whitish thread, a couple of inches or so in 
length, with a. multitude of minute feet on each side. It 
moves along with an undulating and sinuous motion. It has 
no eyes. 

The female sits upon her eggs like a snake, coiling herself round 
them in a little cell, which she makes for them in the ground, and 
according to Newport's observations never leaves them until they 
are hatched. The period of incubation is about a fortnight or 
three weeks. 



MYRIAPODS, 23 

CASE Geophilus subterraneus.— 4. Specimens (several in phial) ; 5. Enlarged 
jf Q5 figure of ditto ; 6. Vignette illustration of its phosphorescence. 



-6. 



This species is one of those which have the remarkable property 
of occasionally (more especially in spring and autumn) secreting 
a phosphoric Hght, which seems to exude from the body, and is 
left like a shining trail on the spots over which the insect has 
passed. It soon fades and disappears, seldom being seen for a 
longer space than a couple of feet behind the insect. This is the 
species whose luminosity has been most frequently observed in 
Britain, but there are reasons for believing that the property is 
common to all the section of centipedes known as Geophilidse, 
and that it is evolved only at the breeding season. Mr. Newport 
mentions having found two individuals of this species on the 
ground in contact with each other at midnight, on the 25th of 
September, which shone almost as brightly as the glow-worm, for 
which, at the instant, he mistook them. On taking them into his 
hand the luminous matter was exuded and adhered to his fingers, 
and continued to shine for some time, like phosphorus. The 
individuals appeared to be able to give it forth at pleasure. This 
property appears to be common to some tropical, as well as 
European, Geophili. Oviedo, the friend and companion o^ 
Columbus, as quoted by Newport, mentions it in his account of 
the island of St. Domingo : — " There are in this island (St. 
Domingo) many kinds of Scolopendra or hundred legs ; some are 
slender, and as long as one's finger, and like to those of Spain, 
and these bite and cause considerable pain. There are others of 
these worms about half the length of the finger and slender, with 
many feet, and these shine much by night, and leave a light where 
they go, and may be seen 50 or even 100 feet off. Yet the whole 
animal does not shine, but only the joints where the legs spring 
from the body, and the light is very bright." From this property 
this species, or the G. longicornis (it is doubtful which he meant) 
was named by Linnaeus, Scolopendra electrica. 

Numerous observations are recorded of Myriapods of this 



24 



SCOL OPENDRID^. 



CASE section, after having caused lingering headache, having been 
sneezed forth by men from the nose. As Van der Hoeven says, 
. it is easier to reject these observations than to explain the 
continued life of these insects in such an unusual situation. 

Genus Scolopendra. 

Eyes, four on both sides. Feet, almost 
always twenty-one. Antennae with from 
seventeen to twenty joints. 

This genus consists chiefly of large 
exotic species, which can inflict a 
painful and poisonous bite with their 
powerful nippers. The structure of 
the poison apparatus has been per- 
fectly well ascertained, and the 
poisonous character of the secretion 
sufficiently proved by experience. As 
to the latter, the larger the species 
naturally the more powerful should 
the poison be expected to be, and 
the bite from one of them causes 
pain and suffering, even to man 
himself. Brown, in his " History of 
Jamaica," says of one of the larger 
species (S. morsitans) — *' This insect 
is reckoned very venomous ; the 
prongs of the forceps are very strong, 
bending and pointed, which enable 
them to bite very hard, and they 
probably emit some venomous juice 
also, as some who have been bit by 
them informed me that the part bitten 
is very painful for two or three hours, 
and turns frequently of a livid colour. I have seen them often kill 




Scolopendra morsitans (natural size). 



MYRIAPODS. 25 

CASE a cockroach with a single nip." Another example of the severity 
of the bite came within our own personal knowledge. The sufferer 
was the manager of a sugar plantation in Jamaica in the bygone 
days, when there were still slaves, and Jamaica was still Jamaica ; 
and in the " boiling season," when the juice of the cane is boiled 
to produce the sugar, it was his duty or practice to visit the boilers 
during the night to see that the fires were kept up and no inter- 
mission allowed in the process. On these occasions he merely 
threw on a dressing-gown and thrust his naked feet into slippers 
while he took a hasty round through the works. While thus 
engaged he was once bitten on the leg a little above the ankle by 
one of these large centipeds. They are nocturnal animals, and 
of course most lively and alert at night. He described the pain 
as so excruciating that he almost fainted on the spot, and had to 
be assisted into the house. As to the structure of the apparatus 
for poisoning the wound made by the bite, that was satisfactorily 
made out by Mr. Newport, the eminent entomologist, whose loss 
is still deplored by our older naturalists. Until he worked it out, 
the gland by which the poison of the centiped is secreted had not 
been shown. Leewenhoek discovered at the apex of the man- 
dibles an orifice that communicated internally with an elongated 
cavity, and he also saw a drop of fluid exude from the orifice, but 
he did not discover the true secreting gland — which, however, 
Newport did. He not only confirmed Leewenhoek's observation 
in regard to the existence of a longitudinal opening at the inner 
margin of the apex of the mandible, but also traced it backwards 
to a sac with which it communicates, and discovered the gland of 
which it is the reservoir. It is to be observed, that the effect of 
the bite of a centiped in warm climates is very various ; sometimes 
excessively virulent and painful, at others causing little incon- 
venience. It is, no doubt, in a great measure due to the state of 
health and constitution of the individual sufferer and his conse- 
quent susceptibility to disease ; but, moreover, from experiments 
on venomous snakes, we now well know that the virulence of the 



26 SCOLOPENDRID^. 

CASE poison, and the degree of injury inflicted by it, may depend much 
on the circumstance, whether or not the animal has recently 
bitten and expended its venom on some other object, in which 
case, the injury occasioned is less severe ; and, the reason is 
obvious, for not only may the reservoir of venom be exhausted, but 
it may also be satisfactorily accounted for by what we now know 
of the manner in which the secretions of all glands are elaborated, 
viz., by the growth, bursting, and diffluence of successive series 
of epithelial cells that line the interior of these organs, the fluid 
contained within, and into which these cells and their nucleoli 
are resolved being the proper secretion. When this is expended 
too frequently, and the organ in consequence is excited by what 
may be called the stimulus of want, the secreting epithelial cells 
are hastened in their development, and the fluid into which they 
are resolved is imperfectly elaborated and its properties are 
doubtless less active. 

No. 7. ScoLOPENDRA CEYLONENSis {Newport .?). — 7. Specimens (2). 

This is one of the larger Centipeds above spoken of. They are 
probably all to be equally avoided. It is from Ceylon. 

No. 8. ScoLOPENDRA PLATYPOIDES {Newp.). — 8. Specimens (2). 

Another large and hurtful species. It is from Brazil. 

No. 9. SCOLOPENDRA PLACE.^ {Newp.).—^. Specimens (2). 
From Brazil. 

No. ID. ScoLOPENDRA VARIEGATA {Newp.).—Vi. Specimens (2). 
A handsome species from Brazil. 




Scolopendra variegata (natural size). 



. MYRIAPODS. 27 

CASE ScoLOPENDRA ANGUSTiCOLLis {Mtirr. n.s.)— 11. Specimens (2). From 

,11- Old Calabar. 

No. II. 

A strong, stout, largish species, of an olivaceous colour and 
smooth, shining texture; length about 4 inches; very similar to 
some of the Australian species, such as S. sulcidens, — a curious 
resemblance which has been observed in other species of this 
family from these far-separated lands. Denticulations of labium 
small. Antennae 17-jointed. Body of 22 segments, including the 
cephalic segments. The scutes at the neck are short and narrow; 
those that are farther back gradually become broader. The third 
segment (that immediately behind the cephalic), the fifth and the 
seventh, are shorter than those between them. The teeth on the 
femoral joint of the terminal legs are on the inner side, one rather 
large one at the posterior angle ; then three small ones nearer the 
body, and a lower row of three other small ones ; on the outer 
side three in a lower row. 



No. 12. ScoLOPENDRA Leachii {Neiup.). — 12. Specimen (i). 
From the Cape Verde Islands. 



No. 13. SCOLOPENDRA TUBERCULIDENS {Neivp.). — 13. Specimens (2), 

This species derives its name from the tooth on the inner angle 
of the thigh of the last legs, being composed of five smaller teeth. 
It is from the East Indies. 

Nos. ScoLOPENDRA ccERULEO-viRiDis {Mnn\ n.s.). — 14. Specimens (2) ; 15. En- 
^^ ^^" larged figure of ditto. From New Holland. 

This is one of the middle-sized species, about 2| to 3 inches 
long ; of a rich bluish green, with head and terminal feet orange- 
red. Antennae 17-jointed, of a lovely turquoise green, and legs 
of a pale semi-transparent light green. Body of 22 joints. Ter- 
minal legs rather compressed and tumid, and with a tooth at the 
inner angle of the femoral joint, two small ones in a row farther 
back, two more in a lower row, and two again below them. In 



28 



SCOL OPENDRID^, 



CASE small and not full-grown specimens these teeth are absent, or 
only showing indications. This was presented to the collection 
as giving a very venomous bite. It does not appear to have been 
hitherto described. 



Genus Cryptops {Leach). No eyes. 
Nos. Cryptops hortensis {Leach). — 16. Specimen (i) ; 17. Enlarged figure of 



i6, 17, 



ditto. 




Cryptops hortensis (slightly enlarged). 



This is one of our British species. It is yellowish brown in 
colour; has no eyes ; 21 pair of feet; and antennas with 17 joints. 



Genus Lithobius {Leach). 
^os. Lithobius forficatus (Z/;/;z.).— 18. Specimens (4) ; 19. Enlarged figure ot 
ditto. 





Head of Lithobius forficatus. 



Lithoiius forficatus (natural size); 



Antennas with numerous joints tapering to the tip; in adults 
above forty. Fifteen pair of feet and two groups of eyes in the 
external margin of the head behind the antennae. It is about an 
inch in length, and broader than any other British species. 



MYRIAPODS, 29 

De Geer practically watched the proceedings of this species, 
and says of it, "I have seen a fly after being bitten by one of the 
Scolopendrse die almost instantaneously, which would seem to 
indicate that their bite is venomous." The jaws rnay be seen in 
the enlarged woodcut of the head of this species. 

Genus Cermatia {Meg.), 

The genus Cermatia, or Scutigera as it was called by Lamarck, 
is distinguished from all the rest of the Myriapods by its long legs, 
bringing it, in this respect, near to the spiders, which it resembles 
also in its very rapacious and carnivorous nature. The eyes are 
two, compound. One pattern of colouration runs through the 
whole of the Cermatiae, viz., longitudinal stripes on the body and 
annulations on the appendages. The colour varies in different 
species, and although very evanescent after death or when ex- 
posed to alcohol, is probably a good specific character. Mr. 
Wood mentions that he has seen specimens of one of the North 
American species, C. forceps (which is greenish brown with longi- 
tudinal stripes of dark green), changed almost immediately to 
green or blue, or, still more commonly, to bright purple by al- 
cohol. The legs in all the species are banded. They are also 
very easily detached, it being almost impossible to preserve a 
specimen without losing them, which prevents the use being made 
of the relative proportions of their parts which might otherwise be 
done. In one respect the Cermatidse seem to form an excep- 
tion to a character which is universal in the family in which it is 
placed j but it is only apparent, not real. The head in the Chi- 
lognaths is composed of only one segment ; but in the Chilopods, 
to which Cermatia belongs, it is always developed into two sepa- 
rate segments, the posterior of which gives origin to the immense 
foot jaws of the family. In apparent contradiction to this, the 
head of the Cermatidse, when viewed from above, appears to con- 
sist of but a single segment ; but this is merely because the two 



30 SCOLOPENDRID^. 

CASE cephalic scuta are fused together and consolidated, just as two 
body scuta are, to form one segment. The sternum of the pos- 
terior segment is entirely separate, and leaves the foot jaws as in 
other families. It was from observations on one of this genus 
(Scutigera araneoides) in the south of France that Latreille satis- 
fied himself of the poisonous nature of the bite of this family. 



Nos. Cermatia capensis {West'iv.).—2^. Specimens (i) ; 21. Enlarged figure. 
20, 21. jrj-om the Cape of Good Hope. 



[Nos. Cermatia Smithii (iV^zc'/^r/).— 22. Specimens (i) ; 23. Enlarged figure. 
1 22, 23. From New Holland. 




Cermatia Smithii (natural size). 



MYRIAPODS. 



Section Pauropoda. 



31 



The little creature which alone composes this section can be 
brought neither into the ranks of the Chilognaths nor into those 
of the Chilopods j and there seems no help for it but to make a 
separate section to receive it. It certainly is a very insignificant 
object to be entitled to so much honour. It is a semitransparent 
little animal, only the twentieth of an inch in length, and with 
much more of the appearance of the Thysanura (among whom 
and in whose haunts it lives) than of a Myriapod ; and only one 
species of it seems yet to have been found. Sir John Lubbock, 
to whose researches we owe our knowledge of the creature at all, 
indeed describes two species, and gives, as the only character that 
he could find, some difference in the antenna. He thinks that he 
has found both sexes in one of his species ; at least, in some that 
had organs, which he was unable to trace in all, he found sperma- 
tozoa, and these consequently must have been males, although it 
does not absolutely follow that the rest were not. If he is right in 
this, the present will be the first case that we can call to mind of 
the antennae differing materially in species of the same genus. 
It is a very common thing for them to differ in the sexes of the 
same species \ but the generic character, as a rule, subsists 
through all the species of the same genus. This tiny and solitary 
species, although it looks so like the Thysanura, cannot go with 
them ; for although it has only six feet in the earlier stage of its 
life, it ends by having eighteen (9 pairs). Now, as Mr. Wood, the 
American myriapodist, has well put it, when a spider, an insect, a 
Thysanura, or a Crustacean, leaves the egg, its body has its maxi- 
mum number of segments, and development takes place by the 
coalescence and disappearance of some of these. The embryonic 
Myriapod, on the contrary, has its minimum number of segments, 
and develops by their increase ; so that while the adult insect has 
generally fewer, never more segments than the young, the adult 
Myriapod may have eight times as many, and never fewer than 



32 SCOLOPENDRID^. 

CASE its young. Tried by this test, the Pauropus must be a Myriapod ; 
but it cannot be a Chilopod, because it has no foot jaws, but 
feeble mandibles. It is apparently a herbivorous, not a carnivo- 
rous Myriapod, and has a better right otherways to be placed 
among the herbivorous Chilognaths j but although it at first sight 
appears to have two legs to each segment in the middle of the 
body, still they are not placed together as in the Julidse, and the 
difference of the antennae is very great. The latter partake more 
of the crustacean character than those of any insect that we are 
acquainted with. It has ten segments, the first two of which 
compose the head, or if they be reckoned from the under side, 
counting a segment for each pair of legs, there would appear from 
Sir John's cut to be 13, the same number that is possessed by 
true hexapod insects. It has also 18 legs, the smallest number 
in any species yet described being 26. For other details we must 
refer to Sir John Lubbock's paper. 

Pauropus Huxleyi {Lubbock), Trans. Linn. Soc, vol. 26. 



A bustling, active, neat, and cleanly little 
creature, living throughout the year in consider- 
able numbers among dead leaves and other 
decaying vegetable matter in company with the 
various species of Thysanura, mites, &c., that 
frequent similar situations : found throughout 
the winter on the warmer days, about half a 
line in length. 




rauropus Huxleyi 
(magnified). 



Pauropus pedunculatus {Lnbbock), loc. cit. 

Perhaps the female of the above. It cannot be the male, for 
it was in the other that Sir John Lubbock found spermatozoa. 



ARACHNOIDEA. 33 

Order ARACHNOIDEA. 

(SCORPIONS, SPIDERS, AND MITES.) 

The system of classification which is adopted for the chief 
part of this collection, viz. that of beginning with the lower orders 
and advancing to the higher, has been departed from in the 
spiders ; first, for the sake of making a natural connection with 
other orders, and second, for reasons special to Economic Ento- 
mology, such as keeping together as much as possible those 
species that attack a common class of objects, and separating 
those that attack a different class. 

In the present case (the arachnoids), the arrangement has been 
made from above downwards, commencing with the scorpions 
and terminating with the mites, instead of the reverse ; this brings 
the mites into closer connection with the lice, with which it will 
be found that they have certain points of analogy if not of 
affinity. 

The arachnoids are generally considered by zoologists as a 
group apart, belonging neither to the crustaceans nor the insects. 
Like crustaceans, spiders possess the property of reproducing 
such limbs as have been detached or mutilated ; and this curious 
physiological phenomenon is intimately connected with the cast- 
ing of their skin, for legs, palpi, and spinners, which have been 
amputated, are observed to be restored, and afterwards to have 
their dimensions enlarged, at the period of moulting only; but 
there are much more important grounds for removing them from 
the crustaceans and classifying them with insects. For example, 
the crustaceans breathe by gills, the spiders do not. The sepa- 
ration of the spiders from insects is not nearly so well marked. 
Insects breathe by tracheae, that is, air-tubes opening on each side 
of the segments of the abdomen. Spiders breathe by something 
called pulmonary sacs, which are placed at the base of the abdo^ 
men. But not only are these pulmonary sacs (although fewer than 



34 ARACHNOIDEA. 

CASE the tracheae) placed in the abdomen as in insects, and not only 
are they in many respects analogous to the tracheae, but in some 
spiders they are supplemented by one or two tracheae. Again, 
one distinction between insects and spiders is, that the former 
have never more than three pairs of legs, while the spiders have 
four pairs ; but the first pair in the spiders are only modifications 
of the palpi. Again, insects are divided into three parts, head,. 
thorax, and abdomen. Spiders consist of only two or one part, 
as in some mites; but all this is a mere modification of parts. 
The head of the spider is merged in its thorax, so that no line 
of separation can be drawn, but we know that the front belongs 
to the head, and the back part to the thorax, by the organs 
which they respectively bear. The mouth and its parts (along 
with the anterior legs) in the one case, and the rest of the limbs 
in the other case. It seems to us, therefore, that the arachnoids 
are to be regarded as modified insects. 

Family SCORPIONID^ or PEDIPALPS (Scorpions and their allies). 

Anterior palpi elongated like legs, and provided with nippers like the claws- 
of a crab. 

Sub-Family, PsEUDO-ScoRnoNES (False Scorpions). 

The cephalothorax is united to the abdomen, which is divided into segments. 
No tail. 



Genus Chelifer (Z^/.). 
Cephalothorax parted in two by a transverse furrow. 
IJos. Chelifer museorum {Fab.).—\. Specimens (8) ; 2. Enlarged figure. • 

The chehfers are harmless minute insects, like scorpions in 



3,2 



appearance, but which, although possessing their nippers, are 
destitute of the armed tail ; as in this species, the fore-legs (palpi) 
are sometimes very long. They live in dark and moist places. 



CHELIFERS. 



35 



CASE and feed on mites and wood-lice. The present species has re- 
ceived its name from being often found in neglected books and 
museums. Found in Britain and throughout Europe. 





Chelifer museorum (magnified.) 



Chelifer cancroides (magnified and natural size). 



Chelifer cancroides {Ivoch). 
Found throughout Europe. 

Nos. Chelifer geoffroyi {Koch). — 3, Specimens 
2' ^ (3) ; 4. Enlarged figure. 

Another British species, but with less 
elongated anterior legs. 



Genus Obisium (//%). 

Cephalothorax not divided by a transverse 
furrow. 



Obisium carcinoides {Herm). 

Found i 
of Europe. 




_,-._, . , Obisium carcinoides (magnified and 

Jbound m Germany and other parts natural size). 



C 2 



CASE 
III. 



36 ARACHNOIDEA. 

Sub-family Scorpiones (True Scorpions). 

The characters of the family are two large ocelli, placed close 
together in the middle of the cephalothorax, smaller lateral ocelli, 
various in number, distributed along its anterior margin, and the 
six last joints of the abdomen narrowed into a tail terminating in 
a sting. They have also two curious comb-shaped appendages on 
the under side at the base (anterior part) of the abdomen, the use 
of which is doubtful. 

They live in tropical regions in all parts of the world, extending 
their range more or less into the warmer districts of the tempe- 
rate zones. Their sting is not barbed, but its point is perforated, 
and it wounds simply by penetrating the skin, and conveying 
poison into the wound through two orifices from a poison bag. 
The poison is said sometimes to be as white as milk. Although 
the scorpion is much dreaded, and widely renowned for its sting, 
ihere is no doubt that its injurious effects are much exaggerated. 
According to Kirby and Spence the only means of saving the 
lives of our soldiers who were stung by them in Egypt was 
amputation ; and they add that one species was said to occasion 
madness, and that the black scorpion, both of South America 
(Query South Africa, Buthiis afer,) and Ceylon, frequently inflicts 
a mortal wound. All this is very doubtful, but it may be true 
that, as is stated on good authority, the sting of certain kinds 
common in South America causes fevers, numbness in various 
parts of the body, tumours in the tongue, and dimness of sight, 
which symptoms last from twenty-four to forty-eight hours. It 
is curious, however, that the only approach to personal authentic 
information on the subject which Kirby and Spence had, is 
.against the sting being so hurtful. Mr. W. S. MacLeay told them 
that soon after his arrival at Havana he was stung by an immense 
scorpion, but was agreeably surprised to find the pain con- 
siderably less than that of the sting of a wasp, and of incom- 
parably shorter duration. 



SCORPIONS. 



37 



In their native countries the natives do not seem to dread them. 
Dr. Leared informs us that at Morocco he saw men take them up 
in their hands and make them run along their naked arm, turning 
them back as they came to the edge and threatened to topple 
over. 

They do not lay eggs, but are viviparous. They are, however^ 
most unnatural parents, for they devour their offspring as soon as 
they are born. 

Mr. Riley, the State entomologist of Missouri, says of the 
American species, that the boys sometimes call them teetotallers, 
from the fact that they cannot endure alcohol ; and that a drop of 
whisky deposited upon one of them will cause it to immediately 
commit suicide by stinging itself to death. 

They have been divided into a number of sections, according 




Buthus afer (natural size, small specimen). 



to the number and position of eyes on the head. The big black 
species, with thick, heavy, hard claws constitute the genus Buthus. 



38 ARACHNOIDEA, 

CASE Some of the narrow yellow species, with slender long pincers, form 
the genus Androctonus, signifying in Greek *' Man-killer," and 
other genera, Ischnm-us, Brotheas, Opistophthalmus,Va5Jovis, &c., 
have been established on the shape of the cephalothorax, the 
number and position of the eyes, the characters of the tail (as 
square, or round, &c.), and the form of the back. 




Vsejovis, sp. (natural size). 

j^Qg^ Androctonus {Sp.), from Rangoon. — 5. Newly-born specimens {3) ; 6. En- 
5, 6. larged figure of do. 

No. 7. Androctonus priamus (^Koch) (?), from Java. — 7. Specimens of do. 

No. 8. Androctonus {Sp.), from East Indies. — 8. Specimen of do. (i). 

No. 9. Buthus {Sp.) from the Cape. — 9. Specimens of do. (2). 

This probably should form another genus. 

No. 10. Buthus c^sar {Koch), from the East Indies. — 10. Specimens of do, (2). 

No. II. Buthus afer {Koch), from East Indies.— 11. Specimen of do. (i). 

No. 12. Buthus imperator {Koch). — 12. Figure natural size, copied from Koch's 
Araneidge. 

This is the largest species we have seen described. It is at 
least six inches in length ; but it seems nothing but an unusually 
large immature specimen of B. afer. 



PHRYNID.^. 39 

CASE Sub-Family Phrynid/e. 

III. 

Abdomen separated from thorax by a slight constriction. Tail either absent 

or unprovided with a sting. 

Nos. Phrynus ceylonicus {Koch).—\Z. Specimen (i) ; 14. Figure (natural size). 
'3' ^4- From Ceylon. 

We have placed this and some of the following species here, 
not as being either hurtful or beneficial to man, but as showing 
the passage between the Scorpions and the Spiders ; and as 
Phrynus ceylonicus is too large for our page, we give a figure of a 
smaller species, Phrynus palmatus. 




Phrynus palmatus (natural size). 

Nos. Telyphonus giganteus {Kocli).—\h. Specimen ; 16. Figure of natural 
' ' size. From the East Indian region. 

The tail in this genus is in the form of a jointed bristle, but 
unarmed. 



40 ARACHNOIDEA. 

CASE Telyphonus proscorpio {Koch).—Vt. Specimens (2) ; 18. Figure of do.^ 
jT ' natural size. Another species from Java. 




Telyphonus proscorpio (small specimen, natural size). 

Family SOLPUGID^. 

Cephalothorax distinct from abdomen, which is segmented. No tail. Has 
the aspect of a spider. 

Nos. Galeodes araneoides {Pall). — 19. Specimen (o) ; 20. Figure of do. slightly 
i9j 20. magnified ; 21. Illustrative vignette — camel. 

This is a large spider-like animal, which reaches nearly two 
inches in length, and has a pale thorax and legs, and dark abdo- 
men. It is easily distinguished from the spiders by its abdomen 
being segmented, as well as by having a different kind of breath- 
ing apparatus, viz. : tracheae instead of pulmonary sacs. 

The genus is chiefly found in the Old World, and for the most 
part in Africa and the borders of the Mediterranean, but species 
have also been found in the New World. They live in sandy 



t GALEODES. 41 

CASE deserts, and their bite is said to be venomous, and even dansrerous, 
but proof is wanted of this. There seems to be no doubt, how- 
ever, that they are a great torment to the camels in the countries 
where they abound, and from the formidable nature of their man- 
dibles, and the ready ferocity with which they present them for 
attack when interfered with, they have obviously both the will and 
the power to inflict a severe bite, whether any poison is instilled 
into it or not. They feed upon other insects, particularly a kind 
of Acridium (grasshopper), of which they are fond. They dig great 




Galeodes araneoides (natural size). 

galleries or pits in the sandy soil, removing the debris to a distance 
by means of their mandibles, and using the stiff hairs which ac- 
company them as a sort of broom to sweep them away. The 
present species has been found in the South of Russia and Greece, 
but its chief range is further south, extending from Egypt and one 
or more of the oases in the desert, to India, where it is common and 
troublesome. It there reaches a large size, its body being some- 
times two inches long without its legs, or with them ten inches. 

It is seldom seen except by night, and runs with gi-eat rapidity, 
more like a mouse than a spider, but covering much more space. 



42 ARACHNOIDEA, 

CASE The Rev. J. J. Wood, in his Natural History Illustrated, mentions 
the following particulars regarding this insect, which were com- 
municated to him by Lieut. -Gen. Sir J. Hearsey : — 

" When the Galeodes approaches any creature that it desires to 
attack, it thrusts out its long palpi, touches the body with the 
rounded tips of those members, and immediately raises them 
aloft, as if fearful lest they should be injured. The whole action 
is wonderfully like the manner in which an elephant flings its pro- 
boscis in the air after touching anything of which it is not quite 
sure. The tips of the palpi are rounded and soft, and when they 
are applied to any object, a sort of phosphorescent flame seems to 
be emitted from them. Having satisfied itself by the touch, the 
creature rushes in at once to the attack. 

*' In order to ascertain whether the Galeodes would really attack 
and eat vertebrated animals, an ordinarily-sized specimen- was 
captured and placed under a bell-glass, A very young musk-rat 
was then inserted under the glass, the Galeodes being on the 
opposite side. As the creature traversed its transparent prison it 
came suddenly on the young musk-rat, which was quite a baby 
and could not open its eyes. Without hesitation it sprang on the 
little animal, killed it, and in a short time had eaten it. 

" The manner in which the Galeodes kills its prey is really re- 
markable. The double set of pincers are sharply hooked, like the 
beak of an eagle, and are capable of being separately opened and 
shut like lobsters' claws, and of being used conjointly to secure 
prey between them ; and, moreover, the upper joint of each claw 
can be pushed far over the lower. When the creature seizes a 
large animal, such as the musk-rat above mentioned, it buries the 
pincers in the flesh, and deliberately shears its way onwards, each 
pair of pincers working alternately, one pair being engaged in 
holding the prey and the other in cutting. 

'' The same Galeodes was then pitted against a little bat, about 
three or four inches across the wings. Though small, it was full- 
grown and lively. When placed under the glass shade it fluttered 



GALEODES. 



43 



CASE about, but was speedily arrested by the spider, which leaped upon 
it, proceeded to drive its fangs into the neck, and clung so tightly 
that it could not be shaken off. In vain did the bat try to beat 
off the enemy with its wings, or to rid itself of the foe by flying in 
the air. Nothing could shake off the Galeodes ; the long legs 
clung tightly to the victim, the cruel fangs were buried deeper and 
deeper into its flesh, the struggles gradually became weaker, until 
the point of a fang touched a vital spot, and the poor bat fell 
lifeless from the grasp of its destroyer. 

"The next antagonist of this redoubtable warrior was a scorpion 
about four inches in length. The Galeodes seemed nothing 
daunted, seized the scorpion by the root of the tail, just where it 
could not be touched by the sting, sawed its way through the tail, 
severed that deadly weapon from the body, and then killed and 
ate the scorpion, together with its tail. 

" There was, however, much uncertainty as to its mode of attack 
in this instance, for no one could exactly ascertain whether it was 
directed to the one point of safety by chance or instinct. Another 
similar scorpion was then procured and placed in the glass bell. 
The Galeodes darted as usual to the attack, but unfortunately 
seized its foe by the front. The scorpion immediately grasped the 
Galeodes in its nippers, quickly brought its tail over its back, and 
by a v/ell-directed stroke succeeded in stinging its enemy. At 
the moment of receiving the stroke, the Galeodes started back, 
opened all its limbs, began to quiver throughout its whole frame, 
and rolled over quite dead." 

Family ARANEID^E (Spiders). 
CASE The spiders come strictly within the limits of Economic Ento- 
mology as beneficial insects. They are among the most powerful 
insect-friends of man, and they contribute more perhaps than any 
other family to check the too rapid multiplication of insects. 
They derive their chief sustenance from them, securing thein in 
various ways, some by pure hunting and speed, others by watching 



44 ARACHNOIDEA. 

CASE in corners and out of the way holes, but a large proportion by 
forming the webs for which the family is best known. Their vora- 
city is extreme, and the numbers they consume are consequently 
very great ; a quality, however, which is sometimes directed against 
themselves, for they make no exception in their search for food, 
often devouring one another, the weaker falling a prey to the 
stronger ; and as the females are, with few exceptions, larger and 
stronger than the males, a courtship among the spiders is a service 
by no means unattended with danger. Like other carnivorous 
animals whose prey is precarious, and like the venomous snake, 
which hes in wait for its prey, and must often have a long and 
weary vigil before it comes, the spider, although so voracious, is 
capable of long abstinence from food. Mr. Blackwall notices the 
case of a female Theridion quadri-punctatum, which still survived 
after being eighteen months without food corked up in a phial, a 
period exceeding the usual natural duration of most spiders' lives, 
which is said to be about twelve months ; some, however, have a 
longer time, individuals having been known to live four years. 

All spiders at present known have either two, six, or eight 
smooth eyes, which vary much in size and relative position, 
supplying characters which have been much used in the sys- 
tematic arrangement of species. The falces or modified mandibles 
or jaws with which the spider seizes its prey are inserted immedi- 
ately under the anterior margin of the cephalo-thorax, and have 
usually at the extremity of their inner surface a longitudinal groove, 
provided with sharp teeth on the sides, which receives the fang 
when in a state of repose. The fang, or last joint of the falcis, is 
very hard, curved, acute, and has a small fissure near the point, 
which emits a colourless, more or less venomous, fluid secreted 
by a gland. 

The palpi occupy the same place and relations as in other 
insects, but they are distinguished by those of the male being 
swollen at the extremity into a curiously twisted, variously formed 
organ. Those of the females remain simple. In most other 



SPIDERS. 45 

CA|E respects, the general form and structure of spiders is that of 
insects. There is one important peculiarity however, viz., the 
spinnerets by which they spin the webs, which are the most dis- 
tinguishing and remarkable feature of the family. 

The spinnerets are placed at the tail end of the abdomen, and 
consist of two, three, or four pairs, according to the kind of spider. 
They vary also in form, being round, cylindrical, or conical, and 
their tips and under surface are pierced with numerous minute 
holes, like the rose of a watering-pot, through which the liquid 
that becomes the thread is pumped out. It is a liquid glue, and 
each jet of it comes out as a thread of infinitesimal tenuity; and 
the whole multitude of fine threads is compacted together into a 
single line of extreme fineness, but great comparative strength. 
That this is so may be easily proved by taking any of the 
large spinning spiders, say one of the diadem spiders (Epeira 
diademata), and after pressing its abdomen against a leaf or other 
substance so as to attach the threads to its surface— the same 
preliminary step that the spider adopts in spinning— drawing it 
gradually to a small distance. It can then be plainly perceived 
that the proper thread of the spider is formed of four smaller 
threads, and these again of threads so fine and numerous that 
there cannot be fewer than a thousand issue from each spinner. 

tThe glue is a viscid fluid, which is secreted by glands in the 
abdomen, and is conducted to the spinneret orifices by tubes ; 
when exposed to the air — and it is very probably for the purpose 
of exposing it all instantaneously that it is made to issue in such 
fine threads— it hardens into a most elastic silk, so elastic that its 
apparent rapid lengthening or shortening has given rise to the 
erroneous belief that the spider can retract it into its abdomen. 
This it cannot do; after it has once come out and hardened, 
there it remains. But there must either be more than one kind 
of glue or silk secreted, or else the one kind must be capable 
of modification by the animal in its passage out, for while the 
spider's thread itself becomes immediately hard and unadhesive. 



46. ARACHNOIDEA, 

CASE it is Studded all over with minute globules, which do not imme- 
diately dry up, and remain viscid to the touch; and it is by 
means of this sort of bird-lime that its prey is detained and 
attached, until the spider has time to spring upon it from its 
ambush. This viscid gum is not distributed over all parts of 
the web alike. That would interfere with the spider's own 
freedom of motion. It therefore forms the main radii or stays of 
the web of threads free from this gum, and on these it nms freely, 
while the prey, ignorant of these safe bridges or gangways, flounders 
hopelessly in the net itself It is probable that the glue that 
forms the viscid globules is supphed by different tubes from the 
kind that hardens, and that the tubes of both kinds are inter- 
mingled, so that as the threads are forced out they come in con- 
tact with this viscid secretion, which runs together in globules 
through the elasticity of the thread, drawing it out more than it 
can bear without division. 

The silken threads of which the webs are thus made are used 
by many species belonging to various genera for other purposes 
besides catching their prey— one is to enable them to take aerial 
excursions. Some have thought that the creatures could dart out 
their threads from their spinnerets to such a distance as to use 
them like rafts to float on in the atmosphere. That they do float 
through the air so supported is true— but not by darting out the 
threads. Experiments have proved that it is the rarefied air of 
fine weather that wafts the thread away from the spider, and that 
it only avails itself of their support to take the journey. Such 
threads, or webs, broken from their moorings, compose the filmy 
webs named gossamer, which, on being brought into contact by 
the breath of gentle airs, adhere together until, by continual 
additions, they accumulate into irregular white flakes of surprising 

quantity. 

Efl"orts have been made to turn the spinning powers of spiders 
and the silk they secrete to practical purposes, but without much 
success. In the beginning of the last century an ingenious 



SPIDERS. 47 

CASE Frenchman, M. Bon of Languedoc, succeeded in manufacturing 
some stockings and gloves of spider silk. The silk was grey, and 
was said to look well, but not to be equal in lustre or so durable 
as silk from the silkworm. M. Bon did not attempt to wind the 
silk, but passed it through the carding machine (treating it like 
shoddy or broken cocoons). He published an account of his 
discovery or manufacture, and the Royal Academy of Paris 
appointed Reaumur to report upon it. His report was not 
favourable ; the thread of the spider was eighteen times weaker 
than that of the silkworm, and it was found extremely difficult 
to obtain it in sufficient quantity to operate on. It was calcu- 
lated that 27,648 female spiders were required to make a pound 
weight of silk, for it appears to have been only the silk bags con- 
taining the eggs that were used, and, owing to the natural ferocity 
and voracity of the spider, it was found impracticable to get the 
silk in sufficient quantity. It seems that some thousands of spiders 
were placed together in cells containing from fifty to two hundred 
each, but these were soon reduced to one or two in each, the rest 
having been all killed and eaten by the survivor, who,' if the fittest 
in one sense, was at any rate not the fittest for the manufacturer's 
purpose. A similar manufacture is mentioned by Mr. Blackwall 
as having been tried by Mr. Tremeyer, a Spaniard, also without 
practical success. It should be mentioned, however, that D'Azara 
in his Voyage dans I'Americ, (quoted by Kirby and Spence), states 
that in Paraguay a spider, which is found near the thirtieth de- 
gree of South latitude, forms a spherical cocoon for its eggs, an 
inch in diameter, of a yellow silk, which the inhabitants spin on 
account of the permanence of the colour. 

Some specimens of M. Bon's manufacture, or of that of some 
one else, are said to be still in existence ; and we should have 
liked to illustrate our cases by a specimen. Not knowing, how- 
ever, where to get one we made an attempt to get samples spun 
and woven for ourselves, but without success. A quantity of 
webs was collected and washed, with the intention of being carded 



48 AJ^A CHNOIDEA. 

CASE and spun, as was done by M. Bon. But we never got the length 
^^' of carding. Our difficulty was not in carding them or spinning 
them thereafter, which we believe can be perfectly well done, but 
in cleaning them for carding. The webs collected were full of 
impurities, straws, chaff, dirt, portions of insects, &c. ; and the 
process adopted for cleaning waste silk did not answer for the 
webs. The process for getting rid of extraneous matter in the 
broken cocoons of the silkworm is boiling, but in the boiling, 
the spiders' webs boiled all away to nothing. 

Another economic use of the spider's web, is the use of the 
strongest thread (the one that bears the web) by astronomers and 
microscopists for the divisions of the micrometer attached to their 
telescopes and microscopes ; the thread is drawn in parallel lines 
and at right angles across the field of the eye-piece at equal dis- 
tances, so as to make a multitude of cross square divisions scarcely 
visible to the naked eye and so fine as to be no obstacle to the 
view of the object. 

Among other merits, both spiders and their webs have been 
supposed to be possessed of certain valuable medical properties, 
for an account of some of which see Dr. Watson's lectures on the 
principles and practice of physic, where he treats of ague and 
intermittent fevers. To this day in some parts of the West of 
England, notably the low lying districts bordering the mouth of 
the Severn where fever and ague still maintain themselves, a 
spider's web rolled up into a bolus and swallowed is still held 
to be a sovereign specific for these diseases. Even yet in 
some countries they have not been wholly expelled from the 
regular practitioner's pharmacopoeia. We have seen a work on 
Leprosy (Mai de San Lazaro), pubHshed so lately as 1852, m 
Mexico, by Dr. Rafael Lucio, and another medical man, the 
one the professor of medicine, and the other of surgery in the 
university there, and in that work the authors recommend 
pounded Mygales (as per prescription) as a medicine for that 
disease, which is common in some parts of that country, and 



SPIDERS, 49 

CASE for which there is a special hospital in the city of Mexico, of 
which these two professors had charge ; the said medicine being 
sanctioned by the authority of their experience in the hospital. 
Leprosy there, for there are other forms of it elsewhere, is a 
disease of the inner coats of the arteries, which produces 
obstruction in the circulation and suppression of perspiration. 
They considered that this indicated the exhibition of sudorifics, and 
tincture of tarantula (mygale), and sarsaparilla were the sudorifics 
they adopted. The medicine is given either as an alcoholic 
tincture, or one of ether. If alcoholic, it is compound of twelve 
ounces of alcohol to one of tarantula {i.e. mygale), the tarantula 
powder having been made by pounding up the spiders, and after 
washing the powder in strong spirits of wine, macerating it for fifteen 
days in the alcohol, and then filtering it. In the ether tincture^ 
sulphuric ether is substituted for alcohol, and it is then treated in 
the same way ; an ointment and lotion are in like manner prepared 
from it. The dose varies, but four drops of the tincture is stated 
to produce powerful sudorific effects, although he adds, that it 
sometimes operates in a few minutes, and in other cases not until ^ 
after many hours. But the concurrent effect of various symptoms 
and cases enumerated by him, is to show that the tincture does 
produce the desired effect, if not in all cases, at least in the great 
majority. But there remains the question whether it is due to the 
supposed specific — the tarantula — or, to the medium in which the 
dose is given, that is, the alcohol or ether. Everyone who has 
swallowed a bowl of punch, or a tumbler of toddy, knows that one 
of its properties is to induce perspiration, and all medical men at 
least know that ether has a like effect. We have, however, no> 
reason to suppose that the constituent particles of a spider's body 
have any such effect. It is too obvious to have induced anyone 
to prove it, that, except the poison gland and its contents, there is 
no essential difference in composition between a spider and any 
other insect. The poison is no doubt an active principle, but it 
is infinitesimally minute in quantity, and if it bears any analogy to- 



50 AEA CHNOIDEA, 

CASE the poison of other venomous animals, it is inert and innocuous, 
unless introduced into the circulation by a wound. The credit, 
therefore, of the tincture of tarantula as a sudorific appears to be 
due to the alcohol or ether, in which the inactive constituents of 
the spiders are administered. Their real medical value is now, 
at least in European practice, restricted, if it even remains to that 
extent, to that of a styptic for stopping the bleeding of slight cuts 
by external application. 

Indirect advantage has been taken of the habits of spiders to 
supply the place of a barometer. There is a story of this having 
been done during the War in Holland, after the great French 
Revolution. Some years previously, when the Stadtholder had 
been re-instated in his dominions by the Prussian arms, a M. 
Quatremere dTsjonval, a Frenchman (during the commotions 
which then occurred) was arrested and imprisoned at Utrecht, 
where he passed several years in captivity. To amuse the tedium 
of confinement he was wont to watch some spiders that happened 
to make their abode near him, and to cultivate their acquaintance. 
Whether he succeeded in taming them may be doubted, but he, at 
all events, satisfied himself that like many of the lower animals 
they were very sensitive to meteorological changes, and he got to 
know what changes their different behaviours portended. The 
information so obtained came to be useful by and by. In January 
1795 ^^^ was released by the advance of the French. An intense 
frost had enabled them to pass the watery defences of the place. 
They had, however, scarcely taken possession when a rapid thaw 
commenced, and the French Commanders found their communi- 
cations about to be compromised by the melting of the ice on the 
various streams across which it had allowed them to advance. 
In much anxiety they were about to retreat, when M. dTsjonval, 
who had noticed the behaviour of his spider friends, commu- 
nicated to the officers his confident assurance that the frost was 
about to set in again with greater intensity than ever. Whether 
relying on his assurance, or on other grounds, they suspended 



SFIJDERS. 51 

CASE their movement, and the very next day the frost recommenced 
with great severity, and continued long enough to allow the 
Republican troops to overrun the whole of the then undefended 
country. Perhaps the consolation spiders have afforded to poor 
prisoners like M. d'Isjonval by giving them some object of interest 
to occupy their minds, or the support to their courage which they 
have supphed to men in difficulties— such as Bruce^s watching 
the seven times repeated efforts of his spider to attain its object 
—is even more deserving of commemoration; and although doubt- 
less it is only the very few who have had patience and ability to 
get the spiders to recognise them or to establish friendly relations 
with them, some men would appear to have actually succeeded in 
doing so, or at least to have thought so, which was perhaps, just as 
good. Not all, however ; M. Alphonse Karr, in his '' Guepes," 
tells that when he was consigned to prison for a iew days for 
some infringement of the laws of the press in the reign of Louis 
Philippe, he tried the experiment without his usual success. " In 
imitation of divers celebrated prisoners,'' says he, " I searched for 
a spider in order to instruct it— I found a little black one, but it 
shows little capacity." 

Spiders may be very naturally divided into two sections— the 
large, mostly tropical species, which have four breathing sacs and 
four spinnerets, and the ordinary spiders, with which we are 
familiar, that have only two breathing sacs (where there are 
apparently four, two of them are not sacs but trachece) and six 
spinnerets. The first constitute the family of 

MYGALID^E or Crab-Spiders. 
As already said all spiders have a large claw or poison fang • 
hinged on to the front of their mandibles, but this family is dis- 
tinguished by this claw being very large, hard, and polished— so 
much so that in Brazil it is sometimes set in gold and used as a 
toothpick, and it is thought to have some specific value in 
keeping away toothache. In the other section the fang moves 



52 



ARACHNOIDEA, 



CASE laterally. In the Mygalidae it moves vertically as if it were 
pinning the creature it seizes to its own breast or like the claws of 
a lion closing on its prey. Species of these gigantic spiders are 
found in the Tropics all round the world. 



Nos. 

X 2. 



Mygale avicularia (^^<i;/rZ').— 1. Specimen (o) ; 2. Sketch, natural size. 




Mygale avicularia (natural size). 

This spider inhabits tropical South America. It is the species 
which has sometimes been called the bird-catching spider, (whence 
the name avicularia, which originated with Mme. Merian) from 
the idea that it occasionally caught or entrapped in its nest small 
birds, such as humming birds. The tale has never received 
actual confirmation, indeed it has been wholly denied. Langs- 
dorf insists that it only eats insects, and Kirby and Spence give 
Mr. W. S. MacLeay's authority to the same effect from his own 
observations on Mygale avicularia, which was very common in 
his garden in Cuba. It did him great service by devouring the 
mite, achetse, cockroaches, &c., which are so injurious there ta 
cultivated vegetables. It issues from its hole in the night only 



MYGALIDy^. 53 

CASE (never in the daytime) to attack these insects ; and so far from 
its having any bird-catching propensities, Mr. MacLeay having 
placed a Hving humming bird in the tube of a Mygale, it deserted 
it, leaving the bird untouched. Still, the size of the spider is 
sufficiently great to render it not impossible, and the deleterious 
effects of its venom have been sufficiently proved to render it 
likely that if employed on small birds it might kill them. And 
if we cannot cite direct proof that its prey is often small verte- 
brate animals, we can at least give some indirect circumstantial 
evidence to that effect. As we write we have received an e?woi 
and a communication from our friend the Rev. Dr. R. H. Nassau, 
one of the American missionaries on the coast of Gaboon. He 
sends an enormous Mygale, of which he says, " It was caught 
here" (Akele country, 200 miles up the river Ogove, and 150 
miles from the sea) " last June. One of the boys in pursuing it 
struck it and smashed its body. I was exceedingly disappointed 
at its mutilation, but the head is complete. / 7aas amazed at the 
amoicnt of blood that flowed from It." It is plain that Dr. Nassau 
here uses blood in its ordinary sense, viz., red blood ; and if so, 
then it is equally clear that the blood could not be the spider's 
blood, which is colourless. It was obviously blood freshly sucked 
from some small vertebrate animal, such as a mouse or a bird. 
It is not uncommonly supposed that the way in which the spider 
obtains the humming-birds is by catching them in its web, which 
was imagined to be of proportionate strength and size to its own 
dimensions as compared with those of other spiders. This at 
least is a mistake. It spins no such web. It does indeed spin a 
cocoon of white silk to contain its eggs, but not a web. It is a 
hunting spider, and lies in ambush in its nest or in crevices or 
burrows, which it makes for the purpose, and catches its prey by 
rushing out upon it or hunting it. 

Nos. Mygale californica. — 3. Sketch, natural size. From California. 4. 
^' ^' Specimens of do. 

The genus extends from Tropical America northwards on the 



54 ARACHNOIDEA. 

CASE west coast of America to California, in the south of which the 
present species occurs. It is of a pale colour, between fawn and 
madder, and is comparatively small. It is usually found under 
stones. 

Nos. Mygale fasciata (/i'(?r//).— 5. Sketch, natural size ; 6. Specimen (o). 

This is a very remarkable looking spider on account of the 
contrast between the white bands which cross the legs and the rest 
of the colour of the insect. The colour is produced by a thick 
felt of white hairs. 



Nos. Mygale klugii {Koch). — 7. Specimen from the Eastern Andes ; 8. Sketch 



7.8, 



Nos. 
9, lo. 



of do. 



This specimen was taken in the dry country of the Eastern 
Andes, lying on the western side of the Pampas between Mendoza 
and San Juan, where it is dreaded as extremely venomous. 



Mygale versicolor (A'^r/^). — 9. Specimen from Brazil ; 10. Sketch of ditto, 
natural size. 

The name versicolor is not well chosen, for there is no great 
variation in the colour, it only being black with tawny hairs. In 
addition to its biting powers, its hairs, which readily come off and 
adhere to the skin, may give annoyance. 



Nos. Mygale ERICHSONI (A'(?^/z).— 11. Specimen from Java ; 12. Sketch of do. 

II, 12. 

This has considerable resemblance to the Mygale fasciata. 
No. 5, and is also from Java. 



NO, 13. 



Mygale convexa {Koch) —13. Specimen from Old Calabar. 

This species is from Old Calabar on the west coast of Africa, is 
smoother, more convex, and clothed with shorter and finer hair 
than most others. 



MYGALID^. 



55 



CASE Mygale detrita {Koch). 

Mygale detrita is a Brazilian species, but in a subsequent case 
(VI.) a specimen will be found from London docks. There is, 
however, nothing surprising in any species from any quarter of 
the world being found under favourable circumstances in London 
docks. 



Atypus sulzeri. (Z<7/r.)— 14. Sketch, natural size. 

Although none of the genus Mygale 
are found far beyond the limits of the 
Tropics, one or two allied forms occur 
in the temperate regions, and among 
them is the present species, which is 
found in Britain. It is one of our 

larger spiders, but is by no means common. It excavates, in 
humid situations, a subterranean gallery, which is at first hori- 




Atypus sulzeri (magnified twice). 









Nest of At}'pus sulzeri. 



zontal, but inclines downwards towards its termination. In this 
gallery it spins a tube of white silk, of a compact texture, about 
half an inch in diameter, and the female deposits between thirty 
and forty eggs in a cocoon of white silk attached to its extremity. 



S6 ARACHNOIDEA. 

Part of the tube hangs at the outside c 
the entrance, as shown m the wood-cut. 



CASE Part of the tube hangs at the outside of the aperture to protect 



TRAP-DOOR SPIDERS. 

Some of the spiders belonging to the family Mygalid^, form 
subterranean burrows like the last species, which they line with a 
thick silken web, and, in addition, provide them with a door which 
opens on a hinge and fits closely. These trap-door burrows were 
first described as observed in Jamaica by Mr. Patrick Brown in 
1756, and afterwards in the south of Europe by the Abbe Sauvages 
in 1763, and an account of them with figures was given by Mr. 
Saunders in " The Transactions of the Entomological Society of 
London," vol. 3, 1839. 

There is a difference in the character of the door of these 
spiders ; some have it falling loosely like a flap, others fitting into 
the tube like a cork or stopper. 

Nos. Cteniza ionica {,Sannders).—\h. Nest of do., fi-om South Europe; 16. Sketch 



^5. 16. 



of spider of natural size. 




Trap-door of Cteniza ionica, 

This belongs to the section with cork-fitting trap-door, and was 
given to us as coming from the Ionian Islands. 

Nos. AcTiNOPUS NIDULANS {Browu). — 17. Nest of ditto, with specimens in the 
^7' ^2, ^gg^ , jg^ Sketch of insect enlarged ; 19. Specimens of ditto, male and 

female. 

The door of the nest of this species is an example of the kind 



TRAP-DOOR-NEST SPIDERS. 



57 



CASE that falls like a flap. It is now placed in the genus Actinopus, 
^^" but is better known by the old name Cteniza nidulans, and comes 
from Jamaica. 



Cteniza fodiens {Cambr.). 

This is a round-bodied blueish spider, from the south of 
France, which, as already said, makes nests with cork doors. 




Cteniza fodiens 
(slightly magnified). 




1 ' V : 

Diagram of tube of Cteniza fodiens, or of an allied species. 



More recent observations have shown that there are several 
species of different genera that make these remarkable structures, 
an interesting account of which will be found in Mr. Moggndee's 
recent work on - Harvesting Ants and Trap-door Spiders." From 
this work it appears that the contrivances of these creatures are 
more complex than was formerly supposed. The first known 
piece of ingenuity was that the insect stoppered the hole mto its 
burrow by a trap-door fitting like a cork, which was loaded with 
earth on the outside, sufficiently heavy to make it shut of its own 
weight, a contrivance which facilitates its concealment when 
mosses, etc., grew on the earth so placed. One of these is here 



58 



ARACHNOIDEA. 



CASE represented 



This kind is very often overgrown by mosses. The 
flap, or wafer-door kind made by Nemesia eleanora,is much slighter, 
and the door not usually loaded with earth, nor has it anything grow- 
ing on it. There was at one tin^e a doubt whether the insect did not 
hold down the door with its claws, and some have thought that 
they observed foot-holds on the door for this purpose. It certainly, 
when it is near the door, and the door is then attempted to be 




Trap-door of Nemesia caementaria, overgrown 
by moss. 



Trap-door of Nemesia eleanora, on the bare ground. 



opened, does hold it back to the best of its ability, but there 
does not seem to be any mechanical or structural preparation for 
such a contingency. Then it was ascertained that in Jamaica, 
at least, the nest had sometimes two doors, a front and a back 
door, as it were, that is, the nest was made in a raised bank which 
it entered at one side and came out at the other. This was 
supposed to indicate a deliberate selection of such a site, on the 
calculation that, whichever door was forced, it could then escape 
out at the other ; but this implies a greater stretch of foresight 
than the circumstances warrant. It seems more likely that the 
spider commenced its burrow in ignorance, that it would break 
out on the other side of the bank, and that when it found it 
had done so, its trap-door-forming instinct came into operation, 
and led it to build a door at that opening as it had done at 



TRAP-DOOR-NEST SPIDERS, 



59 



CASE the other. Mr. Moggridge has since shown that some of the 
species in the south of Europe, near Mentone, carry their 
ingenuity much further. One species there named, Nemesia 





Diagram of tube of Nemesia eleanora. 



I '- 



Diagram of tube of Nemesia 
meridionalis. 



nieridionahs, makes a tube into the ground hke the others,, 
and with the usual trap-door, but a short way down it makes 
another shorter tube sloping obliquely for a short distance 
upwards and downwards and at the junction of this it places 
another trap-door, only in this instance less solid and more 
flexible, and like a hanging curtain. It is, moreover, so con- 
structed as to suit the convexity of the tube in which it lies, 
so that, when in its natural position, shutting the entrance 
of the second tube there is no appearance of the door at 
all. The eye on looking in penetrates to the bottom, and sees 
apparently nothing but an empty tube, whilst all the time the 
spider may be reposing securely in the second tube protected 
from view by the concave door. But that is not all ; the spider 
can, if it chooses, push this inner door to, so as to close the main 



6o ARACHNOIDEA, 

CASE passage, the effect of which is, that on looking in at the upper 
door one only sees a short tube with nothing in it, while the 
spider is behind the termination, ready to fly up the oblique tube 
if the door at the bottom should be forced, which would neces- 
sarily fall back and conceal from view the entrance to the upper 
tube, leaving to all appearance nothing but a silk-lined tube 
uniform throughout. 

Nemesia c^mentaria {Latr.). 

This is a rather large yellowish fawn-coloured spider, of which 
specimens are put in the next case. 





Nemesia csementaria (scarcely mag-nified). Nemesia eleanora (slightly magnified). 



No. 20. Nemesia eleanora {Cavib.).—^^. Diagram of the double-branched nest 
of, with an outer and inner trap-door, from Mentone, as above described. 

This is a yellowish spider, very similar to Nemesia csementaria. 

Mr. Moggridge describes and figures various kinds of trap-door 
nests that he observed near Mentone, and no doubt if the rest of 
the shores of the Mediterranean were equally well searched, a 
gireater number of species would be found. 

During the last year two or three specimens of a trap-door 
spider's nest, constructed on another fashion in a peculiar locality, 
viz. in the bark of a tree, have been received in England from 
South Africa. The nest and lid are as nearly like the bark it- 
self, as those from the ground are like the soil where they are 
made. It would appear from more than one of the same kind 



TRAP-DOOR'NEST SPIDERS. 6i 

CASE having been found, that it was not accidental choice of situation, 
but that it is the regular manner of life of the inhabitant, to make 
a hole in the bark, and to close it with a door like the bark. But 
the spider's feelers are not adapted for digging a hole in so hard a 
material as bark or wood, and from the appearance of the place 
itself, where the nest that we have seen was made, it seems 
more probable that the spider had taken possession of the empty 
cocoon of some moth that, as many do, makes its cocoon in the 
bark of trees, and had woven a lid to it with silk and fragments 
of bark ; it may be a habit of this particular trap-door spider to 
select such situations. 

Since the preceding case was prepared, and the above remarks 
written, the museum has received from Lady Jardine, relict of the 
late Sir William Jardine, the celebrated naturalist, the donation of 
a number of trap-door spiders and their nests, of the kinds found 
and described by the late Mr. Moggridge, in the neighbourhood of 
Mentone, Cannes, and other points on the French or Italian 
littoral of the Mediterranean. As Mr. Moggridge's work has 
excited a good deal of interest in these creatures, an additional 
case has been added for their reception. Before describing 
them, however, it may be desirable to satisfy the reader's curiosity 
on two points on which it is likely to arise. If he looks at 
the specimens in this case, he will acknowledge that without the 
key, which we have added to each, to indicate the position of the 
trap-door, he would have great difficulty in finding it for himself, 
even when his field of search is reduced to a couple of inches, and 
he will naturally ask how in an open country any one could ever 
detect them ; and his surprise will not be diminished when he is 
disabused of an erroneous impression, very likely to be created by 
the specimens of larger exotic trap-doors exhibited in last case. 
These would lead to the impression that their nests are much 
larger, and consequently more conspicuous than they actually are 
in the south of France, and its neighbourhood. The fact is that 
there, they are often very small, for both young and old spiders 



62 ARACHNOIDEA. 

CASE make these nests, and the young ones, which are the most 
numerous, seldom go deeper than a couple of inches below the 
surface, and thus although the mechanism and structure of the 
nest is not far to seek when the entrance is once found, the 
dimensions are so small as greatly to increase the difficulty of 
finding them out. We have had the advantage of an explanation 
of the mode of procedure adopted by the late Mr. Moggridge 
from his father, now in England, himself an adept not less 
skilled in observing them than his talented and lamented son ; 
and we do not think that we can better illustrate it, than by 
repeating a little anecdote told us by that gentleman. — It 
appears that not long since, Mr. Moggridge and one of his 
sons had occasion to visit Marseilles. Familiar as they were 
with the appearance of ground that was likely to be inhabited 
by trap-door spiders, it appeared to them that the neighbour- 
hood of Marseilles looked a likely place in which to find 
them. Consequently, one of their first enquiries of the Ento- 
mological Curator of the museum there, to which they naturally 
paid an early visit, was whether trap-door spiders were found 
in the neighbourhood. The Curator replied that he thought he 
might confidently answer that they were not, for he had taken 
much interest in them, and had devoted a great deal of time to 
seeking for them without success. Mr. Moggridge said nothing 
in reply, but when they left the museum he said to his son, " Now 
let us go and try what we can do." They agreed to take different 
routes, so as to go over most ground, and separated on their 
search. Now it is plain that if these nests were scattered indif- 
ferently over the ground, a search for them would be a very hap- 
hazard affair, but there happen to be two circumstances which 
do not leave the searcher absolutely without a guide. In the 
first place they do not make their nests on the level ground, or if 
they do, the difficulty of finding them there has not hitherto been 
overcome ; but on the sides of earthen banks, like the banks 
on each side of a deep worn road or lane, which constant use has 



TRAP-DOOR-NEST SPIDERS. 63 

CA^E cut deep beneath the level of the surrounding country, or in roads 
margined on each side by turf walls or embankments. And the 
level they affect in such banks is from two to four feet high, or a 
little below the line of vision of an average sized man. And in 
the next place it turns out that the hinges of doors are very 
slightly made (in London we should say that the work had been 
scamped), that they very soon wear through and give way, and 
the doors then drop off and roll down the bank. It is probable 
that a strong and lasting hinge would not be sufficiently flexible. 
But the frequent loss of the doors is made up for by the ease 
with which they are renewed. If we remove a door to-day, a 
new door, hinge and all, will be hung by to-morrow at the same 
hour ; it may not be quite perfect, and may take another day 
or so to complete it to the spider's mind j but the door is on. 
The result of this insufficiency of hinges, is that doors that have 
dropped off and rolled down the bank, remain as tell-tale wit- 
nesses, to indicate that there is a nest in the bank a foot or two 
above, which only requires a careful search to be found. Some- 
times they are so ingeniously like the surrounding earth, that 
they defy detection, but generally speaking, they can be found, 
at all events by an educated eye. Acting on this plan, Mr. 
Moggridge and his son spent the morning in reconnoitring the 
lanes in the vicinity of Marseilles, and next day were each able to 
surprise the Curator with a donation of several specimens that had 
rewarded their search. 

When found, the next difficulty is to get them out entire, and 
for the purposes of such a museum as this, to bring them to 
England without crumbling to pieces. Here again care in cutting 
out, putting aside, and packing, and then, after filling the tubes 
with cotton, paying the earth around them again and again, with 
a weak solution of gum arabic, overcomes the difficulty. The 
nest can even be dissected out, so as to show the double tubes 
and chamber door, &c., if sufficient skill and neat-handedness be 
brought to bear upon it. We tried, but it would appear that we 



64 ARACHNOIDEA. 

CASE have not got these qualities in the requisite degree. We did not 
succeed to our satisfaction. 



Section I. — Nests with Cork Doors 

Nos. 



I. 2, 



Nest presented in the ground, with relative key to show where the door is. 
From St. Cassien, Cannes, collected April, 1875. 
3, Specimens of its maker, Nemesia csementaria, male. 
4> 5> Another nest of ditto, and key. 
6, 7, Ditto Ditto. 

8, Specimens of Nemesia csementaria, female. 
9, 10, Another nest of ditto, and key. 

Section II. — Nests with Wafer Doors, 

II, 12, Nest with two doors and key. A portion of an old nest or door lies in the 
right hand comer. 
13, Diagram of double-doored nest, made by Nemesia eleanora. 
14, 15, Another nest, with two doors, old inner door lying in the lower left-hand 

corner. 
16, 17, Ditto Ditto.* 

18, Specimens of the maker, Nemesia eleanora, male. 
19, 20, Another nest, with two doors close together, and key. A portion of inner 

door or tube lies in upper left-hand corner. 
21, 22, Another two-doored nest, and key. 

23, Specimens of Nemesia eleanora, female. 
24, 25, Single door, removed from No. 17. 
26, Magnified sketch of Cteniza fodiens, a cork-nest spider. 



* The specimen No. 1 7 was the one that we attempted to dissect, but, not 
succeeding, we were glad to restore it to the best of our ability. There was a 
third door close beside the other two, which we have put as a separate speci- 
men in No. 24. Nos. 17 and 24 are the only two where the ground has been 
meddled with, further than gumming together. 



THERIDIID^. 



65 



CASE Mamified sketch of door made by ditto. 

V. "* ^ 

Nos. 27, Magnified figure of Nemesia eleanora, a wafer-nest spider. 



28. 



Magnified sketch of door made by ditto. 



CASE Mygale detrita {Koch).—\. Sketch of insect ; 2. Specimen of ditto, taken 
in London Docks. See above (p. 55). 



Nos. 
I, 2. 



Theridiid^. 

The characters of this and the next group (Lycosid^), will be 
noticed when we come to speak of them as British spiders. At 
present we take in separately here one or two of them that are 
not British, but have acquired an ill reputation as being dangerous 
and venomous. They are the following, viz. : — 



Latrodectus Malmignatus (i%/r^). — 3. Enlarged figure of do. 

This spider is black, with ten blood-red spots, which are more 
or less semilunar. It is common in some parts of the south of 
Europe, more particularly in 
Catalonia, and it possesses 
the dangerous power of in- 
flicting a poisonous wound 
that kills small insects instan- 
taneously, and affects the 
larger animals seriously — man 
himself having sometimes suc- 
cumbed to the stroke. 

Previous to 1830 its veno- 
mous properties appear never 
to have been noticed or heard 
of by any of the old inhabi- 
tants, but in 1830, 1833, and 
1 841 many dangerous accidents from its bite occurred, which 
directed attention to it. The enquiries consequently made esta- 
blished beyond doubt its venomous properties. The spider was 




Latrodectes malmignatus (slightly magnified). 



€6 ARACHNOTDEA. 

CASE seen to despatch any insects detained in its toils, though as large 
as a locust or a cicada, by a bite, which was usually inflicted in 
the joints between the armour of the head and neck. The insect, 
if small, died instantaneously; if larger, it appeared at first to 
undergo something like a convulsion, which presently gave way 
to a state of total prostration, rapidly terminating in death. 

It may be the same species, or at any rate an allied one, that 
is referred to by Kirby and Spence in their "Introduction to 
Entomology," of which they say : According to Mr. Jackson, a 
spider called there the Tendaraman is found in Morocco, which 
has formidable but no doubt much exaggerated venomous powers. 
It is about the size and colour of a hornet, and spins a web so fine 
as to be almost invisible. Its bite is said to be so poisonous that 
the person bitten survives but a few hours. In the cork forests 
the sportsman, eager in his pursuit of game, is said frequently to 
carry away on his garments this fatal insect. 

The insect is black, with ten blood-red mostly crescent-shaped 
marks on the abdomen. 

There is an allied species found in Corsica, where it also is 
known by the same name, or at least a provincial modification of 
it, viz., Marmignatto or Marmagnatto (Theridion tredecim-gutta- 
tum). Although it does not there seem to be so formidable as in 
Catalonia, its bite is said to cause much pain, even to man, and, 
according to Rossi, induces serious symptoms, which require 
sharp treatment, copious perspiration being one of the best cures. 
Grasshoppers and locusts seem to be its favourite food, and it is 
said to stretch long threads across the furrows in the fields to 
entangle the feet of its more active prey. When it catches a locust 
it, like other spiders, secures the insect by spinning threads round its 
limbs, when it inflicts a fatal wound at the junction of the head with 
the neck. As soon as the locust has received the bite, it is attacked 
with a violent convulsion, and dies almost instantaneously. 

This species is black, with thirteen round blood-red spots on 
the abdomen. 



LYCOSID^: 67 

CASE Another species of Latrodectes, from the south of Russia, having 
similar properties, has been described by Motschulsky, and he has 
given it the name of Latrodectes lugubris. The same noxious 
properties are found in a species of the same genus, called the 
Kalipo, that inhabits New Zealand. An account of the effects 
of its bite, and of the remedies used against it, will be found in the 
Transactions of the New Zealand Institute, 1869. 

Theridion benignum {Walck.). 

Another species of Theridion (called benignum from its being 
so unusually benignant in disposition that husband and wife are 
actually able to live together without eating each other up) is 
interesting to man from an economic point of view. In the south 
of Europe it is common in gardens, especially in autumn. Where 
the grape vine is cultivated its webs are thought to be useful in 
preserving the clusters of grapes from the attacks of other insects. 
Its webs, though of slender texture, are very plentiful in some 
places, so much so that almost every bunch of grapes has its 
protecting network of web thrown over it. 

LYCOSID^ (Wolf Spiders). 

The wolf spiders are a family of rather large spiders that take 
their prey not by lying in ambush but by regular chase. The 
most celebrated of them is the Lycosa Tarantula, which was 
supposed to give rise to the disease Tarantismus or Tarantula 
dance. It was named after the town of Tarentum in Italy, where 
it is common, and where no doubt it occasionally bites people. 
So far as actual scientific observation has gone, the result of the 
bite appears either to be nothing at all, or to be limited to some 
uneasiness or swelling. Kirby and Spence mention that Dr. 
Cavitro submitted to be bitten by this animal, and no bad effects 
ensued, and that the Count Deborch, a Polish nobleman, bribed a 
man to undergo the same experiment, in whom the only result was 
a swelling of the hand, attended by intolerable itching. The 

£ 2 



68 



ARACHNOIDEA, 




Lycosa tarantula (slightly magnified). 



CASE fellow's sole remedy was a bottle of wine, which charmed away his 

pain without the aid of 
pipe or tabor. . That it 
does this extent of injury 
is probably the true ver- 
sion of the tale, because 
Count Motschulsky de- 
scribes another species, 
from the south of Russia, 
to which similar offensive 
properties are ascribed. 
But such moderate an- 
noyance is by no means 
the effect which in the 
last century was popularly supposed to be produced by the bite 
of this spider. The Tarantismus either affected anyone bitten by 
throwing him into a profound and moody melancholy similar to 
what is often to be seen in our lunatic asylums under the name 
religious depression, or in frantic dancing and gesticulation, which 
often terminated in convulsions. The remedy was music, which 
timed the dancing, and the curious thing was that it did not 
seem necessary that each patient should be bitten by the 
Tarantula — a Tarantula patient infected all that came near 
him. The consequence was that the disease ran through whole 
districts and villages like an epidemic. There is no reason to 
dispute that it did so, and that hundreds were affected at the same 
time by this dancing disease, but the Tarantula had nothing to do 
with it. It was one of those examples of the results of unnatural ex- 
citement which in all countries, and especially under the influence 
of religious impressions, has produced similar consequences. The 
dancing dervishes of India, the shakers of America, and individual 
examples at religious revivals in our own country, probably all 
suffer more or less from something allied to the Tarantula of Italy. 
No. 4- Lycosa tarantula {Linn.)—^. Sketch of ditto, slightly magnified. 



BRITISH SPIDERS. 69 

CASE 
VI. 

BRITISH SPIDERS. 

In order to give some general idea of the different kinds of 
spiders that inhabit Britain, we have next displayed a series of 
examples and illustrations of the different famiHes and most of the 
genera of British spiders. The arrangement is that of the Rev. 
O. P. Cambridge, published in the Linnean Society's Transactions 
1874, which seems in some respects an improvement upon that 
adopted by Mr. Blackwall, our great British arachnologist, in his 
important work, "The Spiders of Great Britain and Ireland," 
published by the Ray Society. 



Family MYGALID^. 
Sub-Family Theraphosid^. 
Atypus sulzeri {Latr.). — See Case IV., No. 14. 

Family DYSDERID^. 

The Dysderidse, along with the genus Scytodes, which will 
be found further on, are the only British spiders that have six 
eyes, the rest all having eight, and they have consequently been 
placed in a separate division by themselves, but they are 
clearly nearly united to the genus Atypus, on the one hand, 
and the Drassid^ on the other, which shows that too much 
value must not be placed upon the number of eyes as 
a character of natural affinity. The Dysderidse live in holes 
in the ground and crevices in rocks and walls or in cells and 
tubes of silk constructed under stones and take their prey by 
hunting. 

No. 5. OONOPS PULCHER (7>;;z//.). — 5. Sketch of ditto, enlarged. 
This is a minute fawn-coloured spider. 



70 



ARACHNOIDEA, 



CASE Dysdera crocata {Koch), D. rubicunda, BL- 

Z^' London : 7. Sketch of ditto, enlarged. 

Nos. 

6,7. 



-6. Specimen from near 




Dysdera crocata {slightly magnified). 



Rather a large reddish spider, about 
half an inch in length, with a whitish 
abdomen. 

Harpactes hombergi {Scop.), Dysdera 
Hombergi, Bl. — 8. Sketch enlarged. 

A smaller species with black thorax, 
fawn-coloured abdomen, banded legs, 
black and pale, plentiful. 

Found in the wooded districts of 
Denbighshire, Carnarvonshire, Lanca- 
shire and Yorkshire, living in crevices 
in rocks and walls, and under lichens 
growing on trees. 



'^°- 9- Segestria senoculata {Linn.). — 9. Sketch of, natm-al size. 

About the same size as Dysdera crocata, with a rich brown 
thorax, and fawn-coloured legs and abdomen. 

Family DRASSID^. 

The Drassidse are rather narrow spiders of moderate size, 
which obtain their prey by hunting. They conceal themselves in 
silken cells, often open at each end, which they construct under 
or among the leaves of plants, in the crevices of rocks and walls, 
and under stones and decaying or exfoliating bark. 



No. 10. MlCARiA PULICARIA {Sund.), Drassus micans, Bl. — 10. Sketch, enlarged. 

Some few spiders, more especially from tropical countries, are 
as brightly polished and burnished with metallic colours as beetles 
often are. This one has a moderate share of such brilliancy on 
the abdomen. 



BRITISH SPIDERS. 



71 



CASE Drassus blackwallii {Thor.\ D. sericeus, Bl.—W. Sketch, enlarged. 
No. II. Brown thofax and legs ; black abdomen. 

No. 12. Clubiona pallidula {Clerck.), C. epimelus, 
BL— 12. Enlarged sketch. 

A rather large brown species with a 
dark abdomen. 



No. 13. Chiracanthum Nutrix {Westr. non BL). 
— 13. Enlarged sketch. 

Pale species, with a darker abdomen 
bearing a high longitudinal marking. 




Drassus sericeus (very slightly 
magnified). 



No. 14. Hecaerge Maculata (^/.).— 14. Enlarged sketch. 

Pale fawn-coloured ; thorax longitudinally striped, and abdomen 
spotted with black. 

Family DICTYNID^. 
This family is a new one, proposed by Mr. Cambridge, com- 
posed of the genera Eresus and Ergatis of Blackwall (Dictyna of 
Sundeval). These genera do not in 
all respects combine well together. 
Eresus is a hunting spider; Ergatis 
a kind that spins a web. There are 
also material differences in the struc- 
ture, and the family may probably 
not stand. Blackwall places Eresus 
among the Salticidae and Ergatis 
among the Ciniflonidae, a family that 
Mr. Cambridge suppresses, and 
distributes its members in other 
families. 




Eresus cinnabarinus (slightly magnified). 



No. 15. Eresus cinnabarimus {Oliv.). — 15. Enlarged sketch. 

Above black, with a scarlet patch at the base of each side of 



72 ARACHNOIDEA. 

CASE the thorax \ abdomen, bright scarlet above, with six black spots 
on the scarlet abdomen, each of which is surrounded by a ring of 
white hairs : below, all black except a white jja-tch near the 
posterior extremity. 

Nos. DiCTYNA ARUNDINACEA (Ergatis benigna, BL). — 16. Enlarged sketch; 17. 
■* ' ^'^' Do. , sketch of cocoons of do. 

This is a dark-coloured spider, with a sort of herring-bone 
pattern on the back of the abdomen. It spins an irregular web 
at the ends of the twigs of heath and gorse, and the female con- 
structs two or three lenticular white cocoons of a compact texture, 
which she attaches to the stems surrounded by her web, envelop- 
ing them with the refuse of her prey. 

Family AGELENID.E. 
Mr. Cambridge proposes some alterations on this family. He 
removes the water-spider (Argyroneta aquatica) from the Drassidae 
and places it here. Its aquatic habits had already suggested to 
other authors to place it by itself — ^but there are species in other 
families which take to the water in the same way as it does. He 
includes with it the most of the Ciniflonid^ of Blackwall and his 
Agelenidae or house spiders (Tegenaria). They all spin webs, and 
lie in ambush for their prey; but the fabric of the web is not the 
same in all. In the Ciniflonidae it is peculiar, and they have a 
special apparatus on the hind leg called a calamistrum, which is 
used in the manufacture. On that account we hesitate as to the 
propriety of absorbing the Ciniflonidas j but on the other hand it 
is to be acknowledged that the whole of the spiders composing 
the group as adjusted by Mr. Cambridge have all the same 
general t)^e and facies. 

No i8. Argyroneta aquatica {Linn.). — 18. Enlarged sketch. 

About half an inch in length ; thorax, dark reddish brown ; 
abdomen, olive brown. 



BRITISH SPIDERS. 



73 



The interesting habits of this species are well known, and have 
led to their being often kept as pets. Indeed a few years ago it 
became so much a fashion that, like sea anemones during the 
rage for aquaria, they have become scarce, even in localities such 
as the ditches about Oxford or Cambridge, which are most adapted 
for them, and where they were formerly plentiful, they having 
been caught and sent up to London in quantities for sale by 
dealers in objects of Natural History. 

They can live indifferently either on dry land or under water, 
but practically they spend the greater portion of their time in the 
latter. Their eggs are moored in 
silken cocoons to the stems of 
aquatic plants, under a dome-shaped 
cell, which is filled with air like a 
diving bell, by the spider carrying 
down successive globules of air be- 
tween its legs, which it liberates 
under the dome until it is filled, — 
and the young are hatched there. 
The spider on its way through the 
water never gets wet. It is clothed 
■with hair, which, combined with its 
respiratory organs, enable it to sur- 
round itself with a halo or envelop- 
ing bubble of air in which it moves 
about protected from wet and well 

supplied with air to breathe. It can be drowned for want of air, 
however, as well as any other animal. Mr. Blackwall mentions 
such a case. One of these creatures which had been got in 
the fens of Cambridgeshire was given to a friend. On being 
placed in a large goblet more than half filled with water, it 
speedily formed its dome-shaped cell beneath the surface, attach- 
ing it to the side of the glass by means of numerous silken lines, 
and being well supplied with insects, it lived in this state of 




Argyroneta aquatica, water spider, 
' female (sli.^htly magnified). 



74 



ARACHNOIDEA. 




Water spiders under the water. From Messrs. Blackie and Son's work "The Universe.' 



BRITISH SPIDERS. 



75 



CASE captivity till the commencement of winter, when, on the tem- 
perature of the room in which it was kept becoming much 
reduced, it entered the cell and remained there in a state of 
torpidity with its head downwards. A gentleman on a visit at 
the house, whose curiosity to examine the spider minutely in its 
hibernaculum was greater than his prudence, inclined the glass 
so much that the air escaped from the cell, the water flowed 
in, and before information of the circumstance was given the 
domiant spider had perished. The spider feeds upon any insects 
it can catch, whether water or land species \ and whether she gets 
them on shore or not she generally carries them into her cell to 
suck their juices there. 



Amaurobius ferox {Walck.)^ Ciniflo ferox, Bl.—\^. Enlarged sketch. 

Pale brown; abdomen darker, with pale pattern on its 
back. 

The web of this species, and of three or four others, considered 
by some a distinct family, under 
the name of Ciniflonidae, is pecu- 
liar. It escaped notice for long, 
for it presents at first sight an 
irregular, ragged, and generally 
a dirty appearance, and might 
easily be passed by with little 
notice, as an old or deserted 
web. Mr. Blackwall pointed out, 
however, that even with the naked 
eye it can be seen to differ 
greatly from the webs of other 
spiders, which — whether as in the 
TheridiidcR they are a mass of 
clear distinct lines ; or, as in the 
AgelenidcB, of a close even texture; 
or, as in the Epeiridce, open nets, constructed on a regular plan- 




Ciiiiflo ferox (twice magnified). 



76 



ARACHNOIDEA. 



CASE are all composed of simple threads ; (more correctly, of threads 
composed of many strands, which become entirely united), whereas 
the web of the Ciniflo is a loose, irregular open net, formed of 



f^^^i 




Fabric of the web of the Ciniflonids. 



flocculous compound threads. These are very beautiful under 
the microscope. One straight line usually forms the foundation of 
the compound thread, and this is accompanied by several lines of 
extreme fineness, some of which are merely slack, while the rest 
are curled and twisted in every direction, by the operation of the 

spines forming the calamistrum. 
When newly spun, these threads 
have to the naked eye a bluish 
colour, but being very apt to en- 
tangle dust, the net is most fre- 
quently found in a foul and dis- 
coloured state. When handled, it 
clings to the fingers with remark- 
able tenacity. This is said to arise 
from the structure, rather than from 
any peculiar viscidity of the thread. 
The bluish colour of the web has 
been already noticed, and viewed in 
the microscope with the help of the parabolic condenser, the com- 
pound thread appears to be enveloped in something like a bluish 
cloud or vapour. Whatever this substance may be, (and it is so 
transparent as easily to escape observation under even the most 



Calamistrum of Ciniflo 
(enlarged). 



Part of ditto 
(more magnified). 



BRITISH SPIDERS. 77 

CASE favourable circumstances,) it is probably the cause of the colour 
of the web, and perhaps also of its clinging so closely to whatever 
it touches. 

No. 20. Amaurobius mordax (Ciniflo mordax, i5/.).— 20. Enlarged sketch. 
Fawn-coloured ; about half an inch in size. 

No. 21. Agelena labyrinthica. {Clerck.)—'2X. Enlarged sketch. 




Agelena labyrinthica, female (slightly magnified). 

Brown, with a paler herring-bone pattern on the back of the 
abdomen. 

The specific name of this species (labyrinthica) is probably 
derived from the form of its web or nest. In autumn we often 
see in hedges or heaths a rather considerable and thick mass of 
white strong compact spider's web, from part of which a sort 
of funnel or cylindrical tube runs downwards ; the mouth opens 
wide and extends outwards usually for some distance as a simple 
single horizontal web, but gradually narrows at the inner end 
until it ends in a tube or tunnel large enough to admit one's 
finger. This tube frequently opens into one or more tubular 



78 



ARACHNOIDEA. 



CASE chambers. The walls also gradually get thicker until they look 
like a complicated mass of irregular web running in every direc- 
tion. This is the nest or web of an Agelena. 



No. 22. Tegenaria guyonii {Gue7\)y Tegenaria domestica, " BI.—22. Enlarged 
sketch. 

Not unlike the preceding, but with larger legs. 




Tegenaria guyonii (somewhat enlarged). 

The Tegenarise are the spiders that spin their webs in the 
angles of walls, in outhouses and neglected rooms, and come 
especially under the cognizance of the house-maid. From their 
position their web is usually a horizontal triangular sheet with 
a short little tube or nest at the inner angle. With occasional 
repairs it will last a considerable time. 



Family SCYTODID.E, 
The Scytodidse prefer warm countries. They are of moderate 
size and have long legs, but are slow in their motions and feebly 
armed. One or two females have been taken in Britain, but as 
yet no males. 



BRITISH SPIDERS, 



79 



CASE SCYTODES THORACICA (Zfl'/r. V— 23. Enlarged sketch. 
VII. 

No. 23. Yellowish. The abdomen is spotted with black. 



Family PHOLCID^. 
Pholcus phalangioides (/F(7/tZ'.).— 1, Enlarged sketch. 

Easily recognised by its long body and very long legs. It is 
of a pale colour, with irregular faint markings ; the knee joints 
are thick and dark. It forms a loose hanging web in the corners 




Pholcus phalangioidcs (slightly enlarged). 



of rooms, &c. Like many other spiders, the female carries about 
with her the cocoon containing her eggs : it is of a slight texture, 
and the eggs and young when newly hatched may be seen through 
its walls. 

Family THERIDIID/E. 
The species of this genus are distinguished by the abdomen 
being large rounded or angular, and overhanging the thorax. 
They form snares composed of fine threads crossing each other 
in all directions, attached to the surrounding bushes or herbage, 
and the general character of the snare is constant throughout the 
family, however it may vary in individual species. Some of them 
also form curious delicate tents for the protection of their cocoons 
from the weather. To this family belongs the venomous species 
Latrodectes malmignatus, &c., already described. 



So 



ARACHNOIDEA. 



CASE Theridion tepidariorum {Koch). — 2. Enlarged sketch. 

VII. 
No. 2. 




Theridion tepidariorum (magnified twice). 



No. 3. 



Dark brown, with a paler abdomen mottled with dark brown 
and black. 

Not uncommon in conservatories in this country, but as it is 

confined to them there is little 
doubt that it is an exotic species 
which has been imported. The 
colour is brown and black, with 
a wavy marking. It makes one 
of the curious tents for its cocoons 
of which we have above spoken. 

Theridion riparium {Bl.). — 3. 
Sketch of nest. 

Reddish brown, with abdomen 
variegated with black and white. 

This is another species which 
fabricates a curious tent, or nest, 
of which a figure is given. It is 
a slender conical tent of silk, 
something like a flat cap, mea- 
suring from one and a half to two 
and a half inches in length, and 
^"^°Se1nBUTS'°'"^\de^^^^^^^^ about half an inch in diameter 

at its lower extremity. It is 




BRITISH SPIDERS. 



8i 



CASE closed above, open below, thickly covered externally with bits of 
indurated earth, small stones, and withered leaves and flowers, 
which are incorporated with it, and is suspended perpendicularly, 
by lines attached to its sides and apex, and is surrounded by its 
irregular snare. In the upper part of the tent the female spins 
several minute globular cocoons of yellowish-white silk, of a slight 
texture, containing each from twenty to sixty small spherical eggs, 
of a pale yellowish-white colour. The young remain with the 
■ mother for a long period after quitting the cocoons, and are 
B provided by her with food, which consists chiefly of ants. 



Theridion lineatum {Walck.). 

Usually pale greenish or yel- 
lowish white, tricked off with 
delicate black lines ; but it is 
variable in colour, and in some 
individuals has a bright crimson 
oval or linear space on the abdo- 
men. It provides for the safety 
of its cocoon (which is globular 
and formed of blueish white or 
greenish blue silk) by fastening 
it to the surface of a leaf and 
curling the edges of the leaf over 
it, as here shown. 




Cocoon of Theridion lineatum. Copied from 
Mr. Blackwall's figure. 



Theridion fallens {BL). 

A small pale-coloured species. The female has a brown irre- 
gular semilunar mark enclosing white on the back of the abdo- 
men ; the male has a dark stripe down 
the middle of the thorax, and a dark 
bro^\Ti irregular mark on the abdomen. 

We notice this species for the sake 
of its cocoon, which may often be seen 
on the under side of leaves of shrubs 




Cocoon of Theridion pallens, on part 
of an oak leaf. 



82 



ARACHNOIDEA. 



CA^SE and trees. 

Paris, and is somewhat pear-shaped, with several little points 



No. 



Nos. 



It is white, of a close fine texture like plaster of 
is somewhat \ 
projecting from its surface. 



Family LINYPHIID^. 
This family is included by Mr. Cambridge among the 
Theridiidse, but in this instance we prefer to follow Mr. Black- 
wall's arrangement. They are small insects, many of them black 
or brown and others grey, and often the abdomen is more or 
less barred with black. They frequent foliage or overhanging 
banks or other projections, and fabricate a fine horizontal 
sheet of web, supported by its margin and threads like guy-ropes 
stretching out in various directions, on the under side of which 
they take their stand in an inverted position: 

LiNYPHiA MONTANA {Walck.')—^, Enlarged figure. 

A very common species. It constructs, in hedges and rank 
herbage, a large horizontal web, which is connected with sur- 
rounding objects, especially above by numerous fine lines, that not 
only serve to support the web, but also to precipitate such insects 
as strike against them, on to the horizontal sheet, where they are 
quickly seized by the vigilant occupant. 



Walckenaeria pratensis {BL). — 5. En- 
larged figure of male ; 6. Enlarged figure 
of female. 

The genus Walckenaeria is composed, 
with very few exceptions, of minute dark 
brown or black glossy spiders, without 
any pattern or variation of colour on 
the body. They are the tiny creatures 
that everyone must remember to have 
come against in autumn, hanging by a 
thread from door lintels or branches, 
when they become entangled in our 




Walckenaeria pratensis, female 
(magnified). 



BRITISH SPIDERS. 



83 



CASE hair or garments, and are rather difficult to be brushed away from 
the adhesiveness of the thread by which they hang. 

There is another genus named Neriene, that comes next to 
this, and is similar to it in appearance, and has similar habits — 
also one named Pachygnatha, which is of a brighter colour (red- 
dish-fawn), and is distinguished by having very thick diverging 
mandibles. 

Family EPEIRID^. 




Facsimile of web of Epeira diademata. 



The Epeiridse are the hump-backed, globose looking spiders that 
are usually found in gardens, often watching in the centre of a 
radiating geometrical web placed vertically. Many of them are 
very beautifully marked on the back of the abdomen. Their web 
differs from that spun by any other spider. The thread consists of 
an elastic spiral line, thickly studded with minute globules of 
liquid gum, whose course is crossed by radii converging to a 
common centre, which is immediately surrounded by several 

F 2 



84 ARACHNOIDEA, 

CASE circumvolutions of a short spiral line devoid of viscid globules, 
forming a station from which the toils may be superintended by 
their owner without the inconvenience of being entangled in 
them. The spiral thread is also peculiar. It presents the appear- 



Threads of web of Epeira. . 

ance of a string of glittering beads, sometimes uniform in size, and 
sometimes of different dimensions. These gHttering beads are 
globules of gummy matter, which does not harden on exposure to 
the air, as that of which the other threads are composed does. 
The nets are renewed either wholly, or at least their concentric 
circles, every twenty-four hours, even when not apparently injured. 

No. 7. Epeira quadrata (JValc/c.).—*i[. Enlarged figure of ditto. 

This is a large and handsome species. The colour of the 
abdomen varies, in different individuals, from sage-green, through 
orange yellow, to dark brown with white marking. It is not 
uncommon in some of the uncultivated districts of England 
and Wales. It spins a yellow cocoon for its eggs, which look^ 
very soft and flossy, from being formed by a succession of loops, 
exactly on the same principle as that adopted by ladies for making 
a similar texture in their silk or worsted work. 

No. 8. Epeira arbustorum {Koch\ Bicomis ^Walck.), Bl. — 8. Enlarged figure of 
ditto. 

A rare species, remarkable by its having two humps on its 
back. The thorax and back of the abdomen is brown, the rest 
green. 




BRITISH SPIDERS. 85 

CASE Epeira diademata {Clcrck), Diadema, Bl.—Q. Enlarged figure of ditto. 
VII. 

No. 9. This is the species known as the " garden spider." In France 
it is the " Porte-croix" or " Croix de St. Denis." 

It is common in our gardens in September. The cocoon is 
formed in October, and is about f in. in diameter, of a roundish 
shape and yellow colour, and contains a 
flattened mass of eggs. When the eggs 
are newly hatched, which takes place in 
spring, it is said that the following curious 
sight may be seen. The little spiders, 
almost as soon as they leave the tgg, spin 
a small irregular mass of almost invisible 

T • .1 "JJ1 c ^ ' ^ A^ i . Epeira diademata (slightly 

lines, m the middle 01 which they cluster magnified). ' 

together, forming themselves into a little 

ball about the size of a cherry stone. This hangs apparently in 
mid-air, and if an observer, approaching it to discover its nature, 
touches some one of the slender lines by which it is suspended, or 
some twig near enough to communicate the motion to them, in 
an instant some six or eight hundred living atoms begin to dis- 
perse — the solid little ball seeming for a moment to be turning into 
smoke, so minute are the animals, so rapid their motions, and so 
invisible the means of their dispersion. After a few seconds, if 
the disturbance be not repeated, the little creatures begin to sub- 
side again into a cluster, but this is not at once restored to its 
former small size ; and, indeed, it is easy to understand that up- 
wards of six thousand legs, however small, must require some 
time in the packing, not to mention six or eight hundred pairs of 
poison fangs, which perhaps, even at this early age, may exact 
due observance on behalf of their respective owners. 

This spider has, like some others, a habit of quivering rapidly 
in its web. It has, also, a mode of disabling a victim, by twirling 
it, and at the same time winding threads around it, till it is 
entirely swathed in a strong silken covering. By this means large 
and strong insects are reduced to a meekness of demeanour which 



86 ARACHNOIDEA. 

CASE enables their host to keep them aHve in the web, and so secure 
himself a supply of fresh provision. 

Family ULOBORID^. 

This section has been proposed by Mr. Cambridge for two 
genera, which it is difficult to arrange elsewhere, Uloborus (Veleda 
of Blackwall) and Hyptiotes. 

No. 10. Uloborus walcken/ERIUS [Latr.), Veleda lineata, BL — 10. Enlarged sketch 
of ditto. 

A small fawn-coloured species marked with longitudinal lines 
on the abdomen. The length of the female is | of an inch. It 
is very rare in England. It is said to form a web like the 
Epeiridse. 

Family THOMISID^. 
This is the most crab-like family of British spiders. Like many 
crabs, the body is short, broad, depressed, and angular, and their 
two anterior pairs of legs are long and powerful, while the two 
posterior pairs are generally small and feeble, and the whole are 
so constructed that the spider moves backwards, forwards, or side- 
ways, with equal ease. They live by hunting, and some run with 
extraordinary celerity ; others are more tardy, and lie in ambush in 
holes and crevices, to spring upon any prey that may come within 
their reach. They are generally pale with darker markings and 
waving black lines round the margin of the abdomen. 

Xysticus CRIST atus {Clerck). 

Pale, with a dark stripe on each side of the thorax, and a zig- 
zag border on the abdomen. 

This is a very common and variable species, found on the 
ground and in old pastures. One of its habits is that of rising 
in the air by the help of fine silken threads spun by it, and 
which, being carried upwards and onwards by currents in the air, 



BRITISH SPIDERS. 



87 



CASE raise the spider, and enable it to float to considerable distances. 

VII. ^ 

These threads must not be confounded with gossamer, which is 

composed of numerous lines or webs, brought together by gentle 

currents of air, and adhering by the viscid properties of the web. 

There is nothing remarkable in this ; but the circumstance that 




Xj'sticus cristatus (twice magnified). 



Xysticus audax (twice magnified). 



excites our surprise is the vast quantity of gossamer that may be 
seen on a warm misty morning in autumn, covering every bush 
and tuft of grass for miles. It is only in autumn that it occurs, 
when the young broods of spiders are in full numbers, and it 
shows not only their great numbers but the rapidity of their 
manufacture. This, however, we already knew, for it is matter 
of common observation that a large web of the garden spider 
may be swept away and replaced in a few hours. In fact, there is 
not anything more industrious in the matter than in the Great 
Eastern ploughing its way through the ocean, and paying out a 
deep-sea cable as she goes. The whole industry of the spider 
consists in its walking from one point of attachment of the web 
to another, no doubt guiding the line with her claws as she goes, 
and of course to make a large geometrical web there must be a 
good deal of walking j but there is no industry in spinning the 
web. It is manufactured and payed out by nature as fast as it is 
wanted. 



No. 13. 




88 ARACHNOIDEA. 

CASE Xysticus PINI {HaJiu), Thomisus audax, Bl.—W. Enlarged sketch of ditto. 
VII. 

No. II. Similar in appearance to the last. 

No. 12. Thomisus onustus {Walck.\ Th. abbreviatus, BL—\2. Enlarged sketch of 
ditto. 

A yellow species with the ab- 
domen so much turned down as 
to appear abruptly truncate. 

DiyEA DORSATA (ivz^.), Thomisus flori- 
colens, Bl. — 13. Enlarged figure 
of ditto. 

Found in chalk and limestone 
districts ; the male and female 
differ much in appearance. The 
female has the cephalo-thorax 

Thomisus abbreviatus (slightly magnified). 2Xld^ ICgS grCCn, thc abdomen 

yellowish, with a large brown 
mark on the back. The male is slenderer, has the cephalo-thorax 
red, and the abdomen yellowish, with oblique brownish bars. 
The legs are reddish and green. 

No. 14. Philodromus margaritatus {Clerck), Ph. pallidas, Bl. — 14. Enlarged 
figures. 
Rather a large species (more than \ of an inch in length), pale 
greenish olive, barred a little with brown, and with pale brownish 
legs mottled with light brown. 

Nos. Micrommata virescens (C/^;r^), Sparassus smaragdulus, i^/. — 15. Enlarged 
'^' ^ • figure of male. 16. Ditto of female. 

The female and young male of this spider are entirely green, but 
the full grown male has the abdomen with a broad yellow longi- 
tudinal stripe down the upper side, bordered by two bright red 
lines, and a bright red angular pointed one in the middle. Like 
its congeners, it is a hunting spider, and is very rapid in its 



BRITISH SPIDERS. 



89 



The female makes a cell for her cocoon, which is green 
but slight in texture, by rolling 
leaves, and tying them together by tlireads. 



CASE motions. 

VII. 

and large, but slight in texture, by rolling together two or three 



Family LYCOSID^. 
Some particulars regarding this family (the wolf spiders) have 
been already given in speaking of the Tarantula. There are 
twenty-seven species belonging to it known to inhabit Britain, 
some of which are similar in marking to the Tarantula, but none so 
large. They construct no snares, but lead a vagabond and 
hunter's life. The cocoon is peculiar, like two flat cups or 
saucers joined together, which give way at the suture, and allow 
of the escape of the young, which hang about the body of the 
mother for about a fortnight, being dependent on her for food 
until they are able to provide it for themselves. There are two 
broods in the course of the year. 

No. 17. DoLOMEDEs FIMBRIATUS {CUrclS). — 17. Enlarged figure. 

This is a semi-aquatic spider, which has been called the raft 




Doloinedes finibriatus (slightly magnified). 



spider from its habits. It is one of the largest British spiders, is 
of a brown colour, with a broad orange band encircling the upper 



90 ARACHNOIDEA, 

CASE surface of the thorax and abdomen. A double row of small 

VII. 

white spots are ranged longitudinally on the back of the abdomen, 
and the legs are pale red. It is only to be found in fenny or 
marshy places, and its best known habitat is the fens of Cam- 
bridgeshire, where its remarkable habits have long been known, 
Mr. Wood, in his " Homes without Hands," gives the following : 
Not content with chasing insects on land, it follows them to the 
water, on the surface of which it runs freely. It needs, however, 
a resting place, and forms one by getting together a quantity of 
dry leaves and similar substances, which it gathers into a rough 
ball and fastens with a silken thread. On this ball the spider 
sits, and allows itself to be blown about the water by the 
wind. Apparently, it has no means of directing its course, but 
suffers its raft to traverse the surface as the wind or current 
may carry it. 

There is no lack of prey, for aquatic insects are constantly 
coming up to breathe the air, and although they may only remain 
on the surface for a second or two, the spider can seize them 
before they gain the safe refuge of the deeper water. Then 
there are insects, such as the gnat, which attain their wings on the 
surface of the water, and can be taken by the spider before they 
have gained strength for flight. Also there are insects which 
habitually traverse the water in search of prey, and which are 
themselves seized by the more powerful and equally voracious. 
More than this, moths, flies, beetles, and other insects, are con- 
tinually falling into the water, and these afford the easiest prey to 
the raft spider, who pounces upon them as they vainly struggle to 
regain the air, and then carries them back to its raft, there to 
devour them in peace. The spider does not merely sit upon the 
raft, and there capture any prey that may happen to come within 
reach, but when it sees an insect upon the surface, it leaves the 
raft, runs swiftly over the water, secures its prey, and brings it 
back to the raft. It can even descend below the surface of the 
water, and will often crawl several inches in depth. This feat it 



BRITISH SPIDERS. 91 

CASE does not perform by diving, as is the case with the water spider, 
but by means of the aquatic plants, down whose stems it crawls. 
Its capability of existing for some time beneath the surface of the 
water is often the means of saving its Hfe ; for, when it sees an 
enemy approaching, it quietly slips under the raft, and there lies 
in perfect security until the danger has passed away. There 
is living in the same localities a closely-allied species, the 
Pirate Spider (Lycosa piratica), which has similar habits, chasing 
its prey on the water, and descending as well below the sur- 
face. It does not, however, possess the habit of making a 
raft. 

It carries its cocoon about with it, like other spiders. 



No. i8. Trochosa CINEREA {Fab.), Lycosa allodroma, ^/.— 18. Enlarged figure. 

A rather large grey and white species. It has been found in 
Wales. 

Family SPHASID^. 
A separate family has been made for a single transition- 
species Oxyopes lineatus, which unites three groups, the Lyco- 
» sidae, the Thomisidae, and the Salticidse. It has the principal 
characters of the first, the appearance of some of the second 
(Philodromus), and the habits of the third, of leaping suddenly 
on its prey. 

Jfo 19. Oxyopes lineatus {Latr.), Sphasus lineatus, Bl. — 19. Enlarged figure. 

It is light brown, with pale markings on the back, and black 
spots on the legs. 

Family SALTICID^E. 
This family derives its name from its habit of leaping on its 
prey {Saltus, a leap). They run with great velocity, and move 
sideways with ease. They are easily recognised by their oblong 



92 ARACHNOIDEA. 

CASE form, the cephalo-thorax being massive, truncated in front with 
parallel sides, and large in proportion to the abdomen. Mr. 
Blackwall keeps the whole of the family in one genus, but other 
authors have sub-divided it into several genera, of which it will be 
sufficient to notice the more remarkable. 



No. 20. Epiblemum scenicum [Clark], Salticus scenicus, BL — 20. Enlarged figure. 

This is the type of the family. A grey 
species with transverse oblique whitish 
bars on the back and legs, very common. 
When it springs upon its victims, it, by 
the act of leaping, draws from the spinners 
a line attached by its extremity to the 
station whence it took its spring ; an ar- 
rangement which has been supposed to be 
^ ., , a precaution against falHng should it miss 

Epiblemum scenicum ■'• o o 




(raagnilied twice). 



Its ann. 



No. 21. Heliophanes cupreus {Walck.), Salticus cupreus, Bl.—^l. Enlarged 
figure. 

Easily distinguished by its colouring and markings. The 
cephalo-thorax is dark brown and green with white markings 
behind ; the abdomen dark green with a white margin in front, 
and four short transverse white lines on the back. Not common j 
found in Wales. 

No. 22 Ballus depressus {Walck.), Salticus obscurus, BL—22. Enlarged figure. 
A minute dark brown species ; very scarce. 

No. 23. Salticus formicarius (Za/r.).— 23. Enlarged figure. 

Also very rare. It is remarkable from its great resemblance to 
an ant ; a character possessed by several exotic species. 



A CARINA, OR MITES. 



Order ACARINA, or MITES. 



93 



An easilyobserved distinction in structure between the scorpions, 
spiders, and mites, is, that the latter never have their abdomen 
segmented like the scorpions, nor pedunculated (that is, joined to 
the body by a narrow point of attachment) like the spiders. It is 
always in one piece, and united without any well-marked groove 
of separation to the last of the segments that bears the legs. 

As a rule all mites have eight legs when mature, some indeed 
have their posterior legs atrophied and apparently absent, but 
traces of them can always be discovered, or their absence is an 
exceptional peculiarity. In their earlier stage they all have six. 
This statement may be made with confidence, for numerous 
species in every section and in almost every genus have been 
reared or observed, and in every instance the young were hexa- 
pod. The only apparent exception is the Phytopti, which in all 
stages appear to have only four, the two hinder limbs being ab- 
sent ] but, as we shall hereafter show, even this is in all proba- 
bility only an apparent exception, not a real one. 

The following is the arrangement which we propose for this 
order. It is very nearly the same as that generally adopted by 
naturalists, some few modifications, which recent researches seem 
to have rendered necessary, only having been made. 



1. Trombidiin.^, containing — 

1. Tetranycht, spinning mites. 

2. TROMBiDiiDAi, harvest mites. 

2. BDELLiDyE, snouted harvest mites. 

3. Hydrachnid^, water mites. 

4. GAMASiDi^, insect mite-parasites. 

5. IxoDiD^, ticks. 

6. Halacarid^, marine mites. 

7. Oribatid/e, beetle mites. 



8. AcARiD^ : — 

1. Hypoderid/e, subcutaneous 

mites. 

2. HypopiD/E, ichneumon mites. 

3. Tyroglyphid^, cheese mites. 

4. Sarcoptid^, itch and louse 

mites. 

5. Phytoptid^, gall mites. 



We shall not go into any minute scientific description of the 
characters of these different mites ; but they have hitherto been 
so little studied in this country that we feel sure we shall 



94 ARACHNOIDEA. 

CASE render an acceptable service to naturalists by giving a general 
resume of the state of our knowledge regarding them in more 
detail than we shall do for any of the other orders of insects. We 
shall first offer a few hints which may be useful in assisting the 
reader, in a general way, to determine the place or genus of any 
species he may have in hand. 

In the first place, the locality where they are found will be a 
great assistance. 

The first section of the Trombidiinae or spinning mites belong 
to the genus Tetranychus, or red spider of gardeners. These are 
found on plants, and are readily distinguished from their con- 
geners by their very minute size, and by being semi-transparent ; 
some species have little colour, and, to one unacquainted with 
them, might seem not unlike the cheese mites, but the form of 
their palpi and other characters, which will be found noticed as 
we go along, at once distinguish them from that group. 

The Trombidiidse, or harvest mites, are distinguished by their 
brilliant colouring, which is generally scarlet or some modification 
of red. Some, however, are marked with black or brown. They 
are usually found on the ground or under stones. 

The Bdellidse, or snouted harvest mites, have the same character 
of colouring, but are distinguished, among other things, by their 
mouth being protruded like a snout, and usually narrowed behind 
the palpi, giving them, the appearance of having a head and neck, 
and still more by their palpi being bent at right angles in their 
midst like those of many weevils. 

The Hydrachnidae are merely Trombidiidae converted into water 
mites, and adapted for their different spheres of life. They have 
the same general arrangements of structure, and retain the brilliancy 
of their colouring \ some being as bright scarlet as the harvest 
mites, and others having a distribution of colouring still more 
startling. 

The Gamasidae are, for the most part, parasitic, chiefly on in- 
sects, but some on other animals, or ranging about free. They 



SPINNING MITES. 95 

CASE have often some peculiarity on their second pair of legs, such as 
being much enlarged or provided with hooks, &c. 

The Ticks, or Ixodidae, are at once known by their leathery 
abdomen, by having a sort of shield on the back, immediately 
behind the head, and by their fastening on warm-blooded animals 
and sucking their blood, for which they have a specialized mouth- 
piece. 

The Halacarldse are marine, and the Oribatidse have a chitonous 
skin, like beetles. 

The Acaridae are semi-transparent, and nearly colourless. The 
cheese mite section maybe distinguished by having the skin smooth, 
and the tarsi usually terminated by a single claw with or without 
a sucker, which when present is not conspicuous. In the Sarcop- 
tidse the sucker is conspicuously the chief organ of locomotion, 
and the skin is always covered with more or less transverse lines 
or wrinkles. The Phytoptidae also have the skin wrinkled, but 
only four legs, the two posterior pairs being replaced by bristles. 
They are excessively minute, and only found in buds or leaf-galls. 

Family TROMBIDIIN.^. 
Besides the general aspect and habits which we have already 
noticed, this group is to be distinguished by its palpi, which have 




I'alpi of Tronibidium fuliginosum. Typical palpus of Trombidium. Copied 

from Dug6s. 

generally the second joint longest, and the last bearing an append- 
age which with it serves to act as finger and thumb ; sometimes it 
is like a claw, and at others is diminished to a hair, but is almost 
always present in some form, and usually easily enough dis- 
tinguishable. It is however not absolutely confined to this family, 
similar appendages sometimes reappearing in the Gamasidae. 



96 ARACHNOIDEA. 

CASE The types of this group are the red spider of our hot-houses, 
and the harvest mites of our fields. These form two distinct 
sections ; the former consisting only of vegetable feeders, while 
there is little doubt that the latter are predacious and carnivorous. 
One would naturally expect from this that they should be easily 
distinguished from each other, and so for the most part they are, so 
far as general facies goes, the former being very minute semi- 
transparent, and not what is called very loud in their colours : 
white, pale yellow, pale orange, pale flesh colour, pale rust- 
coloured, or pale red ; while the harvest mites are larger, velvety, 
and opaque, rarely semi-transparent, and of the most brilliant and 
decided colours, generally some shade of scarlet, vermilion, or 
red lead, varied sometimes with black. 

Some species have seven joints in the leg, others only six; and 
Koch has used that as a distinctive character for separating a 
portion of the family from the rest. All have two claws to their 
tarsi ; but the Tetranychi have them short, rigid, close together, 





Claw of Tetranyduis prunicolor. Copied from Du^es. Claw of Troiiibid.'um holosericeum. 

so as to look like a single claw, and much curved; the others 
not so much so. The woodcuts show the forms of these claws. 
The eyes have been used as a character, but they seem to have 
no more than specific value. The comparative length of the palpi 
and legs, as well as that of their different joints, has been more 
reHed on, but this too fails to keep obviously allied species 
together. 



SPINNING MITES. 



97 



CASE 
VHI. 




Section L— TETRANYCHID^ (Spinning Mites). 
Genus Tetranychus {Dufour), 

Legs with seven joints. 
This genus shows a special affinity with its allies 
the spiders, some of the species at least being 
endowed like them with the power of spinning a. 
web, for which purpose the claws of the feet are 
specially adapted, 
being very short and 
much curved, and 
provided with long 
stiff hairs, some of 
which have globular 




Tarsus of Tetranychus termiuatlons, aud are 

telari' s. Copied from 

ciapaiede. thought to be an 



Mouth and palpi, and one mandible of 
Tetranychus telarius. Copied from' 
Claparfede. 



essential part of the spinning apparatus. * The mouth has a. 
barbed sucking apparatus, and the palpi are chelate. 



Nos. Tetranychus telarius {Linn?). The red spider. 1. Magnified sketch of 
X, 2, 3- larvae (with six feet). 2. Ditto of perfect male (with 8 feet). 3. Ditto- 

of perfect female. 




Tetnnychus telarius ; young 
Copied from Claparede. 



state. 




Tetranychus telarius, perfect insect, male. 
Copied from Claparede. 

G 




98 ARACHNOIDEA 

CASE This species has been found on a great variety of plants, and 
from its form and manners, it was supposed to be the same on 
all of them long before this had been 
proved by breeding them — a conclusion 
which could not have been arrived at had 
reliance been placed upon their colour, 
for some are greenish, and marked only 
with brown specks on the sides, but 
variable, and evidently dependent on the 
alimentary matter within them ; others 
are rust-coloured, or reddish, or brick-red, 
and that is the colour with which horticul- 

Tetranvchus tclnrius (female). 

Copied fron. Boisduvai. tuHsts arc most familiar. Upon the holly- 

hock Duges found at the same time individuals presenting almost 
all shades of colour, a circumstance probably connected with some 
peculiarity in the nutrition derived from that plant. On the vine, 
Dr. Johnston found the colour to vary in intensity in different 
individuals. So far as our own observation goes, the rusty colour 
is an indication of greater maturity than the green. This, and most, 
if not all the species of the genus, spins a web on the back of the 
leaves of the finest and most delicate texture. The threads of its 
web are secreted from a conical nipple situated underneath, and 
very near the extremity of the abdomen. They are drawn out 
-and guided by the motions of the insect, and by the action of the 
minute claws and hairs of the legs, which seem to be only used 
for this purpose. The threads are so slender that we fail to see 
them, even with the assistance of a magnifier, until after they are 
woven into a web, or network. In the construction of this web, 
all the feet are moved with great agility ; but the movements of 
the mite itself are not quick, and it moves with difficulty over 
smooth and polished surfaces, as over glass. Upon leaves, espe- 
cially on the under side of them, it finds a fitter hold, for, sup- 
ported on the bristles that jut out beyond the claw, it spins its 
web, affixing the threads to the prominences and hairs of the 



SPINNING MITES. 



99 



CASE leaf; and under this shelter a colony, consisting of many ot 
both sexes in maturity, and young in all their ages, feed and 
multiply with rapidity. The plant soon shows the influence of 
their presence in its sickly yellow hue : the sap is sucked by 
myriad insect mouths from the vessels of the leaf, its pores are 
choked by excremental fluids, and the gardener mourns the ineffi- 
cacy of his remedies and the loss of his cherished flowers. The 
mode in which they feed is by eating their way into the leaf with 
their nipping mandibles (shewn in the woodcut), and then plung- 
ing in its barbed sucker and sucking the juice. 

The tgg of this mite is spherical, colourless, and proportionably 
large. The larva which comes from it is minute, transparent, and 
in shape not unlike the parent; but it has six legs only, and 
creeps very slowly. M. Duges says that it undoubtedly passes 
through the immovable nymph or pupa state before the full com- 
plement of legs is acquired. M. Duges believes that these mites 
pass the winter under stones, concealing themselves there when 
the infested leaves have fallen. In a garden near Paris he found 
several individuals thus concealed in the month of October; they 
were of a uniform brick-red colour, and had lost as yet none of 
their agility, nor of their spinning power ; and on them he ob- 
served most distinctly the secreting papilla of the thread. 

The leaves which are attacked have a languishing air ; they are 
yellowish or greyish above, with some patches of a lighter shade, 
forming a kind of marbling ; their edges are slightly folded back, 
and as if they were slightly rolled on the under side ; the lower 
side is whitish and slightly shiny. 

If in that state we examine with the microscope the under side 
of a leaf, we find hundreds of individuals of all ages, as well as 
the eggs, pasted to the warped stuff on the leaf. 

The remedies that have been found by our horticulturists most 
effectual against such enemies as the red spider are various pre- 
parations of soap, sulphur, and quassia water ; sulphur being the 
active principle and most efficient agent. Gishurst Compound, 



100 ARACHNOIDEA. 

CASE Veitch's Chelsea Blight Composition, Frettingham's Liquid Com- 
pound, are all good. Sulphur, in any form, seems potent. Laying 
flour of sulphur upon the pipes in the greenhouse or hothouse is 
much recommended. It has been used with very decided success 
also against the growth of microscopic fungi, as in the case of the 
Oidium Tuckeri (vine fungus). Mixed with soap, as is done in 
Gishurst Compound, and applied to the leaves by the syringe, it 
is also very useful. Even plain soap and water is said to be an 
effectual remedy if it reaches the insect. A quarter of a pound of 
soft soap whisked until it has become dissolved, is to be applied 
with the syringe so as thoroughly to wet the leaves ; but in water- 
ing and bathing the leaves, we must remember that if we content 
ourselves with watering the upper side of the leaves we have done 
nothing, because the mites remain very quiet during the opera- 
tion and in perfect security on the low^er side. It is necessary, to 
secure success, to use a bent syringe to send the water upwards, 
and to wet the under side of the leaves well with the decoction used. 
The gardener is assisted in his war against them by other mites 
and insects, that help to keep them in check by preying on them. 
The grub, or larva, of the Hemerobiidae, or lace-wing flies (the 
same which prey on the Aphides), devour them in such numbers 
and so fast that entire colonies quickly disappear before them. 

Tetranychus telarius Var.; cinnabarinus {Boisd.\ Ent. Hort,, p. 88. 

We can see nothing in the following account of this species^ 
which is from the pen of M. Boisduval, to distinguish it from the 
red spider, Tetranychus telarius : — 

" It was in the warm greenhouses of M. Savage that we 
became acquainted with this acarus on the tufts of Dracaena, 
australis. Thanks to that able horticulturist we have been able 
to observe it from the egg stage to that of the perfect insect. 
When it hatches it is then green or a yellowish green ; later it is 
variegated with black and green ; after its last change of skin, it 
becomes a beautiful aurora red in colour. It is a little larger 



SPINNING MITES. loi 

CASE than that of the camellia : it carpets the under side of the leaves 
vni. . . . . 

of the Dracaena with threads of silk, on which it walks like a 

spider. It does a great deal of harm to the leaves that it sucks, 
stopping their vegetation and causing them to become diseased. 
It is not difficult to destroy them ; to do so it is sufficient to place 
the plants attacked by this vermin in a cold house during two or 
three days. M. Savage brought us a Dracaena australis on which 
these parasites could be counted by hundreds. It had scarcely 
remained twenty-four hours in our cabinet, when all had disap- 
peared ; the change of temperature had completely killed them." 
The only specific character here given is the colour, which, as we 
have already said, varies much in the red spider. 

The following for the same reasons does not appear any better 
entitled to rank as a separate species. 

TeTHANYCHUS TELARIUS Vat.; H/EMATODES {Boisd.), Ent. Hort., p. ^"S. 

M. Boisduval says that this little parasite was observed by 
M. Riviere on the leaves of the red variety of the Ricinus 
(Ricinus communis), frequently cultivated now-a-days in the 
squares and gardens of Paris. 

It is rounded oval, of a deep blood red ; it spins under the 
leaves, between the divisions of the first nervures, a slack tissue 
like little spiders' webs. It is very small, and only visible with a 
strong magnifying glass. M. Boisduval suggests that his haema- 
todes approaches a good deal to the Raphignathus ruberrimus, 
which Duges discovered under stones, and which he described as a 
new species ; but there is nothing in his description that supports 
this except the colour, and that may depend on the food-plant. 

Tetranychus TELARIUS Va7'.; TiNi {Boisd.), Ent. Hort., p. 91. 

The laurustinus, which grows naturally in the south of France, 
and those which are cultivated in the gardens of Paris, are 
subject to a kind of grise, as it is called, occasioned by a little red- 
dish mite, which multiphes in a prodigious way on the under side 



102 ARACHNOIDEA, 

CASE of their leaves. M. Boisduval calls it Acarus tini, but we see 
nothing in his description to distinguish it from telarius. 

M. Boisduval, in his " Entomologie Horticole," also mentions, 
without much description, a number of other Acari, which he 
thinks have probably been erroneously confounded with telarius, 
but which from their different forms and habitat he regards as 
distinct. The above, in our opinion, do not differ from that 
species. Others we have allotted elsewhere. As to the following 
we are in doubt, although it seems not improbable that they too, 
or at least some of them, may be merely varieties of T. telarius. 

Tetranychus cucumeris [Boisd.), Ent. Hort., p. 84. 

This mite lives on the cucumber and the gherkin ; it is more 
globular than telarius, a little smaller, of a uniform shade. In some 
years it is common enough in the kitchen garden. When the Cucur- 
bitacese are attacked by the grise, the best plan is to take out the 
sick plants. We must not confound the grise with a species of Myce- 
lium, a kind of Erysiphe, which forms milky white spots on the leaves. 

Tetranychus rosarum {Boisd.), Ent. Hort., p. 84. 

This, according to Boisduval, is more elongated than the pre- 
ceding ones, and is of a very pale green colour, almost trans- 
parent ; it lives under the leaves of certain varieties of rose trees, 
and is found sometimes alone, and sometimes together with 
another httle red mite which he designates under the name of 
Acarus pucciniae. 

He says that he never met with these two Acarids but on 
diseased leaves, of which the lower surface was covered by the 
Uredo ros^ and the Puccinia rosse growing pell mell one beside 
the other. They seemed to be living at the expense of these two 
hypophyllous fungi. The rose leaves invaded by these two vege- 
table parasites are underneath of a yellow-ochre colour besprinkled 
with large brown dots ; on the upper side variegated with spots 
and marblings of different colours, in which we may sometimes 
see the little larvae of a tenthredo eating the parenchyma. 



SPINNING MITES. 103 

CASE Tetranychus ferrugineus {Boisd.), Ent. Hort., p. 90. 
VIII. 

This mite lives in greenhouses on the Cyclamen Coum and 
persicum, and often makes great ravages. It pricks the leaves 
underneath, beginning at the base of the petioles. When these 
are attacked by the little insect they take a violaceous or reddish 
hue above ; their vegetation is stopped, they fade and fall. In 
examining them with the glass, the underside is seen to be 
covered with small blackish dots caused by the prickings of this 
microscopic parasite. It is excessively small, of a more or less 
dark ferruginous red. When the cyclamen begins to be attacked, 
which can be seen at the first glance, the only remedy, according 
to M. Boisduval, is to Hft the pots and burn the tubers in order to 
prevent these little beings spreading over the neighbouring plants. 
Flower of sulphur has been tried as a remedy with Httle success. 

Tetranychus russulus {Boisd.), Ent. Hort., p. 89. 

This is a little mite mentioned by M. Boisduval, which he thinks 
has probably been imported from Mexico, or from some other 
country of Central America. It is only found on cacti, particu- 
larly on the mamillaria, the echinocactus and neighbouring kinds, 
and is known to amateurs of succulent plants under the name of 
ro2igct. It is ferruginous red and almost microscopic, and does 
much damage to the plants on which it estabHshes itself, and if 
remedies are not promptly applied, it soon destroys them. 

Fumigations of tobacco, or powdering the plants with it, have 
been used in such cases with success. 

Tetranychus vitis {Boisd.), Ent. Hort., p. 92. 

M. Boisduval gives the following description of this species : — 
*' When towards the end of summer we see the leaves of the 
vine marbled above with broad yellow blotches, it is often the 
indication of the presence of a very small parasite, which lives in 
family on its under side. On examining such a leaf with a very 
powerful lens, we see at first that it is carpeted with a rather loose 



104 



ARACHNOIDEA. 



CASE silken tissue like very small spiders' webs, in the midst of which 
VIII. . , 

we can see numerous Acarids of very small size moving about. 

They are greenish yellow, transparent, a half smaller than the 

Tetranychus telarius, to which they bear some resemblance. 

We have not found this minute insect mentioned in any of the 

authors that we have consulted. Can they have confounded it 

with that which produces the ' grise ' (the red spider, T. telarius) ? 

It is extremely unlikely, because the red spider clothes the under 

side of the leaves with a close tissue which adheres very closely, 

while this species spins a very loose web like that of a spider. 

For gardeners this malady is a species of * grise.* As it only 

appears towards the end of summer, it 

^^ does not do much harm to the ripening 

^ of the grape or to the vine itself." 

No. 4. ^,\:^W/7 \':dl)\>^^/^M^ Tetranychus lintearius {Duf,, Ann. Sc. 

Nat. 1832). Acarus coccineus, Schrank and 
Baud., Ent. Hist., p. 87? 4. Magnified sketch 
of ditto. 

M. Dufour was the first who observed 
this species. He lived in the suburbs of 
St. Sever, and in the course of his rural 
excursions, his attention was often drawn 
to clumps of gorse ( Ulex Europceus) some 
feet in diameter, which he found enve- 
loped completely in a spider's web of 
milky or opaline white, which was visible from a distance. He 
describes it as being exactly as if a web of fine mushn had clothed 
this thorny shrub in every direction, and penetrated by adherent 
folds into the space between the branches. In spite of repeated 
poring over these tufts to discover the artificers of this delicate 
tissue, they eluded his researches for a long time. He sometimes 
met here and there upon them various spiders, such as Epeiras, 
Linyphiae, Uloborae, and Dolomedes ; but he was too familiar with 
the works and the kind of life of these Araneides to allow himself 




Tetrauychus lintearius (copied from 
Dufour 's fiijure). 



SPINNING MITES. 105 

CASE to suppose that it was produced by them, and he remained thus 
several years without being able to resolve this entomological pro- 
blem. At length, during the autumn of 1830, which was remark- 
able for the long continuance of fine weather, these white webs 
being still more numerous than usual, he again took his place of ob- 
server. He then perceived upon this web a kind of red dust, some- 
times disseminated, sometimes gathered together, or agglomerated. 
He at first took this for inert or excremental molecules. But the 
magnifying glass came happily to dissipate this illusion, and crown 
his wishes, for it showed him that these red dots were living. 
The extreme abundance of these animalcules, for there were 
thousands of them, made him presume that they were the makers 
of the tissue which supported them, and his presumption was soon 
changed into certainty. He shut up in cornets of paper crowds 
of these little Arachnides, in order to examine them in the silence 
of the study by the aid of the microscope. Scarcely had he 
placed them in a little glass bottle, than they began to separate, 
to scatter, to examine their new habitation, and at the end of two 
hours, there were already some hundreds of these workers estab- 
lished on a web, and working under his eyes with ardour. Some 
were placed under the web in such a way as to present the under 
side of the body to the observer, others were above it ; some 
went down, some came up ; he often saw them cross each other 
obliquely, but far from running against each other, from entangling 
themselves, they mutually yielded the way, so that no gap, no 
fault in the fabrication of the web resulted. 

He found that the tissue fabricated by these myriads of pigmy 
weavers was not a net or thread, but a fine and well-joined web. 
The threads of this are a little oblique to the horizon, and cross 
at very pointed angles. When their cloth is finished, they keep 
themselves generally under it, as if to put themselves in sJielter 
from the direct influence of surrounding bodies. He satisfied 
himself that the thread which they emit comes from underneath 
the abdomen, and probably from imperceptible papillae. But he 



io6 ARACHNOIDEA. 

CASE was not able, owing to the diminutive size of these Acarides, to 
estabhsh the fact of their existence by direct observation. He 
could not ascertain what they fed on ; but their great numbers 
indicate that they, like their congeners, are herbivorous. Animals 
that are social are very rarely predaceous. 

M. Lucas mentions (Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., 1869) that it is much 
rarer in Normandy than^ in Brittany, whence it may be doubted 
whether it is likely to be met with in this country. Being desirous 
of carrying off a souvenir of this able weaver, he cut some 
branches of gorse on which a few milHons of this species had 
established themselves, and, putting them in a box, the mites set 
themselves to spin a web of milky white, which he exhibited to 
the Entomological Society of P>ance, and he draws attention to 
its thickness and its extreme delicacy and fineness, and its quality 
of not adhering to the touch, justifying entirely M. Leon Dufour's 
comparison of it to a piece of the finest muslin. 

In the environs of Marseilles, where the camellia is cultivated 
on a great scale, the underside of the leaves is often observed to 
be disfigured by white spots or blotches. M. Laboulbene (Ann. 
Soc. Ent. Fr., 1865) ascertained that these were caused by Tetra- 
nychus lintearius. The largest individuals are scarcely the third 
of a line in length, obtuse, oval in shape, of a vermilion red, more 
or less intense, and with the legs pale, one or two obscure patches 
on the back at the sides, two or four ranges of long white hairs 
run down the back. In the fresh individual, in which the body 
is plump and the skin well stretched, no trace of a division 
between abdomen and thorax is visible, but when somewhat 
shrunk a slight constrictive division becomes visible. M. Dufour 
gives a figure of this species, which we have copied, although we 
do not think it has the look of being a good portrait. 

M. Boisduval observed it under the leaves of the syringa or 
sweet pipe. It is possibly, too, the same species that is noticed 
by him under Schrank's name of Acarus coccineus. He says that 
it makes a tapestry of fine silk, very light, to which the dust sticks, 



SPINNING MITES. lo'j 

CASE on the upper side of the leaves of the camellia. It is of a deep 
viii. 

red, of an oval form, and reddens the fingers when one crushes it. 

If after having cleaned the leaf, where it has established itself, one 

examines it, one sees that it is pricked from place to place, and 

that the points where this little parasite had inserted its sucker had 

become of a reddish colour. He observed it in the autumn in 

several gardens on the camelHas, and also on some other plants 

of the greenhouse. 

No. 5. Tetranychus Sp. — 5. Magnified sketch of ditto. 

This is a species which we found inhabiting a slightly decayed 
crack in the twig of an oak-tree. It has several points of resem- 

Pblance with T. telarius, but is not dull or downy-like in texture 
like it, but somewhat shiny. It was rubicund, transparent, and had 
a dark patch on each side, and an indistinct division between the 
thorax and abdomen. It may, however, only be a variety of telarius, 
and we have therefore refrained from proposing a name for it. 

Nos. Tetranychus fici {Mt(ri\n. s.).— 6. Sketch of leaf attacked by ditto. 7. 
^' 7- Enlarged sketch of insect. 

Found in great numbers on the leaves of fig-trees, near London, 
probably imported. It is ovate, dull yellowish, and not glabrous 
or very transparent. 

Nos. Tetranychus tiliarum {Mull.\ Flexipalpus tiliamm {Scheuten).—^. 

^' 9- Enlarged sketch of ditto. 9. Lime leaf covered by ditto. 

Claparede considers this species to be only a variety or synonym 
of T. telarius. We have not met with it since we learned that this 
was his opinion, so as to subject it to a careful comparative 
examination ; but our remembrance of a more superficial exami- 
nation some years ago is opposed to their identity. It especially 
attacks the lime tree, but it is not confined to it, having done con- 
siderable mischief to many crops in France in 1874 — as French 
beans, cucumbers, and melons. It is a minute yellowish or orange- 
coloured species ; and it occasionally occurs in such numbers as 
almost to denude the trees of their foHage ; and it has been noted 



io8 



ARACHNOIDEA. 



No. 



K=^ 



CASE that the stems and branches of such trees seemed covered with 

VIIi 

a bright glaze. Can this be a fine web ? It is similar to the red 
spider in form, but a trifle smaller, more elliptical, slightly broader 
in front, and pale whitish ■'^ellow instead of reddish. Like it, it 

is semi-opaque and velvety, the con- 
tained food being at times visible 
through the skin. The figure here 
given is a magnified representation 
of it. It covers the under side of 
the leaves with a slight web of silk, 
which gives it a brilliant surface. 
On this the mites move about with 
a good deal of quickness. They 
do not gnaw or eat away the leaves. 
Like their fellows, they merely suck 
the juice of the leaf; but although 
almost microscopic in size they make up for their minuteness by 
their numbers, and under their attacks the leaves rapidly shrivel 
up and die. They chiefly congregate on the under side of the leaf, 
those found on the upper side being mere wanderers, while on the 
under side they are sometimes crowded together in vast numbers ; 
for example, we have seen them so thick on the leaves that they 
looked as if they were not merely sprinkled with a yellow orange- 
coloured powder, but as if it was actually in parts heaped up on 
them, so that none of the green colour of the leaf was visible. 
Their appearance in such excessive numbers is said to follow 
certain peculiar states of the atmosphere. 




Tetranychus tiliarum. The Lime Tree mite. 




Tetranychus socius. Copied 
trom Hermann. 



Tetranychus socius {Herm.\ Acarus sociarius, 
Mull.—V^. Enlarged figure of ditto. 

This species also is regarded as a sy- 
nonym of T. telarius by Claparede, as to 
which we give no opinion. It was first 
described by Hermann, and the most pro- 
minent character given was that the palpi 



SPINNING MITES. 



109 



CASE stand facing a little outwards, so as to make the mouth look 

viii. ... 

emargmate. It is semi-transparent, with a faint blush of flesh- 
colour. 

The eggs of these mites are garnet-red in colour, and are to be 
seen early in the spring on the young buds of clover. The larvae 
which are out spread themselves over the hairy underside of the 
leaves, which, in consequence of continued sucking, become 
covered with yellow punctures. 

In buds injured by Phytopti we have found in place of them, 
in July, what we suppose to be this 
Tetranychus ; but instead of hundreds 
in a single bud we have only met one 
or two here and there. 



Nos. II, 
12, 13, 
14. IS. 



Tetranychus eriostemi {Murr. n. s.). — 
11. Specimen of leaves of Eriostemon 
neriifolium attacked by ditto. 12. Mag- 
nified sketch of leaf showing the mischief. 
13. Twig showing mischief on ditto. 14. 
Magnified sketch of ditto. 15. Magnified 
sketch of insect. 




Tetranychus eriostemi. 



This species is found on plants of 
Eriostemon neriifolium in greenhouses in the neighbourhood of 
London, and, no doubt, elsewhere. It injures the plant consider- 
ably, making unsightly ulcerous-looking scars on the stems and 
branchlets, and white blotches on the leaves. It is a more 
clumsy thick-legged species than the others. 



Nos. Tetranychus autumnalis {Shaw) (the harvest 
»6, 17 bug — le rouget of the French ; the Leptus au- 

tumnalis of authors); 16, Magnified figure of 
larva. 17. Magnified figure of perfect insect 
on under side. 

Until Claparede drew attention to the 
fact, that all the characters of this species 
were those of a Tetranychus, it was gene- 
rally regarded as a Trombidium — and in 




Tetranychus (Leptus) autumnalis 
larval form. 



no 



ARACHNOIDEA, 



CASE its six-legged stage as a Leptus— we think that any one who ex- 
amines the palpi will acknowledge that Claparede is right, and the 
wonder will rather be how it ever came to acquire a settlement 
among the Trombidii. 

It is of a brick-red colour, and is so minute as to be scarcely 
visible to the naked eye. Though bred upon plants, such as 
French-beans, currants, raspberries, gooseberries, and other 
vegetables, yet it deserts them whenever opportunity presents 
itself to fasten on animals, and it has apparently a particular pre- 
dilection for the human species, especially women and children. 
They fasten upon their skin, chiefly where any part of the dress 
fits closely, adhering by their claws and palpi so firmly, that 
when once fixed they can scarcely be detached without violence. 
When disengaged their motion is quick, though not so rapid as 
that of some other species of mites. On the part where one of 
them fixes it causes a tumour, generally about the size of a pea, 
sometimes much larger, accompanied with severe itching. The 
point of a fine needle is best calculated for removing them with 
the aid of a magnifying glass. Different persons suffer in different 
degrees from these attacks, and some persons they pass over alto- 
gether. For instance, a case is mentioned (see notes to White's 
Natural History of Selborne, Brown's Edition (9th) p. 113) of two 
persons who had been together during a day's nutting in the 
woods, and who afterwards slept in the same bed-chamber, one of 
whom was entirely covered with red blotches from the attack of 
this mite, while the other was untouched. White also, when 
mentioning their uncommon abundance in the chalky districts of 
Hampshire, relates that he had been assured, that they swarmed 
to so infinite a degree in the rabbit warrens on the Downs, as to 
discolour the nets of the warreners, and give them a reddish tint, 
whilst the men were so bitten as to be cast into fevers. 

In some parts of Scotland (East Lothian for example) we have 
known them so numerous and troublesome in the fruit gardens 
as to deter ladies and children from gathering gooseberries. The 



SPINNING MITES. m 

CASE late Dr. Johnston of Berwick also mentions (Acarides of Berwick- 
shire, in "History of Berwickshire Naturalists' Club," p. 221) that 
in Berwickshire this mite was very troublesome to horses, cattle, 
sheep, dogs, and rabbits, and to the " herds' bairns," and people 
engaged about the infested animals in that county. It adhered to 
the skin, and in numbers occasionally so great as to be collected 
into small clusters, hanging like a drop of congealed blood from 
the hairs. They produced extreme itchiness ; and his correspon- 
dent says, *• in the worst case I have seen, that of a horse, the 
skin seemed exactly as if it had been rubbed with a liquid blister." 
Hence he inferred that the mite had penetrated beneath the skin, 
as it is known that it easily does into that of man. When 
examining it, some individuals got upon his hands, over which 
they dispersed themselves with considerable quickness, and in a 
few seconds they had burrowed in the skin so deep as not to be 
perceived, but the place in which they had burrowed was indicated 
by itchiness, and by a blister that exactly resembled the pustule 
occasioned by the sting of a nettle. One individual was watched. 
Its race over the hand and the moment of its fixation was unfelt ; 
neither was any uneasiness felt by its penetration of the skin. On 
getting under the cuticle it was killed by a strong squeeze. No 
itchiness ensued, nor blister, and the dead insect remained after 
an interval of more than three months unaltered, the red speck 
then still marking the spot of its death and burial. Latreille com- 
pared the symptoms to those of the itch. M. Greeby calls the 
affection the autumnal erythema ; M. John has observed an exan- 
thema due to this cause ; and M. Moses cites a case of vesicular 
and papillar inflammation, with unsupportable itching produced in a 
family by this insect. Perhaps its effects are more severe in France, 
where these cases occurred, than in this country. M. Megnin says 
that the insects are got rid of by means of sulphur ointment, by 
friction with benzine and oil of petroleum or phenic acid, which 
we may say in passing are also common remedies for the itch. 
And here we may put the question. What do these little creatures 



1 1 2 ARACHNOIDEA. 

CASE do when they burrow under the skin ? Do they suck the blood 
or not ? Some entomologists of eminence have thought so ; 
and certainly the Trombidii have a double tubular sucker, and 
no doubt can do it if they choose. 

This troublesome insect most prevails near the sea-shore, where 
the soil is light. It begins to appear in the early part of July, 
and is very troublesome in August. Then great numbers may be 
observed crawling upon and over all green things, — on turnips, 
grass, and corn. Cats suffer greatly from them through their 
prowling habits in gardens, so much so, that they are sometimes 
thought to be suffering from the itch, when it is only from daily 
reinforcements of this tick. It can always, however, be easily dis- 
tinguished from the itch insect. It attacks the cat's head, while the 
harvest mite has no particular point of preference, but is naturally 
found chiefly on the feet and legs, which are most exposed to it. 

When examined under the microscope, the lower part of the 
body appears to be coated with stiff bristles. It is provided with 
a tubular snout, formed by the two mandibles, which is generally 
concealed or sheathed, but which may sometimes be distinctly 
seen. On the top of the head are two little processes, or sharp 
implements, which turn outward each way. 

The larval form is that in which this species is generally en- 
countered ; and, although it has for long been supposed that it 
was merely the larva of a similar mite, yet it is only a few years 
since the fact was determined by direct observation. This, how- 
ever, has now been done, and we find a figure of the perfect 
eight-footed insect, in " L'Insectologie Agricole " (1868), by M. 
Megnin, who observed them. 

Kirby and Spence mention a similar insect which occurs in 
Brazil, abounding in the rainy season, particularly during the 
gleams of 'sunshine or fine days that intervene, as small as a 
point, and moving very fast. These animals, say they, get upon 
the linen and cover it in a moment ; afterwards they insinuate 
themselves into the skin, and occasion a most intolerable itching. 



SPINNING MITES, 113 

CASE They are with difficulty extracted, and leave behind them large 
livid tumours, Avhich subside in a day or two. An insect very 
tormenting to the woodcutters and settlers on the Mosquito shore 
and Bay of Honduras, and called by them the Doctor, is thought 
to be synonymous with this. They add, on authority which they 
give, that more serious consequences have been known to follow 
the bite of another mite related to the above, if not the same 
species, common in Martinique, and called there the bete rouge. 
When our soldiers in camp were attacked by this animal, dangerous 
ulcers succeeded the symptoms just mentioned, which in several 
instances became so bad that the limb affected was obliged to be 

t taken off. 

Teteanychus Tlalsahuate {Lemaire). 

To this irritating group also probably belongs a small insect that 
occurs in Mexico, called by the Indians Tlalsahuate. It lives, 
among the herbage, and is almost imperceptible to the naked 
eye. It attacks man, and fixes itself upon the eyelids, or arm- 
pits, &c. Its presence is announced by an itching sensation on the 
part where it is, which is followed by redness, swelling, and some- 
times suppuration. These morbid phenomena usually last for six 
days, and always remain local, which would seem to indicate that 
the insect does not propagate. All that is required, in order to get 
rid of the morbid sensations, is to remove the insect. This i& 
done by the Mexicans by a needle or fine stalk of grass. The 
insect appears only to occur in the temperate lands of Mexico, 
being unkno^\^l in the hot regions. An instance is recorded in 
the " Annales de I'Academie des Sciences," (1867), of its importa- 
tion into France. " On Saturday last (15 July)," says M. Lemaire, 
who reports the circumstance, " Madame Biart brought me her 
daughter, about four years of age, who complained of a smart 
itching in the eyelid of the left eye. I found there, between the 
eye-lashes, some redness and swelling. From the information 
given me, it occurred to me that this might possibly arise from the 

II 



114 ARACHNOIDEA, 

CASE Tlalsahuate, inasmuch as M. Biart, who had passed a long time 
in Mexico, had recently received numerous boxes from thence, 
the packing and contents of which had remained for a good 
while close to the lawn on which his children habitually played. 
I, therefore, looked for the insect, and, by the assistance of a 
magnifying glass, discovered it fixed between two eye-lashes in 
the middle of the redness. Its form is oblong and its colour 
bright orange yellow. M. and Mdme. Biart, who had been 
familiar with it in Mexico, at once recognised it." The specimen 
was unfortunately dropped and lost, so that we are still Avithout 
a scientific description of it. 

It is possible that this species may have some relation to that 
in a case quoted by Kirby and Spence, from Sir Joseph Banks, 
who, in a letter to Dr. Adams, related that some seamen belong- 
ing to the Endeavour brig being tormented by a severe itching 
round the extremities of the eyelids, one of them was cured by 
an Otaheitan woman, who, with two small splinters of bamboo, 
extracted from between the eyelashes abundance of very minute 
lice, which were scarcely visible without a lens, though their 
motion when laid on the thumb was distinctly perceived. Older 
authors quote similar phenomena, but as their knowledge of the 
subject was imperfect, and we cannot cross-examine them, it is 
perhaps best to ignore them. 

No. 18. Tetranychus trombidinus {Dug., Ann. Sc. Nat. 1834. Trombidium 
glabrum, Dug., Ann. Sc. Nat. 1834). — 18. Enlarged figure of ditto. 

This has all the appearance of a Trombidium, but it is smooth 
and not velvet}^, and M. Duges found that it had two spinning 
papillae behind. 

Genus Raphignathus {Dugcs). 
Tarsi thick, palpi long, and mandibles sharp-pointed. 

No. 19. Raphignathus ruberrimus [Dug., Ann. Sc. Nat. 1834). — 19. Enlarged 
figure of ditto. 

This is a Tetranychus, with long palpi instead of short ones, 



SPINNING MITES. 



"5 



CASE which seems the chief character of Diiges' genus Raphignathus. 

^ The structure of the mouth is adapted for 

living on plants. 

M. Duges found, moreover, in the hinder 
part of the body, two papillae adapted for 
spinning. We have no hesitation therefore 
in regarding Raphignathus as belonging 
to the Tetranychidse. 

Tetranychus ruberri- 
mus is of a bright red 
colour, but smooth. 
Duges found it fre- 
quently under stones 
and in shady places, but 
it doubtless would also 
be found on plants at 
the proper season. 





Raphignathus ruberrinius. 
Copied from Dugds. 



Raphignathus ruber. 

Copied from Koch's 

Ubersicht. 



Raphignathus ruber (A'^f/;, Ubers). 

Described by Koch first under 
the name of Caligonus ruber. 

Genus Megamerus {Duges). 

A genus, established by Duges, 
of which the more important 
characters are, that the palpi are 
long, the mandibles provided 
with nippers, and the hind 
thighs enlarged. 

The Megameri live in nume- 
rous families, running swiftly and 
occasionally leaping, which their 
large hind thighs enable th'em to 
do- and they appear to spin a 




Megamerus celcr. Copied from Duggs' figure. 
II 2 



ii6 



ARACHNOIDEA. 



CASE network of fine threads of silk, in which they suspend themselves, 
M. Duges says that some of them are certainly carnivorous ; but 
there are some, the green colour of whose intestines indicate a 
vegetable diet. The larvae, like those of all the others, have been 
proved to be six footed. He places the genus among the Trom- 
bidii ; but its spinning qualities seem to show that its proper place 
is with Tetranychus, with which its other characters do not disagree. 

No. 20. Megamerus celer {Dug., Ann. Sc. Nat., 1834).— 20. Magnified figure of 
ditto. 

Species incert.s sedis. 



No. 21 




Tetranychus? (Leptus) Americanus 
Copied from Mr. Riley s fiLfure. 



Tetranychus? AMERICANUS, young (Lep- 
tus americanus, Riley, Sixth Ann. Rep. 
Missouri, 52). — 21. Magnified sketch 
of ditto, copied from Mr. Riley's 
woodcut. 

Mr. Riley states that this species 
is found along with Leptus irritans 
in North America, and that both are 
there called Jiggers, or harvest mites. 
They are red like their congeners. 
Our information regarding both is 
insufficient to enable us to fix their 
place. 



No, 22. Tetranychus? irritans, young (Leptus irritans, Riley, loc. cit. supra). — 
23. Magnified sketch of ditto, copied from Mr. Riley's woodcut. 

This is the Jigger of the Mis- 
sissippi valleys, where it is ex- 
ceedingly irritating — whence its 
name. It acts as one of the 
representatives in that country 
of our Tetranychus (Leptus) au- 
tumnalis; but until the perfect 
insect is known its place must 

Trombidium (Leptus), irritans. Copied from Mr. Kp^ /^nr»i Aofiircil 
Riley's figure. ^^ CUlJJCULUld.1. 




HARVEST MITES, ii; 

Section II.— TROMBIDIID^. (Harvest mites.) 

M. Duges divides this section, like the last, into two sub- 
sections, according to whether the tarsi are long or short, and 
makes further generic divisions depending upon whether the 
mandibles are hooked or pointed, and upon differences in the 
claws of the feet. 

Koch has divided the whole of the Trorabidiinae, including 
Tetranychus, into two groups ; the one having seven joints in the 
leg, the other only six, and he has used the comparative length of 
the legs, and the presence or absence of a line of separation 
between the cephalothorax and abdomen as characters for further 
subdivision. We have disposed of Tetranychus, and shall now for 
the remainder of the family borrow what seems best from each 
of the above authors, and propose the following system of 
arrangement : — 

1. Subsection. Legs composed of six joints (Eupodidas of Koch). 

A. Cephalothorax distinguished from abdomen by a more or less 

distinct line of separation. Bryobia, Petrobia, Tydeus, 
EUPODES, Penthaleus, Scyphius. 

B. Cephalothorax not distinguished from abdomen by a line of 

separation. 

§ Anterior legs exceedingly fine and long. Linopodes. 
§§ Anterior legs normal. Penthalodes. 

2. Subsection. Legs composed of seven joints. 

C. Cephalothorax distinguished from abdomen by a line of separation. 

Stigm^us, Caligonus. 

D. Cephalothorax not so distinguished, Trombidium Rhyncho- 

LOPHUS, Samaridia, Pachygnathus, Erytkr^us. 

We shall briefly notice and figure each of these genera. 

1ST Subsection. 
Genus Bryobia {Koch), 

Anterior legs longer than the others. Eyes moderately large, 
near the hinder angles of the cephalothorax. The margin of the 
abdomen is studded with short, somewhat triangular, widely 
separated papillas. 



ii8 



ARACHNOIDEA. 



CASE 
VIII. 



Nos. 
«3. 24. 



Bryobia speciosa {Koch)^ Ubers., 61. 

Genus Petrobia {Murr., n.g.). 
Characters the same as those of Bry- 
obia, but with three eyes in the posterior 
angles of each side of the cephalothorax, 
and abdomen without triangular margi- 
nal papilla. Duges hesitated whether 
to place the species from which we have 
named this genus among the Tetranychi 
or Raphignathi. It appears to us to 
come so near Bryobia that it would not 
be well to place it apart from it, and 
yet too different to be put in the same 

genus. We have therefore thought it better to make a separate 

genus for it. 

Petrobia lapidum {Koch). Trombidium lapidum {Rcrm., Apt. pi. vii.); 
Tetranychus cristatus {Diiges, Ann. Sc. Nat. 1834).— 23. Magnified 
figure of larva. 24. Magnified figure of perfect insect. 




yobia speciosa. Copied from figure 
in Kocli's Ubersicht. 





Petrobia lapidum. younj. Ditto, full grown. 

This is easily recognised by a sort of crest or ridge which crosses 
the back like a girdle, as shown in the woodcut It, however, 
disappears when the insect is very well filled. The presence of 



HARVEST MITES. 119 

CASE three eyes in a triangular cluster in the posterior lateral angles 
of the thorax is a good character, but Duges failed to see these 
eyes. Should there prove to be any error about them, and should 
the marginal papillae on the abdomen of Bryobia not be present 
in all the species of that genus, then there would be nothing to 
prevent this species taking its place among them; or for that 
matter, if we once begin to speculate on the possibility of errors 
in the figures, there is not much to say against its being the same 
species as the preceding Bryobia speciosa, or the following Tydaeus 
mutabilis. Without some special ground of suspicion, however, this 
is not warrantable and we must act according to our lights. The 
young is rose-red, the perfect insect varies from dirty red to dark 
brown, with a tinge of red with some white spots on the back and 
on the margin. Its anterior legs are much longer than those of the 
young. The male is smaller and redder than the female. Duges 
found isolated individuals on many plants and under stones. In 
the south of France he found it in families in the light down 
which clothes the under side of the leaf of the plane-tree. In 
autumn he found it under the stones in the public walks, in entire 
families, which led him to think that, at that season at least, it 
quitted the trees in order to multiply more securely. In this 
country, Mr. Albert MiiUer mentions (^Entomological Monthly 
Mag. 1867-8, p. 71) that it occurred when he wrote (August) in 
countless numbers on the flint gravel covering the approaches to 
Elmer's End Station, near London. 

It is also probably this species to which the following notice in 
Cooper and Busk's Microscopic J ouriial refers. The pebbles of the 
gravel, say they, on Blackheath and the neighbourhood were at 
the time they wrote abundantly covered with the ova of the Acarus 
lately described by Mr. White, and formerly considered as a fungus 
under the name of Craterium pyriforme. Before the late rains 
these bodies were to be seen on pieces of wood, and many other 
substances, as the stalks of plants, etc., as well as on the pebbles. 
They add that they had seen specimens of the same deposit on 



ARACHNOIDEA, 




CASE pebbles from Lincolnshire, and from Devonshire or Cornwall in 

VIII. 

the neighbourhood of Plymouth, from which it would appear to 
be very generally distributed throughout the country. 

^* ■* Genus Tydeus {Koch), 

Similar to the preceding, but without eyes. 
The anterior legs only slightly longer than 
the rest. This species is very minute, being 
no larger than a fine pin's point. 

TyDv^us mutabilis {Koch), Ubers. 

Found in damp moss, or on moist earth. 
Koch has described thirteen species of Tydseus. 

RHAGIDIA GELIDA [ThorcU, Oefv. Sv. Ak. xxviii. 700, 1871). 

This is a new genus and species described by Thorell from 
Spitzbergen. He says it belongs to this section, but gives no 
figure of it or its characters. 

Genus Eupodes {Koch) 
Shoulders of abdomen prominent. Eyes on the posterior margin 
of the thorax. 
Eupodes hiemalis {Koch, Ubers.).— Size, a small pin's head. 



Tydcus imitabilis. Copied from 
iwuie in Koch's Uberaicht. 




niipoJes hiemalis. Copied from figure in Koch's Ubersicht. 



HARVEST MITES. 



I2f 



CASE EUPODES CELER. (Trombidium celer, IJerm., Apt.)— 25. Magnified figure 

"^^"- of larva ; 2S. Ditto of perfect insect. 

Nos. 




Eupodes ceLr, young. Copied from Hermann's 
Mem. Apt. 




Di to, perfect i'l sect. 
Copied from Hermann's 
Mem. Apt. 



The larva is scarlet, and the perfect insect pale brown. M. 
Duges placed this among the Tetranychi, 
but we think the figure of the perfect 
insect will justify our having placed it 
here. Koch has described twenty-eight 
species. They are found in damp moss 
and under stones, &c. 

Genus Pentiialeus {Koch.). 

Somewhat elongate. Anterior legs 
rather slender and long, and the poste- 
rior thighs thickened. 

Pentiialeus h.-ematopus {Koch). 

Koch divides this genus into three ^''''''t^^,\^l^^^^jh?rt& ^''''^ 
sections, which should probably repre- 
sent as many genera. In the first the legs are filiform (eight 
species), in the second gradually thickened towards the extremity 




1 2 2 AI^A CHNOIDEA. 

CASE (two species), and in the third there is no line of separation on 
the back between the thorax and abdomen (two species). In this 
latter Koch includes Duges' Megamerus ovalis. Our arrange- 
ment, however, will not admit it here, and we have made a new 
genus for it elsewhere. It is exceedingly minute. 

Thorell describes a new species, P. insulanus, from Spitzbergen. 

Genus Scyphius {KocJi). 

This genus also reminds us of Megamerus by its elongated 
narrow body. It is very minute, but not quite so much so as the 
last genus. 

Scyphius diversicolor {Koch). 




Scyphius diversicolor. Copied from figure in Koch's Ubersicht. 

Found in damp moss, and under decaying leaves, &c. 

Genus Linopodes {Koch). 

Legs six-jointed ; anterior pair excessively long and slender. 

One hesitates whether to regard these long-legged mites as 
the representatives of Phalangium among the spiders, or of the 
exotic tribe Gonyleptes, which have legs more than a foot in 
length, and scarcely thicker than a pin. The Linopodes are all 
extremely minute. 

No. I. Linopodes longipes {Herm., Apt.).— 1. Magnified figure of ditto, copied 
from Hermann's figure. 



HARVEST MITES. 



123 



The body is chocolate red, with the under part and sides pale. 
It is described as living amongst moss. 

LiNOPODES RAVUS {Koch, Ubers. Arach.). 
— 2. Magnified figure of ditto, copied 
from Guerin. 

LiNOPODES CURSORIUS ( Jr^/c,^., Apt.). — 

3. Magnified figure of ditto, copied from 
Walckenaer. 

The elongated and thickly haired 
palpi of this species would seem to 
call for its separation from the two 
preceding. 

All the above are bright in colour, 
but more inclining to orange than 
to scarlet. 

Genus Penthalodes {3Ii/ rr., 11. g.). 

A new genus made to receive the 

following species. 

Penthalodes ovalis (Megamerus ovalis, 
Ditg/s, Ann. Sc. Nat. 1834). 

This species having only six joints 

to the legs, falls into the section of 

Eupodidae, instead of the Trombi- 

diidae, where DugeS placed it (in Lmopodes longipes. copied from Hermann's 

figure. 

Megamerus) ; but it has no Ime of 
separation between the thorax and abdomen, and 
cannot therefore go into Penthaleus (where Koch put 
it), or any of the other genera having that for a cha- 
racter. The only other place for it is the section with 
six legs, and no throracic line of separation ; but the 
only genus yet known of these is Linopodes, with 
which it obviously has no relation, all its legs being 
moderate in their proportions. A new genus, therefore, 
is required for it, which we have named Penthalodes. 





124 



CASE 
IX. 



ARACHNOIDEA. 

Genus Stigm^us {Koch), 



No eyes. 
SxiGMiEUS CRUENTUS {KocJi, Ubers.) 




Stigrcseus cruentus. Copied from Koch. A mere pin's point in size. 

Genus Caligonus {Koch). 
Figiu'ed but not characterized by Koch. 
Caligonus piger {Koch^ Ubers.). 




Caligonus piger. Copied from Koch. Ahuost invisible. 

2ND Subsection, Legs with seven joints. 
Genus Rhyncholophus {Diiges). 
This genus has its feet swollen or not diminished at their ter- 
mination, the hind legs very long, and the body square or diamond 
shaped. 

M. Van Der Hoeven unites the genus with Erythrseus ; but it is 
rather with Smaridia and Trombidium that its affinities lie, some 
species of these genera having the tarsi swollen like Rhyncolophus. 



HARVEST MITES. 



T25 



CASE Rhvncholophus cinereus {Dugcs, Ann. Sc. Nat., 2d Ser., 1834).— 4. 

'^- Enlarged sketch of ditto. 

No. 4- 




Rhyncholophus cinereus. Copied from Dugcs' figure. 

Common in the neighbourhood of Montpellier. It is purplish 
or brown madder in colour, with a pale stripe down the back. 

No. 5. Rhyncholophus phalangioides (Trombidium phalangioides Herm. , Apt.). 
— 5. Magnified figure of ditto. 




^^^^SPc 



RlijTicholophus phalangioides. Copied from Hermann's figure. 



126 



ARACHNOIDEA, 



CASE 
IX. 



This is perhaps the Acarus phalangioides of Degeer, which 
occurs under the bark of trees in the forest of Ardennes. It is 
black, with a scarlet stripe down the back, and scarlet legs and 
eye spots. 



No. 6. Rhyncholophus major {Du^ 
of ditto. 



Ann. Sc. Nal. 1834). — 6. Magnified figure 




Rhyncholophus major. Copied from Duges' figure. 

M. Duges places this among the Tetranychi. It seems to us 
more allied to this form, and perhaps a sex of one of the long- 
legged species. Black, with red on the back. 

Genus Smaridia {Duges). 

M. Duges establishes this genus chiefly on the extensibility of 
the beak, in the single species on which he found this character. 
As this, however, requires pressure to be observed, 
and as without subjecting all the other species to the 
same test, to see how it affects them, it can scarcely 
be assumed to be peculiar to it, we do not think it 
is a character that can be trusted to alone. There 
is another minor character that is present in Duges' 
species that might do to establish a section upon, 
namely, that instead of hairs the body is covered with 
papillae. In Pachygnathus velatus he describes the 




Smaridia papillosn, 

Rostrum. Copied 

from Duges. 



HARVEST MITES. 



127 



CASE hairs or papillae on the body as flattened like blades of grass ; but 
these deviations are mere questions of degree, for various species 
of Trombidium have the hairs on their body thickened at the 
end. 

No 7. Smaridia papillosa {Dug., Ann. Sc. Nat. 1834).— 7. jMagnified sketch of 
ditto. 




Smaridia papillosa. 



Nearly half a line in length. Brick-red, with a longitudinal 
dorsal line somewhat paler. Found in numbers on the sandy 
banks of the streams near Marseilles. 

A species from Chili, with the characteristic papillae, but with 
the swollen tarsal joint of Rhyncholophus, is figured by Gay in 
his Histoiia Physica of Chili. 

Genus Paciiygnathus {Duges). 

This is another genus founded by Duges on a single species. 
It has short palpi, and the mandibles chelate, that is, furnished 
with nippers. 



128 ARACHNOIDEA. 

CASE Pachygnathus velatus {Dug., Ann. Sc, Nat. 1834). — 8. Magnified sketcb 

^^- of ditto. 

No. 8. 




Pachygnathus velatus. Copied from Dug^s' figure. 

Brick-red, body like that of Smaridia. Found by Duges in con- 
siderable numbers under moist stones. 

Genus Trombidium {Fab). 

The chief distinguishing characters of this genus is that the 
body is divided into two parts ; one small, anterior and inferior,, 
bearing the eyes, the mouth, and the two first pair of legs ; the 
other much larger, swollen and velvety, and bearing the two last 
pair of legs. The two anterior and two posterior pairs are thus 
at some distance from each other, as shown in the woodcut of the 
under side of Trombidium holosericeum. 

The legs are seven-jointed, and, like all the other mites whose 
development has been traced from the ^gg, the early stage of the 
life of the harvest mites is passed in a form not unlike the mature 
insect, with the exception that the posterior pair of legs is wanting. 
These six-footed mites were by the earlier observers supposed to 
be species of different genera of a division of the Acaridse, which 
they designated Microphthiridae, possessing only six feet, and the 
different types received different generic names. Three of these 
belong to the present group, viz.: — Leptus, Ocypetus, and Atoma. 
Achlysia belonged to the Hydrachnidae, and Caris was the larva 
of Argas. 



HARVEST MITES, 129 

CASE Trombidium parasiticum (Atoma parasiticnm, Latr.). — 9. Magnified 
^^* sketch of under-side of ditto, copied from Riley's Seventh Missouri 

No- 9. Report. 

Latreille, in establishing a genus for this mite, ^ ^. . 

proposed the name Atoma for it, by which we ^"^^^f^,/ 

suppose he meant an atom ; but he subsequently , lJ-A-LJ 

(in 1806) altered it to Astoma. It may be more ^ff^ -^ 

euphonious, but is not so correct, Astoma mean- \~^ 

ing without a mouth, which is certainly not the 

Atoma parasiticum. 

case with this creature. The alteration has not 

been universally adopted (Duges, for example, still calls it Atoma 

in 1834), and seeing that the rigid rules of priority admit (for 

there seems no good reason under it why the author of a name 

should have the right to change it subsequently any more than 

any one else), we shall stick to the first name for the reason above 

given. 

The creature to which the name was given is a minute blood- 
red mite, parasitic on the house-fly. In this country they do not 
seem so prevalent, but Mr. Riley mentions that in North 
America in some seasons scarcely a fly can be caught that is not 
infested with a number of them clinging tenaciously round the 
base of the wings. 

It is only six-footed, consequently we may be certain that it 
is the larva of some other species, probably of Trombidium, 
although what species has not yet been ascertained. 



Nos. Trombidium holosericeum {Fab.), (T. phalangii, Duges' s Ann. Sc. Nat. 

X2,\i, 1834). — 10. Magnified figure of young ; 11. Magnified figure of perfect 

insect, agreeing with Duges's figure, and No. 13 ; 12. Specimen of 
perfect insect in microscopic slide ; 13. Magnified figure of perfect 
insect as figured erroneously by Walckenaer and others. 

This also is a species that in its young stage is parasitic on 
another insect. It is then found adhering to the long-legged 
harvest spider, Phalangium opilio, and there is no doubt as to its 
transformations, Duges having carefully observed them. He 



130 



ARACHNOIDEA. 



CASE collected in the month of June some of the long-legged spiders 
named Phalangium, which had specimens of this mite adhering to 
them. They especially torment the females, and place them- 
selves upon them generally behind the 
posterior haunches, where the palpi of 
the female (which are much shorter than 
those of the male), cannot reach them. 
When they settle on the male he fre- 
quently gets rid of them by the help of 
his longer palpi. The mite at this stage 
is of a fine orange scarlet, and scarcely 
equals a grain of mustard seed when at 
its greatest development, and has an oval, 
swollen, shining body, which may be compared to that of a full 
fed tick (Ixodes), but without any shield on the back behind 
the head. It has six legs, which seem placed more and more 
to the front the bigger the animal is. It preserves the use of 
them, however, as long as it lives as a parasite, and can change 
its place on its victim even with some agility. It has nothing 
resembling the anterior portion of the body of the full-grown 
Trombidium. If detached from its victim, when ready to un- 




Trombidium holosericeum, 
young. 





Trombidium holosericeum, perfect insect. 



Ditto, under-side of ditto. 



HARVEST MITES. 131 

CASE dergo its transformation, it hides in the interstices of the soil, 
becomes a yellowish red n3nTiph, like an tgg^ and rest? immov- 
able for about twenty days. During that time Duges was 
able to see, through the semi-transparent skin, the gradual for- 
mation or development of the eight legs, the additional pair 
being the last. When perfect it emerges a bright scarlet Trom- 





Trombidium holosericeum, Tronibidium fuligmosum, 

hairs on upper side. liairs on sides. 

bidium. In these insects the hairs with which the body is 
clothed are peculiar. Those on the back have beads like pins, 
and are barbed with numerous spinules; those on the under 
side are also spinulose, but are sharp-pointed, as shown in the 
woodcut. 

We have been much puzzled to know whether the Trombidium 
phalangii of Duges is really distinct from the Trombidium holo- 
sericeum of authors or not, and the impression that remains on 
our mind is that they are one and the same. There are three 
st}^les of figure of a Trombidium given by different authors, which 
must be either this or closely allied to it. There are tv/o extreme 
ones — the one figured by Duges with slight and slender legs. 
This is what we find in this country, and it is figured above, and 
it is what is usually known as holosericeum here. Then there is 
the figure of T. holosericeum given by Walckenaer (Apteres), in 
Grifiith's Cuvier's Animal Kingdom, and in Guerin Meneville's 
Icones, and no doubt other works that may have copied from 
them, as being reliable authorities. This figure differs from Duges's 
in having the legs thick, and them as well as the body very hairy. 
In one or more of these works there is also given a copy of 
Duge's's T. phalangii as another species. Lastly, there is the 
figure of T. holosericeum in Hermann's Memoire Apterologique, 

T 2 



132 arachnoidea: 

CASE which, though Ave mention last, was first in order of date. This 
is intermediate between the two others, the legs are not so slight 
as in Duges's figure and our species, nor so heavy as in the other 
works. It is near enough to pass for either, but seems to us at 
least as like Duge's's as Walckenaer's. Now it is to be observed 
that Hermann, whose original researches after this class of animals 
were very careful and extended, does not figure the satiny harvest 
mite in more than one of the above forms. His figure implies 
that there was only one that he knew. Duges also knew only one 
form ; but being unable absolutely to reconcile the form he knew 
with Hermann's figure and description, he, to remove any doubt 
as to the identity of what he was describing, names it his " Pha- 
langii." His remarks may be of use in clearing up this obscurity. 
He says, " Several of the species referred to this genus greatly 
resemble each other, although differing much in size. We know 
a gigantic species from the East Indies " (West Africa is its true 
locality), ''the Tr. tinctorium. With us the satiny Trombidium {i.e. 
T. holosericeum) reaches a line and half in length. It appears 
to be rare in the south, at least I have only found it of that large 
size in our northern departments ; but it must be acknowledged 
that the harvest mite that I have observed in the south, seems in 
no respect to differ from it but in size, although indeed 1 might 
have also been able to refer it to the Tr. triangulare (clerical 
error for trigonum) of Hermann, which may perhaps not be 
distinct from the holosericeum. These are uncertainties which 
the brief descriptions of Hermann cannot dissipate." These 
two authors were both original observers, and their works re- 
ferred to are original productions. Those that follow (or at all 
events the works they wrote) were more literary compilations 
than original observations, and it has appeared to us possible 
that, instead of taking their figures anew from authentic specimens, 
they have merely copied the figures of the authorities who had 
already treated of the subject. Finding a difference between 
Hermann's holosericeum and Duges's Phalangii, they have 



HARVEST MITES. 



133 



CASE supposed them to be distinct species, and copied them, perhaps 
unconsciously exaggerating the differences. Our beHef is that 
there is only one species, and that Duges's figure is the correct 
representation of it, although it is possible that a slight difference 
in the degree of silkiness of the legs may occasionally occur, 
which would give them a thicker appearance. We do not 
apologise for wasting time over this point. Our explanation 
may save time to many who might otherwise, like ourselves, 
have spent weeks in trying to make out two species where there 
is only one. 

We have said that the Trombidii feed not on the juices of plants 
but of animals. Curtis indeed mentions that in France this 
species is said to injure the spikes of the corn. But this is 
explained away by Mr. Walker and others, who say that, although 
it is often abundant in the corn fields of England, it resorts 
there, not to feed upon the ears 
but upon the Aphides that infest 
them. Mr. Stewart says that it 

feeds on young caterpillars on their -"^^^^^ \] ^ ^^ 

emerging from the ^gg state. 



No. 14. Trombidium trigonum (7%rw.).— 14. 
Magnified figure of ditto, copied from 
Hermann. 

This is so far like holosericeum 
that Duges's conjecture, that it is 
only a variety of it, may possibly 
be correct. Hermann, however, 
figures the hairs on its back as 
different, as shown above ; and to 
assist in its determination we also 
give a copy of Hermann's figure of 
the species. 




Trombidium triqfonum. 



^ 



Ditto, hairs on back. 



134 



ARACHNOIDEA, 



CASE Trombidium curtipes {Herm.). — 15. Magnified sketch of ditto, copied 
from Hermann's figure. 



IX, 
No. IS, 




sm 



Ditto, hairs on back 




Trombidium curtipes. 



Ditto, hairs on sides. 



This is very like Tr. holosericeum, but it is only half the size, 
a little less brilliant, and the legs are perceptibly shorter. Hermann 
adds that the hairs on the sides are shorter and differently shaped 
than in holosericeum and allied species. We give figures of 
these hairs copied from his. This last character, however, 
was not observed by Dr. Johnston in specimens found in Ber- 
wickshire by Mr. Hardy. We have no assurance, however, that 
Dr. Johnston had the true curtipes under his eye, neither do we 
yet know the extent of variation in the Trombidii, and it is 
perhaps premature to say that this is a good species. It may be 
only a stunted form of holosericeum, 

Trombidium miliare (^«/r/J., Apteres.). 

There is another Trombidium figured under the above name 
by Walckenaer, as distinct from holosericeum, although very 
Hke it. In form it agrees with it, as figured by us above, 
but is bespattered with small dark or obscure spots or depres- 
sions. 



No. 16. Trombidium fuliginosum {Herm., Mem. Apt.). — 16. Magnified sketch of 
ditto, copied from Hermann's figure. 

This species diverges more from holosericeum than the last. 



HARVEST MITES. 



^35 



CASE It is more elongate, more smoky and dusty in colour ; and the 
hairs on its body are of a finer and more slender type. 

No. 17. Trombidium bicolor {Hcrm., Mem. Apt.). — 17. Magnified figure of ditto, 
copied from Hermann's Memoire. 

Very like fulginosum in form, but colour of body black with a 
bluish reflection, and legs scarlet. 



Nos. Trombidium fasciculatum. — 18. Enlarged figure of ditto ; 19. Specimens 
'^•'9. of ditto (4). 



This species, which is a giant 
among its brethren (being about 
one-third of an inch in length), is 
common in the East Indies and 
East Indian Archipelago. It is 
bright red when fresh, and deeper in 
parts, but soon fades, especially if 
it has been in spirits. It is tufty 
with velvety reflections. 




Trombidium fasciculatum, magnified and 
natural size (small specimen). 



Nos. Trombidium tinctorium [Fab.). — 20. Enlarged figure of ditto; 21. Spe- 
^» ^^' cimens of ditto (o). 

From the West Coast of Africa, of 
the same size and appearance as the 
East Indian species. Kirby and Spence 
say (on we know not what authority) 
that this species, or some allied species, 
(they call it " a species of mite (Trom- 
bidium tinctorium) from Guinea and 
Surinam") is employed as a dye; and 
they suggest that it might be worth 
while to try whether our own T. holo- 
sericeum would not also aflbrd a valuable tincture. We are sceptical 




Trombidium tinctorium. Nearly as 
large as the preceding. 



136 



ARACHNOIDEA. 



CASE about T. tinctormm ever having been used as a dye, still more sc 
of T. holosericeum ever being obtained in such quantities as to be 
utilized, and quite certain, from what is to be seen of the insect 
when preserved in cabinets, that if it were, the colour of none of 
them would stand, unless some suitable mordant to fix it were 
also found. 



Trombidium bulbipes {Packard), 3rd Ann. Report on injurious and bene- 
ficial Insects of Massachusetts, 1873. 

Dr. Packard (loc. cit) describes this 
as an unexpected enemy of the Aphis, 
which he found in July and August in 
considerable numbers in his garden 
in Massachusetts, busily engaged in 
devouring the plant lice on the rose 
bushes. It is scarlet-red, like most of 
the rest of the Trombidii, and we re- 
tain it among them provisionally; and 
although its palpi without appendage, 
here figured, may seem 
to call for a new genus 
for its reception, its 
swollen tarsal joint and 
elongated anterior legs 
seem to indicate an affinity with Rhyncholophus. 




"^ 



Trombidium bulbipes. Copied 
from Packard's figure. 



Palpi of ditto. Copied 
from Packard. 



No, 22, 




Trombidium gryl- 
larium.— Larva. 



Trombidium gryllarium (Astoma Gryllaria, Le Barony 
Illin. Ent. Rept., 156). — 22. Enlarged figure of larva. 

As in Other insects the same class at once fur- 
nishes us with friends and enemies, so the mites 
are not entirely to be regarded by man from a 
hostile point of view. If they carry on warfare 
on their own account it is not always against our 
interests. It is sometimes as our allies and against 



HARVEST MITES. 



137 



a common enemy. It is so with this species. Mr. Harris, in his 
treatise on some of the insects of New England, injurious to vege- 
tation (1852), drew attention to the fact that the locusts of the 
eastern coasts of America were much infested by little red mites, 
"belonging apparently to the genus Ocypete" (which is a synonym 
for Atoma), and that these so much weakened the insects by suck- 
ing the juices from their bodies as to hasten their death. Ten or a 
dozen of them would frequently be found pertinaciously adhering 
to the body of a locust beneath its wing covers and wings. The 
dread of the locust has now passed from New England. It is in 
the western prairies that it now reigns, where immense swarms of 
locusts descend from the Rocky Mountains where they breed, and 
spread desolation and famine over thousands of square miles. 
But the little red mite that helped to reduce their numbers in the 
East, or an equivalent species, is there at its post in the West, 
employed on the same duty ; and the value of its services has been 
recognised and acknowledged by numerous observers. In 1 87 2 and 
1875, respectively, it was described by Mr. Le Baron, State Ento- 
mologist of Illinois, and Mr. Riley, State Entomologist of Missouri. 
In their opinion it is as formidable an enemy to the Rocky Moun- 
tains locusts as it was in former years to that of the East These 
locusts are often more or less covered with them, especially round 
the base of the wings. We reproduce Mr. Riley's figure of one 
of the mites. They are small red creatures, no bigger than the 
head of a pin, soft and extensible, and they swell like a tick, so 
that their six legs, though easily visible when the animal first 
attaches itself, become more or less invisible as it swells; although 
on careful examination they will always be found. The mite 
when so attached presents itself as a bright red, swollen, ovoid 
body, immovably attached to its supporter. So far as is yet 
known it has not been traced beyond the six-legged larva stage, 
but it will certainly be found to be developed into an eight- 
legged scarlet mite. Very probably the next species, which is 
found in the same localities, and whose mission is also to keep 



138 ARACHNOIDEA. 

CASE down the numbers of the locusts, may be its further stage, and it 
would be curious if it were so ; then it would be the young mite 
attacking the old locusts, and the old mite attacking them in their 
youngest stage : viz., in the Qgg. Seeing how little mischief the 
larvae of Tr. holosericeum seem to do to the Phalangium, on 
which they fix themselves, it was scarcely to be expected at first 
sight that they would have any great effect in diminishing the 
number of the locusts ; but it appears to be otherwise. Mr. Riley 
quotes various informants who speak to their destroying them in 
perceptible numbers ; and one paper. The Prairie Farmer, which 
has acquired renown for its accurate entomological news, says 
(August 21, 1869), ''the course of the locusts was brought to a 
sudden halt here by the operation of some parasites, appearing in 
the shape of small red mites, which attach themselves to the body 
under the wings, where they suck the carcass to a dry shell ; the 
dead bodies of the grasshoppers almost covering some plants, 
where they have taken hold of a leaf or a stalk, and clasped it 
with a dead embrace ; many others fall to the ground, too weak 
to rise again. In a half-day's examination, where they were very 
thick, we failed to find more than two grasshoppers not so attacked, 
and this was not local, for a distance of thirty 
miles across the country they were found 
similarly affected." 

Trombidium sericeum (^Vzy). — 23, Magnified sketch 
of ditto, copied from Mr. Riley's Seventh Missouri 
Report. 

Only two species of North American Trom- 
bidium having been hitherto described by 
Say, and these only in brief terms, it is very 
possible that this is a new species; but Mr. 
Riley has wisely declined (although not without hesitation) to 
run the risk of adding to the synonymy — and as he has given a 
good figure of it, this will in future be the type of Say's imperfectly 




Trombidium sericeum. 



HARVEST MITES. 139 

CASE described sericeum : we reproduce his figure, and have only to 
add that the colour is pale red. It was found in Iowa and Min- 
nesota in great numbers, creeping into the holes in which the 
locusts' eggs have been deposited, and eating the contents of the 
eggs voraciously. 

No. 24. TrOiMBIDIum miniatum {Herm. Mem. Apt.).— 24. Enlarged figure of ditto, 
copied from Hermann. 

Very similar in form to the species already described as 
Megamerus celer, but of a pale red lead colour. 

No. 25. Trombidium aurantiacum {Walck. Apt.), (Tr. Aphidis, 1 De Geer). — 
25. Enlarged figure of larva, copied from Walckenaer's Apteres. 




Trombidium aurantiacum. 



A squat obtuse orange-coloured mite, of which the perfect 
form is not known with certainty, but it has been supposed to be 
a species described by De Geer, under the name Trombidium 
aphidis, which feeds on the black Aphis, which is so abundant in 
beans, poppies, and other plants. 



I40 



ARACHNOIDEA, 



CASE 
IX. 



Genus Calyptostoma. 
Calyptostoma hardyi (Cambridge Ann. Nat. Hist. 1875). 

As these pages are passing through the press, a new genus and 
species has been described by Mr. Cambridge, differing in a 




Upper side. Under side. Side view. 

Calyptostoma Hardyi. Copied from Mr. Cambridge's figure. 

remarkable manner from any known type of Trombidium, and 
running counter to all the characters hitherto used-to define that 
family, but still unquestionably belonging to it. It will be seen 
that the mouth in this species is a mere hole on the anterior part 
of the underside of a bladder-shaped body, and the parts in it 
seem, in Mr. Cambridge's figure, too indistinct to be depended 
upon. It has all the aspect of a larva with eight legs, the larvae 
of Trombidium having little or no appearance of a head or mouth. 
If it had been a six-footed insect with the form of a mature 
species, that might have been explained away by supposing that 
all the changes of skin were not over, and that, as sometimes 
happens, the mature form was anticipating the final change and 
complete perfection of form ; but here the signs of maturity that 
last appear are present, while the form of the body still remains 
that of a larva. It was found by our old friend Mr. Hardy in 
the Cheviot Hills. 

Genus Erythr^us. 
This genus is distinguished from Trombidium, by having no 
division of the body, and by the last joint of the legs being very 
long and slender. It is glabrous, semi-transparent, and has a 
pink or carmine shade of colour. 



ITARVEST MITES. 



141 



CASE Erythr^us ruricola {Dtig. Ann. Sc. Nat. 1834).— 26. Enlarged sketch 
^ of ditto copied from Duges's. 




Erj thriEUS ruricola. 

This species is of a beautiful carmine colour, but it is so small 
that it could scarcely be observed by the naked eye were it not 
for their whirling course, like a particle of dust blown about by 
the wind. They chase smaller acari than themselves, and carry 
them off in their palpi, not sparing, probably, even the smaller in- 
dividuals of their own species. They are found near Montpellier. 

ERYTHRiEUS CORNIGERA (Actineda comigera, Koch.). — 27. Magnified sketch 
of ditto, copied from figure in Koch's Ubersicht. 




Actineda comig'era 



Koch's genus Actineda seems to us not to differ generically from 
Erythraeus. Some species are broadest behind, others in front, 
and in Erythraeus both are equal. 



142 ARACHNOIDEA, 

CASE Family BDELLID^ (Snouted Mites). 

X. 

The habits and livery of this long-nosed group are entirely that 
of the Trombidii, and there is little doubt that their affinity is 
much greater with it than with any other tribe. Still it differs so 
much in the parts of the mouth and palpi, that there can be no 
objection to following the general opinion, and regarding it as a 
distinct section. Many of them (indeed, all in the section as 
originally constituted, Scirus of Hermann) appear to have a 
head ; but it is only the mouth that usurps this appearance ; the 
real head is still merged with the thorax, as is obvious from the 
fact that it still carries the eyes. There are some species that 
have all the above characters except the constriction into a neck 
behind the mandibles ; and we think that there are indications 
that this absence of a neck has been used by Dujardin for a 
genus Molgus proposed by him for a species found on the coasts 
of France, and said by Gervais (Apteres, iii. 253) to have been 
described by him in a paper laid before the Institute in 1842, but 
which would appear never to have been published, for there is 
no appearance of it either in its " Memoires," or "Memoires 
presentees." M. Gosse thinks that it must have been a marine 
species, but the term coasts on which he founds seems to us rather 
to refer to the shores. 

A more essential character of the family even than the quasi, 
head or snout, lies in the long projecting narrow mandibles, and in 
the extension and abrupt bending of the palpi, so as to look like 
antenna. The mouth consists of a rostrum, composed of a central 
conical tube, supported on each side by a valve, which together 
form a sheath. 

The species known are not numerous, but several genera have 
been proposed for them, chiefly founded upon the presence or 
absence of eyes, their number and their position. There is one 
species with no eyes, one with two, which makes the genus 
Cunaxa of Heyden : another with three (the genus Cyta of Hey- 
den), another with four (Bdella), and another with six. The mere 



SNOUTED MITES. 143 

CASE Statement of such diversity, accompanied with no corresponding 
differences of other structure, would seem to show that in this 
group the presence, absence, or number of eyes was not a matter 
of generic importance ; and as we go along we shall see other 
instances of the same thing in other famiHes of mites and insects. 
There are many species of insects found in the deep and 
obscure recesses of limestone caverns, or other dark places, which 
have no eyes. The spot where the eyes should be is smooth, and 
to the naked eye identical with the neighbouring surface, but some 
of them beyond doubt belong to well-known and unmistakeable 
genera which have eyes. These organs would appear, therefore, 
not to be entitled to rank among the structural organs which dis- 
tinguish important divisions of living beings. 

Genus Molgus ? {Dujard). 
Mouth or quasi-head without a constriction or neck behind it. 

No. I. Molgus longicornis {Linn.), (Ac. 
Basteri, Johnston), Acarides of Ber- 
wickshire, in History of Berwick, 
Nat. Club, ii. 227.).—!. Magnified 
sketch of ditto. 

As already said this probably 
belongs to Dujardin's genus Mol- 
gus. It occurs in Berwickshire, 
in Northumberland, and other 
parts of England, where it is „ ,^ ^ ,, , , . . „ . ^c ^ 

*■ *-" ' Mouth of Molgus longicornis. Copied from Dr. 

common on the sea-shore during johnston-s figure. 

the summer months, running quickly about among stones above 

high-water mark. 

It is scarlet, with the body blood red, and as if divided into 
several large sub quadrangular compartments, formed apparently 
by a thickening of the skin, pear-shaped, about an eighth of an 
inch in length : in fact very like the small weevil called Apion ir 
shape and size. 




144 



ARACHNOIDEA. 



^ 



CA^E There are two species that bear the name of longicomis : the 
present, and one a Bdella longicornis — which were confounded by 
Linnaeus, this being the species so called 
in his Fauna Suecica ; the other, that in 
the Systema, which is easily distinguished 
from this by its palpi, terminating in two 
long bristles, viz., like the palpi in Scirus 
vulgaris. See next species. 

Genus Eupalus {Koch). 
EupALUS viTELLiNUS {Koch. Ubers). 

This seems to come near Molgiis, if 
not actually to belong to it. 




Eupalus vitellinus. Copied from 
Koch's Uberscht. 



Genus Scirus {Hermann). 

Apparently with a head and neck. 

The name Scirus, although only second in date, must be 
adopted for thas genus, because the original typical name, Bdella, 
has been diverted from its more general application to those 
species having four eyes. 

Scirus vulgaris [Herm.) {Bdella egregia, -K'och, Ubers.). 




Scirus vulgaris (Bdella egregia). Copied from Koch's Ubersicht 



SNOUTED MITES, 



145 



CASE The characteristic break in the palpi, of which we have just 
spoken, is well shown in this species. It is scarlet, and found 
among mosses. 



No. 2. SciRUS INSECTORUM . (^yc-rw. Mem. Apt.), (Leptus Phalangii, Ctirtis, in 
Farin Insects).— 2. Magnified sketch of larva of ditto. 





Scirus insectorum. Copied from Hermann'; 
figure. 



Scirus insectorum (Leptus Phalangii, Curtis}. 
Copied from his fij^ure. 



This insect is 'described by Curtis, in his " Farm Insects," as 
one of the correctives of the wire-worm beetle. He found it on 
Elater ruficaudis, and it attaches itself to various other insects. 
Hermann says he found it on Elater, Tipula, and spiders. This 
habit has led to its being confounded with the larva of Trom- 
bidium holosericeum, which attaches itself, as already said, to the 
harvest spiders (Phalangium opilio). De Geer took it for the 
Acarus phalangii, and Curtis followed him, but seeing that it was 
only six-footed, rightly put it in the old genus, Leptus, proposed 
for the six-footed Acari, before it was known that they were 
only the young of other species. The true genus to which this 
belongs, however, is easily gathered from the snouted mouth and 
extended palpi : and Curtis's figure, which we give here, is un- 
mistakably only an individual of the Scirus insectorum figured 
by Hermann, not so well filled up as his specimen. It occurs 
both in this country and on the Continent. 



146 ARACHNOIDEA. 

CASE SciRUS HEXOPHTHALMUS {Gerv., Ann. Sc. Nat. 1841).— 3. Magnified sketch 
of ditto, copied from Gervais, 

This is the species with six eyes, for which another genus would 
have to be estabHshed if every change in the number of eyes is to 
call for one. It is reddish orange coloured. 



X 
No. 





Scirus hexophthalmus. About the size 

of a pin's head. Scirus obisium. 



No. 4. Scirus obisium {Gerv., Ann. Sc. Nat. 1841). — 4. Magnified sketch of ditto, 
copied from Gervais. 

This has no eyes, and would behove to have a genus for itself 
too, if they are important as characters. As already said, they 
do not appear to be so. 



No. 5. Scirus vestitus (Bdella vestita, ICoch).—b. Magnified sketch of ditto, copied 
from figure in Cuvier's Regn. Anim., French illustrated edition (without 
date), Arachnids, edited by Duges and M, Edwards. 

A species with red and black marks disposed in patches. 



WATER MITES, 



147 



CASE 
X. 



Family HYDRACHNID^ (Fresh Water Mites). 

These, as already said, are merely Trombidii modified to suit 
the different element in which they live, and with other variations 
that might be expected from such -a modification. 
They have the same predominance of bright colour, 
scarlet and various shades of red preponderating 
some of them have the same finger and thumb 
termination of the palpi, although others have it 
either entirely absent, or nearly so ; but almost all 
have the last joint hooked so as to serve as an 
anchor or a grappling hook. Divers of them in 
one stage or other fasten themselves upon other Pa)i».s ofHydrachna. 
insects, like the larvae of the harvest mite. They 
are probably all carnivorous, perhaps living on minute Infusoria; 
but this we believe is not known with certainty. In all, the tarsi 
have two claws, with a very short shank, or almost none at all. 







Claw of Atax Bonzi, seen from front and side, retracted and expanded. Copied ffom Claparede. 

Their transformations are very remarkable, but fo*- them and the 
anatomical details of their structure, we must refer the reader to 
M. Duges's Memoirs in the " Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 
Zoologie" 1034. We have no space for these, and can only briefly 
glance at a few of them as we go along. The whole group being 
very homogeneous, there is not much room for the creation of 
genera, but the remarkable difference in the transformations has 
in many instances supplied this. The following are the more 
remarkable • — 



K 2 



148 ARACHNOIDEA, 

CASE 1st Section. — BoG or MuD MITES. 

X. 

Feet adapted for walking, not swimming. 

This group is the link between the swimming w^ater mites and 
the harvest mites. Like Trombidium holosericeum, they are soft 
and velvety, and mostly of a scarlet red colour. 

Genus Limnochares {Latr.). 

Nc. 6, Limnochares aquaticus {Linn.) {L. holosericeicsy Latr.). — 8. Magnified 
sketch of ditto. 

This species is vivid scarlet. Its young is also very like that of 
Trombidium holosericeum, has only six feet, and adheres to 
Gerris lacustris, a water bug, and other water insects, generally 
near the head, and although a Avater insect, has no ciliae to its 




Limnochares holosericeus. About \\ lines in length. 

legs or swimming powers, but creeps slowly over the mud and 
plants under water. The body is irregularly oval, cone-shaped 
in front, but from its softness is susceptible of accidental or 
spontaneous deformation, so that it varies in appearance and 
form. 

Genus Thyas {Koch). 
More nearly resembling a Hydrachna, but feet adapted for 
walking. 



WATER MITES 



149 



CASE ThYAS VENUSTA {KocJi), 




Thyas venusta. Copied from Koch s Ubers. 

Our knowledge of this genus and the succeeding two genera, as 
well as various others of Koch's genera noticed in this work, is 
confined to what we gather from his Ubersicht ; and its meagre- 
ness is not to be ascribed to us, but to the source whence we have 
drawn it. 

Genus Smaris. 
Distinguished by the absence of palpi. Its skin is clothed with 
papillse like Smaridia, and some of the Trombidii. 



Smaris expalpis {^Koch). 




:5n:iaris impressa. Copied from Kocli's UbersicliL 



'50 



ARACHNOIDEA, 



CASE 
X. 



Genus Alycus. 
Clothed, like the preceding, with papillae, and otherwise formed 
like a Trombidium. 

Alycus roseus {Koch). 




Alycus roseus. Copied from Koch's Ubers. 

2nd Section. — Pond Water Mites. 
Feet adapted for swimming. Four eyes. 

Genus Eylais {Latr.). 

Nos. Eylais extendens {Latr.). — 7. Magnified sketch of larva; 8. Ditto of 
7. 8. perfect insect. 





Eyla-s extendens, younq; form. Copied from Dug€s. 



Ditto perfect insect. 
Size of a mustard seed. 



Of this genus only one species has been described. Its main 
characters are, that the palpi have the basal joints short, thepenul- 



WATER MITES. 



^51 



timate large, and the last armed with spines. The feet are long 
and slender and ciliated, except the two last, which are only pilose. 
Its colour is pale red, and its size about that of a mustard seed. 



Genus Hydrachna. 

The genus is restricted by Duges to those fresh water mites 
that have palpi with the third joint largest, a beak of the same 
length as the palpi, and mandibles with 
sharp blades. Their transformations 
have been fully observed, and are very 
interesting. From the eggs which have 
been laid in spring in the stems of water 
plants, perforated for the purpose, little 
hexapod animals come to view, with a 
large heart-shaped sucker in front, which 
might be taken for a head, but that the 
eyes are situate behind it on the anterior 
margin of the back. Subsequently they 
attach tJiemselves to different water 
insects (Nepa, Ranatra, Dytiscus, &c.); 
and whilst the abdomen is growing and 
extending itself into an elongated sac, 
the feet and the sucker remain of the 
same size. After a time, however, the 
feet drop off, and the creature remains 
like a bag hanging from the insect to which 

it is affixed. For long these bags were thought to be the eggs of the 
Nepa, and it was described as being like the frog of Surinam, that 
laid its eggs on its ov/n back, and hatched them out of its skin. 
This stage corresponds apparently to that of the pupa in other 
insects, the perfect insect being formed within the skin, like a fly 
in its pupa. The wood cuts show its various stages in the species. 
Hydrachna globulus, now Hydrochoreutes globulus, a little further 
on. 




Enlarged sketch of hinder part of 

abdomen of Nepa cinerea, with 

nymphs of Hydrachna adhering 

to it. 



152 



ARACHNOIDEA, 



CASE Hydrachna Geographica {Koch). — 9. Magnified sketch of ditto, copied 



No. 9. 



from fio-ure in Koch's Arachnidae. 



This is a very handsome species, with something like a geo 
graphical distribution of patches of scarlet and black. 




Hydrachna geographica. Copied from Miiller. 



Koch breaks up this group into three additional genera, chiefly- 
founded upon the dimensions and proportions of the palpi. They 
do not appear to deserve separation from Hydrachna. They are — 

LIMNESIA, HYDRYPHANTES, and HYDRODROMA. 




Limnesia fulgeda. Copied from Koch. 



3rd Section. — River Water Mites. 

Legs fitted for swimming. Two eyes. 



V/ATER MITES. 



153 



CASE Genus Diplodontus {Duges). 

Nos. Diplodontus scapularis {Dug.^ Ann. Sc. Nat. 1834).— 10. Magnified 
'°' '*' figure of larva ; 11. Ditto of perfect insect. 

This genus has the mandibles chelate, or quasi chelate, that is, 
provided with a nipper or its equivalent. Other characters are 
drawn from the different relative proportions of the joints of the 
legs. The legs are ciliated, but the ciliae are so fine, and their 





Diplodontus scapularis, larva. 



Ditto, perfect insect. About the size of a sweet pea. 



motion so rapid, that although tolerably long, the naked eye 
cannot see them when in motion, and the animal at the first 
glance seems to move by some interior hidden mechanism. There 
are several species of this genus. The colour of the present 
species is red behind, interrupted in the middle, and black in 
front, with some specks of red scattered through it. Duges places 
this species in the genus Diplodontus. Koch removes it into his 
genus Hygrobates. We have preferred to follow Dug^s. 



Genus Hydrochoreutes {Koch). 

Vos. Hydrochoreutes globulus (Hydrachna globulus, Mull.).—\2. Magnified 
sketch of first stage of larva ; 13. Specimens of Belostoma grandis, 
Linn, (the large water scorpion), with nymphs of Hydrachnidse ad- 
hering to various parts of its body ; 14. Enlarged sketch of hinder part 
of British water scorpion (Nepa cinerea), with nymphs of Hydrochoreutes 
globulus adhering to its body ; 15. Sketch of nymph of ditto still more 



154 



ARACHNOWEA, 



CASE 
X. 



highly magnified ; 16. Magnified sketch of Hydrochoreutes globulus, 
perfect insect. 




Ditto, perfect insect, under side. About tlie size of a No. 5 lead drop. 
For aji explanation of the abovtjjgures, seep. 151. 

This species is pale red in the larval stage, dirty white in the 
nymph, and rich maroon or purple in the perfect stage. 

Genus Atax (Fab.), 
In the genus Atax the palpi are subulate, with the last joint 
falcate or inguiculate. In the males of some species the body is 
truncate behind. These M. Duges supposed to belong to a 
different genus, which he named Arrenurus, of which Koch 
describes no less than forty species, many of which, no doubt, 
must be referred to other genera besides Atax. 



WATER MITES. 



155 



CASE Atax Bonzi {Claparcdc, Studien an Acariden). — 17. Magnified sketch of newly 

developed larva, copied from Claparede's figure. 
No. 17. 

Atax Bonzi, which formed the subject of careful study, and an 
admirable memoir by M. Claparede, is a parasite, which lives 
within the shell of the fresh-water mussel. It is semi-transparent 
and pale yellowish, with some brown. 



Nos. 
18, IC. 



Atax globator {Mull.). — 18. Magnified sketch of male ; 19. Ditto of female ; 
both copied from Miiller's figures and descriptions. 

The male has a prolongation of the body behind like a tail. 

It is virescent, except this prolongation, which is pellucid. The 

female is round and pale blue, with virescent legs. 




Hydrachna globator, male. Hydrachna globator, female. 

>:o. 20. Hydrachna buccinator {Mull.).— 20. Magnified sketch of ditto, copied 
from Muller's figure and description. 

Another tailed species. The body is red, black behind, and the 
tail yellow. 

<o. 21. Atax miniata {Koch).— 21. Magnified figure of ditto, copied from Koch's 
Arachnidre. 

Of a rich red-lead colour. 

io. 22. Atax varipes {A'och).—% Magnified figure of ditto, copied from Koch's 
Arachnidce. 

Body pink with dark markings behind, legs varied with white 
and brown. . 



iS6 



ARACHNOWEA. 



CASE Atax histrionicus {Hervi. Mem. apt.). — 23. Magnified sketch of male, 
Arreuurus virldis, Dug. ; 24. Ditto of female, Atax histrionicus, Dug.y 
copied from figures by Duges, in Ann. Sc. Nat. 1834. 



X, 
Nos. 




Atax histrionicus (Arrenurus viridis, Di<^.), male. 




Atax histrionicus, female. 



About the size of a mustard seed. 



The male is pale yellowish green, the female a rich purple, with 
four large black blotches. 

Besides the foregoing, Koch proposes several other genera for 
species of this group, viz. : 

Nesea, Fiona, Hygrobates,Atractides,Acercus, andMARiCA; 

but neither his figures nor his descriptions are sufficiently precise 
to allow of our judging as to their value, especially in a family 
where the general resemblance and the sexual differences are both 
so great. 



"* Genus Pontarachna {Filippi). 

No. 25. Pontarachna punctulum, FH. — 25. Magnified sketch of ditto, copied 
from drawing a. d description of Filippi. 

This is a very minute and inconspicuous Hydrachna, with a 
madder-brown irregular shaped patch covering the back; but 
it is interesting from its having been found in the sea at Naples, 
instead of in fresh water. Since then another from the North 
American Seas has been described by Dr. Packard. Filippi made 
the separate genus for his species, which we have adopted on his 
responsibility. 



GAMASIDS. 



157 



Family GAMASIN^. 

The members of this family are either found on the ground in 
damp places or parasitic on some animal or other; and subject to 
the usual qualification of occasional exceptions, the palpi are fili- 
form, that is, of nearly uniform thickness throughout; they usually 
project forwards on each side of the mandibles, and have the ter- 
minal articles bent downwards. The mandibles are chelate, that 
is, provided with minute nippers. There are no eyes. The legs 
are not ciliated, but adapted for motion on dry land. They have 
seven joints, and there is a tendency in the second pair of legs in 
some species to become larger and thicker than the others, often 
with knobs or excrescences on different parts of them. The tarsi 
have two claws, which emerge, as it were, from or alongside a kind 
of frill or bag, which is called a caruncle, and which no doubt ful- 
fils to some extent the office of a sucker. The accompanying 
figures show some of the different forms this caruncle assumes. 






Claw and caruncle of 
Gaiuasus tetragonoides. 



Claw and caruncle of 
Dermanyssus avium. 



Claw find caruncle of 
Sejus auris. 



In some species the skin is chitonous, like the covering of a 
beetle, but not so hard ; and the colour is usually pale brown or 
fawn. In certain species the skin is chitonous only in part, the 
rest being soft, pliant, and colourless ; and in others it is entirely 
soft, and naturally white or yellowish, but showing the colour of 



T5S 



ARACHNOIDEA. 



CASE the food it has taken (as for instance, blood) through the walls 
of the body. With few exceptions they are parasitic, at all 
events at some period of their life, the majority being so on in- 
sects; but there are others that are troublesome to birds and other 
animals, forming the passage to the next section, the Ticks. They 
form a very natural and easily recognised group. If we capture 
a "shard-borne beetle" or a humble bee, we shall, very often, find 
them infested by a large number of yellowish mites hanging about 
their legs or adhering to their abdomen. These are almost sure 
to be Gamasid^. They are sometimes of large size compared to 
that of the animals on which they are parasitic. Did the same 
proportion exist on man, we should have lice as big as our fists or 
our hats. 

Sub-Family Gamasid^. 

When not free, parasitic on insects. 



Nos. 

I, 2. 



Genus Gamasus {Latr.). 

In this genus the body is covered 
either in whole or in part by a 
smooth and even chitonous shell. 
The labrum is trifid. The second 
pair of legs often thickened ; the first 
pair usually the longest, but also the 
slenderest. 

Gamasus coleoptratorum {Linn.). — 1. 
Enlarged figure of ditto ; 2. Specimens (2). 

This species has only part of its 
outer skin hard and chitonous ; there 
is a soft white space between the 
upper and under surface, and also a similar band across the back. 
Its colour is fawn. Found on various beetles. In winter it is 
found under stones. It is a peculiarity of all these parasites on 
insects, that they soon die after being removed from the insect or 




Gamasus coleoptratorum. 
About i line in length. 



GAMASWS. 



159 



CASE from the stone under which they have taken refuge, unless they 
are kept moist. The insects on which they live are chiefly sub- 
terranean, making burrows in damp soil, or under cow dung, &c. 



Nos. Gamasus marginatus (Z>z/^.).— 3. Enlarged figure of ditto ; 4. Specimens. 

3.4- 





Gamasus marg-inatus. 
About J line in length. 



Gamasus (Laelaps) hilaris. Copied from Koch's figure. 
About the size of a pin's head. 



Broader, rounder, and darker in colour than the last, and with- 
out the transverse soft white space across the back, but with the 
marginal space wider, especially behind. This species is also 
found on beetles more frequently even than the last, and some- 
times along with them ; but, generally speaking, more than one 
species of mite is not found on the same beetle. Hermann, in 
his Memoire Apterologique, reports that this species lives on dead 
bodies, and cites the curious fact that one was observed by his 
artist running on the corpus callosum of the brain of a soldier 
who died in the miHtary hospital at Strasburg, which had been 
opened but a minute before, and the two hemispheres and the pia 
mater just separated. Hermann thought not, but we have no 
doubt that it was merely a case of first come, first served. 
Prompt as the doctors had been with their examination, the mite 
had been prompter. 

Koch has established a genus which he has named Laelaps, 
and the only character wherein it differs from Gamasus is in not 



i6o ARACHNOIDEA, 

CASE having the anterior legs slenderer and longer than the rest; in 
other respects it corresponds with the section containing Gamasus 
marginatus ; but the elongation of the anterior legs does not seem 
a generic character, but rather one of degree; indeed. Koch's 
own figure of Laelaps hilaris, of which we give a copy, does not 
bear out his own diagnosis, the anterior legs in it being both 
longer and slenderer than the other legs. We have, therefore, not 
adopted the genus Laelaps. 

Gamasus hilaris (Laelaps hilaris, Koch, Ubers., p. 88, t. x., f. 48). 

Koch says that this species and three others belonging to the 
same genus Laelaps are parasitic on mice, although he never 
found any on the house mouse. He regards them as specially 
assigned to mice, and only to be found upon them. This figure,, 
however, looks so like other Gamasi which are found wandering 
at times, that it may be well to wait for confirmation of Koch's 
assumption before definitely adopting it. 

There are several species formed upon the same plan as these, 
which are difficult to distinguish from each other. Koch describes 
about a score. One is the G. testudinarius of Hermann. We 
possess another of comparatively large size and very pubescent, 
with a fringe of long hairs on each side, especially in front. It 
was taken from the under side of the neck of Phanseus lancifer, 
a large South American dung beetle. The portion disclosing 
the soft skin is in it larger than usual. Duges mentions a 
very large species which he, too, found on a Brazilian Copris 
(C. mimas), and which, from its size, he called Gamasus gigas. 
He says it was as large as our common Ixodes. If he means 
the male Ixodes, it may be the species of which we have been 
speaking, which then would sufficiently correspond with his 
description. If a replete female Ixodes, then it must be some- 
thing different. We have several other species taken from 
beetles from different countries differing but slightly in size, but 
probably distinct. 



GAMASIDS, 



i6i 



CASE 
XI. 

Nos. 
5,6. 



Gamasus quadripunctatus (n. s.). — 5. Enlarged figure of mite; 6. 
Specimen (i). 

This species is more than a half larger than our common 
species. It is more elongated, shows less of the white margin at 
its apex — none being visible at the sides — and it has, shining 
through the brown hard skin of the back, four black round spots. 
It is from Old Calabar. 



No. 7. Gamasus crassifes (Herm.). — 7. Enlarged figure of ditto. 





Gamasus crassipes. About J a line in length. 
Copied frjm Hermann's figure. 



Gamasus tetragnnoides. 
Copied from Duges' figure. 



Nc. 



Nos. 
9, 10. 



Gamasus tetragonoides (i)w^.).— 8. Enlarged figure of ditto. 

Gam.asus podager {Mnr?'. n. s.).~9. Enlarged figure of ditto ; 10. Speci- 



men (i). 



^"^-l .c^^^ 




Gamasus podager. About ij line in length. 



l62 



ARACHNOIDEA. 



CASE 
XL 



The preceding three species are all distinguished by the curious 
thickening of the second pair of legs to which we have above 
alluded. They have, also, all got more or less of the knobs or 
projections upon them which often accompany the thickened legs. 
The last species, which we have called podager, will be easily 
recognised by the figure. It is fawn coloured, and nearly 2 lines 
in length. From the mouth being under the projecting body, this 
may probably be taken as the type of a new section or genus. 



Genus Uropoda {Latr.\ 

The chief character of this genus is the existence of a cord 
attaching the mite to the beetle on which it is found. The other 
characters are like those of Gamasus, only slightly modified by 
the bucklfer-like form of the body, which also entails a shortening 
of the legs. 



Nos 

XI. 12 



Uropoda vegetans.— 11. Magnified sketch of ditto ; 12. Specimens. 

The young naturalist is sure to 
be puzzled with this species ; when 
a beetle is infested by it, it seems 
covered by a multitude of minute 
fawn-coloured shining convex 
scales (convex above and flat be- 
jow) gummed on to various parts 
of the under side of the beetle^ 
like tortoises or cocci, allowing 
none of the parts of the body they 
cover to be seen. They are not 
easily detached, and when by 
washing or scraping they are made to move, they do not fall oif, 
but still hang on to the place where they were fixed, by a fine 
thread, which is attached by the one end to the beetle and by 
the other to the under side of the Uropoda. The older natu- 




Uropoda vesretans. 
Half the size of a small pin's head. 



GAMASIDS. 1G3 

CASE ralists, De Geer, Latreille, &c., thought that this was something 
of the nature of an umbiUcal cord, by which the mite drew 
nourishment from the beetle, or from others of its own species, 
on which it might be fixed, for they are sometimes found in 
clusters, one piled above the other. Others imagined that it wa. 

^ a silken cord by which the parasite attached itself so that the 

beetle could not get rid of them by brushing them off. The latter 
may be the purpose of it, but it is neither an umbilical tube nor 
a silken cord. Examination of the cord shows that it- is not silk, 
and not a tube, neither can it be used in any way for conveying 
nourishment, for the mite can, at will, detach itself from the beetle. 
De Geer knew this, but supposed it was the end of the cord next 
the beetle that became detached. He says that they are able to 
remove when they please by crawling in a certain direction until 
the iJOrd is sufficiently strained to cause the end to be detached 
from the beetle. This is a mistake :. it is the end of the cord next 
the mite that becomes detached. Duges ascertained its real 
nature. He says that he has found the Uropoda free under 
stones in bad weather as well as fixed to burrowing beetles. The 
pedicle or cord he describes as a homy filament, stiff, elastic when 
dry, soft, becoming flexible in water without dissolving ; and in it 
there is to be found neither cavity, nor fibres, nor any organic 
structure. Fixed firmly on the coat of the beetle by a sort of 
spreading base, it is attached to the mite at the other end by a 
similar base, which exactly covers the anus of the mite, which, as 
in the other Gamasidse, is situated on the under side, a short dis- 
tance within the posterior margin of the body ; and hence he con- 
cluded that it is not a silken matter spun by special organs, but 
the viscous and dried excrements of the animal, and of which it 
can get rid whenever it makes a new excretion. 

Duges knew only one species, but we have two or three from 
beetles in different parts of the world which differ in the propor- 
tions of the buckler or back, some being more rounded or more 
oval than others. In other respects they all look very much alike, 

L 2 




1 64 ARACHNOIDEA. 

CASE 

XI. Genus Zercon {Koch). 

Koch describes and figures a genus under the name of Zercon. 
It has parallel sides, and a transverse 
line across the middle. We give a copy 
of his figure. 

Genus Sejus {Koch). 

Without any separation on the back 
between the thorax and abdomen, and 
without any soft portion exposed behind. 

This is a genus of Koch's which we adopt 

Zercon dimidiatus (copied from 

About ^So'f^apts point. wlth satisfactlon for a well-known portion 
of the Gamasidse, which is usually referred 
by naturalists to the genus Dermanyssus. Deducting Koch's two 
genera, the Gamasidae above noticed are limited to those Gama*. 
sid^ in which the body is enclosed in whole or in part in a chito- 
nous skin. They are all parasitic on insects. There are other 
species which have the skin soft and not chitonous, for -which the 
genus Dermanyssus was established, and its original type was a 
species (D. avium) that infests fowls. But there are many species 
of soft-skinned Gamasidse whose aflinity is greater with those that 
are parasitic on insects than with those that feed on warm-blooded 
animals. We find it a great convenience to remove these from the 
latter, and to bring them alongside Gamasus ; but in a separate 
group confined to the soft-bodied species that are either parasitic 
on insects or found free. The other characters by which they may 
be distinguished from Dermanyssus are, that the posterior two 
pair of legs are placed further back than in that genus, the body 
less elongate, and not so swollen behind. The facies of the two 
are sufficiently distinct : Dermanyssus reminds us of Ixodes, with 
which its habits correspond ; Sejus reminds us of Gamasus, with 
which its habits agree. Dermanyssus will then be confined to 
the soft-bodied Gamasidae parasitic on warm-blooded animals. 




GAMASIDS. 165 

CASE Sejus viduus {Koch^ Ubers., p. 92, t. x. f. 50). 
The shoulders longish, rounded 
behind and without projecting 
bristles. 

It is to this genus doubtless that 
another species found by M. Duges 
upon the leaves of Bindweed should 
be referred. He had gathered a 
quantity of these leaves on account 
of the great number of Tetranychi 
with which they were covered, and 

among them he found also a certain ^,^, ,,^,^,^ ^^e size of a smaii pm-s head. 
number of what he has named the 

Dermanyssus of the Bindweed ; they walked freely upon the water 
where these leaves were soaking. Their size, their general form, 
that of the feet and the palpi, resembled those of the Dermanyssus 
avium ; but their colour was of a greenish grey, and the intestines, 
and even the prolongations of its feet up to the sixth joint, were 
full of a green matter. He asks, was this matter the result of the 
suction of the vegetable juices directly from the leaf itself or indi- 
rectly from it after having been first swallowed by the Tetranychi 
on which the Gamasi fed. 

The same difficulty as to their food occurs in a species which 
M. Megnin has described (Insectologie Agricole^ 1868) under the 
name of the F orage mite, which is found in great quantities among 
old hay, and which, when shaken down from the rack on the head 
and neck of the animals feeding on it occasions them considerable 
annoyance. 

The species of this genus infest various insects as much as the 
other Gamasidse of which we have already spoken, and many 
species also occur in all sorts of places, and some of them even 
lead an amphibious or semi-marine life. 

In the species with such habits, we naturally feel a more parti- 
cular interest, for mites being land animals we may expect to find 



1 66 



ARACHNOIDEA. 



CASE some peculiarities of structure in those that have deviated into 
an aquatic mode of Hfe, and still more when the aquatic mode of 
life is marine. No other insects have ever been found inhabiting 
the sea ; certain beetles indeed live under high-water mark, but 
they are no more sea-beetles than divers are sea-men. Both are 
terrestrial, and their existence under the sea is exceptional, and 
provided for in both by special contrivances for breathing. Some 
mites that have of late years been described as found in the sea, 
are the nearest approach that we have to insects living in the sea. 
The first notice we have of any with this peculiarity, either 
real or supposed, is one which, in 1842, M. Dujardin is said 
to have found under the sea. It seems to have belonged to this 
group. Next, three species were described and figured some 
years ago by M. Laboulbene (Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1851), which 
had been found (like the above) living between tide marks. 
He named them Gamasus salinus, G. maritimus, and G. halo- 

philus. The accompanying wood- 
cut represents his G. maritimus. 
They all live in the chinks of 
rocks that are submerged at high 
water. M. Labculbene says that 
the two first like to congregate 
together in great numbers, which 
may perhaps be partly owing to 
a whole colony of eggs having 
been deposited at the same place. 
These two have a series of tooth- 
comb-like appendages on the 
third and fourth articles of the 
palpi, which are suggestive of the 
raptorial palpi of the Trombi- 
diidae ; but the curious prolonga- 
tions or excrescences which occur 
in other Gamasi(as in G.tetragonoides) forbid our attaching so much 




Sejus maritimus. Copied from Laboulbene's figure. 
Very minute. 



GAMASIDS. 



167 



CASE importance to them as v^e otherwise should have done. One 
of M. Laboulbene's species (G. halophilus) is imperfect, the palpi 
being wanting. It looks very like M. Hermann's Trombidium 
celer, and it may prove a Trombidium when its whole structure 
is known. In the meantime it has this amount of resemblance with 
them, that when in life it is said to have been of a fine red colour. 

Mr. Brady, of Sunderland, has recently added the following 
quasi-marine species to those above spoken of, which he has 
described under the name of G. marinus. 



No. 13. i^EJ^'S MARINUS (Gamasus marinus, Brady, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Enlarged sketch of ditto, copied from Mr. Brady's figure. 

Found pretty commonly in crevices 

of magnesian limestone rocks, between 

tide marks near Sunderland ; Mr. Brady 

has also a specimen that was washed 

from among the roots of algae dredged 

off Cumbrae in the Frith of Clyde. It 

is very like, but distinct from, one of 

die species described by M. Laboul- 

bene, and both it and they are obviously 

a parallel case to the species of ^^pus, 

Trechus, Bembidium, and other beetles 

that have been found in similar places. 



[875). 13. 




Sejufi marinus. (Copied from Mr. 
rady's figure.) Very minute. 



Sejus AURIS (Gamasus auris, Leidy, Pr. Ac. Phil., 1872). 

Professor Leidy describes a species under this name from the 
ear of an ox. He gives a figure of the claw to prove that it is a 
Gamasus, but no figure of the insect itself. A copy of his figure 
of the claw will be found on page 157. 



Genus Halarachne {Allm.). 

Nos. Halarachne halich^ri {Alltn., Ann. Nat. Hist, 1847). — 14. Enlarged 
'^^' ^^' figure of larva of ditto; 15. Enlarged figure of perfect insect. 

This is another claimant to the title of ocean mite, whose claim 



i68 



ARACHNOIDEA. 



CASE cannot be allowed. It is an extraordinary species of mite, which 

^^' was found on the posterior nares of the seal named Halichaerus 

gryphiis, in the Irish seas. Both larvae and perfect insects were 

found in abundance ; we give copies of the figures, which will 

save description. It is no doubt most interesting and most 





Halarachne halichoeri, larva. 
Copied from AUman. 



Ditto, perfect insect. 
About J of an inch in length. 



curious, but it is not an ocean mite, any more than the seal 
on which it is found is a fish. It is merely a parasite on an 
amphibious mammal, which spends much of its time in the sea. 
Notwithstanding the name which he imposed upon it, Professor 
Allman, whose acute discrimination of affinity is second to 
none, at once referred it to its proper place. In fact, as soon 
as he got possession of the young mites there was no room to 
doubt — they are soft -bodied Gamasi (Seji), as plain as possible, 
but the perfect mite would have been much more puzzling. 
Guided by the light of the larvae, w^e see that it belongs to this 
section of Gamasidae, although the elongate form of the perfect in- 
sect suggests an approach to the Dermanyssi, and notably of one 
nearly if not quite as long and narrow as itself, that is found in the 
nostrils of the, common goat-sucker. It is curious to speculate on 
the causes which led to the selection respectively by two species of 



GAMASIDS, 



169 



CASE the same genus of the same place of abode in two animals living 
under such different conditions, a selection apparently followed or 
attended by a certain similarity of appearance, due no doubt to the 
equally restricted and confined limits of their place of abode. We 
can imagine the Gamasus of the animal that became a seal, being 
driven to take shelter in its nostrils to escape from being drowned 
by the washing of the seas, to which it would be exposed if it 
stuck to any unsheltered part of the body ; and the Dermanyssus 
of the nostrils of the goat-sucker may have taken refuge there as 
its only place of secure retreat from the danger of being scratched 
off by the pectinated claw of its host. 



Sub-family Dermanyssid^e. 

Genus Dermanyssus. {Duges.) 
Soft-skinned ; parasitic only on warm-blooded animals. 



No. 16. Dermanyssus nitzschii [Giebely in Zeit. ges. Naturw. iv. 29). — 16. En- 
larged figure of ditto, copied from Giebel's figure. 

This is the species from the nostrils 
of the goat-sucker, of which we have 
above spoken. It feeds on the blood of 
its victim; it is as big as a head-louse, 
and as many as twelve to fifteen were 
found together in the nostril of the same 
bird. 



Nos. Dermanyssus avium {Dug.)—Vt. Enlarged 

19*, 20' figure of ditto, empty ; 18. Specimens thereof; 

21^ 19. Vignette of chickens (realistic chick) ; 20. 

Enlarged figure of ditto fed ; Si. Specimens 

thereof. 




Dermanyssus nitzschiJ. 

About the size of a head-louse. 

Copied from Giebel. 



The so-called "tick" that infests domestic poultry, canaries, and 
other cage birds. It lives especially in f<5wl houses, and on their 



170 



ARACHNOIDEA. 



CASE inhabitants, and they sosLietimes migrate from the birds to the per- 
sons of those who have charge of them, and occasion them much 
annoyance. Alt (a German observer) saw these mites, or a mite 
which he supposed to be of the* same species, upon the neck and 





Dermanyssus avium, full fed (upper side). 



About the size of the cheese mite. 



Ditto, empty (under side). 



arms of a cachectic old woman. According to him they were 
white, of the size of a grain of sand, extremely agile, and slipped 
out of little excavations (occupying the space of ij square 
line), ran over the skin, and back again into their holes. 

Simon narrates a case in which the mite nestled up©n the skin 
of a woman, who was otherwise healthy. She was constantly 
infested with little louse-like animals, notwithstanding great clean- 
liness and many attempts at extirpation of the mites, which were 
recognised by Erichson as the Dermanyssus avium. It was 
found at last that the woman went several times daily into the 
cellar, over v/hich the hen-roost lay. As often as this was the 
case, the fowls flew up into their roosting-place, and by this means 
the woman was sprinkled with mites. The removal of the hen- 
roost cured her of her supposed phthiriasis. (Kuchenmeister, 
Manual Parasites, vol. 2, p. 64.) 

It also infests dove-cotes ; although no doubt it is sometimes' 



G AM A SID S. 171 

CASE confounded there with the Argas reflexus, which is more specially 
XI. . , . 

assigned to pigeons. 

It may be most easily observed in the cages and aviaries 
of singing birds, and they may harbour there, even although the 
most scrupulous cleanliness is exercised, especially if the perches 
used for the birds are made of hollow canes, and not solid wood. 
It is in these hollow canes that they most particularly harbour, and 
we may generally find them there at all seasons of the year. But 
it is very probable that, although it is in these recesses that we 
find them when we seek them during the daytime, they sally out 
during the night, and settle on the sleeping birds, in order to 
suck their blood. That they do so, is shown by their digestive 
organs being generally full of it in all individuals, both young 
and adult. It is this blood which gives to these animalcules 
their colour, which is dark purplish or brown, when they are 
filled ; when empty, they are colourless. In the same retreats, 
are found a multitude of excessively fine exuviae, or white cast 
skins, attesting sufficiently numerous moultings. In this heap 
are seen also colourless eggs, ellipsoid, nearly equalling in length 
the fifth part of the adult animal, which is scarcely a third of a 
line at the most. 

These eggs are said to become larger in maturing, and to take 
gradually, like those of the spiders, the form of the young one 
which is coming out. The young have only six feet ) the body is 
much longer and more inflated than that of the individuals of the 
same size which have already their eight legs ; these last are 
slenderer, and more agile, and the posterior pair are much longer 
than the body, and continue pellucid and colourless as at first ; 
but it is not long before they go and fill their stomachs, and the 
blood that they swallow makes them bright red at first, then dull, 
then brownish, in proportion as it becomes more altered and 
digested. 

Bory de St. Vincent (Ann. Sc. Nat. ist Ser. xxxv.) relates that 
a woman of forty years old, who felt the most intolerable itching 



172 



ARACHNOIDEA, 



CASE all over her body, had only to scratch herself to see minute mites 
come out of her skin, but none of them spread to, or propagated 
the disease to, her attendants. Gervais named this species Der- 
manyssus Boryi, in compliment to the narrator. 

Dermanyssus hirundinis {Hei'inann, Mem. Apt. 84.) 

About the size of a large pin's head. Found on the swallow 
with other vermin. 

No. 22, Dermanyssus pipistrell^ {Gerv., Ann. Sc. Nat. 1841). — 22. Enlarged 
sketch of ditto, copied from Gervais' figure. 

The Dermanyssi are not abso- 
iutely confined to birds — they are 
also found upon bats. The present 
is a species found upon the smallest 
of European bats (VespertiHo pipis- 
trellse). It is very like the common 
bird species, but more oval, and 
the colour (reddish brown) is more 
diffused. 

It would even appear, from M. 

Duges' observations, that some 

species attack snakes also. He 

speaks of two so attacked that had 

come under his observation; one, 

the common Coluber natrix, which 

he kept domesticated for several months, and which perished 

exhausted by these parasites nestled under its scales, which all 

his efforts had failed to destroy. 

There are other Dermanyssi found on bats — new species 
from new countries almost always furnishing them, as well as 
new species of Pteroptus. Kolenati has described a number 
of these, and proposed various genera for their reception, under 
the names of Liponyssus, Ichoronyssus, Macronyssus, I.epro- 




Dermanyssus pipistrellse. 
Copied from Gervais' figure. 



GAMASIDS, 



173 



CASE nyssus, Steatonyssus, and Pimelonyssus : — some of these are 
smooth, some heavy, others rough, and some with shields on 
the back and under side similar to those on the Pteroptidse, 
to which these species have perhaps as much affinity as to the 
Dermanyssi, and Kolenati has made use of these differences to 
characterise his genera. We shall not follow him into these 
species. It may be a sufficient indication of their character 
to quote the names of the groups into which he divides them. 
He calls the whole group of Dermanyssi skin mites, and these he 
divides into the fat mites, the dirty mites, the big mites, the rough 
mites, the broken-shield mites, and the jointed-shield mites. 
We merely figure three of the principal types of these genera to 
give the reader an idea of them, but not having seen them or any 
carefully enlarged figures of their parts, we would refer the reader 
who wishes further information about them to Kolenati's own 
works. From Kolenati's figures and descriptions they seem to us 
(at least those with shields) to form a tribe apart midway between 
the Dermanyssi and the Pteroptidas. 

LiPCNYSSUS SETOSus {Kolcu. Sitz. Acad. Wiss. Wien. 1859, p. 172.) 





Liponyssus setosus. Copied from Kolenati. 
©•0012 of a Paribian metre in length. 



Macronyssus lontcimanus. 
o'oooj to o"GOii ot a Parisian metre in length 



From the Rhinolophus euryale in Ban at and Servia. 



Macronyssus longimanus {Kolen.^ loc. cit. 178). 
On Xantharpyia segyptiaca in Egypt. 



74 



ARACHNOIDEA, 



CASE Lepronyssus rubiginosus {KoLn. loc. cit.). 
XI. 

Reddish white, chiefly found on Myotus murinus but also on 
all other bats that hibernate with it. Moravia and Silesia. 

Lepronyssus lobatus {Kolenati^ loc. cit. 182). 

I 





Lepronyssus rubiginosus. Copied from Kolenati. 
o'oooS of a'Parisian metre in length. 



Lepronyssus lobatus. Copied from KolenatL 
o'ooi5 of a Parisian metre in length. 



Cherry red, and with an overlapping after-expansion, inclining 
to that of Periglischrus in the Pteroptidae. On Myotus murinus 
in the Moravian Caverns. 

PiMELONYSsus BiscuTELLUS {KohnatL loc. cit, 188). 

This is one of the jointed-shield mites, the 
shield on the back is, as it were, cut trans- 
versely across the middle, and on the under 
side there is a corresponding fold which ob- 
viously serves as a hinge allowing the body to 
bend back and forward in a way that could not 
have been done had there been a stiff shield 
without joint. On Rhinolophus ferrum-equi- 
num in the Golubaczer Cavern. 

We shall conclude our notices of the 
Dermanyssi with a doubtful species. 




Pimelonyssus biscuteLus. 

Copied from Kolenati. 

O'OOOS of a Parisian metre 

in length. 



No. 23. Dermanyssus (?) AGiLis {Robin), (Melichares agilis, Hering, Nov. Act. 
xviii.). — 23. Enlarged figure of ditto. 

Hering, who figures this species, says that it v^as found on old 
dates and figs along with Glyciphagus pruncram. The figures 



GAMASJJDS. 



175 



CASE given by him in his paper are in general very accurate and 
characteristic, especially considering the time when they were 
made ; but this is not equal to the rest. There are various critical 
points left unnoticed, and amongst others the number of joints tc? 
the legs seems left uncertain. Professor Robin, however, before 
whose knowledge of this subject we bow, regards it as a Der- 
manyssus. If it be so, it must be one of the Garrasidae which 
come under the genus Sejus, and ought to be removed from those 
that are parasites on vertebrate animals. 

Sub-family Pteroptidae. 
Genus Pteroptus {Dufotir). 

Readily distinguished by their very thick, short, and conical 
legs, which are thicker and the joints shorter than in Dermanyssus. 
The majority of the species composing it are either more or less 
lozenge-shaped or baggy behind. AH the species are parasitic on 
bats, to which they are confined, and they are sprinkled with 
bristles, which are jomted in a manner not unlike the hairs of the 
bats themselves. 

The resemblance between the structure of the hairs of the bats 
and those of their parasites is certainly very remarkable. We give 
a comparative view of a different kind of each in illustration of 
this. 



m=i 



Magfnified hair of a species of Vampire, 
after Queckett. 



Magnified hair of Diplostaspis dasycneintj 
a European Fteropius. 



Here of course there can be no question of the resemblance 



176 ARACHNOIDEA. 

CASE being due to affinity, but the teleologist may perhaps say that it 
indicates that there is some condition of hfe shared by both, 
which makes it necessary or advantageous for the animals exposed 
to it to be so provided. 

The genus Caris of Latreille was established upon the six-footed 
young of the Pteropti, and the names Celeripes and Spinturnia, 
given respectively by Montagu and Heyden, are synonyms of 
Pteroptus. 

Kolenati has paid much attention to this group, and has pub- 
lished important contributions to our knowledge of its species in 
various works, of which the more important are " Die parasiten 
der Chiroptern," his "Bietrage zur Kentniss der Arachniden," 
pubHshed in the "Sitzungs. Akad. Wissenchaft Wien," and 
various papers in other scientific journals, such as the "Wiener 
Entom. Zeitschn," the " Stettiner Entom. Zeitung," the " Bulletin 
of Imp. Acad. Nat. Moscow," &c. In these he has described 
and figured many species and established so many new genera, 
that he found it necessary to make a separate family for the 
group (Pteroptidae). We have thought a sub-family sufficient. 
His two most important new genera are no doubt rightly put 
apart — indeed we do not think that either of them belong to the 
Pteroptidae at all — but the rest of his genera seem all very close 
to each other, and, although we note and figure them, it is for the 
reader's information, not because we believe them to be good 
genera. 

The two genera (Otonyssus and Peplonyssus) which differ in 
a marked manner from the species among which Kolenati places 
them, are only six-footed, and therefore probably the young of 
some eight-footed species. The natural supposition would be 
that, being parasitic upon bats, they are the young form of some 
Acaroid parasite of that class of animals — such as Dermanyssus, 
Pteroptus, or Ixodes — and Pteroptus being, par excellmce, the 
bat parasite, it is most natural that it should be the genus looked 
to. But there are such material differences here, and equally 



GAMASIDS. 



177 



CASE material resemblances elsewhere, that we feel constrained to 
XI. . 

remove them from the Pteroptidse to the Sarcoptid?e, alongside 

of Myobia. When we come to them, we shall give our reasons 
for doing so more in detail. 

The sub-family divested of them may be divided into two 
sections, those which are so constructed as to attach them- 
selves by the inferior margin of the body all round, like a 
limpet to a rock, and those which are not so organised. 
The first of these sections constitutes the genus Periglischnis 
of Kolenati, and is also characterised by the posterior end of 
the body being more or less baggy. 

Section I. — Adhering ey the edge of the body. 

Periglischrus rhinolophinus {Koch. Arachnid, 38, tab. 21). (Periglisclirus 
asema, Kolenati, Sitz. Ak. Wiss. Wien. 1858, p. 81). 

Kolenati's species seems to be the same as Koch's. It is 
yellowish white in colour, and is found on Rhinolophus ferrum- 
equinum throughout Europe. 



Periglischrus caligus {Kokitati, Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Wien. 1858, p. 79). 





Perigflischnis rhinolophinus. Copied from Kocli's 
Ubersicht. o*ooo6 of a Parisian mttre in lentjth. 



Periglischrus caligus. Copied from Kolenati, 
o'ooii of a Parisian metre in lengtli. 



A Brazilian species found on the wing of Glossophaga amplexi- 
caudata. It is dull yellow. 



178 



ARACHNOIDEA. 



CASE TiNOGLiscHRUS PUNCTOLYRA {Koknatl, Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Wien. 1858- 
XL „ o„N 



No. 24. 



p. 82), 





TinoRlischrus punctolyra. Copied from Kolenati. Do. underside, 

o'oooj ef a Farisian metre in length. 

This di-ffers from Periglischrus in having the body attenuated 

both before and behind. It is found on Rhinopoma macrophyllum 

in Egypt. 

TiNOGLlSGHRUS AUDOUiNii. — 24. Enkrgea 
sketch of ditto, copied from figure by 
M. Audouin. 

This species was found by Audouin 
on Rhinolophus unihastatus. It was 
described and figured by him in the 
Annal. Sc. Nat. 1832, but without 
name. We have appended his own 
to it. There seems Httle doubt that it 
belongs to this section and this sub- 
genus. 

Tinoglischrus audouiniL Copied from 
Audouin's figure. 




Section II.— Not adhering by the edge of the body. 

Almost all the species of the genus Pteroptes have, in some 
form or to some extent, a horny shield over the upper or under 
side of the body, and this applies both to this and the preceding 
section. The latter, being small, called for no further subdivision, 
and in it no genera have been proposed founded upon variations 
in these shields. In this section, however, Kolenati has used 
them as characters for a number of genera that he has founded 



GAMASIBS. 



179 



CASE upon them. Of those that have a single shield on the back and 
none on the belly, he makes the genus Monostaspis. Those that 
have one shield on the back and one on the belly, he makes 
Diplostaspis. Of those that have one on the back and two on 
the belly, he makes Tri-staspis. Those with a divided shield on 
the back and one below, he calls Heterostaspis. One that has 
remarkably thick anterior legs, with the claws developed into 
something like an anchor without a caruncle, he calls Leiostaspis, 
and so on. These have all very much the same facies, and require 
careful examination to distinguish them from each other. For 
our purpose it will be sufficient to notice the commonest and the 
most remarkable. 

The commonest is perhaps : — 



Diplostaspis vespertilionis (Acarus vespertilionis, Herm. Apter. p. 84, 
pi. I, fig. 14, 1804; Pteroptus vespertilionis, Duf. Ann. Sc, Nat. 
1832 ; Sarcoptes vespertilionis, Koch, in Herrich-ScafF. Ins. Deutsch. 
Heft 167, tab. 23 ; Dermanyssus albatus, Koch, Deutsch. Crust. Myr. 
and Arach. h. 24, 168, 5 (young state) ; Dermanyssus arcuatus, Koch. 
id op. h. 24, 168, 2 ; Diplostaspis arcuata, Kolenati, Sitz. Akad. Wiss. 
"Wien. 1858, i66).— 25. Enlarged figure of ditto ; 26. Specimens of 
ditto (i slide). 





Diplostaspis vespertilionis. 
Copied from Hermann's early figure. 
Half a line in length. 



Ditto (D. arcuata Kol.) 
Copied from Kolenati's better and later tigure. 
o"oois of a Parisian metre in length. 



Yellowish cream coloured, with dark or purplish markings ; very 
frequent on Panugo noctula throughout Europe. We have noted 
what appear to be synonymes given to it by various authors. 



i8o 



ARACHNOIDEA, 



CAS] 




Leiostaspis zeleborii {Kolenati in Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Wien. i860, 
Ancystropus zeleborii, Kolenati in Parasiten der Chiroptem, p. 25). 

Dull yellow, with brown legs, and blackish 
markings. Found on the eyeHds and eye 
comers of Xantharpia segyptiaca (seed eating 
bats) in Egypt \ not rare. 

Sub-family Argasidae. 
Genus Argas {Latr.), 

The skin in this genus is leathery and 
flexible, but not smooth, being coarse and 
covered with granulations or depressions. 
The anterior part of the body projects over 
the mouth, so that none of its parts are visible at least in the 
perfect insect. The first joint of the palpi is larger than the rest. 
In some species the joints of the legs 
are more or less nodose, and in the 
perfect insect there are no caruncles 
to the claws of the tarsi, although in 
the young there would appear to be so, at least they are so figured 
in Audouin's drawing of the young of Argas pipistrell^. 



Leiostaspis zeleborii. 

Copied from Kolenati s fignre. 

0*0009 of ^ Parisian metre in 

length. 




^^ 



Leg and elaw of Argas reflexus. 



No. 37 Argas pipistrell^e {Atcdouin, Ann. Sc. Nat. 1832).— 27. Enlarged sketch 
of young of ditto from Audouin's figure. 




ArKas pipistrellae (young, under side). 
Copied from Audouin's figure. - 



Claw of ditto. 
Copied from Audouin. 



Found on the body of the little pipistrel bat, with its snout 



GAMASIVS. iSi 

CASE deeply buried in the skin. The woodcut shows the young, 
which was the stage on which Latreille's genus Cans was 
founded. 

No. 2S. Argas reflexus {.Fab.\ (Rhynchoprion columbse, Ilerm.).—^^ Enlarged 
figure of ditto. 

The present species occurs on 
pigeons (whence it was named Rhyn- 
choprion columbse by Hermann). 
It is chiefly met with in the south 
of Europe. In the north it does 
not appear to be very frequent; 
although, no doubt, if search were 
properly made for it, it would be 
found much too common. Some 
years ago it was found swarming in 
a house in Frankfort, and latterly Argas reflexus . 

' ^ Magnified and natural size. 

(1872) has been detected by Mr. 

Gulliver on pigeons near Maidstone, in Kent (Quarterly Journ. 

Microsc. Soc. and Ann. Nat. Hist. 1872). 

Nq =«). Argas persicus (//>r/^.V— 29. Enlarged figure of under side. 

In Persia the present species has long been knomi and dreaded 
as an annoyance. It is there called Malleh de Mianeh, and has 
been noticed by travellers under the name of Teigne de Miana, or 
venomous bug of Miana. It lives in houses, and it is reported 
that its puncture occasions disagreeable or even serious conse- 
quences to man— producing convulsions, delirium, sometimes 
followed by gangrene of the part, and, as is asserted, even death 
—a statement which it is now said is very much exaggerated, if 
not wholly incorrect. Th« "body is flat and thin, of a clear blood- 
red, spotted on the back, with a great many white spots or granu- 
lations. The feet are pale yellow. 




l82 



ARACHNOIDEA. 



CASE Argas americanus (ie/Zo').— 30. Enlarged figure of ditto. 

XI. 

No. 30. Found in Texas along with the common cattle tick (Ixodes 
bovis), but has not yet been recorded as troublesome to man. 

Its form is similar to that of the 
Persian species, but the granulations 
are smaller, and on the back radiate 
from a central point outwards, espe- 
cially behind. 



Argas miniatus {Koch). 

Said by Koch to be from " Dama- 
rara" (whether intended for Demerara 
or Damara Land not known). 




Argas Miniatus. 
Copied from Koch. 



No. 31. ARGAS MOUBATA {Mzirr. n. s.). — 31. Enlarged figure of ditto. 

This insect is a native of Angola. Specimens were brought 
home by the late lamented Dr. Welwitsch, and it is figured from 
those in his collection. 

It is called by the natives Moubata, 
and we have preserved the name. It 
attacks both man and beast, and, 
according to Dr. Welwitsch, gets at 
man in bed like a bug. The pain of 
its bite is not felt until two hours after 
it has been inflicted, but it makes up 
for the respite by continuing painful 
and inflamed for from twelve to 
twenty-four hours thereafter. It is 
oblong, coriaceous, coloured something like a shark's skin, or 
slate-colour, speckled with white spots or granulations all over it, 
which are larger and more dispersed than in the other species. 

It is obviously akin to the Argas Savignii of Egypt, which, how- 
ever, does not, from the figure in the " Description de I'Egypte,'* 




Argas moubata (magnified and natural 
size). 



GAMASIDS, 



183 



CASE appear to have the paler spots or granulations of this species. 
The colour of A. Savignii is not mentioned in the description. 



Argas (Ornithodoros coriaceus) {Koch). 32 Enlarged sketch of ditto, 
copied from Koch's figure. 

Koch, in his "Ubersicht," pro- 
poses a genus under the name of 
Ornithodoros for those species of 
Argas that have eyes. We have 
already pointed out the insuffi- 
cient nature of this character, 
and therefore hesitate to adopt 
it. 

The present is the species on 
which he founds it. The front 
is a little projecting \ the colour 
is pale yellowish brown, with vermilion spots speckled over it. 
It is from Mexico. 




Argas (Ornithodoros) coriaceus. 
Copied from Koch. 



No. 33. Argas (Ornithodoros) Talaje {Guer.) 
Enlarged figure of ditto. 



-33. 




A very irritating substitute for, or rather 
addition to the flea, in Guatemala. M. 
Salle, the well-known French entomologist, 
who collected largely in Central America^ 
thus describes the annoyance caused by 
this insect : — 

** Being at Casa Vieja de Gastoya, on 
the road from Guatemala to Zacapa (Cen* 
tral America), about fifteen leagues from Guatemala, the 6th of 
May, 1847, I was awakened several times out of a profound sleep 
by atrocious itching on the hands and face, and my companion, 
M. Jules, suffered still more than I did. At three o'clock, irritated 
by these painful bites, I lighted a candle, and found that I had 



Argas (Ornithodoros) talage. 
Copied from Gutrin. 



i84 ARACHNOIDEA. 

CASE my hands covered with blood and blotches like large bites of 
bugs, which I supposed must belong to some particular species 
of monstroiis size. My companion told me that we had been 
stung by wasps lodged in the walls of the house. On arousing 
the muleteer who conducted us, he told us that we were the 
victims of an animal called Talaje, which they considered a large 
flea. On seeking for the insect, I found this Argas, which appeared 
to me very disgusting. Some were distended with blood, others 
had the skin rugose and wrinkled. I then remembered having 
taken some of them on my face during the night, and having 
rolled them between my fingers, taking them for some of the ticks 
with which my mule was covered to such a degree that some 
people told me it would be killed by them. 

" These Talajes keep themselves in the crevices of the walls of 
old houses. These walls are made of bamboos, roughed with 
mortar. They bite like fleas, and return to their holes before 
morning, for they are nocturnal. My hands and ears were much 
swollen, and I suffered horribly. On piercing some of the 
pustules full of blood occasioned by these, a drop of blood issued. 
I washed myself, and put in the water some drops of volatile 
alkali, but in place of allaying the pain, that only added to the 
swelling and inflammation. 

" M. Jules did nothing, and suflered as much as I did, only the 
swelling was less, and did not last so long." M. Salle passed 
two bad feverish nights after this. On the third he began to 
get better, but it was not until a fortnight afterwards that he 
was entirely cured. — Rev. Mag. ZooL, 1-849, 342* 

The figure is copied from Guerin, and from its appearance it 
seems not unlikely that it may belong to the same section as the 
preceding. 

An insect belonging to this group has been described under the 
name of Eschatocephalus gracilipes. It is said to be only an 
aberrant form of Argas. 



TICKS. 



i8S 



Family IXODID^ (Ticlcs). 

In this family the body is covered by a tough, smooth, leathery 
skin, which, in the female, is capable of much extension. The 
rostrum and mandibles are adapted for sucking. They have 
valvate palpi sheathing the rostrum, which is composed of two 
lateral parts, and a middle part covered with recurved barbs, 
which prevent its retracting when once driven into the flesh ; but 
Professor Busk ascertained by his researches on the living young 
of the Catapato (Amblyomma rotundatum) that the sucking 




Rgstruin of Ixodes. Copied from figure lay Audou! j. 





Claw of ditto. Copied from figure by Megnin. 



apparatus (in it at least) lies not in the middle part or rostrum, 
but in the mandibles on each side of it, up each of these run two 
tubes de&igned for this office. The feet terminate in two claws, 
and a caruncle or vesicle which acts as a sucker. An important 



1 86 ARACHNOIDEA. 

CASE character is their having a small carapace or shield on the back 
behind the head. Some have eyes, and some none. The habits 
of the species must at first be herbivorous, for it is from the 
herbage that they find their way to the creatures on which they 
fix; but when mature, they greedily avail themselves of -every 
opportunity of settling on vertebrate animals, whose blood they 
suck instead of sap. It is a remarkable feature in the economy 
of these minute animals, that the same species at different stages 
of its life should thus be at one time phytophagous, and at another 
carnivorous. The usual special adaptation of structure to kind of 
food would seem to be absent, but the anomaly is only apparent. 
Carnivorous mammals are provided with a different apparatus for 
obtaining their food from that of vegetable feeders ; not no account 
of the difference in the chemical constituents of their food, but on 
a-ccount of the different form in which it is presented to them for 
consumption and assimilation. If, for example, the food of both 
was presented to them in a liquid state, in the one case blood, 
and in the other juice of plants, we may be sure that the carni- 
vorous canines in the one case, and the vegetarian molars in the 
other, would be alike dispensed with, and both would be furnished 
with a sucking-up or pumping apparatus, which might be identical, 
if no speciaHty in the mode in which the liquid presented itself 
called for a difference. There might be a difference in the 
structure of their viscera, adapted to the chemical character of the 
liquid food, but there is no teleological reason why the external 
and oral structure should not be the same in both. This is what 
we find in all suctorial insects— bugs, gnats, acari, &c. All are 
provided with a sucking apparatus, constructed on a similar plan, 
which some use upon animals, and others upon plants. It has 
been even said that some, as the bed-bug, feed upon the juice of 
plants and blood of animals indifferently, and the impossibility of 
immense swarms of mosquitoes ever tasting foodat-all in the perfect 
state, if they are restricted to the blood of mammals, has been 
adduced as an argument in support of their doing so too. It is to 



TICKS, 187 

CASE be remembcredy too, that in some of these blood-suckers, as the 

XII. 

mosquito, it is only the female that attacks us, or indeed that is 
provided with the sucking apparatus, and there is a very good 
reason for this. The mission of the male is done as soon as 
he has impregnated the female, and he may get about his busi- 
ness, and^die -as soon as he pleases. Nature has no furth-er use 
for him ; but the female has still to lay her eggs, therefore she 
must be fed. In, like manner so is only the female tick that 
we find with its large abdomen distended with blood. The 
abdomen of the male is not capable of distension like that of the 
female. 

Eyes are absent in many species of this genus (for example, 
in our own ticks), but present in others. 

The group is very homogeneous, and although there are various 
types that may serve for subsections, it does not appear that 
as yet any very good sectional characters have been found to 
enable us to break it up, and distribute its numerous species into 
genera. Koch has tried to do so by the eyes j thus he reserves the 
name Ixodes for those without eyes ; then he makes a genus 
Hyalomma for those with clear distinct cone-shaped eyes, and 
palpi as long or longer than the head ; one named Dermacentor, 
with small flat moderately clear pale eyes, and very short broad 
palpi ; one named Amblyomma, with flat muddy dull pale eyes. 
Starting from these, he uses other characters to differentiate the 
species still farther ; Hsemalastor has the eyes of Hyalomma, but 
the body straight in front, without any emargination for the recep- 
tion of the head, and very long hind legs, and the whole upper 
surface covered by the shield ; Rhipicephalus has the eyes of 
Amblyomma, but with the palpi as broad as long, and with an 
external angle, and so on. But we have already seen the little 
value of the eyes as a character in some of the other groups, and 
the whole family is so homogeneous, especially the females, that 
although some of Koch's sections may be of use as artificial aids 
to the recognition of species, we cannot regard them as of much 



1 88 ARACHNOIDEA, 

CASE use in arriving at a correct view of their natural relations to each 
other. Notwithstanding this, we shall for the sake -of facilitating 
the task of any one who may be disposed to make ia, study of the 
family, give, in their natural places, a figure of each of Koch's 
genera above mentioned. . There see'ms to be at least three 
pretty well defined types of form. The oblong oval one that 
we have in this country, and v/hich extends over the whole of 
the northern temperate regions, which may be regarded as the 
true Ixodes, the more orbicular species like a coin, generally with 
eyes, almost exclusively tropical, and principally composed of 
Koch's genus Amblyomma, and the small, very flat variegated 
species, which as yet have only been found on snakes. 

The Ixodidse that we have in this country live in woods and 
herbage, and attach themselves to different animals as they pass ; 
from sucking the blood, the body of the female swells in the form 
of a pea or bean. It has indeed often been supposed that they 
are actually parasitic* on the animals on which they are found, and 
that a separate kind is appropriated to each animal, and that they 
breed either upon them or about them. Thus, one is called the 
dog-tick, another the cattle-tick. One of the American represen- 
tatives is called the ox-tick (Ixodes bovis), and Leach described 
six British species, one as being appropriate to the swallow, 
another to the hedgehog, two to dogs, another to dogs and hedge- 
hogs, and a sixth (Nycteribia), which turns out to belong to another 
order (the flies), to the bats. It is an undoubted fact also, that 
vast numbers of the present species have been found in dog-kennels, 
swarming so in the chinks of the wood, as to render it necessary 
to pull them down and burn them. Nothing, however, in this is 
inconsistent with the natural habitat of the ticks being in herbage 
and foliage, or with their being carried by dogs or cattle from, their 
proper habitat to the places where they live, and there propagating 
themselves. 

There is no getting over the fact, which every one accustomed 
to a country life knows, that dogs will go out in the morning 



TICKS. 189 

CASE perfectly free from ticks, and after a few hours' hunting or rambling 
come home with a quantity upon them ; that cattle and horses 
combed and curried and sent out to grass clean are soon loaded 
with them ; and that man himself, especially in haytime, is often 
seriously annoyed by them. So far then as regards our British 
species, it is impossible to suppose that they are bred on the 
creature on which they are found. 

It is to be noted, however, that a good many exotic species 
show indications of being limited to one animal, and even of 
passing their lives upon them : some of these have been taken na 
where else but from between the scales of various serpents from 
warm climates, such as the python, the boa constrictor, etc., living: 
(or dying) in captivity in menageries, etc. These of course have 
come with them from their native countries j but none of them 
have as yet been found on any other animal from these countries — - 
an exception which loses some of its force when we remember 
that no.animal is so helpless and powerless to get rid of ticks as a. 
serpent, especially when they once get between its scales. It 
may be that, nevertheless, this section has some special habit 
adapting them for attachment to scaley reptiles. They are all of 
a flat circular type, admirably adapted for getting between the 
scales, and in their very colour they imitate the colours of the 
serpents on which they live. To be sure that colour is usually 
that of tangled herbage, but other species of Ixodes have not this 
combination of colouring. On these accounts we propose to 
make a separate section for them under the name of Ophiodes ; 
although, so far as we yet know, there are no other characters by 
which to separate them. 

Another case in which it seems probable that ticks are truly 
assigned to one class of animals, is where they are found on bats. 
Kolenati has described some half dozen species as peculiar to them, 
and it is very probable that they are so, for not only have they 
been found nowhere else, but the most of them are distinguished 
by a special character, namely, the possession of long and slender 



190 



ARACHNOIDEA. 



CASE legs. It is to be noticed, too, tTiatiwo specimens of a species of 
Ixodes (named Ixodes longipes by M. Lucas — Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 
1872); were lately taken m one of the subterranean caverns of 
the Pyrenees, viz., -the upper cavern of Mas-d'azil in the Ariege 
and it, too, was distinguished by the length and slenderness of its 
legs. There can be little doubt, we imagine, that they were 
individuals that had dropped from some bat that had made the 
cavern its place of retreat ; and it is, perhaps, not wholly irrele- 
vant to remark that disproportionate length and slenderness of the 
legs is a very common modification of the parts in blind insects 
inhabiting such caverns : for example, Anopthalmus, Aphsenops, 
Leptoderus, etc. 

Genus Ixodes — without eyes. 

Nos. Ixodes erinaceus {Aud., Ann. Sc. Nat. 1832). — 1. Enlarged figure of 
4' 5^ 6'. male ; 2. Specimen of ditto (5) ; 3. Enlarged figure of female, half fed ; 

4. Specimen of ditto in phial, ditto (11) ; 5. Enlarged figure of female, 
full fed ; 6. Specimen of ditto in phial (4). 




Ixodes erinaceus (laale). 
ij lines in Icngtli. 




Ditto (female). 
Magnified and natural size. 



. This is a common species in Britain, and is found in rough 
herbage, woods, and on dogs, cattle, foxes, hedgehogs, &c. It is, 
we believe, the species that is commonly, although erroneously, 
taken for Ixodes ricinus, at any rate generally known as the dog 
tick. 



TICKS. 191 

CASE Ixodes fodiens {Megnin, Insect. Agric. 1867, p. 107). (T. pustularum, 
^"- Luc, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1866, Bull. Ivii.) 




Ixodes fodiens (female), under side. Magrnified and natural size. 
Reduced from figTire by M. Megnin. 

This species appears to be nearly allied to the preceding. But 
in addition to its colour, which M. Megnin says is black, the legs 
seem to be placed at greater distances from each other. The 
difference in the form does not go for so much, because that 
depends in the female a good deal on the degree of distension 
of the body. 

Its habits, or we should rather say, the results which M. Megnin 
relates as following upon its attack, are moreover quite different 
from anything that is recorded of any other species of Ixodes, 
and we cannot help thinking that they must have proceeded from 
some abnormal state of the health of the animal attacked, or 
from some special circumstances which do not appear in his narra- 
tion. His account is as follows : — 

"Towards the 15th of last June (1866) a mare, fifteen years 
old, belonging to Captain Pinard, of the ist regiment of dragoons 
in garrison at Versailles, presented all at once a disease of the 
skin of a very unusual form, which affected the legs exclusively. 
This disease was characterised by a pustular eruption, which 
occupied the lower part of the limbs, without ascendmg above 
the knees or houghs, and was accompanied by much itching, 
tach pustule rested on a hard inflamed base, and was covered by 
a crust of dried purulent matter, which was easily detached, taking 



192 



ARACHNOIDEA, 



CASE along with it a bundle of hairs, and then disclosed a small ulcer. 
At the bottom of that ulcer, and completely concealed by the 
crust, the parasite was found, and it was clearly the determining 
cause of the pustule, because it healed up spontaneously as soon 
as the insect was removed ; but as it would have taken too long 
to destroy all the individuals one by one in this manner, they were 
disposed of e7i viasse^ by lotions of an infusion of tobacco. Eight 
days after its appearance, the malady, thanks to this treatment, 
completely disappeared, leaving in the place of each pustule a 
small smooth white scar." 

Previous to M. Megnin's publication, M. Lucas had given a 
preliminary notice of the inatter to the Entomological Society of 
France, from M. Megnin's information, and stated that M. 
Megnin proposed for the insect the name I. pustularum, but he 
gave no description. M. Megnin would appear to have forgot 
this, and gave it the above name when he described it. 



Nos. Ixodes marginatus (Leach) (testudinarius, Murr.). — 7. Enlarged figure of 
^'10'.^' male; 8. Specimen of ditto (8); 9. Enlarged figure of female; 10. 

Specimen of ditto. 





Ixodes marginatus (male). 
i\ lines in length. 



Ditto (female) unfilled. 



We beheve that this is the I. marginatus of Leach. The Ixodes 
inarginatus of Fabricius is said to be Argas reflexus. 

It also is a British species, and sometimes has swarmed in such 
great numbers on lawns and hay-fields, as to have made the 



TICKS, 



193 



CASE mowing and drying of the grass a very troublesome and disagree- 
able operation to the labourers. We imagine that this is the species 
spoken of by Mr. Gulliver as troublesome in Kent, and which he 
supposes to be Ixodes Dugesii. 

No. 11. Ixodes ricinus {Koch^ Arachnidse). — 11. Enlarged figure of ditto, copied 
from Koch's figure. 

A great deal of confusion seems to exist as to which species is 
the true Ixodes ricinus of Linnasus. We have endeavoured to 
unravel it without much success. On examining the species in 
the Linnsean Collection in the possession of the Linnaean Society, 
we find that the specimens stand almost without exception 
unnamed. Among them, however, there is one (unnamed) that 
corresponds with Koch's 'figure of Ixodes ricinus^ and we there- 
fore fancy that that figure may be taken as representing the true 
ricinus. 

No. 12. Ixodes reduvius {^Atid.^ Ann. Sc. Nat. 1832.). — 12. Enlarged sketch of 
ditto, copied from Audouin's figure. 

A French species, which comes near that which we have above- 
named marginatus. 

No. 13. Ixodes trabeatus {And. loc. cit.). — 13. Enlarged sketch of ditto, copied 
from Audouin's figure. 

Another French species, distinguished by the anterior half of 
the body being black, and the posterior red. 

Nos. Ixodes bovis {Riley). — 14. Enlarged figure of male ; 15. Enlarged figure of 
16^.^' female; 16. Specimen of ditto (i). 

We have taken our sketch of the male from a figure given by 
Mr. Riley, in the appendix to Professor Hayden's Geological 
Report on Montana, Utah, &c., for 1872. And that of the 
female, from a specimen (No. 16) that we took off the neck of a 
miner in Utah, a portion of whose skin may still be seen adhering 



1 94 ARA CHNOWEA. 

CASE to the rostrum. Koch has figured and described (in his Uber- 
sicht) another American tick, under the name of Ixodes Ameri- 
cana (Acarus Nigua, Deg.) It is rounder and smaller, and is 
probably more confined to the southern districts. This latter is 
spoken of as being known in America by the name of piques, and 
as being very distressing, and sometimes dangerous to man and 
cattle. That it is very annoying is beyond doubt, especially 
where men habitually sleep and live in the open air. 

Mr. Riley says of his species that it occurs in great abundance 
at times on cattle in the West, and in Texas and Central 
America, and that it had also been detected on a porcupine and 
on a hare, which is confirmatory of the view we have above 
taken regarding their habitat and habits. 

It is probably this tick to which Captain Campbell Hardy 
alludes in his "Forest Life in Acadie " (1869). "A tick 
(Ixodes) affects the moose, especially in mnter and early spring. 
The animal strives to free itself from their irritation, by striding 
over bushes and bramble?. The ticks may often be seen on the 
beds in the snow, where moose have lain down, and whence they 
are quickly picked up by the ever-attendant moose birds or 
Canada jays (Corvus Canadensis). These vermin will fasten on 
the hunter when backing his meat out of the woods. The Indian 
says, 'bite all same as a piece of fire' " (p. 80). 

Nos. Ixodes brevipes {Micri\ n. s.). — 17. Enlarged figure of female of ditto; 
'7' ^S- 18. Specimens (2). 

A rather broad and comparatively short species from Ceylon 
distinguished by the legs being more slender and shorter than in 
the allied species. 

Nos. Ixodes distipes {Rlurr. n, s.).— 19. Enlarged sketch of female of ditto; 
'^''°- 20. Specimen of ditto (i). 

This is a species we have received from Tunis, and we made 
sure that we should find it described either in the " Description 



TICKS. 



195 



XII 



CASE de I'Egypte,' or in Lucas' entomological part of the " Exploration 
de I'Algerie." We cannot, however, identify it with anything there, 
and therefore have named it as above, provisionally. It is like, 
but more than twice the size of Ixodes erinaceus, at least the 
female is (which we have alone seen), and instead of having all 
the feet, as in it, close to the head, has a greater distance between 
their origins, a peculiarity from which we have given it its name. 



21, 22. 




Ixodes transversalis {Luc.).—2\, Enlarged sketch of ditto; 22. Sketch 
of head of python, showing groove under eyebrow in which it is found. 

This is a species which was described 
by M. Lucas from specimens found in the 
deep groove under the eyebrow of one of 
the West African pythons kept in the 
menagerie of the Jardin des Plantes. It 
will be seen from the figure that it is very Ixodes transverslus. 

like the female of any common species of 

Ixodes, with the exception that the abdomen is transverse instead 
of longitudinal, and it suggests the idea that it possibly may be 
the same as one of these with the abdomen pressed into a trans- 
verse position from the confined and constrained situation in 
which the animal has been living. It would appear that it has 
been found more than once in the same spot of the python's head, 
in different individuals, and never anywhere else, and if we 
imagine an ordinary Ixodes to fix itself in the groove below the 
eyebrow of the python, and to fill itself in that constrained posi- 
tion, the abdomen might certainly not have room to distend itself 
in the usual longitudinal direction, but be forced to spread itself 
sideways, and if the insect remains fixed for a sufficient time, the 
set of the abdomen might become permanent. 

Genus Sarconyssus {Kolen.). 
Terminal joint of the palpi rounded or oval. 

N 2 



196 



ARACHNOIDEA, 



CASE Sarconyssus nodulipes {Koleiiatl, Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Wien, i860, p. 576). 
XII. 

Kolenati describes four species of Ixodes found on bats under 
the generic name of Sarconyssus, but we can find no difference in 
his characters from those of the typical Ixodes, except that above 
noted. 




Sarconyssus nodulipes; Copied from Kolenati's figure. 

The .present species is distinguished by its long and slightly 
nodular joints, but another of his species has not long legs. It is 
pike-grey with brown legs and palpi. Found on Myotus murinus 
in Moravia. The other bat species of Sarconyssus, with one 
exception, also have long legs. 

Genus Hyalomma {Koch). 
Eyes clear, distinct, and cone-shaped. 



No. 23 Hyalomma cornuger {Kolenati, Meletemata). — 23. Enlarged sketch of ditto, 
copied from Kolenati's figure. 

This, and two or three other species like it, occur in the 



TICKS, 



197 



CASE Caucasus and neighbouring regions. In form and appearance it 
is similar to a species from Syria, described by Koch under 
the name of Hyalomma syriacum, and from the locality it is pos- 
sible that this too may belong to the section of Ixodes, to 
which he has given the name Hyalomma ; although that section 
depends on its having eyes, of which Kolenati makes no 
mention. 

Hyalomma hispanicum {Koch, Ubers. Arach.). 




Hi'alomma hispanicum (male). Copied from fig-ure in Koch's Ubersicht. 
Magnified and natural size. 




Ditto (female) unswollen. Map;nified and natural size. 



Dark wine red, with a thin margin of yellowish- white \ legs light 



ARACHNOIDEA. 



CASE red, the angles and tips of the joints whitish-yellowo From Spain 



198 

red, 

and Portugal 



Genus Haemalastor {Koch), 

Body of male entirely covered by shield, no emargination in 
front, with conical clear eyes. 

Haemalastor longirostris {Koch). 




Kaemalastor longirostris. Copied from figure in Koch's Ubersicht. Magnified and natural size. ^ 

Leather yellow — scutellum brownish-red, with a lozenge-shaped 
blotch dark in the centre ; legs brownish-red, with the tips of the 
joints yellow. From Brazil. 

Haemalastor gracilipes, Frazieftfeld, Verliand. Zool. Bot. Gesellsch. Wien, 
iv. 28-9, {Kolenati^ Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Wien, i860 ; Eschatocephalus 
gracilipes; Fraiienfeld, id. Band iii. 57<?; Sarconyssus hispidulus; 
Kolenati, Die Parasiten der Chiroptern, 1857, p. 22, $ ). 

One of the species confined to bats. Found on Rhino- 
lophus euryale, and other species in Hungary, Moravia, &c. It 



TICKS, 



199 



CASE is blood-red; the male sometimes reddish-yellow, or yellowish 



XTI 



brown. It is long-legged, like most of the bat species. 




Haemalastor gracilipes. Copied from Kolenati's figure. 
o'0023 to o"oo44 of a Parisian metre in length. 



Genus Dermacentor {Koch). 



With small, flat, pale eyes, and 
very short broad palpi. 

Dermacentor pardalinus {Koch). 

Oval ; legs thick, the thighs of 
the posterior pair toothed below, 
rust-red in patches, in a sort of 
network of yellowish-white. From 
Hungary. 




Dermacentor pardalmus. Copied from ngui 
Koch's Ubersicht. Magnified and natural ; 



Genus Haemaphysalis {Koch). 

No eyes ; palpi very small, almost broader than long, three- 
cornered, the posterior margin of the second joint expanded 
outwards. 



200 



ARACHNOIDEA. 




Haemaphysalis rosea. Copied from 
figure in Koch's Ubersicht. 
Magnified and natural size. 




Rhipicephalus seneg-alensis. Copied from figure 

in Koch s Ubersicht. _ Magnified and 

natural size. 



Haemaphysalis rosea {Kach). 

Shining yellowish-red ;. palpi and 
legs yellow; scutellum blood-red j 
abdomen with three elongate grooves. 
From the West Indies. 

Genus Rhipicephalus. 

Eyes flat and muddy ; palpi as broad 
as long, and with an angle 
on the external side. 



Rhipicephalus Senega- 
LENSis {Koch), 

Flat ; the scutellum 
showing tawny wine-red j 
abdomen dark wine-red ; 
mouth and legs blood- 
red. From Senegal and 
Egypt. 



Adenopleura cOiMPRESSUM {Macalisier, Quarterly Journal of Micr. Science, 
n. s. xii. p. 287, pi. xiv. 1872.). — 24. Enlarged sketch of ditto, copied 
from Prof. Macalister's figure. 

The specimens from which Pro- 
fessor Macalister described this new 
form of Ixodes were obtained from 
between the scales of the pangolin of 
West Africa (Manis multiscutata) ; it 
is minute for an Ixodes, being only 
"^ the sixteenth of an inch in length. It 
is perhaps with reason, therefore, that 
Professor Macalister has made a new 
genus for it. 




Adenopleura compressum. 

i-i6th of an inch in length. 

Copied from Prof. Macalister's fii 



TICKS. 



201 



CASE XiPHlASTOR {Mtirr. n. g.). 
XII 

Flat, mouth provided with a long projecting rostrum and long 
palpi applied to it ; abdomen with posterior margin beaded. 



XiPHiASTOR ROSTRATUM {Miirr, n. s.), specimen (i). 
of ditto ; 26. Specimen (i). 

We received this species from Old 
Calabar from Mr. C. W. Thomson, for- 
merly one of the missionaries to that 
coast, whose contributions were the 
most important of any made to natural 
science by that mission. Its habits 
are no doubt similar to those of other 
species. It is brown, somewhat cir- 
cular, and with a smooth upper surface. 
About one-fourth of an inch in length. 



-25. Enlarged sketch 




X.phiastor rostratum. 
From 2 to 3 lines in length. 



Genus Amblyomma {Koch), 
More or less rounded, flat, and with flat, muddy, pale eyes. 

Amblyomma rotundatum {Koch^ Arachn.). — 27. Enlarged figure of ditto 
28. Specimen (i). 

This is a handsome species, 
nearly flat, with the scutellum, 
or carapace, whitish speckled 
with small red and dark spots 
here and there over its surface, 
most so on the depressions on 
each side. Slightly larger than 
the last. 

This may be taken as the 
type of a multitude of ticks that infest South America, where they 
are known by the name of Carapato, being so called in conse- 
quence of their resemblance to the Ricinus which bears that 
name in Portuguese. 




Amblyomma rotundatum. Magnified and natural size. 



202 ARACHNOIDEA. 

CASE There are many species that go by this name, but no doubt the 
majority belong to the genus Amblyomma. They are common in 
all parts of South America where cattle abound ; and they not 
only attack cattle but also horses, dogs, and sheep, and occasionally 
man himself. Like our own ticks they are found on plants, and 
when cattle become infested with them it is generally after feeding 
on open and exposed pastures, where the sun's heat is great ; and 
they increase most in dry seasons. 

It is generally, but we may be sure erroneously, supposed that 
the insect was not seen in the Brazils previously to an excessively 
hot and dry summer, about 1824 or 25, since which it has multi- 
plied amazingly. It is remarkable that cattle feeding in shady 
pastures and coppices are frequently quite free from the carapato, 
but will acquire it by infection from others. The mode in which 
it appears to cause destruction to the animal infested by it, is by 
the incessant irritation, which prevents the animal feeding or rest- 
ing, and in consequence it becomes worn out. Many thousand 
head of cattle are annually carried off by them, and even a scarcity 
of food has been caused by them. Prof. Busk, from whom we 
take some of these details, in describmg the young of one species 
(Trans. Micr. Soc, vol. I.) and the mischief that they do, 
mentions that " they first appear on those parts of the skin un- 
covered by hair, and are then not larger than a pin's head, and 
make the part quite black by their numbers. They adhere so 
closely, that scraping them off would tear off the skin. In a short 
time they increase to the size of a bean, or common tick, as seen 
in dogs, and fix themselves promiscuously on all parts of the hide, 
where covered with hair. 

" The same species 'appears to insinuate itself in its incipient 
state, upon the human body, but is not known to assume the tick 
form there (doubtless because not allowed to remain). They 
adhere most tenaciously to the skin ; and, he says, they are 
beheved to introduce themselves below it, and are very harassing 
and even create soreness and inflammation. They generally 



TICKS. ' 203 

CASE affect persons who have been passing through woods, although 
not often seen or found on trees or plants." 

Cuvier, after noting that " they are found in thick woods, abound- 
ing in brushwood, briars, etc., states that they attach themselves to 
low plants by the two fore-legs, extending the other feet so as to 
seize anything that brushes against them, and their claws being 
provided with caruncles that act as suckers, the slightest touch is 
sufficient to give them a hold. Besides fastening upon dogs, cows, 
horses, and other quadrupeds, they even lay hold of the tortoise, 
burying their suckers so completely in its flesh, that they can 
hardly be detached by force and by tearing away the portion of 
skin to which they are fastened. They deposit a prodigious 
number of eggs." 

Prof. Busk incidentally mentions that the specimens that he 
received of his species came in a letter from Rio Janeiro, which 
had been sixty or seventy days on the way, and that the insects 
were still living — a fact more in favour of their being likely to be 
exposed to long privation before they find a victim, than of their 
being bred on it with food constantly at their mouth. 

los. Amblyoaima pacificum {Murr, n. s.). — 29. Enlarged figure of ditto; 
' 3* 30. Specimen (i). 

This species came from the Sandwich Islands. It has con- 
siderable resemblance to the Carapato of Brazil, but the scutellum 
has only a small part white (the anterior angles), the rest is 
reddish brown, the same as the rest of the body. About the 
same size as the last. _ 

Genus Ophiodes [Miirr^. 

The following species, found on snakes, seem to us sufficiently 
distinct to warrant their separation into a different genus. Their 
very thin, flat, circular and somewhat transverse form ; their pecu- 
liar distribution of colour ; and their apparent restriction to snakes, 
seem to mark them as a distinct and special type. 



204 ARACHNOIDEA. 

CASE Ophiodes ophiophilus (^MuU., Nov. Aet. Nat. Cuv. 1831).— 31. Enlarged 

J^^^- sketch of ditto, copied from Midler's figure. 

No. 31. ^ 

A species from South Africa which was found upon captive 
snakes. The colour of its body is pale bluish green like 
turquoise. 

j<fos. Ophiodes Gervaisii {Lticas, Soc. Ent. Fr. 1847). — 32. Enlarged sketch 
32, 33. of male of ditto ; 33. Ditto of female. 

This was found under the scales of the boa constrictor. 

No. 34. Ophiodes gracilentus {Lucas ^ Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1846). — 34. Enlarged 
sketch of ditto. 

This species has also been described by M. Lucas from living 
specimens feiken on the Python Sebse, on which it fixes itself in 
the intervals between the ventral scales, which it resembles in 
colour, its abdomen being yellowish, and head and thorax 
brownish yellow. 

Nos. Ophiodes flavomaculatus {Lncas, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1846). — 35. Enlarged 
35, 36. sketch of ditto ; 36. Sketch of Python Sebae on which it was found. 

M. Lucas says that this 
species is very agile, and ap- 
pears to be rare. He " never 
met with any but a few indi- 
viduals that he found living 
and fixed between the scales 
of a boa constrictor newly 
anived from Senegal." As 
the boa constrictor is a South 
American species, and does 
^ . not occur in Africa, we must 

Ophiodes flavomaculatus. Magnified and natural size. 

read python instead of boa 
constrictor, for the python is the only large serpent that occurs in 
West Africa, where it represents the boa. 




CASE 
XIII. 



MARINE MITES. 205 



Family HALACARID.E (Marine Mites). 

We have already spoken of the interest attaching to the 
occurrence of mites in the sea, and we have seen that one or two 
that have been found there were only terrestrial species, so 
constituted, as, like various other insects, to bear temporary 
submersion without inconvenience. We now come, however, to 
a group which seems rightly entitled to the name of marine 
mites. But although we bring them in here, it is not as a 
transition between the Ixodidae and Oribatidas, but rather as a 
link between the Bdellidse or Trombidiidas and Oribatidae. We 
can only repeat that there is no linear arrangement in Natural 
History, and any attempt to make one is constantly interrupted 
by the necessity of bringing in collateral issues, which the reader 
must learn to look upon as temporary digressions from the main 
thread of the story. 

These marine mites were first brought under the notice of the 
scientific world by M. Dujardin in the Journal de ITnstitut (1842, 
p. 316), for we pass over the brief notices of Linnaeus and Fabricius, 
of species living among the sea-weeds on the coasts of Norway, 
as either not belonging to this group, but more probably to the 
inter-tidal Gamasidae of which we have already spoken; or if 
really belonging to this, then not recognisable from the too 
vague descriptions unaccompanied by figures. But the species 
indicated by Dujardin seem really to belong to this gi-oup. He 
speaks first of an Oribates that he found in the sea at L' Orient, 
and which seems very probably one of those to be presently 
mentioned, and two other species which he thinks constitute a 
new genus Molgus near the Bdellidae, coming the one from the 
coasts of Bretagne, the other from the Mediterranean, which, 
as already said, are probably the neckless Scirus described by 
Dr. Johnston as Acarus longicornis or something allied to it ; and 
lastly, a species that does not swim in the water, and approaches 



2o6 ARACHNOIDEA, 

CASE more nearly to the Acari properly so called ; doubtless Gamasus 
marinus, or one of its allies above mentioned. 

The next author who noticed them was Mr. Gosse (Ann. and 
Mag. Nat Hist 1855), who described three species, and subse- 
quently Mr. Hodge (Trans, of Tyneside Naturalists' Field Club, 
iv. and v.) and Mr. G. S. Brady (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1875) have each 
added one to our list, so that in all we know five species. Both 
Mr. Hodge and Mr. Brady describe more, but Mr. Hodge's other 
species seem to be larval forms or varieties of one or other of the 
known species, and Mr. Brady's come in . elsewhere. We speak 
here only of those we include in this section. We have been 
induced to make a separate family for them partly on account of 
the peculiarity of their habitat, and partly on that of their structure, 
which, notwithstanding that the above authors refer their species to 
already known terrestrial genera, does not seem to agree with that 
of any already described family. They refer some of them to the 
genera Raphignathus and Pachygnathus of the family Trombidiidse, 
and others to the family of Oribatidae, and undoubtedly they 
have some points of affinity with both ; but they also differ from 
both in important characters, and agree among themselves in 
others that are peculiar. The chief character given by Duges for 
the Trombidiid^ is the appendiculated (or unguiculated finger 
s,nd thumb) palpus. In only one of the species referred to it by 
the above authors is this present, and then only in a very 
modified degree. Another constant character of the Trom- 
bidiidae is the soft pliant silky or velvet-like texture of the skin. 
The marine species, on the contrary, have either a leathery or a 
hard skin inchning to crustaceous. In the Trombidiidse the legs 
are all set well under the body, and their origin is not near the 
outer margin. In all the sea mites they proceed from the 
margin. In this latter respect the Oribatidae come nearer to 
these, as also in having a hard outer skin ; but the hard outer 
skin in the Oribatidae is chitonous like the covering of a beetle, 
while in the marine mites it is liker that of a crustacean. But 



MARINE MITES. 207 

CASE independent of that, the Oribatidse have a very remarkable 
breathing apparatus, which is either absent in the Halacaridse, or, if 
present, has not yet been ascertained to exist. The latter seem 
to us to have more affinity with the Bdellidae than with the Trom- 
bidiidae ; for most of them (not all) have a projecting snout, and 
some of them antennae like palpi, and the Bdellidae have their 
legs starting nearer from the margin of the body than the Trom- 
bidiid^, although not from the edge like the marine mites. But, 
in fact, they have points of resemblance with several families ; and, 
what is curious, characters which, in other families, are of primary 
importance (as, for instance, the transverse division between the 
thorax and abdomen), seem here to have lost their value, some 
having it and some not. Looking at the group altogether, how- 
ever, we have no hesitation in coming to the conclusion that it 
belongs neither to the Bdellidas, the Trombidiidse, nor Oribatidae, 
and still less to any other less similar group. We, therefore, 
propose to establish a new and distinct family for its reception ; 
and not to hamper it with more characters than we can help, or 
with any that are difficult to find, we shall define it as mites living 
habitually under the sea, having either a stiff or a more or less 
rigid, cuirassed skin, and with their legs springing from the outer 
margin of the body. 

These little creatures have been chiefly obtained by dredging, 
or from seaweeds in rocky pools of sea water, weeds between tide 
marks, &c. They have also been observed creeping on the stems 
of seaweeds or zoophytes, or on the sides of marine aquaria, a 
mode of obtaining them, which has the great advantage of allowing 
their form, ways, and habits to be studied while they are alive. 
Where they do occur, it appears to be in considerable numbers. 
Mr. Brady remarks, that in some dredgings made off the coast of 
Durham and Yorkshire, the number of individuals was very con- 
siderable, almost leading one to the belief, that they must, in favour- 
able spots, colonize the mud almost as thickly as their better 
known relatives do a decaying cheese. 



208 



ARACHNOIDEA. 



CASE vVe do not propose to make any separation of genera, for the 
species that have been so treated by Mr. Gosse and Mr. Hodge. 
The extremes, indeed, where on the one hand the insect is entirely 
enclosed in a hard cuirass, and on the other in a pliant leathery 
skin, would seem to give good characters for generic sub-division ; 
but there are species that combine these two qualities, being soft- 
skinned, with patches of head armour, so that, on the whole, as 
there are only five of them altogether, and the difficulty of making 
them out is not sufiiciently great to call for subdivision, we think 
it better to keep them as one genus ; the more so, that they all 
have a common facies indicative of belonging to the same type. 



No 



No.: 




Halacarus ctenopus. 
Length i-32d of an inch. 



Genus Halacarus {Gosse), 
Characters same as those of family. 

Halacarus ctenopus {Gosse). — 1. Magnified sketch 
of ditto, copied from Mr. Gosse's figure in Ann. 
Nat. Hist. 1855. 

Body, smooth, granulated, divided below 
only. The colour is variable, usually dark 
red, or yellowish brown, with a whitish line 
down the back. Two large eyes, or supposed 
eyes, on the back near the base of the second 
pair of legs. Common, and generally distri- 
buted around the British coast. Dredged up 
from seven to thirty-five fathoms. 



Halacarus falcatus (Leptognathus falcatus, Hodge).— 2. Magnified sketch 
of ditto, copied from Mr. Brady's figure in Proc. Zool. Soc. 

Colour, orange brown. Palpi very long and slender, extending 
beyond the tip of the rostrum, and bearing towards the extremities a 
few fine setae. Eyes, or supposed eyes, three ; one behind the base 
of the head, the others near the origin of the second pair of legs. 
Upper surface of the body divided by delicate furrows or stri^ , 



MARINE MITES. 



209 



CASE into four symmetrically arranged areolae; two lateral, one anterior 
XIII. , ^ . 

and one posterior. 




Halacariis falcatus. Length i -28111 of an inch. Claw ot ditto 
Copied from Brady's figures. 



Mandibles of ditto. 



Dredged off the East and South Coast of England, at from ten to 
thirty fathoms' depth. 

No. 3. Halacarus sculptus (Pachygnathus sculptus Brady). — 3. Magnified sketch 
of ditto, copied from Mr. Brady's figure. 




Halacarus sculptus, upper .side. Length i"45th 
of an inch. Copied from Brady's fissures. 



Ditto, side view. 



Colour, reddish brown. Palpi consisting each of a short, slightly 
cur^'ed stem, which is furnished with two small setae and a wart- 

o 



210 



ARACHNOIDEA. 



CASE like tooth on the concave margin. The dorsal surface of the 

XIII 

body is mapped out into distinct areas, characterised by pitted 
and corrugated systems of sculpture, which extends to the second, 
third, and fourth joints of the legs. Eyes not observed. 

Dredged from various localities off the coast of Durham and 
North Yorkshire, in twenty-five to thirty-five fathoms. 



Nc 4. Halacarus rhodostigmA {Gosse), (Halacarus granulatus, Hodge ; Halacarus 
oculatus, Hodge). — 4. Magnified sketch of ditto, copied from Mr. 
Gosse's figure. 

Colour, pellucid whitish, stained with pale red on the anterior 
half. Palpi of four joints, the terminal one slightly cuived. Body 




Halacarus rhodostigfma, upper side. 
Length i'72nd of ;in inch. 
Copied from Goise's figure. 




Halacarus rhodostij^nia, under side. 



divided above and below, and studded with punctures, which 
under a high power take the form of rosettes, or the spots on a 
panther's coat. Nothing is said as to the eyes, but two large 
spots are figured on the back, near the origin of the second pair 
of legs. 

Not uncommon, found bv dredging, and among seaweeds at 
low water, on the sea coast at Weymouth, Durham, Northumber- 



MARINE MITES. 211 

CASS land, York, and Firth of Clyde, and, therefore, probably all round 

XIII 

England and Scotland. 



Halacarus notops {Gosse) (Pachygnathus notops, Gosse ; Pachygnathus 
seahami, Hodge; and Pachygnathus minutus, Hod^e, larval form). — 
5. Magnified sketch of ditto, copied from Gosse's figure. 

The body is flat, lozenge-shaped, hyaline and colourless at the 
margins, but the interior is almost filled with flesh of a deep blue- 
black hue, perfectly opaque, and of a defined sinuous outline. In 
the centre of the back, just behind the head, is a bright ruby-like 
round eye placed in front of the opacity and between the first legs. 

Taken by Mr. Gosse, at Ilfracombe, and by Mr. Norman abun- 
dantly on weeds in rock pools, Balla Sound, Shetland. 

The reader may have observed, 
that in speaking of those eyes on 
the back of some of the preceding 
species, near the origin of the second 
pair of legs, we have called them 
eyes or supposed eyes ; we did so, 
because we remembered that in 
the Oribatidae (the next section of 
mites), there is an organ placed very 
much in the same position, which 
for long was supposed to be their 
eyes, but which, when its true nature 
was ascertained, turned out to be not eyes, but breathing pores. 
We do not say that it is so in the Halacarida^, but as it may be 
so, we thought it as well to qualify the term with a point of 
doubt. 




Halacarus notops. Copied from Gosse's figurcc 



Family ORIBATID.^, or BEETLE MITES. 

The Oribatid?e are mites which have a hard chitonous integu- 
ment like that, of a beetle, and they are generally brown or black. 
globula.r, and shining. In their young state, some of them (Hoplo- 



212 ARACHNOIDEA, 

CASE phora) have been ascertained to have a similar structure to that 

XIII. ^ ' 

of the young of the family to which the cheese mites belong 
(Acaridae). They differ, however, in having no vesicle attached 
to their feet, but they correspond with a portion of them, in having 
a remarkable breathing apparatus, consisting of two tubes, which 
open on the back part of the thorax, adding another to the different 
variations in the mode of breathing in insects. This may be seen 
in the accompanying woodcut of the cephalothorax of one of 
them (Damgeus auritus). They are also furnished with curious 

appendages, such as plates or lamellje, 
and differently formed hairs and tu- 
bercles on different parts of the body. 
They have no eyes. As already said, 
for a long time the two singular breath- 
ing apertures near the posterior angles 
of the cephalothorax', were supposed 
to be eyes, but now that the function 
of sight has been found not to belong 

Head of Damaeus auritus, showing . .1 1 • 1 r 1 . a 

breathing pores and lateral projec- tO thCm, ttOtlimg ClSC Of thC natUrC Of 

tions. Copied from Nicolet. 

eyes has been discovered in their place. 
They have tarsi bearing one, two, or three claws, according to 
the species, but no suckers in any. 

Their development has been traced in many species from the 
egg. The young larvae are hexapod when hatched. 

Authorities are not at one as to whether these insects should 
be classified as hurtful or not. M. Nicolet, who has monographed 
the Oribatidas found in the neighbourhood of Paris, says that they 
never cause any damage either to man or the products of his 
industry, but Mr. Curtis classes at least one of them as hurtful to 
fruit trees. In one respect, in which he differs from Nicolet, he 
certainly is right. Nicolet says that they are essentially vagabond 
and solitary, inhabiting the moist mosses in forests and the sheltered 
banks of waters, that they are found sometimes under stones resting 
on a humid soil, and in decomposing vegetable matters, but that 




BEETLE MITES. 213 

CASE the shelter of mosses is what they prefer, and it is there that they 

XIII. r ^ - , 

are found m greatest number. 

According to Curtis again, whose statement we can confirm 
from personal observation, at all events the commonest and most 
typical species of them, Damreus geniculatus, is found chiefly 
under bark, and specially under the bark of fruit trees, and, 
instead of being solitary and vagabond, it is gregarious, and con- 
gregates in the spring in great numbers at the base of the twigs, 
so much so, as to look like a gummy exudation. Mr. Curtis, in 
consequence of their prodigious numbers, thinks that by extract- 
ing the sap they must weaken the trees, and in all probability 
reduce the size of the fruit. But M. Boisduval has been able to 
show authoritatively that this idea is erroneous. He says : — 

"In 1858, M. Riviere brought here a great number of indi- 
viduals of the Oribates geniculata (the black stone tick of Geoffrey), 
which had multiplied in a prodigious manner in the hothouse of 
the old garden of the School of Medicine, to such a degree that 
several orchids were covered by them. This clever observer was 
rather alarmed at the sudden apparition of all these ticks on a 
family of plants which he particularly affected ; but he was soon 
re-assured when he saw that not a single leaf had suffered the 
slightest alteration, and that these little animals were hunting 
acarus, thrips, etc., of which they were eating the eggs and larvae. 
At the end of some months all had disappeared. From whence 
came this legion of Oribates ? He thinks that the eggs, or indi- 
viduals recently hatched, had been brought in the moss and 
sphagnum of which horticulturists make use for the culture of 
exotic orchids, and that the development had taken place m 
the panniers and baskets containing these plants. The horti- 
culturist is therefore to regard them as friends and not as 
enemies. 

The more important characters used in subdividing the species 
of this group, are drawn from the number of claws to the tarsi, 
and certain peculiar plates or expansions, which are borne by 



214 ARACHNOIDEA. 

CASE the cepnalothorax and abdomen. These, however, only serve 



XllI 



the purpose of an artificial arrangement, and we have disregarded 
them in our attempt at a more natural classification ; but for the 
benefit of those who wish a litdehelp in making them out without 
referring to Nicolet, we here give the heads of his arrangement :— 

1st Section. — Tarsi with three claws. 

Subsect. I. — Cephalothorax with lamellar appendages. 

A. With lateral wing-formed movable expansions to the abdomen, 

and with heterodactyl tarsi, that is, with the middle claw 
larger than the two others. 

a. Hairs on the vertex, spatula-shaped, i. Pelops. 

h. Ditto, ditto, bristle-shaped. 2. Oribata. 

B. Without lateral wing-shaped expansions. 

a. Tarsi homodactyl, i.e. claws alike. 

a. Tectum attached to the cephalothorax only by its 

base. 3. Cepheus. 
13. Tectum confounded with the cephalothorax. 
4. Notaspis. 
b. Tarsi heterodactyl. 5. Leiosoma. 
Subsect. 2. — Cephalothorax without lamellar appendages. 

A. Legs slender, with flexible hairs and fusiform joints, terminated 

by a heterodactyl tarsus. 6. Eremceus. 

B. Legs thick, with rigid hairs, and subcylindric joints, terminated 

by a homodactyl tarsus. 7- Nothrus. 
2nd Section. — Tarsi one-clawed. 

Subsect. I. — Cephalothorax with salient apophyses, or nervures (ribs). 

A. Legs longer than the body. 8. DavicBus. 

B. Legs shorter than the body. 9. Tegeocraims. 
Subsect. 2. — Cephalothorax, without apophyses. 

A. Cephalothorax, soldered to the abdomen, and immovable. 10. 

Hermamiia. 

B. Ditto, articulated on the abdomen, and movable. 11. Hoplophora. 

Although few of the species of the family of Oribatidae have been 
recorded as found in England, we have figured and noted the chief 
genera, believing that if they are properly sought for, the species 
commonest in France will also be found in Britain. Species of at 
least four of the genera have been met with in Spitzbergen, so the 
coldness of the climate should be no obstacle to their living here. 



BEETLE MITES. 



215 



CASE 
XIII. 



Genus Dam^eus {Koch). 

This genus has only one claw, as shown in the woodcuts, and 
has ribs on the cephalothorax, as shown in the cut of the head of 
Damseus auritus, on page 212. 




Damaeus auritus, leg of. Copied fioiu Nicolet. 



Claw of ditto. Copied from Nicolet. 



Nos. Dam^US geniculatus {Koch), (Acarus corticalis, De Gcer). — 6. Magnified 
^' ='' ^' sketch of embryo fresh from the egg of ditto ; 7. Magnified sketch of 

larva ; 8. Magnified sketch of perfect insect ; all copied from Nicolet's 

figures. 




Newly hatched larva of Damaeus geniculatus 
Copied from Nicolet. 



Damaeus geniculatus, size of a i^iu's head. 
Copied fiom Nicolet. 



The young differ very much in appearance from the mature 



2i6 ARACHNOIDEA. 

CASE individuals in most of the Oribatidre, and M. Nicolet traced the 

XIII. 

changes in a number of them. We show the difference in the 
present species in the above cut. 

This species is found from November to March, beneath the 
shghtly detached bark of fruit trees, such as the pear, where they 
live in society, remaining very quiet during the winter months ; 
they also secrete themselves and breed under the lichen, which 
often covers the trunks and branches of fruit trees. Various reme 
dies have been recommended for getting rid of this mite, but as 
it is a friend to be encouraged, and not an enemy to be repressed, 
it is unnecessary to detail them. 

M. Boisduval, in his " Entomolgie Horticole," speaks of an 
Acarid, which he calls Acarus Pyri, as being relatively very large, 
globular, vesicular, of a red brown, rather transparent, very visible 
to the naked eye. It, says he, lives on the large branches of the 
pear-trees which have been gnawed inside by the Leopard moth ; 
they are usually found in small crowded groups at the bifurcation 
of the branches. It may possibly be an Oribatid, although it is 
not likely that it could be this species, with wliich M. Boisduval, 
was obviously famiUar. 

No. 9. Dam^us auritus {Nlc.).—^. Magnified sketch of ditto, copied from M. 
Nicolet's figure. 

This species is as common as the preceding species in France, 
and very probably may also be found in this country, although 
probably hitherto confounded with the D. geniculatus. 



Genus Leiosoma [Koch). 

Cephalothorax with plates, and tarsi with three heterpdactyl 
claws. 

No. ic. Leiosoma nitens ((7^;v.\— iO. IMagnified sketch of ditto, copied from 
Nicolet's figure. 

Occurs near Paris. 



BEETLE MITES. 



I? 



CASE Leiso.ma ovata {AlcoL). 

XIII. 

The larva differs materially from the 
perfect insect, which is very similar to an 
Oribata. 

Near Paris. 

Genus Notaspis {Hermann). 

Cephalothorax with lamellar append- 
ages, tarsi with three homodactyl claws. 




I,arva of Leiosoma ovata 
Copied from Nicolet's figure. 



No. ir. Notaspis bipilis {Herm.). — 11. Magnified sketch of ditto, copied from 
Nicolet's figure. 




Notaspis bipilis. o"i'oco67 in length. Copied from Nicolet. 



Very common in France. 



Genus Oribata {Latr.). 

Cephalothorax, with lamellar appendages ; tarsi with three 
heterodactyl claws ; hairs on vertex bristle-shaped. 

No. 12. Oribata orbicularis Koch). — 12. Magnified sketch of ditto, copied from 
Nicolet's .figure. 

Common near Paris. 



2l8 



ARACHNOIDEA. 



CASE 
XIII. 




Oribata punctata {NicoUt) ; O. ovalis 
{Koch). 

The difference between the young 
and the perfect insect of Oribata 
will be seen by comparing the figu: e 
of the larva of this species with that 
of the perfect insect of the next. 

Common near Paris. 



Oribata punctata. Copieil from Nicolet. 



No. 13. Oribata globula {NicoL). — 13. Magnified sketch of ditto, copied from 
Nicolet's figure. 




Oribata g-lobula. o.mooiio in length. 
Copied from JN'icolet. 



Found near Paris. 




T.Iar.d'bleoff?itto. 
Copied from Nicoiet. 



Oribata Notata {Thorell), Oefv. Sv. Ak. xxviii. 695 (1871). 
A new species found in Spitzbergen. 



Genus Pei.ops {Koch\ 

Differs from Oribata in the hairs on the vertex being flat or 
spatula-shaped. 



BEETLE MITES, 



219 



CxA.SE Pelops acromios (Herm.). — 14. Magnified sketch of larval form of ditto 

XTTT 

Vj ■ 15. Sketch of perfect insect. Both copied from Nicolet's figures. 

14, IS. 





la of ''eopi acroiir ij 
Copied from Nicolet. 



om .00060 in lcnj;tii. Cot.ied from NTicol.^t. 




I^ej^ and claw of ditto. Cc^pied from Nicolet. 



Found by M. Nicolet near Versailles. 

Genus Nothrus {Koch). 

Cephalothorax, without lamellar appendages. Tarsi with three 
homodactyl daws. 



Nos. 
16, 17. 



Nothrus spiniger {Koch). — 16. Magnified sketch of larval form of ditto. 
17. Ditto of perfect insect. Both copied from Nicolet's figures. 

The genus Nothrus is one of the most curious of this family. 
It is a heavy, slow, quadrangular creature, irregular in shape, with 
the back oftener concave than convex, a peculiarity of which it 
profits by using it as a sort of basket to contain or carry a pile of 
dirt, with which it fills or covers it. The abdomen has expan- 
sions or spines which are used for the same purpose. Eminently 
tardigrades, says M. Nicolet, these Acarids move with the most 
extreme slowness, they raise their legs with difficulty, and their 



220 



ARACHNOIDEA, 



CASE heavy body, rendered still more unseemly by the filth with which 
XIII. ^ ' , , ' 

they cover themselves, upsets them at e very- 
step they take when they walk on a flat 
surface. Their larvae are like the perfect 
insect, only softer and whiter, and they are 

always covered 
by a layer of 
soil or dirt, pel- 
lets of which 
they appear to 
be to the on- 
looker. The 
tarsi are mo- 
nodactylous in 
the larva, tri- 
dactylous in the perfect insect. The present species is of a violet 
brown colour, like the lees of wine. It is common everywhere 
near Paris, but is difficult to detect on account of its earthy cover- 
ing, which, moreover, it is difficult to remove from its back, on 
account of its lateral spines being interlaced and mixed up with it. 




Larva of Notlirus spini^er. _ Claw of Notbnis spinip^er. 

O">.ooo8o in length. Copied from Nicoljt. Copied from Nicolet's fitjure. 



IJo. 18. NOTHRUS HORRIDUS {Hemi.). — 18. Magnified sketch of perfect insect, copied 
from M. Nicolet's figure. 




Kothrus horridus, covererl with its clo.ik of cTrt. 
Copied from llcniiann's fijjure. 




Kothrus horridu^-, on.00112 in lenj^th. 
Copied In nil Xicolfct. 



BEETLE MITES, 22 t 

CASE Another very curious species like the preceding. It also is a 

XIII 

very common species in the neighbourhood of Paris. We are not 
aware that these have yet been found in Britain — ^but they are 
worth looking for on account of their remarkable structure and 
habits. This one is especially found in damp moss — and no 
doubt the covering of dirt on its back is designed as a protection 
from too much dryness or heat. A species has been described by 
Thorell from Spitzbergen, under the name of Nothrus borealis. 

Genus Hermannia {Nicolet). 

Cephalothorax without ribs, soldered to the abdomen ; tarsi 
with one claw. 

Nos. Hermannia crassipes {Nic). — 19. Mag- 
*'^' ^°* nified sketch of larva ; 20. Ditto of 

perfect insect. Both copied from 

jVI. Nicolet's figures. 





I.arva of Hermannia crassipes. Ilenn- iiiiia era sipes, oi". 00080 in lenjjtli. 

Copied from Nicolet'i figure. Copied from Nicolet's figure. 

Another curious, heavy, lumpy insect common in the neighbour- 
hood of Paris. It is distinguished by rows of flat spatula-shaped 
hairs on its body and legs. It also affects mosses. 

This genus also is represented in Spitzbergen, a species named 
H. reticulata having been described by Thorell. 

Genus Cepheus {Koch), 

Same character as Notaspis, but the tectum attached to the 
cephalothorax only by its base. 



222 



ARACHNOIDEA, 



CASE Cepheus vulgaris {Nic). — 21. Magnified sketch of ditto, copied from M. 
XIII- Nicolet's figure. 



Very common everywhere near Paris. 



Genus Erem^us [KocH). 

Cephalothorax simple, without lamellar appendages ; tarsi with 
three claws, heterodactyl. 



No. 2?. Erem^us tibialis (iVzV.).— 22. Magnified sketch of larval form of ditto, 
after Nicolet's figure. 

The species of this genus are rare, 
but are interesting from the form of the 
larva, from their having concave backs 
like Nothrus, and from their general 
resemblance to Hoplophora. 

A species (E. lineatus, Thorell) has 
been found in Spitzbergen. 





Larva nf Eremneu tibi ilis. 
Copied from Nico.et's %ure. 



r.remaeus tibialis. 
Copied from iNicolet's figure. 



Genus Hoplophora {Koch). 
Cephalothorax articulated to the abdom^en, and folding upon 
the body ; tarsi monodactyl. 

Nos. Hoplophora contractilis {Clap.), (Hoplophora nitens, Nic.\ Phthiracarus 
"*%?• contractihs, Peytz.).—2Z, Magnified sketch of nymph ; 21 Ditto perfect 



BEETLE MITES. 



223 



insect not shut up ; 26. Ditto contracted. All copied from figures by 
Claparede, in Zejtsch. fiir Wiss. Zool. xviii. 




ITopIrphora contractilis. Ditto, .■-hut up. 

perffC- insect, not siiut up. Copied from Claparede. 



Claw of ditto. 
Copied from Clapariide. 



M. Claparede of Geneva, not long before his death, made a 
series of studies of the Acaridae, one result of which was to reveal an 
affinity between the Oribatidte and the Acarids proper (cheese mite 
tribe), which, if suspected, had, at all events, not been previously 
tistablished. The older writers, Gervais for example, instinctively, 
perhaps, felt that it was so, and so arranged them ; but in the 
most recent handbooks (such as those of Gerstaecker and Glaus), 
the GamasidjB and Ixodid^ are placed between the Oribatidse and 
the Acarids proper, but Glaparede has given good reasons for 
regarding this as an unnatural arrangement. The arrangement 
of Gervais was better. He placed the Acarids next the Ixodidse, 
and the Oribatidae last ; but we wish to close the arrangement of 
the mites with the parasitic Sarcoptidse as a passage to the lice, 
and therefore place the Oribatidse before the Acarids instead of 
after them, it being indifferent so far as any other affinity is 
concerned^ where we place them. The present species was the 
medium which led Claparede to these conclusions. It lives in 
moist and decaying fir wood, burrowing in and feeding on the 
wood, the burrows for the most part running parallel with the 
vessels of the Avood, but also occasionally running into one another. 
Its habits thus give some facility for observation. A morsel of 
v/ood inhabited by them could be put in a glass tube and kept at 
the proper degree of moisture, while their development is being 
watched. The perfect mite is very minute, clothed with a thick, 
hard, rigid, brown coat of mail, and with a curious power of 



2 24 ARACHNOIDEA, 

CASE bending the head down upon the under side, so that when it 
chooses it can, hke some beetles, retire entirely into its shell and 
shut it up, looking then like a tiny, oval, brown speck, without 
head, legs, or any other members visible. Claparede found this 
little creature in the burrows or borings in rotten fir wood ; but 
he also sometimes found in them, but rarely together, another 
larger, semi-transparent, soft, white mite, like a cheese mite. The 
idea which would naturally occur to anyone would be that this 
might be the larva ; but then it had eight legs, and therefore 
it was assumed must be a perfect insect ; and, moreover, by 
watching the hatching of the eggs deposited by the Hoplophora, 
Claparede soon ascertained that, as usual, the first stage was a 
six-footed soft white mite, bearing a close resemblance to the 
eight-footed, soft, white Acaroid form. What relation did the 
latter bear, then, to the Hoplophora with which 
it was associated ? M. Claparede solved this by 
the following experiment : He took twenty speci- 
mens of the soft white Acaroid mite, and placed 
them upon a morsel of decaying pine wood, first 
taking care to see that there were no other mites 
present. He then put the wood in a moist flask, 
Hoplophora contractiiis ^hich hc allowed to reuiaiu undisturbed for three 
cilpar^desfigure."' wceks. Aftcr that time he took the wood out of 
the flask. The mites were scarcely to be seen. 
They had penetrated by boring, and he had to dig them out. On 
examination he found only twelve specimens resembling Acarus 
against seven Hoplophora. A transformation of seven had thus 
taken place, and one individual was missing. However, the nature 
of the transformation was not yet clear. He repeated the experi- 
ment in which he, at the same time, included a larger number of 
specimens. So he followed the traces of the transformation. His 
researches into the development of Hypopus, of which we shaU 
presently have to speak, suggested to him that as its colourless 
Tyroglyphus-like larva enclosed a brown Hypopus on its way, as 




BEETLE MITES. 225 

CASE he thought, to complete development, so in the same way he mi^ht 

XIII 

find here the brown Hoplophora in the Acarus-like larva. But he 
found that from the pale-coloured larva a perfect colourless Hoplo- 
phorus proceeded, within which the intestinal canal retained the 
same milk-white appearance as in the larval condition. Those 
which were becoming Hoplophora appeared very light to the eye. 
The perfect soft animal leaves in this condition the larval skin. 
All peculiarities of the Hoplophora are visible. The parts are, 
hoAvever, peculiarly tender. The insect lies for a long time seem- 
ingly immovable. By degrees the coat thickens, which also 
becomes firm ; in which it still remains colourless. At first it 
becomes pale rose colour, then reddish, and at last quite brown. 

The question was thus set at rest. The Acarus-like form and 
the Hoplophora stand in a genetic relation to one another, 
and the Hoplophora proceed from the already eight-footed 
Acarus, showing that that cannot be regarded as an adult mature 
state. Avery important point remained doubtful, however. In all 
his experiments several Acari, and these the largest specimens, 
did not change. How are these individuals to be looked upon ? 
Perhaps as males. It is very striking that he did not find in the 
Hoplophora any difference of sex, and that the plurality of indi- 
viduals contained eggs. Nor could he with any certainty discover 
anything distinctive of the male sex. The important fact ascer- 
tained by M. Claparede is, that the Hoplophora goes through an 
Acarus-like, soft stage, which proves its relationship to the real 
Acarids (cheese mites, &c.). 

Hoplophora arctata {Riley, 6tli Missouri Report), 




Hcplophora arctata. Copied from Riley's figues. 



2 26 ARACHNOIDEA. 

CASE -^Yg j^^yg found this species in England about the roots of the 
vine, along with Phylloxerae, H5rpopi, and Gamasidae. 

Mr. Riley found this curious species in America associated with 
a Tyroglyphus which he found in the perfect state feeding on the 
Phylloxera vastatrix at the roots of the grape-vine, and he sup- 
posed it possible that it might in some way be related to these 
Tyroglyphi, because in studying their habits he had frequently 
filled vessels with vine roots from which all but Tyroglyphi and 
Phylloxera had, to all appearance, been carefully excluded, only 
to find, on subsequent examination, a number of these mussel- 
like Hoplophoras, and a corresponding decrease in the number 
of Tyroglyphi. It is not unlikely, however, that he is in error in 
this. Our woodcut of the larva of Hoplophora shows how similar 
they are to the larvae of the Tyroglyphs, and how easy it would 
be, in sweeping in a number of Tyroglyphs of all ages, unwit- 
tingly to include some of the larvae of Hoplophora among them. 
Mr. Riley, however, remarks that from his results happening in 
the fall of the year, he could not help suspecting that the former 
might prove to be a hibernating form of the latter ; but with wise 
discretion he has preferred to explain the facts by supposing that 
at first the Hoplophora were buried, and consequently invisible 
within the roots examined, and that the decrease in the number of 
Tyroglyphs was owing to death and other causes-^an explanation 
which (says he) is all the more plausible from the fact that he sub- 
sequently found the same narrow-bodied Hoplophora swarming in 
decaying cotton wood logs — an explanation, however, which does 
not meet the circumstance he mentions, that the new Hoplophorae 
corresponded in number to the missing Tyroglyphs, although it 
might be sufficient had no such correspondence been observed. 

The present species differs from the other members of the genus 
in the form of its chitonous coat, which is so narrow that the 
animal topples over on its side the moment the limbs are with- 
drawn. 



AC ARID S. 227 

Family ACARIDiE. 

Authors have hitherto been in the habit of including in one 
division, called Sarcoptidae, the whole of the old genus Acarus, or 
soft-bodied semi-transparent fleshy mites. By far the larger 
portion of these seems to us, however, to be capable of division 
into two tolerably distinct and easily distinguishable sections- 
One, the cheese mites and their aUies (Tyroglyphidae), and the 
other the Sarcoptidse, Itch mites, and their relatives the louse mites. 
This, however, does not exhaust the list of those usually ranked 
under the Sarcoptidae. There arc at least three minor groups, the 
Hypoderlds, the Hypopidse, and the Phytoptidae, which are all so 
peculiar in their appearance and mode of life, that we propose to 
rank them as separate secondary sub-divisions. We would suggest 
as a cemvenlent arrangement that the whole of the old genus 
Acarus should be divided into the following sub-families — viz. : 

1st Section. — Surface of skin smooth, shining or velvety; tarsi usually with 
claus. 

1. Hypoderidas. — Long bodies and very short legs, with a great distance 

between the two anterior and tw«> posterior pairs ; parasitic under 
the skin of birds ; mouth not made out. 

2. Hypopida. — Without any apparent mouth ; anterior pair of legs 

generally much developed ; posterior often almost atrophied, 

3. Tyroglyphidse. — Cheese mites, with chelate mandibles and stout legs, 

and the tarsi in some with and others without a sucker, 
ind Section. — Surface af skin more or less transversely striated; tarsi usually 
with suckers instead of claws. 

4. Sarcoptidae. — Itch mites, which are rounded or quadrate, with legs 

short and feeble; and Dermaleichidoe. — Louse mites, usually elon- 
gate, and often with some of the legs monstrously developed. 

5. Phytoptidae. — Gall and bud mites. 

We know that no definition can be given which will absolutely 
and sharply separate any group of insects, but the above charac- 
ters will, we think, answer the purpose of a natural arrangement, 
provided a few transitional exceptions on either side be allowed. 
The species of the first group, Hypoderldae, are internal parasites ; 
the next group, Hypopidae (as we believe), are Ichneumon para- 

p 2 



2 28 ARACHNOIDEA. 

CASE sites; the third, Tyroglyphid^, not parasitic; the fourth, Sarcop- 
tid^e, are burrowers in or parasitic on the skin of mammals ; the 
Dermaleichidse are feeders on fur and feathers of hving animals ; 
and the Phytoptidse browsers on the skin of buds and leaves, pro- 
ducing excrescences like galls on the latter. With scarcely an 
exception, all of the first section have a smooth skin not marked 
by minute strise, lines or wrinkles. Of the second, on the other 
hand, all have the skin marked by fine strise or lines like wrinkles, 
the lines being distributed after a definite pattern, differing in 
each species. In the former the legs are usually tenninated by a 
single claw, more or less distinct, and although in many species 
this is accompanied by a sucker or vesicle, it is usually small, and 
generally surrounds the claw, like a sleeve ; while in the latter the 
suckers, w?th rare exceptions, are present as a prominent feature, 
while claws are either absent or only slightly developed. 

Sub-Family Hypoderid^. 

Parasitic sub-cutaneous mites living between the skin and the 
muscle of certain birds. They are oblong oval, almost trans- 
parent bags, with the two anterior and two posterior pairs of legs 
placed a long way from each other ; the claws of the tarsi seem to 
be two fine hairs, and we do not think that the parts of the mouth 
have been deciphered. 

Montague seems to have been the first to notice these creatures ; 
at least, the species named by him Cellularia bassani, which lives 
in the air cells under the skin of the solan goose (Sula bassana), 
must have been one of this genus. Nitzsch next observed the 
same species, which he named Sarcoptes subcutaneus. Then, in 
1843, Miescher described two found in the common swift (Cyp- 
selus apus), one in the bronchial tubes, (which, notwithstanding 
that Erichson, from the description, thinks must have been a Der- 
maleichus, from the habitat most probably belongs to this group), 
and another from the air tubes and lungs of the Butcher-bird 
(Lanius Excubitor) in immense quantity. 



HYPODERID^. 229 

CASE That author had also formerly observed, on the inner surface of 
the skin taken off a common mouse, small milk-white knots of 
about the size of a pin's head, which, under the microscope 
turned out to be nests of mites, containing 20 or 30 small mites. 
He also met with flat angular mites many times larger, under the 
skin of a fox. Whether both or either of these belong to this genus 
there are not sufficient materials to determine — nor, indeed, have 
we met with any carefully described and figured record of the 
presence of the genus Hypoderas anywhere but under the skin of 
various species of birds. 

There is no doubt, however, as to a species described by Dr. . 
Gros, in a paper in the " Bulletin of the Imperial Society of 
Moscow" (1845, s. 397, tab. 11), which he found under the skin 
and even in the muscles of a heathcock. Thereafter, in 1864, V. 
Frauenfeld described a species (Hypoderas unicolor) that was 
found in great numbers massed together in a ball forming a sub- 
cutaneous tumour under the wings of a grosbeak (Verh. Zool. 
Bot. Gesell. in Wien, XIV., 385). 

Since then a considerable number of species have been described 
and figured by Giebel in the "Zeitschr. Gesamm. Naturw. III.,'* 
from which we have taken the illustrations of this group. 

Genus Hypoderas {Frauenfeld)^ Cellularia, Montague. 
Characters same as those of the sub-family. 

No. I. Hypoderas brevis {Gieb.). — 1. Magnified sketch of ditto fi-om GiebeFs 
figure. 





Hypoderas brevis. Copied from Giebel's figure. 



22,0 



ARACHNOIDEA. 



CASE 
XIV. 



No. 2. 



Found in the cellular tissue of the Night Heron (Ardea 
nycticorax), a bird very common in many coun- 
tries of Europe, in Africa, and also in Asia and 
Japan. 




Hypoderas lineatus. 

Copied from Giebel's 

figure. 



Hypoderas lineatus {NitzscJi). 
ditto from Giebel's fiiiure. 



-2. Mamified sketch of 



Nitzsch found this species in inconceivable 
numbers in an old night heron (Ardea nycticorax) 
in various places, but especially in the fatty masses 
which lie in the arm-pit on the outer margin of the 
pectoral muscle. They were in abundance in 
the cellular tissue, and there was no perceptible 
opening communicating with the exterior. 




Hypoderas columb^, Cellularia sp. {Robertson^ 
Journ. Micr. See. N. S. vi, 201). 

Mr. C. Robertson has described and figured 
a species without name, but to which we have 
provisionally given the name of Columbse, 
after the animal in which it was found. It 
is obviously a species of this genus, and as 
Mr. Robertson points out it is very near 
the species above-mentioned, described by 
Montague under the name of Cellularia bas- 
sani, from the Solan goose. By the rules 
of priority Cellularia should therefore take 
precedence of Frauenfeld's modern name 
Hypoderas; but the former name has for 
long been a]^propriated to a genus of 
Polyps, and the present is a type of too 
abnormal a nature to allow a double em- 
ployment of the name to be admitted. 



Cellularia columb;e (under 
side). Copied from 
Robertson's figure. ' 



Ditto, on vein of pisfeon. 
Nearly natural size. 



HYPOPIDJE. 231 

CASE Mr. Robertson reports of his species that it is a small maggc. 
like animal, distinctly visible to the naked eye, and that it was 
found chiefly amongst the connective tissue of the skin, on the 
large veins near the heart, and on the surface of the pericardium. 
When few were observed, these were generally found adhering 
closely to the large veins near the heart If the veins have been 
previously injected with size and vermilion, the white transparent 
acari are seen very distinctly on the red delicate walls. All the 
examples which he examined were very transparent, without any 
trace of well-defined digestive or generative organs, even when 
examined with the highest powers. He adds that he had 
examined a considerable number of both the wood and tame 
pigeon and seldom found them free from these or similar Acari. 

Sub-family Hypopid^. 
The characters of the sub-family are the same as those of the 
genus, for although it contains two or three different forms, which 
probably may hereafter be resolvable into separate genera, we 
have not as yet thought it necessary to introduce these. 

Genus Hypopus {Diigh). 

Until recently the study of this genus was attended with no 
particular interest beyond that attaching to its fellow mites ; but 
in 1868, an element of doubt and uncertainty was introduced by 
M. Claparede, who announced, as the result of his researches 
("Studien an Acariden"), that the genus hitherto known as Hy^ 
popus was only a male form of certain Tyroglyphidae evolved 
out of the larvce in the same way that we have seen the perfect 
Iloplophora appear. To enable the reader to understand the 
position of this curious question, we must give him a short history 
of the observations on Hypopus. 

In August, 1735, De Geer observed great numbers of very little 
mites on the house-fly. They were in such large numbers, that 
the neck and back were entirely covered with them. They were 



232 ARACHNOIDEA. 

CASE perfectly still, but when touched, began to run with much quick- 
ness. Their colour was reddish ; the body oval, and the head 
furnished with a little trumpet, in front of which were several 
rather long hairs. The first two pairs of legs were large, the third 
much shorter, and the posterior very long and filiform. Linnaeus, 
after this author, described it in his " Systema Naturae," under the 
name of Acarus muscarum ; Geoffrey, who seems also to have 
seen it, called it the brown Fly-mite. This was the first notice we 
have of the Hypopus. 

Subsequently, in April, 1797, Hermann found in great numbers, 
on the underside and feet of a larva of a Lamellicorn beetle (Os- 
moderma eremita), very small, oval, fleshy mites, of a brownish 
yellow, with short stiff feet, and the tarsus with prickles bent 
outwards, which he called spinitarsus (Acarus spinitarsus). 

Duges, long afterwards (in 1834), found on a Hister an Acarus, 
which he thought was identical with that of Hermann, and made 
a genus (Hypopus) for it, to which he transferred the Acarus 
muscarum of De Geer, and which he thus characterised in placing 
it in his family of Acarus. " These Acarids have a narrow 
sucker, provided with two rigid bristles, directed outwards, and 
seeming to be composed of a lip soldered to the palpi." He 
adds, that the mandibles were not seen by him. By the crushing 
of the only specimen he had in his hands, he saw that the anterior 
bristles started from a moveable part, in the form of a parallelo- 
gram, membranous in the middle, and thick at the edge, like the 
lip soldered to the palpi in the Acarids, properly so called. He 
could find no other palpi, nor perceive the mandibles. 

Leon Dufour, in 1839, discovered two other species of this 
genus ; the one (H. feroniarum), lived in crowded groups under 
the head, corslet, and abdomen of beetles belonging to the genus 
Feronia; the other (H. sapromyzarum), lived on diptera of the 
genus Sapromyza. 

Thereafter, Dujardin, in 1843, described an Acarus, which 
from the mouth and abdominal suckers, cups, or sucking appa- 



HYPOPID^, 233 

CASE ratus, he called Anoetus, from the Greek word meaning incom- 
prehensible. He found a number of individuals upon the under- 
wing of a bee. All that he saw of its organisation, its haunches 
drawn near each other, and contiguous to the median line, and 
occupying more than two-thirds of the whole length, the head 
rudimentary or null, and replaced by a short blade, with two 
bristles in front, but without any trace of mouth, its feet quite 
unfit for walking, and the four posterior ones almost rudimentary; 
finally, the ten or twelve sucker-cups on the underside of the 
abdomen, behind the haunches, prevented his suspecting the 
slightest analogy with that which has been so imperfectly 
described, and figured under the name of Hypopus. 

M. Gervais, in 1844, in the Apteres ("Suites a Buffon"), looked 
upon Hypopus as a sub-genus of Tyroglyphus, and characterised 
it by the ellipsoid, flat, coriaceous body, the absence of palpi, by 
an oblong lip, short feet, without claws, terminated by vesicular 
caruncle. But M. Dujardin says; this last character is opposed to 
what Duges saw of the feet of his Hypopus spinitarsus, neither 
does the flattened form agree with the former species, as Her- 
mann had already described. 

Koch, in his great work on the Arachnids of Germany 
(" Deutschland's Crustaceen "), had taken no account of the 
genus Hypopus; but later, in 1843, in his " Ubersicht," he 
takes up the genus, and places in it two other species, which he 
"had formerly included under Uropoda. 

That was the state of affairs when M. Dujardin, who had made 
a profound study of the subject, satisfied himself that his Anoetus 
was only a Hypopus. He found, like De Geer, the Acarus 
muscarum on flies, and in such abundance on the abdomen and 
thorax, that these parts seemed clothed as if with a granular 
tissue. All these Hypopi hold themselves there immovable, 
fixed indifferently on different parts of the skin of the animal by 
the suckers on the after-part of the abdomen, which seem to have 
no purpose but to fix them solidly, and being placed posteriorly 



234 



ARACHNOIDEA. 



CASE on the underside, make them all take the same position, slightly 
inclined, with their anterior feet in the air. If they are touched, 
they set a-running ; but in place of finding these mites on the 
house-fly, as De Geer had done, it was exclusively on the stable- 
fly, Musca stabulans, that Dujardin found them in Paris, in 1846 
or 1847, in a neighbourhood where there were many stables. 
That fly appeared infested by the Hypopus in such numbers^ that 
out of three, it was rare that two or more were not found charged 
with them, while the house-fly, and several other species of flies, 
and of Anthomyia, which were quite as abundant, never furnished 
him with a single individual. In the species on that fly the four 

anterior feet are disproportion- 
ately robust, and terminated by 
a single strong claw ; the legs of 
the third pair are 
couched in a for- 
ward direction, 
under the margin 
of the body, which 
conceals them en- 
tirely, and those of 
the last pair termi- 
nate in a long hair, 
instead of a claw ; 
but in other species 
all eight legs have 
a claw. The haunclies are contiguous, and usually form a thick 
median line, but the most extraordinary part of the whole is the 
head, which is produced into a flat and narrow blade, cut square at 
the extremity, and from the angles of which proceed two diverging 
bristles or hairs, but without any trace of mouth or even rudimentary 
oral organs. Still, although no trace of opening can be seen in this 
blade, it occupies the place and has a good deal of the appearance 
of a sucking apparatus. Near the posterior margin of the under 





Hypopiis mnscarum. 
Copied from Dujard.n's figure. 



Lip of Hypopus. 
Conied from 

figure by Dujardin. 



HYFOPID^E. 



235 




Hypopus filicum. 
Copied from Dujardin. 



CASE side of the abdomen are the suckers by which it attaches itself. 

XIV. ^ 

Subsequently, M. Dujardin found other species on other insects, 
but still without understanding them any better ; at last, in the 
month of September, while searching for Tardigrades on mosses 
and fern (Ceterach officinarum), he found a Hypopus in sufficient 
abundance, very similar to the other, but quite distinct, and which 
lived fastened by its suckers on the shin- 
ing leaves of that fern, as the other is 
fixed on the polished coats of insects. 
But one very remarkable thing came 
under his notice in studying this mite, 
namely, that amongst those that he so 
observed several were narrower, more 
transparent, and completely empty; 
some, much more rare and completely 
immovable, showed in the interior 
another form of mite, soft, and curled- 
up like an embryo, and occupying the 

whole of the internal cavity of the Hypopus, as if the latter 
had been the shell of an tgg^ but of an egg living and provided 
with feet, as the nympli of flies is contained in the shell formed 
of the hardened skin of the larva. The little mite inside had, 
according to Dujardin, palpi and chelate mandibles like the 
Gamasi and Dermanyssi, and he thence arrived at the conclu- 
sion, that these Hypopi, without mouth, without possible means 
of growth, living fixed by their suckers on polished surfaces^ 
from which no nutriment could be derived, must be larvae, or 
rather, if the phrase were allowable, eggs furnished with feet, 
and endowed with motion, in the interior of which, without 
aliments derived from without, the young Gamasus had to form 
itself at the expense only of the nourishment contained within. 
Consistently with this view, Hypopi should be found wherever 
the Gamasi live, and he maintains that that is just what is the 
case. On Geotrupes, Necrophonis, and Humble bees, which are 



2^56 



ARACHNOIDEA, 



CASE usually so infested by Gamasi, he found almost always Hypopi 

XiV 

on the parts of the body which the attacked insect had most 
difficulty in reaching. He adds, ** but as is always the case, I 
found more than I sought for, more especially larvae of Acari, of 
which I had no idea, and whose ulterior form is precisely that of 
the Acarids that hve in the perfect state on the same insects. 
Thus, the Bombus lapidarius furnished Hypopi quite different 
from those of Bombus terrestris." By beating the branches or 
trees, on which certain Gamasi and Dermanyssi live, he found 
other Hypopi ; and lastly, on at least one subterranean rodent, a 
field-mouse (Arvicola subterranea), which has Gamasi as parasites, 
he found corresponding Hypopi, but with the remarkable peculi- 
arity, that, as the abdominal suckers would not answer in their 
case to fix these mites, they were replaced by two salient striated 
tubercules, as shown in the woodcut, which can approach each 

other like two lips, so as to lay hold 
of a hair of the mouse, and so answer 
the purpose fulfilled by the suckers 
in the others. In conclusion, he 
thinks, that he has shown that there 
are Acari with eight feet, which are, 
nevertheless, only the first age of 
other well-known Acari, the Gamasi, 
which differ from them as m.uch, at 
least, as the Hydrachnidse differ from 
their larvae. He describes eleven 
species, which he divides into two 
sections, one with the back divided 
by a transverse line near the arti- 
culation of the second pair of legs, in this respect resembling the 
Tyroglyphi; the other not so divided. His Hypopus arvicola 
has the transverse line across the back, but not the abdominal 
suckers of either of the others, having, instead, the two tubercles 
above described. 




llypopus arvicola. Copied from Dujardin. 



HYFOFIDJE: 237 

For nearly twenty years the above conclusion was accepted by 
the scientific world as the true account of the development of 
these Acarids; but in 1868, M. Claparbde published the result of 
his observations on them, which led him to challenge the sound- 
ness of Dujardin's view. Claparede found his observations correct 
to a certain extent, but carried them further, and drew different 
conclusions. To begin with, he objected that the Hypopus form 
is eight-footed, which is against its being a larval form; for, as 
the reader knows, the larvae of all known Acari appear at first 
with six feet. Then he took exception to the idea of its being 
produced from an egg with feet, remarking, with reason, that the 
exceptional included form had much more analogy with the 
nymph or pupa stage of other insects. Passing these, which are 
only theoretical objections, M. Claparede next took a stronger 
objection, founded on actual observation of the development of 
the Gamasidse from the tgg. Dujardin had not traced this, but 
Claparede had, and found that the Gamasus left the Qgg as a six- 
footed larva, which already possesses the main characteristics of 
the mature animal, and in no respect shows any resemblance to 
Hypopus. He adds, " This objection of mine I will later, I hope, 
confirm in a treatise upon Gamasidae;" but, unhappily, his la- 
mented death occurred before he had done so. The observations 
that he does record are the following. He says that in the neigh- 
bourhood of Geneva an Acarus is met with in great numbers, which 
multiplies itself, in vegetable substances, in great quantities, as in 
hyacinth bulbs, potato and dahHa roots, half-rotten cabbage -stalks, 
etc. It was new, but he determined it to be closely alHed to the 
species Tyroglyphus siculus of Robin and Fumouse, and the Tyro- 
glyphus entomophagus of Laboulbene, and described and figured 
it under the name of Tyroglyphus Dujardinii. He set himself to 
study this species, and presently he was struck by the remark- 
able fact that he could find nothing but females. He examined 
hundreds and hundreds of individuals without coming across a 
single male. He was hence inclined to think that he had to do 



23S 



ARACHNOIDEA. 



CASE with a form of Parthenogensis, which we otherwise know does 
occur among Acarids. In the course of this examination a Hy- 
popus, which continually appeared with Tyroglyphus, attracted 
his attention, by means of which he hoped to establish Dujardin's 
hypothesis. But he never succeeded in doing so. He found a 
Hypopus in the act of metamorphosis, and thereby satisfied him- 
self that it could have no possible relation with Gamasus ; and 
he speaks with confidence, because for three years he brought up 
Tyroglyphi and Hypopi from hyacinth bulbs in his work-room 
without ever a single Gamasus making its appearance from or in 
connection with the others. The Hypopi were in thousands, but 
they were all of the same size; and the young stage, or individuals 
in the act of transformation, were not to be found. Neither did 
he observe any difference of sex, as all examples resembled one 
another throughout. Nor could any individuals with eggs be 
found. The manner of increase of the Hypopus thus appeared 
in the highest degree enigmatical, the more so that the extreme 
stiffness of the mail-like skin renders the idea of growth after it 
has acquired it inadmissible. The conclusion forced itself upon 




Young larva of Rhiz'-glyphus echinatiis 

(Tyrog-lyphus dujardinii, Clap.), the 

posterior leg's not visible from above. 

Copied from Claparfede's figure. 




Young- stage of Tyroglyphus develo 
inside of Tyrog-lyplius dujardinii. 
Copied from Claparcde. 



him, that the young stage of the Hypopus must be sought for 
under quite another form. It next occurred to him that he might 
succeed better by following the development of the Tyroglyphus 
from the beginning through its various stages. This he did, and 
first he found the six-footed larva proceed from the ^gg, bearing, 



HYPOPIDyE. 



239 



:ase as usual, a close resemblance to the mother Tyroglyphus, as well as 
to the correspoPxding six-footed stage of other Tyroglyphi, such as 
the cheese mite; and he observed in them the development of the 
second larva, which appears with eight feet, and which bears an 
even greater similarity to the perfect female Tyroglyphus. There- 
after he followed the further develop- 
ment of this second larva, and traced 
the progress of its included nymph or 
quasi nymph, and was witness to the 
appearance of mature female Tyro- 
glyphi from many of them; but from 
others, on the contrary, there emerged 
Hypopi. " There could no longer be 
any doubt," 
thought he, 
" that the 
Hypopus 
belongs to 
the cycles 
of develop- 
ment of Tyroglyphus," and seeing no other way of explain- 
ing or reconcihng the facts he had observed, he arrives at 
the conclusion that Hypopus must be the male form of Tyro- 
glyphus. 

That Claparede was wrong in this conjecture was very quickly 
proved. Two observers of the highest competency, Professor 
Robin and M. Fumouse, had been studying the same Tyroglyph 
as Claparede at the very same time, and in the same year they 
published the result of their researches, and we believe their paper 
had the priority by a few months.* 





Hypopus removed from inside of 

Tyroglyphus. 

Copied from Claparede. 



Development of Hypopus, inside 
Tyroglyphus echinopus. 
Copied from Claparfede. 



* It appeared in the Journal de I'Anat. and Physiol, de C. Robin, in the 
number for May and June 1868 ; Claparede's appeared in the Zeitschrift fi-r 
Wiss. Zool. Ed. xviii., 1868. We do not know the month, but presumably Tit 
the end of the year. 



240 



ARACHNOIDEA. 



CASE They described the species under the name of Tyroglyphus 
^^^' echinopus, and Claparede's name, dujardinii, must give way to 
it; but, unhke Claparede, they found both males and females, 
and figured them in their paper, and both are of the normal form 
of other Tyroglyphi. It is therefore impossible that the Hypopus 
can be the male of Tyroglyphus. 

Up to this point, however, there does not appear to be any- 
thing in the facts observed by Claparede that is incapable, or 
even very difficult of explanation. Hypopus is already known as 
an external parasite on insects. May it not also be an internal 
parasite in its earlier stage; and might not Claparbde's supposed 
male, seen first inside the Tyroglyph, and afterwards emerging, be 
that stage. Such a double phase of parasitism is not without pre- 
cedent in insects. Rhipiphorus paradoxus passes its earliest stage 
inside the grub of the wasp, then emerges while still minute, and, 
fastening on its outside, finishes off its victim. Subsequent dis 
coveries, however, have introduced new and surprising elements, 
apparently inconsistent with such an explanation. In 1873, M. 
Megnin (first in the " Comptes Rendus," and then in M. Robin's 
" Journ. Anat. Phys.'O, published the results of a long continued 
and careful observation, undertaken to solve the true relations of 
the Hypopi and Tyroglyphs, taking for his subject another Tyro- 
glyph (which he named Tyroglyphus rostroserratus), which was 
very plentiful in the common mushroom (Agaricus campestris), and 
very destructive to the mushroom cultivation around Paris ; and 
in 1874 he published, in the same work, further researches on it 
and another mushroom-feeding species (which he named T. my- 
ceticola). The importance attached to his researches may be 
judged from the fact, that for them he received from the Academie 
des Sciences the Thore prize of 1873. He placed his specimens 
in cages specially provided for them, supplying them with shreds 
of mushrooms which served both as food and lodging for them. 
In observing these, one of the first facts that struck M. Megnin 
was, that so long as the mushrooms were moist and. in full decom- 



HYPOPID^, 241 

CASE position, myriads of Tyroglyphi swarmed in his boxes ; when, on 

XIV' 

the contrary, the mushrooms on which they lived began to dry 
up, his numerous Tyroglyphs disappeared in great part, and were 
replaced by legions of a particular Hypopus, having all the 
characters of Hypopus feroniarum of Dufour, or the H. dugesii 
of Claparede. 

On renewing the provision of mushroom, which restored the 
moisture, it was the Hypopi which disappeared in their turn, 
replaced by myriads of Tyroglyphi. Twenty times the same 
phenomenon was reproduced before his eyes. Persuaded that 
these Hypopi must change their form in moulting, he had 
isolated them at different times in small cages of glass, but with- 
out success : they remained inert, sticking to the walls of the 
cage, and as if deprived of life. The idea then occurred to him 
to place them in contact with fresh mushrooms, and accordingly 
he placed in their cages fragments of mushrooms completely 
freed from eggs and animalcules. " In these new conditions," 
says M. Megnin, " the Hypopi moulted and transformed them- 
selves under our eyes into small octopod Tyroglyphi, not yet 
adult. This fact shows," says he, " that the Hypopus is a transi- 
tion stage of Tyroglyph ; but does the Hypoyus come from the 
eggs, or is it the result of the transformation of hexapod larvae, or 
of nymphs ?" and he gives the figure in the accompanying wood- 
cut of the act of transformation which he saw. 

In pushing his researches further, he succeeded in finding an 
inert octopod nymph, containing in its inside a Hypopus, ready 
to change, in other words, he re-discovered what Claparede took 
for the male. The result of his observations is thus stated : 
" Here is what has been well shown. There are nymphs of 
Tyroglyphus which transform themselves into Hypopus; and, 
reciprocally, Hypopi which re-become nymphs of Tyroglyphi." 
And the conclusion deduced from it is that "Hypopus is nothing 
but a cuirassed adventive heteromorph, charged with the con- 
servation of the dissemination of the species of Acarid which 

Q 



242 



ARACHNOIDEA. 



CASE passes through that form in its evolution." The rationale suggested 
for such an unusual phenomenon is, that Hypopus is a stage with 




Sketch of Tyrogflyphus mycophagus emerging from 
Hypopus. Copied from Megnin's figure. 



a harder skin in the development of Tyroglyphus, specially 
provided for it to compensate for its softness and aptness to be 
dried up on the failure of moisture which, but for this provision, 
might extinguish the race. 

The above is, we think, a statement of the facts and inferences 
relating to this puzzling phenomenon, and the reader must form 
his own judgment upon them. We shall only point out how 
far M. Megnin's observations really go, where they seem to 
correspond or differ from those of Claparede and other observers, 
and what blanks still remain to be filled up before we have a 
complete knowledge of the life-history of Hypopus and Tyro- 
glyphus. 

In the first place we have mature Tyroglyphi, male and female, 
the latter of which lay eggs. 



HYPOPID^. 243 

Next, these eggs produce young Tyroglyphi, exactly after the 
type of their parents, but with only six legs. See first figure on 
p. 22,^^. This io the usual first stage of development in all 
acarids. 

It is not until the young animal has passed from the six-legged 
into the second or eight-legged unsexual stage that either Claparede 
or Megnin begin to see any other form inside either Tyroglyph 
or Hypopus. The figures they give of such incidents all repre- 
sent both outer and inner animal as eight-legged. 

It is only when it approaches the nymph stage (towards the end 
of the first sexual eight-footed stage, which is the third stage of 
development) that the internal transformation is first seen. At 
that stage Claparede saw and gives the figure of a young eight- 
footed Tyroglyph with another Tyroglyph inside, which we have 
reproduced (second figure on p. 238) ; and Megnin saw and gives 
a figure of a Hypopus with a Tyroglyph inside, and another figure 
of a Tyroglyph bursting its way out from the shell of a Hypopus, 
both eight-footed, which we have copied, p. 242. Both agree that 
it is a Tyroglyphus that is within, and that comes out; but Claparede 
says it is inside a Tyroglyphus, and Megnin, inside a Hypopus, 
and Dujardin that it is a Gamasus inside a Hypopus. Have these 
gentlemen been looking at the same thing, or do their figures 
represent different events happening at different stages in the life 
of the same individual ? If the former, then it seems clear that 
it can only be determined by further experiments made by some 
other equally competent observers. If we take both as happening, 
but happening at different stages, then it is clear that by doing 
so we diminish the probability of one of them ; for changes by 
development are only accomplished at the periods of moulting, 
and as these are limited in number, each additional change intro- 
duced reduces the opportunities of effecting it. We presume that 
it will never be possible to ascertain, by actual observation, 
the exact number of times that these mites change their skin ; but 
the number of times is said to be four, and at all events there are 

Q 2 



244 ARACHNOIDEA, 

CASE only four recognised stages of progress, besides the &%%, as proved 
by Robin in his paper on the Dermaleichi (1868); the six-footed 
stage, the young eight-footed stage without sexual organs, the 
eight-footed nymph with internal but without external sexual 
organs, and the perfect mature insect, with both internal and 
external sexual organs. If to these we are to add two Hypopus 
stages, and two shiftings back to Tyroglyph, as required by 
M. Megnin's hypothesis, it complicates the matter considerably. 
The only at all feasible way out of the difficulty is by supposing 
that M. Dujardin and M. Megnin on the one hand, or Claparede 
on the other, had made a mistake in the kind of species that 
contained the other. That may be possible, and if that is the 
only alternative offered us, men must judge for themselves whether 
they think it more likely that M. Claparede or M. Megnin (and 
we ought to add M. Dujardin) shall have made such an error. 
Either will remove much of the difficulty. If it be the latter 
who are in error, all the phenomena seem explicable on the 
supposition of Hypopus being an internal insect parasite. If it 
be M. Claparede, then MM. Dujardin and Megnin have got their 
way cleared of at least one stumbling block. If neither have been 
in error, we have the following curious succession of development. 
I. Egg of Tyroglyphus. 2. Six-footed young stage. 3. Eight- 
footed unsexual stage. 4. The eight-footed form seen by Claparede 
within the preceding, and which must have been the nymph without 
external sexual organs. 5. The Hypopus with a totally different 
system of nutrition. The change from the preceding to this has 
not been seen, and is yet to be proved, indeed, no connection 
between the Hypopus at this stage and any precedent form of 
Tyroglyphus has been shown. This has next to turn into, 6. An 
eight-footed Tyroglyph, presumably a nymph, and, 7. Back again 
to a Hypopus, which has been traced no further, but which must, 
on the hypothesis of its being a phase of development, in turn 
change into the final change (which would make the eighth), the 
perfect insect. 



HYFOFID^E. 245 

CASE It humbly appears to us that there must be some error here. 
We render all justice to the painstaking truthfulness of M. 
Dujardin and M. Megnin's observations. They are no doubt two 
to one, but we must remember who the one is. Claparede was 
one of the most distinguished physiologists, and most careful and 
accurate microscopic observers of the present generation ; and as 
Claparede's observations, now in the balance, lead to no incon- 
gruous or unprecedented results, we own that we feel a preference 
for them. If MM. Dujardin and Megnin are in error, its extent 
would be the mistaking the containing mite for a Hypopus while 
it was only a Tyroglyphus ; and the very considerable resemblance 
that there is on a superficial view between the earlier stages of 
Hypopus (so far as known) and Tyroglyphus, is the more sug- 
gestive of the possibility of such a mistake. 

As regards the observations of Dujardin, he is either in error 
in supposing that the contained mite was a Gamasus ; in which 
case his authority as to identity of the containing mite is weakened, 
or if he is right and M. Megnin right, then Hypopus forms not 
only a stage in the development of Tyroglyphus, but also of 
Gamasus. We must always remember that we are investigating 
the development of an animal so minute, that it passes the portion 
of its life now in question in the inside of a mite no larger than 
its relative the cheese mite. 

As to M. Megnin again, his own account of his observation 
contains one or two facts which seem to lend support to our 
suggestion that, in its early stage, Hypopus is an internal insect 
parasite. In his paper above mentioned he says, *'0n the 14th 
of April, 1869, while preparing a Trombidium holosericeum for 
anatomical study, we were much surprised to find, among the 
red and branched hairs of this large Acarid, three Hypopi, in all 
respects similar to that found on an ox by M. Deyrolle. In fine, 
eight days later, having collected in a truss of old decaying hay a 
great qu^^ntity of Gamasi and other Acarids, we found a female 
Gamasus, to which adhered two Hypopi, in all respects similar to 



246 ARACHNOIDEA. 

CASE the preceding. One of these Hypopi was fixed on the back, and 
the other on the abdominal face, in such a manner, that looking 
at the Gamasus from its upper side, its parasites both appeared 
as if in the abdomen, and we entertained for a moment the con- 
viction that we had, under our eyes, the proof of the truth of the 
assertion of Dujardin that our Gamasus was about to bring forth 
a living larva with a Hypopial form. We know, says he, that 
some Gamasidce, the Pteropti amongst others, bring forth living 
octopod larv32. 

*' Opportunity having permitted us to meet several times Hypopi 
attached to Gamasi, and to study them in all their phases, after 
having also encountered the veritable larvae of Gamasi, always 
similar to their parents, whether hexapod or octopod, we have 
thus acquired the proof that we had been the plaything of an ilhtsion 
and that the Hypopi are not the normal larvae of Gamasi as 
Dujardin supposed." We have quoted this passage entire, and 
in Megnin's own words, first to show the wide dispersion of the 
Hypopi among insects, which, according to our view, is consistent 
with its being a general parasite seeking whom it may devour, but 
inconsistent with its being a phase of developement of a particular 
insect; and, second, to show, by the words we have printed in 
italics, that M. Megnin really did see a Hypopus inside of a 
Gamasus, but disbelieved his eyes, and regarded himself as 
the plaything of an illusion, not from any correction of his obser- 
vation, but from abstract reasoning that it could not possibly be 
correct. He reasoned himself out of his own senses. It looks as 
if he had made up his mind that anything inside the Gamasus 
could only be a phase of Gamasus ; and as from independent 
observation he was sure that its larvae was different, he came to 
the conclusion that what he saw was not there, but somewhere 
else, and only appeared to be there by an optical illusion. 

This is not the only insect besides Tyroglyphus, that the 
Hypopus has been found in. Mt. Tatem described and figured 
(Monthly Micro. Journ., 1872) a Hypopus under the name of 



HYPOPIDjE. 247 

CA^E Acarellus muscse, which he took from " the abdominal cavity of a 
xi\'. ' 

dead flea." Qu'allait-il faire dans cette galere, if it was a phase 

of a vegetable-feeding Tyroglyphus j neither could there be any 
question of development between a flea and a Hypopus. But it 
was a very natural place if the creature is an internal parasite. 
Again, Dr. Maddox (Monthly Micr. Journ., 187 1) describes and 
figures a Hypopus that he obtained from a bat's ear, that was 
swarming with the larvae of a parasitic tick that we have already 
and shall again have occasion to speak of If a phase of Tyro- 
glyphus, it could hardly have mistaken a bat's ear for its natural 
food, a hyacinth bulb. If a parasite, it might very naturally be 
found among the ticks on which it preys ; and what adds value to 
these two observations is that they were both made by observers 
who appear to have made no special study of the Acarids and 
who were ignorant of Hypopus and its points of interest. Mr. 
Tatem supposed that his Acarellus might perhaps have something 
to do with Phytoptus, and Dr. Maddox goes no farther than to 
call his a single minute insect found free amongst the hairs along 
with specimens of the other mite he there found and adds "(? im- 
mature male)": — but the figures given by both Mr. Tatem and 
Dr. Maddox are unmistakably Hypopi. It is also not irrelevant 
to remind the reader of Dujardin's observations regarding a 
Hypopus found on or in connection with a parasite of the field- 
mouse, which, from his description, is doubtless Myobia musculi ; 
and to add that a careful examination of the description of Dr. 
Maddox's mite found in the ear of a bat, has satisfied us that its 
generic place is not with the Pteropti, but with the Sarcoptidae, 
and next to Myobia musculi. 

Another circumstance observed by M. Megnin in his study 
of the Tyroglyphi and Hypopi, the successive disappearance 
of Tyroglyphi, appearance of Hypopi, and re-appearance of 
Tyroglyphi in his boxes, suggests the remark that, on our hypo- 
thesis, it presents none of the difficulties of explanation which 
attend it on his. On the mushrooms becoming dry in his cage 



248 ARACHNOIDEA. 

CASE (which shews an insufficiency of moisture for the wants of the 

XIV. 

Tyroglyphi), they disappeared, that is, dried up and died. On 
the death of an insect containing parasites, these latter usually, if 
they can, make their way out and anticipate their period of pass- 
ing into the pupa state ; so here on the death of the Tyroglyphi 
the Hypopi made their way out, but only to die ; — " they rested 
inert on the walls and as if deprived of life." He never says that 
they revived, but he says they disappeared on (but it does not 
follow that it was in consequence of) fresh mushrooms being 
introduced into the cages. Our understanding of this would be 
that they had really died when they seemed deprived of life. But 
fresh swarms of Tyroglyphi now succeed them. Why not ? There 
might still be plenty of Tyroglyphi living to replenish the stock 
now that fresh food was introduced; for in speaking of their 
first disappearance, he does not say that they wholly disappeared, 
but "disappeared in great part." But besides this, in introducing 
fresh mushroom-food, even with every care to exclude eggs or 
Acari, there is always a great chance of their getting admission in 
spite of every precaution. 

Further, if our hypothesis be right, it helps to explain how 
Claparede and others have failed to find any six-footed larvae of 
Hypopi going about free. At that stage we assume them to be 
in the inside of other insects. Other puzzling points in the 
economy and life-history of these creatures still remain awaiting 
elucidation. As yet no sexual organs have been found in them, — 
which, so far as it goes, is a point in favour of M. Megnin as 
indicating immaturity and progress of development. 

Again, what are the great clusters of them that are seen ad- 
hering to other insects, doing there ? They are not on the insect 
for purposes of feeding, for they have no mouth, or if they had, 
they could extract nothing out of the polished armour of such 
insects as the Histeridse, to which they cling. They cannot be 
there for the purpose of laying eggs in the insect's body, even 
supposing that mature males and females are there, although no 



HYPOPIDJE.. 249 

CASE sign of sex is distinguishable, because it is notorious that so far 
from a crowd of parasitic insects selecting the same insect as the 
host in which to deposit their eggs, they carefully avoid placing 
them in any insect that has already had eggs placed in it by 
another ; their instinct in this matter teaching them contrary to 
the axiom acted on by many human couples, that what is enough 
for one is not enough for two They must, moreover, leave their 
host at some time or other, and when they do so, they may, of 
course, be found elsewhere than on insects. Can they be indi- 
viduals that have passed their parasitic life inside the insects, and 
are now enjoying their otium cum dignitate idly on its outside? 
But how did they get out, having no mandibles ? They could not 
eat their way out. It is not like the thin shell of a Tyroglyphus, 
which may be cracked by muscular action. And whence come so 
many? It is true that although a Tyroglyphus may only hold 
one, a fly might hold many. 

Yet again, how come one or more species of Hypopus to be 
found habitually, not on insects, but on ferns? In speculating 
on this we must remember that we have plenty of instances, 
among insects, of species of the same genus having different 
habits. In this very group we have one section of Tyroglyphi 
living on vegetable and another on animal matters — we have 
most of the species of Glyciphagus feeding on sugared fruits, but 
other species parasitic \ and it adds to the probability of its being 
so here that there have been two species of Hypopus found on 
ferns, and that they both, although distinct, have the same 
cachet or type of make. They belong to a separate sub-genus of 
Hypopus. The same remark applies to the specially endowed 
species found on the field-mouse. It may have special habits 
as well as special structure. 

Passing from the consideration of this very curious and puzzling 
animal, let us now glance at some of the different species of the 
genus. 



250 



ARACHNOIDEA. 



CASE Hypopus MUSCARUM {Linn.). See figure on page 234. 
XIV. 

On flies. 



Hypopus alicola {Duj.). 




On the wing of a bee. 



No. 3. II Hypopus musc^ (Acarellus muscce, Tatem., 

Monthly Micr. Journ. 1872, pi. xl, 263.).— 3. 
Magnified sketch of ditto, copied from Mr. 
Tatem's figure. 

An elongate form, like H. alicola Duj. 
Duj ar din obtained his specimen from the 
humble-bee; Mr. Tatem his from a small 
dipterous fly. 

No. 4. ^^ 0^W^M Hypopus pulicis (Acarellus pulicis, Tatem, loo. 

cit. ). — 4. Magnified sketch of ditto, copied from 
Mr. Tatem's figure. 

Found by Mr. Tatem in " the abdominal 
cavity of a dead flea." It comes very close 
to Hypopus lasvis of Dujardin, the chief 
difference seeming to be that its posterior pairs of legs are scarcely 
quite so robust ; but as Mr. Tatem mentions that these legs were 
only visible through the skin, and not yet free, it may be that his 
specimen, not being yet closed, was not perfectly developed, 
and that the legs might afterwards have become somewhat 
stronger. We have already alluded to the significance of the 
locality in which it was found by Mr. Tatem. 



Hypopus alicola. 
Copied from Dujardin. 



Hypopus filicum {Duj.), See figure on page 235. 
On the fronds of Celerach officinalis. 



Hypopus arvicola {Duj.). See figure on page 236, 
On the field-mouse. 



HYPOPID.^. 



2:;i 



CASE There have been about twenty species of Hypopus described, 
Dujardin having subsequently added a i^w more to those pre- 
viously mentioned. 

Here, perhaps, should follow one of Hering's species found by 
him on dried figs, and which he named Acarus passularum (Nov. 
Act. Cur. 1838). It has been supposed to be a Hypopus, but the 
uncertainty in which many points have been left by him, which 
have since been found to be of importance, prevents more than 
probable conjecture as to the genus to which the species he has 
figured belongs. The figure he gives certainly does not look like 



one. 



Genus Trichodactyltjs {Dufoitr, Ann. Sc. Nat, 2nd Ser. 
xi. 1839). 

This genus was proposed in 1839 by M. Leon Dufour for one 
or two species of parasitic mites found on bees. The name is 
derived from the last pair of feet terminating in one or more long 
hairs, instead of in a tarsus or claw. They have obviously much 
affinity with Hypopus, both in habit and structure, the posterior 
legs of which terminate in something the same manner ; so much 




Leg of Trichodactylus Osmias. Copied from Donnadieu's figure. 

so that Dujardin regards them as belonging to the same genus. 
But we think that the more powerful make and claws of the first 
three pairs of legs in Trichodactylus, combined with the nidi- 



252 



ARACHNOIDEA. 



CASE mentary character being confined to the last pair of legs, is suffi- 
cient to make a sub-genus for their reception necessary. We 
give figures of the two that have been described : nothing is 
known of their development as yet. 

Trichodactylus osmi^ {r>iif.). 




Tricliodactylus osmiae. Copied from 
original figure by Dufour. 



Trichodactylus osmiK. Copied from figfure by Donnadie;]. 



Found on a species of Osmia. It will be seen that it has the 
mouth-piece of Hypopus with its two projecting bristles. 



No. 5. Trichodactylus xylocop^.— 6. Magnified sketch of ditto, copied from 
figure. 

Found on Xylocopa violacea. There is some appearance of 
transverse lines on the surface of this and the preceding species, 
but we have had no means of ascertaining how far they are of 
the same character as those on the Sarcoptidse. The hair ter- 
mination of the last pair of legs undoubtedly has some affinity to 
that group, and it is obvious that we are approaching its terri- 



HYPOPIDjE, 



253 




Trichodactylus xylocopse. 



CASE tories ; but in several true Hypopi the last legs likewise terminate 
in a long hair, and the other more 
important characters indicate that its 
nearest relations are with them. 

Another species was described in 
1845 t)y Dr. Gros in the Bull. Soc. 
Imp. Mosc. S. 397, under the name of 
Scutacarus femoris. He found it, he 
says, in the nests of Hornets, and 
beside the mites of Hister unicolor. 
The description shows that it belongs 
to this genus. 

Another form which may perhaps also be connected with Hy- 
popus is the 

Genus Homopus {Fiirst). 

No. 6. Homopus elephantis {Fiirsf. Kratz-milben, 222), (Symbiotes elephantis, 
GerL). — 6. Magnified sketch of ditto, copied from Furstenberg's figure. 

The only claim that this has to 
be called "elephantis," consists in 
its having been found on the hide 
of a stuffed elephant; but we do 
not even know how long the skin 
had been stuffed. Gerlach thought 





Homopus elephantis. 
Copied from Furstenberg's fii^ure. 



it an itch mite, and named it Symbiotes elephantis ; but it 
wants the suckers to the tarsi and the transversely striated skin ; 
and in Furstenberg's figure it is provided with chelate mandibles 



254 ARACHNOIDEA. 

CASE and palpi, and witli the characteristic chitonous bands which 



XIV. 



support the legs in the sarcoptidse, although in a less degree. 
Claparede, although he does not say that he has seen the insect 
itself, boldly says (loc. cit.) that Furstenberg is wrong, both in his 
figure and his description, and disputes the existence of these 
mandibles, and declares it to be a Hypopus. There is certainly 
much in it that is characteristic of Hypopus, but unless Furstenberg 
has been incredibly careless and inaccurate, and we are at liberty 
to re-draw it in accordance with our own notions of what is most 
probable, it seems impossible to bring it in the same line with 
that genus. We quite agree with Claparede, however, that it 
must be near it, and have dealt with it accordingly. 

Furstenberg mentions that he found a similar mite under a 
number of Horse Mites (Dermatokoptes), which he got from a 
horse suffering from the itch. The same species turned up again 
in Paris in 1867. In the Universal Exposition of that year a 
magnificent ox, splendidly stuffed, was a conspicuous object in 
the glass-case of M. Deyrolle, the naturalist. Regarding this ox, 
M. Megnin learned from M. Deyrolle that when he was occupied 
in mounting the skin, which had been left for eight days in a 
bath of alum, he was witness of a singular phenomenon. The 
skin became covered with myriads of very small white Acarids 
scarcely visible, and which gave the effect on the skin of a dusty 
matter. He collected numerous specimens which he gave M. 
Megnin, who on seeing them immediately recognised a Hypopus 
which resembled line for line the Homopus of Furstenberg, 
only its carapace was finely granulated, a detail which he sug- 
gests the German author had perhaps neglected, and moreover he 
found it impossible to make out the jaws and palpi which he de- 
scribes. The mouth was simply a *' rounded opening, closed as by 
a ' clapet ' by a movable lip furnished with two hairs." * 

* Probably here should follow the genus Heteropus, which we have placed 
at the end of the Tyroglyphidae as of uncertain position, not being able to make 
up our mind as to iis most suitable place. 



CASE 
XIV. 



CHEESE MITES, ETC. 255 

Sub-family Tyx^oglyphid^ (Cheese Mites and their allies). 

The general characters of this section are a soft, smooth, fleshy, 
whitish body, without any system of stride, or lines, disposed 
around the body, but with a slight furrow, depression, or line of 
separation, on the back between the second and third pair of legs 
marking off the thorax from the abdomen — Mandibles chelate. 
The tarsi in most species, although not in all, have only a single 
claw, which is surrounded by a vesicle, or fine sucker, like a 
sleeve. In a few species there is only a claw and no sucker. 

The group consists of the following genera— Rhizoglyphus, 
Tyroglyphus, Glyciphagus, and Cheyletus, which may be distin- 
guished by the following characters : — 

Rhizoglyphus, Tyroglyphus, and Glyciphagus have the typical 
characters above mentioned, but are distinguished from each 
other by the two former having the hairs on the back smooth, 
while in Glyciphagus they are hairy, plumose, or feathered, and 
in it there is also a posterior appendage in the females, like a knob 
at the tail, or an os coccygis. Rhizoglyphus again is distinguished 
from Tyroglyphus by having tarsi with claws, and without suckers, 
while Tyroglyphus has both a claw and sucker. 

Cheyletus is distinguished by its enormous mandibles, by a 
peculiar tracheal system, and by having two claws, and other 
appendages to the tarsi. 

Genus Tyroglyphus {Lat.). 

Sub-genus Rhizoglyphus. 

Tarsi with claws and without suckers. Feeds on vegetable 
substances. 

Claparede (loc. cit.) proposed in 1868 a genus under this 
name for a species of Tyroglyphus, which we shall presently 



256 ARACHNOIDEA. 

CASE notice ; but although we adopt his section and his name, we do 
not adopt his character, nor confine it to his species, and, there- 
fore, cannot quote it as his genus. 

The chief characters, as defined by Claparede, were that the 
two right and left abdominal suckers are present both in the 
male and female, instead of being so only in the male, as in 
the normal Tyroglyphi, and that the third pair of legs are dis- 
proportionately large. Both of these characters seem to us 
merely specific. We have seen, when speaking of Hypopus, that 
the number and distribution of abdominal suckers vary in every 
species, and an abnormal thickening of legs in one sex is a not 
uncommon variation in species of many genera of insects. But 
Messrs. Fumouse and Robin, in describing this Tyroglyphus (T. 
echinopus), pointed out that it had no sucker annexed to the 
tarsi. They did not propose to make a new genus for the 
species on that account, but proposed to alter the character of 
the genus Tyroglyphus to admit their species. Hitherto the 
character ascribed to the tarsi had been a claw with a sucker. 
Now the T. echinopus of Fumouse and Robin has no sucker, 





Tarsus of Rhizoglyphus. Tyarsus of Tyroglyplius 

neither has Claparede's Rhizoglyphus robini (his Hypopus 
dujardimi is the same as T. echinopus) ; both with similar habits, 
viz., feeding on hyacinths, and, what is more, having the com- 
mon character of living on vegetable substances ; whilst the 
others (the Tyroglyphi) aifect animal remains, cheese, dead 
insects, &c. For the former we suggest that Claparede's name 



CHEESE MITES, ETC. 257 

CASE and Fumouse and Robin's character should be taken. Claparede's 
characters will not apply to their species, but their character will 
apply to both, and distinguish the little group composed of them 
sharply from Tyroglyphus. 



Nos. 7, Rhizoglyphus echinopus (Hypopus dujardinii, Clap.), — 7. Magnified 
sketch of larva and pupa ; 8. Magnified sketch of supposed male (Hy- 
popus) ; 9. Magnified sketch of female. All copied from Claparede's 
figures. (Tyroglyphus echinopus, Fum. &= Rob., Joum. Anat. and 
Phys. de M. Robin, 1868) ; 10. Magnified sketch of ditto, copied from 
Robin's figure. (? Acarus hyacinthi, Boisd. Ent. Hort., p. Z^.) 



Besides the generic character above 
noticed, the most notable points in 
this species are more numerous bristles 
about its feet than in other species, and 
a more globose body, there being no 
drawing in of the flanks, as is often, 
more or less, seen in other species. As 
we have already said, under Hypopus, 
Claparede's and Robin's species are the 
same. There can be little doubt that Larva of Rhizogiyphus echinopus. 

Copied from Fumouse's figure. 

the species noticed (in th.e same year) 

by Boisduval in his " Entomologie horticole," under the name of 
Acarus hyacinthi, also belongs to this, although the absence of any 
description prevents our saying so with certainty. 

The habits of their species, as observed by all three authors, 
were identical. They live between the scales of some species of 
Liliacece, principally hyacinths. M. Boisduval adds, that in some 
years they are very abundant in autumn, and occasionally cause 
itching and irritation to those persons who handle a great number 
of the bulbs. 

It is not improbable, however, that it is only because the 
hyacinth bulbs are more exposed to view than the roots of other 




25S ARACHNOIDEA. 

CASE plants that the mite has been observed chiefly on these bulbs. 
We have observed in numbers, on the roots of vines attacked 
by Phylloxera, a species which we cannot distinguish from T. 
echinopus ; and it seems not unlikely that it may hereafter be 
found on roots generally. We found Hypopi in its company on 
vine roots. 



Rhizoglyprus phylloxek^ (Tyroglyphus phylloxera, PlaiicJion and Riley, 
6th Report, 1874, p. 52). 

Mr. Planchon in his work on the Ameri- 
can vine, and Mr. Riley (loc. cit), records 
the presence of this allied species in North 
America. They found it in association 
with the Phylloxera of the vine, feeding in 
its young state on the juices of the roots 
injured by Phylloxera ; and, when older, 
preying extensively on the root-inhabiting 
type of that insect. Mr. Riley mentions 

Rhizoglyphus phylloxera. - - ,.- ,,.,_. 

Copied from Riie/s figure. that wheu this lact was published, it was 
hoped that the introduction of the Rhi- 
zoglyphus into Europe might be of service in reducing the 
numbers of Phylloxera, and he received orders from vine growers 
in France for a supply of the cannibal. Mr. Riley, however, 
although he endeavoured to comply with the request, did not 
anticipate that it would do much good ; — in which we agree with 
him, chiefly because they have already in France commonly asso- 
ciated with the Phylloxera a Rhizoglyphus, which we believe to be 
the preceedmg species ; and the one should certainly be as good 
as the other as an exterminator, if that class of mites really did 
feed upon other insects ; but the statement of Messrs. Planchon 
and Riley to that effect has been received with doubt by some 
French entomologists. We have not seen M. Planchon's statement, 
and we observe that Mr. Riley does not say how he ascertained 
the fact ; but he makes the assertion broadly, and as he is well- 




. CHEESE MITES, ETC. 259 

CASE known to be a careful and accurate observer, any statement of his 

XIV. 

is entitled to great weight ; but, like all of us, he is liable to error, 
and may have been deceived (as sometimes happens), by abnormal 
conduct under abnormal circumstances. There are many instances 
of insects that are vegetable feeders having eaten their neighbours 
when shipwrecked into an entomologist's box or breeding cage. 
Dr. Fumouse, who has studied the habits of the Tyroglyphi more 
closely than perhaps any other living naturalist, objects to the idea 
as being opposed to the habits of all other Tyroglyphi, which 
never attack living animals ; and, further, because although not 
rare in France on vine roots attacked by Phylloxera, there never 
has been any appearance of their number being diminished by 
them (see Ann. S. Ent. Fr. 1874, Bull. 98). It is, moreover, op- 
posed to the habits, so far as hitherto known, of the section of 
T}Toglyphi to which it belongs ; for that section feeds exclusively 
on vegetable food. 

Both M. Planchon and Mr. Riley have found Hypopi in this 
species. 

No. II. Rhizoglyphus robinii {Clap. loc. cit,). — H. Magnified sketch of female, 
copied from Claparede's figure. 

Found by M. Claparede in company with his H. dujardinii 
upon hyacinths, and also on potato and dahlia roots, and, as he 
himself says, capable of being easily confounded with dujardinii 
in its course of development; but when mature, the female is 
readily recognisable by her very thick and clumsy third pair of 
legs, which occupy so much space that they throw the fourth pair 
further back than usual. 

Rhizoglyphus (?) fecul^ (Tyroglyphus feculse, Gtcer., Ann. See. Ent. I'r. 
1867). 
It is probably to this genus that the species named Tyro- 
glyphus feculae belongs. M. Guerin-Meneville records its sudden 
appearance in very great numbers in some heaps of Australian 

R 2 



26o ARACHNOIDEA. 

CASE potatoes shut up in a barn of the annex to the imperial farm at 
^^^' Vincennes. What was most remarkable was the immense 
quantity of them that were developed in less than eight days. 
The soil of the ground floor, where the potatoes had been placed, 
was covered with a bed of this little Tyroglyphus, which looked 
like an animated dust of a grey colour. A sample of this living 
dust, which M. Guerin-Meneville had collected, was composed 
of myriads of millions of these little animals, and was swept to- 
gether in some minutes and simply by the help of the feather of 
a pen. This mass of beings was composed of a reunion of indi- 
viduals of all different ages and degrees of development 

This innumerable assembly had attracted, as is always the case, 
many other little hunting insects, who had found there an 
abundant and easy prey. There were larvae and perfect insects 
belonging to several genera, Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera 
Diptera, etc., on which these mites had attached themselves in 
commensurable quantities, literally covering them and giving them 
a most singular appearance. 

The potatoes, which looked quite sound and healthy, were all 
covered with these Acarids. As these latter could no longer all 
hold on to the surface, they accumulated between the paving- 
stones, thence even on to the pavement, where they formed a 
bed of several millimetres in thickness on a surface of about four 
square metres, 

Rhizoglyphus rostro-serratus (Tyroglyphus rostro-serratus, Megnin, 
Tourn. Anat. Phys. 1873; Acarus fungoram (?) jS'm^. Ent. Hort. 1867, 
p. 90^. 

This is the species on which M. Megnin made the observations 
on the development of Hypopus, which we have above recorded. 
We have already mentioned that around Paris the cultivated 
mushrooms, more especially the common Agaricus campestris, are 
often attacked by a moist black rot, which, until lately, had been 
regarded as spontaneous. M. Megnin has shown that it is caused. 



CHEESE MITESy ETC. 261 

CASE or at all events actively aided by, two parasites, an Anguillula and 
a Tyroglyphus, which are remarkable for their prodigious fecundity 



XIV. 





Tyrogflyphus rostro-serratus, under-side. Copied Ditto, side view. Copied from Megnin's figure, 

from Megnin's figure. About size of cheese-mite. 

when they find themselves in conditions favourable for their 
development. The proof that these creatures are the very active 
although indirect agents of this putrid decomposition, is that 
mushrooms on which they have been placed are, in less than 
forty-eight hours, reduced to a state of black and deliquescent 
putrescence, on which myriads of these animalcules swarm ; while 
other mushrooms in the identically same condition, which have 
not been subjected to that inoculation, and which have been iso- 
lated from the spoiled mushrooms, dry up or become mouldy, and 
take from eight days to a fortnight to decompose spontaneously. 

The Tyroglyphus rostro-serratus is a sociable Acarid. It is 
always, in great troops, in which all the ages are represented, that 
it lives on the mushrooms in course of decomposition. It has a 
life in some sort amphibian; for from the moment when the mush- 
room begins to decay, to take a brown colour and become humid, 
it is in the stratum of liquid half a millimetre in depth which 
covers the surface of the fungus that the Tyroglyphi in question 
move about completely bathed in this liquid, and in the midst of 



262 ARACHNOIDEA. 

GASff myriads of angiiillul^ which often swarm there. It looks some- 
times as if they darted their sharp mandibles into these creatures ; 
but this is an illusion, and it is truly the vegetable cells that they 
shear asunder with their scissors-like mandibles. These are shown 
in the woodcut. 




The species is at once distinguishable by its rather rectangular 
form and by the back being raised' in humps as shown in the 
figures. 

It seems very probable that this species, described in 1873 by 
M. Megnin, is the same as that noticed by Boisduval in 1867 \ but, 
as the notice by the latter contains no description, it is impossible 
to give the preference to his name even although it should turn 
out that he meant the same species as M. Megnin. All that 
Boisduval says of it is, that he had observed, when he had 
descended into certain parts of the catacombs or in the quarries 
occupied by mushroom growers, that the common mushroom 
Agaricus edulis, was often invaded by an Acarus visible to the 
naked eye, which covered the pedicule and spread itself even 
between the folds of the pileus. It is, he adds, along with a small 
brachelytrous beetle, which the mushroom growers call capuchin, 
a scourge for this kind of culture. All the description he gives of 
it is that it is roundish and of a feeble rusty grey colour. 

Rhizoglyphus mycophagus (Tyroglyphus mycophagus, Megnin, Journ. 
Anat. Phys. 1874). 

This is another mushroom - feeding Acarid from which M, 
Megnin obtained some of his more important facts regarding the 



CHEESE MITES, ETC. 263 

CASE transformations, or supposed transformations, of Hypopus. It is 

T 1 • 

a long smooth species with a projecting sow-like snout. In 
accordance with his opinion that Hypopus is only a stage of 
Tyroglyphus, he gives as a synonym of it the Acarus spinitarsus 
of Hermann, which is undoubtedly a Hypopus. 



xa. 13- 




Figure of Tyroglyphus mycophagus. Capied from Megnin's figure. 

Nos. Sub-Genus Tyroglyphus (Lafr.) 

Feeds on animal products. Tarsi, with suckers and claw. 

Tyroglyphus entomophagus {Laboulb., Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1862.) — 12. 
Sketch of a particle of dust from an insect drawer much magnified, 
showing the mite in various stages, eggs, broken fragments, &c. ; 13. 
Magnified sketch of insect. 

The Tyroglyphus entomophagus is the smallest of all the 
known species of this genus. It is remarkable for the parallelism 
of the sides, and cylindrical appearance of the body, and for its 
narrowness, especially in the female. Its legs are shorter than in 
the other species. 

It is a species only too well known to Entomologists. It takes 
up its abode in entomological collections, in the interior of the 
body or on the surface of the insects, and in the dust which 
gathers at the bottom of the drawers or boxes. Large insects, 
with the body full of fatty particles, those which have not lived 
long or which have been brought up in captivity, and which have 
not paired, and those which have become greasy, (to use the tech- 
nical expression), are the most hable to attack. Certain families 
of Coleoptera, the large Scarabaeid^, like Oryctes and Geotrupes, 
the Lucanidae, the Carabidae, the Dytiscidae, and the Hydro- 
philidae, the Cerambycidse, the large or badly dried Blaptidae, may 
often be seen covered on the surface with excrement and eggs, 



204 ARACHNOIDEA. 

CASE under the form of white dots, and sometimes contain a consider- 

XIV. 

able number of these Tyrogiyphi in the mterior of the body. 

The body of the large, especially the nocturnal Lepidoptera, the 
Cicadse amongst the Hemiptera, the Earwigs, etc., etc., have 
them likewise, and the quantity sometimes furnished by such 
insects, wh-'^re the mites have once obtained a footing, is truly 
enormous. 

The Tyroglyphus entomophagus may be found running upon 
the back of dead insects, and may be seen without the aid of the 
microscope. According to M. Ferris it gnaws the down and the 
hairs of the insects attacked. It is, however, chiefly in the 
inside of their body that it lives : it gnaws and dilacerates all 
substances that are soft or deprived of chitine ; hence they are 
specially destructive to Lepidopterous insects. In handling in- 
sects that have been attacked by these Tyrogiyphi, we are apt 
to cause the articulated pieces of which the ligaments have been 
destroyed to fall asunder, and then there issues from the body a 
friable matter in which the living Acari swarm. 

The friable matter which falls out, when the body of insects 
gnawed by the Tyroglyphus entomophagus is shaken, is composed 
(as shewn in the sketch in this case) : ist, of the excrement of these 
animals in the form of little rounded greyish masses ; 2ndly, of 
the eggs in course of development, and of empty shells of hatched 
eggs, of open and bent shells, cracked often longitudinally ;.3rdly, 
of young larvae and of nymphs always more numerous than the 
adult animals ; 4thly, of tegumentary envelopes proceeding from 
the moulting of a great number of larvae and nymphs ; 5thly, of 
visceral or muscular remains of the body, of pieces of tracheae, of 
striated muscular fasciae, of dried fragments, sometimes of eggs 
which have not been laid, and which have become loose in the 
body of the females of the attacked insects. 

In the dust at the bottom of the boxes, amongst the remains of 
all kinds, antennas, feet, palpi, broken or fallen, one sometimes 
finds the envelopes of Gamasus, of Glyciphagus and of Cheyletus, 



CHEESE MITES, ETC. 265 

CASE Acarids which live also in collections. Upon the insects them- 

XIV. 

selves, and devouring the excrements and the remains of the 
Tyroglyphus, M. Ferris has found, at Mont-de-Marsan, the larvae 
of the Cecidomyia entomophila. The walk of the Tyroglyphus 
entomophagus is slow. It walks with the head bent down, in 
such a way as to allow the ridge of contact of the two mandibles 
which go beyond the hairs of the nape of the neck to be seen in 
front. The males are as numerous as the females and a little 
more agile. 

It remains to say a few words as to the best means of keeping 
these mites out of collections, and of getting rid of them when 
they have once effected an entrance. The insects which are most 
liable to be attacked by the Tyroglyphus entomophagus are, as 
already said, those which have not been well dried, or which have 
been placed in ill-fitting boxes in a damp room. 

When the Tyroglyphus has attacked an insect, one perceives 
outside little whitish points on the bodies of those with smooth 
teguments, or on another kind a sort of greyish white powder 
mingled in the hairs of cottony or downy kinds. Soon under the 
insect invaded, or on the corresponding sides of the box, one 
notices a matter of a greyish pulverulent aspect, recalling the 
efflorescence of saline matters not deliquescent. This dust is said 
to be quite different from the organic pulverulent de^bris which 
results from the ravages of the Anthfenus or Dermestes; these 
latter produce a fine sawdust, blackish or brownish, but dry and 
non-adherent. Collections in the south of France, exposed to 
damp, are very rapidly attacked by Tyroglyphus entomophagus. 
The mouldmess which shows itself in a collection makes one 
suspicious of mites, for mould and mites almost always go 
together. 

When an insect is known to be attacked by Tyroglyphus it is 
best to isolate it in a very dry box. If the insect is glossy the 
mites which have got into it should be removed with a fine camel 
hair brush. If the insect is scarcely attacked, it can be replaced on 



2 66 ARACHNOIDEA. 

CASE condition of being watched. But very often one sees reappearing 
on the body of an insect which has been simply cleaned or 
brushed, new Tyroglyphi which come from within or from the 
cavities of the joints where they are apt to gather in large 
numbers. This shews that the cleansing has been insufficient. 
One can then have recourse to the heat of the stove or oven. 
This proceeding is inconvenient when the insect turns out to 
be what is technically called ** greasy." Besides, although the 
Tyroglyphi may not resist the effect of a high temperature, the 
eggs often do, especially when they are situated in the interior of 
the body, and the mites swarm again soon after. 

We can scarcely recommend pure water, for if the outside of 
the dirty insects is washed, it penetrates into the inside, leaving a 
humidity unfavourable to the object in view. 

Alcohol is good for all the insects which can stand its action 
without being hurt, in their colours, hairs or scales. It will not 
do for Lepidoptera, but we have often placed beetles that are hard 
and polished in a flask with a large mouth without taking the 
trouble of cleaning them. The pin holding the insect is stuck 
into the under-side of the cork, and the body soaks in alcohol 
without going to the bottom of the vessel. An immersion of 
several hours or a day is sufficient. Either simple alcohol, or 
alcohol containing a small solution of corrosive sublimate, will 
answer. After a bath of an hour in the latter, the insect should 
be washed in pure alcohol to carry off the sublimate, which, with- 
out this precaution, forms a whitish crust and corrodes the pins. 
We prefer to use alcohol with arsenic or saturated with strychnine, 
which, in ridding the insects from the Tyroglyphi, has the ad- 
vantage of preserving them also against the Anthreni. 

Besides alcohol, there are liquids which scour the insects per- 
fectly, killing the Acarids and carrying off their favourite aliment. 
These very useful liquids are ether, benzine, essence of naphtha. 

Dr. Leconte has utilized the " atomiser" for thoroughly and 
imperceptibly besprinkling the insects with such liquids. 



CHEESE MITES, ETC. 267 

CASE MM. Grenier and Aub^ devised an apparatus for exposing the 
insects without removal to the vapours of such chemicals. It is 
a large necrentome of tin, with fastenings, made with a trench to 
be filled with water, so as to submerge the edge of the cover, and 
is well adapted for museums and large collections, where the 
labour of individual cleaning would be too great. But so far as 
regards mites this is not necessary if the drawers or boxes only fit 
moderately closely. Then it will be found sufficient to expose a 
few chrystals of pure naphthaline for an hour or two in the drawers. 
This is the simplest, easiest, and most effectual of all contrivances 
to destroy mites. 

Where it is necessary to treat the insects in detail, another effec- 
tive but more troublesome plan is to expose the infected insect to 
the vapour of liquid ammonia — by placing a morsel of sponge in a 
paint saucer and moistening it with a few drops of powerful liquid 
ammonia. The insect is placed on a bit of cork alongside the 
sponge, and the whole covered by a tumbler or small bell-glass, 
so as to keep in the vapour j and in ten minutes or a quarter of 
an hour the cure is generally complete. Sometimes it must be 
repeated ; but this is rarely necessary. 

Insects should never be put away until they have been well 
dried, and, if necessary, freed from fatty visceral matters. This 
is particularly necessary for kinds brought up in captivity or full 
of juice at the moment of their capture. 

No. 14 Tyroglyphus SIRO (JLinn., Latr.), (Acarus farinas, Linn.; A. lactis, Linn.\ 
A. favorum, Herm. ; T. domesticus, Gerv., haud De G.). — 14. Mag- 
nified figure of ditto. 

It is usual to hear the flour and the cheese mite spoken of by 

naturalists, described in books, and mounted by microscopists 

as two difi'erent and distinct species — but they are not so. It 

was Linnaeus who commenced the blunder by judging from the 

two different kinds of food, instead of from the mites themselves, 

and describing those which he found on cheese as the Cheese Mite 

(Acarus siro), those on flour as the flour mite (Acarus farinse), and 



268 ARACHNOIDEA, 

CASE those in milk as the milk mite (Acarus lactis). It has also received 

XIV 

other names. It is the Acarus domesticus of Gervais, but not of 
De Geer, his domesticus being a Glyciphagus, as is the Acarus 
destructor of Schrank. The reader will not suppose that we mean 
that every species found on cheese, or every species found on flour, 
is this species. There is more than one that feeds on cheese, and 
doubtless also on flour. All that we mean is that the common 
cheese mite is found upon flour as well as on cheese, and that the 
authors above mentioned had made two out of the same species. 





Tryoglyphus siro, slightly magnified Ditto, more highly magnified. Copied 

from Robins' figure. 

It is unnecessary to give any description of the mite. The 
small figure will give a fair idea of its general aspect, and the 
larger one will supply the place of a description. As to its habits 
and mode of life, there is little to add to what every one knows. 
It lives in almost every kind of cheese when a little decayed, and 
especially the harder parts. The individuals gather together in 
winter in groups or heaps in the hollows and chinks of the cheese 
and there remain motionless. As soon as the temperature rises a 
little, they gnaw away at the cheese, and reduce it to powder. 
The powder is composed of similar debris to that mentioned as 
composing the dust made by the T, entomophagus — excrement 
having the appearance of little greyish microscopic balls; eggs, 



CHEESE MITES, ETC, ^69 

:ase old and new, cracked and empty; larvae, nymphs and perfect 
mites, cast skins and fragment of cheese, to which must be added 
numerous spores of microscopic fungi. M. Laboulbene mentions 
having met with these mites in considerable quantity in some 
very old linseed meal, that gave forth a very strong ammoniacal 
odour mixed with that of rotten cheese . . . On different occasions 
two medical men had sent him and M. Robin for determination 
specimens of this mite that had been found on wounds that had 
been dressed with poultices made of linseed meal. On one occa- 
sion a specimen had been found in urine. Human nature is apt 
to prefer the most marvellous way of accounting for such things, 
but it is the part of science to point out how easily the mites 
might have found their way to the wound or urine in a perfectly 
simple and natural way. Professor Robin proved by experiment 
that it was easy to transfer a colony of this species from a cheese 
to flour where it throve and flourished. The same means answers 
to inoculate an uninfected cheese — a few mites transferred from a 
mitey cheese to an old one not mitey will soon make it as good 
(or as bad) as the other — only in respect of mites of course. 

It is to this species that the following case of dysentery caused 
by Faites has been referred. Rolander, a student of Entomology, 
while he resided in the house of Linnaeus, was attacked by 
that complaint, which quickly gave way to the usual remedies. 
Eight days after it returned again, and was as before soon 
removed. A third time, at the end of the same period, he was 
seized with it. All the while he had been living like the rest 
of the family, who had nevertheless escaped. This, of course, 
occasioned enquiry into the cause of what had happened. Lin- 
naeus, aware that Bartholemy had attributed the dysentery to 
insects which he professed to have seen, recommended it to his 
pupil to examine his faeces. Rolander, following this advice, 
discovered in them innumerable animalcules, which upon close 
examination proved to be mites. It was next a question how he 
alone came to be singled out by them ; and thus he accounted for 



2 70 ARACHNOIDEA. 

CASE it. It was his habit not to drink at his meals ; but in the night, 
^^^' growing thirsty, he often sipped some liquid out of a vessel made 
of juniper wood. Inspecting this very narrowly, he observed 
in the chinks between the ribs a white line, which, when viewed 
under a lens, he found to consist of innumerable mites, precisely 
the same with those that he had voided. Various experiments 
were tried with them, and a preparation of rhubarb was found to 
destroy them most effectually. He afterwards discovered them in 
vessels containing acids, and often under the bung of casks. In 
the instance here recorded, the dysentery or diarrhoea was thus 
apparently produced by a species of mite, which Linnaeus thence 
called Acarus dysenterise. 

Latreille thought it might be the cheese mite, or one of its 
allies. It is against the probability of its being so that no re- 
corded instance of this or any other mischief from cheese mites 
has ever been recorded, although they are daily eaten in quan- 
tities too great and too carelessly to leave a doubt that hundreds 
of living individuals must be swallowed which escape the grinding 
of our molars. If they did any harm there should be thousands 
of cases of suffering from them in our medical works, but there 
is none. 



No. 15. Tyroglyphus longior ( Gervais, in Walckenaer's Apter. iii. 1844), 
(Acarus dimidiatus, Herm. ; Acarus horridus, Ttirpin ; Acarus Crossi, 
of English writers). — 15. Magnified sketch of ditto, copied from Robin's 
figures. 

Very easily distinguished from T. siro (with which it associates), 
by its more rapid movements, larger size, longer and more cylind- 
ric body, and longer and more shining hairs sticking out on 
every side. Its habits, however, are very much the same, al- 
though T. longior does not quite adopt all the partialities of T. 
siro. It lives upon old and decaying cheese along with it, but 
not equally on all; for instance, MM. Fumouse and Robin 
mention that only one per cent, was found by them to belong to 



CHEESE MITES, ETC, 



271 



CASE this species on Septmoncel cheese; eight or ten per cent, on 
^^^' Roquefort, and somewhat more on Gruyere. MM. Laboulbene 




Tyrogiyphus longior. 
Copied from Fumouse and Robin's figure. 



and Robin tried the experiment of placing some of this species 
along with T. siro, taken from Roquefort cheese, on flour in a 
state of putrefaction, but the T. longior did not take to it or 
multiply as T. siro did, but all died in the course of a day or two; a 
circumstance the more to be noted that they can fast with ease. 
M. Fumouse kept them for more than a month without food, and 
they were as lively at the end as at the beginning of their fast. 
This is the species that is most commonly met with in stores of 
Cantharides, which are very subject to the attacks of mites (T. 
siro among others). M. Fumouse has followed the development 
of this species. In order to observe them, he placed a certain 
number of individuals with small portions of Cantharides between 
two plates of glass, separated the one from the other by a circular 
band of cardboard. He had thus a small glass cage, whose trans- 



2 72 ARA CHNOIDEA. 

CASE parency permitted him to study the life of his httle captives under 
the microscope. The females laid eggs (regularly oval) from the 
very commencement. The eggs hatched in ten or fifteen days, 
splitting longitudinally. When the young mite came out, it was 
hexapod. They cast their skin several times, and it is after the 
first or second change that they get their additional pair of legs. 
The skin splits behind, and they come out of the old skin 
creeping backwards. It is usually considered that they are 
mature and full-grown when they have got eight legs ; but in 
speaking of other mites we have already explained that this is 
only partially true. They cannot be called adult until they are 
provided with complete sexual organs, and this does not take 
place until later. At first no sexual distinction is visible. 

This is the species that gave rise to a good deal of talk among 
scientific people some forty years ago, as having been supposed to 
be produced by electricity. It may be remembered that in the 
beginning of the present century, there was a sort of vague idea in 
the scientific or semi-scientific world in favour of electricity being 
the source of many of the phenomena of life. The limits and 
extent of its power were of course even less known than at present, 
and all sorts of wild experiments were tried in the search after 
truth. One gentleman set up lines of electrical wires over 
portions of his estate, with the view of ascertaining whether the 
plants would not thrive better under what he supposed would be an 
increased flow of electricity. Others tried similar experiments in 
different directions, and among them two gentlemen, Messrs. Cross 
and Weekes, set themselves to ascertain whether by the conthmous 
use of electrical apparatus they could not produce organic beings, 
either plants or animals. Mr. Cross's process was to operate on 
volcanic stone kept moist by a weak solution of silicate of potash, 
super-saturated with muriatic acid, constantly subjected to elec- 
tricity. After carrying on this for a time, he at last found some 
mites wandering about his apparatus or chemical solutions, and ar- 
rived at the conclusion that they had been produced by his electrical 



CHEESE MITES, ETC. 



273 



CASE batteries. The present was one of the species so dignified, and 
it for some time enjoyed an ephemeral fame as a human creation. 
It was sent to M. TuqDin in Paris (then one of the experts in 
knowledge of Acari), and, notwithstanding that he had only a single 
dead specimen in spirits to work from, he (erroneously as it after- 
wards turned out) determined it to be new, and described and 
figured it under the name of Acarus horridus (Comptes Rendus, 
1837). But although he considered it to be new, he by no means 
endorsed the idea that it was created by Mr. Cross, or his elec- 
trical apparatus. It was not only a highly organised animal, and 
nearly alHed to well-known species, but it proved to be a female 
containing eggs, which, as he dryly remarked, seemed an unneces- 
sary complication in a new creation. Turpin's figure was not a 
very good one, as the reader will see from the copy of it that we 
give. It bore to be a fac-simile, and the specimen having been 





Copy of Turpin"s figure of Acarus horridus, 
found by Mr. Cross. 



Acarus, found by Mr. Weekes. Copied from 
figure in Smee's work on Instinct. 



put out of shape by immersion in spirits, it appeared distorted 
and uncharacteristic. Gervais afterwards, misled by the length 
and strengtli of the hairs figured on its body, did not discern that 
it was actually a species described by himself (the present), but 
took it to be a Glyciphagus, although there was no trace of the 



274 ARACHNOIDEA, 

CASE feathered hairs or the other essential and very distinctive characters 

XIV. 

of that genus. Gervais no doubt supposed that these must merely 
have escaped Turpin's notice ; but Professor Robin has authori- 
tatively settled all dispute about it. He says, " The Acarus 
horridus of Turpin is only a female of Tyroglyphus longior, Gerv., 
badly described, and imperfectly figured from want of sufficiently 
precise taxinomic notions upon these articulates. The tarsus, for 
instance, is represented and described as composed of two articles, 
because on account of its length, the little support that is pro- 
vided for one of the hairs starting about its middle has been 
divided in two by the draughtsman." 

Mr.Weekes believed that he had made a similar discovery, and 
his mite has been figured too, but still more unsatisfactorily. We 
give a copy of it also. 

Tyroglyphus siculus {Ftun. Si Rob., Journ, Anat. Phys,, 1867), 




Tyroglyphus siculus. Copied from Fumouze and Robin's figure. 

The only remaining European species of Tyroglyphus as yet 
described is this one named T. siculus, by MM. Fumouze and 
Robin, which was found in great abundance in Cantharides in 
Sicily, and is distinguished from the preceding by, inter alia, the 
shortness of its legs, the greater comparative breadth of its body, 
and its squat form. 



CHEESE MITES, ETC, 



275 



avSE Tyroglyphus malus {Shimer, from Riley's 5th Missouri Report, 1873, 87). 



No. 16. 



16. Magnified sketch of ditto, from Riley's figure. 

Y ^ 





Tyroglyphus malus, side view. Copied from Riley's figure. Ditto, under side. Copied from ditto. 

A North American species, said to have been useful in some 
places (Georgia) in clearing away the mussel-shell Bark louse 
{Mytilaspis pomicoi'ticis of American authors) from the bark of 
apple trees. From the figure it appears to be narrower and more 
elongate than any of our species. There is no doubt, however, 
as to the genus to which it belongs j the smooth body, trans- 
verse line dividing it, the tarsal cla.w, &c., all sufficiently indicate 
it to be either a Tyroglyphus, or a Rhizoglyphus. Mr. Riley's, 
beautiful figure is not on a sufficiently large scale to allow us to- 
make out which. 

Tyroglyphus translucens (Acaras translucens, Nietner ; Enemies of the 
coffee tree, 1861). 

It appears that other mites with similar beneficial tendencies are 
found in other parts of the world. M. Nietner mentions one 
under the name Acarus translucens, as preying on the cocci that 
infest the coffee plants in Ceylon, and his notice would seem to- 
indicate that this is most probably its proper place. He says it is 
a very minute whitish translucent mite, that is mixed up with the 
scale insects, and no doubt injures them. On examining old full- 
grown scale insects, the shells were often found to be filled, not 
with eggs, but with a white flakey substance, among which the 
above mentioned mite moved about. 

s 2 



276 



ARACHNOIDEA, 



c*SE Genus Glyciphagus, Hering, Kratz-Milben in Nov. Act. Cuv. 

(1838), XVIII. a. 575. 
A genus, established by Hering, for a mite allied to Tyroglyphus 
which he found feeding on the sugar of dried fruits, such as figs, 
prunes, cherries, &c. It derives its name from yXvKo?, sweet, and 
^ayw, I eat. Without going into minute details, its chief 
characters are a pointed snout (chelate mandibles), a dorsal depres- 





Mouth of Glyciphagus spinipes. 



Hair of Glyciphagus. 



Claw of Glyciphagus spinipes. 



sion instead of a distinct transverse line, dividing the body 
between thorax and abdomen, a number, not all, of the hairs on 
the back long and feathered, particularly behind, and the body 
terminated by a short button or anal projection at least in the 
female, a character which occurs in no other type of mites. 
The legs are five-jointed, and the tarsi terminate in a sucker 
and very fine almost undecipherable claw, so that they generally 
look as if provided with simple suckers like the Sarcoptidse. 
The skin is neither striate, as in the Sarcoptid^, nor. smooth 
and shining as in the Tyroglyphi, but has a sort of granular texture 
that makes it look velvety. The males are greatly rarer than 
the females. This is a very easy genus to diagnose. It may 
seem a very trifling matter whether the hairs of an almost invisible 



SUGAR MITES. 277 

CASE ixiite are smooth like bristles, or feathered, or downy, but it is 
nevertheless a most reliable character, as is the little terminal 
projection at the tail and the velvety skin. Sometimes the one 
or the other may be in a position where they cannot be seen, but 
two out of the three present and the third doubtful is generally 
sufficient warrant to say that the bearer is a Glyciphagus. If seen 
in life they are at once known by the rapidity of their movements, 
they run ; the Tyroglyphi walk or creep. The hairs are a most 
extraordinary part of their structure, for it is not only in downy 
hairs that the deviation from normal hairs shows itself, but in the 
most wonderful feathered and flat pennate transparent spatula- 
like plumes with a transparent membrane uniting the side and 
midribs. These different types of hair structure enable the 
genus to be separated into two sufficiently marked sections, 
the one having long • downy hairs and very swift in their 
motion, the other short feathered or membranous pennate 
plates, and comparatively slow in their motions. At least two 
of each are well described ; but there are also a number more 
of the first section which have been less satisfactorily described 
although they may be good species. 

Section T. 
Body somewhat elongate, and with long downy hairs. 

No. 17. Glyciphagus prunorum {Hewing, Nov. Act. xviii.). — 17. Enlarged sketch 
of ditto, copied from Hering's figure. 

Hering's description and figure is not sufficiently minute in its 
details to allow us to be sure of his species, but as it was the first 
described, and if we were sure about it, ought to be its type, we 
have placed a copy of it in the case. 

Found by Hering in dried plums preserved in sugar. The 
sugar merchants and grocers in this country are sometimes 



278 



ARACHNOIDEA, 



CASE troubled with swarms of either this or some other species of 

XIV. ^ 

Glyciphagus in their stores of sugar. These mites wander to the 
hands of shopmen and those that handle the sugar, who suffer 
considerable annoyance from their presence, which causes a tem- 
porary inflammation or irritation known as the grocer's itch. 



No. i3. Glyciphagus cursor {Gerv., Ann. Sc. Nat. ; Acarus domesticus, De Geer). 
18. Magnified sketch of ditto, copied from Gervais' figure. 

This species has been found by M. 
Fumouze, in numbers, in a parcel of 
Cantharides in company with species 
of Tyroglyphi (entomophagus and 
longior) ; Gervais found it among the 
feathers of dead birds and in the 
bodies of insects in collections. It 
is also found on the earth and dust 
of cellars, and especially in the 
moulds which grow there. 

We have said above that the Acarus 
domesticus of De Geer was different 
from the Acarus domesticus of Ger- 
vais, the latter being the same as 
Tyroglyphus Siro. The former is considered by M. Fumouze 
and Robin to belong either to this species or to Tyroglyphus 
longior, but they give the preference to this or to some allied 
form of Glyciphagus. Signer Moriggia (Atti. Acad. Sci. Torino 
I. p. 449, 1867) mentions a case which would seem to support 
their view, for none of the Tyroglyphi have been found parasitic, 
although some of the Glyciphagi have. He figures a singular 
horny excrescence of great length growing from the hand of a 
lady, and containing in its cavities great quantities of what he 
calls "Acarus domesticus." The excrescence was nearly eight 
inches in length, tapering upwards from a wide base and curved 
towards the wrist. 




Glyciphagus cursor. 



SUGAR MITES. 279 

CASE Glyciphagus hippopodos [Hering, Nov. Act. 1838).— 19. Magnified sketch 
^ • of ditto, copied from Hering's figure. 

Hering, who described this species, and who, so far as we know, 
is the only author who has met with it, placed it among the 
Sarcoptid^, but although the habitat where it was found makes 
it not unnatural that he should have done so, there can be no 
doubt that its characters are all those of a Glyciphagus. It was 
obtained by Hering from a horse, whose hind feet had for several 
months had itch mites to such a degree, that 
although young and in other respects sound, it 
was so useless that it had to be killed. Both 
the hind hoofs were quite disorganised, the 
frog and the sole consisting of a soft fibrous 
mass, in the wrinkles of which a stinking liquid 
was secreted. The cracks in the hoof arose 
from the destruction of the edges of the hoof 
which became separated and soft, and the animal 
became unable to go on hard ground. In the 
end the sore spread at the back from the ball to the flexors 
and muscle of the fetlock. In the lifetime of the animal very 
few mites were perceived, but when it was dead, the hoof, in 
order that its abnormal form might be modelled, was covered 
with plaster both outside and inside to the frog, and then they were 
found to be in numbers. They had, as is usual after the death 
of the harbouring animal, left their retreats and congregated to 
the edge of the sore and the hardened hide. Although at this 
time the temperature was several times l^elow the freezing point 
(in the night it fell to 10 R.) ; still after several weeks living 
mites were found. It appears that the cold hindered a further 
decomposition in the soft parts, and therefore the mites continued 
to live on in their wonted element. 

Glyciphagus buski (see Cooper and Busk's Microscopic Journal, 1842}. 
It is probably here that an unnamed species made known by 




28o 



ARACHNOIDEA. 




Glyciphagus Buski. 
Copied from Prof. Busk s figure. 



CASE Prof. Busk ought to come in, which we have taken the liberty to 
nominate after that eminent naturaUst 

It was found beneath the cuticle of the sole of the foot of 
a negro, who had been admitted into the Seaman's Hospital 
Ship on the Thames, in 1841, with large sores of a very peculiar 
character, and confined to the soles of the feet. On examining 

the secretion of these sores the 
insect in question was found, but 
dead, and partially crushed or 
broken, as represented in the 
woodcut. It appeared that the 
disease was caused by its burrow- 
ing immediately beneath the thick 
cuticle, which thus became irregu- 
larly detached, being, as it were, 
undermined by galleries branch- 
ing in all directions. The disease was attributed to the wearing 
of a pair of shoes which had been lent to another negro, whose 
feet had been similarly affected for nearly a year, and who 
wore the shoes thus lent for a day or two. The negro under 
Mr. Busk's care was a native of, and came from the West 
Indies, and was not aware that a disease like his was ever known 
to occur there, but the negro to whom he had lent the shoes came 
from Sierra Leone ; and Mr. Busk stated in conjunction with 
this, the remarkable fact that in some water brought by Dr. 
Stanger from the river Sinoe on the coast of Africa, one nearly 
perfect specimen, and fragments of others very similar, if not of 
this identical Acarus were found, rendering it, as he thought, 
probable that the first man contracted the disease under which 
he had laboured so long from some external source. Mr. Busk 
thought it not a very unlikely explanation that the insect might 
eventually prove to be the parasite of some aquatic bird, or other 
animal frequenting watery places j and he adds as pertinent to the 
subject, that he had been informed by Staff Assistant Surgeon, 



SUGAR MITES. 281 

CASE P. D. Murray, that at Sierra Leone there is a native pustular 
disease called craw-craw, which is a species of itch breaking into 
open sores, and very troublesome to cure. 

Notwithstanding the imperfection of the materials we cannot 
feel much doubt that this is a Glyciphagus. It undoubtedly 
jDelongs either to the Tyroglyphidse or the Sarcoptidae. There is 
nothing else with which it has even a suspicion of affinity. We 
cannot place it among the Sarcoptidse, the striated skin being 
absent, and the legs made on the principle of the Tyroglyphidse. 
But the presence of the posterior button, so characteristic of the 
Glyciphidse, seems to us conclusive. So far too as one can judge 
from I\Ir. Busk's lithographic drawing, which seems uncommonly 
good, its skin has a velvety structure. In a dead, crushed 
specimen we should not expect to see the suckers of the tarsi. 
There remains only the hair on the body to complete the 
evidence : if they were feathered, there could not be a doubt 
remaining ; but they are not so figured. We do not, however, 
regard this as conclusive against the other probabilities. It 
was only in 1838 that Hering drew attention to this character, 
and it would not be very surprising if in 1841 and 1842, when 
there were, no doubt, very few students of Acarids in Eng- 
land, its value or existence should not be generally known 
there — and if not known it would be very apt to be overlooked 
by observers and draftsmen who had paid no special attention 
to the subject. 

No. 20. Glyciphagus spinipes {Fum. ^ Rob., Journ. Anat. & Pliys. 1867). — 20. 
Magnified, sketch of ditto, copied from Fum. & Robin's figure. 

Easily distinguished from G. cursor by its smaller size, more 
conoid form when in life, and by the comparative shortness of its 
anal appendage ; males and females are nearly equal in size. Its 
legs are longer, owing to the length of the tarsi, and its hairs 
are considerably larger and more feathery. It moves with extreme 
velocity, carrjang one or two of its posterior hairs on each side 



2«2 



ARACHNOIDEA. 



CASE crosswise, and drawing the rest after its body. In the length of 
its hairs and the similarity in size of males and females, it repre- 
sents in this the Tyroglyphus 
longior in its genus. Found 
among Cantharides from Tri- 
este, in company with Tyro- 
glyphi. 

There only remains one 
other Glyciphagus of this sec- 
tion still to notice, which is 
remarkable for the peculiarity 
of its habitat. 



Gj-yciphagus bal^narum, Aca- 
ridina baloenarum, ( Van Bened. , 
Bull. Acad. Brux. 1870). 




Glyciphagus spinipes. 
Copied from Fumouze and Robin's figure. 



M. Van Beneden, in a paper 
on the cetacea and their para- 
sites, (loc. cit.) mentions that several individuals of this species 
were found on a Southern Right whale {Balcena Australis), among 

the cirripeds that incrusted it. He 
describes it as having the head, thorax, 
and abdomen, separated from each 
other, and the body with numerous 
and long silky hairs, that are plumose* 
He could not have said in more ex- 
plicit terms that it was a Glyciphagus ; 
for these, as the reader knows, are its 
special characters. No anal appen- 
dage is represented in his figure, but 
we know that this only occurs in the 
females, and the specimen figured by 
him might be a male, or the posterior termination might not be 
in a position where it could be seen in the drawing. 




Glyciphagus balaenarum. Copied from 
figure by Van Beneden. 



SUGAR MITES. 283 

CASE Section II. 

XIV. 

Body short and more granular, with short hairs, either very- 
plumose, or converted into flat pinnae, with transparent membrane. 

No. 21. Glyciphagus plumiger {Ftim. &^ Rob.^, (Acarus plumiger, Koch).—2\, 
Magnified sketch of ditto, copied from M. Fumouze & Robin's figure. 

Body pale reddish-white, and flat. The larvae hexapod. 
Nymphs octopod, but not sexed ; in other respects as in the larvae. 
For the special details, we must refer the reader to Messrs. 
Fumouze and Robin's beautiful memoir on this and the next 
species in '-Robin's Journal of Anatomy and Physiology, 1868." 




Glyciphagfus plumiger. Smaller than the cheese mite. 
Reduced from Fumouze and Robia's figure. 

Found in the soil and moist dust of the walls of cellars, especially 
in the mouldy parts, also in stables, granaries, and the chaff and 
dust of fodder. They are easily distinguished from the other Acarids 
with which they live, by their slower motion, more circular form, 
by the transparent aureole surrounding their body, caused by 
their projecting lateral hairs, and by their smaller size. The 
young Tyroglyphi, Glyciphagus cursor, the Sciri, the Cheyletes, the 
Gamasi and Uropodes, which are of the same size as them, may 
be recognised by their more rapid movements, their narrower and 
more oval body, and by the absence of the aureole just spoken of. 



284 



ARACHNOIDEA. 



CASE Glyciphagus palmifer {Fum. i^ Roh.,\oQ.. z\\..).—22. Magnified sketch of 
XIV. ditto, copied from MM. Fumouze and Robin's figure. 

No. 22. 




Glyciphagus palmifer (maJe). Smaller than the cheese-mite. Reduced from Fumouze and Robin's figure. 



Glyciphagus palmifer (female). Smaller than the cheese-mite. Reduced from Fumouze and Robin's figure. 



CHEYLETUS. 285 

CASE It is unnecessary to dwell upon or describe this most remarkable 
mite. The beautifully-executed woodcuts of it by Mr. Whymper, 
which are scarcely less remarkable in their way than the mites 
themselves, will give the reader a fair idea of it. 

It is more common than the preceding, and found in the same 
places and associated with it. As both have been found in 
France and Germany, they may possibly also be found in the 
southern parts of this country, if properly sought for. 

Genus Cheyletus {Latr.). 
A very remarkable type ; distinguished by enormous, rapacious 
palpi. It is unquestionably carnivorous, its palpi being contrived 
for holding its prey, while its rostrum is sharp, and well suited 
for plunging into the body of its victim, whose juices it is to suck 
up. Apart from the formidable palpi, its general appearance is 
that of a Tyroglyphus. Its palpi, although so differently shaped, 
are composed of three joints, like those both of the Tyroglyphid^ 
and the Sarcoptidae, but thick and broad as in the latter, instead 
of small and inconspicuous as in the former. It has a fleshy, 
semi-transparent body, like the Tyroglyphidse, but on examination 
under a powerful glass, it is seen to be not smooth Hke them, but 
striated, as the Sarcoptid^ are, only much more finely than them. 
The legs are five-jointed as in both, and the tarsus has two claws, 
with a divided smaller claw between them, looking like two. The 
transparent tarsal sucker, too, is not so visible as in Tyro- 
glyphus, and it wants the conspicuous separate suckers of the 
Sarcoptidai. One of its most remarkable features, is the posses- 
sion of a tracheal breathing apparatus on a plan, which forms a 
double anastomosing system through the body, and communicates 
with the air by a joint median stigmatic opening at the symphysis 
of the two jaws, and by another lateral one on each side at their 
base, on the outer side, the air probably entering by the middle 
opening and taking its exit by the lateral ones. This, as well as 
the whole of the anatomy of Cheyletus and its allies, is beautifully 



286 



ARACHNOIDEA. 



CASE shown in Messrs. Fumouze and Robin's memoir on the subject 

XIV. 

in the "Journal de I'Anatomie et Physiologie, 1867." 

The true position of this genus has been the subject of dis- 
cussion. Latreille, while placing it in the Gamasidae, felt inclined' 
to approach it to the Sarcoptid^e ; Gervais could not follow him. 
Koch places it at the end of the Bdellidse ; but it is only in its 
general predacious structure that it resembles them. The 
Bdellid^ have long and slender palpi, with five joints ; this has- 
them strong and thick with three joints, as in the Sarcoptidse, 
and it is to be noted that the genus Myobia has a tracheal 
respiratory apparatus not unlike that of Cheyletus. To our mind, 
it has more affinity with the Acaridae (including Tyroglyphidae and 
Sarcoptidse) than with any other group. It has the surface strias; 
of the latter; but it has not their suckers, and it has got the 
facies of Glyciphagus or Tyroglyphus and some of their cha- 
racters. On the whole we think it will be best to regard it as a 
transitional type between the two. 



No. 23. ^ _^ ^ Cheyletus eruditus {Lair., Hist. Nat, 

d. Crust, et d. Insect.), (Ch. casalis,, 
Koch ; Ch. robertsoni, Brady). — 23, 
Magnified sketch of ditto, from figure 
by Prof. Robin. 

These little animals have a charac- 
teristic manner of walking, which is 
neither like that of the cheese mites 
(Tyroglyphi), nor of the sugar mites. 
(Glyciphagi). When they advance they 
have not, like them, the head lowered 
between their first pair of legs ; they 
hold it, on the contrary, directed straight 
in front, their maxillary palpi being always extended, as if to be 
ready to seize and embrace any prey they might meet. Then, 
in place of walking like cheese mites, or nmning like the sugar 




Cheyletus eruditus (male). Copied 
from Fumouze and Robin's figure. 



CHEYLETUS. 287 

CASE mites, they advance by making repeated little bounds, which 
they can execute backwards as well as forwards. They seem 
to shun the society of their brethren, and when they meet them, 
they give themselves up to combat, in which their chief aim is to 
seize one another by their enormous maxillary palpi. These soli- 
tary habits are only what one would expect from the possession 
of such powerful offensive weapons. Whenever an animal has 
powerful offensive weapons, it lives by rapine, and whoever 
lives by rapine must be solitary. Any effort at making them gre- 
garious would meet the fate of M. Le Bon's spiders. They were 
gregarious only until they had all eaten up one another, when 
the last survivor resumed the solitary life for which he had been 
intended by nature. Cheyletus forms no exception to the rule. 
Koch, when he left these animals together between two glasses, ob- 
served them seize the cheese mites between their palpi, and plunge 
their rostrum into their body and suck the soft parts, and Mr. 
Beck, who has kept them in confinement, and studied their 
habits, speaks positively to their carnivorous habits, and it would 
almost appear that they must have something similar to the 
poisonous powers of the spiders, and that if so a part of the 
palpi, probably the outer and more formidable of the projecting 
jaws, in which may be a poison gland, must be equivalent to 
the falces of the spider. Mr. Beck says that when this Acarus 
seizes another one of a different kind, which it does by its 
falces laying hold of a leg or any other part indiscriminately, 
the prey, after a lapse of about fifteen or twenty seconds, be- 
comes poisoned or paralyzed, the legs bend up under the thorax, 
and no part of its body makes any resistance to the pulling of the 
devourer, who, when it finds this passive condition of the prey, 
deliberately sucks out the fluids with an apparatus at the mouth, 
and does not leave it until it is entirely empty and shrunken. The 
poison does not operate, however, when tried on its own species. 
It frequently feeds upon them, and in that case the prey continues 
to move and show signs of life so long as any fluids appear to be 



288 ARACHNOIDEA, 

CASE left in the body. They seem pretty generally distributed. They 
are found in the dust of hay, fodder, and straw, in old chaff, old 
grain, old meal, old flour and old linseed meal. M. Fumouze met 
them occasionally in different parcels of Cantharides collected in 
France. They were very rare in foreign parcels. Prof. Robin 
mentions that several times specimens have been sent to him, 
which had been found on the surface of the human body, or in 
stools, &c., without their having caused any accident. He suggests 
that they doubtless came from some of the preceding objects, or 
from the linseed flour used in cataplasms. They are also met with 
in the feathers and hair of animals preserved in collections, and 
in insects that have been attacked by Glyciphagi or Tyroglyphi. 
Mr. Brady also figures a specimen of this species, which he found 
in his dredgings, and described as C. robertsoni, which had no 
doubt been blown into them or otherwise introduced from with- 
out. We thus see that although in itself solitary, it is met with 
in all sorts of places, more especially in those where other gre- 
garious Acari most do congregate. But we should no more think 
that it was there for the purpose of feeding on these vegetable 
stuffs in which it is found, than we should admit that a cat eats 
hay, because it was found in the midst of a rat infested-haystack. 

Mr. Beck, by keeping this species in confinement, was enabled 
to ascertain the remarkable fact that the phenomena of Partheno- 
genesis occur among Acarids as well as in other orders of insects. 
He began by finding that some broods of other Acarids which he 
kept in confinement were mysteriously disappearing, and at last 
traced the mischief to one individual of this species. It proved 
to be a female, which laid eggs, and from them he reared 
numerous individuals, which, however, all proved females. Find- 
ing that they laid eggs he suspected Parthenogenesis, and tested 
the fact by isolating a single individual in a glass cage immediately 
after it had been hatched. It laid eggs, and it ended by his 
rearing three successive generations from it without any interven- 
tion of the male. The female of this species is very careful of her 



CHEYLETUS. 



289 



eggs. She lays a heap of them, and rests brooding over them, 
guarding them from attack. The egg shells when empty are very 
thin, but they reflect a brilliant blue light which attracts the eye 
more readily than the insect itself, and leads to its discovery in 
chinks and corners where we might not otherwise detect its 
presence. 



Cheyletus mericourti {Laboidbcne, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 185 1. 
Mericourli. Moq. Tand.). 



Acaropsis 




Chej-Ietus Mericourti, probably female. Copied from Laboulbfene's figure. 

M. Laboulbene (loc. cit.)has described this species as very closely 
allied to the preceding; but the woodcut shows that in the armature 
of the palpi it differs considerably from it. Three specimens of it 
were found in the pus which flowed from an abscess in the ear of 
a naval officer, consequent on an inflammation of the auditory 
passage. It was near the Bank of Newfoundland that the incident 
happened, but where the Cheyleti may originally have come from 
does not appear, nor how they reached their singular destination. 

Koch, in his Deutschlands Crustaceen, has described four other 
species of Cheyletus. Ch. casalis, which he regards as being 
probably a variety of eruditus, Ch. venustissimus, Ch. hirundinis, 
and Ch. marginatus. 



290 



ARACHNOIDEA, 



CASE We should now pass to the Sarcoptidae, but before doing so, we 

^^^' have a form to dispose of, that we have not known very well where 

to place. Probably it should come in beside Hypopus, but it 

would have disturbed the sequence we were following, and we 

bring it in here as an insect incericE. sedis. 

Nos. Heteropus VENTRIC0SI7S {Newport, Linn. Soc. Trans. 1850).— 24. Magnified 
*4' ^^- sketch of perfect insect newly developed ; 25. Not so much magnified 

sketch of impregnated female, copied from Newport's figure. 

This anomalous-looking insect was found by Mr. Newport, 
parasitic in the nests of the bee Anthophora retusa, in England. 




Heteropus ventricosus mature (either 
male or unimpregnated female). 
Copied from Newport's figure. 



Heteropus ventricosus, im- 
pregnated female. 
Copied from Newport's figure. 



Leg of ditto. 
Copied from 
Newport. 



The leg, which we also figure, is also puzzling in its affinities. 
The female with eggs, attains a size four times that of the male, or 
unimpregnated female. For a full account of its anatomy, we 
refer the reader to Mr. Newport's paper. It is no doubt the same 
species, or a similar one, to that alluded to by M. Lichtenstein in 
Bull. Ann. Soc. Ent Fr. 1868, under the name of Physogaster 
larvarum, described as having a vesicular abdomen, and living on 
larvae of Hymenoptera. 



ITCH MITES. 291 



CASE 

XV. 



Family SARCOPTID^. (Itch and Louse Mites.) 
Skin striated; tarsi generally provided with suckers ; no eyes. 

Section I.— Itch Mites infesting the larger Mammals. 
Genus Sarcoptes (Latreille), 

Body flat; shape rounded or quadrate; legs short, not reaching 
far from the body, supported by chitonous appendages like the gar- 
ters of an Italian bandit ; tarsi provided with suckers; mouth with 
chelate nippers; but whether four or only two is still sub judice. 

The accompanying woodcuts show the striated surface of the 
skin, the bandaged legs, and the suckers on the feet and chelate 
nippers, described under the generic characters, and admirably 
adapted for nipping and mining away the skin, through which they 
make their galleries. It is a similar adaptation of structure to 
purpose that they are eyeless; their life being, as it were, sub- 
terranean, they need no eyesight, and therefore are provided with 



none 





Anterior leg and sucker of Sarcoptes scabiei. Mr,„fV, ^* Co ^ ^ 

Reduced from Furstenberg's figure. ^°"*'' °^ Sarcoptes scabiei. 



Ditto. 



The above figures are taken from Furstenberg's admirable draw- 
ings. There is only one point on which some doubt as to their 
accuracy may be said to rest, viz., the four nippers. Claparbde 
assumes that these must be all mandibles, which is double the 
number of mandibles found in any other known articulate, and is 
surprised that Furstenberg should not have been startled by this 
anomaly; and he casts about to find some explanation by which 



292 



ARACHNOIDEA, 



CASE to reconcile it with the general accuracy of Furstenberg's repre- 
sentations. He thinks he may have been misled by having made 
his observation by crushing some individual that was about to 
cast its skin, so that he saw both the mandibles in the old skin 
and in the new ; and, having once detennined the fact, of course 
it would not be necessary that he should trace it in every indi- 
vidual or species that he figured of the genus. In all, young and 
old, and of every species, he certainly represents the four nippers 
as present. The light in which we felt disposed to regard them 
was, that although all four are alike, one pair represents the 
mandibles and the other the maxillae, of which there is no other 
trace. On the other hand, in both the genera, Symbiotes and 
Psoroptes, Furstenberg figures only one pair of mandibles as 
present (chelate in the one and divided in the other), and no 
trace of maxillae; consequently we think it best to reserve our 
judgment, merely noting the point as one deserving the examina- 
tion of some of our good microscopists. 

Nos. Sarcoptes scabiei {Latr.). — 1. Two eggs of ditto, one closed and one 
1, 2, 3, 4. opened, to show the embryo within, ready to be hatched ; 2. Magnified 

diagram of the bun-ow in the human skin, with the insect at the further 
end, and the gallery encumbered with eggs and broken egg shells, 
debris, &c. ; 3. Magnified sketch of male— upper side ; 4. Magnified 
sketch of female— under side. Copied from figures by Furstenberg. 





Sarcoptes scabiei, male. The itch mite. 



Ditto female. Reduced from Furstenberg 



ITCH MITES. 



293 



The specific characters are chiefly drawn from the bristles and 
hooks on the tarsi, the number of short stumpy thorns or spines 
on the back, and the proportions of the different chitonous bands 
and other parts. This species, for example, has six thorns on the 
back of the thorax, and fourteen on the back of the abdomen. 
These have some resemblance to a short Roman sword. There 
are also a great number of smaller papillae or raised projections, the 
form and disposition of which are used as subsidiary characters. 

When examined with the naked eye, the mite looks white and 
shining, and was aptly described by Bonomo, one of its first 
observers, as like a little bladder of water ; when seen running, 
however, upon the surface of a plate of gla^s, it may be perceived 
that its anterior margin presents a dusky tint of colour, and the 
examination of this part of the creature with the microscope 
brings into view a head not unlike that of a tortoise, and a pair 
of large and strong legs on each side of the head. These organs 
are more or less encased in a moderately thick layer of chytine, 
and have consequently the reddish-brown tint of the cases of certain 
insects, or of the bright part of a thm layer of tortoise-shell. 





Two of the posterior legs of the male of Sarcoptes 
scabiei. Copied from Farstenberg. 



Two of the posterior legs of the female of 
Sarcoptes scabiei. Ditto. 



294 



ARACHNOIDEA. 



CASE 
XV. 



The most apparent difference between the male and the 
female is, the smaller size of the former, and the different forma- 
tion of the two posterior pairs of legs. In the male, the third 
pair are terminated by a long bristle, and the fourth by a pedi- 
culated sucker, whereas, in the female, both third and fourth pairs 
are terminated by a long bristle. On the under side of the male, 
moreover, there is a complicated series of chitonous bands, which 
are not present in the female. When newly hatched, the young 
Sarcoptes has only three pairs of feet, and the hind pair terminates 
in a long bristle 3 the complicated chitonous bands have not yet 
appeared. 




Burrow of itch mite in human skin with mite at further end. Copied trom Furstenberg. 

The insect lives in the human skin in little tunnels eaten 
away by itself. The female, as she works her way, lays her eggs 
behind her, as may be seen in the accompanying illustration, 
copied from Furstenberg's work on Itch Mites. We do not know 
how many she can lay, nor do we well see how that could be 
ascertained \ but it is said that she lays some every day, and that 
she may lay as many as fifty. Neither do we see how it can be 
found out how long they take to hatch, but again it is said, from 
seventy hours to six days. If Furstenberg's illustration may be 
depended on, which shows a considerable number of empty egg- 
shells dropped irregularly all along the burrow, and only one 
unhatched close to the mite, we should imagine that the shorter 
period was the most probable. 

The mite changes its skin four times before it attains 



ITCH MITES, 295 

CASE maturity, and it is a few days after one of these changes that it 
obtains its additional posterior pair of legs. This pest was 
formerly much commoner than it is now. Soap and water, or 
their synonym cleanlier habits, have rendered it comparatively 
scarce, but whenever numerous bodies of men are crowded 
together without time and opportunity to attend to their personal 
cleanliness, then it reappears and spreads like wild-fire. All 
armies are great sufferers from this and louse vermin. The 
Americans found it so prevalent during their wars, that the 
common people supposed it was something special and peculiar. 
" The army itch," " the seven years' itch," " the Jackson itch," 
are all only the common itch developed by the special circum 
stances of the case into a peculiarly flourishing condition. 

Our great English authority on skin diseases. Dr. Erasmus 
Wilson, gives the following as the indications of an attack by 
this insect, viz., firstly, a peculiar scaliness and undermined state 
of the epidermis, which is not met with in other cutaneous 
affections \ secondly, the presence of conical vesicles, with 
acuminated and transparent points; and thirdly, and principally, 
the presence of the mite itself, which may be extracted from its 
retreat beneath the loosened epidermis with the point of any 
sharp instrument. The diseases which he mentions as apt to be 
confounded with it, are eczema, prurigo, lichen, impetigo, and 
ecthyma. 

AVhen one of the early vesicles of the itch is examined with 
attention, a minute spot or streak may be observed upon some 
one point of its surface. This is the aperture originally made 
by the insect on its first entrance within the epidermis, and 
from this spot or streak a whitish fluted line may be traced, 
either in a straight or a curved direction into the neighbouring 
epidermis. 

The whitish line is the cuniculus, or burrow of the acarus ; and 
the fluted or dotted appearance is due to the eggs, the white dots 
indicating the points where the eggs lie. The burrow necessarily 



296 ARACHNOIDEA, 

c/^E varies in length, being sometimes as much as five of six lines in 
extent, and at its termination, under a slight elevation of the skin, 
the little inhabitant lies concealed. The mite may be easily dis- 
tinguished by the experienced eye, as a small dark point at the 
end of the burrow, and if a thin capsule of skin be raised in this 
situation with the point of a needle, the little creature is brought 
into view. 

The spot or streak, which is here described, is not met with on 
all the vesicles, for the same animal may excite a series of these 
in its course ; and a number may be developed in the vicinity of 
its habitation, while it is in the primitive vesicle alone — that 
formed by the entrance of the mite — that the trace of its entrance 
can be expected. The aperture again, does not communicate 
with the interior of the vesicle ; it is the too close neighbourhood 
of the little grubber that acts as the cause of the formation of the 
vesicle; the vesicle is consequently a provision of nature to 
protect the inner skin from the nearer approach of the cause of 
irritation. 

The itch mite, therefore, is never situated within the vesicle, or 
within the pustules, and there is no communication between the 
vesicle and the burrow. 

There is no difficulty in extracting the mite from the skin ; the 
burrow is seen without difficulty ; the end of the burrow is per- 
ceived to be a little raised, while a greyish speck is seen beneath it. 
As soon as this little eminence of skin is lifted, if the end of the 
needle or pin with which the operation is performed be examined, 
the minute, white and shining globe will probably be observed 
attached to the instrument. If there be no such object, the point 
of the needle placed again beneath the raised capsule of epidermis 
will pretty certainly draw it forth. This facility of extracting the 
little creature is due to its great power of clinging by its suckers 
to any object with which it comes in contact. 

The proximate cause of the appearance of itch is of course the 
presence of this mite, which is transferred by the infected to those 



ITCH MITES. 297 

CASE who are sound by actual contact. In some instances, it may be 
conveyed to the person in its adult state ; while in others, ova, 
or embryos suspended in the fluid of the vesicles, may be the 
mode of transmission. Certain it is, that the application of one 
of the mites to the skin of a sound person will give rise to the 
disease. The precise mode of its transmission, however, was for 
a time a puzzle. Its contagious nature could not be disputed, 
but it was remarked with surprise that infection among doctors 
and hospital attendants was comparatively rare. Dr. Aube set 
himself to find out the cause of this, and he learned from a great 
number of inquiries at patients as to the manner in which they 
had contracted the disease, that it was almost always by having 
slept in the same bed with an infected person. He found that 
the number of those who had so contracted it was to those who 
had acquired it by manual contact as 100 to 5. Dr. Aub6 
inferred from this, that the mite was a nocturnal animal, and his 
other observations and an experiment made upon himself con- 
firmed this view. The animal hides under the skin during the day, 
but walks about at night, perhaps excited by the greater warmth 
of the body in bed, and pricks the skin in various places. This 
explains the rarity of contagion during the day and the small 
number of burrows that may be remarked on the skin even where 
there are a great number of pustules, and also why the violent 
itching only occurs during the night. In confirmation of what we 
have said, we may quote the statement (Amer. Ent. ii. 118) that 
in the great hospital at Vienna, 1500 cases are treated yearly, and 
no attempt at diisinfecting the clothing is found necessary. The 
under clothing should be washed thoroughly, but outside garments, 
contrary to the general opinion, do not need anything to be done 
to them. 

The best mode of treatment for getting rid of the parasite is 
very simple. So long as it was supposed to be some mysterious 
disease whose cause was unknown, it was not, to be expected that 
it could be successfully treated, but now that we know all the 



298 ARACHNOIDEA, 

CASE particulars above related, its treatment is as clear as day. It is 
produced by an insect, and all that we have to do is to kill it. 
But what will kill it without hurting the patient or rather the 
impatient, especially when the skin is almost scratched through to 
the raw flesh beneath ? Fortunately we know one substance that 
seems to be almost invariably poison to insects in whatever 
shape it be given — sulphur. You can get rid of the green fly ; 
you can banish the scale ; you can free your kitchen from cock- 
roaches j you can extirpate almost every insect pest by the use of 
sulphur. The form in which it is administered does not seem to 
matter much. It may be powdered dry over the leaves as when 
we attack the red spider or green fly. It may be administered in 
smoke, it may be given in solution, it may be mixed up into a 
soap like Gishurst Compound and various other similar prepara- 
tions, or it may be administered in an ointment as in the case of 
the itch, and in all it is alike effectual. It is only necessary to get 
at the insect so as to expose it to its influence and the insect dies ; 
and surely if there ever was a case in which it was easy to put salt 
on a bird's tail, it must be where the creature is in a tunnel that 
you can trace, and where there is neither opportunity nor temptation 
for it to come out and move off. There is no doubt a little difficulty 
in getting at it, for the tunnel in which it is lodged is sinuous and 
too small for injection or infiltration and up which the sulphur, in 
whatever form administered, must have difficulty in penetrating; but 
if we cannot reach it through the tunnel, we can, by removing the 
surface of the skin so that nothing but a thin permeable roof lies 
between our application and the mite. By bathing and steeping 
the parts affected in hot water or vapour, and then rubbing off the 
skin as much as possible, the Sarcoptes is laid sufficiently bare to 
allow the sulphur to act through the skin upon it. But although 
it may be killed, the eggs may not, and that explains how one 
application is rarely sufficient; but never mind, after a day or 
two's pause, during which any surviving eggs may be hatched, let 
the process be repeated. The newly-hatched insects will thus be 



ITCH MITES. 299 

CASE killed before they have had time to begin to lay eggs, and as soon 
as the old crop of eggs is exhausted the cure is complete. 

It is not alone on man that this species establishes itself. It 
has been found on the lion, on the dog, the lama, the sheep, the 
ox, the horse, and the sow, and although it is very possible that 
some of the observations on which this statement is made are 
erroneous, and that some allied species peculiar to the animals in 
question may have been mistaken for the S. scabiei, still there is 
no reason to doubt that it is the species which is most universally 
distributed, and which is found on the greatest number of mam- 
mals. We hear of old mangey lions in a wild state, but it is most 
probable that it is only in captivity that they are really attacked 
by the itch, which no doubt they owe to the dirty attendants that 
wait upon them. They succumb rapidly to its attacks, dying in a 
few months, and become miserable objects before they die. The 
head is the part chiefly attacked. It becomes covered with a 
thick crust, the nostrils closed, the skin of the head and neck 
swollen into hard folds, and the whole animal in the last stage of 
debility. 

There remains one point for consideration regarding these mites, 
not less curious than any of the preceding, viz. : — How they 
produce the physiological effects that characterize the malady. It 
is a problem that will often recur to us as we go along through 
the other classes of insects. We shall find the larva of one kind 
of insect feeding in some part of a plant without giving rise to any 
symptoms that can be called inflammatory or envenomed, while 
others of the same size, of a different kind, feeding alongside of 
them produce immense growths or galls. In speculating upon 
the cause of the itching sensation and inflammatory symptoms 
of the skin in attacks of the Sarcoptidse, the first and most natural 
supposition is that they are caused by the incessant minute nib- 
bling going on just at the termination of the smallest ramifications 
of the sentient nerves terminating in the skin. Undoubtedly a 
constant gnawing of this kind must not only produce irritation, 



300 ARACHNOIDEA. 

CASE but irritation of a kind quite different from any less continuous 
and minute shaving. But then we have different symptoms pro- 
duced by different species ; the scurfy inflamed surface of the S- 
scabiei ; the coarse leprous crust of the S. scabiei-crustosse j the 
deep ulcers of Glyciphagus hippodos ; and so on. It is possible 
that there may be some difference in the kind and degree of me- 
chanical irritation to produce such different results ; but it is also 
possible that there be some special poisonous or irritant virus 
in the bite of the different species, to account for the variation in 
the phenomena observed in each. 

There are several other species of itch mite. One of the most 
formidable (producing a much worse complaint than the common 
itch) is the following : — 

Sarcoptes scabiei-crustos^ {Furstenherg Kratzmilben). — The Norwegian 
itch mite. 

This is very like the common species, but smaller and some- 
what darker. It likewise is attached to man, but fortunately 
is much more rare. It was first described from Christiana in 
Norway, and seems to be more particularly special to that 
country, although examples of the disease have occurred in other 
countries. 

It was first noticed by MM. Boeck and Danielssen in Chris- 
tiana, in their Treatise on the *' Spedalskhed," Elephantiasis, &c., 
published in 1848. Among the diseases of the outer skin they 
found a kind of tubercles covered with thick brownish crusts, in 
which they discovered an Acarus, which presented itself in 
millions, not only on the surface of the tubercles, but even in 
the softened tubercular mass. When the mass was examined 
with a lens, it appeared to consist of nothing but small white 
round points, which, placed under the microscope, proved to be 
Acari in every stage of development. The tubercular mass 
consisted of softened tissue, and on the inner surface of the crust 
an innumerable crowd of the little animalcules appeared. The 



ITCH MITES, 301 

CASE crusts are extraordinarily hard, almost like horn, and if they are 
softened by steeping in water and placed under the microscope, 
they seem to be composed in some sort only of the skeleton skins 
of dead mites, superposed and bound together by a viscous 
matter; in truth, it is a little world of animalcules, one generation 
upon another, and their skeletons compose this most remarkable 
form of " Spedalskhed." This description does not accord with 
the usual work of a Sarcoptes ; but Messrs. Boeck and Danielssen 
seem to have had no doubt on the subject, and only to have had 
a difficulty in making up their minds whether it was the common 
S. scabiei or a different species. They inclined to the latter, in 
which view they were confirmed by the opinion of Norwegian 
naturalists, to whom they showed specimens and a figure. That 
figure has been published in their work, but we have not seen it, 
and only obtained the above knowledge of its contents from M. 
Furstenberg's account of the literary history of the itch mites 
given in his valuable work. Die Kratzmilben. 

The description, however, quite agrees with that of subsequent 
observers who have met with the disease. Fuchs describes two 
cases, and M. Second-Fereol one that he observed in Paris, which 
place the symptoms in even a worse light than those recorded by 
M. Boeck. 

The complaint, as described by him, was chiefly seated in the 
hands and fore-arms, and was characterised by crusts of a dirty 
yellow colour of considerable thickness, especially on the hands, 
where they formed a stratum that reached, and even exceeded 
half an inch in thickness. They were traversed by broad and 
deep cracks, which corresponded more or less with the articular 
folds. The bottom of these cracks was moist but whitish, and by 
no means bloody ; the fingers and back of the hand covered by 
this sort of cuirass, looked like the bark of a rugged rifted tree, 
but of a yellow colour. On the rest of the body it lost, or 
perhaps it would be more correct to say, had not yet attained, 
its character of continuous envelope, but it was dispersed over 



302 ARACHNOIDEA, 

CASE almost the entire body in patches or spots. The smell was re- 
pellant, and the patient suffered from an incessant and extreme 
itching. Itch mites were found in the crust, but never in the 
substance of the skin. Two attendants who applied dressings to 
the patient were attacked, and their symptoms were at first those 
of the common itch. One was speedily cured by sulphur baths. 
The other was still under treatment, six weeks after the entrance 
of the original patient, and symptoms of lichen and prurigo were 
showing themselves in addition to the regular furrows of the itch. 



Sarcoptes vulpis {Ftcrst). 

Obtained from an infected fox in the island of Rugen ; has 
slight differences of the same nature as in the preceding species. 

Sarcoptes capr^e {Furst.). 

Differs slightly from S. scabiei in the same way as the preceding. 

Sarcoptes squamiferus {Furst.), (S. suis, Gerl., and S. canis, Ctrl.). 

Found on the sow and the dog, still very like the S. scabiei, 
and with the same number and disposition of hairs and spines, &c. 

Sarcoptes cati {Hering and Gerlach), (S. cuniculi, Gerl., and S. minor, 
Ftcrst.), — 6. Magnified sketch of male. 

On the cat and the rabbit. The species is a good deal smaller 
than the Sarcoptes scabiei. The thorns or spines on the back 
begin to alter ; on the, thorax they are absent, or turned into 
hairs, and there are now only twelve thorns on the back of the 
.abdomen. 

Both in the cat and the rabbit this parasite takes the head as 
its point of attack, and more particularly the base of the nose, 
the lips, the ears, and the eyes. Even when the animal is 
inoculated elsewhere by putting the mites upon other parts of the 
body, and after they have actually taken possession and begun to 



ITCH MITES. 303 

CASE burrow, they soon leave these parts and, making for the head, 
establish themselves about the nose and ears. In its early stage 
the burrows, when sought for, can be easily seen, but the obstruc- 
tion, caused by the more numerous hairs, makes them more 
tortuous and often interrupted. As the mites increase, so do the 
burrows and the itching, and the cat scratches itself, and tears the 
skin : then the hairs fall oif, and the parts around the eyes, nose, 
and ears, become covered with hard crusts spread over and 
adhering to the suffering parts. The time that the mischief takes 
to reach this stage varies according to the age, strength, and 
condition of the cat; as a rule, the young and strong resist 
longer than the old and feeble. In them, by the twentieth or 
thirtieth day, it may have spread over the head, ears, nose, 
shoulders, and even the back and the loins. The crust becomes 
harder and grey and agglutinated to the hairs ; and under the 
crusts specimens of the Sarcoptes may be found. By degrees, 
as the malady progresses and the animal becomes weaker, the 
skin increases in thickness, becomes hard, stiff, and forms volu- 
minous folds round the neck. The swelling of the tissues and 
their inflammation extend to the nostrils, obstruct the respiration, 
and give the head of the cat that elephantiasian appearance that 
occurs also in the lion, and is indeed a constant character in 
cases of itch among feline animals. 

When it has completely covered the head, it extends by 
degrees over the whole body ; it is then impossible to describe 
the miserable condition of the poor animal, which the parasites 
are devouring as if it were a dead carcass — the feebleness is so 
great that it totters on its limbs, and can scarcely drag itself along. 
All its skin is a focus of infection, where crusts and entangled 
hairs form pieces like hideous shells, and which pieces tear off in 
plates. It is true that they rarely reach this extreme stage, being 
usually destroyed before the disease passes through all the stages 
of complication. Still plenty of dead cats that have had the 
disease bad enough may be seen in the dust carts and on the 



304 



ARACHNOIDEA. 



CASE manure heaps of all great towns. The most of them are either 
killed or die in the cellars of houses where they have taken refuge. 

In the country the complaint is much rarer, the opportunity of 
contagion being so much less ; but when it appears there it runs 
its course as rapidly as in towns. M. Delwart, of Brussels, said, 
in 1830, that he had seen in large farms, where a great many cats 
were kept, the malady spread itself with such rapidity that in four 
or five weeks all the cats had been carried off by the affection ; 
and in 1827 M. Sajous, a veterinary surgeon residing at Tarbes, 
related that a very intense epizootic itch had raged in that district 
among the cats for several years, and it proved so murderous that 
entire villages remained wholly deprived of cats. The malady 
seems to vary in virulence at different times, and when very bad 
it is called epizootic, when milder, sporadic : differences which 
may be due to the character of the season or general robustness 
of the animals' health at different times. 

The symptoms are the same in the rabbit when it is infected. 

The same remedies that are used for the itch in man should be 
used for this variety, and of course modified in their administra- 
tion to suit the different characters of the patient. 

In the country the cats may occasionally in autumn be seen 
suffering from great imtation, and people are apt to jump to the 
conclusion that they have got the itch. But it is always easy to 
tell whether it is so or not, for if the itch it shows itself about the 
head, nose, and ears, and if instead of that the irritation is about 
the feet, ten to one it is caused by the harvest mite, Leptus 
autumnalis, which the cat has caught in wandering about the 
garden, and usually on examination the matter can be put beyond 
doubt by finding the little red mite in the fur, or between the 
claws of the cat. If kept from getting a fresh supply it will 
soon get better, for the mites will by and bye leave it of their 
own accord : but if it is allowed to get a fresh supply every 
day, it will of course get worse and worse as long as the supply 
is renewed. 



ITCH MITES. 



305 



CASE Sarcoptes rupicapr^ {Hcring). 
On the chamois. 



Sarcoptes dromedarii {Gei-v., Ann. Sc. Nat 
1841). 

Procured by M. Gervais in the mangey 
crusts of a dromedary which had newly 
arrived at the Jardin des Plantes from 
Africa. As soon as it was found that it 
was suffering from the itch it was killed ; 
an extreme measure which would not be 
thought of now. From the figure given 
by Gervais, it appears to have been a ^ 

,. - _ . Sarcoptes dromedarius. Copied 

very well marked species, but belonging -""--■— 

to the same genus as S. scabiei. 




from Gervais' figure. 



Nos. Sarcoptes mutans {Rohm and Lanq., Comptes-Rendus, xlix. 1859 • and 
6.7,8. Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Mosc. xxxiii. i86o).-6. Magnified sketch of 

male, upper side; 7. Ditto of male, side view; 8. Ditto of female, under 

side. All taken from M. Robin's figures. 





Sarcoptes mutans (male), under side. Reduced 
from Robin's figttre. 
The joints of the palpi are omitted. 



Sarcoptes mutans, female. Reduced 
irom Robin's figure. 



This species is a parasite on the domestic fowl. We owe our 
knowledge of it to MxAI. Lanquetin Reynal, and Professor Robin. 



3o6 



ARACHNOIDEA. 



^^ A full description, with careful figures, will be found in the Bulletin 
of the Society of Moscow, i860. It is a very flat, broad species; 
and the absence of spines on the back at once distinguishes it 




Sarcoptes mutans, side view. Copied from Robin. 

from all the preceding. The ailment produced by it, is observed 
most frequently on the hen and the cock, appearing first on the 
feet, on the comb, and about the beak. No premonitory symptoms 
indicate its approach. The fowls preserve their appetite and live- 
liness ; although sometimes a careful observer may see that the 
sick animals shake their heads, raise and stretch their legs in 
a convulsive manner. If the examination is followed up, some 
white points and lines traced in zigzag, covered by very small 
scales, which the least rubbing knocks off, may be seen on 
the comb. The skin, covered by them, is lightly chagrined 
and of a brown colour, which contrasts with the red colour 
of the rest of the comb. At that period no lesion of the 
tissues is observable. The malady remains stationary for fifteen 
days or even a month, at the end of which time the base 
of the comb thickens and becomes darker, and the linear tracings 
assume the appearance of true burrows of the itch insect, and at 
the bottom of them the Sarcoptes mutans is to be found. At 
a later period the feathers of the head and about the beak 
undergo a remarkable change : they turn back, stand on end, 



ITCH MITES. 307 

CASE and lose their brilliancy: they become white and atrophied 
as if there were some perversion of the secretion of the skin 
of the bulb. At the point where the feather detaches itself 
from the skin, there is found a mass of epidermic matter in a bed 
of the thickness of some miUimetres, and all around are lines or 
burrows formed by the raising of the skin. 

As the malady proceeds, the feathers of the head and upper 
part of the body become atrophied ; their free extremity bends, 
twists, and rolls upon itself, and ends by disappearing in the 
midst of the epidermal products accumulated at the base of 
the quill. The head and neck of the fowl have at that period a 
very peculiar aspect; they are despoiled of all the feathers that 
decorate them in their normal state. The comb is brown with a 
rugged surface, drawn back upon itself, broad at its base and 
spotted with whitish mealy patches. On various parts crusts, of 
some lines in thickness, appear, which, when detached, leave a 
slightly scaly surface, which recalls to mind the disease named 
phthiriasis. The complaint does not always begin on the head. 
It sometimes makes its first approaches on the feet. Similar 
symptoms occur there, but they proceed more slowly, but by-and- 
by the scales on the feet and legs begin to come off, and a crust 
forms upon them, more especially between the toes. Sometimes 
it envelops the whole of the foot and tibia, forming a crust a third 
of an inch in thickness. Bits as large as a hazel nut, or a walnut, 
may be broken off. This [affection has much analogy with the 
Norwegian itch above described. It can be communicated both 
to man and to the horse. 



Genus Psoroptes {Gerv.). (Dermatodectes, Gerlach; 
Dermatokoptes, FiLrst.) 

Palpi soldered to the mandibles, of which there is only one 
pair, which is adapted for piercing and not chelate ; stem of the 
suckers or ambulacra three jointed. 

u 2 



3o8 



ARACHNOIDEA, 



CASE PsoROPTES EQUi {Gerv., Ann. Soc. Nat. 1841), the horse and sheep itch 
^^- insect (Dermatodectes equi, Gei'l. ; Dermatodectes bovis, Gerl. ; Der- 

matodectes ovis, Gerl. ; Dermatokoptes communis, Furst.). — 9. Mag- 
nified sketch of male, upper side. 





Mandibles of Fsoroptes equ 
Copied from Furstenberg's figure. 



Ditto anterior leg and suckers. 
Copied from Furstenberg. 



Furstenberg shoves aside 
the old names with rather too 
much nonchalance. If every- 
one were entitled to change 
a name merely because he 
thought he could give it a 
better or more appropriate 
one, there would be no end 
to new names. Or if every 
time that a specific name was 
picked off, the generic name 
that accompanied it must go 
too, matters would be still 
worse. It seems a very ques- 
tionable step to change the specific name equi into communis, 
merely because the insect has been found on other animals besides 
the horse j and the substitution of his new generic name (Dermato- 




Psoroptes equi. Copied from Furstenberg's figure. 
(Striation on body not sufficiently fine.) 



ITCH MITES. 



309 



CASE koptes) for Psoroptes, or Dermatodectes, seems to be altogether 
without justification, and he offers none. 

The genus is easily characterised. It is not a burrowing mite ; 
and, in accordance with its habits, it has lance-like mandibles 





Pboroptes equi. Two posterior 
legs of male. 



Psoroptes equi. Two of the posteno 
legs of mature female. 



instead of dentate nippers, and the palpi are soldered on each 
side of them, so as to make them form a sort of tube. The jointed 
or telescopic suckers or ambulacra, as they are called, as shown 
above, also easily distinguish it The difference in the sexes is of a 
similar nature to that in Sarcoptes. The above cuts show the 
difference between the two posterior pairs of legs in the mature 
male and female. There are other differences in the immature 
stages. 



3IO ARACHNOIDEA. 

CASE This species occurs most frequently on the horse and sheep ; 
but it is also found on the ox. It is also said sometimes to stray 
to man ; but this is an error. We read, indeed, in Hering, of two 
cases where the itch was transferred from diseased horses to men, 
and others are cited elsewhere ; but as the insect was not 
identified, and the symptoms do not correspond with those 
produced by the Psoroptes equi, it is most probable that the 
horse was only suffering from an attack of Sarcoptes scabiei, 
and communicated it back again to the class from which it 
received it. 

Still the cases are instructive, therefore we quote them. The 
first case is taken from the Italian journals :• — 

" In January, 1820, a farmer, Magni, bought a mangy horse at 
the market in Bergamo (in the province of Mailand), on which he 
rode home. The morning after his arrival he felt a strong itch 
over almost the whole body, as also his son and a friend, who 
had accompanied him from the market. The stable-boy, who 
had to attend to the horse, scratched himself very much the 
following day, as well as another who had worked some hours in 
the field with him. At last more than thirty persons on the 
farm had the itch, as well as some horses, all directly or indirectly 
from this horse. Magni sold the animal to a joiner, who was 
soon attacked; not less so his boy, who had laid his hand on 
the horse's back, and a cow that had rubbed against the collar 
and crib of the horse. It is noticeable that all the individuals 
who were attacked felt the itch in twenty-four or thirty- six hours 
after coming in contact with it; this is the more remarkable as it 
was in January. The itch character of the sores is confirmed by 
credible physicians and surgeons." 

The second instance is related by Sydow, and is to the 
following effect : — 

"In the summer of 1808 we had a horse in our Animal 
Hospital suffering from the so-called Grecian Mange, which is a 
very obstinate disease, and defies the best medical treatment. 



ITCH MITES. 311 

CASE This horse, with the view of seeing the so-called scab mite (Acarus 
exulcerans), was exposed to the sun. The scab on the hide was 
loosened with our hands, and we took a magnifying glass to exa- 
mine the scab with, but saw no scab mites. Then we took some 
of the scab and laid it on white paper, and searched amongst it 
again with the magnifying glass without seeing what we wished, 
but instead, five days after the examination, we had scab pustules 
on both hands. That we could not have got them in any other 
way was certain, and a proof was, that five veterinary surgeons 
besides ourselves were attacked from the same horse." 

In both of these cases (the latter more especially, for the itch 
pustules are mentioned) the mites burrowed in the skin of the 
horse. The way in which the Psoroptes equi proceeds is quite 
different. As already said, the mandibles are not adapted for 
burrowing, but for lancing — and accordingly it makes no burrow. 
It lays its eggs on the skin to which they adhere by a gluey matter. 
The mites themselves move about among the hairs, often crowded 
in great numbers, and they feed by plunging their sharp mandibles 
deep into the skin, and sucking out its juice, although they do not 
and cannot penetrate so deep as to pass through the skin or reach 
the blood. It is thus easy to say whether an itch infection is that 
of the man or the horse mite. Indeed, from experiments made, 
the horse mite does not seem capable of establishing itself 
on man. Specimens have been transplanted on to him, and 
all that he has felt has been a slight uneasiness from the mites 
plunging their mandibles into the skin ; but that soon passed : 
the mites went their way and disappeared, and no itch complaint 
followed. 

On the sheep it is said by M. Delafond to give rise to the 
disease called " black muzzle." The sheep attacked has the skin 
of the face, lips, around the eyes, and the external surface of the 
ears covered with a great quantity of furrows and mangy papillae 
forming thick hard adherent greyish crusts under which the mites 
live and breed, and the fleece falls off in great flakes. 



312 ARACHNOIDEA. 

^xv^ Genus Symbiotes {Gerlach\ (Chorioptes, Gervais ; Sarco-derma- 
todectes, Delafond and Boiirg. ; Dermatophagus, Furst). 

The ground for Furstenberg's cancelling Gerlach's generic name 
here (Symbiotes) is that there is a genus of beetles previously so 
named by Redtenbacher. Purists do not allow such duplication 
of names. The same generic name, they say, should never be 
twice used in the animal kingdom ; but the general world rolls 
on its way, making language as it goes, introducing this new word, 
rendering obsolete that old one, corrupting this and modifying 
that, without regard to critics and grammarians, and they have 
to accept the language, and words thus altered whether they are 
vulgar or genteel, grammatical or ungrammatical. So the scien- 
tific critics and grammarians may rest assured that they must do 
the same thing. Names will acquire currency whether they like it 
or not, and whether they are in accordance with their rules or not, 
and so long as no confusion is produced, it is right that it should 
be so. Names are a mere means to an end, and not the end 
itself. Therefore we say that while we think every author should 
be careful not to introduce a generic name that has previously 
been used in some other branch of zoology, yet when by 
chance a double employment has crept in, it should be allowed 
to stand, unless it is one that may reasonably be thought likely 
to produce confusion. A double employment of the same name 
for a genus of beetles, and for a genus of mites can hardly be 
expected to do so, and therefore we retain the name Symbiotes, 
inadvertently used by Gerlach, in preference to the new Der- 
matophagus proposed to be substituted for it by Furstenberg. 
The mandibles are made on the same principle as those of the 
itch mite of man (Sarcoptes scabiei), being chelate nippers, with 
which it snips its way through the skin, and, having made a raw, 
lives under the scabs or crusts that the serosity oozing from it 
forms. 



ITCH MITES, 



zn 



CASE Symbiotes BOVIS {Gerlach), (Sarcoptes bovis, Hering ; Chorioptes caprse, 
GeJ'vais ; Symbiotes equi, Gerl. ; Sarcodermatodectes capreoe, DelaJ. 
and Boicr. ; Dermatophagus bovis, Ftirst.), — 10. Magnified sketcli of 
male, under side. 

The characters of this genus do not differ greatly from those of 
Sarcoptes. It has only one pair of chelate mandibles, and other 
differences will be seen in the accompanying woodcuts, which 
show the figure of the mite and of its suckers or ambulacra, 
which also furnish a good generic character j in the female the 





Symbiotes bovis. Copied from Fursteiiberg's 

figure. 



Symbiotes bovis, anterior leg- and 
suclcer. Copied from Furstenberg. 



two posterior pairs of legs terminate each in two long bristles. 
The suckers are remarkable for their great development in this 
species. In many other species of mite (as in the Hydrachnidae 
and Hypopi, for example) they are more numerous, but here they 
are larger. There is a large pair at the posterior part of the 
male, and like those of the feet they are bowl- and cup-shaped. 
It really seems as if Nature in making these creatures, had her 
head so full of sucking apparatus that she scattered them about 
in various places out of pure prodigality, and for all sorts of uses 
— for walking, for sitting still, for holding on, and for adhering to 
one another. 



314 



ARACHNOIDEA. 



CASE Delafond and Bourguignon figure this species as the itch mite 
of the goat, but there is no doubt that it is the same as that of 
the goat and ox, and that it is found on all three is due, as in 
the species that infests the tame rabbit, to the frequent and 
close communication between domestic animals. It generally 
attacks the goat about the sides of the neck, behind the 
ears, on the back and loins, the base of the tail, &c. ; but also 
wherever the mite happens to have effected a lodgment. It is 
found also on the horse, attacking it at first about the pasterns. 
It sometimes makes great havoc among goats. Delafond and 
Bourguignon found that in the valley of Prattigau, in the Grisons, 
Switzerland, in the years 1851, 1852, and 1853, out of upwards of 
2500 goats the half was attacked, and 500 died. 



Genus Sarcopterus (Nitzsch). 

Confined to birds. In the two anterior pairs of legs the suckers 
are replaced by claws, and in the posterior pairs by hairs. 

No. II. Sarcopterus nidulans {Nitzsch), {Giebel., Zeitscli. Ges. Natunv. iv. 29).— 
11. Magnified sketch of ditto, copied from Giebel's figure. 

This species, which is 
closely allied to the genus 
Sarcoptes, was first described 
and figured by Nitzsch in 
Ersch and Graben's Ency- 
clop. 1818, I. 249 — after- 
wards by Giebel in his paper 
above quoted. — It was found 
on the lark (Alauda arvensis) 
and green linnet (Fringilla 
chloris). It lives in the skin 
alone, and makes regular 
and irregular thick yellow 
knots, eight lines long by six lines broad. These yellow knots 




Sarcopterus nidulans. Copied from Giebel's fig-ure. 



ITCH MITES. 315 

:ase have a single skin cover, and their contents consist partly of 
yellow debris made by the mites, and partly of a dry white 
mealy mass, composed of eggs and shreds of stripped-ofT skin. 
The body is striated as in the other Sarcoptidse. The embryo 
and young are orange yellow. 

Section II. — Louse Mites infesting the smaller Mammals. 

Genus Myobia {Clap.). 

The next sections of the Sarcoptidae consist of two tribes, 
neither of which burrow under the skin, but merely live on it. One 
of the sections is found on the smaller mammals, and the other 
confined to birds, both of which again may be further subdivided 
into genera. Both sections have been by some referred to the 
genus Dermaleichus, but it will be seen that there are very 
material differences between them. Of those that live on small 
mammals (on which we now enter), some have a styliform suck- 
ing rostrum, and these, no doubt, live by sucking the juices of the 
skin, while others are provided with minute mandibles, and these 
must therefore feed by browsing either upon the fur or the skin of 
their hosts. To the former sort belongs the genus Myobia; to 
the latter, Listrophorus and Myocoptes. Both sections exhibit 
remarkable modifications of various parts to suit their special con- 
ditions of life. 

Nos. Myobia musculi (Pediculus muris musculi) Schrank, (Myobia coarctata, 
"''^' Heyden).—\2, Magnified sketch of male ; 13. Ditto of female. Both 

taken from figures in Claparede's Studien an Acariden. 

The woodcuts show the form of this species, both young and 
full grown, and of its mouth and anterior legs. The latter are con- 
verted into thick stumps, so near the mouth that they may be 
mistaken for palpi, with a curious flexible twisted clasping appa- 
ratus at their termination, by which the mite holds on to the 
hairs of its host. Consequently the species is so transmogrified 
that it appears only to have six legs ; but the figure of the 



3i6 



ARACHNOIDEA. 



CASE young shows as if // had only four legs, and the position of the 
claspers sufficiently proves that these in reality are the anterior 





Myobia musculi (young). 
Copied from Claparfede's figure. 



Myobia musculi (female) 
Copied from Clapar^de. 




Ditto, mouth and anterior legs more highly magnified. 
Copied from Clapar^de, 




Ditto, tarsus and claw, 

posterior leg. 
Copied from Clapar^de. 



legs. The tarsi of the other legs have no suckers, but a long thin 
feeble claw. 



LOUSE MITES, 317 

,\ASE This species, according to Claparede, is almost entirely con- 
fined to the house mouse. He on one occasion, but only once, 
met with two examples on the field mouse. He notices a 
curious fact regarding the distribution of it, and Myocoptes 
musculinus on mice, which cannot fail to remind the reader of 
the assignment of two different species of lice respectively to the 
head and body of man. He says that this distribution in mice is 
regular to a degree. The Myobia musculi lives only upon the 
snout, the head, round about the ears, and, in an exceptional way, 
down towards the throat, but scarcely ever further down. The 
Myocoptes, on the contrary, confine themselves almost entirely 
to the abdominal region, although sometimes they wander to the 
back and sides. Usually there exists a somewhat broad neutral 
region or zone which separates them from one another; where 
no parasites are to be found. This species is more easily found 
than the other, because of its greater size ; in this respect 
reversing the rule with the Pediculi on man, when the smallest 
species is found on the head, and the largest lives on the body. 

Genus Otonyssus {Kolenati, Kentniss der Arach. in Sitz. Zool. 
Bot. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 1858, p. 69). 

This genus was founded by Kolenati for a type of acarids that 
seem specially told off for living on the ears of bats. While 
placing it among the Pteroptidse he seems to have regarded it as 
a link between the Dermanyssi and them, and it certainly has 
some of the characters of each. It has the sac-like body of 
the Dermanyssi, and at least one character of the Pteroptidse, 
the possession of bristles formed after the fashion of those of 
that genus, that is, jointed like the hairs of the bats themselves; 
and if we had nothing to go by but the details given by Kolenati, 
we should have been greatly puzzled where to place them if not 
where he has. But we have the advantage of an exhaustive 
account, and very careful facsimile sketches in all its parts of a 
species which we cannot doubt to belong to this genus, published 



3iS 



ARACHNOIDEA, 



CASE -by Dr. Maddox in the Monthly Micro. Journ., 1871, obtained 
from the ears of a pipistrel from Scotland, and from these we 
see that Kolenati has fallen into error on some important points. 
He was one of the curators of the museum at Vienna, and it is 




Magnified hair of English bat. 
Copied from Queckeit. 



Magnified hair from the body of Otonyssus 
ticholasius. Copie from Kolenati. 



not unreasonable to conjecture that he got most of his species of 
bat-mites from the dead or dried specimens of bats in the museum, 
which, of course, are less favourable for accurate observation than 
fresher specimens. Whatever be the cause, however, he 
V I has fallen into the mistake of saying that the legs of 

\y this genus are eight-jointed when they are only five- 
jointed ; its palpi four-jointed when they are only three- 
jointed, and figures them as projecting instead of lying 
close to the mandibles; and the other parts of the mouth, 
as described by him, are not recognisable when com- 
pared with those figured by Dr. Maddox. The reader 
may say '' They cannot be the same." So we thought at 
first 3 but after studying them again and again, and find- 
ing that they agreed in every point on which error was 
difficult, and only differed on those where error was 
^ol otonjFs!'!'' easy, we have come to the conclusion that they are the 
copied'from samc, and that Kolenati's description is not so accurate 

Kolenati. 

as that of Maddox. The place of their occurrence is 



LOUSE MITES, 319 

CASE the same; their form and general appearance the same; they 
are transversely striated like the Sarcoptidse ; both bear a number 
of feathered bristles like those of Glyciphagiis ; they have a 
somewhat similar disposition of claws — no caruncles — but a long 
one with two short ones, while Myobia has a long one with 
hairs approaching to spines, and the same form of legs, for 
Kolenati figures a part of the leg, and that corresponds with 
Dr. Maddox's, and both have the mandibles chelate. Kolenati 
indeed speaks of a "pelotte," by which we understand a caruncle, 
but his enlarged figure shows none. Maddox does not figure, 
and no doubt did not observe the Pteroptine hairs figured by 
Kolenati from his. species ; but they may have been there not- 
withstanding. 

With such remarkable coincidences in unusual points of structure 
it seems more likely that Kolenati has erred in regarding the number 
of joints in the legs as the same as that of the Pteroptidae and 
Dermanyssi with which he placed them, than that there should be 
two types with the same unusual points of structure on the bat ; 
the one with eight joints to the legs, and the other with five. It is 





Tarsus of Otonyssus. Leg of Otonyssus. 

Copied from Kolenati. Copied from Maddox. 

not difficult to see how this error may have originated. The last 
joint in Dr. Maddox's figure of the leg is very long, and it has 
more than one projection, which might easily be taken for the 
margin of a joint, which would make the last joint short like 
Kolenati's. As regards the difference in the number of joints of 
the palpi, that may be merely a difference in the mode of calcu- 
lation ; Kolenati reckoning the basal elevation, from which they 
start, as a joint, which we do not; and their projecting away 



320 



ARACHNOIDEA, 




CASE from the mandibles may be an error of the draughtsman, 
produced by attempting to show them more clearly. 

Accepting then Dr. Maddox's 
species as belonging to the genus 
Otonyssus, and taking his charac-' 
ters as the true ones where they 
are positive, and ignoring cha- 
racters not mentioned on either 
Palpus of otonyssus stichoiasius. side, wc find that the Only family 

Copied from Kolenati's figure. i • i ,1 -t 

which possesses the same charac- 
ters is the Sarcoptidae. The five-jointed legs, the three-jointed 
adpressed palpi, the mouth with a camerostome, and the striated 
surface, all are characters of that family and that family only, 
and the form of the legs and claws are those of the section of 
it to which the mouse-parasite Myobia belongs. It holds out 
a hand to the Pteroptidse in the form of its hairs, and to Glyci- 
phagus in that of its bristles, and it may be the connecting link 
between them and the true Sarcoptidse respectively, although it 
may be said that there is no more reason why Otonyssus should 
be alHed to Pteroptus because they have got hairs on the same 
plan, than that both or either should be allied to the bats them-' 
selves, which have them too. 

We have said that its mouth has the camerostome of the Sar- 
coptidas \ but this gives rise to a question that has puzzled us a 
good deal, namely, the true meaning of Dr. Maddox's figure of 
the mouth. We have given an exact copy of it so that the reader 
can judge for himself whether we interpret it aright. In the first 
place Dr. Maddox has not said whether the mouth is represented 
from above or below ; but the context and a portion of the back 
figured along with it (which, we have not thought it necessary to 
reproduce), shew that it is meant to represent it as seen from 
above. But if so it seems to us physically impossible that it can 
be correct. It makes the opening of the mouth to lie upwards, 
although the beast sticks on, and feeds venti'e a ferre, and it puts 



LOUSE MITES. 



c^SE the maxillae before the mandibles, which is as bad as if we were 
to put our lips behind our teeth. According to our view, the 




Mouth of Otonyssus sticholasius. 
Copied from Maddox. 




Ditto, more liighly magnified. 



figure shews the mouth as looked at from beneath, or as if tiie 
animal were lying on its back and we were looking down its 
throat. That Dr. Maddox looked at it from above we do not 
doubt, but w^e imagine that in looking through them he has 
been deceived as to the perspective of the parts. It is to be 
remembered that we are looking at the mouth of a creature only 
a fifty-eighth of an inch in length and whose tissues are trans- 
parent. Moreover, Dr. Maddox tells us that his specimens were 
not examined in Hfe, but after being in glycerine and spirits of 
wine and then treated with liquor of potass, and the laxity of the 
tissues, after being in it and the great displacement that occurs in 
neighbouring parts from slight compression, almost prevent the 
possibility of assigning to each the proper position, while in the 
natural state being often covered with exudation from the wound 
that the parasite itself has made and filled with dense grumous 
matter, exactitude in the description is by no means easy. Dr. 
Maddox has little reason to complain, for the drawing of the 
parts generally is admirable ; but in this instance we think he has 
failed to recognise the relative depth at which the different parts 
of the mouth stood from his eye. We would correct his reading 

X 



322 ARACHNOIDEA. 

^icv^ of his figure as follows : He calls the large curved claspers the 
superior maxillae, (his nomenclature is more anatomical than en- 
tomological) by which he no doubt means the mandibles (a term 
he does not use) and the small hooks in the middle front of all the 
inferior maxillae. We regard the latter as the. mandibles and the 
former as metamorphosed maxillae; and it is to be said in support of 
this view, that in the genus Listrophorus which also has a part of 
the mouth metamorphosed into a clasper that part is the maxillae 
too. The central shred of membrane in front of these small 
hooks he calls the lingua (ligula), we should call it part of the 
camerostome ; as to what we regard as the palpi on each side, he 
simply styles them two short conical chelicerse supporting a long 
bifid claw. The species described by Dr. Maddox sticks on to 
the ear of the bat so .firmly that they had to-be detached by force, 
and they appear to fix themselves by the mouth or head sticking 
to one spot, and by their presence causing a considerable amount 
of mischief and inducing much congestion and thickening of the 
tissue beneath. Dr. Maddox figures the swollen spaces around 
their point of adhesion. All the specimens that he saw were six- 
footed, and he argued ftom so many as fifty being present that 
they surely could not all be immature. Kolenati's specimens 
were also six-footed, but he nevertheless regards them as mature, 
and speaks of a blank being left between the second and fourth 
pair of legs for the appearance of the absent pair which he 
assumes to be the third. In this he is misled by assuming that 
they belong to the Dermanyssi ; the system observed in all the 
other known instances of the later appearance of an absent pair 
of legs, is opposed to their being the third. These are invariably 
the fourth pair and take their place behind all the rest, and the 
blank of which he speaks after the second pair is merely a 
character common to all the Sarcoptidae, although not to the 
Dermanyssi. We do not exactly gather whether Kolenati ever 
saw any with four pairs of legs. He says something that would 
seem to infer at least that such have been met with : " hitherto all 



LOUSE MITES. 325 

CASE the species of ear mites have been to me six-footed, very rarely 
eight-footed have been met with." If they are the young of any 
other bat parasite, with eight legs, we are at least not able to 
indicate its probable parent. 

Otonyssus sticholasius {Kole7t., Sitz. Akad. Wissench. Wien, 1858, 
p. 73. Acarus sp. Maddox in Monthly Microsc. Jour., 1871, p. 144). 

This species has been obtained by Kolenati from the pipistrel, 
and it seems to be the same as the species seen and so well 
•described by Dr. Maddox. One of Kolenati's specific characters 





Otonyssus sticholasius. Copied from Kolenat.. Ditto, copied from Maddox. 

of it is that his species has four transverse rows of four or five 
bristles each on its back. In this it agrees with the species of 
Dr. Maddox. They differ however slightly in colour, that of the 
latter being brown while Kolenati's is deep cherry red, which 
may probably be due to the difference in freshness or degree of 
digestion of the contained food. 

On the pipistrel — Austria. Scotland. 

Kolenati describes five other species of Otonyssus from the ears 
of different bats. 

Genus Peplonyssus {Kolen. Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 1858, p. 74). 
This is a genus nearly allied to the preceding and which has 
been styled the top shaped mites by Kolenati. He says that the 
legs are eight-jointed, which we presume must be an error because 
of its obvious affinity to the preceding, and from his description 
of the legs and claws being the same as of its allies, but we have 

X 2 



324 ARACHNOIDEA. 

CASE never seen any of the species, and merely hazard its location here 
^^' as a probable conjecture. He has described six species, and 
we copy his figures of two of them. The bristles or hairs are 
somewhat pecuHar, varying in each species, but apparently of the 
same type in all. From the figures the texture of the skin would 
appear to be transversely striated as in the preceding genus, 
although this is not specially mentioned by Kolenati. 

Peplonyssus seminulum {Kolenati, Sitz. Akad. Wissen. Wien, 1858, p. 75)-. 
Yellowish brown. From the ears and skin of Nycteris thebaica^ 
in Egypt. 





P.plonyssus seminulum. Copied from ^"P^°"^'''"' S'lTati ^"P'^'^^'^^"* 

Kolenati. o-oo2 Parisian metres in length. ^.^^^3 p^^.^.^^ .^^j^^^ j^ ^^^^^^^ 

Peplonyssus pagurus {Kolen., loc. cit. p. 78), 

Yellowish brown. On Rhinopoma microphyllum, GeofFr., iii 
Egypt. 

Genus Listrophorus {Pagenstecher). 

The Listrophori are another type of parasitic mites found upon 
small mammals. Claparede speaks as if they were confined to the 
rodents such as field mice, but it would appear not to be wholly so. 
We have specimens of Listrophorus gibbus from the ferret, and 
another species from the polecat ; and seeing that these beasts of 
prey must often feed on field mice, it is not very difficult to imagine 
that they may more or less frequently be invaded by their parasites. 

This genus furnishes a scarcely less remarkable instance of 
modification of structure to purpose than Myobia. In Listro- 
phorus the maxillae are transformed into two flexible shovels or 



LOUSE MITES. 



325 



CASE claspers, as shown in the woodcut, with which the creature clasps 
the hair of the mammal on which it lives. 





Mouth of Listrophorus Leuckarti, 
Copied from Claparede. 



Leg^ of ditto. 
Ditto. 



From the general resemblance of the snout to that of Myo- 
_ coptes, which we figure below, it is probably formed on the same 
P plan, although we do not know that it has been actually de- 
ciphered. Full details of their structure are given by Pagenstecher, 
(loc. cit.) and especially by Claparede in his Studien an Acareden^ 

No. x4r Listrophorus gibbus {Fagenst., Zeitschr. fur Wiss. Zool. XI., 156).— 14 
Magnified sketch of ditto, copied from Pagensteclier's figure. 





Listrophortis g:ibbu<!. Very minute. Copied 
from Pagenste Cher's figure. 



LlStropho'us Ifcuckarti. Very minute. 
Copied from Claparede. 



Found on field-mice and in England on the ferret. 

J«'c. IS- Listrophorus leuckarti {Pagenst., Zeitschr. f. Wiss. Zool. XI. 109).— 
15. Magnified sketch of ditto, copied from Claparede's figuie. 

Found on mice. 

Genus Myocoptes {Clap., Zeitschr. f. Wiss. Zool. XVIII.). 

This genus supplies the bridge which leads us to the Bird-loiise- 



326 



ARACHNOIDEA. 



CASE mites, and has much of their appearance, although also much of 

XV. ' 

that of the foregoing mouse-mites. 

Nos. Myocoptes IMUSCULINUS (Pediculus muris nmsculi, Schrank. ; Dermaleichu& 

'^' ^7' musculinus, Koch). — 16. Magnified sketch of male and female insects. 

17. Ditto of female. Both copied from Claparede's figures. 





Myocoptes musculinus (male), very minute. 
Copied from ClapavMe. 



Myocoptes musculinus (female). 
Ditto. 





Ditto, seen from in front. Copied from Claparede. Ditto, mouth. 

Koch, in describing this species, says that it is not abundant, 
M. Claparede at Geneva found it very much the reverse. Every 
mouse without exception swarmed with them in great numbers, 
and under two forms, for the male differs from the female very 
much. Koch appears only to have known the female. This mite 
Claparbde found also here and there upon Hypudaeus arvalis, and 
still more numerously upon the shrew-mouse. We have already 
noticed under Myobia the peculiar limitation of this species ta 
the body of the mouse, while Myobia is assigned to tTie head. 



BIRD LOUSE MITES. 327 

Section III. — Louse-Mites infesting Birds. 

Genus Dermaleichus {Koch). (Analgcs, Nitzsch). 

There is no doubt as to the place of this section, although 
the striation or wrinkling of the skin is so fine that it requires 
a good microscope to see it. We are, however, somewhat in 
doubt whether its right name should be Dermaleichus or Analges. 
General consent has approved the name Dennaleichus, which 
was proposed for it by Koch, as a genus of Sarcoptidse in 
1S39; but we see from a note by Claparede, in his " Studien 
an Acariden," that while he adopts the name Dermaleichus, 
he considers that the priority belongs to Analges, a name given 
to the genus by Nitzsch. We cannot lay our hands on Nitzsch's 
notice, but the name is again brought forward by Giebel in 
1 87 1, in a paper in the ''Zeitsch. Gesam. Naturw., iv.," where 
he describes and notices seventeen species parasitic on various 
birds. His application of the name Analges is confined to 
Bird-mites that feed on feathers ; but, as we believe they all 
do so, it follows that Analges and Dermaleichus, as restricted 
to birds, are synonymous terms for the same thing. In the 
previous year (1870), Buckholz had described and figured a 
still larger number under the name Dermaleichus ("Verh. L. 
C. Ges., XXXV., 1870"). The number of species is very great, 
almost every bird having a distinct species allotted to it, and 
some two or three ; almost every collection has a number of un- 
described species ; and no general monograph of them has yet 
been attempted. We were in hopes that this would have been 
done by Professor Robin, the most competent authority ; for in 
1868, he gave an account of his observations on mites infesting 
jirds, a preliminary resume of which appeared in the " Comples 
Rendus," Ixvi., but we have waited with impatience for its further 
publication, which has not yet taken place. He proposes four 
new genera — Pterolichus, Pteronyssus (type Dermaleichus 



328 



ARACHNOIDEA. 



CASE picinus), Proctophyllodes (type D. glandarinus), and Pterodectes, 
but the characters are still to follow. He found that the males 
pass through four, and the females through five stages — the egg, 
the hexapod larva, the octopod larva or nymph without sexual 
organs, sexual males or females without external sexual organs, 
and sexual and fecundated females. These two last stages explain 
the meaning of a fact, that had been previously observed, that in 
Dermaleichus there were two forms of females. There is very 
considerable difference in form between the sexes, the male 
being the largest, and often being provided with monstrous and 
exaggerated limbs, especially the third pair. There is also much 
difference between some of the species, although others are very 
close to each other. Some idea of these differences may be 
gathered from the species that we have represented in the case, 
and from the accompanying woodcuts. 

Dermaleichus bifidus {Buckhoh, loc. cit.) 




a„/. 




Dermaleichus bifidus ( nale). 
Copied from Buckhclz. 



Ditto (female). 



Nos. Dermaleichus, S_p. From the rook.— 18. Magnified sketch of male 
*^' '> Ditto of female. 



19 



BIRD LOUSE MITES. 



329 



CASE Dermaleichus pici majoris {BtickhoJz). From the greater woodpecker. — 
^^- 20. Magnified sketch of male; 21. Ditto of female. Copied from 

20, 21. Buckholz's figures. 



No. 22. Dermaleichus chelopus {Herm. ; D. passerinus, JiToc/i). From the 
sparrow. — 22. Magnified sketch of male. 





Dermaleichus chelopus (male). 



Ditto (female). 



This is very like, although in some respects it slightly differs 
from, the Acarus passerinus of Koch ; but these discrepancies are 
probably only differences in maturity, or drawing. 



Genus Incert^ sedis. 

Demodex folliculorum {Simon, Owen, &c.) — 23. Magnified sketch of 
bulb of a human hair, with the sebaceous follicle attached, in the tube 
of which a minute speck represents the insect ; 24. Magnified sketch of 
the insect. 

This minute animal which is from i-5oth to i-iooth of an inch 
in length, is a parasite that lives in the sebaceous sacs and hair 
follicles of the human skin. Considerable difference of opinion 
has existed amongst naturalists as to its proper place in the 
animal kingdom — but there seems little doubt that it is an Acarid, 
although the mode of articulation of its thorax is anomalous. 



33'^ 



ARACHNOIDEA. 




CASE Professor Owen considers that it represents the lowest organised 
form of the class Arachnidae and that it makes a transition from the 
Anellids to the higher articulates. If an Acarid it comes nearer the 
Sarcoptidse than any other, and we have thought the present as 
proper a place as we could find for it. Still we own that it comes in 
awkwardly, and as Dean Swift once said, if the judicious reader can 

assign it a fitter place, we do 
here empower him to remove 
it into any other corner he 
pleases. The more important 
points of affinity are the struc- 
ture of the mouth which is 
suctorial, the transversely stri- 
ated skin, and its larval de- 
velopment. The latter is 
hexapod. 

Its habits are in some re- 
spects similar to those of some 
of the Sarcoptidse. It is not 
a normal inhabitant of the 
hair follicles or sebaceous 
glands, but appears to make its way into them from without. 

Either the same or an allied species has been found in the 
contents of the pustules of a mangy dog, when they occurred in 
such abundance that thirty or forty were frequently seen in a 
single drop of pus. It has not been discovered whether the 
insect had anything to do with originating the mange, or had 
merely taken advantage of its previous existence to establish 
itself in the pustules, nor does it appear whether the instance 
referred to was an isolated case or not (see Owen's Lectures on 
Invert Comp. Anatomy, 2nd ed., p. 444). 

In 1872 Pennetier described a species which he named D. 
caninus (Bull. Soc. Rouen), which is probably the same as the 
above. 




Demodex folliculorum. 
Copied from Owen's figure. 



Ditto in bulb and sebaceous 
follicle of human hair. 



GALL MITES. 



Sub-Family PHYTOPTIDyE. (Gall Mites.) 

This is a most abnormal and exceptional group, which has 
puzzled and continues to puzzle entomologists more than have 
any of the other mites, difficult as it is to determine the true 
affinities and place of some of them. We think that this is its 
proper place, but we speak with bated breath and becoming diffi- 
dence. We shall presently explain the different positions that 
have been or may be assigned to them, with the reasons for or 
against their adoption. But we must first let the reader know 
what the Phytopti are, and something about their peculiarities and 
mode of life. 

Most of our readers must have noticed curious galls, excres- 
cences or growths, upon the leaves or other parts of various plants. 
These are produced by various kinds of insects; and the dis- 
covery of the species of insect by which they are produced has 
occupied the attention of entomologists ever since entomology 
became a science. Many of themx are not difficult of determina- 
tion, in this respect, that, if they are cut open, a single grub is 
usually found to be inhabiting the gall which could be referred 
to the particular family with whose larvae the tenant corresponded^ 
these being all pretty well known ; or, to make perfectly sure, the 
perfect insect could be bred from the gall. The larvae in such 
galls are usually solitary ; or, when the gall contains more than one 
individual, each individual occupies a separate cell in the gall. 
There are some growths, however, which look like galls, and 
some which look like dust or powder, the origin of which has 
puzzled naturalists, because, whether shaped like a gall or not, 
no grub was to be found; and, in its absence, they jumped 
to the conclusion that they were cryptogamic growths or minute 
fungi. This idea once received, botanists took them under 
their charge and described the various kinds under the name 
of Erineum, etc. Subsequent discoveries, however, have shown 



332 



ARACHNQIDEA 



CASE that these species of Erineum, in almost every case, are growths 
or products caused by some species of the small mite which 
we have now under consideration; a mite so small and some- 
times so crystalline and transparent (as in the Phytoptus of the 
ash for example) that it cannot be seen in the gall at all, and 
it is only by washing out the galls and searching for them in the 
water in which they have been washed that it can be known that 





Leaf of lime-tree bearing nail-ffalls (work of a mite). 



Section of nail-gall of lime leaf. 



there has been a living creature there at all. The first step 
towards a knowledge of them was made nearly a hundred and 
€fty years ago, by Reaumur, the celebrated French entomologist. 
There sometimes occurs on the leaf of the Hme-tree a number 
of upright projecting small growths, varying from green through 
red to brown in colour, and which look very much as if a 



GALL MITES, 333 

CASE number of small tacks had been driven throupjli the leaf from 

Xv'i. 

the under side, whence it was named either by him or others 
the lime-leaf nail-gall. Now this nail-gall, when cut open and 
examined, usually appears empty of any living inhabitants, not 
empty in itself, but filled with a mass of fine vegetable hairs of the 
nature of those that cover the under side of the leaf, but longer, 
and exaggerated in size and number. Reaumur, like many others, 
for long examined hundreds of these galls without finding any in- 
sect in them ; but he records that at last he found that his failure 
was due to his searching for them too late; and that, when he sub- 
sequently examined them at an earlier stage while they were still 
green, he found insects in almost every gall examined. He adds^ 
that he never saw more than one in each ; although there was an 
appearance as if they might be in company ; and he describes thems 
as long j under a strong glass not appearing thicker than the stalk 
of a small pin. They were yellowish, like the interior of the gall. 
"WTiat makes them more difficult to find, says he, is that they do 
not like to walk. " I often saw one, but was uncertain whether 
it was a grub or not, until it pleased to put itself in motion. It is> 
towards the base of the gall that we find them : when the galls g<tt 
old, some opening or crack takes place, by which mites and 
strange insects introduce themselves. I have seen, for example^ 
mites ensconced there." It is now ascertained that mites are not 
only ensconced there, but are the makers of the gall ; and 
Reaumur's observations had been quoted to show that it was 
them that he discovered. We cannot agree with this : the closing 
words of his remarks which we have quoted seem to show that he 
was perfectly alive to the distinction between a mite and a small 
grub ; and although Reaumur might be, and probably was correct 
in assigning the early time of these galls as the date when their 
makers were to be found inside, yet, we believe the grubs that he 
saw were not themselves Phytopti, but possibly some carnivorous 
larvae that had come in to feed upon them. We suspect he never 
saw the Phytopti themselves, for he only found one grub in each 



334 ARACHNOIDEA. 

CASE gall j whereas, wherever Phytopti do occur, it is not in single file, 
but in battalions. Besides, they are so very small that we doubt 
very much, if only one were put inside a nail-gall, whether 
we could find it again in such a comparatively spacious hall 
Moreover he speaks of the cottony hairs filling up the interior. 
It is true that, where he does so, he is speaking of his inefi'ectual 
search for them, and its absence may have escaped his notice 
when he found the grub ; but if phytopti were feeding in the gall, 
the hairs would have been mowed down. We never saw hairs, or, 
at all events, long crowded hairs, or indeed anything but their 
remains, in mite-galls in which Phytopti were present ; and we 
saw Phytopti in mite galls in which hairs were abundant. 

We may also in passing correct the misconception which 
Reaumur has expressed as to a crack taking place in the gall. 
Strictly speaking, the mite-galls are not galls in the sense of 
being enclosed portions of vegetable tissue in the midst of which 
the larva lives. They are merely abnormal thickened growths of 
a portion of the leaf; and the thickening being unequal, usually 
greatest on the upper side of the leaf, it there expands like a 
round gall while the under side is drawn up in the interior like 
the open mouth of a purse. By this character, mite-galls ctcH 
always be known : they always have an opening leading into them, 
and generally from the under side or margin of the leaf. The 
importance of this distinction will be more evident when it is 
remembered that there is nothing to hinder galls made by other 
insects from assuming a form similar to the growths caused by 
mite-galls ; and, in point of fact, some of them are remarkably 
alike : for example, we have above given a figure of the lime-leaf 
covered by nail-galls made by a mite ; and here is that of a North 
American vine-leaf covered by similar nail-galls (called by American 
entomologists the trumpet grape gall) made by a Cecidomyia (a 
small gnat-like fly). They look identical, and any one would 
naturally expect that they were both made by a like architect ; 
but sections of them respectively show that the former has an 



GALL MITES. 



335 



CASE opening to tke interior from the under side of the leaf, while the 
latter has none, but is a closed sack. 




Leaf of American vine bearings trumpet g'alls (work of a 
Cecidorayia). Copied from Mr. Riley's figure. 



Section of ditto, drawn ironi 
description. 



But to return to the history of the discovery of the makers of 
these gails : Whether Reaumur saw them or not, at least no one 
else did for about too years after. About 1832 and 1834, how- 
ever, the publication of M. Duges' valuable papers on the classifi- 
cation of the Acaridse to which we have already had so often to 
refer, gave an impulse to their study, which led to fresh discoveries; 
and M. Turpin observed in the nail-galls of the lime-leaf, a quan- 
tity of very minute semi-transparent fleshy mites of a new and 
hitherto unknown form — a narrow creature with two pairs of small 
legs at its head, and some kind of sucker apparatus at its tail, on 
which it rests and raises itself, swaying about its body. He 
regarded it as a species of Sarcoptes. 

The different views enunciated on each successive discovery by 



336 ARACHNOIDEA, 

CASE the best authorities are very instructive, and the reader will there- 
fore excuse our going a little into detail regarding it. 

*M. Duges, then, the first authority of the time upon mites, 
remarked in two papers upon M. Turpin's discovery. In his first 
observations, he mentions that M. Turpin's drawings were un- 
fortunately not pubHshed, and he only knew his descriptions from 
insufficient extracts ; but, from some verbal explanations which 
he had received from him, he had learned that it was not by a 
complete analysis of the mouth that this distinguished naturalist 
had formed his diagnosis, which besides, even although made, 
must still have been very uncertain. M. Duges had then himself 
set to work to find M. Turpin's mite, but failed, altho' he met with 
some Tetranychus teliarius laying their eggs at the very door or 
entrance of the galls \ and he then suggests that it may have been 
its offspring that M. Turpin had seen, acknowledging at the same 
time that M. Geoffrey St. Hilaire, who had seen M. Turpin's 
drawings, could find no identity between it and the specimens of 
Tetranychus teliarius shown him by M Duges. 

Not long aftenvards, however, M. Duges was more successful in 
his search. Abundant rains had fallen, and he profited by the 
first fine days in searching on the black poplar for the galls said 
to occur on it, and he found some on the white willow, but not 
on the poplar. These were smaller, rounder than those of the 
lime; green or reddish, and covered with down outside : they pro- 
ject on the upper and under side of the leaf, but more on the 
upper side. Like those of the lime, they open un> erneath by a 
hole, which is obstructed by the villose filaments which are 
found inside. In the interior, however, these filaments were less 
abundant ; and there he easily found, in great numbers, the mites 
of M. Turpin. He again searched and found them also in the galls 
of the lime. As to the more advanced galls, he found the walls 
often quite covered with these supposed Sarcoptes : they were 
very small, whitish, vermiform; and, as he supposed, very probably 
one of those which Reaumur speaks of having noticed, and which 



GALL MLTES. 



137 



CASE he said, with reason, were scarcely to be distinguished from the 
vegetable filaments but for their movements. No doubt, says he, 
it was the outer form or habitus of this animalcule that induced 





Sa'low leaves with galls produced by I'tiycoptus salicis. 



Section of sallow mite gaii. 



Latreille to refer it to Sarcoptes when M. Turpin furnished him 
with his drawings ; but a more minute research, although very diffi- 
cult by reason of the excessive smallness of the animal, showed :~ 
first, that the conical sucker was flanked by two thick short ap- 
pendiculated palpi, similar to those of Tetranychus ; secondly, 
from this sucker there sometimes (once) came out by compression 
a curved plate or blade, narrow and long ; thirdly, the feet were 
in seven parts, ot which the third, or the thigh, was the thickest 
and longest, and the seventh on the contrary much reduced, 
very short and probably terminated by two claws, but certainly 
not by a caruncle. Thus, if the form of the palpi, the mandibles 
and feet, were considered, he said this mite ought to be classed 



338 ARACHNOIDEA. 

^SE in the family of the Trombidiidae, near Tetranychus ; or again 
the number of feet would prove that it was only a larva and 
not a perfect mite, because there were only two pairs, and the 
other larvae have usually one more. But if that were so whence 
came the eggs that were also found in the galls? He felt no 
doubt that they were deposited by adult individuals, who had 
come there to lay their eggs. The free entrance to these galls 
would allow them to come in, just as it would allow insects 
newly arrived at maturity to go out. The latter point he proved 
by the following facts : — first, that many of these little beings 
were seen to become motionless, changed into elongated pupas, 
in which the body was already seen to contract, abandoning the 
extremities of its cutaneous case ; secondly, two or three times 
small mites with eight feet had been seen in the galls, white, 
short and agile, having all the characteristics (palpi and feet) of 
Tetranychus. Now and then, these little things resembled per- 
fectly the larger reddish Tetranychus, which had been found 
several times in the large galls. These Tetranychus were not at 
all of the same species as those on the lime, which live on the 
back of the same leaves with their eggs and young. They were 
of a much smaller shape, and differed in some details of form and 
in the greenish colour of the one, and light red of the other. 

In conclusion he acknowledges that a good deal of doubt rests 
upon the supposed affinities either with Sarcoptes or Tetranychus ; 
and even upon the share they have in the production of the galls 
they live in. 

Along with these remarks M. Duges gave a figure of the mite 
he found, which quite corresponds with those of subsequent 
authors. 

The next step was made by M. Dujardin, in 185 1, when he 
also detected the same mites in the nail-gall of the lime-leaf, and 
published an account of them with a figure more highly magnified 
than that of M. Duges. Under higher power, the body of the 
mite is seen to be transversely striated -, but it is time that the 



GALL MITES. 
^ASE reader should see a representation of this curious creature 



339 



The 



accompanying woodcuts shew it respectively as it appears under a 
moderately strong lens, and under a higher power, and the smaller 
figure that looks as if it were casting its skin, is a copy of a figure 
of an individual supposed to be young, given by Professor 
Westwood. Up to this time it had always been taken for 
granted, that these mites must be the larvae of some other mite. 
They had only four legs, instead of the full complement of eight, 







rhytoptus salicis, as it 
appears when mode- 
rately magnified. 



Phytoptus tiliK, after Dujardin. 



Young of Phytoptus ribis. 
Copied from VVestwood's figfure ; 
possibly only the insect in pro- 
cess of casting its skin. 



and consequently it was assumed must be larvae. But it was over- 
looked that no larval form of mite had ever previously been found 
in which the legs were fewer than six : consequently, if these 
were larvae, they were larvae of some new type, and the difficulty 
of placing them was all the greater. M. Dujardin was alive to 
this; and, on careful examination, he thought he saw, through 
the semi-transparent skin, appearances of eggs within the body 
of some of them. He consequently regarded them as a new 
type of mite which he called Phytoptus. 

If he is right in thinking the bodies he saw to be eggs, the 
mites must either be fourfooted in their mature stage, or the 
young must have the power of reproduction before attaining it, 
a power which no doubt does exist in some types of insects. 
The woodcut is a copy of Dujardin's figure with the supposed eggs 



Y 2 



340 



ARACHNOIDEA. 



CASE 
XVI. 



in them. We have never seen them in the mite of the hme-leaf 
nail-gall, because we have never been lucky enough to detect 
mites there at all ; but, in other Phytopti, they are easily enough 
seen, and the impression left on our mind is in favour of their 
being eggs. It is not so with all observers, however, and notably 
it is opposed to the views of the author, M. A. Scheuten, who 
makes the next important contribution to the history of the 
Phytopti, and which if correct should settle the question of their 
true nature and affinity. 

M. Scheuten's account of his observations was published in 





Phytoptus pyii. 

(Typhlodroiuus pyri of Scheuten.) 

Copied from his figure. 



Gamasus sp. Copied from Sch<'Uten, 
who supposed it to be the perlect 
insect oi I'yphlod.-onjus pyii. 



Wiegman's "Archiv" for 1857, and translated into our own 
Annals and Magazine of Natural History in the same year. The 
leaves of the pear trees in his garden were attacked by black 
pustular inflated spots, under the epidermis of which he found 
the species of Phytoptus, which he named Typhlodromus pyri. 
On examining a large number of spotted leaves in his garden, 
in which all the pear trees were similarly attacked (one tree 
having a third of its leaves affected), he always found the same 
four-footed larvse in the interior of the leaves, and, in most cases, 
on the exterior a species of eight-legged mite, which he took to be 
the perfect form of the Phytoptus. He gives figures of these, 
and from them it is plain that the so-called larva is a Phytoptus, 




GALL MITES. 341 

CASE and the supposed perfect form a Gamasus. These are here shown. 
But, beyond the fact that he found these mites at times in the 
vicinity of each other, one within the gall and the other without 
it, he gives no explanation how he arrived at his conclusion. 
To be sure, we cannot expect very close evidence of the progress 
of development in such minute ani- 
mals ; but something better than mere 
contiguity or proximity should be given. 
There is not even similarity or analogy 
in any of the parts. He thinks, indeed, 
that he saw the half-developed larva, 
and gives a figure of it, which we here 
copy; but the reader will see that this FigureofaHypopus.badiy drawn. 

Supposed by Scheuten to be the un- 

is only a badly seen and badly drawn '^^'^ copied ftomsciTeuten-s^^^^ 
figure of a Hypopus. 

It is to be remarked, however, that in another species, called 
by him Flexipalpus tiliae, which he observed on the lime trees, 
not in the nail-gall, but in a rust, or Erineum, on the under side 
•of the leaves, named Erineum rubigo, there is a certain outward 
similarity of appearance between the larva and what Scheuten 
calls the perfect insect, as may be seen in the woodcuts ; but here 
we agree with Claparede in thinking that this is merely a badly 
figured and badly described Tetranychus of the lime tree. We 
shall return to the consideration of, whether these mites are really 
the perfect form of the Phytopti, presently ; but we must not omit 
his objection to Dujardin's notion that the rounded bodies, visible 
under the skin of the Phytopti, were eggs. He objects that 
Dujardin's only evidence that ova were in them was that he 
saw roundish structures shining through the skin of the animal. 
^* Even with transmitted light," says he, ^' a very indistinct view 
of the interior can be obtained ; and this is shown by his own 
figure. In this we see what he regards as eggs, but no trace 
of other viscera, for which, however, there is plenty of space." 
In the interior of his larvae, on the other hand, various rounded 



342 



ARACHNOIDEA, 



CASE outlines were seen by M. Scheuten, especially when glycerine 
was employed. In the upper part of the body particularly there 





Phytoptus, from Erineum rubigo 
on lime tree leaves (Flexipalpus 
tiliae of Scheuten). Copied 
from his figure. 



Badly drawn. Tetranychus tiliae, erroneous'y sup- 
posed by Scheuten to be the perfect form of ditto 
(Flexipalpus tiliae of Scheuten). Copied from 
his figure. 



is constantly a round clear space, which also occurs in the same 
spot in the mite : then follow irregular roundings which, says he, 
are certainly nutritive organs. But merely to assert this is no 
proof, and the objections to Dujardin's statement are obviously 
weak. He objects that it could not be transparent, because 
Dujardin has described it as white and striated ; and yet he him- 
self immediately, not only confirms the transparency, but describes 
the very bodies that Dujardin saw. All who have seen these 
creatures know that they are semi-transparent, and that you may 
see the interior, as it were, through a milky glass. 

It is not irrelevant to the question to add that M. Scheuten 
describes and figures another Gamasus under the name of Sannio 
rubrioculus, both in what he calls its young and mature stages, 
and that both the young and the old are furnished with eight 
legs. From this and some other minor indications, it rather 
seems to us that M. Scheuten had only taken up the study of the 
Acaridae incidentally, and that his statements can hardly be 
accepted as right interpretations of what he saw, without con- 
firmation. 

Next, in 1864, Von Landois described from a new species 



GALL MLTES. 345 

:ase (Phytoplus vitis), four stumps on the under side of the body, 
which he supposed were the aborted remains of the two missing 
feet. The extent and meaning of his statement rather than the 
accuracy of this observation has been questioned. 

Since that time the Phytopti have become tolerably well 
known: that is, many observers have made themselves acquainted 
with them; and a few have, from time to time, described various 
species and the galls in which they have been found. The more 
important contributions of this nature have been furnished by 
Frauenfeld, who, in the years 1864, 1865, 1869, 1870, and 1872, 
has published papers on the subject in the " Verhandlungen 
Zoologische und Botanische Gesellschaft in Wien ; " by Dr. 
Thomas in the " Zeitschr. Gesam. Naturw. (xxxiii)," and on 
Swiss Phytopti in the "Verh. St. Gall. Ges., 1870— 1871," and 
by Dr. Franz Low in " Verhand. Zool. and Bot. Ges. Wien " in 
1874. In our country they seem to have been very little noticed. 
Apparently the first original observation was by the Rev. M. J. 
Berkeley, the eminent vegetable physiologist, to whom specimens 
of currant-buds, injured by a species of Phytoptus, had been sent, 
in 1869. These he brought before the scientific committee of 
the Horticultural Society; and, from these and other specimens 
Professor Westwood shortly afterwards described the species in 
the " Gardener's Chronicle." His description agrees with that of 
other authors, and need not detain us, but he has added, appa- 
rently on the authority of his correspondents, that at a later 
period of its life it acquires six legs. This is an important point, 
and deserving of further examination, for it has not been observed 
by any other author. He says, " From this statement it is evident 
that this creature retains its juvenile two-legged form for a con- 
siderable period, but at a later period (as we learn from T. C. of 
Glasgow, a good microscopic observer) they acquire six legs, as 
was seen in specimens from old buds sent to us near the end of 
October, when some had two well-developed bristles at the tail. 
These two bristles we believe to be the rudimental fourth pair of 



344 ARACHNOIDEA. 

CASE leLTs ; whilst another writer (D. B., in the ' West of Scotland 
Horticultural Magazine' for November, 1865) states that on 
examining some of the dried-up buds of the same season's growth 
still remaining on the black currant bushes, he found the insects 
in a further state of progress. A good many of them had three 
pairs of legs, some of them with a pair of stout bristles, others 
with several stout hairs, and some of them with two projecting 
appendages at the termination of the abdomen. A few were also 
seen with four pairs of legs, being probably another species. Both 
of those having the six legs and the eight legs walked very nimbly, 
and speedily made their way out of the field of the microscope, 
and being so minute they could not easily be detected by the 
unassisted eye. The young larvae were already to be found in the 
buds forming for the next year's crop." 

It does not quite appear from this narrative whether Professor 
Westwood himself saw the six-footed species spoken of above as 
observed by his correspondent, T. C. This is an important point, 
for on it must depend how much weight is to be given to the 
observations which he reports. In a class of animals so minute 
and so little studied, and where to an uninstructed eye most 
different creatures may seem alike, we cannot be expected to ac- 
cord the same faith to observations by anonymous correspondents 
that we should give to those of Professor Westwood himself, 
especially when these conclusions are unsupported by, not to 
say opposed to, the observations of other eminent naturalists. 
Professor Westwood, indeed, speaks of them as important, 
but from some remarks which he goes on to make on the egg 
question, it is obvious that he did not regard them as in any 
respect conclusive. 

The Rev. Mr. Berkeley, whose strict accuracy and highly 
educated eye gives unusual weight to any statement he makes, 
was obviously inclined to beheve in the round bodies being 
genuine eggs. He says (" Gardener's Chronicle," 1869) that, if 
he mistook not, he saw very frequently, within the body of the 



GALL MITES. 345 



ASE mite, an ^gg just ready to be protruded accompanied by one 01 
two others in a state of progression, on which Professor Westwood 
suggests that this may be one of those cases in which the ordinary 
proceedings of insect life are departed from. " Parthenogenesis," 
says he, " or the production of offspring by a virgin or unmatured 
female, has been already observed among the Acaridae, and we 
now know that the young larvae of certain Cecidomyse, or gall 
midges, are capable of producing fertile eggs, whilst others 
of the same larvae are transformed in the usual manner into 
midges. Is it possible that this is a similar case of larval pre- 
cocity ? If, on the other hand, the creature produces eggs as a 
normal condition of its existence, we have here the case of a 
perfect Acaridan never assuming more than two pairs of legs, and 
which would require for its reception, not only a distinct generic 
name, but a distinct family of mites." 

The latest contributor to our knowledge of the Phytopti is Dr. 
Franz Low, who, in 1874, in the " Verhand. Zool. Bot. Gesells., in 
Wien," has published two important papers, giving an account of 
many mite-galls and their producers. He gives a figure of Phy- 
toptus (part of which we here reproduce), in which, in place of the 
four stumps of feet that V. Landois thought he saw, there are seen 
four bristles springing from four warts, and he argues that it was 
by some displacement or ocular illusion proceeding from them, 
that V. Landois was deceived (if he was deceived). For our- 
selves we rather think that he was not, and that the difference 
between the observations of Landois and F. Low is one of words 
rather than reality. V. Landois's four stumps of legs are doubt- 
less F. Low's four warts, which he regards as the homologues 
of legs. 

These are the main circumstances connected with the past history 
of the Phytopti so far as we know them, but it is right to .,say that 
there may be others which have escaped us. Kaltenbach, in his 
Pflanzenfeinde, makes frequent reference to Dr. Amerling, of 
Prague, and Dr. Kirchner, of Taplitz, two Hungarian naturalists, as 



346 



ARACHNOIDEA, 



CASE authorities for various names of mite-galls, whose papers, however, 
we have not succeeded in procuring. 





Phytoptus. Copied from figure by Low. 



Head of Phytoptus. Enlarged from figure by Dr. Low. 



The reader may probably now ask what inference he is to draw 
as to the affinities and nature of Phytopti from the facts above 
mentioned. We have seen four conclusions drawn from their 
observation by respective authors. Duges has suggested that they 
are the young forms of a species of Tetranychus. Scheuten, that 
they are the young of species of Gamasi. Latreille thought they 
belonged to the Sarcoptidse ; and Dujardin, that they were a special 
tribe by themselves. Let us take lach of these alternatives by 
itself, and see what is to be said for and against it. Duges sup- 
ported his notion that they might be the young of Tetranychi, 
first, on the ground that the conical sucking apparatus is flanked 
by two large short appendiculated (finger and thumb), palpi 




GALL MITES. 347 

CASE similar to those of the Tetranychi. Now the mandible-like objects 
may be short, stout palpi, but in no other description or figure of 
Phytoptus that we have seen, is there any sign ever given of them 
being appendiculated ; indeed they are not represented at all in 
any highly magnified figure of the head that we have seen. Nor 
can we find anyone who has seen this. His next argument, that, 
by compression, a curved, long, narrow blade was made to project 
from the mouth, requires more ehicidation. His last, that the 
legs are composed of seven articles, which are proportioned like 
those of Tetranychus, is erroneous ; the legs of the Phytopti being 
only composed of five articles. But independent of this alto- 
gether, there is one fact that seems fatal to 
the idea of these being Tetranychi, or allied 
to them. The development of the Tetranychi 
and Trombidiidse, as well as of their allies Hy- 
drachnidse and Bdellidae, has been thoroughly Leg of phytoptus. 

' O ^ Copied from Dr. LGu . 

wrought out. Many species have been 
traced through all their stages, and not one has been found 
whose early stage has not been six-footed, and very like the 
mature insect. The Tetranychi and their allies may, therefore, 
we imagine, be eliminated from the number of possible parents 
of the Phytopti. 

Next comes M. Scheuten and his Gamasidae. The same objec- 
tion apphes to his view as to that of Duges. The development 
of most of the types of Gamasidse is perfectly well known, and has 
been ascertained to be six-footed in the young, and there is no 
reason to suppose that those types which have not yet been traced 
differ from the others in this respect. 

As to the Sarcoptidae again, the outward resemblance to them 
is much greater than to any other family of mites. Like them 
the Phytopti have short thick palpi flanking the mandibles. The 
number of joints in the legs of both is the same. As the structure 
of the legs is a point of some importance, we may quote Dr. Low's 
description of those of the Phytopti. " The legs are distinctly 



348 ARACHNOIDEA. 

CASE five-jointed" (as shown in the. above woodcut, copied from Dr. 
Low's figure), "which five joints comprehend the coxa, femur, a 




Tail of Phytoptus. 

very short tibia, and two-jointed tarsus. The terminal joint of 
the tarsus, which is longer than its first, and somewhat knobbed 
at the end, bears a long round claw, which is only a little thickened 
and obtusely rounded at the tip. Beside this claw, inclined 
towards .the inner side, is a feathered organ for holding on by, 
which has on each side five gradually diminishing branches." 




Claw of Phj-toptus (Typhloch-omus) pyri. Claw of Phytoptus (Flexipalpus) tiliEe. 

Copied from Sdeuteii. Copied from Scheuten. 

This "haftorgan," or boat hook, as it were, differs in different 
species. The two figures taken from Scheuten, which we here 
give, show respectively its different forms in the different Phytopti 
specified under each, viz., with one hook in Typhlodromus pyri, 
two in Flexipalpus tiliae, and there are five in that of the gall 
of Bromus mollis. We are strongly inclined to suspect that 
the right interpretation has not been put upon these organs. 
What does the animal want with another soft claw alongside 
the harder boat-hook? As we read it, the boat-hook is the 
claw, and the longer so-called claw is a sucker, like those of 
the Sarcoptidse. We can point to an exact parallel to this ar- 
rangement of sucker and claw, and nearly in the same pro- 
portionate dimensions, in the termination of the leg in Symbiotes 
bovis, and Psoroptes equi among the Sarcoptidse (see the wood- 
cuts of these species). Again, the reader knows that it is an 
almost universal peculiarity of the Sarcoptidae (so much so, that 
we have used it as a family character) to have the body finely 



GALL MITES. 349 

CASE furrowed and striated, more or less, in a transverse direction, 

XVI. 

Tlie Phytopti have the same peciiharity too. Notwithstanding all 
this, the great stumbling-block (four feet instead of eight) which 
has choked off the preceding alternatives, would extinguish the 
idea of connection here also, were it not for the light thrown 
upon the subject by Von Landois and Low, through the bristles 
and warts or stumps of feet that they have seen on the underside 
of the Phytopti. To appreciate the full import of these obser- 
vations, we must remember that in the Sarcoptidse, especially in 
those truly parasitic species that live under the skin of other 
animals, there is a tendency to abbreviate and do away with the 
organs of locomotion, which shows itself now by contracting the 
length of the legs, again by the almost entire absorption or 
atrophy of one or more of the pairs, or by reducing them to the 
dimensions and form of a wart with a bristle proceeding from it. 
In Sarcopterus nidulans, all eight legs are contracted to mere 
eminences, from which spring a number of bristles. In Sarcoptes: 
scabiei, the female has each of the four anterior feet terminated 
by a sucker, but there are none to the four posterior feet, instead 
of which, each is terminated by a stout bristle. The way in 
which the legs are in these instances contracted, so as to cease 
to look like anything more than a wart, while still retaining 
all the parts of a leg, may be seen in the hind legs of many 
species of Sarcoptes, e.g., in Sarcoptes squamiferus (S. canis of 
Hering). In Trichodactylus, and in some Hypopi, the pos- 
terior legs are reduced to a long bristle. Our minds are thus 
prepared for the substitution ot a wart, with a bristle springing 
from it for a regular leg ; and when we find that there are four 
warts with bristles on the underside of the Phytopti, just about 
where the missing legs should be, one is very apt to accept 
them as their representatives, without caring very much whether 
they are only in the shape of a wart and bristle, or the actual 
*' fusstummel" that Von Landois thought he saw. Professor 
Westwood suggested that the two long bristles at the tail of 



350 ARACHNOIDEA. 

CASE the Phytopti might be the homologues of the missing legs, but 
their position is not favourable to that view, and now the 
discovery of the right number of warts and bristles on or near the 
right place, gives greater probability to the view first taken by 
Latreille, that the Phytopti form part of the section Sarcoptidae. 
Nor can Dujardin's discernment be passed over without acknow- 
ledgment. If his Phytopti belong to the Sarcoptidae, they are 
not the less a very distinct and special section of that tribe. 

We must not, however, be too confident in the absolute cer- 
tainty of the above conclusion. All that we can say is, that it 
seems the most probable solution of the difficulty ; but we must 
remember that the premises are but imperfectly established. 
The warts and bristles have not yet been observed on all species, 
nor in every individual. But, on the other hand, we must 
remember that even although competent observers should fail 
to find them, they may be sexual, and only present in one sex ; 
or the bristle may be hyaline and not always distinguishable, a 
thing which, under the most favoured circumstances, must always 
be of extreme difficulty. Moreover, one positive observation by 
a reliable witness should carry more weight than a hundred 
negative ones. And lastly, when the insect is alive it is restless 
and keeps swaying its head about, so that a confirmed long look 
at any part of it is impossible. When it is dead the parts become 
flaccid, and it is still worse, so that while there is plenty of apology 
for not being able to make out all the parts, that very fact should 
make us slow to form an opinion, and open to change it should 
fresh argument or discovery give a new aspect to the case. 

There are other puzzling difficulties connected with these mites 
and with the production of their galls. One of these is, whether 
the same mite makes more than one kind of gall, or does more 
than one kind of mischief. We think not ; but according to more 
than one author who has searched for Phytopti, the same species 
is found in different galls on different plants, and indifferently in 
galls and in ungalled buds. Dujardin states that he found the 



GALL MITES. 351 

CASE same species of Phytoptus that he detected in the lime tree 
nail-gall also in the malformed and distorted buds of the hazel. 
Duges found the same mite (or at least what has been supposed 
and assumed to be the same mite) in a similar gall, or Salix alba, 
and Siebold found it among the hairs of some species of Erineum, 
and named it Eriophyes. Now if these were really the same 
species there would be here a want of that restricted and definite 
relation between the gall produced, the plant on which it is pro- 
duced, and the insect producing it, which we have hitherto found 
to be constant in the relation of gall and gall-maker. An insect 
that is found at one time in the distorted buds of the hazel, 
and at another in the galls of the willow leaf, and at a third in 
the galls of the lime leaf, cannot, one would think, well be the 
maker of all three. In all cases that we know of, where galls of 
a special and distinct form are produced, they are invariably the 
work of some specific insect, told off, as it were, for that special 
purpose. In other words, the same insect does not make two 
different kinds of galls, and the same gall is never made by two 
different kinds of insects, nor on two different kinds of trees, nor 
does it at one time make a gall and at another time make none : 
its habits of life are fixed. It is either always a gall-maker or 
never. On the other hand, as we have seen, the galls made by 
Phytopti differ somewhat from other galls, and it may be that the 
same irritation which produces one form of excrescence on one 
plant may produce another on a different one, through the differ- 
ence in their constitution ; or, it may even produce a gall on one 
and not on another ; but the more probable conclusion seems to 
be that the observers referred to may have confounded different 
species. 

Another very difficult point of inquiry, especially with a view 
to preventing or curing their attacks, is to ascertain their habits. 
How does such an insect which, apparently, is entirely a vegetarian, 
and depends for its food on the sap of young leaflets or leaves, pass 
the winter when the leaves are all gone ? This we are able to 



352 ARACHNOIDEA. 

CAGE answer, at least to a certain extent, viz., so far as regards those tliat 

XVI. J 7 O 

live in buds. These have been found already established in No- 
vember in the young buds of the currant, which are then elabo- 
rating for development in spring, but whether they are torpid 
through the winter or not we do not know, most probably they are. 
But what becomes of those that live in galls on leaves, and not in 
buds, and what becomes of some of them, at least between spring, 
when they are in myriads, and autumn ? In summer we see none 
of the bud species ; the buds are gone, destroyed by these 
creatures — but what becomes of them then? Again, how do they 
spread ? we may assume that they do so very slowly, for although 
when a tree has once become attacked by these Phytopti it 
continues to be so year after year, other trees of the same kind 
standing around it are often perfectly free and untouched. The 
same circumstance has been observed of other galls ; some species 
of oak-galls having been known for many years to be confined 
to individual trees, and not to have spread to others at no great 
distance. This is not without its advantages for observation; 
anyone who has a tree that is once infested with mite-galls near 
his house should be able to watch for their very earliest appear- 
ance, and study the whole course of their development under the 
most favourable conditions; and one of the most curious and 
important of these points must be how these slow-moving, almost 
stationary animals manage to spread themselves all over the buds 
of a tree, or over a whole hedge, or to any solitary individual tree. 
We do not see them moving about during the day, but they may 
wander at night, the sun's rays might be too strong for such im- 
palpable globules, and dry them up. Anyone who has tried to 
examine them under the microscope knows how likely this would 
be. But here again there is a difficulty, they seem incapable of 
continuing to move in any definite direction for any time. They 
waggle about in an aimless way, turned from their path by any 
obstacle, such as meeting one of themselves ; and it is difllcult to 
conceive them spreading any distance from the spot where they 



GALL MLTES. 353 

CAS|": were hatched, a fact which there is no denying is in' favour of the 
maternal parent being a differently formed animal, with a more 
active disposition, and better means of indulging it. 

The mischief that these creatures do to plants is very consider 
able. As already said, they attack them in two different ways; 
one, through the bud, the other through the leaves ; of the two the 
former seems the most injurious. In spring the buds attacked are 
seen to languish and decay, or to assume a rounded swollen form 
without pushing out ; on tearing a bud open hundreds of minute 
semi-transparent moving things may, by the help of a lens, be seen 
between the leaflets ; these are the Phytopti, but it takes a good 
glass to see them at all. The surface of the leaflets on which they 
are scattered has a moist, raw-like appearance, in fact the Phytopti 
have browsed on it until they have flayed it to the quick. It is 
unnecessary to say that these buds produce nothing. When it is 
the leaves that are attacked, the excrescences or galls of various 
kinds, of which we have above spoken, are formed upon them. 
Sometimes the Phytopti are to be found in great numbers inside, 
and, as already said, in that case the inner surface is free from 
hairs, unless, perhaps, a few stumps, and looks raw like a galled 
wound, like the surface of the leaflets in the bud; but more 
frequently no Phytopti are found in these galls, or, perhaps, it 
would be more correct to say that in some kinds of plants they 
are found commonly enough, in others very rarely indeed, and 
when not present the inside is grown up with hairs. 

There remains to say a word as to the nomenclature of these 
creatures. The galls themselves have received the general 
denomination of Acarocecidium. Then the different kinds have 
received different generic names, besides the old botanical names 
of Phyllerium and Erineum, which have been preserved. As, so 
far as we yet know, no other genus of mite than Phytoptus is en- 
gaged in the production of these galls, we do not propose to follow 
this nomenclature, further than to note the names when they occur. 
For us they are all galls of Phytopti, and nothing more. 



354 ARACHNOIDEA. 

CASE 

XVI. Section L— Species Living in Buds. 

j^P, Phytoptus taxi (Tetranychus taxi, Murr., in Gard. Chron. 1875). — I. 
», 2, 3, 4. Sketch of twig with buds attacked by it ; 2. Magnified figure of the 

insect ; 3. Magnified diagram of section of injured bud ; 4. Microscopic 
slide containing this section. 

This species was first noticed in the spring of 1875 by Professor 
Thistleton Dyer, who found it doing considerable damage to the 
yew hedges in the neighbourhood of London, by destroying the 
young buds and preventing a fresh growth. The buds looked as if 
they had been frost-bitten, and on breaking them open they were 
seen to be swarming with Phytopti — so minute, however, as not 
to be discernible vath the naked eye. The texture of the skin 
of the leaflets in the bud was seen to be injured, and it made no 
progress. We described it, with doubt, as a Tetranychus, it being 
at the time we did so, the general opinion that Phytopti were the 
larvae of that genus. We are no longer of that opinion. 

Nos. Phytoptus coryli {Frauenf., Verh. Zool. & Bot. Gesel. in Wien. xv. 895), 

^'^' (Calycophthora avellanae, AmerL, Lotos, 1863, p. 44). — 5. Specimens 

of twigs with buds attacked by it (2) ; 6. Sketch of ditto. 

This was first observed by Dujardin (Ann. des Soc. Nat. 185 1). 

It is also not improbable that it is the same as Dr. Amerling's 
Calycophthora avellanse, of which Kaltenbach says : — " This mite, 
according to the observations of Dr. Amerling, M. Kirchner, and 
ourselves, deforms the leaf buds into cone-shaped scaly galls, 
which fade early, and never unfold or produce fruit." The buds 
here ar^e swollen and rounded. 

No 7. Phytoptus persic^.— 7. Sketch of twig attacked by this species. 

At Montreuil, near Paris, which is celebrated for its cultivation 
of peaches, the peach trees are at times attacked by a disease, 
which is known there by the name of " the miller " (le meunier). 
The disease consists of a sort of white dust, which covers all the 
peach trees. In 185 1 M. Guerin Meneville pointed out (Ann. 



GALL MITES. 355 

CASE Soc. Ent. France) that this 'was probably due to innumerable 
quantities of the larvae of a mite, which, from his description, can 
be no other than a Phytoptus. The dust is probably the exuvi^, 
or cast skins of the vast numbers of this mite. 



Phytoptus ribis {Weslw., Gard. Cliron. 1869).— 8. Specimens of currant 
buds attacked by ; 9. Sketch of ditto ; 10. Magnified sketch of first 
stage of mite ; 11. Magnified sketch of next stage. 

For some years past the currant bushes in England and appa- 
rently still more in Scotland, have suffered much from the de- 




Currant buds attacked by Phytoptus ribis. 

struction of the immature buds by this species. It is found in 
hundreds in the buds in spring between the young leaflets that 
overlap each other, feeding on the sap in them, and causing the 
buds to shrivel up, thus destroying the future flower or branch. 
One of the few points beyond the above that we know of their 
economy, viz., that they are already present in the month of 
November in the buds forming for next year's crop, suggests close 
and severe pruning as a likely means of destroying, and, if not 
extirpating, at least diminishing this pest. 

z 2 



356 ARACHNOIDEA. 

XVI. Section II. — Species Living in Galls. 

12—16. Phytoptus TILI.T,, which produces the lime-leaf nail-gall (Ceratoneon ex* 
tensum, Bremi). — 12. Specimen of leaf bearing these galls ; 13. Sketch 
of ditto ; 14. Magnified sketch of galls j 15. Magnified section of gall, 
showing the interior full of hairs ; 16. Magnified figure of the mite, 
copied from Dujardin's figure. 

We have already given a figure of this gall and its maker in 
illustration of our general remarks. The gall is green when young 
and then becomes yellowish, and passes successively through red, 
crimson, purple, into brown. This gall also occurs on the Tilia 
argentea. There are two or three other mite galls that occur on 
the leaf of the common lime tree or its allies on the Continent, and 
may, perhaps, also be found in this country. One is a yellow, red 
hairy, half-cone-shaped gall, which appears in the angles between 
the ribs ; very rarely elsewhere. On a section being made, it is 
found to be divided into two, forming a double-roomed house. 
Another one, very like this, but dark coloured, is also described 

There is a fourth species named Legnon crispum by Bremi, which 
makes a marginal swelling on the leaf; a fifth, which we shall call 




Bract of Tilia parvifolia with margin of leaf rolled in by Phytoptus tiliarius 
Copied from figure by Low. 



Phytoptus tiliarius, makes knotty, curled-in margins on the bracts- 
of the flower of Tilia parvifolia ; and a sixth (Phyllerium tiliaceum, 
Pers.) which makes little lumps on the under side of the leaf. 

Nos. Phytoptus aceris (Volvulifex aceris, Amei-ling, which produces Ceratoneon> 
«7— 33- vulgare, Bremi, on the leaf of the sycamore). — 17. Sycamore leaf bear- 

ing galls of ditto ; 18. Sketch of ditto ; 19. Sketch of leaf of variegated 
sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus, var. Leopoldi), bearing galls of ditto ;. 
20. Specimen of ditto ; 21. Leaf of sycamore bearing galls on under 
side, showing the woolly entrance to the gall ; 22. Sketch of ditto j. 
23. Magnified section of gall of ditto. 



GALL MLTES, 



357 



The remarks which we have made as to the extreme rarity of 
the occasions on which the Phytopti have been observed inside 
the lime nail-gall apply equally to this gall. Very i^^;^ people 
have seen them in it ; but still they have been observed. The 
appearance of the gall on the leaf, and a magnified section of the 
gall (full of hairs) is shown in the woodcuts. The colour of .the 
gall is bright red carmine or even purple, and when it grows on 





Volvulifex aceris produced by Phytoptus, 



Section of gall of Volvulife) 
aceris. 



the variegated sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus, var. Leopold!), 
the contrast of the bright carmine galls with the pale yellow leaf 
is very beautiful and attractive. The Phytopti that are found in 
these galls are yellowish-white. 



Phytoptus myriadeum (Cephaloneon myriadeum, Bremi). — 24. Specimen 
of leaves of common maple covered with these galls ; 26. Sketch of 
ditto. 

These have usually been considered the same as the preceding 
gall on the sycamore ; but we have little doubt that it is Bremi's 
species above named, with which it agrees. 



358 ARACHNOIDEA. 

CASE There is another mite gall which is found on the sycamore 
and various maples. It produces cottony clusters of hairs on 




Ccphaloneon myriadeum on maple leaf. 

the underside of the leaf, and has been named by the older 
botanists, Erineum acerinum, Pers. The mite that produces it 
is whitish. Erineum purpurascens is considered by Herr Low 
to be distinct from this; Kaltenbach and others think it the 
same. Another species, named by Bremi Cephaloneon solitanum, 
is described as growing on the upper side of the leaf in the angles 
of the ribs. 



IJASE Phytoptus pyri (Typhlodromus pyri, Sckeuten).—!. Sketch of leaf of pear 

j^^^ * tree bearing galls of ditto ; 2. Specimens of ditto ; 3. Magnified section 

3—5- of gall of ditto ; 4. Magnified sketch of Phytojjtus, the supposed larva 

of Typhlodromus pyri, copied from Scheuten's figure; 5. Magnified 

sketch of a Gamasus, supposed by Scheuten to be the perfect form of 

Typhlodromus pyri. 

This is a common affection on the leaves of the pear tree in 



GALL MLTES. 



359 



CASE this country. It is also common on the Continent Kaltenbach 
XVII. . -^ . 

in his Pflanzenfeinde tells us that, according to Kirchner-, the 

mite lives on the small yellow shining young leaves, where they 

cause red swollen places, which later on become dark red and 




Pear leaf with galls produced by Typhlodromns pyri. 



Section of gall of ditto. 



black. On the under-side of the leaf a small hole can be 
seen with a lens in each of the swellings through which the 
old mites go in and out. When one cuts through one of 
these swellings horizontally, the cellular tissue seems to be 
loosened yellowish and blackish, and between and under the 
loosened part are found the eggs and mites. We have already 
given a figure of the latter in speaking of M. Scheuten's 
observations. 



Noi. PiiYTOPTUS ATTENUATUS (Ceratoneon attenuatuni, Bremi?). — 6. Leaves of 
' ^' sloe tree bearing galls of ditto ; 7. Sketch thereof. 

This is perhaps the same species as the following, which is 
entitled to precedence as first described. The gall however is 



$60 



ARACHNOIDEA. 



CASE smaller, appears more confined to the margin of the leaf than in 
the plum tree, and is more aggregated and velvety. 





Ceratoneon attenuatum on leaves of sloe 



Section of g-all on sloe leaf. 



Nos. Phytoptus pruni (Volvulifex pruni, AmerL; Ceplialoneon pruni, Bremi; 
Bursifex pruni, Amer.). — %, Leaves of plum tree bearing galls of ditto ; 
9. Sketch thereof ; 10, Magnified section of gall of ditto, showing in- 
terior filled with hairs and no mites. 

These are galls like purses, made by Phytopti on the under 
side of the leaves of the plum tree ; there soon appears on the 
upper side little purses or club-shaped galls of the size of a hemp 
seed, on the outside of which grow Phyllerium and Erineum-like 
white hairs. The top of the gall is red in the beginning ; later 
it becomes chestnut brown. This Acarocecidium is usually found 
on the second or third leaf of the twig. Dr. Amerling (" Ges. 
Aufsatze," p. 159) noticed these galls in Bohemia, but took the 
gall mites found in them for larvae of a mite, which he named 
Bursifex pruni. (See also '' Dr. Thomas, 1. c. zi, Bd., 1869, p. 330, 
No. 2.") 



GALL MITES, 361 

ivn in the woodcut. It is common in this 
country on the plum tree. In Bohemia Drs. Amerling and 



CASE Its appearance is shown in the woodcut. It is common in this 




Twig of plum tree with galls of Volvulifex pruni. Leaf of plum tree with galls of VolvuHfex pmni. 

Kirchner thought that it only appeared there on those trees that 
were growing old ; but there is no such restriction in this country. 
It is already formed in the month of May, and afterwards becomes 
harder 

PiiYTOPTUS SALicis. — 11. Leaves of sallow, tree bearing galls of ditto ; 
12. Sketch of ditto ; 13. Magnified sketch of leaves with ditto ; 14. 
Magnified section of gall ; 15. Magnified figure of insect. 

The insect in this case is exactly like those found in other galls 
of this kind, but is not yellowish-white, but a distinct yellowish 
orange colour, although still pale. The woodcut on page 337 
represents the appearance of the leaves when attacked, and a 
magnified section of the gall itself. This is one of the galls that 
we have found swarming with the mites, and then there were no 
hairs or cottony matter growing inside, although appearances of 
its having grown. 



362 ARACHNOIDEA, 

CASE Many other Phytopti, which are as yet desiderata in the collec- 
tion, have been described as occurring on the Continent, most of 
which are no doubt also found in Britain. We may note one or 
two of the more important of these. 

On the Apple Tree. 

ERINEUM MALI, Am. 

This causes hairy spots on apple leaves, described as a crypto- 
gamic growth by the earlier botanists. In these, where the hairs 
spring, the larvae of the mites are distinctly to be seen. 

TyPHLODROMUS MALI, Am. 

Dr. Amerling found this on the young leaves of the apple tree, 
in the orchards at Prague. May it not be same as T. pyri ? 

On the Pear Tree. 

VOLVELLINA MARGINALIS, Am. 

Of this Amerling says, the larvae move about the edge of pear 
leaves that are just opening from the buds. 
Phytoptus Sp. 

A flat pustule, like galls in the parenchyma of the leaf, such as 
those on the leaves of Sorbus torminaHs. 
Phytoptus Sp. 

The edges of the leaves rolled up sometimes all round the leaf. 
This rolling has more than one round, is very thick and firmly 
rolled ; the inside quite smooth and shining, the outside somewhat 
lighter coloured than the leaf, and are for the greater part found 
on the first leaf in the shoot. It harbours the Phytoptus in small 
numbers ; it is white at first, and then becomes red. 

On Cydonia Vulgaris. 

Erineum aucupari^, Ktmze. 

Flat pustules, like galls in the parenchyma of the leaves, which 

are often like those on the leaves of Pyrus and Sorbus. The 

entrance to this gall is, as usual, on the under side of the leaf; 



GALL MITES. 363 

CASE onlv on leaves such as those of Cydonia and Sorbus, which have 

XVII. ' 

a very felt-Hke underside, have they been found on the upper. 
The old botanists described these lea. pustules also under the 
name of Erineum (E. pyrinum, Pers., and E. torminalis, Fee). 

On the Thorn. 
Erineum oxyacanth^, Am. 
Every here and there the edge of the leaf is turned up; under- 
neath it is of a greenish yellow colour. These turned up parts 
are full of Erineum rust, in which lives a transparent whitish, 
conical cylindrical mite, | of a millimetre in length. The mites 
appear in May. Besides the thickened edges, they form light- 
brown egg-shaped bells, and club-like galls. 

On the Plum. 
Cecydoptes pruni, Am. 
This, according to Dr. L. Kirchner, produces galls on the young 
twigs of the plum tree. Dr. Amerling discovered them at Prague, 
and although they usually only appear on trees that are growing 
old, and whose death is approaching, Dr. Kirchner has besides 
noticed them on young and healthy plants, whose death they 
cause. 

On the Vine. 
Phyllerium vitis, Fr. 

This was well known to the earlier botanists. It consists of 
warty simple or divided transparent spots, scattered over the under 
side of the leaves of the vine. It may very possibly have in some 
instances been confounded with the work of Phylloxera vastatrix. 
The mites that produce it are so small that they can only be seen 
by means of a strong magnifying glass. They are fully described 
by Von Landois, to whose papers we have already referred. 

A peculiarity in regard to the appearance of this Phyllerium 
was noticed every year in succession in the botanical garden at 



364 ARACHNOIDEA, 

CASE Vienna, in which large old plants of Vitis vinifera, L., V. vinifera, 
^^^^' var. Vesuviana, from Vesuvius ; var. Alexandrina, from North 
Africa ; var. Lacrima Christi, from Naples ; var. Carinthiaca, 
from Armenia and Taurus ; and vars. Arizonica, Eng. aestivalis, 
Mich, and cordifolia, Mich., from North America, were trained 
in espaher on a wall. Of these the Vitis cordifolia, V. vinifera, 
var. Alexandrina, and var. Lacrima Christi, were not touched by- 
gall mites, whilst the leaves of all the rest were every year 
covered with Phyllerium spots. 

On the ash. 

The so-called clusters of the ash. They are the monstrous 
deformed styles of the flower, which gather into a ball, brownish 
green at the beginning, later on a dark brown, causing rough 
masses on the upper part, which have on the outside a great 
similarity to fragments of the upper part of a cauliflower. Its 
upper side is clothed, as it were, with colourless hair cloth, from 
which come stick-like hairs. They are solid, without any hollow 
space, and, in a drv state so hard, that they can be sawn and cut 
like wood. 

It was until now unknown from whence these Cecidiums derived 
their origin. The circumstance that they were always found on 
the same trees and boughs left very litde doubt of the gall mites 
being the author of them, but still certainty was wanted. Herr 
Low's researches have now shown that gall mites cause these 
clusters, and live in great numbers in them. They are almost as 
clear as glass, and the smallest animals of this family, inasmuch 
they cannot be seen even with a strong glass. But if a gall is 
washed in water and examined with the microscope the living 
mites will be found in the sediment in considerable numbers. 

On the Mulberry. 
Trichoxyreus, Sp., Am. 
Dr. Amerling discovered upon the mulberry a new kind of mite. 



GALL MITES. 365 

CASE of which the larvse break down the hairy covering of the leaves, 

XVII. V o y 

and the cells become yellow and scarred through the sucking out 
cf the leaves. 



On the Elm. 

Phytoptus, Sp. 

G. V. Frauenfeld (" Verh. and zool. bot. Ges. Wien., 1865, 
p. 897 ") without indicating where it was found, described small 
green, very solid leaf-galls, which stand out like pegs on the upper 
and under side of the leaves. Very often they are found singly 
on the first leaf of the shoot, most numerously on the second and 
third leaves. 

Phytoptus, Sp. 

Globular purse-shaped galls, pale green in colour, with rather 
coarse hairs, and very thin walls from i^ to 2 millimetres in thick- 
ness. They are scattered often in great numbers over the upper 
side of the leaf. The walls are so thin, that the slightest touch 
leaves an impression, and they can best be compared to a bubble 
that has not been completely blown. The inside is bare and 
shining. The entrance to the gall on the under side projects 
scarcely or not at all beyond the surface of the leaf, and is closed 
by a loose white Erineum, which is also continued in the gall 
stalks. The small number of gall mites in it are light brown. 
This Acarocecidium is occasionally found on the first, but, as a 
rule, principally on the second leaf of the shoot. 

On the Alder. 
Erineum alneum, Pers. 
Most frequent on the under side, very seldom on the upper side 
of the leaf. The gall mite living in it is transparent white. 

Cephaloneon pustulatum, Bremi, 
Upon the upper side of the leaf. In spring, shortly after the 



366 ARACHNOIDEA. 

CASE buds of the alder unfold, one can see on the still tender leaves 
already the beginning of these Cephaloneons. It shows as a 
small round yellow little spot, which has in the middle a green 
point. On every such spot a gall developes itself in a short time, 
so that by the middle of May it is already one millimetre in size 
in which at that time is to be found two to four brownish white 
Phytopti, J of a millimetre in length. 

Phytoptus Sp. 

This species produces bHsters of the upper side of the leaf, in 
the angles of the nerves on both sides of the middle nerve, 
harbouring a pale honey-coloured cylindrical mite, i of a milli- 
metre in length. 

It frequently happens that the three above-mentioned mite 
galls are found on one and the same leaf. Besides these there 
is : — 

Phyllerium alnigenum, Lnk. 

On the under side of the leaf of Alnus incana. 



On the Birch Tree 
Erineum betulinum, ScJmnu 
Very short, spherical, and thickened at the end, like white trans- 
parent pegs placed here and there over the surface of the leaves 
and leaf-stalk, which appears, to the naked eye, to be strewn over 
with fine white morsels of quartz. The Phytoptus belonging to 
it is one-sixth of a millimetre long, and transparent white. 

On the Hornbeam. 

Phytoptus Sp. 

This species forms crumpled foldings of the ribs of the under 

side of the leaf, which, according to Frauenfeld, contain no hairy 

formation. In May a yellowish Phytoptus is to be found in 

them scarcely one-eighth of a millimetre in length, with two com ■ 



GALL MITES, 367 

:ase paratively long bristles at the back. V. Frauenfeld states that he 
found this Phytoptus at the end of July and August of a reddish- 
brown colour. 

ErINEUM rULCHELLUM, Schl. ? 

Oblong, bare, stool-like dots, more or less raised, on the upper 
side of the leaf and up in the angles of the rib, and along the mid 
rib of the leaves, like those already mentioned on the leaves of 
the alder. They are occasionally but seldom found by themselves 
on the side of the leaf near the edge between the leaf nerves. 
They are to be found on the first leaves of the young shoots, are 
darker coloured than the leaf, and filled inside with a long brownish 
Erineum, which consists of worm-shaped short hairs, harbouring 
bro\^Tiish mites irt no great numbers. 

Phytoptus carpini, Ajji. 
This occurs on the side-rib of a leaf, in a fold between which 
the larvae live, often in thousands. This is probably the Phytoptus 
carpini of Frauenfeld (Kirchner). 

Malotrichus carpini, Am. 
This mite is found on the underside of the leaves in the axil of 
the leaf nerve, and causes tliere a hairy cushion-like formation. 

VOLVULIFEX rhodizans, Am. 

Another kind of mite gall appearing on the upper side of the 
leaves of the Hornbeam, like purses, with carmine-red and rose- 
red hairs. 

On the Willow. 

Phytoptus Sp. 

Narrow rollings of the edge of the leaf upwards, which resemble 

those 'which occur sometimes on the leaves of the pear tree. 

They extend always only on a short part of the edge of the leaf, 



368 ARACHNOIDEA. 

CASE do not change colour, are quite loosely rolled in the spring, later 
on harden, and become firm and brittle. Inside there is an 
abnormal hairy lining ; the gall mites living there are of a yellow- 
ish colour. 



Phytoptus Sp. 

Pouch-like deformities on a small part of the edge of the leaf 
of Salix alba, L. The edge of the leaf is for a short extent much 
drawn out, then much turned up, through which a closed, some- 
what swollen pouch appears, which almost always stands on the 
edge of the leaf, often projecting far over it, rather cartilaginously 
thickened^ wTinkled on the upper side, and usually of a light green 
colour. This pouch, many of which appear on one leaf, have a 
very scanty lining of hair, and contain reddish gall mites in small 
numbers. 

Phytoptus Sp. 

Dr. Thomas described (1. c. -^2)^ Bd. 1869, p. 332, No. 5) similar 
galls on the leaves of Salix fragilis, L. in the herbarium of Professor 
A. Braun, which were otherwise furnished inside from those de- 
scribed above, therefore not entirely agreeing with them ; they had 
been before met with and were described (1. c. 39 Bd. 1872, 465,) 
by him in the Swiss Alps on Salix herbacea, L., from | to i| 
millimetres in size. 

On the Poplar. 
Heliaczeus populi, Kirch. 
This is one of the mites observed by Dr. Leop. Kirchner : it 
appears at the petiole, close under the base of the leaf; orange- 
coloured, of the size of a lentil, with small red wart-shaped galls 
on Populus tremula. 

Batoneus populi, Kirch. 
These mites are said to be gregarious, living in manj-chambered 



GALL MITES. 369 

CASE greenish-red galls, from the size of a hazel nut to that of a man's 
fist, on the ground, on the rootlets, and also under the earth, on 
Populus tremula. This certainly looks much liker the work of 
some other insect than a mite ; but one can hardly suppose Dr. 
Kirchner to have made a mistake of that kind. 

Phytoptus Sr. 
According to Kaltenbach, this little white mite is invisible to 
the unaided eye. It lives on the straggling bushes of the aspen. 
It makes its appearance early; even when the swelling leaf 
buds throw off their scales and the young twigs with the tender 
little leave? appear, the numerous mites already begin their attack. 
They appear on the young twigs, near the axil, then suck the un- 
folding little leaves at the edge, which thereby get a thickened, 
crinkled, somewhat rolled-up edge. At last, they lay hold of the 
surface of the leaf and stop the development. The normal young 
twigs so encumbered form numerous roundish wrinkled balls, until 
the leaf is deformed past recognition. They are very crowded 
round the shortened axil part. 

Kaltenbach found these striking monstrosities in the beginning 
of July on a hedge in a meadow, in a light situation, and by sub- 
sequent research noticed also the small originator of the deforma- 
tion, besides single immature, wingless plant-hce on the healthy 
leaves of the twigs and between the head of the leaves crawling 
about, which, he says, had certainly no share in causing the mal- 
formation. 

Erineum populinum, Pers. 
Flat, pale green (4—10 of a millimetre long and 2—4 broad), 
elevations of the upper surface of the leaf, the underside filled 
with an extremely short Erineum, yellowish in the beginning, later 
of a browner colour, harbouring a Phytoptus -ith of a millimetre 
in length, rather conical, and reddish. Found on the aspen, bul 
not in large numbers. 



A A 



370 ARACHNOIDEA, 

CASE PlIYTOPTUS Sp. 

XVII. 

This causes a deformity of some of the lateral twigs and leaves 
of the aspen, at the beginning of a reddish colour, later, however, 
spotted with black, very striking, even at a distance. Dr. Thomas 
(1. c. 33, Bd. 1869, p. 341, Anm. 17) calls them remarkable rollings 
and crinklings of the leaf. Such lateral twigs are shortened, the 
leaf-stalk extraordinarily drawn near to one another, and the 
leaves wrinkled beyond recognition, the edges in various ways, 
either turned up, wrinkled, or rolled back to the middle of the 
leaf. On many of these deformed lateral twigs, which are often 
pyramid-shaped, one or more normal leaves may be found at 
the base ; howxver, almost all the leaves on such a lateral twig 
are attacked. This bare Acarocecidium is full of numerous 
Phytopti. 

On the Walnut. 
Phytoptus Sp. 
Numerous brownish-red galls, about one millimetre in diameter, 
are scattered in the parenchyma of the leaves, and project on 
both sides ; beneath they are somewhat more wart-shaped, so that 
their height is about ij millimetre. The outside is not hairy, 
rather rough, and uneven, the inside is filled with loose parenchy- 
matic cellular tissue, in which a gall mite lives in astonishingly 
large numbers. The entrance to the gall is on the underside bare 
and narrow. The Phytoptus which lives in this gall measures 
about one-sixth of a millimetre, and is either of a brownish or 
yellowish colour. 



Erineum juglandinum, Pers. (Erineum juglandis Ung, Phyllerium juglandis, 

Schleich). 

Oblong, the surface of the leaf strongly raised between the side 
nerves, underneath a short first white, then brown, Erineum, in 
which the gall mites live. 



GALL MITES, 371 

CASB On the Horse Chestnut. 

XVII. 

Erineum .t:scuLi, Endl. (Phyllerium axillare, Opiz.) 

Small, brown, roundish, oblong tufts of hair on the underside 
of the leaves, in the angles of the nerves. Kirchner described 
these tufts of hair (" Lotos," 1863, p. 47), but took the gall mites 
found in them to be the larvae of a mite which he called Phyllereus 
hippocastani. 

On the Oak. 
Erineum quercinum, Pers. 

On the leaves of the Turkey oak. Round or oblong, more or 
less raised portions of the surface of the leaf, of very various thick- 
ness, and on different places on the leaf, of the same colour as it, 
or, when older, somewhat yellow or brownish colour. They are 
to be found on the first leaf of the twig, and are inside, that is to 
:say underneath, filled with a moderately long but thick growth of 
hair, white at first, then reddish brown, out of which come five 
■different kinds of hair, long, curled, pointed, awl-shaped, and 
:short thick sausage or club-shaped. In rare cases, little spots 
of this hairy growth are found on the upper side, without the 
remarkable raising up underneath on the leaf stalk. On search- 
ing this deformity, its author was found to be Phytopti, which 
were here almost of one thickness, cylindrical, and of a pale 
Svine yellow colour. The Erineum quercinum, Pers., therefore, 
belongs, like all the other Phylleriacia that have been examined, 
to the gall mites. It is confined to Quercus cerris ; for trees of 
Quercus cerris, L. pedunculata, Ehr., and sessiliflora, Sm., were 
growing close to one another, and this Acarocecidium was only to 
be found on Quercus cerris. 

On the Beech. 

Phytoptus Sp. 
Galls resembling little brown tufts of hair in the angles of the 
ribs, on the underside of the leaf, like those which have been 



372 ARACHNOIDEA. 

CASE described on the maple and horse chestnut. They consist of 
long pointed hairs, which agree with the normal hairs of the 
bearded angles of the leaf nerves in appearance and colour. 
Upon the upper side of the leaf a scarcely perceptible raising of 
the lamina shows the presence of such hair tufts. Dr. Low 
found Phytopti in these. 



Legnon circumscriptum, Bremi. 
A very narrow rolling of the edge of the leaf on the upper side^ 
almost all the way round. It begins in May, when the leaves of 
the beech are still tender and long, and deeply notched at the 
edge. Through the rolling up of the edges, the notches are rolled 
in with it, and these are the only vegetable contents of the roily 
which soon appears thickened and cartilaginous. 



On the Scotch Fir. 
Phytoptus Sp. 
These are bark galls described by Von Hartig ("ForstL. 
Conversat," Lex. II., Aufl. 1836, p. 737), which are filled with 
exceedingly numerous gall mites. They are dirty white, almost 
equally thick and cylindrical, f millimetre long, having a remark- 
ably long snout, out of which they can stretch the piercing 
apparatus far. 

On Clover and other Papilionaceous Plants. 

VOLVELLA CORONILL^, A7n, 

The larvae of these mites live between the close clapped pinnae,, 
and by these means, the little misformed leaves get a pod-like 
appearance. Kaltenbach states that he has noticed similar de- 
formations, in consequence of the sucking mites, in Vicia sepium, 
and Trifolium repens. 



GALL MITES, 373 

On the common Strawberry. 

Phytoptus Sp. 
By this species spherical short and thickly-haired purple red 
galls, at the most i\ millimetre in size, are produced in such 
numbers on the upper side of the leaf, that the whole surface of 
the leaf seems to be covered with them. The entrance to the 
gall on the underside is small and somewhat hairy. Inside are 
some single scattered short pegs, no doubt remains of hairs, but 
with no actual hairs. The gall mite living in it is yellowish. 

On Salvia pratensis. 
Phytoptus Sp. 

Kaltenbach mentions that in the middle of July he found galls 
on the lower leaves of Sylvia pratensis, which appeared sometimes 
as simple, sometimes as groups of galls. They appeared both on 
the upper side of the leaf, and on the edge. The gall is puckered, 
uneven, and very convex, and the under aperture is covered with 
white felt. Of mites, he says that he only found one small larva 
between the inner hairy coverings. 

Frauenfeld, in 1865, in the '' VerhandL Zool. Bot. Gesellsch in 
IVien,'^ describes the following additional species, viz., Phytoptus 
granulatus, campestricola, and euonymi. And in the same 
journal, in 1869, vol. xix., a species found on Bromus erectus. 

Thomas gives an account of the mischief done by different 
species in Switzerland (1869 and 1871). 

In America, Dr. Shimer found what was obviously a Phytoptus 
on the leaves of the white maple, and made a new genus for it^ 
which he called Vasatis. 

Another aid to the study of these gall-making mites remains to 
be tendered. Many cryptogamic growths on leaves are so like 
the work of insects, that those who are unacquainted with them 
are very apt to be deceived by them. We have constantly such 



374 



ARACHNOIDEA, 



CASE specimens sent to us to know what insect has done the mischief 
^^^^ We have therefore appended two or three examples of these at the 
termination of the mite galls, and it may be advisable at some 
future time to display a larger collection of them. In the mean- 
time,, the following will serve to put the student on his guard. 

No. i6. Erineum tili^. — 16. specimen on leaf ofelime tree. 

A small woolly patch in the corners between the ribs on the 
underside of the leaf of the lime tree. It is somewhat like the 
work of Phylloxera vastatrix on the underside of the vine leaf. It 
does not appear, however, to be the work of an insect; nor is it 
a fungus, but is merely an instance of hypertrophy, or overgrowth 
on the leaf. 



17. i8. 



^^°f^ ^CIDIUM ABiETiNUM.— 17. Specimen of leaf .• of • Abies Ceplialonica, bearing; 
open cells of ^cidium on its underside ; 18. Magnified sketch of ditto. 

This is a fungoid growth, which occasionally occurs on the 
leaves of fir trees. 



Nos. RoESTELiA LACERATA.— 19. Hawthom leaf, with cells of Roestelia lacerat:^ 
upon it ; 20. Magnified sketch of ditto. 

This is another fungoid growth, and looks like a congregation 
of the cells of a Zoophyte. It is confined to the hawthorn, and ir> 
not uncommon on its leaves. 

Nos. RcESTELiA CANGELLATA.— 21. Specimens of pear leaves, showing first stage 
of growth Off this fungus, making the leaves look beautifully mottled 
with orange , 22. Sketch of ditto ; 23. Leaves of ditto, showing second 
stage of growth, as seen on the upper side ; 24. Ditto on showing ditta 
from the underside. 

The illustrations in the case show the diff"erent appearance of 
the pear leaves at the different stages of growth of this fungus. It 
is said to be another form of Podisoma sabinse, which is found in 
orange-coloured jelly-like masses on Juniperus sabina. 



21 — 2\. 



LICE. 375 

ANOPLURA (Lice). 

The natural transition from the Acari or mites, is to the 
Anoplura or lice. The step, however, is a wide one. It is from 
the spiders to the true insects, from the eight-legged to the six. 
legged class, and a good deal of the apparent affinity or similarity 
of habit between the two is not real affinity, but mere coincidence 
in power and place of annoyance. Entomologists have felt diffi- 
culty in deciding to what class of insects the lice most nearly 
belong, and the majority have placed them apart as an indepen- 
dent order. Theoretically, we prefer the views of those who place 
them among the Hemiptera or Bugs, although practically it is 
more convenient to treat them as one of the sections of the 
Aptera. Like the bugs, they have no true metamorphosis, and 
the points on which they differ are all capable of reconciUation 
with affinity with them. They have no wings ; but the females of 
the scale insects (which are Hemiptera) are also wingless ; one 
difficulty which has puzzled some is, that those lice that feed on 
the blood of animals have, as is most fit they should, a sucking 
apparatus instead of jaws or mandibles, while those that feed on 
feathers or hair have mandibles, so that systematists, of whom we 
speak, have been driven to break up the order into two, and carry 
the sections with different feeding apparatus into different orders 
standing wide apart. It is well known, however, that all the 
parts of the mouth of an insect, whether they be adapted for 
cutting, grinding, biting, or sucking, are all modifications of the 
same parts. We therefore are not influenced by this adaptation 
of structure to purpose to separate insects which in all other 
respects are so obviously closely related to each other. We take 
the biting species as exceptional deviations for the sucking ones. 

These insects are parasitic on vertebrate animals, to which they 
are confined. As just said they consist of two groups, one of 
which (Mallophaga), feeds on the hair and feathers of the animals 
on which they live, for which purpose they are provided with 



376 ANOPLURA. 

CASE mandibles, and are principally, although not entirely, confined to 
birds. The other (Hsematopina) subsists on the blood of the 
animals they infest, for which purpose they have the usual sucking 
apparatus of the Hemiptera. These are restricted to mammals. 

We left off the parasitic mites at the feather-eating species, and 
v/e naturally commence the lice with the species having similar 
habits. 

For the most part these insects have two simple eyes, but some- 
times, as in Gyropus, they are without any. The antennae vary 
even in the same genus, but the tarsi and claws are constant, and 
furnish the best characters for dividing the family into groups. 
We have accordingly given figures of the different variations in 
these. 

Family MALLOPHAGA (Feather and Hair Eaters). 
The name of this section was given to it by Nitzsch with 
reference to their food, and is derived from the Greek word uaXXos, 
a fleece, and (f)ay(o, I eat. It has been subdivided into several 
genera depending upon the form of the antennae, and the number 
of joints composing them, &c. 

Sub-family Liotheid^ (Burm). 
Antennae four-jointed, mouth with strong mandibles. This sub- 
family is divided into two sections ; the one with one claw to the 
tarsi (genus Gyropus— the louse of the guinea pig), and the other 
with two claws, containing among others the following, viz. : — 

Genus Menopon {Nitzsch). 
Head semilunar or trapezoidal. No deep sinuosity on the 



Nos. 



lateral margin. 

^.lENOPON PALLIDUM {Nitzsch).—\, Specimen ot ditto ; 2. Enlarged fi-ure ot 
ditto ; 3. Illustrative vignette (cocks and hens). 

Domestic poultry seem to have more than their fair share of 



BIRD LICE. S71 

CASE annoyance from parasites. We have seen how they suffer from the 
Dermanyssus avium, the Argas reflexus, the Sarcoptes mutans, 
probably from Dermaleichi also, and now we find that they have 



4-6. 



7 9 




Menopon pallidum (from the fowl).* { to 5 of a line in length. 

a disproportionate allowance of lice, no less than five species 
being allotted to them. This is the first and commonest .of the 
five, and few fowls are to be found free from them. Indeed they 
often swarm among the feathers to such a degree, that the han>^s 
of those that rear them cannot be kept free from them when the 
fowls are plucked or even lifted up. They cling very tightly, and 
are not easily brushed away, as their bodies are smoothly polished 
and offer scarcely any resistance. 

Xos. jMenopon perdricis {Denny). — 4. Specimen.s ; 5= Enlarged figure of ditto ; 
6. Illustrative vignette (partridge). 

Infests the partridge, but specimens are also taken on the 
pheasant. 

^os MEXoroN FULVO MACULATUM {Denny). — 7. specimens ; 8. Enlarged figurt 
of ditto ; 9. Illustrative vignette (quail). 

Infests the quail, 

* Where not otherwise stated the figures of Anoplura are copied or reduced 
from the magnified figures in Denny's AnoDlura. 



CASE 
XVIII. 



378 ANOPLURA. 

Genus Trinoton {Nitzsch). 

Head triangularly rounded, with a deep sinuosity on lateral 
margin. 



Nos. Trinoton luridum {Nitzsch). — 10. Specimens; 11. Enlarged figure of ditto ; 
12. Illustrative vignette (ducks). 



10 — 12. 




Trinoton luridum, from the duck. Anterior \eg of ditto. 

2 lines in length. 

Infests various wild ducks, besides the domestic species. 



Sub-family Ptilopterid^ {Buj-m.). 

Antennae five-jointed ; mouth with strong mandibles. 



Genus Docophorus {Nitzsch). 

The most notable character by which this genus is distinguished 
is a small movable projection or tooth called a trabecula in front 
of the antennae, as shown in the woodcut. 
The only other genus in which this occurs 
is Nirmus (which has so many other points 
of coincidence with Docophorus that we 
should prefer their being consolidated into 

Head of Docophorus semisisj- \ • -vt' ^i ^ i_ i 

ratus (from the carrion crow), ouc geuus) : m Numus thc trabeculae are 

to ihow the trabeculae. ^ 

sometimes, but not always, present ; but when 
present they are very small and rigid. Nearly all the species of 





BIRD LICE, 379 

CASE Docophorus are characterised by two dark-coloured lines, which 
pass diagonally from the trabeculae to the occiput, and by the 
segments of the abdomen having a dark-coloured triangular or 
oblong patch on each side, which very rarely meet in the 
centre. 



Docophorus icterodes {Nitzsch). 
Common on ducks, geese, teal, &c. 

Genus Nirmus {Mtzsch). 

Distinguished from Docophorus by the ab- 
sence of trabeculse, or, if they are present, by 
their small size and immobility. Mr. Denny, 
however, admits that while these are admirable 

- . . . _ , • j_ ii Docophorus icterodes 

diamostic sierns for the extreme species at the (from the duck, groose, 

O o i ^(-j J line in length. 

opposite ends of the line, still there are some 
which have minute trabeculse which belong to the debatable- 
ground between the two genera, and that it is extremely difficult 
to decide to which genus these should be referred. 



^s. Nirmus cameratus {Nitzsch).—lZ. Specimens; 14. Enlarged figure of ditto 
15. Illustrative vignette (black cock and grey hens). 

Infests' the black cock and grouse. 

Nos. Nirmus claviformis.— 16. Specimens ; 17. Enlarged 
'^~'^' figure of ditto ; 18. Illustrative vignette (carrier 

pigeon). 

Infests pigeons. 

Genus Goniocotes {Btirm). 
large; posterior margin triai 
each side ; abdomen broad, no trabeculae 




. Nirmus claviformis ( rom 

Head large; posterior margin triangular on ^^^^^^^^^^^ 



38o 



ANOPLURA. 



CASE 
XVIII. 

Nos. 
19 — 21. 




GoNiocoTES HOLOGASTER {Nitzsch). — 19. Speci- 
mens ; 20. Enlarged figure of ditto ; 21. Illus- 
trative vignette (fowl dusting itself). 

Infests the domestic fowl. The subject 
of the vignette, a fowl dusting itself, is an 
alleviative of nature against vermin, adopted 
by the bird to dislodge and shake them 



Goniocotes hologastr r (from the rr 
domestic fowl). 1 J line in length. Oil. 



Genus Goniodes {Nitzsch). 

Head large; temporal angles prominent and acute; antennae 
in males cheliform; no trabeculse; abdomen very broad and flat. 




Goniodes falcicornis {Nitzsch), — 22. Specimen 
■:z2—^6. ,<r<^ — ^>v^ °^ ^^^ young insect ; 23. Enlarged figure of 

ditto ; 24. Specimens of the mature insect ; 
25. Enlarged figure of ditto; 26. Illustrative 

vignette (peacock). 

Infests the peacock. The young differs 
considerably from the full-grown insect. 

Nos. r- • ^ f , • ■ , ; Goniodes stylifer (Nitzsch). — 27. Specimens ; 28. 

Goniodes falcicornis (mature). ^ ' ^ 

•27 29. I J to 2 lines in length. Enlarged figure of ditto ; 29. Illustrative vig- 

nette (turkey). 

Infests the turkey. 

3^32. ^O^'iodes numidianus {Denny).— Z^, Specimens ; 31. Enlarged figure of 
ditto ; 32. Illustrative vignette (guinea fowl^l. 

Infests the guinea fowl. 



^Nos. Goniodes colchici {De7iny).--%Z. Specimens ; 34. Enlarged figure of ditto 

"■^ ^^" 35. Illustrative vignette (pheasant). 

Infests the pheasant. 



BIRD LICE. 



3^1 



CASE GONIODES DISSIMILIS {Nitzsch).—Z'o. Specimens ; £7. Enlarired firrure of 

VVTIT ■ oo 

Nos <^^^^° > ^^' IHustrative vignette (domestic cock). 

36-38. 





Goniodes dissimilis (from the domestic fov.l). 
ij line in length. 

On the domestic fowl ; not common. 



Anterior leg: of ditto. 



Nos. Goniodes tetraonis {Denny). — 39. Specimens; 
39—41- 4Q^ Enlarged figure of ditto ; 41. Illustrative 

vignette (grouse). 

Common both on the black cock and 
grouse. This is the insect that sometimes, 
especially in bad seasons, does so much 
harm to the young grouse when they are <?rol°et"ATiTiinV[rienS^^ 
feeble and unhealthy. 




Genus Lipeurus (Nitzsch). 

Body long and slender, and legs usually very long. It has in 
the antennae of the male a little of the 
character of Goniodes, the third joint being ^u^i^ 
slightly recurved. The greater breadth "'^'"^^^^^^^^ 
of that genus, however, with its large and V^' 

emarginate head and more pronounced ^"'^^S^,°^JJJ^'ed^i^d' 
antennae, readily distinguish them. 



_ _ , eurus, to sliow 

s recurved third joint. 



Nos. Lipeurus STELLAKis (Z^^-w/zy).— 42. Specimens; 43. Enlarged figure of ditto; 
4^— 44. 44_ Illustrative vignette (pigeons). 

Infests pigeons (rock dove, stock dove, and turtle dove). 



382 



ANOPLURA. 



CASE 
XVIII. 

Nos. 
45-47- 





Lipeurus variabilis (from 
the fowl). I to I line in length. 



Lipeurus squalidus (from the 
duck). \ to i\ line in length. 



Lipeurus variabilis 
{Nitzsch). — 45. Speci- 
mens ; 46. Enlarged 
figure of ditto ; 47. Illus- 
trative vignette (newly 
hatched domestic chick- 
ens). 

Infests the domestic 
fowl. 

Lipeurus squalidus 
{JSIitzsch). 

Infests the duck. 



Nos. 
48-50. 



Nos. 
51—53- 



Lipeurus jejunus {NitzscJi). — 48. Specimens; 49. Enlarged figure of ditto ; 
50. Illustrative vignette (geese). 

Infests the goose. 

Lipeurus polytrapezius {Nitzsch). — 51. Specimens ; 62. Enlarged figure of 
ditto ; 63. Illustrative vignette (teal). 

Common on the turkey. " Their mode of progression," says 
Mr. Denny, *' is rather singular as well as rapid. They slide, as 
it were, sideways, extremely quick from one side of the fibre of a 
feather to the other, and move equally well in a forward or retro- 
grade direction, which, together with their flat, polished bodies, 
renders them extremely difficult to catch or hold." He has 
observed, he also remarks, " that when two or more genera infest 
one "bird, they have each their separate localities, for while the 
Goniodes stylifer will be found on the breast and neck of the bird. 
the Lipeurus polytrapezius will be congregated in numbers on the 
webs and shafts of the primary wing feathers." 



Genus Ornithobius {Denny), 

Scarcely differing from Nirmus, except in having two horns to 

the clypeus. 



TRICHODECTIDM. 



383 



CASE Ornithobius cygni {Linn.). — 54. Specimens ; 55. Enlarged figure of ditto; 
"^Nos^' ^®' Illustrative vignette (whistling sw^an). 

54-56. ^ ^ , 

Infests the swan. 

(^^S£ Sub-family Trichodectid^. 

XIX 

This sub-family differs from the other Mallo- 
phaga or bird-Hce, in attacking mammals. Its 
species are all restricted to them, as all the 
other genera of the Mallophaga are to birds. 
It contains only two genera, Trichodectes (the 
form found in Britain), and Gyropus, which is omithobiur cygni (from the 
found on the sloth and cavies (South American 
mammals). 

Genus Trichodectes. 
Antennae three-jointed, and tarsi with only one claw. 

Nop. Trichodectes similis {Dewiy). — 1. Specimens; 2. Enlarged figure of 
^' ditto ; 3. Illustrative vignette (red deer). 

Infests the red deer. 




Nos. Trichodectes longicornis {Nitzsch).—^. Specimens (4); 5. Enlarged figure 
-^~^- of ditto; 6. Illustrative vignette (fallow deer). 

Not uncommon on the fallow deer, and found in greatest 

numbers on the inner side of the thigh. 

^^ Trichodectes sph^rocephalus {Mizsch). — 7. Specimens ; 8. Enlarged 
figure of ditto ; 9. Illustrative vignette (sheep). 





Trichodectes sphaerocephalus (from the sheep). 
2 of a-line in lengtli. 

Found on sheep ; not common. 



Posterior leg of ditto. 



384 



ANOPLUKA, 



CASE Trichodectes scalaris {Nitzsch). — 10. Specimens ; 11. Enlarged figure of 
-^^J; ditto; 12. Illustrative vignette (cow). 

10 — 12. 

Common upon cattle, and also found on the ass. 





Trichodectes scalaris (on the ox). 
I line in length. 



Trichodectes equi (on the Iiorse), 
I line in length. 



]y<jg_ Trichodectes equi {Linn.) — 13. Specimens (eggs and insects); 14. Enlarged 
'3— 15- figure of ditto ; 15. Illustrative vignette (horse). 

Common on the horse and ass, especially when fresh from 
pasture — in other woris, when the parasites have had time to pro- 
pagate undisturbed by the currying comb. 



y;o%. Trichodectes latus {IVitzsch). — 16. Specimens (4); 17. Enlarged figure of 
16—18 (jij-j-Q . i8_ Illustrative vignette (spaniel). 

Infests the dog, and is commonest on pup- 
pies. The male of this species in walking 
curves back its antennse. 



Nos. 

19 — 21 




1^ 



Trichodectes latus (on the 
dog), i to t line in length. 



Trichodectes subrostratus {Mizsch). — 19. Speci- 
mens (4) ; 20. Enlarged figure of ditto ; 21, Illus- 
trative vignette (cat). 

Infests the cat on the Continent; not yet 
recorded in Britain. 



Family H^MATOPINA. (Blood-suckers.) 

Antennae with five joints ; mouth with a fleshy sucking appa- 
ratus. 



LICE. 



385 



Like the preceding section, this also has derived its name from 
its food, viz. from Greek word dt/in, signifying blood. The genera 
belonging to this section arc few, and so far as known have five 
joints to the antennae, and only one claw to the tarsi. 

Genus H.-ExMatomyzus {Piag.). 
Head rostrate ; antennae lenticular ; legs moderate in thickness. 

H/EMATOMYZUS ELEPHANTis {Piagct, Tijdsclir. voor Eiit., 2d Ser. iv. 254). 
— 22. Specimens ; 23. Enlarged sketch of ditlo ; 24. Illustrative 
vignette (elephant). 

Texture of skin hard and chitonous, 
antennae lenticular five-jointed, head wi'h 
a long slender rostrum like that of an 
Api'on but less curved, body ovate and 
convex on the back, scutellum broad and 
narrow, tarsi with only one claw. 

Colour reddish madder brown, smooth 
and shining, impunctate. 

Infests the elephant. 




Genus H.^matopinus {Leach). 

Head not rostrate ; legs thick. 

This is the principal genus that is parasitic on mammals. With 
the exception of the preceding insect takea on the elephant, it 
includes all the blood-sucking lice that attack mammals other than 
man. Those that attack man have been separated from the rest, 
but in truth cannot well be separated, especially when regard is 
had to the louse of the monkey, which is excessively like that of 
the human species, and indeed forms a transition between them 
and the other species of this genus. 

They leave the body much sooner after death than the mallo- 
phagous specie?, vhich adhere to the feathers or fur for days. 



386 ANOPLURA. 

CASE J^^MATOPiNUS ACANTHOPUS {Burm.).—25. Specimens {2); 26. Enlarged 

XIX. fi-rure of ditto ; 2" 

Nos. 

25-27- Infests field mice. 



XIX. figure of ditto ; 27. Illustrative vignette (field mouse). 

Nos. 



jg-Qg H.EMATOPINUS SPINULOSUS {Buriii.). — 23. Specimens (eggs and insects); 
23— 30. 29. Enlarged figure of ditto ; 30. Illustrative vignette (brown rat). 

Infests the brown rat. 



I^os_ H^MATOPINUS VENTRicosus {Denny). — 31. Specimens (2) ; 32. Enlarged 
31—33- figure of ditto ; 33. Illustrative vignette (rabbit). 



Infests the rabbit. 



Nos. H^MATOPiNUS LYRIOCEPHALUS (j^z^tr;;/.).— 34. Specimens (2) ; 35. Enlarged 
3'^~3 • figure of ditto ; 36. Illustrative vignette (hare). 

Infests the hare. 



Nos. H^.MATOPINUS suis {Leach).—%1. Specimens (3) ; 38. Enlarged figure of 
37-39- (iitto ; 39. Illustrative vignette (sow). 

This species, says Mr. Denny, is found in great abundance on 
swine ; but it does not appear so generally spread as might be 





Hoematopinus suis (on the sow). Anterior leg ot ditto 

li to li line in lengtli. 

expected from the dirty habits of the animals. It most frequently 
occurs on those freshly imported from the Sister Isle. It was 
many months before he could obtain a single example. He had 



LICE. 387 

CASE applied to both farmers and their butchers, neither of whom 
seemed to approve the idea which he had conceived of their pigs 
being lousy, but referred him to those of the Emerald Isle as 
being sure to gratify his wishes, forgetting that the Irish pigs 
come to this market to meet English buyers. He accordingly 
visited a colony just arrived, when he most certainly met with a 
ready supply; but here they were confined almost entirely to 
lean animals, and wherever he found a pig fat and healthy, 
no parasites were to be seen. In walking, this species uses the 
claw and tibial tooth with great facility, which act as finger and 
thumb. 



Xos. H/EMATOPINUS viTULi (Z/;/;?.).— 40. Specimen; 41. Enlarged figure of 
'*°~'*^- ditto ; 42. Illustrative vignette (calf). 

This is said by Denny, in his great work on this subject, to 
have been taken only on the calf. It seems, however, very un- 
likely that a particular species could be restricted to the young 
of any animal ; but the figure given by Denny is too unlike that 
of the ox (H. eurystemus) to allow us to suppose it an abnormal 
or exceptional variety of it. 



Nos Ha:matopinus eurysternus {Nitzsch).—'^^. Specimens (several) ; 44. En- 
*'^~*^ larged figure of ditto : 45. Illustrative vignette (cattle). 



^iiS^ 




HMiuatorinus eurysternus (on the ox). 
1 to ij line inleiijjtii. 

Infests the ox, and seems to be especially troublesome on tlie 

T^ rs 2 



388 ANOPLURA. 

CASE mane and shoulder, which are often rubbed bare in the efforts of 

XIX. ' 

the animal to get rid of its irritating parasite. 

There is an allied species (H. tuberculatus, Burm.) that occurs in 
Italy on the buffalo. M. Lucas gives a description and figure of 
it in the Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., 2nd ser., x. 531. 

Nos H^MATOPINUS ASINI {Linn.'). — 46. Specimens (4) ; 47. Enlarged figure of 



40 — 48. 



ditto ; 48. Illustrative vignette (ass). 
Infests the ass. 



4^51 H^MATOPiNUS riLiFERUS {BuTin.). — 49. Specimens (4) ; 50. Enlarged 
figure of ditto ; 51. Illustrative vignette (dog). 

Infests the dog. 

When the dog tick, Hsematopinus piliferus, establishes itself on 
a dog, it is apt to be extremely troublesome, being very difficult 




Haematopintis piliferus (on the clog), i to ij line in length. 

to get off its hairs, and harbouring in its bedding, and almost 
defying all attempts at destruction. White precipitate, or ammo- 
niated chloride of mercury, the preparation used for cleaning 
off lice from the human patient, applied in the form of ointment 
well rubbed in, and afterwards well washed off with soap and 
water, is the best solid substance for this purpose, and a very 
weak solution of nitric acid answers well as a liquid. But in 
both cases the dog must be muzzled to prevent it from nibbling 
at its fur, and thus imbibing some of the poison. It is ashy 
flesh-coloured, with a slight chequering. The skin is so trans- 
parent that the food (the blood) shines through its skin, and 



LICE. 



3^9 



^^SE the intestines can plainly be seen of a dull red colour. This 



species has also been taken on the ferret. 



Nos. H^MATOPiNUS QUADRUMANUS (Af-?^;-;-, ;/. J/.).— 52. Specimens (4); 63. En- 
*^^^ larged figure of ditto ; 54. Illustrative vignette (monkey). . 

From a species of Ateles. 

Monkeys are notoriously lousy creatures, 
as any one may convince himself by entering a 
monkey-house, where he is sure to see one or 
more of them busily engaged in searching for 
vermin amongst the fur of their companions, 
and eating the captured prey. ^ The specimen 
here figured was taken from a species of Ateles 
(a prehensile tailed monkey from South Ame- Hcematopinus quadrumanui 

^ -^ •' I to I i line in length. 

rica), and it will be seen that it has many 
points of resemblance with the Pediculus humanus. 




Genus Phthirius {Leach). 

The genus Phthirius is a very distinct and peculiar one, the 
essential character of which is that the grasping or scansorial claws 
are on the hind feet instead of on the fore feet as in the Pediculus. 



CASE Phthirius inguinalis (crab louse).— 1. Specimens ; 2. Enlarged figiu-e oC 
XX. ^ 



Nos. 
r, 2. 



ditto. 





Phthirius in^inalis. | to x line in length. 



Scansorial claw of ditto. 



390 AJNOFLURA, 

<:ase This species confines itself to the hair on other parts of the 
^ ' body than the head. It is the only species of Phthirius that has- 
been described. Other species or varieties may, however, exist, 
for a parasite is spoken of as infesting the eyelashes of some of 
the natives of the East Indies, but it has never been described, 
although it may only be this species, as, from the following 
account, which we quote from Denny's Anoplura, it also would 
appear to infest the eyes in persons on whom it has estabHshed 
itself. — " The accompanying insects were sent to me by a lady 
whom I attended for some years in Devonshire. The following 
is a slight sketch of her case : She was about fifty years of age^ 
spare in person, of a highly susceptible temperament, and long 
subject to disordered digestion : suffering from severe headaches, 
attended by biliary vomiting, and often followed by boils on or 
about the head. After a time, she informed me that she had 
been for some time troubled by insects coming apparently from 
the natural orifices of the body and infesting the surface, parti- 
cularly when warmer than usual. She complained especially of 
the annoyance caused by their presence in her eyes and ears. 
She said that they were often numerous in her throat, and that 
they were more than once discovered adhering to matters ejected 
from the stomach, after having been for some time troubled 
by these parasites. They did not make any permanent lodg- 
ment on the surface, from which they were stated to be at times 
removed in great numbers : nor did they get among the hair of 
the head. The lady was a person in whose veracity I had much 
confidence, very intelligent, well-informed, and religious. Her 
statement was in all its parts confirmed by a young woman who- 
lived with her partly as servant, partly as companion. She said 
that being now and then called upon to sleep with her mistress, 
she was at such times greatly tormented by these insects, which 
she caught in numbers on her skin, but which had no tendency 
to continue or to breed there. The only parts on which I ever 
saw them myself were the inner angles of the eyes, on the tarsal 



LICE. 391 

CASE conjunctiva, and in the ears. The appHcation of those external 
remedies, which readily destroy the common species of Pediculi, 
failed entirely in extirpating these : a variety of internal means 
were likewise used unavailingly, and the insects were not admitted 
to be sensibly diminished in number at the time of my quitting 
Devonshire." 

The reader, no doubt, recollecting what we have already said 
on some of the acaroid diseases, will be able for himself to 
eUminate from the above what is essential, and what is doubtful, 
irrelevant, and accidental. Such cases only occur in private 
practice, and usually in the country. If the lady had been 
brought to a London hospital, we would undertake to say that 
everything mysterious would immediately have vanished, and the 
patient would have been discharged cured in a week. 

Genus Pediculus [Lm7i.), True Lice. 

No one can examine the figures of the Haematopini above given 
without seeing that they are exceedingly close to the Pediculi, 
so much so that that of the monkey might almost be equally 
well placed in either genus. We need not discuss whether more 
than one genus should be made for them, but a more interesting 
question, viz., whether different species of lice are appropriated to 
different races of men, can hardly be passed over without a word 
or two of consideration. The interest of the point lies in its 
bearing on another vexed question, the unity of the human race, 
on which it may throw some light. On the one hand it is main- 
tained by those who are of opinion that all men are not of the 
same species that the parasites which infest the different races of 
man are distinct ; and because we usually find that distinct species 
of parasites are allotted respectively to the different species of the 
lower animals, they infer that the same rule must hold with man, 
and that therefore each different race possessing a distinct 
parasite must be a distinct species. Their opponents, on the 



392 ANOPLURA. 

CASE other hand, deny the fact that these parasites are distinct, assert- 
ing that one and the same species of Pedicukis, and no other, 
infests all the races of man in every quarter of the globe ; and I 
believe they add, that, even although they were found to be 
distinct, the inference thence drawn is neither necessary nor 
warranted. 

The enquiries, the chief results of which are displayed in this 
Case, were undertaken for the purpose of ascertaining Avhat the 
facts, in this respect, really were. Specimens were got from 
different races all over the world, and the result of the exami- 
nation was published in a paper that we read to the Royal Society 
of Edinburgh a number of years ago (1861). That result was 
to leave the matter very much as it was before. It proved suffi- 
ciently that there were differences between the parasites of diffe- 
rent races. They differ in colour according to the colour of the 
people they inhabit. Those of the West African and Australian 
are nearly black ; those of the Hindoo, dark and smoky ; those of 
the Africander and Hottentot, orange ; those of the Chinese and 
Japanese, yellowish brown ; of the Indians of the Andes, dark 
brown ; of the Digger Indians of California, dusky olive, and 
those of the more North American Indians near the Esquimaux, 
paler, approaching to the light colour of the parasites oi the 
European. Difference in shape is not so easily made out, for 





Claw of Pediculus capitis, from European. D:.to, from Indian of Andes 

the body being soft allows considerable variation, but there is 
considerable difference in size, and also some in the proportions 



LICE. 393 

CASE of the hard parts, such as the claws, and especially in their 
teeth. 

In some, as in those from the European, the Caffre, and the 
Japanese, the teeth are scarcely visible. In others, from the 
Hindu, Indian of the Andes, &:c., they are numerous, large, and 
almost tubercular. In others, from the negro and King George 
Sound Australian, they are limited to two or three well-marked 
serrations. The form and proportions of what may be called 
the thumb, are also different. In some, as the Mozambique 
Africander, Californian Indian, and Indian of the Andes, it is 
excessively developed ; in others, as the European, the Japanese, 
and Australian, only moderately so. The form of the penultimate 
joint also varies to a very considerable extent, in some being 
long, narrow, elongate and straight ; while in others it is conical, 
curved, short, and broad at the base. 

But then comes the question, what is the value of these 
differences as bearing upon the unity of the human species ? It 
has been proved that there are differences, and that these differ- 
ences are constant and permanent — that is no doubt something, 
But, unluckily, these difTerences are most singularly similar to the 
differences in the races whose unity is the question in dispute, 





Claw of Pediculus capitis, from North American Ditto, from Australian. 

Indian of Slave Lake. 

and to solve which this evidence has been adduced. If we can- 
not believe that the negro is a different species from the European, 



394 ANOPLURA. 

CASE on account of his being black instead of white, neither should we 
believe that the Pediculus of the Negro is different from that of 
the European because it is black instead of white. If we cannot 
believe that the Australian is different from the Esquimaux 
because he has proportionally a much longer leg, neither can we 
believe that the Australian Pediculus is different from the Slave 
Lake Pediculus, because it has a longer and straighter penulti- 
mate joint to its tarsus. If the curved tibia of the African does 
not constitute him a different species from races with straight 
tibias, neither should the greater or less curvature of the joints 
of the tarsi in the Pediculi be considered to form specific dis- 
tinctions in them. It so happens, that not only are the differ- 
ences, both between man and man, and Pediculus and Pediculus^ 
very similar in degree, but they are also differences of the same 
kind. They are differences in colour and proportion of the very 
same, or, at all events, analogous parts in both. To attempt to 
draw any deductions from these differences in the Pediculi, would^ 
therefore, be something like begging the whole question. 

Nos. Pediculus vestimenti (body louse).— 3, Specimens from Britain; 4. En- 
^~ • larged figure of ditto ; 5. Specimen on glass slide ; 6. Enlarged figure 

of anterior claw. 




I ( ; ' S 



I 

Pediculus vestimenti. li to i|] line in lenfi:tU. Sucker of ditto. 

This is distinct from the head-louse, but it is not easy to give 



LICE. 395 

CASE any very good specific characters. It is the larger and broader 
of the two. It is greyer and more uniform in colour, wants the 
spine at the top of the thumb, and has few or no projections on 
the inner side of the penultimate joint, characters which accord 
with its less scansorial mode of life, which requires less powerful 
appliances for seizing and tenaciously retaining hold of the hairs 
through which it passes. The concurrent opinion of those who 
are practically familiar with the animals and their habits also con- 
firms the view that they are distinct species. We remember the 
remark of a young private soldier on his return, wounded, from 
the Crimea, who, in speaking of the sufferings of the troops before 
Sebastopol, dwelt upon the annoyance experienced from these 
parasites ; and in reply to some suggestion as to the specific 
virtues of a small-toothed comb, which was understood to form 
part of a soldier's necessaries, answered, "Oh! we did not mind 
the head ones; it was the body ones," — thus implying a clear 
and well recognised distinction between the two in power of 
annoyance. The remark of "a certain great personage" quoted 
by Leewenhoek as made to him when he exhibited to him this 
creature under the microscope, to the effect that his soldiers^ 
who were infested with lice, found them more troublesome in 
rainy than in dry weather, also obviously applies to the body 
species. 

They are exceedingly prolific. Leewenhoek ascertained the 
rate of multiplication by actual experiment. He disbelieved the 
vulgar saying that a louse might be a grandfather in twenty-four 
hours, and the mode in which he settled the question was this : 
He at first proposed to hire some poor child to wear a clean 
stocking for a week with two or three female lice in it, well tied 
or secured at the garter, in order to see how many young ones 
would be produced in that space of time ; but he afterwards 
considered that he could make the experiment with much more 
certainty on his own person, at the expense only of enduring in 
one leg for a week or two what many people are obliged to suffer 



396 ANOPLURA, 

CASE in their whole bodies during their whole lives. It must be 
XX. , 

remembered that, if this looks like a calumnious aspersion upon 

those whom he calls " poor people," it was written two hundred 
years ago, and that Leewenhoek was a Dutchman. Let the 
galled jade in Leyden wince. In London here our withers are 
unwrung. He cannot mean to reflect on us. But to proceed. 
He accordingly put on one leg, instead of a white understocking 
that he usually wore, a fine black stocking, choosing that colour 
in order that the eggs and young lice might be more easily seen. 
Into this stocking he put two large female lice, and cutting another 
black stocking into long strips, he bound it over the first, we 
presume in two places, so as to keep his studs apart, as it were, 
in two paddocks, to prevent their escaping. After wearing thit 
stocking six days he took it off, and found that one of the lice 
had laid fifty eggs and the other about forty, and in the body of 
one that he opened he found at least fifty more, besides un- 
doubtedly having in its body many more that his powers of vision 
could not reach. Having tied them up again and worn the stock- 
ing ten days longer, he found in it at least twenty-five lice of three 
different sizes, and, not to make a long story of it, the conclusion 
he arrived at was that two female lice might in eight weeks be 
grandmothers, and see ten thousand of their own offspring — " and 
who can tell whether in the heat of summer these creatures may 
not breed in half the time." 

This cumulative increase will sufficiently explain the vast 
numbers that we read of as occasionally swarming on those 
persons of whom the louse has taken posession, as it were. But 
it will not account for some of the cases where there has been no 
sufficient time allowed them to estabHsh a colony by legitimate 
process of succession — as, for example, the following case men- 
tioned by Denny : — " The sudden appearance of these creatures 
(says he) in vast numbers in places where they were not known 
before, and upon individuals previously free from such com- 
panions, is a circumstance not easy to account for. This, like 



LICE. 337 

CASE many other occurrences, has been viewed by the superstitious, 
and is still, as the prognostication of some impending evil, as 
sickness or misfortune to the individuals so visited. Without 
endeavouring to clear up the mystery, I can only bear testimony 
to the fact of their sudden occurrence, having known an instance 
when this species appeared in such quantities, that it was neces- 
sary to cleanse the bed linen twice a day for several days, at each 
of which visitations there appeared no visible decrease in their 
numbers, though at last they as suddenly disappeared. A late 
medical friend of mine says he held the opinion that the Pediculi 
migrate, and stated to me the following fact in confirmation of his 
belief: 

*' His father, who was also a medical practitioner in the West 
Riding of Yorkshire for fifty years, had frequently in the course of 
his practice to enter the cottages of the poor in his neighbour- 
hood (/>., colliers and cloth weavers). On one occasion, having 
a case which required his attendance near the bed for about half 
an-hour, he found himself on his return home literally swarming, 
with these gentry, both his coat and waistcoat, and beneath the 
collar of the former : to use his own words, ' you might have 
actually scooped them out with a teaspoon.' Now whether this 
was owing to his coming in contact with a legion on its march, or 
whether it might not be that a fresh subject has superior attrac- 
tions for these puny persecutors, is a question for the decision of 
competent judges : of one thing, however, we are certain, that 
this locality was well stocked with this peculiar species of game." 
(Denny's Anoplura, p. 17). The latter suggestion is, no doubt, 
the true explanation of the case of the Yorkshire doctor and 
similar stories that we have heard. We do not think there is any 
warrant for the idea of migrations, and as for those cases that 
seem persistently to defy cleanliness and remedies, we believe that 
all they want is sifting. If properly sifted, there will always b& 
fomid some dirty nurse or unclean garments that unwittingly 
supply fuel to the flame we wish to extinguish. Such a case fell 



398 ANOPLURA. 

CASE within our own limited experience, and we may quote it as a fair 
example of the kind of cases out of which the third tcind of Pedi- 
culus (Pediculus tabescentium of authors), said to be peculiar to 
diseased persons, has been made up. Modern naturalists do not, 
we think, believe in it ; and if Denny, in his work on the Ano- 
plura, still gives it a place, he acknowledges that he has no 
actual knowledge of its occurrence. Our little experience of it 
was this : Dr. Jackson, of Edinburgh, some years ago consulted 
us regarding a case of the kind, where a patient, a young lad, 
was supposed to be infected with the Pediculus tabescentium. 
Repeated washings seemed to have no effect. A few hours after 
washing, the unfortunate victim was found again to be swarming 
as badly as before ; and Dr. Jackson could speak to this fact from 
personal observation. We expressed our disbelief in the supposed 
disease, and recommended a more searching inquiry into collateral 
circumstances, and, above all, the securing specimens for exami- 
nation. Dr. Jackson soon procured these ; and neither of us will, 
we think, readily forget the examination of the specimens. Not 
being supplied with entomological apparatus, he had put them 
into an old pomatum pot, which happened to be at hand. With 
justifiable pride he announced that he had secured the desiderated 
specimens, and had three in this pomatum pot, which he had 
carefully enveloped in several folds of brown paper. On removing 
the paper, however, and opening the pot, to our dismay, instead of 
three specimens we found only one. The other two had escaped 
from the insufficiently secured vessel ; but whether in Dr. Jack- 
son's pocket or in our room we could not tell. Friendship has its 
limits ; and we confess we were unfriendly enough to hope that 
the escape had taken place before the pomatum pot reached us. ' 
Fortunately their comrade remained to settle the question, that 
the supposed Pediculus tabescentium was only the common 
Pediculus vestimenti. Dr. Jackson had further ascertained the 
fact that, although the patient was frequently and carefully 
washed, he was always immediately thereafter re-indued in his old 



LICE. 



;99 



CASE dirty flannel jacket, whence the swarms were successively supplied 
which astonished beholders ; and the further history of the case 
was, that so soon as the dirty flannels were burned, the mysterious 
disease disappeared, and the patient recovered. Such, we have no 
doubt, would be found to be the rationale of Lady Penruddock's 
case, and of all similar recorded cases of the disease of P. tabes- 
centium, which have obtained credence from not having been 
examined at the time." 

Before leaving this subject, it may be desirable to say a word 
or two as to the best mode of getting rid of these vermin. The 
treatment employed in the metropolitan hospitals and poorhouses, 
which has the recommendation both of ample experience and 
complete success, is the application of "white precipitate," which 
is the bicarbonate of mercury in the form of an ointment. It kills 
them at once. 



Nos. Pediculus capitis (Head Louse). — 7. Specimens from Britain and Russia; 
7— II- 8. Enlarged figure of ditto ; 9. Specimen on glass slide ; 10, Anterior 

claw of ditto, much magnified ; 11. Illustrative vignette. 




Pediculus capitis, i to i} line in Icr.gh. 



Nos Pediculus capitis (Varieties from the Esquimaux).— 12. Specimens, and 
" ''"■ Enlarged figure of ditto ; 13. Specimen on glass slide ; 14. Anterior 

claw, much magnified; 16. Illustrative vignette. 



40O ANOPLURA. 

CASE Pediculus capitis (Variety from Californian digger, Indian).— 16. Spe« 
jj^* cimens ; 17. Enlarged figure of ditto ; 18. Specimen on glass slide ; 

16—20. 19. Anterior claw, much magnified ; 20. Illustrative vignette. 



Nos. Pediculus capitis (Variety from Indian of the Andes of Quito). — 21. Spe- 
^'~'^^' cimen ; 22. Enlarged figure of ditto ; 23, Specimen on glass slide ; 

24. Anterior claw much enlarged ; 25. Illustrative vignette. 



Nos. Pediculus capitis (Variety from Tierra del Fuego). — 26. Specimens; 
'* ~^'^' 27. Enlarged figure of ditto ; 28. Specimen on glass slide j 29. Anterior 



claw much enlarged j 30. Illustrative vignette. 



Nos. Pediculus capitis (Variety from West African Negro). — 31. Specimens; 
32. Enlarged figure of ditto ; 33. Specimen on glass slide ; 34. Anterior 



claw much enlarged ; 35. Illustrative vignette. 



F***- Pediculus capitis (Variety from Mozambique Africander). — 36, Spe- 
cimens ; 37. Enlarged figure of ditto ; 38. Specimen on glass slide ; 
39. Anterior claw, much enlarged ; 40. Illustrative vignette. 



Nos.^ Pkdiculus capitis (Variety from Hindoos). — 41. Specimens ; 42. Enlarged 
figure of ditto ; 43. Specimen on g 
enlarged ; 45, Illustrative vignette. 



figure of ditto ; 43. Specimen on glass slide ; 44. Anterior claw, much 



Nos. P£dicui,us capitis (Variety from Australia). — 46. Specimens; 47. Enlarged 
figure of ditto ; 48. Specimen on glass slide ; 49. Anterior claw, much 
magnified ; 50. Illustrative vignette. 



Nos. 51. Causes of vermin, illustrative vignette ; dirt and overcrowding; 52. ditto ; 
misery; 53. ditto; disease; 51. remedies, cleanliness, &c 



SFjRING tails. 401 

CASE 

^^i- Order THYSANURA, Latr. (Spring tails). 

This order of insects is certainly not in its natural position here. 
We do not pretend that it is ; but unless we were to abandon the 
great convenience of bringing all the Apterous insects into one 
group, we do not see where else we could put them. Their 
natural position is between the Crustacea and the Neuroptera 
(the lace-winged flies). Some entomologists place them among 
the Neuroptera, some among the Orthoptera, but this seems to us 
a stretch of arbitrary power, even worse than putting them here. 
Perhaps we should have begun with them, but they would have lain 
like an isolated lump as much at the beginning as here, leading 
to nothing, and would have interfered with the natural transition 
from the Isopodous crustaceans to the Myriapods ; and Sir John 
Lubbock's interesting discovery of the genus Pauropus, which 
seems at once to connect the Myriapods with the Thysanura, and 
both with the Crustaceans, seems to warrant us at least in bringing 
this group into the Aptera. The reader, therefore, will regard 
their interpolation here as one of the digressions that we have 
more than once been forced to adopt as a choice of difficulties. 

We do not say that it would not be more philosophical to do 
away with the Aptera as a distinct division altogether, and to 
have carried the Pediculi to the Hemiptera, the Thysanura to the 
Neuroptera or Orthoptera, and treated the remaining groups not 
as Aptera, but simply as Arachnids and Myriapods; but the 
course we have taken has its conveniences, and its adoption does 
not in any way interfere with the proper understanding of the 
different groups, or put any obstacles in the way of studying 
them. 

Until 1873, this order was always regarded as a single group, 
sufficiently homogeneous. Sir John Lubbock, however, in that 
year published an able and exhaustive monograph of them, and 
gave it as the result of his researches that there was so much 
difference between two parts of it that they could not be included 



402 



THYSANURA, 



CASE in the same order, and consequerxtly broke it up and made two 
orders of it — one, the Spring tails, which he called Co'llembola, 
and the other the Lepismid^, for which he retained the name 
Thysanura. No one can dispute that there is a marked distinc- 
tion between the two — the one with its jumping apparatus, and 
the other with its projecting terminal, jointed bristles, besides 
other distinguishing characters — and effect must be given to these 
differences in some shape ; but whether it is sufficient to warrant 
the establishment of two orders seems doubtful. This is not the 
place to go into a discussion as to the value of the differences and 
resemblances, but we may point to one that, although trifling in 
Itself, seems to us very suggestive. It is the identity in type of 
the peculiar scales with which they are clothed, and which are 
common to, although not universal in, both sections, and are met 
with in no other order of insects. These scales have another and 
an economic interest for us : they have for long been employed as 
tests for the quality of object-glasses of the microscope, from the 
facility with which they display both the spherical and chromatic 
aberrations. The woodcuts show the scale of Tomocerus (one of 





Scale of Tomocerus longicornis, much magnified, 
and portion of it still more enlarged. 



Scale of Machilis, mucn mag'nified, and portion of 
it still more enlarged. 



the Collembola) and that of Machilis (one of the Lepismidae — 
Lubbock's Thysanura), and it will be seen that the type is the 
same in both. We also show the more common form of the scale 



SPRING TAILS. 



403 



CASE of species of Collembola, being that of a scale of Lepidocyrtus 
curvicollis, which, no doubt, deviates from the others, but still 




Scale of Lepidocyrtus curvicollis, much magnified, and portion of it still more enlarged. 

bears the same cachet. We therefore propose to retain the name 
Thysanura for the whole order, and to take Sir John's name Col- 
lembola for the first section, and leave the other under its old 
name of Lepismidse. 



Tribe COLLEMBOLA. 
Horticulturists, at least those who possess "frames," still more 
those who have cucumber-frames or hot-beds, are pretty familiar 
with the insects of this family. If we place a cloth over the 
glass, we shall probably find next morning, on removing it, that 
the place where it lay is swarming with a quantity of minute soft 
delicate insects, some of which will take to their heels and endea- 
vour to escape by running, and others will spring upwards with 
considerable force, taking bounds which, were we able to take 
them proportionately high, would carry us over our highest 
steeples. These surprising leaps are not made like those of the 
flea and most other jumping insects, by means of powerful muscles 
placed in very thick thighs, but by means of a sub-abdominal 
forked organ, which acts as a spring very much in the same way 
that the toy familiar to our boyhood called a jumping-frog does. 
These are Collembola. But it is inside the frames that we see tjiem 
in greatest numbers ; they often swarm there as tliick as powder, 



404 7HYSANURA. 

CASE in the chinks and corners, and we find too that they are not harm- 
XXI. ' . , •' . . 

less tenants. Our young gherkins will be found shrivelling, and 

on examination, it will be seen that they have been stripped of 

great portions of their skin, that have been browsed or rasped 

away by these little creatures. Nor are their ravages confined to 

frames, although the greater heat there, seems to suit their 

delicate semi-transparent bodies. But in the open borders they 

carry on the same work on succulent roots and plants, especially 

where anything has happened to diminish the vitality of the plant. 

On carrots, for instance, that are suffering from rust, they will be 

found browsing on the sound parts. 

Mr. Curtis (farm insects) mentions that in Nova Scotia, the 
crops of turnips and cabbages are principally destroyed whilst in 
the seed-leaf by some species of this tribe, the size of a pin's head, 
and nearly globular. It hops with great agility by means of its 
forked spring, and may be found on every square inch of all old 
cultivated ground, but it is not plentiful on new land. He adds, 
probably from Nova Scotian information, that, "as these Aground 
fleas,' will not remain on damp ground, they may be expelled by 
sprinkling salt over the land after the seed is sown and well rolled 
down, or a thin layer of sea-weed spread over the drills, is a 
perfect security against them." In some respects, this information 
must be erroneous, for it is especially in dampish places that the 
spring tails luxuriate. Drought kills them. Some few species 
(Podura aquatica, Smynthurus aquaticus, and Isotoma aquatilis) 
frequent the surface of standing water. Some species of Smyn- 
thurus live on the leaves of plants; Seira domestica frequents 
houses ; Lepidocyrtus curvicollis, is found in cellars ; and Lipura 
maritima occurs on the sea-shore between tide marks; but the 
species of this group are chiefly to be found in loose earth among 
dead leaves, under bark, and in similar situations, and that as a 
rule, their food is vegetable matter, and most frequently decaying 
vegetable matter. 

We do not however know much of the habits of these creatures. 



SmiNG TAILS. 405 

xlff ^^^^ ^° ^^^^ ^^^^ know what is the special purpose for which their 
most striking peculiarity, their spring tails, is given. 

As Sir John Lubbock says, the possession of a powerful salta- 
tory apparatus appears to be a fantastic provision, for a species 
which lives in the chinks and crannies of bark, in the interstices of 
fungi, or buried among decaying leaves, in other words, in places 
where the saltatory power can only be occasionally exercised, and 
the anomaly is by no means diminished by the circumstance that, 
as a matter of fact the jumping and non-jumping species are con- 
tinually found together under the same old board, or in the same 
decaying heap of leaves. Still we know that it must serve a pur- 
pose, and one useful to the creature endowed with it. 

The Collembola are divided by Lubbock into six families, for 
the scientific characters of which we must refer the reader to his 
work. It is only exceptionally that we give detailed characters in 
this work. As far as they go we endeavour to supply their place 
by illustrations, and we shall merely note one or two salient 
points which may serve to guide the reader to the family to 
which his species belongs. And here let us begin at the begin- 
ning. Supposing we have in our hands a species of Thysanura, 
how are we to tell whether it is one of the Collembola or one of 
the Lepismidse? If it has either two- or three-jointed bristles at 
the tail, then it belongs to the latter— if not, then to the former. 

In the next place it may have a jumping apparatus, or it may 
not It is not, however, to be taken for granted that it is not g 
jumper, because it has not jumped and no jumping apparatus is 
visible. This is packed away under the body from the tail for- 
wards, and will be seen when searched for. Let us suppose then 
that our species has got the jumping apparatus. It then belongs 
to the first section of Collembola. Further, it may be of an elongate 
cylindrical shape, or it may have a globular body, seemingly 
composed of a head and a bag. If the latter, it must either be a 
Smynthurus or a Papirius. In both the antennce are four-jointed, 
but in the former the terminal joint is long, in the latter short. 



4o6 



THYSANURA. 



CASE But suppose, on the other hand, that the species is elongate 
and not globular, then it must either belong to the Degeeriadae 
or to the Poduridag. If to the former, it has its jumping apparatus 
attached to the fifth abdominal segment ; if to the latter, to the 
fourth. Supposing it to belong to the former, it is an Orchesella 
if its antennae have six joints, if only four or five it may belong to 
one or other of eight genera which we shall mention below. 

If the jumping apparatus is attached to the fourth abdominal 
segment (Poduridae) it may have either one or two claws to its 
feet. If two claws, it is an Achorutes — if one, a Podura. 

But it may have nothing of all this and be without a jumping 
apparatus at all. Well, in that case it will be found either to 
have mandibles or not. If it has them, it is a Lipura. If it has 
none, but a suctorial mouth instead, then it must be Anoura. 



Family SMYNTHURID^. 
No. I. Smynthurus FUSCUS {Linn.). — 1. Magnified sketch of ditto. ^ 





Smynthums fuscus. Copied from Temple- 
ton's figure n Tr. Eiit. Soc. I. o.i2Sth 
of an inch in length. 



Smynthurus viridis. Copied from Templeton's fiffure. 
i-i2th of an inch in length. 



* Where not otherwise stated, all the sketches of Thysanura are taken fn 
Mr. Hollick's figures in Sir John Lubbock's monograph. 



SPRING TAILS. 407 

This is the largest of the Smynthuri, about i-ioth of an inch in 
length. It is common about London, and no doubt elsewhere, 
on pieces of wood and bark in damp situations. It feeds prin- 
cipally on the spores and first shoots of fungi, and Sir J. Lubbock 
mentions that many specimens are infested by a small mite which 
adheres to its under side in considerable numbers. 

S:SIYNTHURUS VIRIDIS {Liiin.), 

Green*eyes on a black patch; common. 

Lubbock describes eight species of Smynthuri as found in 
England, and notices several others from the Continent and 
foreign parts. In his " Farm Insects," Curtis describes a species 
which he calls Smynthurus Solani as possibly or probably inju- 
rious to the potato crop by browsing on the parenchyma of its 
green leaves, on which it may be found in quantity running and 
skipping about their under side and often falling down on its 
back. He says it is not bigger than a small grain of sand, and 
either entirely of a deep ochreous colour with black eyes, or as 
black as soot with ochreous horns. He gives a figure of it, but 
neither his figure nor his description is sufficiently detailed to 
allow of its accurate determination, and it is not impossible that 
he may have confounded two species. If so, his species would 
most probably be S. luteus and S. niger, \iz. : — 

Smynthurus luteus {Ltibb.). 

Yellow ; eyes on a black patch ; apical part of antennas violet. 

Sir John Lubbock gives the following account of the courtship 
of this species, the only one whose amours have been observed : — • 
" It is very amusing to see these little creatures coquetting to- 
gether. The male, which is much smaller than the female, runs 
round her, and they butt one another standing face to face, and 
moving backwards and forwards like two playful lambs. Then 
the female pretends to run away and the male runs after her with 



4o8 THYSANURA. 

f ASE a queer appearance of anger ; gets in front and stands facing her 
again; then she turns coyly round, but he quicker and more active^ 
scuttles round too, and seems to whip her with his antennae. 
Then for a bit they stand face to face, play with their antennae, 
and seem to be all in all to one another." 



S. NIGER {Luhb.). 

An ugly little species, bluish black ; feet, terminal segment of 
spring, and a spot at inner corner of eye-patch, pale. Said by 
Lubbock to be not common. 

No. 2. Papirius ornatus {Nicolet). — 2. Magnified sketch of ditto. 

Found in the latter part of November, December, and January, 
among leaves and under logs of wood, with Smynthurus fuscus 
and Papirius fuscus. It is of livelier colours than either of these 
(black, green, and various shades of brown), and of more active 
habits, running freely and jumping more lightly and gracefully. 

No. 3. Papirius fuscus {Luc.\—'^. Magnified sketch of ditto. 




Papirius fuscus. 00.5 of an inch in leng^th. 



Brown. Common. 

Family DEGEERIAD^. 

Nos. Orchesella ciNCTA {Linn.). — 4. Specimens of ditto ; 5. Enlarged sketch 
of ditto ; 6. Enlarged sketch of another variety of ditto. 

A very common, pretty, and variable species found under fallen 



SPRING TAILS. 



409 



CASE boughs of trees, in moss, among decaying leaves and similar 
situations. There are only two species of this 
genus found in Britain, the present and another 
named O. villosa. The latter is yellow, and has 
the entire body mottled with black, whereas O. 
cincta, although very variable and often yellow 
mottled with black, has always the third seg- 
ment of the abdomen black. The whole insect 
is sometimes almost entirely black. The body 
in this genus is without scales. 

^os. TOMOCERUS LONGiCORNis {Milller). — 7. Magnified 
sketch of ditto ; 8. Magnified sketch of scale of 
ditto. 

The antennae in the genus Tomocems are ordicseiu dncta. 

0.25 of an inch in length. 

long (in this species very long and rolled up 
at the apex like a piece of tape) four-jointed, the two terminal 
segments being multiarticulate or ringed. The body is clothed 
with scales and the eyes are seven in each group. 

The colour of T. longicornis is leaden unless where the scales 
are removed, when it is yellow. The antennae are longer than 
the body. It is a large species, being 
one-fifth of an inch in length, found in 
England and on the Continent, under 
logs, &c., throughout the year. 




TOMOCERUS PLUMBEUS {Linn.). 
sketch of ditto. 



-9. Magnified 



Similar to the last species, but the an- 
tennae are shorter than the body ; the 
body where the scales are removed is 
leaden-coloured. Found with the pre- 
ceding ; common all through the winter, 
even during sharp frosts. 




Tomoccrus plumbcus. i-5thofaa 
nch in IcnRth. 



410 THYSANURA. 

CASE Seira buskii {Lubb.). — 10. Magnified sketch of ditto ; 11. .Magnified sketch 
^ll of scale of ditto. 

The antennae of Seira are four-jointed, the body clothed with 
scales. The terminal segment of the antennae is simple ; it has 
eyes, and the head is not concealed under the thorax. 

The species S. Buskii is dark violet with metaUic reflections. 
Lubbock found it only in green-houses and hot-houses, whence he, 
with apparent justice, infers that it is probably an exotic species 
introduced. 

No. 12. Templetonia crystallina {Ltibb.). — 12. Magnified sketch of ditto. 

Templetonia is an interesting genus combining a number oi 
characters belonging to different genera. Its scale is peculiar to 
itself, and its antennae are five-jointed instead of four-jointed like 
its allies. The first joint, however, is small, and may be over- 
looked if not sought for. Its eye consists of one lens in each 
eye-patch. The species when alive is silvery white, but when it 
has been a few days in spirits it becomes pale with innumerable 
reddish brown streaks and spots. It has figured in no less than 
six different genera, a sufficient indication of the difficulty of 
placing it in any of the old ones and of the necessity of a new 
genus for it. Said to be common in Kent. 

No. 13. Beckia ARGENTEA {Lubb.). — 13. Magnified figure of ditto. 

Beckia may be said to be a Seira without eyes. The species 
argentea is silvery with metallic reflexions. 



Nos. 
14. 15 



Lepidocyrtus curvicollis {Bow-let). — 14. Magnified sketch of ditto 
15. Magnified sketch of scale of ditto. 




Lepidocyrtus curvicollis. zj millimetres in length. 

Lepidocyrtus is a Seira with its head overshadowed by the 



SPRING TAILS. 



411 



CASE projecting front of the thorax. When full grown and unrubbed it 



XXI. 



No. 1 5. 



reflects the most gorgeous metallic tints. As remarked by Sir John 
Lubbock, its general appearance is most singular ; the depressed 
position of the head, and the gait gives it a most ludicrous resem- 
blance to a hippopotamus, and at the same time the body does 
not look as if it belonged to the head and legs, but rather as if it 
were some foreign object supported on the animal's back. Mr. 
Beck the microscopist speaks of the scales of this species, or of a 
variety of it, as being a superior test for object glasses. This 
species seems uncommon, but another L. lignorum is very common. 
There are a number of British species of this genus. 

Degeeria annulata {Fab.).— IB. Magnified sketch of ditto. 

Degeeria has no scales, and the segments of the abdomen are 
unequal. Its antennae have four joints, and 
a minute basal ring. There are eight eyes in 
each eye-patch. We have followed Sir J. 
Lubbock's arrangement in placing Degeeria 
here, but we cannot help thinking that the 
natural place, both of Degeeria and Isotoma, 
is next Orchesella. They are smaller, but 
similar in make to it, and, like it, have no 
scales, and their general appearance and 
system of coloration are disposed very much 
on the same pattern. 

This species is pale greenish yellow or 
stone colour, with brown transverse markings. 
Under logs in Kent throughout the year. 

No. 17. Isotoma viatica {Li7tn.).-I1, Magnified sketch of insect. 

This genus is very like the preceding and Orchesella, differing 
from Degeeria in having the segments of the abdomen sub-equal 
The present species is bluish black. It is not common, and 
January to April is said to be its period of appearance. 




Dcegcrin annulata. i-ioth Oi 
jin inch in length. 



412 THYSANURA, 

CASE TsoTOMA GRISEA {Lubb.).—\%. Magnified slcetch of ditto. 
No. i8. Uniform grey ; common in winter and spring. 

Family PODURID^ 

No. 19. ACHORUTES ruRPURASCENS {Lubb.).—Vb, Magnified sketch of ditto. 

One of the Poduridae with two claws, of a brownish-purple 
colour. 




Achoiutes purpurascens. 1.12th ot an inch in length 



" On a hot bed, and under branches of trees. Throughout the 
year." — {Litbhock). 

No. 20. PoDURA AQUATICA {Unit.).— 2^. Magnified sketch of ditto. 

One of the single-clawed Poduridse; opaque blackish-blue. 
Common on the surface of standing water throughout the north of 
Europe to Switzerland. Also found in Greenland. 





Podura aquatica. 0.08 of an inch in len.cjth. Lipura fimetaria. i-ioth of an incli in length. 



No. 21. Lipura fimetaria (Z/wz.).— 21. Magnified sketch of ditto. 

We have now left the jumping Collembola. The following 
species only run. This species is very common, and may be 
found in damp earth throughout the year, often engaged in 



LIPURA. 413 

CASE browsing upon carrots, potatoes, or other roots. It is white, and 
of a velvety texture, as are several other species. 

The Lipurse as a genus are interesting from an evolution point 
of view. We have, in speaking of marine mites, alluded to the 
fact that certain insects, and more particularly certain beetles, 
passed their lives under the very exceptional condition of spending 
half their time under the sea. They live between high and low 
water-mark, in the chinks of rocks, under beds of sea-weed, and 
similar places of shelter j and this is a manner of life not peculiar 
to one country alone. Wherever there are suitable sea-coasts, 
there we shall doubtless find some of these beetles ; at any rate, 
we know that they occur on the coasts of Europe, Madeira, North 
America, Chili, New Caledonia, and Australia, different species in 
each, but all belonging to the same two contiguous families, the 
Trechidas and Bembidiidae. Now it is worthy of note that it is 
the same family that supply some (not all) of the eyeless species 
that live under another peculiar and abnormal condition, viz., in 
the dark limestone caverns of Carniola, Kentucky, &c. It is as 
if they had a special facility of adaptation given them for accom- 
modating themselves to any condition of life. If it were not so, why 
have thousands of other families of insects not done the same ? 
We cannot suppose that no Carabidse but the Trechidse, although 
there are four or five hundred genera, were subjected to the same 
trial, and that they alone were subjected, not only to the trial by 
darkness, but also to the trial by sea. If we did, the present 
genus would help to confute the idea. It also contains a species 
that lives under the sea, and another that lives in dark caverns. 
One family thus furnishing a double adaptation in both instances, 
implies that there is something special in them favourable to their 
accommodating themselves to unwonted conditions. 



LiPURA MARITIMA {Guer.). 

Dark lead coloured, and of a velvety texture that throws off 



414 THYSANURA, 

CASE water. Found under young sea weed and between layers of shale 
xxi. 

between tide marks in the Firth of Forth, and along the coast 

both to the north and south, also at Kinsale in Ireland, and 

on the French coast, occurring no doubt wherever there is a 

suitable habitat. 



LiPURA STILLICIDII (^r/z.). 

A white species, very common in the Adelsberg caves. Either 
it or a closely allied species also lives in the Mitchelstown cave 
near Cahir, in Ireland. It is eyeless ; for although there are two 
rows of seven prominences in the place behind the antennas, and 
before that where the eyes should be, which have been called 
eyes, we think that their very unusual profusion in a medium 
where no other insect has any eyes at all, or any use for them, is 
not favourable to the idea of their being eyes. They also occur in 
other species where eyes are present. 



No. 22. Anoura muscorum (7>;;z/.).— 22. Magnified sketch of ditto. 

This is another of the non-saltatorial genera, 
and it is the only one of the Collembola that 
has no mandibles. It is suctorial. The species 
is of a dark purple colour, and is found under 
wood and bark. It is common. 

Anoura granaria {Nic). — 23. Magnified sketch of 
ditto. 

This is of an alabaster white, and has occurred 
under detritus in France and England, but it 
has not been often met with. These are the 
only species of Anoura that have been found in Britain. 




Anoura n.uscorum. 
0.07 of an inch in leiigtl-t. 



lefismijDJe:. 415 

xlcL Tribe LEPISMID.E. 

The Lepismidce are composed of two well-marked divisions, the 
one without scales and also without eyes ; the other with both 
scales and eyes, and the scales of the same type as those of the 
Collembola. They have all got mandibles ; farther than that, we 
do not know much of their habits. Unlike the Collembola they 
prefer dry and warm or even hot localities. 

Sect. I. — Without Scales. 

Sir John Lubbock takes this division first, and we have followed 
him, although we should have preferred to bring them last, as we 
think the genera Lepisma and Machilis are more closely united 
to the Collembola than it is. Their scales, aspect, and coloration, 
which often reveal affinities, which the actual structure has not 
prepared us for, all, we think, indicate that the nearer relationship 
is with the second section. But it is for everyone's convenience 
to follow a recognised authority, even when we differ from him 
(unless the difference be extreme), and therefore we proceed first 
with the section which contains the two latter genera. This is 
represented in Britain by only a single species. 

No. 24. Campodea staphylinus {IVeshu.). — 24. Magnified sketch of ditto. 

An elongated parallel soft white insect, which is common in 
loose damp earth. The chief interest, both in this species and 
the next, lies in its structure and affinities. 

^'o. 25. Japyx solifugus {Halliday).—25. Magnified sketch of ditto. 

This is a species of another genus (Japyx), which is as well 
entitled to a section for itself as Campodea. It has a pair of 
forceps at the tail fashioned like those of the earwig. It occurs 
in the Mediterranean district, and as far north as Paris, but has 
not been found further north, nor in Britain. 



41 C» 



THYSANURA. 




l.ppisma sacchar-na. 
i-3rd of an inch in length. 



Sea II. — With Scales. 

Lepisma saccharina (Linn.).—2Q. Magnified sketch 
of ditto; 27. Magnified sketch of «Stale of ditto. 

An easy distinction between this genus and 
Machilis (the only British members of this 
section), is that Lepisma is not saltatorial, 
Machilis is. This species is silvery white, 
with a yellowish tinge about the antennas 
and legs. Common not only in Britain, but 
over the greater part of the Continent. 
There is no other species in Britain. 



Machilis maritima {Leach). — 28. Magnified sketch 
of ditto ; 29. Magnified sketch of scale. 



Brown, mottled, with bronze reflections. 
Common on the rocky shores of England, Ireland, and France. 




Machilis maritima. 0.5 of an inch in lengfth. 



This and Machilis polypoda (a brown species, which is found 
in woods and dry places) are the only two that have been found 
in Britain. 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 





PAr.E 


Oniscus asellus 


8 


— antenna of . . . . 


8 


Porcellio scaber 


10 


— antenna of . . . . 


10 


Armadillo vulgaris 


10 


— rolled up . 


10 


— antenna of 


10 


Glomeris limbata . 


15 


Sphasropceus glabratus 


16 


— castaneus, antenna of . 


16 


Julus in young stage with onl} 




six legs 


16 


— older, with 14 legs 


16 


— pulchellus, full-grown 


17 


— terrestris 


18 


— antenna of 


18 


— Londinensis 


19 


— nitens 


19 


Spirostreptus annulatipes 


20 


Polydesmus complanatus, youiK 




and full grown . 


21 


Brachycybe rosea . 


21 


Polydesmus dorsalis . 


21 


Geophilus longicornis . 


22 


Scolopendra morsitans 


24 


— variegata . 


26 


Cryptops hortensis 


28 


Lithobius forficatus 


28 


— head and antenna of 


28 


Cermatia smithii . 


30 


Pauropus huxleyi 


32 


Chelifer musreorum 


35 


— cancroides 


35 


Obisium carcinoides 


35 





PAGK 


Buthus afer 


37 


V^ejovis, sp 


38 


Phrynus palmatus 


39 


Telyphonus proscorpio . 


40 


Galeodes araneoides . 


41 


Mygale avicularia . . . . 


52 


Atypus sulzeri . , . . 


55 


— nest of . . . 


55 


Cteniza ionica, trap-door of 


56 


— fodiens 


57 


— nest of . 


57 


Nemesia c?ementaria, trap-door 


f 58 


— eleanora, trap-door of . . 


58 


— — nest of 


59 


— meridionalis — . 


59 


— CDementaria, figure of 


60 


— Eleanora — . . 


60 


Latrodectes malmignatus . 


65 


Lycosa tarantula . . . . 


6Z 


Dysdera crocata 


70 


Drassus sericeus . 


71 


Eresus cinnabarinus . 


71 


Argyroneta aquatica . . . 


73 


Water-spiders under water . 


74 


Ciniflo ferox 


75 


Ciniflonidse, web of . 


76 


Calamistrum of Ciniflo . 


76 


Agelena labyrinthica . 


77 


Tegenaria guyonii 


78 


Pholcus phalangioides 


79 


Theridion tepidariorum 


80 


— nest of . . . 


. 80 


— lineatum, cocoon of 


. 81 


— pal lens, cocoon of . 


81 



\) I) 



4i8 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 





PAGE 




Walckenceria pratensis . 


82 


Rhyncholophus phalangioides . 


Epeira diademata, web of . 


83 


— major . . . . 


— threads of web of 


84 


Smaridia papillosa, rostrum of . 


— diademata 


85 


— papillosa . . . . 


Xysticus cristatus . 


. 87 


Pachygnathus velatus 


— audax 


87 


Trombidium parasiticum . . 


Thomisus abbreviatus . 


88 


— holosericeum, young 


Dolomedes fimbriatus 


. 89 


— — mature . . . 


Epiblemum scenicum . 


. 92 


— — under side. 


Trombidium fuliginosum, palpi o 


f 95 


— — hairs on upper side . 


— typical palpus of 


95 


— — hairs on sides . 


Tetranychus prunicolor, claw of 


96 


— trigonum . . , . 


Trombidium holosericeum, clawo 


f 96 


— — hairs on back of 


Tetranychus telarius, tarsus of 


97 


— curtipes 


— mouth, palpi, and man 




— — hairs on back . 


dible of . 


97 


— — hairs on sides . . 


— young 


97 


— fasciculatum . 


■ — male .... 


97 


— tinctorium . . , . 


— female . 


98 


— bulbipes . . . . 


— lintearius . 


104 


— gryllarium, young . . 


— tiliarum . 


108 


— sericeum . . . . 


— socius. 


108 


— • aurantiacum 


— eriostemi 


109 


Calyptostoma Hardyi 


— autumnalis . 


109 


— — under side . . . 


Raphignathus ruberrimus . 


"5 


— — side view . 


— ruber .... 


115 


leg . . . . 


Megamerus celer 


"5 


Erythrseus ruricola . 


Leptus americanus 


116 


— cornigera . . . . 


— irritans . 


116 


Molgus longicornis, mouth of . 


Bryobia speciosa . 


118 


Eupalus vitellinus . . , . 


Petrobia lapidum, young . 


118 


Scirus vulgaris . . . . 


— full-grown . 


118 


— insectorum, young . . 


Tydeus mutabilis 


120 


— — (leptus phalangii) 


Eupodes hiemalis . 


120 


— hexophthalmus . . . 


— celer, young . 


121 


— obisium . . . . 


— — mature . . . 


121 


Hydra chna, palpus of . . . 


Penthaleus haematopus 


121 


Atax bonzi, claw of . 


Scyphius diversicolor . . . 


122 


Limnochares aquaticus . . . 


Linopodes longipes . 


123 


Thyas venusta .... 


Penthalodes ovalis . . . 


123 


S maris impressa . . . . 


Stigmoeus cruentus . 


124 


Alycus roseus .... 


Caligonus piger . . . . 


124 


Eylais extendens, young . . 


Rhyncholophus cinereus . 


125 


— — mature 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS, 



419 



Hydrachna, nymphs of, adhering 


Tinoglischrus punctolyra 


. 178 


to hinder part of nepa cinerea 151 


— • — under side 


. 178 


— ■ geiographica . 


. 152 


— audouinii . 


. 178 


Limnesia fulgida . 


. 152 


Diplostaspis vespertilionis . 


. 179 


Diplodontus scapularis, young 


• 153 


— arcuata 


. 179 


— — mature 


• 153 


Leiostaspis zeleborii . 


. 180 


Hydrochoreutes globulus 


• 154 


Argas reflexus, tarsus of 


. 180 


— — nymph 


• 154 


— pipistrellse, young . 


. 180 


— — perfect insect, unde 




— — leg of . 


. 180 


side .... 


. 154 


— reflexus . 


. 181 


Hydrachna globator, male . 


155 


— miniatus 


. 182 


— — female 


• 155 


— moubata 


. 182 


Atax histrionicus, male 


156 


— (ornithodoros) coriaceus 


. 183 


— — female 


156 


— — talaje 


. 183 


Gamasus tetragonoides, claw of 


157 


Ixodes, rostrum of 


. 184 


Dermannyssus avium, claw of 


157 


— claw of . 


. 184 


— auris, claw of . 


157 


— erinaceus, male . 


. 190 


Gamasus coleoptratorum . . 


158 


— — female 


. 190 


' — marginatus 


159 


— fodiens 


. 191 


Lcelaps hilaris 


159 


— marginatus, male . 


. 192 


Gamasus crassipes 


161 


— — female 


. 192 


— tetragonoides . . . 


161 


— transversalis . 


. 195 


— podager .... 


161 


Sarconyssus nodulipes . 


. 196 


Uropoda vegetans . . . 


162 


Hyalomma hispanicum, male 


. 197 


Zercon dimidiatus 


164 


— — female 


• 197 


Sejus vidius 


165 


Hsemalastor longirostris . 


. 198 


■ — maritimus 


166 


— gracilipes . 


. 199 


— marinus . . . . 


167 


Dermacentor pardalinus . 


. 199 


Halarachne halichcxri, young 


168 


Hgemaphysalis rosea 


. 200 


— — mature . . . 


168 


Rhipicephalus senegalensis 


. 200 


Dermanyssus nitzschii 


169 


Adenopleura compressum 


. 200 


— avium . . . . 


170 


Xiphiastor rostratus . 


. 201 


— — under side 


170 


Amblyomma rotundatum 


. 201 


— pipistrellae . . . . 


172 


Ophiodes flavomaculatus . 


. 204 


Liponyssus setosus 


173 


Halacarus ctenopus 


. 208 


Macronyssus longimanus . . 


173 


— falcatus . 


. 209 


Lepronyssus rubiginosus . 


174 


— — claw of . 


. 209 


— lobatus . . . . 


174 


— — mandibles of . 


. 209 


Pimelonyssus biscutellus . 


174 


• — sculptus 


. 209 


Vampire, hair of . . . . 


175 


— — underside 


. 209 


Diplostaspis dasycnemi, hair of . 


17s 


— — side view 


. 209 


Periglischrus rhinolophinus . . 


177 


— — mandible and palpus 


— caligus .... 


177 


of 

D D 2 


. 209 



42 o 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PAGE 

Halacarus rhodostigma . . .210 

— notops . . . .211 
DamEeus auritus, head of . .212 

— — leg of . . . 215 

— — claw of . . . 215 

— geniculatns, young . .215 
■ — — mature . . . 215 

Leiosoma ovata, young stage . 217 

Notaspis bipilis, mature . .217 

Oribata punctata, young . .218 

— • globula, mature . . .218 

— — mandible of . .218 
Pelops acromios, young . .219 

— — mature . . . 219 

— — — leg of . . . 219 
Notbriis spiniger, young . . 220 

— — claw of . . . 220 

— horridus, mature . . 220 

— — covered with its cloak 

of dirt . . . 220 

Hermannia crassipes, young . 221 

— — mature . . . 221 
Eremseus tibialis, young . . 222 

— — mature . . . 222 
Hoplophora contractilis . . 223 

— — shut up . . . 223 

— — leg of . . . 223 

— — larva 01 . . . 224 

— arctata .... 225 
Ilypoderas brevis . . . . 229 

— — under side . . 229 
— • lineatus, under side . . 230 

— columbse, under side . 230 

— — on vein of pigeon . . 230 
Hypopus muscarum . . . 234 

— — lip of . . . . 234 

— filicum . . . . 235 

— arvicola , . . . 236 
Rhizoglyphus echinopus, young . 238 

— — with young developing 

inside . . . 238 

Hypopus, inside of ditto . . 239 

— removed from ditto . . 239 



Hypopus, with Tyroglyphus mycopha- 

gus emerging from it 242 

— alicola . . . . 250 
Trichodactylus osmise, leg of . 25 1 

— osmice . . . . 252 

— — 252 

— xylocopse . . . . 253 
Homopus elephantis . . . 253 

— — mouth of . . . 253 
Rhizoglyphus, tarsus of . . 256 
Tyroglyphus, tarsus of . . . 256 
Rhizoglyphus echinopus, young . 257 

— phylloxerse . . . . 258 

— rostroserratus . . .261 

— — side view . . . 261 

— — mouth of . . . 262 
— ■ mycophagus . . , 263 



Tyroglyphus siro 


. 268 


— ■ — more magnified . 


. 268 


— longior . 


. 271 


Acarus horridus . 


• 273 


— weekesii . 


. 273 


Tyroglyphus siculus 


. 274 


— malus, under side . 


. 275 


— — side view 


• 275 



Glyciphagus spinipes, mouth of . 276 

— — hair of . . . 276 

— — claw of . . . 276 

— cursor .... 278 

— hippopodos . .. . 279 

— buski .... 280 

— spinipes . . . . 281 

— plumiger . . . 283 

— palmifer, male . . . 284 

— — female . . . 284 
Cheyletus eruditus, male . . 286 

— mericourti, female . . 289 
Heteropus ventricosus . . . 290 

— — impregnated female . 290 

— — leg of ditto . . . 290 
Sarcoptes scabiei, anterior leg 

and sucker . .291 

— — mouth . . . . 291 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



4r2l 



Sarcoptesscabiei, male, under side 292 

— — female, ditto . . 292 

— — two of posterior legs 

of male . . 293 

— — two of posterior legs 

of female . . . 293 

— — burrow of . . 294 
Sarcoptes dromedarii . . . 305 

— mutans, male . . . 305 

— — female . . . 305 

— — side view . . . 306 
Psoroptes equi, mandibles . . 308 

— — anterior leg and sucker 308 

— — figui-e of . . . 309 

— — two of posterior legs 

of male . . 309 

— — two of posterior legs 

of female . . . 309 
Symbiotes bovis . . -3^3 

— — anterior leg and sucker 313 
Sarcopterus nidulans . . . 314 
Myobia musculi, young . .316 

— — female . . . 316 

— — mouth and anterior 

legs more highly 
magnified . .316 

— — posterior leg and tarsus 316 
English bat, magnified hair of .318 
Otonyssus sticholasius, magnified 

hair of . . . 318 

— — magnified bristle of . 319 

— — tarsus of, copied from 

Kolenati . . .319 

— — — copied from Mad- 

dox. . . 319 

— — palpus, copied from 

Kolenati . . . 320 

— — mouth of do. . .321 

— — — more magnified . 321 

— — copied from Kolenati 323 

— — — — Maddox . 323 
Peplonyssus seminulum . . 324 

— pagurus .... 324 



Listrophorus Leuckarti, mouth of 325 



— — leg of 

— gibbus . . . . 

— Leuckarti 
Myocoptes musculinus, male . . 

— — female 

— — seen in front . . 

— — mouth of , 
Dermaleichus bifidus, male 

— — female . . . 

— chelopus, male 

— — female . . . 
Demodex folliculorum 

— — in bulb and follicles 
of human hair . . . 

Lime tree leaf with nail galls 
Section of gall on do. 
American vine leaf with trumpet 

gall formed by a Cecidomyia 335 
Section of gall on do. , . 335 

Sallow leaves with galls produced 

by Phytoptus salicis . 
Section of gall on do. . 
Phytoptus salicis 

— tiUce . 

— ribis 

— pyri . 
Gamasus, supposed by Scheuten 

to be perfect insect of ditto 
Hypopus, supposed by Scheuten 

to be larva of ditto. . 
Flexipalpus tilias . 
Tetranychus tilire, supposed by 

Scheuten to be perfect Flexi 

palpus tilice 
Phytoptus, after Low . 

— head of — . 

— leg of — 

— tail of — . 

— pyri, claw of 

— tiliae, claw of . 
Currant buds attacked by Phy 

toptus ribis . . • • 35 S 



325 
325 
325 
326 
326 
326 
326 
328 
328 
329 
329 
330 

330 
332 
332 



337 
337 
339 
339 
339 
340 

340 

341 
342 



342 
346 
346 
347 
348 
348 
348 



422 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS, 



Bract of Tilia parvifolia attacked 

by Phytoptus tiliarius . . 356 
Volvulifex aceris on sycamore 

leaf . . . . 357 

— section of . . .357 
Cephaloneon myriadeum . . 358 
Pear leaf with galls of Typhlo- 

dromus pyri . . . 359 
Section of gall of ditto . . . 359 
Ceratoneon on leaves of sloe . 360 
Section of ditto . ... 360 
Volvulifex pruni on plum twig . 361 

— on plum leaf . . . 361 
Menopon pallidum . . • 377 

— - posterior leg . . -377 
Trinoton luridum . . . 378 

— anterior leg . . . 378 
Docophorus semisignatus, head 

of 378 

'- — ict erodes . . • . 379 
Nirmus claviformis . . . 379 
Goniocotes hologaster . . . 380 
Goniodes falcicornis . . . 380 

— dissimilis . . . . 381 

— — anterior leg of .381 

— tetraonis . . . . 381 
Lipeurus, antenna of male . .381 

— variabilis . . . . 382 

— squalidus . . . 382 
Ornithobius cygni . . . 383 
Trichodectes sphserocephalus . 383 

— — posterior leg of . . 383 

— scalaris .... 384 

— equi 384 

— latus .... 384 
Hsematomyzus elephantis . . 385 
Haematopinus suis . . . 386 





PAGET 


Haematopinus, anterior leg 


' . . 386. 


— quadrumanus . 


. . 387 


Phthirius inguinalis 


. . 387 


— posterior leg of 


.387 


Pediculus capitis, anterior 


claw 


of European 


. • 392 


— — Andian Indian 


. 392 


— — North - American 


Slave lake Indian . 393 


— — Australian 


. 393 


— vestimenti . 


- . 394 


— — sucker of ditto 


• 394 


Pediculus capitis . 


. . 399 


Tomocerus longicomis, scale of, 


magnified . 


. 402 


— — part of do., 


more 


magnified 


. . 402 


Machilis, scale magnified 


. 402 


— part of do., more 


mag- 


nified . 


. 402 


Lepidocyrtus curvicollis, 


scale 


magnified 


. . 403. 


— — part of do., 


more 


enlarged 


. 403 


Smynthurus fuscus 


. . 406 


— viridis 


. 406 


Papirius fuscus 


. . 408 


Orchesella cincta 


. 409^ 


Tomocerus plumbeus . 


. . 409, 


Lepidocyrtus curvicollis 


. 410' 


Degeeria annulata 


. . 411 


Achorutes purpurascens 


. 412 


Podura aquatica . 


. . 412 


Lipura fimetaria 


. 422 


Anoura muscoruni 


. . 414. 


Lepisma saccharina . 


. 416 


Machilis maritima 


. . 416 



INDEX, 





PAGE 




PAGE 


ACARID.^ . 


. 227 


Amblyomma 


187, 201 


Acarina 


• . 93 


— pacificum 


. 203 


Acarocecidium . 


• 353 


— rotundatum 


. . 201 


Acaropsis mericourli 


, . 289 


American vine trampet ga 


11 . 335 


Acarus basteri . 


• 143 


Ancystropus zeleborii . 


. . 180 


— crossi . 


270, 273 


Androctonus 


. . 38 


— dimidiatus 


. 270 


— priamus 


. . 38 


— domesticus . 


. . 267 


— sp. . 


. . 38 


— • farinos . 


. 267 


— sp. . 


. . 38 


— favorum 


. . 267 


Anoplura . 


. . 375 


— horridus . 


270, 273 


Anoura granaria . 


• . 414 


— hyacinth i . 


. • 257 


— muscorum 


. 414 


— lactis 


. 267 


Arachnoidea . 


• • 33 


— nigua. 


. . 194 


Araneidse . 


• 43 


— passularum 


. 251 


Argas .... 


. . 180 


— spinitarsus . 


. . 232 


— americana 


. 182 


— translucens 


. 275 


— coriaceus . 


. . 183 


— vespertilionis 


• • 179 


— miniatus . 


. . 182 


— weekesii 


. 273 


— moubata . 


. . 182 


Acarellus muscce , 


• • 247 


— persicus . 


. i8i 


Acercus . 


. 156 


— pipistrellse . 


. . 180 


Achlysia 


. . 128 


— reflexus . 


. 181 


Achorutes purpurascens 


. 412 


— savignii 


. . 182 


Actineda comigera 


. . 141 


— talaje 


. . 183 


Actinopus nidulans . 


• 56 


Argasidae 


. . 180 


Adenopleura compressum 


. . 200 


Argyroneta aquatica . 


. 72 


^cidium abietinum . 


. 374 


Armadillo vulgaris 


. . 10 


Agelena labyrinthica . 


• . 77 


Arrhenunis viridis 


. . 156 


Agelenidae 


. 72 


Ash clusters . 


. . 364 


Alycus .... 


. . 150 


Astoma 


. 129 


— roseus 


. 150 


— gryllaria 


. . 136 


Amaurobius ferox . 


• • 75 


— parasiticum 


. 129 


— mordax . 


. 77 


Atax . . ^ . 


. . 145 



424 



INDEX. 



Atax bonzi 


155 


Cephaloneon solitarium 


— globator 


155 


Cepheus 


— histrionicus 


156 


• — vulgaris . . . . 


— miniata 


155 


Ceratoneon attenuatum . . . 


— varipes . 


155 


— vulgaris . . . . 


Atoma. ... 128 


, 129 


Cermatia . . . , . 


Atractides. 


156 


— capensis . . . . 


Atypus sulzeri . . • 55j 69 


— smithii . . . . 






Cheese mites . . . , 


Ballus depressus . 


. 92 


Chelifer 


Batoneus populi . 


. 368 


— cancroid es 


Bdella egregia . 


• 144 


— geoffroyi . . . . 


Bdellidse .... 


. 142 


— musaeorum 


Beckia argentea . 


. 410 


Cheyletus 


Beetle mites .... 


. 211 


— eruditus . . . . 


Bog mites .... 


148 


— mericourti . . . . 


Bon, M., his mamifacture of 


— robertsoni 


spider silk .... 


. 47 


Chilognatha 


Brachycybe rosea 


. 21 


Chilopoda 


British spiders 


. 69 


Chiracanthum nutrix . . . 


— mygalidffi 


. 69 


Chorioptes . . . . 


Broth eas .... 


. 38 


Ciniflo ferox . . . . 


Bryobia . . 


. 117 


— mordax . . . . 


— speciosa 


. 118 


Ciniflonidse . . . . 


Buthus afer 


• 37 


— web of . 


— caesar 


. 38 


Classification, general system of. 


— imperator 


. 38 


— ofaptera 


— sp 


• 38 


— — arachnoids . 

— — mites 


Calamistrum of Ciniflo . 


. 76 


Clubiona epimelas 


Caligonus .... 


. 124 


— pallidula. 


— piger . 


. 124 


Collembola 


Calyptostoma, Hardyi . 


. 140 


Craterium pyriforme . 


Campodea staphylinus 


. 415 


Cryptops hortensis . . . 


Carapato ... 


. 201 


Cteniza fodiens . . 


Caris .... 


. 128 


— ionica . . . . 


Cecidoptes pruni . 


. 363 




Celeripes .... 


. 176 


Dam^us 


Cellularia .... 


. 229 


— auritus . . 212 


— bassani . 


. 230 


— geniculatus. . . . 


Cephaloneon myriadeum 


. 357 


Degeeria annulata 


— pruni 


. 360 


Degeeridae 


— pustulatum . 


. 365 


Demodex caninus 



INDEX. 



425 



Demodex folliculorum 
Dermacentor 

— pardalinus . 
Dermaleichidse . 
Dermaleichus 

— bifidus . 

— chelopus . 

— musculinus 

• — passerinus . 

— pici majoris 

— sp. . 
Dermanyssidoe . 
Dermanyssus 

■ — agilis 

— albatus 

— arcuatus . 

— avium 

— hirundinis 

— nitzschii 

— pipistrelloe 
Dermatodectes 

— bovis 

— equi . 

— ovis 
Dermatokoptes 

— communis 
Dermatophagus . 

— bovis 
Disea dorsata 
Dictyna arundinacea 
Dictynidae . 
Diplodontus scapularis 
Diplopoda . 
Diplostaspis arcuata 

— vespertilionis 
Docophorus 

— icterodes . 

— semisignatus 
Dolomedes fimbriatus 
Drassidee . 
Drassus blackwallii 

— micans . 

— sericeus 



PACK 

. 329 
86, 199 
199 
227 

327 
328 

329 
326 

329 
329 
328 
169 
169 

174 
179 
179 
169 
172 
169 
172 

307 
308 
308 
308 

307 
308 
312 

zn 

88 

72 

71 

153 

H 

179 

179 

378 

379 

378 

89 

70 

71 
70 

71 



Dysdera crocata 

— rubicunda . 
Dysderidie 

Epeira arbustomm 

— bicornis . 

— diadema 

— diademata 

— quadrata . 

— web of . 
Epiblemum sceuicum . 
Erepmccus . 

— tibialis 
Eresus cinnabarinus . 
Ergatis benigna . 
Erineum . 

— acerinum . 

— aesculi 

— alneum 

— -aucuparias 

— betulinum . 

— juglandimim . 

— juglandis . 

— mali 

— oxyacanthee 

— populimim 

— pulchellum. 

— pui-purascens . 

— quercinura . 

— tiliae 
Erythraeus . 

— corniger . 

— ruricola 
Eschatocephalus gracilipes 
Eupalus 

■ — vitellinus 
Eupodes 

— celer 

— hiemalis 
Eylais extendens 

False scorpions . 



331 



70 
70 
69 

84 

84 

85 

3,85 

84 

84 

92 

222 

222 

71 

72 

353 
358 
371 
365 
362 
366 
370 
370 
362 

363 
369 
367 
358 
371 
374 
140 
141 
141 
184 

144 
144 

120 

121 

120 

150 

34 



426 


INDEX, 






PAGE 




FACE 


Flexipalpus tiliae 


. 341, 342 


Goniodes stylifer . 


. . 380 


Fresh-water mites . 


. -147 


— tetraonis . 


. . 381 






Halacarid^ 


. . 205 


Galeodes araneoides 


. 40 


Halacarus. 


. 208 


Gall mites . 


• • 331 


— ctenopus . 


. . 208 


Gamasidae . 


. . 158 


— falcatus . 


. 208 


Gamasin?s . 


• . 157 


— granulatus . 


. . 210 


Gamasus . 


. , 158 


— notops . 


. 211 


— auris . 


. . 167 


— oculatus 


. . 210 


— coleoptratorum 


. . 158 


— rhodosligina . 


. 210 


— crassipes . 


. . 161 


— sculptus 


. . 209 


— gigas . 


. 160 


Halarachne halichseri 


. . 167 


— halophilus . 


. . 166 


Haemalastor . 


187, 198 


— hilaris . 


. 159 


— gracilipes 


. 198 


— marginatus . 


. . 159 


— longirostris 


. . 198 


— marinus . 


. . 167 


Haemaphysalis . 


• 199 


— maritimus . 


. . 166 


— rosea . 


. . 200 


— podager . 


. 161 


Htematomyzus . 


. 385 


— quadripunctatus . 


. . 161 


— elephantis . 


. . 385 


— salinus . 


. 166 


Hiematopina 


. . 384 


— testudinarius 


. . 160 


Hsematopinus 


. . 385 


— tetragonoides . 


. 161 


— acanthopus 


. . 386 


Geophilidse . 


. . 22 


— asini . 


. . 388 


Geopliilus longicornis 


. 22, 23 


— eurysternus 


. .387 


— subterraneus 


. . 23 


— lyriocephalus 


. . 386 


Glomeris limbata 


. 14 


— piliferus . 


. .388 


Glyciphagus . 


. . 276 


— quadrumanus 


. . 389 


— balsenaram 


. 281 


— spinulosus 


. . 386 


— buski 


• . 279 


— suis . 


. . 386 


— cursor . 


. . 278 


— tuberculatus . 


. . 388 


— hippopodus 


. . 278 


— ventricosus . 


. . 386 


— palmifer . 


. .283 


— vituli 


. . 387 


— plumiger . 


. .282 


Harpactes hombergi 


. . 70 


— prunorum 


. . 277 


Harvest bug 


. 109 


— spinipes 


. . 286 


— mites . 


. . 117 


Goniocotes 


. 379 


Hecserge maculata , 


. 71 


— hologaster . 


. . 380 


Heliaczeus populi . 


. . 368 


Goniodes . 


. . 380 


Heliophanes cupreus . 


. 92 


— colchici 


. . 380 


Hermannia crassipes 


. . 221 


— dissimilis 


. . 381 


— reticulata 


. 221 


— falcicomis . 


. . 380 


Heteropus ventricosus . 


. . 290 


— numidianus 


. . 380 


Homopus . 


• . 253 



INDEX, 



427 





PAGE 




PAGE 


Homopus elephant is 


. . 253 


Ixodes brevipes 


. . 194 


Hoplophora 


. 222 


— distipes . 


• 194 


— arctata 


. . 225 


— dugesii 


• ■ 193 


— contractilis 


. 222 


— erinaceus. 


. 190 


Hyalomma . 


186, 196 


— fodiens 


. . 191 


— comuger . 


. . 196 


— marginatus 


. 192 


— hispanicum 


• • 197 


— reduvius 


• . 193 


— syriacum. 


. 197 


— ricinus . 


. 193 


Hydrachna . 


. . 151 


— testudinarius 


. . 192 


— buccinator 


• 155 


— trabeatus 


. 193 


— geographica 


. . 152 


— transversalis 


. . 195 


Hydrachnidas . 


• 147 


Ixodidce . . . . 


. 185 


Hydrochoreutes globulus 


> . • 153 






Hydrodroma 


. 152 


JAPYX solifugus . 


. ■ 415 


Hydryphantes 


. . 152 


Julidse . . . . 


. 14 


Hygrobates 


. . 156 


- Julus .... 


• . 15 


Hypoderas . 


. . 229 


— guttatus . 


. 16 


— brevis 


. 229 


— londinensis . 


. . 18 


— columbae . 


. . 230 


— nitens 


. 18 


— lineatus . 


• 230 


— pulchellus . 


. . 16 


— unicolor 


. . 229 


— terrestris . 


• 17 


HypoderidK 


. 227 






Hypopidas . 


227, 231 


Kalips 


. . 67 


Hypopus . 


. 231 






— alicola 


. . 250 


L^LAPS hilaris . 


• IS 9 


— arvicola . 


. 236,250 


Latrodectes lugubris 


. . 67 


— dujardinii . 


. . 257 


— malmignatus . 


. 65 


— feroniamm 


. .232 


Leiosoma 


. . 216 


— filicum 


235, 250 


— nitens 


. 216 


— muscoe . 


. 250 


— ovata . 


. . 217 


— muscarum . : 


32, 234, 250 


Leiostaspis zeleborii . 


. 180 


— pulicis . 


. 250 


Legnon circumscriptum . 


• . 372 


— sapromyzarum . 


. . 232 


— crispum . 


. 356 






Lepidocyrtus curvicollis . 


. . 410 


ICHORONYSSUS . 


. 172 


Lepismadoe 


. 415 


Ischnurus 


. . 38 


Lepisma saccharina 


. . 416 


Isopoda . 


. 8 


Lepronyssus 


, 172 


Isotoma grisea 


. . 412 


— lobatus 


. . 174 


— viatica . 


. 411 


— rubiginosus 


. 174 


Itch mites . 


. . 291 


Leptus. 


. . 128 


Ixodes 


. 190 


— autumnalis 


. 109 


— americanus . 


. . 194 


— phalangii . 


. . 145 


— bovis 


• 193 1 


Leptognathus falcatus 


. 208 



428 


INDEX. 






PAGE 




PAGE 


Lice 


. 375 


Megamerus 


• "5 


Limnesia fulgida . 


. . 152 


— celer . 


. . 115 


Limnocharis 


. 148 


— ovalis 


122, 123 


— aquaticus . 


. . 148 


Melichares agilis . 


. . 174 


— holosericeus . 


. 148 


Menopon .... 


. 376 


Linopodes . 


. . 122 


— fulvo maculatum 


. . 377 


— cursorius 


. 123 


— pallidum 


. 376 


— longipes 


. . 122 


— perdricis . 


• . 377 


— ravus 


. 123 


Micrommata virescens 


. 88 


Linyphiidze . 


. . 82 


Microphtheridae . 


. . 128 


Linyphia montana . 


. 82 


Micaria pulicaria 


. 70 


Liotheidse . 


. . 376 


Moggridge, Mr., researches 


on 


Lipeums . 


. . 3B1 


trap-door spiders . 


. . 61 


— jejunus 


. . 382 


Molgus .... 


• 143 


— polytrapezius . 


. .382 


— longicornis 


. . 143 


■ — squalidus . 


. .382 


Mud mites 


. 148 


— stellaris . 


. . 381 


Mygale avicularia 


. . 52 


— variabilis . 


. . 382 


— californica 


. 53 


Liponyssus 


. . 172 


— convexa 


. . 54 


— setosus 


. . 173 


— detrita . 


55. 65 


Lipura fimetaria 


. 412 


— erichsoni . 


. . 54 


— maritima . 


• • 413 


— fasciata . 


. 54 


— stillicidii 


• 414 


— klugii 


. . 54 


Listrophonis 


• • 324 


— versicolor 


. 54 


— gibbus . 


. . 325 


Mygalidae 


. . 51 


— leuckarti . 


. . 325 


— British . 


. 69 


Lithobius forficatus . 


. 28 


Myobia 


. . 315 


Louse-mites infesting bii 


ds . . 327 


— coarctata 


. 315 


Lycosa allodroma 


. 91 


— musculi 


. • 315 


— tarantula . 


. 6t, 68 


Myocoptes 


. 325 


Lycosidse . 


. . 67 


— musculinus 


. . 326 


— British 


. . 89 


Myriapods 


. 12 


Machilis 


. 402 


Nemesia caementaria 


58, 60 


— maritima . 


. . 416 


— eleanora . 


. 58,60 


— polypoda 


. 416 


— meridionalis . 


• 59 


Macronyssus 


. . 172 


Neriene 


. . 83 


Mallophaga 


• .376 


Nesea .... 


. 156 


Malotrichus carpini 


• . 367 


Nirmus 


. . 379 


Marica 


. . 156 


— cameratus 


. 379 


Marine mites 


. . 205 


— claviformis 


. . 379 


Marmignatto . 


. 66 


Notaspis . . . . 


. 217 


Mecistocephalus punctif 


rons . . 22 


— bipilis 


. . 217 





INDEX. 


429 




PAGE 




PAGE 


Nothrus 


. . 219 


Papirius ornatus 


408 


— horridus . 


. 220 


Pauropus huxleyi . 


32 


— spiniger 


. . 219 


— pedunculatus . 


32 


Norwegian itch 


. 300 


Pediculus .... 


391 






— capitis . 


399 


Obisium 


. . 35 


— — Andian 


400 


— carcinoides 


. 35 


— — Australian 


400 


Ocypetus . • . 


. . 128 


— — British 


399 


Oniscidce . 


. 8 


— — Californian 


400 


Oniscus asellus 


. . 8 


— — Esquimaux . 


399 


Oonops pulcher 


. . 69 


— — ■ Fuegian . 


400 


Ophiodes 


. . 203 


— — Hindoo 


400 


— flavomaculatv.s 


. 204 


— — Mosambican . 


400 


— gervaisii 


. . 204 


— — Russian 


399 


— gracilentus 


. 204 


— — West Africa . 


400 


— ophiophilus 


. . 204 


— muris musculi . 315 


,326 


Opistophthalmus 


. . 38 


— vestimenti 


394 


Orchesella cincta . 


. . 408 


Pedipalpi .... 


. 34 


Oribata . 


. 217 


Pelops .... 


218 


— globula 


. . 218 


— acromios . 


219 


— notata . 


. 218 


Penthaleus 


121 


— orbicularis . 


. . 217 


— haematopus 


121 


— ovalis 


. 218 


— insulanus 


122 


— punctata 


. . 218 


Penthalodes .... 


123 


OribatidcX 


. 211 


— ovalis 


123 


Oribatince . 


. . 93 


Peplonyssus .... 


323 


Omithobius 


. . 382 


— pagurus . 


324 


— cygni 


. . 383 


— seminulum . 


324 


Omithodoros 


. . 183 


Periglischrus asema . 


177 


— coriaceus . 


. . 183 


— caligus 


177 


— talaje 


. . 183 


— rhinolophinus 


177 


Otonyssus . 


• . 317 


Petrobia .... 


118 


— sticholasius 


• 323 


— lapidum 


118 


Oxyopes lineatus . 


. . 91 


Philodromus pallidas . 


88 






— margaritatus . 


88 


Pachygnatha 


. . 83 


Pholcidoe 


79 


Pachygnathus 


. . 127 


Pholcus phalangioides 


79 


— minutus . 


. 211 


Phrynidoe .... 


39 


— notops 


. . 211 


Phrynus ceylonicus . 


39 


— sculptus . 


. 209 


— palmatus . . . . 


39 


— seahami 


. . 211 


Phthirius .... 


389 


— velatus . 


. . 128 


— inguinalis . . . . 


389 


Papirius fuscus 


. . 408 


Phyllerium . . . . 


353 



430 



INDEX, 



Phyllerium alnigenum 

— axillare . 

— juglandis . 

— liliaceum 

— vitis . 
Phytopti on alder 

— on beech . 

— on elm . 

— on hornbeam 

— on pear tree 

— on Scotch fir 

— on walnut 

— on willow 367, 
Phytoptidse . 
Phytoptus aceris 

— attenuatus . 

— on Bromus 

— carpini 

— coryli 

— myriadeum 

— on maple 

— on mulberry 

— on salvia 

— on strawberry 

— persic£e . 

— pruni . 

— pyi'i '• 

— ribis . 

— salicis 
■ — taxi . 

— tilise 

— tiliarius 

— vitis 
Physogaster larvarum 
Pimelonyssus . 

— biscutellus . 
Piona 

Podura aquatica . 
Poduridse . 
Polydesmus . 

• — complanatus 

— dorsalis 
Pond-water mites 



339, 

1 T >7 

332, 





PAGE 


. . 366 


. 371 


. . 370 


. 356 


. . 363 


363, 364 


. • 371 


. 365 


. . 366 


. 362 


. . 372 


. 370 


369, 370 


227, 331 


• 356 




359 




373 




367 




354 




357 




373 




364 




373 




373 




354 




360 




358 


343, 355 


339, 361 


• • 354 


339, 356 


. . 356 


• 343 


. . 290 


. 172 


• . 174 


. 156 


. . 412 


. 412 


. . 19 


. 20 


. . 20 j 




150 1 



Pontarachna punctulum 
Porcellio scaber 
Proctophyllodes . 
Pseudo scorpiones 
Psoroptes 

— equi 
Pterodectes . 
Pterolichus . . • 
Pteronyssus . 
Pteroptidae 

Pteroptus vespertilionis 
Ptilopteridse 

Raphignathus . 

— ruber 

— ruberrimus . 
Rhagidia gelida 
Rhipicephalus 

— senegalensis 
Rhizoglyphus 

— echinopus 

— feculae 

— mycophagus 

— phylloxerse 

— robinii . 

— rostroserratus 
Rhyncholophus 

— cinereus 

— major 

— phalangioides 
Rhynchoprion columbae 
River-water mites 
Roestelia cancellata 

— lacerata 

Salticid^ 
Salticus cupreus . 

— fonnicarius 

— obscurus . 

— scenicus . 
S arcodermatodectes 

— caprese . 
Sarconyssus 





INDEX. 


431 




PAGE 




PAGE 


Sarconyssus nodulipes 


. . 196 


Seira buskii 


410 


Sarcopterus nidulans . 


. . 314 


Sejus 


164 


Sarcoptes . 


. 291 


— auris 


167 


— bovis . 


. • 303 


— halophilus . 


166 


— capras 


. 302 


— marinus . 


167 


— cati . 


. . 302 


— maritimus . 


166 


— cuniculi . 


. 302 


— salinus . 


166 


— dromedarii 


. • 305 


— viduus 


164 


— minor 


. 302 


Smaridia .... 


126 


— mutans 


. . 30s 


— papillosa . 


127 


— rupicaproe 


• 305 


Smaris .... 


149 


— scabiei 


290, 292 


— expalpis 


149 


— scabiei-crustosoe 


. 300 


— impvessa . 


149 


— squamifei-us 


. . 302 


Smynthuridre 


406 


— subcutaneus . 


. 228 


Smynthurus fuscus . 


406 


. — vulpis 


. . 302 - 


— niger .... 


408 


Sarcoptidee 


. 291 


— viridis . 


407 


Scirus .... 


. . 144 


Snouted mites 


142 


— liexophthalmus 


. 146 


Soipugidae 


40 


— insectonim . 


■ . 145 


Sparassus smaragdulus . 


88 


— obisium . 


. . 146 


Sphasidze .... 


91 


— vestitus 


. . 146 


Sphasus lineatus . 


91 


— vulgaris . 


. 144 


Spliceropoeus castaneus 


15 


Scolopendra . 


. . 24 


— glabratus . 


15 


— angiisticollis . 


. 27 


— heterostictus . 


15 


— cceruleoviridis . 


. . 27 


Spiders .... 


43 


— ceylonensis 


. 26 


Spiders, British . 


69 


— electrica 


. . 23 


Spiders' nests with cork doors 


64 


— leachii . 


. 27 


— — with wafer doors . 


(^1 


— morsitans . 


. . 24 


— — silk of . 


45 


— placeee . 


. 26 


— — trap-door . 


56 


— platypoides 


• . 26 


Spinning-mites . 


97 


— tuberculidens . 


. 27 


Spinturnia .... 


176 


— variegata . 


. . 26 


Spirostreptus annulatipes . 


19 


Scolopendridae . 


. 22 


— javanicus . 


19 


Scorpionidoe . 


. . 34 


Spring tails 


401 


Scorpions . 


. . 36 


Steatonyssus 


172 


Scutacarus femoris 


. . 253 


Stigmrcus .... 


. 124 


Sc)-phius . 


. 122 


— cruentus 


. 124 


— diversicolor 


. . 122 


Sugentia .... 


. 20 


•Scytodes thoracica 


. 79 


Symbiotes .... 


. 312 


Scytodidee . 


. . 78 


— bovis 


• 313 


Segestria senoculata . 


. 70 


— elephantis . 


• 253 



432 


INDEX. 






PAGE 




PAGB 


Symbiotes equi 


. 313 


Thomisus abbreviatus . 
— audax 


. . 88 
. 88 


Tarantismus . 


. 67 


— floricolens . 


. . 88 


Tarantula .... 


. ^1 


— onustus . 


. 88 


Tegenaria domestica . 


. 78 


Thyas .... 


. . 148 


— guyonii 


. 78 


— venusta . 


. 149 


Telyphonus giganteus 


• 39 


Thysanura . 


. . 401 


— proscorpio . 


. 40 


Ticks 


. . 185 


Templetonia crystallina 


. 410 


Tinoglischrus audoninii . 


. . 178 


Tendaraman. 


. 6(> 


— punctolyra 


. . 178 


Tetranyclaida; . 


• 97 


Tomoceiiis longicornis . 


402, 409 


Tetranychus .... 


• 97 


— plumbeus 


. 409 


— americanus 


. 116 


Trap-door spiders 


. . 56 


— autumnalis . 


. 109 


Trichodactylus . 


. 251 


— cucumeris 


. 102 


— osmiae 


251, 252 


— eriostemi . 


. 109 


— xylocopre 


. 252 


— ferrugineus 


. 103 


Trichodectes 


. . 383 


— fici . 


. 107 


— equi 


. 384 


— irritans . 


. 116 


— latus . 


. . 384 


— • lintearius . 


. 104 


— longicornis 


. . 383 


— prunicolor 


. 96 


— scalaris 


. . 384 


— rosarum 


. 102 


— similis . 


• . 383 


— russulus . 


. 103 


— sphaerocephalus . 


. . 383 


— socius 


. 108 


— subrostratus . 


• .384 


— sp 


. 107 


Trichodectidse 


. . 383 


— Taxi .... 


. 354 


Trichoxyreus, sp. 


. . 364 


— talsahuate 


. 113 


Trinoton 


. . 378 


— telarius 


• 97 


— luridum . 


.» . 378 


- — • — var. cinnabarinus 


. lOI 


Trochosa cinerea . 


. . 91 


— — var. hsematodes . 


. lOI 


Trombidiidce . 


. . 117 


— — var. tini , 


. lOI 


Trombidiinae 


. • 95 


— tiliarum 


. 107 


Trombidium 


. 128 


— trombidinus . 


. 114 


— aphidis 


• .139 


— vitis .... 


. 103 


— aurantiacum . 


• • 139 


Theraphosidae . 


. 69 


— bicolor 


. . 135 


Theridiidae .... 


65, 79 


-— bulbipes . 


. . 136 


Theridion benignum . 


. 67 


— celer . 


. . 121 


— lineatum 


. 81 


— curtipes . 


• 134 


— pallens . 


. 81 


— fasciculatum 


. • 135 


— riparium . 


. 80 


— fuliginosum 


. 95, 134 


— tepidariorum . 


. 80 


— gryllarium 


. . 136 


— tredecimguttatum 


. 66 


— holosericeum 


. 96, 129 


Thomisidas 


. 86 


— miliare 


. . 134 







INDEX. 


433 






PAGE 




PAGE 


Trombidium miniatum 




139 


Uloborid^ 


. 86 


— parasiticum 


. 


129 


Uloborus walckenaerius 


. 86 


— phalangii 




129 


Uropoda .... 


. 162 


— sericeum . 


. . 


138 


— vegetans 


. 162 


— tinctorium 




135 






— trigonum . 


. . 


133 


Vasatis .... 


• 373 


Tydcxus . 




120 


ViEJovis . . . . 


. 38 


— mutabilis . 


. 


120 


Veleda lineata . 


. %(i 


Typhlodromus mali . 




362 


Volvella coronillas 


■ 372 


— pyri . 


340 


358 


Volvellina niarginalis 


. 362 


Tyroglyphidse . 


. 227 


255 


Volvulifex aceris . 


. 356 


Tyroglyphus 


255, 


263 


— rhodizans 


. 367 


— echinopus 




257 






— entomophagus . 


. 


263 


Walckenaeria pratensis . 


. 82 


— fecuLx . 




259 






— longior 


. 


270 


XiPHIASTOR . 


. 201 


— malus 




275 


— rostratus , 


. 201 


— mycophagus 


242, 


262 


Xysticus audax . 


. 87 


— phylloxerce 


. 


258 


— cristatus 


. 86 


— siculus 




274 


— pini 


. 88 


— siro 


. 


267 






— translucens . 




275 


Zercon dimidiatus 


. 167 



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IS X Xa SSi S^ 



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