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MARCH. -Lsea 




Cakulta intenrationai Sxhibitiro, 1883-84. 


Volume I. 




Part I. 


Part II. 


Part III. 


Part IV. 





Cakttlta ittttmatimial €xhibitwm, 1883-84. 




Part I. 






Calcutta Infemational Exhibition, 1883-84- 

Part I. — Gums and Resins. 


Abies dumosay Loudon^ CoNiFERiE. 

The Indian Hemlock ; Spruce. 

Vera. — Changathasi dMp, Nepal; Tangshing, Bhutia ; Semadung^ 

North-Eastern Kumaun, Nepal, Sikkim, between 8,000 and 10,500 
feet. {Gamble.) 

Nothing is known regarding its resinous properties. 

A. Smithiana, Forbes, 

The Himalayan Spruce Fir. 

Vera, — Rao, Hind.; Rewari, ban IMar, Pb., Himalaya; Tos, Rwi; Ran, 
SuTLEj; Kachal, Kashmir; Wesha, Afg. ; Seshtng, Bhut.ia. 

Found in North- Western Himalaya and the inner valleys of Sikkim 
and Bhutan. 

It yields a resin. 

A. Webbiana, Lindl. 

The Himalayan Silver Fir. 

Vera. — Palmar, badar, Himalayan names; Gobria sulah, Nepal; 
Ragha, Kumaun ; Dumohingy Bhutia. 

"Himalaya, from the Indus to Bhutan; in the North-Western Hima- 
laya, between 7,000 and 13,000 feet; in the inner ranges of Sikkim and 
Bhutan, between 9,000 and 10,000 feet; in the outer ranges it does not 
descend below 10,000 feet." (Gamble,) 

It yields a white resin. 

Acacia arabicay Wtlld,, Legumingsje. 

Indian Gum-Arabic. 

VtXVL.-'BabiSkly babla, kikar, Hind., Beng. and Dec; KaruveluntfTAU.; 
Nella tuma, Tel. ; Gobli, Kan. 

Wild probably in Sind, Rajputana, Guzerat, and the Northern Dec- 
can ; common everywhere throughout the plains of India. 

A I 

Part L] 

Economic Products of India, 


The gum is a tolerable substitute for the true gum-arabic, but the muci- 
lage is weak, and the red colour often objectionable. It exudes chiefly in 
March and April, each tree yielding about 2 lbs. In the bazars it 
occurs in the fornri of irregular and broken tears, agglutinated in masses, 
each tear about half an inch in size, and brown or red to light straw 
colour. This gum is very wholesome, and in times of scarcity is often 


Acada Catechu, Wiiid, 

Catechu or Cutch. 

Vera. — Katha, Hind. ; KhayeryBEHG, ; Khair, Dec ; Kashu-katti, wodaltor, 
Tam. ; Podalu'inanUf Tel. ; Khadir^ Sans.; Sha, Burm, 

Found in the Sub-Himalayan tract, westward to the Indus. 

The resinous extract is used in medicine and in tanning leather, and is 
known as Cutch, It is prepared by boiling down a decoction from the 
chips of wood. There are three kinds of catechu met with in commerce 
(see List of Medicinal Plants), Dr. Dymock informs me that while the 
decoction is being boiled down twigs are at an early stage placed in the 
liquid. Upon these twigs a crystalline substance known as Kath is de- 
posited. This is largely eaten by the natives in pdn. After removal of 
the Kath the decoction is boiled down still further until the solid extract 
Cutch is obtained. Kath is never exported, but Cutch is largely so. 

Cutch and Kath has, strictly speaking, no right to be placed with gums 
and resins, no more than indigo. It is a concentrated and solidified pro- 
duct of a decoction. 

This plant also yields a pale yellow gum often occurring in tears one 
inch in diameter, generally less than half an inch in size. It is sweet to 
the taste and soluble in water ; it forms a strong mucilage and is a better 
substitute for true gum-arabic than babul gum. 

A. Farnesiana, Wilid. 


Vera. — VilayaH kikar, vilayati boMl, git kikar. Hind. ; G4ya bdbulcf, 
Mahr., Beng. ; Vedda vaUh Tam. ; Kusturi, Tel. ; ^ali, Kan. ; ffnanm- 
ISngyaing, non Ion kyaing, BuRM, 

Cultivated all over India. 

The gum is collected in Sind; the flowers yield an otto known as 
" Cassie " in Europe. Waring states that the gum from this plant is con- 
sidered superior to gum-arabic in the arts and as a medicine. 

A, femiginea, DC. 

Vera. — Khour, Nepal ; Velvelam, Tam. ; Ansandra^ Tel. 
Grows in Northern Bengal, Central s^nd South India and Guzerat. 
It yields a good gum, similar to gum-arabic. 

A. lenticulariSi ffam. 

Vera. — Khin, KuMAUN. 

A small tree of the Siwaliks, of Kumaun, extending to the Rajmahal 
Hills in Bengal, and Central and South India and Burma. 

Gums and Resins. 

[Part I. 

Acacia leucophloea, Wilid. 

Vera. — Safed kikar. Hind.; Sharab-ki-kikar, Dec; Aring, Rajputana; 
HevuTypdndharyd hahhaliche jkdda, Mahr.; Vel-^elam, Tam. j Tella- 
tuma, Tel; Tanaung, BuRM. 

Found in the plains of the Punjab, from Lahore to Delhi, and in the 
forests of Central and South India and Burma. 

The gum yielded by this plant is used in native medicine ; it somewhat 
resembles gum-bassora, and received that name from Ure. 

" In the South Mahratta country a spirit is distilled from the bark, in 
consequence of which the trees are farmed on account of Government." 
(Dr, Dymock,) 

A. modesta, Wall. 

Vera. — Palosa, Afg. ; Phulahi, Pb. 

Found in the Suliman and Salt Ranges, the Sub- Himalayan tract, be- 
tween the Indus and the Sutlej, and the northern part of the Punjab plains. 

It yields a gum used in native medicine and calico-printing. It 
forms small, round, smooth, subtranslucent tears. I found this gum being 
used by the Lucknow printers under the name of babul. It is quite 

A. pye-nantha, Bfh, 

The " Golden '* or " Broad-leaf " Wattle is the most valuable species 
for tanners' bark and gum. (Gamble.) A. melanoxyton, A. deidbata, 
and A. decurrens all give good tanning gums, the last mentioned being 
the Common or Black Wattle. 

They are all natives of Australia, but most of them are being experi- 
mentally cultivated in India. 

A. Senegal, Wilid. 

Vem.—Khor, SiND ; Kumta, Rajputana. 

The tree is chiefly found in Sind and Ajmere ; abundant in West 
Africa near the Senegal River. 

It yields a gum which is collected and sold in Sind with that of A, 
arabica. This is one of the commercial forms of §um-arabic and known 
as White Sennar or Picked Turkey. This tree is also said to yield the 
white gum of the upper Nile. The gum exudes naturally from the tree 
in large quantities. Trade in this from Sind and Rajputana is capable 
of the utmost development. 

A. Sundra, 2?C. 

Vera. — Nala Sandra, Tel. 

Western Peninsula, Ceylon, and Burma. 

The Flora of British India remarks : " This is scarcely more than a 
variety of A. Catechu, from which it differs in its fewer leaflets" and 
" total absence of pubescence," and in " the dark-brown colour of its branch* 

It yields Gum Catechu of good quality. 

A. vera, Wilid. 

Egypt, Arabia, and Northern Africa. 
It produces the true gum-arabic. 







A I 

Part L] 

Economic Products of India, 



Adenanthera pavoninay Linn., Leguminosje. 

Vera. — Rakta kambal, rakta-chandan, Beng. ; Wdl, ihorali gunja, Mahr. j 
Ani kundamani, Tam. ; Bandi gurivenda, Tel.; Manjadi, Kan.; 
Ywegyi, Burm. 

Found in Bengal, South Tndia, Burma, and the Andaman Islands. 
It yields a gum {Spons* Ency.) known in Ceylon as madatia. 







JEgle Marmelos, Corr., Rutaceje. 

The Bael or Bel Fruit. 

Vem. — B^l, Hind., Beng. ; SriphaU Sans. ; 'Belct, bilva, Mahr. ; Vilva^ 
pcufham, Tam. ; Maredu, Tel.; Bilapatri, Kan.; Okshit, Burm. 

Grows in Sub-Himalayan forests from the Jhelum eastward. Central 
and South India and Burma. 

It yields a good gum, occurring in tears like gum-arabic, or in frag- 
mentary tears resembling coarse brown sugar. 

Agati gjandiilora, Desv. See Sesbania £:randiflora, Pers., Lbguminos^. 

Ailanthus excelsa, Roxb., SiMARUBEiE. 

Vem.—Maha rukh, HiSB., Mahr.; i4r«a, N.W. P. (cultivated); Peru-pi^ 
Tam.; Pedu,peddat Tel. 
Often planted in Central and South India. 

A red gum, sent from Madras to the Punjab Exhibition, is said to have 
been prepared from it at Chingleput. It resembles Moringa gum, and 
consists of large rounded tears of a deep vinous red, 

A. malabarica, DC. 

Vera. — Peru-mara, mati-pal, Tam., Tel. ; Dh^p, bagddh^p, Kan. 
Planted in South India, especially on the Western Gh^ts. 
On incision the bark yields a dark-coloured soft resin known as Matt' 

Albizzia amara, Boivin., Leguminosje. 

Vera.— i^a//« or lullai, Dec. ; Thuringi, Tam. ; Nallarenga, Tel. 
Grows in South India and the Deccan. 
It yields a good gum. 

A, Lcbbek, Benth. 

The Siris Tree. 

Syn. — Acacia Sirissa, Poxb. 

Vem.—Siris, Siras, Hind., Mahr. ; Siriska, Bbng. ; Vaghe, 1 am ; ZHrasan^ 
Tel. ; Kal baghi, Kan. ; Kokko, Burm. 
Grows in the Sub-Himalayan tract from the Indus eastward, Bengal, 
Burma, and Central and South India. 

Gums and Resins. 

[Part I. 

It yields a gum, which is said not to be soluble in water, but merely to 
form a jelly. The gum resembles gum-arabic. Roxburgh states that he 
has often seen large masses of pure gum upon this plant, while other 
authors give conflicting opinions regarding its properties. Mr. Baden- 
Powell says that, under the name of lera, it is used as an adulterant for 
pure gum-arabic in calico-printing and gold and silver leaf cloths. 

Albizzia odoratissima, Benth. 

VtStL — Sirsa^ Hi'Hii, I Siras, Dec; Karuvaga, Tam.; Shtnduga, Tel.; 
Pullibahgiy Kan. ; Thitmagyi, Burm. 

Grows in the Sub-Himalayan tract from the Indus eastward, Bengal, 
Burma, Central and South India. 

It yields a dark-brown gum in rounded tears, tasteless, and soluble in 

A. procera, Ben/h. 

Vcm. — Sa/edsiris, Hind.; Koraiy Beng.; Kanalu, Dec; Kinai, Mahr. ; 
Karallu, BoM. ; Konda vaghe, Tam. ; Pedda-pattseru, Tel. ; SU, sit-pen, 

Found in the Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jumna eastward, Bengal, 
Satpura Range in the Central Provinces, Guzerat, South India, and Burma. 
This tree yields large quantities of gum. 

A« stipulata, Bowtn. 

Vern. — Sir an, samsundra. Hind. ; Chakua, amluki, Bbng. ; Oi, oe, shirska, 
Pb. ; Udula, Mahr. ; Kat iuranji, Tam.; Kal baghi, Kan.; Kabal, 
CiNGH. ; BonmSza, Burm. 

Sub-Himalayan tract, Oudh, Bengal, South India and Burma. 
It yields a gum, which exudes copiously from the stem, and is used by 
the Nepalese for sizing their " Daphne " paper. 

Alstonia scholaris, B» Br., Apocynaceje. 

Vern. — Satidriy cAatidn, satwin, satni. Hind. ; Chatwan, chatinn, Beng. ; 
Purboy Lepcha; Satiatia, Ass. ; Sattni, Cachar ; Sdntdvin, Mahr.; 
Pala, wodrase, Tam.; Eda-kula, Tel.; Janthalla, Kan.; LeMdp, 

A tall, evergreen tree, widely cultivated throughout India, and exceed- 
ingly useful as it is highly ornamental. 

It yields an inferior quality of Caoutchouc or Gutta-percha, which see. 


Alting^a excelsa, Noronka, Hauamelideje. 

Syn* — LiguiDAMBAR Altingia, Bl, 

Vern. — Sildras, Hind. ; Intilif Ass. ; M^aahe-sdyelah, Arab. : Asle4ubni 
Pers. ; Neriurishippdl, Tam. ; Shila-vasam, Tel.; Seldras, Guz. ; 
Nan-ta-yokt Burm. 

A magnificent tree of the Indian Archipelago, Burma, Assam and 
Bhutan ; quite abundant in the Tenasserim Province of Burma. 






Part I. ] 

Economic Products of India. 


In Java it yields in small quantity an odorous resin, known in Europe 
under the name Storar, and which is obtained by incisions in the trunks 
but is not regularly cultivated. In Burma, the tree is said in the Phar- 
macographia to afford a fragrant balsam of two varieties : one pellucid 
and of a light yellowish colour, obtained by simple incision ; and the 
other, dark, opaque and of terebinthinous odour, procured by boring the 
stem and applying fire around the trunk. Sn Liquidambar orientalis. 

26 Amber. 

^ fossilized resin, yielded by trees (?) chiefly pines which grew during" 
the cretaceous perioa of geologists, usually found in connection with 
tertiary lignites. It is hard, brittle, easily cut, of various shades of 
yellow, and semi-transparent. It is very useful to the physicist, becoming 
negatively electric by friction. The Amber supply is chiefly from the 
Baltic region, Samland being the great centre. Crude Amber occurs 
in commerce in irregular pieces. When ground or heated it emits a 
pleasant odour. It is completely soluble in alkaline solutions containing 
camphor. On being boiled for 20 hours in rape or linseed-oil, it be- 
comes transparent and ductile, and may then be moulded into any 
desired form. It is chiefly used for ornamental purposes, for mouth- 
pieces of pipes and cigar-holders, for the preparation of a varnish, and for 
the manufacture of amber-oil and succinic acid. See Varnish and also 
Gum Copal. 

[124,] Ammoniacuin. See Dorema Anunoniacum, Umbelliferje. 

[230] Amygdalus COmmuniSy Linn, See Pnmus Amygdalus, BatlL, RosACEiE. 

27 Anacardium occidentale, Linn,, Anacardiacea. 

Cashew Nut. 

Vera. — Kaj4, Mahr., Hind.; Hijli bdddm, Beng.; Mundiri kottai, 
Tam. ; Jtdi mamidi, Tel. ; Thiho'tkayet^ Burm. 

Now established in the coast forests of Chittagong, Tenasserim, the 
Andaman Islands, and South India, near the sea; naturalised from 
America, Ceylon, &c. 

Rai Kanai Lai De Bahadur, in \i\s Indigenous Drugs of /n^fta, mentions 
that the bark of this plant yields a gum. 

**This gum occurs in large stalactitic pieces; it is yellow or reddish and 
only slightly soluble in water. It is obnoxious to insects." {Dr, Dymock.) 


Anogeissus latifoliai Wali., Combretaceje. 

Vera. — Dhdwa, dhaura, bdkli, HlUD. ; Ddbrtd, GVZ.; (roZrtf, Rajputana ; 
Daura, Mahr. ; VeUay naga^ Thtn.i Sheriman, Tel.; Dinduga, Kan. 

Found in the Sub-Himalayan tract from the Ravi eastward, and Central 
and South India ; very plentiful in Melghat. 


Gums and Resins. 

[Part I 

It yields a g'um, which is extensively sold for use in esilico-pTinting. It 
occurs in clear straw-coloured elongated tears adhering into nnasses, sotne- 
times honey-coloured or even brown from impurities. As an adhesive 
gum it is inferior in Strength to gum-arabic, in consequence of which it 
commands a much lower price in Europe, the more so since it is nearly 
always mixed with the bark of the tree, sand and other impurities, and 
adulterated with the brown tears which are probably derived from some 
other plant than Anogeissus. In India the reputation of this gum 
stands high with the calico-printers, especially of Lucknow, and it is pro^ 
bable it possesses some specific peculiarity justifying this preference, since 
it is used with certain dye-stuffs, such as with haldi (CufcuiBft longa), 
while gum-arabic or bahul is used with Madder (Rubia cordifolia). Dhawa 
or bakli gum is generally collected in April. 

Antiaris to^caria. Leech, Urticaces. 

The tJpAS Tree. 

Vem. — Jasindy rtikhd^ chdndala, chdnddkudd, BoM. ; Allt, nefavU, Tam. ; 
JaB^gri, karwaiy jag^ri, Kan. ; Riti, Cingh. ; Hmyaseik, Burm. 

A large, evergreen tree of Burma, the Western Ghats and Ceylon. 
It exudes a white, poisonous resin, used for poisoning arrows. (Gamble.) 
Specimens and further information much required. 

Aporosa villosai Batli., Euphorbiaceje, 

Vem.*-Kfl-mff»«, Burm. 
A tree frequent in the Eng. forests of Burma from Pegu to Martaban. 

Yields a red resin, and the bark is used as a red dye. 

Aquilaria Agallocha, Roxb., THYMELACEifi. 

Agallocha, or Aloe-wood, or Eagle-wood. 

Vem. — Agar, Hind., Bom. ; Agaru, Bbng. ; Vel-uffind, Pers.; Aggali- 
chandana, Tam. ; Agru, Tel. ; Akyaw, Burm. 

A large tree of Sylhet and Tenasserim ; distributed to the Malay Penin- 
sula and Archipelago. 

Wood impregnated with an odorous resin, the much-prized Agallocha. 





Arabic Gum. 

There are many plants yielding the valuable commercial gum, of which 
the following may be mentioned — 

jst, — Picked Turkey or White Sennar. This is obtained from Acacia 


gnd.—Senegal. This is the produce of the same tree as the preceding, 

but is obtained from the French colony of Senegal. 


Part L ] 

Economic Products of India. 






jrd.—Saukin or Talca. This is the produce of A. Steaocarpa, the best 
quality comins^ from Sennar on the Blue Nile. Large quantities are 
imported into Alexandria and Suez. 

4th, — Morocco or Brown Barbary, This is the produce of A, Gummi- 

Sth, — E<isi Indian Gum, The gum which reaches Europe under this 
name is not of Indian origin. It is shipped from Aden or imported into 
Bombay and reshipped to Europe, and hence bears the name of East 
Indian Gum. Several Indian plants> but chiefly A« Arabica, do^ however, 
yield gum-arabic, but they are consumed locally. 

6th. — Australian Wattle Gum. 

Areca CatechUi Linn.y Palile. ^^ 

Areca Nut or Betel Palm. 

Vem. — Supdri, Hind.; Sup dri, t^ud, Besg, ; Gubdk, Sans, ; Sapdri, 
Mahr. ; Kotiai pakka, Tam.; Foka-vakka, Tel.; Adiki, Kah.; Kun 
or Kuntkibin, Burm. 

Cultivated throughout Tropical India. 

A decoction of the nut yields an inferior resinous extract, known 
sometimes as *' Areca Catechu." 


Argemone mexicana, Linn,, Papateracejb. 

The Mexican Poppy. 

Vem.-^Buro'sktdlkdnta, Beng. ; Bharbhurwa, kaniela, N. W. P.; Kan- 
didri, kateli, bhat kateya, Pb. ; Brahmadundie, Sans. ; Farangidka- 
tura, bharamdandij ddrtiri, kante-dhotura, Dec, Bom. ; Khyda, Burm. 

A Spiny, herbaceous plant springing up in the cold season and intro- 
duced into India within historic times. 

The milky sap, on drying, forms a substance resembling opium. 

Artocarpus Chaplasha, Roxb,^ Urticacea. 

Vera. — Chaplash, Beng.; Sam, Ass.; Lut-ter, Nepal ; Kaiiada, And 
Toung^einnd, Burm. 

Met with in Eastern Bengal, Burma, and the Andaman Islands. 
Kurz remarks that in Burma it yields a tenacious milky Caoutchouc. 

A* hirsuta, Lamk. 

The Wild Jack Tree. 

Vera* — Rdn--fhanasd, hebalsu, pat-pkanast Mahr, ; Ayni, anjalli, Tam. • 
Ainif ansjeni, Mal. ; Hebalsu, hesswa, Kan. * ' 

A lofty tree of the forests of the Western GhHts, ascending to 4,000 feet 
in altitude. 

" The concreted juice forms a waxy, tough, light brown substance, which, 
when melted, is used as a cement to join broken earthen-ware and stone- 
ware. " (Dymock,) 


Gums and Resins. 

[ Part I. 

Artocarpus incisa, Linn. 

The Bread Fruit Tree of the South Sea Island. 

Cultivated in South India, Ceylon, and Burma. 
Yields the gum known in Ceylon as Ratadel. 

A. integrifolia, Z^W/i. 

The Jack Fruit Tree. 

Vern. — Panas, Hind.; Kdntkdl, Beng.; Panasa, Sans.; Phanasd, 
Mahr.; Pilla, Tam.; Palah-maram, Tel.; Peinne, Burm. 

Cultivated throughout India, and wild in the mountain forests of the 
Western Ghats. 

The bark yields a very dark-looking gum, with a resinous fracture, 
soluble in water. (Atkinson's Gums and Resins.) The juice is used as a 
valuable bird-lime and as a cement. 

A. Lakoocha, Roxb. 

Vem.—Barhal, HiND.; Depkal, Beng.; Ti^n, Pb.; Lakucha, Sans.; 
LoToi, Dec. ; Kammaregu, Tel. ; MyauklSt, Burm. 

Outer hills of Kumaun, Sikkim, Eastern Bengal and Burma, 
A gum similar to the preceding is obtained from it. 

Asafcetida. See Femla Narthez, Boiss., Umbelliferje. 

Astragalus ? sp., Leguminosjc. 

A gum is exported from Persia into Bombay which Dr. Dymock 
regards as the true Sarcocolla of the ancients, and there would seem much 
to favour this idea. The gum is known as Aneeroot, Arab, and Pers. ; 
Gujar, Bom. Meer Muhammad Husein^ in his Makhgan-ul-Adwiya, 
describes the plant which yields this gum as a small thorny shrub known 
as Shayakah, a native of Persia and Turkistan. 

For some time Sarcocolla was supposed to be obtained from Penaea 
(Sarcocolla) mucronata, a native of the Cape of Good Hope. It is known 
to come from Persia, and it cannot therefore be obtained from species of 
Penaea or Sarcocolla plants, which are found in the south of Africa. 
Mr. Baden-Powell mentions Penaea in his Punjab Products, but, as 
pointed out by Dr. Dymock, it is entirely imported into India, coming 
from the Persian Gulf. The medicinal virtues of Sarcocolla have long 
been much admired by the natives of India, either made into an ointment 
and plaster, or into a medicated oil. It is one of the chief ingredients of 
the Parsee bone-setter's plaster (lep). The gum is described as aperient, 
and a resolvent of corrupt and phlegmatic humours, acting best when com- 
bined with myrabolans or sagapenum. It is also supposed to be fattening, 
and is therefore eaten by the Egyptian women. This exceedingly useful 
gum, which is widely consumed in the East, does not seem to have attract- 
ed the attention of Europe to the extent which it deserves. 

Balata £^m. 8ee Miusops Manilkara, Don,, SAPOTACSiE. 

Balsamodendron Berryi, Amott, Burseraceje. 

Vem.— ? 

A tree of the forests on the east side of the Nilgiris. 
It is very fragrant, and yields a gum-resin. 









Part I. ] 

Economic Products of India, 






Balsamodendron Mukul, Hook. 

Gum Gugal. 
Vem. — Guggul, mukul, Beno., Hind., and Dec. 
Arid zones of Sind, Kattiawar, Rajputana^ and Khandesh. 
Yields the g^m-resin known as Gugul and also as Indian Bdellium. 
It occurs in vermicular or stalactitic pieces, is of a brown or dull green 
colour, and has a bitter, acrid taste. It is not brittle, and shells when 
heated, difihising a disagreeable odour* It is also used in medicines like 

B. Myrrha, Nees, 

Vera. — Hirdbol, bol, Beng., Bom., Hind. ; Vola, Sans. ; Bellaip-polam, 

This is at least one of the trees from which the Myrrh of commerce i& 
obtained, but it does not seem to be determined whether B. Myrrha is the 
plant which yields the true Myrrh or not. The article occurs in the form 
of tears of irregular shape and variable size : it is somewhat translucent, 
of a reddish-yellow or reddish-brown colour, has an agreeable, aromatic 
odour, and a bitter, acrid taste. It is partly soluble in water, alcohol and 
ether, and is chiefly used in medicine. 

In Bombay — the great emporium of Myrrh — Dr. Dymock informs 
me there are four kinds met with in the bazars, viz, : — 

(i) the African Myrrh, known in Bombay as karam or bander^ 
karam ; this is regarded as the true Myrrh, or that of best 
Quality. On the bags containing Myrrh arriving from Africa 
they are opened and sorted into four kinds, of which the best 
qualities are re-exported to Europe ; 

(2) Arabian, or meetiya, mostly sold in Bombay as true Myrrh, for 

which it might easily be mistaken ; 

(3) the Siam Myrrh, also called meetiya, from which it can hardly 

be distinguished ; it is largely imported in Calcutta and Bom- 
bay, where it is known as chinai'bol j 

(4) the Persian Myrrh, the source of which is unknown : in 1882, 

Dr. Dymock informs me, 1,000 cwts. were imported into Bom- 

B. Opobalsamunii H^un/k. 

Balm of Gilead. 
Vera. — Balesdn, Arab., Hind. 

The famous Balm of Gilead or Balsam of Mecca is imported into 
Bombay from Arabia. It is a greenish-yellow oleo-resin of the consist- 
ence of honey, used as a perfume and in medicine. The wood Ud-i^ 
Balesan and the fruit Tukm-i-Balesan are also imported, and are chiefly 
used as medicines by the Yunani Hakims of India. (Dymock,) 

B. Playfairii, Hook, /. 

Opaque Bdellium. 

Vera. — Hotal, Somali ; Dukk, Arab. ; Afeenwharma, Bom. 

Met with in North-East Africa. 

Yields an opaoue, whitish gum-resin, which is used as a soap by the 
Arabs and Somalis to kill lice, and in Bombay in the cure of guinea- 


Gums and Resins. 

[ Part I. 


Balsamadendron pubescens, Stocks. 

Vera. — Bayi, bai, Beluchi. 

A small tree of Beluchistan, and the hills separating that country from 
Sindj as far as Karachi. 

It yields a small quantity of tasteless, inodorous, brittle gum, almost 
entirely soluble in water. 

B. Roxburghiiy ^r». 

Vem.-^Gugala, Beng. ; Gugal, Bom. 

A small tree of Eastern Bengal, Assam and Berars. 

It yields a gum-resin of a greenish colour, moist and easily broken, 
having a peculiar cedar-like odour ; it is largely supplied to the Bombay 
market from Oomraoti, and is much used by masons to mix with fine 
plaster. (Dymock.) 

Barleria prionitis^ Lz'nn., Acanthaceje. 

Vera. — Kalasunda, vajradanti. Mar. 

Madras, Negapatam, the Circars, Kutallam, Dmdigul; the Concans; 
also Assam, Sylhet and Ceylon. 

Referred to by Mr. Baden-Powell — {Punj, Pred., I, 412)— as one of 
the beautiful dark red-brown or black gums apparently contributed by 
Madras to the late Punjab Exhibition of 1864. 

''The gum alluded to above by Mr. Baden-Powell is most probably a 
preparation from the juice. When fresh it is yellow, but afterwards turns 
black. It is much used by the cultivators in Bombay to preserve the 
sole of the foot from the cracks which are so common in the monsoons.*' 

Bassia latifolia, Roxh,, Sapotacea. 

Vcm. — Mahua, Hind.; Mahwa, Beng.; Madhtda, Sans.; Katillipi, 
Tam. ; Ippii Tel.; Honge, Kan.; Bonam, Mal. 

The well-known Mahua tree; indigenous in the forests of Central 
India, cultivated and self-sown throughout the warmer regions of India; 
very gregarious ; often associated with the Sdl. 

It yields a white milky gum from incisions and from cracks in the bark. 
The discharge of gum is facilitated by a process of ringing the trees 
practised in Chutia Nagpur during the fruiting season. The gum does 
not seem to be of any economic value. 

B. longifollai Willd, 

Vem.—Kat illupit elupa, Tam.; Ippi, pinna, Tkl,; Hippe, Kan.; Mu, 


An evergreen tree of South India, and the Coromandel and Malabar 
Coasts. This is the Mahua of Guzerat. 
Yields an inferior gum known as Ellopa, 

B. Mottleyana, I>e Vriese. 

A tree met with in Malacca and Borneo known as Kotian, and said 
to yield a copious milk juice, which hardens into a kind of Gutta-percha, 

which see. 








Part I. ] 

Economic Products of India, 








Bauhinia malabaricai Roxb.y Leguminosa. 

Vera. — Amli, amlosa. Hind.; Karmai, Beng. ; Kaiira, Ass.; Korala, 
Mar. ; Pulla dondur, Tel. ; Cheppura, Kan.; Bw^chin, Burm. 

Sub-Himalayan tract, from the Ganges to Assam, Bengal, Burma, 
and South India. 

The leaves of this tree are very acrid ; they are eaten by people in 
Burma. (Brandts.) 

" The young shoots which appear just before the rains are used as a 
vegetable in the Konkan ; when cooked they are slightly bitter but very 
palatable." {Dymock.) 

B. purpurea, Linn, 

Vem. — Kolidr, Hind.; Rakta-kdnchanj^^l^G.i Devakdnchand, Mahr. ; 
Pedda'ore, Tam. ; Sarul, Kan. ; Mahahlegani, Burm. 
Grows in the Sub-Himalayan tract, from the Indus eastward. Central 
and South India, and Burma. 

Yields a gum called Semki-gond, 

B. racemosa, Za/n. 

Syn. — B. Pa rvi flora, Vahl. 
Vem. — Kachndl, gdridl, ashta, maikdna, thaur, dhordra. Hind. ; Banraj, 
Beng.; Kosdndra, taur, Pb.; Dhondri, dosha, Gosd. ; 7hin;a, Ajmere ; 
Ambhola, Uriya ; Apata^ vanardja, Mahr. ; Art, arro, Tel. ; AH, areka, 
Tam. ; Palan, Burm. 
Sub-Himalayan tract, from the Ravi eastward, Oudh, Bengal, Burma, 
and Central and South India. 

It yields a gum of which little is at present known. 

B. retusa, Ifam. 

Vem. — Kandla, semla, gwayral, kanalla, kanlas. Hind.; Kurdl, Pb.; 
Nirpa, Tel. and Gond. 
Found in the North- Western Himalaya, from the Beas eastward, and 

in Central India. 

It yields a clear gum called Semla Gum, almost exactly resembling 
gum-arabic. It is eaten by the poorer classes, and is used to waterproof 
terraced roofs. 

B. VahUi, W. & A. 

Vem. — Maljan, tnalghdn, malu, tnaurain, jallur. Hind.; Chehur, Beng.; 

Shioli, IJRiYA ; Sungungrik, Lepcha ; Chambdra, chambdli, Mahr.; 

Chambuli, Dec; Adda, Tata, 
Sub-Himalyan tract, North and Central India, and Tenasserim. 
Yields a copious gum which seems to be of little use. 

B. variegata, Linn. 

Vem. — Kachndr, kolidr, kurdl, kanidr, kdndan, kkairwdl. Hind., Padrian j 
Rakta kdnchan, Beng. ; Borara, Uriya ; Rha, Lepcha ; Kdnchana, 
Mahr. ; Segapumunthari, Tam. ; Kanchivalo^o, Kan. ; Bw^chin, Burm. 

A small tree met with on the Himalaya fro the Indus eastward and 
in the forests of India and Burma. 


Gums and Resins, 

[ Part I, 


This tree, like most other members of the genus, yields the gum known 
as Sent or Semla. It is a brown-coloured gum. Sem-ki-^ond is, in fact, 
a sort of generic name for the gum obtained from the species of Bauhinia. 
It swells in water like cherry-tree gum, a very small proportion only being 

BdelliUIXl| a myrrh-like resin, of which there are three kinds :— 

J St. — Indian, the produce of Balsamodendron Muk«l» Hook,, in Sind> 
in Sylhet and Assam. This substance is obtained from 
B« Roxburghii and in Beluchistan from B. pubescens. 
Mukul or Gugal (Indian Bdellium) from Coromandel is the pro- 
duce of Boswellia glabra, and that from the Western Hi- 
malaya is the produce of Boswellia serrata. 

2nd — African Bdellium, This is now believed to be the produce of 
Hemprichia erythrasa, Ehernb, (a synonym for Balsamoden- 
dron Katal, Kunth,) It to a certain extent resembles Myrrh, 
but is of a darker colour. It is twice the price of the Indian 
Both this and the preceding are given to buffaloes to increase 
their milk. 

^rd, — The Opaque Bdellium, This is the produce of Balsamodendron 
Playiairii, Hook,, which see. 

Benzoin or Benjamin. See Styrax Benzoin, Dyandy SxYRACEiE. 

Berberis Lydum, Royle^ Berberideje. 

Vem. — Kashmal, choir a. Hind.; Kushmul, N. W. P.; Kasmal, Simla; 
Darhalad (the wood). Bom. ; Ziriskh (the fruit), Pers., and ambarbarees, 
Arab. ; Raswanti (the extract). 

B. aiistata, DC, B. asiatica, Roxb., and B. vulgaris, Linn., can scarcely 
be distinguished from B. Lydum, L., even by botanists, and may therefore 
be expected to be used indiscriminately by the natives. They are thorny 
bushes, common along the Himalayas, B. asiatica, Roxb., coming down to 
the lower hills of the plains. Royle says that from B. Lydum, L,, is pre- 
pared the extract known as Rasat, rasaut, rusot in Hindi, or Rasanj ana in 

The Sanskrit name Darvi is, in South India, applied to Cosdnium 
fenestratum, Colebrook : but in Northern India it is applied to a species of 

Blumea balsamifera, DC, CoMPosiTiE. 


Vem. — Pon ma thein, BuRM. 

A sub-bushy plant met with on the tropical Himalaya from Nepal to 
Sikkim, altitude i,ooo to 4,000 feet, extending to Assam, Khasia Hills, 
Chittagong, Burma, and the Straits. The whole plant smells strongly of 
camphor, which may indeed be prepared from it. A warm infusion acts 
as a pleasant sudorific, and it is useful expectorant as a decoction. 
Dyrhock says that in Bombay the vernacular name bhambarda is a generic 
term for all Blumeas. 






Part I. ] 

Economic Products of India. 



Blumea densiflora, DC. 

Syn.— B. GRANDIS, DC. 

VerOL — Pung-ma-theing, BuRM. 

Found in Tropical Himalaya, Sikkim and Assam, Mishmi and Naga 
Hills and Khisia Mountains; also met with in the Tenasserim Pro- 

A few years ago Mr. E* O'RiUy prepared camphor from this plant 
which was pronounced identical with that imported from China. 

6z Bombax insigne, Wall. 

Vera. — Semul, thula, Beng. 
Burma, Pegu, and the Andaman Islands. 

The wood is more durable than the preceding. It yields a brown 

62 B. malabaricunii BCy Malvaceje. 

The Silk Cotton Tree. 

WertL—Semul, simul, simal, shembalf Hind., Beng.; Simbal, shirlan, 
Himalayan names; Salmali, Sans.; Bolchu, G\ko \ Bouro, Uriya ; 
Savara, Mahr. ; lUavam, puld, Tam.; Btirga, Tel.; Letpan, didu, 


Throughout India and Burma, ascending the Himalayas to 4,000 feet 
in altitude ; chiefly met with in the hotter forests of East India. 

It yields a brown gum (mocha-ras, i.e,, juice of mocha) used in native 
medicme. This belongs to the dark or Moringa series, and, like the 
other false Tragacanth gums, is of little commercial value. 

63 Borassus flabelliformis, Linn., Palmje. 

The Palmyra Palm. 

Vtm.^Tdl, tdla, tar, HiND.; Tdl, Beng.; Tada, Mahr. ; Panam, ^annie, 
Tam.; Potu tddi (the male tree), Penti tadi (the female), Tel. ; Tad, 
Guz.; Tan, BURM. 

Cultivated throughout tropical India, and beyond the tropics in 
Beneal, and the southern part of the North-West Provinces. 

Gum obtained from it is said to have been sent from Madras to the 
Punjab Exhibition ; it is black and has a black shining fracture. {Brandts.) 

It deserves more careful examination. 

64 Boswellia floribunda, Endl., Burseraceje. 

The true Frankincense or Olibanum of European Commerce. 

Vem,-^Kundur, lubdn, thus, Arab.^ Hind. ; Kunduru, Sans.; Visesh, 
eseshf Bom. ; Parangi'shamhirant, Tam. 


Gums and Resins. 

[ Part L 

It is probable that not merely the above but several other species yield 
Olibanum, of which B. Carterii is probably the most important. They 
are trees inhabiting the Somali Coast of Africa to Cape Guardafui and 
also the South Coast of Arabia. 

The Arabs, as early as the loth century, carried Olibanumto India, and 
the Indian names for it have, through the lapse of time, become almost 
hopelessly mixed up with those given to the Indian species of this genus, 
and also with those given to the Balsamodendroos. It is impossible there- 
fore to definitely fix the names of the balsamiferous plants, and Maho- 
medan writers distinguish several kinds of the imported or African and 
Arabian Olibanum :— 

ist.^Kundur Zakur or male Frankincense. This is esteemed the best 
■quality and consists of deep yellow tears. It should burn readily and not 
emit much smoke. 

2nd, — Kundur Unsa or female Frankincense. 

3rd. — Kundur Madharaj, This consists of artificially-prepared tears, 
made by shaking the moist exudation in a basket. 

4th. — Kishur Kundur, or Kashfa, This consists of the bark of the tree 
coated with the exudation. This is the Dhtip of the Bombay market, and, 
under that name, forms a distinct article of commerce. 

5th,— Dukak Kundar, or dust of Olibanum, This meets the demand 
of the Indian and Chinese markets, the finer qualities of Olibanum being 
exported from Bombay, after assortment, to Europe. 

Olibanum, as met with in European commerce, may be described as a 
dry gum-resin, consisting of tears often an inch in length, and of an ovate 
or oblong, clavate or stalactitic form, and mixed with impurities. The 
pieces are light yellow to brown or pale green or colourless. The odour 
IS balsamic and resinous, especially while being burned. In taste it is 
bitter and terebinthinous, softening in the mouth. By heat it softens 
without actually fusing, decomposing at high temperatures. 

Boswellia Frereaxia,^ Btrdw, 

Vcm. — Luban meyeti, Arab. ; Pdndhri visesk, BoM. 

This is the plant which yields the stalactitic Olibanum, a substance 
which differs chiefly from the preceding in the absence of soluble gum. 
It resembles Elemi. 

B. serrata, jRoxb. 

Syn. — B. TH\jRiFERA,Roxb. ex Fleming ; Libanus thurifera, Coleberooke, 

Vem. — Salpe, salei, sale^ saiga, gunda bireoand, ? luban. Hind. ; Salai, 
Beng. ; Sallaki, guggulu, Sans.; Salaphali, Mahr. ; Kungli, gugulu, 
tnorada, Tam. ; Amiuku, anduga, parangi, Tel. ; ChittUy Kan. 

It is probable that the name Gugul should have been restricted to this 
plant, but modern use has extended it to include Balsamodendron MiikuL 
There are two varieties of this plant, both of which yield the so-called 
Indian Olibanum. 

Z8t.— serrata proper. 

A moderate-sized tree of the forests at the base of the Western Hima- 
laya, from the Sutlej to Nepal southward to the Deccan, the Circars and 
the Konkans. 

This is B. thnrifera, Roxh., and is characterised by the leaflets being 
sessile, pubescent, coarsely crenate ; serrate racemes j axillary snorter than 
the leaves. 

The ffum-resin, Salai ^ugul, occurs as a transparent golden, yellow, 
semi-fluid substance, whicn slowly hardens with lime. Mr. Moodeen 
Shariff says that when it is found in this massive form it is known as 





Part I. ] 



Ecomomic Products of India, 

GandahferoBtih. It is pungent, having a slightly aromatic taste and bal- 
samic resinous odour. It becomes opaque when immersed in alcohol or 
in water, the proportion of resin to gum being much smaller than in 
Frankincense. The opaque, soft, whitish mass produced by water when 
rubbed in a mortar forms an emulsion. Indian Olibanum is consumed 
almost entirely in Central and Northern India, and it is never exported. 

2ad*— glabra sp., Roxh, 

VtnL^Gu^tUdpd'chitiu, gugil, Tel. 

A moderate-sized tree of North- West India. Leaflets nearly or quite 
glabrous, and generally entire or nearly so ; racemes terminal, subpanicled. 

It seems probable that this form yields the solid rounded pieces or 
tears described by some authors as of Indian origin, owing to its drying 
more rapidly than the gum-resin from B. aerrata. Royle describes pick- 
ing tears off the trees, and states that these burn rapidly with a bright 
light, diffusing a pleasant odour. 

For further particulars regarding Frankincense, the reader is referred 
to Dr. Dymock's Materia Medica of Western India (from which much 
of the above information has been obtained) ; to Dr. Birdwood's Mono* 
graph of the Genus Boswellia in the Linncean Society^ s Transactions^ 
XXVII : to the Pharmacographia (p. 120); Royle's Illustrations of the 
Botany of the Himalaya, p, lyy ; Ainslie, Vol. lyp, 136: Spons* Encyclo* 

68 Buchanania latifolia, Roxb., Anacardiaceje. 

Vem. — Chirauli or Chironji, Pb.; Pidl, murid, katbkilawa, paydla, Garh- 
WAL; Pidr, pairUy pSrrah, Oudh; Charu, \J RiY \ ; Piydl, chdroli. Bom. ; 
Katmad, aima, Tam.; Char a, chinna moral, morli, Tel.; Lunbo, loneopo- 
mda, BuRM. 
Grows in the Sub-Himalayan tract, from the Sutlej eastward. 
A pellucid gum exudes from wounds on the stem (Brandis), more than 
half soluble in water. It is reported to resemble Bassora Gum, 

It is described as in irregular broken fragments, brittle, pale, horn- 
coloured, tinged with brown, tasteless, soluble in water, except a small in- 
soluble portion of basorine. It has been pronounced as having adhesive 
properties, similar to the inferior kinds of gum-arabic, and suitable for 
dressing of textiles. The bark is also said to yield a natural varnish. 

69 Butea frondosa, Roxh,, Leguminosje. 

VtnL'^'Dhdk, Paldsy kankrei, chichra. Hind.; Palas^ Beng.; Paldsi, 
bulyeltra, Nepal ; Lahokung, Lepcha ; Kinsuka, Sans. ; Pordsu, Uriya ; 
Pailds, Dec ; Palasa^ khdkard, BoM. ; Porasan, Tam.; Modugu, Tel.; 
Muttugu, thords, Kah. I Pauk, BVRM, 

Found throughout India and Burma, extending in the North- Western 
Himalaya as far as the Jhelam. 

It yields a gum which is sold as " Bengal Kino." It occurs in the 
form of round tears, often fragmentary. It may be purified by solution in 
water. It is of a brilliant ruby-red colour, translucentand brittle, heat 
rendering it more so instead of melting it. This gum is generally known 


Gums and Resins. 

[ Part I. 

as kamarkas in the N. W. P. bazars. With age the gum darkens and 
becomes opaque. In native medicine it is largely used as an astringent 
as a substitute for true Kino. It is also largely used in tanning. 

An aqueous solution of this gum is, by the action of persulphate of iron, 
changed into a dirty green colour ; a larger quantity occasions a green 
precipitate. Acids precipitate an orange or dirty yellow pigment from 
the solution. A few drops of caustic potash change the colour to crimson, 
becoming grey with excess, until the whole of the colour is destroyed. 
Similar changes are effected by the action of caustic soda and ammonia. 
The addition of carbonates of potash and soda deepens the colour of the 
solution, but not so much as caustic potash does. Metallic solutions 
like acetate of lead precipitate the whole of the colouring matter;. 
Attempts were made to fix the colour in the fibre of cotton, silk, wool, &c., 
with different mordants, but the colours, though permanent, were all im- 
perfect. This gum, by experiment, has been found to contain a large 
portion of tannin. This fact, together with its cheapness, shows that it 
would be highly valued in the arts, especially in that of tanning leather. 
It is said also to be used in purifying indigo. 

Butea superbEi Rox5. 

Vem. — Paldsa vela, Mar. ; Y^l paras, Martaban ; Tige motku, Tel. ; 
Samur, Gond; Pauknw^,BuRM, 

A large climber of India and Burma. 
It yields a gum like that of B. frondosa. 



Calamus (Dasmonorops) Draco, Wt'lid., Palmje. 

Vern. — Dam-ul-akkwain, jaida rumi, hirada khum, Hind.; Hird dakhana. 

A native of the Indian Archipelago. 

The drug is sold in dark-red, friable masses, from which a blood-red 
powder is o'btained; often sold in the bazar in the interior of canes. 
This climber yields the Dragon's-blood of the Indian Materia Medica, 

The fruits are clustered, each covered with beautiful imbricating scales, 
which are coated with a red, resinous substance. The fruits are placed 
in long bags and violently shaken ; the resinous powder is thus separated 
and (as it reaches Europe) it is baked into sticks or cakes. Other species 
of Calamus also yield the Dragon's-blood, and ' from Dracoena Draco, 
a tree of the LUiace» and a native of the west coast of Africa, a 
similar substance is obtained. This is met with as a secretion at the base 
of the leaves. Dragon's-blood is used in varnishing and staining wood. 

A similar substance is also said to be obtained from Pterocorpos Draco, 
a tree of the West Indies and South America. 

Calophyllum inophyllunii Linn.y Guttiferje. 

The Alexandrian Laurel. 

Vern. — Sultana champa. Hind., Beng. ; Surangi, undi (purrayaf dugut' 
phort), SiND; Pinnay, Tam. j Ptina, p^nds, Tel. ; Wtiina, Kan. ; Vndi, 
surangiy'M.hR, ', Domba, Cingh. ; Ponnyet, Burm. 





Part I. ] 

Economic Products of India. 






Cultivated in the Western Peninsula, Orissa, South India, Ceylon, 
Burma, and the Andaman Islands. 

It yields a black resin, greenish when powdered, which was sent 
from Madras to the Punjab Exhibition. {See Baden-Powell's Punjab Pro- 
ducts.) Dr. Dymock informs me that he has prepared the gum by incising 
a tree, and that the yield was about an ounce of yellowish-green translu- 
cent gum. He further states that it is also obtained from the fruit in 
small quantities, chiefly in the form of very small tears. Mr. Gamble, citing 
Les Bois de la Nouvelle CaUdonie, Sebert, remarks that it gives a 
yellowish green pleasandy scented resin. 

This resin is very little known in India, and specimens are much re- 

CalophjrUum tomentosum, Wtgh/. 

The Poon Spar Tree. 

Vera. — Pooh, strpan. Bom. ; Poon, poone, Mal. ; Pongoo, Tam. j Sir a poney 

A large, tall tree of the moist forests of the Western Peninsula, from the 
Koncan southward ; Ceylon, ascending to altitude 5,000 feet. 

Dr. Dymock informs me this tree yields a black, opaque gum, much 
mixed with pieces of bark 1 feebly astringent, and very soluble in cold 
water. The solution is brownish-yellow, exhibiting a strong blue flor- 

Calotropis gigantea, R^ Br,, Asclepiadeje. 

Vera. — Maddtj safed-ak. Hind. ; Akandj swet-akand, Bbng. ; Auk, Nepal ; 
Akandd, rtii, Mar.; Uk, Sind; Yercum, Tam.; Yekka, Kan.; Mayo- 
beng, ma-yo^in, Burm. 

Grows in waste lands all over India. 

Yields Gutta-percha. A specimen was sent from Madras to the Punjab 
Exhibition. Dr. Riddel {jfourn. Agru-Hort, Society of India, Vol, VIII) 
first drew attention to this gutta, and was followed by Royle in his 
Fibrous Plants, and still later by Mr. Baden-Powell in his Punjab Pro- 
ducts, See next species. 

C. procera, R- Br, 

Ven^—Ak muddr, HiND. ; Spalwakka, Afg. 

Found in the drier parts of India, chiefly in the Sub-Himalayan tract 
from the Indus to the Jhelam, Oudh, Central India, and the Deccan. 

It yields an elastic gum-resin, which is procured by making incisions 
in the plant ; this may be used as a substitute for gutta-percha. The juice 
is used to destroy the offensive smell of fresh leather, and it is used 
medicinally as an external application in the cure of certain cutaneous 
diseases. It was reported to yield an active principle called by Dr. 
Duncan Mudarine, but this has recently been shown to be incorrect. See 


The name "camphor" is technically given to a number of js^um-resins, 
more or less resembling each other, derived from (i) C tnnam omum 
Camphora, Nees,, the well-known Camphor laurel of China and Japan ; 
(2) Dryobalanops Camphora, Colebr,, a gigantic tree of the Malay Ar- 
chipelago ; (3) Blumea balsamifera, DC. : and (4.) Blumea densiflora, DC, 
which see, 


Gums and Resins, 

[ Part I. 

Canarium beng^alense, Roxb. ; Burserace^. 

Vem. — Goguldhupy Nepal; Narockpa, Lepcha; Tekreng, Garo; Bis- 
jangf dhuna. Ass. 

Eastern Himalaya, Bengal, and Burma, 

It yields a brittle, amber-coloured resin, resembling copal. 

C. comtnunei Linn. 

Vem. — Jangli badam, HiND. 

A native of the Malay Peninsula, but generally cultivated in India. 

The concrete resinous exudation Elemi is chiefly imported from 
Manilla. Ainslie says that it has the same properties as Balsam of 

C. strictum, Roxb. 

The Black Dammar Tree. 

Vem. — Kala dammar. Hind., Beng., Guz. ; Karapu kongiliam, karapu 
dammar, Tam.; Manda-dhup, Kan.; Thelli, Mal.; Nala rojan, 

A tall tree of South India. 

Yields a brilliant resin, used medicinally or as a substitute for Burgundy \ 
Pitch. This is obtained by making vertical cuts in the bark and setting \ 
fire to the tree. Two years afterwards the resin is obtained from the 

There are i8 Indian members of this genus, and it is probable that all, 
or nearly all, yield gums, but the preceding are the gums best known. 

Caoutchouc, or India-rubber. 

The following are the principal Indian plants which are known to yield 
this most valuable substance :— 

[24]— I. Alstonia scholaris, K. Br., ApocYNAcSiE. 

A common tree widely cultivated throughout the plains of India, 
and exceedingly useful, as it is highly ornamental. 

[34] — 2. Artocarpus Chaplasha, Roxb., Urticace^. 
A common Burmese tree. 

[87] — ^3. Chonemorpha macrophyllaf G. Don., ApocvNACKiE. 
Met with in East Bengal. 

[8i]_4. Cryptostegia grandiflora, R, Br., Asclbpi adages. 
A common plant of West India. 
[115]— 5. Ficus elastica, BL, URTicACEiE. 

A tree very common in Assam, its western limit being Darjiling. 
It yields the Indian Caoutchouc or true India-rubber. 

[116]— 6. F. lacdfera, Bth. 

Yields India-rubber sparingly and of inferior quality. 

[117]— 7. F. obtusifolia, Roxb. 

Yields an inferior rubber. 






B I 


Part L] 

Economic Products of India. 


[195]— & Pamaeria glandnlifera, Benth., Apocynacba. 

An extensive climber on the borders of the tidal forests of Burma, 

extending to Malacca, Singapore, Andaman Islands, Java and 

Recently this plant has attracted considerable attention as a source 

of India-rubber. 

[2233—9. Urceola eUstica, Roxh,, Apocynacba. 

Yields what is after 5 the best Indian India-rubber, and is to some 
extent being experimentally cultivated. 

[223]— 10. U« etcnlenta, Bth, 

The same as 9, and often used indiscriminately ; wild in Tenasserim. 
[226] — II. WillottghbeUi edulis, Roxb,^ Afocynacba. 

A native of Chittagong ; yields fairly good Caoutchouc. 
[227] -12. W. maitabanica, Willd. 

A native of Tenasserim. 

Of the preceding, 5 is the only truly commercial product; 9 and 10 
have been experimented with, and, with the others, may be utilised in 

The following are the Caoutchouc-yielding plants from other parts of 
the world, well known commercially : — 

1. Castilloa elastica, Urticacb^s. Central American Rubber. 

2. Herea, various species, Euphorbiacba. Thb Para Rubber. 

3* Landolphia, various species, Asclepiadacea. The African Rubber. 
4. Manihot GlaziovH, EuPHORBiACEiC The Ceara Rubber. 

A glance at these lists will show that Caoutchouc is obtained from only 
four natural orders, — Euphcrbiaceae, Urticaceae, Asclepiadaceae, and 
Apocynaceae, — and the arrangement of these orders as given is that of their 
importance in the supply of rubber. 

8z Carapa moluccensis, Lam., Meliaceje. 

Vem. — Poshtir, dhundhul, Beng.; Kandalanga^ Tam. ; Pinle-dn, 

Coast of Bengal, Malabar, Burma, and Ceylon. 
It yields a clear, brown, brittle resin. 

82 Careya arboreai Roxb., Myrtaceje. 

Vera. — Kumbi, MMm^t, Hind. ; Gummar, GovD ; Bokiok, Lepcha i Dam-' 
bel, Garo; Kumbha, Mar.; Ayma, pailapoota'tammi, Tam.; Btidd^ 
durmi, dudippi, Tel.; Gavtdduy Mysore; Banbwe, Burm. 

Found in the Sub-Himalayan tract, from the. Jumna eastward to Ben- 
gal, and Burma, and in Central and South India. 

It yields a brown gum, specimens of which, and further information, 
much required. 

It forms with water a tolerably thick mucilage of a dark-brown colour. 

Gums and Resins. 

[ Part I. 


auriculata, Linn,^ LsGUMmosiE. 
Vcm. — Tarv)ar, Hind., Dec. ; Tangedu, tangar, Tel. ; Avarike, Kan. 
A shrub of Central and South India. 

It is said in Sports' Encyclopcedia to yield a medicinal resin, very 
scarce ; but Dr. Dynnock tells me he has never seen it, although he has 
frequently handled the bark. 

C. Fistula, Linn. 

The Indian Laburnum. 

Syn. — Cathartocarpus Fistula, Pers. 

Vem. — Amaltds, Hind.; Sundali, bandarlaH, Beng.; Kitwdli, kitoli, 

shimarra, sim, varga, N. W. P. ; Alash, karangal, kidr, alt, Pb. ; 

GurmalOf Guz. ; Sandari, Uriya; Raj birij, Nepal; Sonalu, Garo; 

Sunaru, Ass. ; Bandolat, Cachar; Jaggarviah, raila, karachu, C. P. ; 

Bdhavd, Mar. ; Kone, sirikone, koki, Tam. ; Reylu, Tel. ; Ngtishwe, 


Grows in Sub-Himalayan regions and throughout India and Burma. 

The gum yielded is used as an astringent ; said to have been contri- 
buted from Travancore to the Paris Exhibition. It exudes a red juice 
which hardens into gum. This gum is generally called kamarkas : its 
economic uses, if any, are at present unknown to authors on Indian eco- 
nomic science. 

Casuaiina equisetifoliai Forester^ Casuarinacejb. 

The Beefwood of Australia. 

Vcm. — Jooreejur^mujjufn^Snxn,; Chauk, Tam.; Strva, Tel.; Kdsrike, 
Mysore; Aru, Mal.; Ttnyu, Burm. 

Coasts of Chittagong, Burma, the Malay Archipelago, North Australia, 
and Queensland. 

Reported to yield a good resin. 

Cedrela Toona, Roxh., Meliaceje. 

The Toon Tree. 

Vera. — Tun, mahanim, HiND. ; T4ni, i4n, Beng. ; Drawi, Pb. ; Maha limbu, 
Uriva; Poma, Ass.; Tupa^ kudaka. Mar.; Kal kilingi, Nilgiris; 
Tundu, Kan.; Thitkado, Burm. 

Grows in Sub-Himalayan forests, Bengal, Burma, South India, and 


It yields a resinous gum, of which little is known at present. 



Nees von Essenbeck has published an account of some experiments 
with the bark, which indicate the presence in it of a resinous astringent 
matter, a brown astrmgent gum, and a gummy brown extractive matter, 
resembling Ulmiiia. Q)ymocfc,) 





Part I.] 

Economic Products of India. 








Cednis Deodara, Loudon^ CoxiFERiE. 

Deodar ; Hihalatan Cedar. 

WeriL^Didr, deodar, daddr, Kashmir, Garhwal, Ktmaun; Kelu, keoli, 
hilar, Himalayan names; Naihtar, Afg. ; Giam, Tibet. 

Grows in the North-Western Himalaya. 

It yields a true resin, and, by destructive distillation, an oil, dark- 
coloured and resembling tar. Used medicinally. The wood is sold in 
the bazars for medicinal use. 

88 t Cement (Euphorbia Cattiiiandoo). 

Chickrassia tabulaiiSy Adr. /uss., Meliace^. 

Chittagong Wood. 

Vera. — Ckikrassi, Beng. ; Bo^a foma. Ass. ; Papha, Bom. ; Agal, aglay, 
Tam. ; Mcuiagari vembu, Tel. ; Dalmara, Kan. ; ArrodaA, And. ; Yinnta, 


Found in Eastern Bengal, Assam, Chittagong, Burma, and South 

It yields a transparent, amber-coloured gum, said to have been sent 
from Madura to the Indian Museum in 1873. {Spons* Enc) 




Satin Wood. 

Vera. — Bekra, girya, bihri, C. P. ; Mmdmdad, burns, Tam. ; Billu, Tel. ; 
Huragalu, Mysore ; Burute, Cingh. 

Found in Central and South India, and Ceylon. 

It yields a gum and a wood-oil, specimens of which are required. 

Chonemorpha macrophylla, G. Don., Apoctnacea. 

Syn« — Echiytes macrophylla, Roxb, 

Vera. — Gar bardero, HiND. ; Yokchounrik, Lepcha ; Harki, Sylhet. 
A large climber with milky sap, met with in North and East Bengal 
and Burma. 

It yields a kind of Caoutchouc, which see. 

Cinnamomum Camphora, Neesy Lauraceje. 

One of the sources of the Camphor of Commerce. 

Vera. — Kaf^t, Arab., Pers., and Hind. ; Karpur, Beng. ; Kapur, Dec j 
Karuppuram, shudan, Tam., TEh; Payo parank, BvRU, 

A tall tree, with smooth, shining leaves, a native of China and Japan. 

Camphor is a crystalline volatile substance prepared by boiling 
chips of the wood in a retort. The chemical substance passes off with 
the steam and condenses upon straw placed in the summit of the retort 
for that purpose. It is afterwards purified by sublimation and made 
into cakes. 


Gums and Resins, 

[Pari I. 

Citrus Auranttum, Linn., Rutaceue. 

The Orange. 

Vem. — Narangiy narinp. Hind.; Kamla nibuy Bemg.; Suniala; Nepal; 
Kitchlif Tam. ; Kittah, Tel. 

Cultivated in many parts of India, but to a large extent in Sikkim 
and Sylhet. 

Supposed to yield a gum : the yield is very scanty and of no im- 
portance. Sent from Masulipatam to be exhibited in Madras in 1855. 

C. decumana, wnid. 

The Shaddock or Pumelo. 

WertL^Mahd nibu, chakoira. Hind. ; Bdtdvi nebu, Beng.; Papanasa^ BoM.; 
Shouk-fon-oh, Burm. 

Introduced into India from Java; cultivated in most tropical countries. 
Said to yield scantily an unimportant gum. Exhibited in 1855 in 

C. medica, Xm;i. 

The Citron ; Lemon. 

Vem. — Bijaura, Bara nintbu. Hind. ; Begpura, korna nebu^ lebu, nebu, 
Beng.; yambira. Sans. ; Bijapura, Bom. 

Wild in Burma, Chittagong, " Sitakund Hill," Khasia, foot of the 
Himalaya, ascending to 4,000 feet; in the hot valleys of Sikkim, ascending 
to 4,000 feet. 

Said to yield scantily an unimportant gum. Sent from Masulipatam 
to the Madras Exhibition in 1855. 


Coccos nudfera, Linn., Vxlum. 

The Cocoa-nut Palm. 

Venu — Narel, Hind. ; fTarikel, Beng. ; TentWy tenga, Tam. ; Narika- 
dam, Tel. ; Pol, Cingh. ; Ong, Burm. 

The stem of this well-known tree is in Tahiti said to yield gum. It 
forms large stalactitic masses, red-brown, translucent or transparent. 
(Spans' Encycl.) It would be exceedingly interesting to learn if this gum 
is known to the natives of India. 

Cochlospermum Gos^pium, DC, BixiNEiE. 

Vera. — K^mbi, gabdiy golgal, HiND.; (the gum) Kathalya gond. Bom. ; 
Gtingti, Tel. ; Tanakn, Tam. 
Grows in forests at the base of the North-Western Himalaya, from the 
Sutlej eastward, in Central India, Deccan,. and Prome district, Burma ; 
commonly planted near temples. 

It yields a clear white gum (Katira), which, according to Baden- 
Powell, is used in shoe-making. It may be used as a substitute for gum 
iragacanth. There is very little demand for gums of these classes, 








Part I. ] 

Economic Products of India. 



ConyolTulus Scammoniai Linn., Convolvulaceje. 

Vera. — Sdk muniya. Hind. 
A j^m-resin imported through Bombay from Europe by European 
druggists. It is obtained by incision from the living root. It occurs in 
irregular pieces of an ash-grey colour and rough exterior. When broken, 
it presents a resinous surface, and of a shining black colour when dry. 
It has a cheesy odour and flavour. The bazar Scammony in Bombay^ 
Dr. Dymock tells me, is all false, and is made at Surat. 

99 Copal Gum, or Gum Animi. 

A hard, transparent substance, resembling Amber, found as a natural 
exudation from certain trees. This substance is chiefly obtained from 
Zanzibar, the produce of Trachilobium Hornemannianum, Hoyne, Legu- 
MiNOSA. It IS yielded by the trees at the present day, but the commercial 
substance may be said to be a half-petrifiea condition. This is known as 
Fossil Copal, and is regarded commercially as much superior to that ob- 
tained from living trees. It occurs in immense masses, found buried in the 
sand, far away from any living trees, and chiefly in the coast sands. There 
are other Copals sometimes met with. Brazilian Copal is obtained from 
Hymenaea Courbaril. Madagascar Copal from Trachylobivm verrucosa. 
West African Copal is furnished by Guibonrtia Copailifera, and Indian 
Copal from Vateria indlca, which see. The Australian and New Zealand 
Copal is the produce of Dainmara australis (Coniferae). It forms large 
solid masses, mten found in places where the trees are not now found, and 
in New Zealand is known as Kawri. There is a specimen in the Bengal 
Economic Museum of this gum. 

zoo Cordia Rothiii I^&m. ^ Sch., Boragineje. 

Vcm. — Gondi, gondni. Hind.; Lidr, Sind; Gondani, Mar.; Narvilli, Tam. 
Grows in the dry zones of North-West and South India. 
The bark, when wounded, yields a gum, prepared at Coimbatore. 

zoi Cryptostegia gjandiflorai R. Br,, Asclepiadacea. 

A common plant of West India, said to yield an inferior quality of 

102 Cupressus torulosai Don,, Coniferje. 

Himalayan Cypress. 
Vem. — Devi'didr, Ravi; Gulla, Simla; Sarni, Tibet. 
The wood yields a resin, and is often burnt as incense. 


Gums and Resins. 

[ Part I. 

Cycas Rumphii, Miq,, Ctcadacsjb. 

Vem. — Mondaing, BuRM. 
An evergreen palm- like tree frequent in the beach forests of the sea- 
coast of South Tenasserim and the Andaman s. 

Exudes a good sort of resin used medicinally. {Kure.) 

C. siamensis, Miq. 

An evergreen, low, stemless, palm-like tree frequent in the Eng and 
dry forests of the Prome district. 

Exudes a peculiar whitish gum like tragacanth. (Kure.) 

Dalberg:ia cultrata, Grah. 

Vem. — Yindaik, Burm. 
A tree of Burma. 
Exudes a red resin. {Kurz,) 

D. paniculata, Roxb,, LEGUMiNosiE. 

Vem. — Dhobein, Hind. ; Katsirsa, OuDH ; Past or phasi. Mar.; Paichalai, 
Tam.; Potrum, Tel. ; Tapoukben, Burm. 

Grows in the North- Western Himalaya, from the Jumna to Oudh^ 
Central and South India. 
The tree yields a gum. 

Dammar Gum. 

A name given to a group of gums of which the most characteristic 
may be said to be Dammara orientalis, a native of the Moluccas; 
D. AustraUs, a native of New Zealand; Indian Dammar is the commercial 
name tor the gum of Shorea robusta (which see) ; Black Dammar is the 
gum of Canarium strictum (which see), and also of Poon-yet (which see), 
and Rock Dammar is the commercial name for the gum of Hopea odorota 
(which see). 

Dammara alba, Rumph,, Coniferjb. 

It is met with in the Moluccas. 

Yields the resin called Dammar, which should be distinguished from 
-Kala Dammar or Poon-yet. There are various species belonging to this 
genus, which yield the true Commercial Dammar, but none are natives 
of India. 


A chemical substance present in most grains, having the formu- 
la Cij H,0 OiQ. Wheat contains 4'5; wheat-bran, 5*52; barley, 6*55 ; rye- 
bran, 7*79; malt, 8*23. In commerce the term is applied to the substance 
artificially produced by the transformation of starch. It is largely used 
in calico-printing, paper-glazing, gumming envelopes and postage stamps. 










Part I. ] 

Economic Products of India. 







Dichopsis elliptica, Benth.^ Safotaceje. 

Sjn. — Bassia elliptica, DaU,; Isonandra Acuminata. {Drur^s Useful 

Vera. — PaunckoH pala, T am. ; Panckonta, Kan. 

A large tree of the Western Ghats, extending from Bombay to Kanara^ 
and ascending to an ahitude of 4,000 feet. 

This is the tree which yields the Indian Gutta-percha, a substance which 
has attained a certain amount of popularity as an adulterant for Singapore 
Gutta. It is stated that as much as 20 to 30 per cent, may be used with- 
out its characteristic properties being destroyed. To General Cullen must 
be attributed the honour of having brought this substance prominently before 
the public, recommending, amongst many other uses, its adaptability as a 
cement. Balfour describes the g^m as obtained by tapping the trees — 
a process quite different from that resorted to in the Malay Peninsula. 

D. Gutta, B/k. & Hook,/. 

Indigenous in Singapore and the Malay Archipelago. It formerly 
existed in abundance in the southern part of the Malay Peninsula; it 
extends to Sumatra, Borneo, and probably the other islands of the Malay 
Archipelago. (Kew Report, 1881.) 

Yields the "Gutta-percha" of commerce, exported to Europe from 
Singapore and the Malay Archipelago. See Gutta-perduu 

D. obovata, Clarke. 

Syn. — Isonandra obovata. Griff. 
An evergreen tree extending from Tenasserim to Malacca and 

Kurz says it yields a fair sort of Gutta-percha. 

D. polirantha, Ben/h. 

Syn. — Isonandra polyantha, Kur». 
Vera. — Tali, Bbng. ; Sill-kurta, Cachar. 
A tree 30 to 40 feet in height, occurring in Sylhet, Chittagong, and 

Kurz says it produces a good quality of Gutta-percha in large quan- 
tities, probably not inferior to that of Smgapore. The flowers are eaten. 

ZZ4 Dichrostachys cinerea, W. & A, LsGUMiNosiE. 

Vera. — Vurtuli, Hind. ; Vadatalla, Tam. ; Velturn, Tel.; Andara, Cingh. 
Grows on dry, stony hills in South and Central India, and in Raj pu tana. 

115 Diosp3rros Embryopteris, Pers., EBENACEiE. 

Vera.— Grt*, makur-kendi, Beng., Hind.; Kendu, Ass.; Tembumi, 
Mar.; Tumbika, Tau. ;Tumil, tumika, Tel. ; Timber ee, Cihgh. 

Found throughout India and Burma, except the arid and dry zones in 

the Punjab and Sind. 


Gums and Resins, 

[ Part I. 

The fruit yields a gum, used in book-binding, and as a substitute for tar 
to make boats water-proof. It is a dark-brown, rather earthy-looking 
resin, with a bright fracture. It should be determined whether the resin 
can be obtained from the bark of the tree as well as from* the rind of the 

" The extract of the fruit is of the colour and consistence of shell-lac." 

Diosp3rros melanoaylon, Roxb, 

Vern. — Tendu, kendu. Hind. ; Kend, Beng. ; Tumbi, Tam. ; Tumi, Tel.; 
Balai, Kan. 

Found throughout India^ but not in Burma. 

Dipterocarpus alatus, Roxh., Dipterocarpeje. 

Vera. — Garjan, Beng*; Kanyin, Burm. 

Chittagong, Burma, and Andaman Islands. 
It yields a wood-oil and a dirty-brown resin. 

D. incanus, Roxh. 


It yields a wood-oil or balsam. 

D. tevis, ffam, 

Syn. — Placed under D. Turbinatus, Gaertn., in FL Br. Ind. 
Vcm. — Kanyin, BuBM. 

Found in the tropical forests throughout Burma. 
It yields a resin and a large quantity of wood-oiJ. 

D. tuberculatuSy Roxb, 

The Eng. 
Vera. — In, BuRM. ; Sooahn, Talking. 
Chittagong and Burma. 
It yields no wood-oil, but exudes a clear yellow resin. {Kure.) 

D. turbinatus, Gaertn. /. 

The Garjan -oil Tree. 

Syn.— D. L-«vis, Ham., in part as in Fl. Br, Ind, 

Vera. — Garjan, Beng.; Kanyinni, Burm. 

Found in Eastern Bengal, Chittagong, Burma, and the Andaman 

It yields a wood-oil or balsam used in painting houses and ships, 

D. zeylanlcus, Thwaites. 

Vexn^—Hord, Cingh. 

A large tree met with in Ceylon up to altitude 3,000 feet. It gives a 
wood-oil and gum-resin. {Gamble.) 










Part L] 

Economic Products of India. 



Doona zqrlanicai Thwaiiesy Dipterocarpejb. 

VeriL — Doon, CiNGH. 

Central provinces of Ceylon. 

It yields a large quantity of colourless gum-resin, which, dissolved in 
spirits of wine or turpentine, makes an excellent varnish. Specimens of this 
gum^ as well as of the varnish^ much required; also further information. 

124. Dorema ammoniacum, Don., Umbelliferjb. 

Vera. — Ushak, Pbrs. 

A native of Persia^ particularly of the provinces of Farsistan^ Irak, and 

This plant yields (a part at any rate of) the gum-resin imported into 
India under the name of Ammoniacum. It is used as a stimulant, and 
a mild expectorant; also externally. It occurs in tears and masses, 
the tears being from two to eight lines in diameter, of a pale, cinnamon- 
brown colour, breaking into an opaque, shining, white surface, with faint 
odour, and bitter, nauseous taste. It forms a milky solution when mixed 
with water. It easily softens with heat, and burns with a disagreeable, 
pungent odour. 

"The roots (Boi) are imported into Bombay and are used as incense by 
the Parsfs. They are the false or Indian Sumbal of European commerce. 

1^5 Dxyobalanops Camphorai CoUhr., Dipterocarpks. 

Baras Camphor. 

Vera. — Bhimseni'kapur, BoM. 

A tree of Sumatra. 

Yields Borneo camphor. 

An oil also exudes through its fissures and cavities, and is carefully 
collected. Dr. Dymock informs me that camphor is used as incense by 
the Jains in Bombay. 


126 Dyera costulata, Hook,/,, Apocynace-k. 

127 D. lasiflora. Hook. /. 

Sir J. D. Hooker, in the Linncean Society* s journal, Vol. X/X, p. 2gSf 
gives a brief history of these plants, while founding the new genus to 
which they are referred, a genus named in honour of Professor Dyer, the 
Assistant Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 

D. costulata was first collected by Griffith in Malacca, and has since 
been re-collected both in Malacca and in Sumatra. D. lasiflora seems 
confined to Singapore, 

These interesting trees have been shown to be the source of tJtiegutta* 
jelutong of commerce. 


Gums and Resins, 

[ Part L 

Eteagnus hortensiSi M. Bieh., Eueagneje. 

Veai»—Shimk, N. W. P.; SanHj, Afg. ; Sirshing, Tibet. 
A small tree of Ladak^ Baltistan, and Afghanistan. 
The fruit is eaten and a spirit distilled from it in Yarkand. 
transparent gum. 


It yields a 

Elaeodendron glaucunii Pers,, Celastrineje. 

Syn. — E. RoxBURGHii, W, & A.; E. PANicuLATUM, W, & A. ; Neerija 
DICHOTOMA, Roxb, in Fl. Ind, 

Vem. — Mirandutjanwa,PE,; Bakra, skaunriya, chauli, daberi, mdmri, 
N. W. p.; Bhutdpdld, Mar.; Karkava, Tam,; Nirij a, Tel, ; Nerrelu, 


Grows in the Sub- Himalayan tract, from the Ravi eastward, Central 
and South India. 

It is supposed to yield the gum called yumrasi. It occurs in roundish 
tears about f inch in diameter, rough or cracked on the surface. Taste- 
less, forming a sherry-coloured solution. 

Elemi Gum. 

There is considerable doubt as to the plant or plants from which this 
substance is obtained. It seems to be a member of the Burseraceae. It is 
generally supposed to be a species of Idea or of Amyris or of Canarium. 
(It should not be confounded with Animi, for which see Copal.) 

Eriodendron anfractuosum, DC, Malvaceje. 

Syn. — BoMBAX pentandrum, Roxb. 

Ytnii^HaHan, senibal, kuntan. Hind, j Shwet-simiU, Beng. j SaphS" 
tasavara^ Mar. ; Elavamaram, Tam. ; Pur, Tel. 
A large tree, common on the Coromandel Coast. 

It yields a black and opaque gum, known as Hatian^ke-gond, sent 
from Madras to the Punjab Exhibition. 

Erythrina indica. Lam,, Leguminosje. 

The Indian Coral Tree. 

Vera. — PangrUf panjira. Hind. ; Palita mandar, Beng. ; Pdngdrd, Mar. ; 
Murukd, Tam.; Modugu, Tel.; PinUkaihitt Bukm. 

Cultivated throughout India and Burma; wild in Oudh, Bengal, 
South India, and Burma. 

It yields a dark-brown gum of little importance. 

Eucalyptus Globulus, Labill., Myrtacea. 

Vera. — Kurpoora mar am, Tam. 

The blue gum tree of Tasmania; introduced into India and cultivated 
in Madras, especially on the Nilgiris. 









Part I. ] 

Economic Products of India. 







Eugenia caryophyllaca, Wight, and E. Jambolana, Lam,, 


Vem. — Jdmafif Hind. ; Jamy Beng. 
Both are said to yield a gum, somewhat resembling Kino, 

Euphorbia antiquonim, Linn,, Euphorbiaceje. 

Vera. — Tidhara, Hikd. ; Tekata sij\ Beng.; Shidu, Mechi ; Dalak, 
CingH. ; ShasaungPyathat, BuRM. 

A bush with three-angled branches and stems, found on the arid hills 
above Coimbatore, and on the lower dry slopes of the Himalaya from 
Kashmir eastward. 

It yields a milky juice, used as a medicine, and regarded as a 
powerful cathartic. This is the resinous substance known in Europe as 
ISuphcMbitim ; it is prepared by boiling down the fresh milky juice. The 
true or original £npaorbiiiin is the gum of E. resiiiifera, supplied to 
Europe from Morocco andBarbary. It is chiefly used in the preparation 
of the anti-corrosive paint used for the bottom of ships. It closely resembles 
gutta-percha ; it is partially soluble in oil, and may be applied to steam 
joints mstead of red-lead. The gutta-percha-like substance has been called 
Catimando {Baden' Powell). This gummy substance is the. Doof of the 
Hindus, a much-prized medicine. 

E. CattimandoOy Elliot. 

Vera. — Katti mandu, Tel. 

A small tree with five-angled stems. 

The milk yields the true Cattimandu used as a cement; common in 
Vizagapatam district. This contains sufficient caoutchouc to make it a 
profitable enough source of supply. 

" Fluckiger has obtained from this plant, as also from E. Tirucalli, 
EiTPHORBON, the active principle of the officinal Euphoibium, and it is 
probable that most of the Indian species will yield a gum of the same 
properties as commercial Euphorbluai." {Dr, Dymock.) 

E. neriifolia, Linn. 

Syn. — E. Ligullaria, Roxb. 

Vera. — Mansa sijt Beng.; GangichUf Pb. ; Nivadungay mingut. Mar.; 
ThohuTf SiND ; Shasaung, BURM. 

A small tree with spirally twisted stem, cultivated near villages 
throughout India, and in some parts of the country regarded as sacred. 

The milk is used in native medicine like the preceding ; it yields a gum 
or gutta-percha-like substance on boiling. 

E. pulcherrimai Wilid. 


Cultivated in gardens on account of its crimson floral leaves, which 
appear about Christmas. 

It yields freely a milky sap, which hardens into a black gum, or 
may be boiled down to a sort of gutta-percha. 

Specimens of the gums, gutta-perchas, or caoutchoucs of the Indian 
Euphorbias are much required, as also information as to their preparation 
and uses. 


Gums and Resins, 

[ Part L 

Euphorbia resinifera. See No. zzj, and under Gutta-percha. 
E. Tirucalliy Linn, 

Wem.-^'Sehund, HiND. ; Lanka sij, Beng. ; Tiru kalli, Mal. j Shasoung 
leknyOf Burm. 

A small tree without round stem. The wood is strong and used for 
veneering and toys. The milk is acrid ; twigs thrown into water intoxicate 
fish. Dr. Riddelly writing of this plant, says the tnilk when it " hardens 
after boiling becomes brittle; whilst warm it is as ductile" as mudar 
gutta-percha. The juice is, however, very diflficult to deal with, as it 
causes excruciating pain if it gets into a cut in the skin or into the eye. 
On this account it is said to be used criminally to destroy the eyes of 
certain domesticated animals. 

Excaecaria Agallocha, Willd., EupHORBucEiE. 

Vcrn. — Gangwa, ge&r, goria, Beng.; Tayan, ka-yan, Burm. 

A small evergreen tree of the tidal shores of Bengal, Burma, and the 
Andaman Islands. 

Wood contains a poisonous sap, which causes the eyes of men engaged 
in hewing down the trees to become swollen. It hardens into a black 
caoutchouc-like substance. 

Feronia Elephantum, Oorrea, RuxACEiE. 

The Wood-apple. 

VertL-^Bilin, kat'bel,HiHD,; Kath'bel, Beug,; Kavatha^ Mar.; Katoree* 
SiND; Vallanga, Tam.; Velagd, Tel. ; Hman, ma-han,BuRM, 

Found in the Sub-Himalayan forests from the Ravi eastward, in 
Bengal, South India, and the Chanda district of the Central Provinces. 

It yields a brownish or reddish, with a small proportion of clear yellow, 
gum soluble in water ; said to have been sent from Madras to the Pun- 
jab Exhibition. Ainslie says that it is used by dyers and painters, par- 
ticularly miniature and chintz painters. It is also employed in making 
ink and varnish, and by brick-layers in preparing certain cements and 
plasters. It occurs in irregular tears, semi-transparent or brownish. The 
Pharmacopoeia of India pronounces it as superior to gum-arabic for 
medicinal purposes. 

" It forms a stronger mucilage than gum-arabic, but is not identical with 
it. It is precipitated by acetate of lead." (Dymock.) 

Ferula alliaceai Boiss., Umbellifeej;. 

Syn. — F. ? PERsicA, Willd. 

Wem.—Hing, Bom. and Hind.; Hingu, Sans.; Anjuddn, Kashmir; 
Kyam, perungayam, Tam. The names of this plant are used also for 
any of the following Asafoetida-yielding species. 
Dymock, in his Mat. Med, of Western India, reports that this plant 
supplies the Asafcetida which is most used by the natives of India, and in 
which a large trade is done in Bombay. It is a solid brown gum, con- 
tained in skins mixed with impurities and certain portions of the plant. 







Part I. ] 

Economic Products of India. 





Thetfaick) fleshy roots of the Asafoetida^yielding plants are cut or scratch- 
ed» when a milky juice exudes. This hardening forms the foetidly- 
scented eum-resin. By Eastern doctors this has, from the remotest times, 
been held in ereat esteem, and was once regarded as worth its weight in 
silver. In England its use as a medicine has of late years greatly dimi- 
nished, although it is still much used in other countries of Europe. 



GaLBANUM (which sec). 
Vern. — Jawashir, khassuch, gaoshir, bireeB, Pbrs. 

The names Bar gad, kuineh, Arab., and Bireja or Ganda'biroBa, HiND-» 
are sometimes applied to this gum, but more frequently to the gum of 

Cedrus Deodanu 

A native of Persia from which the gum is imported into Bombay and 
re-exported to Egypt and Turkey as yaviashir. It is not used in India. 

Tne ^awashir, as met with in India, is not dry agglutinated tears, but 
is a yellow or greenish fluid, generally mixed with stems, flowers, and fruits 
of the plant. It has an odour between that of Levant Galbanum and 

The ancient Hindu physicians were unacquainted with this substance, 
and the names more recently given for it are those referred to above as 
the vernaculars for Cedar gum. It seems quite clear that the Persian 
jfawashir was not identified with the Galbanum of the Greeks, although in 
Mahomedan works on medicine, Galbanum is by name repeatedly refer- 
red, the synonyms used being Barsad and Kinnen, This may be account- 
ed for by the fact that in olden days the Persian Jawashir may not 
have been imported into Bombay. Our steam-ships have, in many other 
instances, destroyed old-established routes of exportation, and, deflecting 
them into new and more convenient channels, have produced many curious 
instances of importation and re-exportation. {Dymock: Pharmacogra' 
phia, &c.) 

F. Jaeschkiana, Vatke. 

The Flora of British India remarks on this species : " Regel 
Schmalh thinks that this plant probably produces the Asafoetida of com- 
merce; this may be so, as it is an abundant species in Kashmir and very 
abundantly supplied with oil ; but it is not the Asafcetida of Linnaeus. 
It is probable that the gum-resin referred to as F. Naithex in India may be 
largely the produce of this species. 

Yields a gum-resin, which, Aitchison says, is applied to wounds and 
bruises by the inhabitants of Kurum valley. 

F^ Narthex, Bom., Fl. Orient. 

Generally supposed to be the Asapcetida of Commerce. 

Syn* — Narthex Asafcetida, Falc. in Trans. Linn. Soc. XX, 28s* 
Vera. — Hingra, Bom. ; AnghuBeh-44ari, Pers. 

Afghanistan, also imported into India from Persia. 

The Flora of British India, speaking of this species, remarks : ** This 
is certainly not Ferula Asafcetida, Boiss., I, c, which is Scorodosma fceti- 
dvniy Bunge. Whether it is F. Asafcetida, Linn,, is a doubtful point." 
Dr. Dymock tells me that from specimens received he believes Scorodos- 
ma fcetiduiB, Bunge, to be the source of Afghan Asafcetida. ScorodosiBa 
foetidum is said to yield the Caspian Asafcetida. Indian Asafoetida 
or hingra is chiefly imported from Afghanistan. While it seems doubt- 
ful as to the actual source of this substance, the true Asafcetida of Europe, 
it is probable the natives of India would not regard it as such ; the gura- 
resin of F. alliacea is held in much greater esteem. 


Gums and Resins, 

[Part I. 

The gum-resin occurs in irregfular masses, opaque, white wherTbroken, 
and ultimately becoming brownish-pink. Sometimes met with in India in 
the form of a ferruginous powder. 

It occurs also in tears, or flat pieces, or " stone *' formed by mixing 
with sand. It is recognised by its bitter, acrid taste, and by its foetid 
odour. It is used in medicine. 

Ficus bengalensiSy Linn., URxicACEiE. 

The Banyan Tree. 
Syn. — F. Indica, Roxb, 

Vera. — BoTf bar, her, bar gat. Hind.; Bur, 6m/, Beng.; ^^jrar, Nepal; 
Kangjiy Lepcha ; Banket, Garo ; Bot, Ass. ; Baru, Uriya ; Ala, Tam. ; 
Mart, peddi-fnari, Tel. ; Ahlada, Kan.; War, vada. Mar. ; Panyaung, 


A large tree, wild in the East Himalayan tracts, planted throughout 

It yields an inferior caoutchouc ; by the natives made into bird-lime. 

F. elastica^ Bi. 

The Indu-rubber Tree. 

Vera. — Bar, attah bar, Beng., Ass.; Kagiri, Khasia; Lesu, Nepal; 
Nyaungbawdi, Burm. 

North-Eastem Himalayas, eastward to Assam, and Arracan. Govern- 
ment has a large plantation of it in Assam. 

The tree yields the India-rubber of Indian commerce. See Caoutchouc* 

F. lacdferaj Roxb. 

Vem.—Yokdung, Lepcha ; Prab, phegran, Garo ; Bur, Ass. ; Nyaunggyat, 

An epiphytic tree of North-East Himalaya, East Bengal, Burma, and 
South India. 

It yields an inferior form of caoutchouc. {Gamble.) 

F. obtusifoliaj Rox5. 

Vera. — Krapchi, Mechi; Date, Magh.; Nyoung-kyap, Burm. 

A small-leaved, epiphytic tree of North and East Bengal and Burma. 
Yields a good form of caoutchouc. {Gamble.) 

F. re^giossLf Linn. 

The Peepul. 

Vcnu—Pipal, Hind.; Aswat, Bbno.; Arasa, Tam.; Rdi, Tel. 

Wild in the Sub-Himalayan tract, Bengal, and Central India. 
The barkyields a tenacious milky juice, which hardens into a substance 
resembling Grutta-percha. {Gamble.) 

Frankincense. '5'^^ Bosweiiia flonbunda. 









Part I. ] 

Economic Products of India. 










Galbanum of the Greeks. 

A gum obtained from Persia, sparingly met with in Upper India. 
Considerable doubt still exists as to the plant or plants from which this 
substance is derived, but it is generally supposed to be from Ferula 
Galbaniflna, the Khassuch of the Persians, and from F. rubricaulis. The 
former is said to be gathered by the inhabitantsof the district of Dema^ 
vend, and the latter oy the inhabitants of Hamadan. Dymock adds, 
however, further information on this point. He says : " Persian brokers in 
Bombay state that the Galbanum plant is very abundant between Shiraz 
and Kirman, and there would seem to be no reason to doubt that this 
market (Bombay) is supplied from that district." 

"The Galbanum of European commerce is an entirely different drug, 
and is known as Levant Galbanum." {Dymock,) 

Gambog^e* See the various species of Garciniay Guttifera. 

Garcinia Cambog^ia, Desrouss,, Guttifeils. 

Venu^Aradal, Kan. ; Heela, Burghers {Nilgiri Hills), 

West Coast and Ceylon. 

This tree yields a yellow gum, insoluble in water, but soluble in spirits. 
It is, therefore, likely to prove useful as a varnish, but not as a pigment. 

G. cornea, Linn, 

East Bengal and Burma. 

It yields an inferior kind of Gamboge. 

G. Cowa, Roxb. 

Vera.— GwDfl, Hind, j TaungthaU, Burm. 
East Bengal, Assam, Chittagong, Burma, and the Andaman Islands. 
It is said to yield a kind of Gamboge of a somewhat paler colour than 
that produced by G. Morella. {Gamble.) 

G. eugenisfolia, Wall, 

Eastern Peninsula, Singapore, Malacca. {Griffith,) 
Heifer says that the stem exudes a green varnish; and, GrifTith, that 
the juice of the fruit is milky. 

G« heterandra, Wall, 

Vcm. — Thanat-taw, BuRM. 
Hills of Burma up to 3,000 feet. 
It yields a superior kind of Gamboge. (Kure,) 

G. loniceroides, T,And. 

Swamp forests in Pegu. 

It yields a small quantity of inferior Gamboge. 

G. Mangostana, Zm». 

The Mangosteen. 
A specimen of this gum was sent to the London Exhibition of 1862 
from Malacca, O'Shaughnessy says that the gum is obtained from 
the rind as well as from the bark. The rind is a popular remedy for 
diarrhoea and dysentery. 


Gums and Resins, 

[ Part I 

Gardnia Morella, Desrouss. 

The Gamboge Tree. 

Syn. — G. PiCTORiA, Bedd,, the form met with on the Malabar and Canara, 
Mysore and the Western Coast. 

Vera. — Aradal, punar4 puli, Kan.; Gokai4, Cisgh. ; Makki,TAM. 

Forests of the Khiisia Hills, East Bengal, and the west coast of 

The tree produces the true Gamboge, which is used in medicine, 
and in the arts as a paint. The chief trade supply is obtained from 
Siam in the form of cylindrical pieces or sticks mto which it has been 
melted. In Ceylon, Gamble says, it is collected by cutting off thin 
slices of the bark, about the size of the hand. Upon the exposed surface 
the gum collects, and is scraped off when sufficiently dried. Dymock 
says : " There would seem to be no doubt the Gamboge has never been 
collected in India as an article of commerce, and that it is only from a com- 
paratively recent date that the drug has been known in this country. 
The Ussarah'i-Rewand of Arabic and Persian books is, probably speaking, 
an extract of Rhubarb." The name has now been given to Gamboge also. 



G. stipulata, 71 And. 

Vera. — Sana-kadan, Lkpcha. 
Sikkim and Bhutan, up to 4,000 feet. 

The tree and fruit yield a yellow gum, which does not seem to be 
used, (Gamble.) 

G. travancorica, Beddome. 

Vera. — MalampongUy Tinnevelly. 
Forests of Travancore and Tinnevelly. 

Every portion of the tree yields an abundance of bright yellow 
Gamboge. (Beddome^ 

G. Wightii, T. And. 

South India. 

The Gamboge of this species is very soluble and yields a good 
pigment. (Z?n T. Anderson,) 

G. xanthochymus, Hook./. 

Syn. — Xanthochymus pictorius, Roxb. 

Vem.^Dampel, Hind. ; Tepar, Ass. ; Jhdrdmbi, Mahr.; Mataw, Burm. 
East Himalaya, East Bengal, Burma, South India. 
« It yields a large quantity of indifferent Gamboge." (Roxburgh.) 





Gardenia coronaria^ Ham. 

Vem.^Yeng'khat, Burm. 
A tree met with all over Burma from Chittagong, Pegu, and Martaban 
down to Tenasserim. 
Yields a yellow wax. 

c I 35 


Part I.] 

Economic Products of India. 









Gardenia s^mmifera, Linn. /, Rubiacea. 

Vera. — DSkdmdlij kamarri, HiNO., Guz. ; Chitta matta, gag^aru, Tei., i 
Ckitta, kambit Kan. 

A large shrub of Central and South India. 

It yields a yellow gum-resin. Ainslie calls this Chumbtpisim, The 
resin occurs in the form of earthy-looking masses of a dull olive-green 
colour. The odour is peculiar and offensive . 

G. lucida, I^oxb, 

Vera. — Diidmdli, Hind., Guz. ; Kumbi, Tam. ; Karinga, Tel. 

Found in Central and South India, and Chittagong. 

The gum is hard, opaque, yellow, greenish or brown, with a strong 
smell, and is used in the treatment of cutaneous disease, and to keep off 
flies and worms. {Gamble) 

G. obtusifolia, Roxb. 

WtXtL^Yingat, BuRM. 

A small, deciduous tree of Burma. 
It yields a yellow, pellucid resin. 

Ganiga pinnata, Roxh.j Burseraceje. 

Vera. — Ghogar, Hind.; 7um, Beng.; Kharpat, Pb.; Koordk, Bom.; 
Karre vembu, Tam. ; Chiny6p, Burm. 

Grows in the Sub- Himalayan forest from the Jumna eastward. 
Central and South India, Chittagong, and Burma. 

The clear, greenish-yellow exudation of this tree, called curvambu 
(exhibit^ in Madras in 1855), contains a small proportion of resin and 
some oil ; it has a terebinthiaceous odour and taste. 

Gluta travancorica, Beddome, Anacardiaceje. 

GossypiuiQ herbaceunii Linn,^ MALVACEiE. 

The Common Indian Cotton. 
A small specimen was exhibited in Madras in 1855. 
This may be a mistake for G. arboreum, if not for Bombaz mala- 


Additional information and specimens would be very interesting. 

Grevillea robusta, Kunn.^ Proteaces. 

The Silk Oak. 

A native of Australia ; grows well in India; a fine avenue. may be seen 
in the Calcutta Botanic Gardens running toward the great Banyan tree. 
Yields a gum, like Moiinga, of a vinous-red colour. 


Balsam or Wood-oil. 

This valuable substance is the produce of several Burmese trees, of 
which Dipterocarpus laevis and D. tnrbinatus are the most important, 
which see. 


Gums and Resins. 

[ Part L 


A commercial term for the inspissated milky sap of several plants, of 
which nearly all (or at least all the important ones) belong to the natural 
order Sapotaceae. The word gutta-percha is of Malayan origin ; it signi- 
fies the gum or gutta of the tree known as percha. The gutta-percha of 
commerce is, however, chiefly the gutta-taban or Dichop^s Gutta, a tree of 
Perak. As it reaches the market, however, this is largely adulterated, 
.often consisting of the inspissated saps of some five or six different plants 
mixed together, of which a fig and bread fruit tree, yielding inferior India- 
rubber, are most probably the largest adulterants. Gutta-percha seems 
to have come into the notice of Europe in the year 184.5 (from the Straits), 
its important uses soon causing an immense demand. It is principally 
used in coating telegraphic cables, it being a perfect insulator, while of 
such a nature as to withstand, in a remarkable degree, the action of water. 
It is in fact much more durable when entirely submerged than when 
exposed to a moist atmosphere. About 10 years have been stated to be 
the period it will withstand the variations of climate in the air ; 20 years 
if enclosed in iron tubes ; but 20 years, when it has been submerged, have 
no appreciable effect upon the article. This is due to the fact that under 
the mfluence of light and air it slowly becomes oxidised, being converted 
into a brittle resin soluble in hot alcohol. This is the great defect of 
Gutta-percha, for, when oxidised, it loses its plastic nature. Under water 
and at great depths in the sea, it is, however, very durable, hence its value 
as an insulator for submarine cables. Chemically, gutta-percha is almost 
identical with India-rubber, but it differs physically, being tough and 

Since the date Gutta-percha was made known to Europe, perhaps no 
substance has developed more rapidly, and, with India-rubber, its uses 
may be said to be so many and so important as to make it perfectly indis- 
pensable to commerce. 

The immense demand has caused an extended enquiry all over the 
globe with the view of expanding the field of supply or discovering sub- 
stitutes in sufficient abundance likely to meet the demand without 
endangering the extermination of the supply of plants. As far as Gutta- 
percha is at present concerned, there cannot be a doubt but that a few 
years more will suffice to eradicate the supply from the Straits Settlements. 
This prospect is an alarming one, and one in which not only the Colonial 
Government should take the most decided steps within its power, but one 
which should excite a reaction in India. There does not seem to be the 
slightest reason why our tidal forests should not, to a large extent, be made 
to meet the demand. There cannot be a doubt but that the true Gutta- 
percha plant would thrive in many of our almost wasted forest tracts were 
It to be experimentally introduced. 

Dr. Dennys, in a report submitted to the Straits Government, urges the 
absolute necessity of Government taking over the responsibility of pre- 
serving and renovating the Gutta-percha forests. He calculates that by 
planting the waste lands in Singapore, in about 20 years 100,000 trees of 
the true Gutta-percha plant would yield $450,000. There seems every 
reason to hope that if simply planted with other trees in our sub-tropical 
forests on the low hills near tne sea an enormous revenue might in the 
future be obtained without any cost of cultivation whatever more than the 
mere ordinary conservancy charges which are being incurred in any case. 
The question of Gutta-percha supply is quite independent from that of 
India-rubber. When about 20 years old the trees are cut down and 
ringed in spaces a foot wide and 15 to 18 inches apart. The upper end 
of the tree is cut off, as this is said to cause' bleeding more freely. Buckets 




Part I. ] 

Economic Products of India. 


are placed bdow the ringed portions to coOect the sap. This is carried 
away and boOed until it solidifies ; in some cases water and salt are 
added to assist solidification. Thus when mature the Gutta-percha tree is 
»mply fdled, cultivation being relieved of the delicate process of sucking 
the sap from a living tree (an operation exceedingly difficult and expensive 
with India-rubber), and resolving itself consequently into a systematic 
plantation in which so many trees 'are annually renewed. If the coast 
hills of India are dimaticaUy suited to the Gutta-percha tree, there would 
therefore seem every reason to expect a rich return were Government to 
request the Forest Department to plant out so many trees per annum in 
such forests as may be found suitable for this purpose. 

Another interesting feature which the increasing demand for Gutta- 
percha must solve is the possibility oi (in a simple way) transforming the 
milky sap of some of the numerous wild-plants of In<lia so as to render 
these serviceable as gutta substitutes. In the following enumeration of 
the Gutta-^>ercha-vidding plants will be found a few on which it would seem 
highly desirable that systematic experiments should be performed with this 
object. If it could be possible to utilise the milk-sap A many of our wild 
EqrfuMtias or of CaMropis giganlea, an immense increased source of 
wealth would be thereby brought to light. 

[24}— I. Abtoofai tdiolariSy R* Br,^ Apoctmacsa 
Vera* — Satidn^ taiwm. Hind; Chaiwan, Beno. 

A tall, handsome, evergreen tre^ common on the Sub-Himalayan tract, 
from the Jumna eastward, ascending to 3,000 feet in altitude. Plentiful 
throughout India and Burma in a state of cultivation. 

One of the many forms of this tree has recently been discovered to be 
the source of the Gutta^ulei of Singapore. This tree has long been 
regarded in India as yielding an inferior India-rubber. 

[44] — 3. Bsflsia mfittleyaii«» De VHese, Sapotace & 

A tree of Malacca and Borneo, known in the vernacular as koiian, 
Mr. Mottley says that this tall and straight tree, when wounded, yields a 
copious flow of milkyjuice which hardens to a brittle, waxy resin, readily 
softened by heat. This has been described as an inferior kind of gutta- 

[61]— 3. Calofcropis gigantea, R. Br., Asclepiadiacex. 

The madar or akanda, a plant scarcely to be distinguished from the 
following species, the properties and uses of which are identical, and both 
these plants may therefore be discussed jointly. C. gigantea is most 
abundant in the lower provinces and Eastern India, while C procera is 
the species chiefly met with in Upper or Northern and Central India. 

[62]— 4. C procera. R. Br. 

Syn. — C. Hamilton I, WtUl. 

Vern. — Akand, ak, nuular. Hind. ; Akunda^ Beng. ; Auk, Nepal. ; Arka, 
Sans. ; Aushar, Arab. ; Kharak, Pers. ; Akda, Mahr. ; Yercum, Tam.; 
jmedu, Tel. ; Mayo-bitty BURM. 

Small shrubs, the former sometimes becoming almost a bush, common 
everywhere throughout India, in waste lands, after luxuriating on the 
poorest soils, and largely cultivated as a hed^e in some parts of the country. 
The fibre is perhaps the finest in India, but is difficult of separation. 

The inspissateaand sun-dried milky sap from the stem resembles Gutta- 
percha. Tlie madar is in fact the most interesting and most hopeful plant 
not bdonging to the natural order Sapotaceae, which can be said to yield 
a substance resembling Gutta-percha ever likely to obtain a commercial 


Gums and Resins. 

[Part I. 

reputation as a gutta-percha substitute. Dr. Riddell, the Superintendent 
Surgeon to the Nizam's army, was apparently the first to separate and 
experiment with this gum ; his results having been published, in the first 
instance, by Captain (the late distinguished Colonel) Meadows Taylor in 
a letter to the Secretary, Agri- Horticultural Society of India, Vol. viii. 
Afterwards Dr. Riddel I republished his discovery in the Bombay Times 
for 1852. As these letters may not be accessible to persons likely to be 
interested by this subject, I take the liberty of republishing the more 
important parts narrating the actual experiments : — 

" My dear Sir, — I observe in the last number of the Society^ s Transactions that 
the muddr (Asclepia gigantea) affords a very valuable kind of hemp or flax; and I 
have now the pleasure to communicate to you another valuable property it possesses, 
which has been lately discovered by a friend here, under whose permission I make 
the present communications to you. 

"Dr. Riddell, the Officiating Superintendent Surgeon of the Nizam's Arm)r, 
had for some time been employed in extracting or determining by chemical experi- 
ments the well-known medicinal properties of this plant, and during his investigation. 

result has been the obtaining of a substance apparently precisely analogX)uS to gutta- 
percha, of which I have the pleasure to send you a specimen, bearing the impression 
of his seal, marked No. i. 

** The mode of preparing this substance is as follows : — 

" The juice or sap to be collected by incision. An open slit may be made in the 
back of the plant and a pot tied to it, when it will flow into it ', or it may be collected 
by cutting the back and catching as much as flows out at once. Dr. Riddell 
calculates that ten average-sized plants or bushes will yield as much juice as will make 
a pound of gutta-percha substance, but it is not known yet how far the plant will 
bear tapping without injury, nor how often, or at what intervals, the extractions of 
juice might De made. 

''The juice extracted may either be exposed to the sun in a shallow vessel, or 
left to dry in the shade : by the former process, the substance becomes a little darker 
than by the latter. 

" When it has attained a tough consistency, it may be well worked up in very hot 
water with a wooden kneader, or boiled ; either process serves to remove an acrid 
property of the juice, as also all other matter but the g^utta-percha itself. It is 
Delieved that the more it is boiled and worked up, the harder it will eventually become 
when cool. 

" Comparison with the true gutta-percha gives the following results : — 

** Sulphuric acid — chars it. 
. " Nitric acid — converts it into a yellow resinous substance. 

" Muriatic add — has very little effect upon it. 

•* Acetic acid — has no effect. 

" Alcohol— ditto. 

" Spirit of turpentine— dissolves it into a viscid glue which, when taken up between 
the finger and thumb, pressed together, and then separated, shows numberless 
minute and separate threads. 

" The above chemical tests correspond exactly with the established results of the 
real gutta-percha. 

" The substance, however hard it may have become, becomes immediately flexible 
in hot water, and readily takes any form required, receiving and retaining impressions 
of seals, ornaments, &c. It has been made into small cups and other vessels which 
are not found to alter in form. 

** A test I suggested myself was, would it unite with gutta-percha, and this was 
satisfactorily proved in my presence. A piece of the real gutta-percha of similar 
size, with a piece of the new substance, was softened in hot water, and united readily. 

"The tests by acids on the mixed substance did not differ from those on either of 
the two original substances. ##••»••• 

" If the 'mudddr ' could be profitably gjown for its hemp alone, it is evident, if 
this new substance proves in practice what it now appears to be, that an acre of 
cultivation of it would produce a large quantity of juice and thus materially enhance 
its value. The poorest land suffices for its growth, but^ I have no doubt that if 
cultivated and plentifully irrigated, not only would the yield of juice be larger, but 
the growth of the plant, and the fineness of its fibre when made into hemp, materially 
increased." {Meadows Taylor, Agri.^Horiu Society's Journal, Vol. Vlfl.) 



Part I. ] 

Economic Products of India. 


Or» Riddel I subsequently wrote : 

** As rqrards my experiments with the ' muddar ' juice, they are as follows :-^ 
Having coUected about iS fluid ounces I had it strained tnrough a cloth, and exposed 
13I ounces of it to solar evaporation on a flat dish. In three days it bacame firm, 
separating^ itself from the dish and easily removed. I then placed it in boiling' water, 
and worked it well about with a spatula, and when cool enough to handle, kneaded 
it with my Angers; when cool I found it to weigh a little more than six ounces. I 
then boiled it, and, as it cooled, worked it well again : and on weighing the substance, 
found it had lost one oance. It was then pull^ out into shreds and boiled a second 
time, kneading it whilst cooling, and four ounces two drachms, apothecaries' weight, 
was obtained of what I call ' muddir ' gutta-percha. 

"The next experiment was with four ounces of the juice, which weighed four 
ounces apothecaries' weight, and placing it in a basin, I poured about one quart of 
boiling water on it, stirring it up, and then leaving it to stand, when it broke into 
curds which fell to the bottom. I then i>artially poured off the fluid, and filtered the 
residue through paper, and on its being suniciently dry to be removed, found it to 
weigh one ounce six drachms. It was then worked well in hot water two or three 
times, and formed into a mass which gave six drachms, thus losing one ounce. On 
the whole it will be seen that the most economical method of preparing the juice, 
b by solar evaporation, the residue being nearly double to that of the second experi- 
ment. " 

Mr. Liotard publishes, in his Memorandum on the materials in India 
suitable for the Manufacture of Paper, the opinion of Professor Redwood 
upon Madar-gutta. The Professor considers it possesses many properties 
in common with Gutta-percha of commerce. The specimen so reported 
upon was collected by Captain Q. E. Hollings, Deputy Commissioner, 
Sbahpur (in the Punjab) in the year 1853, ^^^^^^ more than one year after 
the date of the original discovery of this Gutta. We have learned nothing 
further in 30 years, and uncountable riches of fibre and gum have all the 
while been wasting along every roadside* and over every rubbish heap. 

[87] — 5. Dichopsis elUptica, Benth, SAPOTAcEiS« 

The panchoti, a large tree of the Western Ghats, yielding the 
Indian gutta-percha. 

[88]— 6. Dichopsis Gutta, Benth. & Hook. 
The Finest Gutta-percha. 

A large tree, indigenous to the Straits and Malayan Archipelagfo. 
The enormous demand for Gutta-perchas has exterminated this exceed- 
ingly valuable plant from all accessible places. It flourishes most on the 
sides of the hills near Perak. 

There are two forms, one with red flowers known as tuhan-merut, and 
the other with white flowers, tuban-pateh. The young trees require 
shade and a rich well-drained soil, hence the preference for hill-sides. 
No special period is observed for collecting the gutta. Full-grown 
trees, say 20 years old, are hewn down and tapped all along at dis- 
tances of 18 inches. The yield is variously estimated at from 10, 15, 
20, or even 40 cathies (a cathi is ij lbs.) a tree. Allowing 15 lbs. to be a 
fair average yield, to afford the amount exported from the Straits in 1875 
there must have been destroyed 600,000 trees. The demand continues 
to exceed the supply, and if a protecting hand be not extended over the 
Giitta-percha forests, extermination must be inevitable. 

Singapore and Penang are the chief collecting dep6ts. 

[88]— 7« Dichopsis obovata, Clarke. 

An evergreen tree of Tenasserim, extending to Malacca and Penang. 
Kurz says it yields gutta-percha. 

[89.I— 8. Dichops polyantha, Bentk. 

Veni.—Tali, Beng ; Sill'kurta, Cachar. 


Gums and Resins. 

[ Part I. 

A tree, 30 to 40 feet in height, occurring in Sylhet, Chittagong, and 
Pegu. Kurz says it produces a good quality of gutta-percha in large quan- 
tities, probably not inferior to that of Singapore. 

9. Gutta Sundek, the second best form of gutta-percha, is at present 
unidentified. It occurs abundantly in the Malay Peninsula. M. Beau- 
visage identified it as Kcratephonis Leerii, Husk., but the Kew autho- 
rities regard this as incorrect, and Dr, Trimen, who, in the Ceylon Botanic 
Gardens, has succeeded in obtaining young seedlings, thinks it may 
prove a species of Payeoa. 

[99]— 10. Dyera costulata, Hook. /., ApocvNACEiB. 
[100]— n D. laxiflora, Hook, /. 

Trees which inhabit the forests of Malacca, Singapore and Sumatra. 
They yield the gutta-jelutong of commerce. 

[106]— 12. Euphorbia Cattunandoo, Elliot, Euphorbiacba. 

Vem. — Rati MandUflMS.. 

This yields the Catimandu cement of the Madras Presidency, It 
contains sufficient caoutchouc to make it a profitable source of supply, 
if not of India-rubber, at least of gutta-percha. 

[107]— 13. Euphorbia neriifolia, Linn. 
Vem. — Mansa-sij, 

Yields a milky sap which, on drying, much resembles gutta-percha, 
and for which there seems every probability of its being used as a sub- 

[108] — 14« Euphorbia pulcherrima, Willd, 

Dr. Riodell recommends this, as also the next species, as suitable 
for the preparation, of gutta-percha. 

[109] — 15. Euphorbia resinifera. 

This plant yields the gum known as Euphorbium, now largely used 
as ail anticorrosive paint for the bottoms of ships ; it comes chiefly from 
Morocco and Barbary. Its resisting the action of water depends upon 
its resemblance to gutta-percha. 

[110] — 16. Euphorbia Tirucalli, Linn. 

Veni« — Lankasij, Beng. ; Sehud, HiND. ; Tiru kalli, Mal. ; Sha-soung- 
leknyo, Burm. 

A small tree cultivated throughout India and used as a hedge. 
Dr* Riddell says this yields a fairly good gutta-percha. 

[159] — 17. lAimusops manilkara, Don,, SAPOTACBiC. 
The Sapota Tree. 

Largely cultivated on account of its fruit in Bengal ; yields the Mexi- 
can chicle-gum, a substance closely resembling gutta-percha. 

[166] — 18. Payena MaiagAj'i/C.B.C, SAPOTACEiB. 

A tree of Malacca and Penang, said by Maingay to abound in gutta- 

In drawing up the above lists of gutta-yielding plants, I have borrow- 
ed largely from the Kew Report for 1881 2 from Spans' Encyclopcedia, 
and from journal of the Agri.-Hort. Society: the Government Proceed' 
ingsj and Mr. Baden^PowelVs Punjab Products. 



Part I. ] 

Economic Products of India, 






bilUlta, Roxb.y Leguhinosa. 

Vera. — Anjan, Hind., Mar.; Acha, alti, Tam. ; Naryepi, yapa, Tel.; 
Kamrd, Kan. ; Parsid, Singrowli. 

Found in the dry forests of South and Central India, as far north as 
the Banda district of the North- West Provinces. 
It yields a gum. 

H. pinnatai J^oxb. 

Vera.— ATaWvK, Tinnevelly ; Matdyen samprdni, Travancore; Yenne, 

Found on the Western Ghftts from South Kanara to Travancore. 

Exudes a red sticky substance, similar to Copaiba Balsam. It is a 
thick, viscid fluid, used medicinally in India as a good substitute for 


This is chiefly obtained from Symphonia globulifera, Linn,, Guttiprrje. 
Persian Hog Tragacanth. See Pninus Amygdalus. 

176 HoUgaraa longifolia, l^oxb., Anacardiaceje. 

Vera. — Barola, Beng. ; Khreik, Magh. ; HMagiri, Bom. 

A tall tree, native of Eastern Beneal, Chittagong, and Pegu. The 
Bombay form seems most probably to be H. Amoottiana, Hook.f. 

It yields a dichromic exudation, which causes blisters. This, on 
hardening, forms a sort of gum-resin. 



Hopea odorata, Roxb., DipxERocARPE-aE. 

The Rock Dammar of Commerce. 

Vem. — Rimda, And.; Thingan, Burm. 

Found scattered in the evergreen forests of British Burma and the 
Andaman Islands. 

It yields a yellow resin, from which the Andamanese prepare a sort 
of wax. Specimens and additional information much required. (See 

Isonandra obovata, Griff,, Sapotace-e. 

An evergreen tree of Tenasserim. 

It yields a sort of gutta-percha. Gamble, who mentions this fact, seems 
doubtful whether the plant should not be referred to Dichopsis. 


Gums and Resins, 

[Part I. 


Jatropha Curcas, Linn,^ Euphorbiaceje. 

Vern. — Bag-bkerenda^ safed ind. Hind., Beng.; Kaai'amunck, Tam. ; 
Thinbawkyetsu, Burm. 

Indigenous in America; cultivated in most parts of India, especially in 
Coromandel and Travancore. 



Dr. Dymock informs me that when wounded a viscid juice flows from 
this plant, which gradually dries into a substance resembling shell-lac in 
colour and consistence. The juice is used by the natives like collodion to 
close wounds. 

Juniperus communis, Ztnn,, Coniferje. 

Vern,— Niich,pethra,bentha,betar,lang shiir, chickia, Himalayan names. 

North- West Himalayas, ascending to 14,000 feet. 
Wood highly resinous. 

J. excelsa, M. Bieh. 

Himalayan Pencil Cedar, 

\em.—Dh4pypad6,m, N. W. P.; Chalai, sMkpa, luir, sHrbuta, Hima- 
layan NAMES; Dhupi, Nepal ; Apurs, Beluchistan. 

Arid tract of the North- West Himalaya and Western Tibet, ex- 
tending eastward to Nepal, and in the mountains of Afghanistan and 

It yields a resin, from which Dhup is prepared in India. (Atkinson,) 
Dr. Dymock informs me that the Duhp of Bombay commerce is Boswellia 
bark imported from Aden. See Boswellia* 

J. f ecurva, Bam. 

Yem.—BetHr, bheddra, ffiggal, agdni, N. W. P. ; Wetyar, bettar, pku- 

lUy Pb. 

Sikkim and Bhutan. One of the great sources of DMp or incense in 
India. (Atkinson,) The resinous twigs are used for incense. 

Kino. See Butea frondosa, Roxb,, and Pterocarpus Marsupium, Roxb., 




[69I [239] 


A resinous incrustation, caused by the parasitic action of an insect. 
Coccus Lacca. The twigs so encrusted are known as stick-lac. When 
broken off from the twigs and washed in water, the resin breaks up into 
small particles, known as seed'lac j while the water used in the washings 
yields lac-dye. Seed-lac, when melted over a fire and squeezed through a 
long sack into troughs, spreads out into thin flakes known as shell-lac. 
If dropped into rounded masses, it is button-lac ; if into larger pieces, it is 
sheet-tac or piece^lac, 



Part I. ] 

Economic Products of India. 





Very grood 



The following are the plants on which the Lac insect is found, and 
specimens of each, together with all available information and any addi- 
tional trees, will be most acceptable :— 

Z. Acada arabica» Willd* (Leguminosae). The Babul or Kihar ; Gamble, i$i, 
" In Sind and Guzerat yields large quantities of lac." 

2. Acada Catechu, Willd. (Legu.minosae). 

3. Albizzia ludda, Benth,^ Silkoriy Bbng. 

4. Aleurites molaccana, Willd. (Euphorbiaceae). The Akroi, introduced from 

Malay, now almost wild, especially in South India. 

5* Anona squamosa, Linn, (Anonacex). The Ata, a tree introduced from the 
West Indies. 

6. Butea firondosa Roxb. (Leguminosae). The Dhak or Palas. 

7* Butea superba, Roxb, (Leguminosae). A climber, scarcely distinguishable 
from the tree B./rondosUf except by its habit. 

8. Carissa Carandas, Linn. (Apocynaceae). Var. spinarumt sp., A. DC. 

9. Celtis Roxburghii, Bedd. (Urticaceae). Eastern Bengal, Central and South 


XO. Ceratonia Siliqua (Leguminosae). The Carob Tree ; now almost naturalised 
in the Punjab and South India. 

ZZ. Croton Draco, Schlech. (Euphorbiaceas). 

Z2. Dalbergia latifoUa, Roxb. (Leguminosae). 

Z3. Dalbergia paniculata, Roxb. (Leguminosae). 

Z4. Dichrostachys dnerea, W. & A. (Leguminosae). The Virtuli, a shrub of 
Central and South India. 

Z5. DoUchandrone Rheedii, Seem,, a small tree of Burma and the Andaman 

z6. Eriolaena Hookeriana, W.&A. (Sterculiaceae). {Eriolcena spectabiles yields 

Z7. Erythrina indica, Linn, (Leguminosae). 

z8. Feronia Elephantum, Correa. (Rutaceae). 

Z9. Ficus bengalensis, Linn. (Urticaceae). 

20. Ficus comosa, Roxb., in A^sam. 

2Z. Ficus COrdifoUa, Roxb.; Gamble, 33$ ; Assam Lac. 

22. Ficus elastica, Bl. The India-rubber Tree (the Bat). 

23. Ficus glomerata, Roxb. 

24. Ficus infectoria, Willd. The Pakar or Keol. (Young buds are eaten, and 

the bark yields a fibre.) 

25. Ficus lacdfera, Roxb. A native of Sylhet, the Ruthal But. 

26. Ficus religiosa, Linn. The Aswat or Pipal. (The Gori or Deomuga silk- 

worm feeds upon it.) 

27. Garus^a pinnata, Roxb. (Burseraceae). The Garttga or Kaikar. 

28. Kydia calydna, Roxb. (Malvaceae). A small tree, the Pola. The inner 

bark yields a good fibre. 

29 Lagerstroemia panriflora, Hook. f. (Lythraceae). The Bakli or Sida (one 
of the trees upon which the Tasar silk-worm is found). 

30. Mangifera indica, Linn. (Anacardiaceae), The Mango, in its wild state, 
often yields lac. 

3Z. Nephelium Litchii, Camb. (Sapindaceae). The Litchi. 

32. Ougeinia dalberg^oides, Benth. (Leguminosae). The Sandan. 


Gums and Resins. 

[Part I. 

33. Prosopis spidgera, Linn. (Leguminosae). Th^yhand of the arid zones of 

the Punjab and Guzerat ; a very useful tree, being the chief steam-fuel in 
those regions. 

34. Pterocarpus MarsupTam, Roxb. (Leguminosse). The Bija or Kino tree, a 

native of Central and South India. 

35. Pithecolobium dulce, Bentk, (Leguminosse). The Dakkini babult a tree 

introduced from Mexico. 

36. Schinaa crenata, Korth, (Ternstroemiaceae). An evergreen tree of Burma. 

37« Schldchera trijuga, Willd. (Sapindaceae). The Kusum, Koosum, or Ku- 
sumb. This is the most important of all the lac trees. It is a native of 
the Sub-Himalaya, Central and South India, and Burma. 

38. Shorea robusta, Gaertn, (Dipterocarpeae). The Sal Tree. The ease with 
which this plant coppices, and its power of endurance and rapid growth, 
make it one of the best trees for lac cultivation. 

39* Shorea Talura, Roxb, A native of Mysore ; sometimes called 5. laccifera 
or Vatica laccifera, 

40. Tectona grandis, Linn, (Verbenaceae). The Teak-woodt a native of Cen- 

tral and South India and Burma. 

41. Terminalia tomentosa, W, & A, (Combretaceae). The Saj\ piasal, or asan. 

42. Zizyphus Jujuba, Lam. (Rhamneae). The Ber or Kid, Although the lac 

yielded by this tree is inferior in quality, the ease with which it may 
be propagated makes it a good lac-yielding tree, suited specially to the 

43. Zizyphus zylopyra, Willd, (Rhamneae). The Kat-ber. 

The following are the specimens of Lac in the Bengal Economic Museum ; the trees 
from which derived cannot be determined : — 

Stick Lac, Nos. 2005, 2010, 2024, 2025, 3706, 3707, 4072, 4089, 4416, 4417, 4482, 

4630* 5009* 5034, 6410, 7661, 8106, 8867, 8871, 9087, 9088, 
9089,9090, 10960, 1 1500, 1 1859, 1 1 996, 12067, 12208, 12263, 
12264, 12265, 12564, 12715, 12716, 12717, 12718, 12756, 12757, 
12758, 12759, 13107, 13397, 13398. 

Seed Lac, Nos. 1362, 2006, 2011, 2218, 3060, 4010, 4433, 4677, 6364, 7662, 9507, 

10887, 12261, 12714, 13399, 134001 13401, 13402, 13403. 

Shell Lac, Nos. 2008, 2013, 2022, 3439, 9091. 

Piece and Button Lac, Nos. 2014, 3438, 7663,7731,8107,9092, 11881,12760. 

Sealing Wax, Nos. 3430, 3431, 3432, 3433, 3434, 3435, 3436, 3437, 12963. 



Lagerstroemia Flos-i 

Syn.— L. RsGiNiE, Boxb. 

Vera. — yarul, Beng. ; Ajkar, Ass. ; Tamana, Mahr.; Kadali, Tam.; 
Challa, Kan.; Pyinma, Burm. ; Murute, Cm gh. 

Found in East Bengal, Assam, Burma, and on the West Coast, ex- 
tending north to Ratnagiri. 
It yields a gum-resin. 

L. parviflora^ Roxh.^ Lythracea. 

'Ven^'-^Bakli, jhaura, sida. Hind.; Sida, Bbng. ; Kankil, Lepcha; 
Lahana bodara, Mahr.; Chinangi, Tel. ; Zaungbale, Burm. 

Grows in the Sub-Himalayan tract, from the Jumna eastward, in Oudh, 
Bengal, Assam, Central and South India* 
It yields a sweet gum-resin. 











Part I.] 

Economic Products of India, 








Lagerstroemia tomentosai PresL, Lythraceje. 

Venu — Leaa, Burm. 

A large deciduous tree of Burma; frequent in Pegu and Martaban. 
Exudes a red resin. (Kurs,) 

Liquldambar orientalis, Miller, Hamamelidea. 

Liquid Storax. 

Vera. — Sildras, Hind, and Bom. ; Miah-sayelah, Arab, ; Silkaka, Sans ; 
Neri-arishippdl, Tam. 

A handsome tree, resembling a plane, often growing to the height of 
40 feet and forming forests in the south-western part of Asia Minor. 
Liquid Storax or Rose Malloes is imported into Bombay from Asia 
Minor, and is much used in Hindu medicine. It is largely exported from 
Bombay to China, where it has for many centuries been used as a medi- 
cine, having been formerly carried into China by the Arabs as far back 
as during the Ming dynasty, A.D. 1368-1628. 

The method of Extraction of Liquid Storax is curious. It is carried 
on by Turcomans. They strip off the outer bark and reject it. The 
inner bark is then scraped off and thrown into pits until a sufficient 
quantity has been collected. By boiling in a copper vessel the resin is 
afterwards separated from the residue. The boiling is said to be done with 
brackish water. The residual bark is then placed in hair bags and subjected 
to pressure, when a further proportion of the oleoresin is obtained. The 
dried and compressed bark is then made into cakes, and constitutes the 
fragrant cakes formerly common and well known in Europe under the 
name of Cortex Thymiamatis. The resin is opaque and semi-fluid. 
(Pharntacographia.) Dr. Dymock, in his Materia Medica of Western 
India, says that in Arabic and Persian works there are three kinds gene- 
rally described— 75^, that which exudes naturally; 2ndj that which is 
obtained by pressing the bark ; and 3rd, that which is obtained by boil- 
ing it. These three kinds are, however, not distinguished in commerce. 
Mahomedans regard Liquidambar as tonic, resolvent, suppurative and 
astringent. It is a favourite application in swellings and in orchitis, and 
recently has got a continental reputation in the cure of scabies, for which 
purpose it is mixed with linseed oil. See also Altingia ezcelsa, Noronha, 

Macaranga indica, Wight., Euphorbiaceje. 

Vern. — Boura, Beng. ; Lai mallata, Nepal ; Modala, Ass. ; Chanda, 
Mahr. ; Dagdakti, Mechi. 

Sikkim, Kh^sia Hills, Andamans and the >yestern GhAts. 

It yields a red gum-resin. This same gum is also given by an allied 
species M. denticulata, MiilL {Taungpetwun, Bom.), but in such small 
quantities that it hardly deserves mention as a gum-yielding tree. The 
same may also be said of M« gfammiflua* Miill, 

M. tomentosa, Wight. 

Vera. — Chanda, Bou. ; Vatii kanni, Tam. ; Chenthakanni, Mysorb. 

Western GhSits. * 

Yields a gum, used medicinally, and for taking impressions. (Gamble.) 


Gums and Resins, 

[ Part I. 

Mang^fera indicEi Linn,^ ANACARDiACEic. 

Vera. — Am, Hind.; Ghariam, Ass.; Amba, Mahr. ; Mad, mangos, Tam.; 
Mamadi, Tel. ; Thayet, Burm. 

Wild on the Western Gh4ts; cultivated all over India. 
Its bark yields a gum. 

Mecca Balsam. ^S*^^ Balsamodendron Opobalsamum, Kunih,, Bur- 





Melanorrhoea usitata, WalL, ANACARDiACEic. 

The Black Varnish Tree of Burma. 

Vem. — Kheu, Manipur; Tkitse, Burm. 

Found in Manipur and Burma. 

The black varnish made from this plant is much used by the Bur- 
mese in their lacquer-work as a size in gilding, for writing in palm-leaf 
books, and for many other purposes {Gamble,) Specimens of this gum 
and varnish, as also articles prepared with it, are much required from 
Burma, and it is hoped special attention will be given to this subject so 
as to secure a good representation. 


Melia Azadirachta, Zinn, 

The Neem Tree or Margosa Tree. 

Syn, — Azadirachta indica, Adr, ^uss, 

Vem. — Nim., Hind., Beng. ; Betain, Kumaun ; Kohumba, Guz.; Nimba, 
Mahr.; Veypam, Tam.; Yapa, Tel.; Thinbawtamaka,'^\iKtiL^ 

Planted and self-sown throughout the greater part of India and Burma. 

A gum, used as a stimulant, exudes from the bark. Birdwood in- 
cludes it among the gums which make up the Gum Gattie of commerce. 

The Nim tree is largely cultivated in North India around villages, owing 
to a very widespread belief, which even some Europeans have faith in, 
that the vapour from the tree is a preventative against fever. 

M. Azedarach^ Linn., Meliacea. 

The Persian Lilac, Bastard Cedar, or Bead Tree. 

Vera. — Drek, bakdin, betdin, Hind. ; Ghota-^im, Beng.; Chein, Sutlej; 
Malvembu, Tam. ; Ta-ma-ka, Burm. 

Commonly cultivated throughout India, and believed to be indigenous 
in the outer Himalaya and Siwalik tract. 

M. sempervirensy Sw. 

This species is often given as a synonym for M. azedirach, Linn. 

A gum sent from Madras to the Punjab Exhibition, of which Mr. Baden- 
Powell says that " it looks like Mochras." 





Part I. ] 

Economic Products of India. 








Mimusops Elens^i, Linn., SAPOTAcsiB. 

Venu — Bakul, bohl, Bbng. ; Maulser, maulsari. Hind.; Ovali, Mahr. > 
Magadam, Tam.; Khaya, BuRM.; Bokal, mugali, Kan. 

Wild on the Western Gh&ts as far north as Khandalla, N. Circars, 
Burma, Andaman Islands, and Ceylon. Most probably only cultivated 
in other parts of India. 

It yields the Pogada g\xm of Madras. {Spons' Enc) 

M. hexandra, Roxb. 

VtrtL — Rdnjana, Mahr. 
Yields, when wounded, a white opaque gum, which is made no use of, 

M. indica, A. DC. 

Vem.—Khir, khtrni,HiST}.', Rain, Mbywar; PaUa, kannu-palle, Tam. ; 
Palle panic, Tel. ; Palu, Cingh. 

Mountains of South India, extending in Central India to the sand- 
stone hills of Pachmari, north of the Godavari. 
Yields a gunu 

M« manilkara, Don., Sapotacea. 

The Sapota, Sapodilla, Ballt Tree or Neesberry. 

SjTU — AcHRAS Sapota, Linn. 

Vera* — Simi, elupi, Tam. ; Sinui, ippa, Tel. ; Twottapat, Burk. 

A tree largely cultivated in Bengal for its fruit. It yields a sub- 
stance resembling gutta-percha which, in Mexico, is known as Chicle-gum. 
On mixing with gutta-percha or rubber, this gum is said to render them 
brittle, and thus to destroy one of their most useful properties. Several 
other American species of this gum yield similar gums, of which NU 
globasa may more particularly be mentioned as yielding Gum Batata. 

Moringa pterygosperma, Gaertn,, Moringace-b. 

The Horse-Radish Tree. 

Vera. — Soanjna, sanjna. Hind. 5 Sc^na, sujana Beng. 5 Shegava, Mahr. ; 
Morunga, Tam. j Danthalon, Burm. 
Wild in the Sub-Himalayan tract, from the Ghenab to Oudh ; com- 
monly cultivated in India and Burma. 

It yields a gum which is white when it exudes, but gradually turns to 
a mahogany colour on the surface; used in native medicine. It 
belongs to the tragacanth or hog-gum series and of no European com- 
mercial value, and is one of the gums often called mocharas. 

Moras indicai Linn., URxicACEiE. 

One of the Mulberry Trees. 

Vera.— r«^». Hind.; T4t, Beng.; Til, Pb.; Chhota kimbu, Nepal; 
Nuni, Ass. ; Posa, Burm. 
Sub-Himalayan tract; cultivated throughout India. 


Gums and Resins. 

[ Part L 

Chiefly cultivated on account of its leaves, upon which the Assam Pat 
(Bombyx teztor) silk-worm is fed, Atkinson, in his Himalayan Dis* 
tricts, p. 783, mentions this plant as yielding gum. Specimens and further 
information much required. 


Mjrristica corticosa, Hook.y /., and Th., MvsisTicEiE. 
M. Longifolia, Wall. 

Vera* — Zadeitbo, Burm. 
Evergreen trees of Burma. Exude a red resin. (Kurs.) 

Nerium suaveolens (?) Apocynaceje. 

A red eum sent from Madras to Punjab Exhibition under this name. 
I can nnd no mention of N. suaveolens in botanical works ; specimens 
for identification of both gum and plant would be very interesting. 

Odina Wodier, Roxb,^ Anacardiacea. 

This is known in Europe as Ging or Kuni Gum. 

llem.^-'Kiamil, kimul, jhingan, mowen. Hind. ; Ji^al, lohar bhadi, Beng. ; 
Jhingan, jiban, sindan harall4, N. W. P.; Skimtt, moya, Mahr. ; Wodier, 
Tam. ; Gumpini, Tel.; Kaikra, Gond; Nabi, Burm. 

Grows in the Sub- Himalayan tract, from the Indus eastward, and in 
the forests of India and Burma. 

The dark-red gum of this tree was sent to the Punjab Exhibition from 
Madras. Roxburgh describes the gum as resembling pieces of glue. 
As it exudes from the tree it is white {kanne^ki-gond), after falling to the 
ground it becomes black (jingan-ki-gond ). The former is much more 
valuable than the latter. This gum is often used with the gum of Ano- 
g^eissvs latifolia in calico-printing, and the Brahmins of Bengal use it to 
stiffen their Brahimincal strings. It is found exuding from the trees 
in great stalactitic masses about October, the thin tips of which are per- 
fectly translucent. The larger masses resemble dirty jelly, quite soft 
and very adhesive, drying rapidly, leaving a varnished-like appearance 
on the fingers or finger nans. With age it becomes black and rapidly 
degenerates into a powder. 

Olibanutn. See Boswellia floribunda, Endl.^ Burseracea. 

Opobalsatnum. See Balsamodendron opobalsamnm, Kunth., Burser- 


Opopanax chironeum, Keck., Umbelliferjb. 

A gum-resin said to be imported into Upper India from Persia, and 
used in native medicine. The ^um occurs m small round tears, yellow 
outside and whitish-yellow within. It burns with a peculiar odour, and 









Part I.] 

Economic Products of India. 








has a bitter taste. It forms a milky solution when mixed with spirits, 
vinegar, or water. Dr. Dymock informs me he has never seen this gum in 

Ostodes paniculatai BL, Euphorbiaceje. 

Vera. — Bepari, Nepal. ; Palok, Lepcha. 

Sikkim and Khiisia Hills. 

Yields a gum, used as size in paper manufacture. A considerable de- 
mand for gums and resins suitable for the paper trade already exists and 
is certain to increase. It would therefore be very valuable were samples, 
sufficiently large to admit of their being tested, to be supplied, accompanied 
with information regarding annual amount likely to be available, and price. 

Ougdnia dalbergioides, Ben/h,, Lsguminosjs. 

Vera* — Sdndan, asainda, ttnnas, Hind. ; Shdnjan, pdnan, Oudh; Ban- 
dhona, Uriya; Dargu, tella motku, Tel. ; Telus, Khandesh. 

Grows in the Sub-Himalayan tract,, from the Sutlej to the Teesta, 
Central India and West Coast 

The tree yields an astringent red gum. The bark also is astringent, 
and is used to poison fish. 

Parameria glandulifera, Benth,, Apocyijjlcem. 

Vem. — Taline^tto-thee, BuRM. 

An extensive climber on the tidal forests of Burma, extending to 
Malacca, Singapore, the Andaman Islands, and distributed to Java and 

Recently this plant has attracted considerable attention as a source of 
India-rubber, said to be equal to American rubber. (Dr, Romanis, 


Parkia insigniSi Kurz, LEGUMiNosiE. 

Vem. — Myouk-ianyet, BuRM. 

A tree met with in the tropical forests of Martabar east of Tonghoo, 
Exudes a red resin. {Kurs,) 

Payena Maingayii C. B. Clarke, Sapotaceje. 

A tree of Malacca, yielding gutta-percha, which see. 

Pentace burmannica, Kurz, TiLiACEiE. 

Vem.— rA»v*a, Burm. 

An evergreen tree frequent in the tropical forests of the eastern and 
southern slopes of the Pegu Yomah and from Martaban down to Upper 

Exudes a red resin. (Kurz.) 


Gums and Resins, 


Phoenix i^lvestris^ Roxh.y Palm-e. 

Vem.—Khajur, khaji^ salma, thakil, HiND. ; Shindi, Mahr. ; Periaeet- 
ckam, Tam.; Pedda eita, Tel, ; Seindi, Bbrar. 

Wild and cultivated throughout India. 
It yields a gum little known. 

Phyllanthus Emblicai Lmn., Euphorbiaceje. 

Vem. — Daula, amla, amlika, aura. Hind.; Amltr, ambolati, amulati 
Beng.; Ambal, ambit, Pb.; Ambari, Garo ; Amluki, Ass. ; Anvald, Mahb ; 
Nelli, nellekai, Tam. ; Zibya, Burm. 

A tree of the forests of India and Burma. 
It yields a gum. 


Pinus excelsa, Wall,, Coniferje. 

Vera. — Haisalla, kail. Hind.; Ckir, chil, Pb.; Yara, Kkshuik ; Purni, 

Grows on the Himalayas. 

The plant is very resinous ; the wood is used for torches, and from it 
turpentine is prepared. 

P. Gerardiana, Wall 

VertL^Chilghoga, Afg.; Chiri, kashti, ri, kannucli, Himalayan names. 

Grows on the inner dry and arid North- West Himalaya. 

The seed forms an article of food in Kan^war, and the tree yields resin. 
Major Longden extracted excellent tar from the chips. Gordon says that 
it afiEords abundance of fine turpentine, and the cones exude a copious white 

P. ka^a^ Rqyle. 

"V&XL—DingsafKHASiA; Tinyu,B\3RU. 
Khasia Hills, Chittagong, Burma, and Manipur, descending to 2,000 
feet in altitude. 

It is rich in jesinous matter, 

P. longifolia» Roxb. 

The Long-leaved Pine. 

Vem,— Chil, ckir, Pb. ; Salla, sapin, kolan, GuRHWAL and Kumaun; 
Gandha bisosa, BoM. 

Grows on the outer North- Western Himalaya, and in Sikkim and 

Yields a true oleo-resin, which, when distilled, forms turpentine ; tar 
also is prepared from it. There are two kinds of resin : (i) the berja sort, 
which comprises the tears exuding naturally from the bark; and (2) the 
bokhar berja, or the resin produced by making deep and long incisions 
into the sap-wood. In Bengal the resin is known under the name of 

Dr. Dymock informs me that the native doctors in Western India 
distil an oil from it which they call khunro-oil ; it is used in gonorrhcea. 

[Part L 







D I 


Part 1. ] 

Economic Products of India, 








Piper Cubeba} Linn,^ Piperaceje. 

CUBEBS, Eng. ; CuBEBESy Fr, 

Syn.— CuBEBA Officinalis^ Miq, 

Vtxn.—Kabab'Chini, Beng. ; Val-milaku, Hind. ; Kankola, Mahr. ; Taka 
miriyala, Tam. ; Sinban'karawa, Tel. 

Wild in Java; introduced into India, or cubebs imported, 
A gum-resin may be prepared from this plant. 


Pistada cabulica, Stocks., Anacardiaceje. 


Dr. Aitchison {Linneen Society's journal, XVIII, p, 42) says that this 
small tree is occasional from Thai to Shilizan. 

The resin is known in Europe as Bombay mastic ; it comes to Bombay 
in small boxes from Afghanistan. 

P, integerrima, /. Z. Stewart, 

Vern. — Kakrasinghi, Beng. ; Kaka, kakkar, kangar, tungu, Pb. 

A tree, with rough bark, met with on the Sulaiman Range, the outer 
North- Western Himalaya, extending eastward to Kumaun. Altitude 
6,000 feet. 

Is said to yield a gum. 

P. LentiSCUS} Linn. 

A shrub of the Mediterranean regions, imported into India. 

It yields the mastiche of Chios. It occurs in small brittle tears of a pale, 
yellow colour, fragrant when heated. This substance is used in medicine, 
and as a varnish in the arts. It contains a small portion of volatile oil, 
about go per cent, of a resin soluble in alcohol, and about 10 per cent, 
of a resin insoluble in cold and soluble in hot alcohol. 

P. Terebinthus, Linn. 

This plant is a native of North Africa ; from it is obtained a semi-fluid 
resin known as Chian Turpentine. Of late years this has attracted con- 
siderable attention in Europe in the treatment of uterine cancer. This 
semi-liquid resin is obtained by making incisions on the stem and 
branches. The plant is found cultivated (or wild) in Egypt, Palestine and 
Algeria, and might easily be introduced into India with profit, since there 
is a growing demand for Chlan Turpentine. 

P. vera, Zi>i«. 

The PiSTACHio-NUTS, which are imported into India from Afghanis- 
tan, form the fruit of this tree. 

A gum also is said to be obtained from this plant. 

Pithecolobium lobatunii Benth,, LEGUMiNosiE. 

Vera. — Tanyin, BuRM. 
An evergreen tree met with in the forests from the Pegu Yomah and 
Martaban down to Tenasserim. Frequently cultivated by the Burmese. 

Exudes a blackish resin. (Kure,) P. Saman exudes a clear yellow fifum. 
( T, W. Oliver,) 


Gums and Resins. 

[Part I. 

Poinciana elatai Linn,^ Leguminosje. 

Venu—Sankdsura, Mahr. ; Padenarayan, Tam. ; Sunkeswar, Tel.; 
Nirangi, Kan. 

Found in the forests of South India and the Western Peninsula ; 
planted elsewhere. It was introduced from Madagascar^ and is now found 
planted all over India. 

The gum was sent from Madras to the Punjab Exhibition. The tree 
yields gum. 

Pongamia glabra, Ven/.^ Leguminosa. 

Vera. — Karanj, papar, HiND. ; Dalkaramcha, karanja, Bbng.; Pong, 
Tam. ; Kanga^ Tel. ; Thinwin, Burm. 

Grows in the Sub-Himalayan tract, from the Ravi eastward, in Bengal 
Burma, Central and South India. 

It yields a thick, black, opaque gum. (Spons* Enc.) Dr. Dymock 
writes me to say that he has never seen any gum on this 'tree, and that 
gum does not exude when the tree is wounded. 

Poon-yet or Pwainget. See Pwe^yet 

Populus balsamifera, Lmn., Salicineje. 

Vera. — Phalsh, makkal, Pb. ; Berfa, changma, W. Tibet. 
A large tree of the inner arid Himalaya and Tibet, 8,000 to 14,000 feet. 
The leaves and the branches are full of balsamic juice, which also 
exudes from fresh cuts between the bark and the wood. (Gamble,) 


glandulosai Torr., Leguminosje. 
The " Mesquit or Algaroba of Texas.' 

A native of the mountain regions of Western Texas. Successfully in- 
troduced into India by the Department of Agriculture and Commerce of 
the North- Western Provinces. 

It yields a large quantity of gum, resembling gum-arabic, often used 
as a mucilage in makmg jujubes. 


P, spicigerai Linn, 

'Vern,—Shafni, Bbng., Mahr., Uriya ; Jhdnd, khdr. Pa. ; Samada, sami, 
kandi, or kundi, SiND; Khijra, Rajputana; SemrutGxjz.; Perumbi, 

A moderate-sized tree of Punjab, Sind, and the Western Peninsula. 
It yields a gum, similar to gum-arabic. 








Part I.] 

Economic Products of India. 



Pranus AmygdaluSy BailL, Rosaceje. 

The Almond. 

Vera. — (Var., Sweet Almonds) Bdddm, (Bitter Almonds) Kurwe- 
bddam, Hivi>., 'Bou. ; Vddam-kottai, T sx, \ Ka&happu vadam kottai, 
Tel. ; LouB-ul-murr, Arab. 

This tree yields the Badam or Hog Tragacanth exported from Persia 
into Bombay, and re-exported to Europe. It is used as a substitute for the 
true Tragacanth. The Hog-gum of European commerce is obtained from 
a tree (Symphonia s^lobuufera, Linn., Guttifer^), a native of tropical 
South America and the West Indies, and recently discovered in Africa. 

231 P. armeniaca, Zinn. 

The Apricot. 

Wtm^'-^CMMri, kkubani, tard dlu. Hind.; Hart, gardalu, shir an, ktish, 

Cultivated in the Western Himalaya. 

The tree yields a gum similar to Tragacanth. This, with all the 
gums from the members of this genus, is known commercially as Cherry 
gum. Of this series the gum from the true cherry is the most valuable, 
being more soluble than the others, and used commercially in France. 

232 P. Cerasus, Z/Vi«. 

The Cherry. 

Syn. — P. CAPRONlANA,'Z?C. 

Vera. — Alu baH, or Alu-bu-ali, Pbrs. ; Kerdsya, Arab. ; Gilas, olcki, Pb. 

Is generally cultivated in the North- Western Himalaya. 

Yields cherry gum. The kernels are sold for medicinal purposes ; 
they contain a small quantity of prussic acid, and are supposed to 
strengthen the nervous system. 

233 P. communis, Huds,, forma AL(5CHA. 

The Plum. 
Syn. — P. aloocha, Royle; P. bokarirnsis, Royle, 

Vera. — Aloobokhdrd^ H*ID., BoM., Pers.j Alucha, olcki, shaft dlu, Pb. ; 
Alpo-gdda'Pagham, Tam. 
Cultivated from Garhwal to Kashmir in the Western Himalaya. 
Yields a yellow gum not of any value ; it somewhat resembles gum- 
arabic, and is often known as Persian gum. 

The Bokhara plum is largely used in a dry state, and in fact it may 
be regarded as the officinal plum of India. It is sub-acid, digestive and 
aperient, and may be advantageously used in the preparation of medi- 
cal confections. 

234 P, Padus, Z^'««. 

^j^fjl^-^Paras, kalakat, eambu, dudla, Pe. ; Hlo sa hlot-kung, Lkpcha. 
Himalaya, from the Indus to Sikkim. 
Yields sparingly an inferior gum. 


Gums and Resins, 

[ Part I. 

P, p^t^t^y Benih. & Hook, 
The Peach. 

Vera. — Aru, aor, Pb. ; Ghwareshtai, Afg. ; Shfi/ialU, Pers. 
Commonly cultivated throughout the Himalaya and in Upper Burma. 
Yields scantily an unimportant gum. 

P. Puddum^ Roxd. 

Vem. — Paddam, pdya,HiiiD,; Chamiari, amalgach, Pb.; Padtna'kasta, 
BOM; Kongki,X,EFCHA. 

Wild in the Himalaya^ from the Indus to Assam and the Khisia Hills. 

It yields an abundant ^um, not used for any economic purpose. 

It seems probable that it is the twigs of this lant which are sold in 
the medicine shops on account of the bark containing a small quantity 
of a substance resembling prussic acid. 



Pterocarpus indicus, Willd,, LEGUMiNosiE. 

Vem. — Padaukf BuRM. ; Chalanga-d'a, And. 

A lofty tree of Burma and the Andaman Islands. 
Yields gum-kino. {Kurs.) 

P. macrocarpus, Kurz. 

Vera. — Padauk, Burm. 

A deciduous tree of the Eng and upper mixed forests of Martaban and 

Yields a red resin, a sort of gum-kino {Kurs,) 

P. Marsupium, Roxb. 

Vem. — Bija, bijasar, sdlbia. Hind.; Asana, Mahr.; Byasa, Uriya; Ven- 
gat, Tam. ; Yeggi, Tel. 

Found in Central and South India, extending northward to the 
Banda district of the North- West Provinces. 

It yields the red gum-resin called " Kino *' — a valuable astringent, 
much used in medicine. The Malabar Kino was sent from Madras to 
the Punjab Exhibition. This is an astringent extract which practically 
should not be classed with gums and resins. The juice is extracted when 
the tree is in blossom by making longitudinal incisions in the bark. The 
juice is collected in a receiver and dried. The hardened juice consists of 
blackish-red, angular, pea-like grains, partially soluble in water, but 
almost entirely in spirits of wine. It is used medicinally, and might be 
used as a source of tannin if sufficiently cheap. 

Punica Granatum, Lmn.y LYTHRACEiE. 

The Pomegranate ; Granades, Fr. ; Granats, Ger. 

Vera. — Anar^ ddrim. Hind.; Ddlim, Kumaun; Shajratur-rumman. 
Arab.; Darakhte-nar, ^eks.; Andr, Dec. ; Dalimba, ; Madalaich, 
ckedif Tam.; Danimma-ckettu, Tel.; ThaU, Burm. 

A small tree, wild in the Sulaiman Range (altitude 3,000 to 6,000 feet), 
and the Salt Range; cultivated in most parts of India and Burma. 

Pwenyet or Poonyet. 

Pwenyet or Pwainget, sometimes called Black Dammar. 







Part I.] 

Economic Products of India. 






A honeycomb black resin, met with in Burma, formed by a Hymenop- 
terous insect (Trigona laericeps). This insect seems to obtain the resinous 
matter from the following plants : Hopea odorata, Roxb^ the Thingan of 
Burma ; Dipterocafpos Ic^is, toxttDataa, Gcertn. (<=bevis, Ham,), the Wood- 
oil Tree, the Kanyengftee j and Ouiiifiam bengalense, Roxb,j and pro- 
bably also from Shorea obtnsay Thitya, which exudes a white resin. 

It must, however, obtain its resinous supply chiefly from the first two of 
these, as the others are not common. It constructs its hive in the 
hollows or bifurcations of trees, the crevices of rocks, or on the ground. 
A trumpet-shaped entrance is constructed of the resinous matter, pro- 
truding often for about a foot in length, and gracefully widening to about 
the same extent. To obtain the hive, the trees have, in the majority of 
cases, to be hewn down, each yielding about 4 lbs. The principal use of 
Poon-yet is for caulking boats, for which purpose it is mixed with earth- 
oil or petroleum. It is first boiled in water ; thereafter it is kneaded with 
petroleum until it attains the consistency of putty. 

Specimens of this resin, and also a perfect hive, should, if possible, be 
procured from Burma, together with all the Dammar resins met with in 


Rhus SUCCCdanefty Linn., Anacardiacs. 

Vef11« — Tatri,ariol, nurku, Pb.; Raniwalai, Nepal ; Serhnyok, Lepcha. 

Himalaya, from the Jhelam to Assam, and the Khisia Hills. 

The seeds yield a pure white wax, made into candles in Japan. 

The stems of this and also R. Tarmcefeta are in Japan and China 
scratched at the age of 4 or 5 years. From these incisions an exudation 
is obtained which constitutes the varnish used in Japanese and Chinese 
lacquer work. 

Saccopetalum tomentosum. Hook./., esf T. T., Anonaces. 

Vera. — Kirna, karri. Hind.; Hoom, Bom.; Chilkadudu, Tel. 
Oudh and Gorakhpur, Behar, Central India and the Western Gh&ts. 
A large tree with straight stem ; bark* an inch thick ; leaves used 
as fodder. 

It yields a g^m belonging to the false tragacanth or hog-g^um series. 

Sagabenum or Sagapenum or in the older writers Serapinum. 

Iskabena is a Persian name for a gum-resin occurring in small, rounded 
or oblong pieces, of a yellowish-brown colour, supposed to be derived from 
a species of Fernla. The Persian article is quite distinct from the Levant 
ipenam. Specimens and further information should be obtained 
oor ' 

from Bombay. 


Sapindus MukoroSSi} Gaertn., Sapindaceje. 


Vera. — Ritha, dodan, kanmar. Hind. 
Cultivated throughout North- West India and Bengal. 
A gum obtained from this tree was sent by the Madras Forest Depart- 
ment to Amsterdam. 


Gums and Resins. 

[ Part I. 

Sapindus trifoliatus, VahL 

The Soap-nut Tree. 

Syn.— S. EMARGINATA, Vokl. 

Vera. — Rithat HiND.^ Mahr. ; Bararitha, Bbng.; Pounanga, Tam.; Pu- 
vella, CiNGH. 

Often cultivated in Bengal, South India, and Ceylon. 

It yields a gum. The fruits (Ritha) are largely used for washing silk. 

Schleichera trijuga^ Willd,, Sapindacejk. 

Vtm^^Kosum, gausam, HiND. ; PiiskH, Tel.; Pdvd, Tam.; Kusumb, 
Mahr. ; Gyo, Burm. 

A large deciduous tree of the Sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej 
eastward. Central and South India, and Burma. 

Exudes a yellowish resin, Lac is produced on the tree. {Kurs,) 

Scorodosma foetidum, Bunge, Umbellifeiue. 

This is supposed to be the source of the commercial Asafoetida of 
commerce, whicn reaches Bombay from Afghanistan. It seems probable 
that the Persian supply of this substance is obtained from FeniUk Narthex, 
Boiss., which see. 

Semecarpus Anacardium, Zmn.,/. Anacardiaceje. 

Marking-nut Tree, 

Vtxn,—Bhilawa, bh£yla, HiND. ; Bkela, bhelatuki, Beng. ; Bibhd, Mahr. ; 
Shaing, Tam. ; yiri, Tel. ; Chyai beng, Burm. 

Sub- Himalayan tract from the Sutlej eastward to Assam and Chitta- 
gong, but not to Burma ; ascending 3,500 feet in altitude. 

The tree yields a gum, a sample of which has been sent by the Madras 
Forest Department to the Amsterdam Exhibition. Brandis says that 
*' the pericarp Is full of an acrid juice which is used in native medicine. 
A black varnish is made from it, and, mixed with lime water, it is used for 
marking linen." 

S. panduratus, Kurz. 

Vera,— CAtf, Burm. 

A tree of Pegu and Martaban. 
Yields a black resin. {Kure,) 

S. travancorica, Bedd. 

Vera. — Natu sengote, Tam. 
A tree of the Tinnevelly and Travancore Hills. 
It abounds with the same caustic black juice as the preceding. 

Sesbania grandiflora, Pers.y Leguminosje. 


Vera.— 5<Mna, Hind. 5 Buka, bak, Beng.; Shevari, agasta, Mahr ; Agati, 
Tam.; AveshJEL.; Paukpan, Burm. 

Cultivated throughout India and Burma, a doubtful native. 










Part I.] 

Economic Products of India. 


A handsome small tree with pink or white flowers. It is said to yield 
scantily a dark-coloured gum resembling Kino ; the bark is very astrin- 

253 Shorea nervosa, Kurzy Dipterocarpeje. 

A Tenasserim species, yielding a clear yellowish resin of the qualities 
and smell of Colphony. (Kure,) 

254 S. obtusa, Wall, 

Vera. — Thiya, BURM. 

A large tree of the Eng forests of Burma. 
Exudes white resin. 

255 S. robUSta, Gaer/n. 

The SXl Tree. 

Vera. — Sal, sdkoh, sdla, sakku, salwa. Hind.; Bolsal, Garo; Teturl, 
Lepcha; Bakwa, Nepal; Koroh, Oudh; G^gal, Tel. 

North-east moist and intermediate zones : Sub-Himalayan tract, from^ 
the Beas to Assam ; eastern part of Central India, from the Ganges to the 
Godavari, extending westward to the longitude of Mandla, with an out- 
lying patch on and around the sandstone hills of the Pachmari Range. 

A large, gregarious tree, often covering certain interrupted tracts, with- 
out the existence of connecting patches. Very abundant in Chutia Nag- 
pur, and often associated with the MahiSa. 

The tree, when tapped, exudes large quantities of whitish aromatic resin, 
used in native medicine ; also as an incense, and to caulk boats. It occurs 
in small rough pieces, from a pale creamy colour to a dark brown, nearly 
opaque, and very brittle. " In some places in the upper Teesta forests, 
large pieces, often 30 to 40 cubic inches in size, are found in the ground 
at the foot of the trees." {Gamble,) It has no taste or smell, to a small 
extent soluble in alcohol, almost entirely so in ether, and perfectly so in 
turpentine and the fixed oils. It is chiefly used as a substitute for dam- 
mar by boat-builders. 

In Bombay the resin is called Rdl. There are several resins bearing 
this name ; Dymock re|^ards the one obtained from this plant as the true 
Rdla of the Sanskrit writers. 

The conservation of the s51 forest has put a stop to the practice of 
notching the trees and thereby made the supply of siil resin in large quan- 
tities quite improbable. Dr. Dymock informs me that Bombay is supplied 
with rdl from Singapore ; it is probably from the Eastern Archipelago, 
and is imported in large quantities. It occurs in large stalactitic masses, 
of a pale creamy colour to yellowish brown, nearly opaque. This is 
a remarkable fact, incalculable quantities of this most useful gum are 
allowed to go to waste in the forests at our very door, compelling us to 
import our supply from the Straits. It would thus seem that we have 
deprivedalargecommunity of aformer source of subsistence and driven the 
supply of the natural products of the forests to other countries. 


Gums and Resins. 

[Part I. 

Shorea siamensiSi Miq, 


VertL.'^Ingyin, BuRM. 

Common in the In forests of Burma^ especially in those of Ava and 

It yields a red resin. 

S, Tumbuggaia, Roxb. 

Syn. — ^Vatica Tumbuggaia, W. & A. 

Vern. — Cangti, Congo, tumbugai, Tam. ; Tkamhd, Tel. j Vanboga, Malayan. 

Cuddapah and North Arcot districts. 

It yields a Dammar y which is used as a substitute for pitch. {Gamble,) 

Skimmia Laureola^ Hook, /., Rutaceje. 

Vern. — Kedar-patH {Gangotri), Net, barru, Pb. ; Nehar, gurl pata, 
KuMAUN; Chumlani, Nepal; Timournyok, Lepcha. 

An extremely aromatic shrub found throughout the temperate 
Himalaya from Marri to Mishmi, altitude 6,000 to 10,000 feet ; Khasia 
Mountains, altitude 5,000 to 6,000 feet. 

The leaves are burnt as incense, (y. F, Duthie.) 

So3rniida febrifuga, Adr. fuss,, Meliaceje. 

The Indian Red Wood. 

Vern. — Rohan, Hind.; Rohina, Beng.; Shem, Tam.; Sumi, Tel. 
A large deciduous tree of Central India and Deccan. 
The deep red bark is half an inch thick, very astringent and used in 
native medicine ; it contains a gum, 

Spatholobus Roxburghii, Benth,, Leguminosjc. 


Vern. — Mala, mului mania. Hind.; Debrelara, Nepal; Tetrobrik, Lepcha ; 
Pauknwd, BuRM. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jumna eastward to Bengal, and Burma. 
This plant exudes a red gum, resembling " Kino." 

Spondias mang^fera, Pers., Anacardiaceje. 

The Hog Plum. 

Vcm. — Antra, amara, ambodha, HiND. ; Amna, Beng. ; Tongrong, Garo; 
Rdn-amba, Mahr. ; Kat mda, Tam. ; Aravi mamddi, Tel. ; Gwe, Burm. 

Found growing in the Sub-Himalayan tract, ascending to 3,000 feet 
in Sikkim; in the dry forests of South India and Burma ; rare in Central 

It yields a gum, somewhat resembling gum-arabic, but darker in colour. 
A sample was supplied by the Madras Forest Department to the Punjab 








Part I.] 

Economic Products of India. 








Sponia Orientalis, Planch., Urticack*. 
S7IU — Celt IS orikntalis, Liniu 

•Vtm.—Badu manu, C. P. ; Kooail, Nepal ; Ji^ong, Ass. ; Mini, Tam. ; 
Gada-nelli, Tel. ; Garklu, Kan. 
Himalaya, from Nepal eastward; Bengal. Burma, Central and South 

India. A small rapid-growing tree. r *u- * ^ tuo u^ 1, 

The coarse amphalc doth of Assam is made of this tree. The bark 

yields a fibre and a gum. 


Sterculia urens, -^^^j^^, Stkrculiace*. „, , .^ 

kdvali, Mahr. 5 Aoroi, Guz. ; Ketfoy p^alt, Tam. ; ra/*5,., Tel 
Sub.Himalayan tract from the Ganges eastward, common in forests 

'^'u&aSm"ci This belongs to the pale or 

Tra^cS sef^eT. U is inferior but is issued to the Government hospitals 
h^^Kav instead of Tragacanth. It has been repea edly valued m 
Fufoo^ and has been pronounced worth only some 20 shillings a c^. ^ 
DTbtmo^^ Worms me that under the name of Karat- 

gond\t\s\^ge^y used in Bombay in the manufacture of native sweet- 

S. villosa, Soxi. 

Sub-Himalajran tract, from the Indus eastward ; common m forests 

*Tt&'a"thi"^5uc™^n,. exuding freely from scars on the bark. 
It reseSsAe prying, Iftd. like it. is at present commercially value- 
less! U is only sllghdy solible and has no adhesive properties. 


Stereospermum suaveolens, DC, BiGNONiACM. 

Sub-Himalayan tract, from the Jhelam .^tward, ascending to 4.000 
t^t . Roncral Burma, Central and South India. ,- . 

The ^t and th^ bark a.* used in native medicme as a cooling de- 

*^Th"e bark yields a gum, one of the dark^coloured Hog or Tragacanth 

Stvrax BenzoiHi Dryand, SxYRACKa:. 

Vcm.—^^««' "^ND. KLuban is more ptoperiy applied to 01ibMi«By. 
Grows in the Malay Archipelago. 

Gums and Resins. 

[ Part I. 

Yields the true " Gum Benzoin," which is used in medicine, in per- 
fumery, and in the composition of incense. It is produced by incisions 
into the bark, and it occurs in lumps of small masses of tears, or of a 
brownish mass with or without tears. It has an agreeable odour, and is 
soluble in rectified spirit and in solution of potash. It contains from 
76 to 80 per cent, of resin, a volatile oil, and an acid known as benzoic 
acid. The whitish varieties are generally used for medicinal purposes, 
being used chiefly in pulmonary complaints. It is burnt as an incense 
by the Roman Catholics, Buddhists, and Hindus in their worship. The 
smoke it gives out acts as a disinfectant and drives away mosquitoes and 


Two kinds of Benzoin are met with in the London market, viV., Siam 
Benjamin and Sumatra Benjamin. {Dymock,) 

Stsrrax officinale, Zi>i». 

A native of the Levant, Asia Minor and Syria. 

Yields the resin "Storax." This is a solid substance somewhat re- 
sembling Benzoin. This pleasant and fragrant substance has been a 
favourite from the days of Dioscoroides and Pliny. It has practically been 
exterminated. The young twigs do not yield the resin, and where met 
with the plant has been ruthlessly lopped, and thereby reduced to a 
bush. The resin Storax is now. practically unknown. Liquid Storax, see 
Liquidambar orientAlis, Miller. 


S. serrulatum, Roxb. 

Vera. — Kum-^jamevaf Beng. ; Chamo, Lepcha, 
A small tree of Eastern Bengal, Sikkim, and Chittagong. 
Yields gum. 


S. virgatum, Wall. 

A small tree of Eastern Bengal. 

Yields gum, like Benjamin or Benzoin, of inferior quality. 


Swietenia Mahagoni, Linn,, Cedrelace2e, 

Cultivated in Bengal and as far north as Saharanpur; a native of 
Jamaica and Central America. Originally introduced into India in 1795 
but not propagated to any extent until 1865, when Dr. Anderson sowed 
8,000 seeds, from which 460 plants were obtained. These were planted in 
the Darjiling^ forests and in Bengal, the latter succeeding well. 

Is said % yield abundance of a superior silvery-looking gum. 

Tamarindus indicai Linn,^ LEGUMiNosiE. 

Vera. — Amli, ambli, imli. Hind. ; Tinfiri, ientul, Beng. ; Chincha, Mahr. ; 
Pull, Tam.; Chinta, Tel. 5 Karangi, Mysore; Magyi, Burm. 

Cultivated throughout Burma and India as far north as the Jhelam, 




Part I.] 

Economic Products of India. 








Tamariz articulata, vahL, Tamariscinejk. 

Vem. — Paro^j fmrma^ narlei, Pb. ; Asrelei, Sind. 

Found along rivers and the sea-coast^ almost throughout India. 
Yields a small quantity of gum. 

T. dioka, Hoxb. 

Vem.—Lal jkauy Bbng. ; Jhau^ Hind.; Lei^pUcki, Pb. ; Gaz^ Ida, Sind. 

Found along rivers and the sea-coast, almost throughout India. 
It yields a gum which appears nodular, transparent m the central speck 
of each tear, and opaque on the circumference. 

Taxus baccata, Zmn., Coniferje. 

Vera. — Birmi, Kashmir; Tcheiray gulab, Hrpal ; Sarap hadar^ Afg. 
Himalaya, from the Indus to Bhutan, and the Khasia Hills. 
The gtimmy exudation forms a portion of the incense used in Tibet. 

Tectona grandis, Linn,, Verbenaceje. 

The Teak Tree. 

WeOLSdgun, Hind. ; Singuru, Uriya ; Sdj, sal, Arab., Pers. ; Tekku, 
tek, Tam.; Teku, Tel. ; S^ddi, Uga, Kan. ; Jdti, Mal. ; Ky4n, Burm. 

Found in Central and South India and Burma. 

This is the most important timber tree of India and Burma, used for 
ship-building, railway sleepers, carpentry and furniture. The wood yields, 
an oil, which is used medicmally, and from the bark a gum is said to exude. 

Mr. G. E. Evans is of opinion that the wood-tar from this tree con- 
tains all the substances that are present in coal-tar, but in different pro- 
portions. If used like coal-tar, it would produce much less permanent 

Terminalia Aijuna, Bedd,, Combretace-k. 

Veni. — Anjan, arjun, arjuna, Hind.; Arjun, Beng.; Vella marda, Tam.; 
Arjun, Mahr.; Yertnaddi, Tel, -, Taukkyan, Burm. 

Sub-Himalayan tract, Oudh, Bengal, Burma, Central and South 

India. ^ 

It yields a brown translucent gum. 

T. belerica, l^oxb. 

}/ern* — Bdhera, bhaira, behara. Hind.; Bahera, Beng.; Babela, Pers. j 
Yeld, Mahr.; Tani, Tam.; Tani, Tel.; Tkitsein, Burm. 
Sub-Himalayan tract from near the Indus eastward; the forests of 

India and Burma. , . ,. 

It yields copiously a gum which, apparently, is of no economic use. 


Gums and Resins, 

[Part I. 

Terminaia Chebula, Reiz. 

Vera. — Harra, harara, HiND.; Naritaki, Beng.; Niradd, Mahr. ; 
Kadakoi, Tam. ; Karaka, Tel. 

Sub-Himalayan tract, from the Sutlej eastward; Bengal, Assam, Chit- 
tagong, Central and South India* 
Yields a gum. 

T. tomentosa, W. (sf A. 

Veni. — Saj, sein, asan, assain, asna. Hind.; Piasal, a^an, Beng.; 
Karra, tnarda, Tam.; Maddi, Tel.; Taukkyan, Burm. 

Sub-Himalayan tract, from the Ravi eastward, ascending in some 
places to 4,000 feet; Bengal, Central and South India, and Burma. 
It yields a brown gum. 




Thespesia populneai Corr., Malvaceje. 

The Portia or Tulip Tree. 

Syn. — Hibiscus populneus, Willd, 

Vera. — Parsipu, Hind.; Poresk, Beng.; Ports, Tam.; Gangarayu, 
Tel. ; Bendi, Guz. ; Sureya, Cingh. 

It is found in the coast forests of India, Burma, and the Andaman 
Islands. Planted throughout India. 

Said to yield a gum, which was sent from Madras to the Punjab 
Exhibition, and which is probably the yellow milk of the capsules dried. 


A gum obtained from several species of Astfagalus, inhabiting South 
Europe, Asia Minor, and Persia. 

Used in the arts as a substitute for glue. It is of a dull white colour, 
translucent, inodorous, and tasteless. In India the following gums are 
used as substitutes for Tragacanth :— 

Cochlospermum Gossypium, 

StercuUa urens, and 

Hog Trag:acanth, the produce of Primis Amygdalus, imported into 
Bombay from Persia. 



Trichosanthes cucumerinay Lmn,, Cucurbitacejb. 282 

Vera. — Jangli'ckachinda, Hind. ; Ban-Patolf Beng. ; Parula, Mahr. ; 
Pipudel, pudel, Tam.; Chyad-poUa, Tel. 

A gum said to be from this plant was sent from Madras to the Punjab 
Exhibition. This seems doubtful; specimens in confirmation much 

Turpentine. 283 

An oleo-resin, obtained chiefly from various species of Coniferae. 
Several turpentine oleo-resins are also obtained from Anacafdiaceagy of 
which may be mentioned the Chian or Cyprian Turpentine. See Pinus 
and Pistachia. 


Part L] 

Economic Products of India, 







Urceola elastica, Roxb., and U. esculentai Benth.y Apocynaceje. 

VWDW—Kyetpaungj BuRM. 
An extensive, woody climber in the forests of Tenasserim and Pegu, 
Recently Mr. G. W. Strettell has experimented with this plant as a sup- 
plier of caoutchouc, and it seems likely to become useful. Specimens of 
the rubber much required; also further information. 


Various substances used In solution with spirit, or in the natural con- 
dition, or liquified by heat. Of the commercial varnishes the following 
may be mentioned as the more important in use \ — 

ist, — Lac or Spirit Varnish, see Lac. 

2nd, — Burmese Varnish, Melanorrhoea usitata, which see. 

j^^.^Cingalese and Indian Varnish, Seoiecarpus Anacardium, 

which see. 

v^;^._japanese Varnish, Rhw succeedanea, which see. 
^^/i.— t)oon Varnish, Doona Z^lanica, which see. 

Vateria indica, -^i*««.> Dipterocarpeje. 

The White Dammar of South India, or Piney Varnish, or 

Indian Copal. 

Vera. Kakruba or sandras. Hind.; Rat, Bom.; Pineyfnaram,TAM. ; 

Dupa maram, Kan. j Dupadu, Tel. ; Hal, Cingh. (See also Shorea 


Western moist zone; Western Ghats, from Kanara to Travancore, 

ascending to 4,000 feet. ^u d • • z>- r» 

On wounding the tree the resin known as the Petnt or Ptney Dammar 
is obtained. Dr. Bidie reports that under the influence of gentle heat it 
combines with wax and oil, and forms an excellent resinous ointment. 

Dr. Dymoclc, in his Materia Medica of Western India, says : " Rdl is 
imported into Bombay from Singapore in casks and bales, value 1^6 
oer cwt." It forms an excellent varnish resembling Copal. It is also 
burnt as a candle, giving off smoke with a pleasant smell. Specimens 
vary in colour, denseness, and fragrance. Some are of a light-greenish 
colour, homogeneous, vitreous on fracture, while others are of a yellow 
amber colour, and vesicular, 

Vatica lanceaefolia, Biume. 

VtttL—Morhal, Moal,S^i.VLKT ', PanthUyu,BvR^. 
A large tree of Eastern Himalaya, Assam, East Bengal, Chittagong, and 

produces the Ghund of the Brahmins, a strong-smelling balsam. {Kurg,) 

Ventilago madraspatana, GcBrtn. Rhamneje. 

Vem.'-Pakiapita, Beng. ; Lokandi, BoM, ; Papli, Tam., Kan.; Ye^ra 
chiculli, Tel. ; Chorgu, Hyderabad. 
Central and South India and Burma. 
It is said to yield a gum. 


Gums and Resins. 

[ Part I. 

Willoughbeia edulis, RoxL^ Apoctnsje. 

Vem^^LuHam, Beng. 
A large climber of the forests of Chittagong with edible fruits. 
It yields a form of Caoutchouc^ which see. 

W. martabanicay Wtlld. 

A native of Tenasserim. 
Said to also yield caoutchouc. 

Woodfordia floribunda, Salt'sh., Lythraceje. 

Syn.'— Grislea tomentosa^ Roxh, 

Vera. — Ddwi, dhaula, dhaura, santha, Hind.; DkewHt Oudh; Dakir, 
Nepal ; JoHko, Uriya ; Dhauri, Bom. ; ^argi, Tel. ; PhulsaiH, Mar. 

Common throughout India, ascending to 5,000 feet in the Himalayas. 

Balfour says the gum of this plant is collected largely in Harauti and 
Mewar. It appears to resemble gum tragacanth and to swell in water. 
Specimens required for examination. 

Wood-oil. See Guijun and the various species of Dipterocarpns. 

Wrightia tinctoria, R. Br., Apocinacea. 

Vem.^Dudhi, Banda; PdJd, Tam. j Tedlapdl, Tel. ; Kala kudu, Mar. 
Rajputana, Central and South India. 

Xylia dolabriformiSj -^^^M., LEcuMiNosiE. 

Ironwood Tree of Pegu. 
Syn.— Mimosa zylocarpa, Roxb. 

Vera. — yambu. Hind.; Bcga, Ubiyaj Irul, Tam.; Konda tangedu, 
Tel,; Pyinkado, Bvrk. i Jambe, Kan. 

Chanda District, South India, Arracan, Burma. 
It yields a red resin. 

Zizyphus Jujubai Lamk., Rhamneje. 

Vera. — B4r,baer, HiVD,; Kul, b4r, Beng.; Boruy Mahr. ; Zin, Burm.; 
Rengha, regi, Tel. ; Yellande, Tam. ; Yelchi, Kan. 

Cultivated throughout India and Burma. 
Said to yield gum. 

Z. nummularia, W. & A. 

Vera. — Malla, b4r, f'hari, kanta, N. W. P.; Nundo^fangrOtSiHD, ; Parpalli, 
Kan. ; Karkannoy Afg. 

Drier parts of North-\yest India and the Deccan. 
Said to yield a gum. 

E 65 





r f'7l] , 





Part I. ] 

Economic Products of India. 




Zizyphus rugosa, Lamk. 

Syn. — Z. LATiFOLiA, Roxb, 

Vera. — Dhauroy OuDH ; Suran, C. P. ; Fukk baer, Nepal ; Torana, Mahr. 

Sub-Himalayan tract, from the Ganges eastward; Burma, Central 
and South India. 
Said to yield gum. 

Z. vulgaris, Lamk. 

Syn* —Z. PLBxuosA, Wall. 
Vera. — Sinj'li, simlit ban. Hind. 

A shrub or small tree of the Punjab, ascending to 6,000 feet in altitude ; 
cultivated in Bengal. 
Said to yield gum. 

Government of India Central Printing Office.— No. i B. S.~S3*i 1-83. -500. 



CakuUa inttrnaticmal ffixhibitton, 1883-84. 


Part II. 





Calcutta int^matiffnal ^xhxbitiffn, 1883-84- 

Part II.— Dyes, Tans, & Mordants. 

~~ ABIR. 

Abies Webbiana, LindL, CoNiFERAic. 

Vern. — Paludar, rewart, Jhelam ; Bddar, Kashmir; I^ag, re, task, spun, 
pun, Himalayan names. 

A lofty, evergreen tree found on the Himalaya, from the Indus to 
Bhutan, altitude 7,000 to 13,000 feet. 

Mr. Duthie, Superintendent Botanic Gardens, Saharanpur, has drawn 
my attention to the fact that Veitch in his Manual of Coniferce, states that 
** a beautiful violet dye is extracted from the young cones " of this plant. 
It is remarkable that neither Stewart, Brandis, nor Gamble allude to this 
dye, while in Gordon's Pinatum occurs the following: "It is called Rai^sulla 
(fragrant fir) and Gobrea-sulla (fragrant or indigo fir) by the Gorkhalis 
on account of an indigo or purple pigment being extracteci f rom the young 
cones. " It would be exceeoingly interesting to have this dye properly 
confirmed by first information and specimens of the dye stiff or cloths 
dyed by this process, 

Abir^ or the white perfumed powder which is mixed with the red Gulal 
powder and used at the Holi festival. 

ist. — The Bengal Holi powder is prepared from Curcama Zedoaria, 
Roscoe, and sappan wood. Dr. McCann publishes from the records of 
the Bengal Economic Museum as the practice adopted in Mymensing 
in his Dyes and Tans the following description : — 

" The shati is washed and pounded in a dheukt. The powder 
is then put into an earthen vessel full of water and allowed 
to rot. The water is afterwards poured off, and the powder 
is dried. It is then mixed with the juice extracted from 
bakram wood. This turns it red, and it is called Abir or holi 
powder. Shati is gathered for this purpose in the month of 
Poos (December-January.) " 
The practice which seems to prevail in most other parts of 
India is to prepare the two powders quite distinct from each 
other and to mix them as required. Dr. Dymock has favoured 
me with the following list of Abir powders : — 

Part IL] 

Economic Products of India. 


2nd. — A whitish Abir made from the following : — 
Andfopogoa mnricatng, 
Hedychinm tpicatnm. 
Csaalpioia Sappan. 
Sof^hnn vulgiure (flour.) 

3rd, — ^The buff-coloured Hindi Gulal known as Ghisi contains, in 
addition to the above, the following : — 

Cenunia (Pmnus) Malialeb. 

Artemisi vnlgaiit. 

Cedrus Deodonu 

Cnrcnma Zedooiia. 


4th. — Deccan Abir or Bukka is of a black colour and in addition to all 
the above it contains the following : — 

Aqaillaria Agallocba. 
Costus root (Saussurea Lappa)) C.B.C., formerly Aucklandia 

Costus, Falc. 


5th, — ^The Abir of the Jains is of a pale yellow colour. It is called 
VasaUshepa : it is made of Caeaalpinia Sappamu 

CarthafflttS tinctoria (saffron). 



Voight in his Hortus Sub. Calc. states that Trapa bispliiosa (the Sin- 
gara nut^ is used as an Abir. " During the Holi festival a red dye is 
made of it mixed with the yellow dye procured from the flowers of Butea 
frondosa. Drury quotes this paraerapTi without acknowledgment, but I can 
find no other mention of this, and presume the flour of the Singara nut 
is simply used in place of flour being coloured with the gulal. 

Acacia arabica, wnid., Leguminosje. 

The Indian Gum Arabic Tree. 

Ytnu^Babul, kikar, HiND., BoM., Pb.; Bdbld, Beng. ; Babbar, SiVTi, ; 
Kar^-veylam, Tam. ; T4ma, nella tttma, Tel. 

A small, thorny tree» common everywhere in India ; cultivated in Pegu 
Division, Burma. 

The bark is a powerful astringent, and is one of the tanning substances 
most extensively used in India. There seems no good reason why this 
might not compete with the Australian Wattle-bark if once made pro- 
perly known ; its cheapness, as compared with the Wattle, would more 
than compensate for a slight inferiority in quality. The pods and the 
bark yield a brown or black dye, with alum as a mordant. Balfour says 
the legumes are used as a substitute for the more expensive dye-stuffs, 
and for communicating shades of drab. Salts of iron deepen the black 
dye. The seeds, pods, and leaves are also used in tanning, but more 
rarely than the bark. Leather tanned with babul is of a buff colour. 

Dyes, Tans, and Mordants. 

[Part II. 

Catechu, Wiiid. 

Catechu, Cutch, Eng,\ Cachore, Fr, 

"VenL^—Khair, katha, Hind., Dec. ; Khayer, kuth, Bbng. ; Khadira, Sans. ; 
KhoirOf koir. Ass.; Kashukatti, vodalai, karangalli, bdgd, wodalior, 
kashu, katti, Tam. ; Podala-manu, kanchu, Tel. ; KachUf Kan. ; Sha, 


The Gum-resin Catechu is generally called i^aMi^i^a^A, Hind., Bom., Bbno.» 
Pb. ; Katta-kambu, Tam.; KJiadira, Sans. 

A tree, 30 to 40 feet high, abundant in the forests of India and Burma. 

It yields a valuable extract similar to Gambier; used as an astringent 
in medicine, and in dyeing and tanning. This is known as Gum Catechu; 
it possesses 45*55 per cent, of dark-coloured mimotannic acid. A solution 
of Catechu is, by the action of lime or of alum, changed into a dull red 
colour, which constitutes a fairly good dye, and is used for that purpose 
in some parts of India; the gum may be used or the heartwood broken 
up and boiled with the lime. 

The bark is also used as a tan* 

A. condnna, DC. 

Vera. — Rtthd, kochi, Hind. ; Ban-^ithd, Beng. ; Aila, rassaul, Oudh ; 
Sikekaiy shika, Bom., Dec. ; Shaka, Tam. ; Chikaya, gogu, Tel. ; Sigif 
Kan.; iT^n^Mn, Burm. 

A climbing shrub found in South India, Bengal, Assam, and Burma. 
Ainslie first described the properties of the pods ; they are largely used as 
a detergent, especially in washing the hair ; they are also deobstruent and 

Balfour says the bark is used for dyeing and tanning fishing nets in 
South India. 

Confirmation of this, and specimens, required. 

A. decurrens, Wiiid, 

The black or common Wattle-bark of Australia, now much used for 
tanning. It is being experimentally cultivated in India* See Wattle* 

A. Famesiana, Wtild. 

Vera. — Vilayati kikar, vilayaii bdb4l, g4-ikikar, gand-bdb4l, Hind. ; 
Guya bdb^la, Beng.; Gudodbla, Bom.; Vedda vala, Tam. ; Kasturu 
Tel. ; Fait, Kan. ; Hnanlongyaing, Burm. 

A small, thorny tree or shrub with sweetly-smelling flower-heads known 
as Cassie in perfumery ; common throughout India. 

Christy, in his New Commericial Plants, includes the bark of this 
tree among the Indian tans. It is not much used in India, but is 
reported to be sometimes used in Dacca, mixed with salts of iron. It 
gives an inky dye. The pods are also used in some parts of Bengal as a 
dye-stuff, (McCann,) 

A. Intsia, Wiild. 

Vern.'^Arhai-ka'bSl, Sutlej ; Katrar, Kumaun ; Harrari, Nepal; Payir 
rik, ngraemrik, Lepcha; Korinta, Tel. 

A large climber, met with on the outer Himilava from the Chenab 
eastward, altitude 4,000 ieet, and throughout the lower hills of India 
and Burma. 

The bark or the fresh leaves of this plant are said to be used as an 
auxiliary or astringent in dyeing with MoRiNDAor Lac, giving brightness. 
(McCann.) The bark is also used as a substitute for soap to wash the 
hair. (Gamble*) 

A I 3 



Part II.] 

Economic Products of India. 



Acada leucophloea, wnu. 

Vera. — Reru, raunj, iarir^ rokanif safed kihar. Hind. ; Arinj, Raj- 
PUTANA ; Hewar, Mar. ; Sharab-ki-kikar, Dec. ; Raundra, Banswara ; 
Vel-velam, Tam. ; Harwar^ UUa-tuma, Tel. ; Bilijdli, Kan. ; Tanaung, 


A tree met with in North, West and South India and Burma. 

The leaves are used in dyeing, and g^ve a black colour. The bark is 
also used for dyeing in Burma and gives a red colour, but mixed with 
other barks gives black. {Prof. Romanis.) 






AchyrantfaCS aspcrfty Linn.^ Am arantacea. 

Vera. — Latjird, chirckird, ckirckitta^ Hind.; ^^ngy Beng. ; Aghdddy 
Bom. ; AftMmarga, Sans. ; Nai-yurur^ Tam. ; Titta-reni, Tel. ; Kutri, 
Pb. ; Atiumaky Arab. ; Kkare^iutkun, E*ers. 

A shrub 3 to 4 feet ; found all over India, ascending to 3/xx) feet. A 
troublesome weed in gardens throughout the year. 

The ashes of this plant are used as an alkali in dydng. 

Adeiiaiifhera pavonina, Linn., Leguminosjb. 

RsD Wood or Red Sandal Wood. 

Vera. — Rakta-ckandany rakta kanckan^ ranjana, Beng. ; Tkorali gunja, 
Mahr. ; Ani kundamani, Tam. -, Bandi gurivenda, Tel. ; Manjadi, 
Kan.; Reckedd, And.; Yweygyi, Burm. . 

A small, deciduous tree met with in Bengal, South India, and Burma. 
Sometimes called Red Samdai* Wood. 
The wood is used as a dye. 

Adhatoda Vasica, Nees, Acanthacsa. 

yenu^Ar^sOj Hind. ; Bdkas, vasmk, Beng. ; Adulasa, Mahr. ; Arus, 
Sans. ; Adkatodai, Tam. ; Adiuara, Tel. ; Teeska, Naga; Katk, Nepal. 

A small, sub-herbaceous bush, often gr^^arious, found everywhere in 
Bengal, and in the Sub-Himalayan tract, ascending to 4,000 feet in 


A yellow dye, obtained from the leaves by boiling, is used for dyeing 
coarse cloth. It gives a greenish-blue when combined with indigo. This 
property is not apparently known to the Nagas, who cultivate the plant 
to shadfe the approaches to their villages. I repeatedly asked if they pre- 
pared a dye from it, and was told that they did not, but that they used it 
for divining. 

JEgle MarmeloSy Coma., Rutacea. 

The Bael Fruit Tree. 

Vera. — £//, Hind., Beng. and Bom. ; Sripkal, Sans. ; Vilva-pasham, 
Tam.; BUva-pandu, maredu, Patir, Tel.; BUapatri, Kan.; Okshit, 

A small tree, found in cultivation all over India, often curiously sending 
up off-shoots from the roots, which in time become trees. 

Dyes, TanSy and Mordants, 

[Part IL 


A yellow dye is obtained from the rind of the fruit ; the Unripe rind is 
also used along with myrabolans in calico-printing. 

Albizzia Lebbek, Benth., Leguminosje. 

Vcm. — Siris, sir as, sirin, sir at, tantai, gar so, kalsis. Hind. ; ^iris, sirisha, 
Beng, Mahr. ; Suree, Sind. ; Vaghe, Tam. ; Dirasan, darshana, Tel. ; 
Kal bagki, bengha, Kan. ; Kokko, Burm. ; Beymadd, gachodd. And. 

A large, spreading tree, found wild or cultivated in most parts of India. 
The bark is used in tanning leather. 

A. lophantha, Benth. 

An Australian tree, now largely grown in India; naturalised on the 
Nilgiri Hills. 

The bark may be used in tanning. 

A. procera, Benth. 

Syn. — Mimosa blata, Roxb. 

Vern. — Safed siris, gurar, karo, gurbdri, gurkur, gar so , HiND. ; Koroi, 
Beng., Ass. ; Karallu, kini, kili, BoM. j Khili, GIRO ; Takmur, Lep- 
CHA ; Kanaluy Dec. ; Konda vaghe, Tam. ; Pedda'fattseruy Tel. ; 
Burdd, And. ; Sit, Burm. 

A large tree of the Himalaya, from the Jumna to Bengal^ Central Prov- 
inces, Guzerat, South India and Burma. 
The bark is sometimes used as a tan. 


Tan obtained from an American species of the genus Frosoptef, of 
which P. pallida, Kunth, is the most important. See Prosopis. 

Alkalis or Alkaline Ashes. 

These salts are largely used in India as mordants, but rarely in a 
pure form. They are derived from the ashes of many plants, chiefly the 
following : — 

Abnis precatorius— Gunja, Kunch. See list of Medicinal Products. 
[lo] Achyiantes aspera — Apamirga, Aping, 
[lal Adhatoda Vasica— Vasaka. 

Alstonia scholaris — Saptaparni» Chhatin. 
Ainarantus spinosa. 
Anthroenemum indicum — Moq. 

Bambu Ash. 
Butea frondosa— Palisa. 
Caesalpinia Bonducella— Pritika. 
Caroxylon foetidum — Moq. 
„ Griffithii— ^0^. 

Calotropis gigantea—ArkA, Akanda. 
Cassia Fistula— Aragvadha, Sond&l. 
Cedrus Deodara — Davaddru. 
Euphorbia neriifolia— Snuhi. 
Euphorbia Tinicalli—Lankasij. 
Erythrina indica — Paribhadra, P41ita-madar. 
Gmelina arborea — Gambhari. 
Holarrhena antid7senterica-;-Kut]a, kurchi. 
Luffa aegyptiaca—Koshataki. 
Musa sapientum — Kadali, Kela. 







Part II. ] 

Economic Products of India. 




•Lodhra, lodh. 
VaMikd MiotntiM - Alsphota, happur-mafi. 
l^mM^IMido, Unn, SamaU. 

Of minerals aloiii and sajiwidH (a mixture of carbonate of potash 
and soda, found as a natural earth) are those most osed. 
See AmriHariei of Dyo^ 


Therootof AfldoMliiiCbKiR of China. 

A red dye, much used in colottring liquids. The alkanet of Sikkim is 
obtained from OaamBm, Hoolrrfij Clarke (which see); Dr. Dymock in- 
forms me that a root is imported from Afghamstan as an alkanet which 
he thinks may prove a species of A*"f'**n 


20 Almis nepalensis, D. Don., Cupuliferjk. 

The Nepal Alder. 

Vcnu — Kold, Pb.; [/desk, Kumaun; Udis, uHs, Nepal; Kowal, Lepcha. 

A tally sparsely-branched, deciduous tree, whose leaves soon become 

i completely perforated by insects. It occurs from the Ravi eastward, 

between 3/xx> and 9^000 feet in altitude, to the Khasia and Naga Hills. 
I The bark is used for dyeing and tanning. By the Naeras and Mani- 

i puris it is used in combination with Rnbia aikkifluiiste and K. cordifolia to 
! deepen the colour. See Rnbia. It is also said to enter into the com- 
j position of native red inks. (Stevtart.) 

21 A. nitida, Endl. 

I Veen* — Skrol, saroli, sawdli, ckapu, rajan, kun iash, Pb. ; Pay a uiiesht 

Kumaun ; Gira, Afg. 

A large tree, met with in the Punjab Himalaya. 
The bark is used for dyeing and tanning. 


Aloe verAy Lmn,, LiLiACEiE. 

Indian Aloe, Eng.; Aloes, /r.; Aloe, Germ. 


(Bauhin), Lam, 

XL — Ghikuvdri, , 

Eliya (the Ttsxn) kora-kand {the plant); ife^wtari, Dec; Kanvdr, kora 
kand, kora-phaafSifiX) ; Kariyarpolam, kattdli, kala-buntha, Tam.; 
Musham bdram, Tel. ; Mok, Burm. 
Mr. J. Q. Baker, in the Linncean Society's journal. Vol. XVIII* 


Dyes, Tans^ and Mordants, 

[ Part II. 

P' ly^t has established the synonyms above given, and formed under 
this species two varieties. Bentley &Trinnen, in their Medicinal Plants, 
reduced all the names for the forms of this species to mere synonyms, 
under the name of A. vulgaris, Lam. I regard Mr. Baker as correct, 
and the varieties formed by him are well known to the natives of India. 

Var. offidnalis, sp., Forsk, 

Syn. — A. RUBESCENS, DC, } A. indica, Royle. 

Vem,^Kumari, Hind.; Ghikawdr, N. W. P.; Ghirta-kanvdr, Beng.; 
Sirrughd, kutialay, Tam. {see Ainslie); Nabatussibr, dulsi, Arab.; 
Dura-kkte-sibr, Pers. 

This is the form met with in a semi-wild condition in Bengal and the 
North- West Provinces. It has beautiful reddish and orange flowers, 
with the bases of the leaves purple-coloured and so dilated as to have in 
all probability suggested the name A. perfoliata. 

Var. littoralis, sp., Koenig, 

y^etn.'^ChhStd-rakus-pattah, chhotd-kanvdr, HiND., ^ Dec. ; Chhetd-jangli- 
dnanash, Beng.; Shiru-katrdak-ai, Tam.; Chinna-kalabanda, Tel.; 
Dhdkutd kunvdra, BoM.; Ndni-komdri, Guz. U. C. Dutt says that 
this plant was not known to the Sanskrit authors, but Ainslie g^ves it the 
Sanskrit name of kumari. 

This is altogether a much smaller form, having yellow flowers in simple 
spikes, with the bases of the leaves not half so broad as in the preceding, 
and always of a pale green colour. It has become quite naturalised on 
the coast of the south of the Madras Presidency. 

In Span's Encyclopcedia there occurs an account of the preparation 
of the dye " Chrysammic Acid," It is prepared by heating 8 parts of 
nitric acid with i part of Aloes. After the violent action has subsided, a 
second proportion of Aloes is added to the mixture until the fumes of 
Hyponitric acid subside. The mass is then poured into water, when 
Chrysammic flakes settle in the bottom of the vessel. These are washed 
several times in water. The crystals change their colour under vary- 
ing circumstances, giving a purple colour to silk, black to wool, and 
pink to linen, A French firm has recently used it to give a beautiful 
brown, known as vegetable brown, which is produced through the agency 
of sulphuric acid. This dye is bright ; it resists strong alkaline action ; it 
combines with most of the anilines and other dyes, economizing them and 
rendering them thoroughly fast ; and it is not expensive. 

It would be exceedingly interesting to know if the existence of this dye 
is known to the cultivators of the Indian Aloes, and if it has ever been 
extracted in India. As the uses of this dye will probably be greatly deve- 
loped, it seems desirable to make the process of preparation known. 

Information, and specimens of this dye, much required. 

Alpinia Galanga, Swz,, SciTAMiNEiE. 

The Greater Galangale, Eng, ; Galanga Port, 

Vern. — Kulanjdn, kulinjdna, kara-kalijan, or kara-kulinjdn. Sans., Ben., 
Hind.; Pera-rattai, Tam.; Pedda-dumpa-rash'trakam, Tel.; Padago- 
jt, BuRM. 

A perennial plant native of Sumatra and Java, now cultivated in 
East Bengal and South India. 

Mr. Buck says that this root-stock is imported into the North- West 
Provinces from the Punjab, and is used in calico-printing along with 




Part II.] 

Economic Products of India * 







Althaea officinalis, Linn., Malvaceje. 

The Marsh Mallow. 

Vera. — (?«/ MaiVo, Hind, and Bom.; Skemai-tuH, Tam. The fruits are 
Tukm-d'khitnU, Pers. and Bom.; the roots Resha-i'khitm^, Pers. and 

A native of Kashmir and the Punjab Himalayas. 

Often cultivated in Indian gardens for its flowers, rarely for its dye, 
a rich blue, obtained from the leaves. A. Rosea, Linn, the Holly Hock, 
yields the dye even more freely than A. offidnalis, L., and may also be 
used for the preparation of this dye and is met with plentifully in Kashmir. 

Information as to whether this dye is actually prepared in India would 
be exceedingly interesting. 


Vtau—Pkitkariy Hind.; Phaikiri, Beng.; SpkaHkdri, Sans.; Pati-katam, 
Tam., Tel. Kyaukchin, Burm. 

The most common Indian mordant. 

Information of existence in India or trade in this valuable salt would 
be most acceptable. Mr. Buck says it is imported into the N. W. Pro- 
vinces from Calcutta, and is much used as a mordant in dyeing, especially 
with madder and turmeric. 

** According to Dr. Brandls alum can be obtained from shale which 
exists in abundance in the Shwegyin District in Burma." y» C Hardingey 
Esq., Secy., Agri^Horticultural Society, Rangoon. 

Amarantus spinosus, Wiiid , Amarantac^je. 

Vem. — Kdntd'HatS, or Kdnta nutia, Beng.; Rdnte-maf, rdntemdtha, 
Dec ; Mullukkirai, Tam. 

Dr. McCann, in his Report on the Dye-stuffs of Bengal, states that in 
Cuttack the ashes of this plant are used in dyeing with Mallotus phi- 

Anacardium occidentale, Linn.^ Anacardiaceje. 

The Cashew Nut. 

VertL—Kdjii, Hind., Bom.; Hijali bdddm, Bej^g.; Mundiri-kotiai, Tam. ; 
Jidifnamidi, Tel.; KempugSrus, Kan.; Thi-hothayet, Burm. 

A high tree, 30 to 40 feet ; originally introduced from South America, 
now established in the coast forests of India, Chittagong, Tenasserim, and 
the Andaman Islands, and over South India. 

The bark may be used for tanning. The pericarp gives an oil, called 
" Cardol, " which is very astringent, and is used by the Andamanese to 
tan 6r colour fishing nets, so as to preserve them. Dr. Dymock informs 
me that this oil is called Deek in Goa, where it is much used as a tar for 
boats and nets. 

Anogeissus acuminata, Wall., CoMBREXACEiE. 

Syn. — CoNocARPus acuminata, Roxb. 

'Vem,^Chakwa, Beng.; Panchi, past, Uriya; Numma, Tam. ; Pdchi 
mdnut pashi, pansi, Tel. ; Phds,MAR.; Ydn, BuRM. 

A large, deciduous tree in some districts of Bengal, Orissa, South 
India, Chittagong, and Burma. 


Dyes, Tans, and Mordants. 

[ Part II. 

The leaves are used in Gamsur for tanning. (Gamble.) 

Anogdssus latifolia, Wall. 

Syn — CoNocARPUs latifolia, DC. 

Vera. — Dkdwa, dkaurUf bakli^ Hind. ;Ddurd, Mahr.; Golra, goldia^ dkokri 
dau, Rajputana.j Vellay nagcii namnte, Tam. ; Skerimanu, cherimdrif 
tirman^ Tel.; Dohu, Uriya; Dhdaori, dandua, Mar.; Dinduga, bej'alu, 
Kan. ; Anna, Gond. 

A denizen of the Himalayan forests and of those of South India j a 
tall, handsome tree. 

It yields a gum, used by calico-printers. Dr. Dymock informs me 
that the leaves are in Bombay used as a tan. They were analysed by Dr. 
Lyon and were found to contain as much tannin as those of the Sumach 
tree Mr. Duthie reports that they are also used as a tan in the N. W. 

Anona reticulatai Linn., Anonaceje. 

The Bullock's Heart. 

Vem, — Nona, Beng. ; Rdmphal, Dec ; Rdmsitd, Tam. ; Rdmchettu, Tel. 

A small tree, wild in some parts of India, but widely cultivated; occur- 
ring everywhere in Bengal, Burma, and South India. 

The dry, unripe fruit yields a black dye, and the fresh leaves a fairly 
good quality of indigo. 

Aporosa villosa, Bat'L, Euphorbiaceje. 

The bark is used as a red dye. See Gums and Resins. 

Areca Catechu, Zmn., Valium. 

The Areca or Betel-nut Palm. 

Vem. — Supdri, Hind.; Supdri, gud, Beng. ; Gubdk, Sans. ; Kottai-pakka, 
Tam. ; Poka vakka, Tel. ; Kun, ktin theebin, Burm. 

The most delicate and graceful of Indian palms. The natives chew the 
nut in a preparation called pdn, containing, in addition, lime, spices, and 
the betel-pepper leaf. This, acting chemically upon the saliva, colours it 
red. A decoction of the nut is used in dyeing, and a kind of inferior 
Catechu is prepared from it. With Tun (Cedrela Toona) it is said to 
give a red dye. Pdn is also used in Dinajpur as a subsidiary in dyeing 
red with Morinda tinctoria. {Dr. M*Cann*s Report.) 

Amabia sp., BoRAGiNEiE. 

Dr. Dymock informs me this root is imported into Bombay from 
Afghanistan and used as a substitute for Alkanet, which see. 


AmottO) the seeds of Bixa Orellana, Linn., which see. 


Arseniate of Potash is used for preserving hides. Crude white arsenic 
is used as veterinary medicine in Burma. {Prof. Romanis.) 

Information of the uses and trade in this substance would be most 









Part II. ] 

Ecanomic Products of India, 






Artocarpus integrifoUa, Linn., Urticacea. 

The Indian Jack Tree. 

Vem.'-Panas, phanasa. Hind. ; Kdnikdl, Bbnq. 5 Panasa, Sans, j Pillah, 
Tam. ; Palah-maram, Tel. j PiennSy Burm. 

A low but densely-branched tree, met with all over India and Burma, 
its trunk burdened with a monster fruit often i to 2} feet in length. 

The wood, or its saw-dust, yields on decoction a yellow dye, used to 
colour the Burmese priest's cloth, and to some extent it is used also in 
Madras and other parts of India and in Java. It is fixed with alum, and 
often intensified by a little turmeric. 

A. Lakoocha, Roxb. 

Vem. — Barhal, dahu, lak4ck, HiND.; Deph4l, Besg, ; Lakucha, Sans.; 
Tuin, Pb.; Lovi, Dec ; Kammaregu, Tel. ; MyauAldt or Mi-auk-tok, 

A common tree in Bengal, South India, and Burma. 
The root yields a yellow dye. 

Astragalus hamosus, Linn., Leguminosa. 

Vem.'-Tdj-biidskdhi, kaHld, Hind. 

An annual, found in Biluchistan, Sind and the Punjab, 
The Amsterdam Descriptive Catalogue by T. N, Mukherji says : 
** By dyers and calico-printers it is employed as an adjunct to dyeing sub- 
stances, for producing a glaze on the coloured stuffs." This might be said 
of any member of the genus which yields Gum Tragacanth, but it would be 
interesting to have this record of actual use confirmed by specimens of the 
gum, and of the plant from which it was obtained. Gum Tragacanth is 
imported into India. 

Auxiliaries used in dyeing, some of which cannot be viewed as Mordants. 
Mineral substances: 

1. Lime. — This is used in calico-printing with gums as a " resist paste." 
It is also used with sugar to promote the fermentation of indigo. 

It is prepared from the following : — 

{a) Limestone Rock, such as that obtained from the Khisia Hills. 

{b) From Kankar, the calcareous tuberculated masses found in beds 
on the surface, or a little below the surface, of the soil from Behar 
northward to the Punjab. In the North-West Provinces this 
is used for metalling the roads. 

(c) By burning Land Shells collected in Bengal just after the rains. 

2. Potash. — ^This is chiefly obtained from the ashes of certain plants. 
The Common Millet is largely used for this purpose in the North-West 

Provinces. Symplocos and other bushy plants in the hills of Bengal ; but in 
the plains of Bengal the ash of Apdng (Achyranthes aspera, Z.) is largely 
usea for this purpose. 

3. Reh, an impure carbonate and sulphate of soda, found as a natural 
efflorescence on trie soil, often rendering it uncultivable and burning up 
the vegetation. This is used, chiefly, like soap, to wash fabrics, before 

4. Kassi. — Carbonate of soda prepared from the preceding by precipi- 
tation of impurities. 


Dyes^ Tans, and Mordants. 

[Part II 

5. S&ji, a mixture of carbonate of soda and potash or wood-ash. This is 
used chiefly in extracting the deeper red colours from safflower. 

6. Sidtpetre is obtained like Reh as an efflorescence on the surface of 
the soil ; it is chiefly used in wool-dyeing. 

See also Iron Sulphate, Ochre and Proto-snlphate of Iron. 


Averrhoa Carambola, Linn,, Geraniaceje. 

Vem. — Karmal, Hind. ; Kdmrdngdy Beng. ; Kkamaraka, karamara, BoM. ; 
Khamrakf Dec. ; Tamarta, Tam. ; Karamonga, Tel. 

A small tree with sensitive leaflets^ 15 to 20 feet in height ; a native of 
Ceylon and the Moluccas^ but now extensively cultivated in India for its 
apples, which when stewed are very pleasant. 

The unripe apples are astringent and are used as an acid in dyeing. 
The acid probably acts as a mordant. {Dr, Bidie,) 


Avicennia officinalis, Linn., Verbenaceje. 

The white Mangrove. 

Vem. — Bina {Bant, in Gamble)^ Beng. ; Afada, nalla'tnada, Tel. ; Tivarat 
Sind; Oepatay Mal.; Lameb, Burm. 

A small tree or shrub of the salt marshes and the tidal forests of India 
and Burma, found also in Andaman Islands. Roxburgh says it is common 
near the mouths of rivers, where the spring tides rise; also is found every- 
where in the Sunderbans, often becoming a tree of considerable size; but 
on the Coromandel Coast it is only bush. 

The bark is used as a tanning agent (Btrdwoody Bombay Prod.). The 
ashes of the wood are used to wash cloth (Drury). In Rio Janeiro the barks 
of various species of ATicennia are used in tanning leather. 


Baccaurea sapida, Muli. Arg,, Euphorbiaceje. 

Vem.—Lutco, Hind.; Kala bogoH, Nepal; Latecku, Ass.; Koli, kuki, 
Kan. ; Kancufo, Burm. 

A small tree, met with in Bengal, Burma and the Andaman Islands. 

The leaves are used in Northern Bengal and Assam for dyeing. (Gam- 
ble.) The bark is used chiefly as a mordant in dyeing with madder and lac. 
** The Lepch?is extract a ^reew dye from the /eai/w.'*^ (Dr. Schlich.) It is 
extremely doubtful whether any plant alone yields a green dye; careful 
inquiry should be made to ascertain whether the leaves of this plant are 
macerated along with the Lepcha indigo plant (Marsdenia tinctoria) to 
produce the green colour alluded to by Dr. Schlich. 

Additional information and specimens required. 

^ambu ash. 




Part II. ] 

Economic Products of India, 






acutang^lai Gaertn,^ MvRTACEiE. 

Veni,^Ijdl, samundar phulfPanntdrif Hind.; Hifdl, samundar, Beng. ; 
Hendly Ass. ; Kanapa, batta, kurpd, Tel. ; Kyeni^ BuRM. 

An evergreen tree, met with in the Sub- Himalayan tract, from the 
Jumna eastward to Oudh, Bengal, Central and South India, and Burma. 
The bark is used as a fish intoxicant, and also for tanning. (Gamble.) 

Basella cordifolia, Zam.^ Chenopodiaceje. 

Venu—Pol, Hind. ; Kukt(hPooi, Beno. ; Alla-batsalta, Tel, 

Met with in Bengal and the Peninsula, cultivated in almost every 
part of India. 

It yields a very rich purple dye, but is difficult to fix. (Drury.) 

Bassia latifolia, Roxh., Sapotaceje. 

Vera. — Mahua, mahula, maut, mahwa, mowa, HiND., Beng.; Ir4p, irrip, 
GoND ; Movd, mahud, BoM. ; Afoko, Mar. ; Illupi, elupa, kai illipi, 
Tam.; Ippiy yeppa, Tel.; Honge, Kan. 

A gregarious tree, often associated with the Sdl ; a native of the forests of 
Central India; widely cultivated throughout India for its fruits, oil, &c. 

The bark is often used as an adjunct in dyeing where dark colours or 
black are desired. The bark and the leaves are sometimes also used as 
a tan. 


47 Bauhinia purpurea, Linn,, Leguminos^. 

Vem. — Kolidr^ kaniar, kandan, HiND. ; Koirdl, rakia-kdnchan, Beng. ; 
Koiral, kardr, Pb. ; Devakanchana, BoM.; Pedda-are, T AM, ; Kdnchan, 
Tel.; Surul, Kan.; Mahahlegani, Burm. 

A small, elegant tree, 20 to 30 feet high, found in Bengal, Burma, the 
North- West Provinces and South India. 
The bark is used for dyeing and tanning. 

48 B. variegata, Linn. 

Vem. — Kdcknar, kolidr kurdl, padridn, HiND. ; Rakta kdnckan, Beng. j 
Taki, Nepal; Raha, Lepcha; Segapwmunthari, Tam.; Bweckin^ 

A small, deciduous tree, completely covered with large, purple and 
white flowers in the beginning of the hot season. Common everywhere from 
the Indus eastward and through the forests of India and Burma; as- 
cending to 4,000 feet in altitude, preferring the low hills of India to the 
plains, but largely cultivated as an ornamental tree throughout the 

The bark is used in dyeing and tanning. 


Dyes, TanSy and Mordants. 

[ Part 11 


Berberis aristata, DC, and B. Lyciuixiy Royhy Berberidejc. 49 

The Barberry. 

Vem. — Chitra, dar-kaldi, rasaut, kashmal, Hind. ; Stiml4, simU, kasmat, 
Pb. ; Chitra, xirishk, Pers. 

Thorny shrubs, with small simple, spiny leaves, met with throughout the 
Himalaya. The former is found from the Sutlej to Bhutan, altitude 6,000 to 
10,000 feet to the western ghats ; the latter seems to be confined to the 
North- Western Himalaya. 

A yellow dye, obtained from the root, is used in tanning and colouring 
leather. The wood is generally known as ddrakalada; the extract as 
rasota, rusot, rasavantt, or ruswul j the fruit as ambarabdrisa (see Dy" 
mock's Mat. Med,, Western India), 

Professor Solly, in Agri-Horticultural Society, Calcutta, IV, pages 272- 
279, writes that tne colour exists chiefly in the bark and in the young wood 
immediately below the bark, and that in old wood the proportion is 
small but much superior in quality. In India it appears the root only is 
used ; it also contains colouring matter, but, according to the Professor, 
not of so good a quality. This is perhaps one of the best tanning dyes 
in India. The supply is quite inexhaustible, some five or six species occur- 
ring everywhere m great abundance along the entire Himalaya, between 
6,000 and 10,000 feet, and often constituting thickets of many miles in 
length. They are equally plentiful on the Nilgiris and in Ceylon. 

From the wood is obtained a decoction, which is boiled down to form 
the resin rusot, 

B. nepalensis, Spreng, 50 

Vera. — Am^danda, ckiror, Pb. ; Chatri, milkissetjamne'fnunda, Nepal. 

A shrub or small tree with large pinnate leaves, common on the outer 
Himalaya, from the Ravi eastward to the Khisia and Naga Hills, in 
Tenasserim and on the Nilgiris, at altitudes above 5,000 feet. 

Used to a small extent as a yellow dye by the Bhutias and Nagas. 

Bixa OrellanEi Linn., Bixineje. 

The Arnotto Dye. 

Vera. — Latkan, Hind., Beng.; Shendri, Mahr. ; Jurat, Ass. 5 Ret Rom, 
Manipur; Kurag^-mdngjal, Tam. ; Jafra, Tel.; Thidin, Burm. 

A graceful shrub, with handsome white or pinkish flowers and echinate 
red capsules ; originally a native of America, now largely cultivated in 
India for the red or orange dye obtained from the pulp which surrounds 
the seed. 

This pulp gives a beautiful flesh colour, largely used in dyeing silks. 
It is altered oy certain combinations into orange, deep orange or red, the 
brighter orange and red colours being obtained in combination with the 
red powder of Mallotus philippineiisis. The dye is exported to Europe 
chieny from the West Indies, and is used chiefly to colour cheese and other 
edible articles, such as chocolate, &c. It may be extracted from the seeds 
direct, or the pulpy matter may by boiling be separated from the seeds 
and made into cakes like those of lac or indigo. In this form it is gene- 
rally sold in Europe. Specimens of Arnotto Cake much required ; there 
is none in our collection. 



Part II. ] 

Economic Products of India. 






Bombax malabaricum, DC, Malvacea. 

Vera. — Semul, shembal, semur. Hind., Beng.; Sdvara, Mahr.; Sitnbal, 
skirlan, Himalayan names^ Bonro, Uriya; Jllavam, puld, Tam. i 
Mocha, Sans.; Katm-^mbU, Cingh, ; Letpan, Burm. 

A very large, deciduous tree, found throughout India and Burma. 

Christy includes this amongst his list of Indian tans under the name 
of tnucherus ; most probably this should be Mocha-ras (the juice of Mocha), 
the name given in India to the gum obtained from this tree, which is 
sometimes used in calico-printing. There seems to be no mention of the 
bark of this tree being used in India as a tan. 

Borax, a natural mineral, or Berase of Soda. 

Vera* — Sohaga. 
It is chiefly found associated with common salt in the margins of lakes 
in Tibet and Nepal. It is imported into India, and to a certain extent is 
used in calico-printing, especially along with turmeric. 

Briedelia montana, Wiild. 

Venu — Kargnalia, khaja, geia, kusi. Hind. ; Asdnd, Mahr. ; Geio, 
Nepal ; Kaisho, Ass. ; Patenga, Tel. 

A moderate sized tree of the Sub- Himalayan from Jhelum eastward 
ascending to 4,000 feet, Oudh and Bengal. 

Dr. Dymock thinks that the leaves might be used in tanning. 

B. retusa, Spreng.y EuPHORBiACEJE. 

Vera. — Khaja^ kassif gauliy HiifD, ; Pathor, mark, Pb. ; Geio^ Nepal; 
Pengji, Lepcha; Kashi^ GAro; Mulu-vengay, kamanji, Tam. ; 
Kora^mau, duddi mdddi, Tel. ; Seikgyi or Tseikchyee, Burm. 

A large, thorny tree, met with on the Himalaya from the Chenab east- 
ward to Bengal, Central and South India, and Burma. 
The bark is used in tanning. 

r5 Bruguiera gymnorhi2a, Lam., Rhizophorkje. 

Vera. — Kakra, kankra, Beng. ; ByU'bo, Burm. 

A small, evergreen tree of the shores and tidal creeks of India, Burma, 
and the Andaman Islands. 

The bark is valuable, and with Rhlxophora mucroneta, Lam,^ con- 
stitutes the tan known commercially as Mangrove Bark (which see). 


Buchanania latifoliai Roxb,^ Anacardiaceje. 

Vein. — Chirauli, Pb. ; Pidly paydda Garhwal; Pidr, Oudh ; Kat mad, 
aima, Tam. ; Chara, Tel, ^Pyal, chdroll. Bom. ; Lunbo, lonepho, Burm. 

A small tree of the lower mountains of India and the outer Himalaya* 
ascending to an altitude of 3,000 feet. 
The bark is used in tanning. 


Dyes, TanSj and Mordants. 

[ Part II. 

Butea frondosa, Roxb.y Leguminosje. 

Bengal Kino ; sometimes called the Bastard Teak. 

Vera.— Z>Aa^, Hind. ; Palds, palashy Beng. ; Kinsuka, Sans.; Pallas, Dec. ; 
Palasa, khdkard. Bom. ; Porasan, parasa, Tam. ; Telia tnoduga, Tel. ; 
Pauk, pin, BuRM. 

A small, distorted tree with bright, orange flowers, found all over India* 
The dried flowers, called tesu, are used as a yellow dye, the dye being 
extracted by simply steeping or boiling in water. The colour is, however, 
fleeting (see Roxburgh's remark in his Flora Indica) ; but it may be made 
less so by using alum or lime as a mordant, which also deepens the 
colour. Sometimes myrabolans are used for this purpose, or the dye is 
combined with arnotto (Blza Orellaiia). 

Gamble says the yellow dye obtained from the tesu flowers treated 
with alum is used at the Holt festival, 

B. superba, Roxb, 

Veniv — Paldsi, palasavela. Bom. ; YSl pards. Mar. ; Tige moiku, Tel. ; 
. Samur, Gond ; Pauknw/, or paukgnwS, ne-ba-sai, Burm. 

A large climber, met with in many parts of India, the flowers of which 
are used like the preceding. 

The root is said to yield a red dye in Burma. 

Caesalpinia coriaria) Wtiid., Leguminosje. 

Vera. — Libidibi, BoM. ; Shumak, Tam. ; Sumaqe-amriqah, Pers., Arab. 
This is the American Divi-divi or American Sumach. See Divi-diTl 
or Libi-dibi. 

The sinuous pods of this plant are used for tanning leather, 

C. Sappan, Linn. 

The Sappan Wood. 

Vera. — Bakam, Tairi, Hind., Guz., Beng.; Bokmo, Vriy a -, Pat-anga, 
Tam., Bom. ; Bakamu, bakapu, Tel. ; Teinnyet, Burm. 

A small, thorny tree of the Eastern and Western Peninsula and 
Pegu. Cultivated in Central India in plantations. 

The wood yields a valuable dye, which is largly exported. The dye is 
also said to be prepared from the pods (tair^, from the pith, from the 
bark, or from all together. 

The pods are used in Monghyr along with proto-sulphate of iron to 
give a black colour. Sappan wood is largely used in calico-printing, its 
price being about R 12 a cwt. Chips of the wood steeped in water 
yield the red colour. This is intensified by alkalis. Combined with 
turmeric and sulphate of iron, it gives the colour known as Kalejai, With 
indigo it gives (sausnt) purple. Sappan colour, however, is not permanent, 
being, formed through the presence of the soluble substance Brazilin. {Mr, 
Buck, Dyes and Tans of the North-Western Provinces and Dr, McCann's 
Report on the Dyes and Tans of Bengal,) 

Sappan wood is used with alum to communicate to starch the red 
colour which converts it into Guldl, the red powder used in the Holt festi- 
val. (Dr, Dymock,) 







Part II. ] 

Economic Products of India. 






Calotropis gigantea^ R. Br., Asclepiadels. 

Vera* — Maddr, ark, ok. Hind. ; Akandd, Beng. ; Auk, Nepal 5 Arka, pra' 
tdpasa, Sans. ; Ushar, Arab. : KharaJt, Pers.; Akra, rui. Bom. ; Yer- 
cum, Tam. ; Yerica, Mal. ; Nella-jilleduyyekka, jilledu chettu, Tbl.; 
Yekka, Kan. ; Mayo-^na-yo^in, mohu-pin, Burm. 

A large shnib^ found all over India in waste places and along the 
road-sides. The fibre is exceedingly strong and good ; the hairs from the 
seeds are largely used for stuffing pillows ; the wood is used for making 
charcoal; and the root and the milky sap are regarded as valuable 

The bark of the root alone was in olden times called madar (see 
Ainslie), and it seems a pity that this restricted use of the word has been 
lost sight of. 

The milky sap is well known in tanning. It is made into a paste with 
the flour of the small millet (Penicillaria spicata), and is used previously 
to colouring the skin with lac dye. Alone it imparts a yellow colour to the 

C. procera, R. Br. 

WtXtU — Safed-ark, ok, HfND. ; Mdnddra, akadu, rui, BoM. and Sindj 
Alarka, Sans. ; Vellerki, Tam. ; Telia, jellad4, Tel.; Shalwakka, Afg. 

This is a smaller plant, with white, or almost white, flowers, occurring 
more abundantly than the preceding in the North-West Provinces, Pun- 
jab, and South India; popularly they are not distinguished, and may be 
used for the same purposes. 

The sap of this plant has, on several occasions, been recommended as 
a substitute for gutta-percha. 

Carejra arborea, Roxb., MYRXACEiE. 

Vcm. — Kuntbi, khumbi. Hind.; ^Mmmar, Gond.; Boktok, Lepcha; Dam-' 
bel, Garo; Ayma, pailapoota-tammi, Tam.; Budd-dumti, dudippi, 
Tel.; Gavuldu, Mysore; Bambway, Burm. 

Found in the Sub-Himalayan tract, from the Jumna eastward to Ben- 
gal, and Burma, and in Central and South India. 
Bark used for tannin. (Kurs.) 

Carissa Carandas, Linn.y Apocynace^. 

Vern. — Karaunda, karunda, garinga, karrond. Hind.; Kurutnia, karam" 
cka, bainchi, Beng. ; Karavanda, MAHR.;\Karmurda, Sans. ; Kalaka, 
Tam. ; Kalivi hay a, Tel. 

A bush, cultivated for its fruit in most parts of India; said to be wild in 
Oudh, Bengal, and South India. 

Dr. Mcuann states that in Bhagalpur the fruit is used as an auxiliary 
in dyeing and tanning. 

Carpesium abrotanoidesi Linn,, Compositjb. 

'Veau—Wotiangil, Kashmir. 
A stout herb, met with abundantly in and near Kashmir. 


Dyes, TanSy and Mordants. 

[Part IL 

Largely used in Kashmir to dye silk yellow. 

Specimens of the plant and dye should be supplied, as this dye-stuff 
is quite unknown outside Kashmir. It b described by Vigne and by 
Stewart, and the Flora of British India, Hi, joi. 


Caithamus tinctorius, Ltnn., CoMPosixiB. 

The Safflower, ^ng. ; Carthame, Fr, ; Der Saflor, Ger. 

"VtXVL-^Kusum, Hind., Dbc, and Beng.; Galdp macM, Manipur; Qurtum, 
Arab.; Kaahirah, Pers.; Kamalottara, Sans.; Kusumba, Bom.; 
Sendurgam, kushumbd, Tam. ; Asfnisikha, Tel. jHeboo, Burm. 

In Sind the seeds axe called Kardai {Kurtum). 

An annual, herbaceous plant, with large yellow flower-heads, culti- 
vated as a dye-crop all over India. 

The flowers yield both a red and a yellow dye ; and the seeds give 
a useful oil. To prepare the red dye, the yellow is first carefully removed. 
This is done by reducing the flowers to a powder and sprinkling over it 
a little water or oil. After a time^ the yellow dye is removed by simple 
straining. This is either rejected as useless, or used as a base colour 
before red. After the removal of the yellow dye, an alkali is mixed with 
the powdered flowers and rubbed in with the hand. On placing this 
mixture on a strainer, the bright red dye solution is obtained by the appli- 
cation of a little water. 

Cassia auriculatai Lmn., Leguminosjb. 

Vem.— Torwar, Hind. ; Taravada,Bou.; Avarai, Tam. } Tangedu, tan- 
get, Tel. ; Avareke, Kan. 

A common shrub in South and Central India. 

The bark is one of the most valuable Indian tans, and is also, like my- 
rabolans, used to modify dyes. It is said to give a buff colour to leather. 
The flowers yield a yellow colouring matter, apparently not used economic- 

C. Fistula, Linn. 

The Indun Laburnum. 

Vem.^Amaltds, Hind.; Sunddli, sunari, bandarloH, Beng.; Kiiwdlv 
kitoli, sitn, N. W. P. ; Suvarncikt Sans.; Bhawa, Dec. ; Jaggarwah 
raila, hirqfah, C. P. ; Bdhavd, giramdld, BoM. and SiND. ; Konrikte, 
Tam.; Rela'kayalu, Tel, ; Ngushwe, etnoo^kyee, gnu-gyi, Bvrm, 

A middle-sized tree, 20 to 40 feet in height, found wild or in cultivation 
all over India, coming into flower at the beginning of the hot season. 

The bark is used in tanning, chiefly along with Terminalia. McCann 
reports that in the district of Lohardagga, in Bengal, a light red dye is 
obtained from the bark, with alum as a mordant; and that in Dacca and 
Cuttack, the bark of this tree is used as a tan. Mr. Buck says it is used to 
a small extent in Cawnpore. Mr. Gamble says " the bark is used in dye- 
ing and tanning. ** 

C. Tonti Linn. 

The Foetid Cassia. 

Vera* — Ckakunda, panevdr. Hind. and Beno.; Tdnkald, kovariya. Bom.; 
Tarota, Dec ; ushiMagari, Tam. ; Tagarisha-chettu, Tel. ; Daiugywd, 
Burm. ; Prabanaiha, Sans. 

A gregarious under-shrub, from i to 2 feet in height, found every- 
where in Bengal, widely spread and abundant throughout India. 







Part II.] 

Economic Products of India. 


Mr. Baden-Powell sa3rsthat the seeds of thb shrub are used as ''a 
blue dye/' This is apparently taken from Ainslie, who sa3rs that, " in Coim- 
batore the seeds are had recourse to in combination with the pcda (WiigMa 
tinctoria, Br.) in preparing a blue dye." Mr. Hutchins, Assistant Con- 
servator c^ Forests, M3rsore, reports that the average collection of the seeds 
of this plant is about 12 tons in Nundidroog, and imagines that they act- 
the part of starch in the ind^ solution. It is a little difficult to under- 
stand what Mr. Hutchins means by indigo. Wriglitia tinctoria yields of 
course the chemical substance indigo, but from the use of the p<K)uiar word 
indigo one would infer that either the blue dye was extracted from the 
Wngbtia in such quan tides in Mysore as to justify the word indigo, or 
then that Mr. Hutctiins was alluding to the use of Cassia Tom seeds 
along with the true commercial indigo. The latter conclusion if correct is 
exceedingly curious and auite unknown to the indigo dyers of Bengal. 
What peculiar action starch could have upon the dye, it is difficult to iun- 
derstand. The natives of Assam and Manipur use lime along ^th their 
indigo (the produce of StrofaHaathes flacddilofins), and it seems likely that 
the reactions with the indigos of different plants may be peculiar and 
specific. This subject seems worthy of careftu chemical exanu nation. 


:i #^ 1 1 1 1 1 .0 c 

or Indian chestnuts. 

Several species of this genus <ore met ^ith on the mountains of Eastern 
India, but none are reported to be used for tanning. This is probably a A 
oversight, since the European members possess this property to a con- 
sideraS>]e extent, C as t a ti ca vesca containing 14 to 20 per cent, of tannic acid. 


72 Casuarina equisetifolia, Forst., Casuarineje. 

The Beefwood of Australia. 

Vera. — Commonly called the Tam tree in Beng. ; J^ri/ur, mujjum, Sind; 
Cfumk, Tam.; Kasrike, Mysore; Aru, Mal.j Servo, Tel.: Tinyu^ 


Cultivated all over India, apparently wild on the Mergui Coast and in 

The bark is used in tanning. {Birdnoood, Bombay Prod., and Bidie^s 
Madras Exhibition List for 1855,) A brown dye is extracted from it ac- 
cording to Balfour. 


73 Cedrela Toona, Roxb , Meliaceje. 

The Toon or Indian Mahogany Tree. 

Vera* — Tun, mahdnim, HiKH, I Tuni, tun, Beno. ; Drawi, Pb. j T^pa, 
kudaka. Bom. ; Tama, Ass. ; Simal, Lepcha ; Mdha limb'u, tJ^iVX ; 
Kalkilingi, Nilgiris; Tunamarum, Tam.; Nandi, Tel.; Tundu, 
Kan. ; Thitkado, Burm. 

A tree about 50 to 60 feet in heijg^ht, growing in the plains of India and 
lower mountains. 

The flowers yield a red and a yellow dye (in Bengal generally known 
as Gulnari) said to be used in Mysore for dyeing cotton. This must be to 
a small extent only, since Dr. BIdie omits it from his list of Madras dyes 


Dyes, TanSy and Mordants. 

[ Part II. 

sent to Paris. The flowers are boiled to extract the colour, which is 
known as hasanii in the North-West Provinces. It is fleeting, and appa- 
rently only used by the poorer classes. In Burma it is used in conjunc- 
tion with safflower. 

Mr. Buck, in his Report on the Dye-stuffs of the North-Western Pro- 
vtnces, says that a red dye is obtained from the seeds, and Dr. McCann, in 
his Report on the Dyes of Bengal, says the seeds are used as a dye-stuff at 

Apparently Tun is not used with mwdants, and is rarely combined 
with otner dyes. The sulphur yellow {basantt) of Cawnpore is produced 
from tiin, turmeric, lime and acidulated water. Safflower and t<in are 
combined in Tirwa. Dr. McCaun says the cloth previously dyed yellow 
is changed into red by the pan eaten by Hindus. 



Ceriops CandoUeana, Arnott.y Rhizophore^ 

Vem. — Goran, Beng. ; Kirrari, kiri, chauri, SiND.; Madd, And. 

A small, evergreen tree, met with on the muddy shores and tidal creeks 
of India and the Andaman Islands. 

The bark is used for tanning. This and the next species are econo- 
mically not distinguished, both being used under the name of gdran or 
goran. They are exceedingly valuable tans and deserve to be brought 
pointedly to the notice of European tanners. They, no doubt, to a small 
extent reach England under the name of Mangrove Bark. They impart 
a good red colour to leather. 

C. Roxbu]:s:hiana, Arnott. 

Vem. — Gardn or Ghordn, Beng. ; Kabaing, kyabaing, BuRM. 

A large shrub of the coasts of Chittagong, down to Tenasserim. 


The bark is used in tanning leather. This and the preceding species 

might be supplied to any extent very cheaply, and there seems a good future 

for Garan barks in tanning. They also yield a good colouring matter. 

In Balasore the Garan grows abundantly on the sea-shore; a good dye is 
)repared from the bark in that district, and is used to give a brown colour* 
[t is supposed to strengthen ropes and boatmen's cloths. {McCann,) 


Chay root. See Oldenlandia uinbeUata, Linn,, Rubiacejc. 




Chickrassia tabularis, Adr, Juss,, MELucEiE. 


Vem.—Chickrassi, Beng.; Pabha, chikrdsa. Bom.; Aglay-agal, Tam.; 
Madagari, Tel. ; Dalmara, Kan.; Arrodah, And.; Yiwma, Burm. 

A large tree, native of Eastern Bengal, South India and Burma. 
The bark is a powerful astringent ; the flowers yield a red and a yel- 
low dye* 

B I 



Part II.] 

Economic Products of India, 



77 Cicer arietmum, Linn^ Leguxinosjc 

The Common Gram or Chicken Pea 

"VeOL^Chand, ckenna. Hind.; Chold, M/, Beng. ; Harabard Mahr.; 
Kadalay, Tam. ; Stfite, gatih Tbl.j KtuUdy^ Kan.; Hints, Arab.; 
NaJkkud, Pbbs. 

Cultivated throughout India and Upper Burma fpr its seed. 
The leaves are said to give indigo. 

78 Cinnabar. 

Sulphide of Mercury. 

Vera. — Skingarf, Hind. ; Sindur, Bbng. 

A beautiful pink, sometimes used as a dye, but more frequently as a 
pigment vermilion, which may be prepared by reducing the ore to a pow- 
der» or by chemical action. 


79 Ctnnamomum Tamala, N^es, Laurinea. 

Cassia Lignea or Cassia Cinnamon. 

Syiu — Laurus Cassia, Roxb. ; Cinnamomum Cassia, Blume. 

Vera. — Dalchini, kirkiria, kikra, sUkanH. sinkami. Hind. ; Darchini, 
Bom.; Chota sinkole, Hep Ai. ; Dopatti, Ass. 

The leaves are known as Te/pat, and the bark as Tt^. 

A moderate sized, evergreen tree, occasionally met with on the Hima- 
laya, from the Indus to the Sutlej, altitude 3,000 to 7,000 feet, becoming 
common eastward to Bengal, Khisia Hills and Burma. (Gamble,) 

The leaves are commonly used as a condiment, but they are also of use 
in calico-printing in combination with Myrabolans. Dr. McCann says 
that in Lohardaga, Chutia Nagpur, the bark (taj), is used as an auxiliary 
with ISallotua pUlippeosis. About 33 tons of the leaves and 24 tons of the 
bark are annually exported from the tract between the Ramgane^a and the 
Sarda. C. Taauua is most likely to yield the Taj (Atkinson) and Tejpdt of 
the North-West Provinces and, Punjab, but in Bengal the leaves and 
bark of C. obtusifolivni, Nees, more commonly bear these names. In fact 
the leaves of any species of the genus would be at once called Tejpat 
by a native, but tor economic purposes C. Tamala is superior to any 
of the other Indian species. The bark of this plant is the Cassia Lignea 
of Indian Commerce. The Cassia Cinnamon of Europe is obtained from 
China, the source of which is still obscure. It is chiefly however attributed 
to C. Ciasia, Bl^ which it seems may be proved to be but a form of 
C TamalAy Nees (Gamble reduces it to be a synonym.) The true 
Cinnamon is, however, C. zeylanicnm, Breyn, The roots of C zeylanicam 
as also, sparinglvt of C. Tamala and C. (^btusifoUum, yield Camphor, but the 
true Camphor plant of commerce is C. Camphora) Nees^ a native of Japan. 


80 Citrus medical Linn.^ Rutaceje. 

The Citron, Lemon, Lime. 

Vem. — ,eg-pura, korna-nebu, lebu, nebu, bijawra, bora nimbu, Beng ; 
Jaml^ra, Sans.; Limbu, kutla nimbu, limu. Hind.; Bijapdra, 
mahdlunga, bijori, BoM,} Elumich'^^ham-paBkam, Tam.; Nimma'-pandu, 
Tel.; Nimbe AanM, Kan.; Limu, Arab, and Pers.; Shouk'ta-kwok, 
tkanba-ya, Burm. 

The leaves of this plant are stated by Dr. McCann to be used in 

Dyes, TanSy and Mordants. 

[Part II. 

tannine in Manbhum. This seems to be doubtful; at most the leaves can 
be used only as an adjunct to the tans, imparting an odour to the leather. 


Coccus Cactii Lmn.^ Hemiptera. 
Cochineal Dye. 

The dried bodies of the female insects ; obtained commercially from 
America and Central Asia, but recently obtained in small quantities 
from Raiputana and South India. 

The aye is held in high esteem. 

C. Lacca. 

Lac Dye. 

The dye obtained by evaporation from the liouid in which stick-lac 
has been washed. As a European article of trade, lac-dye seems to be 
losing any position it ever had, aniline and cochineal taking its place. 
It is used by the natives to a considerable extent, and chiefly in colour- 
ing leather. 

Copper SUlphatCi used as a mordant and dye auxiliary. 

Information of existence in India and trade in this salt would be 
most acceptable. 

Cordia Myxai Linn.^ Boragineje. 

Vem. — Lasora, chokar, gondii Hind.; Bohari, buhul, or boho-^tari^ 
Beng. ; Bhokara, Mahr. ; Nimai, Lepcha ; Laswara, Pb. ; Lesuri, 
giduri, SiND. ; Barla, Kumaun ; Vidi, verasu, Tam. ; Tha ru^, Burm. 

Dr. McCann states, in his Report on the Dyes of Bengal, that the green 
leaves of this tree are used in dyeing, along with Morinda tinctoria, in 

Cosdnium fenestratum, Coledrooke, Menispermaceje. 

"Vem.^yar-ki'huldi or jhddihaladi, Dac; Haldigack, Beng.; Mara- 
munjil, Tam. ; Manipussupu, Tel. ; Darvi, Sans. {Ainslie,) 

An extensive climber of the forests of the Western Peninsula, extend- 
ing to Ceylon and the Straits. 

In Dr. U, C. Putt's Materia Medica of the Hindus, Darvi is given 
as the Sanskrit for Berberis sp. Neither Brandls nor Gamble give 
that name, or any apparent derivatives from it for the species of Berberis, 
nor is it given by any other author. Ainslie on the other hand gives Darvi 
as the Sanskrit for Cosdnium fenestratum. Both Cosdnium and Berberis 
yield a yellow dye ; both are valuable as medicines ; and the chips of the 
wood, but for structural peculiarities, could not be distinguished. Ainslie 
apparently was labouring under one mistake ; he took tne Mara-munjily 
Tamil, as different from the Vinivel-getta, Ceylon specimens of which 
were sent to Roxburgh for identification. General Macdowall took the 
used ^ , 

Dr. Bidie remarks : " This wood contains much colouring matter, akin 
in properties to that of turmeric, " hence the name jar-ki-huldi or ghach- 








Part II.] 

Economic Products of India. 



Cratasva religiosa, ForsL, Capparidea. 

Syn. — Cappakis trifoliata, J?mA. 

C. Roxburgh 1 1, Ham. 

C. NuRVALA, Ham. 

"Vtm*— Brama^ hildsi, bila. Hind.; Barin^ Hktoshak, Ben 6. ; Vdyavarna, 
bhdiavamd, httdavamd, BoM ., Maralin^am, Tam. ; Usiia, usiki uli- 
midi, Tel. ; Kadet, kadat, Burm . 

A moderate sized, distorted tree, met with from the Ravi eastward to 
Bengal, Assam, Central and South India and Burma. 

" Aitchison states that at Thelum the fruit is mixed with mortar to form 
a strong cement, and the rindf as a mordant in dyeing. " {Stewart} 


87 Crocus SatiTUS, Linn., Iridsx. 

The Saffron Dye. 

Vera. — Kesar, k/sara Mafran^ Hind. ; Jafran^ Beng. ; Kumkuma, Sans. ; 
Kungumapu, Tam.; Kumkum^ami, TbL. ; Than-^wen, Burm. 

The European supply of this plant comes from France, Spain, and Italy. 
It is extensively cultivated in Kashmir. The Indian supply chiefly comes 
from France, or from China, a small quantity coming from Persia in 
the form of cakes known as Kesar-ki-rote. 

It is chiefly used in Europe as a dye, and to colour cheese, puddings, 
&c., but very little as a medicine. In India it is too expensive to be used 
as a dye-stuff. It is, however, held in high esteem as a medicine. 
The product is obtained from the stigmas of the flowers, 4,000 (^ which 
are required to produce an ounce of saffron. 


88 Curcuma aromatica, Salts6.y Scitaxineje. 

Wild TuRMEiac, Yellow Zedoart, Cochin Turmeric. 
Syn. — C. Zedoaria, Foxb. 
Wtm.-^anfrluhaldi, ban-haldi. Hind., N. W. P. ; Ban^ialud, Beng.; 

Banharidrd, Sans. ; Kasturi-manjal, Tam 5 Kasturi pasupa, Tel. ; Ran 

hold, kachord, BOM. 

The round, short rhizomes of this plant are of a deep yellow colour, and 
possess an agreeable, fragrant smell and a warm, aromatic taste. It is 
probable that this, like the Zedoary, was formerly used in the prepara- 
tion of the Abtr powder. 

89 C. longa, Roxb. 

The Turmeric. 

Vem»—Haldi, Hind.; Hatud, Bsnq.; Halada, Bom.; Haridra, Sans.; 
Manj'al, Tam. ; Pasupu, Tel. 

Turmeric is cultivated all over India. 

Its rhizomes yield a valuable yellow dye, which, with alkalis, changes 
into a deep red. 


Dyes, TanSf and Mordants. 

[Part II. 


, Roscoe (jton-Roxb.) 

The Long and Round Zedoary. 

Syn. — C. Zerumbbt, Roxb, 

Vera. — Kachora, Hind., Bom. ; Shaii, satiy short, kackur, huchAr, Beng. ; 
Rdnahalada, Bom. ; Kick ckUik-kiahaugu, Tam. ; Kicklie'gaddalu 
Tel. ; Thanu-wen, Burm. 

The red powder, Abtr, used by the Hindus at the Holi festival, is 
made from the root of this plant ground to a powder and left for some 
time to saturate in water. The powder being purified and dried is mixed 
with a decoction of Sappan wood, when the red colour is obtained. 
The Abtr is now, however, largely made from aniline dye. 

Dn McCann describes the process adopted in Mymensing district, 
Bengal, for the preparation of the Abtr powder ; but he appears to have 
reversed the scientific names of the species of Curcuma. The Shati has 
for the past forty years been regarded as C. Zedoaria, Roscoe, while Dr. 
McCann gives it as C. Zerumbet, Linn, a name which does not exist in 
botanical literature. If he means' C. Zerumbet, Roxb., not Linn:, (a 
synonym for C. Zedoaria, Roscoe) it is unfortunate he did not publish his 
economic information under the modern name, since the name C* Zerum- 
bet, Roscoe, is applied to a perfectly distinct species. 

In Bengal the Gulal and Abir powders seem to be made together and 
sold mixed. In many parts of the country however this is not the case. 
The red powder or Gulal is prepared from Sappan wood and alum 
colouring flour. The Abir or perfumed powder is not always of the same 
composition. In Bengal the root-stocks of C Zedoaria, Roscoe, are used 
and apparently as the entire representative of the Abir powder of Upper 
and Western India. The Zedoary is also an ingjredient in Gkisi Abir 
along with cloves, cardamoms. Deodar, Artemisia, and Cerasus. The 
Abir most generally used however contain Hedycluiim SfiTcatuia, Ham., 
instead of Zedoary combined with sandal wood as flour. {See Abil). 

C. Zerumbet, Roscoe (non-Roxb.) 

Vera. — Bachtmahaburi-buch, Bengl; ^a^hara, BoM. 
The rhizomes are warm, aromatic and used in medicine. 

Cuscuta reflexa, Roxb,, CoNvoLvuLACEit. 

The Dodder. 

Vem. — Akas bel, Hind.^ Pb. ; Haldi-eilgusi-luta, algusi, Bbng. ; Akdsavela, 
amaravelch BoM. 
Mr. Baden-Powell states that at Jhelam this plant is sonietimes used 
as a dye. It would be a great matter if it could be utilised in this man- 
ner, many trees being completely covered and often killed by this and 
another species. The dye is apparently unknown in Bengal. Mr. Baden- 
Powell does not mention the colour ; it is prpbably a yellow. 

Cynometra ramiflora, Linn,, Leguminosje. 

Vem.— 5A»«^, Beng.. (as in Gambleji IrapH, Tam.; Myen-ka-pen, 
myinka, BuRM. 
A large, evergreen tree of the Sunderbans, South India and Burma, 
in tidal forests. Frequent from Chittagong down to Tenasserim and the 
Andaman Islands. (Kurz.) 

Chips of the wood give, in water, a purple dye. (Gamble.) 








Part II.] 

Economic Products of India. 







Cypenis pertenuis, Roxh.^ Cyperaczjb. 


Venu^Nagurfnuthat Bbng. ; Ndgaramothd, Bom. 
A delicate, slender grass, found in damp places in Bengal, Oudh, 
and the North-West Provinces. 

The rhizomes are used in dyeing to give a scent to the fabric, and as a 
perfume for the hair. Roxburgh describes them as ''tuberous with many 
dark-coloured villous fibres. " Its naked delicate form, small and com- 
pound umbel, short slender leaves, and scanty involucre immediately dis- 
tinguish it " from the other members of the genus. 

C. rotunduSi Linn. 


VtttL — Muthd, Bkno. ; Mustd, Sans. ; Mustd, kackard, BoM.; Kore-ke* 
jhdr, Dec ; Koray^ Tam. ; Shaka tunga, Tel. 

The root of this grass is more frequently used in lower Bengal than 
the preceding for the purposes described, being more plentiful. Used as 
a periPume at native marriages. It is the most troublesome weed in 

Datisca cannabinai Linn., Datiscks. 

Vera. — Akalbdr, Hind.; Bhang-jald, Pb.; Bayr^bunja, Sind. 

A tall, erect herb, resembling hemp, hence the specific name, met with in 
the Punjab Himalaya. 

It gives a red and a yellow dye. 

Delphinium sanicutefolium, Boiss., Banunculaceje. 

Vera. — Asbarg, ghafiM, Pb. ; Zarir, Arab. ; Asfmk, asperag^ trayatnan, 
Pers. ; Trdyamdna, aspraka, guljalil, BoM. 

A small, herbaceous plant, met with on the Himalaya on dry hills from 
Jhelam to the Indus, and distributed to Afghanistan. 

The dried flowers are brought from Afghanistan to Multan, where they 
are used, alon|^ with akalbSr (Datisca cannabina) and alum, to dye silk 
yellow. This gives a beautiful sulphur yellow, known as gandhaki. The 
flowers are very bitter and are used m medicine, under the name of 
ghqfiz, as a, iehn£uge, (Stewart.) 

Diospyros Embryopteris, Pers., Ebenacm- 

Syn. — D. glutinosa, Roxb. 

Vtm^^Gdb, makur'kendi, Beno., Hind.; Kendu, Ass. j Timbwint, 
Mahr.; Tumbiita, panichika, Tam.; Tumika, tumil, Tel.; Ttmberee, 


A small tree or evergreen shrub, forming a dense dome of foliage; 
met with throughout India and Burma. 

The fruit is used for '* gabing " boats, to render them waterproof, 
throughout Bengal ; and an infusion is said to preserve Ashing nets. The 


Dyes, Tansy and Mordants. 

[Part II. 


fruit IS also largely used as a tan, being a powerful-astringent. By simply 
steeping the half-ripe fruits in water a brownish liquid is obtained, which is 
sometimes used in dyeing a brown colour. This is made into a good 
black by being combined with Myrabolans (TeminaHa Chebtda) and 
Proto-sulphate of iron (hirakash). 

Diospyros. molliSi Gnf. 

Frequent in the drier hill forests of Martaban at 2>ooo to 4,000 feet 

The berries produce the so-called black dye of Shans. (Kure,) 

D. pyrrhocarpa, Mig. 

Venu — r/> BuRM. 
Major Ford says the Burmese extract a red dye, and that the Chinese 
umbrellas are dyed with this plant, which has the property of rendering 
them waterproof. There are no specimens in our collection as yet. 


Gamble says that a beautiful black dye is obtained from the bark and 
fruit of an Andaman species not determined. 

Specimens of this plant (sufficiently perfect to admit of identification 
and of the bark and fruit, might be obtained from the Andaman Islands 
through Mr. Mann, the officer nominated by the Chief Commissioner to 
answer all communications regarding these islands. 

Dm-divi or Libi-DibL 

The seed pods of Cpfffaipittfa coiiaria, Legfuminosae, a tree 20 to 30 feet 
high, indigenous to the West Indies, Mexico and Brazil, naturalised in 
Madras and Bombay Presidencies and in the North-West Provinces. 
The pod may be known by its drying into the shape of the letter S. 

It grows freely in Botanic Gardens, Calcutta, where seeds are distri- 
buted gratis to all applicants. 

The pod contains 30 to 50 per cent, of a peculiar tannin somewhat similar 
to.Valonia. " It is cheap, and may be used in admixture with barks, but it 
is dangerously liable to undergo fermentation, suddenly staining the leather 
a dark red colour, and is therefore not in extensive use." {Spons' Ency,) 

"The legumes of this tree, introduced from the Western Hemisphere 
and now naturalized in some parts of India, contain a large proportion of 
tannin. According to Dr. Cornish from 60 to 65 per cent, of the whole 
pod, exclusive of the seeds, consists of impure tannin, the remaining portion 
consisting of woody fibre, starch, and gum." {Pharm, Ind,) 

"The tree has been introduced into Western and South India and its 
cultivation deserves to be extended as it is valuable material for tannin." 

Drepanocarpus Cumingii, Ji^urz, LEcuMiNosiE. 

A tree-like scandent shrub of Tenasserim. 

Is a dyewood and furnishes the Kayu lakka of commerce. 

Drosera peltata, Sm., Droseraceje. 

Vem. — Mukha-;jali, Hind. 
Found in Nilgiris and some parts of India. 









Part II.] 

Economic Products of India, 






A dye may be prepared of the plant, as Royle mentions the fact of the 
paper which contamed his dried specimens being saturated with a red 
tinge. (Drury,) 


Eclipta alba, Hassk,^ Composite. 

Vera. — KesuH, keysuriOf keshwri, Bbno. ; Mdkd, Mahr. 

Udoy Chand Dutt in his Materia Medica, page i8i, says that the 
Vern. Kesaraya, bhdnrdj Bkng. and Hind., as aiso Bhringaraja, Sans., are 
indiscriminately applied to this plant and to Wedella cal^mduUce9i> Linn. 
This was nottne case in Roxburgh's time, nor have I found it so, Kesuri 
being Eclipta alba, and ^an^d or /&fara;a (Pivald mdkd, pivald bhangra, 
Mahr.) wedella caleodnlacca. 

Speaking of Eclipta, Roxburgh says : ''In tattooing, the natives, after 
puncturing the skin, rub the juicy green leaves of this plant over the 
part, which gives the desired indelible colour, viz., a deep bluish black,'* 
butt says the leaves of both the plants referred to above are used in vari- 
ous ways for the purpose of dyeinp^ grey hair. It would be interesting to 
have this confirmed, and to know if both plants, or only EcUpta, are actu- 
ally so used. 

Elsholtzia poljrstachya, Benth,, LiBiATEiB. 

Vcm. — Rangchari, mehndi, d^s, pothi, Pb, 

A shrub found on the Punjab and North-West extending to the 
Khdsia and Naga Hills Himalaya; altitude 6,000 to 10,000 feet. 
To the south of Kashmir it is said to be used as a dye. (Stewart.) 

bengalensiSi Hook. /,, Rosacea. 

Syn. — Mespilus tinctoria, Don Prod, Nep, 
Vem. — Berkung, Lepcha. 

A small tree of the Eastern Himalaya, Sikkim, altitude 4,000 feet 
Khasia Hills, Chittagong and Ava, 

The bark is said to be used in Nepal for dyeing scarlet. 
Information regarding this dye-stu£E required. 

Erythrina indica, Lam., Leguminosj:. 

The Indian Coral Tree. 

"Vem.-^Pangra, panjira, farad, HiNU. ; Palita imandar, Beng.; 
Partgara, BoM. ; Pangaru, Mahr. ; Murukd, kalaydna-murukku, 
Tam.; Modugu, hadidapw^hettu, Tel.; Madar, Cachar; Erabadw 
gaha, CiNGH. ; Pinlekatnit, BuRM. 

A small tree, wild in Oudh, the mountains of Bengal, Assam, Manipur, 
Burma and South India; largely cultivated in the plains as a hedge plant. 

The dried red flowers on being boiled yield a red dye The bark is 
also said to be used in dyeing and tanning. 


Dyes, TanSf and Mordants, 

[ Part II. 

Eugenia Jambolana, Lam., Myrtaceje. 

Syn. — Syzigium Jambolanum, DC, 

Vem. — Jdman, jamoon. Hind.; lam, Beng. ; Chambu, GkvLO ; Jainu, 
Ass.; Naval, naga,TAid,. ; Nasedv, nairuri, Tel.; Thabyebyu,D\jRU. 

A moderate sized tree, found wild or in cultivation all over India 
from the Indus eastward, ascending to altitude 5,000 feet. 

The bark is used for dyeing and for tanning. In Assam it is used 
alon^ with the red Munjit dye to impart brilliancy to the colour. In 
tanning it is often combined with Gar an bark (Ceriops Rozburghiana). 

Euphorbia Tirucallii Linn., Euphorbuceje. 

Vem. — Lanka-sij, Beng.; Sehnd, Hind.; Tiru kalli, Mal., Tam. ; 
Shera tkora, Mahr. ; Jemudu, kalli'Chemuda, manche, Tel. ; Sha- 
saungbethnyo, Burm. 

A small tree, with round stems and smooth branches ; cultivated as a 
hedge throughout India. The wood is hard. 

The sap is acrid, and when thrown into the water intoxicates fish. 

The ashes are used in Southern India as a mordant. Roxburgh says 
that in Madras it is very generally known as the Milk-hedge. 

Excascaria sebifera, Mull. Arg., Euphorbiaceje. 

The Chinese Tallow Tree. 
Syn. — Carumbium sbbiferum, Kutb ; Sapium sebifbrum, Roxb. 
'Vem.'^Mom'China, Beng., in Roxb. Fl. Ind. 
A small tree, with grey bark longitudinally cracked. Introduced into 
India and widely cultivated throughout the Northern districts. 

The leaves give a black dye, and the seeds an oil. The white pulp 
around the seeds is the Chinese-tallow. To this genus belongs the 
Sunderban Agallocha, the sap of which is said to be poisonous, and to 
cause the eyes of the persons engaged in hewing down the trees to become 
inflamed. When dry the wood is useful, and is made into toys, bed-steads, 
tables, &c. 

Fibraurea Trotterii, Wau, MS., Menispermaceje. 

Vem,^'Napoo, Manipur. 

An extensive climber common in the forests of Manipur. I have taken 
the liberty of provisionally naming this curious plant in honor of its dis- 
covererJMajor Trotter, Political Agent, Manipur. Not having seen flower- 
ing specimens it is impossible to describe the plant, but only one species 
has been hitherto described. Major Trotter describes the process of 
dyeing from this plant as follows ;— 

Five chittacks of dry root of the napoo tree to be washed clear and 
beaten into long shreds ; then soak it in 2I quarts of water for 15 or 20 
minutes, when it will be found that the water has become of a yellow 
colour ; this water to be put aside, as it will be required later on. Take out 
the pounded roots and re-steep in the same quantity of fresh water and let 
stand for 24 hours. Then wash the cloth to be dyed clean, and thoroughly 
soak it in the flrst solution and take out and repeat the process in the 








Part II.] 

Economic Products of India. 




second water, leaving the cloth to soak in it for about half an hour; then 
wring out and steep in half a pint of heiboong (Gardnia pedunculate) water, 
pressing and flopping it about in the vessel, so that every part of it may 
become thorougnly saturated with this water, then wring out and dry in 
the shade. 

Ficus religiosa» Linn., Urticacils. 

The Peepul Tree. 

Vera. — Pipal, Hind. ; Ashaihwa, aswat, astid, Beng. ; Arasa, Tam#; Rdi, 
ragi, ravi, Tel.; Nyoungbaudi, Burm. 

A large tree, commonly cultivated alone roadsides throughout India. 

The bark is said to be sometimes used tor tanning. The young buds 
are eaten in times of scarcity, and the leaves are a favourite fodder for 
elephants. (Brandts,) Roxburgh says the silk-worm feeds well upon this 

Flemingia congesta, J^oxb., Leguminosx. 

'Vtm*"-'Bara'salpan (as in RoxbJ, Bhalia (as in Gamble), Beng. and 
Hind.; Batwasi, Nepal; Mipitmikk, Lbpcha. Roxburgh also gives for 
var, nana the vernacular names of Supta, cusunt, Hind. 

An erect, woody shrub, common in the thickets and foresis of the 
warmer parts of India. 

In a correspondence recently forwarded by the Secretary of State to 
the Department of Revenue and Agriculture, Sir Joseph Hooker says 
that the African medicine Waras (Arabic name which means saiTron) and 
the valuable silky dye of the same name are derived from the pods of this 
common Indian plant. Roxburgh, nearly a century ago, wrote of its 
garnet-coloured glandular hairs, but it was left to the " Dark Continent** 
to discover that these contained a useful dye. In the new Report for 
1881, there occurs also some additional information with regard to this 
curious discovery. Alcohol extracts a splendid red colour from these 

It would be interesting to know if this dye is really unknown to the 
hill tribes, and to obtain any available information, specially vernacular 
names, and also specimens of the short, crowded legumes. I may give 
here a short technical description of the plant to assist identification : — 

A shrubby plant, 2 to 3 feet high, like most members of the genus growing- 
gregariously, and forming dense masses in damp forests. Branches, almost 
round. Leaves, trifoliolate, leaflets oblong acuminate, with white, silky 
hairs on the ribs below Flowers, small, crowded in short racemes, often 
fascicled. Calyx, densely clothed with adpressed, pale, brown, silky hairs. 
Corolla, small, almost contained within the calyx. Pod, oblong, | inch 
long, obscurely downy, or clothed with clammy, reddish elands ; two- 
seeded. The pods, with their short thick valves, are crowded upon the 
extremities of the twigs, and with their short, hairy pedicels furnish the dye. 

The Flora of British India reduces to this species the following forms 
described by Roxburgh as distinct (see Ed. C. B. C, pp. 571-72) :-r 

F. procumbens, F. prostnta, F. iiaiia» F. congesta and F. semialata, 
forming four varieties : — 

Var. I. — semialata— Central Himiilaya, ascending to altitude 5,000 

Var, 2. — latifolia— Khisia Hills, altitude 2,000 to 3,000 feet. 
Var, J.— Wightiana — Nilgiris, Bhutan, Ava. 

Var, 4, — nana — Central and Eastern Himalaya and the Concan. 


DyeSy TanSf and Mordants, 

[ Part II. 

Gftlls are growths formed upon certain plants around an insect which 
parasitically causes the irritation that results in the formation of these 
valuable economic products. 

Oak-Gall8 (Quercua inf ectoria.) 

The insect should not have escaped from the gall before use, other- 
wise the galls lose their strength very considerably. 

Tamaiiz Galls. 

Vem.— Bar a mat, Hind. 

The leather made with this tan is of the best description. 

Tenninalia Galls or Galls from the myrabolan tree. These are chiefly 
obtained from the leaves and twigs of T. Chebnla» and are used 
in dyeing and tanning, and in the preparation of ink. 

Gambier* See Uncaxia Gambier, ffunL 

Garcinia Cambogia, Besrouss,, Guttifbrje. 

Vem.^Aradal, Kan. ; Heela, Burghers (NUgiH Hills), 
West Coast and Ceylon. 

This tree yields a yellow gum, insoluble in water, but soluble in spirits. 
It is, therefore, likely to prove useful as a varnish^ but not as a pigment. 

G. Cowa, Roxh. 

Vem. — Cowa, Hind.; ToungthaU, Burm. 
Eastern Bengal, Assam, Chittagong, Burma, and Andaman Islands. 
It is said to yield a kind of gamboge of a somewhat paler colour 
than that produced by G. Morella. (Gamble,) 

G. eugeniadfolis, Wall. 

Eastern Peninsula, Singapore, Malacca. {Griffith,) 
Heifer says that the steam exudes a green varnish, and Griffith, thai 
the juice of the fruit is milky. 

G. heterandra. Wall. 

VertL-^Thanat'tau, Burm. 

Hills of Burma up to 3,000 feet. 

It yields a superior kind of gamboge. (Kurg.) 

G. indicai Chois. 

Syn.— G. Purpurea, Roxh, {PI, Ind,, it, 624,) 

Vtm.^Brindall, GoA. ; Katambi, Amsul and Kokrun (fruit), Mahr. 

The fruit has an agreeable, acid flavour; a syrup is made from it. It 
is also used as a mordant. The seeds furnish a concrete oil called kokum 
in Bombay. 

G. Mangostana, Unn. 

Ths Mangosteen. 

Vern. — Mengut, Burm. 

An evergreen tree, a native of the Straits ; cultivated in British Burma 
on account of its fruit, which is pronounced the finest of all known 












Part II.] 

Economic Products of India. 






The rind of the fruit yields a valuable tan. 

Garcmia Morella, Desrouss. 

The Gamboge Tree. 
Syn.— G. picTORiA, Roxb, 

Vera. — Gota gamha. Hind. ; Maiki, Tam.; Aradal, punar puli, Kan. j 
GokatUj CiNGH. ; Thanattan, BuRM. 

An evergreen tree, yielding the valuable substance Gamboge ; the 
rind of the fruit, as in all other species of the genus, may be used as a tan. 


Ganiga pinnatai Roxb,, Burseracea. 

Vera. — Ghogar, kaikar, HiND. ; ^^m, iharpat, Beng. ; Gendeli pom a. 
Ass. ; Dabdabbi, Nepal ; Gia, Mxchi ; Chiiompa, GIro ; Kharpat, 
aimira, saroia, Pb. ; Kukar, kaikra, C. P. ; Kurdka, M ahr. ; Kurdka, 
kankada. Bom. ; Garuga, gdr^gS^ Tel. ; Karre vembu, Tam. ; Afohi, 
Uriya ; ChinySp, Burm. 

A large tree of the Sub-Himalaya, Central and South India. 
The bark is used for tanning. (Gamble.) 

Greranium ? nepalensei Sweet, Geraniacea. 

Vem. of the root as sold in bazar — Rowli, bhand, Pb. 

The root of a species of Geranium is brought from the hills and sold 
as a red dye, in appearance like rattan-jot. (Stewart.) 

Specimens much needed to clear up the doubt regarding this dye and 

G. pedunculata, I^oxb. 

Verau — Heib^ng, Manipur. 

Major Trotter sends the fruits of this plant which are largely used by 
the Manipuris to deep and render fast s2^on dye. 

After the cloth has been dyed with saffron wring it out and lay aside 
for a few minutes ; add J of a pint of the keiboon^ water (prepared very 
simply, vi0., by soaking ^ a seer of keiboong fruit, cut in slices, in a pint 
of water for 20 or 24 hours) to the dye in the vessel and mix thoroughly ; 
then steep the Golap Machoo (saffron) cloth in it and press and flop it 
about till It is thoroughly saturated, then take out and wash in cleati water 
and hang up in the made to dry. 

Gluta eleganSi Wall., Anacardiace-k. 

Vem. — Thayet-thits/, Burm. 

Found along the coast of Tenasserim. 

Kurz, in his Burmese Flora, I, p, 310, remarks of this plant : " Wood 
good for furniture, and when steeped in ferruginous mud turns jet black, 
kx>king like ebony. Used for building purposes, boxes, &c., and for 
dyeing (with different mordants, from orange to black)." 


Dyes, TanSy and Mordants. 

[ Part II. 

Glycsrrrhiza glabra, Zi««., Leguminosje. 


Venu—Mulatthi, Jeihp-madh, Hind.; 3^asH madhu, Beng.> Bom.; Anti- 
maduram, Tam. 

A native of the south of Europe, largely imported into India. Dr. 
Dynnock informs me that the Bombay supply comes from Kurrachi and 

The root is used in medicine, and in dyeing to perfume the fabric 
and give it a finish, 

Gulal| a coloured powder used along with Abir at the Holt festival. It is 
generally prepared from sappan wood and alum imparting colour to 
flower. At present day it is in Bengal largely prepared from aniline. See 
Abify also Curcum zedoaria. 

Gum. The gum most employed in dyeing, or rather in calico-printing, in 
India is a mixture of Babul (Acada arabica),and Gum Bankri (Anog«issttS 
latifolia). In addition to these Mr. Buck gives the folbwing gums as 
used in calico-printing : — 

Dha, Woodfordia flsribunda, Salisb., 

Pidr, Buchanania latifolia, Roxb., 

Dhdk, Butea frondosa, Roxb., 

Sandrdo, Vateria indica, Linn,, 

Mochras, Bombax malabarica, Db. 

Starch, Rice-water, and Sugar (Gurh) are also used. 

Gjrmnema tigensi W. & A,, Asclepiadeje. 

A climbing shrub, of the lower Eastern Himalaya, extending to Burma. 

The leaves give a good indigo dye. Dr. Buchanan states that it gives 
a green indigo like the Chinese green, but Dr. Roxbirrgh suggests that 
the cloth must be first dyed yellow. This is the second species of this 
order yielding indigo, the other plant being Marsdema tinctoria. 






Haematoxylon campechianum, Ztnn,y Leguminos^. 


A native of Central America and the West Indies. Imported into 

A decoction of the chips of the heart-wood is used in dyeing. 


Hair dyeing or staining as practiced in India. 

ist Process'-'Mix equal parts of chalk and soap and half the quantity 
of lime, rub in a leaden pestaland mortar until the mixture acquired a bluish 
colour ; apply this to the hair, rubbing in, tie up the hair within a cloth for 
about an nour : wash ; thereafter apply a paste, which has been allowed 
to ferment to some extent, made of wheat flour, pulverised iron filings and 
yeast ; tie again for another hour wash in a strong infusion of galls or of 
dmld [Phyllanthus) Emblica) the latter being cheaper. Thereafter apply 
an oil to give a gloss. The colour thus obtained is very black and perfectly 



Part II.] 

Economic Products of India. 





fixed, beinff'only rendered useless by the growth of the hair below revealing 
the originsu colour. 

2nd Process, — Rub henna leaves on the hair and tie for an hour ; wash, 
apply thereafter a paste of indigo or indigo leaves, wash and fix with galls 
or dmld. This gives a bluish black, but as the in(£go becomes rubbed off 
the henna gives the hair tips a red tinge. 

Hedychium splcatuniy Ham.y Scitaminejb. 

Vtau^Kach^-kachu, kap^r^kachri, N.-W. P., Pb. 

The aromatic root-stocks of this plant are often used as an auxiliary in 
dyeing, to impart a pleasant smell to the fabric. It is chiefly used along 
with Henna dye (Lawsonia alba) in preparing the cloth known m the North* 
West Provinces as Malagiri. A herbaceous plant met with in Nepal 
having when dry white root-stocks ; sometimes confused with the yellow 
root-stocks of CurcniBa aroaatica, Salisb, 

He(!brotis capitellata, Wall., Rubiacex. 

Vera. — Bakre-lara, Paharia; Kalhenyok, Lbpcha, itt Gamble's List, 

The Flora of British India, III, 57, says that this climber occurs only 
in the Malay Peninsula from Tenasserim to Malacca. Gamble includes 
it in his " List of Trees, &c. of the Daniling District." This seems to 
require confirmation, especially as he describes the plant as *' a soft- wooded 
climber of the Terai," It is plentiful upon the Burma-Manipur frontier, 
which may be its most westerly habitat, but it is quite herbaceous, with hol- 
low stems, and except in the root or the portion of the stem immediately 
above ground, does not possess anything that could be called wood £ 
the stems are in fact hollow. It is probable that Gamble refers to 
H. scandens, Roxb., a climber of the tropical and sub-tropical Himalaya 
to the Khisia Hills, Chittagong and Burma. 

Gamble, speaking of the plant referred by him to H. capiteUata, Wall., 
says that ** it is used by the Lepchas as a green dye, " and that " the 
green leaves are put into water and infused, and the cloth to be dyed 
steeped in the infusion." I found no trace of the use of either species as 
a blue dye among the Nagas ; although both plants are very plentiful, they 
regularly import from the plains of Manipur and Assam the room dye 
(Strobtlanthes flacddifofiiis). 

Dr. Schlich says of H. capitellata. Wall (see McCann's Report on 
Bengal Dyes) : *' The Lepchas grind up the green leaves and steep the 
article to be dyed in the infusion." *' It yields a green dye.** 

From the preceding remarks, as also those under Lruculia gratissinui 
and Baccanrea sapida, it is clear that there must be some mistake regard- 
ing this dye-stuff. Fresh information, specimens of the dye-stuff, cloth 
dyed with it, and, if possible, dried specimens of the plant yielding the 
dye, are much required for identification. 

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis^ Lmn., Malvacea. 

The shoe-flower, Eng, ; Ketmi de Cochin Chine, JFr. 

Vem-^^obdyjuwa, oru, Besg. ;7dsavanda. Bom.; yoba. Sans.; ^asut, 
Dec; Shappai'tup-pu, Tam. ; ^va-pushpamu, Tel. ; Kaung-yan, ioung"- 
yan, Burm. 

A favourite ornamental bush, occurring in most flower gardens on the 

Dyes, TanSy and Mordants. 

[ Part II. 

plains of India. There are numerous varieties^ single and double red, 
yellow and white. The plant never seeds in India. 

Dr. Bidie reports, that an infusion of the flowers produces a purplish 
hue. The petals are also used to give a polish to boots and shoes. Dr. 
McCann, in his Report on the Dye-stuffs of Bengal, says the flowers are 
culled by children, and in Hugli are used to give a red colour to paper. 


Hymenodictyon ezcelsum, Wall., Rubiacea. 

Syn. — Cinchona bxcblsa, Roxb. {Fl. Ind., %., s^9') 

Vera. — Bhaulan, bhalena, hhamina, dhauli, Hkirkat, bhurk4r, pkaldu, 
bhohdr, patur, Hind.; Bartu, baxthoa, Pb. ; Kaldkad4, Bom.; Sagapu, 
Tam. ; Dudiyetta, chetippa, bandara, Tel. 

A deciduous tree, 30 to 40 feet high, with smooth bark, met with on the 
dry hills at the base of the Western Himalayas, from Garhwal to Nepal, 
ascending to 2,500 feet; throughout the Deccan and Central India to the 
Anamalays. Also in Tenasserim and Chittagong. (Hooker.) 

The inner bark is bitter, astringent and used as a febrifuge and for 
tanning; and the leaves as a cattle fodder. Roxburgh says : *' the infusion 
of one leaf in water all night had little colour, but struck quickly a deep 
purplish blue with a chalybeate." (Gamble.) Probably H. Thyrsiflomm, 
Wall, vern. Purgur, Hind., is used in the same way as H. ezeelsum. 
This striking and peculiar property of the infusion, giving a purplish 
blue with salts of iron, is nownere mentioned by any subsequent author, 
and is apparently unknown to the natives. 


Hsrmenopogon parasiticus, Wall., Rubiaceje. 

An epiphytic shrub of the North-eastern Himalaya and Burma. 


Impatiens Balsamina, Lmn., Geraniacejb. 

VertL-^Bantil, tatura, palU tilphdr,juk, Pb. 
Madden says that the flowers of this plant are in Garhwal used for a 
dye, whence it is called Majiti. (Stewart,) Specimens much required 
to confirm this. 

Indigofera tinctoria, Linn., Leguminosje. 


Vera. — Nil, Hind., Beng. ; Nilagula, Bon. ; Nilam, Tam. ; Niti-mandu, 

Extensively cultivated in Bengal, the North- West Provinces, Punjab, 
Sind, and South India. It does not require to be specially described here, 
as it is already an established commercial product. The following 
are the more important Indian plants known to yield the chemical sub* 
stance Indigo :— 

Indigfofera tinctoria, Bengal Indigo. 

Isatis tinctoria, Afghanistan and China Indigo. 

c 33 



Part IL] 

Economic Products of India. 



StroUlantfaet flaccidifofiiuiy Assam Indigo or Roonii also largely culti- 
vated in China. 

Mandeoia tiiictorlA» The Lepcha Indigo^ or Ryom. 

Wfiglitia tiiictoiia, The Mysore Indigo. 

These are the principal plants in India known to yield the blue 
dye. About 100 in all are known to yield itj of which two more- may be 
mentioned here, the common grain plant Cicer ariettanm, and the custard 
apple, Annoiui sqnamoMi. 

The dye is obtained from the twigs of the former and the leaves of the 

Iron Sulphate. 

Is used as a dye, 01 rather as a mordant, with certain oi^ganic products, 
which, with this salt, give a black or dark brown dye. It is generally 
prepared by placing clean bars of iron in a tub containing a solution of 
coarse sugar and other substances. There is a large trade in Lucknow in 
the preparation of Iron Sulphate, it being sold in large slabs to the dyer. 
When tne solution of the iron salt and vegetable product assumes a deep 
dark colour it is ready for use. Sometimes myrabolans are boiled with 
this solution to give brilliancy. Mr. Buck, in his Dyes and Tans of the 
NorthmWestern Provinces, gives the following colours as produced with 
sulphate of iron associated with organic matter : — 

Black (Vern. Paundai of Etah). 



Washed in clean water. 


Sulphate of iron. 
Safflower may be substituted for al. (Morinda bark). 

Bine Bbudc (Vern. Kalejai of Allahabad). 
Sulphate of iron. 

Dafk Green (Vern. Zimmaraddi of Cawnpore). 
Sulphate of iron. 
Acidulated water. 

Dark Brown (Vern. Kakreei of Furukhabad). 
Sulphate of iron. 


Sulphate of iron. 

Slate Gr^ (Vern. Khaki of Allahabad). 


Oak galls. 

Sulphate of iron. 
Sulphate of iron is also largely used in calico-printing. 
See also Protosulphate of Iron. 


Dyes, TanSy and Mordants. 

[ Part II. 


Isatis tinctorial Linn,^ Crucifsrjb. 

An erect, herbaceous plant, like a large cabbage, common in Western 
Tibet, wild and cultivated. Also largely cultivated in certain regions 
in China. 

It yields the indigo of China, and Dr. Aitchison, in his report upon the 
Kuram Valley, informs us that it is used for this purpose in Afghanistan. 

Jasminum humile, Linn.y Olsacex. 

Syn. — ^J. RBVOLUTUM, Sims, 

VenU'^Chamba, juari, tsanu, summun,jai, kuja, Pb. ; Sonajdhif KuMA- 
UN ; Sim, re, Chenab ; Shing, Puring, marti, Sutlej. 

A small shrub, wild in the Sub-tropical Himalaya at 2,000 to 5,000 feet, 
from Kashmir to Nepal, Bhutan, South India, and Ceylon, widely culti- 
vated in gardens throughout India. 

A yellow dye is extracted from the roots in Kuram Valley (Aitchison, 
Linnean journal, XIX, p. 147). It is curious that this fact should appa- 
rently be unknown to the hill tribes in other parts of India where the 
plant is equally abundant. 

Specimens of the root, and of dye-stuff, much required, with any addi- 
tional information. 

Jatropha slanduUfera, Boxh,, Euphorbiacejb. 

Vera --yangalieranda, BoM. ; Addalay, Taii. ; Nela-amida, Tbl. ; Nik- 
umba, Sans. 

The above vernacular names are given by Ainslie in the first instance 
as the South India names for a plant which he called J. glauca, Vahl, 
This plant was referred to J. glandulifera, Roxb., by Drury in his Useful 
Plants of India, and thus the above names crept into all subsequent 
writings as the vernacular names for Roxburgh's plant. 

There seems to be considerable doubt as to the accuracy of Drury's 
interpretation. DeCandolle, in the Prod,, Vol. is^p. 1085, reduces J. glauca 
Vahl., to J. lobata, Muller, to which there is considerable likelihood of its 
properly belonging. If this be correct the above vernacular names which, 
as stated, have found their way into the writings of all modern authors, 
will have to be removed from J. glanduUfera, Roxb. There is a name 
pretty general in Bengal for the Roxburghian plant, which will be found 
useful, and will probably become its mture vernacular name, namely, 

In Roxburgh's time this plant was ''met with in a few gardens about 
Calcutta." " From whence it came I cannot learn :" so wrote the father 
of Indian Botany eighty years 'ago. It has now spread everywhere 
throughout the hotter damp parts of India, and is largely cultivated as 
a hei^e plant like most other Jatrophas, because cows and goats will 
not eat them. LaUbherenda in Bengal is perhaps one of the commonest 
jungle plants, and was, I am told, one of the " jungle weeds" suspected 
of having something to do with the great outbreak of dengue fever in 

The chief interest in this plant economically consists in the property 
of its leaves which give a beautiful green dye. This was discovered 





C I 


Part II.] 

Economic Products of India* 


by Dr. Thomson, Civil Surgeon of Malda, and made known to the 
Agricultural and Horticultural Society in '1862. It is much to be regretted 
that this discovery has not been confirmed by other Tjbservers. The 
leaves have not been taken advantage of as a dye-stuff. 

It is hoped that the above remarks regarding the probable confusion 
in the vernacular synonymy of this plant may show that the Madras plant 
is quite distinct from that met witn in Bengal ; and that the dye will be 
rediscovered by other experimenters and made more generally known. 
There are but few instances of ^eens being obtained as simple colours 
from plants, the Chinese green indigo being that best known. It seems 
doubtful, however, if even the Chinese green is a simple dye ; I should 
suspect that there is some mistake regarding the dye from Jatropha 
glandufifent, Roxb. 

Drury publishes a description of this plant, which might be supposed 
original. It was written, however, by an author quoted by Ainslie, who 
gives the paragraph published by Drury as a quotation from Miller. 
There is one important departure from the original in Drury's reproduc- 
tion; the description of the petiole has been changed from "wthout 
glandular hairs'* into "with glandular hairs," perhaps to fit in with 
the reduction to J. ^landuUfera, Roxb. The height of the plant is given 
as I foot, whereas Roxburgh's plant is described by Kurz as '^ an ever- 
green treelet ", 4 to 8 feet in height. Not unfrequent among rubbish 
round villages and along river banks from Chittas^ong to Ava, Arracan, 
and Pe^. It is remarkable that in the damp jungles of Bengal, especially 
in the vicinity of Calcutta, where the plant is very plentiful, it rarely rises 
more than 2 to 3 feet above ground, being much branched and gregarious. 
In the N.-W. Provinces and Oudh it is not so plentiful, but forms a dis- 
tinct stem 4 to 6 feet in height, and is a frequent ornamental bush in gar- 
dens. Dr. Dymock reports that it is a l^trge and plentiful bush in Bom- 
bay with glandular hairs. 

The seed gives a valuable oil like that from J. Curcas, Linn. 


144 JuglanS regia, Linn., Juglandejb. 

The Walnut, 

Vera. — Akhrot, Hind., Bom.: Akrui, Beng. ; Girdu, girdugam, 
charmaghB, Pers.; Akhar, Kashmir; Kowal^ Lepcha. 

A large tree wild in the North- West Provinces and the Sikkim 
Himalaya, and largely cultivated. 

The rind of the fruit is used for tanning and dyeing and so also is the 
bark of the tree. 

145 Kandelia Rheediii W. &f A,y RHizopHOREiB. 

Vern. — Guria, Beng. ; T^'eron-kandel, Malay. 

" An evergreen shrub, or small tree, found on the muddy shores in 
tidal creeks of Bengal, Burma, and the Western Coast. 

The bark is used in Tavoy in dyeing red, and probably as a mordant, 

146 Kino, Beilgal. — The gum resin from Butea lircndosa, Roxb,, and B. 
superba, Roxb., which see. 


Dyes, Tans and Mordants. 

[Part II. 

Khaki, an earthy or grey day colour, now largely used to dye the 
uniform of soldiers. " Khaki is the name given to a sect of Vaishnava 
Hindus founded by Kil, a disciple of Krishna Das. Thev. apply ashes of 
cowdung to their dress and persons, hence the name or khaki given to 
them. The following are the principal khakis or grey dyes in use : 

irf. — Allahabad Khaki. This is produced by boiling myrabolans, 

gall-nuts, and sulphate of iron together. 
^nd* — In many parts of the country, such as in Manipur, a natural 
earth is used. The laynung earth of Manipur seems capable 
of much development. 
Wet a chittack of wild turmeric (huldt) and rinse out its colour into \\ 
quart of water ; then mix two tolahs of leingang (a kind of earth that is 
to be found nearly everywhere in the valley) in the water ; add J of a pint 
of fresh milk and then strain. Wash the cloth to be dyed thoroughly 
clean, and then steep it in this mixture; press, squeeze and flop it about 
and then let It soak for half an hour. Wring out and dry (in the sun ?) 
and when dry steep it again in the mixture as above. Wring out and 
steep in f of a pmt of heiboong water thoroughly ; and wring out and 
dry in the shade. , - - 

Lac-dve, the colouring matter of the body of the insect Coccus 
Lacca, a Dy-product obtained from the washings in the preparation of 
seed-lac from stick-lac. These washings are evaporated, and the residual 
matter is baked into the dark purplish cakes sold in the market. Lac-dye 
might have ceased to be met with at all, since the advance of the aniline 
dye has caused an enormous decrease in the price of all Indian indi- 
genous colours and dyes, but it still pays to make the dye as a by product. 

Lac-dye is chiefly used in dyeing leather, and in combination with 
Bflorinda (at) Rubia (madder) to improve the colour of these dyes. 

For a list of plants which yield the Lac insect, see **Lac" in Part /, 
" The Gums and Resins.'' 

Lagerstrosmia parviflora^ Roxk, Lythracejs: 

Yemr—Bakli, jhaura, sida. Hind.; Sida, Beng. ; Lakdnabodara, BoM. ; 
Kanhil, Lbpcha; Ckinangi, Tel. ; Zaungbdle,BvRM, 

A large, deciduous tree, met with in the Sub-Hiinala^an tract from the 
Jumna eastward to Oudh, Bengal^ and Assam, and in Central and South 

The bark is used in tanning (Gamble).. Or. McCann says that in Mid- 
napur it is also used m dyeing skins black, along with the bark of 
Temiiiftlui tomentosa, Boxb. (asnd). 

Lawsonia alba, Zam., Lythracea. 

Vem.^Henna, mehndi, Hind. ; Mehdi, Mahr., Bkng. ; Maritkondi, Tam.; 
Goranta, Tel.; Dan, Burm. 
Wild in Beluchistan, on the Coromandel Coast, and perhaps in Cen- 
tral India; cultivated throughout India. 

The henna dye is used to give the nails, hair, &c., an orange colour. 
For this purpose the freshly-gathered leaves are pounded with catechu 
or lime; with indigo it is sometimes used to dye the hair black. As a dye 
for fabrics it is very fleeting and, therefore, rarely used. 








Part II. ] 

Economic Products of India. 




Loranthus longifloruSy Dex., Loranthacea. 

Vem. — Bura-manda, Bbnq. ; Panda, amut, Pb.; Banda, C. P. ; Prusti, 
Lspcha; ^VrM> Nepal; V6,nda9 Sans.; Vdnda, Mahr.; Yelinga, 
wadinika, Ikl. 

A common parasite upon the following trees : — 

1. Albizzia« 

2. Bassia. 

3. Bauhinia. 

4. Buchanania. 

6. Ficus. 

7. Melia. 

8. Mangifera. 
g. Quercus. 


5. Diospyros. 

The wood is used as a finishing tan stuff in order to give softness to 

Luculia gxatissimai Sweef., RuBiAcsiK. 

Vem. — Dowari, Nepal ; Simbran-grip, Lbpcha. 

Temperate Himalaya, from Nepal to Bhutan, altitude 4,000 to 6,000 
feet J also in Ava. {Kurs) 

" Leaves are used in dyeing." (Gamble.) 

Under Hedyotis caplteUata, Wall., Gamble alludes to this plant, 
but it is not quite clear whether he means the leaves of this plant or of 
Hedyotis when he says, " It seems to be more as a mordant that it is used 
than as a regular djre." (Gamble's List of Trees, &c,, in Darjiling Dts- 
Met.) Additional information and specimens required. 

153 Maduia tinctoria, B. Don., CJrticacea. 

The Mustic. 

A native of the West Indies and Central and South America; intro- 
duced into India, 

Wood used for dyeing shadeslof yellow* brown and green. 

j^ Macrotomia perennisi Boiss., Boraginea. 

Met with on the Punjab Himalaya. 

The root (P) of this plant yields a dye which has been confused with 
that of Onosnui echiodes, L., which yields the Rattanjot. 

It would be very desirable to obtain specimens of this root as of all the 
others which go by the name of Rattanjot, 

ZS5 Mallotus philippinensiSi Mull., Euphorbiacejb. 


YertL'^Punag, tung, kishur, kamalaguri (the dye powder), Bbng.; 
Katnela, kamal. Pa.; Rokni, Oudh; Puroa, Lepcha; Gangai, Ass.; 
K(^ila, Bom.; Kapli, kapila, Tam.; Tawthidin, BuRM. 

A small tree of the Sub*Himalayan tract, from the Indus eastward 


Dyes, Tans, and Mordants. 

[ Part II. 


(ascending to 4,500 feet) to Bengal, Central and South India, Burma and 
the Andaman Islands. (Gamble*) 

The dye is obtained from the epidermal ^^lands of the fruits, the powder 
formed in the interior upon the fruit becommg dry or overripe. It gives a 
rich red colour used in ayeing silk and wool, and does not require a mor- 
dant. Dr. Bidie says that the grains consist of a red substance enclosed in 
a membraneous sac, which is not acted upon by water, though soluble in 
alcohol or an alkaline solution. It gives a brilliant yellow to silk. About 
80 per cent of resin is extracted U'om the colouring agent through the 
means of alcohol. Dr. Schlich says the roots also yield a red dye. 

The bark is largely used in tanning leather in the North- West Provin- 

Mangifera indicai Ltnn,, Anacardiacea. 

The Mango Tree. 

Vem. — Am, Hind. ; Antra, Sans.; Ambd, dma, Bom.; Mad, mangos, Tam.; 
Ghariam, Ass. ; Mamaai, Tbl. ; Thayet, Burm. 

A densely-branched tree, wild on the Western Ghits,theChutia Nag- 
pur Hills and the Naga Hills; cultivated all over India for its fruit, the 

The bark gives a g^m and the seeds contain gallic acid. The bark 
and the leaves yield a yellow dye not much used, but the dry unripe fruit 
is largely used as a mordant, especially in dyeing with safflower. The 
leaves are also used in tanning by the poorer classes in Oudh. (Buck.) 
The bark is in the Dacca district used in tanning. (McCann.) 

Mangrove Bark, a valuable tan. 

The following are the barks known commercially by this name : — 
Rhizophora mucronata, Lamk. : Bruguiera gymnorhiza, Lamk, ; and 

probably also Aviceimia offidnalis, Zt»n. ; Ceriops, Candolleana, Arn.; 

C. Rozbnxighiaiia, Am.; and Kandellia Rheedii, W. & A. 

Marsdenia tinctoria, J^. Br,, Asclepiadsa. 

Vem. — Kalilara, Nepal ; Ryom, Lepcha. 

Gives a blue dye resembling, if not chemically the same as, indigo. 

The Lepcha name " Ryom '* is very like the Assamese ** Room " — 
the vernacular for StrobilaQthea flacdduofius, Nees, Kckv^tbecem, a plant 
which also yields indigo. 

Melia Azedarach, Ltnn., Meliacejb. 

The Persian Lilac ; Bead Tree. 

Vem. — Drek, bakarja, bakain, bakdyan, beidiiuHiKD.j Ghoro'ttim, Beng. ; 
Chein, Sutlej ; Maha limbo, malla nim, C. P. ; Maltaiftembu, Tam. ; 
Tarak vepa, Tel.; {Ta-ma-ka, Burm.; Mokanimba, Sans.; Ban, 

A tree with* smooth grey bark, commonly cultivated throughout India, 
and believed to be indigenous. 

Dr. Bidie says the leaves contain green colouring matter-^a fact which 
seems to be unknown in India generally. 






Part IL] 

Economic Products of India^ 




Memecylon edule, Roxb,, Var. typica Melastomacej:. 

Syn.— M. TiNCTORiUM, Kaen.; M, umbeUatumt Burm. 
Vera. — AUi'cheddu, Tel. ; Anjan, kurpa. Bom. 
The Flora of British India gives 12 varieties of this plant. It is met 
with in the Western Peninsula, Ceylon, Tenasserim, and the Andaman 

The flowers and the leaves are used in dyeing. A cold infusion of 
the leaves yields a ]^ellow dye, largely used along with Sappan wood 
and myrabolans. It is also used as an auxiliary with Chay-root (01d< 
iandia niabellftta) in producing a bright red dye. 

z6i Mesua ferrea, Ltnn.y Guttiferje. 

Vera. — Nagesar, HiNi>., Behg.; Ndgchampot Mahr. ; Nangal,TAU.; 
Gang aw, Burm.; nahar, Ass. 

A middle-sized, glabrous-barked tree, met with in the mountains of 
Eastern Bengal, the East Himalaya, and the Eastern and the Western 
Peninsula, and the Andaman Islands. A very variable tree, the under- 
surface of whose leaves is often quite destitute of the waxy meal. 

Spons* Encyclopiedia says the flower buds of this plant are used in 
India fur dyeing silk; "they were once introduced into the London 
market under the name of nag-kassar, apparently a corruption of the 
Hindustani and Bengali name nagesar" Dr. Dymock writes me to say 
that this is quite a mistake, and that the flower-buds referred to are those 
of OdirocarpttS longifoUiis, k^hich see. 

262 Mica. 

Vent. — Abrak, Hind. ; Abhra, Sans. 

A mineral well known because of its metallic lustre and its peculiar 
cleavage, splitting into thin plates. 

Sometimes used in calicos-printing, the particles shining in the cloth. 

Z63 Michelia Champaca, Linn., Magnoliaceje. 

"Vtm.— Champa, Hind.; Champa, champak, Beng. ; Titasappa, Ass. • 
Shimba, sempangam, Tam. ; Saga, Burm. 

A large, handsome tree, with yellow, sweetly-scented flowers, cultivated 
throughout India; wild in Nepal, Bengal, Assam, and Burma. 

The flowers when boiled arfe said to yield a yellow dye, sometimes used 
as a base to other colours, and communicating an agreeableperfume to thfe 


164 MimuSOpS Eleng^y Linn., Sapotaceje. 

Vem,^Bukal, bohl, Beng.; Afulsdri, maulser, Hind.; Bakuli, ovali. 
Bom. ; Magadam, Tam. ; Bokal mugali, Kan. ; Kaya chaya, Burm. 

A large, ever^freen tree, largely cultivated ; said to be wild on the 
Westerr Ghftts, in Burma, Ceylon, and the Andaman Islands. 


Dyes, TanSy and Mordants. 

[ Part II. 


The bark is astringent and used in tanningj. Sometimes used also as 
a dye-stuff, giving a brown colour in combination with myrabolans. The 
dye is extracted by boiling the bark. 

Mimusops littoralis, Kurz. 

The bark yields a red dye (Major Ford), used in the Andaman 

MochraS, or rather Mocha-ras (the sap of Mocha.) There are two sub- 
stances^ used in dyeing, known by this name : — 

A mahogany coloured gum of rounded convoluted hollow pieces 

obtained from Bombaz malabaricum {shimul). 
A heavy light mahogany coloured gum in large solid tears, pale 

coloured interiorly, obtained from Moringa ptyeiygfospemuu 
Curiously convoluted, yellowish, opaque pieces of resinous sub- 
stance, obtained from Areca Cfttechu, are known as Mochras. 

Morinda ans^ustifolia, J^oxb,, Rubiaceje. 

Vem. — Asugach, Ass. ; Kchautun, Phbkial ; Ckenung, chengrung, Gi.RO ; 
Y^yo, BuRM. 

An erect bush, or small tree, of the tropical Himalaya, wild and culti- 
vated from Nepal eastward, ascending to 4,000 feet, to Assam, Khasia and 
Naga Hills, Cnittagong and Tenasserim. May be recognised from other 
species by the caudate-acuminate leaves, tapering into the petiole, and 
fruit I inch in diameter or less, of 5 free and turbinate black drupes. 

Bark and wood yield a good yellow dye. Brandis remarks : ''cultivat- 
ed in toungyas in Burma as a dye.'' 

M. citrifolia, Lmn. 

This is sometimes called the Indian Mulberry. A small tree culti- 
vated or wild (?) throughout the hotter parts of India, Burma, and Ceylon. 

It may be recognised from the preceding species by the leaves being 
elliptic, acute, or obtuse, shining ; fruit, of many drupes coalescent into a 
fleshy, globose head, one inch in diameter. Considerable confusion has 
long existed in the allied forms and synonymy of this species, but the 
Flora of British India has reduced them to the following varieties : — 

Var. X8t atrifolia, proper as in Roxb. Fl. Ind.^ /, 5^/. 

Vem.— il/. Hind.; Ach, aich or achhu, Beng. ; Aid, bartondi, Bom.; 
Munja-pavattary, Tam, } Ye-o, Nyaw kyee ornyau-ki, Burm. Suranji, 
a trade name. 

Supposed tb be truly wild in Malacca. Largely cultivated throughout 

This is the chief dye-yielding form, and one of the commonest and 
most useful of Indian dyes. The al bark is principally used in dyeing 
the cotton yarn afterwards spun into fancy borders for the garments of the 
poorer classes. Sometimes used to dye silk, e.g,, in* the Erendi cloth; but 
the chief use is to dye the coarse Kharua cloth. The colours produced 
vary from reddish yellow to dark brown. The thread or fabric is pre- 
viously prepared bv bein^ steeped for 3 or 4 days in powdered castor 
oil seeds and cow-d.ung with water. After washing it is soaked in a 
decoction of myrabolans, and afterwards in alum. It is then removed, 
well washed, dried, and thereafter boiled in the dye solution. It is then 
sized and beaten smooth with wooden clubs. {Buck, Liotard, McCann.) 







Part II.] 

Economic Products of India. 








Vtf. 2nd. Bficteifmy sp., Roxb, FL Ind.^ i, ^44. 

VtOL^ffiirdi, huidi hung. Hind., Bbno.; Ndgakundd, BoM. 
Roxburgh regards this form as a native of Ganjam in Orissa, and 
Thwaites views it as wild in Ceylon. It is not unfrequent in the forests 
of the Andaman Islands {Kurg), and here and there in the forests of the 
Terai near the Tbta (Schlkh). 

Var. 3rd. EUiptiau 

A form from the Concan, Malacca, &c.; in point of foliage inter- 
mediate between BiL angnstifolia and M. dtrifoliiu The above varieties 
are cultivated but are in some localities wild throughout the hotter regions 
of India. ** It is cultivated in Kandesh, Berar and the Deccan,and Targe 
quantities are exported from Malabar to Guzerat and Northern India." 
[Spons^ Enc) 

The root-bark yields a valuable scarlet. dye. The process of dyeing 
is tedious, and in conseouence the use of this dye-stuff is rapidly disappear- 
ing through the introauction of the cheap and brilliant aniline dyes 
which, though fleetin&r, are more taking with buyers. Mr. Buck states 
that an acre will produce about 10 maunds of root, one-third of each class. 
He gives the following classes of the dye-stuff :— > 

1st class. — Thin rootlets (Hargharka, bhara bar). 

2nd class. — Middle sized (Lari, jharan, pachmer), 

3rd class. — ^Thick roots {Pachat, ghatiya, lart). 

The bhara or thin thread-like rootlets yield the true dye. The 
thicker roots are worthless and are used for adulteration only. The Bhara 
fetch about Rs. 8 a maund, the second quali^ Rs. 4, and the third Rs. 2. 
The plant takes 3I years to reach maturity; the cultivator therefore requires 
a hi^ price, which he cannot now obtain ; and as a cultivated product 
it seems doomed to give place to more profitable crops. 

Morinda persicaefolia, Bam. 

VtaL-^DiUa kurdi, Paharia; Nuldikung, Lrpcha. 
This shrub seems to be peculiar to Burma, Kurz remarkincr that it is com- 
mon in the savannah forests from Ava and Martaban <&wn toTenas- 
serim. Gamble in his List of Trees, Shrubs and Climbers of Darjiling^ 
mentions M. lanceolata as met with in the Terai and as yielding a good 
dye. There is probably a mistake in the name, as M • lanoeolata. Wall, is 
reduced to M. persicaefoUa, Ham,, a species according to the Flora of 
British India peculiar to Burma extending to Singapore and Sumatra. 

M. tinctoria, J^oxb. 

This is considered by many Indian botanists to be but a wild form of 
M. dtrifoHa, Linn. It is probable, however, that w. bracteata is the 
wild form of that species, and that this is a distinct and almost entirely 
wild species. It may be recognised and distinguished from the preced- 
ing by the leaves being acute at both ends, |^labrous or pubescent, bus 
not shining; fruit, of many drupes coalescent into a head, generally lest 
than I inch in diameter. The following are the forms of this species 
recognbed by the Flora of British India : — 

Var. ztt tinctoiia proper, as in Rox6. Fl. Ind.^ f ., 5^ j. 

VtXtL^Al, ak, acha, auch. Hind., Bbng. 

Var. and. tomentoaa ap., H^yne, as in Kurz, ii, 60. 

Not unfrequent in the dry forests of Prome. 

Dye obtained from the interior of the wood of old trees. 


Dyes, TanSf and Mordants, 

[Part II. 

Var. 3rd. multiflota, s.p. Roxb. FL Ind., /, 346, 
In Nagpore and Berar where it is called adl, 

Var. 4ih. aspera sp., W. & A. Prod. 420. 

The plant which Roxburgh called M. excerta» Roxb., and which was 
republished by Beddome, Kurz and Gamble, is pronounced by th^ Flora 
of British India to be a mere sexual condit ion of both M. dtrifolla and M. 
tinctoria, in which the stamens are exserted or protruding from the mouth 
of the corolla ; it cannot therefore be regarded even as a variety. It will 
be observed that while M. dtiifo]ia» Linn., is kept up as distinct from 
M. tinctoria, Roxb., in the above notes M. dtrifolla is the form which is 
most frequently met with under the name of Al or Ach in a state of 
cultivation, and is the chief source of the dye of commerce. 

Morinda umbellata, Lmn. 

Syn.— M. SCANDENS, Roxb. {Fl. Ifid., i, 5^.) 

A diffuse shrub of Eastern Bengal and the Malay Peninsula, from the 
Khisia Hills to Penang and Singapore, Western Peninsula, South Con- 
<:an» Nilgiri Hills and Travancore mountains. In Burma it is found in 
the forests of Tenasserim. 

Like all other members of this genus the root yields the yellow and 
red dye which Mr. Baden-Powell thinks may be the Chay root of the an- 
cients. I am inclined to think that this is a mistake, as there seems no 
reason to doubt that Chay root was Oldenlandia umbeUata. The natural dye 
from M. nmbeltata is a brilliant permanent yellow, which is convertible 
into red when mixed with Sappan wood, rivalhng the madder red. 

Condudlng Note. 

Any of the preceding spedes may be used as Al or Ach in the production of the 
red colour obtained from the roots of M. dtrifolla. The colour is by no means a 
good one, not nearly so brilliant as that from sailiower. It is rarely used in compound 
colours, but is usea chiefly in calico-printing. Its consumption is purely Indian; it 
is believed never to have been exported to Europe. Mr. Buck states that in 1876-77 
Al to the value of Rs. 2,66,226 was imported into the dty of Cawnpore chiefly from 

Moringa pterygosperma, Gaertn., Moringea. 

The Horse Badish Tree. 

Vera. — Soanjna, san/tia. Hind.; Sufuna, Behg. ;' Segata, segavd, BoM.} 
Morunga, Tam. ; Danthaldn, Burm. 

Mr. Christy, in his New Commercial Plants, includes this amongst 
East Indian tans, the bark, according to him, being used and known 
under the vernacular name of subanjuna. As far as India is concerned 
this is a mistake, the plant is far too valuable as a vegetable producer to 
be used economically even should it possess tanning properties. The gum 
is one of the substances sold under the name ofMocluaS or Moduiias 
(which see) and used in calico printing. 

Muriate of tin. 


A mordant used for the wool yarns of the carpet manufacturer to fix 
the reds obtained from lac, cochineal, atid the purples obtained from these 
in combination with Indigo. 







Part II. ] 

Economic Products of India. 








Musa paradisiaca, Linn., Scitaminxjs. 

The Plantain. 

Vem. — Ngetpyav, nga-pyi'^hi, BuRM. 

M. sapientum, waid. 

The Banana. 
Vtxn,—Kela, Hind.; KaU, Beno. 
The rind of the unripe fruit of either of the preceding or of the many 
cultivated forms derived from them yields a black dye often used to 
colour leather. 

MyrabolanSiJ^ term applied to the fruits of various species of Terndnalia 
which see. These curiously-winged fruits are much prized as astringents 
in dyeing and tanning black, for which purpose th^ are largely exported 
to Europe. They also make good ink. 



WalLf Mtricacea. 

Vem.^Kaphal, kaipkal, N. W. P.; Kdyaphala, Bou. } Kobusi, Nepal; 
Dingsolir, Khasia. 

A moderate sized tree of the outer Himalaya, altitude 3,000 to 6,000 
feet ; extendine to the Khisia Hills and Burma. 

The bark of this tree is. a much-valued remedy for rheumatism, but it 
is occasionally used in the North-West Provinces as a tanning agent 
in fancy leather-work. (Buck.) 

The bark treated with boiling water yields an abundant . hard brittle 
extract almost exactly like kino. (Dr. Dymhck,) 

Nyctanthes Arbor-tristis, Linn., Oleacea. 

Yem. — Hdr, sihdrUf harsinghdr, saherwa, seoli, nibari, HtND. ; Shingh&r, 
harsinghdr^ sephdlikd, BeNg. ; Hardsingara, pdrijdtaka, BoM . ; Paidra, 
ladrStri, k4rt, shdli, Pb. • Gonjg^o, seoli, Vriy A ; Manja-pa, Tam. ; Seikbilu, 
iseit-fyi'lu, Burm. 

A small shrub of Central India, ascending to altitude 3,000 feet, and 
extending to Bengal and Burma. Cultivated throughout India. 

The corolla tubes are orange-coloured, and when severed from the limbs 
they give a beautiful but fleeting orange or golden dye, sometimes used 
for silk. It is sometimes used in combination with turmeric. Half a 
seer of the dried corolla tubes will dye 60 yards of silk cloth. 

The leaves are used for polishing wood. 

The author of the Mahhsawul-Adwi^a states that the white portion of 
the flowers yields a purple dye known in India as Gulkama, He says 
that directions for its preparation will be found in Karabadien-i-kabir. 
(Dr. Dymock.) 


The essential ingredient is peroxide of iron, whether as as anhydrous 
red haematite or the hydrated brown and yellow limonites, but there is a 
wide range in the proportion of this colounng matter that may be contained 
in a marketable 'Ochre/ from the pure pigment manufactured on a large 
scale at Katni by crushing the rich haematite ore occurring there, down to 


Dyes, Tans, and Mordants. 

[ Part II. 

the ochreous clay (layering) largely used as a khaki dye in Munipur, al- 
though it contains only nine per cent, of limonite. These instances illustrate 
the great range in the mode of occurrence of this substance^ from the 
metallic lode in very ancient rocks down to the most recent alluvial clays. 
The old rocks of India are peculiarly rich in ores of iron, and these have 
naturally affected all the later derivative formations. The basaltic forma- 
tion covering so large an area of Western India is another primary source 
of ferruginous matter : beds of bole (a variety of ochre) are not unfrequent 
in it. From these stores were derived the characteristically ochrey rock 
known as laterite occurring so widely throughout India. Originally de- 
posits of iron peroxides, such as those already mentioned, whether in veins 
or in beds, pure or mixed with clay, would in most cases yield an unlimited 
supply; but in a collection of ochres made promiscuously from native 
sources a large number would probably be of secondary origin, u e,, local, 
and superficial decomposition products of rocks or minerals containing iron 
in some other state of combination. The occurrence of these small local 
sources would be innumerable, but the supply would of course be limited; 
hence the need for competent observation in each case. 



Ochrocarpus Ijonfpio^VLSt Benth ^ Hook./., Gvttivekm. 

Vcm. — Suringiy Mar. ; Sura'ponna, Tel. ; Serdya, Mal, ; Wtindi, taringi 
(male) poone (female), Suringi, gardundi, Kan. The flower buds are 

known as Tambada Magakesata. 

A large deciduous tree of the Western Ghats. 

The dried flower-buds are used for dyeing silk; the flower-buds used 
in dyeing are about the size of cloves and of a red colour. Dr« Dymock 
informs me that the Nigkesar referred to by Spans' EncycL under the 
name of Uresua ferroa was the flower-buds of this plant. 



Wodiefi 1^0X5,, ASACAKDIACIRM. 

VtnL.— Kaitnil, kim4l, mawen, mohin, ginyan, kamldi, /kingan, Hind., 
Jibdn, sindan harallu, N. W. P, ; fiyal, lohar bhadi, Beng.; Kaikra; 
GoND.; Simati, i^oya, BoM, ; Wodter, Tam.; Gumpini, Tel. ; Shimti, 
p4nil, Kan.; NM, Burm. 

A small tree of the Sub-Himalayan tract from the Indus eastward, 
ascending to 4,000 feet in altitude. Forests of India and Burma. (Gamble,) 
The bark is used for tanning. 


Oldenlandia umbellata, Linn,, Rubiaceje. 

Syn. — Hedyotis um bell at a, Lamk* 

CoOUHercial names. — Chay root or Indian madder. 

Vera. —S^rbuli, Beng., as in Dr, McCann^s Dye Report, Cheri-vello, Tel. ; 
Saya-wer, imburelf Tam., as in Roxburgh s FL Ind, 

From Orissa southwards to Ceylon and North Burma (Kure)-, collected 
by Griffith. A small bush found on sandy soils. 

The bark of the root gives a beautiful red dye. It is curious that 
this dye does not appear to be used in Bengal ; the root from Orissa is 
entirely exported to Madras from Puri district. Drury, in his Appendix 
D, states that a much cheaper, though less durable, dye may be prepared 



Part II. ] 

Economic Products of India. 


from the bark of the root of the Deccan plant known as cherinji, when 
used with a leaf called jagi. 

Information r^[ardmg this unknown dye much required. 

It seems probable from the similarity in the word Cherinji with the 
Telugu name cheri^ello for the above species that the Cherinji tnay 
prove another species of OkleiifaaidiA» and it b possible that by jagi 
IS meant Jaimrfmmi gnadiflondB, JL 







Onosma echioides, Z., Boragineje. 

Vera. — Rakmjaif gauMoboHf Hind. 

The root is used in the Panjab Himalaya and the Trans-Indus as a 
dye for wool {Stewart) and as a colouring matter, being a good substitute 
for alkanet (the root of Andnm tinctoriiO* particularly for giving a red 
colour to liquids. 

O. Emodi, Wall. 

Murray in Plants and 
" make an excellent dye for 

Sind says that the roots of this plant 
and silk. '* 

O. Hookeri, Clarke. 

Alpine Sikkim ; altitude 12,000 to 14,000 feet. 

The Flora of British India states that this plant affords the best 
Lepcha red dye specimens, and further information Would be most ac- 

Oroxylum tndicum, Benih., Bignoniacsjb. 

Syn* — Calosanthss indica, Bl. } Bignonia indica, Raxb. 

'VenL'^UUUf arlu, pharkatk, assar, sauna^ shyona, karkath. Hind. ; 
Midin, Pb.; Karam'ianda, Nbpal.; Kering, Garo; Pana^ vanga, achi^ 
Tam. s Pamama, pampana, dandkip, Teu ; Tattun^ C. P. ; DhaHe 
GoND. ; Tetu, Mar. iTatiUa, Cingh.; Kyoungsha, ktrOHng-yabin^ Burm . 

A small tree on the outer Himalaya, ascending to 3,500 feet, and ex- 
tending from the Jumna eastward to Bengal, Burma, Central and South 
India and the Andaman Islands. 

The bark and the fruit are used in tanning and in dyeing. 

Oipiment a corruption of the Latin term Anri pigmeafcam or golden pig- 
ment. This is the Sulphuret of Arsenic of the chembts and Hartal of the 
natives of India. 

It is sometimes used as a yellow dye and a pigment. 

ParmH* ^ kamtscbadalis, Esck,^ Lichknes. 

The Ross uchsn. 

Vera. — CharUa^ ckalpuri, charchubila^ chalcakalira, Pb. 
This lichen is used in calico-printing to give a perfume to the cloth and 
impart a rose tinge to the fabric The average annual exportation from 
the hill tract between the Ganges and the Sarda is about 25 tons. {Atkin- 
son's Himalayan Dist,, 778,) 


Dyes, TanSy and Mordants. 

[ Part II. 

P^:anum Hannalai Linn,y Rutacea. 

Vera. — Spelan^y karmaL The seeds are known in the bazars as Isband 
Lahouri, Pb. ; Hurmala, ispanda, BoM. 

A bush I to 3 feet high, much branched and densely foliaged; met with 
in North- West India, from Sind, the Punjab and Kashmir to Agra; 
distributed to Arabia, North Africa and westward to Hungary and Spain. 

The seeds yield a red dye, which was formerly imported into England 
from the Crimea, but the European trade has declined owing to the 
superiority of the aniline dye. Stewart says the seeds were experi- 
mentally exported from the Punjab to Europe in i866. 

Specimens required from Punjab, as also further information* 


Penidllaria spicata, Wtlld., Graminea. 

Vem.'^BaJra, Pb. ; Kambu, Tam. ; Gantelu sajjalu, Tel. 
Largely cultivated in some parts of the Punjab plains; and in high 
and dry tracts, south from Rawal Pindi, constitutes the chi^ cereal crop. 
The ashes of this plant are used as an alkali in dyeing. 

Peori Dye. This curious dye-stuff is obtained from the urine of cattle 
fed entirely upon mango leaves. It is usually met with in the bazars of 
the Punjab in lumps known as Hardvsari peori. A considerable trade is 
carried on in this curious dye at Monghyr, where I once had an opportunity 
of seeing it prepared. The smell is exceedingly offensive, and even after 
repeated washings, the dye imparts the smell of cow's urine to cloth dyed 
with it. It however gives a bright yellow, and seems to be composed 
of magnesia and purreic acid ; the latter substance may be separated by 
treating the dye solution with dilute muriatic acid. Peori is also the name 
applied to chrome yellow, which this substance very much resembles. Cow 
unne peori or pert is chiefly used as a pigment. 

Peristrophe tinctorial Nees.j AcANXHACEiE. 

VenL^Bet or Batia-rung^ Bbng. f Ghdtiptttapdpadd, BoM. 

A common bushy plant in Bengal, occurring everywhere in the woods 
around Calcutta, flowering in October. It is largely cultivated in Midnapur. 

It yields the red dye used to colour the Masland mats of Midnapore. 
The twigs are used for dyeing, being cut into short chips for this pur. 


It is curious that while Roxburgh describes this plant fully and gives 
it the name of Tinctoria he does not mention the dye obtained from it. 






Phyllanthus Emblica, Linn., Euphorbiacejb. 

Vtm.^'Daulai 6,mla, aonta^ dmlika, aura,' HiUD, ; Amla, ambolaH, amu- 
lati, old ihandtu Beng.: AmbaL ambit, Pb. ; Ambari, Garo; Amluki, 
Ass.; Anvald, BoM. ; Nelli, nellekai, Tam. ; Osirka, usri, asereki, Tel. ; 
Nelli, Kan. ; Ziiyu, tntisha, tasha-pen, Burm. 

A moderate sized tree in the dry forests of India and Burma. 



Part II. ] 

Economic Products of India. 








The fruit b the Embltc M3rrabolaii4 used as a medicine and in dyeing^ 
and tanning. The leaves are also used in tanning in most parts of India 
along with Terndnafia, Shorn, &c. ; in fact the leaves of this plant are 
regarded as one of the best tans by the Bengal chamars. A black dye is 
obtained from the fruit, along with myrabolans and sulphate of iron. 

Phyllanthus nepalensts, MuiL Arg. 

^fSVLr^Mama^hakalwa^ kari. Hind.; Got kamela, sama, ckamar kas, am" 
Uufkodmtl, Pb. ; Katmawth Garhwal; Barmao, Kumaun; Lattkat, 

A small tree of the outer Himalayas from the Indus eastward. 
The bark is used for tanning. 

Pigment. See Ochre. 


Pinus longifolia, Roxh.^ Conifers. 

Vem.— CAi/, chir, ckira, Pb. ; Salla, sa^th Man, Garhwal and KuMAUir. 

A large, gregarious tree of the drier Himalayan slopes, met with as low 
down as 2,000 feet and ascending to 7,000 feet. From Afghanistan east* 
ward to Sikkim and Bhutan. 

The bark is used for tanning ; the charcoal of the leaves, mixed with 
rice water, forms ink. 

P. Kaqra, Royie. 

This is a doubtfully distinct species from the preceding ; it is met with 
in the vicinity of Manipur ; altitude 2,000 feet. 
It has the same properties as the preceding. 


Piper Chaba, Bl. (? W. Hunter in Roxh. FL Ind.), Piperaceje. 

Vera.— Clotedbtff, ckaUatk (JicCann), Bbng.; Chab^ Hind.j Chavika, 
ckuve. Sans.; Kaniola, Bom. 

Introduced into India in 1808 {Voi^ki)», r. McCann in his Report on 
the Dyes of Bengal, states that at Balasore the roots and twigs of tnis plant 
are used along with Sampan wood to give a brownbh-red dye. 

Pistacia integerriina, f. L. Stewart, Anacardiacsa. 

Vera. — Kaka, kakkar, kangar, tunga, Pb. 

A tree with rough bark, met with on the Sulaiman range, the outer North- 
West Himalaya, extending eastward to Kumaun, altitude 6,000 feet. 
The galls are used in medicine and for tanning and dyeing. 

P. vera, Linn. 

The Pistachio Nut. 

Vtnu^Pisia, Bbng., Hino., & Bom. 
Balfour says the galls of this tree are known as gul-i^pista or bosaganj, 
and that they are us^ as a dye for silk. The galls and the pericarp of the 
fruit are imported into Bombay from Persia in considerable quantities. 
{Dr. Dymock,) 


Dyes, TanSy and Mordants, 

[ Part II. 

Plecospermum spinosum, Trecui^ llRTicACEiS. 

Vern* — Mainakat4araf maidal'4ara, Nepal; Gumbengfong, Mbch. ; 
KoriH, Tel. 

A large, thorny shrub, met with on the Salt Range, in Rohilcand, Nepal, 
Sikkim, South India and Ceylon. 

The wood is used in the Darjeeling Terai to give a yellow dye. 
(Gamble*) Often used along with Symplocos racemoMi and turmeric. 

Polygonum tortuosum, Don.y Poltgonaceje. 

Veau-^ialo or Niala, Pb, 

Stewart says this species, which grows at altitude 15,000 feet in the 
Punjab Himalaya, yields a yellow dye used in Lahoul. 

Specimens required from the Punjab, with further information. 

Potentilla nepalensis, Book., Bosaceje. 


A small, procumbent plant, not uncommon in the Himalaya, altitude 
6,000 to 7,000 feet. 

Stewart says it is one of the substances which yield the red dye 

Prosopis pallida, Kunth,^ LsGUMiNosiE. 


A native of South America, which Gamble says has been successfully 
g^own in Ceylon. 

The pods contain as much as 90 per cent, of tannic acid, highly 
valued in tanning, and iniported into Europe under the name of Algaro* 
billa {Spans' Encyc.) and Balsamocarpon [Gamble), This substance is also 
obtained from P. glandulosa, Sort,, a native of Western Texas, known as 
the Algaroba of Texas. 

P. pubescensi Bemh. 

Is being experimentally cultivated in the Royal Botanic Gardens, 
Calcutta. It is a native of Texas and New Mexico, 
The bark of this yields a tan. 

P. spicigera, Linn. 

Vtm.'^yhand, khar, Pb. ; Kandi, satnada, sami, SiND | Semru, hamra, 
Guz. I Shami, Bbng.; Perumbe, jambu, Tam. 

A moderate sized tree in the north and south dry zoqes of India; 
Punjab, Sind, Rajputana, Guzerat, Bundelcand and Deccan, 
irhe bark is used as a tan. 









Part IL ] 

Economic Products of India^ 


213 Proto"Snlphate of Iron. 





^tnL^Hirahah, kasts, HiXD^ Bexg. 

A mineral, found in many parts of India. 

Largely used as a dye-stuff or as an auxiliary or mordant to v^etable 
colours, deepening the shade. To produce black it is used with Terodiiafia 
(Myiabolans), Phyfl aflUiuS y &c. ; and to produce grey, with S^pan pods 
or with babul bark. See Iroa Sniphatr and Odiie. 

Psidium Guava, I^addi, Mtrtaoe. 

The Guava Tree. 

Vem.— Mwr*/, amrmd, HiXD. & N. W. P. ; Piyara^ Beng.; Peru^ BoM. ; 
Amuky Nepal; Modhuriamy Ass. ; Segapu, Tam. ; Jamoj coya, Tel. ; 
Malakoy Bubm. 

A small, evergreen tree, introduced from America, now widely cultivat- 
ed, and in some parts of Elengal naturalised. 

The leaves are said to be used in Assam for dyeing. {Gamble.) They 
are occasionally used in tanning in Bengal and North- West Provinces, 
by the poorer class, along with mango leaves, or with the mahwa leaves, 
or by themselves. 

Further information r^arding this fact much required, as it seems 
unknown in the rest of India. 

Pterocarpus Marsupiumy Roxb.y Legvxinosa. 

Gum Kino. 

Vera. — Bija, bijasar, bijasal, salbta, Hl^D, ; By asth Vriy a; Bibald, honi, 
dsana, Bou.;Kan, damiruga-'mirattam, vengai, Tam.j Gandumrugam- 
netturuy peddagiy pedei, Tel. 

A large tree of Central and South India, extending northward to 
Banda in the North- West Provinces ; often cultivated in gardens. 

This yields the gum lOno known in Europe for upwards of a century ; it is 
the dried juice which exudes copiously for days from artificial cuts on 
the stem when artificially wounded, lliis g^m is sometimes used as an 
auxiliary in dyeing and tanning, and the heartwood, saturated with it, may 
be used to give a yellow dye. 

P. santalinus, Linn./. 

The Sanders Red or Red SandbksTree, sometimes also called Red Sandal 
WOOD, Eng. ; Santale Rouge, Fr. ; Rothes Sandelholz, Ger. ; 
Sandalo Rose, It. ; Sandel-hout, Dan. 

Vera. — Lcd'Chandun, undum. Hind., Dec. ; Rakta-ckandan, Beng. ; 
Ldlachandana, ratdnj'U, BoM. ; Shen-shandanutn, Tam. ; Erragandhapu- 
chekka, Tbl. ; Kuchandana, tilapari, rajanoy rakta-chandana, Sans. ; 
Sun, dul'Surkhy undum, Pers. ; SundalHthmer^ undum, Arab. 

A small tree of South India, chiefly in Cuddapah, North Arcot, 
Kamul and other dry forests ; cultivated in Bengal and other parts of 

The wood is used as a dye-stuff, and is largely exported from Madras 
to other parts in India. It is chiefly used to *' mark idols and the forehead 
in ceremonies." The colouring principle is called " Santaliti. " It is soluble in 
alcohol, and is sometimes used to dye cloth, imparting a pale ink colour. 



Dyes, Tans, and Mordants. 

[Part 11. 


Punica Granatum, Linn,, LvTHRACEiE. 

The Pomegranate. Granades, Fr,; GrInats, Germ. 

Vem.—Andr, ddrim, ddmu. Hind. | Ddlim, Kumaun; Andra, ddlintba, 
Bom. ; Madalaick-chedi, Tam. ; Danimma'chettu, Tel. ; Darakhtenar, 
Pers. ; Skajratur rumman, Arab. ; Thale, Burm. 

A small tree, or a large shrub, wild in some portions of the North- 
Western Himalaya, cultivated throughout India. 

The flowers are said to be used in Bellary to give a red dye (Dr, 
Bidie's Paris Exhib, List), The flowers give a light red dye, {Gamble.) 
The rind is astringent, and is a valuable tan. It is often used as a dye 
auxiliary, especially with turmeric or indigo. It is said to be used in the 
tanning of morocco leather, imparting to it the characteristic colour. Dr. 
McCann, in his Report of the Dyes of Bengal, says the "bark (? rind) 
gives a yellow, or with alum and Cassda Fistula, a red dye,'' and Babu 
T. N. Mukherji, in his Amsterdam Exhibition Descriptive List, says the 
fruit rind (ndspal) " is largely employed, dyeing cloth a greenish colour. " 
Mr. Buck also says it gives a greenish decoction. 


QuercUS ^gilops, Ltnn,, Cupuliferjl. 
Vallonea Oak. 

Obtained chiefly from Asia Minor under the name of Vellani^ Val- 

The cupule or involucre of the acorn of this species is largely used in 
dyeing and tanning in Europe, and probably reaches India. 

Q. Ilex, Linn, 

The Holly-leaved Oak ; Holm Oak. 

Vem.— CAwr, keharsu, d4,yttru, keru, ban, Pb. ; Charrei, serei, balut, Afg. 

A middle-sized tree or large bush, met with in Europe and on the 
Himalaya, and discovered by me as far east as Manipur, 

It is probable that some of the galls of the Punjab are the produce 
of this species. The bark is good for tanning and used in France. 

Q. infectoria, Oliver. 

The Dyers' Oak or Gall. 

Vern. — Mdjuphala C^allsJ, Bom.; Mdyd, SiND. 

This is a native of Greece, Bosnia, Asia Minor and Syria. 

It has long cylindrical acorns^ the leaves are grey underneath and yield 
the galls used in medicine and in dyeing; imported into Europe from the 

Q. lamellosai Sm. 

Vem. — Skalshi, pharat'singhali, budgrat, Nepal ; Buk, Lbpcha. 

A large, handsome tree, with broad, serrate leaves, silvery below, with 
many regular parallel veins, met with in Nepal and eastward to Sikkim, 
Bhutan, Naga Hills and the mountains on the Burma- Manipur frontier. 

In Darjihng the bark is used for tanning. 




D I 



Part II. ] 

Economic Products of India. 



222 Quercus padqrpivlla, Kurx. 

VtnU—Bara^ katis^ Nefal; Hlosiri, LspcHa. 

An evergreen tre^ on the higher ranges of Sikkim^ altitude 8,000 to 
10,000 feet. Evm-where in ^fanipar forests, descending to much lower 
altitudes than in dikkim ; in the higher altitudes in Manipur it becomes a 

Acoms, enormous agglutinated masses or dusters of three nuts, 
aggr^ated into ^ikes two or three times the size of the human hand. The 
I bark and the acorns are said to be used in dyeii^ and tanning. If this be 
! correct the Naga Hills could give an unlimited supply. 

From the material at my disposal I am unable to identify any of the 
Indian oak-galb, and this fact will, I hope, suggest the desirability 
, of an effort being put forth to look into this matter. It seems strange that 
j in a country possessii^ from 30 to 40 species of oaks we should annu- 
I ally import large Quantities oiF galls and tanning acorns. In Manipur 
Q. aemiim, Thurst, Q. polyatadiya. Wall, and Q. iiw i piKpn Ba , Wall, cover 
i miles upon miles of the low hills from one end of the State to the other. Q. 
• fencstnta, Roxb., Q. Grillitlifi Hf. fsf T., Q. nricrocaljz, Kunth, and Q. 
I spicatay Sm^ occur here and there throughout the same tract, ascending to 
about 4,000 feet in altitude. In the higher forests Q. pacfajpliylla, Kurs, 
Q. <1falhata, Hook.fil., Q. laiffloaa Ham., and Q. Ilcac, L., are nearly as 
plentiful. The oak forests of the Naga Hills and Manipur might supply 
the world with tanning acoms, baiks, or galls, for there are perhaps 20 
species more or less plentiful, some of which seem likely to afford the eco- 
nomic products requved if they are systematically looked into. 

Randia dumetoniiiif Lam., Rubiaceje. 

VeflLi — Matnphal, manyul, karhar, or or, HiND. ; Mindla, mandkolla, Pb. ; 
Maidal, amuH, Nepal ; PanJU Lepcha ; Pativa, Uriya ; Gelaphala, 
Mahr. ; Madw-harray, Tam . ; Manda, Tel.; Kare, Kan. 

A small, thorny shrub, common on the Himalaya, from the Chenab 

The bark and rind are r^^arded as valuable medicines, the latter as an 
emetic ; the fruit is used to poison fish, and when roasted it is eaten. 
Mr. Buck says that in the North- West Provinces the fruit is used in calico- 
printing, and in dydng as a colour intensifier. 

We have as yet no specimens of this plant. 

Rheum Emodii Wall., Poltgonaceje. 


Syil« — R. MooRCROFTiUM, Meisn, ; R. Ribbs, Linn. 

Vera. — Reuckini, Beng. ; Z>0/m, Hind. ; Arcku, Garhwal; ChuHal, pom- 
bash, atsu, artso, chiikri, rawdsh, names on the Punjab Himalaya and 
in Afghanistan. 

In the bazars the leaf-stalks are called ribds and the root rewand 

chini. Moorcroft (Stewart, Punjab Prod.) says that the Bhutias of 

Garhwal apply the powdered root to wounds and bruises, and that they 

use it with Manjit (Madder) and potash for dyeing red- The colour would 

be derived from the Rnbla and the Rhubarb probably plays the part of an 



Dyes, Tans, and Mordants, 

[Part II. 



Rhizophora mucronata, Lamk., Rhizophorea. 

The Mangrove Tree. 

Vera. — Bharay Beng. ; Kamo, SiND; Upoo-poma, Tel, ; Byu, BuRM.; 
Kadol, CiNGH. 

A small tree, frequent in the tidal forests from Arracan and Pegu to 
Tenasserim, and on the tidal shores of West India and the Andaman 

The bark is good for tanning. This tan Christy recommends to be 
used as a preliminary preparation for cheap leathers. These should be 
about half prepared in India and exported to Europe in that condition, 
to be redone and have the colour improved by myrabolans or other 
tanning materials. 

Mangrove Bark has been exported to Europe, but leather prepared 
with it is always inferior in colour and quality. Except therefore as a 
preliminary tan, or in the preparation of cheap leathers, it is not likely to 
become an article of European trade. 



Rhus Cotinus, Lmn,, Anacardiaceje. 226 

Vern. — Padn, bhdn, manu, tiing, Pb. ; Tunga, chanidt, dmi, N. W. P. ; 
Erandi, Mahr. 

A shrub or small tree, a native of the Sulaiman Range and the North- 
western Himalaya to Kumaun. 

This is nearly allied to the Sumach (R. coriaiia» Linn,) of Europe, the 
leaves of which are used in tanning morocco leather. On the Hima- 
laya the bark and the leaves of R. Cotiniis, Linn., are similarly used for 
tanning. Dr. Aitchison, speaking of the Flora of the Kurum Valley 
(journal of Linncean Soc, XIX, p. 141), says : ** I was informed that the 
old wood of R. Cotinus is used as a dye for wool-stuffs, chiefly used in 
making felts of an orange-red colour." 

See also Suinach. 

R. succedanea, Zmn. 227 

Vern. — Tatri, arkol, nurkuy iPb. ; Kakadashingi (the galls). Bom. ; Rani- 
walal, Nepal ; Serhnyok, Ijepcha. 

Himalaya, from the Jhelam to Assam, and the Khasia Hill. 
The curious greenish-brown purse-like galls are imported into Bombay. 
They are very astringent. {Dr, Dymock,) 


Ricinus COmmuniSi Linn,, Euphorbiacejc. 

The Castor Oil Plant or Palma Christi. 

Vern. — Rand, arand, arendi, ind. Hind. ; Aneru, Chevab; Harnauli, Salt 
Range ; Orer, Nepal ; Bittamunuk, Tam. ; Amadunt, amdi, sittamindiy 
Tel. ; Kyek'Su-pen, kyeisu, Burm. 

A large shrub or small tree, indigenous in Arabia and North Africa; 
cultivated throughout India, and often found run wild. 

Seeds are used by the dyers to mix with colors [and render them per- 



Part II. ] 

Economic Products of India. 



229 Rubia cordifolia, Unn., Rubiacxje. 

The Indian Madder. 

Vem. — Manjiiy Hind.; Manjisiha, Besg, ; ManjitH, Tam. ; Taniravallit 
Tel.; Manjushta, Kan. 

A small^ herbaceous creeper or climber, often growing in festoons 
over the neighbouring vegetation in masses of 6 to 8 feet in length. There 
are two easily recognised primary forms met with in India. During the 
Burma-Manipur Boundary Commission, I observed that one of them yielded 
the red colouring matter more freely and more abundantly than the other. 
On returning to Calcutta I found this observation fully confirmed on re- 
ferring to the excellent set of sheets in the Herbarium of the Royal Bo- 
tanic Gardens. All the sheets bearing specimens of the better dye-yield- 
ing form were coloured through and through, while only one sheet of the 
other form showed the slightest tendency to discolour the paper upon 
which it was mounted. In fact, in this respect the true Madder (R. tinc- 
torium) seemed inferior to the dye-yielding form of R. cordifoUa. 

230 Var. xst, Cordifolia, proper. 

Diagnostic Characters. — Leaves^ four in a whorl, more or less cordate 
on petioles not more than i inch long ; generally five costate, rarely 
three, veins impressed ; surface rough or hispid. 

This is the form chiefly met with on the Himalaya, appearing near the 
Chenab and extending eastward to Sikkim and Bhutan, altitude 8,ocx) 
feet, to the Khasia and Naga Hills, Burma, South India and Ceylon, 
It seems nowhere to be cultivated, but is largely collected as a wild dye- 
stuff and carried to the pfaiTis to be sold. The root and lower or ground 
twigs are the dye-yielding portions. This form I regard as inferior in 
dye-property, although it is the one generally used in India and sold as 

231 Var. 2nd, Khaslaiia, Wattj MS. 

Diagnostic Characters. — Leaves on petioles, generally i, i^ or 2 inches 
long ; three costate, rarely five, often almost with solitary mid-rib, 
smooth not hispid, and veins not impressed. 

This form is the richest in Madder dye-principle. It is occasionally met 
with in Sikkim, but attains its greatest development eastward in the 
Khasia and Naga Hills. It seems nowhere to be met with to the west 
of Sikkim. I repeatedly collected this form and compared it with the 
true R. cordifolia, thinking that it would probably be found to possess 
characters sufficient to justify its entire separation from R. cordifolia, 
if not its identification with R. manjista, Roxb, But while arriving at 
the conclusion that it was probably only a variety of R. cordifolia^ I 
satisfied myself as to its superior dye-yielding property. I had been 
struck with the perfection of the red dye with which the Nagas colour 
the hair decorations of their spears, &c., and I at first concluded that this 
was the plant from which they obtained it. I was soon after convinced, 
however, that neither of these supplied the favourite red, but a third 
plant which I was shewn, namely, R. sikkimensis, Kure, Before pro- 
ceeding to discuss this interesting discovery, I venture to repeat my convic- 
tion that var. khasiana is a far richer dye-yielding plant than the ordinary 
R. cordifolia. I am inclined to suspect that the experiments, which were 
once made with a view to discover whether R. cordifolia in a cultivated form 
could compete with the European Madder, may have failed because this 
inferior variety was experimentally cultivatedf. If it happened that a 


Dyes, Tans, and Mordants, 

[ Part II. 

consignment of var. khasianft reached Europe, it is likely that its richness 
in dye-property suggested the idea that the cultivation of R. cordifolia 
would be as profitable as that of R. tinctorium, and that disappoint- 
ment followed from experimenting with the ordinary North- West Hima- 
layan form. These remarks are, however, mere sugc^estions made in the 
hope that some additional information may be elicited from Eastern 

The inferior form is that met with on the Nilgiri Hills. It would 
be interesting to know from Madras to what extent Rubia cordifoHa is 
used in that Presidency. The process of extracting the colour would also 
be interesting. Information might also be obtained regarding the 
cultivation of the plant or its importation from other parts of India. 

Rubia sikkimensis, Kurz. 

Diagnostic characters. — An extensive sub-woody climber ; branches re- 
trorsely scabrid ; leaves 3 to 6 by i to 2 inches, sessile, or nearly so, 4 
in the whorl , elliptic or ovate lanceolate, 3, rarely 5, costate. 

This is the largest and the most handsome species in the genus, 
growing along the ground or over bushes and small trees, with branches 
often 3 to 4 yards long, and the whorls of leaves as much as a foot apart* 
It makes its appearance in Sikkim, but attains its greatest development 
in the Khasia and Naga Hills, where it is perhaps the most common 
species. Apparently the Lepchas of Sikkim do not know that this plant 
yields the Madder dye, but I suspect that the thick heavy roots (many 
times thicker than the roots and twigs of R. cordifofia) which are sold in 
the bazars, belong largely to this species, though probably used as an 
adulterant. This seems to be strengthened by the fact that until 1874 
the plant was not named or even Iknown to exist. Specimens had of 
course been collected, but they escaped attention, having remained for 
many years in the larger Herbaria unpublished. In the Naga Hills and in 
Manipur this species alone supplies the brilliant red dye used by the hill 
tribes to colour their cloths, hair decorations for spears, shields andf earrings, 
rings, &c., as well as to colour their cane and bamboo plaited work. 

The process of extracting the dye is curious. It was shown to me 
after considerable trouble. A woman came one morning to the Residency, 
Manipur, bringing with her the following things : — 

1st. Two or three bundles of the root and stem of R. sikldfflensis, 

2nd. A slab of the bark of Quercus fenestrata, Roxb. 

3rd. A bundle of twigs and leaves of Symplocos racemosa, Roxb. 

4th. A packet of seed and a specimen of the plant yielding these 
seeds, which I identified as Leucas cephalotes, Spreng, a 
Labiate plant common in fields throughout India, and in Ben- 
gal. I have been told it yields an oil used for illuminating pur- 
poses. I can, however, find no mention of this oil in works on 
Indian Economic Botany, aqd I shall be greatly pleased 
to learn if other observers have noted this -property, as it 
seems to be intimately associated with the separation of the 
Madder from R. atlrkimewris. In Bengal Leacas cephalotes 
is generally known as bura-hul-khusa, and in Madras as 
gurosatumi, Tel. (see Roxb. FL Ind.y Ed. C.B.C., p. 461, 
Phlomis cephalotes, KonJ, See concluding para, where 
Perilla odmoides is used in place of Leucaa. 

5th. Two skeins of cotton thread, one of which was of a yellow 
colour and had been prepared beforehand by a process 
which I was to see applied to the second one. It had been 
steeped in some mordant or metallic salt. 




Part II. ] 

Economic Products of India. 


6th. Two earthen vessels. 
7th. A small basket. 

I was told that it was necessary first to prepare the second skein of 
cotton^ so as to gtwe it time to dry in order that it also might if possible 
be dyed. The woman sat down and set fire to the bundle of twigs 
and leaves of SynmloaM moenuiMU When completely burned to ashes, 
these were cardPul^ collected and placed in the corner of the basket 
and a little water sprinkled over and allowed to soak for a few minutes, 
then more water was sprinkled, until ultimately a yellowish liquid 
be^n to strain through and trickle into one ot the earthen vessels. 
This liquid tasted bitter and no doubt contained some alkali salt which 
I have not as yet had time to identify chemically. When enough liquid 
had thus been obtained the second or unprepared skein oi cotton was 
placed in the vessel and boiled for some time; after which it was removed, 
wrung out, and hung up to dry. 

The second process was then proceeded with. The woman and her 
assistants commenced to pound the chips of Rnbia using about equal 
proportions of root and stem. When this had been done the pow- 
der was mixed (about ^ as much as powdered madder) with a handful of the 
seeds of Lencas and intimately combined and rubbed together by the 
hand on a stone. This mixture was then placed in the other earthen 
vessel and boiled with about three proportions of water to one of the 
mixed powder. When boiling, the prepared skein of cotton was plunged 
into the solution, which was now of a deep red colour. It was turned 
round and round in the boiling liouid upon the extremity of a small twi^ 
held in the hand, and when dyed to the required depth it was removed 
and allowed to strain off the surplus liquid. Thereafter it was washed 
several times and hung out to dry. 

I asked what was the use of the bark (Oak, 2nd) and was told that 
it was for deepening the colour from red to brown of the darkest possible 
shade. A few pieces were thrown in, and the skein of cotton prepared 
in my presence was treated as before, when a beautiful red-brown colour 
was the result. 

I have gone into detail on the process of dyeing from R. aikkinieiisiSy 
because I am assured by many distinguished authorities that it has 
been reported as not yielding Madder dye, and because the process 
described seems to be known to the hill tribes of Assam and th« Naga 
Hills only. I trust that this preliminary account may suggest the lines 
upon which a more thorough investigation should be instituted by the 
authorities in Assam, and I shall have much pleasure in identifying the 
auxiliaries used in other parts of the Province if I am favoured with 
^ecimens. This would enable me to perfect and complete the account of 
the Naga Madder. 

I suspect that the bulk of the Madder plant of Assam will be 
found to be derived from R. aOddaeosis instc^ of from R. cordifofio, 
and that a considerable proportion of the Madder exported from Sikkim 
is derived from this plant also. 

Since writing the above I have had the pleasure to receive from my 
friend Major Trotter, Political Ag[ent Manipur, a most interesting account 
of the dyes and process of dyeing in practice in Manipur. I wrote specially 
asking that he should investigate the subject of the beautiful madder red 
in order to confirm my own observations. Greatly to my delight I had 
the pleasure to receive a most interesting series of specimens, amongst 
which were some 30 good specimens of Rubia siHrimenms putting an 
end to any doubt as to this plant beine the source of the Naga red instead 
of the equally abundant BL CofdifolSu Instead of Lencas Cephalotes 


Dyes, Tans, and Mordants. 

[ Part II. 

however. Major Trotter sends me the seeds of Perilla odmoides, Linn, 
another Labiateae as the|dye auxiliary. Perhaps both plants are used, the 
action being similar to the use of oils in the extraction of other dyes such 
as saffron. 

Rubia tinctorium, Linn. 

The European Madder. 

Diiignostic characters. — Leaves subsessile, 4 to 6 in a whorl, elliptic or lanceo 
\a.te, penni-nerved 2-4 by i-ii in acuminate margins, and nerves beneath 

The venation is so distinct from the 3-5 sub-parallel nerved condition 
of the preceding species, that a glance at the feather-veined form of this 
species would be enough to enable any ordinary observer to say for cer- 
tain whether the Madder he was examining was the true European plant 
or the Indian cordifolia or ailrlrimAfwrfft It is believed that this plant is 
much more extensively cultivated than we have any actual evidence of at 

Cultivated in Kashmir, Sind (Flora 0/ British India), and distributed 
to Afghanistan and westward to Spain wild or cultivated. Dr. Aitchison 
says that the roots of R. Kotschyi, Boiss, are used to colour the hard-boiled 
eggs used by the Afghans at some (Mahomedan) festivity. This plant 
is referred to here because Afghanistan being viewed as outside the boun- 
dary of India geographically and botanicaily, it does not fall within the 
scope of the present enumeration of Indian indigenous or imported dye- 
stuffs. The interest in Aitchison's remarks on this subject is that while 
R. cordifolia is described as " a very common weed in the hedges all 
over the country, always in damp localities, from Kurum to Alikhel," 
it is not the Madder-dye-yielding plant of these regions. This fact seems 
to support the opinion given regarding the form of R. cordifolia met 
with on the western half of the Himalaya. Stewart's remarks in his 
Punjab Plants would almost lead one to the same conclusion, for he 
affirms that R. tinctorium, Linn., is the dye-yielding species of the Punjab 
Himalaya, being cultivated in the upper Sutlej valley at Kaniiwar, 
beyond the Indus in Gandiva, and abundantly at Kabul. He further 
states, speaking of R. cordifolia, that he was told that this species was culti- 
vated in Kashmir, but came to the conclusion that this must be a mistake, as 
R. tinctoriuffl, while it does unquestionably ** yield dye" in some parts 
where it is common (wild), it is not used, but other substances are used, 
for dyeing reddish-brown. 

If I am correct in surmisinc^ that certain forms of R. cordifolia yield dye 
better than others, this would point to the advisability of instituting a 
systematic enquiry into the forms met with in each province, if not in 
each district in India. 

Saffron. See Crocus sativus, Zinn, Iridej;. 

Salix tetrasperma, Moxb., Salicinejg. 

Vem. — Bed, bent, baishi. Hind.; Pant jama, Beng.; Laila, N. W. P.; 
Bilsa, OuDH ; BiSf bets, biisa, magsher, safedar, Pb. ; Yir, Kashmir; 
Bhesh, Garo; Bhi, Ass. ; Bacha, wallunj. Bom. ; Mo-ma-kha, Burm. 

A moderate sized tree, common on river banks throughout India, 
ascending the Himalaya to altitude 6,000 feet. Kurz reports that it is fre- 
quent along the hill-streams from Ava and Martaban to Tenasserim. 

The bark is used for tanning. (Kurg.) 





Part II. ] 

Economic Products of India. 





SftltS} used in dyeing and tanning are the following 
Common saJt —largely used in tanning. 
Sulphate of Iron. 
Sulphate of Soda — kheri-nun. 
Sulphate of Potash. 
Carbonate of Soda. 
Carbonate of Potash. 
Saltpetre (Potassium Nitrate), 

Sal-ammoniac (Nisadal). 
Proto-sulphate of Iron (hirakask). 
Sulphate of Copper, Blue Vitriol. 

Salvadora oleoides, Z/««., Salvadoraceji. 

Vem.—Kabbar, j'kdr, didr, SiND. ; Ja/, vani, Panj.; ^hal, Hind, j 
Khankhina, BoM. ; C/ghai, koku, Tam. 
A large, evergreen shrub of the Punjab, often forming the greater 
part of the vegetation of the desert. 

The galls found upon this plant are used in dyeing. 

Semecarpus Anacardium, Linn, /., Anacardiaceje. 

Marking Nut. 

Vem. Bhita'wa, bheyla, bhalia. Hind. ; Bkalai, Nrpalj Bhela, bhelaiukz, 

Beng. ; Bhallia, Uriya ; Bawara, Garo ; Bhilavan, Dec. -, Bibba, 
Mahr.'; Shaingy shayrang.TAM. ; Jiri, jidi,TEL.', Che, Burm.; Hab-ul- 
kalb, Arab; Biladur, Pers. 
A deciduous tree, met with in the Sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej 
eastward to Chittagong and Burma, ascending to 3,500 feet in altitude. 

The pericarp of the fruit contains a bitter and powerfully astringent 
principle, universally used for marking ink, hence this is called the " Mark- 
ing Nut.'* It is commonly made into ordinary ink, which is improved by 
the addition of lime water. Dr. McCann reports that in Balasore it is 
used as a black dye. As marking ink the colour is fixed by the addition 
of a little quick-lime {Liotard). .,.,,... 

" Pounded and boiled in rape oil, it (the fruit) makes an excellent 
remedy for staying putrefaction when begun in a hide." {Buck, Dyes and 
Tans of N,'W. P.) 


Shorea robusta, Gaertn,, Dipterocarpe^. 

Vem.— 50,/, sdla, salwa, sdkku. Hind.; Sakwa, Nepal; Teturl, Lepchaj 
Bolsal, Garo; Koroh, Oudh; Sarei, rinjal, C. P. ; Gugdl, Tel. 

A tall, sparsely-branched, deciduous tree, often so crowded and gre- 
garious to have long straight stems with only a terminal tuft of branches. 
One of the most valuable timber trees of India. 

Dr. McCann, in his Report 0/ Dyes awi Taw^, compiled from the records 
of the Bengal Economic Museum, states that in Chutia Nagpur the bark 
is used for the preparation of a red and a black dye. 


Dyes, TanSy and Mordants. 

[Part IL 

The bark has long been used as a tan, and it is to be feared that in 
dyeing it is more used as an auxiliary than as a dye-yielding stuff. As a 
tan it is much valued, being generally used along with Terminalift, 
IffimusopsandPhyllanthuS) or with, in addition, the bark of Ficiisreli- 
griosay the babul (Acacia arabica), and the mango. 


Soytnida febrifuga, Adr. Juss.y Meliaceje 

Indian Red Wood. 

Vem. — Rohan, Hind. ; Rohina, Beng. ; Sohan, Uriya ; Soimi, GoND j 
Royta, Bhil.; Shem, wofid, Tam. ; Sunii, Tel. 

A large, deciduous tree of Central India and the Deccan. 

The bark is bitter and used in the treatment of diarrhoea and dysen- 
tery, and often used as a febrifuge instead of quinine by the natives. 
The bark has also been used in tanning. 

Strobilanthes flacddifolius, Nees, Acanthace^. 

Vem. — R4m, Rdmpdt, Ass. ; Khuma, khunt, Man i pur ; Hom^ Phekial. 
(Mann in his Assam Forest Administration Report for 1876-77.) 

Both Mann and Kurz speak of a plant yielding a blue dye, the former 
in Assam and the latter in the Karen country, under the name of S. flacd- 
dus. This is probably a mistake for S. flacddifolioSy Nees. 

This exceedingly valuable dye was first made known by Griffith, who met 
with it during one of his Assam explorations. It is pretty generally cul- 
tivated by the hill tribes of the eastern frontier, and extends into North- 
western China. This plant was called Ruellia indig^otica by Balfour, as 
he explains, in the absence of any better name. It grows freely on the 
plains of Manipur in a climate not very different from that of many parts 
of Bengal, Behar or the North-West Provinces, and might be extensively 
cultivated in Assam, It does not require flooding, which is necessary 
for the early growth of the Bengal indigo plant, and is therefore not 
exposed to the danger of having its colour extracted during an exception- 
ally rainy season. In fact in many respects it possesses properties eminently 
suited for a profitable indigo crop, and in China at least the dye is pro- 
nounced finer than the dye obtained from any other plant. It is propogat- 
ed freely by cuttings, yields prunings twice or three times a year, and 
is perennial. It would give little or no anxiety to the planter, and if 
not sufficiently remunerative to take the place of the Bengal indigo plant, 
it seems natural to expect that they might with great advantage be 
cultivated together. The riim would flourish on the higher dry lands 
in the plantation, yielding its crop probably in the cold and the hot 
season, while the ordinary indigo might be grown in the low flooded lands 
and occupy the attention of the planter during the rest of the year. At 
resent an indigo factory is idle for more than half the year, but with 
Sptrobilanthes flaccidifohus this need not be so. 

In Manipur the khuma is largely cultivated, and the dye is extracted 
for home use; nearly every owner of a farm cultivates a small plot of it 
and prepares his own dye. The twigs, about a foot long, are twice or three 
times a year plucked and depositee! in large earthen pots filled with water. 
In these primitive vats they are left for the required time, and when ready 
the decoction of a greenish colour is poured into another pot and violently 
shaken or stirred by a few twigs. A little lime is generally added, and 




Part II.] 

Economic Products of India. 


when the transformation of green into blue indigo has been e£Eected the 
liquid is poured into a small earthen vessel and Doiled down, more and 
more being added until from the evaporation of the water the vessel is 
filled with the dye-stuff. A little lime is placed in the mouth of the vessel, 
which is thereafter placed in the sun to complete the drying of the dye. 
In this form it is stored for family use or sold in the market. 

They use the dye in combination with turmeric to produce shades of 
green ; with lime and turmeric, browns and almost reds ; with lime alone, 
deep blue black ; with safflower, purple ; and so on as in the ordinary 
combinations. It was considered necessary to dress certain of my servants 
in a sort of uniform so as to command respect when travelling amongst the 
semi-savage hill tribes. I sent to Calcutta for some bright blue cloth and 
had jackets made of this. My men were very proud of these, and the 
brignt blue was much admired by the Manipur officials. Each man had 
a pugrie of Manipur cloth dyed by the above process. In a few months 
the jackets had almost lost their colour ; in two years the bright blue 
clotn of European dye is of a slate colour ; but the native pugrie is perfectly 
unchanged though washed time after time. This is mentioned to justify 
the recommendation that some effort should be made to have the Assam 
Rum dye experimentally cultivated by our European indigo planters. 

Specimens and further information from Assam muoi required. The 
necessity for this appeal for specimens may be shewn when it is pointed out 
that in Dr. McCann's Report on the Dyes of Bengal the name of this plant 
is merely mentioned incidentally as taken from Mr. Gamble's valuable work 
on I ndian Timbers. No specimens have been received from Assam, although 
returns are given of much less important dye-stuffs. Rum dye is perhaps one 
of the best Indian dye-plants, and it has been completely overlooked. Mr. 
Liotard, in his memorandum on The Dyes of Indian Growth, disposes of 
it in a few words by saying that it is grown in Mergui. The home 
of the plant may be said to be from Assam eastward and north-east- 
ward to China and south-eastward through Manipur and the Naga 
Hills to Burma and Malay. 



Stfychnos Nux-vomicai Linn,, Loganiaceje. 

The Snak£-wood. Strychnin Tree. 

Vera. — Kuchla, kajra. Hind.; Kuchila, Beng. ; Kdjra, Mahr. ; Yetti, 
Tam. ; Mushti, musadi, Tel. ; Kabaungf Burm. 

A moderate sized tree, fnet with on the mountains of Bengal, Burma 
and South India, common in the lower forests of Eastern Manipur. 

The pulp of the fruit is eaten by birds. The seeds yield Strychnine 
and Nux-vomica^ much used in medicine; also an oil. Dr. McCann 
adds a new and hitherto unknown property of the seeds in his Report on 
the Dyes of Bengal ; he says that in Balasore, they give a brown of various 
shades according to the mordant used. Boiled in water along with lime it 
gives a pale brown ; with proto-sulphate of iron (hirakosh), a darker shade. 

Additional information from other parts of India, in confirmation of 
the seeds of this plant giving a dye and being actually used as such, 
would be interesting. 

Sutnachy a tan obtained from the leaves of Rhus coiiaria, Ltnn.^ a native 
of Europe. This tan is used in the preparation of morocco leather. 
Many members of the genus are natives of India* 


Dyes, Tans^ and Mordants. 

[Part II. 

Symplocos crategoides^ Ham., Sttracejs. 

Vera. — L%'ldndar, losh, Pb. ; Lodh, KuMAUN; LoQa, SuTLKJ. 

A large shrub of the Himalaya^ from the Indus to Assam, from 3,000 
to 8,000 feet. 

The leaves and the bark give a yellow dye. 

S. phyllocalyxi Clarke. 

'Veirn.— Chandan,Lal''chandan,HiiiD,, Beng., in Gamble's list of Dar- 
jiling plants. 

The wood of this plant is said to be used by the Paharias in their 
religious ceremonies and for caste marks. Gamble explains that the 
dye resides more in the root than in the stem. Dr. Schlich in the report of 
Bengal dyes published by the Economic Museum confirms Mr. Gamble's 
observation. Sir J. D. Hooker, |in his Himalayan journal Vol, //., 
4.1, describes the women as preparing a yellow aye from the leaves of a 
Symplocos which is exported to Tibet. 

The Flora of British India identified these two plants as the same as 
that to which the name of S. phyllocalyz has been given. 

Specimens of • root, as also the leaves, and any additional informa- 
tion, would be most cceptble. 

S. racemosa, Roxb. 

^^'T:^^h H'ND., Beng.,Bom.,- Chamlani, Nepal; Palyok, Lepcha ; 
Katday, Mechi ; Stngyan, Bhutia. 

A common, small tree from the low hills of Bengal, Orissa and Chutia 
Nagpur, the Terai, altitude 2,500 feet, to Assam, Burma and China. 

A small tree with soft bark, corky and crumbling to powder in the dry 
state when rubbed. Its chief use is as a mordant, the ashes being 
used as an alkali (see RuWa sikkinnensis), or as an auxiliary with other 
dyes; sometimes it is used as a tan. In the Central Provinces it is re- 
garded as one of the most valued tans. 

S. spicata, Roxb. 

"VeOL—'Lodh, bholia. Hind.; Burt, Beng. 

North-East Himalayas and Western Ghits and Tenasserim. 
The leaves are usecl in dyeing, and the seeds are strung as beads and 
hung round children's necks, to prevent evil. (Gamble.) 

^.«.^^® ^^^^ °^ ^^^^ P^^"^ *^ ^^° "5^^ ^°"& with indigo to produce 
different shades of green. 

S. theasfolia, Ham. 

Vera. — Kharani, Nepal.; Ckasking, Bhutia. 

A small, evergreen tree, met with in the Eastern Himalaya, extending 
to the Khisia Hills and to Martaban. 

Dr. McCann gives the vernacular name of bhauri to this species, and 
says that it is used in Dinagepur as an auxiliary in dyeing. Dr. King 
is said to have identified the specimen. The r\a^mebhauri is, however very 
near to burv, the Bengali name for S. spicata, and it is probable that they 
both bear the same name; Dr. McCann, however, spells them differently. 








Part II.] 

Economic Products of India* 







Tabernasmontana coronaria, V^Uld., ApocTNAcsiE. 

^tSti,-~ Chandni, taggai, taggar. Hind., Bom.; Asuruy Nspal; Kritn, 

Small bright shrub with silvery bark and glossy leaves ; cultivated in 
gardens throughout India ; native country unknown. 

The red pulp obtained from the aril (or extra coat of the seed) gives 
a red colour, occasionally used as a dye by the hill people. 

Tagetes patula, /:/'««., Compositje. 

The Marigold. 

Vera. — Genda, Hind, and Beng. ; Makhmah, 6011. 
A common annual, self-sown and in some parts of India naturalised. 
Largely cultivated in the gardens of the natives, rich and poor alike ; the 
foetid flowers are- strung in garlands hung round the idols or round the 
necks of the devotees. A yellow dye is said to be extracted by the poorer 
classes from the flower and used for home purposes* This gives origin 
to the shade of yellow known as gendia. 

Tamarindus indica, Linn., Leguminosje. 

Vcm. — Axrdi, ambit, imli. Hind.; Tentiri, tinttU, Beng.; Chincha, Mar. ; 
Puli, Tam.; Chinta, Tel.; Titri, Nepal; Teteli, Ass.; Tetuli, Uriya ; 
Karangi, Mysore; Magyi, Burm. 

A large, handsome tree, universally cultivated in India. 
The flowers and fruit are used as an astringent in dyeing, especially 
along with safflower. It acts the part of a mordant. 

Tamarix articulata, Vahl, TAMARisciNEiE. 

T. dioca, Roxb, 
T. gallicai Linn, 

Vem. — Jhau, lei, Idi, bari-mdin. Hind., Sind.; ^kau, Beng.; Koan, rukk, 
leinyu, ghazlei, pilchi, Pb. ; Fip/^a, Tibet; 8amaraiul-asl, gae-anjabin, 
Arab. ; Shor-guz,, Pers.; Shirushavukku-tnaram, Tam.; shiri-Saraw 
marum, Tel. 

It is doubtful if the natives distinguish the above species, hence they 
have been given collectively. They form gregarious, bushy clumps along 
our river basins in many desert tracts, such as along the banks of the 
Suez Canal, constituting almost the entire vegetation. Common throughout 
India and Burma, ascending to altitude 3,000 feet. 

The galls and bark are much used in tanning and as an auxiliary in 


Dyes, TanSf and Mordants, 

[ Part II 

Taxus baccata, Linn., Coniferje. 

The Yew. 

Vera. — Tcheiray gulab, Nepal ; Sardp, badar, Afg. ; Birmi, banna, iung, 
thunu, chatung, Kashmir; Thuner, gelt, gallu, lust, N. W. P. j Pung- 
chu. La DAK. 

A large tree, met with all along the Himalaya, from the Indus to Bhutan, 
between 6,000 and 10,000 feet in altitude. Common in the forests of 

This is a red dye, said to be prepared in the Bhutia parganas. 



Tectona gjandis, Linn,, Verbenaceje. 

The Teak Tree. 

VtrXL—Sagun, Hind., Beno.; Singuru, Uriya; Sag, Sagwan, Mar.; 
Teka, GoND ; Sag, Bhil ; Tekku, tek, Tam. ; Teku, Tel. ; Jati, Mal.; 
Jddiy tega, Kan.; Kyun, BuRM.; Tekka, Cingh. ; Soq, Arab.; Sdj, 
sal, Pers. 

A large, elegant tree of Central, South India and Burma, cultivated 
in Assam and Bengal. 

The leaves give a red dye. 


Tephrosia tinctoria, Ters., LEGUMiNosiE. 

Ceylon Indigo. 

Vera.— ^m7, Cingh. 

An under-shrub of the Western Peninsula and Ceylon, common in 

The blue dye is sometimes extracted in Mysore. 
Samples and further information required. 


Terminalia Arjuna, Beddome, Combretaceje. 

^em.^Anjan, arjun, arjuna, kahud. Hind.; Arjuna, Beug.; Hanjal, 
Uriya ; Arjuna, Mahr. ; Vella marda, vella matti, Tam. ; Maddi, 
billi matti, Mysore; Yermaddi, tella madu, Tel. ; Taukkyan, Burm.' 

A large tree of the Sub-Himalayan tracts of the North- West Pro- 
vinces and Oudh, extending to Bengal, Burma, Central and South India. 
The fruit is described as i to 2 inches, nearly glabrous, ovoid, or obovoid- 
oblong, the wings not very broad, their striations curving much upwards. 
{Hooker*s Ft. Br, Ind.) 

The bark is a tonic and astringent, used sometimes in dyeing and 
tanning like most other members of this genus, but it seems to serve as a 
concentrator of colour rather than as a dye material. It is, however, said 
to give a black dye with babul (Acada arabioa). The fruit is not men- 
tioned as being used as a myrabolan^ and is probably inferior to the 



Part II.] 

Economic Products of India* 





Specimens of the fruit and bark of this plants as indeed of all the 
following species of Terminalia, would facilitate the identification of 
the mass of interesting material in the possession of the Bengal Economic 
Museum. Great contusion exists amongst these specimens, and it would 
be important to have accurately-named specimens of all the niyrabolans 
and of the barks of the trees from which they are obtained. Specimens 
not identified should, if possible, be accompanied with a leafy, or, still 
better, a flowering, twig, dried between blotting paper. 

Terminalia belerica, Roxb, 

Vern. — Bhaira, doA^ra, Hind. ; Bohera, Beng. > TAara, Uriva; Bkerda, 
Mar.; Babra, baJda, Dec; Babela, Pers. ; Kanom, Lbpcha; Chiror^B, 
Garo ; Hulluch, Ass. ; Beheda, yella, MahR. ; Tani, kattu, elupay, 
Tam. ; Tani, tandi, Tel. ; Thitsein, Burm. ; BtUu, Cingh. 

A deciduous tree^ attaining a height of 60 to 80 feet, common in the 
plains and lower hills throughout India (except in the desert regions of 
West India). 

The fruit is described as i to J inch in diametef, globular, suddenly 
narrowed into a short stalky smooth, covered by a close, fulvous totnentum, 
when dried obscurely 5-angled {Hooker, FL Br. Ind,) 

The fruit is one of those exported from India under the name of 
Myrabolans, and is largely used in dyeing and tanning ; native ink is also 
made from it. The leaves and the fruits together are often used in 
tanning. . . 

T. Catappa, Linn. 

Vern. — Badam, Beng., Bom. ; Taree, Kan. ; Natvadom, Tam.; Vedam, 
Tel. ; Catappa, Malay. 

A large and exceedingly handsome tree, with leaves assuming an au- 
tumnal tint in the cold season and falling off in the beginning of the 
hot season. Wild in the Malay, and perhaps also in the Andaman, Islands 
Widely cultivated throughout the tropical parts of India. 

The fruit is described as i to li inch ellipsoid, slightly compressed so 
as to show two ridges. {Hooker's FL Br, Ind,) 

The bark and the leaves give a black dye. 

T. Chebula, lietz, 

"Vtm.— Harra, har, harara. Hind. ; Hilikha, Ass, ; HaritaJ^t, Bei^g. ; 
Silim, Lepcha ; Halra, harlay Dec. ; Karka, karro, Gond. ; Hiradd, 
Mahr. ; KadaJtai, Tam. ; Karaka, Tel. ; Panga, Burm. ; Alu, Cingh. 

A lar^e tree, attaining the height of 80 to 100 feet, abundant in 
North India from Kumaun to Bengal, and southward to the Deccan 
table-lands ; also in Ceylon, Burma and the Malayan Peninsula. 

The fruit is described as | to i J inch, ellipsoidal or obovoid from a 
broad base, glabrous, more or less, 5-ribbed when dry {Hooker, FL Br* 

The bark is used for tanning and dyeing, and the fruit gives the black 
Myrabolans reported to be of better quality than the Myrabolans from 
T. belerica* They are exceedingly valuable, the produce of a single tree 
being worth about Rs. 2,000. Tne fruit consists of a central solid mass, 
from which the valuable rind is separated and pounded. After mixing it 
with water and allowing it to soak for a time, the solution is ready. The cloth 
is steeped once or twice and dried, and then placed in the dye solution. 
With iron salts it gives a black dye ; with turmeric and indigo, a g^een ; 
and with catechu, a brown. In all these instances the harra is a con- 
centrator or vegetable mordant to the actual colours. The young twigs 
are often covered with galls, used in dyeing and tanning, and in the 


Dyes, Tans, and Mordants. 

[Part IL 

preparation of ink along with iron. With alum, the fruits give a yellow 

Specimens of the galls and of the bark very much needed. 

Terminalia citrina, Roxh. 

Vem. — ffaritakif Beng. ; Hilika, silikka. Ass. j ffortaki, Cachar ; 
Kyu, BuRM. 

A large, deciduous plant, met with in Eastern Bengal, Assam, Cachar, 
Burma, and the Andaman Islands. 

Gamble says it is used as a " dye-plant " ; but most probably only as an 
auxiliary in place of T« Chebnla, which it veiy much resembles, differing in 
straight stem, brighter foliage and narrower fruits. The fruit is described 
in the Flora of British India as nearly 2 inches lonpr, oblong, lanceolate ; 
while fresh, obscurely angled. Compare with T. Chebnla. 

T. paniculata, W, & A. 

MerXL'—'Pe'kara^aiy Tam.; Nimiri, Tel.; Kinjal, kindal. Mar. 

A large tree in the forests of the Wesjt Coast of India, from Bombay 

The fruit is described as brown-red, villous, with one very broad and two 
narrow wings. {Hooker's FL Br, Indica,) 

The bark is reported to be used in dyeing and tanning ; neither fruit nor 
bark is at present in our collection* 

T. tomentosa, W. & A. 

Syn. — Pantaptera tomentosa, Poxb, (FL Ind, Ed, C, B, C, 3S3,) 

Vera. — Saj, sein, asan, assaim, asna,sadri, Hind. ; Piascd, usan, Beng. ; 
SahdjUf Uriya; Amari, Ass. 5 Taksor, Lepcha; Kara tnarda, anemui, 
Tam. ; Maddi, nella-madu, Tel. ; Karkaya, sadora, Hyderabad ; 
Ain, madat, Mar.; Taukkyan, Burm.; Kumbuk, Cingh. 

A large tree of the Sub- Himalaya from the Ravi eastward, ascending to 
altitude 4,000 feet ; Bengal, Central and South India and Burma. 

The fruit is described as i to 2 inches, glabrous or hoary, obovoid-oblong, 
wings broad, striations carried horizontally to the edgfe. (Hooker's FL 
Br. India,) 

The bark is used for tanning and dyeing black, and the ashes yield 
lime, eaten by the natives in pan, (Gamble,) The bark is largely used 
as a tan ; it imparts the characteristic red colour to native leather, and 
cut up in small pieces and boiled for 6 or 8 hours, it gives a brown dye ; 
along with the bark of Mifflusops Elengi it is used to produce a red dye in 
jute* It gives a black dye with iron. 

Thespesia populnea, Corr., Malyacej:. 

The Tulip or Portia Tree. 

Vem. — ParsipUf Hind.; Poresk, fiar ask, par esk-pipal, Behg, ; Bkendi, 
Mahr. ; Ports, Portia, pursa, Tam. ; Gangaraya, Tbl. ; Bendi, Guz. ; 
Sureya, Cinoh. 

An exceedingly handsome tree, largely cultivated along roadsides, 
especially in Madras City. Indigenous to the coast forests of India, 
Burma and the Andaman Islands. 

The capsules, as also the flowers, are said to give a yellow dye, which is 
apparently little used. 








Part IL] 

Exonomic Products of India. 



Toddalia aculeata, Ptrs.^ Rutacbjb. 

Vera. — Kanjy Hind.; Dahan, lakan, Raj.; Meinkaraj Nepal; St^hijirik^ 
Lbpcha ; Miliaranaig Tam. ; Konda kashindm Tel.; KyauMgOy Burm. 

A lar^e, scandent shrubs covered with prickles, met with on the Hima- 
laya from Kumaun eastward to the Khisia hills, ascending to altitude 
5,000 to 6,000 feet ; also common throughout the Western Peninsula and 

The whole plant is aromatic or hot and pungent, and used by the 
natives as a bitter or aromatic tonic Or. Bidie reports that the root-bark 
is used in Madras as a yellow dye-stuff. This is by some supposed to 
be the Lopez Root of Europe. {LtotanPs Memo, on Dyes.) 

Specimens required, as also information as to the mode of use, and 
spedmen of doth dyed* 

266 Trigonella Foenum-groecum, Zinn.^ Leguminosa. 

VertL^Methi, Hind., Bbng.-; Vendayamh Tam. ; Mentulu, Tel. 
A small, herbaceous plant, cultivated chiefly as a food crop in many 
parts of India. The seeds are largely used as a condiment and as a sub- 
stitute for coffee. They also yidd a ydlow dye. 


Uncaria Gambier, Hunter, Rubiacejb. 

The Gambier, Pale Catechu or Terra Japonica. 

VenL-^Kaik, kuiha. Hind.; Ankudu-karra, Tel.; Gambir, Mal. 

An extensive, scandent bush, native of Ceylon and the Malay Archi- 
pelago, distributed to Java and Sumatra. 

The extract is obtained by boiling the leaves and young shoots. It 
is much valued in tanning, giving a softness to leather, obtained from 
almost no other substance. 

It is largely cultivated at Singapore ; in 1829 there were 800 planta^ 
tions. These declined from want of fuel and dearness of labour. They 
have to a certain extent revived. It seems likdy that this would prove an 
interesting plant for cultivation in India. 


^entilaso madraspatana, Gaer/n., Rhamnejb. 

VenL^-Raita^tia, Bbng. ; PapU, Tam. ; Yerra^kUaili, Tbl. ; Lokandiy 
Bom. ; Ckargu, Hyderabad. 

An extensive dimber, with green, offensive flowers, met with in the 
forests of Central and South India. 

The root-bark yields a red-dye (Gamble), orange and chocolate with 
OldeoUuidia nmht"**^j and black with galls (Spons* Encyclop), [ 

Specimens and additional information much required. This is the 
pupU bark of Nellore. 


Dyes, Tans, and Mordants. 

[Part II. 



Vera. — Zangar. 

Produced as a rust upon copper by bringing the metal into contact 
with acetic acid. Sometimes usea in calico-printing. 

Vitex Negundo, Linn., Verbenacea. 

y/exn.'^SamaloOf pani^kd'SatHaloo, Hikd. ; NishindOy Beng.; Sindooka, 
Sans. ; Fenjenghist, Arab. ; ShambcUee, Dec. 

A native of Cochin- China, Ceylon and South India. Common in Sind, 
the Punjab Siwalik tract, to 3,500 feet in the outer hills, and occasionally 
in the Salt Rancpe ; also in Bengal and the Western Presidency. 

The ashes of this plant are Urgely used as an alkali in dyeing. 


Blue Vitriol. Sulphate of Copper. 


This substance is used chiefly in leather-dyeing, along with lime, to 
produce a light blue. 

Green Vttiiol. Sulphate op Iron or Copperas. 

White VitiioL Sulphate of Zinc. 

Red VitrioL Sulphate of Peroxide of Iron and Magnesia. 
Oil of VMoU Sulphuric Acid. 

Wagatea spicatay Dalz., Leguminosa. 


A climber of the Western Gh&ts. 

Wattle Bark. 

The bark of various species of Australian Acacia, used for tanning, 
chiefly A. decnrrens, Willa., now being experimentally cultivated in several 
districts of India, chiefly on the Nilgiris. 

The ** Golden " or " Broad leaf " Wattle is perhaps the most valuable 
species for tanners' bark and gum. A. melanozyloo and A. dealbata are 
also used. (Gamble,) A. floribunda, A. aflBnis, and others are amongst those 
now so largely exported to Europe as Tanners' Wattle, that vast tracts of 
Acacia forest are fast disappearmg in Australia. (Smith,) 






Wedelia calendulacea. Less, Compositjb. 

Vera. — Bhdnrd, Hind.; Bangra, kesaraja, Beno. ; Pita^bhringi, 
bringaraja, Sans. ; Pivala-maka, pivala-bangra, pivald-yellow, Mahr. 

The leaves of this plant are said by U. C* Dutt, in his Materia Medi- 
ca, p. 181, to be used in dyeing grey hair and to promote the growth of 
hair. Dr. McCaiin» in his Report on the Dyes and Tans of Bengal^ savs 
that in Lohardagga the root is pounded ana gives a black dye with salts 
of iron. 

Specimens of this root, as also the dye-stuff or cloth dyed with it, 
would be interesting. 

E I 



Part II. ] 

Economic Products of India, 






Wendlandia ttnctoiia, DC., Rubiacejb. 

Mtnu^Tdla-lodk, Beng. ; Kan^ri, Nbpal; Singnok^ Lepcha; TelKj 
Uriya; Tamayoke, Burm. 
A small, el^ant tree, with large crowded paniclesr of white, sweet- 
scented, small flowers, terminating the boughs. Common in the forests 
in Kumaun, Oudh, Behar, Bengal and Burma. 

I have never heard of this plant being used as a dye-stuff, which the 
name tiiictofia implies, but the bark is largely used as a mordant in 
dveing, especially by the hill tribes of Eastern Bengal, Assam, and the 
Naga Hills. 

Woodfordia floribunda, Salisb., Ltthracsa. 

Syn. - Grislba tohentosa, Roxb, 

Vera. — Davit dka, thawi, sautka, dhaula. Hind. ; DheTuti, Oudh ; yatiko, 
Uriya ; PhulsatH, Mar. ; Dhuvi, suriari, C. P. ; Pitta, Gond ; Dakiri, 
Nepal. ; DhayaH, Mahr. ; Dhduri, Bom. ; Jargi, Tel. 

A small, much-branched bush, when in flower becoming simply purple> 
from its having numerous flowers all along the branches. Common 
throughout India, ascendine on the Himalaya to altitude 5,000 feet. 

The flowers give a red dve used in silk dyeing but not frequently. 
Alum or lime is used as a mordant. It is more often used along with 
llofUidii. The leaves are said to be sometimes used as a tan along with 
the flowers which impart their colour to the skin. 

The leaves of this plant, along with the bark of Zizyphus zylopyra, 
forms the tanning mixture of Bundelcand, taking the place of babul, 
(or Indian Wattle), so frequently used in most parts of India. (Buck, 
Dyes and Tans of North- Western Provinces.) 

Wrightia tincfcorta, R^ Br., Apocynace^. 

Vtm.ShMr-kuri, BoM.j Dudki, Banda ; Khirni, Meywar j Pala, Tam. ; 
Kalakuda, Mahr. ; Ckite^ncallo, tedlapal, or ankudu, Tel. ; Kola kudu, 
Marh. and Hind. ; Haya marak. Sans. 

A small tree, common in the Peninsula, ascending to 4,000 feet in alti- 

The seeds are said to be used as an adjunct in dyeing, and the leaves 
yield an indigo used along with the seeds of Cassia Tonu Said to be pre- 
pared in South India. 

Samples of leaves, seed, and indigo much required. 

W. tomentOSa, Xoem and Scheult. 

VtXVL,-'Keor, kilawa, Pb.; Dudhi, dharauU, daira, Hind.; Katingt, 
Nepal; Selemnyok, Lepcha.; Pal kurwan, Uriya; Telia pal, koila- 
mukri, Tel. ; Atkuri, Ass. ; Lettdp-thein, Burm. 

A small, deciduous tree of the Sub-Himalayas from the Bias eastward 
to Oudh, BengaJ, Burma, Central and South India. 

A yellow juice flows from this plant, which mixed with water forms a 
good yellow dye. Some clothes that had been dyed with it had preserved 
this color for two years as bright and as fresh as at flrst. 


Dyes, Tans, and Mordants. 

[ Part II. 


Zizjrpbus Jujuba, Lamk.y Rhahnils. 

Vera. — Kill, bet. Hind., Beng.; Bhor^lAMu; Slandap-pcuham, yallande, 
Tam. ; Rengha, rengi, Tel. ; Zx, Burm. 

A small, thorny tree common throughout India and Burma. 

Dr. Brandis says "the bark is used as a dye-stuff "; and Atkinson in 
his Himalayan Districts, p. 770, says, •* this.tree yields a much-valued 
tanning material in its bark.'' It does not appear to be used in Bengal as 
a tan. 

Z. xylopyra, Wtlld. 

Vexn, — Katber, beri, goH, chitiania, ghoni, HiND. ; GoH, Tel. ; Bhargoti, 

A large, scrambling shrub, found in the Sub-Himalayan tract and in 
Central and South India. 

The bark is used for tanning ; it imparts a black colour. 





QorMMMuxm ow Ibvil Cgvtbal PBinnire Ovficr. — No. 4 B. S.-a9-ii>83.— 500. 



(Ealcuita Inttrnstimisl (Exhiba«m, 1883-84. 



Part III. 





€alnitta intemati0nal dfxhibition, X883-84* 

Part III. — Fibres and Fibre-yielding Plants. 

Abroma augusta, Linn,y Sterculiacka. 

Vera* — UlatkamhaXy Beng. 

A small bush^ widely spread, native or cultivated, throughout the hotter 
parts of India. 

The root-bark is an emmenagogue, and the bark of the twigs yields 
a much-valued fabric, which deserves to be more generally known. It 
might be used with advantage as a substitute for silk. The plant yields 
three crops a year. 



Abutilon asiatiCUm, G, Don, and A. indicum, G. Don, Malvacr^, 
are two species so nearly allied botanically, that from an economic point 
of view tney may be regarded as one and the same.. 

Country Mallow. 


in Roxb., belong to the latter species, 
Vem. — Hungai, kangai or kanghi,jhatnpi. Hind. ; Petdri, Behg. ; Kangoi, 
chakra-bhenda, Dec. ; Petari, Mahr. ; Tutti (or tuthi nar), perun-tutti, 
Tam. ; TutturU' benda, nugu-^nda, chettu, Tel. 

A. amaticum (G. Don) is chiefly met with in Western India and 
Ceylon, while A. indicum {G, Don) is widely distributed throughout 
tropical India, to Prome, Pegii and Ava (wanting in Malacca). They are 
annual or perennial bushes, frequenting roadsides, banks of rivers, Ac., 
especially m the vicinity of villages. Their curious fruit, consisting of a 
whorl of carpels, has apparently suggested many of the designs in jewellery 
made in Eastern India. They blossom and seed all the year, and when 
not insect-eaten, their graceful velvety leaves contrast elegantly with their 
yellow flowers. 

The stems contain a c^ood fibre, suitable for cordage. (See remarks 
under A. Avicemue.) These exceedingly abundant wild plants deserve 
attention as paper-yielding fibres. 

Part III.] 

Economic Products of India. 


Abutilon AviceniiSi Ga^rtn. 

Indian Mallow; American Jute. 

References.— /A70jfc. Fl, Br, Ind, 3 i. 337 ; Roxb, FL Ind. Ed. C B, C. srS -, 

Christy New Cotnm. PL, 33'34' 
Sy]l«~SiDA Abutilon, WiUd., in Roxb. Fl. 

A native of North-West India, Sind, Kashmir, and distributed to 
North Asia and westward to South Europe and North America. It is 
said to be also met with in Bengal, but Roxburgh first reared it from 
seeds received from China under the name of King-ma. In Bengal it 
would therefore seem to be introduced or met with in cultivation only. 

Considerable attention has of late years been directed to the fibre pro- 
duced from this species; in the United States vast quantities are being 
prepared over the region from Ohio to MussourL " It is pronounced 
superior to Indian jute and finer than Manilla hemp. It takes readily 
any colour, and its natural lustre displays more in the aniline dye than 
in any other — a great advantage over Indian jute, which is antagonistic 
to cheap bleaching and dyeing. *' It is stated that an acre of ground will 
produce 5 tons of Abutifon stalks, and about 20 per cent, of pure fibre is 
obtained after preparation. Considered superior to jute fibre as imported, 
the long fibre is fully equal in value to Calcutta prime jute, and Philadel- 
phia rope-manufacturers have already offered to buy any quantity at the 
nighest market price for jute " (Christy). This is exceedingly important, 
and points to the advisability of a thorough examination of this and other 
Indian species with special reference to their fibres. It is recommended 
to be sown broadcast, the yield from good soil being 4 tons an acre of 
dry stalks. 

A. graveolensi W.& A. 

y^ctL. — Bura-kungi, Hind, and Beng. 
The stems yield a fibre. 

A, muticum, G. Don. 


An erect annual, native of rubbish, road-sides, hedges, &c., where the 
soil is good ; met with in the North-West Provinces an Western Peninsu- 
la. Yields a fibre* 

A. polsrandrum, Schhct. 

Syn. — SiDA POLYANDRA, Rcibx. 

Vem.—Velai-thuthi, Tam. ? 

A native of the North-West Provinces, tropical Himalayas up to 
altitude 3,000 to 4,000 feet, Western Peninsula, Nilgiris and Ceylon* 
It yields a long, silky fibre resembling hemp* 



Acacia arabicai wnid., Leguminosjb. 

Vera. — Babul, kikar, Hind. ; Karijali mara, Kan. 
A small, thorny tree common everywhere. 

The bark of the slender twigs yields a fibre, which is used in the Punjab 
for the manufacture of paper. 


Fibres and Fibre-yielding Plants. 

[Part III. 

Acacia latronum, WHid. 

Vem.^Bkes, Hind. ; iPaki-tuma, Tel. 

A thorny shrub found in South India. 
It is said to yield a good fibre. 

A. leucophloea, WHid. 

Vera. — Kikar, Hind. ; Vel-velum, Tam. 

A tree met with in North, West and South India, also in North- West 
Provinces and Rajputana. 

A coarse, tough fibre is prepared from the bark. 

Adam's needle. See Vucca glorlosa. 


Adansonia digitata, Linn., Malvace^. 

The Baobab Tree or the Monkey Bread Tree of Africa. 

Vem.—Hathi'khatyan, Dec.; Anai-puliya-roy, Tam.; Hujed, Arab. 

Cultivated in some parts of India to a small extent j deserves to be 

The bark yields a strong, useful fibre, which seems likely to be useful 
in paper manufacture. 




/Eschynomene aspera^ Linn,, LEouMiNosiE. 

Vera. — Sola^ Beng. j Atunete, Tam.; Paukpan, paukbyu, Burm. 

Bengal, Assam, Burma, and South India. 

A small, sub-floating bush, frequenting marshes, growing most during 
the season of inundation. 

In Burma a fibre is obtained from the outer bark around the pith. 
The chief economic use of the plant is, however, for its pith, which is largely 
us^d by fishermen for floats ; it is cleverly cut up into paper-like sheets 
and made into the temporary decorations around the idols during cer- 
tain festivities. Europeans use it for making hats which, while bein^ 
perfect protectors from the sun, are extremely light. 


Ag^ve atnerlcana) Zinn,, Amaryllide^. 

American Aloe; Vegetable Silk. 

"Vem^—Tkalki'sengar, bard-kanvar, jungli-hdnvar, Hind. ; Pita, bakns-pui- 

tahyjun^li'dndras, Hlati-pat, Beng. ; Jangali-ananas, pdrkdnda. Bom. : 

Anaik-katrazhat, Tam. ' 

Originally a native of America; now wild in many parts of India. 

The leaves and the root yield an excellent fibre, certain to become an 
important paper material. The plant is now largely cultivated along rail- 
way enclosures, and would prove a source of revenue if extended to fill all 
such enclosures, protecting the railway from animals, and much less dan- 
gerous than trees. Roi)es are made of the fibre by the Koli fishermen of 
Bombay which are used in their boats and for other purposes. 


Part III.] 

Economic Products of India* 




In experiments performed at the Bally Paper Mills it was discovered 
that one of the greatest difficulties in the way of Agave fibre for paper 
manufacture was the fact that the young leaves yielded too fine a pulp for 
paper. That the best leaves w»e those three years old. A mixture was 
proved to be injurious, and therefore a difficulty exists in the necessity 
of getting uniformly leaves of the same age, and if possible leaves three 
years old. 

Agave Sisala. 

The Sisal Hemp of Mexico ; a valuable American form, apparently not 
yet introduced into India. 

A. vivipara, Z. 

The Bastard Aloe. 
Syn. — ^Aoavb Cantala, Roxb, 

VenL—Kaihalai, Tam. ; Petha-kalabantha, Tel. s Kantala, Sans. 
Some authors seem to think this should not be regarded as a variety 
of A. asBericana but rather as a distinct species, differing, as it does, 
chiefly in the fact that it raises its cluster of leaves upon a short erect 
stem upon which viviparous buds are produced. It is altogether a mudi 
less robust plant. The leaves are less fleshy and erect instead of reflexed. 
The flowering stem is less than half the height of that of A. amencana, 
and much thinner and red-coloured. 


15 Alnus nitidai EndL^ Betulaceje. 

Vcm.— 5»«o/, saridi, sawdli, rajdn, Pb. ; Paya, udesh, KuMAUN ; Gira, 
A large tree of the Punjab Himalaya, ascending to altitude 9,000 feet. 
The young twigs are used for tying loads, rope-bridges, and for the con- 
struction of baskets. 


Z6 Aloe veraj Linn., Liliacea. 

Syn. — ^A. barqadbnsis. Miller; A. perfoliata, var», Aii.; A. elongata, 
Murray i A. indica, Royle; A. littoralis, Koenig. 

VertL'-Ghi'komar, Hind, f Ghrita-kumari, Beng. ; Kattale, kala^buniha, 
Tam. ; Mok, Burm. 
Many varieties of this plant are met with in cultivation throughout 
India. It has gone wild in some localities in the extreme south. 
The leaves yield a good fibre. 

17 Anadendram panicalatum, ARoiDEie. 

Vera.—Fo/da, And. 
In the Andaman Islands, the bow strings are made from the fibre 
of the bark of this plant, to which, to increase strength, a coating of 
black bee's wax {TobtU-pid) is frequently applied. Nettled reticules are 
also prepared from this fibre, which are used bv women for carrying 
smalfobjects. (Mr. Mannas Andaman Nicobar Islands Catalogue.) 

Fibres and Fibre-yielding Plants, 

{ Part III. 

Ananassa sativa, Linn., Bromeliacea. 

Vem.— -ilndrosy Bbng. ; Ananas, Hind. ; Nanat, Burm. 

This and all the other members of the same order now met with in 
India are believed to have been introduced from America. From the name 
one would suppose it had reached India through Persia, 

The leaves, which require to be steeped in water for i8 days, yield a 
beautiful fibre, which, but for the difficult}^ of extraction, would be largely 
used. This fibre is in request for threading necklaces, as it does not rot, 
and is very strong. 

Anathenim mwAcdXMXa^ Beauv. &^ Andropogon mmicatus, i?^/0. 

Andropogon laniger, Desf., GRAMiNEiE. 

The Juncus odoratus. 

Syn. — A. IWARANCUSA, Roxb, {in part) ; Cymbopogon laniger, Ders. 

WtnU'-^LdmJak, khdwi, panni, soldra, san. Hind. ; Miriya, ban, ganguli, 
bad,piriya, N. W. P.; Kdrdnkusd, Bekg, ; Ldmajfak, Sans. 

A native of the lower slopes of the Himalaya. 

A muricatuSi -Re/z. 


Venu-^Khas, Hind. ; Khas-khas, Beng. j Vette-^er, Tam. ; Usir, Sans. 
A grass abundant on sandy banks in Bengal, Upper India, the 
Coromandel Coast, and Mysore, where it is commonly planted to divide 


The roots are made into aromatic scented mats hung over doors and 
kept wet to cool the atmosphere in the hot season, and are also in great 
demand for making fans, &c. The grass is suited for the manufacture of 
paper, and it is estimated that from 60,000 to 70,000 maunds are annually 
available in the Hissar District of the Punjab. 

A. Sch(BnanthuS| Linn. 

The Geranium Grass. 
Syn, — A. martini, Roxb,; A. Naedoides, Neesi A. calamus-aromaticus, 

Royle; A. pachnodes, Trin.; Cymbopogon martini, Munro, 
Venu — Rusaghas, agiaghds, bhor, musel, mirchiagand. Hind. 

This grass grows wild in Central India, the North- West Provinces, 

and the Punjab. 

Originally a native of Balaghat, from which General Martin sent the 
seeds to the late Dr. Roxburgh. They were gathered during the last 
war with Tippu Sultan. This is the Roussa Paper grass, abundant every- 
where in the beccan. 







Part III.] 

Economic Products of India. 






Anona reticulatai Linn,^ Anonaceji. 

Bullock's Heart. 

Venu-^Nona, Beng. ; Rawsita, Tam. 
A small tree, common everywhere ; wild apparently in some districts, 
but chiefly met with in cultivation. 

A good fibre is prepared from the bark of the young twigs. 

A. squamosa, Linn. 

Custard Apple. 

Veax.^Sar%phai Hind. ;i4^a, l^nVG, \ Awea, Burm. 
A small tree, the Sweet-sop of the West Indies, naturalised in Bengal 
and the North- West Provinces. 

An inferior quality of fibre may be prepared from this species. 

AnthisiJria arundinacae, Roxb., Gramineji. 

Vem.— C//«, ullaht kangar, khandura, N. W. P. 
A grass met with chiefly in the North-West Provinces, 
The culms yield a fibre used for cordage, and for the sacrificial strings 
used by the Hindus where the Sacchanun munja is not available. The 
leaves are also used for thatching. 

This name has been retained for the present, for until the grasses of 
India have been worked up, and their synonymy established, it is useless 
to depart from the names given by authors on Economic Botany. It 
seems likely, however, that this may be brought under Imperutra 
arundinacea* (CarlL) 

Antiaris toxicaria, Leesch., Urticacejb. 

Travancorb Sacking Tree ; The Upas Tree. 

Syn. — A. saccidora, Dalg. 

Vern.S^dv^nd, r^khd, chdndala, chdndakudd. Bom.; Alii, natavil, 
Tam. I Hmyasaeit, Burm. 
A gigantic tree of the evergreen forests of Burma, Western Ghats, and 

^he* natives strip the bark of this tree into large pieces, soak them in 
water and beat them well, when a good white fibre is obtained— a natural 
cloth which they use as clothing. There seems every likelihood ths^t the 
bark of this tree may come into use as a paper fibre. 

Areca Catechu, Linn,, Palmji. 

The betel-nut palm. 

Vem. — Gua, supari, Beng. ; Gubak, Sans. ; Kottaipakka, Tam. ; Kun, 
One of the most elegant of Indian palms, with a thin straight stem 
and crown of leaves like arrows stuck in the ground. The spathe which 
covers the flowering axis may be used for paper-making. 


Fibres and Fibre-yielding Plants. 

[Part III. 

Arenga saccharifera, Ldbiil, Palma. 

Syn. — Saguerus rumphii, Roxh.y Fl, Ind», III, 626. 
Vem,-^Taung-oug, Burm. 
A Malayan tree generally cultivated in India^ but said by Kurz to be 
wild in Burma. 

At the base of the petiole is found a beautiful black horse-hair-like 
fibre known as the Gomuta Fibre. 



Artocarpus integrifoliai Linn., Urticaceji. 

Vera. — Panas, Hind. ; Kanthal, Beng. ; Panasa, Sans. ; Phanasa, Mahr.; 
Palah, Tam. ; Peinne, Burm. 

A large tree with a- dense dome of deep dark foliage, having immense 
fruits clustered around the stem— one of the most characteristic associa- 
tions of the Indian rural village. 

The bark yields a fibre. 

A. Lakoocha, J^oxb. 

VeoLr—Dephal, Beng. ; Lakucha, Sans. 

A common tree throughout India and Burma. 

A fibre is prepared from the bark ; used for cordage. 

Arundinaria falcata, Nees, GRAMiNSiE. 

Himalayan Bamboo. 

Vem. — Nirgal, nigal, HiND. ; Sprag, Kunawar ; Prong, N. W. P. * 
Prongnoki Lepcha. 

Met with from the Ravi to Bhutan above 4,500 feet in altitude. {Gamble.) 
The leaves are used for roofing and baskets. 

A. Hookeriana^ Munro. 

Vem. — Praong, prong, Lepcha ; Singhani, Nepal. 

A bamboo, with stems 12 to 15 feet in height, common about Dumsong. 
Found in Sikkim at 4,000 to 7,000 feet in altitude. {Gamble.) 
The seeds are edible. 

A. racemosa, Munro. 

VtXTL, — Pummoon, Lepcha ; Pai-hioo, Nepal. 
A bamboo, 2 to 4 feet high, with bluish rough internodes, occurring in 
Sikkim and Nepal above 6,000 feet. {Gamble,) 
It is extensively used for making mats. 

Arundo Karka, Xoxi., Gramweje. 

Vem. — Karka, nal, Beng. ; Ni4d<i-nar, Hind. ; Sa£^, narre, Pb. 
The plant grows chiefly on the lower hills and outer slopes of the 
Himalayas; but one species is met with in ditches and wet places in 







Part III. ] 

Economic Products of India. 








Thb grass^ with one or two allied species^ such as A* Rokbiiis:fafi» 
Kunth, and A. nepalenais, is brought down to the plains of India under the 
generic vernacular name of Nal, and are made into dtirma mats, and 
cane-work for chairs. The fibre of the flower stalk is made into ropes. 

Bambusa arundinacea, l^e/z., Graminea. 


Verxu — Katiang, Hind. ; Bans, Bbng.; Mandgay, Bom. ; Mangil, Tam. ; 
Kyakaiwa, BuRM. 

The common bamboo of Central and South India and Burma. 

B. Balcooa, Roxb. 

Vtnu^BMu, Bbng.; Beiwa, Cachar; Bora baluka. Ass. 

A bamboo, with stems often 50 to 70 feet in height. This is the best 
Bengsd species for building and scaffolding. (Gamble.) 

B. Brandisii, Munro. 

Vem.— t?ra, Bbng. ; Kyalowa, wabo, Buru. 
A bamboo met with in Chittagong and Burma. 


B. nutans, Wail. 

Vera. — Mahlbans, I^efal ; Mahlu, Lefcha y Pichle, Sylhbt. 
A most beautiful species, largely planted near villages in Sikkim and 
Bhutan. (Gamble.) 

B. Tulda, Xoxb. 

Vem. — Peka,UiSD,i Tulda, jaaa, maiela, Beng.; Thatiwa, Burm. 
The common bamboo of Bengal. 

The wood is strong, and the halms are used for roofing, scaffolding, 
mats, and other purposes. (Gamble.) 

Bauhinia ang^ina, Roxh.^ Leguminosje. 

The Snake-climber. 

Vera. — Nag-^tit, SiLHBT ; NaiwiUi, Nepal. 

A curious conduplicately bent climber of North and East Bengal, 
Chittagong, Martaban and South India. 
Its bark is used in rope-making. 

B. macrostachiira, Wall. 

VtaLr^Gunda-giUa, Bbng. 
An extensive climber, running over the trees in the forests of Sylhet 
and Assam. 

The bark yields a strong fibre. 


Fibres and Fibre^yielding Plants. 

[Part HI- 

Bauhinia purpurea) Linn. 

VtXtU^-^Kaliar, Hind, j Rakta kanchan, Beng* j Pedda-are, Tam.; Makahr 
legani, BuRM. 

An omaniental tree, 20 to 30 feet in height, met with chiefly in Bengal, 
Burma, North- West Provinces, and South India, 
A fibre may be prepared from the bark. 

B. racemosai Lam. 

Venu—Marvily ghila, gUridl, asta, askta, kachndl. Hind. 5 Banraji, Beng. 5 
Vanardja, Sans. ; Apta, Mahr.; iln, aro, Tel. j Palan, Burm. 

A small tree found all over India. 

A strong fibre is made from the inner bark ; used for cordage, but not 
durable in water. It yields a good bast and slow match. 

May this not be the undetermined bast fibre described by Royle 
under the name of Asia, Patu, sent from Birbhdm to the Exhibition of 

B. tomentosai Linn. 

Vtm.'^Kachnar, Hind. ; Kanchini, Tam. 
A shrub or small tree of South India. 
From the bark a fibre is prepared. 

B. Vahlii, FT. &• A 

Vera.— -ilfoZ/flff, malth jcdlaur. Hind. ; Chehur, Beng. ; ChambuU, Mahr. 5 
AddOf Tam. ; Sihar, maul, C. P. 

This is one of the most extensive, as it is the most abundant and most 
useful, of Indian climbers. It is found all along the Lower Himalayas from 
the Chenab eastward, in North and Central India, and Tenasserim. 

Its uses are, perhaps, more numerous than those of any other forest 
plant ; the strong cordage prepared from its bark is not the least important. 

This is said to be the undetermined bast fibre which Royle describes 
as having been sent to the Exhibition of 185 1 from the district of Birbhdm. 

In the Kew Report for 188 1, it is stated that the leaves of this plant 
and not those of Cochlosperaium g^osisypium are used in the construction 
of the crude leaf-bellows m Sikkim. 





Beaumontia gjandiflorai Wall, Apocynaceje. 

Vera. — Barbari, Nepal. 

Is a large climber of East and North Bengal, with large showy lemon- 
white flowers. It is found from Nepal eastward to Sikkim, Sylhet, and 

A fibre is prepared from the young twigs. 


Berrya Ammonilla, J^oxb., Tiliacem. 

Vera. — Petwun, Burm. 

Kurz says this plant is not unfrequent in the drier, upper, mixed forests 
of Martaban and Pegu, 3,000 feet in altitude. 

In the Amsterdam Catalogue a fibre from this tree is mentioned as 
having been sent from Burma. 


Part III. ] 

Economic Products of India. 








Betula Bhojpattray Waii.y CupuLiFERiE 

Vera. — Bhujpatira, Hind.; Burj^ burzal, Pb. ; Bh4>jpaira^ Bom. 

A middle-sized tree, met with on the higher ranges of the Himalayas, 
altitude 14,000 feet. 

The bark is used as a substitute for paper by some of the hill tribes, 
and is ree^arded as more durable than paper. It is brought down to the 

Elains and largely used in the manufacture of hookah tubes. The young 
ranches are plaited into twig bridges. 

Bixa Orellana, Linn., Bixinea. 

The Arnotto Dye. 

Vera. — Latkhan, Hind., Beng.; ^arat. Ass.; Jafray Tel.j KuraguQ 
mangjeUy Tam.; Theedin, BuRM. 

A graceful shrub, with handsome white or pinkish flowers and echinat- 
red capsules; originally a native of America, now largely cultivated in 
India for the red or orange dye obtained from the pulp which surrounds 
the seed. 

Bark yields a good cordage. {Dymock.) 

Bachmeria Hamiltoniana, Wedd., Urticacea. 

VertL-^Tuksur, Lepcha; Sapsha, BURM. 

A shrub of North and East Bengal, and Burma. 
It yields a strong fibre. 

B. macrophylla, Don. 

Vera. — Saochdloy golka, Kumaun 5 Kamli, Nepal. 
This broad-leaved shrub is met with from Kumaun eastward to the 
Khasia Hills. 

Its bark yields a beautiful fibre, much prized for fishing nets. 

B. malabaricai Wedd. 

Vem,—Takhret, Lepcha. 

A shrub of moister zones of India and Burma. 
It yields a strong fibre. 

B. nivea^^. esfA. 

Rhea Grass ; China Grass. 

Vera. — Puia, Hind. ; Riah, Beng. ; Rkia, kunkhoora, ramie. Ass. 
This is, perhaps, the finest fibre in India, and the one which is likely 
soon to become commercially the most valuable. Its separation is at 
present very laborious and expensive. In 1871 a reward of ^5,000 was 
offered by Government for a good extracting machine for this fibre 5 but 
although several competitors came forward, the prize was awarded to no 


Fibres and Fibre-yielding Plants. 

[Part III 


Bombax malabaricunii DC, Malyacea. 

Silk Cotton Tree. 

Vem. — Simaly Hind. ; Simul, Beng. ; Simali, Sans. • Sa vara, Mahr. ; 
Letpati, BuRM. 

A large tree, with thorny buttressed stems, and large showy flowers, 
appearing in Bengal in January and February, 

The seeds have short cottony hairs, too short to be spun, but largely 
used for stuffing pillows, &c The inner bark also yields a good fibre, 
suitable for cordage. 

Borassus flabelliformiSj Linn., Palh£. 

Palmyra Palm. 
Vera.— r«r. Hind. ; Tal, Beng. ; Tola, Sans. ; Panam, Tam. ; Tan, 


One of the most common palms of India. 

The fibre extracted from the leaf -stalks is used for rope and twine- 
making, and may also be used for paper. 




Broussonetia papsrriferai Vent., Urticaceje. 

Vera. — Malaing, Burm. 

A small tree, said to be wild in the Martaban hills. 

The Japanese make paper from the bark of this tree, and the Burmese 
their curious papier mach6 school slates {Parahaik). The Tapa Cloth of 
the South Sea Islands is made from it. The Karens prepare from it the 
Mulberry Paper Cloth, which see. 

Burma should supply specimens of this* bark, together with its manu- 
factured products. 


Butea frondosai Roxh,, LEGUMiNosiE. 

Vera. — Dhak, Hind.; Palash, Beng.; Paldsa, Mahr.; Parasa, Tam. 
Pauk, Burm. ; Khakar, Guz. 

A small, distorted tree ; covered with deep orange flowers before the 
appearance of the leaves. Met with all over India. 

Yields a strong fibre, said to be useful for paper-making and for 
cordage; also the roots yield a strong fibre, which is used in some parts 
of India for making native sandals. 


B. superba, Roxb, 

Vera. — Ligemotku, Tel, ; Pdldsdvel, Mahr.; Pauknwe, Burm. 
An extensive climber, scarcely differing from the preceding except in 
habit. Found in the forests of tne Konkan, Bengal, Orissa and Burma. 



Part III.] 

Economic Products of India* 



Calamus Rotans:, Linn,, Palmjb. 

The Rattan Cans. 

Veni.^^f^BBNG.>HiND.jSf<;» Pbrs.; Fipte, Mahr.; Perambu, Tam.; 
Beta mu, Tel. 

It is met with in Bengal, Assam, South India, and Burma. 

This is the species which yields the best Rattan Cane of commerce. 
Other species are, however, used as substitutes. It is split into strips 
and plaited or woven into baskets, chairs, sofas, and carriages. It is 
twisted into ropes, or stretched entire across rivers, as the main supports 
of indigenous suspension bridges. 

59 Callicarpa cana, Linn., Yekbevacrm. 

Royle, in his Fibrous Plants of India, says that a fibre is prepared 
from this plant, called Arusha in Chittagong. Captain Thomson report- 
ing of this fibre says: "It is much too weak tor either sail-clotn or 
cordage. It, however, possesses all the free and kindly nature of flax, and 
even smells like flax. It is easily worked, with little or no waste, &c" (Royle, 
pasre 311.) 

Specimens of this fibre, as also of the plant, to facilitate fresh identifi- 
cation and experiments, much required. 

60 Calotropis gigantea, ^. Br., Asclepiadacea. 

Vem. — Madar, Hind. ; Akanda, Beng. ; Rut, akra, Bom. ; Erukam, 
yercum, Tam. ; Mayo, Burm. 

A small shrub, common throughout India on the plains. 

The silky hairs from the apex of the seeds are used for stuffing pillows, 
and may be used as a paper fibre. The fibre known as Bovostring Hemp 
is obtained from the stems, ^nd is perhaps the most valuable, as it is the 
strongest, of Indian fibres. While this has been well known for many 
years and the fibre repeatedly brought to the notice of Europe, it has up to 
the present day not attracted the attention which it deserves. 

Mr. G. W. Strettell of the Forest Department, in his Netu Source 
of Revenue for India, states that the Mucidar must "afford a material 
for paper as good as, and cheaper than. Esparto." In this opinion he is 
strongly supported by the Curator of the Victoria and Albert Museum, 
Bombay, wno pronounces this as one of the finest of Indian fibres, its 
extended use being restricted only by the difficulty of extraction. In 
the Kew Report for 1881, however, an opinion is expressed by Mr. 
Routledge quite opposed to this ; he believes that '* neither it (Muddar) 
nor any other exogenous plants of similar characters can ever compete 
with Esparto, nor be produced at a sufficiently low cost to admit of its 
being employed as paper-making material," Paper is prepared in the 
following districts : Bellary in Madras, Furruckabad and Meerut in North- 
Western Provinces. The plant is abundant in the Punjab, and, together 
with the next species, is to a small extent made into paper. The cotton 
or crown of hairs from the seeds, as also the fibre from the bark, or both, 
is capable of being used for paper. 


Fibres and Fibre-yielding Plants^ 

[Part III. 

When steeped in water the fibre rots quickly. The steaming pro- 
cess is likely to produce good results. The fibre was extracted in Mysore 
without the usu£U process of steeping, {pameron^ 

Calotropis procera, R. Br. 

Vera. — The Ak, muddr. North India. 

Common in the Punjab, Sind, &c., taking, in Upper or North India, 
the place which the preceding species holds in Bengal, the North- West 
Provinces and South India. 

It may be used for the same purposes as the preceding. 

Cannabis sativa, Linn., URxicACEiS. 


Vera. — Ganjd, bhang, charas, HiND., Beng., Bom., Tam.; Ganfika, Sans. ; 
Nabdtul-qunnab, Arab.; Darakkte^kintmb, Pbrs.; Ganjair-cheitu, 
Tel.; Sechauk, Burm. 

Rarely cultivated for its fibre in India, not being suited for cultiva- 
tion in the plains. It is remarkable that the natives do not make an 
attempt to utilise the enormous quantities of inferior stems obtained from 
the seed crop as a paper fibre. 

Careya arborea, Roxd., Myrtacejb. 

Vera. — Kumbtf kumbh. Hind.; Dambel^ Garo; Ayma, pailae, Tam.; 
Banbwe, Burm. 

A large tree found from the Jumna eastward to Bengal and Burma, 
and in Central and South India. 

Its bark gives a good fibre for coarse cordage. (Gamble,) 

It is usea in Mysore as a slow match to ignite gunpowder. (Cameron.) 

Caiyota nrensi Linn., Palmje. 

^tm^-^Rungbong, simong, Lbpcha; Barafiawar, Ass. : 5a/^a, Uriya; 
BherlA-mada, Mahr.; Conda'panna, erim-panna, tam.; Minbaw, 

A beautiful palm, with smooth, annulated stem, met with in the forests 
of the western and eastern moist zones. 

The leaves eive the Kittul Fibre, which is very strong and is made 
into ropes, brusnes, brooms, baskets and other articles. The fibre from the 
sheathm^ petiole is made into ropes and fishing-nets, lines, &c. (Gamble), 
and is suitable for the manufacture of paper. 


Celosia cristatSl, Linn., Chenopodeje. 

spans' Encyclopaedia, page 938, remarks of this plant : " Common all 
over Bengal and North India generally. 








Part III. ] 


Economic Products of India. 


It yields a strong flexible fibre, so highly esteemed that rope made of 
it sells at five times the price of jute rope. 
Confirmation of this fact required, and also samples of the plant from 
which the fibre has been extracted. 

It is known in Bengali as Lal^mugra, but Roxburgh makes no mention 
of the fibre ; indeed^ no author seems to do so. 


66 Cephalostachium capitatum, Munro, Graminejs. 

Vera. — Gobia, gopi, Nepal ; Sili, sullea, Khasia. 
This "bamboo has stems 12 to 30 feet, thin, yellow, semi-scandent, 
strong, with long internodes of about 2| feet, used for bows and arrows 
by the Lepchas. It is often gregarious. It flowered in Sikkim in 1874. " 


67 Cerbera Odollam, Gaertn., Apocyneje. 

Vera. — Dabur, dkakur, Bbng. ; Kada-ma, Tam. ; Kalwa, BuRM. 
An evergreen tree of the coasts of India and Burma. 
A fibre prepared from the bark is said to have been sent by the Forest 
Department of Madras to the Amsterdam Exhibition of 1883. (See 
T. N. Mukharji's Amsterdam Descriptive List.) 

68 Chamsrops Ritchieana, Grij^., Paliue:. 

Vera. — Maari, Trans-Indus; Kilu, kaliu. Salt Range; Pharra, Beluch. 
Leaves used for matting, fans, baskets, hats and other articles. Its 
leaves and leaf-stalks give a strong, durable fibre which is made into 
ropes ; and its seeds are used for rosaries. A beautiful collection of the 
products of this plant was sent to the Paris Exhibition from the Punjab, 
chiefly from the Salt Range. (Gamble,) 


69 COCOS nucifera, Linn,, Palmje. 

The Coir or Cocoa-nut Fibre. 

Yem.'-r-Nariel, Hihd, $ Narikel, Beng. ; Tenna, Tam.; Ou, Burm. 
The thick pericarp yields the valuable Coir fibre of commerce. The 
sheaths of the leaves are used to wrap up articles, and as paper to 
write upon. The fibre of the leaf-stalks is also prepared, and seem likely 
to prove useful in the manufacture of paper. 

[147] Corchorus olitoriuSi Linn,, and C. capsulariSy Z/««., Tiliaceje. 

See Jute. 

Fibres and Fibre-^yielding Plants, 

[Part III. 

Cordia Myxai Linn,, Boraginejc. 

Vera. — Lasoroy bkokar, gondi, HiKD. ; Bohari, buhal, Bbng. ; LaSTsara, 
Pb.; Lesuri, Sind; Bor la, Kvmavk ; Bokhar, Mahr. } Vtdi, 'oerasu, 
Tam. ; Thanat, Burm. 

A moderate-sized tree of the Salt Range, the Sub-Himalayan tract 
from the Chenab to Assam, the Khasia Hills, Bengal, Burma, and Cen- 
tral and South India. 

The bark is made into ropes, and the fibre is used for caulking boats ; 
as also ropes and fuses are made from it. 

C. Rothii, I^om, esf Sch. 

Vem^-^Gondi, gondui, gundi. Hind. ; Liar, Sind; Narvilli, Tam. 
A small tree in the dry zones of North- West and South India. 
The liber or inner bark is made into rope. 

Corypha umbraculiferai Linn,, Palms. 

The Talipat Palm. 
Vem. — OmdorPam, Tam. ; Bind, kan. ; Tola, Cingh. ; PeUn, Burm. 

A tall tree of Ceylon and the Malabar Coast. Cultivated in Benga 
and Burma. 

The leaves are made into fans, mats and umbrellas, and are used for 
writing on, as also are those of C Talieni. 

Crotalaria Burhiai Hamilt, 

Vem. — Sis, bfita, bhata, Pb. 
Is said by Mr. Baden-Powell to yield a good fibre for cordage ; used 
in the Punjab. 

Crotalaria juncea, Linn,, Leguminos^. 

Sunn or Sunn Hemp or Indian Hemp, Brown Hemp, Bombay 
Hemp, Wuckoo-nar (or Travancore flax), Jubbulpur 

Syn. — C. TEN U I FOLIA, Roxb, 

VerxL, — San, Beng. ; Atnbddi, Bom.; Jeitappa-nar, Tam.; Jenapa-nara, 
Tel.; Paiksan, Burm. 
Extensively cultivated all over India for its fibre, which is largely used 
for cordage, coarse cloth, and the waste fibre for paper. This fibre is too 
well known to require more than to be mentioned in the present enumer- 

CymbopOgon. &^ Andropogon. 









Part III.] 

Economic Products of India, 








Cyperus ezaltatus, Retz., Ctperaceje. 

Commonly found in Bengal and in the Peninsula of India. 
Yields fibre. 

C« Iridi Z. 

Vera. — Burthckkooncka, BsNO . 

A small shrub, native of Bengal, Nepal, and the Peninsula. 
Yields a fibre. 

C. Pongarie, J^oM. 

Vera. — ChumaH patee, 

A shrub, common on the banks of the Ganges. 

Mr. Canneron says that Dr. Bidie of Madras has manufactured good 
mats from this plant. 

C. tesetum, Roxh. 

The Calcutta floor-mats are entirely made of this Csrperus* The culms 
are split into two or three, and then woven into mats upon a warp of threads 
previously stretched across the floor of a room. The mat-maker passes 
the culms with the hand alternately over and under the successive threads 
of the warp, and presses them home. 

In different districts of India it is believed that two or three allied 
species are used for this purpose. In Madras the form C. corymbosiia 
seems to be chiefly used. Specimens of all the grass-mats, with flowering 
tufts of the grass from which they are made, would make it possible to 
examine this subject thoroughly. As far as possible such specimens should 
be supplied. 

Daemia eactensa, R* Br., Asclefiadejs. 

Syn. — AscLEPiAs echinata, Roxh, 

Vera. — ChagulbanH, Beng.; U tar ana, SiHD, 

A common climber with a fcetid sceht; met with throughout India, 
ascending to 3,000 feet. 

** Twining, shrubby. Found wild in Bengal and in the Himalaya 
(from Darjeeling to Nepal), and one of the commonest weeds in the Deccan. 
Its stem yields a fibre which has been recommended as a substitute for 
flax ; it is said to be very fine and strong, and to have gained a medal at 
the Madras Exhibition, 1855.'* (Spons* Enc.) 

Birdwood, in Bombay Products, remarks that it is the commonest 
weed in the Deccan, where it is called Ootrun, and that the late Colonel 
Meadows Taylor was the first to draw attention to its valuable fibre. 

This seems a likely fibre for paper manufacture. 

Information, and samples of rough and cleaned fibre, required. 

Daphne longifolia, Meisn., Thymeueaceb. 

Vem. — Shedbarwa, Nepal. 
A shrub of Eastern Himalaya, Kh^sia Hills and East Bengal. 
The bark is used in the manufacture of Nepal paper. 


Fibres and Fibre-yielding Plants. 

[Part III. 

Daphne papyracea, Wall. 

Syn. — ^D. Cannabina. 

Ven^^Set baHwa^ saipura. Hind.; Niggi, Pb.; Balwa, KUMAUN; 

Gande, kagkuH, Nepal ; Dayshing, Bhutia. 

A large shrub or small tree found on the Himalaya from the Indus to 

Bhutan, between altitudes of 3,000 and 9.000 feet ; also on the Khasia 

and Naga Hills; one of the most abundant bushes on the hills between 

Manipur and Burma. . ,.t 1 1 

From the bark of this plant is prepared the curious Nepal paper, also 
strong ropes. Paper-making is not known to the Nagas, who use the fibre 
entirely for ropes. It would be interesting to know if D. mucronata, 
Royle ( Vern. PecK Sind ; kutildl, kantha, shalangri, sfosko, shtng, 
mashur, swdna, jikri, dona, kagsart, kansidn, sondi, Pb.) is ever used as 
a paper fibre in Sind or the Punjab, where it is plentiful enough on the 
hills and lower Himalaya. 

D. WaUichii, Meisn. 

Menu—Chhota aryili, NEPAL. 
A shrub of the Eastern Himalaya, Khasia Hills and East Bengal. 
The bark is used in the manufacture of paper. 

Debregeasia bicolar, Wedd., Urticace-e. 

Vem.'—Ckainchar, chainjli, amrer, Jhelum; Sansaru, 5«w, Chenab; 
Siaruf talsiari, Ravi 5 Pincho, Sutlej ; Kkarwala, shakat, Afg. 
A large shrub of the Salt Range and the North-West Himalaya, 
ascending to altitude 5.000 feet. 

The fibre is made into twme and ropes. 

D. leucophylla, Wedd. 

Vem.— ^»^««»* Nepal ; Senen, Lepcha. 
A small tree of the North- East Himalaya up to 7,000 feet in alti- 
tude; Khasia Hills and the forests of Pegu. 
Fibre sometimes used for cordage. 

D. longifolia, Wedd. 


YgjH^ Tashiari, Nepal; Ramhyeni, Lepcha; Putchaw, Burm. 

A small tree of the North-East Himalaya to the Khasia Hills, altitude 
7,000 feet. South India and Burma. .. ^ ^ 

The fibre of the bark is occasionally used for ropes, and to make 

fishing nets. 

Dendrocalamus Hamiltonii, Nees, GRAMiNKiE. 

Vem.^Kokwa, Beng.; Tama, Nepal; Pas, Lepcha ; IVak, Mechi; 
Waknoky GkKO. 
The common bamboo of the East Himalaya. Stems 40 to 60 feet high 
or low and tangled. They are 3 to 6 inches in diameter, not straight, but 
are used for a variety of purposes. 










Part III.] 

Economic Products of hidia. 







Dendrocalamus strictus, Nees. 

Syn. — Bambusa stricta. 

\Vfi.—Bans, bans kaban, kopar, HiND. ; Karail, Beno. ; Bos, wika. Bom. • 
KankOf Tel. ; Afyinwa, Burm. 

This bamboo has often deciduous leaves ; the steins are strong, elastic, 
and nearly solid, 20 to 100 feet hieh. 

Used for spear-handles and all purposes of house^building, baskets, 
&c. {Gamble,) 

Desmodium tiliaefolium, G. Don,^ Leguminosjb. 

Vera. — Sambar, skamru, chamra, martan, tnotha, pri, muri, laber, HlND. 

A large tree, met with all along the Himalaya, from the Upper Punjab 
to Tavoy, in both temperate and tropical zones ; ascending to 9,000 feet in 

The bark yields an excellent fibre, extensively used for rope-making; 
suitable for paper manufacture. 

Dolichandrone falcata, Seem,, Bignoniaceje. 

Vera. — Hawar, OuDH ; Kanseri, Mbywar j Udda, wodi, Tel. 

A small tree ; native of Oudh, Rajputana, Central and South India. 

A fibre obtained from this plant was sent to the Amsterdam Exhi- 
bition by the Forest Department of Madras. (Sec T. N, MukharjVs Des- 
criptive Catalogue.) 

D. Rheedii, Seem. 

Syn. — Spathodea Rhebdii, Wall, 

Vem. — Deya-danga, Cingh. ; Thakufma, Burm. 

A small tree, met with in Burma, Ceylon, and the Andaman Islands. 
Yields a fibre similar to the preceding. 

Dombeya umbellata, Sterculiacea. 

Introduced from the Isle of Bourbqn, and sparsely cultivated as an orna- 
mental bush. 

The bark yields a good fibre. Dombeya canoabma, a native of Ma- 
dagascar, yields a strong fibre, locally made into rough ropes. 

Dresea. volubiliSi Benfh., Asclepiadeji. 


YgfQ, Tit'kunga, Beng. ; Hirandodi, Mahr j D^i-pcUln, Tel. 

A large, woody, twinmg plant, common in hedges and thickets ; flowers 
small, greenish, appearing in May ; met with in Bengal, Bombay, and 

South India. . . , , , 

Contains a good fibre, sometimes extracted by the natives. 

Dunchi Fibre. See Sesbania aculeata. 

Fibres and Fibre-yielding Plants, 

[Part III. 

Hdgeworthia Gardner!, Meisn., Tkyws.ljlxcem, 

Mem. — KaghuH, aryiliy Nepal. 

A large, elegant bush, almost leafless when covered with its clusters of 
yellow, sweet-scented flowers. Found along the Himalaya from Nepal to 
J^ikkim and Bhutan, and recently found plentiful on the mountains of 
Manipur, extending to the northern frontier of Burma. 

The strong, tough fibre obtained from the long, straight, sparsely-branch- 
ed twigs of this bush must, sooner or later, become one of the most 
valuable of Indian fibres. The finest Nepal Paper is made from it, and is 
purer and cleaner than the paper from Daphne papyraoea. 

Eria. See silk. 

Hriodendron anfractuosum, DC, Malvacxa. 

The White Cotton Tree. 

Vm.^Sqfed simal, senibal, katian, katan. Hind.; Skwef simuL Bekg. i 
Ilavamy Tam. 

A tall, deciduous tree of India and Burma, found throughout the hotter 

The seeds are coated with soft, silky hairs. In South Canara a fibre 
is extracted from the plant, which is suitable for the manufacture of 

Eriotena Hookeriana, W. & A,, STERcuLiACEiE. 

Vem. — Nar-Botku, Tel.; Arang, Berar; Kutki, bkonder, Gond. 
A small tree of Central and South India. 

The bark yields a good fibre A specimen was sent to the Paris Exhi- 
bition of 1878. 

E. spectabiliSy Planch, 

Vein. — Nar-botkut Tel. ; Arang, Berar ; Kutki, bhonder, Gond. 
A small tree of the Central Himalaya to Nepal, found plentifully every- 
where on the dry, red clay hills in the arid districts of Manipur. 
The bark yields a good fibre, 

Eriophorum comosum, Wall., Cyteracis.m. 

Syn. — SciRPUS comosus, Roxb, 

Vem.—Bhdbar, bab, babila, N. W. P.; Pan-babiyo, A l mora. 
This plant forms a small proportion of the fibre brought down to the 
plains under the name of Bhdbar, the bulk being the fibre from Spodiopoeon 
angustifolius, Trin, (Atkinson) But for the expense of transport to the 
commercial centres, this grass would become one of the most useful of 
Indian paper fibres. It is abundant in the North- West Provinces. 

Eriopnomm is not far behind Esparto in the yield of dry fibre, and 
is quite equal to it in strength. 









Part III.] 

Economic Products of India, 



Enrthrina indica. Lam. 

Vera. — Pdngrd, Hind.; Palitd^mddSr, Beng.; Pdngard, Mahr.; Kalydnd- 
murukku, Tam.; Badidapn^hettu, Tel.; Erabadwgaha, Cingh. • 
Kaihit, Burm. 
It is stated that the bark yields a fibre. {Capt. Nutfs Report in 
Liotard's Memorandum,) 


HspartO Grass. See Lygemn Spartum and Macrochloa tenadssima. 

99 Eucalyptus Globulus, LahilL, Myrtacea. 

Vera. — Kurpoora maram, Madras. 

A lofty tree, g^e^arious in Victoria and the south of Tasmania. Intro- 
duced on the Nilgins^ and now completely naturalised. 
The bark of the tree forms the paper material. 




Ficus bengalensiSi Zinn., Urticacejs. 

The Banyan Tree. 

Vem.'—Bar, HiVD. ; Bat, BEifG, ; Bor, joribor. Ass.; Alamarum, Tam.; 
Pyinyaungf BuRM. 

One of the most characteristic of Indian trees, in many cases each form- 
ing a forest in itself from its habit of sending down roots from the branches. 

A coarse rope is made from the bark and from the aerial roots, and 
paper is also reported to have been formerly largely prepared in Assam 
from the bark ; to a small extent it is stated to be still prepared at Lakhim- 
pore in Assam and in Bellary in Madras. Specimens of this paper, as 
also a description of the process of preparation and the extent oi^the trade 
in this paper, would be most acceptable. 

F. Cunia, Buck. 

Vera. — Khewnau, khurhur. Hind.; Du'mbur, yajya'domur, Beng.; 
Kunia, Kumaun; Kankya, Nepal. 

A moderate-sized tree of the Sub-Himalayan tract, from the Chenab 
eastward, ascending to 4,000 feet in altitude, Bengal, Burma. 
The bark is used to tie the rafters of native houses. 

F. infectoria, Wiiid. 

y/etn.-^Pakur, Hind., Beng.; Gdndhaumbara, dhedutnbara, M\hr.; 
Pepre,kurku, Tam.; Nyoungchin, Burm. 

A large tree of Bengal, Central India, and Burma. 
The bark yields a fibre. 


Fibres and Fibre-yielding Plants* 

[Part III. 

Ficus religiosa, Linn, 

The Pipal Tree. 

Vem— i'*/^/. Hind.; J^AaMwa, Beng. ; i4ra5a, Tam. ; Nyaungbawdi, 


A large tree regarded as sacred, found all over India. 

A fibre is extracted from the bark. Formerly, the fibre was made into 
paper iri Burma and used in making the peculiar green umbrellas of the 
people ; but the manufacture has died out, and the umbrellas are now 
imported from China. 

F. T^^iSL^Roxb. 

Veni. — J6vt OT peddi'jM, Tel. 

This, Roxburgh remarks, is, next to F. religiosa, the largest species of 
Indian fig. It is a large handsome tree, with smooth bark, wholly gla- 
brous. It is a native of the lower hills of Bengal and South India, but in 
cultivation for shade is met with along the roads throughout India 

The bark gives a good fibre. 

Fourcroya gigantea and F. longa&va, Amaryllideje. 

These and Adam's Needle (Yncca gloriosa) are closely allied to Agave 
americana. They are all members of South America, Mexico, and the 
West Indies. F. longaeva is the finest member of the genus, if not of the 
order. Its flowering axis rises to 30 or 40 feet, and is covered with 
flowers. F. gigantea was formerly called Agave fcetida ; it is a much 
smaller plant than the foregoing. It has been successfully introduced 
into the Madras I^residency, and seems to grow freely enough. It is 
known as the Great Aloe or, in Tamil, Simai-kathalai, 

They all yield fibre of a very excellent kind, and seem likely to deve- 
lope into fibre-yielding plants of the greatest importance ; certain, sooner 
or later, to be cultivated in India. 

Gerbera lanuginosa, Bentk., Composite. 

Vera. — Kapasiya, the name of the tinder prepared from the tomentumof thg 
leaves. Kupasi is also the name of a cloth spun from this curious plant. 

It is a herbaceous procumbent plant of the lower slopes of the Western 
Himalaya, having large, simple, ovate, oblong leaves, lyrately pinnate at 

the base. 

From the under-surface the tomentum is peeled off and used as tinder 
by the hill tribes, or spun into a woolly-like twine and then woven into the 
characteristic bags in which they carry their hookahs. Specimens should 
be obtained from Kumaun. 

Girardinia heterophylla, Decaisne, Urticaceje. 

The Nilgiri Nettle. 

Syn. — Urtica heterophylla, Roxb, Hi., 586. 

Vem.—Awa, alia, bickua. Hind. ; Keri, kingi, sanoli, au^jdn, kdrla, Pb. ; 
Ulio, Nepal; Kazu, Lepcha ; Horu surat. Ass. ; Serpa, herpa, Bhutia. 

An exceedingly common, large, herbaceous plant of the forests, with 
long stinging bristles. It is common throughout most of the hill districts 
of India and Burma, but especially upon the Himalaya, 








Part III.] 

Economic Products of India, 





It affords a fine, silky fibre, used in Sikkim for ropes and coarse cloth 
resembling Gunny. {Gamble.) Roxburgh says of it : "The bark abounds 
in fine, white, glossy, silk-like, strong fibres. ' 

Gnetum scandens> Roxh., Gnetace^;. 

Syn. — G. Edule, BL 

y/etn,^R^mbcU, ^mble, BoM. ; Pilita, And.; Naun-wUk, Sylhet; Gyootn. 
way, BuRM. 
A large climbing shrub of Sikkim, and the Khasia Hills, East Bengal, 
Western Ghats, Burma, and the Andamans. 

In the Andaman Islands the fibre is used for the preparation of hard 
fishing-nets called Kud^ 


GoSSypium, a genus of Malvaceae, yielding the valuable fibre known 
as Cotton. 

Considerable difference of opinion prevails as to the origin of the 
plants now cultivated for the supply of cotton, and, indeed, the original 
home of the ancestral type or types from which it was derived, is by no 
means certain. The Flora of British India regards the form collected 
by Stocks and Dalzell upon the limestone rocks of the coast of Sind as 
a wild species, to which the name of G. StocksU, Mast, has been given. 

This establishes the existence of the genus Gossypium as indigenous to 
India. Whatever may be the origin or history of the cotton plants as 
a whole, a careful examination of a large collection of dried specimens 
will, it is thought, justify the separation of the Indian cultivated forms 
into three sections, which, for convenience, we may regard as species. 
These are G. arboreum, L, ; G. herbacemn, L. j and G. barbadense, L, 5 and 
we propose to retain the synonymy and the varieties under these as estab- 
lished in the Flora of British India, merely suggesting the advisability of 
transferring Var. religiosum, sp., Roxh., from G. nerbaceum, L., to G. barba- 
dense, L. It seems probable that the form G. hirsutum, sp., Z., is really a 
hybrid, having the foliage of G. herbaceum, and the gashed bracteoles of 
G. barbadense. It may be placed, therefore, under either of these species. 

G. arboreum, L. 

Diagnostic characters. 

Leaves, more or less hairy, ^ segmented, or almost cut to the base into 5 or 
7 lobes, mostly 5, never 3. Segments, contracted at the base, narrow, 
ovate, linear, acuminate, or ovate lanceolate, not % as broad as long, cent 
iral lobe often having a small, supplementary segment, or tooth, in the 
deep-rounded lateral sinus. Bracteoles, ovate, cordate acute, toothed or 
entire. Flowers, purple with yellow centre, rarely white. Seeds, free 
from each other, covered with white cotton overlying a dense green 
down ; cotton, not readily separable from the seed. 
(Compare with diagnosis of G. herbaceum. page 25 and of G. barbadense, page 23). 
The supplementary teeth on either side of the middle, or odd, lobe of 
the leaf forms a most peculiar character, and in many cases a ready eye- 
mark in the separation of this from the next species. There is often cbn- 


Fibres and Fibre-yielding Plants, 


siderable difficulty, however, in separating the forms of G. herbaceum from 
G. arboreum, and there cannot be a doubt that they are intimately related 
to each other, if not derived, as cultivated forms, from the same ancestor. 
It seems very probable that they are indigenous to Asia« if not to India. 



General Account, 

G. arboreum, Z., is a common plant, being still (as Roxburgh wrote 
eighty years a^o), "found in the gardens of the curious over most parts 
of India, where it is in flower the greater part of the year/' It does not 
appear to be cultivated on account of its cotton. It sometimes attains the 
height of a small tree ; more frequently it is a densely-branched bush with 
purple flowers, often having a yellow centre. It is said to be found indi- 
genous or cultivated in the Island of Celebes, in Arabia, Egypt, and 
India. Royle says it is known in India generally as Nurma barret and in 
Mysore as Deo kupas; that it may be cultivated like the ordinary 
cotton ; and that turbans were formerly made from it and regarded as 
sacred. It is probable that Royle was labouring under a misapprehen- 
sion ; his plate No. 23 probably represents two forms of G. herba- 
ceum instead of a twig of G. arboreum and one of G. herbaceum. Ainsh'e 
says that G. arboreum is known as Shem-paratie in Tamil. It is very 
likely indeed that there are many cultivated hybrids between G. arboreum 
•and G. herbaceum. Mr. Duncan describes a large bushy form (very pro- 
bably a hjrbrid) in the Benares district, which yields cotton for five or six 
years, and is there known as Nurmah, It is also reported to be cultivated 
at Malwa and at Calpee in the gardens belonging to the Rajah of Jalaun. 
Mr. Bruce supposes the Chundere Muslins to have been made from the 
cotton of this plant (G. arboreum). 


It would tend greatly to remove difficulties were specimens of 
this plant, together with its pods (and yarns or fabrics, if they exist) to 
be supplied tor the approaching Exhibition. A thorough investigation 
of the forms of Indian cotton can be made only by obtaining dried 
specimens, showing leaves and flowers along with the pods. These can 
easily enough be prepared by pressing, between blotting paper, until dry, 
a flowering twig from the actual plant from which the corresponding pods 
have been obtained. 

G. barbadense, Linn. 

Diagnostic characters. 

Leaves, sub-glabrous, broader, and more cordate than the preceding species, 
with rounded ears at the base, about i segmented (or a little more) 
into 3 to 5 lobes ; tabes, broad, ovate, acuminate more than 4 as broad 
as long (often very acuminate and then almost sub-lanceolate). Brac- 
teoles, larger and broader than in the preceding species, obtuse, deeply 
lancinate. Flo'wers, yellow, with a crimson spot. Seeds, black, naked, 
i.e., destitute of adnate pubescence, free from each other or cohering 
in a kidney^shaped mass. Cotton^ readily separable from the seeds, 
white, tawiay, or almost brown. 

The upper leaves in all the forms of this species are often only angled, 
and, indeed, the main feature of the leaves of this plant is that they are 
broader and much more entire than in either G. arboreum or G. herbaceum. 
The lower leaves are 3 to 5 lobed, the lobes broad and often suddenly 
acuminate, the sinus acute, not rounded, and never possessed of supple- 
mentary teeth. The bracteoles in outline are almost obtuse, instead of 



Part III.] 

Economic Ptoducts of India. 




acute and are deeply gashed. I have followed the Flora of British India 
in including under this species G« acuminatum, Roxb. sp. — the Peruvian 
Cotton,hence the necessity of the extra character of the lobes of the leaves, 
** often very acuminate, and then almost sub'lanceolate.** Royle kept this 
distinct from the Bourbon Cottons, and from an economic poirit of view it 
would seem that this is the more natural course, for, in addition to the 
leaves being more deeply segmented, the seeds have the peculiar character 
of cohering together in a kidney-shaped mass, hence g^enerally kn' wn as 
Kidney Cotton. I propose, therefore, to refer the varieties and sub-vat ieties 
or cultivated forms of G» barbadense to two sections : 



is/, — Var, barbadense proper. 

This corresponds with the section known as the Bourbon Cottons. 

This is supposed to have been originally introduced into India from 
the Isle of Bourbon, hence the name Bourbon Cotton. As far as can be 
traced it was first introduced into India about 1790. Probably it was ori- 
ginally a native of the West Indies, and was introduced by the French 
mto the Mauritius and Bourbon as early as 1780. 

It includes many important forms, of which the following may be 
mentioned :— 

(a) Bourbon Cotton.— Royle states that this was first successfully in- 
troduced into Guzerat. It is described as growing into a large much- 
branched bush, flowering for a series of years. In 18 18 Mr. Gilders suc- 
ceeded in cultivating it in the eastern districts of Kaira.on light, sandy soil. 
Mr. Hale reports about the same time its successful cultivation at Malwa. 
Subsequent writers affirm that in Guzerat Bourbon Cotton has become 

(b) Barbadoes. 

(c) New Orleans. 

(d) Sea Island. 

(e) Uplands. 

(/) Egyptian. 
(g) Georgian. 
Qi) Florida. 
(0 Alabama. 

Perhaps (c) and {d) are commercially the most valuable forms, especial- 
ly the New Orleans, which commands the highest price in Europe. The 
much-prized Dharwar is a form ot the New Orleans Cotton. 

There are many other cultivated forms, too numerous to be mentioned 
here, of which we have little or no information relating to India. Indeed, 
little is known of those mentioned, and samples and information as to the 
extent of their cultivation will be most acceptable. 

2nd. — Var, peligiosum, Roxh.y sp. 

This corresponds with the Nankeen Cotton. 

This is the Nankeen Cotton of Roxburgh, and seems to be a form 
introduced to India at a much earlier date than the forms which I have 
referred to the preceding variety. Its distinguishing feature seems to be 
that the seeds are clothed with a tawny pubescence and enclosed in 
cotton of the same colour. I have arrived at the conclusion that this 
should be placed under G. barbadense mainly from the fact that the entire 
set of sheets in the Calcutta Botanic Garden Herbarium (bearing the 
name of G. religiosum), are most unquestionably forms of G. barbadense, 
having the less hairy, broader leaves and deeply segmented bracteoles of 
that species. It is quite possible that these sheets are wrongly named 
G. relfeosum, but in support of this departure from the Flora of 
British India, I would point out that Roxburgh remarks, under his G. 


Fibres and Fibre-yielding Plants, 

[Part III 

reUgioswB^ that '' this can scarcely be more than a variety of G. hirsu- 
tum/' while in a concluding note upon Gossjrpiiua, he says that, having 
carefully studied the Indian Cottons for a period of over thirty years, he had 
come to the conclusion that there were five species peculiar to Asia. '* G. 
barbadense" and <<hirsutum" beine natives of America were not regarded 
by him as Indian forms. He included G. religiosum among his indi- 
genous Asiatic species, and in this view he may be quite right ; but it 
seems natural that, whether indigenous or only an earlier introduction, 
G. religiosnm should be viewed as more nearly allied to G. barbadense 
than to G. herbaceum, since Roxburgh viewed it as doubtfully distinct 
from G* hirsatom, a form which he distinctly states to have come from 

jri. — Var, aeumintaum. B^xb,, sp. 

This section includes the Peruvian or Kidney Cotton. 

These Cottons are distinguished chiefly by the peculiarity of the black 
naked seeds cohering together in a kidney-shaped mass. Some of the 
forms have long been introduced into India. In fact, Roxburgh viewed 
G. acuminatum as an indigenous plant. It is, however, probable that, as 
with G. religiosum, this is but an early introduction. G. pemvianum 
is the scientific name under which the Peruvian Cottons are classed. The 
following are the principal commercial forms : — 

(a) Brazilian. 
(6) Pernambuco. 

(c) Maranham. 

(d) Peruvian. 


It seems probable that the favourite New Orleans Cotton is a hybrid 
between G. herbaceum and G. barbadense, reared in America, and that this 
is the plant which received the botanical name of G. hiisntum, Willd. 
It is chiefly characterised by having greenish seeds surrounded with fine 
long silky cotton. This form has been most successfully introduced in the 
Dharwar country, in the south of the Bombay Presidency, (see also Sec- 
tion 2nd, page 29.) 

It is very much to be regretted that an enumeration of the Indian 
hybrid forms cannot be obtained from the existing literature on this all- 
important staple, and it is hoped that the present enquiry, tabulated 
in a systematic form, may elicit much valuable information. 

G. herbaceum, L. 

Diagnostic characters. 

LeaveSy hairy, often quite hirsute, about }i segmented into 3 to 5, mostly 3, 
lobes.; lobes, ovate, oblong, acute or acuminate, about ^ as broad as 
long, Bracteoles, ovate, cor date j acute, toothed or entire. FloToers^ 
yellow with a purple centre, rarely wholly yellow or white or purple. 
Seeds, ovoid, free from each other, covered with greenish or greyish 
down ; cotton^ white. 

The most characteristic features of this plant are its hairiness, the 
leaves only i segmented, segments often 3, generally 5, very rarely, 
if ever, 7. It has the bracteoles of G. arboreum; indeed, purple- 
flowered forms can with difficulty be separated. It was probably 
a purple-flowered form of this plant, or a hybrid form, which Royle mis- 
took for G. arboreuB, and which he figured and described as the plant 
that yielded the cotton made into turbans. It may be easily enough 







Part III.] 

Economic Products of India, 




separated, however, by comparing the aggregate of existing characters with 
those of the typical G. aiDoreum. Thus, even in the cases where the 
flowers are purple or white (in both species), the deeply-segmented leaves 
with more numerous, longer, and narrower lobes, of G. arboreiim when 
taken along with its less hairy character and more arborescent habit, 
would prove sufficient to separate tliat species from G. hetbacevm. The 
presence of the supplementary tooth in the sinus on either side of the odd 
or terminal lobe would, however, remove all possible doubt, for, while this 
character may not be present in every leaf of G. arboreuna, it is often so, 
and, as far as my experience goes> is never met with in G. herbaceufii* 


General Account, 

This is the species to which all the forms of purely indigenous cotton- 
yielding plants in India unquestionably belong. There can be no doubt, 
however, that there are many hybrids between this plant and G. barbadenise, 
Linn,, or between it and G. arboreiim. These may be referred to two sets, 
vig., those naturally produced by insects or wind, probably prior to the 
arrival of the English in India, and those naturally or artincially pro- 
duced as the result, directly or indfrectly, of the experiments conducted 
by the British Government in India with a view to improve the Indian 
cottons. There can be no doubt that there are hybrids which were widely 
cultivated before Roxburgh commenced to study them. But G. barbadense 
may have been originally a native of India or, at least, of Asia, and some 
of the forms of that species now met with in India may be truly indigenous, 
as also the hybrids between these and the forms of G. herbacenm. The re 
are many instances of plants that are indigenous both to America and to 
Asia, such as the species of Musa (the plantain) ; it is, therefore, not im- 
possible that G» barbadcnae may have been indigenous to some part of 
Asia, if not to India itself, as well as to America. At the same time it 
seems more than probable that all the forms of that species came 
originally from America; but if so, G. barbadense must have reached 
India long before the arrival of the English. We have many other 
such instances of importation from America to India at early dates, such 
as the common Sheal kanta (Argemone mexicana), the pine-apple (Ana- 
nassa sattva) and many others. The probability is that G. barbadense is a 
truly American species, but we have in India many forms of it, of so 
ancient a date as in some instances to have been viewed by Roxburgh 
as indigenous species. I propose to separate these varieties, as far 
as possible, from those of G. herbaccum, but there are some hybrids with 
regard to which it is impossible to decide whether they should be 
classed with American or with Indian Cotton, The following are the 
principal forms of Indian Cotton or the varieties of G. herbaceum: — 

1st, — Var, herbaceum /rc'/^r. 

The diagnostic characters already given are those by which this form 
may be recognised. 

Vem. — Rui, Hind. ; Kapas, Beng., Dec. ; Ruiy Pb. ; Karpasi, Sans. ; 
Pambahf Pers. ; Kurtain ussul, Arab. ; Vun-paraHe, Tam. ; Pau^He, 

The forms under this variety have been referred to three primary groups 
originally formed by Dr. Roxburgh, and although much has been attempt- 
ed for Cotton, it is to be regretted that no better classification can be 
suggested at the present day than that adopted by the father of Indian 


Fibres and Fibre-yielding Plants* 

[ Part III. 

Section ISt. — Bengal or Dacca Cotton. 

This furnishes, with others, the long staple formerly woven into the ex- 
quisitely fine muslins for which the eastern capital is famous. Dacca 
Cotton proper is regarded commercially as the first quality of Indian 
Cotton. The chief vernacular names for the Cottons of Bengal denoting 
the staples of varying quality and value met with in the different districts 
were given as follows in 1790 by Mr. Bebb in his account of the Cotton 
trade of Dacca : — 

i$t, — Phootee, furnishing the finest yarn; is sown in October, and again 
in the following April, after the crop from the previous sowing has been 
gathered. It is an annual, attaining a height of 20 or 30 inches. 

2nd, — Bhyrattij next, if not equal 5 grows to 2 or 4 feet, and is sown in 
October. Capsule large, fibre short, said to have been produced in My- 

3rd, — Nurma, — Mr. Bebb then mentions the Surat imported Cottons 
as next in merit. 

4th, — Serougee from Mirzapore, nearly as good as Surat. 

5^A. — Bo^a and other coarse Bengal Cottons, known chiefly by the name 
of the district where cultivated. That from the eastward of Dacca and 
north of the Bramhaputra on the low hills of Carrybarry is the best. The 
capsule is described as larger than Bhyratti, the fibre shorter and coarser. 

In i860, Mr. I. S. Wise, writing of Dacca Cottons, refers them to the 
following : — 

ist, — Borailli, the finest Cotton procurable, and the largest Cotton 
plant, growing often to 8 or 10 feet, bearing pods every month for three 
or four years. Seems to be grown chiefly on the lowlands. 

This description seems to apply more correctly to G. arboreum, or to a 
hybrid of that species, than to G- herbaceuin. Specimens of plants and 
pods, if still known, would prove exceedingly interesting. 

2nd. — " Sheraj Cotton is entirely a hill species, brought from Assam, and 
probably from the western hills of the Garo Range ; it is considered second 
in quality." 

jrd. — Dacca Tanjore Cotton, grown in high lands of red clay soil to the 
north of Dacca. 

4th. — *' The ordinary Country or Indigenous Cotton of Dacca " is a very 
different and inferior plant. This is probably the form called by other 
writers the Dhera Cotton. Of this Country Cotton there seems to be 
two kinds, Dera or Dhera, sown in July, and Dhannah, sown broadcast 
even along with other crops in March. 

It seems probable that Mr. Wise, in speaking of Country or Indigenous 
Cotton as inferior to the varieties mentioned and described as of better 

?' uality, did not mean to suggest that the latter were not indigenous to 
ndia, but rather that the inferior qualities were strictly indigenous to the 
Dacca district. It is quite possible, however, that he meant that the 
better class Cottons were not indigenous to India but exotics; in which 
case some of the preceding forms of Dacca Cotton may have to be re- 
moved from G. heroaceum and placed under G. barbadense. 

Most districts of Eastern and Northern Bengal and Chutia Nagpur 
produce coarse cottons, generally known by the name of the district where 
each is cultivated. 

In Benares Mr. Duncan, in 1790, mentions the following varieties in 
the order of their importance : — 

1st, — \Rarreah or buroweh, giving J rut or clean cotton, sown in Aug- 
ust, and reaped in March or April. Requires good rich soil and plenty 
of water. 






Part III.] 

Economic Products of India, 




2nd, — Nurma, about equal in value to the preceding and far superior 
to the following variety. This is described as not being a regular crop but 
a plant which continues to grow for many years. This, therefore, is pro- 
bably a form of G. arboreum. 

3rd,— Munnoah or ^ettor, inferior to the former, yielding only ^th 
cotton, but is sown broadcast with other crops : most probably the common 
Dera or Desi Cotton of other districts. In 1848, the Collector of Benares 
mentions the Rarea and Mannoa, but takes no notice of Nurmay which 
has apparently ceased to be cultivated as a cotton-yielding plant. This 
is exceedingly curious and requires confirmation. 

In Gorakhpur Mr. Blount mentions the following kinds — 

1st, — Kokte, described as a species of Nankeen, and should, therefore, 
occur under G. barbadense. 

2nd, — Murwa, generally grown on narrow strips of ground round vege- 
table gardens, and is triennial or perennial. This may prove to be 
G. aiboreum or one of its hybrids. To that species probably the Nurma 
of Benares and other districts belongs. 

3rd, — Desi, the Common Cotton, sown in June, reaped in April fol- 

In Nagpore two kinds of cotton are mentioned, Rarea and Munnoa, 

General Account, 

The preceding are the vernacular names mentioned by authors as 
given to Bengal or Dacca Cotton, cultivated over Bengal, Assam, Burma, 
the North- West Provinces, and the Punjab. Before proceeding to the 
second class of Indian Cottons formed by Roxburgh it is necessary to 
point out the exceedingly imperfect character of the information contained 
in this compilation, and to explain that it is given merely as a fair sum- 
mary of the mformation available up to the present date, and published 
in the hope that its manifest imperfections may suggest corrections and 
additions on the part of the officers deputed to make the collections for the 
forthcoming International Exhibition. It is quite possible, and indeed 
certain, that many of the vernacular names here enumerated do not belong 
to G. herbaceum. The primary object of the present effort is to bring about 
a scientific classification of the Indian indigenous and exotic Cottons and 
of their hybrids, in which all the known cultivated forms should be correct- 
ly referred to their proper botanical species. It is believed that no real 
good can be accomplished until this has been done, since everything 
depends on knowing whether a form recommended for experimental culti- 
vation is suited to a particular district. This can be done only after the 
different forms of Cotton have been scientifically worked up, and the degree 
of hybridization with exotic forms has been clearly established. Indeed, it 
is impossible to write with any degree of confidence regarding this — one of 
the most important of Indian crops, since it is impossible to know what is 
referred to by writers upon Cotton under the various local and vernacular 
names. Thus, for example, a Magistrate and Collector writing of Nurma 
Cotton may be understood to be speaking of the ornamental but apparently 
non-cotton-yielding species G. arboreum, or of some hybrid between that 
and G. herbaceum, or of a hybrid with G. barbadense, if not of a variety 
of the Common Cotton with purple instead of yellow flowers. 

We do not know at present whether G. arboreum is a cotton-yielding 

Elant or not. Royle says that in his time it was known to yield Cotton and 
ore the name of Nurma ; we hear of its being the best cotton-yielding 
plant ; but other authors assert that it is entirely an ornamental and not a 
cotton-yielding species. 


Fibres and Fibre-yielding Plants, 

[Part III. 

Concluding Note. 

Much has been done to discover the soils suited for Cottoni and many 
valuable experiments have been made by Government with exotic forms, 
but what would appear to be the first and most natural enquiry has, 
apparently, been entirely neglected, namely, a scientific and exhaustive 
enquiry into the existing forms of Indian Cotton with a view to suggesting 
improvements in the indigenous crop — such as the supply of better seed 
from one district to replace the inferior kinds in another, improved modes of 
cultivation and of cleaning the fibre. It does seem strange that in the 
country that once supplied Europe with its manufactured cotton and raw 
staple, there should exist neglected forms which have been lost or allowed 
to decline and become unknown in less than a century through the 
reaction of English prosperity in Cotton manufactures. 

It is hoped that at the forthcoming International Exhibition such a 
display of Cottons will be exhibited as may awaken a new interest in 
this staple. In order to assist in the accurate identification of the forms, 
it is earnestly solicited that a flowering twig, with a few well-formed 
leaves and one or two flowers, may be supplied along with the pods and 
fibre. These, as already explained, may with very little trouble be dried 
for a week between a few sheets of blotting paper, the paper being changed 
once or twice, when the specimens will be perfectly dry and ready for 
transmission to Calcutta. If this cannot be undertaken, a twig should 
be placed in a small box and despatched to Calcutta by post, having 
been first carefully numbered or named, so that it may be recognised as 
the plant from which a certain pod or staple was obtained. 

We now come to the consideration of the second group of indigen- 
ous Indian Cottons. 

Section 2nd. — Berar and Surat Cotton. 

This is the Cotton obtained from Berar. It is exported chiefly to the 
Madras Presidency, to be made into the so-called Northern Circar Long- 
cloth. The fine cloths of Chundere are made of this Cotton. Dr. Irvine, 
some time ago settled in Gwalior, says that this Cotton is known as 
Nurmay but its real name seems to be Berari. In the eastern dis- 
tricts of Guzerat the Cotton is known generally as Kunum or Lulltah, 
and is of a very superior description. 

Broach or Sural Cotton is very fine, the pods hanging from the plant. 
They are distinguished chiefly as "Hingunghat," " Oomrawattee,*' 
" Dhollera," and " Dharwar," the first-mentioned being regarded as the 
finest of the Cottons of West India. It is impossible at present to 
determine whether these are forms of G. herbaceum or of G. barbadense, 
but they are probably forms of the latter species, if not hybrids. 

In Cutch the Cotton is known as Wagrtah, This is an annual, and 
attains a height of 2 feet. The flowers are yellow, and the capsules, 
instead of opening, remain shut, with only a small opening. The wool is 
called Kalliah, 

In South India there are two varieties, Oopum and Nadum\ the former 
is much the better quality and is an annual. The Oopum is known as 
Vanpartiy Tam., Puttt, Tel. It is possible that this may be the 
so-called G. hirsutnffl (Dharwar Cotton), which I regard as a hybrid 
between G. herbaceum and G. barbadense. It grows near the sea, where 
the coast has much of the character of an American upland. Specimens 
of the plant are required. 

Section 3rd.- China Cotton. 

I have followed Roxburgh in giving this section, convinced that when he 
said that his notes and descriptions were the result of thiry years* study, I 







Part III.] 

Economic Products of India. 




he must have had good reasons for his view. This seems, however, to be 
the small abortive form met with on the hill tracts, and may have derived 
its name from being brought down from the hills bordering on Burma 
and China. Most importations from these tracts receive the name of 
Chin or China. I can discover nothing to justify its separation from the 
ordinary indigenous form, known as Deshi kupas, Royle seems to have 
distorted Roxburgh's idea, for in his Culture of Cotton in India he 
makes this out to be Nankeen Cottony which Roxburgh has distinctly 
stated to be G. religiosum, and not a form of G. herbaceum. 

2nd. — Var. Obtusifolium. 

To this section belongs the small-leaved and bluntly- lobed form met 
with in Ceylon, to which Roxburgh gave the name of G. obtuidfoUum. 
Royle asks, what has often suggested itself to me, if this caii be the 
original of the Indian forms of G. nerbaceum, yielding all the preceding 
forms of truly Indian Cotton. While exploring the Burma- Manipur 
frontier I found this curious plant in a semi-wild condition. The 
Kukis, who are passing across Manipur to the north, year after year, 
carry out a most destructive mode of cultivation. A favourite spot 
in the heart of a primeval forest is selected. Trees that have taken 

Cerhaps centuries to grow are ruthlessly hewn down and, with the forest 
rushwood, burnt out. This is called jumtng. The soil is carelessly hoed 
and various crops are sown. After two or at most three harvests, the 
tribe migrate to another spot to renew their depredations. Many culti- 
vated plants survive these visitations, and taking hold of the deserted 
spot continue to grow, ^timing is also practised by the stationary hill 
tribes, a plot of land being cultivated for two seasons and deserted for 
lo or 15 years. During the Boundary Commissioners' explorations, I 
repeatedly found fields of Wild Cotton or rather Cotton that had become 
wild. At first I thought I had discovered a truly wild species. The 
plants, as cultivated by the hill tribes on the Burmese frontier, are rarely 
more than i to i J feet in height ; with small leaves, chiefly trilobed ; and 
having yellow flowers, producing a tuft of poor cotton not larger than an 
ordinary bottle-cork. 

I have departed so far from the arrangement in the Flora of British 
India as to suggest the removal of var. hirsutumy var. religiosum and 
var. vitifoliuffl from G. herbaceum, and propose to place these forms under 
G. barbadense. The results of the present enquiry may disprove the pro- 
priety of this departure, but from present information, it seems likely to 
be supported, 

I would here repeat what I have already stated, that not only the 
recent introductions of the so-called American Cottons, but probably also 
the so-called indigenous forms of this plant, are all purely exotic in their 
origin. This species I take to include G. religiosum, G. vitifolium, 
G* acuminatum, and probably G. hirsntum. 

Grewia asiatica, Linn., Tiliacejj. 

Vem. — Phdlsa,pharoah^ Hind., Sind., Pb. ; Shukri, Beng. ; Phdlase, BoM. ; 
Phutiki or Putikiy Tel. 

A small, hazel-like tree, cultivated throughout India, said to be indi- 

j genous in the Salt Range, Poona, Oudh and Ceylon. 


Fibres and Fibre-yielding Plants, 

[Part III. 

The fruit has a pleasant acrid taste, and is distilled, and a sherbet is 
made from it. An infusion of the leaves is regarded as demulcent. 

The bark is used in rope-making, and much resembles the European 
bast fibres. 

Grewia oppositifolia, Roxb. 

yjem,—Biul, Hung, bahtil, bhengalybhenwal, bkimal,HiiiD.; Dhamman, 
pharwa, PB.; Pastuwanne, Afg.; BieM, Simla. 
A small tree, wild in the North- West Provinces, from the Jumna to 
Nepal ; also frequently cultivated. 

The bark gives a fibre frequently used in the Punjab for cordage and 
paper-makinff, but is apparently not durable. One tree will give about 
five seers of fibre, extracted by rotting for a month or more. The leaves 
are used to feed the cattle, and, being stripped off, nothing is thus lost. 

G. orbiculata, Rottle. 

Vera. — 
A shrub of the Western Peninsula, nearly allied to the following 

G. tiUafolia, Vahl. 

Vera. — Pkarsa, dhdmin. Hind. ; Ddmana, karakana, Bom. j Khesla, kasul, 
Gond; Charackiy tkarra, Tel, ^ Dhaviono, Vriy a, 

A moderate-sized tree of the Sub-Himalayan tract, from the Jumna to 
Nepal, ascending to 4,000 feet; also Central and South India. 

The bark yields a good fibre, of which specimens were sent to the Paris 
Exhibition of 1878 from Berar. (Gamble.) 

Guazuma tomentosay Kunth.^ Sterculiaceje. 

The Bastard Cedar. 

Vera. — Thainpuchie Pattai, Tam. ; JRudracks-kackettUf Tel, 

A tree, stellately hairy upon the young twigs. Perhaps only introduced 
into India, and probably a native of the West Indies. Frequently culti- 
vated in the warmer parts of the plains and in Ceylon ; distributed to 
Java and tropical America. Dr. Royle says it is " a South American 
tree, introduced into India, and largely cultivated at one time in the 
Madras Presidency, under the name of Bastard Cedar, as a fodder for 

Bark used medicinally, being regarded as demulcent and slightly 
astringent. It yields a fibre, very little known. 

Madras misrht perhaps supply specimens. Further information, espe- 
cially as to its present use as a fodder, would be very acceptable. 

HardWickia binata, Roxb,, LEGUMiNosiE. 

Vem.^Anjan, HiND.; Acha, Tam.; Nar yepi, yapOyTzL, ; Kamrdy karacki, 
Kan. ; Chota dundhera, Gond. 

A large, deciduous tree of the dry forests of South and Central India. 
The bark yields a strong and valuable fibre. (Gamble.) 








Part III.] 

Economic Products of India. 




Helianthus annuuSi Linn,, Compositjs. 

Vem. — Shuriya-mukti, Beng. ; S4ryakdntai BoM. 

The common sunflower, largely cultivated in gardens in India^ 
The seeds yield an oil, and the twigs a fibre. 

H. tuberosus, Zinn. 

The Jerusalem Artichoke, stated to be originally a native of Brazil^ 
extensively cultivated as a vegetable in India. 
The twigs yield a fibre. 

^^ Helicteres Isora, Linn., STERcuLucEiE. 

V emm— Mar oT'Pkal, jonkapkal, kapasi, bhendu. Hind, j Antmordj Beng. ; 
//oA, GoDAVARi ; Atta, Gond; Kewan, kevana (the fruit — murtiddsenga)* 
BoM. ; Gubadarra, kavanchi, Tel.; ThungSche, Burm. 

A large, dense shrub of the tropical or Sub- Himalayan regions ; from the 
Punjab to Bengal, South and Central India, and Burma. 

The curious twisted carpels are used in medicine. 

The fibre extracted from the bark is strong, white, and very useful for 
cordage, rough sacking, and canvas ; seems likely to become a source of 
paper supply. Specimens were supplied by Berar to the Paris Exhibition. 

631 Heteropogon contortusi Linn., GRAMiNEiE. 

The Spear Grass. 

VervL—Yeddi, Tel. 
Grows on pasture grounds. 
Used as a fibre. 


Hibiscus Abelmoschus, Linn,, MALVACEiE. 

The Musk Mallow, 

Syn. — Abelmoschus Moschatus, Mwnch. 

Vem. — Kasturij kalla kasturi, bhenda. Hind., BoM.; Mushakdana, bdla 
kasturi, Beng.; Hub-ulmuskk, Arab.; Mushk-dana, Pers. ; Mushk 
bhendi-ke-binj , Dec; Kastura-benda, kathe kasturi^ Tam. ; Kasturi 
bendavittulu, Tel. 

A herbaceous bush, springing up with the rains and flowering in the cold 
season. Leaves, of various shapes ; the lower, broad, ovate, cordate ; the 
upper, narrow, hastate, very hairy. Common throughout the hotter parts 
of India, now met with in most other tropical countries. 

The seeds are the Musk Mallow; warm, cordial and stomachic, aromatic 
and tonic. The whole plant is mucilaginous. 

The stem yields a strong fibre. 


Fibres and Fibre^yielding Plants. 

[Part III. 

Hibiscus cannabinus, Lmn. 

Deccani Hemp ; Hemp-leaved Hibiscus. 

Vera. — Ambdri, sankokla, patsar, sunt, Dec, Hind. ; Mesia-pdt, nalku 
pulua, Behg. ; GarnikurOf Sans.; Ambdddt Bom.; Palungti, Tam.; 
Goukura, Tel. 

A small, herbaceous shrub, with prickly stems, apparently wild east of the 
Northern Ghats ; largely cultivated, especially in North- West Provinces 
and Punjab, for its fibre. Stewart says it grows at Ghuzni, altitude 7,000 
feet, and is not uncommon on the North- Western Himalaya, at 3,000 feet. 
The fibre is used for cordage in the North- West Provinces and the 
Punjab. It is stronger, though not so good as Sunn (CrotalariA jtincea). 
A rope experimented with by Royjle bore 190 lbs.; while Sunn gave way 
with 150 lbs. In Sind this is considered the best fibre for nets and ropes, 
but it is rarely used for ropes. It is the chief fibre used in the manufac- 
ture of paper in the Dacca district. It is also used for this purpose in the 
Madras Presidency. 

It is a very interesting fibre, and deserves more attention* It is some- 
times met with as an adulterant of jute. The leaves are eaten as a pot- 

H. esculentus, Linn, 

The Edible Hibiscus ; Ochro of West Indies ; Gombo, Fr, 

W&tL — Bhindi, raniuri. Hind. ; Dhenras, Bbng.; Bamya, Arab., Fbrs. ; 

BhendaylAA^ViiVendi {or bhendi), vendaik'kay, Tam.; Venda-kaya, 


A herbaceous, annual bush, naturalised in all tropical countries ; only 

met with in a cultivated state; probably a native of both India and the 

West Indies. 

The unripe fruit is a favourite vegetable and medicine. 
The bark yields a strong useful fibre, deserving attention. This fibre 
seems likely to deserve some attention as a source of paper. 

H. ficulneuSi Linn. 

Syn.— H. STRiCTUS, Boxb,; H. prostratus, Roxb, 

Vera. — Kapasiya, N. W. P.; Ban-dheras {?), Beng.; Parupu^benda, nella- 
bendot Tam. 

A native of the southern provinces; naturalised in the Punjab, and ex- 
tending to Bengal, the Circars, and the Concan. 

A small, herbaceous, and annual bush, which should be sown at the 
beginning of the rains. Roxburgh recommends that the seeds should be 
sown in a bed in May, and that the plants should be transplanted in rows 
nine inches apart. 

Like most other MalTacese, this yields a valuable fibre. Roxburgh 
says, " In none have I found so large a quantity, equally beautiful, long, 
glossy, white, fine and strong as in this. To these properties may be addal 
the luxuriant growth and habit of the plant, rendering it an object of every 
care and attention, at least until the real worth of the material is fairly as- 
certained." Like many of Roxburgh's valuable economic discoveries, 
this has remained for nearly a century without a single fact havine been 
added or an^ progress made towards utilising the tons upon tons of valu- 
able fibre lying useless on our waysides. 

H, macrophyllus, I^oxb. 

An ever-green tree, a native of Eastern Bengal and the Eastern Penin- 
sula. Kurz says its Burmese name is Vet woon, and that the liber yields 
a strong fibre. It is called Kachia udal, Kasaya palla in Bengal. 

c 33 





Part III.] 

Economic Products of India. 







Hibiscus mutabilis. 

The Changeable Hibiscus. 

Vem* — Shalapara, Hind.; Thulpvdma, Bekg. ; Pudmu-ckarini, Sans. • 
Gul-i-ajdib (Stewart). 
This plant has its flowers white in the morning and red at night. It 
is a native of China, but is now largely cultivated in gardens from the 
Punjab to Burma and South India. 

As with most of the members of the genus, the bark yields a strong 
fibre, of which that from the inner layer is soft and silky, that from the 
outer layer, hard and of a lead colour. 

H. rosa-sinensis, Linn. 

The Shoe Flower, Eng,; Ketmi de Cochin Chine, Fr, 

Vern. — yasut, Jasum, Dec, Hind.; yuwa, joba^ oru, Beng. ; ydsa- 
vanda, BoM.; Shappattup^Uy Tam. ; Java-puskpamu, Tel.; Anghara" 
Hindi, Arab. ; AngarrS'hindi, Pers. 

A favourite shrub in our Indian gardens, with single or double red 
yellow, or white flowers. 

The flowers are used to give a polish to leather and shoes, and the bark 
contains a good fibre. 

H. sabdariffa, Linn. 

The Rozelle Fibre. 

Vem. — Lal-ambari, patwa, Dec, Hind. ; Mesia, Beng. ; Ldla ambddi, 
SiND. ; Sivappu-kashuruk'kaif Tam. ; Erra-gom-kaya, Tel. ; Ckinbauttg, 


A small bush, cultivated in many parts of India on account of the 
succulent and acrid calyx. 

The stems yield a good, strong, silky fibre. These are obtained by 
stripping the twigs, when in flower, by rotting. The succulent calyx yields 
the fruit made into Rozelle Jelly or Red Sorell Jelly. This fibre deserves 
more attention, especially, with reference to the paper supply. 

H. tiliaceus, Linn. 

Vem. — Bola, chelwa, Beng. ; Thinban, Burm. 

The coasts of India, Burma and Ceylon. 

Yields a useful fibre, extensively used for cordage. It is said to gain' 
in stren^h when tarred. 

The fibre is readily separated from the green or unsteeped branches, 
the work of preparation being less tedious than applies to the other fibre- 
yielding plants of the genus. It appears to be well adapted for making 
ropes, mats and possibly paper. (Cameron,) 

H. tricuspis. Banks. 
Vein. — Gurhul. 

A tree, introduced from the Society Isles, cultivated in gardens in 
Bengal and the North Western Provinces. 

A strong bast-like fibre is obtained from the inner bark of the trunk 
and branches of this plant. The sample produced at Bangalore was 
steeped in water for 13 days. {Cameron,) 

H. vitifoliuSi Linn. 

Vera. — Bun-kapas, Beng. 
A common, herbaceous bush, common in the tropical jungles and 
brushwoods, with large, yellow flowers having a deep rose purple eye at the 


Fibres and Fibre-yielding Plants. 


base of the corolla. The leaves are often much perforated by insects. 
The bark yields a strong fibre. 


Holostemma Rheedeii WaiLy Asclepiadeji. 

Syn* — AscLEPiAS anualaris, Roxh, 

Vern»— Aping, Chutia Nagpur; Tulaiule, Mahr.; Pcdagurgi, Tel. 
An extensive climber, met with in the forests of India ascending to 
altitude 5,000 feet, specially in Mysore, Bombay, Be ngkl, and Assam. 
Yields a fibre made into ropes. 


Ichnocarpus frutescensi Br., Apocynacejc. 

Syn. — ECHITES FRUTESCENS, Roxb. {Fl. Iftd., it., 12.) 

Vera. — Srama, Hind.; Dudhi, shyatna-ltUta, Bbng.; NoUla-Hga, Tel, 

An extensive climber, met with on the Western Himalayas, from 
Sirmoreto Nepal, altitude i,ooo to 2,000 feet; Upper Gangetic plain from 
Delhi to Bengal, Assam, Sylhet, Burma and Ceylon and South India. 

The root is sometimes used as a substitute for Sarsaparilla. It has 
purgative and alterative properties. The bark yields a good fibre. 

Imperata arundinacea, Cyrill.y Graminsa. 

Vera* — Skiro. 

Lower Himalaya, altitude 7,500 feet. 

The fibre is used for the same purpose as that obtained from the 
Munja (Saccharum munja, Roxb.), namely* to prepare the sacrificial thread 
of the Hindus ; and the leaves are used for thatching. (Atkinson's 
Himalayan Districts.) 

From want of specimens I am unable scientifically to identify the 
grasses used for fibre, paper, &c., and am, therefore, compelled to compile 
from the writings of authors, in the hope that this sketch of the literature 
ma^ help to bring in material for the solution of many doubtful questions 
of identity and synonymy. I am disposed to think that specimens of 
the above plant are, by some authors, placed in Anthistiria amndinacea, 
Roxb., the Ulu Grass of the plains of India, which in some places clothes 
our railway embankments with a white woolly coat. It seems likely that 
they may prove to be synonymous. 

Indigofera atropurpureai Ham., Leguminos^. 

Vern. — Banhati, kala sakena, sakna. Hind. ; Kkenti jund, Raohan ; 
Kathi, garkatri, Kashmir. 

A small shrub of the Salt Range, from 2,500 to 5,000 feet, and outer 
Himalaya from the Jhelum to Nepal, ascending to 9,000 feet, but found as 
low as 1,200 feet on the Siwalik Hills. 

The twigs are used for basket-work and twig bridges. 





Part III.] 

Economic Products of India, 











The reodf . 

Junciis effttsus, Juncackji. 

Made into mats in Japan to which use Royle suggests that the 
Himalayan species, Jaoais gtonctw , might be put. In Europe J. gfainmft 
was formerly used as a rush wick for candles and small oil lamps. 


Jute^ the fibre obtained from the steins of two plants belonging to the 
natural order lUtaccfle. In the central and eastern parts of Bengal, 
Cofchoms capsnUuiSy ^-9 is chiefly cultivated, while in the neighbour- 
hood of Calcutta C. olitofiiis, Z., is more frequent. Either or both 
together yield the jute of commerce. 

References. '^(Pm Chunder Kerr's Report on Jtde and other Fibres in Bengal, 
1877; Royle, Fibrous Plants, Ind. 240 — 252 ; Spans* EncycL, 940 ; Hook. FU 
Br. Ind. i. JP7 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. Ed. C. B. C. 429 ; Ainslie, Mat. Ind. ii. 3S7 
Drury, U. PL 

CcMBflL and Vera. Names. —Jute, or Jew's Mallow, Eng. ; Jute, Mauve \des 

juifs, cordetextile, Fr.; Juie, Ger.; Pat, Beng. Roxburgh says that 

" the Bengalis call it jute," but Royle enters into an explanation ol^the origin of 

the word, which he makes out to be a corruption of choti, the name of a coarse 

doth formerly made from this fibre. In Orissa, this doth was called Jhuty 

from which probably Roxburgh derived Jute. Phetcwoon, Bvrm.; Patta, 

juta. Sans. The plant when used as a pot-herb and dried as a medidne is in 

Bengal called Nalita. The fibre is Pat or Koshta, and is commerdally^Tu/^. 

The doth, which was once largely worn by the poorer dasses, although now 

almost superseded by European goods, is called Tat. The coarser doth 

made into b^s and used lor bedding was called Choti. The word ^nny 

w perhaps derived from ** gun," assul; or from " goni" a South Indian 

n^me for coarse sackdoth, made originally, as it would appear, from Sunn, 

not from Jute. 

Properties and Uses. 

147. — It is extensively cultivated on account of the^^r^, which is 
prepared by retting the stems in stagnant water. 

X42. — ^The root is used as a fibre material in paper manufacture 
and the 

I^g. — " Rejections " are largely used in paper manufacture, and 
for the coarse weft yarn of heavy bagging and sacking, 

IjO. — " Cuttings " are used in paper manufacture, and in the 
manufacture of heavy bags and sacks. 

Xji.^-The leaves and tender shoots are eaten as a pot-herb by the 
natives and are brought into the bazars in large quantities in July and 
August : they are never eaten by Europeans. This is in all probability 
the same genus as that which yielded the ancient Greek pot-herb 
Korkhorus ; hence the botanical generic name. 

152. — An infusion of the dried leaves is used by the natives as a 
tonic ; for this purpose the leaves are known as nalita. 

153. — ^The reeds or dried stems after the bark has been removed 
are used for a variety of purposes, and Royle says they are nearly as valu- 
able to the cultivator as the fibre itself. They are straight, brittle, and 
readily combustible, and are largely consumed in the preparation 


Fibres and Fibre^yielding Plants. 

[Part III, 


of the charcoal used for gunpowder and in the manufacture of fire- 
works. They are also largely used as tinder in the preparation of native 
matches. They are formed into the large shady enclosures within which 
the betel-pepper leaf is cultivated ; and from which was derived the 
idea of the modern orchid-house. One of the most useful purposes 
to which the jute cane is put, is the burning or charring of the hulls 
of native boats to destroy or expel the insects which may have com- 
menced their depredations upon the timber. For this purpose the 
boat is raised to a certain height above the ground, and a few bundles 
of the jute canes are ignited below. Tied in bundles, they are also 
used for torch-light processions during the Lukhi Pdjah ; Europeans 
use them as pea-stakes. An occasional crop of jute is said to improve 
a soil by exterminating the coarse grass which often takes a detrimental 

hold of a field. 

General Account, 


In Bengal, jute is largely cultivated in the following districts : Pubna, 
Dinagepur, Rungpur, Mymensingh, Tipperah, Purnean, Julpiguri, Bogra, 
Dacca, Hugh, ana the 24-Pergunnahs ; moderately in Kuch Behir, Farid- 
pur, Rajshahye, Backerganj, and in Goalpara in Assam. 

Soil. Jute seems to be capable of cultivation on almost any kind of 
soil. It is least successful and almost unprofitable, however, upon laterite 
and open gravelly soils, and most productive upon a loamy soil, or rich 
clay and sand. The finest qualities are grown upon the higher lands 
{sunoL) in the vicinity of the homestead upon which the aus paddy, pulses, 
and tobacco generally form the rotation. The coarser and larger qualities 
are grown chiefly upon {salt lands) the churs or mud banks and islands 
formed by the rivers ; and, indeed, the latter kinds may also be found 
upon submerged lands, and may be said to luxuriate in the salt-impreg- 
nated soil of the Sunderbans. Mr. Hem Chunder Kerr shows that in 
1872-73 less than one million acres were under jute cultivation in Bengal, 
and that these spread over about 37 million acres of country. (This 
includes portions of the plains of Assam and Cachar where jute may be 
cultivated.) Should the demand be doubled, the production would 
absorb only one-eighteenth part of the available land. 

Climate. A hot, damp climate, in which there is not too much actual 
rain, especially in the early part of the season, is the most advantageous 5 
in exceptionally dry seasons one frequently finds crops standing through 
the cold season which the cultivator did not regard as worth cutting down. 

Preparation of Soil. It may be stated that, when the crop is to be 
raised on low lands, where there is danger of early flooding, ploughing 
commences earlier than upon the higher lands. The more clay in the soil, 
the more frequently is it ploughed before sowing. The preparation thus 
commences in November or December, or not till February or March ; 
the soil is generally ploughed from four to six times ; the clods are broken 
and pulverised ; ana at the final ploughing the weeds are collected, dried, 
and burned. 

Seed. No special attention is paid to the selection of good seeds, nor 
do the cultivators buy and sell tneir seeds. In the corner of the field 
a few plants are left to ripen into seed, and these are, next year, sown 
broadcast. The sowings, according to the position and nature of the soil, 
commence about the middle of March and extend to the end of June. 


Part IIL] 

Economic Products of India. 


Harvest The time for reaping the crop depends entirely upon the date 
of sowing ; the season commences, with the earliest crop, about the end 
of June, and extends to the beginning of October. 

The crop is considered in season whenever the flowers appear, and past 
season, with the fruits. The fibre from plants that have not flowered is 
weaker than from those in fruit ; the latter is coarser, and wanting in gloss, 
though stronger. It is late reaping that is chiefly accountable for the 
coarse fibre found in the market. 

Crop. The average crop of fibre per bfgha is a little over 5 maunds, 
but the yield varies considerably, being as high as 10 or 12 in some 
districts and as low as i — 2 or 3 in others, and it is also very depen- 
dent upon the season. 

Sepaxation of Fibre by Rettins^. At present, as practised by the na- 
tives, the fibre is separated from the stems by a process of retting in 
pools of stagnant water. In some districts the crop is stacked in bundles 
for two or three days, to give time for the decay of the leaves, 
which are said to discolouur the fibre in the retting process; in others 
the bundles are carried off and at once thrown into the water. There 
is some ground for thinking that, if the drying of the leaves by stack- 
ing does not prevent the discoloration of the fibre, the fibre itself is 
likely to be benefited by the process, since it is found to separate more 
readily from the stems, and is thereby saved from the danger of rotting from 
over.maceration. In some districts the bundles of jute stems are sub- 
merged in rivers, but the common practice seems to be in favour of 
tanks or road-side stagnant pools. The period of retting depends upon the 
nature of the water, the kind of fibre, and condition of the atmosphere. It 
varies from two to twenty-five days. The operator has therefore to visit the 
tank daily, and ascertain, by means of his nail, if the fibre has begun to se- 
parate from the stem. This period must not be exceeded, otherwise the fibre 
becomes rotten and almost useless for commercial purposes. The bundles 
are made to sink in the water by placing on the top of them sods and mud. 
When the proper sta^e has been reached, the retting is rapidly completed. 
The cultivator, standing up to the waist in the fostid water, proceeds " to re- 
move small portions of the bark from the ends next the roots, and, grasping 
them together, he strips off the whole with a little management from end to 
end without breaking either stem or fibre. Having brought a certain 
quantity into this half-prepared state, he next proceeds to wash off ; this is 
done by taking a large handful ; swinging it round his head, he dashes it 
rapidly as^ainst the surface of the water and draws it towards him, so as to 
wash off the impurities ; then, with a dexterous throw, he spreads it out on the 
surface of the water and carefully picks off all remaining black spots. It 
is now wrung out so as to remove as much water as possible, and then 
hung up on lines prepared on the spot, to dry in the sun. ** — (Mr, Henley , 
in RoyWs Fibrous Plants, 248.) 

Extraction of Fibre by means of Machineiy* There is little doubt 
that the retting weakens the fibre very considerably. Could a simple 
contrivance be invented for the purpose of extracting the dry jute fibre, 
and if it were so cheap that it might be procured even by the poorer cul- 
tivators, new and at present undreamt-of industries might spring into 
existence. It is to be feared, however, that machinery will, for some 
time to come, be beyond the means of the cultivator, and that the principal 
improvement may be looked for in the application of natural, mineral, 
or chemical appliances somewhat on the lines of the Ekman Patent 
process for the separation of fibres. A machine deserves attention which 
is known as Garwood's patent : it does no more than separate the bark 
from the stem, and the fresher the stem, the more easily is the bark se- 


Fibres and Fibre-yielding Plants. 

[Part III. 


parated. Mr. W. Cogswell, who is an undoubted authority on the 
question of jute, expressed in December 1881 his opinion that a softer 
fibre was obtained by the old process {vide A. H. Society Proceedings, 
December 1881.) 


There are several well-known commercial varieties of jute fibre, of 
which the following, arranged in the order of their commercial importance, 
are the more important : Uttariyd, Desivdl, Best, Deord, Serajganji, 
Narainganji^ Bdkrabadi, Bhatial, Karimganji, Mirganjiy and Jungipuri, 

For convenience of reference we shall discuss these in alphabetical order. 

X. Bakrabadi. — A beautiful soft fibre, one of the finest qualities from the 
Dacca district, being raised on the churs of the Megna river. 

2* Bhatial. — A coarse strong fibre, chiefly exported to Europe for rope manu- 
facture. It is grown on churs and obtained from the south of Na- 
rainganj ; hence the name, from bhati, tidal. 

3. Deora (in commerce Dowrah). — A strong useful fibre, used chiefly in rope 

manufacture. It derives its name from a village near Faridpur, where 
there was formerly a large mart for this variety of jute. The name is 
given to all the jute from Backerganj and Faridpur. 

4. De^ (in commerce Daissee), — This is a useful and good fibre, largely used 

for gunnies ; it is long, soft, and fine, but it has a bad colour and is pro- 
nounced ** fuzzy." It is produced in the districts around Calcutta, such 
as Hugli, Burdwan, Jessore, and the 24-Pergunnahs. 

5. Deswal. — A fine bright-coloured fibre, much admired on account of its 

strength. After the Uitariya this is, commercially, the most important 
variety. It comes from the neighbourhood of Serajganj, and is said 
to consist of two kinds or sub-varieties : — 

{a) Bilan Deswal, or fibre from the crop grown over bheels or 

{b) Charna Deswal, or fibre from the crop grown on churs. 

6. Jang^puri. — A poor fibre, short, weak, and more suited for paper manufac- 

ture than for spinning. It comes from the Pubna district. 

7. Kaiimg^ji. — A fairly good fibre, very long and of good colour. It comes 

from the Mymensingh district, taking its name from a small village. 

8» lyiirgunji. — Generally an inferior fibre ; the worst kind coming from Mir- 
ganj, a village on the Teesta. The fibre generally comes from the 
Rungpore district. 

9. Naralngfunji (in commerce Naraingunge), — This is an excellent fibre for 

spinning, being long and soft. It comes from the Dacca district, and is 
exported to Calcutta from the Narainganj marts. 

10. Serajganji (in commerce Seraj gunge). — Produced in the Pubna and My- 

mensingh districts. 

II* Uttariya. — This is regarded as the finest variety ; it is long, has a bril- 
liant colour, is strong and easily spun, but it is not up to Desi -ox 
Deswal va. softness. It comes into the market in November. It re- 
ceives its name on account of its coming from the northern portions of 
Serajganj and that neighbourhood. The following are the localities 
from which it is obtained : Rungpore, Goalpara, Bogra, parts of My- 
mensingh, Kuch Behdr, and Julpiguri. 

These 11 varieties, and other minor examples, are, in commerce, gene- 
rally grouped under four leading qualities represented by the Serajganj y 
Narainganj t Desi and Deora ; and these again are classed as " Fine,** 
" Medium and " Common " according to the qualities of the fibres. 


Part III.] 

Economic Products of India. 



No trustworthy figures are available of the prime cost to the culti- 
vators of raising and extracting a maund of jute fibre. But the follow- 
ing figures which have been kindly furnished by a private firm lead to 
the rates paid to the growers. Jute landed in Calcutta cost as follows 
per maund in the last four years : — 






(Fine . 
Narainganj . < Medium . 


(Fine . 
Serajganj . << Medium . 


Rs. A. P. 

4 II 

Rs. A. P. 


3 13 7 

3 15 

Rs. A. P. 

4 15 10 

4 3 4 
3 10 4 

5 I 
3 12 

Rs. A. P. 


2 15 2 

3 I 

The charees per maund incurred from the time the jute is purchased 
from the producer to the time it is landed in Calcutta are as follows ap- 
proximately :— 

Freight to Caloitte 
Drumming, shipping, &c. . 
Aratdari .... 
Bepari's profit 




Rs, A. P. 

Rs. A. P. 

I I 

I I 

Deducting the charges just shown from the cost of the jute landed in 
Calcutta, will give the rates paid to the grower, thus : — 






(Fine . 
Narainganj . < Medium . 


(Fine . 
Serajganj . < Medium . 


Rs. A. P. 

4 1 9 

2 15 9 

3 10 
3 1 

Rs. A. P. 

3 15 3 

3 5 9 
2 12 9 

4 I 
2 14 

Rs. A. P. 

3 14 10 




2 II 

Rs. A. P. 
I 14 2 
X 6 6 

The prime cost to the cultivators must be something lower thafi the 
fibres snown in this last statement ; and assumins^ that the data fur- 
nished are near the truth, if not absolutely correct, they lead to the fol- 
lowing important inferences, vf^, (a) that the price of jute has 


Fibres and Fibre-yielding Plants. 

[Part III. 

declined considerably during the last four years, and (ft) that while the 
profits of the middle men have not varied, those of the growers have 
fallen proportionately with the fall of prices in Calcutta, If the prices 
which merchants can afford to pay to the growers do not rise, it is doubt- 
ful whether the latter will continue to cultivate jute in any considerable 
quantities. At present the two classes of the fibre known as Narainganji. 
and Serajganji form a very large proportion of the jute imported into 
Calcutta, thus :— 












Naraing^nj . • • • 
Serajganj . 





Total Imports intoCal- 

CU'lTA .... 


The HISTORY of the jute industry is exceedingly interesting, and 
intimately associated with the British rule in India. There can be no 
doubt that jute was known to the people of India from remote periods, 
but the confusion which existed down to the present century in the words 
sunrii pat or patta, bhanga and hemp, applied to certain Indian fibres, 
renders it difficult to determine the plants referred to by the ancient 
writers. The probability is that sunn hemp (the fibre of Crotalaria jun- 
cea) was better known to the ancient Hindus thanyw^e, and that in still 
more ancient times the true hemp (Cannabis sativa) was known to them, if 
not brought to India by their invading and conquering ancestors. It may 
be assumed that sunni, patta, and bhangi were synonymous and generic 
terms for fibre and coarse cloth, without regard to the plant from which 
the fibre was obtained. About the beginning of the present century, how- 
ever, the word pat became fixed and associated with the fibre of Corchoras 
olitorius and capsularis. Prior to that date the Government returns of 
the exportations from India mention hemp fibre: this must have either 
been sunn or jute, since true hemp fibre has not been cultivated for cen- 
turies, and modern experiments have shown that it is not capable of culti- 
vation as a fibre plant in the plains of India. 

With the advance of civilization came an increased demand for cloth, at 
first as a luxury, and latterly as a necessity. Jute probably met this demand ; 
and, indeed, the poorer people, little more than half a century ago, were 
largely clad in jute cloth of home manufacture, such as, at the present day, 
is used by the aboriginal tribes. The increased facilities for the importa- 
tion of cheap European piece-goods checked, however, the development of 
the indigenous indiistry j but with the rapid progress in every other branch 
of industry, there opened up a foreign trade in jute which the agricultura- 
list found remunerative. The resources of the rich plains of India, 
Burma, and China, and latterly America, Australia and Egypt, were 
by the British mercantile fleet made available for the supply of grain. 
Bags were required for this trade, and thousands of rough gunnies were 
^eedily bought up. The high price obtained was a powerful incen- 
tive to increased activity, and thus the gunny-bag trade rapidly became a 


Part III.] 

Economic Products of India. 


recognised part of the Bengal peasant's work. By and by, however, 
European machinery began to compete with manual labour, and in due time 
it gained the day. Jute was exported to Europe for cordage, and ultimate- 
ly for the manufacture of the bags required in the grain trade. The first 
commercial mention of the word ** jute " is in the customs returns of the 
exports for 1828, when 364 cwt. were sent to Europe. Soon the agriculturist 
found that his time would be more profitably spent in preparing an extra 
quantity of fibre, than in manufacturing bags to compete with steam and 
mechanical appliances ; the preparation of fibre speedily outstripped the 
demand for home manufacture, and a large export trade was established 
in raw jute to feed the Scotch mills. Thus transferred from its original home, 
the gunny trade took a new start in Dundee, and down to the year 1854 
little or no effort was made to improve the Indian manufacture by the appli- 
cation of European machinery. In that year, however, the '* Ishera Yarn 
Mills Company " was established at Ishera near Serampore by Mr, 
George Ackland, a large owner of coffee plantations in Ceylon and non- 
official member of the Legislative Council of that Island : these mills 
were afterwards called the " Ishera Company, Limited," and are now 
known as the ** Wellington Mills." Three years later (1857) the "Borneo 
Company, Limited," which was a company originally established to 
exploit the Island of Borneo, founded the mills now known as the " Bara- 
nagore Jute Mills." In 1863-64 the Gouripore Jute Factory came into exis- 
tence. Factories sprang up rapidly in every direction around Calcutta. 
In the Trade Returns for 1869-70 tne exportation of manufactured jute 
was 6,441,863 gunny bags manufactured by power and hand looms, and 
brought into competition with the Dundee bags. This trade developed 
steadily, and in 1879-80, ten years later, over 55,908,000 gunnies were 
exported from India. The relative importance of the export trade in raw 
jute, as compared with the exports in manufactured jute of all kinds, may 
be seen by a careful examination of the tables here given in the succeed- 
ing pages, but the result may be summarised by saying that in 1881-82 the 
exports of raw jute amounted to £^5,030,302, whereas for the same year 
the entire exports from India of power and hand-loom jute manufactures 
amounted to only ^ 1,097,250. Thus, it would seem that even with 22 large 
European factories at work in India, and the numerous hand-looms 
scattered over the entire country, her foreign jute interests were four 
times as valuable to India as her home manufactures. A comparison 
between the exports of Indian *' power-loom " as compared with " hand- 
loom" manufactures will still further show the extent to which the jute 
manufactures have passed out of the hands of the Indian peasants who 
alone, little more than 40 years ago, met the demand for gunny bags. 
This is seen very clearly when the above figures for 1881-82 are compared 
with the exports of 1 850-51. At that time the value of the gunnies exported 
was greater than that of the raw jute, — the former being jf 2 15,978, the 
latter, ^^197,071. There were no European factories in India in 1850, 
so that the market was supplied by the Indian peasant's hand-loom.. 
Steadily the exports increased, the demand for gunnies calling into 
existence the Dundee mills, and soon after the Indian factories. No- 
thing could demonstrate the development of the jute trade more than 
a careful examination of the exports of raw jute and manufactured 
jute from i860 to 1880. During that period 22 factories, larger than 
the average jute factories of Europe, have come into existence, and have 
gradually commenced to pour their manufactures into the market, largely, 
if not entirely, meeting the home (Indian) consumption. While this has 
been taking place, the foreign exports of raw jute have uninterruptedly 
continued to increase, each year exceeding the preceding, apparently quite 
unaffected by the powerful Indian competition to the Dunclee and other 
foreign manufactures. 


Fibres and Fibre yielding Plants, 

[Part III. 



The following abstract of the exports of raw jutb prom Cal- 
cutta will be found exceedingly interesting, as showing the steady 
and constant increase and development of the jute trade. The mean 
exportations for each period of five years, during the 50 years commencing 
with 1828, will be seen to have, in round numbers, almost doubled those 
of the preceding period. It should be carefully noted, however, that 
these figures represent but a portion of the jute industry, — namely, the 
exports. The home consumption is generally about twice as valuable 
as the (foreign) exports. (See page 48.) 


Up to 

Average of five 
years, in cwts. 

1832-33 11,800 



\ • \ 



1 • < 



• • \ 



1 « i 



> * 



• • ( 



1 • < 



t . 1 



• • 


The exportations from Bengal of raw jutb during the last pub- 
lished year (1881-82) were 7,510,081 cwts., so that the average for the 
five years ending 1882-83 must be considerably over 6,000,000 cwts. 
The rapid, yet constant, increase in the jute trade, which the above 
figures show, from 364 cwts. in 1828 to 7,510,081 cwts. in 1883, represent- 
ing an increase in value from Rs. 620 to Rs. 5,03,03,023 in the short 
period of 55 years, speaks volumes for the noble fleet of merchant 
vessels trading with our Indian ports. Mr. Hem Chunder Kerr, in his 
valuable Report on the Cultivation of and Trade in ^ute in Bengal, 
has, as appears from the figures quoted, laid too much stress upon the 
Russian war in 1854-55 as a cause of the development of the jute trade 
of India. It doubtless was a cause, but an insignificant one as com- 
pared with the internal administrative reforms and with the engineering 
enterprise which, by railway, road, and canal, brought the resources of 
India into the field of European commerce. 

Exportation of raw jute from all India from 1877 to 1882, 



Qvantity in cwts. 



Value in rupees. 



Part III.] 

Economic Products of India ^ 


The figures given for the successive years show that the exportation 
of jute steadily increased from i»092,668 cwts. in 1860-61, to 3,754,08^ 
cwts. in 1870-71 ; in 1871-72, it suddenly rose to 6,133,813 cwts., and 
during the past ten years it has had an average of about 5,500,000 cwts. 

The following analysis of the exports of raw jute from India for the 
year 1881-82, taken from the Annual Statement of Trade and Navigation, 
shows the presidency from which it was exported and the chief countries 
to which it was consigned :— 

from whico 

Quantity in 

Valae in 

Country to 

Quantity in 

Value in 




which exported. 



Bengal . 


5»03.o 1,752 

United Kingdom 



Bombay . 






Madras . 









Grermany . 






United States . 



Total . 

Other countries . 






Indian commercial men calculate that on an average Scotland consumes 
over 18400 bales (73,600 cwts.) a week. Of these, Messrs. Cox Brothers 
consume 2,200 ; Messrs. Gilroy & Sons, 750 ; Messrs. Malcolm, Ogilvie, 
& Co., 650; Mr. John Sharp, 700. In England the weekly consumption is 
over 1,860 bales, the largest consumers being the Barrow Company, 600. 
In Ireland the total weekly consumption is about 730 bales, tne largest 
firm consuming under 300 bales a week. Thus Great Britain requires 
over 21,000 bales or 84,000 cwts. a week, or 4,200,000 cwts. a year 
to keep her existing jute factories employed. These figures when com- 
pared with the hand-loom consumption in Bengal shows how completely the 
eunny trade has passed out of the hands of the Indian peasant. The entire 
hand-loom consumption in Bengal is given as 2,23,000 maunds a year, but 
allowing 50,000 maunds more to cover imperfections, this would give an 
annual consumption of 105,000 cwts. The Scotch power-looms alone 
consume 73,600 cwts. a week, or 3,710,000 cwts. a year. 

France requires 4,000 bales a week, its largest consumer. Saint Freres, 
requiring 700 bales; Germany requires 2,170 a week, of which the 
Brunswick Jute Spinning Company consume 770 bales ; Belgium requires 
845 bales a week; Austria, 580; Spain, 250; Holland, 400; Norway, 
100. Taking annual figures for the whole of Europe it is found that Great 
Britain and the Continent of Europe require 1,800,000 bales a year, or 
6,428,580 cwts. Of course, these figures must vary considerably from year 
to year, but they may be relied on as approximately and relatively correct. 
It may be here stated that as merchants adopt the calendar year and Gov- 
ernment the financial year, from April to March, considerable difficulty 
has been experienced in comparing the Government Statistical Tables of 
Exports with those kindly supplied to me by one or two well known jute 
firms in Calcutta. 


Fibres and Fibre-yielding Plants, 

[Part III. 

Comparing with the above figures the 22 Indian factories, which on an 
average each consume 500 bales per week, or 600,000 bales a year, equi- 
valent to 2,142,948 cwts., it appears that to keep the existing factories 
of Europe and India working, about 8,571,428 cwts. of raw jute are required ; 
and adding to this amount the quantity annually consumed by America, 
Australia and other foreign countries, vi5., 600,000 bales, or 2,142,498 cwts., 
not included in the above calculation, the annual consumption cannot 
be much under 3,000,000 bales, or 10,714,476 cwts. In his report on 
the jute trade in Bengal, Mr. Heni Chunder Kerr gives the amount 
raised in 1872 as 13,568,485 maunds. He further states that 5 maunds 
per bigha is the average yield, and that the above quantity raised in 1872 
was obtained from 925,899 acres. 

Looking at the exportation of raw jute, of manufactured jute and the 
home (Indian) consumption known to our commercial men, the statement 
that the jute trade is represented at the present date by an annual con- 
sumption of over 10,000,000 cwts. of raw jute does not seem to be far from 
correct. This roughly represents an annual source of wealth equal to 
about 8 millions of pounds sterling as compared to the exports in 1828 
of jf62. 




In the vicinity of Calcutta, since 1864, 19 jute factories have sprung 
up in rapid succession. Of these, 12 are limited companies, with a 
nominal capital of Rs. 1,81,33,800; the others are private factories. 
These 19 factories have 5,464 looms and 87,071 spindles, and they give 
employment to 21,089 men* 9>5i9 women, 4,254 young persons, and 
2,719 children. In Bombay there is one limited jute company with a 
nominal capital of Rs. 6,00,000, and giving employment to about 590 
persons. In Madras there is a private jute company, employing about 
878 persons. Thus up to the present date there are in all India 22 jute 
factories with 5,655 looms, 90,755 spindles, employing 40,551 persons. 
They are almost exclusively employed in the gunny bag or cloth trade, 
three only doing a small business in cordage or other manufactures. New 
mills and extensions are in progress which will probably increase the 
number of looms to over 7,000. 

In 1879 there were in England 12 factories, in Scotland 99, in Ireland 
6; in all 117 factories, with 212,676 single and 7,492 double spindles, and 
11,288 looms, giving employment in all to 36,3^ persons. In India there 
are only 22 factories, but these employ 40,551 persons. 

It is difficult to make a reliable comparison without the details 
of every individual factory. Judging from the published statistics 
of jute factories in Scotland during the year 1879, ^"^ comparing 22 of 
these with the Indian factories for the same year, we may, however, 
conclude that the Indian mill workman was inferior to the Scotch work- 
man in the ratio of 3 to 7. That is to say, it requires 7 persons to work 
one loom in an Indian factory, against 3 workmen in a Scotch factory. 
This conclusion b arrived at by dividing the total number of persons 
employed in a factory by the number of its looiis and obtaining the 
average for all Scotch factories and the average for all Indian fac- 
tories. Of course this calculation is open to the error of the Indian and 
English factories not manufacturing the same cloth ; but relatively it may 
be relied upon. 




Economic Products of India. 

-I - ' J- 


Exporiaiwn of GuKNY Bags during the past fve years* 








1877-78 .... 
1878-79 . . . ► 
1879-80 .... 
1880-81 .... 
1881-82 .... 














The following analysis of the exports of gunny bags for the year 
1881-82 shows the presidencies where they were manufactured and the 
countries to which they were exported : — 



from which 





Country to which 



Bengal . 

Bombay • 


Madras • 

British Bur- 
ma (prob- 
ably re- 

Total . 











China: Hong-Kong 


United States 


Cape of Good 


Egypt . . 

United Kingdom . 
Other countries . 

Total . 



















from which 




Country to which 



Beng^al • 
Bonibay • 
Madras • 
Sindh • 

Total . 








Australia . . 
Cape of Good Hope 
United States 
South America 
Other countries 

Total . 




















Fibres and Fibre^yielding Plants, 

[Part III 

The following tables show the exportations of gunny cloth during 
the past five years, and the presidencies in which the cloth was manufac- 
tured and the countries to which it was exported during the year 1881-82:— 



























Analysis of Exports of Gunny Cloth Cpower-loomJ from India for the 

year 1881^82. 


from which 




Country to which 




Bomoay • 

Total . 





China: Hong-Kong" 

United States 

Ceylon . 

Persia . 

Italy . 


Other countries 

Total . 


















The exportation of ropk and twine during the past five years may 
be seen from the following table ; and the ansuysis of that for the year 
1881-82 shows the presidencies from which, and the countries to which, 
they were exported : — 


Quav.tity in 


Value in 

1877-78 • . . . 
1878-79 . . • . 
1879-80 . • . . 
1880-81 .... 
1881-82 .... 









Part IIK] 

Economic Products of India. 


Analysis of Exports of Rofr and Twine from India for the year 


n'esidcDcy from 
which exported. 

in cwts. 

Value in 

Country to which 

m cwts. 

Value in 


Bombay • 
British Burma 




• • • 




United States . 
Australia . 
Other countries . 












It should be carefully observed that the preceding tables show only the 
exportation, properly so called, of bales of prepared gunny bags, gunny 
cloth, or jute rope as such. They do not include the thousands of gunnies, 
&c., which annually leave the ports of India containing grain or other pro- 
duce, nor those used for home purposes or sent to other parts of India. 
The above figures do not, therefore, show the whole out-turn of gunnies 
annually manufactured in India. In fact, from January to December 
1882, 119,042,771 gunnies were actually made by power-looms, of which 
only 41,523,607 were exported; so that the exports were barely one-third 
of the number actually manufactured. The following table will show the 
relations of the home consumption to the exports more clearly : — 

Statement of Home Consumption and Exports of GuvmiES from ist January 

to Bist December 1882, 



Bombay and Persian Gulf 

Madras and Malabar 

Coromandel Coast 


Up-country by rail 

Used for other exports from Calcutta 







Total of Home Consumption 


New Zealand 

Cape of Good Hope 



America . • 

Hongkong (not Hessians) 









Total of Exports 
Grand Total of Home Consumption and Exports 





Fibres and Fibre-yielding Plants, 

[ Part III. 



The manufactures of jute or pat may be referred to three primary 
sections : 

I. Cloth of different qualities ranging from substitutes for silic to 
shirtings, curtains, carpets^ and gunnies. 
II. Paper chiefly prepared from the " rejections " and " cuttings." 
III. Cordage from the coarser and stronger qualities. 

These three sections may each be divided into a number of sub-divisions, 
which for convenience maybe arranged in two leading groups, vxb,^ native 
and indigenous manufactures, " hand-loom " and European or " power- 
loom" manufactures, whether made in Europe or in India. We shall 
first enumerate the indigenous manufactures since these bear on the history 
of the industry. 


Indigenous Cloth, — Every homestead in Bengal has suspended from a 
beam in the roof of the verandah a few bundles of jute fibre, which, while 
talking pleasantly with a neighbour, the peasant twists, with various kinds 
of spindles, into twine of varying thickness, intended for domestic purposes 
or for the yarn from which the women prepare the home-spun cloth or 
gunny bags. Babu Ramcomal S^x\^ in the Transactions of the Agri-Horti- 
cultural Society, describes three different modes of preparing twine or 
yarn in BengsJ, The first is by means of a reel, called a dhera, the second 
by the takur, and the third by the ghurgurra. The first is said to be 
used in making yarn for gunnies, the second for fine yarns intended for 
cloth, and the third for ^wine to be afterwards made into ropes. 

The natives weave three distinct kinds of jute cloth : — 

isty Thick cloth used for making gunny bags. Of this there are three 
qualities, the best being known as amrahati. These correspond to the 
tnree' qualities of hand-loom gunnies in commerce. 

2«», Fine cloth. — This is generally known by the name of mekli dhokrd, 
and is chiefly used as a cloth to sleep on ; it is often beautifully striped 
blue or red. 

3rrf, Coarse cloth, — ^This is largely used for making the sails of country 
boats (gun), and also for ba^s to hold large seeds or fruits. 

The following are the prmcipal districts in Bengal where indigenous 
jute manufactures (hand-looms) may be said to exist to any considerable 
extent : — Hugli, consuming about 1,20,000 maunds of jute a year; Dacca, 

J 0,000; Rungpore, 50,000; Moorshedabad, 38,000; Malda, 25,000; 
ulpiguri, Pubna, &c., smaller quantities. 


Cloth made in Factories. — Jute is now largely used in the manufacture 
of carpets, curtains, shirtings, and is also mixed with silk or used for imi- 
tating silk fabrics. It has been applied extensively as a substitute for 
hemp : for this purpose the fibres are rendered soft and flexible by beine^ 
sprinkled with water and oil, in the proportion of 20 tons of water and 2^ 
tons of train oil to 100 tons of jute. Sprinkled with this the jute is left for 
from 24 to 48 hours, when after being squeezed by rollers and heckled, the 
fibres become beautifully soft and minutely isolated^ and thereby suited 
for a number of purposes unknown a few years ago. 

The history of tnis trade is exceedingly interesting. In the year 1820 
the fibre was first experimented with, but the result was unfavourable ; and, 

D 49 

Part III.] 

Economic Products of India* 



in consequence, brokers were required to certify that sales of hemp 
and other fibres were not adulterated with jute. In 1832 an enterprising 
Dundee manufacturer experimented once more on the fibre, and the result 
was that he was able to show that it might be used as a substitute for 
hemp. From that date jute gained rapidly in public favour. Jute is one 
of those fabrics capable of the most minute separation or sub-division, but 
it is only within tne past few years that it nas been extensively used in 
the finer textile industries. For a long time the difficulty of bleaching 
seemed insurmountable, and the trouble experienced in dyeing the fibre 
appeared likely to nullify every effort to utilise it. All these stum- 
bling-blocks have, however, been removed, and there cannot be a doubt 
that, but for the want of durability, jute would soon rank as the most valu- 
able of all fibres. Its perishable nature, however, is fatal to its obtaining 
a position much higher than it has already attained, and probably admix- 
ture of jute in certain articles, such as sail-cloths, must sooner or later be 
viewed as a criminal offence. The manufactures which occupy the atten- 
tion of our Indian companies are almost exclusively the various forms 
of gunnies. 

Kydia calycinai Roxb,, Malvacejc. 

Vein* — Pola, puluy puli patha, potari^ Hind.; Barranga^ bkoii, C. P. • 
Kubinde, Nepal; Vdranga, vdrangada. Bom.; Kopasia, Uriya; 
PotrifPedda kunj'i, Tel. ; Dwabot, Burm. 

A small tree common in the forests of all parts of India and Burma, 
except the arid region. 

The inner bark yields a fibre. 


jij^ Laportea crenulatai Gandich., URTicACEie. 

Vern. — Chorpatta, surat, Beng. ; Moringif Nepal; Mealutn-ma, Lepcha; 
Mausa, Cingh. ; Petyorkyi, Burm. 

A tree of Sikkim, Assam, Eastern Bengal, the West Coast, Ceylon, 
and Burma; with glossy, broad leaves and minute, stinging hairs. 

It yields a good fibre, which can be made into ropes ard coarse cloth. 

156 Lasiosiphon eriocephalus, Decne. 

Vera. — Nahay Cingh. 

A large shrub of Bengal and South India. 
The bark yields a fibre. 


Leptadenia Spartium^ Wight^ Asclepiadeji. 

Syn.— L. Jacquemontiana, Decne, 

A small bush of the Himalaya on the Jumna, at Simla, &c. It receives 
its name Spartium most probably on account of its being used for ropes, 
baskets, &c., as Esparto Grass formerly was. 

Yields an excellent fibre, used in Sindh. Dr. Royle says it is used 
with Pefiploca aphylla, Decaisne, to form the ropes and bands used for 
wells, the combined fibres not being much affected by moisture. 


Fibres and Fibre-yielding Plants, 

[Part III. 

Licuala peltata, Roxh,, Palmje. 

The leaves of this palm are used in Assam for umbrellas, and in the 
Andamans for thatching. In Chittagong it forms a great part of the under- 
growth in some forests, notably the Kasalong Reserve, and its leaves, under 
the name of Kuruchipaty are universally used in the Hill tracts for thatching, 
and when grass is scarce are largely exported to the plains. 

Linum usitatissimumi Ltnn.y Line^e. 

Flax, Linen. 

Vem. — Alsif Hind.; ^ Tisi, masina, Beng.; Aldsi, javasa^ Bom. ; Alshi- 
virai, Tam.; Atasi, Tel. 

Largely cultivated in Bengal and the North-West Provinces for its 
seeds ; very rarely on account of its fibre, which in India is very inferior 
to Egyptian flax. 

Lygeum Spartum, Gramineje. 

As the specific name implies, this grass is largely used for paper-mak- 
ing under the name of Esparto Grass. It is a rather handsome plant, 
with extensive root-stocks, which run about and ramify under the sand 
amongst which it grows. There are doubtless many grasses in India 
which might easily enough be used for paper-making, such as Saccharum 
Munja and S. sara. Information as to experiments of this nature, with 
flowering samples for identification, are much required. See also next 

Macrochloa (? Stipa) tenacissima, Graminea. 

A rush-like grass, growing plentifully on the sandy tracts of the 
Mediterranean Coast, especially in Spain, Algeria, Morocco and the 
Sahara. This is the true Esparto Grass, which, from remotest times, has 
been used for making hats, mats, baskets, chairs, agricultural ropes, &c., 
and in which during later times an immense trade has arisen, for the 
manufacture of paper. Saccharum Munja has long been used for cordage, 
and forms a strong and useful rope, much used by boatmen in the North- 
West Provinces. Lists of Indian substitutes for nsparto Grass, with all 
available information upon this subject, and flowering specimens for iden- 
tification, would be most acceptable. 






Malachra capitata^ Z., Malvacea. 

Vem.^Ran-bkendt, Bom. 
It occurs throughout the hotter parts of Intlia, from the North- West 
Provinces to the Carnatic, and thrives in Bombay and Beneal. The Flora 
of British India remarks that this plant is not mentioned by Roxburgh 



Part III.] 

Economic Products of India. 



or included in Wallich's Catalogue. It is probable, therefore, that it is 
only of recent introduction from South America. 

An erect annual, with broad heart-shaped leaves covered with stiff 
hairs. The flowers are yellow or white. 

It yields a fibre 8 to 9 feet long, with a silvery lustre, and almost as 
soft as silk. 

Dr. King reports that for paper-making this does not seem to promise 
much. It has been experimented with in Bombay as a substitute for jute 
and reported upon favourab by the manager of the factory. 

Manilla Hemp (Musa textilis), Musaceje. 

This is one of the most valuable of fibres, the finer quality being used 
for fabrics, and the coarser, for cordage. Attempts, hitherto unsuccessful, 
have been made to introduce this plant. Experiments with indigenous 
wild plantains are more likely to prove successful, for there is every chance 
that one of those common in our tropical forests at the foot of the hills 
will prove as rich in fibre as the Philippine Island plant. It is unsatisfac- 
tory to experiment with the cultivated fruit-yielding species, if it is desired 
to discover an Indian source of Manilla Hemp. (See also Musa teactilis.) 


164 Maoutia Puya, Wedd,, Urticaceje. 

Vcm. — Poi,pua, Hind. ; Puya, Nepal; Kyinki, Lbpcha; Yenki, Limbu. 

A shrub, with very white leaves, found in the Himalaya from Garhwai 
eastward, the Khisia Hills and Burma, chiefly in old cultivations and 
up to 4,000 feet. 

It yields a strong fibre of very good quality, used to make fishing 
nets, net bags, twine and cloth. 


165 Maranta dichotoma, Wall., Scitauineje. 

Syn. — Phrynium dichotomum, Roxb. 

Vem. — Pati, mukta-pati, pati-patifBK^G,; Thin, Burm. 

It grows in Eastern Bengal, Assam, the Coromandel Coast and Burma 
It yields the ShitaUpati mats which are made of the split stems. 
These are smooth and cooling, and by Europeans are often placed under 
the sheets in a bed to prevent the mattress from being too heating. 
T. N. Mukharji, in his Amsterdam Catalogue, says: "The stems are slit 
and made into smooth mats which, owing to their coolness, are largely 
used in the hot weather for sleeping on. ^me of the finest cost about ^^5 
each." Those in general use average from R 2 to 3. 

i56 Marsdenia Roylei, Wighf, Asclepiade2e. 

Vem. — Murkula, HiiiD,;Pathor, Chenab; Tar, vm, SaltIRange ; 
Kurang, Simla. 
A small climber of the Eastern and Western Himalaya, 
It yields a fibre, of which fishing nets and strong ropes are manu- 


Fibres and Fibre-yielding Plants. 

[Part III. 

Marsdenia tenadssima, w. & A. 

Syn.— AscLEPiAS tenacissima, Boxb. 
Vem. — ? Ilaba (from Dymock). 

A climber of Kumaun, Oudh, Behar^ and Bengal, and extending to 
Chittagong and Ava. 

Yields the silky fibre known as Rajmahal Fibre. A string, Roxburgh 
says, broke with 248 lbs. when dry, and with 342 lbs. when wet, as com- 
pared with hemp, which broke with 158 and 190 lbs. 

This fibre has been much neglected. 

M. tinctoria, /?• Br. 


Vem. — Kali lara, Nepal ; JRyom, Lbpcha. 

A climbing shrub of the North-Eastern Himalaya and Burma. 
Like the preceding, this species yields a fibre, but it is collected on 
account of its dye more than for its fibre. 




Melia Azadirachta, Linn. 

The Neem or Margosa Tree. 

Wem.—'Nifn, Hind.; Azad-darakhi, neb, Pers.; Kohumba, Guz. • 
Baka-yan, BoM. & SiND; Veypam, Tam.; Yapa, yepa, Tel. ; 
Tkimoawtamakat BuRM. 

A large tree, planted and self-sown throughout the greater part of 
India and Burma. 

The bark yields a fibre, of which a specimen, supplied by the Madras 
Forest Department, was sent to the Amst&dam Exhibition. 


Melocanna bambusoides, Trim., Gbamineji. 


Syn.— Bambusa baccifera, JRoteb. 

Vem. — Muli, metunga, bisk, Beng. ; Kaoung-wa, Magh (Gamble), ; 
Kayinwa, Burm. 
The common gregarious bamboo of the Chittagong hills ; might be 
used in paper manufacture. 

Specimens required, there being none in the present collection. 



Melochia velUtina, Beddome, Sterculiace^. 
Vern. — Al-abada, And. 
A small tree of the Andaman Islands, Burma, and Malay Archipelago. 
A strong fibre is prepared from the bark of this tree which, in the 
Andaman Islands, is called Betma-da* From this a stout cord is pre- 
pared which is woven into the turtle net of the Andaman Islands, known 
as VitO'tepinga'da* 



Part III.] 

Economic Products of India, 








Melodinus monogynus, Roxb.y Apocykaceje. 

Vera. — 

A tall, milky climber of Sikkim and the Khasia Hills, and also indigen- 
ous in Sylhet. 

The bark contains a quantity of fibrous matter, which the natives of 
Sylhet substitute for hemp. 

Memorialis pentandnti Wedd.y URTicACEiE. 

Vera. — Jaiphal'jari, Garhwal. 
It is somewhat common in the lower hills. 
Yields a useful cordage fibre. {Atkinson,) 

Mezenkuri. See siik. 

Moringa pterygospermai Gaertn,, Moringeje. 

The Horse Radish Tree, 

Vera. — Soanjnd, sanj'nd, senj'nd, HiND. ; Sujand, sajna, Beng. ; Segata, 
segavd, B01A.; Swanj'era, SlUD ; Morunga,TAM,; Saihan, Tel, ; Darf 
tha-lon, daintka, Burm. 

A tree wild in the Sub-Himalayan tract from the Chenab to Oudh ; 
commonly cultivated in India and Burma on account of its leaves, 
flowers, and pods, all of which are eaten. 

The bark yields a coarse fibre from which mats, paper, or cordage may 
be prepared. 

Mulberry Cloth, or Mulbeny paper cloth. 

Broussonetia papyrifera, Vent,, Urticacea. 
Vera. — Malaing, Burm. 

A small tree about 30 feet high, wild on the Martaban coast and in 
China, Japan and the South Sea Islands. 

The Japanese prepare their paper from the bark of this tree, and the 
Burmese their papier m4ch6 trays (Palabaik), used like the slates of 
European scbool-boys. A coarse cloth is also prepared from it, used by 
the Karens and largely so by the South Sea Islanders. These savage 
islanders may be described as the inventors of the Ekman process for the 
extraction of fibre, having from time immemorial separated the paper mass 
from the fibre by boiling in an alkali. 

Munga. See Silk. 


Musa paradisiaca, Zinn,, Scitamineje. 

The Plantain. 

"VtOL—Kela, Hind., Bom.; Kola, Beng.; Kadali, Sans.; Vcushaip 
paaham, Tam.; Hugapyaw, Burm. 

Extensively cultivated throughout India. 

A beautiful fibre is obtained from the stems, though inferior to that 
of the Manilla Hemp. The fibre is extracted in two ways, ist, by fer- 


Fibres and Fibre-yielding Plants, 

[Part IH. 

mentation, and 2nd, by machine crushing. If the former course is to 
be followed, the trees are left to dry to a certain extent on the ground 
so as to lessen the weight of transporting. If the former, the tree 
must be carried to the mill at once and passed under the rollers. About 
4 lbs. of fibre are obtained from each tree, the leaf petioles being 
reported as yielding the most valuable fibre, and relatively they contain 
more fibre than the trunk. After crushing the fibre is boiled to separate 
the gluten, carbonate of soda and quicklime being used. To make 3 tons 
of fibre per day, it is necessary to have four boilers of 800 gallons each 
and to give five boilings in the day yielding 1,680 lbs. of fibre for each 
boiler. They require about 300 lbs. of soda and a proportionate amount 
of quicklime. The fibres of different quality should be kept separate 
in the boiling, the lighter fibres requiring only about six hours to bleach, 
. while the darker require eighteen. A lever is arranged to lift the boil- 
ing fibre to the tanks to be washed. The washing must be thorough, the 
fibre thereafter should be hung up to dry. {Christy's New Commercial 
Plants.) Considerable attention has of late years been attracted to the 
subject of plantain as a source of paper. It cannot be doubted that a 
great future is before the paper industry of India, and that the thousands 
of plantain stems which are annually thrown away as useless by the natives 
will yet come to be greedily purchased for paper manufacture. 

Musa sapientum, Linn. 

The Banana. 

The vernacular names given under the preceding apply to this species. 
The stems may be used for the same purposes. There seems to be a 
promising future for plantain paper. 

M. textilis, Zouis, Nees. 
Manilla Hemp. 

Vem. — Kaudira, rdnakela, BoM. {from Dymock.) 

A native of the Philippine Islands, now thoroughly introduced in the 
Madras Presidency, 

" It has of late years been much employed for cordage of various 
kinds, especially when considerable strain is required, as in ropes for 
raising goods into warehouses or out of mines* iSome yachts, as well as 
many American vessels, have the whole of their rigging composed of 
Manilla Hemp, and this cordage, when worn out, can be converted into 
an excellent quality of paper. Though the plant yielding this fibre is not 
indigenous in India, nor extensively cultivated, it is yet extremely interest- 
ing, not only because it may easily be cultivated there, but because there 
are other species of the same genus which may be turned to the same 
useful account." {Royle.) See also Manilla Hemp. 




Nelumbium speciosum, WUld,, Nymphgeace*. 


Vern. — Kanwalf Hind. ; PadmOf Beng. ; Kamala, nilophar (pubbun. 
The seeds, Kamalakadi (doda), puboora) {from Dymock), Sind. ; 
Tamaray, Tam. ; Tamarat Tel. 

Throughout India, extending as far to the North-West as Kashmir. 
The long stalks of the Lotus yield a sort of yellowish white fibre, 
which is used principally for the wicks of sacred lamps in Hindu temples; 



Part III.] 

Economic Products of India. 





and the Hindu doctors are of opinion that the cloth prepared from this 
fibre acts medicinally as a febrifuge. {Baden- Poivell.) 

Further information and specimens might be supplied by the Punjab. 

Odmum Basilicum, L., Labiateje. 

Var.— O. PiLOSUM, Benth,, sp. Romb, Fl, Ind,, Ed, CBX., 464, 

Sweet Basil. 

Vera. — Bdboi tulsi, bdbui ghds, Beng. ; Shahas/aram, Arab. ; Manjirika (/*), 
Sabeah, Dec; Tirunitrup-pattiri, Tam. ; Vibudipatri, Tel.; Kam 
kasturi, Kan. 

A shrubby, herbaceous plant, common throughout the damp tropi- 
cal forest of India and Burma. 

Sports' EncycloptBdia gives the following curious fact regarding this 
plant which seems unknown to most other authors : — 

" It is cultivated to a small extent in the Hugli district, on account of 
the strong fibre it yields for rope-making. The rope can be used only in 
the dry season as it rots in the rains. The fibre might be available for 
paper-making.'* This was apparently extracted from Baboo Hem Chunder 
Kerr's report on Jute, where mention is made of this fact, page 102. 
Babu T. N. Muknarji, in his Amsterdam Descriptive Catalogue, gives 
part of a letter from Mr. Bowstead of Haripur Factory in the Bhagalpur 
district, Bengal, describing a fibre from a plant called Marva which has 
been identified with Odmum pilosum? Artemisia vulgaris. The verna- 
cular name given is that of Eleusine coracana (a species of Millet). 
There is of course some mistake regardin|^ the scientific names ascribed 
to this curious plant; but as considerable interest must be associated with 
the discovery, I beg to be supplied with specimens to enable me to accu- 
rately name the plant. The seeds of Odmum Basilicum var. pilosum 
are largely used, especially by the Muhammadans of Eastern Bengal, to 
produce a refreshing and cooling drink. When thrown into water they swell 
and become surrounded with a thin gelatinous layer. That Artemisia 
vulgaris ( Wormwood) could be eaten or yield a fibre seems highly improb- 
able, while Eleustne might be used as a paper-yielding fibre, and is cer- 
tainly eaten. 

Odina Wodiefi Roxb,<t Anacardiacea. 

Vera. — Kiamil, kimtil, katnldi, jkingan, mowen. Hind. ; ^iyal, lokar-bhadi, 
Beng. ; Simati, tnoya. Bom. ; Wodier, Tam. ; 'Gumpini, dumpini, Tel. ; 
' HnM, BuRM. 

A moderate-sized or large, deciduous tree of the Sub- Himalayan tract 
from the Indus eastward, ascending to 4,000 feet ; found also in the forests 
of India and Burma. 

The bark yields a coarse cordage, but a good bast, fibre. 

Opuntia Dillenii, How., Oactejs. 

The Prickly Pear. 

Vera. — Nagphana, na^phansi. Hind. ; Pkeni-maitsa, Beng. ; Papashiali, 
Kan.; Chajfalsend, Dec; Nagadali, Tau. 

An erect, fleshy, thorny shrub, common all over the arid and dry zones 
of India, and often planted as a hedge. It was originally brought from 
America. {Gamble.) 


Fibres and Fibre-yielding Plants, 

[Part III. 

A coarse fibre is obtained from it, suitable for the manufacture of 
paper. Dr. Bidie writes : " This abounds in every part of the country, and 
has become such a nuisance that large sums are expended annually 
in cutting it down, and burying it, on sanitary grounds.' Public money 
might with great advantage be spent in ascertaining if this nuisance 
could not be converted into a source of wealth. The supply would 
certainly never be in the least affected by the utilisation of the fibre for 
paper manufacture, and in a half pulp state it might be exported to Europe 
at a very low figure. • 

Orthanthera viminea, Wight,, Asclepiadaceje. 

Syn. — Apocvnea viminea, Wall, i Leptadenia viminea, Bih,, Hook, , 

Vern.'—Mahut, Hind. ; Mowa, lancbar, Trans-Indus ; Matti, Beas; Khip, 
Delhi; Kip, Sindj Ckapkia, Kumaun. 

A glabrous shrub of the arid and northern dry region from Sind to 

It yields a fibre, of which rope is made, often used in conjunction with 
that obtained from Leptadenia spartium, Wight, for Persian water wheels 
and moats in Sind ana the Punjab. 

Oryza sativa, Linn,^ GRAMiNEiE. 

The Rice. 

The straw of the ordinary rice has been recommended as a paper 
material, especially the roots. 

Psderia fcetida, Linn,, Rubiaceje. 

Vem. — Gundali, Hind.; Gnnda-bhaduli, Beng. 

From the Central and Eastern Himalayas, ascending to an altitude of 
5,000 feet, southward to Malacca and Westward to Bengal. Common 
around Calcutta, and also in Assam. 

The best fibre is obtained from plants which grow on the alluvial de- 
posits of rivers, as on the banks of the Brahmaputra. The fibre is strong 
and flexible, and has a silk-like appearance. The root is used in native 
medicine as an emetic. (Roxburgh^ The fibre has recently been attract- 
ing much attention in India« 

Pandanus Andamanensium, Kurz., Pandaneje. 

A tree of the Andaman Islands. 

In the Andaman Islands various articles of apparel are made from the 
fibre, such as tail worn by the women, 







Part III.] 

Economic Products of India. 


Pandanus odoratissimus, WiUd. 

The Fragrant Screwpine. 

Vcm. — Keura^ Hind., Bom. ; Kea, ketuki, keori, Beng. ; Mugalik, kutaki, 
Tel.; Thalaytalum, tashan, Tam . ; Saithapu, Burm.; Kaida, thala, 
Mal.; Muda-kaiyeya, Cingh. ; Kadar, Arab. ; Kadi, Pers. 

A common, much-branched shrub, frequently planted on account of 
the powerful fragrance of the flowers, but wild on the coasts of South 
India, Burma, and the Andamans. It is found abundantly in Bengal, 
Madras, Straits Settlements and the South Sea Islands. 

"The leaves are composed of tough, longitudinal fibres, white and glossy, 
which enable them to be employed for covering huts, making matting, 
as well as for cordage, in the South Sea Islands ; and in Mauritius for 
making sacks for coffee, sugar- and grain." (Him, Bot,, p. 408.) 

The fibre from the leaves might be profitably used in the preparation 
of paper. 

18S Parkinsonia aculeata, Linn., Leguminosj:. 

An introduced shrub, or small tree, now almost naturalised in India, 
especially in the arid zones, where it is grown as a hedge plant, parti- 
cularly in Madras. Curiously enough, I found it plentiful as a hedge 
plant m Manipur. 

It yields a fibre of a beautiful white colour, a sample of which was sent 
to the Exhibition of 1851 as a material for paper-making. The fibre 
is considered as wanting in strength, though it may be made useful for 
mixing with other fibrous substances and beaten into a half stuff. 

189 Parrotia Jacquemontiana, Decaisne, Hamamelideje. 

Vern. — Pdser, feshora, po^ kildr, kirru, Pb. 

A laree, deciduous shrub of the North- West Himalaya, from the 
Indus to the Ravi, between 2,800 and 8,500 feet. 

The chief use of the wood is in basket-work and in the making of 
bridges on the Himalayan rivers. The twigs are very tough and flexible^ 
and are twisted together to make thick ropes, often 300 feet long. 

igo Pavonia odorata, WHld., Malvaceji. 

'Vtin.'^PerainuH'-pu, Tam. ; Eira-kati, Tel, 
Cultivated in gardens for its fragrant flowers in the North- West Prov- 
inces, Sindh and Banda, Western Peninsula, Burma, and Ceylon. 
The plant yields a fibre. 

191 P. zeylanica, Cav. 

Vern* — SittamutH, Tam. 
North- West Provinces, Sind, Western Peninsula, and Ceylon. 
The plant yields a fibre. 


Fibres and Fibre-yielding Plants, 

[Part III. 


Periploca aphylla, Decaisne, Asclepiadeje. 
Syn. — Campelepis viminea, Falc, 

Vern. — Buraye, SiiiD\ Barrarra, bane, Trans-InduS; Pa^^m, Jhelum 
and Chenab. 

A shrub of the arid, dry northern zones of the Punjab and Sind. 

It yields a good fibre, which, Royle says, is used along with the fibre of 
Leptadenia Spartium to form the ropes, &c., required for wells and water- 
lifts; the combined fibre is not much affected by the moisture. Stocks 
says : ** used for cordage j flowers fragrant, eaten by the natives, taste like 

Phoenix farinifera, Willd., Vaimm. 

Wenu-'Chilta'eita, Tel.; Ichal, Kan. 

A small, almost stemless, palm of sandy lands, near the sea at Coringa. 
The leaves are used for making mats. 

P. paludosa, I^oxb. 

Vern. — Hintal, hital, golpatta, Beng.; Thinbaung, BuRM. 

A soboliferous, often gregarious, palm of the Sunderbuns, Burma and 
Andaman Islands. 

Its leaves are used in the Sunderbuns to make rough ropes for tying 
boats and logs, and for thatching. 

P. sylvestris, Roxb. 

The Wild Date Palm. 

Vern. — Khajur, kkaji, thalma. Hind. ; Shindi, Mahr. ; Pedda, cita, 
Tel.; Peria-eetcham, Tam. ; Ichal, Kan. 

A tree with ashy, grey foliage, wild and cultivated throughout India. 
The fibrous leaflets and the fibre from petioles are made into mats, 
ropes and baskets. 

Phormium tenax^ Liliacea. 

New Zealand Flax. 

Originally a plant of New Zealand, now largely cultivated in waste 
lands bordering on the sea in tropical or warm temperate countries, such 
as St. Helena, Algiers, South France, and the Orkney Islands. 

The fibre is soft, white, and of a silky lustre, and is now largely used 
for making ropes and paper. 

There does not seem to be much chance of this ever becoming an 
Indian fibre half so valuable as many indigenous Indian plants, although 
in some parts of the country it might easily enough be acclimatised. It 
is stronger than either flax or hemp. It is naturally white and takes 
colour treely> 

Mr. Cameron says that this plant has been introduced, and succeeds 
well, in the South Wynaad. On exposed grass-land, at an elevation of 
2,000 to 3,000 feet, it grows with great vigour. 








Part III.] 

Economic Products of India. 





Pinus sylvestris, Linn,, Conifeils. 

The Silver Fir. 

By the Ekman process this or any other species of pine wood may 
be reduced to a cellulose pulp and made from trie boiler mrect into paper, 
which, without the aid of a microscope, cannot be distinguished from 
paper made from ordinary fibres or linen. 

Fibre. See Agave americana. 

PoUinia eriopodai Trim,, GramIneje. 

Syn. — Andropogon involutus, Stend,; Spodiopogon angustifolius. 

This is the plant which yields the fibre made into Babar strings, so 
largely used in the tract between the Jumna and the Sarda. It is parti- 
cularly abundant in the Garhwal Himalaya, and Stewart suggests that it 
might be found useful as a paper material. See also Eriophorum como- 
sum (Wall). 

Pol3ralthia longifolia, Ben/h, &f Hook./., Anonaceje. 


Vera. — Asok,debddri, Hind. ; Asoka, asApdla, BoM. ; Assothi, Tam. ; Asokd 
devadaru, Tel. 

A large, evergreen tree with smooth bark, wild in Ceylon, and planted 
as an avenue tree throughout Bengal and South India. 

A good bast fibre was shown me by Babu T. N. Mukharji, which was 
said to have been prepared from the inner bark of this tree and sent to 
the Amsterdam Exhibition. 

200 Pouzolzia viminea, Wedd , Urticace-e. 

Vem.-^Chhota ktuiU, Nepal; Kyinghi, Lepcha. 
A shrub or small tree, with thin grey bark, of Kumaun, Nepal, Sik- 
kim. Eastern Bengal, Assam, and Chittagong, ascending to 5,000 feet. 
The bark is used to make ropes. 


Saccharum fuscum^ Roxb., Gramineje. 

VtetL—PaH'hori, Beng. j Kilik, N. W. P. ; Tat, neja, Himalayan names. 

The culms are used in the manufacture of pens and screens ; the leaves 

and reeds, for thatch ; and the leaf-sheaths, like those of most wild species 

of this genus, may be used to supply the fibre from which the sacrificial 

thread is prepared. 


Fibres and Fibre-yielding Plants, 

[Part III. 

Saccharum Mara, Roxh. 

Vem. — Sarpaty sara, sarkara, shur, HiND. ; Sara, shar, Beng. ; Gundra, 
Tel., Sans. 

Common in the plains. 

The fibre is inferior to S. Munja. The reeds are used for matting, 
thatching, chairs, &c. The flower tops may be used as a paper material. 
It is used in Mirzapur for tow-lines, and must, therefore, possess tenacity 
and strength. (Atkinson,) 

The leaves are sometimes made into . mats, and bundles of the stems 
of this or other species of Saccharum are used for floating heavy timber 
on the rivers. Coldstreann states, the young flowering tops are regarded 
as good fodder for milch cows, and that the poor people in the Punjab 
eat the pith. The root of this species, and that of S. Munja and 
S. spontajievm, are used by the natives as a medicine under the name of 
Darba ganda. It is burned near women after child-birth, or near scalds, 
its smoke being regarded as beneficial. {Stewart,) 

S. Munja, Roxb, 

MuNj Grass. 

W&ni*^^Munja, sirki, the upper half of culm ; Seutha, sarpat, the lower 
half; the blade and sheath yield the strong cordage known as Munj-sar- 
kanda (or kana), sarra, Pb. 

This grass is common in North India, 

It is useful in the manufacture of strong ropes, strings, mats, and paper. 
For ropes it is much valued on account of its elasticity and strength, and a 
power of resisting moisture, common to few other fibres. The Sirki is used 
for thatching, covering carts, and constructing exceedingly cheap chairs. 
Under the name of Vind and Munj, a large quantity of the products of 
this plant reach the plains of the North- West Provinces from the lower 
hills. (Atkinson,) It is very abundant in the Punjab, often covering 
whole tracts of country, its tufted masses constituting a formidable obstacle 
to agricultural progression, it being almost impossible of extermination. 

The flower-heads and sheaths of this plant constitute the best paper 
grass material in India. The bdn'tnunj is the flower sheath from which 
the natives prepare a fine thread, 

Munja and several species of Saccharum is largely used in the Upper 
India Paper Mill near Lucknow. 

Specimens of the different plants so used, and of the ropes, thread, 
paper or paper half stuff much required. 

S. officinamm, Linn, 

The Sugar-cane, 

Vem. — tfkhfgannd, HiND., Beng. ; Usa'M.AHR, 
The refuse of the sugar-cane mill has been recommended as a paper 

S. semidecumbens, Roxb. 

Vem. — Kkori, Beng. 
This species is used indiscriminately with S. fuscum* 

S. spontaneum, Linn. 

Vem.— ATaw, kagara, kosa, kus, Hind. ; Kash, Beng.; Rellwgaddi, Tel. ; 
Khan, kahu, SiND. ; Kahi, kdns, Pb.; Kasd, Sans. ; Kagara, Mahr. 

Common in Bengal, the Sub-Himalayan tract and Bundelcund. 
The grass is used to make rope and mats and for thatching ; and pens 
are made of its reeds. It is given as fodder to buffaloes and elephants. 







Part III.] 

Economic Products of India. 


. 206 





Salix babylonica, Linn,^ Salicine^. 

The Weeping Willow. 

Venu—Bisa, haduy hed^ kaiira, majn^n, Pb.; Giur, Kashmir; Tissi, Nepal. 

It is cultivated in North India. Said by Stewart to be indigenous in 
the Sulaiman Range. 

The branches are made into baskets. 

S. daphnoides, Vill. 

"VertL—Bedybiddttbetsafbashal^PB,; Yur, Kashmir; Changma^ West 
Tibet; Richang, Lahoul. 

A shrub of the North- West Himalaya^ both on the outer ranges and 
in the inner arid tract. It extends to the Alps and the mountains of 
Central Europe. 

The twigs are used for baskets. 

S. tetrasperma, l^oxb. 

VenU'-Bedt bent, haishi. Hind.; Pant jama, Beng. ; Laila, bains, 
N. W. India; Bis, beis, bitsa, bin, magsher, safedar, Pb.; Yir, Kashmir; 
Bilsa^ Oudh; Bhesh, Garo; Bhi, Ass.; Wallunj, Bom.; Niranji, 
Kan.; Momaka, Burm. 

A moderate-sized, deciduous tree, found throughout India, on river- 
banks and moist places, and in the Himalayan Valleys, ascending to 6,000 

The twigs are made into baskets. 

S. Wallichiana, And. 

Vera. —Bwir, Pb. ; Bhains, bhangli, kaigMi, N. W. P. 

A large shrub of Afghanistan, Kashmir, Himalaya, eastward to Bhutan, 
ascending to 9,000 feet. 

The branches are made into baskets. 


zeylanica, WUld,, HiEMODORACEjE. 

The Bow-string Hemp. 

Syn.— It seems doubtful if the Bengal plant (S. Rozburghiafia) should be 

viewed as the same as that met with in Ceylon. 
yfem.—Murba, murahara, murgli, Beng.; Murgali, Dec; Mallai, 

mangi, Salem ; Ghonasaphan, Mahr. ; Tshama-cada, chaga, saga, 

Tel. ; MarU, Tam. ; Marura, Sans. 

A stemless bush with a rosette of 6 to 8 succulent leaves, the inner ones 
being often 4 feet long and ending in a long straight spine ; scape rising 
from the centre i to 2 feet long, flowers greenish, wnite, erect 4 to 6 toge- 
ther in clusters. (Compare with Yucca gloriosa.) 

It makes its appearance on the coast of Bengal, extending to the Madras 
Presidency, common on the Coromandel Coast, in ereat abundance in Cum- 
bum and in Dindigul District. It is also plentiful in Ceylon extending to 
Java, the coast of China, and Africa. It is probable that the Java and 
African plants are distinct species, the latter bearing the name of 
S. gpjiicciisis. 


Fibres and Fibre-yielding Plants. 

[Part III. 

From the succulent leaves is extracted a beautiful, soft, silky fibre, held 
in high esteem by the natives on account of its elasticity and its consequent 
suitableness for bow-strings. Sir W. Jones says : " From the leaves of 
this plant the ancient Hindus extracted a very long, elastic thread, called 
Maurviy of which they made bow-strings, and which for that reason was 
ordained by Menu to form the sacrificial zone of the military classes." 
This fibre was mistaken by Roxburgh for the China grass (Rhea), It is 
easily cultivated and associated with Yucca fibre and deserves every atten- 
tion. Specimens of dried leaves, of the root, and of the fibre and the fabrics 
manufactured from it should be supplied by Madras. The fibre is much 
valued in Europe for ropes used in deep-sea dredgings, and makes a very 
superior paper. 

Sarcochlamys pulcherrima, Gaudich, Urticaceje. 

Syn. — Urtica pulcherrima, Roxb. 
Vera. — Tsatya, sapsha, Burm. 
A large, handsome shrub with tri-nerved leaves, grey beneath ; common 
in Eastern Bengal and Burma, especially in deserted cultivation. 
The liber gives a good fibre for ropes. 

Sesbania aculeata, Pers., Leguminosje. 

Mtm.-^ Dhantcha, Beng. ; Kdn-sevari, Mahr. ; Erra-jilgua, Tel. 

This plant is found in Bengal and South India. 

A strong fibre is extracted from its stalks, which is made into ropes 
and fishing nets, as water cannot act upon it. This fibre is considered 
superior to Jute in strength and durability. It is best suited for the manu- 
facture of cordage, for which purpose it is preferred to Crotolaria and 

S. Sgyptica, Pers, 


Vern. — yait, jhinjan, janjkan, Hind. ; yayanti, Beng. ; Saori, Berar ; 
Shewari, Dec. ; Sevari, Mahr.; Suiminta, Tel. ; Yethagyi, Burm. 

A soft-wooded tree, cultivated in many parts of India and Burma, wild 
in tropical Africa. 

The bark is made into rope. 

S. Grandiflora, Pers,, Leguminosje. 


Vem. — Basna, Hind.; Buka, bak, Beng.; Skevari, agasta, Mahr.; Agati, 
Tam. ; Aoesi, Tel. ; Poukpan, Burm. 

Cultivated throughout India and Burma ; a doubtful native. 
A handsome, small tree with pink flowers. The inner bark appears 
to be likely to yield good fibre. (Dymock,) 



21 Z 




Part III.] 

Economic Products of India. 

SILK and 








Sida carpinifolia, Linn.^ Malvaceje. 

Syn. — S. ACUTA, Bum, ; S. lanceolata, Roxh, 

Vtm.'^Kareta, Beng., Hind. ; Tupakariya, Mahr.; Vatta-tirippi, Tam. ; 
ChiHfnuH, Tel. 

A small plant found chiefly in South India. 
A good fibre is obtained from the stems. 

S. cordifolia, Zinn. 

Vcm. — Bijband, muttava, Hind. ; Berela, bala, Beng. 
A small weed generally found in moist places. 
The plant yields a fine, white fibre. 

S. rhombifoliai Linn. 

Vera. — Swet-berela, Beng. ; Athiballa-chettu, Tam. 

It grows abundantly in Northern Bengal in the rainy season. 

The bark of this plant yields, according to Dr. Roxburgh, a large quan- 
tity of very delicate, flaxy fibre. Spons* Encyclopiedia says that it affords 
much fibre, having great strength, and average length and fineness. 

Silks and Silk-worms. 

Silk is produced by two families of Lepidopterous insects called Bomby^ 
ddae and Saturniidae. The first of these two families comprises four genera, 
viz., Bombyz, Ocinara, Theophila, Trilocha. 


The Bombyx includes six species, enumerated by Mr. Frederic Moore 
in a list published in Mr. Thos. Wardle's Hand-book of the Wild Silks of 
India, They are as follows, and form the class of worms commonly 
known as " the domesticated silk-worm," or 'Uhe mulberry silk-worm '* :— 

B. arracanensis, Button. 

The Burmese silk-worm, domesticated in Arracan, said to have been 
introduced from China through Burma ; yields several broods annually ; 
cocoons larger than the Bengal monthly species. 

B. croesi, Hutton, 

The Nistri or Madrasi of Bengal, introduced from China; domes- 
ticated in Bengal; yielding seven or eight broods of golden yellow 
cocoons in the year, of larger size than B. sineniSis. 

B. fortunatus, Hutton. 

The desi (commonly spelt dasee) of Bengal ; yields several broods 
annually, spinning the smallest cocoon of a golden yellow colour. 


Fibres and Fibre-yielding Plants. 

[ Part III. 

Boinliyx morii Linn, 

The common silkworm, domesticated in China, Bokhara, Afghanistan, 
Kashmir, Persia, South Russia, Turkejr, Egypt, and Algeria, Italy, France, 
and Spain, in all of which countries it produces but one crop annually, 
spinning the largest cocoon and the best silk of a golden yellow, or 

B. sinensiSy Button. 

The Sina, Cheena, or small Chinese monthly worm of Bengal, partially 
domesticated in Bengal, where it was introduced from China ; produces 
several broods in the year ; cocoon white and yellow. 

B. textor, Hutton. 

The Boropulu of Bengal, domesticated in South China and Bengal ; 
an annual only, producing a white (sometimes yellow) cocoon, of a differ- 
ent texture and more flossy than B. mori. 

The other three genera, commonly classed amongst wild silk-worms, 
are, as follows :— 

O. diaphana, Moore. 

Khdsia hills. 

O.lactea, -»«//(?«, 

Mussooree, North-west Himalaya up to Kulu, feeds on Ficus yenosa, 
spinning a small, yellow cocoon, yielding several broods during the sum- 

O. moorei, Hutton. 

Mussooree, North-west Himalaya, also found in Dehra Dun ; also feeds 
on Ficus yenosa as well as on the wild fig, spinning a small, white cocoon ; 
it is multivoltine. 

T. bengalensis, Button. 

The wild silk-worm of Lower Bengal, discovered in the neighbourhood 
of Calcutta feeding on Artocarpus lacoocha; found also at Ranchi, in 
Chota Nagpur. . 

T. huttoni, Westwood. 

The wild silk-worm of the North West Himalaya. A wild species, the 
worms bemg found abundantly feeding on the indigenous mulberry in 
the mountain forests of the North West Himalaya. 

T. mandarinai Moore. 

The wild silk-worm of Chekiang, North China. Worms stated to feed 
on wild mulberry trees, spinning a white cocoon. 

T. rellgiosa, Bel/er. 

The Jori of Assam and Deo-muga of Cachar ; feeds on the bur tree 
. (Ficus indica) and the pipul (F. religiosa). 

E 65 

SILK and 







Part III.] 

Economic Products of India. 

SILK and 




T. Sherwilli, Moore, 

The wild silk- worm of the South East Himalaya (also found in 


232 T. vaiians, Walker, 

North and South India. 


The domesticated or mulberry silk-worms form an industry quite 
distinct from that connected with the wild silks. Mr. L. Liotard, 
in i 'memorandum just published by the Government of India, gives a 
full account of the industry, and the following extracts are taken from 
it: — 

"The multivoltine worms are confined chiefly to Bengal, where they 
produce three chief crops, locally termed bunds, i, e,, three seasons of 
hatching, feeding, spinning and gathering the cocoon. The November 
bund extends from ist October to end of February, the March bund 
from I St March to 30th June, the July bund from ist July to 3olh Sep- 
tember. The worms thrive best in the cold season, i, e., in the October- 
February bund. In this bund the boro-poloo, or annual worm, is also 
reared in Murshedabad and a few other places. The March bund is not 
so good ; and the rainy season bund is the worst. 

"In Upper India and in Kashmir the univoltine worms are those 
usually reared; the rearing takes place in February and March ; and the 
eggs obtained in the latter month are stored in cool places or sent to the 
hills to preserve them from the effects of the summer heat. Towards 
the middle of the following February, when the mulberry trees send forth 
new leaves, the eggs are brought back to the rearing houses and allowed 
to hatch. 

In Bengal, — " The cultivation of the mulberry and the rearing of 
the worms are conducted by the peasantry and by two different classes 
the cultivator of the mulberry and the rearer of the worms of 
people who are under no obligation but their own intetests. The 
destination of the cocoons is two-fold : they are as a rule either sent to 
small native filatures where the silk is roughly wound and usually con- 
sumed in the hand-looms of the country, or consigned to Madras^ or to 
the Bombay mills ; or they are brought to the great European factories in 
Bengal where, after being reeled by steam machinery, the silk is con- 
signed direct to Europe. The chief silk-producing districts are Raj- 
shahye, Murshedabad, Malda, Birbhum and Midnapur, with Nuddea, 
Bankura, Bogra and Rungpur of less importance * * *." 

The industry has, during several years, been in a declining condition. 
Mr. Liotard says : — 

" Different opinions have been advanced to account for the decline in 
the silk industry of Bengal. The extensive importation from Japan and 
China to Europe since the opening of the Suez Canal — the larger yield 
of recent seasons in Italy and France which receive regular supplies of 
silk-worm eggs from Japan — the indifferent quality of the Bengal silk, and 
the probable fact that the demand for silk goods has not kept pace pro- 
portionately with the increased supply thrown upon the niarket — have all 
been brought forward as so many causes of the stagnation and gradual 


Fibres and Fibre-yielding Plants, 

[Part III. 

decline of the Bengal silk industry ; and perhaps there is some truth in 
each and all of these opinions. "But there seems to be evidence to lead 
to the belief that of the European and native sections of the industry, it 
is the Euroi)ean that has suffered the more seriously. In Rajshahye, 
the native is almost entirely in the hands of the European section), 
and the European section complains of the obstinacy with which the 
native workers in silk demand high prices in the face of the active 
competition with Bengal silk which has set in from Europe, China 
and Japan. The native section, however, does not seem ready to lower 
their prices, or accept any radical change of custom. The Bengal worm 
suits Its circumstances ; it eats little comparatively, and thrives on the im- 
mature or shrub mulberry leaf which is renewed at every cutting ; it is 
considered less troublesome in rearing, and spins often, being multivoltine, 
except in Murshedabad and Midnapur, where the annual worm {Jjoro- 
poloo) is reared. The silk thread obtained is wanting in wiriness, and a 
Dad system of reeling makes the threads crusty and an abomination to 
the European silk-thrower. The European firms, who have so great a 
stake in the Indian industry, have repeatedly made efforts to bring im- 
provements in the native system of rearing and reeling. But the natives 
care little about that so long as their industry goes on according to custom, 
and they can raise and dispose of their produce by reeling it off themselves 
for despatch to other parts of India. European firms find themselves 
compelled to buy the native produce or close their filatures. These 
facts may lead to the inference that the native section can go on prosper- 
ing whatever may happen to the European section ; but the Collector of 
Malda is of a contrary opinion ; he writes : 


If the European-supervised silk filatures were closed, the native silk industry 
would still thrive for a long time, but undoubtedly such collapse would recoil upon 
it and be disastrous to the native silk industry which is so largely subsidised and in- 
directly guided by European capitalists. Without that capital and guidance and 
support the native silk industry would, it is believed, become very precarious, and 
collapse after a time.' 

"The native section, however, is not without its vicissititudes : sometimes 
the worms fail to spin from extremes of heat and cold, from too much 
rain and cloudy weather in their last stage, and from the want of oppor- 
tune showers for the mulberries. Sometimes, when the rainy season is 
good, mulberry leaves are abundant and then the crop of cocoons is fine, 
and there is a glut in the native silk market, which brings down the price 
of cocoons and of reeled silk ; sometimes again, the silk crops in France, 
Italy and China are very good and the market for Indian silk is then 
very bad. Lastly, the rents of land under mulberry cultivation are exces- 
sively high, and this, which is not the least of the drawbacks, enhances the 
cost of producing silk, tempts the rearers to give the very least quantity 
of leaf required, and causes, by a semi-state of starvation of the worms, 
the weakness in the silk which renders it difficult to reel without break- 

North'West Provinces, ^^C&ctdAn experiments made by Government 
from 1875 to 1882 to ascertain the suitability of the natural condi- 
tions of Dehra Dun for the rearing of the annual mulberry silk-worm 
gave encouraging results, and Messrs. Lister & Co., of Bradford (Eng- 
land), took over the whole enterprise and received an assignment of 
land in that district for the carrying out of the industry. They have at 
present an agent who supplies eggs to the native cultivators and purchases 
the cocoons from them on behalf of his firm, besides himself rearing certain 
quantities. Elsewhere in the Provinces there is little or no silk produced j 
the raw material is generally obtained from Bengal and manufactured in- 
to cloths in a few places, and Bengal also sends manufactured articles. 


SILK and 


Part III.] 

Economic Products of India, 



Punjab. — Messrs. lister & Co. have agents in the Kanera and Gur- 
daspur districts, who supply eegs to the cultivators and purchase the 
cocoons produced, which tney reel m the filature here established by their 

In the other Provinces the production of mulberry silk has not 
gained any importance, and trials made to introduce or develop the 
small existing industry, have so far not been fruitful of any marked results. 
The manufacture of silk cloths, plain and embroidered, continues, however, 
as of old to be done in several places in the Punjab, the Bombay Presi- 
dency, Madras and British Burma, with the raw material imported either 
from China, Persia or Bengal. 

The exports (Indian) of silks, raw and manufactured, to other countries 
by sea have been as follows during the last three years \-^ 


















Meaning of 

Raw silk. 


or waste 






Goods of 
other mate 



Total value 


QoantitieB . 





• •• 











Qoantities . 



















188248 .| 

Quantities . 


















Nora.— The quanUties in Cols. S 4, 5, 6 and tf are lbs ; those in Cols. 7 and 8 are yds. ; the 
values are evenrywhere rupees. 

The provinces whence the exports proceed are :— 

Nature of Silk. 

Indian silks 



























Raw • • • . 




• e* 

• •• 

Chussum or waste • 



• t • 


• •• 



• •• 

• •• 


• •• 

1880-81 ./ 

Thread for sewing • 




• •• 

• • • 

Piece goods 






Goods of silk mixed with 

other materials 







Other sorts 



• at 










Fibres and Fibre^yielding Plants. 

[Part IU. 



Nature of Silk. 




1882-83 X 

Raw ... 

Chussnm Or waste . 

Cocoons . 

Thread for sewing . 

Piece goods 

Goods of silk mixed with 

other materials 
Other sorts 


Raw • • - 

Chussnm or waste . 
Cocoons • . 
Thread for sewing . 
Piece goods . , ^ 
Goods of silk mixed with 

other materials 
Other sorts 



















• • • 















• •• 

• •• 




















The countries to which the exports proceed are shown in the next table ; 
the figures are those of 1882-83 :— 

Countries to 
which export- 



France • « 

United Kingdom 

Straits Settle- 
ments . . 
Aden^ ^ 

Mauritius . ^ . 
Turkey in Asia . 
Other countries . 

Total . 












• •• 

• •• 






































Part III] 

Economic Products of India. 

SILK and 




The family of Saturnidae comprises eleven genera, under which are 
grouped nearly 400 species, all of which are silk-spinners. The eleven 
genera may be noticed m alphabetcal order : — 


Includes five species known in India. 

A. ignescens, Moore. 

Andaman Isles. 
A. letO, DouhUday. 

Inhabits Sikkim, KhSsia Hills and Sibsagor. 

A. mosxias, DouhUdav. 

Sikkim and Khasia Hills. 
A. Selene {McLeay.) 

Inhabits Mussouri, Sikkim on the north; Khasia Hills, Shillong 
Sylhet and Sibsagar on the east, and Madras on the south. Feeds on 
the following trees :— 

xst— Coriarianepalensis, WaU, 

A shrub of the Himalaya, found from Murree to Bhutan and in 

2od«— Juglans regia, Linn, 

The Walnut. 

Vera. — Akhroty Hind., Beng.; Kowal, Lepcha. 
Wild in the north-west and Sikkim Himalaya, often also cultivated. 

3rd.^Odiiiawodier, Roxb, 

Vera. — Jiyal, Beng ; Kashmala, Hind. ; Gatnpina, Tel. 
A deciduous tree met with throughout the hotter parts of India, and 
along the foot of the Himalaya to Assam, Burma and the Andamans. 

4th.--Pieris ovalifolia A Don, 

Vem.—Ayar, HiND. j Anjir, Nepal 5 Piaeay, Bhutan 5 Kangskior, Lep- 


A tree or shrub common in the Khasia Mountains and in the Hima- 
laya from Bhutan to Kashmir, also in British Burma. 

Stfa. Prumua Cerasus, Linn, 
The wild Cherry. 
Cultivated in the North- West Himalaya. 
A. SineflSiS, Walker. 

Found up to now in North China. 

n. ANTHERffiA. 

Anthera^. A genus of silk-worm moths belonging to the sub-order 
Heterocera, of which the most valuable are the Tusser, Munga and 


The following enumeration of the Indian Economic species belonging 
to this genus has, in substance, been taken from Mr. Moore s brief 
classification, published in Mr. T. Wardle's Hand-Book of the Wild Stlks 
of India. It will be found to indicate the chief regions where the more 
important Tusser silk-worms are met with. 


Fibres and Fibre-yielding Plants. 

[ Part III. 

Antheraea andamanai Moore, Heterocbra. 

An allied species to the common Tusser, inhabiting the South Andaman 

A. assama, Heifer. 

The Munga of Assam, also found in Sikkim; in Assam it is exten- 
sively cultivated, often in a state of domestication, although the insect 
produces the best silk when reared upon the trees in the jungles in a 
semi-wild condition. A considerable export trade exists from Assam in 
Munga silk-yarn. 

A. frithii, Moore. 

A common species, found in the hot valleys below Darjeeling, and to a 
certain extent along the outer ranges of the Himalaya, ascending to 2,000 
feet, also in Sikkim. The fibre is reported as finer than that obtained from 
the ordinary Tusser. 

A. helferii, Moore. 

Met with along with A. Frithii in the sub-tropical East Himalayan 

A. mezankuri, Moore. 

This yields the Mesankuri silk of Assam, a fibre nearly white, and 
valued at about 50 per cent, above that of Munga, 

Specimens of the cocoons, of the silk yarns and fabrics prepared from 
this insect should be procured from Assam ; also all available informa- 
tion. The worm feeds upon Tetraathera polantfaa Wall, the Meeankuri 
of Assam. It is stated to be abundant. 

A. mylitta, Brury. 

The Tusser silk-worm. This well-known and valuable insect seems to 
be met with throughout the low hills of the central plateau of India. 

A. nebulosa, Huiton, 

This worm is reported to be met with in the jungles of Colong, Sing- 
bhum and Chutia Nagpur. 

A. perrottei^ Gu^. Min. 

A silk- worm, said to be a native of Pondicherry, reported to produce 
four broods a year. 

A. roylei, Moore. 

This is the oak-feeding silk-worm of the North- West Himalaya (Simla, 
Masuri, Almora, &c.) ; also found in Sikkim. The cocoon is large and 
very tough ; but as it is reared successfully in houses,, it is regarded as 
capable of improvement and development. 

A. siwalika, Moore. 

This is the Tusser worm met with on the submontane districts of the 
Punjab. This species feeds upon the Zizyphus Jujuba {per or heri)^ and is 
found plentiful m Hoshiarpur District. 

Anthersa assama, Heifer. 

The Munga Silk- Worm. 

Vera. — M4nga, m^ga. Ass. 
This insect is met with chiefly in Assam, extending east to the Naga 
hills and the mountains of I^rth Burma, including Silhet and Cachar, I 


SILK and 














Part III.] 

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and extending south to Tipperah. In Cachar and the Naga hills 
I am not aware that the cocoons are even collected, although, in some 
districts, they are quite plentiful. In his Hand- Book of the Indian Wild 
Silks, Mr. Wardle gives a map of the Munga silk, showing it to be found, 
in addition to the above localities, far away to the west in Dehra Dun, 
and across the Peninsula at Dhumimpur in the Bombay Presidency. 
This is apparently founded upon a remark made by Mr. Geoghegan 
that it is met sparingly at Dehra Dun ; but in the text of his work 
Mr. Wardle makes no mention of these localities. It would be exceedingly 
interesting to know if the insect is actually met with so far away from 
Assam, and to what extent. Specimens of the cocoons, yarn and fabrics, 
along with information, would be most interesting from the Ddn and 
from Dhurrumpur. 

This insect is, to a certain extent, domesticated in Assam, being reared 
in houses, but it is found to produce better and more productive cocoons 
when let go wild on the trees around the cultivator's house. It is stated to 
have five broods a year. The breeders of Upper Assam annually import 
their seed cocoons from Kamrup, all attempts to successfully perpetuate 
the species in domestication having failed. Breeding cocoons cost Rs. 2 
per thousand. 

The worm is described by Dr. Brandis {Indian Forester, Vol. V,p, 3$) 
and by Mr. Hugon and other authors as feeding in Assam upon the, 
following trees :— 

1st.— CimuuBomim obtusifofiiim, Nee$. 
Ram'teapat, Bbkg. ; Paiichanda, Ass. 
A large, evergreen tree of the outer Himalaya, ascending to altitude 
7,000 feet. The Munga silk-worm sometimes feeds upon the leaves of 
this tree. 

2ti4.— CyHcopodapfane nitida, Meissn, 
Kotoloah, Ass. . 
A large tree of East Bengal, Assam and Burma, on the leaves of which 
the Munga silk-worm sometimes feeds. This is most probably the 
Kontooloa referred to by Hugon. 

^rd.— Bfichelia Champaca, Linn. 

Champa, or Champaca^ Beng. ; Titasappa, Ass. ; Oulia champ, Nep. 

A tall, evergreen tree, with large, yellow, strongly-scented flowers. 
Cultivated throughout India, wild in Nepal, Bengal and Assam. 

Captain Jenkins says the Munga silk-worm feeds upon this tree, 
but I am inclined to think there is some mistake regarding this statement, 
the species found upon the Champa being most probably quite distinct 
from the ordinary Mdng^. 

4th.~iy[adiiliui odofatissinia, Nees. 

Soom, Ass. ; Kawala, Hind. ; Dingpingwait, Khasia. 
A lai^e tree of the Eastern Himalaya ascending to altitude 8,000 
feet ; common in Assam and the Khiisia hills. 

This is the chief plant upon which the Munga silk-worm feeds. It 
grows gregariously, forming forests, and is often cultivated around villages 
to feed the domesticated worm, for, in some parts of Assam, the Munga 
may be said to be in a state of domestication. 

Sth.— Symplocos grandiflora, Wall. 

BumroH, Ass. ; Moat soom, Phekial. 
A handsome tree or large bush which Mr. Mann says is sometimes 
used to feed the Munga [silk-worm. Two other members of this genus, 


Fibres and Fibre-yielding Plants. 

[ Part III. 

are used to feed the small yellow silk- worms (Eria), viz,, S. cratcBgoides, 
Ham., and S. ramosissima, Wall. Could it be possible that Mr. Mann 
mistook large Eria worms for the Munga for it would seem unlikely to find 
the Munga feeding upon anything but laurels. 

6th.~Tetranthera glauca, Wall. 

Digloiti, Ass. ; Setnpat, Nepal ; Diglilait, Mbchi. 
All evergreen tree of the Eastern Himalaya and East Bengal^ upon 
the leaves of which the Muga or Mdnga silk-worms are sometimes fed. 

7th. — Tetranthera monopetala, Roxb. 

Sualu, Ass. 5 Haura, Cachar ; Bolbek, Garo. ; Meda, gwa, singraf, marda, I 
kerauli, patoia. Hind.; Mendah, kari, leja, Condi. 

A moderate-sized tree of the Sub-Himalaya, extending from the Ravi 
eastward to Bengal and Burma, and south to Central and South India. 
Upon the aromatic leaves of this plant the Muga silk-worm is stated to 
feed in Assam. 

8th.~Tetranthera polyantha, Wall. 

Adakuri, edenkuri, megenkuri. Ass. ; SilHmber, Nepal ; Terhilsok, Lepcha. 
A small tree of the Eastern Himalaya, Assam and the Khasia hills. 
In Assam the leaves are largely used to feed the Muga silk-worm; in 
fact, this tree is nextjn importance to the Soom for this purpose. 

Dr. Brandis makes no mention of the Champa tree being used in 
Assam to feed the Muga worm, while Captain (tne late Genera Jenkins 
says : " The silk produced from the worm feeding upon this planl) gives the 
finest and whitest silk, used only by the Rajah and great peotple, and is 
called Champa^pattea Munga. The thread is sold at from Rs. 1 1 to 12 a 
seer. With the exception of this plant and the species of Symplocos 
referred to above, the Muga silk-worm seems to feed entirely upon 
species of Laurel. This is a most remarkable fact, of itself circumscribing 
the home of the Munga worm, and removing it in a marked degree 
from all the other silk-worm moths. One can hardly imagine a 
creature, displaying so decided a preference for dry, evergreen, aro- 
matic leaves, takmg to any other kind of food, and there would, from this 
fact alone, seem some doubt regarding the Champa tree as a source of food 
for the Munga worm. Information from Assam should be obtained, as also 
specimens both of worm and cocoon feeding on the Champa. The former 
snould be preserved in small bottles or tubes amongst a little spirits of 
wine, or simply brandy and water. There is every probability that the 
Champa-feeding worm (if such exists) is a perfectly distinct species, and as 
it is reported to yield the finest Munga silk, it seems highly desirable that 
special attention should be given to this subject. It is the more probable 
that this shall be found a correct conjecture, since up to within a few years 
the Antfaenea mezanknri was supposed to be the same species as the 
common Munga. Mr. Hugon places the Champa-reared Mdnga on a par 
with the Mezankuri, and regards both as 50 per cent, finer than the 
ordinary Munga. 

The Munga Silk-Worm. 

On being hatched this caterpillar is co mposed of alternate black and 
yellow rings, but as it grows older«the black bands are reduced to black spots 
or moles in regular lines, on each of the twelve rings which form the body. 
As it matures the colours change still further, the main colour becoming 
light ereenish-yellow, with brilliant red moles, each having a gold edge 
around it and four sharp prickles and a few black hairs. When full 


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Part III.] 

Economic Products of India. 

SILK and 




grown it is about four inches long. The eggs are hatched in 10 days^ 
the moth remaining within the. cocoon for 16 to 20 days. 

The Co CO ok. 

Is fawn-coloured^ large and thin, devoid of the curious suspensor 
so characteristic of the Tusser cocoon. The short period erf lethargy 
does not necessitate so much care in the construction nor protection of 
the cocoon as is displayed by the instinct of the Tusser worm. 

The Fibre. 

The soft loose fibre from the inner part of the Muga Cocoon is " thrown/' 
in Assam, into a simple kind of yarn, and in this condition it is largely 
exported. The fabrics made from it are worn by the middle class, 
the Eria silk fabrics by the poor. The outer fibre is about x^ inch 
in diameter, and bears a strain of 2} drams, while the inner fibre is 
-j^^, and will support 3 drams. The tension of the outer fibres is about 
one inch to the foot, while the inner fibre is about* i{ inches. The fibre 
is not only much finer than the Tusser silk, but it is round, like that 
obtained from the mulberry-fed worms. It will show the difference 
between the Munga and Tusser silks to give here the measurements of 
the latter so as to allow of comparison :— 

From edge to edge of the Tusser fibre, Mr. Wardle says, the diameter 
is y^th part of an inch taken from the outer fibres, and from the inner 
fibres tItf* the former bear a strain of 7 drams, while the fine and uniform 
fibres from the inner layer of the cocoon bear as much as 8 drams. The 
thickness of the Tusser fibre is about -r^^ part of an inch. 

The mullberry silk-worm of Bengal produces a fibre ^-jjs^ part of an 
inch in diameter for its outer fibres and -^^^ for its inner. 

Anthersa mylittai Drury. 

The Tusser Silk Moth, Eng,; Tussore, Fr.; Bombtx seide, 

Mem. — Tasar or bugky saidjarvo iasar, Birbhum; ChatHsghari tasar 

Santhal Parganas; Guti tasar, Bankura; Dosm, daha, ampath 

ampoHa tasar , Manbhum; Jar4, (described by Buchanan and Hamilton 

in tne districts of Bhagulpore and Dinagepore), Beng. ; Katkura or tussar, 

kutkuri konkuri mung, gori, deomunga. Ass. ; Tusuru, Hind. ; Kolissura, 


The Tusser silk-worm is, perhaps, the most abundant, as it is the most 

important, of the so-called Indian wild silks. It seems to occur in a wild 

state in the forests of the lower undulations of the plains of India, but is 

apparently absent from North India, Burma and Ceylon. I found it 

occasional in the lower and hotter forests of Manipur, often ascending 

to 2,000 feet in altitude. This fact extends the apparent eastern line of 

habitat of the insect to the mountain slopes of North Burma. 

Mr. Hugon regarded the insect called in Bengal Bughy, ^hich is met 
with feeding upon the BSr (Zizyphus), to be a different species from the 
JarvOy found on the Asan (TerminaHa), but Moore and other Entomolo- 
gists think this is not the case. As Economic products, however, they differ 
considerably from each other, and the worm is of a difterent colour. If not 
distinct species, these forms illustrate, in a marked degree, the effect of 
different food in changing many of the characters of an insect. Th€ so-called 
Tusser of the Punjab is, however, a perfectly distinct species, which I have 
accordingly exciuaed from present consideration, 

• In page 58 of his Hand-book, Mr. Wardle gives the tension of the inner fibre as 
1 1, and in his table at page 68 he shows it as only f inch per foot. 


Fibres and Fibre-yielding Plants. 

[ Part III, 

The Home op the Tusser, 

It may be said to be a denben of the highland forests inhabited by 
the Santhal, the Kol, the Khond, and the Gond, extending west and south- 
west of the Ganeetic alluvial basin. Commencing at Rajmehal the region 
of the Tusser silk-worm may be said to stretch away south through the 
Bajmehal and Kurackpore hills to thejtable-land of Chutia Nagpur, thence 
to the mountain tracts of Orissa, of the Central Provinces, and the Northern 
Circars to Haidarabad. Taking the westerly direction this region may 
be said to pass from Rajmehal and Bhagulpur, through Behar, to the 
Kaimor mountains and Bandelkhand, thence to the Central Provinces and 
Berar. Practically speaking, this region may be said to have the Ganges 
for its northern boundary and the Godavari for its southern, with the coast 
ranges from Midnapur in Orissa, to Ramgar in Haidarabad, as its south- 
eastern and the Narbada river and the Kaimor mountains as its north- 
western boundary. Of course the Tusser insect crosses these limitations 
to a certain extent, being met with on the north of the Ganges along the 
foot of the Himalaya from Nepal to Sikkim, Assam and the Khasia hills, 
the Naga hills and the Lushai country to Chittagong, the Sunderbuns, 
and, sparingly, in the neighbourhood of Calcutta. It also crosses the 
Godavari, extending into the mountains of the Madras Presidency, and is 
even reported as met with in Mysore. Beyond the region which has been 
defined however, it can only be said to occur to a small extent, and in a 
wild and neglected condition, for, with the exception of a small corner of 
the North- West Provinces at Mirzapur, the cocoons are not even col- 
lected. The name Tusser has unfortunately been applied to all fawn-coloured 
indigenous silks, and in the North- West Provinces at Mirzapur a mixed 
cotton and silk fabric bears that name. It is exceedingly doubtful there- 
fore if the Tusser worm proper occurs anywhere beyond the region defined, 
and it is incorrect to regard it as met with throughout the entire 
Peninsula of India. Mr. Wardle gives a map of the region inhabited 
by the Tusser insect, colouring the whole of India, except Cashmir, Rajput- 
ana, Bhutan, Burma and Ceylon. This is (juite a mistake. It seems, prac- 
tically speaking, to be absent from the Punjab, Rajputana, the North- West 
Provinces and Oudh. It nowhere occurs upon the Himalaya proper, never 
ascending above 2,000 feet in altitude, and it rarely if ever exists on the allu- 
vial plains, except where these are limited and confined by hilly undulations. 
The centres of the Tusser silk trade in India may be given as follows : — 
In J?en^a/.— Bankoora, Bishnapur, Bhaugulpore^ Futwa, Gaya, and 


In the Central Provinces. — Raipore, Bilaspore, Sambulpore, Upper 
Godavari, Chanda, Bhundara, Nagpore, Balaghat, Seonee, Chhindwara and 


In Berar and Haidarabad —EWichi^oTe, Kummeer, Warrungal and 


Food of the Tusser. 

The following are the principal trees upon which the Tusser caterpillar 
feeds: — 

Anoseldtos latifolia, Wall, 

Vtni,—Dhdwa, dhdura, bakU, HiND.; G6bra, dhokridan, RajpUTANA. 

A common tree of the Tropical Himalayan forests, extending to Central 
South India. Captain Brooke mentions the wild wormsin the Seonee 
forests as being met with on this tree. 


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Part III.] 

Economic Products of India. 

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Bombaz malaboricum, DC, 

Vera. — Semul, shembal, semur, bauro. Hind., Beng., Ass. ; Illavam^ Tam. ; 
Burga, buraga, Tel. 

Mp. Hugon mentions this tree as being one of the chief trees in Assam 
upon which it feeds. 

Careya arborea, Roxb, 

Vem.—Kumbi, Hind. ; Komba, BoM. ; Boktok, Lepcha ; Dambel, GXro 
Ayma, Tam. 

Carissa Carandas, Linn, 

Venu—Karaunda, kurunda. Hind. ; Kurumia, Beng. j Kalaka, Tam. 

Eus^enia Jambolana, Lam* 

Described by Major Coussmaker as being a good plant to feed this 
worm upon. 

Ficus religiosa, Linn. 
The Peepul ; Aswdt, asud, Beng. 

Mr, Gamble says the gori or deomuga silk-worm feeds upon this plant 
in Assam. I am unable to decide as to what insect is meant, but have 
guessed it to be the Tusser, but it may probably be Bombyx religiosa. 

Ficus retnsa, Linn. 

VtXtL^Kamrup, sir, Beng.; yamu, Nep.; Situyok, Lepcha ; Yerray 
juri, Tel. ; Pildla, Kan. ; Nyoungop, Burm. 

A large, elegant tree, often cultivated in India in avenues. 
LagerstroetBia indica, Linn. 

Vem. — Telinga^hina, Hind. ; Daiyeti, Sind and Pb, 
A small bush, much cultivated in Indian gardens on account of its rose- 
pink flowers. 

LagerstrcBfflia parviflom, Hook. 
Vera. — Lendya, dhaura. Hind. 
A small tree or large bush, wild in Bengal, Central, and South India. 
Ridnus communis, Linn. 

Vera. — Rand, arund, arendi. Hind. 
Shorea robusta, Gaertn, 

Vera.— 5(1/, sdla, sdlwa. Hind. ; Koroh, Oudh ; GUgal, Tel. 
Mr. B. H. Hodgson {Journal, Agri.-Horti. Society of India) says the 
Tusser feeds chiefly upon this tree in the Mechi forests at the foot of the 
Sikkim Himalaya, r. Heifer mentions this same fact, and it is also 
reported to be the tree in Midnapur upon which the insect feeds. 

Tectona grandis, Linn. 

Vem.'^Sdgun, Hind. ; Tekku, Tam. ; Kyum, Burm. 
Col. Sykes states that the Kolisurra (or Tusser) worm feeds upon this 
tree in the Deccan. 

Teraiinalia Aijana, Bedd. 

Vera. — Anjan, arjun. Hind., Beng. ; Vella marda, Tam. 
Teraiiiialia Catappa. Linn. 

Vem.—Badam, Beng. ; Tori, Kan. ; Vedam,TAM. ; Catappa, Mal. 
Mr. Hugon mentioos that the Tusser feeds largely in Assam upon 
this tree. 

Teraiinalia tomentosa, W.&A. 

Vera. — Saj, seni, asan. Hind. ; Piasal, Beng. ; Amari, Ass. 
This is one of the most favoured Tusser trees. 


Fibres and Fibre-yielding Plants. 

[Part III. 

Ziz3rphu8 Jujuba, Lam, 
Vem.—KM, Hind. ; B^, Beng. ; Bh6r, Mar. ; Blair, BoM. 

Captain Brooke, writing of the Tusser silk, in Seonee, states that it is 
not known to feed upon this tree, but in other parts of India it is reported 
as doing so. 

Much has been written regarding the improvement of the Tusse:" 
Cocoon, and the question of food has naturally taken a first place in 
the controversy connected with this subject. Lagerstroenua indica and 
parviflora, possessing the property of rapid growth, seemingly to lux- 
uriate under severe pruning or plucking of the leaves, are unquestion- 
ably the most successful bushes for this purpose. The Zizyphus (or B^r) 
is also a favourite, and of the remainder perhaps Shorea robusta and 
Ternunalia tomentosa are the most important. 

In Bhagulpore Dr. Buchanan states that the tree chiefly used is the 
last mentioned, the worms being lifted within baskets on to the trees and 
changed from tree to tree as the leaves are consumed. They are only 
applied to the same tree once in two years. 

Crops of the Tusser. 

The Tusser silk- 
instead of being 

voltine. The cocoons are purchased by — ^ ^ 

from persons who collect them in the jungles. The larger ones are, gene- 
rally speaking, females, and as much as 8 to lo cowries are paid a piece 
for these, while the smaller or male cocoons only fetch 4 to 5 cowries. 

The crops may be traced out as follows : — 

xst Crop.— From the Dhaha or seed cocoons in Bhagulpore, the Artya 
or Ranwat in Seonee, the insects emerge in June, eggs are produced, 
then worms, and by July these pass again into the chrysalis, coming 
out as perfect insects in three weeks, that is, in August. This is the first 
or Bhadeli crop, from Bhadon, August. The Bhadeli cocoons are not sold 
except to rearers. They are preserved, and from them a fresh supply of 
insects is obtained, the perforated cocoons being then sold at a low rate. 

2nd Crop,— The Bhadeli insects lay their eggs, and in due course these 
hatch and worms are obtained which pass into chrysalis in September, the 
cocoon being mature in October, or in some districts, not until November. 
This is the second crop known as the Kartic or Katkahi, because it ap- 
pears in the month of Kartik (October and November). 

Captain Brooke, in his interesting account of the Tusser industry of 
Seolee in the Central Provinces, published by Geoghegan, describes an- 
other crop :— 

3rd Crop. — In Nagpur seed-cocoons from the Kartic crop are reserved, 
and in due course these produce eggs, worms and a crop of cocoons which 
mature in January. This crop is accordingly known as the Magh or 

4th Crop. — Captain Brooke infers, and apparently correctly, that in 
its wild state the Tusser insect is quadrivoltine, the Dhaba or May 
seed-cocoons being obtained from the Magh, so that the Dhaba is really the 
fourth crop. Entomologists seem to regard the insect as bivoltine, and 
the reports from diffo-ent parts of India are most conflicting. It is 
remarkable that so much confusion should exist regarding the life-history 
of so very important an economic insect. Our ignorance in this respect 
must be viewed as indicating the amount of interest taken in the develop- 
ment of the Tusser silk of India. 


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Economic Products of India. 

SILK and 


As practised by the natives of India, the rearing of the Tusser cocoon 
crop occupies about five months a year, commencing from the bursting of 
Dhaba cocoons in June to the sale of the Kartic crop in the ena of 
September or beginning of October. Dr. Buchanan enters into a discus- 
sion regarding the different modes of obtaining seed, the important facts 
of which agree with all other accounts. Wild cocoons are sometimes 
collected and sold to the reeler, but as a rule they are sold to the rearer. 
These are called Dhaba. The silk produced from this would, accordingly, 
be Dhaba silk, but that which finds its way into the hands of the weaver is 
chiefly the Sarihan silk, or that produced from the first and second crops 
above discussed. Should seed cocoons be preserved from the Kartic 
crop over till next May in place of fresh Dhaba seed, the silk produced 
from this source is known as Langga, So much has the insect deterior- 
ated, by this temporary domestication however, that this class of silk is 
regarded as very inferior, from which fact it seems quite clear that the 
true success of the Tusser silk industry of the future lies in the fact 
that, unlike the mulberry and other domesticated worms, it is never likely 
to be visited with a plague, spreading ruin to the very foundations of the 
industry, such in fact as recently passed over the mulberry industry. 
Fresh silk seed is always procurable, and from our interminable forests 
this is ever likely to remain the case. 

In Seonee Captain Brooke {see Geoghegan, page 246) reports that the 
insects are in a state of partial domestication, oeing tended in all their 
stages, the rearers depending upon the wild supply for their seed cocoons. 
The seed cocoons are placed in baskets which are generally, for this 
purpose, large and flat. The insects escape from the cocoons during night, 
and in some districts the males are allowed to fly away, in others all are 
confined together in a room. Whichever course is followed the males 
soon discover the females and perform their mission. In 15 or 20 hours 
after their escape from the cocoons, the females are picked up and placed 
in closed baskets ending in long, narrow mouths, carefully lined with 
fresh leaves. Sometimes earthen pots lined with leaves are preferred. 
In the course of a day the females commence to deposit their eggs, laying 
from 50 to 200 during the first three or four days of their brief existence, 
perishing in 8 or 10 days more. 

The Eggs. 

The Eggs are small, white, flattened, oval bodies, deposited in masses 
often adhering together. They are biconvex, nine, if arrans^ed in a row, 
measuring one inch. On the ninth day the eggs are hatched within the 
baskets above described. 

The Worm or Larva. 

At first, when the worm escapes from the egg, it is so small that it can 
hardly be seen. It at once commences to eat the leaves lining the baskets ; 
as the baskets are at this stage placed on the trees, the worm soon 
attacks the fresh leaves thus supplied, and rapidly increases in size. It 
moults five times, at intervals of from 5 to 8 days; commencing to 
construct its cocoon in about 36 to 40 days, after the date of hatching. 
When full grown it is about 4 inches in length, of a pale green colour, 
having 12 joints marked with reddish spots, and with a reddish yellow 
band running along either side. It is so heavy when mature that it is 
compelled to walk along the delicate twi^fs suspended from below by its 
feet. Birds and ants are its greatest enemies. 


Fibres and Fibre-yielding Plants. 

[Part IIL 

Superstition regarding the Worms. 

Throughout India a strict and severe superstitious observance is pre- 
served from the period of hatching until the cocoons are collected. The 
men engaged in this trade lead lives of the strictest abstinence during 
this period, and so distasteful is the necessity for this observance, that, as 
compared with other industries, silk labours under a considerable dis- 
advantage. It is remarkable that this religious observance is not confined 
to one race of men, nor to any particular religious community, nor, indeed, 
is it restricted to a particular species or class of insects. It seems universal. 
In the month of April, while in Manipur during the Burma-Manipur 
Expedition, I expressed a wish to see the process of domestication adopted 
in tnat State. I was accidentally near a silk-cultivating villae^e at the time. 
I was shown the worm and cocoor on condition that I would not approach 
the house. I took my seat upon a vail near by, and they were brought to 
me. A woman also came and showed me the process of reeling. News 
of this fact spread to the Maharajah and his Durbar in great alarm asked 
me to on no condition make even the most accidental enquiry regarding 
the worms, in case, as had happened on a former Occasion, they should 
take revenge of the intrusion and die off, to the ruin of a large population 
of cultivators. An edict preceded my every movement, prohibitmg with 
severe penalty, any person from showing me the worms on the cocoons or 
answering even questions I should address to them on the subject of silk. 

Dr. Buchanan accounts for the origin of these observances, as instituted 
to preserve a monopoly in the hands of a certain community, who took 
pains to make every one else believe that they and they alone could suc- 
cessfully rear the insect. Mr. Baden-Powell describes in his Punjah 
Products the successful introduction near Amritsur of the mulberry silk 
worm by Jafir Ali, a Kashmiri. That gentleman, to preserve a mono- 
poly, adopted at once the practices of the professional silk-worm rearers. 
He would allow no one, not even his sons, to approach the worms in case 
of the evil eye proving fatal to his crop. In most parts of India women 
are supposed by the silk cultivators to be unclean, and are accordingly 
not allowed to see the worms, and the men who tend on these will not 
approach a woman in case of being defiled. In Manipur, however, I found 
women busily reeling the cocoons and tending the worms at the same 

The Tusser Cocoon. 

During the long period the insect remains in the lethargic condi- 
tion, it IS absolutely necessary that the cocoons should be strongly and 
firmly attached. Were they loosely fixed to leaves, as with many other 
species of silk-worm, in the course of a few months, the leaves being 
caducous, the cocoons would be precipitated to the ground, where, of 
necessity, the creature would perish. But this is entirely prevented, for 
the Tusser worm not only spins a closely-woven and firmly-cemented 
cocoon of the appearance and consistence of the shell of an egg, but 
the cocoon is suspended by an elegant and ingenious cord from the twigs 
around which a strone loop is formed. This suspensor is generally about 
3 inches in length, the loop being flattened on the top of the twig to a 
considerable extent, so as to make the suspended cocoon less likely to be 
dashed backward and forward. In fact, it soon becomes so firm tnat the 
cocoons remain suspended rigidly from the often leafless twigs like so 
many fruits. 

The cocoon itself is almost perfectly oval, smooth, of a grey colour, with 
darker veins reticulating across its outer surface. The largest are about 2 
inches long and i J broad, the average size about i^ inches long. The inner 
layer of fibre is quite loose, forming a soft cushion for the insect within. For 


SILK and 


Part HL] 

Economic Products of India. 

SILK and 


a long time this layer was all that could be utilised as a silk fibre, but recent 
modes of separating or decomposing the cement has rendered it possible to 
utilise almost the entire shell. Major Coussmaker has paid special atten- 
tion to the subject of the cement by which the Tusser worm consolidates its 
cocoon, and he has been able to arrive at an interesting conclusion, namely, 
that this substance consists of the excrements from the alimentary canal, 
and that its nature and colouring or injurious power, greatly depends 
upon the food upon which the worm has been fed. He is of opinion, 
consequently, that judicious feeding will greatly lessen this difficulty, by 
altering the nature of the cement. The silk, of which the pedicel or sus- 
pensor is composed, as also the outer shell, is of a reddish colour, and is 
built up of short broken fibres firmly cemented together. The inner layer 
is mucn finer, and entire. 

" Each species of silk-worker has two stores of silk, one on each side of 
the alimentary canal, and below its mouth it has two so-called spinorates 
or orifices, through which the silk issues simultaneously in fine parallel 
filaments. As the silk is drawn out of the?e stores, the worm coats it with 
a varnish technically called "gum," which contains a brownish-yellow 
colouring matter. 

*' The Tusser worm, in spinning its cocoon, takes short sweeps of its 
head from side to side, depositing the silk very closely in parallel fibres, 
which take a zigzag course round the cocoon as he does so. It has been 
thought that the worm twists or spins the silk as it exudes it, but this is 
not the case. Besides the gum which coats the silk, the worm secretes 
at intervals a cementing fluid, which it kneads by an expanding motion of 
its body through the whole cocoon to consolidate and harden it. This 
cement gives to the cocoon its drab colour." ( WardleJ) 

When about to spin its cocoon the worm, as if to screen itself, first 
binds together a few leaves within which it commences its operations. 
The cord or suspensor is next prepared. The cocoon is then proceeded 
with, and at first it is so transparent that the entire movements of the 
creature may be carefully studied. By-and-bye it becomes quite opaque 
through the coatings of cement with which it binds the threads together, 
and in the course of a few days it is perfectly hard. It requires in all 15 
days to construct its cocoon. 

The hard outer layer or cocoon shells of this moth are now largely 
carded and spun into Tusser silk, but from almost time immemorial, they 
have been used for the formation of strong bands or strings, by being 
carefully clipped off round and round. These straps the natives regard so 
strong as to resist both fire and water ; they were formerly, and are even 
still, used in the Deccan to fasten the barrds of matchlocks to their stocks. 

In Bengal the Tusser cocoon is, perhaps, most plentiful in the district 
of Bhagulpore, having in former days been there made into coarse cloth 
used by the poorer classes. In Assam, at the present day, a similar 
coarse cloth is even now regarded as fit only for the very poorest, the Erya 
silk being so very plentiful that the poor can afford to be clothed in silk 

From almost time immemorial the Erya silk cocoons have been carded 
and spun in Assam, but it is within the past few years that it has been 
found possible,.as above stated, to treat the Tusser cocoons in this way. 

The perfect insect. 

The escape of the perfect insect from the cocoon is caused through 
its secreting a fluid which softens the cement on a spot on the apex of the 
cocoon. It is quite a mistake to think that it eats its way through. It 
has no mouth, properly so speaking, and certainly nothing by which it 

80 • 

Fibres and Fibre-yielding Plants. 

[Part HI. 

could cut the cocoon. When softened the insect simply forces its escape 
by displacing the fibres. 

On escaping from the cocoon it discharges its duty, the perpetuation of 
the species, during a brief existence of lo or 12 days. It neither requires 
food nor is it provided by any process by which it could eat or digest food, 
hence^ having accomplished its mission, it perishes. 

Native mode of reeling the silk. 

In Bengal about 400 cocoons are placed in an iron pot along with 7I 
seers of water, in which a small piece of potash has been dissolved. The 
bottom of the pot is protected by a small piece of mat, to save the 
cocoons from being burned. The cocoons are boiled for one hour. 
The alkaline water is then poured off and the cocoons transferred to a 
clean pot, where they are left standing over for three days, exposed to the 
sun, a thin cloth being tied over the mouth of the pot to prevent them being 
soiled by dust or birds and insects. On the fourth day they are again 
boiled with 2J seers of water for about an hour, and thereafter poured 
into a basket where they are allowed to cool. They are then washed with 
cold water and spread out upon a floor of cow dung ashes to dry, a 
cloth being stretched across to keep them clean. In six hours they are 
ready to be reeled, but should experience show that some are still not 
ready, these are carefully picked out and exposed for a longer period to 
the action of the sun. 

Each cocoon is now carefully picked, by the hand, so as to remove the 
waste outer shell known as jhuri. This substance is sold at a small rate 
to potters to make the brushes with which they apply the pigments to their 
wares. The outer continuous fibre of each cocoon is then sought with the 
hand and those from 5 to 10 cocoons (according to thickness of required 
thread) are twisted together by being rubbed across the left thigh. The 
thread thus formed is wound upon a crude spindle, which is twirled in one 
hand while the fibres are twisted by being rubbed upon the thigh with 
the other. While being reeled the Tusser cocoons are not placed in hot 
water, but are left quite dry dancing about in a basket. The first or finest 
thread removed in this way is called lak. After the removal of the lak 
there remains a coarser thread which is next reeled. This is known by 
the same name as the waste, namely, jhuri. This coarser thread is sola 
to men who prepare silk strings. The perforated cocoons are also reeled, 
but they bring a much lower price, because the fibre has to be so often 
joined that the thread is very inferior. 

Working in this way a woman will boil, dry, and reel about one rupee's 
or 400 cocoons in 10 days, or 1,200 a month. These will yield about 
2,247 l^s. of fine thread (lak) worth Rs. 5-6 and i\ annas oi jhuri. The 
cost of pots and firewood leave a profit of Rs. 1-8 to Re. 1-12 per mensem. 
(Dr, Buchanan,) 

Italian and French mode of rfjsling. 

In principle this is identical with that described as practised by the 
natives of India, namely, the extraction or uncoiling of the natural fibre 
from the cocoon (each of which, as prepared by the insect, is composed of 
two filaments), the fibres from a required number of cocoons being 
wound together and slightly twisted into a thread known as a "single. 
In practice, it is very different however. The fibre is cleansed of all its 
impurities, which, by the native process, are left adhering to it. A fixed and 
definite number of fibres are wound together into the "single," which is of 
uniform thickness, and much finer than can be produced by the natives 
of India. In other words, the one produces a careless or accidental thread, 
and the other an accurate and definite one. A skein of 1,000 yards in 

F 8t 

SILK and 


Part 111.] 

Economic Products of India. 

SILK and 


length of the ordinary native-reeled ** single** weighs from 9 to 15 drams, 
technically known as 152 to 255 '* deniers ". From Tusser cocoons reeled 
by the Italian process Mr. Wardle obtained a size of 51 deniers or 3 
drams per i^ooo yards. The Tusser fibre is about if'^ part of an inch, 
or three times as thick as ordinary silk, so that 51 deniers would, for such 
a fibre, be regarded as a good practicable result. The denier is' equal to 
about 0*825 gi'^ins. 

The cocoons are boiled for a considerable time in an alkaline solution, 
to which some glycerine may be added. After being boiled they are 
conveyed to a basin over which a semi-rotating brush is so adjusted as 
to brush off the outer waste shell and ultimately pick out the continuous 
threads. When these have been found the cocoons are transferred to the 
reeler. A number of cocoons, with the ends of their found fibres twisted 
together, are placed in the hot-water basin of the reeling machine; four or 
five of these are passed through the agate centre guides and the croiseur, 
and are thus cleansed, and to a required extent twisted, before being 
conveyed to the reel. The reel is driven by a handle or windlass, and 
the connection between the fly wheel and the reel is such that the reeler 
may stop the action at any moment, having a lever near by which throws 
the reel out of gear, shoula any necessity arise for stopping the machine. 
The moment a thread breaks, or whenever a cocoon is reeled out, the end 
of a fresh one is quickly presented and the action continued. 

Prepared by this mode the thread is cleaner and devoid of smell ; it 
takes colour more rapidly, and without requiring to be bleached, the 
lighter shades of colours may be given to the silk. 

The Italian-reeled fibre, the primary thread, or " single, " produced by 
reeling, has now to go through the process technically known as "throw- 
ing." Two or more " singles " are " thrown " together, and spun or twisted 
into a yarn. For many years English spinners could only produce the 
** tram *' or weft required by the silk-weavers. The finer and more deli- 
cate " organism " or warp had to be imported from Italy and France. 
John Lombe of Derby managed to become possessed of the secret how- 
ever, and from that date it spread rapidly over the world. The tram or 
weft yarns are composed of two or more singles, only slightly twisted to- 
gether, being left loose and open so as to cover more freely the warp. 
Warps are rarely composed of more than two singles, and for fine warps 
a " single " alone is used. It is much more difficult therefore to produce the 
warp which has to go through six processes, vf5., winding, cleaning, spinn- 
ing, doubling, spinning and reeling; the warp has 8 turns in the inch, weft 
only 4. Reeling is as a rule performed by quite a distinct person from 
the spinner, and the singles reach the latter firmly twisted into " knots " 
and tied up in batches known as " books." The Italian-reeled tusser is 
as pure as ordinary silk, and only loses two ounces a lb. on being dyed, 
while native-reelea tusser loses as much as seven and never less than 
five ounces a lb. That is to say, the European reeled yarn loses 12 J as 
compared to 37 J per cent. The books of thrown silk, as they reach the 
weaver, are known as ** hard yarn." For most fabrics they have to be 
softened by being boiled, a process which brings out the brilliancy of the 
fibre as well as softens the yarn. By the process of softening native yarns 
lose seriously in weight, and thus not only are native-reeled singles and 
thrown yarns unsuited for the majority of European purposes, but on being 
purified they lose so seriously as of necessity to cause their commercial 
value to be considerably below that of European reeled and thrown silks. 
So great are these disadvantages that the future of Tusser silk depends 
more upon the efforts put forth to improve the reeling than upon improve- 
ments in the breed of the insect. There is not the slightest reason why, with 
cheap Indian labour, could improved reeling be introduced, India might 
render the exportation of raw cocoons a thing of the past. 


Fibres and Fibre-yielding Plants. 

[Part IH. 

The Tussbr Silk Fibrr. 

Mr. Thomas Wardle, in his interesting Hand-Book on the Wild 
Silks of India, states that "there is a striking peculiarity aboiit the fibre 
of Tusser silk. I have carefully and thoroughly examined it many times 
under the microscope, and find undoubtedly that it is almost flat and not 
round, as is the case with the silk produced by the mulberry-fed worm. 
There is no doubt that it is to this property that Tusser silk owes its glossy 
or vitreous look, reflecting a little glare of light from the angle of incidence 
on its flat surface, whilst the mulberry-silk fibre, being round, reflects the 
light in all directions. By some this property is considered a drawback, 
but by the time the fibre has become modified and the flatness diffused 
in the loom, I think the lustre of the cloth is enhanced by it. This tape- 
like appearance gives the fibre this disadvantage, that it is less homoge- 
neous than the round fibre of the mulberry-silk, and I find an undoubted 
tendency in it to split up into smaller fibrets, of which the fibre is evident- 
ly composed, causing the silk to swell out when subjected to severe dyeing 
processes, particularly the bleaching one of recent date, thus giving a 
substantial and important reason why its coloured cements should be re- 

English and Italian improvements in the reeling and spinning' of the 
Tusser cocoon have produced, within the past few years, a complete revo- 
lution in the European demand for this common Indian insect. While 
experiments to improve the rearing, and, if possible, to domesticate the 
worm, have, in India, failed financially, when compared with the success and 
enormous development of the introduced mulberry worm, there seems 
every probability that a reaction will at an early date commence. The 
demand for Tusser cocoons and Tusser silk seems likely to become each 
year more urgent. A careful perusal of Mr, Wardles most interesting 
Hand-Book forces upon one the conviction that, since recent discoveries 
render it possible to spin even the waste particles rejected from the reeling, 
every fibre of the cocoon being now utilised, a great future is certain to 
immediately open out for this, one of our most common and most plentiful 
wild economic products. It is absolutely necessary to impress upon the 
people of India the distinction between reeled Tusser silk and spun Tusser 
silk. By the former the cocoons, after being boiled in an alkaline solution, 
have the original thread drawn out from the interior, a process which could 
only be carried to a certain extent, all experiments having failed to soften the 
cement so as to allow of the entire cocoon being reeled. Indeed, even were 
it possible economically to soften the cement entirely, a large proportion 
of the outer shell could not be reeled owing to its being composed of broken 
or short threads. By the Indian, and indeed by the old European, mode of 
reeling the Tusser cocoon, about one ft. of reeled silk was all that could 
be prepared from ii fcs, of the cocoons; the remaining lo fts. were 
technically known as tusser-silk-waste. Mr, Wardle says that a few years 
ago this tusser- waste was valueless and lay about our English ports, for 
some time, quite unsaleable. It now is greedily bought up for 2s, a ft. 
This is due to the fact that these waste cocoons can be carded and 
spun into thread like other fibres, instead of being reeled ; thus not only 
utilizing the waste but opening up a complete new silk industry, of spun and 
carded silk fabrics. From these spun silks many new fabrics, which are 
rapidly gaining public favour, have come into existence, of which the 
following may be mentioned : — 

The European Manufactures or Tusser Silk. 

zst— Imitatioii seal-skin cloth. The use of this fabric for cloaks and 
mantles for winter wear has already commanded a regular and estab- 
lished place in the market* The Tusser ^pun thread for this purpose has 


SILK and 


Part III.] 

Economic Products of India. 

SILK and 


a much closer resemblance to the true seal-skin than could be produced from 
any known species of reeled silk, and it is, moreover, much more durable. 

2dA — ^Tusser spiin yam also bids fair to become an important substitute 
in the manufacture of Utrecht velvet. 

3ttL — It promises to become extensively used in carpet manufactiire} 

excelling all other silks in possessing rieidity, a quality indispensible in a 
carpet fibre. The brilliancy with whicn the silk-coloured threads enliven 
carpets and other mixed fabrics seems certain to give birth to a totally 
new and unlimited industry. 

Mr. Wardle, from whom the above information regarding the manu- 
factures of the Tusser has been derived, urges the absolute necessity 
of pressing upon the people of India this new discovery, with the view 
of encouraging them to preserve the vast quantities of cocoon waste, 
the supply of which in Europe will be the only impediment to the de- 
velopment of this new industry. China is already alive to this position, 
and at present the waste ana perforated cocoons used in the spinning 
trade are chiefly imported into Europe from that country. 

Reeled Tusser silk has also undergone immense improvements, and is 
largely made into silk fririg^ and into the woollen cloths known as grena- 
dine or manda ri n. It may be stated that this new impulse to the Tusser 
trade took its birth from the Paris Exhibition, where these facts were first 
made known. The average London consumption for the four years ending 
1877 was 238 bales, for 1878 (the year of the Paris Exhibition) it became 
736 bales, while in 1879 the consumption was increased to 1,142 bales. 

Amongst the silks of commerce Tusser occupies perhaps the least im- 
portant position, but this is due to two causes, one of which has now been fully 
discusse^l, namely, that one maund of cocoons of tusser would yield about 4 
seers of silk-reeled fibre or iVth of the weight, while the mulberry cocoon 
would give almost half its own weight of fibre. This difficulty has now been 
removed. The worm is wild ; it occurs abundantly throughout the vast Pe- 
ninsula of India. While the entire weight cannot be reeled every particle of 
the cocoon can be utilised. The second great difficulty to the develop- 
ment of the Indian silk trade is the imperfect and faulty system of reeling. 
This fact is at once established by the published figures of the sales of Tusser- 
reeled fibre, the Italian or improved fibre obtaining 3 or 4 times the 
price of the ordinary native-reeled silk. What seems wanted therefore is 
to introduce the Italian process of reeling the cocoon, and to instruct the 
natives to carefully preserve the waste or outer shell, when there cannot be 
a doubt, the wild Tusser industry could compete favourably with the intro- 
duced mulberry-worm. It would certainly afford a remunerative employ- 
ment for the vast population of our lower hilly undulations, who, by nature, 
are opposed to agricultural labour, and who are driven out of the silk 
market through their lowland neighbours having taken to rearing the 
domesticated mulberry silk-worm as an auxiliary to their other employ- 

Dyeing and Bleaching of Tusser Silk. 

It was for long thought that an utterly insurmountable obstacle existed 
to the development of the Tusser silk trade in the difficulty experienced 
in causing the fibre to take the lighter shades of colour. That is to say, 
it was thought impossible to bleach the fibre so as to fit it to take the lighter 
shades of colour. Within the past few years, however, this has been so far 
overcome that time may be stated to be all that is required to secure 
complete success, allowing of the development of scientific principles which 
have already been recognised as having vanquished tne difficulty of 
bleaching. There are two widely different modes by which this most 


Fibres and Fibre-yielding Plants. 

[Part III. 

desirable object has been accomplished. Allusion has already been 
made to Major Coussmaker's discovery regarding the matter voided by 
the insect during the construction of its cocoon. This was stated to 
constitute the cement used by the worm in consolidating* its cocoon, and 
to be the substance which imparted the objectionable colour to the fibre, 
Systems of improved feeding was stated to greatly alter the nature of the 
excrements, and so completely has Major Coussmaker been able to carry 
out this idea that he has produced cocoons perfectly free from the objec- 
tionable colouring matter, the worm having been taught to void the 
injurious materials before constructing the cocoon. It is to be hoped that 
this proves a convenient and practicable process of rearing the insects, 
for it completely removes the chief obstacle to the Tusser silk. The natural 
cocoon has now, however, been found to be capable of bleaching or of part- 
ing with its colour whenever the fibre is brought into contact with nauseant 
oxygen. This was first discovered by M. T. du Motay, who used per- 
manganate of potash for this purpose,^-one of the most powerful oxidising 
bodies, upon organic matter. Unfortunately, however, this substance 
injures the fibre, but the re-action establishes a principle which will un- 
doubtedly be applied successfully with some other re-agent. Binoxide of 
Barium, by simple contact with the fibre, accomplishes the same purpose, 
but it is expensive. 

It is to be expected, however, that in a very short time an easy and 
simple mode of bleaching the cocoon may be discovered. Dyed with the 
deeper shades, or simply left in its natural colour, Tusser silk is rapidly 
assuming a recognised and established commercial position. It takes 
freely and easily to aniline dyes, which, while fleeting {petit teint), aire 
brilliant and attractive^ and for many purposes, where absolute fixity of 
colour is not a desideratum, they serve an important purpose. Many of 
the indigenous Indian vegetable dyes are, however, equally serviceable for 
Tusser silk, especially those which, like the aniline colours, cannot resist 
direct exposure to light. The following may be mentioned as the Indian 
dyes specially recommended for Tusser silk. 

*zst.— Biza Orellana, Linn. 

The Arnotto yields from the pulp around the seeds an excellent yellow 
dye, extensively used for Tusser silk, the colour being deepened into red 
when used in combination with Mallotus phUippineiiaiSf Afiill Arg, 

and.— Butea frondosa, Roxb, 

The flowers {tesu) of this plant yield a pretty yellow dye, but it is 

yd.— Carthamus tinctoria, Linn. 

Safflower has been lon^ valued on account of its beautiful red colour ; 
it is one of the most extensively used dyes for Tusser and other silks in 

*4th.— Delphinium saidculaefoliiiin, Boiss. 
Vttsu—Asbarg, ghafig, Pb. 

A herbaceous plant met with on the Himalaya, but largely imported from 
Afghanistan to Multan, where they are used along with Akalbir (Datisca 
Cannabina) and alum to produce a permanent yellow dye with silk. Silk 
is often dyed with Asbarg alone, being steeped in a solution prepared by 
boiling 31 lbs. of the dried flowers in 5 gallons of water. Asbarg with 
indigo produces the greens in which silks are often found dyed. 

•5th.— Flemingia congesta, Roxb. 

This small, gregarious bush is common everywhere throughout the 
hotter damp forest of the lower hills, especially so in Chutia Nagpur and 
Central India. This is the plant which yields the Wards medicine of 


SILK and 


Part III.] 

Economic Products of India* 

•V\. l " n M—L 

SILK and 


Africa. The hairs from the capsules and youn|^ flowering twigs of this 
plant yield an excellent brilliant orange dye, suitable for silk. Informa- 
tion of this dye-stuff has recently been obtained from Europe, but app; rent- 
ly the people of India are ignorant oi this valuable dye. 

*6th.— Lac, Codiineal and Indigo dyes are also sometimes used for silk, 
the latter very rarely. 

^h.—Mallotns phillppinensis, Mail. 

The powder obtained from the fruits known as Kamela or Kama 
lagurixs one of the most frequent silk dyes in India, imparting a rich red, 
orange or yellow colour, and not requiring a mordant to fix it. The fruit 
dust is sometimes boiled in a weak solution of alum before the silk is im- 
mersed in the dye solution. 

8th.— Nyctanthes Arbor-tristis, Linn. 

The corolla tubes known in the bazars of India, by the name hat" 
singhar. They impart a beautiful orange or golden dye, often used in 
combination with turmeric, when it is said to be less fleeting than when 
used alone. 

9th.— Woodfordia floiibinda, Salts. 

The flowers of this plentiful bush (Dawt) give a red colour to silk. 

I am conscious that the above brief enumeration of the dyes either 
used by the natives of India for Tusser silk or for other silks, and likely 
to prove serviceable for Tusser also, is exceedingly imperfect. I have 
placed an asterisk opposite the names of the dyes which are most used 
in silk-dyeing. The question of the extent to which Indian dyes are suit- 
able for Tusser silk remains still to be solved, and I cannot help feeling that 
page 46, which treats of this subject, is the least valuable part of Mr. 
Wardle's most instructive and useful Hand^Book, I am not aware of the 
leaves of Phyllanthus Emblica yielding any kind of dye, although this 
stands third in Mr. Wardle's list. It is exceedingly doubtful if the seeds of 
Cassia Tora yield dye of any kind. They have been mentioned by one or 
two authors as being in Madras used along with indigo in certain process- 
es of dyeing, the starch of the Cassia seeds apparently assisting the indigo. 
These illustrations from Mr. Wardle's List of Indian Dyes are referred to 
with the view of showing that while he has investigated the subject of Tusser 
silk with most untiring zeal and with great success, the whole question of 
the dyeing of this most useful fibre has still to be solved. It is probable 
that for some time to come the success which has attended the use of the 
aniline dyes must be left undisturbed, but it seems likely that an extensive 
and personal inquiry in India into the practices of Indian dyers would 
more rapidly discover the desired key to the proper dyeing of Tusser silk 
than years of experimenting with small quantities of dried and imperfectly 
identified dye-stuffs. 

It is highly desirable that a concentrated inquiry throughout the 
entire Empire should, if possible, be made into the subject of Tusser silk, 
and especially into the modes of dyeing the fibre, so that at the forth- 
coming Calcutta International Exhibition we may be able to continue and 
develope the new int^est which the Paris Exhibition started in this 
natural wild silk flbre. Specimens of the cocoons, prorated and unperfo- 
rated, of the reeled fibre and yarns, as also of the woven fabrics should be 
obtained and so catalogued as to be kept quite distinct from the other species 
of silk. Descriptive accounts of the processes of reeling the fibre and 
specimens of the appliance used for this purpose would be most useful and 
interesting. Pull descriptions of the processes of dyeing and specimens of 
the bazar dye-stuffs used, as also samples of yarn or f£S)rics dyed are most 


Fibres and Fibre-yielding Plants. 

[Part III. 

urgently required. We have at present only two specimens, of. dye^d; 
Tusser silk in our collections. 

SILK and 


Includes nine species known as the Atlas and Eria Groups of which 
the most important is the Eria or Arindi : — 

A. atlas, Linn. 

Found in China^ Burma India, Ceylon and Java. In India its habitat 
extends from Sylhet and Cachar to Sibsa^or, Johore, Sikkim, Mussourie, 
and Almora. The cocoon is well stored with a fine silk. 

The following are the trees on which this insect feeds. 

zst.— Artemisia vulgaris, Linn. 

Vem. — Dona, Hind., Beng. ; Titapai, Nepal; Nagdana,CkCHKSL. 
A gregarious shrub in Sikkim Hills, also in Bengal and Assam. 
2nd.— Phillanthuslanceolarius, MtdL-Arg, 

A shrub on which the insect is said to feed in Mussourie, 
3rd.— Ezcaecaria insignis, MutL-Arg. 
Vem.—Khinna, Hind. ; Dudla, Pb. 

A tree of the Sub-Himalayan tract, also found in Chittagong, Burma, 
and Western Gh^. 

4th.— -Celastoma malabathricnm, Linn, 

Vem.^Choulisy, Nepal ; Tungsram, Lbpcha ; ShapH, Mechi ; Lutki* 

Cachar ; yetpyai, Burm. 

A large bush met with throughout India up to 6,eoo feet in altitude 

chiefly near water-courses. The Atlas worm, when fed on the leaves- of this 

tree, is said to give a very white silk. ^ 

5th,— Symplocos cratsegoides, ffam. 

VtttL—Lood, Cachar ; Lodk, Kumaun ; Lojc^ Sutlej ; Loj, Pb. 

A small tree inhabiting the Himalaya at an altitude from 3,000 to 
89000 feet, also Assam, Khiisia and Martaban Hills. 

A, canning!. Button. 

North West Himalaya ; common in a wild state ; produces annually 
hard, compactly-woven cocoons of a rusty orange or grey colour. Feeds 
on the leaves of — 

xsL— Coriaria nepalensia, Wall. 
A shrub of the Himalaya from Murree to Bhutan, also in Sikkim. 

2nd.— Xanthophyllum hostile (See Hook. VoL I, 2og.) 

A. cynthia, Drury. 

Inhabits the regions from Sylhet, Cachar and ShiUong to^ Sibsagor, 
Sikkim, Mussourie and Simla ; also found in South Andan^an. 

A. edwardsiai White. 

Sikkim, Cherra, Khisia. Hills, and Mussourie^ 








Part III.] 

SILK and 




Economic Products of India, 

A. guerini, Moore. 

Inhabits Eastern Bengal. 

A. lunula, Walker. 

A. Obscurus, Butler. 

Occasionally found in Cachar ; the worm feeds on a plant called in the 
vernacular Lood. 

A. ricinii Jones. 

Inhabits Assam and parts of Bengal, and extends from Darjeeling to 
Nepal, Kumaun and Laoak. It is the Eria of Assam and Arindi of Ben- 
gal, and a fuller account is given at the end of this enumeration of the 

A. silhetica, Hel/er. 

Found in Sylhet and Sikkim . 

A, riciniy Jones. 

The Eria silk-worm. 

Mem,— Eria, Ass. ; Arindi, Beng. 

The habitat of this worm has been given above. In Assam it is very 
common ; and in Bengal it is found in certain quantities in the districts of 
Rungpur, Dinagepur, Bogra, Julpigori, Darjeeling, Chittagong, Gya, 
Shahabad, Purnea and Pooree. 

It is reared by the natives in these parts in a state of semi-domesti- 
cation ; it is said to produce four crops. The female moth, says Mr. 
T. Wardle, lays her eggs round a twig ; the twigs with the eggs on are 
sold in the markets, and are bought by rearers. 

The Worm. 

The Eria worm, when full grown, is about 3^ inches long. It feeds 
on the leaves of the following plants and trees, and moults four times :— 

zst. Ailanthus excdsa, Roxb. 

Vem. — Maharukh, Hind., Mar. ; Peru, Tam. ; Pedu, Tel. j Gormi-kawat, 

A tree of North- West India, Behar and the Western Peninsula. 

2dA, Ailanthna glandulosa, Desf, 

Ji lofty tree often planted in Central and Southern India. 

3rd. Coriaria nepalensia, Wall, 
See account given above, 

4th. Ridais conununiSy Linn. 

The Castor Oil Plant. 

Vern* — Arendi, HiND. ; Bhairenda, Beng. ; Aneru, harnauli, Pb. ; Ind- 
rendi, Kumaun ; Orer, Nepal. ; Raklop, Lepcha ; Sitamunuk, Tam. ; 
Sitamindi, Tel. j Nerinda, Govd ; Haralu, Kan; Kyeksu, Burm. 

Cultivated throughout India, usually for the oil which is expressed 
from the seeds ; often found growing wild. The leaves ot this plant is 
the best suited and commonest food of the Eria worm. 


Fibres and Fibre-yielding Plants, 


5th. Xanthoxylon hostile. 

6th. Gtnelina arborea, Roxb. 

WertL^Gumhar, Hind., Besg.; Gomari, Ass.; Gumai, Cachar ; Bolkobak, 
Garo ; Gumadi, Tam. ; Gumar-tek, Tel. ; Shewney, Kan. ; Skewan, 
Mar.; Ckiman, Bhil; Yamaney, Burm. 

A deciduous tree throughout India, and in the sub-Himalayan tract, 
also in Burma and Andaman Islands. 

The following trees are also mentioned as being fed upon by the 
worm, Bireonalt, Hindograss, Koosool, Litta-pakori, Murkuraal, Okonni, 

SILK and 


The Cocoon. 

The cocoon which the Eria worm forms is somewhat loose and flossy, 
orange red, sometimes white. 

The Fibre. 

Its thickness, is ji^of an inch when taken on the outside of the 
cocoon, and ,^xj in the inner part. The average value of the fibre may 
be stated to be from 12 annas to one rupee per 2^ lbs. Mr. T. Wardle 
obtained, in 1879, through the Government of India, 70 lbs. of Eria 
Cocoons : he had them carded or dressed and spun, and reported that he 
knew of no silk better adapted for spinning, *'The staple {Mr. Wardle) 
obtained from the first draft's operation is glossy, long, and very fine. 
Its fineness is owing to that of the ultimate fibre. It is about one-half 
finer than Tusser silk, although not more than two-thirds as fine as the 
Bengal mulberry-fed silk of Bombyx mori or silk of Commerce, The 
after or shorter drafts are also of much importance as showing the econo- 
mising of the shorter fibres after the longer ones have been removed. 
These are used for less important manufactures than the long staple. 
Nothing is wasted in the modern mode of spinning. The jrarns made of 
these fibres are of great regularity and fineness, proving this silk 
capable of uses for spinning and.weaving purposes to an unlimited extent." 

Dyeing of Eria Silk. 

Under this head also we must have recourse to Mr.'Wardle, and 
relate in his own words the result of his careful, comprehensive experi- 
ments :— 

** The dyeing of Eria silk much resembles the dyeing of Tusser. 
Whether owing to the flatness of its fibre, or to the nature of its 
sericine, it is far behind mulberry silk in its natural affinity for 
dye-stuffs. Heat and the media of mineral salts, however, are the 
principal agents in bringing the fibre into a dye-receiving subjection.  *  
The dyeing baths have to be much stronger in tinctorial matter than 
those for mulberry silks. It follows, therefore, that there is an unavoid- 
able increase in the cost of dyeing Eria silk, as is also the case in Tusser 
silk, and to about the same extent. Probably I shall not be far from 
accuracy in stating that Eria silk requires twice as much dye-stuff 
as mulberry silk, thereby causing the dyemg to cost considerably more. 
The Eria cocoons being of two kinds, some of them rust colour and others 
white, cannot be dyed into pale colours without bleaching, which again 
adds to the cost of dyeing. It bleaches very well with the bi oxide of 
barium process, and takes excellent colours in pale tints afterwards. 


Part IIL] 

Economic Products of India. 

SILK and 


For dark shades bleaching is not necessary, nor would it be necessary 
for paler shades in silk spun from the white cocoOns if they could be kept 
separate from the brown ones. *  • I have succeeded in imparting a 
variety of colours to this silk which leave little or nothing to be desired. 
As far as I can learn I believe this is the first time in Europe that Eria 
silk has been white.'* 

Thk eria silk industry in India. 

As already mentioned, the production of Eria silk is confined chiefly 
to Assam and parts of Bengal. Certain inquiries made by the Govern* 
ment of India in 1879 furnished the broad result that in Bengal small 
supplies of the silk are at present worked up chiefly for home manufac- 
ture and use ; and that in Assam only a few of the northern districts and 
the Jaintia Hills produce it in any appreciable quantities. But the 
general opinion of the local authorities was that production would be 
stimulated, if remunerative prices could be obtained, and an effective 
demand would lead to a large increase of production. 

From the details of the reports of distnct officers concerned the follow- 
ing particulars may be noted : — 

In Assam, about 54)Ooo lbs of Eria silk, in the raw state, unreeled, can 
be obtained annually from the districts of Kamrup, Darrang, Nowgong, 
and Lakhimpur, and about 30,000 Sbs. from the Jaintia hills. In Goal- 
para and Sibsagar, the production of silk is carried on to a very limited 
extent, chiefly iov home consumption. In Cachar the silk is worked up 
for their own use, by the hill tribes in almost every village of the hills in 
the northern parts of that district. From Sylhet no information has been 
furnished, but here, as well as throughout Assam, the necessary food of the 
Eria worm grows in abundance. 

In Bengal, the Dinagepur district can supply about 13 maunds of 
Eria cocoons annually in the winter. In Rangpur about 30 to 35 maunds 
are produced, but it is difficult at present to obtain any supply, as the 
natives are unwilling to sell the cocoons; they prepare therefrom cloths for 
their own use. In the Bogra and Julpigori districts the silk is worked up 
for home consumption only, the quantity produced being about 18 maunds 
of cocoons in Bogra and 40 to 50 maunds of thread in Jalpiguri. In the 
Darjeeling Terai about 10 to 12 maunds of cocoons could be annually 
obtained. In the Chittagong district a small quantity of the silk is pro- 
duced, and the thread is made into twine for fishing purposes and sold 
to the extent of Rs. 500 annually in the local bazars. In Purneah the 
worm is reared to a very small extent for the silk, which is used in home 
consumption only. In Gya the silk is worked in certain wild tracts. In 
Shahabad the quantity produced amounts annually to about 9,000 lbs. 
In Pooree the worm, though entirely neglected, is common, especially in the 
Khurda estate ; and in this latter place if a demand arises a new useful 
industry could easily be opened to the natives. 


257 I. C Simla, Westwood. 

Simla, Kumaun, Mussoorie, and Khasia Hills; forms an open, net- 
Bke cocoon ; feeds on— 

zst^Jnglftiis regia* 

See account given above« 


Fibres and Fibre-yielding Plants. 

[Part III, 

2ad,— Pyrus communis, Linn, 
The Common Pear. 

Veni. — Naspati, tang, sunkeiut, Pb. 
Cultivated and somentimes wild in the North West Himalaya and 

3rd.— Salix babylonica, Linn. 

Vem. — Bisa, bada, Pb. ; Giur, Kashmir ; Tissi, Nepal. 
A tree commonly cultivated in North India. 

C. cachara^ Moore. 


C. thibeta, Westwood. 

North West Himalaya, Mussourie, and Sikkjm ; forms a light, open, 
net-like cocoon ; feeds on the — 
ist.— Cydonia vulgaris, Pers. 
The Quince. 
Vem. — Bihiy Hind. J Bamsunt, Kashmir. 
Cultivated in North West India and up to 5,500 feet in the Himalaya. 

2iid.— Pieris ovalifolia. 

See account given above. 
3rd.— Pyrus communis, Linn. 

See account given above; 

C. drepanoides, Moore. 


C. trifenestrata, Jlei/er. 

Very common in Assam, where it is knownas Haumpotoni ; occurs in 
Moulmein ; forms an open, net-like cocoon of a beautiful, rich yellow colour j 
feeds on the following trees : — 

ist.— Machilus odoratissima, Nees. 

Vem.—Soom, Ass. J Dingpingwait, Khasi A ;Phamlet, Lefcha ; Kawala, 
Nepal, Hind ; Dalchini, Pb. 
A large tree of the outer Himalya, extending to the Kh^sia Hills, 
Assam and Burma. 

2nd.— Anacardium ocddentale, Linn. 
The cashew nut tree. 

VertL'^Kaju, Hind j Htjuli, Benq. ; Kola mofoa, Tam.; ^tefi-mapiidi, 
Tel.; Thee-hok-thayet, Burm. 
A small, evergreen tree in the coast forests of Chittagong, Tenasserim, 
Andaman Isles and South India. 

SILK and 







L. katinka, Westwood. 

Sikkim, Shillong, North Kh^sia Hills, Sibsagar, Assam, Upper Burma. 



Part III.] 

Economic Products of India, 

SILK and 















L. mirandOi Moore. 

Sikkim Himalaya. 

L. sikkima, Moore. 

Hot valleys of Sikkim. 

L. sivaJticsLf Hut/on. 

Mussoorie; forms a long-pointed cocoon of a dark greenish-grey 


N. huttoni, Moore. 

Mussoorie, North- West Himalaya ; the worms appear in April ; 
feed on the wild pear-tree ; and spin a thin silken cocoon. 

N. sfaadulla, Moore. 

N. stoliczkana, Felder. 



R. zuleika, Hope. 


R. newara, Moore. 

Nepal; spins a brilliant green cocoon; feeds on a species of weeping 


S. lolai Westwood. 

Sikkim Himalaya. 

S. anna^ Moore. 

Sikkim Himalaya. 


S- dAoSSL^ Moore. 

Hot valleys of Sikkim Himalaya. 

S. grotdy Moore. 

Sikkim Himalaya. 

S. llndia, Moore. 

Found in the Sikkim Himalaya and Kuliu 


Fibres and Fibre-yielding Plants. 

[ Part III. 

Spathodea Rheedii, Wall. See Dolch androne Rheedii, Seem. 

Sponia orientalis. Planch., Urticaceje. 

Vera. — Badu, manu, C.P.; Tugla, Lepcha; Jupong, phakram^jigini, 
sapong, &c.. Ass. ; Mini, Tam. 

A small tree of the Himalaya from Nepal eastward to Bengal, Burma, 
Central and South India. 

The bark yields a fibre, used to tie the rafters of natfve houses, for 
carrying loads, and for making the coarse cloth known in Assam as Amphak. 

Specimens of fibre, and of the rope and cloth made from this plant, 
shouM be obtained from Assam ; but it would be interesting to see similar 
preparations if any such are made by the hill tribes of South India, where 
the plant also grows. It is often cultivated by the Coorg planters for 
shac^, and is there known as the Charcoal Tree. 

S. politoria, Planch. 

Vern. — Jan^im, khasaroa, tndrni, bdtUy banharia, HiND.; Bantaman, 
kanglu, kh^ri, Pb. ; Kkdai, Nepal ; Tuksat, Lepcha. 

A small tree of the Salt Range, outer Himalaya, Oudh and Sikkim. 
The bark yields a fibre which is used to tie the rafters of native 
houses and for carrying loads. 

Sterculia colorata, Roxh,, Sterculiaceje. 

Vera. — Bodula, walena, samarri^ Hind.; Moola, Beng.; Sitto-udcd, NEPAL; 
Bhai-koi, BoM.; Khoausi, Mahr. ; Karako, Tel.; Weshaiiit, BuRM. 

A moderate-sized tree of the Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jumna 
eastward. Central and South India, Burma, and the Andaman Islands. 

The bark is used in rope-making. Fine specimens of the fibre were sent 
to the Paris Exhibition of 1878. (Gamble.) The liber furnishes an infe- 
rior fibre. {Kure,) 

S. guttata, W. & A. 

Vem.—Goladdra, Mahr. ; Kawili, Tam. 

A common tree of South India (Malabar). 

Its bark yields a valuable cordage. The bark of the younger parts 
of the tree abounds with very strong, white, flaxeii fibres, of which the 
inhabitants of the Wynaad manufacture a kind of coarse cloth. (Spans' 
Enc, Gamble, &c.) 

S. urens, Poxb. 

Vera. — Gidu, kulu, tabsi, karrai, HiND. ; Odla, Ass.; Kdndtila, pdndrtika 
Mahr. ; Tabsu, Tel.; Vellay, putali, Tam. 

A large tree yielding a gum like Tragacanth met with in the sub-tropi- 
cal forests of Bengal, Assam, Burma, and South India. 

The liber yields a good fibre, specimens of which are reported as having 
been sent to the Paris Exhibition from Berar. 

S. villosa, Poxb. 

Vem.-Udal, udar. Hind.; Poshwa, Sutlej; Gul-bodla, gul-kandar, 
massu, Pb. ; Omak, oadal, odela. Ass.; Vake-nar, Tam.; Bambeing, 
Magh. ; B&jada, And. ; Skawni, BuRM. 

A moderate-sized tree of the Sub-Himalayan tract from the Indus 
eastward ; common in forests throughout India and Burma. 









Part III.] 

Economic Products of India. 






The tree is highly valued on account of the fibre obtained from the 
liber, which is coarse but strong, and is made into ropes and bags. 

It b included by Royle among bast fibres. Kurz says it is valued 
by the Burmese mahouts (elephant-drivers) to such an extent that the 
tree has become scarce in the outer forests. It also yields a gum. The 
bark of S. cocdnea, Roxb,, the Sitto udal, Nep., Kattor, Lepcha, is used in 
the same way as that from S. villosa, and in fact indiscriminately. 

Tassar or Tussah. See Silk. 

Thamnocalamus spathiflorus, Munro, Graminea. 

Weta.'-Ringall, Jaunsar; Purmiok, Lepcha ; Myoosay, Bhutia. 
The common small bamboo of Hattu and Deoban. It is generally 
found on the Himalayas from the Sutlej to Bhutan, above 8,000 feet. 
It yields a fibre. 

Thespesta Lampas, Baiz., Mauvacem. 

yenL—Bunkapas is applied to this, as also to H. '^^tifoliu8, L,, by 
the Bengalis; Rdn-bhendi, Mahr. ; Rondapatti, Tel. 
A small bush common in the tropical jungles of India, ascending to 

3,000 feet in Nepal. 

The young twigs yield a good fibre. 

T. populnca, Corf. 

VtOL—ParsipUt Hind.; ParesKparasJh Bwg.; Bhendi, Mahr.; Ports, 
purasa, portioy Tam.; Gan-garaya, Tel.; Bendi, Guz.; Sureya, Cingh. 

A moderate-sized, evergreen tree of the coast forests of India, Burma^ 
and the Andaman Islands. Planted throughout India. 
It yields a good fibre from the bark. {Gamble.) 

Tilia europaea, Linn., Tiuaceje. 

The Lime Tree of Europe; Bast Fibre. 
"The bark of this tree, when steeped in water, soon separates into 
thin layers, which are employed for making a coarse kind of rope, for 
making matted shoes much worn by the Russian peasantry, and also for 
making the mats which are so largely exported from Russia." (Royle,) 

Triumfefcta angulata, Linn., TiLucEiE. 

VeriL-^Aadai-otH, Tam. ; CkikH, Hind. 
A herbaceous shrub, common in tropical and sub-tropical India and 


Dr. Bidie includes the fibre of this plant in the list of fibres sent to 
the Paris Exhibition. Madras might be asked to supply specimens of both 
plant and fibre. 


Fibres aad Fibre-yielding Plants. 


Mr. Cameron adds that this is one of the commonest weeds of Mysore. 
The fibre is soft and glossy, 

Typha angustifolia, Linn,, Typhaceje. 

A kind of bulrush, leaves of which are employed in making mats^ 
and in stuffing chairs. 

The Bally Paper Mills recently experimented on this g^rass as a paper 
fibre, and the report was apparently favourable. The stuff was de- 
scribed as easy of treatment. 

T. elephantina, Roxh. 


Vtm.'^Hogla, Beng. ; Pan, Pb.; Rdmbdna, BoM. 
This species, like the preceding one, is also employed in making mats 
Elephants are fond of it ; the roots bind the soil. (Roxburgh.) 

Ulmus Wallichiana, Planck., Urticacejb. 

Veni* — Mared, pabuna. Hind, j Kain, bren, amrai, marari, Pb. 

A large, deciduous tree of the North- Western Himalaya, from the 
Indus to Nepal, between 3,500 and 10,000 feet. 

The bark contains a strong fibre, which is made into cordage. 

An excellent fibre is made from the scape or flower-stalk. (Cameron,) 

Urena lobata, Zinn,, Malvacea. 

Vem. — Bun-ochra, Beng. ; Vana-bhenda, Mahr. 

A common shrub in India, found in waste places during the rains. 
Generally distributed over the hotter parts of India ; one of the com- 
monest associates of the mango and bamboo clumps of Bengal. 

It abounds in strong fibre, which is considered suitable for the manu- 
facture of sacking and twine. 

U. sinuata, Linn. 

'Vem.^Kunjia, Beng. 

A small bush, with deeply gashed leaves, found throughout the hotter 
parts of India. 

It abounds in strong and tolerably fine fibre, which, like that from the 
preceding species, may be used as a substitute for flax. 


Urtica Crenulatai Poxb. See Laportea crenulata, Gandeh. 
U. heterophylla, Roxh. See Glrardinla heterophylla, Dene. 








Part III.] 

Economic Products of India. 







Ventilago madraspatana, Gaertn.^ Rhamnejs. 

Yenu—Rakiapiia, Beng. ; Lokandi, kanwail, BOM. ; PapH, Tam. ; Yerra 
chicatti, Tel. ; Chorgu, Hyderabad. 

An extensive dimber met with in the forests of Central and South 

The bark yields a useful fibre for cordage (As, Res. 6, p. 352). " Rum- 
phius says that the Amboyna fishermen use the long stems instead of 
ropes." (Voight,) 

Villebrunea appendiculata, Wedd., Urticaceje. 

S7IL — Urtica acuimnata, Roxb. 

Venu — LipiCf lipiah, Nepal; Bunrheo^ Ass. 

A small tree of the North- Eastern Himalaya, Khisia Hills, and 

It yields a fibre of a brown colour, strong, and flexible, which is made 
into ropes, nets, and coarse cloth in Sikkim and Assam. This seems des- 
tined to prove one of our most valuable fibres in the future, and it deserves 
much attention. The tree grows freely and quickly and coppices readily. 

V. frutescens, Biume. 

Vera. — Gartcishiara, paidhanla, kagshi, Kumaun; Kirtna, Nepal; Tak- 
bret, Lbpcha. 

A shrub, or small tree, with a rough, dark grey bark, found on the 
Himalaya, from Simla eastward, Sikkim, Bhutan and Assam, ascending to 
5,000 feet. 

The fibre is used for ropes. It is best adapted for fishing lines and 
nets, both from its strength and from its power of resisting moisture. 

Wikstrbmia virgata, Meisn., Thymelaceji. 

JTem.—Bhatniggi, thilak, Pb.; Chamlia, KuMAUN. 

A small shrub of the Himalaya, from the Indus eastward, the Khasia 
Hills, and Ceylon, between 5,000 and 7,000 feet. 

An inferior sort of paper and rope is made from its bark in Kumaun. 

Wissadula rostrata, Blanch, Malvaceji. 

^yti, SiDA PERiPLOCi FOLIA, WUld,, in Rottb, Ft, Ind, Ed., C. B. C.,5/d; 

Abutilon PERiPLOCEFOLiUM, G. Don. 
Cultivated in India, naturalised in Ceylon, and very common in the 
south of the island. A native of the Malay Peninsula, Java, tropical 

Africa, and America. . , 1 « i^l j ... 

«* The bark of this abounds in serviceable flaxen hbres, and as it 
shoots quickly into long simple twigs, particularly \i cut near the earth, it 
answers well for procuring the fibre of a good length for most purposes, 
(Roxb. FU Ind.) It is further reported to yield a beautiful hemp. 


Fibres and Fibre yielding Plants. 

[Part III. 


Yucca gloriosa, Linn,, LiLiACEA. 
Adam's Needle. 

A native of America from Carolina to Mexico and Texas. Introduced 
into India, met with in gardens in Bengal, occasionally naturalised in the 
Madras Presidency. 

The fibre which it yields resembles in many respects that of the Agave, 
and is applicable to similar purposes. There are several species, all of 
which yield excellent fibres ; but Y. gloriosa is the principal one and may 
be taken as the type of the others. Royle alludes to Y. angustifolia and 
to Y. filamentosa, £., the latter of which is sometimes known as the 

"The whole genus has been utterly neglected from an industrial point 
of view, no real attempt having ever been made to grow the plants on a 
commercial scale, though their hardiness, their preference for arid, barren 
sands, and the quality of their fibre would seem to be special recommend- 
ations.** (Spons* Enc) 

In America the so-called Califomian Cactus, which grows abundantly 
in the desert regions of Mojave and Ravena, is greedily sought after 
for paper manufacture. It would seem that this plant might with advan- 
tage be introduced into India. Yncca gloriosa yields an excellent fibre for 

Madras should be invited to supply specimens of Yucca plant, fibre, 
fabrics, and root. 

The other day a correspondence was instituted in official circles regard- 
ing a plant which from its leaves gave a beautiful fibre, and from its 
roots an excellent soap. From the description, I conjectured that it 
might be Yucca gloriosa, and in support of the detergent properties of 
the roots. La Maout and Decaisne's System of Botany, edited by Sir 
J. D. Hooker, says: "The fruits of Yucca are purgative; its root is used 
as a soap.'* Dr. Bidie thinks that the root of Yucca does not possess 
detergent properties, having specially experimented with it in order 
to determine this point. 

Additional information regarding this plant, and especially with regard 
to its roots, would be most acceptable. 





Zea Mays, Linn,, Gramineje. 
Maize or Indian-corn. 

Vem. — Bhutia, makka, Hind. ; ^anar, Bbng. ; Makka-jowari, Dec. j 
Makka cholam, Tam. ; Makka-Bonalu, Tel. ; Pyaungboo, Burm. 

Largely cultivated in Upper India and the Himalaya. 

It yields a fibrous material capable of being spun and woven like flax. 
The maize fibres may be prepared and spun into yarn, and some woven 
fabrics and all kinds of paper may be made of the same. (Baden-PowelU) 





Caloilta Inttmaticmai ©xhibition, 1883-84. 


Part IV. 





Calcutta Inizxn^tioml Exhibition, 1883-84. 

Part IV.— Oils & Oil Seeds, Perfumery & Soaps. 


Acorus Calamus, Zmn,, Aroidea. 

Sweet Flag. 

Vem.— KacAa, Sans.; Vc^, Arab.; Bach, Beng., Hind. 5 Vekhanda, 
Mahr. ; Vashambu, Tam. j Vadaja, Tel. ; Linhe, Burm. 

A semi-aquatic perennial, native of Europe and North America; but 
cultivated in damp, marshy places in India and Burma for its medicinal 

Balfour mentions this among his oils. An essential oil is obtained 
from the leaves, which is used in England by perfumers in the manufac- 
ture of hair powder. From the rhizome a pale to dark-yellow oil, with 
the strong penetrating odour of the root, and an aromatic, bitter, burning, 
camphoraceous flavour, is obtained by distillation. 


Adenanthera pavonina, Ltnn., Leguminosa. 

jrn. — Rakta-chandan, ranjana, Beng.; 77 
kundamani, Tam. ; Bandi gurivendoy Tel 

Vem.—Rakta-chaTtdan, ranjana, Beng.; Thorali-gunja, MAHR.j^^m 

.; Ma  " " 

Magh.; Ywegyi, Burm. 

TanjaH, M al. ; Gung, 

A deciduous tree of Bengal, South India, Burma and the Andaman 

The seeds of this plant yield an oil. 

Adiantum Cappilus VeneriSi Linn., Filices. 

Maiden Hair. 

Vera.— /?<iw tuli, bisfdig, parskawarsha, Pb, 

Common along ditches, &c., in the extreme north-west, and occasion- 
ally found in wells further east in the Punjab plains. 

This is the fern which is used in making " Cappillare Syrup." 

A T 

Part IV.] 

Economic Products of India. 



Adul Oil OF Travancore. 

It was forwarded to the great Exhibition of 1851. The oil is medicinal. 
The botanical name of the plant is not known. 

Lebbeki ^^»M., Lsguminosjb. 
The Siris Tree. 
Syn. — Acacia sirissa, Roxb, 

Vein. — Siris, sirin, kalsis, tariHa, Hind.; Birisha, Beng. ; Vaghe, 
katvaghBy Tam. ijDirasaftj pedda duchirram, Tel. ; Kokko, Burm. ; Be 
madd. And. 

A large, deciduous tree of the Sub-Himalayan tract, from the Indus 
eastward, ascending to 5,000 feet ; Bengal, Burma, Central and South 

An oil extracted from the seeds is considered useful in leprosy. 

Aleurites moluccana, waid., Euphorbiaceje. 

The Belgaum Walnut ; The Candle Nut. 
Syn. — A. tribola, Forst. 

Vera. — Akrot, Beng. ; Akola, HiND. ; Jdphala, Mar. ; Nattu-akroiu-kottcn, 
Tam. ; Natuakroiu^vittu, Tel. j To-sikiyA-si, Burm. 

A handsome tree, introduced from the Malay Archipelago, now culti- 
vated in many parts of South India. 

The nuts of this plant contains 50 per cent, of oil, which is extracted 
and used for food and for burning. The oil is known as Kekuna in 
South India and Ceylon, The nuts when strung upon a thin strip of 
bamboo and lighted are said to burn tlike a candle. The oil is now 
exported to Europe for candle-making, and is reported to be equal to gin« 
gelly (sesame) or rape oils* 

Allium Cepa, Linn. 


Vem. — Paldndu, Sans. ; Piydj, Beng.; Piydg, Hind. 5 Kdnda, Mahr ; 
VellO'Vengayatn, Tam. ; Nirelli, Tel. ; Kyetthwunni, Burm. 

It is cultivated all over India. 

" The bulbs contain an acrid, volatile oil, and act as stimulants, diure- 
tics and expectorants." {Baden-PowelL) The oil is clear, limpid, pale, 
with a greenish tinge. 

A, sativum, Linn,, LiLiACEJD. 

Vera. — Mahaushadha, lasuna. Sans. ; Sir, Pbrs. ; Rasun, Beng. ; Lasan, 
Hind.; LosMna, Mahr. ; Vallai-pandu, Tau. ; Vellulli, tella-gadda, 
Tel.; KyaUthoiirbega, kyetthwunbya, Burm. 

It is cultivated all over India. 

The seeds yield a medicinal oil, clear, colourless and limpid. Dr. 
Ainslie remarks that an expressed oil is prepared from the garlic, which 
is called Vallay poondoo unnay ; it is of a stimulating nature, and the 
Vytians prescribe it internally to prevent the recurrence of the cold fits of 
intermittent fever ; externally it is used in paralytic and rheumatic affec- 
tions. {Cooke.) 

Oils and Oil Seeds. 

[Part IV, 


Alnus nepalensis, D. Don., BExuLACEiE. 

Vern.— iToAf, Pb. ; Udesh, KuMAUN ; Udis, uHs, NEPAL; Kowal, LepcHA. 

A large, deciduous tree on the Himalaya, from the Ravi eastward, 
between 3,000 and 9,000 feet ; Khasia hills and Naga hills. 

Said to yield an oil resembling birch oil. The plant is exceedingly 
common in the Khiisia and Naga hills. Information and specimens should 
therefore be obtained from Assam. 

Amarantus, sp. ? 

Vera.— CAM/at. 
Mr. Baden-Powell^mentions this among his medicinal oils. 
Additional information with specimens of the oil and the plant 
from which it is obtained should be supplied by the Punjab. 

Amaryllis, sp.? 

Mr. Baden-Powell mentions it as yielding a medicinal oil. 
Additional information with specimens of the oil and the plant 
from which it is derived should be obtained from Punjab. 

Amomum Subulatum, JRoxd., Scitamineje. 

Greater Cardamom. 

Vetn.—IldchifBEUG,, Hind.; Veladode, Mahr, ; Yelar si, T am. ; Yela- 
kulu, Tel.:; Ben,pala, Burm. 

A native of the Eastern Archipelago. 

The seeds yield a medicinal oil. It is an agreeable, aromatic stimu- 
lant. It is pale-yellow in colour, having the odour and flavour of the 

Amoora Rohituka, W.& A., Meliaceje. 

Mem»^Rohituka, Sass. ; . ffarin harra, harin khana, Hind.; Sohdga, 
OuDH; Tikta-^aj, piiraj, Beng. ; Bandripkal, Nepal; Thitni, Burm. 

An evergreen tree of Oudh, Northern and Eastern Bengal, Assam« 
Western Ghiits and Burma. 

In Bengal an oil is expressed from the seeds. The natives^ where the 
tree growsjplentifully, extract this oil, which they use for various economic 
purposes. (Boxburgh.) 

Anacardium occidentale, Linn,, Anacardiaceje. 

The Cashew Nut ; Cardole. 

Vern. — Kaju, Hind. ; Hijuli, Beng.; Kdj4, Mar. ; Kola mava, mundiri, 
Tam. ; Jidi mamidi, Tel. ; Thihothayet, Burm. 

A small, evergreen tree, introduced from South America into the coast 
forests of Chittagong, Tenasserim, the Andaman Islands,, and South 

A I "K 







Part IV. ] 

Economic Products of India. 


From this plant two distinct oils are obtained : 

/5^.— The kernels^ when pressed, yield a light-yellow, bland oil, very 
nutritious; the finest Quality in every respect equal to almond oil, and con- 
sidered superior to olive oil. The kernels are so extensively eaten in 
India, however, that it is almost impossible that a trade could at present 
be done in this oil. The kernels have been once or twice exported to 
Europe under the name of '' Cassia Nuts." Samples of this fixed oil, and 
information as to methods of preparation and extent of trade, are much 
required. The yield is about 40 per cent. 

2nd, — '^ Cardole " or " Cashew-apple-oil." This is prepared from 
the pericarp or shell of the nut. It is black, acrid, and powerfully vesica- 
tine. It raises blisters, and is successfully used to remove warts, corns, 
and ulcers ; also, in the Andamans, to colour and preserve fishing lines. 
It is also an effective preventive against white-ants m carved wood-work, 
books, &c. The yield is 29^ per cent. 





Anamiita Cocculusy w. 6* A.^ Menispermacsa. 


Vem — Kdkmdri, HiND., Dec; Kdiamdri, Sai^S. ; Pin-kottai, Tam. ; 
Kaki'Champa, Tbl. 

A climbing shrub of South and East India, Burma, and Oudh forests. 

The fruit contains a large quantity of fixed oil. The fat expressed 
from the seeds, which amounts to about half their weight, is used in India 
for industrial purposes. 


Ancfausa tinctorial Linn^, Boraginaceje, 

Mr, Baden-Powell mentions an oil as obtained from this plant. 


Andropogon* See a. Schoenanthee, Grauiineje. 

Sweet Calamus or Geranium Grass. 

Syn.— A. Martinii, Roxb, ; A. nardoidis, Nees, ; A. Calamus aromati- 
cus, Rcyle. ; A. Pachnodbs, Trim. 

Vem. — Rusd gkds. Hind. 

This grass grows wild in Central India, North-West Provinces, 
and Punjab. 

The oil obtained from this plant is known as Rusa Grass Oil. This 
oil has many medicinal uses. It resembles, in quality and appearance, the 
Lemon Grass Oil. The oil is seldom taken internally by the natives, but is 
considered a powerful stimulant when applied externally. It is used as a 
liniment in chronic rheumatism and neuralgic pains. 

The greatest confusion exists in the identification of the plants yielding 
the essential oils from this genus. Specimens of the plants (in flower) 
should, if possible, accompany the oils, so as to secure accurate identi- 

A. dtaratusi DC. 

The Lemon Grass. 

Vern. — Old chdhd, gandhat rince, Bom. 


Oils and Oil Seeds. 

[ Part IV, 

A large^ coarse grass, found under cultivation in various islands of the 
Eastern Archipelago, and gone wild on extensive tracts of land in 
Ceylon; it rarely or never bears flowers. It is grown specially for its oil 
in Ceylon and Singapore. 

The oil which it yields is chiefly employed in adulterating Verbena 
Oil. It is also used for perfuming soaps and greases. The annual pro- 
duction of otto of lemon grass in Ceylon is above 1,500 lbs., valued at 
15. &^, per ounce. There is a large consumption of this otto in the manu- 
facture of Eau de Cologne. 

Andropogon muricatum, Beauv, 

Venu—Usir, Sans. ; Khas-kkas ghds, Beng. ; Khas, Hind. ; Vetie^er, 
Tam. j Kumveru, Tel. 

This species of grass grows in abundance on high sandy banks and 
waste tracts in Bengal, the Coromandel Coast, and Upper India. 

The roots, when distilled with water, yield a fragrant oil, which is used 
as a perfume, and as such it deserves the attention of European perfumers. 

Andropogon Nardusi Linn. 

The Citronella. 

It grows wild abundantly in Singapore, but is also largely cultivated 
both in Ceylon and in Singapore. 

The leaves are distilled with water, and yield over 3 oz. of essential oil 
from I cwt. The pure oil is thin and colourless, with a strong aromatic 
odour, and an acrid^ citron-like flavour. 

The average exportation of citronella from Colombo is about 40,000 lbs., 
valued at 3^8,000. It is largely used to give the peculiar flavour to what 
is known as ** Honey-soap. '* 

A. SchoenantheSj Zinn. 

The Geranium Grass. 

Vem.'-^Gandha'bena, Beng. ; R6segavafa, rohisha. Bom. 

A grass indigenous to North and Central India. 

An essential oil, known as " Ginger Grass, " is obtained from this 
plant. The oil produced in the Namar district of the Nerbudda Valley 
IS sometimes called *' Grass Oil of Namar." This oil is largely exported 
from Bombay, its chief use in perfumery being apparently the adulter- 
ation of the otto of roses. 

Ainslie calls A. Nardas (?) Ginger Grass or Spice Grass, and says that 
an infusion of it is used as a stomachic, and that occasionally an essential 
oil is prepared from it which is useful in rheumatism ; but the plant he 
refers to is probably A. Schoenanthes. Specimens of plant and oil required. 

Ainsomelis malabaricai J^. Br., LAsiATEic. 

Ant-grease is prepared by boiling white ants and skimming of! the 
oily substance which floats on the surface. An oily substance is aJso 
obtained by expression. Ant-grease is reported to be an article of food. 

Apricot. See Pninus armeniaca* 

Aquilaria Agallochai JRoxb., Thymelaaceje. 

Vera. — ^giir, Hind., Beng.; Sasi, Ass.; Akyaw, Burm.; Aggali 
chandana, Tam. ; Agru, Tel. 

A large, evergreen tree of Eastern Bengal, Burma, Malay Peninsula, 
and Archipelago. 

An essential oil is obtained from the wood ; used medicinally. 







Part IV, ] 

Economic Products of India. 







Arachis hypogoea, Linn,^ Leguhinosjc. 

The Ground Nut. 

Vera. — Buchanaka, Sans. ; Mdi'kaldi, chiner-bdddm, Bbng. ; Mungpkali, 

Hind. ; Bhuishenga, Bom. ; Vildyeii-^m^ng, Dec. ; Vdrk'kadalai, Tam. ; 
Verushanagakdya, Tel. i My^pe, Burm. 

An annual of South America^ now generally cultivated in South India 
and some parts of Bengal and Upper India. 

The seeds of this plant produce, on expression, a clear, straw-coloured 
oil which resembles olive oil in taste, and is used as a substitute for it in 
medicinal preparations. It is principally used for burning in lamps and 
in soap manuracture. It is said to be used also for adulterating gingelly 
oil in North Arcot. 

Ai^gania Sideroxylon, R.S., Sapotaceje. 

Is the. Argan tree of Morocco, which is found growing gregariously in 
forests in the Atlas Mountains. 

An oil resembling olive oil is extracted from the seeds. It has a clear, 
light-brown colour, and a rancid odour and flavour. It is an important 
domestic oil among the Moors, and to a certain extent finds its way to India 

Argemone mexicanay Zm«., PAPAVERACEiE. 

Vem. — Brahma dandi. Sans.; Shial-kanta, Beng. ; Bharbhdnd, Hind. ; 
Ddrurty Mahr j Birama-dandu, Tam. 

**A herbaceous annual, native of Jamaica, the Caribbee Islands and 
Mexico, brought to India about three centuries ago, now grows sponta- 
neously on waste lands at the beginning of the cold season." C^msterd, Cat.) 

The seeds yield a pale yellow, clear, limpid oil, used in lamps and 
medicinally in ulcers and eruptions. In Bengal, and more or less through- 
out India, the seeds are collected and pressed for their oil, which is yield- 
ed as copiously as that from mustard-seed. The drawn oil is twice allowed 
to stand for a few days to deposit a whitish matter, after which it remains 
clear and bright. (Span's Ency,) 

Argyreia speciosa, Swee/,, Convolvulace^:. 


'Vtm.^Samudra palaka. Sans.; Btch-iarak, guguli, Beng., Hind.; 
Samudra shoka, Mahr. ; Shamuddirap^ack-ch-ai, Tam. ; Pdla-samu- 
dta, Tel. 

A twining perennial, found all over India. 

Reported to yield oil. No further information available. 

Artemisia vulg^riSi Linn,, CoitPosiTie. 

Vem. — A/santine-hindi, Arab.; Granthiparni, Sans. • Masiaru, Beng. ; 
Mdjtari, Hind. ; Mdcki-patHri, Tam. ; MacM-patri, Tel. 

Baden-Powell mentions this plant in his list of oils. It also yields 
a volatile oil. 

Information and specimens required. 


Oils and Oil Seeds. 

[ Part IV. 


Atalantia monophylla, C<7rr., RuxACKiE. 

Wild Lime. 

Vemr-Arawi nim, Tel. ; Kaiyalu, Tam. ; Makhur, ntdkar-limbu, Mahr. 

A plant of Eastern Bengal, South India and Ceylon. 

Ainslie says that the berries of this thorny plant yield a warm oil, 
which is, in native medicine, considered as a valuable application in 
chronic rheumatism. 

Madras might be asked to supply specimens of this, also the berries 
from which it is prepared, together with any further information. 

Balanites Roxburghii, Planch., Simarubeje. 

SjH, — B. iEoYPTIACA. 

Vera — Hingu, ingua, htngol, hingota. Hind.; Garrah, Goudi ; Gari, 
ringri, Tel. ; Nanjunda, Tam. ; Hingan, Mar. 

A small tree growing in the drier parts of India and Burma. 
A fixed oil is expressed from the seed. 

Baliospermum montanum, JkiulL Arg., EupHORBiACEis. 

Vera.— Hakufiy Hind. ; DomH, Mar. ; Konda-amadum, Tel. ; PogutUig, 

Found in South India, Burma, Bengal, Nepal and Sikkim. 
The oil expressed from the seeds possesses cathartic properties. 

Balsamodendron Roxburghii, Am,, Burseraceje. 

Vem.^Gugala, Beng. 
A small tree of Eastern Bengal and Assam. 
Baden-Powell mentions that the plant yields a medicinal oil. 

Barringtonia Racemosa, Caertn., Myrtaceje. 

Bassia butyracea, Roxh,, Sapotaceje. 

The Indian Butter Tree. 

Vera, — Chidra, Ckaidra, phulel, KuMAUN; Cheuli, OuDH; Phalmara, 
Hind.; CAiirt, Nepal ; Yel, yel pote, \JE.^cli^., 

A deciduous tree of the Sub- Himalayan tract, from Kumaun to Bhutan, 
between 1,500 and 4,500 feet. 

A vegetable butter is extracted from the seeds, of the consistency of 
fine lard and of a white colour. The oil being cheaper than ghee or fiuid 
butter it is used as an adulterant. It is also burnt in lamps. In medicine 
it is highly valued for its efficacy in rheumatism and contraction of the 
limbs. It is also used by the wealthier classes as an ointment, after it is 
perfumed with cloves or attar of roses. The butter mixed with scented oil 
is reckoned a valuable preservative when applied to hair. It makes ex- 
cellent soap, and may be utilised in the manufacture of candles, as it 
burns with a bright |fight, without smoke or smell. The butter readily 
dissolves in alcohol. 







Part IV.] 

Economic Products of India, 








Bassia latifolia, Roxb. 

Mahua Tree. 

Vera. — Mahwa, mowa, mahtUh Hind. ; Makwa, tnahtila, maul^ Beng. ; 
Mora, Mahr ; lllu^, kat illipi, Tam. ; I^, yeppth Tel. ; Iritp, Gondi ; 
Hongey Kan. 

A large^ deciduous tree, indigenous in the forests of Central India. It 
is cultivated and self >sown all over India, very common In Chutia Nagpur. 

A greenish-yellow oil is extracted from the kernel of the fruit, which is 
eaten by the Gonds and other Central Indian tribes, and is used to adul- 
terate ghee. It is a useful oil for soap, and is Xsxg^Xy used by the poorer 
classes as a lamp oil. It is called Madhuka Sara in Sanskrit, and is re- 
commended as a medicine for cephalalgia. It is often sold baked in 
cakes, which keep fresh for a few months m cold climates, but in the plains 
of India soon become rancid, separating into a clear oil and a brown fatty 
substance. The cakes are sold as Illipi Butter, 

B. longifolia» Wiiid, 

VtttL-^Kai illupi, elupet, Tam.; Ippi, yeppa^ pinna, Tel.; Mee, Cinoh ; 
Kan Kan, BuRM. 

A large, evergreen tree of South India and Ceylon. 

An eil is expressed from the ripe fruit. It is yellow and semi-solid ; 
used for burning, for soap, and to adulterate ghee. It is seldom sold in the 
bazar. The natives extract an oil from the seeds for private consump- 
tion. It is suitable for the manufacture of candles. In medicine it is 
used externally in cutaneous diseases. 

The crushed seeds from the preceding species of Bassia, after sepa- 
ration of the oil, are baked into cakes and sold as a detergent, largely 
used for washing the hair. 

Bauhinia acuminata, Linn., LEcuMiNosiE. 

Vera. — Kanchan, Beng. ; Kachnar, Hind. ; MahcJUega byu, Burm. 
A handsome shrub of South India and Burma. 
It b mentioned as an oil-yielding plant in Spons' Encyclopedia, 

B. tomentosa, Linn, 

Vera. — Kachnar, Hind.; Kanchini, Tam., Tel. 

It is a shrub or small tree of South India, with showy, yellow flowers, 
having a purple eye, and a tough wood, with nearly black heartwood. 

BfDfour simply mentions this plant among his oils, without describ- 
ing it. 

B. variegata, Linn. 

Vera. — KachnaTt kolidr, baridl. Hind.; Taki, Nepal; J^akta kanchan, 
Beng. ; Borara, Uriya ; Segapu-munthari, Tam. ; Kanchivala-do, 
Kan. ; Bw/chin, Burm. 

A moderate sized, deciduous tree of the Sub-Himalayan tract from the 
Indus eastward, and throughout the forests of India and Burma. It is 
often planted for ornament. 

The seeds are said to yield an oil, of which further information is 


Oils and Oil Seeds. 

[Part IV. 

Benincasa cerifera) Savi., Cucurbitace^. 

The Pumpkin or White Melon. 


Vera. — Pethd, chal-kumra, gol kadd4, Pb. ; Kumrd, Beng. ; Gol- 
kaddue, kondha. Hind. : Kumhrd, bhunja, Kumaun; Kohola, Mahr.; 
Kumbuli, Tam. ; Budide gummadi, Tel.i; Kyauk-pa-yon, Burm. 

It is cultivated in India. 

The fruit of this plant secretes upon its surface a waxy substance 
which resembles the bloom found on plums and cucumbers. It is said to 
be produced in sufficient quantity to be collected and made into candles. 

The seeds also yield a mild^ bland^ pale-coloured oil. As this plant 
seems to have been very much confused by botanists with Cucurbita 
Pepo, Dale, it is probable that the native names given for the one may 
belong to the other. It would be very important to have specimens of the 
plants from which these oils have been prepared supplied along with the 
oils so as to admit of final determination. The greatest possible confu- 
sion seems to exist in the literature of the economic portions of this 

See StyxBx Benzoin. 

Berberis aristata, DC, Berberideje. 

Vem.'—Stitnl4, simlu, chitrot Pb.; Chiira, Nepal; Chotra, Hind. 

An erect, spiny shrub, on the outer Himalaya, from the Sutlej to 
Bhutan: in the North- West Himalaya, from 6,000 feet to 10,000 feet; 
in Darjeeling above 10,000 feet ; Western Gh4ts at high elevations ; 
Ceylon. {Gamble.) 

The seeds of this plant yield an oil. 

B. Lycium, Royle. 

Vera. — Kasmal, Simla ; Kashmal, ckotra, Htnd. 

An erect, rigid shrub of the North- West Himalaya, from 3,000 to 9,000 

The seeds of this plant yield an oil. 


Betula alba, l.. CwvLmRM. 

An essential oil is extracted from the common birch. 
Information as to whether this is ever prepared in India would be 

oil. See Betula altMt, L. 








Part IV.] 

Economic Products of India. 








Bombax malabaricum, DC, Malvaceae. 

The Cotton tree. 


Vern. — Semuly shembal, semur, pagutiy somr, Hind., Beng. 5 Bouro, 
Uriya ; Bolckti, Garo ; Sdvara, Mar, Btirga, burgu, buraga, Tel. ; 
Illavam, puld, Tam. ; Katu-imbul, Cingh. ; Letpan, Burm. 

A very large, deciduous tree, throughout India and Burma. 
Cooke, in his Oils and Oil-seeds, makes mention of this plant as yield- 
ing an oil^ but gives no other information about it. 

Brassica alba, ^./ ^ T.\T., Cruciferje. 

The White Mustard. 

VenL,—Sidhartha, Sans. 

The seeds are very large and white. 

The oil is little known, but the oil-cake is much prized as a food for 
sheep in Europe ; black oil-cake is not considered so good for this purpose. 

B. campestris, Linn. 

Var. I. campestris, proper. 

The Colza, Swedish Turnip and Sarson. 


Vera. — Sarson or sers(m,sursi, jariya. Hind. ; Sarshapa, Sans. ; Sursha 
or sursi, sauchi, kali sarson, sadarai, Bbng.I; Skerasa, Mar.; 

The seeds are small, smooth, light brown. 

Colza Oil is used by the natives of India chiefly to anoint the body and 
for illuminating purposes. I am inclined to think a serious mistake has 
been committed by European authors in regarding this as identical with 
S. glauca, Roxb. The latter plant yields a decidedly superior oil, and both 
seed and plant are readily distinguished by the most ordinary native, 
and their properties narrated with a precision which indicates centuries 
of experience. 

Var. 2. Napus. 

The Rape, Rara-sarson, or Shwet-Rai. 

Syn. — SiNAPis glauca, Roxb,; S. glauca, Rayle. 

Vern. — Rara sarson, rara lai, pila sarson, tore, toriya, dain, sketa, 
shirsha. Hind. ; Tuverica, Sans. ; Raira, Guz. ; Shwet-rai, Beng. 

The seeds are larger than those of the preceding form, smooth and 

The oil is superior to the preceding, and is much used in diet. 

Var. 3. Rapa. 

The Turnip, 
Vera. — Shalgam, Hind., Beng. 
An oil has been prepared, but is of no value. 

B. juncea, H,f. & T. T. 

The Rai or Indian Mustard. 

Vem. — Rai, sarson, rajika. Hind, Bom. 
The seeds of this form are smaller than those of either of the pre- 
ceding forms ; round, almost black, and pitted or rugose. 


Oth and Oil Seeds, 

[ Part IV. 


The oil is clear, not rancid, and largely eaten by the natives with 
their curries, &c. Roxburgh apparently regarded this oil as inferior to 
rape oil. It is, however, much purer than the oil from either of the 
preceding forms and devoid of trie pecul iar smell so characteristic of the 
oils from the forms of B. campestris. This seems to be the oil called 
Mustard Oil in India, so largely prepared in our jails by convict labour. 
The seeds are reported generally to yield about 20 per cent, of oil. 

Brassica nigja, Koch. 

The Black or True Mustard. 

Vem.'^Rai, kali rat, asl'rai, ^or-rai, makara-rai, &c. Hind.; Rat 
sarisha,^ Beng. ; Kadofho, Tam.; Avalo, Tel. t Ganaha, Cingh.; 
Kiditsai, .Chinese ; Rajika, sanshap. Sans. ; Strsha/{the name by which 
it is known io Indian hospitals), Pers. ; Khirdal, Arab. 

Cultivated in various parts of India and Tibet, chiefly on the hills. 

The seeds are large, oblong, smooth and almost black. 

A bland oil, expressed from the seeds, is used for various economic 
purposes. About 23 per cent, is usually extracted from the seeds. The 
oil is inodorous, non-drying, and it solidifies at o"F. It consists essen- 
tially of glycerides, of stearic, oleic, erucic, and brassic acids, the last 
being homologous with oleic acid. . 

The ancient Hindus do not appear to have known anything of the 
essential oil of mustard. This oil does not exist in the seeds originally, but is 
chemically produced by the action of water, as, for example, when a seed 
or a little of the flour is put in the mouth. Chemically, Mustard seeds 
consist of a bland, flxed oil (obtained by pressure), and a peculiar inodor- 
ous substance called Myronic Acid, together with a third substance, which 
has been called Myrosyne, By the action of water upon these sub- 
stances the essential oil is produced, which is known chemically as 

Buchanania latifoliai Boxb.^ Anacardiaceje. 

Vem. ^Chirauli, Pb. ; Achat, char, chironji, C.P. j Kai-mad, aima, Tam. 5 
Char a* morli, Tel. ; Charwari, Hyderabad ; Pydl, charoli,BoM. ; Lunbo, 


A tree of the Sub- Himalayan tract, from the Sutlej eastward, ascend- 
ing to 3,000 feet. Throughout India and Burma. 

The kernels of the fruit yield an oil called Chironji, Owing to the 
kernels being so much prized as a sweet-meat when cooked, the oil is 
rarely met with. It is pale, straw-coloured, limpid, sweet and wholesome. 

Butea frondosai Boxh., LEGUMiNosis. 

Vem. — Palash, Beno. ; Dhak, Hind. ; Parasa, Tam. 

A small distorted tree, becoming covered with deep orange flowers 
before the appearance of the leaves ; met with all over India. 

The seeas of this tree yield a small quantity of bright, clear oil, which 
is sometimes used medicinally. 


"The fatty portion of the milk of all mammalian animals is called 
* Butter,' but the term in a commercial sense is restricted to that from the 
cow." (Spans' Encyclop,) 






Part IV.] 

Economic Products of India. 










Caesalpinia Bonducdlai Boxh.y LsGUMiNosiE. 

The Fever Nut. 

Vem. — Katkaranj, Hind. ; Nata, Beng. ; Sagurgoia, gajaga. Mar. ; 
Gajkai, Kan.; Gech-chakkay, Tam. ; Kalein, Burm. 

Found all over India, especially in Bengal, Burma and South India* 
The seeds contain an oil, which is mentioned by Ainslie as useful in 

convulsions and palsy. The seeds also possess valuable tonic properties, 

for which they are much prized by the natives. 

C. digyna, Roh 

Syn. — C. Oleosperma, Roxb. 

Vem. — Umul'koochi, Beng. ; Noonee gatcha, Tel. ; Vdkerichebhaie, Bom. 

A tree of the Eastern Himalayas, Eastern and Western Peninsulas, 
and Ceylon. 

Roxbugh says that an oil is expressed from the seeds, which is used 
for lamps. 

Cajput Oil. See Melaleuca Leucadendion. 

Calendula officinalis, Linn,, Compositje. 

Vem. — Zergtd, sadbarg, PC. 

Found in the fields of the Punjab and Sind, scairely indigenous; 
Peshawur. (Aitchtson). 

Baden-Powell, in his Punjab Products, mentions it as an oil-yielding 
plant. The oil is used for medicinal purposes. 

Calophyllum inophyllunii Linn., GuTriFERiE. 

The Alexandrian Laurel. 

Vera. — Sultana champa. Hind., Beng. ; Surangi, undi. Mar ; Pinnay, 
Tam.; Pongnyet, Burm.; P^na, punas, Tel. 

An evergreen tree of South India, Burma, and the Andaman Islands ; 
often cultivated for ornament in other parts of India. 

The fresh seeds when shelled yiela a large quantity of fragrant, green 
oil, amounting even to 60 per cent, by weight. The oil varies in colour from 
greenish yellow to deep-green, possesses a disagreeable flavour, and an odour 
which is described as fragrant by some but unpleasant by others. It is used 
for lamps and for caulking vessels ; but it is chiefly valued as a medicine 
and used as an external application in rheumatic affections. It is a 
curious fact in connection with this oil, that though it cannot compete 
with castor-oil for industrial purposes in the Calcutta market, it fetches 
about four times the Calcutta price of castor-oil in Burma. This is owing 
to its present crude condition, and no method of refining having been 
attempted. Mr. Gamble says that in Orissa the tree is much cultivated 
and an oil extracted from the seeds ib used for burning. 

C. tomentosum, WigU. 

The Poon Spar Tree. 

Vera. — Poon, poone, Mal. ; Pongoo, Tam. ; Siri poone, Kan. 

A large, tall, evergreen tree, found in the evergreen forests of the West- 
ern coast from Kanara southward. 


Oils and Oil Seeds, 

[Part IV. 

The seeds yield an abundance of oil, in Ceylon, where it is known 
as " Keena-tel." It is probably used as a lamp-oil. 

Calophyllum Walkeri, Wight. 

A large tree, found in South India and Ceylon. 
The seeds yield an oil^ used for burning. 

C. Wightianum, Wall. 

Syti. — C. Spurium, Chois. 

Vera. — Katpoon, kull-ponne, Kan.; Ckeru pinnay, Tam. 

An evergreen tree of the Western Ghats, from the Konkan to Travan- 

The seeds yield an oil not greatly differing from that of C. Inophyllum. 
It is used as a lamp-oil and as a medicine in leprosy and cutaneous afEec- 
tions^ and in infusion mixed with honey in scabies and rheumatism. 

Camellia theifera, Orif,, Ternstbcemiaceje. 

Syn. — Thea chinbnsis, Linn, ; T. assamica. 
Vem. — Cha, 

Cultivated in many districts in India, especially in Kangra, Kulu, 
Dehra Dun, Kumaun, Darjeeling, the Western Duars, Assam, Cachar, 
Chittagong and Hazaribagh, as well as in the Nilgiri Hills and Ceylon. 

" The seeds of the tea-plant contain a considerable proportion of oil, 
as much as i cwt. being obtainable by industrial means from 3 cwts. of 
seed. It is limpid, clear, tasteless and of an amber colour. The oil 
resembles that of olive, burns with a clear, bright light, and is free 
from unpleasant odour." (Spans' Enc.) It is not fit for use as an edible 
oil, nor can it be used for burning; but experiment has shown that 
it can be utilised in the manufacture of a superior kind of soap. A soft 
soap, without smell, of a light brown colour, may be produced from this oil 
with potash, which is most suitable for cleansing purposes. 


Vera. — Karpura, Sans.; Kafnty Pers.; Karpur, Beng.; Kafur, Hind. ; 
Karuppuram,TA.iiL.; Karpuram,TKl.,i Pa-y6k Burm. 

The name " Camphor " is technically given to a number of gum-resins, 
more or less resembling each other, derived from (i) Cinamomum Camphora, 
Nees, and Eberm., called the Japan Camphor Tree; (2) DryolMdanops 
Camphora, Colebr., a tree of Sumatra ; (3) Blumea balsamifea, DC, 

The natives of Sumatra collect an oil by makirig a transverse deep 
incision, into the tree, so as to form a cavity of the capacity of about a 
quart. In this they place a lighted weed for a few minutes, and then 
leave the hole for the night when it becomes filled with the oil. In Japan, 
the oil is expressed from the Camphor, and is employed for burning pur- 
poses by the poorer people. Camphor oil is said to be useful in rheuma- 
tism and in giving firmness to the teeth. 

Cananga odorata, n./. &• r., ANONACEiE. 

The Ilang-ilang of European Perfumers. 

Syn. — UvARiA ODORATA, Linn, 

y/eni.'^Kadatngan, Burm.; Ilang-ilang, Mal. 

A lare^e, evergreen tree of Burma (Ava and Tenasserim), distri- 
buted to Java and the Philippines. Cultivated in many parts of India 
on account of its sweet-smelling flowers. 








Part IV.] 

Economic Products of India. 








An otto is prepared from these flowers known as Otto of Hang, It 
is highly esteemed, as may be seen from the fact that it fetches about 185. 
to 22s. per oz. in Europe, It is frequently blended with pimento, orris, 
rose, tuberose and jasmine in the preparation of handkerchief scents. 

Further information and samples of this otto might be obtained from 
Burma* See Michdia. 

Canarium commune Linn.^ £uRS£RACEiE» 

Java Almond. 
Vera. — Jtmgli badam. Hind. 
Found in the Peninsula and Malabar. 

It yields a semi-solid oil, similar in appearance to cocoa-nut oil. It is 
used for culinary purposes, and is regarded as more palatable than cocoa- 
nut oil. 

Cannabis sativa, Linn,^ Urticageje. 


Vera. — Ganja, bhang, &c. 

An annual, 4 to 6 feet ; found wild or cultivated. 

The seeds, when expressed, yield a pale, limpid oil. The seeds contain 
about 34 per cent, of this oil. It is at first greenish or brownish-yellow ; 
but the colour deepens when it is exposed to the air. The flavour is dis- 
agreeable, but the odour is mild. In Russia it serves, in a great measure, 
the purpose of lamp-oil, but it is chiefly employed in the manufacture of 
soft soaps. 

Carapa moluccensis, Zam,, Meliacejb. 

Vera. — Poshur, dhundul, Beng. ; Kandalanga, Tam. ; PinU-dn, 


A moderate sized, evergreen tree, of the coasts of Bengal, Malaban 
Burma and Ceylon. 

The seeds yield, on expression, a whitish semi-solid fat. It remains 
fluid only at high temperatures. It is used as a hair-oil, and also for 
burning purposes. 

Cardamom seed oil. See Amomum Subulatum. 


Carthamus OXyacantha, Bteb., Composite. 

"Venx^^Kantiari, kandiara, poll, kharesta, Pb. 

Found in the North-West Provinces and Punjab. 

Dr. Stewart says that near Peshawar and elsewhere an oil extracted 
from the seeds is used for illuminating purposes, as well as for food. It 
is also said to be used medicinally. 

C. tinctorius, Zmn. 

The Safflower. 

Vera. — Kamalottara, Sans.; Kusum, Beng., Hind., Dec. ; Sendurgam, 
kashumba, Tam. ; Agnisikka, Tel. ; Su, BuRM. 

An annual, grown extensively all over India. 

Oils and Oil Seeds. 

[ Part IV, 



There are two seeds — one, the cultivated, is white and glossy, the 
other (Karar) is a smaller but similarly-shaped seed, mottled or dusted, 
brown-grey and white; both yield oil. The oil is very clear, yellow, is 
esculent, and would be peculiarly suitable for burning in lamps, on 
account of the little heat wnich it gives out." (Baden- Povjell.) It is also 
used locally for culinary purposes, and is said to form an ingredient of 
the " Macassar Hair-oil.'* The yield of this oil is about 25 per cent. In 
paralytic affections and bad ulcers, it is used as an external application. 

Carum Carui) Linnn^ Umbelliferjb. 

Caraway Seed. 

Vem. — ^ytra, Ben G.J Z*Vflf, Hind.; Shimai'shombUf Tam. ; Shimai-sapu 

The plant is cultivated for its seeds as a cold season crop on the plains ; 
also frequent on the hills, 

A valuable essential oil is obtained from the seeds, called Caraway Oil. 
This oil is colourless or pale-yellow, thin, with strong odour and flavour 
of the fruit. It is used in medicme and more extensively as a perfume 
for soaps. 

Carum copticum^ Benth. 

True Bishop's weed; Lovage. 

Syn. — Ptychotis Ajowan, DC. 

Vern.— y<w»«»> Beng. ; Ajowan, Hind.; Oman, Tam. ; Otnamu, Tel. 

Cultivated in many parts of India for its seeds. 

The seeds yield an oil on distillation with water, which is used medici- 
nally ih cholera, colic, and indigestion. 

Caryophyllus aromaticusi Linn., Mykiacem. 


Yem,'^Lavanga, Beng. ; Long, Hind ; Kiramber, Tam. ; Lavangalu, Tel. 

It is indigenous in the Moluccas. 

The flower-buds and flower-stalks of cloves yield, when distilled with 
water, an essential oil. The process of distillation is largeljr carried on in 
England. It is a colourless or a yellowish oil having a powerful odour and 
flavour of cloves. It easily combines with grease, soap, and spirit, and is 
extensively made use of in the manufacture of perfumery. In Germany 
it is often adulterated with carbolic acid. 

Cedrus Deodara^ Loudon, Conifeks. 

Deodar; Himalayan Cedar. 

Vera. — Nakhiar, Afg. ; Didr, deoddr, daddr, Hazara, Kashmir, Garh- 
WAL, KuMAUN; PalUdar, Hazara ; Giam, Tibet. 

A very large and tall tree of the North- Western Himalaya, between 
4,ooo and 10,000 feet ; extending east to the Danli river, a tributary of 
the Aloknanda, below the Niti Pass, mountains of Afghanistan and North 

" An oil is obtained from the wood by destructive distillation ; it is 
dark-coloured, thick, and resembles crude turpentine. It is used for 






Part IV. ] 

Economic Products of India. 




anointing the inflated skins which are used for crossing rivers, and as a 
remedy for ulcers and eruptions, for mange in horses and sore feet in 
cattle. '* {Gamble.) 

Celastxus paniculatus, Wtiid., Celastrinejc. 

Vera. — Malkakni, Oudh, Kumaun; Kohundan rangul, C. P. ; Kanguni 
Bom.; Rtiglim, Lepcha. The seeds are generally called Malkangni, 

A scandent shrub of the outer Himalaya, from the Jhelam to Assam* 
ascending to 4,000 feet ; East Bengal, Behar, South India and Burma* 

The seeds yield by expression a deep scarlet oil, used medicinally. It 
is much admired as an external application along with a poultice of the 
crushed seeds. It is also burnt in lamps, and employed in certain religious 

By a process of distillation the natives also obtain from the seeds a 
black empyreumatic oil, which has been experimented with by European 
practitioners under the name of " Oleum nigram." Dr. Herklots affirms 
that it is a sovereign remedy in Beri-beri in. doses of from 10 to 15 
drops twice daily. It is a powerful stimulant, followed in a few hours with 
free diaphoresis, unattended with subsequent exhaustion {Pharmacopoeia 
India,) Dr. Dymock describes this empyreumatic oil as prepared by 
distilling the seeds along with benzoin, cloves, nutmegs, and mace. 

C. senegalensis, Z^TTi. 

Syn.— C. Montana, Roxh, Gymnosporia Montana, Lawson, 

Vem. — Sherawane, Trans-Indus; Talkar, dajkar, khardi, Pb. ; Baikal 
gajachinni, C. P. ; Mdl kangoni. Bom, ; DarUi, pedda chintu, Te.1. . 

A tall, spinescent shrub of the northern dry and intermediate zones, 
North-West India, ascending to 4,000 feet, Central India, and the drier 
parts of the Peninsula. 

By pressing the seeds a deep scarlet-coloured oil is obtained as thick 
as treacle. It is used for medicinal purposes. 




Cerbera OdoUam, Gaertn., Apocynace-e. 

Vera. — DabAr, dhakur, Beng. ; Kadamd, kaiarali, Tam, ; Kalwa, 


A moderate sized evergreen tree of the coast forests of India and 

The seeds yield an oil which is used for burning. {Kurg.) 
The Burmese also use it to anoint the head. 

C. Thevetia, Linn. See Thevetia neriifolia> Ltnn, 

Cheeronjee oil. See Buchananla latifolia. 

Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Breyn.y LAURACEiE. 

True Cinnamon. 

Vern. — Dalckini, Hind. ; Karruwa, Tam. ; Sanalinga, Tel. ; Rassu 
kurufidu, CiNGH. ; Lulingyaw, thttkyabo, BuRM. 

It is a native of the Ceylon forests, but now cultivated on the western 
coast of that island. 

The liber of this plant yields the essential oil of Cinnamon, an oil of 
considerable importance. Three oils are obtained from this plant, one 


Oih and Oil Seeds. 

[Part IV. 


from the bark to the extent of i to i per cent« Distillation is carried on 
extensively in Ceylon, and occasionally in England. It is of a golden- 
vellow colour, with the powerful odour of Cinnamon, sweet and aromatic, 
but with a burning flavour. It is largely used in perfumery. The 
leaves yield a brown, viscid, essential oil, of clove-like odour, sometimes 
exported from Ceylon. The third oil is obtained from the root, of yellow 
colour, specifically lighter than water, with an odour of camphor and 


Citrullus ColOCynthiSi Schrad., Cucurbitaceje. 

Wtm.-^lHdrayan, Hind. ; Makhal, Beng. ; Indrayan,indraphal, Mar. ; 
PaycoomuHt Tam. ; Putsa kayo, Tel. j indrawan, Dec : Sheii-putsa, 


An annual, found in the Peninsula and South India, 
Yields a clear, limpid oil, according to Ainslie, used in many of the 
southern provinces for burning in lamps. 

C. vulgaris, Schrad. 

The Water-Melon. 

Vera.— J?ar*«0, iN. W. P. ; Bamanka^ Hind.; Kalingada, Mar.; PayS, 


Cultivated very generally, especially in Upper and North Indian 
The seeds yield a clear, bland, pale-coloured, limpid oil, used for 
burning in lamps. 

Citrus medica, Linn,, Rutagea. 

Var. I. medica proper. 

The Citron. Cedratier, Fr. • cedro, It. 

Vem.— FjO'fl^jirfl, Sans.; Utr^, otroj, Arab.; Bijaura, Hind.'; Begpura, 

Cultivated in many parts of India— Assam, Calcutta, Chutia Nagpur, 
North- West Bombay ; also in Persia. 

Var. 2. Limoniim. 

The Lemon. Limonier, more generally citronnier, Fr« ; 
LiMONE, It ; CiTRONE, Gcrm. 

Vem. — Bora nimbu. Hind.; Korna Nebu, Beng. 
Cultivated abundantly in the south of Europe. 
Citric acid is made from it. 

Var. 3* adda. 

The Sour Lime of India. 

Vem. — Jambira, Sans.; Limu, limoun, Arab.; Libu, nebu, limbu, nimbu, 
Beng., Hind. 

Var. 4* Limetta. 

The Sweet Lime of India. 

Vem. — Mitha Nebu, Beng., Hind.; Amrit-phal, Kvmavij,) Thanbaya, 


Commonly cultivated in most parts of India and Burma. 

The rind of the Lemon, when subjected to expression, or when distilled, 
yields an essential oil known as ** Essence of Lemon," or " Citron-zeste" 
according to the method employed. For this purpose the fruits are plucked 
very early, because they contain more oil when they are still green and 
unripe. Lemon-oil is extensively used in the manufacture of perfumery. 









Part IV.] 

Economic Products of India, 







Cleome visCOSa, Linn,, Capparidea. 
Wild Mustard. 

Vera. — JiuT'huria, Benq. ; fangli huhul, Dec; Nay-kadughu, Tam. 
Kukha^avalu^ Tel. 

A common weed, grows in Bengal and South India in the rainy season. 

The seeds yield a light, olive green-coloured limpid oil when subjected to 
a great pressure. It seems likely that this oil would prove serviceable 
where a very liquid oil is required. The plant is one of the commonest 
weeds in BengaJ. The oil could be prepared to any extent. 

Cnicus arvensis, Hoffm.y Composite. 

WenL—BhuT'bhur, N. W. P. 

Found throughout India, especially in cultivated fields in the Gangetic 
plains; the common thistle of India. 

Produces small black seeds, which yield a large quantity of oil. The 
seeds are gathered by the poorer classes, and the oil expressed by them 
for their own use. It burns with smoke ; it is otherwise of good quality. 


Cochlospermum Gossypium, DC, Bixineji:. 

I^yn. — BoMBAxGossYPiUM, Roxb, 

VtXtL, — Ktimbi, gabdi, ganidr, galgal, gangal, HiD. ; Gangetm, 
GoND. ; Giingti, kong, Tel. ; Tanaku, kongillam, Tam. ; Ganeri, 
gunglay. Mar. 

A small, deciduous tree of the forests at the base of the North- West 
Himalaya, from the Sutlej eastward, Central India, Deccan, and Prome 
district m Burma. 

It is mentioned as an oil-yielding plant, but further information is 


Cocos nudferai Linn., Palmes. 
The Cocoanut Tree. 

Vem,'-Narikel, Beng. ; Nariel, Hind, j Tenna, Tam. ; Nari kadam, 
Tel., On, Burm. 

A pinnate-leaved palm, cultivated and wild throughout tropical India, 
particularly near the sea-coast. 

The pulp, dried at ordinary temperatures, contains 5*43 per cent, of 
oil. The method of extracting this oil in India, especially when the oil is 
required to be colourless, is as follows : — The kernel is boiled with water for 
a few minutes, then grated and placed in a press. The emulsion thus 
obtained is boiled until oil is found to settle on the surface. The ordinary 
commercial oils are manufactured by the rude oil-mills worked by oxen. 
The oil is white and nearly as fluid and limpid as water in tropical climates. 
It has a sweet and agreeable odour when fresh, but it is liable to become 
rancid in a short time. In Europe, the oil is chiefly used in the manufac- 
ture of candles and soap. In India it is used in cooking, and as medicine 
when fresh, and for burning, painting, soap-making, and anointing the 
body when rancid. 


Otis and Oil Seeds. 

[Part IV. 


Colchicum illyricum, Liliacje. 

Vem, — Suringdn, talkh, shirin, 

Mr. Baden-Powell mentions this as an oil-yielding plant. Further 
information is required. There seems to be some mistake about the deter- 
mination of the plant. 

The oil is stated to have been obtained from Jalandhar, Lahore, Ludhi- 
ana and Kashmir. Specimens of the oil, as also the plant from which pre- 
pared> should, if possible, be procured from the Punjab. 

Connarus nitiduS) Roxb. in Hort, Beng. 49^ Connaracje. 

Found in Sylhet and British Burma. 

Dr. McLelland says that in Rangoon seeds of this plant yield a quan- 
tity of sweet oil. The name C nilidiis is not referred to by the Flora of 
British India, but I presume the plant which yields the oil in question 
is really C. gibbosvs. Wall, Specimens of the oil should be supplied by 
Burma, accompanied with a twig of the plant, to allow of its being deter- 

C. spedOSVLSjMcLell. 

Vem. — Gwedauk, Kadot, Kodet, Bubm. 

A large tree of Rangoon, Pegu and Tounghoo. 

McLelland says that the seeds yield an abundance of sweet oil. 

The above has been extracted from Dr. Cooke's Report on Oil Seeds, 
The name C. spedosus, McLell., was taken from Balfour's Cyclopcedia and 
is one of the numerous fanciful namesused in that work which have never 
been published. Dr. Cooke eumvedaeineome doubt regarding this plant 
— ^a doubt which time has not rerma s. Abs dttely nothing is known regard- 
ing it. Information from Burma should, therefore, be obtained regarding 
the Gwai'doak, and, if possible, a sample of the oil and a twig of the plant 
should be supplied. The Burmese name Gwe (Spondtas nutgnifera) seems 
very near to the above. 

Cooawanoo oil. 

This oil is procured from the reptile Caeiutna divacea in the East 

Corianditiinf sdttvum, Linn., Umbellipera. 

The Coriander. 

Vera. — Dkanyaka, Sans. ; Dkania, Bekg., Hind.: Kothamira, dkana 
(seed) Mar.; Kotatnalli, Tam. ; Danyalu, Tel, ; Nan-nan, Burm. 

This plant is cultivated all over India. 

The fruits of this plant yield, from 07 to i i per cent of volatile oil by 
distillation in water. The oil is colourless or yellowish, with the odour and 
the flavour of Coriander. 

Coraus macrophylla, Wall. 

Vera. — Kasir, kachir, haleo, allian, hadd4, naug, kaksh, kachtir, ruchi a 
Hind. ; Patmoro, Nepal. 

A doubtfully distinct species from the preceding ; is common all along 
the Himalaya. I found it in the Naga hills and Manipur. 







B I 


Part IV.] 

Economic Products of India. 






It would be interesting to know if this also yields the oil, as it must if 
Brandis' observation proves correct. The knowledge of the oil may, 
however, be confined to Kashmir. 

Cornus sang^inea, Linn., Cornacea. 

A shrub or small tree found in Europe, Siberia and Kashmir, 7,000 feet 

The pericarp of the fruit contains oil {Brandts). Specimens of this oil, 
with further information, should be obtained from Kasnmir. 


CoiyluS Coluraai Linn., Cupulifera. 
The Indian Hazel Nut. 

Syn.— C. lacera. Wall, C. Jacquemont, Dene, 

Vtm^^Curri, Nepal; Langura, BhUTI; Shirol, Garhwal; Urni, winri, 
thangi, jangi, shMi, banpdlu, kapasi, bhoHa badam, Himalayan 
Names. Finddk, the Pb. name for the nuts. 

A moderate sized tree of the North-West Himalaya, between alti- 
tude 5,500 and 1O4O00 feet. 

The kernel of the European Hazel, C« Avellana, Linn, yields a sweet 
oil. There seems no reason to doubt that this oil could be prepared from 
the Indian species, but I can find no mention of it. Information on this 
subject would, therefore, be most acceptable. In the Eastern Himalaya 
the place of C. Colnma is taken by C« feroz, a Nepal and Sikkim species. 


CostUS SpeciOSUS, Sm,, Scitahinrs. 

Vem^—K^st, keuy Beng., Hind. ; Gud^rlchdkdnda, kemuka, BoM. ; Bomma 
kachika, Tel. Tsjana-kua, Mal., Kemika, Sans. 

One of the most elegant plants of this family; its spirally-twisted stem 
carries its glossy leaves and white flowers above the brushwood in our 
tropical jungles. It is common everywhere throughout India, especially so 
in Bengal, frequenting moist, shady places. The rhizomes are made into a 
preserve, eaten by the natives. Piesse says of it : "I have made some 
experiments with a sample of kushtj it appears to be scarcely as odorous 
as Orris Root. The tincture has an agreeable smell, and would be useful 
but no quantity has as yet been seen in our markets." An unlimited 
quantity might easily enough be exported from Bengal were some effort 
made to bring this root before the perfumers of Europe. There is a strong 
probability however that Piesse is referring to the root of Saussurea Lappa 
or Hypoluca members of the Compositse which were formerly called Audk- 
landia Costus. It is remarkable that while associated with the word 
Costus both these widely different plants should have the same vernacu- 
lar names as it would be interesting to know which actually possess the 
odour resembhng the Orris, a plant nearer allied botanically to Costus 
spedosus than to Saussurea. 

Cotton seed. See Gossypium. 

Crocodile oil. 

The oi! of the Indian Crocodile contains a larger quantity of solidifiable 
fat than either neat's-foot or any fish oil. It is prepared by the Sanif 
tribe, in the Punjab, who eat crocodile-flesh. It is said to be procurable 
in abundance at Agra. Specimens of this oil, also information regarding 
the mode of preparation, the amount annually procurable, and the econo- 
mic uses of it, should be obtained from the Nortn-West Provinces. 


Oils and Oil Seeds. 

[Part VI. 


Croton oblongifoliuS) Roxh,, Euphorbiacea. 

Vem. — Arjunna, Oudh Ach, Nepal Parokupi, Ass. Ganas4ra, MaR; 
Bhutan kusam, Tel.; ThJtyin, Burm. 

A small tree found in the Sub- Himalayan tract, from Oudh eastward 
to Burma, also in South India and Ceylon. 

The seeds give an oil. {Gamble.) Specimens of this oil-yielding nut 
should be supplied to allow of experiments being performed ; also full in- 
formation of the quantity annually available. 

C. Pavanai Hamilt. 

VWBW^Thet-ySnFniy Burm. 

A tree of Assam and Burma. 

It yields an oil, very similar to the Croton Oil of commerce. This oil 
is at present but imperfectly known, and it is therefore very desirable that 
Burma and Assam should each supply, say, a maund of the nuts, with 
specimens of the oil, and information regarding its preparation, and the 
quantity of nuts and oil annually obtainable. It is said to be plentiful at 
Ava and at Kamrup. 

C. Tigliunii Linn. 

. The Purging Croton. 

Vem. — Jayapdla, Sans. ; Jaypdl, Bei^g. ; J^amal-gof a. Hind. ; yamalagota. 
Mar; Nervalam, T am. ; Nepala-vitua, Tel. ; Kanaka, Burm. 

A small tree (15 to 20 feet) indigenous to the Malabar coast and Tavoy, 
and found cultivated in gardens in Bengal, South India, Ceylon, Burma, 
the Indian Archipelago, the Moluccas, and even in Mauritius. (Sports' 

It yields an oil which is orange yellow or sherry-coloured, of the con- 
sistence of nut-oil, with a slight odour resembling that of jalap resin, and 
an acrid flavour. This is a valuable medicinal oil, wnich is used as a 
drastic purc^ative. The oil, as prepared in India, is so much adulterated, 
that it finos no sale in Europe. The nuts are exported chiefly from Bom- 
bay and Cochin, and the oil is expressed by a firm in England. 

It is necessary to be cautious in handling the nuts or oil, owing to 
their blistering tne skin. The oil is frequently used externally for colds 
in the chest as an external application, causing a severe blister. It is much 
resorted to as a domestic cure but not recommended by the profession. 




Cucumis Melo, Z., Cucurbitaceje. 
The Sweet-Melon. 

Venu-^Kharmuj, Beng. ; kharh^ja, Khurb4J, HiND. ; Kharab4ja, chibuda. 
Bom.; Gidhro, Sind.; Vellari-verai, Tam.; Mtdampandu, Tel. 

Extensively cultivated in the Nbrth-West Provinces, in the sandy basins 
of the rivers, on account of its fruit. 

The flattened and elliptic seeds yield a sweet, edible oil. In fact, the 
seeds of most of the members of the Melon, Pumpkin, Cucumber, and 
Gourd family, contain oil, but the only kinds which are utilised to any con- 
siderable extent are those of the Sweet-melon (Cucnniis Melo) and the 
Water-melon (CitnillBS vulgaris). From West Africa large quantities of 
melon seeds are exported to France. China also does a large trade in 
them, but in India the fruit is chiefly eaten as such, and not allowed to 
ripen its seeds for the oil supply. 



Part IV. ] 

Economic Products of India* 






Cucumis Melo, L, forma momordica {sp, Roxh,) 

Vtm.^Phunti, Beng.j Phut,tuti, Hind.; Kakari-kai, Tam. ; Pedda-kai, 
pedda dosray, Tel. 

Tbere are two varieties, one appearing in the rains and the other in the 
hot season. 

The seeds yield an oiU 

C. MelO) L. forma utilissimus. {sp, Roxb,) 

Vem* — Kankri, Hind, or Kakri, Bkng. ; Dosray, Tel. ; Kdkadi, Bom. 
Cuhivated in Upper Bengal and North- West Provinces during the 
hot weather and the rains. 
The seeds yield an oil. 

C. sativUS, Linn. 

The Cucumber. 

Vem. — Sasa, Beno.; Khira, Hind ; Kdkadit khira. Bom. fMulurelari, 
Tau.; Darga-kaia, Tel. ; Khyar, Pbrs. ; Thagwa, BuRM. 

" There are two forms of this plant, one a creeping plant cultivated in 
the fields during the hot season, and the other a climber cultivated in 
homesteads in the rains. The fruits of both are extensively used as food," 
(Amsterd, Cat.) 

The seeds yield an oil. 

C. trigonasi Roxb. 

Syn,— Bryonia callosa. Herb. Rottl. 

Vtm.'^BislSmbi, Hind; Rattut'tumatti, Tam; Adavi-puch-cka, Tel. 

Found throughout India. 

" Dr. Ainslie remarks that the seeds yield a fixed oil by boiling, which 
is used for lamps by the poorer classes. Lientenant Hawkes reports that 
it is used for burnine in lamps in some parts where the fruit abounds. 

'' It is extractecT by boiling in water, and is procurable only in small 
quantities." {Cooke.) 



I06 Cucurbita maxima, Duchesne^ Cucurbitacea. 

The Gourd. 

Vera. — Kadu, Hind. ; Lal-Bho^ala, lal dudiya, BoM ; Pushini-kaia, Tam. ; 
Gutnmaddikaia, Tel. ; Snwe pay ^, Burm. 

Cultivated all over India for its fruit. 
The seed yields an oil. 

C. Moschata, Duchesne. 
The Musk Melon. 
Syn.— C Melopepo, Poxb. 
Vera. — Kharbtij, saphari kumhra. 
The seed yields a mild, bland, pale-coloured oil. 

xo8 C. Pcpo, DC. 

The White Gourd. 

Vem.— ^«wrtf, Safedkaddu, lanka, koftua kumara, kadimak, Beng., Hind^ 
SafedrBhopala, safed-dudiya. Bom. 

Cultivated for its fruit. 

Oils and Oil Seeds. 

[Part IV. 

Its seeds yield a clear edible oil. 

Refer to Benincasa cerifera and compare with the remarks given under 
that species. 

Cuminum Cyminum, Linn,, Umbelliferje. 

Vem. — Jiraka, Sans. ; Jira, Beng. ; Zira, Hind ; Siragam, Tam. ; Jiraka, 

Extensively cultivated in Rajputana and other parts of Upper India. 
An oil is obtained from the seed, and is used medicinally as a stimulant 
and carminative. 


Cydonia vulgaris) Tourn., Rosacea. 
The Quince. 

Vera. — Bihi, Hind. ; Bamisunt, bamsuiu, Kashmir. 

Cultivated in Afghanistan and the North-West Himalayas up to 
5»5oo feet. 

Baden-Powell mentions this as an oil-yielding plant in his List of 
Punjab Products, Docynia indica. Dene,, a nearly allied plant, is very 
plentiful in Sikkim, Bhutan, Khasia hills, and Burma. In the Naga Hills 
the grpund at certain seasons is simply covered with the fruit left in 
maunds to root under the trees. This might easily enough be put to some 
economic use. 

Cynometra cauliflora, Linn.y LEGUMiNosiE. 

Vera. — Iripa, Mal. 

A tree of the Western Peninsula, South India, Ceylon, and Malacca. 
Its oil is said to be prepared in North Arcot, and used for medicinal 
purposes. Madras should supply specimens. 

Csp.? polyandra, i?o^3. 

Vera. — Ping, Cachar. 
Spans' Encyclop, says that the oil which this plant yields is medicinal. 

C. ramiflora, Linn. 

Vcm.-^hingr, Beng. j Irap4, Tam.; Myeng Kabeng, Burm.; Tripa, 
Mal. j Gcu-tnendora, Cingh j| Iroopoo, Kan. 
Western Peninsula, Malabar, Ceylon, and common in the Sunderbuns. 
The seed yields an oil which is externally applied in leprosy and other 
cutaneous diseases. 

Ceylon or Madras should supply specimens. 

Cyperus rotunduSi Linn., CYPERACEiE. 

Vera.— Af«^A«, Beng., Hihd, ; Kori-ki-jhar, Dec, iKaray, Tam.; Sakha- 
tungu'veru, Tel. 
Found everywhere in India, especially in Bengal. 
The rounded rhizomes yield an essential oil, which the natives of 
Upper India use to perfume their clothes. 









Part IV.] 

Economic Products of India. 









Dalbergia lanceolaiia, Linn,^ Legumjno&b. 

Syn* — D. FRQNDOSA, Roxb, 

Wtm.—TakoU, biik4a, Hind. ; Bander siris, Nbpal ; Nal valan^a, Tam. } 
Pedde^ sopara, yerra pAisarut Tel.; Dandons, Mas. 

A deciduous tree of the Sub-Himalayan tract, from the Jumna east- 
ward, ascending to 2,500 feet, and extendin^^ to Central and South India. 
The oil expressed from the seed is used in rheumatic a^ections. 

D. latifolia, l^oxb. 

The Blackwood or Rose wood of Southern India. 

Vem.— 5»&fl/, Beng., Nepal, Oudhj Skisham, sisu, kalarukh. Mar. ; 
Siss4, Guz. ; Iti, eruvadi, Tam. ; Jiiegt, jitangi, Tel. 

A deciduous tree, attaining a large size in South India, met with also 
in Oudh, East Bengal, and Central India. 

The seeds yield oil <rf which almost nothing further than this fact is at 
present known. 

Specimens of this as of thejother oils from Dalbergia are required. 

D. Slssoo, Roxb. 

The Sissoo. 

Vera. — Skisham, sissu, sissai, HiND. } Tdli, safedar, Pb. ; Sissdi, OuDH ; 
Yette, Tam. 

A large, deciduous tree of the Sub-Himalayan tract, from the Indus to 
Assam, ascending to 3,000 feet. It is now largely cultivated throughout the 
plains of India as an ornamental tree alon^ roads, &c. 

It yields an empyreumatic, medicinal oil. 

Daucus Carota> Linn., UHBELLiFEHfi. 

The Carrot. 

Vera. — Gdjar, Beno., Hind, i G4/Jara kelangu, Tam. ; Ge^'ara gadda^ 

Cultivated in many parts of India. A hardy, acclimatised form, with 
almost ^een roots, is extensively cultivated in India, and is rapidly 
finding its way into the vegetable eardens of the natives. It is an 
exceedingly coarse form, but quite hardy in Behar, growing right through 
the hot season. 

The seed yields an oil, but no information exists as to its nature. 

Dichopsis elliptical Benth,, Sapotageji. 

Syn.— Bassia elliptica, Z>a/iBr. 

Vera. — PanchoH polo, Tam. ; Panchonia, Kan* 

A very large tree of the Western Ghats. 
It yields the " Gutta-percha Seed Oil." 

D. Gutta, B/k. &• Ifook. /., Sapotacejc. 

Syn. — Isonandra Gutta, ffook, 

Veni.^Niatoo, Malay. 
A plant of Singapore and Borneo. 
Reported by the Madras Jurors at the Exhibition of 1857 to yield oil. 


Oils and Oil Seeds* 

[Part IV. 

DiospTTOS Embryopteris, Pers.y Ebenacsx. 

Syiu— D. GLUTiNosA, Roxb. 

Vem.^Gdbf makuT'kendi, Beno. and Hind.; Kendu, Ass.; Tumbika, 
pani'ckika, Tam. ; Tumil, Tel. ; Kusharta, Kan. ; Timberee, Cingh. 

A small tree or large evergreen shrub, forming a dense dome of foliage, 
met with throughout India and Burma, especially in Assam, Bengal and 

An oil, extracted from the seed by boiling, is used in native medi- 

Dipterocarpus teviSi Ham.. Dipterocarfks. 

Vera. — Kanyin-mi, BuRM. 

A lofty tree of the tropical forests, throughout Burma. 

It yields a wood-oil used for painting. Full information as to the supply 
and economic uses of the Burmese wood oils, as also genume specimens, 
are much required. 

D. turbinatusi Gaertn.f. 

Vern, — Gurjun^ Hlyagurjufh Beng.; Kanyoung^ Magh; Kanyin-ni, 


A lofty, evergreen tree of Eastern Bengal, Chittagong, Burma, and 
the Andaman Islands. 

It yields a wood-oil used in painting houses and ships. 

D. zeylanicuSi Thwaites. 

Vera. — Hard, Cingh. 

A tree of Ceylon, ascending to altitude 3,000 feet 
Yields wood-oil. 


Ek)lich0S bifloruSf Linn,^ Leguminosje. 

Sy]i«*-D. UNiFLORUS, Lam, ; Glycine uniflorus. Lam, 

Venu^KurH'kalai, Beng. ; KuUhigakai,HiiiD. ; KifUu, Tam. ; WtOawaHi , 
Tel. ; Kulitba gaglip, Sind.. 

An erect annual {forma uniflora) or twining {forma btflora) plant, met 
with chieflv in a state of cultivation as a pulse crop on the tropical and 
subtropical Himalaya, to Burma and Ceylon. 

The beans are said to yield an oil, of which little is known. They 
are chiefly used as food for horses. 

Dorema Ammoniacumi Bon, Umbsllifra. 

Eastern Giant Fennel. 
Yen* — Ushak, Pbrs., Arab., Bom.; Kandal, Bokhara. 

A glaucous green plant, native of Persia. 

It yields a volatile oil, said to be imported into India. The available 
information on this subject is exceedingly meagre, and the above reference 
is given chiefly with the view of suggesting enquiry, as I suspect the plant 
to be a species of Ferula* See Fseniculiui and Fernla* 








Part IV. ] 

Economic Products of India. 





Dryobalanops Camphora, CoUbr., Dipterocarpea, 

Vem. — Bards Camphor, bardsakdpura, bhimsenikdpura^ BoM. 

It yields a volatile oil, which is largely used in Singapore as a substi- 
tute for turpentine. See Camphor. 

Dugong oil, or the oil of the Sea Hog, — ^the Yungan or Mooda Hoora. 
There are two species, each yielding an oil of great value in medicine 
and cooking. One of the species, Halicore indicus» is distributed through- 
out the Indian Ocean, in the Gulf of Manaar, on the west coast of Ceylon, 
in the Straits Settlements and the Eastern Archipelago. The other species, 
H. australis, is found on the Australian coasts. 

On boiling down, each animal, weighing from 4 to 6 cwts., yields from 6 
to 14 gallons of oil. The oil has no unpleasant flavour; it is free from odour ; 
when refined it is clear and limpid. It is largely used as a substitute for 
cod-liver oil. {Spans* Encyclop.) 

Elettaria Cardamomuixii Maton, Scitamineje. 

The Lesser Cardamom. 

Vem^-^Chota-elachi, Beng., Hii},;EHaay, Tam., Tel.; Pala, Burm. 

Extensively cultivated in the hilly districts of India. 

Baden-Powell mentions this plant in his list of medicinal oils. I am 
not aware of a fatty oil being expressed from the Cardamoms, and it seems 
probable that the oil referred to by Mr. Powell was merely Gingelly Oil 
medicated with Cardamoms. 

An essential oil is extracted by aqueous distillation. It is of a pale 
yellow colour, about 5 per cent, being generally obtained ; it possesses the 
flavour and odour of Cardamoms, and is said to be distilled to some extent 
in Madras. 

130 Entada scandens^ Benth., Leguminosje. 

Syn. — E. Purs^tha, DC, ; Mimosa scandbns, RosA, 

Vem. — Gilla, Beg. ; Ceredi, Uriya ; Pangra, Nepal ; Gardal, BoM. ; 
Gdn nyin, Burm. 

A large climber of the forests of Eastern Bengal, South India, Burma, 
the Andaman Islands and Ceylon, ascending on the Himalaya to altitude 
4,000 feet. 

An oil is said to be expressed from the seeds of this plant, the proper- 
ties of which are not known. In the Naga Hills the plant is exceedingly 
common, its pods, often 3 to 5 feet long, forming a most remarkable feature 
of the lower forests, especially on the Assam side. 

Information as to the oil might therefore be obtained from Assam; and 
samples of the oil, pods, and seed, and information as to its extraction and 
economic uses, would be most acceptable. Specimens of snuff-boxes made 
from the seeds are much rcequired. 


Oils and Oil Seeds. 

[Part IV 

Eriodendron anfractuosum, DC., Malvacejk. 

The White Cotton Tree. 

Syn. — E. ORiETALE, Stend. j Bombax pentandrum, Roxb. 
Vern. — Safed sifnal, senibed^ natian, katan, Hind. ; Shwet simul, Beng. ; 
llavam, Tam. ; Buruga, pur, kadami, Tel. ; Itnbul, Cingh. 

A tall, deciduous, soft-wooded tree of India and Burma, often planted 
Yields a dark brown, clear oil, which was exhibited at Madras m 1857. 


Madras might supply samples of this oil and give a brief notice of the 

mode of preparation and information of its economic use. 

Eruca satiya, Zam,, CRuciFERiE. 

Vem.^-Taramira, HiND. ; Assu^ Pb. 

Cultivated places in North and Central India, Western Himalaya, 
ascending to 10,000 feet, also met with in the Upper Gangetic valley. 

Roxburgh says that it is cultivated during the cold season for the seed, 
from which oil is prepared by expression. It resembles colza oil in all 
respects but in colour. 

Specimens of this oil, with further information, are much required, in 
order to establish its relation to Mustard and Colza. The oil is used for 
burning purposes and anointing the hair and to a certain extent in food. 

Erythroxylon monogynum, J^oxd., Lineje. 

Vera. — Devadarttf Tam. ; Adivigeranta, Tel. 

A small tree of South India, the Western Peninsula, and Ceylon. 

The wood is reported to yield an oil used as a preservative for native 

Madras might be able to supply a specimen of this oil, also specimens 
of the plant to allow of its identification. Information as to the mode of 
preparation would also be interesting. 


Eucalyptus Globulus, Za^., Myrtaceje. 

The Blue Gum. 

'WtXa.'^Kurpoora maram. Mad. 

A lofty tree, with fibrous deciduous outer bark, gregarious in Victoria 
and the south of Tasmania ; introduced on the Nilgiris, and now almost 
naturalised. Good specimens are to be seen in our Botanic Gardens, 
especially at Lucknow. 

The leaves of the plant yield an essential oil used in medicine. Re- 
cently this has been used in the preparation of Eucalyptus Soap, 
much advertised. 







Part IV.] 

Economic Products of India. 


135 Euphorbia dracunculoideSy Lam,^ Euphorbiacxa. 

Syn^-^E. LANCEOLATA, Rotth* 

Vera. — Jychee, chhagul-pupuH, Bbng. 

A much-branched annual^ met with in the Punjab, Bengal, Madras 
(Coromandel) and Konkan. 

It yields an oil, limpid, clear, of a yellowish or greenish yellow colour, 
used as a drying oil and for burning. In 1843 it was submitted to London 
brokers who pronounced it more valuable than linseed oil. The Ag^ri' 
Horticultural Journal^ India, ii, p, 52, 1843, draws attention to this oil. 




Excascaria sebifera, Mulh Arg,, EupHORBiAcsiE. 

The Chinese Tallow Tree. 
Syiu — Sapium Sebiferum, Roxh. 
Vera* — Mom-china, Beng. 

A moderate-sized tree, cultivated in China and Japan, where it is pro- 
bably indigenous. Cultivated or naturalised throughout North India. 
It is reported to thrive in the North- West Provinces and the Punjab, 
especially at Paonee, Ayar Tali, Kumaun and Kangra Valley. 

The seed yields an oil, described as a white and solid tallow, very pure 
and inodorous; exhibited at the Punjab Exhibition, and used in the manu- 
facture of candles. 

The fruits are about \ inch in diameter and contain a thick coat of 
fatty matter around the seeds, whence the tallow is obtained. The fruits 
are collected at the commencement of the cold weather. After being 
cleansed and freed from the shell, they are steamed and finally subjected to 
a dry heat in sieves when the tallow melts and is collected in masses. 
It is then subjected to various processes to free it from impurities, being 
squeezed through a press as tne final refining process. ^ When purified 
it is hard, opaque, white, tasteless and inodorous. The fat is much used 
in China for candles. From the kernels, after removal of the tallow, an 
oil is prepared which is used in China to varnish umbrellas, to anoint the 
hair, and also medicinally. 

Feronia Elephantum, Corr., Rutaceje. 

Vem. — BUim kait, katbel. Hind. ; Kathbel, Beng. ; Kavatka, kaiori,SiSD; 
Vallanga^ vela, kairt, Tam. ; Velaga, yellanga, Tel. ; Hman^ BuRM. 

A large tree of the Sub-Himalayan forests from ^ the Ravi eastward, 
Bengal, South India, and the Chanda distritt in the Central Provinces. 

The seed has been mentioned as yielding an oil, but beyond this 
nothing is known. 

Ferula Narthex, Boiss., Umbelliferjb. 

Syn. — Narthex Asaf(etida. 

Wtm,—Hingu, Sans.j Hing, Beng., Hind. ; Perungayaniy Tam.; Inguva, 

The Asafoetida plant is a native of Kashmir, Persia and Afghanistan, 
The root contains an essential oil. 


Oils and Oil Seeds. 

[Part IV, 

Flacourtia Cataphracta^ Roxh,, Bixixeje. 

Vera. — Paniala, panizalt, Beng. ; Talispatri, paniala. Hind. ; JangO' 
ma, tdmbaia, BoM. ; Talisapairi, Tam., Tel. ; Nay-w^, Burm. 

A small tree, with the lower half of its stem very spiny, found in Ben- 
gal, Burma, Bombay, and Western Ghats. 

The seeds yield an oil. This is one of the most plentiful trees of 
India. Information regarding its oil might lead to the opening up of a 
trade in an article which even the poorest might supply. 



Foeniculum vulgare, Gaer/n., Uhbelliferjb. 

The Common Fennel. 

Syn. — F. Panmorium, Roxb, ; Anethvm Pamori, Roxb. 

VtXVU'^ Mauri, pan-muhoriy Beng.; Sont, Hind. ; MadhMkd, Sans.. 
Bohikire, Tam.; Pedda-jila-kurra, Tel. 

Cultivated in most parts oi India as a cold season crop, on account 
of its grain, which is often eaten in pan. 

The grain contains a volatile oil, pale yellow, with a pleasant aromatic 
odour. Fennel water is used medicinally, but chiefly as a vehicle for 
other drugs. This water is distilled largely in India and sold under the 
name of Arak bddtdn. 


Gardnia indica, Choisy, Guttiferje. 

Cocuu or KoKUM Butter. 

Syn. — G. PURPUREA, Roxb,s G. celebica, De^r .; Brindonia indica, 

Yeitk^'^Moorgul mora, Tam.; Kokum, Ratdmbi, the fruit kokama, 

amasula, brirtddo. Bom. ; Brindao, GoA. The Brindall of the 


Found on the Ghats of Konkan and Kanara. 

The seeds yield an oil, white or pale greenish-yellow, solid, rather fri- 
able, with a faint but not unpleasant smell, soluble in ether, and slightly 
so in rectified spirits; recommended for many medicinal purposes. 
The seed is pounded in a mortar, and when reduced to a mass the 
whole is boilea in water, when the oil rises to the surface, and is skimmed 
off; on cooling it hardens, and is roughly moulded into eggf-shaped lumps 
or into concavo-convex cakes. The Flora 0/ British India, in keeping with 
all previous works, gives the statement that Cecum or Gamboge Butter is 
extensively used to adulterate ghee ; but speaking of this subject, Dymock, 
in his valuable work on the Materia Medica of Western India, says this 
statement is incorrect. He explains that the Christians obtain their ghee 
from pigs and the Hindus import theirs from Bombay. The existence of 
a scarcity would seem to point to adulteration being extremely pro- 
bable. The statement made by most authors that it is used as an adul- 
terant with ghee is not confined to Goa. 

Additional information would be exceedingly interesting, as also 
specimens of the Cecum Butter from different parts of India. 



Part IV. J 

Economic Products of India. 








Gardnia Morella, Desr. 

The Gamboge Tree. 

Vtm.—Aradal, puftar puli, Kan.j Mukki, Tam.j Retackinni, Mar.; 

Thanoiaw, Busm. ; Gota gamba, HiND., for the gum-resin. ; Gokatu, kanw 
goraka, Cingh. 

An evercrreen tree of the forests of the Khasia Hills, East and West 
Bengal, and Ceylon. 

It yields a semi-solid fat of a yellow colour, used as a lamp oil by the 
rich and by the poor as a substitute for ghee, much in the same way as the 
preceding, and m fact indiscriminately with it. 

Ghee or clarified butter, largely made from buffalo's milk and cow's milk, 
is universally employed in domestic cooking in India, and is an imdrot- 
ant article of local trade. See Gardnia iiuSca, and also Laid. 

Ghirgilly Oil from Kanafa. 

This oil is mentioned by Balfour ; no further information is available. 

Ginger Grass. 

An essentia] oil is obtained from Andropogon Schoenanthes, which^see. 

Givotia rottleriformis, Griff, Euphorbiacejs. 

Vem.'^Vendale, butalli, bulali, Tam.; Telia p4nki, Tel. 

A middle-sized tree of Mysore, the Deccan, the Eastern Ghats and 

The seeds give an oil, locally used for lubricating machinery. (Gamble.) 


Gljrcine Soja, Lieb., Leguminosje. 
The Soy Bean. 
Syn.- DoLicHos Soja, Linn, ; SojA hispida. 
Vera. — Gari-kulay, Beng. : Bkat, bkatwan. Hind. 
A pulse (densely clothed with fine ferruginous hairs) sub-erect. Tropi- 
cal regions and outer Himalaya, from Kumaun to Sikkim, the Khasia and 
the Naga Hills to Upper Burma. Dr. Stewart mentions a field of Bhat 
having been observed in Bissahir in the Punjab, altitude 6,000 feet. It is 
chiefly met with in a state of cultivation. Dr. Roxburgh first saw the 
plant from seed received from the Moluccas in 1798. 

The seed or bean has almost attained a European name from its 
being used to make the sauce known in India as "Soy." The seed is 
largely eaten by the Chinese, and from it a sort of cheese is prepared. 
It is aiiso largely consumed in the manufacture of an edible oil. The cak^ 
after the extraction of the oil, is used as food for cattle or as a rich manure. 

Gosssrpium arboreum, Zinn., Malyacem. 
G. barbadense, Linn. 
G. herbaceum, Linn. 

The Cotton. 

Vem.-^Karpas, Sans.; Tula, Bbng.; Rut, Hind. ; ParutH, Tam. ; Paritt, 
Tel.; Wa, Burm. 

Cultivated in India. 

Jhe various species of cotton yield an oil, dark and turbid when crude, 


Oils and Oil Seeds. 

[Part IV. 

but capable of being refined into a clear, amber-coloured oil, used for 
burning in lamps, and also medicinally as a demulcent. 

Gourd. See Cucuribta nw-gSmfl, 
Ground Nut. See Arachis h7pog:ea. 

Guizotia absrssTnicai Cass, Compositjc. 

Niger seed and oil. 

Syn. — G. OLEIFERA, DC» 

Vera. — Kala-Hl, Hind.; Ram-tilt Beng. $ Rdmatila, kerani. Bom; Vales- 
tdoo, Tel. 

Cultivated in India. Originally a native of Africa. 

It yields a limpid, clear, pale, sweet-tasted oil, used for culinary pur- 
poses. It is plentiful in the Mysore, Vizagapatam, and Ganjam districts. 
it is often used as a substitute for gingelly, and is the common lamp oil of 
Upper India; it is very cheap. It is generally sown in July or August 
and ripens in three months, the yield being about 2 bushels per acre. 
Colonel Sykes remarks that this is largely used in the Deccan as a 
substitute for ghee by the poorer cultivators. The cake is a much- 
prized food for milk-cows. Mr. Solly reported that the yield was about 
35 per cent., or about lo per cent, less than the yield from Sesamum (gin- 

Further information and facts as to exportation to Europe required ; 
also samples of oil and seed. 

Gynocardia odorata^ R. Br,, Bixineje. 

The Chaulmugra oil. 

Vern* — Chaulmicgri, petarkura, Beng.; Kadu, Nepal ; 7*<{;l, LsPCHA* 
Toung-pung, Magh ; Lukrabo-oil, Siam ; Ta-fung~tse-of, China. 

A moderate sized, evergreen tree of North and East Bengal, Assam, 
Khasia Hills, Chittagong and Burma. It has a large fruit, somewhat like 
an orange, in the pulp of which the seeds are imbedded. 

"The seeds give by expression about lo per cent, of a thick, fixed oil, 
of unpleasant flavour ana rather offensive smell.** (O^Shaughnessy,) 

The oil is extracted by both cold and hot expression, the yield being 
about lo per cent. It is used by the natives in the treatment of cutaneous 

The pure oil can hardly be obtained in India. It has recently been 
largely introduced into European practice in the treatment of rheumatism, 
rheumatic gout, phthisis and various skin diseases. It is much advertised 
by Mr. T. Christy in his New Commercial Plants, European practitioners 
in India do not seem to attach much value to the oil, and I am told by one 
of our leading druggists that this opinion has been arrived at after care- 
ful investigation with carefully-prepared specimens of the oil. 






Part IV.] 

Economic Products of India, 







Additional information and specimens of the oil and seed are much 

Helianthus annuuSi Zfiwif., Compositjb. 


Vtm^-^Surajmuihi, Hind. ; Suria-miMit Sans. ; Adifya, bhaktuchetiu, 
Podda-trin'gudda chettu^ Tel. 

Cultivated in Indian gardens dnring the cold season. 
It yields a clear, fluid oil, resembling that of the firround nut. I have 
seen good specimens prepared at one or two of our jaUs in Bengal. 
Specimens and addition^d information required. 

Heritiera littoralis, Dryand., Sterculiacejb. 

Vera. — Sunder, sundri, Bbng. ; Pinle kanoMO, BURM. ; Mawtda, And. 

A small, gregarious, evergreen tree of the coasts and tidal forests of 
Bengal, the Eastern and Western Peninsula, Burma, Khasia Hills, the 
Andaman Islands and Ceylon. 

This tree is reported as the source of an oil in the Antilles, the use of 
which is not known. 

abelmoschuS) Zmn., Malvaolb. 

Musk Mallow. 

Syn^—ABILMOSCHUS moschatus. 

Vem. — Kasture, Beng., Sans. ; Mushkddnd, HiND. ; Kalakasturi, Dec. ; 
Kasturu^enda, Tam. ; Karpura^tenda, Tel. ; Balu^waii, Burm. 
An annual, found in the rainy season in many parts of India. 
''The seeds called Musk mallow in English and hub-ul-mushk in 
Arabic, from its smell resembling a mixture of niusk and amber, are 
used medicinally in chronic dyspepsia as a cordial and stomachic. " 
(Amsterd, Cat.) 

H. cannabinuS) Ztnn., Malvacea. 

'Venu^'Maestapat, mestapaut, nalku, Pulooa, Beng. ; Palungoo, Tam.; 
Gongkuraf Tel. ; Ambaree, Dec ; Punday, pundrika, Kan. ; Sunnee, 
Saharunpore; Poolejf-numajee, Coimbatore. 

Generally cultivated in India. 

The seeds of this plant have been frequently sent from India to Eng- 
land as an oil-seed, but the use of the oil is not known. It is clear and 

H. ficulnenSy Linn. 

Vera. — Ban^lhenras, Beng. ; Parupu benda, Tam. 

Grows in the hotter parts of India. 

Lieut. Hawkes mentions this as one of the oils of South India. 


Oils and Oil Seeds, 

[Part IV. 

Hibiscus SabdarifiTa, Linn. 

Vera. — Mesta,paiwa,BEiiG.; Polecheet Mal,} Ckinbaung,B\}KU, 
Generally cultivated in the hotter pa,rts of India. 

An oil is prepared from this plant at the Allahabad Jail, particulars 
as to the preparation and economic use of which are required. 


Holarrhena antidysenterica, Wall., ApocYNEiE. 

Syn. — H. PUBESCENS, Wall,; H. Codaga, Don; Echites antidysen- 
terica, Roxb,; Chonemorpha antidysenterica, Don, 

Vera. — Inderjau, dudhu-ki-lakri, Hind. ; Vepali, veppaula, veppalay, 
Tam.; Kodoga-pala, pala'chettu, Tel.; Lettopgyi, Burm. 

A plant of the Sub- Himalayan tract, Oudh, Bengal, Central and 
South India. 

It yields a thick, scarlet-coloured medicinal oil. In works on medical and 
economic science, great confusion for a long time existed with regard to this 
plant; the bark (Conner* Bark) and the seeds {Inderjau) having for a long 
time been attributed to an imaginary species, Wrightia antidysenterica, 
Linn, As this error has not even yet been eradicated, I take the present 
opportunity of repeating the characters by which Wrightia may be distin- 
guished from Holarrhena :— 



( I .) Corolla three or four times the 
length of the calyx ; mouth 

(2.) Stamens inserted at the bot- 
tom of the tube and there- 
fore not protruding. 

(3.) The seeds are linear, oblong, 
compressed, concave, with a 
coma of hairs on the apex. 


(l.) Corolla not more than twice 
the length of the calyx, 
mouth surrounded by a 
corona or teeth. 

(2.) Stamens inserted within the 
mouth of the corolla, an- 
thers protruding, twisted 
and surrounded by the 

(3.) The seeds are straight, ob- 
long, compressed with a 
coma of hairs at the base, 
the apex being pointed 
and naked. 

In Alstonia, a genus which has also been confused with the preceding, 
the seeds are attached to the fruit in the middle, and have a coma of 
hairs at both extremities. See Wrightia. 

Hura crepitanSi Linn,^ Euphorbiacea. 

Sandbox Tree. 

A large tree introduced into India from Jamaica* 

A clear, pale-coloured, fluid oil is obtained from the seeds, of which a 
sample was shown at the Madras Exhibition of 1857. The whole tree 
abounds in poisonous matter, and the oil may partake of its deleterious 

Madras might be invited to supply specimens of the oil, accompanied 
with a descriptive note of the mode of preparation and economic uses. 
Specimens of the seeds should also be supplied. 

C 33 


Part iV.] 

Economic Products of India, 




Hydnocarpus V^ghtiana, Blume^ Bixinsje. 

Syn. — H. INBBRIANS, Wall, 

VtXtL.— YetH, maravetti, Tam.; ATow^', Mar. ; Mak4lu, Cikgh. 

A common tree of the Western Gh^ts and Western Coast. 

" The oil, which is the produce of this plant, is employed on the Mala- 
bar Coast in cutaneous diseases and opthalmia, and for ulcers on the 
feet." (Cooke.) 

Dr. Cooke, in his Report on Oils and OiUseedSy mentions a few 
other species of Hydnooupus such as H. alpiniA, Wight, H. castanea, 
Hook f, and TK, H. veaenAUy Gaertn., H. octandii, Thw„ as oil- 
producing plants. Further information is required regarding these, and 
if possible Bombay should supply specimens of these oils and plants 
from which they have been prepared. 


162 Hyoscyamus tiigeri Linn., Solanaces. 

A herbaceous plant of the temperate Western Himalaya, altitude 
8,000 to 1 1,000 feet, common from Kashmir to Garwhal. 

This plant is mentioned by Dr. Cooke as yielding an oil, of which fur- 
ther information is wanting. 


163 Illicium Anisatum, Linn., Magnoliaceje. 

Thb Sacred Star Anise of China and Japan. 

VtXIU^BddUnkhatdi (fruit), BoM.] 

The Sacred Star Ani§e tree is not met with in India, but we have two, 
if not three, allied species, chiefly on the Khasia and Naga Hills. One 
species I found, a giant of the forest of North Manipur and the Naga Hills, 
altitude 8,000 feet. 

The fruit distilled with water yields an essential oil very much re- 
sembling that of aniseed. 


164 1 Impatietis racemosai DC, Geraniace^. 

A small, herbaceous plant, common on the temperate Himalaya, altitude 
5,000 to 7,000 feet from Simla to Sikkim, often ascending in Sikkim to 
12,000 feet. 

It yields an oil which is used for burning, and is also edible. 

t65 I. Roylei, Walp. 

A handsome bush, often 10 feet in height, common on the temperate 
Western Himalaya from Nepal to Marri, altitude 6,000 to 8,000 feet. 

The raw seeds are edible, tasting like nuts ; from them an oil is pre- 

z66 I. sulcatai Wall 

A gigantic annual, often 15 feet in height, frequent on the temperate 
Hinuuaya, altitude 7,000 to 12,000 feet. 
The seeds are edible and yield an oil. 


Oils and Oil Seeds, 

[ Part IV, 

Impatiens Edgeworthiii Hook. 

Vera* — Bantil, taiura, irual, pallu, Hlphar, kalu, juk, Pb. 

The seeds yield an oil, which is both eaten and burned by the inhabi- 
tants of the Upper Sutlej. It is probable that all the preceding species 
are used indiscriminately, and, as Stewart remarks, from the preval- 
ence of the word tel in the names given for these, as also for other species, 
they all yield oil. 

Specimens of these oils, with additional information, required. 



Indigofera aspalathoides, Vahl., Leguminosje. i68 

'Verti*'^Shevenar-vayfnb4, Tam. ; Manneli, Mal. 

A low under-shrub of the plains of the Carnatic and Ceylon. 

Ainslie says that an oil is obtained from the root, which is used to 
anoint the head in erysipelas. Much doubt exists regarding this oil, and 
specimens and further information, giving mode of preparation, should, if 
possible, be obtained. Dr. Bidie, in his list of drugs supplied to the Paris 
Exhibition, states that this is a common weed. If that be so, Madras 
might be able to supply specimens of both plant and oil. 

I. tinctoria, Linn. 169 


Vem.- Nily Hind ; Nila gula. Bom. ; NiUm, Tam. ; Nili-fnandu, Tel. 

Extensively cultivated in Bengal, the North- West Provinces, Punjab, 
Sind and South India. 

The dye is too well known to require more than a passing notice, but 
the oil is almost unknown, and this is largely because of the dye-crop being 
reaped before the plant has had time to form its fruit. The seeds yield, 
however, an oil said to be used medicinally by the natives. Specimens 
and further information required. 

Iris florentiiia, Linn., Iridaceje. 

The Iris, Orris Root. 

This is the European plant so much used in the preparation of the 
sweetly-scented Otto of Orris. It is said to be sometimes met with in 
Indian gardens. Stewart says that in the Punjab the medicinal root irtsa 
is supposed to be obtained from I. florentifia, Linn. Probably he has 
incorrectly identified the species, since he states that it comes from 

There are in all some six species of Iris met with on the Himalaya. I 
found one plentiful on the mountains of Manipur, which has not yet been 
identified. I am unable to discover whether the natives of India ever 
obtain from any of these an otto similar to Otto of Orris. 


Jasminum grandiflorum, Linn., Olzacem. 

The Spanish Jasmine. 

Vem. — ydH, chdmbel, HiUD., Bkng., znd Sans.; Chiimbeli,)ioK. ; ^ahi, 

chambeli, Kumaun ; Myatle, Burm. 
c 1 



Part IV.] 

Economic Products of India, 




Jasminum officinale, Linn, 

Vern. — Chamba, Hind; Chamba, chirichog, kiri, Kashmir; Bansu, 
kwer, dumni, Chbnab; Dassi, samsem, Ravi ; Sunt, Sutlej. 

J. Sambac, Ai/on. 

The Arabian Jasmine. 

Vcrn. — Mugray chamba, bel, bun-multka, HiND. and Beng.; Vdrshikt, 
dsphota. Sans. ; Mogrd, Bom. ; Zamba^, Pers. ; Sabe, male, Burm. 

There are in India some 40 species of the genus Jasminvm, nearly ail 
of which might be used in the preparation of the otto and oil of Jasmine. 
The three preceding species are those most abundant, almost universally 
occurring in gardens in India. J. Sambac, the Bel of the Bengalis, is 
exceedingly plentiful, both single and double-flowered, and erect or climb- 
ing. Its flowers appear in the hot season, and are largely used as votive 
offerings. Oil of Jasmine is prepared from them. 

J. officinale is cultivated in Europe and hardy in England. Often 
met with in Indian gardens, wild in Kashmir, altitude 3,000 to 9,000 feet. 

J. grandiflorom seems to be the plant chiefly cultivated by the perfumers 
of Europe. It differs from the preceding in having the calyx rarely half 
the length of the corolla tube. The flowers are largely made into garlands. 

The Oil of Jasmine is regarded as cooling, and is much used by the 
richer natives of India to anoint the body before bathing. An oil prepared 
with the juice of the leaves is poured into the ears in otorrhoea. {U. C. 

The Otto of Jasmine is prepared in Europe by enfleurage. A mixture 
of lard and beef suet is spread on glass trays or frames fitting tightly in 
a rack, the one above the other. Over these prepared trays the fresh 
flowers are scattered, tray above tray. After (standing for a day or so the 
flowers are renewed time after time throughout the flowering season of 
the plant. When impregnated with the sweet perfume the pomade is 
scraped off the trays, melted at a lowtemperature and strained. The 
perfume is extracted by pouring over the pomade pure rectified spirit, and 
leaving it to saturate for a fortnight. About two pounds of the pomade 
yield one quart of the spirit. (Piesse, on the Art of Perfumery,) A n 
essential oil may be prepared by repeated distillation of the flowers in the 
same water. 

Information regarding the Indian preparation of these oils is much re- 
quired, also samples from different parts of India. 

174 Jatropha Curcas, Linn., EupHORBiACEiE. 

The physic nut. 

Vern. — Bagberenda, pdhdri erand, safedind. Hind., Beng. ; Kdnana 
erand, Sans; Kadam,, Nepal; Mogalieranda, Bom.; Koat amuttak, 
Tam. ; Nepalam, Tel.; Thinbaw-kyetsu, Burm. 

A soft-wooded, evergreen shrub, indigenous to America, cultivated in 
most parts of India, especially on the Coromandel Coast and in Travan- 

The seeds yield about 30 per cent, of an oil somewhat paler in colour 
than the best linseed oil. The oil is used for burning in lamps. Medi^ 
cinally, it is a powerful purgative and emetic, and is a useful application in 
cutaneous diseases and in rheumatism. Its action is, however, not uniform, 
and in large doses it is an acro-narcotic poison. It may be readily dis- 
tinguished from castor oil by its being almost insoluble in alcohol. 


Oils and Oil Seeds. 

[ Part IV. 

Jatropha glandulifera, Roxb. 

Vem. — Addalay, Tam. ; Nela-amida, Tel. ; Lal-bherenda, Beng. ; 
ijangali eranduy BoM. ; Nikumba, Sans. (These are ^ven by Ainslie 
in the first instance as the South India names for a plant he calls 
J. g^lauca, Vahl.; this plant was subsequently referred to J. g^landulifera, 
Roxb,, by SUrry in his Useful Plants of Indian and through him the 
above name crept into all subsequent writings as the vernacular names for 
Roxburgh's plant.) 

A shrub common near villages in Bengal, Burma, Northern Circars 
and the Deccan, rare in Oudh and the Punjab. 

Yields a light, straw-coloured fluid oil, which very much resembles 
Castor oil in appearance. It is a stimulant and counter-irritant. Ainslie 
says that "from the seeds the Vytians (Hindu doctors) prepare, by care- 
ful expression, an oil which, from its stimulating quality, they recommend 
as an external application in cases of chronic rheumatism and paralytic 

J. mulifida, Linn. 

The Coral Plant, 

An extensively-cultivated and ornamental plant, with much dissected 
leaves and flower tops somewhat resembling coral. 

The seeds yield an oil, which has been known to produce alarming 
symptoms of poisoning. 

Juglans regia, Linn,, JuGLANDEiE. 

The Walnut. 

Vem. — Akhrot, Hind.; Akrut, Beng.; CharmghB, Pers.; Akhor, Kashmir; 
K&wal, Lepcha; Tagashing, Bhutia. 

A large tree, wild in the North-West Himalaya, largely cultivated in 
the hills. 

The oil produced from the kernels of this plant is limpid, almost colour- 
less, or pale yellow, sweet. They yield above 50 per cent., and it is stated 
that about \ of the oil prepared in France is obtained from this plant. 
It is also largely expressed in Spain and Italy. In India it seems to be 
known to the hill traders only, and it is seldom, if ever, seen in the plains. 
It is prepared to a considerable extent in Kashmir. 

Specimens of the oil and further information should, if possible^ be 
obtained from Kashmir and Chumba. 




Kokoona zeylanica, Thwaitesy Celastrineje. j*^ 

A tree with pale-coloured bark, met with on Western Peninsula and 

Thwaites says that an oil is expressed from the seeds, which is used 
for burning in lamps. 

Lactuca scariola, Linn,^ Compositje. lyp 

Var. sativa. 
The Common Lettuce. 

Vera.— JSToAm, svlod. Hind. 
Largely grown as a cold season garden vegetable. 
The seeds yield a clear, transparent, sweet oil. 


Part IV.] 

Economic Products of India, 



Z80 La^^enaria vulgaris, Seringe^ Cucurbitaceje. 

The Bottle Gourd. 

Vera. — Tumha, toombe, kaddu, kabuli. Hind.; Kodu, lau, Beng.; 
Kaddu, kabuli, laukt, iumba, PB. j Soriaukai, Tam . ; Sorakaya, kun- 
danuga, Tel.; Bu, Bubm. 

Extensively cultivated in many parts of India. 

The seeds yield a clear^ limpid oil, which, if externally applied, is 
said to relieve head-ache. 

i8i Lard. 

The melted fat of swine. This substance is reported to be largely 
used in India as a substitute for ghee or as an adulterant. From lard is 
expressed a clear colourless oil, an esteemed lubricant, and largely used as 
an adulterant for olive oil in France and for sperm oil in Ainerica. See 

z82 Lawsonia alba. Lam,, Lythraceje. 

The Henna Plant. 

Syn* — L. iNERMis, Linn. 

Vtm.^Henna, mhendi, HiHD, ; Manghaii, Urita; Martthondi, Tam.; 
Gorante, Kan., Tel.; Mendi, Bom.; Dan, Burm. 

A small, elegant and sweetly-scented bush, wild in Beluchistan, on the 
Coromandet Coasts and perhaps in Central India ; cultivated throughout 

The seeds yield an oil, <A which little is known. The flowers are used 
in perfumery and embalming, and a fragant otto is distilled from them 
at Lucknow, Benares, &c. Specimens and further information should be 
obtained from the North- West Provinces. 



Leptdium sativum, Linn,y Cruciferje. 

The Garden Cress. 

Vem. — Aleverie, haleent, Beng.; Assalia, Bou, ; Adala-^tala, Tex..; 
Haleem, Dec ; Ahreo, Sind. 

Cultivated throughout India and Western Tibet, not known in an 
indigenous state; has been known in a state of cultivation in Europe for 
over 300 years. 

It yields an oil somewhat similar to mustard oil. It is very little 
known, but is referred to by Hawkes in his Report on the Oils of South 
India, It may be possible to procure a specimen of the oil from Madras. 


Leucas cephaloteSi Spreng,, Labiate. 

Vetn.—Bura-hul'khusa, Beng. ; Tumba, Mar. ; Gurosaturni, Tel. 

The Manipuris prepare an oil from the seeds, of this plant, used in 
dyeing with Rubia, which see. 


Oils and Oil Seeds. 

[Part IV. 

-J . |..^?^r^^ ,.^^,>^_!r^ 


Linum strictum, Linn.^ Linsje. 

Vem. — Basant, bab^asant, PB. 

A small, herbaceous plant with yellow flowers, found on the Punjab 
hills and in Tibet, cultivated in Afghanistan for its oil and oil-cake. 

The oil does not differ essentially from the ordinary linseed oil. 
Specimens of the plant, seed, oil and oil-cake might be procured from 
the Punjab. 

L. usitatissimum, Ztnn, 

Linseed; Flax. 

Vem.— rfjl, masenif or masina, Bkng. ; Alsi, HiUD.; Aids*, javusUf BoMo 
Alisk, Kashmir ; Ahhi-virai, Tam.*; Alasi, Tel. 

Linseed is extensively cultivated in Bengal and the North- West 
Provinces for its oil and cake, rarely for its flax. 

" The oil is a clear, yellowish-brown fluid, not congealed even by the 
most intense frost, smoking very much when burned, readily becomes 
rancid, dries speedily, becoming by age of a deep colour, very acrid, and 
nearly opaque ; odour peculiar and disagreeable.'* {Cooke,) 

This IS tne most important oil-seed of India ; there are three or four 
well-known forms, with white, red or brown seeds ; the white-seeded form 
is regarded as the best, since it yields about 2 per cent, more oil and 
of a better quality than that obtained from the coloured forms. The 
coloured seeds are, moreover, freauently adulterated with rape seed, 
and any admixture of fatty oil-yieldine seeds lessens the drying power, 
thus destroying or impairmg one of the most valuable characteristics of 
Linseed Oil. 

There are two processes of extraction, vie,, cold and hot expression. 
The cold-drawn oil is pale-coloured, has less odour and taste than the 
hot, the seed yielding 20 per cent, of oil. The hot process is more pro- 
fitable, about 27 per cent, of an inferior quality of oil being obtained. 

To extract the oil, the seed is first bruised, ground and made into 
an oily paste. This is thereafter subjected to a high pressure. If the 
hot process is resorted to the cake is brought under the influence of a 
steam-heat of 200° F, This heat coagulates the albumen and liquifies 
the fatty matter, thereby giving the higher percentage of oil. 

The seed should be stored for three or four months before extracting 
the oil. This is done to improve the quality and increase the quantity 
of the oil. The oil-cake obtained after expression of the oil is an impor- 
tant article of food for cattle, and the ground seed is largely used for 

Formerly the English supply of Linseed was almost entirely from Russia. 
It was early discovered, however, that, as with many of the other substances 
required to meet the demands of English works and factories, India could 
supply a large proportion of the Linseed required. Lieutenant Hawkes, in 
his Report on the Oil-seeds of South India, states, that in the year 1852-53, 
Madras imported Linseed Oil to the extent of 4,552 gallons, valued 
at Rs. 8,763, whilst in the same year it exported 1,045 cwts.of Linseed to 
Eng^land. In the Statement of Trade and Navigation from British 
India for 1877-789 Madras is shown as exporting only poo cwts., and 
in 1881-82 there were apparently no exports at all of this seed from 
Madras. Simmonds, in his Tropical Agriculture, states, that in 1875, 
England, imported from India 92,290 cwts. of Linseed. While Madras 
seems to have ceased to export it, Bengal and Bombay have progressed 
enormously, for in 1877-78 the exports to Great Britain had increased to 




Part IV.] 

Economic Products of India. 

4>990J36, the total exports from India during the year being 7,198,918. 
There seems to be some mistake regarding the enormous exports from 
India in 1875 and the imports into England as given by Simmonds for 
that year; but, nevertheless, it is evident that in this respect, as with 
almost every other existing raw product, the contact of England with 
India has resulted in an enormous development of the resources of India 
and a consequent enhancement of wealth. 

The following tables show the exports from India from 1873 to 1882, 
and an analysis of those for the years 1877-78 and for 1881-83 shows the 
presidencies from which it was exported and the countries to which 
It was consigned :— 

Exportation of Linseed for ten years ending 1S82-83. 

Analysis 0/ exports 0/ Linseed from India for the year tSyj-yS. 

trum which 



Country to which 



Bengal . . 



TOTiL . 







United States . . 
Holland . 
Belgium . 

L^t?.'America- ! 

West Indies . . 


Other countries . 


















Oils and Oil Seeds, 

[Part IV. 

Analysis of exportation of Linseed from India from the year 1881-82, 

from which 



Country to which 








Bengal . 



United Kingdom . 

3,177,0961,80,13,392 1 

France . 



United States 






Bombay . 






Italy . 



Egypt . 



Spain — Gibraltar . 












Total . 

Other countries . 
Total . 



5, 1 46, 1 1 3,00,9 1 ,066 



The analysis of the exports for the year 1881-82 shows that the trade 
in Linseed is on the increase in Western India, the exports from 
Bombay having nearly doubled those of the previous five years, while 
Bengal seems to be falling off considerably. 

The oil is extensively used in the manufacture of paint, printing ink, 
floor-cloth, artificial India rubber, oil varnish, and soft soap. The seed 
is nearly always adulterated, pure Linseed Oil being almost unknown. In 
Russia it is adulterated with hemp seed, and in India, being grown as a 
mixed crop with rape, it is never pure. In medicine Linseed Oil is used in 
the cure of burns. The refined cold-drawn oil is sometimes administered 

Litsasa consimilis, Nees., Laurinea. 

Vem. — Chirira, chir-chira, Kumaun ; Pooteli, Nepal. 

A small, evergreen tree, with thin, grey bark, met with on the Hima- 
laya, from Simla eastward. 

An oil is extracted from the fruit, and used for burning. (Gamble,) 

L. Sp.? 

Vem. — Chirndt, Chenab ; Chindi, chilotu, rauli, shalangki, Ravi ; 
Charka, Bias. 

A small tree met with in parts of the Punjab Himalaya, at 2,500 to 
6,800 feet, up to the Chenab. 

In some places in Chumba, an oil, expressed from the fruit, is 
burned ; and according to Madden, a species of Litsaea, which may be 
this same plant, yields a coarse oil, in Kumaun. 

L. zeylanica, Nees, 

Syn. — L. FoLiosA, Nees. 

Vera* — Chimdi, shtdanglu, rauli, chilotu, charkha, PB.; Kanwal, lUbora, 
sara, chir-chira. Hind. 

A moderate-sized evergreen tree, in the North- West Himalaya* 
between 2,000 and 8,000 feet; East Bengal, Burma, and South India* 
An oil is extracted from the fruit, which is used for burning. (Gamble.) 






Part IV.] 


Economic Products of India, 

zgo LufTa acutangulai Roxh,, Cucurbitaceje. 

Vera. — Torooi, jinga, turi. Hind.; ^hined, Jinga, Beng. ; Peekun-kai, 
Tam. ; Burkai, hira^kaya, Tel. ; Peechenggah, Mal. ; Turdi, sirold. 
Bom.; Turi, Sino. 

Met with in the North West Himalaya to Sikkim^ Assam, East 
Benjg^al and Ceylon. Cultivated in most parts of India. 
From the seed an oil is prepared. 

^91 L. aegyptiaca, Mill, ex Hook/, 

SjtL — L. Pentandra, Roxi. 

Vera. — Ddn-dul, Beng. ; Nuni-heerd, Tel. ; Gkosdli, parosi. Bom. 
Met with in Rungpore, &c., and cultivated in most parts of India. 
It yields an oil, the qualities of which are not known. 

Z92 L. Sp. 

Mr. Baden-Powell mentions an oil under this name. 
Further information required, and a specimen of the plant, so as to 
allow of scientific identification. 



Oil. See Cartfaamus tinctorius, Linn. 
Is used by the natives of Singapore as a hair oil. 

193 Malabar Oil 

" The ambiguous term • Malabar Oil ' is applied to a mixture of the 
oils obtained from the livers of several kinds of fish frequenting the 
Malabar Coast of India and the neighbourhood of Kurrachee. The 
species chiefly caught are Rhyncohatus pectinata, R, Icevis, Galiocerda' 
tigrina and Curcharias melanopterus** (Spans Encyclop,) 

194. Mallotus philippinensiSy MulL Arg,, EupHORBiACEis. 


Vera. — Kamela, kamal, kumila, Hind, Pb. ; Rohni, Oudh; Ptinag, t4ng, 
kishur, kantalguriy Beng. ; Kampilla, rechanaka. Sans. ; R4en, rtttna^ 
roll, Kumaun; Rauni, ran, C. P.; Sinduria, Nepal; Puroa, Lspcha; 
Cangat, Ass. ; Chinderpang, machugan, GaRO ; Kapila, Bom ; Kapli, 
kapua, Tam. ; K4mkutna, vassuntagunvaj ckendra, sinduri, Tel. ; 
Kurku corungantaje, Kan. ; Shendri, Mar. ; Tawthidin, Burm. 

A small tree of the Sub-Himalayan tract, from the Indus eastward to 
Bengal, 5,000 feet in altitude; Central and South India, Burma and the 
AncUman Islands ; very common in Manipur. 

It yields a clear, limpid oil, of a pale brownish or sherry colour. Used 
medicinally as a cathartic, and has valuable properties attributed to 
it (Cooke,) 

I can find no other reference to this oil. The red powder is largely used 
by the natives, entering into every prescription for worms. The oil re- 
ferred to is probably gingelly oil medicated with this powder. Informa- 
tion and specimens would be most acceptable. Dr. Cooke says that a 
specimen of the oil was sent to London from Coorg. 


Oils and Oil Seeds, 

[ Part IV. 

ManaloO Oil of Kanara is said to be used for lamps. 

Information regarding this oil^ and the plant from which it is derived, 
and also specimens, would be most acceptable. 

Mangifera indica, Linn,y ANACARDiACEis. 

Vern. — Am, Hind.; Ghariam, Ass. ; Amru, Sans.; Amh, Beng. ; Amba, 
Mar. ; Mda, mangcts, Tam. ; Mamadi, mamid, Tel. ; Thayet, BuRM. 

A large, evergreen tree, wild on the Western Ghats ; cultivated all 
over India. 

Dr. Cooke says that the seeds contain a large percentage of oil. 

MangOSteen Oil. See Gardnia indica. 

Matricaria Chamomila, Linn., CoMPosiTiE:. 

The Chamomile. 
Syn. — Anthbmis nobilis. 
Vem.^Babun-phut, Beng., Hind. ; Chatnaindu-pu, Tam. 

A native of Europe and Persia, imported into India from the latter 

An essential oil is obtained by distillation, which possesses antispas- 
modic properties to a great extent. 

Melaleuca Leucadendron, Linn,, MYRTACEic. 

The white wood tree; Cajput oil tree. 

Vern. — Kaywputi. 

An evergreen tree, met with in Tenasserim. 

" The leaves give the Cajput Oil of commerce, which is largely ex- 
ported from the Malay Archipelago, and is used in medicine as a 
stimulant and diaphoretic." {Gamble.) This volatile oil is a mobile, 
transparent fluid, of a fine, pale bluish-green colour. It has a strong, 
agreeable odour and an aromatic taste. It is useful in flatulent colic and 
painful spasmodic affections of the bowels, and is regarded as useful in 
cholera. It is also used externally as an embrocation in rheumatism and 
other painful affections. 

'* The plant g^own in the island of Bouro is said to yield the best oil. 
The leaves are culled and distilled with water. The oil obtained ge- 
nerally contains copper but not to a poisonous extent. Annually about 
8,000 bottles of the oil are exported from Bouro to Singapore, and re- 
exported to Calcutta and Bombay." {Spon^ Encyclop.) 

Melia Azedarach, Linn. 

The Persian Lilac, Bastard Cedar or Bead Tree. 

Vern. — Bakayan, betain, dr^k, bakain. Hind.; Ghora nim, Beng.; Gori tdm. 
Bom.; Chein, kackein, Sutlej ; Maha-lintbo, malla, nim, C. P.;Bakainu, 
Nepal ; Mallai vembu, malai-veppamy Tam. ; Taruka vepu, makanim, 
Tel. ; Tamaka, BuRM. ; Mahanimba, Sans. 

A tree, with smooth, grey bark, commonly cultivated throughout 







>ART IV.] 

Economic Products of India, 






India, and believed to be indigenous in the outer Himalaya, Siwalik 
tract, and the hills of Beluchistan. 

The seeds are largely used in India for rosaries. From the fruit a 
fixed oil is extracted, which, according to Dr. Birdwood, is similar 
to that of Nim or Margosa, 

Melia Azadirachta, Linn., MsLiACEiE. 

The Nim Tree; The Margosa Tree. 

Syn. — AzADlRACHTAliNDiCA, Brandts. 

Vera. — Nim, Beng., Hid. ; Nimba, Sans. ; Veppam-vimbu, Tam. ; 
Yapa,yepa, Tel.; Tkimbawtatnaka, Burm. 

A large tree, planted and self-sown throughout the greater part of 
India and Burma. It is also indigenous to India, although in the plains 
chiefly met with in a state of cultivation. 

" From the fruit is extracted, by boiling or pressure, a fixed, acrid, 
bitter oil (Margosa), deep yellow, with a strong, disagreeable flavour. It 
is used medicmally as an antiseptic and anthelmintic." {Brandts,) 
" Dr. Maxwell has found this oil as eflicacious as cod-liver oil in cases 
of consumption and scrofula. " (Balfour,) Sir W. O'Shaughnessy says : 
** The oil is thought anthelmintic, and is applied externally to foul ulcers, 
and used as a liniment in rheumatic and spasmodic affections, and in 
head-aches from exposure to the sun." 

Dr. Dynnock says, the oil ** is applied to suppurating, scrofulous glands, 
is given in leprosy and a variety of diseases. During the winter months 
in India the oil solidifies, becoming fluid in summer. It is sometimes 
burned in lamps, but emits a heavy and disagreeable smoke. Its anti- 
septic property would seem to show that, if made into soap, it would 
be found very serviceable for the purpose of washing sores, especially 
when healing up. It makes a good, useful, hard soap. Should a trade 
in this oil arise with Europe, an unlimited supply might be obtained from 
the vicinity of our larger towns, and within easy access to the railways. 

Mentha piperita, Sm , Labiatje. 


A herbaceous plant of the temperate regions, largely cultivated for cu- 
linary purposes, most gardens having a few plants. It is also cultivated 
extensively on account of its volatile oil. The cuttings are first sun-dried, 
a process which increases the yield about 7 per cent. ; thereafter they are 
distilled. The oil is colourless or faint greenish-yellow, has a peculiar 
odour of its own, and a pleasant, cooling flavour. It is largely used in 
confectionery, perfumery, and medicine. 

M. sativa, Linn. 

This plant, like the preceding, is grown for culinary purposes and for 
its oil. Both are frequent in the gardens of Europeans in India ; they 
grow freely and easily in Behar and the North- West Provinces, but do 
no flower in the plains of India. 

M. viridis, Zinn. 

This plant fs common in the plains in a state of cultivation, and is 
known in Bengal as Pundia. 


Oils and Oil Seeds. 

[Part IV. 

Mesua ferrea, Linn,, GuTxiFERiE. 

Vem. — Nagesatf Hind, and Beng. ; Ndgach antpd. Bom.; Nangal, Tam. ; 

Ndgak^sara, Tel.; Gang an, Burm.; Nahor, Ass.; Belutta-champagam, 

A middle sized tree, met with in the hilU of Eastern Bengal, the 
Eastern and Western Peninsulas, and the Andaman Islands. 

In Ceylon an oil is obtained from the seeds, thick and of a dark colour. 
It is used both for burning in lamps and as an external application to 
sores. It is also largely expressed by the inhabitants of North Kanara 
for use as an embrocation in rheumatism. 

Michelia Champaca, Linn., Magnoliace^. 

Vem. — Champa, Hind.; Champa, chatnpaka, Beng.; Pivald chdphd, BoM.; 
Titsappa, Ass.; Shimbu, sempangam, Tam. ; Tsaga, BURM. 

A large, handsome tree, with yellow sweetly-scented flowers ; culti- 
vated throughout India, wild in Bengal, Nepal and Assam, 

The seeds are said to yield a fatty oil and the flowers a volatile oil, 
but this is doubtful. The leaves are known to yield a sweetly-scented 
water on distillation. This otto somewhat resembles Ilang (Canunga 
odorata) for which it is used as an adulterant. 

Information and specimens of the oils of this plant are much required. 

Mimusops Elengiy Linn , Sapotacek. 

Vem. — Bukal, bohl, Beng., Mar.; Mulsdri, maulser, Hind.; Bakuli, ovali, 
BoM.; Magadam, Tam. ; Pogada, Tel.; Bokaly boklu, Kan.; Elengi, 
Mal.; Vavoli, Mar.; Kaya, Burm. 

A large, evergreen tree, wild on the Western Gh5ts as far north as 
Khandalla, Northern Circars, Burma, Andaman Islands and Ceylon ; 
cultivated throughout India. (Gamble.) 

The Pagoda Gum of Madras is said to be obtained from this tree. 

The seeds yield an oil which may be used medicinally, and also in 

M. indica, A. DC. 

Syn. — M. hexandra, Roxb, 

Vem. — Khir, khirni. Hind. ; Rain, Meywab ; Palla, kannu'palle, Tam. ; 
Palle panlo, palla pandu, Tel. ; Khirni, Mar. ; Raini, Gondi ; Palii, 


A large, evergreen- tree on the mountains of South India, extending 
in Central India to the sandstone hills of Pachmari, north of the Goda- 
vari. It is found only on sandstone, and frequently associated with 
Buchanania Angastifolia and Hardwickia binata. {Gamble.) 

It is reported to yield an oil from its seed. 

M. Kaukiy Linn. 

Vera — ? Adoma, Goa . 
A large tree of Burnia (Amherst) and the Malayan Peninsula to Aus- 

The seed is said to yield an oil in Burma. 








Part IV.] 

Economic Products of India. 




Mooroogaua. See Tallow. 


Moringa aptera, Gaerin,, Moringacejj:. 

A native of Africa; long naturalised in the West Indies. 

It yields the Ben Oil of watch-makers. While the next species yields 
the oil as freely if not more freely than M« aptera, it is in India rarely 
ever used for this purpose. 

M. pterygosperma, Gaertn. 

Horse Radish Tree. 

Veni. — Sujna, Beng. ; Soanjna, sanj'na. Hind.; Shegava, Mar.; 
Morunga, Tam.; Danthalon, Burm. 

A- small^ handsome tree, much distorted in the plains of India 
through the habit of coppicing to produce the young twigs which are eaten. 

The seeds yield a clear, limpid, almost colourless oil, rather thick. 
It is used for medicinal purposes. The oil, however, is seldom 
made, and it does not form an article of export. This fact is the more 
remarkable when it is remembered how extensively the tree is cultivated. 
It is to be hoped that attention may be attracted to this subject, for India 
might easily enough, and with profit, supply the whole world with its Ben 
or Moringa Oil which consists especially of oleine, margarine and 
stearine. It has a specific gravity of 0*912 at 60' F., it is fluid at 77** F., 
and solid below 60° F. After separation of the solidifiable portion, it forms 
on cooling the clear oil so much used by watch-makers. It is also 
much prized by perfumers as an absorbent for some of the more delicate 

Mudug^a Oil. See Butea Frondosa. 



Murraja Kcenigii, Spr., Rutacea. 

Syn.— Bergera Kcbnigii, Linn, 

VertL—Gandla, gandi, bowla, Pb. ; Harri, katnim. Hind.; Barsanga 

Beng.; Kdrhi-nitnb, Mar. } Chanangi, Hydjgrabad ; Karepak, kari- 

vepa. Tel. ; Kamwepila, Tam. 

A small tree of the outer Himalaya, ascending to altitude 5,000 feet 
from the Ravi to Assam, Bengal, South India and Burma. Largely 
cultivated in the plains on account of its leaves which are used to flavour 
, curries. 

The seeds yield a yellow, clear, transparent oil, known as Simbolee 
or Limbolee oil. Birdwood says that this oil is obtained from the 
leaves, not from the seeds. It is probable that there are two oils — one, 
a fatty oil from the seeds, and the other, an essential oil from the leaves. 
Cooke says the oil is from the seeds, but as he quotes Birdwood as 
his authority, this may be a mistake. It seems also probable that 
Mvraya exotica, Linn., a much more frequent plant in our gardens 
and known as Kamini, is the plant most frequently used. To enable 
this confusion to be cleared up, information and specimens are required. 


Three species of Bratiica yield Mustard and Mustard Oil, but are 
grown more especially for the well-known condiment which is prepared 
from the seed. These are Braitica mgjm^ B. alba and B. juacea, which see 


Oils and Oil Seeds. 

[Part IV. 

Myristica malabaricai Lamk.^ Myristiceje. 

Vtm.—Kanagi, pindi-kai (seeds), Kan. ; JRdttajdyaphala (seeds), kdya- 
phala (mace), Rdmapatri, Bqm. 

A small, evergreen tree of South Kanara and Malabar. 

The seed, when bruised and subjected to boiling, yields a 
quantity of yellowish concrete oil. This oil, when melted down with a 
little bland oil^ is applied efficaciously to ulcers. 

M. moschata, Wiild. 

The Nutmeg ; Mace. 

Syn. — M. OFFICINALIS, Linn.f^ 

Vem. — Jai^hala, Sans ; Jaephal, juephal. Hind., Bom., Jaia-pkula, 
Beng. ; faipatri, Bom., Jadicai, Tam. ; Jajikaia, Tel. ; Sadikka, jati- 
pullum, CiNGH.; Jaipal (Siitm&g),jati,jauntari (Mace), Hind. 

The tree is cultivated in many parts of India^ Ceylon and the Malay 
Archipelago; largely so in the Moluccas^ Banda, the Straits, and 

The nut yields an essential and a fixed oil. The former is white, 
acrid, pungent, and smelling powerfully of nutmeg; the latter is 
yellowish in colour, and solid. This latter substance is the Nutmeg 
Butter. It is extracted from refuse nuts by reducing them to powder, 
heating them in a water bath, and, while hot, obtaining the oil by 
expression. Upon cooling this solidifies into the mottled, orange-brown 
butter. It has a pleasant odour, and a fatty, aromatic flavour. 

Both the Mace and the Nutmeg yield an otto or essential oil upon 
aqueous distillation. That from the former is yellow, with a strong 
odour of the mace and an aromatic flavour. Nutmeg essential oil is nearly 
colourless, or white, with a strong odour and flavour of the nut. Both 
the essential oils are extensively used for flavouring soaps. The extent 
to which this is the case is at once seen by the enormous consumption 
of Nutmegs in Great Britain. The actual consumption is variously 
stated. Piesse {Art of Perfumery) states that the ''produce of Nut- 
megs in the Moluccas has been reckoned at from 600,000 to 700,000 
lbs. per annum, of which half goes to Europe, and about one- 
fourth that quantity of Mace. The annual consumption of Nutmegs 
in Britain is said to be 140,000 lbs." Simmonds, on the other 
hand, gives the imports into Britain from 1840 to 1870, and during 
the five years ending 1870 the average was 592,736 lbs., valued at 


The Nutmeg was successfully introduced into the Straits, and some 
30 years ago, before the fatal blight which ruined the trade, the exports 
from Singapore exceeded those from Banda. The Chinese have of late 
been msHcing hopeful efforts to introduce the plant and to compete 
with the Spice Islands. It has also been established in India on the 
Nilgiri Hills, but the future field for Nutmeg plantations seems 
to be Jamaica. 

The Otto of Nutmegs enters largely into the composition of 
English perfumery, but especially so that of Frangipani. When 
used sparingly it combines pleasantly with lavender, santal, and 
bergamot. Formerly soap, known as Banda Soap, was prepared from 
the fatty oil or Butter of Nutmegs. The trade in this article has 
died out, being replaced by ordinary soap perfumed with the otto of the 
Nutmeg. Medicinally, Nutmegs are chiefly used as condiments, and 
in moderate doses they assist digestion, dispel flatulence and strengthen 





Part IV.] 

Economic Products of India. 


the viscera. This action is chiefly due to the presence of the essential 
oil of Mace and Nutmeg. Nutmeg is also largely used as a condiment 
in cookery and confectionery. 

The Dutch connection with the Nutmeg trade is anything but 
creditable to their system of administration or their commercial in- 
stincts. On taking possession (rf the Spice Islands they endeavoured to 
exterminate the tree from all the islands except the northern portions of 
Banda^ but a hurricane which swept over that portion of their settlements 
nearly exterminated the plant, while it left the other islands untouched. 
On another occasion, finding the market glutted, they destroyed by 
fire enormous quantities so as to save the market from falling. In spite 
of this the Nutmeg trade has prospered, but largely through migrating 
from its original home, and there seems good reason to expect that 
India will soon be able to meet her home demand. In 1877 there was 
exported to Europe 1,207 lbs. of Nutmegs of Indian produce. 


215 Mjrrtus communis, Linn,, Myrtace-e. 

The Myrtle. 

Vem. — Vilayati mehndi, burg marad, hah-ul-ds, Pb. Bab-ul-aas (berry). 

Occasionally met with in cultivation in India. 

A medicinal oil is said to be obtained from the berries of this plant, 
Baden-Powell remarks that it is reputed to strengthen and pro- 
mote the growth of the hair. This must apparently be a fatty oil. 
Information and specimens of this oil are mucn required, and might be 
procured from the Punjab. 

An essential oil is distilled from the leaves in Europe, and used in per- 
fumery ; apparently this oil is not prepared in India. The leaves, flowers 
and fruit are all distilled together, the resulting oil being yellowish or 
greenish-yellow, about 5 oz. being obtained from i cwt of the leaves. This 
oil is of great fragrance and is much prized. It is, however, expensive, 
has been successfully imitated by cheaper preparations. 


Nardostachjrs Jatamansi) Z>C., Valerianaceje. 

The Spikenard. 

Vera. — Jatatnansi, Beng. ; Bdlchiar, Hind. ; Massi, GARHVfAL ; Balachara, 
sutnbal. Bom. 

A small, herbaceous plant of the Alpine Himalaya, altitude 11,000 to 
15,000 feet, from Kumaun to Sikkim 

Baden-Powell mentions this plant as yielding an oil, but information 
with regard to it is very much required. The Jatamansi root enters 
largely into the composition of native perfumery, and chiefly in combina- 
tion with valerian, forming a mixture anything but a favourite with 
Europeans. Formerly, however, this was much valued by the ladies of 
Rome. Modern taste in the matter of perfumes, as with many other 
luxuries, has gone in favour of delicacy or quality instead of strength and 
quantity. There cannot be a doubt, however, as to the importance of 
this perfume in India, and it is much to be regretted that neither the 
mode of preparation, nor the combinations of this perfume, can at present 
be ascertained from the literature of Indian economic science. It seems 


Oils and Oil Seeds. 

[Part IV. 

to be chiefly used to perfume the hair, as was the case with the ispikenard 
of the ancients. 

Neeradimootoo Oil. 

Vera. — Jungli badam-ka^tel. Hind. ; Mooioo, yennai, Tam. 

This oil was sent to the Madras Exhibition under several names. It 
is generally prescribed by native practitioners as a valuable medicine. 
Definite information from Madras as to the source of this oil, as 
also specimens, would be most acceptable. 


Nerium odorum^ Soland., Apocynacej:. 
The swkbtly-scentkd Oleander. 

Vera. — Kaner, kaniy4r, Hind., N. W. P. ; Karabi, Beng. ; Kanhera, 
BoM. ; Kanira, ganhira, gandere (in the plains); Kaner, Pb. ; Aldri, TaM.; 
Ganneru, Tel. ; KharsMkra, Pbrs. ; Karavira, asvamdraka. Sans. 

An erect bush of the Western Himalaya from Nepal westward 
ascending to 6,500 feet in altitude. Distributed to Central India, Afghan- 
istan and Japan. Universally cultivated in gardens on account of its 
sweetly-scented flowers, of which there are single and double, white and 
pink, forms. It is probable that this plant does not differ from the Oleander 
of the Mediterranean regions (N. Oleander). 

An essential oil may be distilled trom the flowers, and the 
natives use, in the treatment of eczema, impetigo and other skin 
diseases, gingelly oil medicated with a decoction of the root of this plant. 
The whole plant is very poisonous to cattle, as may be seen by the Sans- 
krit and Persian names, and it is probably used criminally for the destruc- 
tion of cattle. Dr. Stewart states that in Kangra the bark and root are 
frequently used by suicides. 

Nicotiana Tabacunij Lmn., Solanacea. 


Vera. — Tumak, tumbaca, bujjerhhang. Hind.; Se, iumhaca, Bbng. ; 
Pogkei, Tam.; Poghako, Tel. ; Doonkola, Cingh. ; Se, Burm. 

Tobacco was most probably introduced into India about the year 1605 
and is now cultivated all over the country and extensively used. It 
apparently shows no tendency to grow wild, while N. plimbaginifolia, Viv., 
has apparently gone quite wild and is not met with in cultivation in India. 

The seed yields a clear, limpid, colourless oil, used in painting. 

Dr. Cooke says that the specimens of Tobacco-seed Oil seen by him in 
London were obtained from Sattara and Mysore. Specimens of this oil 
are required, and it would be interesting to learn further particulars, espe- 
cially as to whether a trade exists in this oil. 

Ni£^ella sativa^ Linn.^ RANUNcuLACEiE. 

Black Cumin Seed. 

Vera. — Kdlejira, kdlongi, BoM., Hind. ; Mugrela, Beng.; Carin-siragutn, 
Tam. ; Nulla-gilakara, Tjbl. 

Extensively cultivated. 
D 49 





Part IV.] 

Economic Products of India. 





" The seeds of this plant yield a dark-coloured fragrant oil" (Hawkes\ 
*' clear, nearly colourless, and about the consistence of Castor Oil" {Cooke). 
This difference of opinion, it is hoped, may suggest the advisability of an 
investigation into the subject. The seed is said to yield about 10 per 
cent (?) of an essential oil. Birdwood says: "the seeds yield an oil but 
little used." 

Nyctanthes Arbor-tristiSi Linn., Ouekq^m. 

VtXtL^Harsihdr, harvinghar, saherwa, seoli, nibari, Hind.; Shin- 
ghdr, harshingdr, sephdlikd, Beng.j Pakara, saduri, kuri, Pb.; 
Afanjapa, Tam. ; Seitbibu, Bubm. 

A small tree of Central India, extending to Bengal and Burma, 
cultivated throughout India, universally met with in the flower gardens of 
the natives of Bengal. 

The flowers of this plant contain an essential oil. Specimens and 
particulars of preparation and economic use required. 

Odmum adescendens, Willd. 

Venu^-Bun-iulsi, Beng. 
A small, prostrate plant, quite scentless, very hairy, with ovate, oblong, 
obtuse leaves ; flowers small, pale pink. 

O. bastUcunii Linn., Labiatje. 
The Common Basil. 

VtnLr-Babui tulsi, Beng., Hind.; SaUat, Dbg. ; Tiruniirup-pattiri, 
Tam. ; Vibudi-patri, Tbl. 

A small, herbaceous shrub, found in almost all parts of India, Java, 

&c. .... 

Span's Encyclop, mentions it in the list of vegetable fixed oils. 

It is believed that the natives of the various parts of India, in their 
perfumery, distil ottos of the different species of iulsi ; but as no informa- 
tion is available in the literature of the subject, it has been thought advi- 
sable, as a basis upon which information might be communicated, to 
classify these plants, giving the vernacular names for the species as 
recognised by Botanists. 

Var. 1st. — pilosum, Benth. 

Vem. — Baboi'tulsi, Beng., Hind. 3 Tuhhmirikdn, Bom. ; Varvara, Sans. 
The seeds are called rehdn, /aranj-mushk, Hind. 

A small, mach-branched, herbaceous bush, extensively cultivated in the 
plains of India. Leaves, small, thin, oblong, entire ; petioles et verticiles, very 
hairy ; racemes, elongated ; corolla, often glabrous. 

Ybx» 2nd.—BBisatam^ Benth. 

The sweet Basil. 
SjTU — O. Basilicum, Linn., in Roxb, Fl. Ind. 
Vera* — Sabaj'hi, Sind ; Nigand bdbri, Pb. 
The same vernacular names are used for this plant as for the preceding. 
A more erect and less-branched form, with thick, glabrous leaves, sub'- 
dentate ; corolla, often villose. 

Roxburgh says this form was introduced from Persia, having' been first 
sent to the Botanic Gardens under its Persian name Deban Shah-, or Deban 
Macwassim It is nearly allied to the next form. 


Oils and Oil Seeds. 

[Part IV. 

Var. 3rd, — ^g^labntiia^ Benth. 

Syn.— O. Integerrimum, Willd*, O. Caryophyllatum, Roxb. 

'V-erxu—Gulal-msi, Beng., Hind. 

Stenif erect ; petioles and calyces, sparely ciliate ; leaves, scarcely toothed ; 
racemes, elongated^ simple. Frequent about the houses and temples of the 
Hindus ; the whole plant, very aromatic and fragrant. 

Var. ^A.— thiysiflonuB^ Benth. 


An erect, glabrous, herbaceous bush. Petioles and calyces, scarcely 
ciliate ; racemes, thyrsoide {i,9,, branched, with the middle portions longer than 
the lateral divisions) ; Flowers, small, pale pink. 

Ocimum gratissimuixii Linn. 

Vem, — Bam-tulsi, Beng., Hind. ; Ramatulasa, Bom. ; Banjere, Pb. 
A larger plant than the preceding, grown in gardens; 5^em5, glabrous ; 
leaves, petioled ; ovate, acute, crenate, or grossly dentate ; bracts, lanceo- 
late ; base, hastate, raceme, simple or slightly-branched at the base ; flowers, 
white or pale yellow, scarcely larger than the calyx; stamens exseried. 
Roxburgh remarks of this plant that it diffuses a stronger fragrance than 
any of the other members of the genus. 

O. sanctum, Linn. 

There are two forms of this plant, which will be recognisable as met 
with in cultivation, owing chiefly to the difference in colour of leaf, and 
scarcely deserve to be regarded as varieties. 

Var. /f^.— sanctum proper. 

Vem.— ATa/a or Krishna t4lsl, HiND., Beng., & Tel. ; Tulasa, Bom. ; 
BabUri, Pb. 

A small herb, profusely branched ; the branches, clothed with dark, purple 
hairs ; leaves, about i J^ mches long and I inch broad, dark-coloured ; bracts, 

Var. 2M(£.— villosnmy Roxb., Sp. 

Vem. — T4lsi or tulasi. Hind. & Beng. 

A small herb, clothed with white or pale green hairs ; leaves, ovate, oblong, 
crenate, serrate, obtuse ; from i to 2 inches long ; bracts, reniform. 

Olea europoeai Linn., Oleaceje. 

The Olive. 

This valuable plant has been introduced on the Himalaya and the 

In Europe there are several cultivated varieties, each possessing 
certain peculiarities of its own. All agree in one respect, namely, 
they must be cultivated on an open rich soil, with free drainage, yet 
with a plentiful supply of moisture. They can endure neither the freezing 
northern climate, nor the burning tropical sun. The crop is collected as 
the drupe reaches maturity; delay injures the quality and lessens 
the quantity of the oil. The fruit is ripe when by gentle pressure 
oil exudes. The yield has been variously stated from 30 to 50 per 
cent., being governed by the form of plant cultivated, climate, soil, 
time and system of expression. The oil is extracted by two distinct pro- 
cesses or stages, viz., crushing and pressing. The crushing should not 







D I 


Part IV.] 

Economic Products of India. 





be delayed. The oil from the pericarp may be first separated by gentle 
pressure, then that from the remainder of thefruit, two classes of oils being 
thus obtained in the crushing stage, or both may be expressed together. 
After removal of the oil by crushing, the pulp is placed in bags and 
resubmitted to pressure in a warm steam press. 

The best qualities of oil are those obtained by the cold crushing before 
the application of water or heat. 

The Olive is extensively cultivated in the south of France. The 
Portuguese oil is very inferior to the French, owing to carelessness in pre- 
paration. Spain has nearly 3 millions of acres under this crop. Italy 
nas about 2| millions of acres of olives. The Spanish oil, in point of 
quality, cannot compare with the French or the Italian. 

Superior Olive Oil is somewhat viscid, of a pale greenish-yellow colour, 
with a faint, agreeable odour, and has a bland, oleaginous flavour. The 
best qualities are chiefly consumed as food and medicine, constituting the 
Salad Oil of commerce. The commoner kinds are consumed in soap 
manufacture, as lubricants, and for illuminating purposes. 

Information regarding experiments to introduce this tree on the 
Himalaya are much required, and any information regarding the pre- 
paration of Indian Olive Oil. 

O. femiginea, Royle. 

Syn.— O. cuspiDATA, Wall. 

Vera. — Kau, Hind.; Khwan, shwan, Trans-Indus ; Zaitun, Afg,} Ko, 
kohu, kdo, kau, Pb.; Khau, Sind. 

A moderate-sized, deciduous tree of Sind, Sulaiman Range, Salt 
Ranee, and North West Himalaya, extending as far as the Jumna east- 
ward, and ascendincf to 6,000 feet. (Gamble.) 

In Afghanistan an oil is extracted from the indigenous tree. This oil 
would doubtless take an important place in the oil trade were it procur- 
able in large quantities, for it is of as good quality as the ordinary Olive 
Oil. If attention were to be given to the cultivation of this indigenous 
plant, there seems every reason to expect that India would soon find a 
place amongst the countries which supply the Olive Oil of commerce. 

Oleander. See Nerium odorum, Soland, Afocyvacem. 

Mr. Baden-Powell mentions this among his medicinal oils. Further 
information is required. 

Orange flower or Neroli, See 

Orris Oil. Seelna. 

224. Pandanus odoratissimuS} WHld., Pandaneje. 

Vem. — Keura, Hind.; Kea, ketuki, keari, Beng.; Mugalik, Tel.; Thalay^ 
talum, Tam.; Satthapu, Burm. 

A common shrub, frequently planted on account of its fragran- 
flowers, but wild on the coasts of South India, Burma, and the Andat 

Attar of Keora is obtained from the flowers. (Baden-Powell,) 


Oils and Oil Seeds. 

[Part IV, 

Papaver somniferuniy Linn., PAPAVERACEiE, 

The Poppy ; Opium. 

Venu — Posif afim, Beng., Hind.; Khash'kkash'ka'post, Dec; Gasa-gasw 
tol, T AM,; Gasa-Gasa-tolu, Tel. 

Extensively cultivated in North and Central India. 

The seeds are expressed to obtain an oil which is used for culinary 
purposes and as a demulcent medicine. It is also used in lamps, and 
much esteemed by Europeans, owing to its property of becoming 
colourless when exposed to the sun, 

Parmelia kamtschadalis, Fsch., Lichenes., 

Venu — Ckalchalira, charcharUa, attsneh, pat-tharke'ph&l, chalp&ri, char- 

A lichen, found in the bazars of the Punjab and of the North- West 
Provinces, obtained from the Himalaya, and used largely in calico print- 
ing, both in order to perfume the fabric and as a pale pink dye. Doubt- 
less several species are used for these purposes Ainslie says there are 
many in use in South India. 

Medicinally they are used in native practice as mild tonics and anti- 
periodics. By hakims used in dyspepsia, vomiting, pain in the liver or 
womb, &c. {BadewPowell, Atkinson, &c.) 

P, perlata^ AcA., and P. perforata, Ach. 

Syn.— Lichen rotundatus, Rottler in Ainslie* s Mat, Med, II, p. Vjo. 

Vern. — Khirdgus-sakhar, behaul'kajar, Arab.; Gulesang, Pers.; Kulpasi, 
Tam.; Patthar-ka-phul, Hind, and Dec; Ratipanch^, Tel.; Patthar- 
kd-pkul, Dec ; Kalap-pdch-chi, kalap-pti, Tam. ; DhomUchaphtUa, Mar. ; 
Kiydr-^eon, Burm. 

Ainslie says that this plant ,has long been used by the Vytians of 
South India medicinally, and that they attribute to it a peculiar cooling 
quality and prepare with it a liniment for the head. The Indian Phar- 
macopeia mentions several instances where a poultice of this plant has 
been found efficacious as a diuretic placed over the renal and lumbar 
regions. It further suggests, however, that its virtue may be shewn in this 
respect to be little more than that of any ordinary warm poultice. 

Stewart mentions a Parmelia (undetermined), common on rocks at 
various places in Chumba (North- West Himalaya), altitude ii,ooo to 
15,000 feet, which is there used as an external apphcation to burns. Spe- 
cimens of this plant, as also further information, would be interesting. 


Spons* Encyclop. says that this substance is esteemed in the East 


Specimens and further information should be obtained from the North- 
West Provinces. 

Peganum Harmala, Linn., Rutaceje. 

Vera* — Spelane, karmal. The seed is known as Isband Lahori. 
A bush I to 3 feet in height, much branched and densely clothed 
with leaves j met with in Kashmir, the Punjab, and the North. 








Part TV.] 

Economic Products of ImdUu 



in his Pumjah Prodmcts meiitkmi this amon^ his oils 

Pcrinaodmoides, Zi'm., Loiaxx. 

A native of Nepal, eommon on the Ghats, and in Ava^Sylhet aind 
Komaan. The whole plant has a strong, rather (fisagreeable smelL Cul- 
tivated on the Himalayas, 4vooo to 5,000 feet. 

Yields an aromatic oil used ak>f^ with the food of the Inllnien. 

2|i { Pfefaea gialigiima, Gaertn^ 

Thc Atocado Peas. 


This fruit tree is cultivated in India. 

An oil is obtained from the pulp of the fruit, of a dark greenish- 
brown ci>lofir, used for burning and soap-making, &c. 




The term is applied to a class of liquids occurring in various geol<^- 
cal formations and geographical localities. It possesses a limpid and 
oily consistence, a strong bituminous odour and a dark yellowish-brown 
ccJoor. Its specific gravity rai^^es from 0-8 to I'l. It is composed of 
hydrocarbons of various descriptions. 

There is much di£Ference of opinion among geologists as to the 
origin and formation of Petroleum. The general belief is that it is form- 
ed by the slow deoompo^tion of organic remains, animal or vegetable, 
or both combined. Others account for it by the action of sea water and the 
condensation of carbon vapours^ 

It is obtained in Burma, from shallow tertiary and post-tertiary days 
and l^^nites. 

Peucedafnmi gia v e olens, Beruh,, Umbelufekje. 

Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India; often cultivated. 

The crushed fruit, submitted to aqueous distillation, yidds 3 to 4 per 
cent, of essential oil, composed of two or more hydrocarbons. The oil 
is skimmed from the distiOate^ and the latter forms the commercial Dill- 
The oil may be used in mixtures for perfuming soap. 


PimpifiAlljt Anisum, Linn., Umbelliferjk. 
The Anise seed. 


Ervadas, Bom., a cormption of Portagticse Herbadoce. Imported into Bombay 
from Persia ander the name of RmMtanuk, 

Sometimes met with in cultivation in gardens during the cold sea- 
son ; introduced from Europe. 



Oils and Oil Seeds, 

[.Part IV. 


An essential oil is obtained to the extent of 3 per cent, from the fruit 
of this plant by distillation. It is of a yellowish colour, having the odour 
and flavour of the fruit. It is applied medicinally to both men and 
animals, and is largely used in the preparation of cordials. It is also 
used for scenting soaps and pomatums. 

Pinus Gerardianai Wall, Conifeils;. 245 

Vem. — Chilghozay jdlgheact, Afg# ; Chiri, ^tu, mirri, galgcQa, Chenab ; 
Kashti, Ravi. 

A moderate-sized tree with very thin, erey bark ; found in the inner 
dry and arid North West Himalaya, and also in isolated areas of no 
great extent, generally between 6,000 and 10,000 feet, on the mountains 
of North Afghanistan and Kafiristan, 

Gannble says that the seed is oily, with a slight turpentine flavour. 

P. longifolia, Roxd. 246 

"VerXL-^Nakhtar, Afg.j Chil, chir, drdb chir, Pb.; Anander, Jhelum; 
Dhtip, OuDH j Dhup, sala dh4p, Nepal. 

A large tree of Afghanistan, outer North West Himalaya, ascending 
to 7,500 feet ; Sikkim, and Bhutan, ascending to 4,000 feet, though scarce 
above 3,000 feet. 

M. Baden-Powell in his Punjab Products mentions this among his 
oils and oil-seeds. 

Piper Cubeba, Linn.f., Piperaceje. J^7 

CuBEB Pepper. 


Vem. — Kabab-chini, Beng., Hind. ; Kdkola, Mar. ; Val-milaku, Tam. ; 
Tdka-mitiyalu, Tel. ; Kabab-Chini, Guz. ; Simvankarawa, BuRH. 

Cubebs are imported from Java, but cultivated to a small extent in 

An essential oil is obtained from them by distillation with water. 
It is thick and colourless, with a faint, aromatic odour, and a warm 
flavour of camphor and peppermint. 

P. nigrum, Ztnn. 248 

Black Pepper. 

Vem.—'Kala-marich, Beng.« Hind. ; Choka, Dec. ; Milagu, Tam. ; Miri- 
yalu, Tel. 
A climber, extensively cultivated in South India. 
Mentioned by Baden-Powell as yielding oil. 


Vera. — Tantaric, Pb. 
A shrub of the Mediterranean region. 
Baden- Powell mentions this oil. 



Part IV.] 

Economic Products of India. 






Pistada verai Linn. 

The Pistachio Nut. 

Vtm.'-'Pista, Beng., Hind. 

The Pistachio Nuts (pista) are imported into India from Afghanistan. 

An oil is extracted from the kernels of the fruit, which is used 
medicinally as a demulcent and restorative. It is greenish-coloured, 
sweet-flavoured, and aromatic. It is used in food^ but soon becomes 
rancid, and is then used only for burning purposes. 

Pithecolobium dulcei B/h,, Leguminosx. 

Sjn — Inga dulcis. 

Vera. — Dakhani bab^, Hind. ; Karkapilly, Tam. ; Kwaytanyeng, Burm. 
A tree introduced from Mexico, and commonly cultivated in India 
and Burma. 

Yields a light-coloured oil as thick as castor oil. 

Pogostemon Patchoulji PelleLy Labiatje. 


Vera. — Pachapai, BsNG. ; Mali, Mar. 
It is found in East Bengal, Burma, and the Malay Peninsula. 
An essential oil is obtained from the plant, which is used as a per- 
fume. The yield of oil is about i oz. from i lb. of leaves. 

Polyanthes tuberosa, Linn., Liliaceje. 

Vera.— G«/ shab bo, Pb. ; Rajani-gandha, Beng. 
Very commonly cultivated for its flower. 
Attar of Tuberose is obtained from the flowers of this plant. 

254. Polygonum bistorta, Linn,, Polygonaceje. 

Vera. — Masl4n, mamtch, dori, bajir, b^lanri, anjabdr, Pb. 

Common at places in the Punjab Himalaya, from 3,500 to] 12,000 

Baden-Powell mentions this oil. 

255 Pongamia glabnii Ven/., Leguminosje. 

Syn. — Galbdupa indica, Lam. 

Vera. — Karanj, papar. Hind. ; Dalkaramcha, karanja, Beng. ; Katai^, 
BoM. ; Koranju, Uriya; Ponga,}i^h.vL»\ Kanga, pungu, ganuga, Tel.; 
Garanji, Gond; Thinwin, BURM. 

A moderate sized tree, almost evergreen, native of the Sub- Hima- 
layan tract from the Ravi eastward, ascending to 2,000 feet ; Bengal, 


Economic Products of India. 

[ Part IV* 

Burma, Central and South India. An Exceedingly common plant in 
cultivation in Bengal ; often grown in hedges. 

The seeds of this plant yield a red-brown, thick oil, used for burning, 
and medicinally as an enicacious application for skin diseases. On 
cooling it has a tendency to deposit stearine. It is generally known as 
Karang or Fundi oil. Dr. Gibson regards it as one of the best remedies 
for cutaneous diseases and rheumatism known. Should a European 
trade arise, as seems likely, this oil might be prepared to an unlimited 
extent in Bengal. 

Prinsepia utilis, Royle, RosACEiE. 

Wenim'-'Bhekcd, bekkra, karanga^ Hind.; Gurinda, Hazara.; Tatua, 
phulwara, jinti, Chenab ; Bekling, Kan a war. 

A deciduous, thorny shrub, with thin, brown bark on the outer 
Himalaya, from Hazara to Bhutan, between 2,000 and 9,000 feet, Kha- 
sia hills. 

An oil is obtained from the seeds, which is used for food and for 



Prunus am]^dalus, Bailion,, Rosaceje. 

The Almond. 
Syn. — Amyodalus communis, Willd, 
Vern — Baddnu 
It is cultivated in Afghanistan, Persia, Kashmir and the Punjab. 
It yields two distinct oils— an essential oil and a fixed or fatty oil. 
The latter oil is obtained by expression from either bitter or sweet 
Almonds. The average produce is from 48 to 52 lbs. from ,1 cwt. of 
Almonds. The yield is greater by hot expression, 2 lbs. 2 oz. being ob- 
tained from 5i lbs. of Almonds. The oil is clear, yellow, with an agreeable 
flavour, but without odour. It is much used by perfumers, but is fre- 
quently largely adulterated with gingelly oil, poppy oil or mustard oil. 

P. armeniaca, Linn. 

The Apricot. 

V&VL—Hdri, gardalu, shiran, Pb. ; Iser, Kashmir; Chuari, eardalu, 
khoobani. Hind. 5 Mishmish, Pers. 

A moderate sized, deciduous tree, cultivated in the North- West 

A clear oil, of a pale }rellow colour, which smells strongly of hydro- 
cyanic acid, and which, indeed, contains about 4 per cent, of it, is ex- 
tracted from the seed. This oil is used in burning and cooking, 
and for the hair. 

P. COmmuniSi JIuds.,/orma Alucha. 
The Plum. 

Vcm. — Alucha, olchi, sardalu, Pb. 
Cultivated from Garhwal to Kashmir in the Western Himalaya. 
The plant yields the Plum Oil of Europe, used for illuminating pur- 
poses. It does not keep even in Europe, becoming rancid in summer. 





Part IV. ] 

Economic Products of India. 








Pninus persica, Bth. and Hook. f. 
The Peach. 


Vera. — Ghwareshtdi, Afg. ; Shu/t tUi, PerS. ; Aru^ aor, chinannu, Pb. ; 
Aru, Hind. ; Takpo, Lepcha. 

It is commonly cultivated everywhere throughout the Himalaya and 
in Upper Burma. 

The oil obtained from the kernels resembles almond oil, for which it 
may be substituted. It is used in cookery and for lamps by the hill 
tribes of the North- West Himalaya and Kashmir. It is sometimes also 
used as a hair oil. 

Psoralea coiylifoliai Linn,, Leguminosje. 

Vera. "Hakuchy Beng. ; Bavauchi, Dec ; Karpuva-arishi, Tam. ; Karu 
bogi-vittuluy Tel. 

A common, herbaceous weed, found in Bengal and South India. 

Pterocarpus Marsupium, Roxb., Leguminosa. 

Vera. — Bija, bijdsar, bij'dsal. Hind.; Byasa, Vriya A, sana. Mar.; 
Peddagi, yeggi, pedega^ Tel. ; Vengai, Tam. 

A laree, deciduous tree of Central and South India, extending north- 
ward to the Banda District of the North-West Provinces. 
It is an oil-yielding plant. 

Putranjiva Roxburghii, Wall., Euphorbiacejb. 

Syn. — ^Nageia Putranjiva, Roxb. 

VertL-^Putajath Pb. ; ^ta puta, jotUjuH, putra-jiva. Hind. ; Karw 
pale, Tam. ; Kadrajuvi, Tel. ; Toukyat, Burm. 

A moderate-sized, evergreen tree, with pendant branches ; found in 
the Sub- Himalayan tract from the Chenab eastward; Oudh, Bengal, 
Burma and South India. 

The seeds yield an oil of an olive-brown colour, rather turbid, soon 
exhibiting a deposit of the more solid portion. It is used for burning. 

Raphanus sativus, Linn., Cruciferje. 

The Radish. 

Vera. — Mula, Behg.} Midi, Hind.; Monla, Bvrm. 
Extensively cultivated in the plains of India. 

The seeds yield an oil apparently similar to the oils obtained from 
other cruciferous plants. 


These are very extensively procured from the livers of Raja dayata, 
R. pa8tiiiaea» and other species of fish indigenous to the Indian seas. 


Oils and Oil Seeds* 

[Part IV. 


Rhus semialatai Murray, ANACARDiACEiE. 

ByiL— R. BucKiAMELA, RoxB, ; R. Javanica, Linn, 

Vem. — Tairi, Hiri, chechar, arkhar, arkol, kakri, dMla, wdnsk, hulashing, 
Pb. ; Rashtu, SuTLEj ; Dakhmila, dasTxtila, N. W. P. ; Bakkiamela, 
bhagmilh Nepal ; Tukhril, Lepcha. 

A small tree, with bark i inch in thickness, rough, with deep furrows. 
It is met with in the outer Himalaya from the Indus to Assam and the 
Khisia Hills, ascending to i,ooofeet in altitude. 

The fruit is eaten by the hill tribes, and from it is prepared a wax 
called dinlu in Nepal. {Gamble,) 

Further information and specimens of this wax much required. 

R. succedanea, Linn. 

Syn. — R. acuminata, DC, 

Veni. — Tixtri, arkol, titar, lakhar, Pb. 5 Raniwalai, Nepal ; Serhnyok, 

Lepcha ; Dingkain, Khasia. The galls are called Kdkaddsingi in 


A small, deciduous tree, with thin bark, met with on the Himalaya 

from the Jhelum to Assam, Khasia Hills ; altitude from 2,000 to 8,000, 


The seeds yield a fine, yellowish-white wax, known in commerce as 
** Japan Wax." The tree is planted in Japan along roads, and regu- 
* larly worked for this wax, which is of a snow-white colour and is made 
into candles. {Gamble,) The wax is analogous to bees-wax. It is ob- 
tained by pressing the bunches of small fruits. 

Samples and information regarding Indian trade in this substance are 
much required. 

R. WalUchii, Hook./. 


Mem. — Kambal, gadtimhal, arkhar, arkol, hark^, Pb.; Akoria, kaunki, 
bhaliun, N. W. P.; Bhdlaiot Nepal. 

A small or moderate-sized tree on the North- West Himalaya, from 
2,000 to 7,000 feet. 

The seeds yield wax similar to the " Japan Wax." Brandis states 
that candles are made in Japan of the wax expressed from the fruit. 


Ricinus communis, Linn., Euphorbiaceje. 

The Castor oil plant or Palma-Christi. Huile de Castor, 


Vern. — Rand, arand, arendi, ind. Hind. ; Reri, bkerunda, Beng. ; 
Eranda, Sans. ; Erendi, erunkukri, Sind. ; Aneru, Chenab ; Harnauli, 
Salt Range ; Orer, Nepal ; Sittamunuk, Tam. ; Amadum, amdi, sitta- 
mindi, Tbl.; Kyetsu, Burm. 

A large shrub or small tree, indigenous in Arabia and North Africa; 
cultivated throughout India, and often found wild. {Gamble,) Most 
authors regard it as also indigenous to India. It exists chiefly in a state 
of cultivation. 






Part IV. ] 

Economic Products of India* 

There are some 15 or 20 known varieties of this plant, of which 5 or 6 
are common in Bengal. These may be reduced to three sections : — 

(i) Se**^ da""* ]'^^^ *'**' ^^"^ ■'" ""^ colour of the seeds. 
(c) Form ^own on account of its leaves as a food for the Eria 

The small-seeded fonn is that most frequently cultivated as an oil- 
crop, being sown broad-cast with other crops. It is a small, distorted 
plant as compared with the large-seeded form chiefly grown as a hedge, 
and often attaining the height of 20 feet. 

The Castor Oil Plant is now extensively cultivated in most parts of the 
world. In cold climates it becomes an annual, and some of the 
beautiful, dark-red foliaged forms are grown as ornamental foliage plants. 
It has been kno^'n from remote ages. It was called Aporave by the 
Greeks, Ricinus by the Romans,, Kikajon by the Hebrews, and rliny 
speaks of it as Kiki, It is known to the Jews of the present day by the 
name Kiki, and is one of the five sacred oils which they are allowed to burn 
on the Sabbath. 

It is cultivated pretty generally throughout India, to the greatest 
extent in Oudh, ana least of all in the Punjab. It requires little cultiva- 
tion, but prefers an open sandy to a clay soil. It is sown as a field-crop 
broad-cast ; two sowings a year, one in November and the other in May. 
Although it yields nearly as good a crop the second or even the third 
year, the natives uproot the crop every year, making fresh sowings. As 
a hedge it is supposed to protect the fields from insects. That it does 
exercise an influence over the atmosphere seems conclusively proved from 
the repeated reports of travellers and soldiers being attacked with 
diarrhoea from encamping near a castor oil field, or on a field recently 
cleared of the crop. The operation of collectmg the nuts is tedious, and 
the small and large forms are kept quite distinct, the former yielding a 
larger quantity and better quality of oil than the latter. 

Preparation of the oil from the smalUseededform, 

When fresh the seed is sifted to free it of dirt or impurities. It is 
then partially crushed, and freed of the husk or other coloured 
portions. It is then squeezed into ** bricks " of a uniform shape and 
enclosed in clean gunny bags. The bricks are thereafter placed 
in an ordinary press, and the oil expressed. To a gallon of oil thus 
obtained one pint of water is added, and the mixture boiled in iron pans 
until the water evaporates. The mucilage encrusts the basin, and the 
albumen coagulates, but at this stage the pan must be removed from the 
fire, for if the temperature is allowed to rise above the boiling point of 
water, it undergoes a degeneration, becoming dark-coloured and possessed 
of an empyreumatic odour and flavour. It is filtered, the pure oil being 
stored in tins. This is known as cold-drawn castor oil, and is of a light 
straw to greenish colour. About 50 per cent, of oil is obtained by this 
process, and may be manufactured at about 4d, per lb. 

The oil from the smaller seeds is also sometimes separated by a pro- 
cess of boiling. The seed is first boiled for two hours, then sun-dried, 
thereafter reduced to a powder and reboiled until the oil rises to the 
surface. Oil prepared in this way is free from unpleasant odour, and is 
largely used m native medical practice as a purgative ; in European 
practice, the cold-drawn form is that regarded as fit for human use. 

Preparation of oil from the large-seeded form. 

This oil is sometimes prepared by the cold process, but more fre- 
quently by the hot, with the addition, that the nuts are often roasted, so as 


Oils and Oil Seeds. 

[Part IV. 

to coagulate the albumen within the seeds, and liquify the oil. After roast- 
ing they are pounded and boiled until the oil separates. The yield is a 
little over 30 percent, of an oil very inferior to that obtained from tne small- 
seeded form. This oil is dark-coloured, almost red, has an offensive 
odour, thick and viscid. It is chiefly used for home consumption in 
ordinary country lamps and for dressing leather. 

It is a remarkable fact that most of the Castor Oil exported from 
India is prepared in Calcutta. Madras, which is stated to have 67,000 
acres under this crop, sends its seed to Calcutta to be made into oil. 

Castor Oil is used to a certain extent by the dyers of India to fix and 
make more brilliant many of their famous colours. It is largely used 
by the Africans for culinary purposes and by the Negroes in the West 
Indies. Bellew states that it is also used for this purpose near Ghuzni. 
Its chief use is, however, as a valuable purgative, the cold-drawn form 
being that used in Europe. A large trade also exists in the commoner 
forms, which are extensively used in the preparation of leather, princi- 
pally morocco leather. As a lubricant it is also largely used in Europe, 
and as a lamp oil in India. 

The following are the exports of Castor Oil from India : — 

Exportation of Castor Oil. 


Total for the five years ending 1882. 




1877-78 . 
1878-79 . 
1879-80 . 
1880-81 . 
1881-82 . 


ly^i 1,216 







Analysis of the exportation of Castor Oil for 1881-82. 

from which 



Country to which 



Bengal . 
Madras . 
Bombay . 
British Burma 

Total . 











United Kingdom 


Straits . 


China — Hong-Kong 

Ceylon . 

United States 

Natal . 

Russia . 


France . . 

Other countries 





















Pabt IV.] 

Economic Products of India. 


The following arc the exports of Castor Oil seed : — 
Exportations of Castor Oil seed. 



Total for the five years ending 1882. 














Analysis of the exportation of Castor Oil seed for 1881-82, 


from which 




Country to which 




Madras . 
Bengal . 

Total . 







France . 
Italy . 
United States 
Russia . 
Other countries 
















270 Rosa alba, Linn.^ Rosacea. 

S7IL — R. Glandulifera, Roxb, 

Vem.^-'Goldb, Hind., Beng. ; Gul, Bon. ; GoUb, sewH, Pb. 

The Rose-oil or Otto of Roses is distilled from the flowers of several 
varieties of roses. In India large areas of land have been converted into 
rose-gardens, at Patna, Ghazipore, Lahore, Amritsar and other places. 
The Otto is prepared in the following way : — The flowers are distilled 
with double their weight of water in clay stills 5 the rose-water is then 
placed in a shallow vessel covered with muslin and kept exposed all 
night to the cool air. In the morning the oily portion, which has 
gathered on the top, is gently taken off by means of a feather and put 
into a phial. This process is repeated night after night until the whole 
of the oily substance is thus extracted. The colour of the Otto varies 
from green to bright amber and reddish. 

The greatest possible confusion exists as to the species of rose which 
are used for the preparation of the attar or in native medicine. Dried 
twigs with leaves accompanying the economic products would be most 
acceptable, so as to allow of their being scientiflcally identified. 


Oils and Oil Seeds. 

[ Part IV. 


Salix capensis, Thunh., Salicinlx. 

Syn. — S. iEGYPTFACA, Thunb, 

Mr, Baden-Powell, ii> his Punjab Products, mentions this plant among 
his medicinal oils. 

Salvadora oleoidesi Lmn., SALVADORACEic. 

Vexn^'^Kabbar, jhdr, didr, SiND. ; Jdl, van, vdni, mithivan, Pb,; Jhal, 
Hind, ; Ughai, koku, Tam. ; Pilu, khakhan. Mar. 

A large, evergreen shrub or tree of the arid zones, Sind and the 
Punjab, forming the greaterpart of the vegetation of the desert j ascends 
often to 3,000 feet in the Trans-Indus hills and to 2,400 feet in the Salt 

The seeds yield a solid fat of a dull sulphury yellow colour. 

S. persica, Linn, 

The Tooth-brush Tree. 

Syn. — S. WiGHTiANA, Beddome, 

Vem.^Ardkfirak, Arab.; Kabbar, kharidjar, pilu, Sisd,; yhdl, Raj.; 
Kauri-vdn, Kauri-jal, j'har, Pe. ; Rhakhan, Mar. ; Opu, ughai, Tam. ; 
WaragU'wenki, Tel.; Pilu, khakhan. Mar. 

A small, evergreen tree, with thin grey bark, wild in Sind, Eajput- 
ana, Guzerat, Konkan, and the Circars. 

The oil of this plant may be similar in character to that of the pre- 

Samadera indica, Gaertn., Simarubke. 

"Vtm.^Samadaray Cingh. ; Kathd, BuRM. 
A small tree of South India and Ceylon. 

The seeds of this plant yield an oil which is used medicinally in 

Sandal wood. See Santalum album, Linn,, Santalaceje. 

Santalum album, Linn,, Santalace^. 

The TRUE Sandal-wood. 

Vern. — Chandan, chandal, sandal. Hind.; Chandan, Beng. ; Shanda- 
na-kattai, Tam,; Candhapwchekk, Tel.; Sandaku, Burm. 

"A small, evergreen tree of the dry reg'ion of South India. It grows 
naturally in the drier parts of Mysore, Coimbatore, and Salem districts, 
extending south to Madura and north to Kolhapur ; generally at an 
elevation of from 2,000 to 3,000 feet, in poor soils, and seeking the pro- 
tection of hedgerows and scrub jungles. (Gamble.) 

The seeds of the Sandalwood tree yield by expression a thick and 
viscid oil, which is burnt by the poorer classes in lamps. Sandalwood 
essential oil is distilled from the wood. The roots yield the largest 
quantity and finest quality. The white or sap wood is rejected for dis- 









Part IV.] 

Economic Products of India. 





tillation. The process is continued for 8 or 10 days, more water being 
added. The yield is about 2\ per cent. 

The oil is transparent, of a yellow colour, and is one of the most 
favoured of Indian perfumes, especially among" Mahomedan gentlemen^. 
It is largely prepared in Mysore from which further information, speci- 
mens of oiC of the chips as used» and of the still used by the natives, 
should be obtained. 


Sapindus Mukorossi, Gaertn, Sapindaceje. 
The Soap-nut of North India. 

Syn. — S. DETERGENS, Roxh. 

Vem. — RUhOf dodan, kanmar. Hind. ; Pkentla, Sans. 

A handsome, deciduous tree, with grey bark, cultivated throughout 
North West India and Bengal, Kumaun, Sylhet and Assam. 

The fruit is very largely used for, and exported as, a substitute for 

It is chiefly used for washing silk and woollen cloth, being re- 
garded as superior to soap by native manufacturers. This and the 
next species are used indiscriminately, and both yield oil. 

S. trifoliatusy Zinn. 

The Soap-nut Tree of South India. 

Syn. — S. EMARGINATA, Vohh 

Vera. — RithOj Hind.; Bara-riiha, Beng.; Mukta maya, Uriva ; Konkudti^ 
Tei..; Pounanga, pondfp-kottai, puvandi, T AM, ; Thalay maraihu, attta^ 
wdla, puvella, Cingh. 

A large tree of Bengal, South India and Ceylon, often cultivated. 
A semi-solid oil is extracted from the kernels of this plant. It is 
too costly to be in general use. 

Sarcocollay sp ? Leguuinosje, 

Mr. Baden-Powell mentions this among his medicinal oils. Speci- 
mens of the plant and oil are required from the Punjab. 


279 Sarcostisma Kleinii, W. esf A , Olacineje. 

Vern. — Poovana, poovenagahf adtd, odul. 

Found in the Eastern and Western Peninsulas ; Malacca {Maingay\ 
Cochin and Travancore ( Wight\ and the Koncan (Stocks). 

This plant yields a medicinal oil, much used on the western coast for 
rheumatism. It is also burnt in lamps. It has a peculiar but not dis- 
agreeable flavour. 

280 Sardine Oil. 

Several species of Sardine afford an abundance of oil. 

[47] Sarson OiL See Brassica campestris. 

Oils and Oil Seeds. 

[Part IV. 

Schleichera trijugay WHid., Sapindaceje. 

Vera. — Ko$um,gausam, Hind.; K4stmb, Bom.; Rusam, Uriya; Pdv^,J>4, 
piilachi, jBoltm^buriki, Tam. ; Pusku, may, roatanga, Tkl.; Gyo, 
tiURM.; Cong, conghas, Cingh. 

A large, deciduous tree of the Sub-Himalayan tract, from the Sutlej 
eastward, Central and South India and Burma. 

The seeds yield an oil which is used as lamp oil in Malabar. 
Dr. S. Arjan says that this oil is used for the cure of itch and acne 
(see Dymock*s Mat. Med,). Roxburgh states that the bark of this tree, 
rubbed up with the oil, is used to cure itch. 

Semecarpus Anacardiuniy Linn./., Anacardiaceje. 

The Marking-nut Tree. 

'Vem.^Bhilawa, bheyla. Hind.; Bhalai, Nepal ; Bhela, hhelatuki, Beng.; 
Bhallia, Uriya ; Kongki, Lefcha ; Shayrang, Tam.; Jiri, j'idi, Tel.; 
Che, BuRM. 

A deciduous tree of the Sub- Himalayan tract, from the Sutlej east- 
ward, ascending to 3,500 feet, forests of India, extending to Chittagong, 
but not to Burma. 

The seeds yield a very dark tenacious oil. Brandis says that this oil, 
mixed with the milk of Euphorbia, is made into bird-lime by the wild 
tribes of the Satpura Range. It is also used as a preventive against the 
attacks of white ants, and by native practitioners in rheumatic and leprous 

Sesamum indicum, Linn., Pedalinejc. 

Gingelly or Sesame oil ; Benn^-oil, Huile de Sesame, />. ; 
Sesamol, Germ. 

Vem. — Mithd Ul, krishna-t^l, HiND.; 7//, Beng.; Nal lenney, yelloo- 
cheddie, Tam.; Mancki-nune noovooloo, Tel.; Bdrik-tel (seeds), Dec; 
Hnan, Bubm. 

This plant is commonly cultivated in India, where it is indigenous. 
It is now cultivated in nearly every tropical country. 

There are two easily-recognised varieties ; one with white seeds {safed 
til) and the other with black seeds {Jkala til). The latter form is much 
more common, and yields a superior oil. It is sown in March, ripening in 
May, while the white form is sown in June and ripens in August. The 
oil is extracted by the same process as that for mustard-oil. Gingelly Oil 
is clear and limpid, of colour varying from pale yellowish to dark amber, 
having no smell, and not liable to become rancid. It is composed essen- 
tially of oleine, which is often present to the extent of 75 per cent. It is 
frequently adulterated with ground-nut oil. It is stated that 10 per cent, 
of Gingelly Oil, mixed with other oils, may be detected by shaking i grain 
of a cold mixture of sulphuric and nitric acids with one grain of the mixed 
oils, when a fine green colour is the result, a colour which no other oil will 
produce. In India, Gingelly Oil is used for culinary purposes, in anointing 
the body, in soap-manufacture, and as a lamp oil. In England, it is 
chiefly used in making soap and for burning in lamps. It resembles 






Part IV.] 

Economic Products of India. 


olive-oil in many of its properties, and is used similarly. The oil 
obtained from the black variety is suited for medicinal purposes. It 
is used as a demulcent in dysentery and urinary diseases in combination 
with other medicines. It is also extensively used in the manufacture of 
Indian perfumery, and native medicinal oils are prepared by boiling it 
with certain drugs. 

The cultivation of this plant, as a supply of the European trade, might 
be extended very considerably. In the Trade and Navigation Statistics 
there is no mention made of exportation of Gingelly ( yinjili) Oil until 
1 880-8 1 when 118,750 gallons, valued at Rs. 1,36,770, and in 1881-82, 
111,701 gallons valued at Rs. 1,20,182, were exported, chiefly to Arabia, 
none apparently going from India to Europe. Oi the exports from India in 
1881-82, 1 05,344 gallons were from the Bombay Presidency, and only 1,370 
gallons from Bengal ; of the exports for that year 79,381 gallons of the oil 
went to Arabia. Gingelly seed has been regularly exported to Europe, 
and from 1877 — 82 the average has been over ij millions of cwts., 
the great bulk of this amount going to France. The following table 
shews the exports from India during the year 1881-82, and the countries 
to which exported. The small ness of the exports from Bengal and of 
the imports into the United Kingdom is remarkable : — 


from which 




Country to which 




Sinon • 
British Burma 

Total . 









France . 

Italy . 


United Kingdom . 

Ceylon . . 

Spain — Gibraltar . 


Other Countries 






















284 Shorea robusta, Gaertn y Dipterocarpeje. 

Vera. — Sdl,sdla, salva, sakku, Hind.; 5*0^0, Nepal; Salwa, Uriya; 
Koroh, OuDH; Sarei, rinj'al, C. P.; G4gal, Tel. 

A large, gregarious tree of the north-east, moist and intermediate 
zones : Sub-Himalayan tract, from the Bias to Assam, eastern part of 
Central India, from the Ganges to the Godaveri, extending westward to 
the longitude of Mandla, with an outlying patch on and around the 
sandstone hills of the Panchmari Range. 

The seeds yield an oil ; but further information is wanted. 

285 Smilax china» Linn., Liliaceje. 

Vcm Ckobohini, Hind. 

Mr. Baden-Powell mentions it among his medicinal oils. 


Otis and Oil Seeds, 

[Part IV. 


This is the solid wax-like portion of the sperm-oil or so-called " head- 
matter " found in the head of the sperm-whale. 



Spinacia oleracea, Mill., CnENOPODiACEiE. 

Vem. — Paluk, sag-paluky Hind. 5 Bij-palakfPs,; Ispanaj, \kavi,, Pkrs.; 
Vtisayley-keeray, Tam. 

This plant is cultivated in some parts of India. 

The seeds yield a fatty oil, but this requires to be confirmed. 



Sterculia tcttids., Linn , Sterculiaceje. 

Vera. — Jangli-hadam, Hind.; JangaH-badam, Mar.; Pindri, Tam.; 
GurapU'badam, Tel.; Shawbyu, letkop, Burm. 

A large, evergreen tree of South India, Burma, Ceylon, Java, &c. 
An oil is extracted by boiling the seeds in water. 


Strychnos Nux-vomica, Linn., Loganiaceje. 

Vera. — Kuckla, Kajra, Hind.; Kuchila, Beng.; Kajra, Mar.; Yetti, 
Tam.; Mushti, musadi, Tel. ; Khahoung, Burm. 

A moderate-sized, evergreen tree, with dark grey bark, of Bengal, 
Burma, and South India. 

An empyreumatic oil, prepared from the fresh nut, is used medicin- 
ally by native practitioners. 



Styrax benzoin, Dryand.^ Styraceje. 

Found in the Malay Archipelago. It yields the true " Gum Ben- 

" The natives of the Eastern Archipelago distil a volatile oil from 
Gum Benzoin, by heating it in an earthenwire pot, tightly covered, and 
providing a bamboo for the escape of the oil." {Spons' Encyclop.) 



S]|inpl0C0S CratasgoideS, Ham,, Styraceje. 

Vera.— Z«, landar, laj, losk, Pb. ; Lodh, Kumaun; Lqfa, Sutlej. 
A large shrub or small tree on the Himalaya from the Indus to 
Assam, between 3,000 and 8,000 feet, Khasia Hills, Hills of Martaban. 
Dr. Stewart says that an oil is extracted from the seeds. 

E I 67 


Part IV.] 

Economic Products of India, 








Tabenuemontana dichotoma, Roxh.^ ApocYNACEiE. 

Syn. — Cerbera Manghas, Linn, 

Vcm. — 

A small tree of the Deccan, common in the Western Ghats and Ceylon. 
This is the only member of this large Indian genus met with in Ceylon. 
An oil is said to be prepared from the seed. 

Tallow or Muningana. 

"The cellular tissues of man and quadrupeds contain a concrete 
fat, the whole mass of tissue and fat being known as ' Suet.' The 
term * Tallow ' is applied to this fat when it has been liberated from the 
tissue. Commercially, Tallow is obtained almost solely from the rumi- 
nant animals, sheep and neat cattle, and is produced chiefly in the 
essentially pastoral portions of the globe." {Spons* Encyclop.) 

This substance, even at high temperatures, remains solid, and in fact 
it is one of the few fats which possess this property. For Vegetable 
Tallow see Ezcscaria sebifera, Miill, Arg, 

Tamarindus indicai Linn.y LEGUMiNosiE. 

The Tamarind. 

Vem. — Amli, ambli, itnli. Hind. ; Tintiri, tintil, Bkng. j Tiirt, Nepal ; 
Chincha, Mar.; Tintuli, Uriyaj P4li, Tam.; Chinta, Tel. j Karangi, 
kamal, asam, Mysore ; Magyi, Burm. 

A large, everereen tree, cultivated throughout India and Burma as 
far north as the Jhelum. 

The seeds yield a clear, bright, fluid oil, with somewhat of the odour 
of linseed oil. 

Taramira Oil. See Enica satlTa. 

Tectona gjandis^ Linn,/,, Verbenaceje. 

The Teak Tree. 

Vem. — Sdj, Arab.; Sdj, sal, Pers. ; Sdgun, Hind.; Stnguru, Uriya; 
Tekku, tek, Tam.; Teku, Tel. ; KyUn, Burm. ; Jati, Malay. 

A large, deciduous tree, found in Central and South India and Bur- 
ma. Cultivated in Assam, Bengal, and the Sub-Himalaya as far north 
as Saharunpore. 

A Teak-seed Oil has been enumerated amongst the products of India, 
but this may most probably be intended for Teak-wood Oil; which is not a 
fatty oil. It is of a dull ash colour and opaque. It is chiefly used as a 
varnish for wood- work either alone or mixed with certain resins. 

Terminalia belerica, Roxd,, Combretaceje. 

Vem. — Babela, beUyleh, Pers. ; Bahera, bhaira, behara. Hind.; Bokera> 
Beng. ; Behedd, Mar; Tani, kattu elupay, Tam.; Tani, tandi, toandi» 
Tel. ; Thit,sein, Burm. 
A large, deciduous tree of the Sub-Himalayan tract from near the 
Indus eastward ; forests of India and Burma. 


Oils and Oil Seeds. 

[ Part IV. 

The oil which the seeds yield separates into two portions, the one 
fluid, of a pale green colour, and the other flocculent, white , semi-solid or 
as consistent as ghee. It is used medicinally, and chiefly with the object 
of strengthening the hair, 

Terminalia Catappa, Linn. . 

The Indian Almond. 

Vera. — Badam, Beng. ; Taruy Kan.; Bangali badam, BoM. ; Natvadom, 
Tam. ; Vedam, Tel. ; Adamarram, Mal. ; CatappUy Malay. 

A large, deciduous tree of the coast forests of the Andaman Islands, 
cultivated in most parts of India and Burma. Introduced most probably 
from Java. 

It yields a limpid oil of a pale sherry colour, resembling almond oil, 
and since it does not so readily become rancid might, indeed, dis- 
place the true almond oil. The greatest expense consists in the separa- 
ting of the kernel from the nut. As the tree is plentiful everywhere, this 
oil deserves the attention of Indian dealers, for there seems every chance 
of a trade arising in it. 

T. Chebula, Eetzins. 

Vera. — Harra, har, harara, HiND. ; ffilikha, Ass. ; Haritaki, Beng. ; 
Silim, Lepcha ; Karedha, Uriya j Halra, Dec; Hirada, Mar; 
Kadakai, Tam. ; Karaka, kadukar, Tel. ; Alale, Mysore ; Panga, 

A large, deciduous tree of the Sub-Himalayan tract, from the Sutlej 
eastward, ascending to 5,000 feet ; Bengal, Assam, Chittagong, Central 
and South India. 

The seeds yield a clear, transparent, almost colourless, fluid oil, used 
medicinally, and only to be had in small quantities. 




Tetranthera laurifolia, /acq., Laurine^e. 399 

Vera. — Maida, tneda, gwa, Han, Pb. ; Garbijaur, singraufy tnenda. 
Hind. ; Suppatnyok, Lepcha; Kukurchita, Beng. ; Narra alagi, Tel. ; 
Ungdung, ondon, Burm. 

A moderate-sized, evergreen tree of Kumaun, Garhwal, Bengal, 
Burma, Central and South India, 

An oil is obtained in Java from the fruit of this tree. 

T. monopetala, J^ox5, 300 

Vera. — Meda, gwa, singraf, sangr an, mar da, Hi^D. ; Mendak, GoUD ; 
Ratmanti, kadmero, Nepal; Sualu, Ass. ; Ungdung, ondon, Burm. 

A moderate-sized, evergreen tree of the Sub-Himalayan tract from 
the Ravi eastward ; Kumaun, Garhwal, Bengal, Burma, Central and 
South India. 

The seeds yield an oil which is used for ointment as well as for can- 

Theobroma CacaOi Linn,, Sterculiaceje. 

The Cocoa Plant. 

It has been prown in some parts of India and Ceylon. 

The seed or leaves of this plant yield a valuable concrete, fatty oil. 



Part IV.] 

Economic 'Products of India. 







Thespesia populnea, Corr., Malvaceje. 

The Portia Tree or Tulip Tree. 

Syn.— Hibiscus popuLNEus, Willd. 

Vera. — Parsipu, Hind.; Paresk, parash, Beng.; Poris, purasa, Tam,; 
Gamraraya, Tel. ; Bendi, Guz. ; Sureya, CiNCH. 

A moderate-sized, evergreen tree of the coast forests of India, 
Burma, and the Andaman Islands ; planted throughout India. 

It yields a deep, red-coloured, and somewhat thick oil. The oil may 
be used medicinally in cutaneous affections. 

Thevetia neriifoliai Linn,, Apocynaceje. 

Exile Oil. 
Syn. — Cerbera Thevetia. L, 
Venu — LardkunSl, Hind.; Payaungban, BuRM. 
An introduced bush, become almost naturalised in Bengal, and com- 
mon ever)rwhere, scarcely a garden in the plains of India being without 
a few bushes, if not a hedge, of this plant. 

It has long, narrow leaves, and is covered all the year through with a 
profuse show of large, yellow, pendulous, bell-shaped, sweetly-scented 
flowers. The fruit is curiously flattened like a bivalved shell. From the 
seed a bright yellow oil has been prepared. Dr. Warden informs me that 
he has separated a highly poisonous principle from the seed, but that the 
oil is inert and even wholesome. 

Trigonella Foenum-grscum, Linn., LEGUMiNosiE. 

Vem. — Methi, Beng., Hind. ; Vendayam, Tam. ; Mentidu, Tel. 

Cultivated in many parts of India, wild in Kashmir and the Punjab. 

"In the Pharmacographia it is stated that ether extracts from the 
pulverised seed 6 per cent, of a foetid fatty oil having a bitter taste." 

Tuntapoo Oil (Cassia Tora?) 

An empyreumatic medicinal substance, known about Masulipatam, 
Information and specimens required. 

Turnip Seeds. See Brassica campestris, var. Rapa. 


306 Ulmus integrifolia, Roxb,, URxicACiE. 

Vem. — Papri, khulen, arjdn, rajdin, Pb. ; Papar, kanju, KuMAUN ; Papri, 
dhamna, Hnj, karanji, chilhil. Hind.; 4ya, Tam.; Namli, pedda- 
nowli-eragu, Tel. ; Myaukseit, Burm. 

A large, deciduous tree of the Sub-Himalayan tract from the Bias 
eastward, Central and South India, Burma. 

An oil is expressed from the seed in Melghat. [Gamble.) 


Oils and Oil Seeds. 

[Part IV. 


Uvaria Narum^ Wall, ANONACEie. 

Vem, — Narum-panel, Mal. 

A large, woody climber of the forests of the Western Peninsula and 
Central Ceylon. 

The roots yield by distillation a sweet-scented, greenish oil, used in 
various diseases. This oil is said to be prepared in Malabar. The root 
is fragrant and aromatic, and is also used medicinally. 

Specimens of this oil, and further information, required. 

Valeria indica, Linn,, DipxERocARPEiE. 

The Piney Varnish or Indian Copal Tree. 

Syn. — V. Malabarica, Blume. 

Vem. — Pineymaram, dhupmaram, Tam. ; Dupaduy Tel.; Payani, Mal. 
Hal, CiNGH. 

A large, evergreen tree with whitish bark, found in the western moist 
zone, Western Ghats from Kanara to Travancore, ascending to 4,000 feet. 

The seed yields a solid concrete fat, of a whitish or pale yellow 
colour, adapted to the manufacture of candles and soap. It is also used 
in lamps. 

Vemonia anthelmintica, Willd., Composite:. 

Syn.— Serratula Anthelmintica, Roxb.; Cony^a anthelmintica, 

Veni. — Buckcke, kalieBeorie, Hind,; Somraj, Beng. ; Neernoochie, caat- 

siragum, Tam. ; Neela-vayalie, adame-zula-kuru, Tel. ; Kali^eeerie, 

Dec ; Sanni-nayan, Cingh. 

A plant met with in parts of India, especially on the Himalaya. 
Lieut. Hawkes states that the seed yields an oil which is never pre- 
pared for sale. The oil is probably medicinal. 

Viburaum coriaceunii BL, Caprifoliacej:. 

Vern, — Kala titmaliya, Kumaun; Bara gorakuri, Nepal. 

A large shrub, common on the H imalaya from the Punjab to Bhutan, 
altitude 4,000 to 8,000 feet, Khasia hills, Nilgiris and Ceylon. 

Gamble says that the Nepalese extract from the seed an oil which 
they use for food and for burning. 

Viola serpens. Wall, Violace^e. 

Vera. — Banafshay Hind. 
A small, procumbent, herbaceous plant, found in the Himalaya, alti- 
tude 5,000 to 7,000 feet. 

Baden-Powell mentions it as an oil-yielding plant. 







Part IV.] 

Economic Products of India. 









Vitex trifolia, Linn., Verbenacea. 

Vem. ^I^iskinda, Beng.; Sambkalu, HnfD. ; Nimocki, Tam.; Vttmllu 
Tel. ; Kyaungba'th Burm. 
A small tree or shrub of Bengal, South India and Burma. 
Drury says that a clear, sweet oil of a greenish colour is extracted 
from the root. It is supposed that the seed also yields a fatty oil. 

Walnut. &/ Jnglans r^:uu 

Wormia triQuetrai Rottb., Dilleniacex. 

Vera^'^DiyaPara, Cingh. 
A tree found in Ceylon up to 2,000 feet. 
The nut yields an oil. (Gamble.) 

Wrightia tomentosa, Rom. and W. tinctoria, R. Br., Apocynacea. 

Veni« — Vaipallay yennay, Taii. 

Is said to yield a thick, scarlet-coloured, medicinal oil. 

There seems to be considerable doubt about this oil, and I am 
inclined to think that it is entirely prepared from Holarrhena antidysen- 
terica. Wall. The seeds of HouuThena are linear, oblong, compressed, 
concave, tipped with a coma of hairs ; Wrightia has its seeds straight, 
compressed tip, narrow-necked coma at the base. See Holarrhena. 


Strumariumi Linn.^ Compositje. 

Syn.— X. iNDicuM, Kon., in Roxb. Fl. Ind. Ed. C. B C. 660 \ X. Orien- 

TP A T Vf M ^ 

'Vtm.-^Butu^kra, Beng. ; Shankeshvara, Bom. ; Marlumulta, Tam. j Veri- 
tel-nep, Tel. ; Aristha, Sans. 
A weed, met with everywhere throughout the plains of India, and a 
source of great annoyance to the cultivator. Common in waste places, 
river-banks and especially so in the vicinity of villages. 
Said to yield an oil used in medicme ; also burned. 

Xylia dolabriformiSi Benth., LEouMiNosiE. 

The Ironwood Tree of Pegu and Arracan. 

Syn.— Mimosa Xylocarpa, Roxb. 

Vem.—7ambu, Hind.; Jamba, Mar. ; Boja, Uriya j Irul, Tam. ; Konda, 
tangedu, bojeh, Tel. ; Pyinkado, BxjRM. , , j. 4 

A large, deciduous tree of the Chanda district, South India, Arracan, 

and Burma. ., ,. , 1 1 ^j :« 

The seeds yield an oil. As this oil seems little known, samples and in- 
formation as to extraction and economic uses would be most acceptable. 

Government of India Central Printing Office.-No. a B. S.- 37- 11-83.-500. 





Calcutta International Exhibition, 1883-84. 

Aadai-otti, Tam,f Triumfetta angulata, Linn.t Tiliacea. 

Aal, Nagpore 6f Beravy Morinda tinctorial Roxb.^ var. tomentosa, Rubiacb.«. 

Dye ; 
Abhra, Sans.^ See Mica. 

Dye ; 
AMr, Hind.y Beng.^ See Curcuma aromatica, Salisb.t Scitamine^. 

Dye ; 
Abrak, Hind., See Mica. 

Dye ; 
Ach, Beng.y Morinda citrifolia, Linn., var. citrifolia, Rubiace^. 

Dye ; 
Ach, Nepali Croton oblongifolius, Roxb., Euphorbiace^. 

Oil ; 
Acha, Tarn., Hardwickia binata, Roxb., LEGUMiNOSiC. 

Gum ; 
Acha, Hind., Beng., Morinda tinctoria, var. tinctoria, Rubiace^. 

Dye ; 
Achar, C. P., Buchanania latifolia, Roxb., ANACARDiACEiC. 

Gum ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Achhu, Beng., Morinda critifolia, Linn., var. critifolia, RuBiACBiE. 

Dye ; 
Adala-vitala, Tel., Lepidium sativum, Linn., CRUciFERiS. 

Oil ; 
Adamarram, Mai., Terminalia Catappa, Linn., CoMBREXACEiG. 

Dye ; Oil ; 
Adams Needle, Eng., Yucca gloriosa, Linn., LiLiACEiC. 

Fibre ; 
Adasara, Tel., Adhatoda Vasica, Nees., Acanthacea. 

Dye ; 
Adavie-zulu-Kuru, Tel., Vernonia anthelmintica, Willd., CoMPOsitiC. 

Oil ; 
Adavi-puch-cha, Tel., Cucumis triganus, Roxb., CucuRBiTACEiC. 

Oil ; 
Adda, 7am., Bauhinia Vahlii, W, & A., Leguminos^e.^ 

Gum ; Fibre ; 
Addalay, 7am., Jatropha glandulifera, Roxb., EupHORBiCEiC. 

Dye ; Oil ; 
Adhatodai, 7am., Adhatoda Vasica, Nees., AcANXHACEiE. 

Dye ; 


Index to Volume I of the Catalogue of 

Adikey Kan.^ Areca Catechu, Linn., Palum, 

Gum ; 
AditsrA, Tel., Helianthus annuos, Linn., Composites. 

Oil ; 
ASmgtnntA, Tel., Erythroxylon monogynanii Roxb., LiNEiC 

Oil ; 
Adoma, Gaa, Mimosops Kauki, Linn., SAPOTACSiB. 

Oil ; 
Adnl, I Sarcostigma Kleinii, IV. & A., OLACBNBiS. 

Oil ; 
Adnlasa, Makr., Adhatoda vasica, Neet, Acanthacba. 

Dye 5 
AfttUttme^liildf, Arab, Artemisia vulgarisi Linn., CoMPOsiTiB. 

Oils ; 
Agal, Tarn., Chickrassia tabularis, Adr. Jtus., MsLiACEiC 

Gum ; Dye ; 
Agmllochay Bng.^ Aquilaria Agallochai Roxb., THYMBUEAceiC 

Gum ; 
Agani, N.-W* P., Juniperus recurva, Ham., CoNiFBRiB. 

Gum ; 
Agar, Hind., Aquilaria Agallocha, Roxb., THYMBUEACBiC. 

Gum ; 
Agaru, Beng; Aquilaria Agallocha, Roxb., THYMEUEACBiE. 

Gum ; 
Agasta, Makr., Sesbania grandiflorai Pets., LBGUMiNOSiC. 

Gum ; 
Agati, Tarn,, Sesbania grandiflora, Pers., Lbgumino&s. 

Gum ; 
Aggail-chandaoa, Tam., Aquilaria Agallocha, Roxb., THYMSL^ACBiV* 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Aghilda, Bom., Achyranthes aspera, Linn., Am ARANTACBiC 

Dye ; 
Aglay, 7am., Chickrassia tabularis, Adr, Juss., Mbliacr^ 

Gum ; Dye ; 
Agmsikha, TV/., Carthamus tinctoria, Linn., CoMPOSiTiB. 

Dye ; Oil ; 
Agm, Tel., Aquilaria Agallocha, Roxb., Thymblaacba. 

Ahreo, Sind, Lepidium sativum, Linn., Crucifbiue. 

Oil ; ^ 
Aicfa, Beng., Morinda citrifolia, Linn., var. citrifolia, Rubiace^e. 

Dye ; 
Aila, Oudk, Acacia concinna, D.C., LBGUMiNOSiB. 

Dye ; Tan ; 
Alma, 7am., Buchanania latifolia', Roxb., ANACARDiACBiC. 

Gum ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Ain, Mar,, Terminalia tomentosa, W. & A., Combrbtacb.£. 

Gum ; Dye : Tan ; 
Aini, Mai., Artocarpus hirsuta, LamJu, Urticacba. 

Gum ; 
Aita, Gond, Helicteres Isora, Linn., STBRCULiACBiE. 

Fibre ; 
Ajeru, Nepal, Loranthus longiflorus,'Z?e^., Loranthacb^v. 

Dye ; 
Ajhar, Ass., Lagerstrcemta Flos-Reginae, RetM., Lythracb^. 

Gum ; 
Ajowan, Hind., Canim copticum, Benth.^ Umbbllifbrjb. 

Oil ; 
Ak, Hind., Calotropis gigantea, R. Br., AscLBPiADBiE. 

- Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Fibre ; 
Ak, Hind., Calotropis procera, R. Br,, AscLBPiAOBiS. 
Gum ; Dye ; Tan. ; Fibre. 

the Economic Products of India. 

Ak, Hind.t Beng.f Morinda tinctoria, Roxb.^ var. tinctoria, Rubiacba. 

Dye ; 
Akaa, Bom.^ Calotropis gigantea, R. Br.f AscLBPiADBiB. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Fibre ; 
Akadu, Bom., Sind., Calotropis procera, R, Br., Asclepiadb^. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Fibre ; 
Akalber, Hind., Datisca cannabina, Linn., Datiscba. 

Dye ; 
Akand, Beng., Calotropis gigantea, R.Br., AscLBPiADBiG. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Fibre ; 
Akasbel, Hind., Pb., Cuscuta reflexa, Roxb., CoNVOLVULAGBiS. 

Dye ; 
Akasavel, Bom., Cuscuta refleza, Roxb,, Convolvulace^. 

Dye ; 
Akher, Kashmir, Juglans regia, Linn., Juglandb^. 

Dye ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Akhor, Kashmir, Juglans regia, Linn., Juglandb^. 

Dye ; Tan ; 
Akhrot, Hind., Bom., Juglans regia, Linn., JuGLANDBiE. 

Dye ; Tan ; Oil j 
Akola, Hind., Aleurites moluccana, Willd., EuPHORBiACEiB. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Akoiia, N. W, P., Rhus Wallichii, Hook./., ANACARDiACBiS. 

Oil ; 
Akra, Bom,, Calotropis gigantea, R. Br,, AscLEPiADBiS. 

Tan ; Fibre ; 
AkrOtfHind., i^^m., Aleurites moluccana, Willd,, EuPHORBiACBiS. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Akrut, Beng., Juglans regia, Linn., Juglanoba. 

Dye ; Tan ; Oil ; 
AkyaWy Burm., Aquilaria Agallocha, Roxb,, THYMBLiiEACBA. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Al, Hind., Morinda citrifolia, Linn., var. citrifolia, Rubiacba. 

Dye ; 
Ala, Bom., Morinda citrifolia, Linn., var. citrifolia, RuBiACBii. 

Dye ; 
Al-abada, And., Melochia velutina, Beddome, STBRCULiACBiV. 

Fibre ; 
Alale, Mysore, Terminalia Chebula, Retg., Combrbtacea. 

Oil ; 
Alari, Tam., Nerium odorum, Soland, Apocynacba. 

Oil ; 
Alarka, Sans., Calotropis procera, R. Br., AsclBpiadba. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Fibre ; 
Alash, Pb,, Cassia Fistula, Linn., LBGUMiNOSiS. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Alasi, Bom., Tel., Liiyim usitatissimum, Linn., LiNBiB. 

Fibre ; Oil 
Ala thanda, Beng., Phyllanthus Emblica, Linn., EuPHORBiACBiB. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Alder, Nepal, Eng., Alnus nepalensis, D. Don., BBTULACBiB. 

Dye ; Tan ; 
Aleverie, Beng., Lepidium sativum, Linn., Crucifbra. 

Oil ; 
Alexandrian Laurel, Eng., Calopyllum inophyllum, Linn., GuTTiPBRiC. 

Oil ; 
Algaroba, Eng., Prosopis pallida, Kunth., Rosacba. 

Tan ; 
Algaroba of Texas, Eng., Prosopis glandulosa, Torr., LBGUMiNOSiC. 

Gum ; 
Algarobilla, Eng., Prosopis pallida, Kunth, Lbguminos^. 

Tan ; 

4 Index to Volume I of the Catalogue of 

AlgOli, Btng.^ Cnscota re0exa, Roxh^ ComroLVULACKiE. 

Dye ; 
AH, Ph , Cassia Flstala, Linn.^ Lcgum inosjk* 

Gum ; Tan ; 
AUsh, Kashmir, Linom Qsitatissinnim, Unn., Lixbje. 

Fibre ; Oil ; 
AllEAlts, Eng. The ashes of several plants are osed as sabstimtes^ 

Dye ; 
AUa, Hind., Girardinia heterophjlla, Decaisne, Urticace^e. 

Fibre ; 
AU*-lMit-Mlta, TeL, Basella cordifolia, Lam^ Chenopodiace^. 

Dye ; 
AUuui, Hind., Comas macrophylla, Wall., Coucacejb. 

Oil ; 
AUi-cheddn, Tel., Memecylon edule, Hoxb^ Mblastomac&s. 

Dye ; 
Almond, Eng., Pmnns amygdalos, Baillon, Rosaceje. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Almond, Indian, Eng., Terminalia Catappa, Linn., Com BRSTACKiK. 

Oil ; 
Almond, Java, Eng., Canartum commune, Linn., BuRSERACSiE. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Aloe, Germ., Aloe vera, Linn., Liliacea, 

Dye ; Fibre ; 
Aloe, American, Eng., Agave americana, Linn., Amaryllidejb. 

Fibre ; 
Aloe, Bastard, Eng., Agave vivipara, Linn., AMARYLLiDEiE. 

Fibre ; 
Aloe, Great, Eng., Fourcroya gigantea. 

Oil ; 
Aloea, Eng., Pr., Aloe vera, Linn., Liliacea. 

Dye ; Fibre ; 
Aloe-woody Eng., Aquilaria Agallocha, Roxh., Thymel^ace.e. 

Gum ; 
Alahi'^rirai, Tam., Linum usitatissimum, Linn., Line^. 

Fibre ; Oil ; 
Alai, Hind., Linum usitatissimum, Linn., Linbje. 

Fibre ; Oil ; 
Altiy Tarn., Hardwickia binata, Roxb., LEGUMiNOSiE. 

Gum ; 
Ala, Cingh, Terminalia Chebula, RetM., Com brbtacbac. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Alu balUf Pers., Prunus Cerasus, Linn., Rosacea. 

Gum^ ; 
Alu-bu-ali, Perg., Prunus Cerasus, Linn., Rosacea. 

Gum ; 
Alticha, Pb.t Prunus communis, Huds., Rosacea. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Am^ Hind,, Beng., Mangifera indica, Linn., Anacardiacea. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Ama, Bom., Mangifera indica, Linn., Anacardiacea. 

Gum ; Djre ; Tan ; 
Amadnm, Tel., Ricinus communis, Linn., Euphorbiacea. 

Mordant ; Oil ; 
Amalgachy Ph., Prunus Puddum, Roxb., Rosacea. 

Gum ; 
Amaltas, Hind,, Cassia Fistula, Linn,, Leouminosa. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Amara, Hind., Spondias mangifera. Pert., Anacardiacea. 

Gum ; 
Amaravela, Bom..^ Cuscuta reflexa, Roxb., Convolvulacba. 

Dye ; 

the Economic Products of India. 

Amari, Ass.^ Terminalia tomentosa, W. & A,^ Combretace^e. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; • 
Amasula, Bomb., Garcinia indica, Chois.t Guttifer^. 

Oil ; 
Amb, Beng.y Mangtfera indica, Linn.y Anacardiace^. 

Oil ; 
' Amba, Mahr., Mangifera indica, Ztnn., ANACARDiACEiS. 

Oil ; 
Amba, Hind., Bom.j Spondias mangifera, Pers.^ ANACARDiACEiB. 

Gum ; 
Amba, Bom.f Mangifera indica, Linn., ANACARDiACEiE. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Ambada, Bom., Hibiscus cannabinus, Linn., Malvace^. 

Fibre ; 
Ambadi, Bom., Crotalaria juncea, Linn., Leguminos^. 

Fibre ; 
Ambaly Pb,, Phyllanthus Emblica, Linn,, EuPHORBiACSiC. 

Gum ; Dye ; Oil ; 
Ambarbarees, Arab., Berberis Lycium, Royle., Berberide^. 

Gum ; 
Ambarabarisa, (fruit) Berberis aristata. 

Dye ; 
Ambaree, Dec, Hibiscus cannabinus, Linn., Malvacb^. 

Oil ; 
Ambari, Gdro, Phyllanthus Emblica, Linn., Euphorbiacb^. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Ambari, Dec, Hind., Hibiscus cannabinus, Linn., Malvace-«. 

Fibre ; 
Ambhola, Uriya, Bauhinia racemosa. Lam,, LEGUMiNOSiC. 

Ambli) Pb,, Phyllanthus Emblica, Linn., Eupmorbiace^. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan. ; 
Amblif Hindn^ Tamarindus indica, Linn,, LEGUMiN0Si£. 

Gum ; Dye ; Mordant ; Oil ; 
Amblu, Pb., Phyllanthus nepalensis. Mull. Arg., EuPHORBiACEiB. 

Tan ; 
Ambodha, Hind,, Spondias mangifera, Pets,, ANAqARDiACEiE. 

Gum ; 
Ambolati, Beng., Phyllanthus Emblica, Linn , Euphorbiace^s. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan, ; 
Amdi, Tel., Ricinus communis, Linn., Euphorbiace^. 

Mordant ; Oil ; 
Ami, N. W, P., Rhus cortinus, Linn., Anacardiace^e. 

Dye ; Tan ; 
Amla, Hind., i?^^., Pbyllanthus Emblica, Linn*, Euphorbiacb^s* 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Amli, Hind., Bauhinia malabarica, i?0;r&., LEGUMiNOSiE. 

Gum ; 
Amli, Hind., Tamarindus indica, Linn., Leguminos^. 

Gum ; Dye ; Mordant ; Oil ; 
Amlika, Hind., Phyllanthus Emblica, Linn., Euphorbiaceje. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Amlosa, Hind., Bauhinia malabarica, ^<7a:6., Leguminosa. 

Gum ;- 
Amluki, Ass,, Phyllanthus Emblica, Linn., EuPHORBiACSiB. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Amlukiy Beng,, Albizzia stipulata, Boivin,, Leguminos/b. 

Gum ; 
Amra, Hind., Beng., Spondias mangifera, Pers., Anacardiacbjk. 

Gum ; 
Amra, Sans., Mangifera indica, Linn., Anacardiacb^. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 

Index to Volume I of the Catalogue of 

Amnit P5., Ulmus Wallichiana, Planck., Urticaceje. 

Fibre ; 
hmrts, Jhelum, Debregeasia bicolar, Wedd., Urticacbje. 

Fibre ; 
Afluit phal, Kumaun, Citrus medica, Linn., var. Ltmetta, RuTACE^e. 

Gum ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Anuu, Sans., Mangifera indica, Linn., ANACARDiACBiB. 

Oil ; 
Anrod, Hind., N. W. P., Psidium Guava, Raddi, Myrtace^. 

Dye ; Tan ; 
Anrnt, Hind., N. W. P., Psidium Guava, Raddi, Myrtacba. 

Dye ; Tan ; 
AmfidAnda, Ph., Berberb nepalensis, Spreng., Bbrberideje. 

Dye ; 
Amok, Nepal, Psidium Guava, Raddi, MYRTACBiB. 

Dye ; Tan ; 
Afluki, Nepal, Kandia dumetorum, Lam., Rubiacbje. 

t>ye ; 
Awnlati, Beng,, Phyllanthus Emblica, Linn., EuPHORBiACBiC. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Afllut, Pb., Loranthus longiflorus, Dex., LoRANTHACEiB. 

Dye ; 
Anai-paUyarroy, Tam., Adansonia digitata, Linn., MALVACEiE. 

Fibre ; 
Ananas, Hind., Ananassa sativa, Linn., BROMELLiACEiB. 

Fibre ; 
Anander, Jhelum, Pinus longifolia, Roxb., Conipbra. 

Oil ; 
Anar, Hind., Bom., Punica Grranatum, Linn., Lythracea. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Aniiras, Beng., Ananassa sativa, Linn., Bromeliacea. 

Fibre ; 
Anar-kajhar, Dec, Punica Granatum, Linn., Lythracea. 

Gum ; 
Andara, Cingh., Dichrostachys cinerea, W. & A., LBGUMiNOSiC. 

Gum ; 
Andnga, Tel., Boswellia serrata, Colebr., BuRSERACBiB. 

Gum ; 
Anduka, Tel., Boswellia serrata, Colebr,, Bursbraceje. 

Gum ; 
Anemui, 7am., Terminalia tomentosa, W. & A., CoMBRETACBiE. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Aneru, Chenab, Ricinus communis, Linn., Euphorbiace^. 

Mordant ; Oil ; 
Ans^hanshindi, Arab, Pets., Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Linn., MALVACEiS. 

Dye ; Fibre ; 
Ang^huzeh-i-Lari, Pers., Ferula Narthez, Boiss,, Umbbllifbr^. 

Gum ; 
Ani-taindamani, 7am,, Adenantbera pavonina, Linn,, LBCUMiNoSiC. 

Gum ; Dye ; Oils ; 
Anil, Cingh,, Tephrosia tinctoria, Pers., LEGUMiNOSiB. 

Anise, Star, Eng., Illicium Anisatum, Linn., MaonoliacejE. 

Oil : 
Anise seed, Eng., Pimpinella Anisum, Linn., Umbbllifera. 

Oil ; 
Anjab^, Pb., Polygonum bistorta, Linn., Polyoonace^. 

Oil ; 
Anjabli, Tam., Artocarpus hirsuta, Lamk., Urticacejb. 

Gum ; 
Anjan, Hind,, Mahr,, Hardwickia binata, Roxb,, LBOUMiNOSiB. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 

the Economic Products of India. 

Anjan, Hind.^ Terminalia Arjuna, Bedd.^ Combrbtacea. 

Gum ; 
Anjan, Bomb., Memecylon edule, JRoxb., Mblastomacba. 

Dye ; 
AnjudsJif Kashmir, Ferula alliacea, Boiss., Umbbllifbr^. 

Gum ; 
Ankudu, Tel., Wrightia tinctoria, R. Br., ApocYNACBiB. 

Dye ; 
Ankudu-kurra, Tel., Uncaria Gambler, Hunter, RusiACBiB. 

Tan.. ; 
Ansandniy TeL, Acacia ferruginea, DC, Lbguminosa. 

Gum ; 
Ansjeoi, Mai., Artocarpus hirsuta, Lamk., Urticacea. 

Gum ; 
Antawala, Cingh., Sapindus trifoliatus, Linn., Sapindacb^. 

Oil ; 

Anti-maduram, Tam., Glycyrhiza glabra, Linn., LEGUMiNoSiB. 

Dye ; 
Antmora, Beng., Helicteres Isora, Linn., Sterculiacba. 

Fibre ; 
Anvala, Bom., Mahr., Phyllanthus Emblica, Linn., EuPHORBiACEiC. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Anzeroot, Arab., Pers., Astragalus ? sp., Leguminosa. 

Gum ; 
Aonta, Hind., Phyllanthus Emblica, Linn., Euphorbiace^. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Aor, Pb., Prunus persica, Benth,, RosACBJE. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Apatnarga, Sans., Achyranthes aspera, Linn., Amarantace^. 

Dye ; 
Ap^g, Beng., Achyranthes aspera, Linn., Amarantace^. 

Apim, Beng., Papaver somniferum, Linn., Papaveracb^. 

Oil ; 
Aporave, Greek, Ricinus communis, Linn., Euphorbiace^. 

Oil ; 
Apple, Costard, Eng., Anona squamosa, Linn., ANONACSiC. 

Fibre ; 
Apricot, Eng., Prunus armeniaca, Linn,, Rosacea. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Apta, Mahr., Bauhinia racemosa, Lam., LBGUMiNOSiC. 

Fibre ; 
Apiing, Chutia Nagpur, Holostemma Rheedei, Wall., AscLBPiADEiS. 

Fibre ; 
ApuiSi Beluchistan, Juniperus excelsa, M, Bieb., CoNiFERiE. 

Gum ; 
Arabic, Indian Gum, Eng.^ Acacia arabica, Willd., Lbguminos^. 

Gum ; Dye ; 
Aradal, Kan., Garcinia Cambogia» Desrouss., Guttifbrat, 

Gum ; Dye ; 
Aradal, Kan., Grarcinia Morella, Desrouss., Guttifbra^ 

Gum ; Tan. ; Oil ; 
Al&k, Arab., Salvadora persica, Linn., Salvadoracea. 

Oil ; 
Arakbidi^, See Fceniculum vulgare, Gaertn., Umbellifbr^. 

Oil ; 
Arand, Hind., Ricinus communis, Linn., Euphorbiacba. 

Mordant ; Oil ; 
Arang, Berar, Eriolsna Hookeriana, W. & A.f STSRCULiACBiB. 

Fibre : 

8 Index to the Volume I of the Catalogue of 

Axwmg, Beratf Eriobena spectabilis, Planch.^ STBRCULiACSiK. 

Fibre ; 
Axmr, Hind.y Randea dometorum, Lam.t Rubiacea. 

Dye ; 
Ansa, 7am., Ficns religiosa, Linn., URTiCACBiE. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
An;?! mamkSt ^<^^*» Spondias mangifera, Pers., Anacardiacea. 

Gum ; 
Arawi nim, Tel., Atalantia monophylla, Corr., Rutac^. 

Oil ; 

Arcfan, Tarai Garkwal, Rheum Emodi, WaU., Polygonace^. 

Dye ; 
Areca Not, Eng*, Areca Catechu, Linn., PALiiiE. 

Gum ; 
Areka, 7am., Bauhinia racemosa, Lam., LsGUMiNOSiB. 

Gum ; 
Areodi, Hind., Ricinus communisi Linn., Euphorbiacea. 

Mordant ; Oil ; 
Afi, Tel., Bauhinia racemosa. Lam., Leguminosa. 

Gum ; 
Arihai-karbel, Sutlej, Acacia Intsia, WiUd., Lbguminosje. 

Dye ; 
Axing^, Raj., Acacia leucophloea, Willd., LEGUMiNOSiE. 

Gum ; Dye ; 
Aristha, Sans., Xanthium strumarium) Linn., Composites. 

Oil ; 
Arfin. Pb., Ulmus integrifolia, Roxb., Urticaceje. 

Oil ; 
Afjni, Hind,, Beng.^ Mahr., Terminalia Arjuna, Bedd., CoMBRBrACE.«. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Arjuima, Oudh, Croton oblongifolius, Roxb., Euphorbiace^. 

Oil ; 
Alk, Hind., Calotropis gigantea, R. Br., AscLEPiADEiE. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Fibre ; 
Alk, Safed-, Hind., Calotropis procera, R. Br., Asclepiade^e. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Fibre ; 
Alka, Sans, Calotropis gigantea, RMr, AsCLEPiADEiC. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Fibre ; 
Arkhar, Pb., Rhus semiaiata, Murray, AnacaroiacejE. 

Oil ; 
Aikhar, Pb., Rhus Wallichii, Hook,/., ANACARDiACEiC. 

Oil ; 
Aikol, Pb.f Rhus succedanea, Linn., ANACARDiACEiC 

Grum ; Oil ; 
Axkol, Pb., Rhus semialata, Murray, Anacardiaceae. 

Oil ; 
Arkol, Pb., Rhus Wallichii, Hook,/., Anacardiaceje. 

Oil ; , 

Arln, Hind., Oroxylum indicum, Benth., Bignoniacbjs. 

Dye ; Tan ; 
Ama, Gond, Anogeissus latifolia, Wall., CoMBRBTACEiE. 

Gum ; Dye ; 
Amotto, (the seeds of) Bixa Orellana, Linn., BixiNEiG. 
Arro, TV/., Bauhinia racemosa, Lam., LBGUMiNOSiE. 

Gum ; 
Arrodah, And., Chickrassia tabularis, Adr. Juss., MELiACEiC. 

Gum ; Dye ; 
Altso, Pb., Rheum Emode, WaU., PoLYGONACEiE. 

Dye ; 
Am, Pb., Prunus persica, Benth., Rosacbx. 

Gum ; Oil ; 

the Economic Products of India, 

Ani, Mai,, Casuarina equisetifolia, Forstety CAsuARiNACBiC. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Ariisa, Hind., Adhatoda Vasica, Nees., Acanthacb^. 

Dye ; 
Arusha, Chittag-ong, Callicarpa cana, Linn., Verbenace^. 

Fibre ; 
Aiyili, Nepal, Edgeworthia Gardner!, Meisn,, THYMEL^EACEyE. 

Fibre ; • 
Asainda, Hind., Ougeinia dalbergiodides, Benth., LEGUMiNOSiB. 

Gum ; 
Asam, Mysore , Tamarindus indica, Linn., Leguminos^. 

Gum ; Dye ; Mordant ; Oil ; 

Asan, Hind., Beng., Terminalia tomentosa, W. & A,, Combretace-E. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Asana, Mahr., Briedelia montana, Willd., Euphorbiace^. 

Tan ; 
Asana, Bom., Mahr., Pterocarpus Marsupium, Roxb., Leguminos^. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Oil ; 

Asbargf. Pb., Delphinium saniculaefolium, Boiss., Ranunculace^s. 

Dye ; 
Asereki, 'Tel., Phyllanthus Emblica, Linn., Euphorbiace^. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Asfrak, Pers., Delphinium saniculaefolium, Boiss., Ranunculace^. 

Dye ; 
Ashathwa, Beng., Ficus religiosa, Linn., Urticace^. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Ashta, Hind., Bauhinia racemosa, Lam., Leguminosje. 

Gum ; 
Asl-ral, Hind., Brassica nigra, Koch., Crucifer^. 

Oil ; 
Asna, Hind., Terminalia tomentosa, W. & A., Combretace.^. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Asok, Hind., Polyalthia longifolia, Benih. & Hook,/., Anonace^. 

Fibre ; 
Asoka, Bom., Polyalthia lotigifolia, Benih. & Hook,/., Anonace^. 

Fibre ; 
Asok4, Tel., Polyalthia longifolia, Benth. & Hook,/., Anonace-S. 

Fibre ; 
AspersLg, Pers., Delphinium saniculaefolium, Boiss., Ranunculace^. 

Dye. ; 
Aspnota, Sans., Jasminum Sambac, Aiion, Oleace^. 

Oil ; 
Aspraka, Bom., Delphinium saniculaefolium, Boiss., RANUNCULACEiE. 

Dye ; 
Asrelei, Sindi, Tamarix articulata, Vahl., Tamarascinejs. 

Gum ; 
Assain, Hind., Terminalia tomentosa, W. & A., Combretace-B. 

Gum ,; Dye ; Tan ; 
Assalia, Bom,, Lepidium sativum, Linn., CRUciFERiE. 

Oil ; 
Assar, Hind., Oroxylum indicum, Benth., BiGNONiACEiE. 

Dye ; Tan ; 
Assothi, Tarn., Polyalthia longifolia, Benth. & Hook,/., Anonace^e. 

Fibre ; 
Assu, Pb., Eruca sativa. Lam., Cruciferje. 

Oil ; 
Asta, Hind., Bauhinia racemosa, Lam., Legominos^. 

Fibre ; 
Asud, Beng., Ficus religiosa, Linn., Urticace^. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Asugach, Ass., Morinda angustifolia, Roxb., RuBiACSiB. 

Dye ; 

lo Index to the Volume I of the Catalogue of 

Asopila, Bom.^ Polyalthia longifolia, Bemtk. & Hook,/., ANONACEiC. 

Fibre ; 
Asuri. Nepal, Tabernxmontana coronaria, Willd., ApocYNACEiE. 

Djc ; 
Asramanka, Smns.t Nerium odonun, Soland., Apocynac&c. 

Oil ; 
Aswat, Beng., Ficus religiosa, Linn., Urticacejk. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Ate, Beng^ Anona squamosa, Linn., Anonac&X. 

Gum ; 
Atesi. Tel , Linom usitatissimam, Linn., Linkjk. 

Fibre' ; 
Athihallarchetta, Tanu, Sida rhombifoliai £f itit., Malvacli;. 

Fibre ; 
Ati, 7am., Bauhinia raoemosa, Lam,, Lsgumino&<b. 

Gum ; 
Atkimiah, Arab., Achyranthes aspera, Linn., Amarantacea. 

D^e ; 
Atknn, Ass., Wrightia tomentosa, Roem & Scheult., ApocYNACEiC. 

Dye ; 
Atsa, Pb,, Rheum Emodi, Wtdl., Polygon ACSiK. 

Dye ; 
Atte bar» Beng^ Ass., Ficus elastica, BL, Urticace^. 

Gum ; 
Atnncte, Tarn., i&chynomene aspera, Linn., LBOUMiNOSiS. 

Fibre ; 
An, Pb., Girardinia heterophylla, Decaisne, URTiCACEiE. 

Fibre ; 
Anch, Hind., Beng., Morindatinctoria, Roxb,, var.tinctoria, Rubiace^b. 

Dye ; 
Auk, Nep., Calotropis gigantea, R.Br., Asclbpiadba. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Fibre ; 
Anra, Hind., Phyllanthus Emblica, Linn., Eupmorbiace^. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Avmlo, Tel^ Brassica nigra, Koch., CRUCiFBRiK. 

Oil ; 
A^anu, Tarn., Cassia auriculata, Linn., LBOimiNO&s. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Avarike, Kan., Cassia auriculata, Linn., Lbguminos^. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Avest, Tel., Sesbania grandiflora, Pers,, LsGUMiNOSiC. 

Gum ; 
Awe, Hind., Girardinia heterophylla, Decaisne, Urticacba. 

Fibre ; 
Aya, 7am., Ulmus integrifolia, Roxb., URTiCACBiE. 

Oil ; 
Ayma, 7am., Careya arborea, Roxh., Myrtacba. 

Gum ; 
d, Tarn,, Artocarpus hirsuta, Lamk., URTlCACBiB. 

Gum : 


Bab, N. W. P., Eriophorum comosom. Wall., Cypbracba. 

Babari, C. P., Ocimum sanctum, var. sanctum. Labiate. 

Oil ; 
Bab-basant, Pb., Linum strictum, Linn., Linbjb. 

Oil ; 
Babbur, Sind., Acacia arabica, Willd., Lbgum iNOSiK. 

Dye ; 

the Economic Products of India. ii 

Babela, Pers.^ Terminalia belerica, Roxh,^ COMBRBTACEiE. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Babila, N, W. P., Eriophorum comosum, Wall., CyperaceuE. 

Fibre ; 
Babla, Beng., Acacia arabica, Willd., LsGUMiNOSiB. 

Gum ; Dye ; 
Bdboi tulsi, Beng., Ocimum Basilicum, Linn., Labiat^e. 

Fibre ; Oil ; 
Babra, Dec^ Terminalia belerica, Roxb., CoMBRETACEiC. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Babui, Beng., Hind., Ocimum Basilicum, Linn., Labiate. 

Fibre ; Oil ; 
Bibui g^has, Beng., Ocimum Basilicum, Linn., Labiate. 

Fibre ; Oil ; 
Babui-tulsi, Beng., Hind , Ocimum Basilicum, Linn,, var. pilosum, Benth., 

Labiate. Fibre ; Oil ; 
Babul, Hind., Acacia arabica, Willd., Leguminos^. 

Gum ; Tan ; Dye ; 
Babul, Dec, Pithecolobium dulce, Benth., Leguminos^. 

Gum ; 
Babul-Aas, (berry) Bom., Myrtus communis, Linn., MvRTACEiB. 

Oil ; 
Babun-phul, Beng., Hind., Matricaria Chamomila, Linn., CoMPosiTiC. 

Oil ; 
Bach, Beng., Hind., Acorus Calamus, Linn., Aroide^. 

Oil ; 
Bach, Beng., Curcuma Zerumbet, Roscoe (non-Roxb.), SciTAMiNEiE. 

Dye ; 
Bach, Mahaburi, Beng., Curcuma Zerumbet, Roscoe (non-Roxb.), Scitami- 

HEM. Dye ; 
Bacha, Bom., Salix tetrasperma, Roxb., SALiciNEiE. 

Tan ; 
Bad, N. W. P., Andropogon laniger, Desf., Graminea. 

Fibre ; 
Bada, Pb., Salix babylonica, Linn., SALiciNEiG. 

Fibre ; 
Badiim, Beng., Prunus aiAygdalus, Baillon., RosACSiE. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Badam, Beng., Terminalia Catappa, Linn., Combretace^. 

Dye ; Oil ; 
Badam Bhatia, Him. name, Corylus Colurna, Linn., CupuLiFERiS. 

Badam, Jangli, Hind., Sterculia fcetida, Linn, SxERCULiACEiE. 

Oil ; 
Badam, Jangli, Hind., Canarium commune, Linn., BuRSERACEiE. 

Oil ; 
Badar, Afg., Taxus baccata, Linn., CoNiFERiE. 

Gum ; Dye ; 
B&dar, Him. name, Abies Webbiana, Lindl., Conifer^e. 

Gum ; Dye ; 
BAdiankhatAf (fruit) Bom., lUicium anisatum, Linn., MAGNOLTACEiE. 

Oil ; 
Badldapu-chettu, Tel., Erythrina indica. Lam., LEGUMiNOSiE. 

Gum ; Dye ; Fibre ; 
Badu manu, C. P., Sponia orientalis. Planch., Anacardiace^e. 

Gum ; Fibre ; 
Bael, Eng,, iEgle Marmelos, Corr., RuTACEiE. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Baen Hind,, Zizyphus Jujuba, Lamk., RnAMNBiE. 

Gum ; 
B&g6, Tarn., Acacia Catechu, Willd., Lbguminosje. 
Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 

12 Index to the Volume I of the Catalogue of 

Bag^apdhup, Kan.^ Ailanthus malabarica, DC.^ Simarubb^. 

Gum ' ; 
Bag^-bherenda, Hind.^ Jatropha Curcas, Linn., EuPHORBiACEiC. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
B^UtavA, Mahr., Ca:»sia Fistula, Linn., Lbguhinosa. 

Gum ; 
Bataera, Hind., Beng,, Terminalia belerica, Roxh,, CoMBRETACEiC. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Babul, Hind., Grewia oppositifolia, Roxb., TiLiACEiC. 

Fibre ; 
Bai, Belucki, Balsamodendron pubescens, Stocks., Burserace^. 

Gum ; 
Baikal g^ja chinni, C.P., Celastrus senegalensis, Lam., Cblastrine^s. 

Bainchi, Beng., Carissa Carandas, Linn., Apocykacea. 

Dye ; Tan ; 
Baishi, Hind., Salix tetrasperma, Roxb., SALiciNSiC. 

Tan ; 
Bajra, Pb., Penicillaria spicata, Wtlld., GRAMiNSiC. 

Dye ; 
Bajir, Pb., Polygonum bistorta, Linn., Polygonace^. 

Oil ; 
Bakain, Hind., Melia Azedarach, Linn., MELiACBiC. 

Gum ; Dye ; Oil ; 
Bakainu, Nepal., Melia Azedarach, Linn., Meliace^. 

Gum ; Dye ; Oil ; 
Bakalwa, Hind., Phyllanthus nepalensis, Mull. Arg., EuPHORSiACEiE. 

Tan ; 
Bakam, Hind., Gum., Beng., Caesalpinia Sappan, Linn., Leguminos/E. 

Dye ; 
Bakamu, Tel., Csesalpinia Sappan, Linn., LeguminoSuE. 

Dye ; 
Bakapu, Tel., Caesalpinia Sappan, Linn., LEGUMiNOSiC. 

Dye ; 
Bakarja, Hind., Melia Azedarach, Linn., MBLiACEiC. 

Gum ; Dye ; Oil ; 
Bakas, Beng., Adhatoda Vasica, Nees., Acanthace^. 

Dye ; 
Bakayan, Hind., Melia Azedarach, Linn., MBLiACEiE. 

Gum ; Dye j Oil ; 
Bakkiamela, Pb., Rhus semialata, Murray, Anacardiace^. 

9il ; 
Baku, Hind., Lagerstrcemia parviflora, Roxb., LYTHRACBiC. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Bakli, Hind., Anogeissus latifolia. Wall., Combrbtace.c 

Gum ; Dye ; 
Bakmo, Uriya, Caesalpinia Sappan, Linn., LsGUMiNOSiE. 

Dye ; 
Bakra, N. W. P., Elaeodendron glaucum, Pers., Celastrine^e. 

Gum ; 
Bakre-lam, Paharia, Hedyotis capitellata. Wall., Rubiace/E. 

Dye ; 
Bakul, Beng., Mimusops Elengi, Linn., SAPOTACBiC. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Bakuli, Bom,, Mimusops Elengi, Linn., Sapotacbje. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Bala, Beng., Sida cordifolia, Linn., Malvaceae. 

Fibre ; 
Balachara, Bom., Nardostach3rs Jatamansi, DC, VALERiANACEis. 

Oil ; 
Balal, Kan., Diospyros melanoxylon, Roxb., Ebenace^. 

Gum : 

the Economic Products of India - 13 

Balchiar, Hind,^ Nardostachys Jatamansi, DCy VALERiANACEiE. 

Oil ; 
Balda, Dec.y Terminalia belerica, Roxb., Combretace^. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Balesan, Arab., Hind., Balbamodendron Opobalsamum, Kunth., Bursbr- 

ACEi£. Gum ; 
Balku, Beng.y Bambusa Balcooa, Roxb,, Graminb^. 

Fibre ; 
Bally Tree, Eng., Mimusops manilkara, Don., SAPOTACBiE. 

Gum ; 
Balsamocarpon, Eng., Prosopis pallida, Kunth., Leguminos^. 

Dye ; 
Balut, Afg,, Quercus Ilex, Linn,, Cupulifer^. 

Tan ; 
Bamboo, Eng., Melocanna bambusoides, Trim., Gramine^. 

Fibre ; 
Bamboo, Eng., Bambusa arundinacea, Rete., Gramine^. 

Bamboo, Himalayan, Eng., Arundinaria falcata, Nees,, Gramine^e. 

Fibre ; 
Bamsutu, Kashmir, Cydonia vulgaris, Tourn., Rosacea. 

Oil ; 
Bamtsunt, Kashmir, Cydonia vulgaris, Tourn., Rosacea. 

Oil ; 
Bamya, Arab,, Pers., Hibiscus esculentus, Linn., Malvace^. 

Fibre ; 
Ban, Hind., Zizyphus vulgaris, Lamk., Rhamne^e. 

Gum ; 
Ban, Arab., Melia Azedarach, Linn., Meliace^. 

Gum ; Dye ; 
Ban, Pb., Quercus Ilex, Linn., Cupulifer^. 

Tan ; 
Ban, N. W. P., Andropogon laniger, Desf., GRAMiNEiC. 

Fibre ; 
Banafsha, Hind., Viola serpens. Wall., ViolAce^e. 

Oil ; 
Banana, Eng., Musa sapientum, Linn,, MusACEiE. 

Dye ; Fibre ; 
Banbive, Burm., Careya arborea, Roxb., MvRTACBiE. 

Gum ; 
Banda, C. P., Loranthus longiflorus, Dex., LoRANXHACEiE. 

Tan ; 
Bandara, Tel., Hymenodictyon excelsum,. Wall., Rubiace^. 

Tan ; 
*Bandarlati, Beng., Cassia Fistula, Linn., LBGUMiNOSiE. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Bander siris, Nepal, Dalbergia lanceolaria, Linn., Leguminos^. 

Oil ; 
Ban-dheras, Beng., Hibiscus ficulneus, Linn., MALVACEiE. 

Fibre ; 
Bandhona, Uriya, Ougeinia dalbergioides, Benth., LEGUMiNoSiE. 

Gum ; 
Band! g^rivenda, Ti?/., Adenanthera pavonina, Lm^., LEGUMiNoSiE. 

Gum ; Dye ; Oil ; 
Bandolat, Cachar, Cassia Fistula, Linn., Leguminos^e. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Bandriphal, Nepal, Amoora Rohituka, W. & A., Meliace^. 

Oil ; 
Bane, Trans-Indus, Periploca aphylla, Decaisne, AscLEPiADEiE. 

Fibre ; 
Bangali badam, Bom.t Terminalia Catappa, Linn., CoMBRBTAcSiE. 

Oil 5 

14 Index to Volume I of the Catalogue of 

Baasni, Beng.^ Wedelia calendulacea, Less., Con positje. 

Dye ; 
Baaharia, Hind., Sponia politoria, Planek., Urticaceje. 

Fibre ; 
Bai^ere, Pb., Ocimiim gratissimum, Linn., Labiatjb. 

Oil ; 
Baokati, Hind., Indigofera atrofmrporea. Ham., LEGUMiNOSiB. 

Fibre ; 
Ban Indar, Ph., Him, name, Abies Smithiana, Forbes, Conifers. 

Gum ; 
Panpftln. Him. name, Corjius Coliima, Linn., Cupulifeils. 

Oil ; 
Ban-patol, Beng^ Trichosantbes cacnmerina, Linn., Cucubbita e^s. 

Gum ; 
Baanjy Beng., Bauhinia racemosa. Lam., Lcguminos.c 

Gum ; 
Bao-citha, Beng., Acacia concinna, DC., LEGUMiNOSiE. 

Dye ; Tan ; 
Bans, Beng., Bambnsa amndinacea, Retm., Gram iNSiB. 

Fibre ; 
Bans, Hind., Deodrocalamus Hamiltonii, Nees., Gramine.«. 

Fibre ; 
Bans, Hind., Dendrocalamns strictos, Nees., GRAHiNBiB. 

Fibre ; 
Bans kaban, Hind., Deodrocalamus Hamiltonii, Nees., Gramine^. 

Fibre ; 
Bans kaban, Hind., Deodrocalamus strictus, Nees., Grahine^. 

Fibre ; 
Bans khnfdy Hind., Deodrocalamus Hamiltonii, Nees., Gramine^. 

Fibre ; 
Bansa, Chenab, Jasminum officinale, Linn., OLEACEiE. 

Oil ; 
Bantanum, Pb., Sponia politoria, Planch., Urticacea. 

Fibre ; 
Bantil, Pb., Impatiens Balsamina. Linn., GERANiACEiE. 

Dye ; 
Bantil, Pb,, Impatiens Edgeworthii, Hook., Geraniace£. 

Oil ; 
Baobab tree, Eng., Adansonia digitata, Linn., MALVACEiE. 

Fibre ; 
Bar, Beng., Ficus elastica, BL, Ubticacea. 

Gum ; 
Bars, Nepal, Quercus pachyphylla, Kutb., Cupulifera. 

Dye ; Tan ; 
BaiB balnka, Ass., Bambusa Balcoora, Roxb., Gkauwea. 

Fibre ; 
Bara flawar, Ass., Caryota urens, Linn., Palm^x. 

Fibre ; 
Bara s^oraknri, Nepal., Viburnum coriacum, ^/., Capri foliace^e. 

Oil ; 
Bara mai, Hind,, Tamarix Galls, see Galls. 

Dye ; 
Bararithay Beng., Sapindustrifoliatus, Vahl., Sapindace^e. 

Gum ; Oil ; 

Bar^sakaptai, Bom., Pryobalanops Camphora, Colebr., DiPTEROCARPEiS. 

Oil ; 
Bara salpan, {as in Roxb.) Beng. and Hind., Flemingia congesta, Roxb., 

Leguminosa. Dye ; 
Bar^ camphor. Bom., Dryobalanops Camphora, Colebr., Dipterocarpea. 

Oil ; 
Barbari, Nepal., Beaumontia grandiflora, Wall., Apocynacea. 

Fibre ; 

the Economic Products of India, 15 

Barber, Eng., Berberis aristata, Z>C, Berberide^. 

Dye ; Tan ; 
Barhai, Hind,^ Artocarpus Lakoocha; Roxh.f Urticace-E. 

Gum ; Dye ; Fibre ; 
Barial, Hind., Bauhinia acuminata, Linn.y Leguminos^. 

Oil ; 
Blirik-tel, (seeds) Dec^ Sesamum indicum, Linn., Pedaline^e. 

Oil ; 
Bari-nUim, Hind., Sind., Tamarix articulata, Vakl., T. dioca, Roxb.j 

T. gallica, Linn., Tamariscine^. Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Barma, Kashmir, Taxus baccata, Linn., Conifers. 

Gum ; Dye ; 
Barmao, ifMmaMW, Phyllanthus nepalensis, Mull. Arg., Euphorbiace^e. 

Tan ; 
Barsanga, Beng., Murraya Kcenigii, Spr., Rutace^b. 

Oil ; 
Barranga, C.P., Kydia calycina, Roxb,, MALVACEiS. 

Fibre ; 
Barrarra, Trans-Indus, Periploca aphylla, Decaisne., AscLEFiADEiE. 

Fibre ; 
Bartandi, Bom., Morinda citrifolia, Linn., Var. critifolia, RuBiACEiE. 

Dye ; 
Bartu, Pb., Hymenodictyon excelsum, Wall., RuBiACEiC, 

Tan ; 
Barun, Beng., Crataeva religiosa, Forsi., Capparide^. 

Dye ; 
Barzad, Pers., Ferula Galbaniflua, Boiss., Umbellifer^. 

Gum ; 
Bas, Bom., Dendrocalamus Hamiltonii, Nees., Gramine^. 

Fibre ; 
Bas, Bom., Dendrocalamus strictus, Nees., Gramine^. 

Fibre ; 
Basant, Pb., Linum strictum, Linn., Line^. 

Oil ; 
Basanti, N, W. P., (color of) Cedrela Toona, Roxb., Meliace^. 

Gum ; Dye ; 
Bashal, Pb., Salix daphnoides, ViU., SALiciNEiS. 

Fibre ; 
Basil, Common, Eng., Ocimum Basilicum, Linn., Labiate. 

Fibre ; Oil ; 
Basil, Sweet, Eng., Ocimum Basilicum, Linn., var. Anisatum, Benth.^. 

Labiate. Fibre ; Oil ; 
Basna, Hind., Sesbania grandiilora, Pers., Leguminos^^ 

Gum ; 
Bast fibre, Eng., Tilia europsea, Linn, Tiliaceje. 

Fibre ; 
B^tavi nebn, Beng,, Citrus decumana, Willd., Rutacbis; 

Gum ; 
Batia, Jhelum, Chenab, Periploca aphylla, Decaisne., Asclepiade^^ 

Fibre ; 
Batia-rungf, Beng., Peristrophe tinctoria, Nees., AcANTHACEiE. 

Dye ; 
Batta, Tel., Barringtonia acutangula, Gaertn., Myrtace^. 

Tan ; 
B^tii, Hind., Sponia politoria, Planch., URTfCACEA. 

Fibre ; 
Batwasi, Nepal., Flemingia congesta, Roxb., Leguminos^. 

Dye ; 
Bayanchi, Dec, Psoralea corylifolia, Linn., Leguminos^. 

Oil ; 
Bawarae, Garo., Semecarpus Anacardium, Linn.f., ANACARDiACBiS, 
Gum ; Dye \ 

1 6 Index to Volume I of the Catalogue of 

PaxHioa, Pb., HjmenodictjoD ezoeisum, WalL^ Rubiace^. 

Tan ; 
Bayi, Beluchi^ Balsamodendron pubescens, Stocks. ^ Bursbracb.«. 

Gum ; 
Bayr-bnnja, Sind., Datisca cannabina, Linn.^ Datiscb^. 

Dye ; 
Bead Tree, Eng.^ Melia Azedarach,jLx»ii., Mbliacbjs. 

Gum ; Djre ; Oil ; 
Bed, Hind.f Saliz tetrasperma, Roxb.^ SALiciNBiE. 

Tan ; 
Bed, Pb., Salix daphnoides, Vill.y Salicinbjb. 

Fibre ; 
Bed, Pb.f Saliz babylonica, Linn., Salicinbjb. 

Fibre ; 
Bed, Pers., Calamus Rotang, Linn,, Palmes. . 

Fibre ; 
Beefwood of Anstralia, Eng,, Casuarina equisetfoUa, Forster, Casuarina- 

CBS. Gum ; Tan ; 
Begpnra, Beng., Citrus medica, Linn,, var. medica, RuTACBiB. 

Gum ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Beluua, Hind., Terminalia belerica, Roxb,, Combrbtacejs. 

Grum ; Oil ; 
Befaeda, Makr,, Terminalia belerica, Roxb., CoMBRBTACBiC. 

Dye ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Behra, C. P,, Chlorozylon Swietenia, Adr. Jtiss., Mbliacbji. 

Gum ; 
Beis, Pb., Salix tetrasperma, Roxb,, SALiciNEiE. 

Tan ; 
Bejalu, Kan., Anogeissus latifolia, Wall., CoMBRBTACEiE. 

Gum ; Dye ; 
Bejaura, Hind., Citrus medica, Linn., Rutacbji. 

Gum ; Tan ; | 

Bekkra, Hind., Prinsepia utilis, Royle, RosACBiE. i 

Oil ; 
BekUng, Kanavar, Prinsepia utilis, Royle, RosACBiE. 

Oil ; 
Bel, Hind., Beng.y Bom., ^gle Marmelos, Corr., Rutace-B. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Bel, Hind., Beng., Jasminum officinale, Aiton., Olbace^e. 

Oil ; ! 

Belanri, Pb., Polygonum bistorta, Linn., PoLYGONACEiE. 

Oil ; 
Beleyleh, Pers., Terminalia belerica, Roxb., CoMBRETACEiE. | 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Bel fruit, Eng., ^gle Marmelos, Corr., Rutaceje. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; | 

Bellaip-polam, Tam.t Balsamodendron Myrrha, Nees., Burseracbs. 

Gum ; 
Belntta^hampa gam, Mai., Mesua ferrea, Linn., Guttifer^. 

Oil ; 
Bemada, And., Albezzia Lebbek, Benih.f LBGUMiNOSiE. 

Gum ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Ben, Burnt., Amomum Subulatum, Roxb., SciTAMiNBiE. 

Oil ; 
Ben-dhenras, Beng., Hibiscus iiculneus, Linn., Malvaceae. 

Fibre ; Oil ; 
Bendi, Gw0., Thespesia populnea, Corr., Malvace-B. 

Gum ; Dye ; Fibre ; Oil ; 
Beagha, Kan., Albizzia Lebbek, Benth., LBOuMiNOSiE. 

Gum ; Tan ; ^ 
Benne-oil, Fr,, Sesamum indicum, Linn., PEDALiNEiC. 

Oil ; 

the Economic Products of India. 17 

Bent, Hind.t Salix tetrasperma, Roxb.^ Salicinba. 

Tan ; 
Bentha, Sim, name^ Juniperus communis, Linn., Conifbilb. 

Gum ; 
Benzoin see Styrax Benzoni. 

Oil ; 
Benzoin, Gum, Styraz Benzoin, Ihyand,, Styracbjs. 

Gum ; 
Ber, Hind., Beng,, Zizyphus Jujuba, Lamk,, RHAMNSiB. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Ber, N, W. P., Zizyphus nummularia, W. & A., Rhamnbjs. 

Gum ; 
Berase of Soda, see Borax. 

Dye ; 
Berela, Beng., Sida cordifolia, Linn., MALVACBiE. 

Fibre ; 
Berfift, W, Tibet, Populus balsamifera, Linn., Salacinba. 

Gum ; 
Beri, Hind., Zizyphus zylopyra, Willd., Rhamnb/e. 

Tan ; 
Berkung, Lepcha, Eriobotrjra bengalensis, Hook,/., RosACEiB. 

Dye ; 
Bet, Beng. ? Peristrophe tinctoria, Nees., Acanthacba. 

Dye ; 
Bet, Beng., Hind., Calamus Rotang, Linn., Palma. 

Fibre ; 
Betain, Kumaun, Melia Azadirachta, Linn., Mbliacba. 

Gum ; 
Betamu, Tel., Calamus Rotang, Linn., Palma. 

Fibre ; 
Betain, Hind., Melia Azedarach Linn., Mbliacba. 

Gum ; Dye ; Oil ; 
Betar, Him, name, Juniperus communis, Linn,, CoNiFBitB. 

Gum ; 
Betel Palm, Eng,, Areca Catechu, Linn,, Palmjb. 

Gum ; 
Betsa, Pb., alix daphnoides, Will., Salicinba. 

Fibre ; 
Bettar, Pb,, Juniperus recurva. Ham., Coniferjb. 

Gum ; 
Bettir, N, W. P,, Juniperus recurva. Ham., Conifbrjs. 

Gum ; 
Betula, or Birch, Eng„ Betula alba, L., Cupulifbra. 

Oil ; 
Betwa, Cachar, Bambusa Balcooa, Roxb., Gramine^. 

Fibre ; 
Bevijin, Burm., Banhinia racemosa. Lam., Lbguminosa. 

Fibre ; 
Beymadi, And., Albizzia Lebbek, Benik., Lbguminosa. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Bh^bar, N, W, P., Eriophorum comosum. Wall,, CypBRACEiE. 

Fibre ; 
Bhagmili, Nepal., Rhus semialata, Murray., ANACARDiACBiE. 

Oil^ ; 
Bhai-koi, Bom., Sterculia colorata, Roxb., Sterculiacb;e. 

Fibre ; 
Bhains, N. W. P., Salix Wallichiana, And., SALiciNEiB. 

Fibre ; 
Bhaira, Hind., Terminalia belerica, Roxb., Combbbtacejb. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Bhakti-chettu, Tel., Helianthus annuus, Linn., CoMPOsiTiS. 

Oil ; 


1 8 Index to Volume I of the Catalogue of 

Bbatai, Nepal t Semecarpus Anacardhun,, ANACARDiACKiK. 

Gum ; Dye ; Oil ; 
Bhikio, Nepalt Rhus Wallichii, Hooh.,f.^ Anacardiacbjk. 

Oil ; 
Bhalcn, Hind.t HjmeDodictjon ezoelsam, WalL^ Rubiacbjb. 

Tan ; 
BbaUa, (as in Gamble) Beng.f Hind., Flemingia congesta, Raxb., Lbgu- 

MiNOSiB. Dye ; 
BhrnUa, Hind., Semecarpus Anacardium, Linn.,/., ANACAROiACBiL 

Gum ; Dye ; 
BImUhh, N. W, P., Rhus Wallichii, Hook.^f., Anacaroiaceji. 

Oil ; 
Bhallia, Uriya, Semecarpus Anacardium, Linn.^f., ANACARDiACSiK. 

Gum ; Dye ; Oil ; 
Bbaaliui, Hind., Hymenodictyon ezcelsum, Wall., RuBiACEis. 

Tan ; 
BhAn, Pb., Rhus Cotinus, Linn., Anacardiacbjb. 

Dye ; Tan ; 
Bhand, P6.» (root of) Geranium nepalense. Sweet., Geraniackjic. 

Dye ; 
Bhang, Hind., Beng., Bom., Tarn,, Cannabis sativa, Linn., URTiCACSiB. 

Fibre ; Oil ; 
Bhang-jaUti Pb., Datisca cannabina, Linn., DATiscsiB. 

Dye ; 
Bhangli, N, W. P., Saliz Wallichiana, And., Salicinbjb. 

Bhanjirii Perilla ocimoides, Linn., Labiat^b. 

Oil ; 
Wnkark, Hind., Wedelia calendulacea, LesM., Compositji. 

Dye ; 
Bhaim, Beng., Rhizophora mucronatar Lamk., Rhizophorbji. 

Tan ; 
Bharm bar, (root of) Morinda citrifoliai Linn., Rubiacbjb. 

Dye ; 
Bharbhindi Hind., Argemone mezicana, Linn., PAPAVBRACBiE. 

Oil ; 
Bhat, Hind., Glycine Soja, Lieb., Lbguminosji. 

BhitavamA, Bom., Crataeva religiosa, Forsi., Capp abided. 

Dye ; 
Bhat kateja, Pb., Argemone mezicana, Linn,^ Papavbracejs. 

Gum ; 
Bhatoiggi, Pb., Wikstromia virgata, Meisn., THYMBLiEACBiE. 

Fibre ; 
Bhatwan* Hind., Glycine Soja, Lieb., Lbouminosjb. 

Oil ; 
Bhaulan, Hind., Hymenodictyon ezcelsum, Wall., Rubiacejb. 

Tan ; 
Bhauri, Beng., Symplocos theaefolia. Ham., Styracbje. 

Dye ; 
Bhedfljm, N, W. P,, Juniperus recurva, Ham,, Conifers. 

Gum ; 
Bhekal, Hind., Prinsepia utilis, Boyle., RoSACBiE. 

Oil ; 
Bhela, Beng., Semecarpus Anacardium, Linn., Aitacardiaceji. 

Gum ; Dye ; Oil ; 
Bhelatuki, Beng., Semecarpus Anacardium, Linn., Anacardiacbji* 

Gum ; Dye ; Oil ; 
Bhenda, Hind., Hibiscus Abelmoschus, Linn,, Malvacba. 

Bheoda, Mahr., Hibiscus esculentus, Linn,, Malvacbjb, 

Fibre : 


the Economic Products of India. 19 

Bhendi, Tam,^ Hibiscus esculentus, Ltnn.j MALVACBis. 

Fibre ; 
Bhendi, Mahr.^ Thespesia populnea, Corr.y Malvacbje. 

Dye ; Fibre ; 
Bhendu, Hind., Helicteres Isoraj Linn.^ Sterculiacba. - 

Fibre ; 
Bhengal, ffind.t Grewia oppositifolia, Roxb,, TiLiACSiE. 

Fibre ; 
Bhenwa, Hind.t Grewia oppositifolia, Roxb.^ Tiliacb/e. 

Fibre ; 
Bherda, Mahr.^ Terminalia belerica, Roxb.^ Cohbrbtacba. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Bherl^ Mada, Makr,y Caryota urensi Linn,, Palum, 

Fibre ; 
Bherunda, Beng,^ Ricinus communisi Linn.f Euphorbiacba. 

Oil ; 
Bhes, Hind., Acacia latronum, Willd., LBGUMiNOSiB. 

Fibre ; 
Bhesh, Garo, Salix tetrasperma, Roxb., Salicinba. 

Tan ; 
Bheyla, Hind., Semecarpus Anacardium, Linn., Anacardiacbjb. 

Gum ; Dye ; Oil ; 
Bhi, Ass., Salix tetrasperma, Roxb., Salicinb/e. 

Tan ; Fibre ; 
Bhilavan, Z)^c./ Semecarpus Anacardium, Linn.,/., ANACARDiACBiB. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Bhilawa, Hind., Semecarpus Anacardium, Linn,, Anacardiacbjb. 

Gum ; Dye ; Oil ; 
Bhimal, Hind., Grewia oppositifolia, Roxb., TiLiACEiS. 

Fibre ; 
Bhimaseni kapura, Bom., Dryobalanops Camphora, Colebr., Diptbrocar- 

PEA. Oil ; 
Bhindi, Hind., Hibiscus cannabinus, Linn., Malvacba. 

Fibre ; 
Bhohar, Hind., Hymenodictyon excelsum, Wall., RueiACBiB. 

Tan ; 
Bhojpatra, Bom., Betula Bhojpattra, WalL, CuPULiFERiE, 

Fibre ; 
Bhokar, Hind., Cordia Myza, Linn., Boraginejb. 

Dye ; Fibre ; 
Bhokara, Mahr,, Cordia Myxa, Linn., Boraginba. 

Dye ; 
Bholia, Hind., Symplocos spicata, Roxb., Styracb^e. 

Dve ; 
Bhonder, Gond., Eriolaena Hookeriana, W. & A., STBRCULiACBiB. 

Bhonder, Gond., Eriolsena spectabilis. Planch., STBRCULiACBiB. 

Fibre ; 
Bhor, Afar., Zizyphus Jujuba, Lam., Rhamnba. 

Dye ; Tan ; 
Bhorgoti, Mahr., Zizyphus xylopyra, Willd., Rhamneje. 

Tan ; 
Bhotia badim, Him. name, Corylus Colurna, Ltnii., CuPULiFBRiS. 

Oil ; 
Bhoti, C.P., Kydia calycina, Roxb., Malvacejb. 

Fibre ; 
Bhuishenga, ^^m., Arachis hypogoea, Linn., LBGUMiNoSiE. 

Oil ; 
Bhujpattra, Hind., Betula Bhojpattra, Wall., Cupulifbrjb. 

Fibre ; 
Bhunja, Kumaun, Benincasa cerifera, Savi., CucuRBiTACSiB. 

Oil : 

20 Index to Volume I of the Catalogue of 

Bhiubhur, N. W, P,, Cnicos arvensis, Hoffm.. CoMPOSiTiK. 

Oil ; 
Bhrnkar, Hind,^ Hymenodictyon ezcelsum, WaU^ Rubiacbjb. 

Tan ; 

Bhnr-kilii, Bom,, Wrightia tinctoria, R, Br,, Apocynacbjs. 
Dye ; 

Bhutan Imfia, Tel., Croton oblongif olios, Roxh,, EuPHORBiACSiE. 

Oil ; 
BhntipiUiy Makr^ Elaeodendron glancam, Pets,, CsLASTRiNBiE. 

Gom ; 

Bhyratti, set Gossypimn herbaceum, L, var. herbaceam Malvaceae. 

Fibre ; 
Bibal4, Bom,, Pterocarpns Marsapinm, Roxh,^ LEOUMiNOSiK. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Bibba, Makr^ Semecarpns Anacardiam, Linn., /., Anacardiace^. 

Dye ; 

Bichtank, Beng,, Hind., Argyreia speciosa, Sweet., Convolvulacejs, 

Oil ; 
Bichua, Hind., Girardinia heterophylla, Decaisne, URTiCACEiB. 

Fibre ; 
Bidii. Pb,, Salbc daphnoides ViU., SALiciNBiB. 

Fibre ; 
Bihi, Hind., Cydonia vnlnuis, Toum., RosACEiK. 

Oil ; 

Bihii, C. P., Chlorozylon Swietenia, Adr. Juss.^ Meliacbie. 

Gom ; 
Bija, Hind., Pterocarpos Marsopiom, Roxh^ Leguminosjb. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Bijapora, Bom., Citrus medica, Linn., RuTACEiB. 

Gum ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Bijasal, Hind., Pterocarpus Marsupium, Roxb., LEGUMiNOSiS 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Bijasar, Hind., Pterocarpus Marsupium, Roxb., Leguminosji. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Bijaura, Hind., Citrus medica, Linn., var. medica, Rutace*. 

Gum ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Bijband, Hind., Sida cordifolia, Linn., MALVACEiB. 

Fibre ; 
Bijori, Bom., Citrus medica, Linn., Rutacbjk. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Bij-palak, Pb., Spinacia oleracea, Mill., CHENOPODiACEiC. 

Oil ; 
Bila, Hind., Crataeva religiosa, Forsi., Capparidfjb. 

Dye ; 

Biladur, Pers., Semecarpus Anacardium, Linn.,/., Anacardiacejk. 

Gum ; Dye ; 
Bilapatri, Kan., Mgle Marmelos, Corr., Rutaceje. 

Gum ; 
Bilasi, Hind., Crataeva religiosa, Forsi., CAPPARiDBiE. 

Dye ; 
BIfi jail, Kan., Acacia leucophloea, Willd., Leguminosje. 

Dye ; 
Bilin, Hind., Feronia Elephantum, Corr., RuTACEii. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Billi matti, Mysore, Terminalia Arjuna, Bedd., Combretacejk. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Billu, Tel., Chloroxylon Swietenia, DC., MsLiACEiB. 

Gum ; 
Bilsa, Oudk, Saliz tetrasperma, Roxb., SALiciNEiE. 

Tan ; 
Bilva pandu, Tel., Mg\e Marmelos, Corr., RuTACEiE. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 


the Economic Products of India. 21 

Bina, Beng,^ Avicennia officinalis, Linn.f Vbrbbnacba. 

Tan ; 
Bine, JCan.j Corypha umbraculifera, Linn.f IPalum, 

Fibre ; 
Bln-kaya, Tel.t Luffa acutangula, Roxb.^ Cucurbitacea. 

Oil ; 
Birama-dandu, Tam,, Argemone mezicanaj Linn,, Papaverace^. 

Oil ; 
Birch, Eng., Betula alba, £., Cupulifbrs. 

Oil ; 
Bireez, Pers., Ferula Galbaniflua, Boiss,, Umbbllifbrb. 

Gum ; 
Birmi, Kashmir, Tazus baccata, Linn,, Conifbrji. 

Gum ; Dye ; 
Bis, Pb.f Salix tetrasperma, ^0;i?3., Salicinba. 

Tan , 
Bisa, Pb., Salix babylonica, Linn., Salicinba. 

Fibre ; 
Bisfaigf, Pb., Adiantum Cappilus Veneris, Linn., Filicbs. 

Oil ; 
Bish, Beng,f Melocanna bambusoides, Trim,, Graminba. 

Fibre ; 
Bishop*s weed, True, Eng,, Carum copticum, Benth,, Umbbllifer^s. 

Oil ; 
Bisjangf, Ass., Canarium bengalense, Roxh,, Burseracea 

Gum ; 
Bislombf, Hind., Cucumis trigonus, Roxb., CucuRBiTACEiC. 

911 ; . 
Bithiia, Hind., Dalbergia lanceolaria, Linn., Leguhinos.£. 

Bxtsa, Pb,, Salix tetrasperma, Roxb,, Salicinb^b. 

Tan ; 
Biul, Hind,, Grewia oppositifolia, Roxb,, Tiliacba. 

Fibre ; 
Biuiig^, Hind., Grewia oppositifolia, Roxb,, Tiliacbje. 

Fibre ; 
Blackwood of S. India, Eng,, Dalbergia latifolia, Roxb., Leguminosje. 

Oil ; 
Boddama kaia, TeL, Cucumis trigonus , Roxb,, CucuRBiTACEiE. 

Oil ; 
Bodula, Hind,, Sterculia colorata, Roxb,, Sterculiacb.£. . 

Fibre ; 
Boga, see Gossypium herbaceum, L, var. Herbaceum, Malvacea. 

Fibre ; 
Boga poma, Ass., Chickrassia tabularis, Adr^ Juss., Meliacba. 

Gum ; Dye ; 
Bogi-vitulu, Tel., Psorelia corylifolia, Linn., Leguminosa. 

Oil ; 
Bohari, Beng., Cordia Myxa, Linn,, Boraginea. 

Dye ; Fibre ; 
Bohera, Beng., Terminalia belerica, Roxb,, Combretace^. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Bohl, Beng., Mahr,, Mimusops EUengi, Linn,, Sapotacba. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Boho-dari, Beng., Cordia Myxa, Linn., Boraginba. 

Dye ; Fibre ; 
Bqja, Uriya, Xylia dolabriformis, Benth,, Lbguminosjs. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Bojeh, Tel., Xylia dolabriformis, Benth., LEGUMiNOSiS. 

Oil ; 
Bokal, ICan., Mimusops Elengi, Linn, Sapotacejb. 

Gum ; Oil ; 

22 Index to Volume I of the Catalogue of 

Bokhaf, Mahttf Cordia Myza, Linn.j BoRAOiNSiB. 

Fibre ; 
Boklu, Kan,, Mimusops Elencn, Linnet SAPOTACBiB. 

Oil ; 
Boktok, Lepcha, Careya arborea, Roxbt, Myrtacbji. 

Gum ; 
Bol, Beng,, Balsamodendron Myrrha, N§es., Bursbracba. 

Gum ; 
Bola, Sans., Balsamodendron Myrrha, Nees., Bursbracba 

Gum ; 
Bola, Beng., Hibiscus tiliaceus, Linn,, MALVACBiE. 

Fibre ; 
Bolchn, Garo, Bombax malabaricum, DC, Malvacbjb. 

Gum ; Dye ; Fibre ; Oil \ 
Bole styah, Pets., Aloe vera, L., Liliacbjb. 

Dye ; Fibre ; 
Bolsal, Garo, Shorea robusta, Gaertn., Diptbrocarpba. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Bomma kachika, Tel., Costus speciosus, Sm., Scitaminb^b. 

Oil ; 
Boofluuza, Burm., Albizzia stipulata« Boivin., Leguminos^. 

Gum ; 
Bora, Mahr,, Zizyphus Jujuba, Lamk., RHAMNBiB. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Borailli, see Gossypium herbaceum, L., var. herbaceum, MALVACBiE. 

Fibre ; 
Boiara, UHya, Bauhinia variegata, Linn,, LEGUMiNOSiB. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Oil ; • 

Borla, Kumaun, Cordia Myxa, Linn., Boraginba. 

Dye ; Fibre ; 
Bosha, Gondi, Bauhinia racemosa, Lam., Leguminosa. 

Gum ; 
Boura, Beng., Macaranga indica, Wight, Euphorbiacb^. 

Gum ; 
Bouro, Uriya, Bombaz malabaricum. DC, Malvacba. 

Gum ; Dye ; Fibre ; Oil ; 
Bowla, Pb., Murraya Kcenigii, Spr., Rutacbje. 

Oil ; 
Bozaganj, Hind., Pistacia vera, Linn,, Anacardiacba. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Brahmadundie, Sans., Argemone mexicana, Linn., Papavbracba. 

Gum ; Oils ; 
Brama, Hind,, Crataeva religiosa. For si., CAPPARiDBiE. 

Dye ; 
Bread-fruit Tree, Eng,, Artocarpus incisa, Linn., URTicACBiS 

Gum ; 
Bren, Pb., Ulmus Wallichiana, Planch., Urticacbjb. 

Fibre ; 
Brindall, Goa Port, Garcinia indica, Chois,, GurriFBRiE. 

Mordant ; Oil ; 
Brind^O, Bom,, Garcinia indica, Chois,, Guttifbra. 

Mordant ; Oil ; 
Bring^araja, Sans., Wedelia calendulacea, Less., Composit/b. 

Dye ; 
Bu, Burm., Lagenaria vulgaris, Seringe, Cucurbitacejb. 

Oil ; 
Buchanaka, Sans,, Arachis hypogcea, Linn,, Lbouminosa. 

Oil ; 
Buckche, Hind,, Vernonia anthelmintica, Willd., Compos iTiE. 

Oil ; 
Buda dami, Tel,, Careya arborea, Roxb,, MvRTACBiB. 

Gum ; 

the Economic Products of India. 23 

Budgrat, Nepal^ Quercus lamellosa, 5m., Cupulifbra. 

Tan ; 
Budlde gfofflmadi, TeL^ Benincasa cerifera, SavLt Cucurbitace^s. 

Oil ; 
Buhul, Beng.y Cordya Myxa, Linn.y Bqraginba. 

Dye ; Fibre 

Bujjen>hangf, ffind.j Nicotiana Tabacum, Linn., SoLANACSis. 

Oil ; 
Buk, Lepchuy Quercus lamellosa, Stn.t Cupulifbrjs. 

Tan ; 
Buka, Beng.y Sesbania grandiflora, Pers,i Lbguminosa 

Gum ; 
Bvkal, Beng.y Mahr.y Mimusops Elengi, Linn.^ SAPOTACBiB. 

Oil ; 
Bukhaln, Melia sempervirens, 5*0., Mbliacba. 

Gum ; 
Bulali, Tam,t Givotia rottleriformis, Griff.^ Euphorbiacbje. 

Bullock's heart, Eng.^ Anona reticulata, Linn.y ANONACBiB. 

Dye ; Fibre : 
Bulu, Cingh,f Terminalia belerica, Roxb.j Combrbtacba. 

Grum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Bulyettra, Nep., Butea frondosa, Roxb.y LsaTTMiNOSiB. 

Gum ; Tan ; Fibre ; 
Bunkipas, Beng.^ Thespesia Lampas, Dalg,^ Malvacb^a. 

Fibre ; 
Bun-kapas, Beng.y Hibiscus tiliaceus, Linn^y Malvacb^. 

Fibre ; 
Bun-mulika, Hind.y Beng.y Jasminum Sambac, Aiion.y Olbacb.b. 

Oil ; 
Bun-ochra, Beng.y Urena lobata, Linn.y Malvacba. 

Fibre ; 
Bun-okra, Beng.y Xanthium strumarium, Linn.y Composite. 

Oil ; • 

Bonrhea, Ass.y Villebrunea appendiculata, Wedd.y Urticacbje. 

Fibre ; 
Bun tulsi, Beng.y Ocimum adescendens, Willd.y Labiat^b. 

Buraga, Tel.y Bombax malabaricum, DC.y Malvacba. 

Gum ; Dye ; Fibre ; Oil ; 
Bura-manda, Beng.y Loranthus longiflorus, Dex.y LoRANTHACBiB. 

Tan ; 
Buraye, Sind.y Periploca aphylla, Decaisne.y Asclbpiadba. 

Fibre ; 
Bardi, And.y Albizzia procera, Benth.y Lbguminosa. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Burg^ Tel.y Bombax malabaricum, DC.y Malvacba. 

Gum ; Dye ; Fibre ; Oil ; 
Burg morad, Pb.y Myrtus communis, Linn.y Myrtacba. 

Oil ; 
Burgii, Tel.y Bombax malabaricum, DC.y Malvacba. 

Gum ; Dye ; Fibre ; Oil ; 
Burgfua, Tel.y Eriodendron anfractuosum, DC.y MALVACBiS. 

Oil ; 
Buri, Beng.y Symplocos spicata, Roxb.y Styracba. 

Dye ; 
Baij, Pb.y Betula Bhojpattra, WcdUy Cupulifbra. 

Fibre ; 
Burkat, Tel.y Luffa acutangula, Roxb.y Cucurbitacea. 

Oil ; 
Buroweh, see Gossypium herbaceum, L,y var. herbaceum, Malva- 
CBiB. Fibre : 

24 Index to Volume I of the Catalogue of 

BoniSy Tam,^ Chlorozylon Swietenia, /XT., Meliacbjk. 

Gum ; 
Borate, Cingh., Chloroxjlon Swietenia, DC., Mbliaceji; 

Gum ; 
Boml, Pb., Betola Bbojpattra, Wall., Cupulifbrjc 

Fibre ; 
B6t, Beng.f Cicer arietinum, Linn., Lbguminosjb. 

Bntaltt, Taml, Givotia rottlertformb, Griff., EuPHORBiAcsiK. 

Oil ; 

Oil ; 
Butter Tree, Indiaii, Eng.^ Bassia butyraoea, Roxb., SAPOTACKiS. 

Oil ; 
Bw^chin, Burm., Baubinia variegata, Linn., Leguminosje. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Oil ; 
BwMiin, Burm., Baubinia malabarica, RoxL, LEGUMiNOSiE. 

Gum ; 
Bwir, Pb., Saliz Wallicbiana, And., Salicinec 

Fibre ; 
Bjasa, Uriya, Pterocarpus Marsupium, Roxb., LEGUMiNOSiF. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Byoo, Burm., Rbizopbora mucronatai Lamk., RHizoPHOREiK. 

Dye ; 
Byubo, BurM.t Bmgttiera gymnorbiza, Lam., Rhizophoreje. 

Tan s 

CutttatSUlBy Tarn., Vemonia antbelmintica, Willd., Comfositm. 

Oil ; 
Cachore, Fr., Acaci^ Catechu, Willd., Lbguminosjs. 

Gum ; Dye ; 
Cajfmt oil tree, Bng., M alaleuca Leucadendron, Linn., Myrtac&s. 

Oil ; 
CaUubiis, SwttttEng., Andropogon scboenanthus, Linn., GRAMiNEiE. 

Oil ; 
Omdle Nnt, Eng., Aleurites moluccana, Willd, EuPHORBiACBiE. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Ome, Rattan, Eng., Calamus Rotang, Linn., Palmjb. 

Fibre ; 
Ouie-Sugar, Eng., Saccharum officinarum, Linn., Graminba. 

Fibre ; 
Cang«9 Tarn., Sborea Tumbuggaia, Roxb,, DiPTBROCARPBiS. 

Gum ; 
CaoatchonCy Eng, 

Gum ; 
Caraway teed, Eng., Carum Carui, Linn, Umbbllipbrjc. 

Oil ; 
Cardamom, the Lester, Eng., Elettaria Cardamomum, MaUn., Scita- 

MINEiE. Oil ; 

Cardol (Oil) Eng.y Anacardium occidentale, Linn., ANACARDiACEiS. 

Dye ; Oil ; 
Carin-airagiim, Tam., Nigella sativa, Linn., RANUNCULACBiE. 

Oil ; 
Carob Tree» Eng., Ceratonia siliqua, Linn,, LBGUMiNOSiE. 

Gum ; 
Carrot, Eng., Daucus Carota, Linn, Umbbllifbrjb. 

Oil ; 
Carthame, Ft., Carthamus tinctorius^ Linn., Compositje. 

Dye ; 

the Economic Products of India. 25 

Cashew-apple-oil, see Anacardium occidentale, Linn,^ Anacardiacbs. 

Oil ; 
Cashew Nut, £11^., Anacardiam occidentale, £mn., Anacardiacks. 

Gum ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Cassia, Foetid, Eng.t Cassia Tora, Linn^ Lbguminosa. 

Dye ; 
Cassia, Lignea, Eng.t Cinnamomum Tamala, Nees.^ LAURiNSiS. 

Dye ; 
Cassie, Eng., Acacia Farnesiana, Willd,, Leguminosjb. 

Gum ; 
Castor oil, Eng,^ Ricinus communis, £in»., Euphorbiacba. 

Mordant ; Oil ; 
Catechu, gum, Eng,, Acacia Catechu, WiUd,, Lbguminosa 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Catechu, Pale, Eng.^ Uncaria Gambier, Hunter t Rubiacba. 

Tan ; 
Catappa, Malay^ Terminalia Catappa, Linn,^ Combrbtacbs. 

Dye ; Oil ; 
Cattimandu, Euphorbia Cattimandoo, Elliot, EuPHORBiACBiS. 

Gum ; 
Cedar, Bastard, Eng,, Melia Azedarach, Linn., Mbliacba. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Cedar, Bastard, Eng,, Guazuma tomentosa, Kunth., STBRCULiACBiS. 

Fibre ; 
Cedar, Himalayan, Eng.^ Cedrus Deodara, Loudon, CoNiPERiE. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Cedratier, Fr., Citrus medica, Linn,, Vat, medica, RuTACBiB. 

Gum ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Cedro, It.,, Citrus medica, Linn., Var, medica, Rutacba. 

Gum ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Cha, Hind., Beng., Camellia theifera. Griff., Tbrnstrcbmiacb^. 

Oil ; 
Chab, Hind., Piper Chaba, Bl., Pipbracea. 

Dye ; 
Chachmda-jangli, Hind., Trichosanthes cucumerina, Linn, 

Gum ; 
Chaffalsend, Dec, Opuntia Dillenii, How., Cactbje. 

Fibre ; 
Chaga, Tel., Sanseviera zeylanica, Willd., Liliacbje. 

Fibre ; 
Chagfulbanti, Beng,, Doemia extensa, R. Br., AscLBPiADEiS. 

Fibre ; 
Chaaara, Kumaun, Bassia butyracea, Roxb., Sapotacb^b. 

Oil ; 
Chaie choi, Beng., Piper Chaba, Bl., Pipbracbje. 

Dye ; 
Chaikath, Beng,, Piper Chaba, Bl., Pipbracba. 

Dye ; 
Chainchar, Jhelum, Debrecfeasia bicolar, Wedd., URTiCACBiB. 

Fibre ; 
Chainjli, Jhelum, Debregeasia bicolar, Wedd., URTiCACBis. 

Fibre ; 
Chakotra, Hind., Citrus decumana, Willd., RuTACBiB. 

Gum ; 
Chakra-bhenda, Dec, Abutilon asiaticum, G. Don., Malvacbjb. 

Fibre ; 
Chakua, ^^ n^., Albizzia stipulata, ^&«vm., Lbguminos;e. 

Gum ; 
Chakunda, Hind., Beng., Cassia Tora, Linn., LBGUMiNOSiE. 
Dye ; 

Chakwa, Beng., Anogeissus acuminata, Wall., CoMBRETACBiE. 
Tan : 

26 Index to Volume I of the Catalogue of 

Chalai» Him, namtf Junipenis ezcelsai M, Bieb., Conifbrje. 

Gum ; 
ChalrahaKim, Pb.^ Pannelia kamtschadalisi Esch.t Lichbnbs. 

Dye ; 
Chal-knnum, Pb.^ Benincasa ceriferai 5av»., Cucurbitacbjb. 

Oil ; 
Challa, Kan,^ Lagerstrcemia Flob-Reginae, ReiM.j Lythracba. 

Gum ; 
Chalpiiri, P6., Parmelia kamtschadalisi Esch*, Lichbnbs, 

Dye ; 
Chanmindn-pn, Tam,^ Matricaria Chamomila, Linn.f Composite. 

Oil ; 
Chanaxkas, Pb., Phyllanthus nepalensis, Mull-Arg,^ Euphorbiacba 

Tan ; 
Chamba, Hind., Kashmir., Jasminum officinale, Linn., Olbacba. 

Oil ; 
ChamtMi, Pb,, Jasminum humile, Linn., Olbacba. 

Dye ; 
Chambel, Hind., Beng., Sans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Linn., Olbacba. 

Oil ; 
Chambeli, Bom., Kumaun, Jasminum grandiflorum, Linn., Olbace.s. 

Oil ; 
CliaiBbu, Garo, Eugenia Jambolana, Lam., Myrtacea. 

Gum ; Dye, ; Tan ; 
Chambuli, Dec.,Mahr., Bauhinia Vahlii, W, & A., Leguminos.s. 

Gum ; Fibre ; 
Chambiira, Mahr., Bauhinia Vahlii, W. & A.^ LsGUMiNOSiE. 

Gum ; Fibre ; 
Chamiariy Pb., Prunus Puddum, Roxb., RosACBiE. 

Gum ; 
Chamlani, Nepal. ^ Symplocos racemosa, Roxb., Styracba. 

Dye ; Tan ; Mordant ; 
Chamfia, Kumaun., Wikstromia virgata, Meisn., ThymblJSACb.s. 

Fibre ; 
Chamo, Lepcha^ Styrax semilatum, Roxb., Styracbjl 

Gum ; 
Chamoaile, Eng., Matricaria Chamomila, Linn^, Composite. 

Oil ; 
Champa, Hind., Beng,, Michelia Champaca, Linn,, MAONOLiACBiS. 

Dye ; Oil ; 
Champlik, Beng., Michelia Champaca, Linn,, Magnoliacea. 

Dye ; 
Champaka, Beng., Michelia Champaca, Linn., Magnoliacea. 

Oil ; 
Chamni, Hind., Desmodium tiliaefolium, G, Don., Lbgumino&a. 

Fibre ; 
Chani, Hind., Cicer arietinum, Linn., Lbguminosa« 

Dye ; 
Chanangi, Hyderabad, Murraya Koenigii, Spr., RuTACEiB. 

Oil ; 
Chanda, Mahr., Macaranga indica, Wight, Euphorbiace^, 

Gum ; 
Chanda, Bom,, Macaranga tomentosa, Wight, Euphorbiace^. 

Gum ; 
ChindakudiL, Bom,, Antiaris tozicaria, Leech,, Urticacba. 

Gum ; 
Chandal, Hind., Santalum album, Linn., Santalacea, 

Chiuidalay Bom., Antiaris tozicaria. Leech., Urticacbjk. 

Gum ; 
Chandan, Hind,, Beng,, Santalum album, Linn,, SANTALACEis. 

Oil : 

the Economic Products of India, 27 

Chandan, Hind,^ Beng,^ Symplocos phyllocalyx, Clarke^ Styrace^. 

Dve ; 
Chaadni, Hind,^ Tabernaemontana coronaria, Willd,, ApocYNACB.a. 

Dye ; 
Changathasi dhup, Nepal,, Abies dumosa, Loudon., Conifers. 

Gum ; 
Changma, W, Tibet, Fopulus balsamifera, Linn,, Salicinbjk. 

Gum ; 
Chang^ma, W. Tibet, Salix daphnoides, Vill., SALiciNBiE. 

Fibre ; 
Chaniit, N, W.P,, Rhus Cotinus, Linn,, Anacardiacb^. 

Dye ; Tan ; 
Chapkia, Kumaun, Orthanthera viminea, Wight, Asclepiadbs. 

Fibre ; 
Chaplash, Beng,, Artocarpus Chaplasha* Poxb., Urticace.s« 

Gum ; 
Ch&pu, Pb,, Alnus nitida, Endl,, Cupulifeba. 

Dye ; Tan ; 
Char, C. P,, Buchanania latifolia, Roxb,, Anacaroiace^. 

Gum ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Chara, Tel., Buchanania latifolia, Roxb,, ANACARDiACEiE. 

Gam ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Charachi, Tel,, Grewia tiliaefolia, Vahl,, Tiliace^. 

Fibre ; 
Charas, Hind., Beng., Bom,, Tarn,, Cannabis sativa, Linn., Urticacejb. 

Fibre ; 
Charchubila, Pb., Parmelia kamtschadalis, Esch., Lichenes. 

Dye ; 
Charila, Pb,, Parmelia kamtschadalis, Esch., Lichenes. 

Dye ; 
Charka, Bias., Litssea, Sp, P, Laurinea. 

Oil ; 
Charkha, Pb., Litsaea zeylanica, Nees., Laurinea. 

Oil ; 
Channaghy, Pers., Juglans regia, Linn., JuGLANDEiS. 

Dye ; Tan ; 
Charoie, Bom., Buchanania latifolia, Roxb,, ANACARDiACEiB. 

Gum ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Charrei, Afg,, Quercus Ilex, Linn., CupuLiFBRiS. 

Tan ; 
Cham, Uriya, Buchanania latifolia, Roxb., ANACARDiACBiB. 

Gum ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Charwaii, Hyderabad, Buchanania latifolia, Roxb., ANACARDiACEiS. 

Gum' ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Chashing, Bhutia, Symplocos thesefolia, Ham^, STYRACBiB. 

Dye ; 
Chatri, Nepal, Berberis nepalensis, Spreng,, BBRBBRiDEiS« 

Dye ; 
Chatung, Kashmir, Taxus baccata, Linn., CoNiFBRiS. 

Gum ; Dye ; 
Chauri, Sind, Ceriops Candolleana, Arnott, Rhizophorejb. 

Tan ; 
Chaulmicgii, Beng., Gynocardia odorata, R, Br,, BixiNEiB. 

Oil ; 
Chaulmugra oil, Eng,, Gynocardia odorata, R, Br„ Bixinejs. 

Oil ; 
Chavika, Sans,, Piper Chaba, Bl., PiPBRACBiB. 

Dye ; 
Chaya, Burm., Mimusops Elengi, Linn,, SAPOTACSiB. 

Tan ; 
Chay root, (Commercial name) Oldenlandia umbellata, Linn., Rubiace^b. 

Dye ; 

28 Index to Volume I of the Catalogue of 

Che, Semecarpus Anacardium, Linn., /., ANACARDiACBiS, 

Gum ; Dye ; Oil ; 
Chechar, P&.| Rhus semialata, Murray, ANACASDiACBiB. 

Oil ; 
Chehnfy Btng., Bauhinia Vahlii, W,& A,, Lbguminosai. 

Gum ; 
Chdiiy Sutiej, Melia Azedarachi Linn,, Mbliacbje. 

Gum ; Dye ; Oil ; 
Chelwm, Beng,, Hibiscus tiliaceus, Linn., Malvacrx. 

Fibre ; 
Chendim, Tel., Mallotns philippinensis, MHU-Arg^ Euphorbiacea. 

Oil ; 
Chengmng, Garo, Morinda an^rastifolia, Raxb,, Rubiacba. 

Dye ; 
Chemia, Hind., Cioer arietinum, Linn., Lbguminosjs. 

Dve ; 
ChenttuWliinlj Mysore, Macaranga tomentosa, Wighi, Euphorbiace^c 

Gum ; 
Chennngi Garo, Morinda angnstifolia, Roxb., RuBiACBiE. 

Dye ; 
Chepptum, Kan., Bauhinia malabarica, Roxb., Lbgumino&s. 

Gum ; 
Cheri-vellOi Tel., Oldenlandia nmbellata, Linn., RuBiACBiB. 

Dye ; 
Cherry, Eng., Prunus Cerasus, Linn., Rosacbjb. 

Griim ; 
Cheru pinnayi Tarn., Calophyllum Wightianum, Wall., Guttipbr^. 

OU ; 
Chestnvti Eng., Castanopsis (various species), Cupulifbra. 

Tan ; 
Che^»pa, Tel., Hymenodictyon excelsum., Wall.^ Rubiacb^e* 

Tan ; 
Chettn, TeL, Abutilon asiaticum, G. Don., MALVACSiB. 

Fibre ; 
CheuU, Oudh., Bassia butyracea, Roxb., Sapotacbjb. 

Oil ; 
Chhag^pupati, Beng., Euphorbia dracnnculoides, Lam., EuPHORSiACBiE. 

Oil ; 
Chhota aryUi, Nepal, Daphne Wallichii, Meisn,, Thyme iJEACBiE« 

Fibre ; 
Chhota IC6ail| Nepal, Pouzolia viminia, Wedd., Urticacba. 

Fibre j 
Chiara, Kumaun, Bassia butyracese, Roxb., Sapotacbjb. 

Chibuda, Bom., Cucumus Melo, L., Cucurbitacbje. 

Oil ; 
Chichia, Him. name, Juniperus communis, Linn., Conifbrjb. 

Gum ; 
Chichra, Hitid.^ Butea frondosa, Roxb,, Lbguminosjb* 

Gum ; Tan ; Fibre ; 
Chicken pea, Eng.^ Cicer arietinumi Linn., Lbgumino&s. 

Dye ; 
Chikaya, Tel., Acacia concinna, DC., Lbguiiinosje. 

Dye ; Tan ; 
Chikrasa, Bom., Chikrassia tabularis, Adr, Juss,, MBLiACBiK. 

Gum ; Dye ; 
Chikrassi, Beng., Chikrassia tabularis, Adr. Juss., Mbliacbjb. 

Gum ; D^e ; 
Chikti, Hind., Triumfetta angulata, Linn., Tiliacejb. 

Chil, Pb,, Pinus longifolia, Roxb., Conifers. 

Gum ; Tan ; 


the Economic Products of India. 29 

Chil, Ph,^ Pinus excelsa, Wall,^ Conifers. 

Gum ; 
Chil, P6., Pinus longifolia, Roxb,^ Conifers. 

Oil ; 
Chilbil, Hind,j Ulmus integrifolia, Roxb,^ Urticace^. 

Oil ; 
Chilgfoza, Afg,j Pinus Gerardiana, WalL^ Conifers. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Chilkaduda, TV/., Saccopetalum tomentosum, Hooh^f.^ ANONACEiB. 

Gum ; 
Chilotu, Ravii Litssea, 5]^?> Laurinea. 

Oil ; 
Chilotu, P6.) Litsaea zeylanica, Nees,^ Laurinea. 

Oil ; 
Chilta-eita, TeL, Phoenix farinefera, Willd,^ Ykua&. 

^ Fibre ; * 
Chimdi, P6., Litsaea zeylanica, Neesy Laurinea. 

Oil ; 
Chimuti, TV/., Sida carpinifolia, Linn.f Malvacea. 

Fibre ; 
Chinang;!, Tel.f Lagerstroemia parviflora, Roxb,^ LYTHRACBiS. 

Gum ; Dye ; 
Chinannu, Pb,y Pninus persica, Benth, et Hook,/., Rosace/b. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Chlncha, Mahr.y Tamarindus indica, Linn,, LEGUMiNOSiS. 

Gum ; Dye ; Oil ; 
Chinderpangf, Garo, Mallotus philippinensisi Mull-Arg,, EuPMORBiACEiE. 

Oil ; 
Chindi, Ravi, Litsaea, Sp,?, Laurines. 

^ Oil ; 
Chiner-bddam, Beng., Arachis hypogcea, Linn,, LEGUMiNOSiS. 

Oil ; 
Chinna moral, TV/., Buchanania latifolia, Roxb., Anacardiace^. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Chinta, Tel,j Tamarindus indica, Linn,, Leguminos^. 

^ Gum ; Dye ; Mordant ; Oil ; 
Ghinyop, Burnt., Gruga pinnata, Roxb,^ BuBSERACEiS. 

^ Gum ; Tan ; 
Chir, Pb.y Pinus longifolia, Roxb,, Coniferje. 

^ Gum ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Chir, Pb., Pinus excelsa, Wall,, Conifers. 

Gum ; y 

Chira, Pb,, Pinus longifolia, Roxb,, Conifers. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Chirauli, Pb,, Buchanania latifolia, Roxb,, Anacardiaces. 

Gum ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Chir-chira, Hind., Litsaea zeylanica, Nees., Laurines. 

Oil ; 
Chirchira, Hind., Achyranthes aspera, Linn., Amarantaces. 

Dye ; 
Chir-chira, Kumaun, Litsaea consimiles, Nees., Laurines. 

Oil ; 
Chirchitta, Hind,, Achyranthes aspera, Linn., Amarantaces. 

Chiri, Him, name, Pinus Gerardiana, Wall,, Conifers. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Cirichog;, Kashmir, Jasminum officinale, Linn., Oleaces. 

Oil ; 
Chirira, Kumaun, Litsaea consimiles, Nees,, Laurinbs. 

Oil ; 
Chimdi, Chenab,, Litsaea, 5^.?, Laurines. 

Oil : 

30 Index to Volume I of the Catalogue of 

Chiroop, Ph^ C, P., Buchananialatifolia, Roxh^ Anacardiacejb. 

Gum ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Chiror, P6., Berbexis nepalensis, Spreng^., Bbrbbridbjb. 

Dye ; 
ChirorcB, Garo, Terminalia belerica, Roxb., Combsbtacbjk* 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Chtte-aiicallo, TeL, Wrightia tinctoria, R. Br,, Apocynacbjk. 

Dye ; 
Oiititmiti, Tel,, Stda carpinifolia, Linn,, Malvacbje. 

Fibre ; 
Chitompa, GarOf Garuga pinnata, Roxb,, BuRSBRACEiE. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Chitim, Hind., Pers., Pb., Nepal, Berberis aristata, DC,, Bbrbbridbjb. 

Dye ; Tan : Oil ; 
Cliittay Kan., Gardenia gomnifera, Linn., Rubiacejc 

Gum ; 
ChittaSTonff wood, Eng., Chickrassia tabularis, Adr, yuss., Mbliac&s. 

Gum ; 
Cldtta outta, Tel., Gardenia gummiferai Linn., Rubiacba 

Gum ; 
CUttaala, Hind., Zizyphus xylopyra, Willd., Rhamn&o. 

Tan ; 
Cbitta, Kan,, Boswellia serrata, Colebr,, Bursbrac&x. 

Gum ; 
Chobchiniy Hind., Smilax china, Linn., LiLiACBiB. 

Oil ; 
Choka, Dec, Piper nigmmy Linn., Pipbracbjb. 

OU ; 
ChoUi, Beng., Cicer arietinum, Linn., Lbgumino&x. 

Dye ; 
Chorg^, Hyderabad^ Ventilago madraspatana, Gaertn., RHAiiNBiB. 

Gum ; Dye : Fibre ; 
Chorpatta, Beng,, Laportea crenulata, Gandick., Urticacbji. 

Fibre ; 
Chota, Nepal, Cinnamomum Tamala, Nees,, LAUBiNEiB. 

Dye ; 
Chota-eUchi, Beng., Hind., Elettaria Cardamomum, Maton., SciTAMiNBiB. 

Oil ; 
Chota kuabu, Nepal, Moms indica, Linn., Urticacbje. 

Gum ; 
Chota knail, Nepal, Ponzolzia viminea, Wedd., Urticacbji. 

Fibre ; 
Chotra. Hind., Berberis aristata, DC, Bbrbbridbje. 

Oil ; 
Chotra, Hind., Berberis Lycium, Royle, BBRBBRiDEiB. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Chouk, Tarn., Casuarina equisetifolia, Forster, Casuarinacba. 

Gum Tan ; 

Chrinuui, Tel., Anogeissus latifolia. Wall., CoMBRBTACBiB. 

Gum ; Dye ; 
Chuari, Hind., Prunus armeniaca, Linn,, Rosacba. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Chnkri. Pb., Afg., Rheum Emodi, Wall., Polygonacbje. 

Dve ; 
Chulai, Pb., Amarantus, Sp. ?« Amarantac&x. 

Oil ; 
Chur, Pb., Quercus Ilex, Linn., Cupulifbrs. 

Tan ; 
ChM, Nepal, Bassia butyracea, Roxb., Sapotacbje. 

Oil ; 
Chuti, Pb,, Afg., Rheum Emodi, Wall., Polygonacba 

Dye ; 

the Economic Products of India. 31 

Chuve, Sans.i Piper Chaba, Bl., Piperace^. 

Dye J 
Chyad-potia, TeL^ Trichosanthes cucumerina, Linn,^ Cucurbitace-«. 

Gum ; 
Qnnamon, Eng., Cinnamomum Tamala, Nees.^ Laurinba. 

Dye ; Oil ; 
Cita, Tel., Phoenix sylvestris, Roxb., Palm^. 

Fibre ; 
Citron, Eng., Citrus medica, Linn., var, medica, Rutacea. 

Gum ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Citrone, Germ., Citrus medica, Linn., var, Limonum, Rutace^. 

Gum ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Citronella, Eng., Andropogon Nardus, Linn., GRAMiNEiB. 

Oil ; 
Citronnier, Fr., Citrus medica, Linn., var. Limonum, Rutace^b. 

Gum ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Climber, snake, Eng., Bauhinia anguina, Roxb., Leguminosa. 

Fibre ; 
Cloves, Eng., Caryophyllus aromaticus, Linn., Myrtacea. 

Oil ; 
Cochineal dye* Eng., Coccus Cacti. 

Dye ; 
Cocoa plant, Eng., Theobroma Cacao, Linn., Sterculiacea. 

Oil ; 
Cocoanut tree, Eng., Cocos nucifera, Linn., Palmjb. 

Fibre 5 Oil ; 
Cocum, Eng., Garcinia indica, Chois, Guttifera. 

Oil ; 
Colza, Eng., Brassica campestris, Linn., Crucifer^. 

Oil ; 
Conda-pani, Tarn., Corypha umbraculifera, Linn., Palum, 

Fibre ; 
Conda-panna, Tam., Caryota urens, Linn., PaLm^. 

Fibre ; 
Congf, Cingh., Schleichera trijuga, Willd., Sapindacb^. 

Congfhas, Cingh., Schleichera trijuga, Willd., SAFiNDACEiB. 

Oil ; 
Congfo, Tam., Shorea Tumbuggaia, Roxb., Dipterocarpea. 

Gum ; 
Connesi bark, Eng,, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Wall,, Apocyhejb. 

Oil ; 
Copal, Indian, Eng., Vateria indica, Linn., DiPTEROCARPEiS. 

Gum ; 
Coral plant, Eng., Jatropha nulifida, Linn,, EuPHORBiACEiB. 

Oil ; 
Coral tree, Indian, Eng., Erythrina indica. Lam., LEGUMiNOSiS. 

Gum ; Dye ; Fibre ; 
Coriander, Eng., Coriandrum sativum, Linn., IJubelliferje, 

Oil ; 
Cotton, Eng, See Gossypium arboreum, Linn., Malvace^. 

Fibre Oil ; 

Cotton, Dacca, Tanjore, Eng. See Gossypium herbaceum, £., MALVACSiB. 

Fibre ;^ 
Cotton, Sheraj, Eng, See Gossypium herbaceum, L,, var, herbaceum, 

MALVACBiG. Fibre ; 
Cotton tree, Eng,, Bombax malabaricum, DC, Malvacea. 

Oil ; 
Cotton tree, white, Eng,, Eriodendron anfractuosum, DC, MALVACBiS. 

Oil ; 
Cowa, Hind,, Garcinia Cowa, Roxb., Guttifbr/e. 

Gum ; Dye ; 

32 Index to Volume I of the Catalogue of 

Coya, 7>/., Psidium Guava, Raddi^ Myrtacbjb. 

Dye ; Tan ; 
Cress, garden, Efig.t Lepidiam sativum, £tnif., Crucifbrjs. 

Oil ; 
Crocodile OU. 

Oil ; 
Croton, Pnrgiiig; Eng*^ Croton Tiglium* Linn*^ EuPHORBiACSiB, 

Oil ; 
Cnbeb, Peiq;ier, Eng,t Piper Cubeba, Linn,^/., Pipbracb^. 

Oil ; 
Cubebs, Eng.t Fr^ Piper Cubeba, Linn., Pipbracbjb. 

Gum ; 
Cncumber, Eng.t Cucumis sativus, Ltnif., CucuRSiTACEiB. 

Oil ; 
Cnrri, Nepali Corylus Colurna, Linn,^ CuPULiFBRiB* 

Oil ; 
Cnsnnt, ffind,, Flemingia coogesta, Roxb; var nana, LBGUMiNOSiS. 

Dye ; 
Cntch, Eng,, Acacia Catechu, WiUd,^ LBGUMiNOSiE. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Cypress, HlmaUyaii, Eng,^ Cypressus torulosa, Don,^ CoNiPERiB. 

Gum ; 

Dabdabbi, Nepali Garuga pinnata, Roxb,, Burseracea. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
D4brid, (rftf., Anogeissus latifolia, Wall.^ Combretacb^. 

Gum ; Dye ; 
Dabor, Beng.^ Cerbera Odollam, Gaertn., Apocynacbs. 

Fibre ; Oil ; 
Dadar, Kumaun, Hagara^ Kashmir, GarhweU, Cedrus Deodara, Loudon 

Conifers. Gum ; Oil ; 
Dag^dakti, Mechi, Macaranga indica, Wight, Euphorbiacejs. 

Gum ; 
Dahan, Raj., Toddalia aculeata, Pers., Rutacba. 

Dye ; 
Dahiri, Nepal, Woodfordia floribunda, Salish,, Lythracb JS. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Dabu, Hind., Artocarpus Lakoocha, Roxb., Urticacba. 

Gum ; Dye ; Fibre ; 
Dain, Hind., Brassica campestris, Linn., var. napus, Crucifers. 

Oil ; 
Daira, Hind., Wrightia tomentosa, Roem & ScheulL, Apocynacba. 

Dye ; 
Diykar, C.P., Celastnis senegalensis. Lam., Celastrinba. 

Oil ; 
Dakhani babul, Hind., Fithecolobium dulce, Benih., Leguminosa. 

Oil ; 
Dakhmila, N.-W. P., Rhus semialata, Murray, Anacardiacea. 

Oil ; 
Dalahurdi, Paharia, Morinda persicaefolia. Ham., Rubiacea. 

D^e ; 
Dalchim, Beng., Cinnamomum Tamala» Nees., Laurina. 

Dye ; Oil ; 
Daliniy Kumaun, Punica Granatum, Linn*, Lythrace^s. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Dalimba, Bom., Mahr., Punica Granatum, Linn., Lythracba. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Dalkaramcha, Beng,, Pongamia glabra, Vent., Leguminosje. 

Gum ; Oil ; 

the Economic Products of India, 33 

Dalmaia, Kan,^ Chickrassia tabularis, Adr, Juss.^ MELiACEiE. 

Gum ; 
Daluk, Cingh,y Euphorbia antiquorum, Linn.y EuPHORBiACEiS. 

Gum ; 
Damana, Bom,, Grewia tiliaefolia, Vahl., TiLiACEiE. 

Fibre ; 
Dambil, Garo^ Careya arborea, Roxh., Myrtacejs. 

Gum ; 
Damirugariairattam, 7am., Pterocarpus Marsupium, Roxb., LsGuiiiNoSiE. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Dammar, Eng.^ Shorea Tumbuggaia, ^a^?^., DiPTBROCARPEiS. 

Gum ; 

D ammar , Eng.^ Dammara alba, Rumph., Conifer^g. 

Gum ; 
D ammar , Black, Eng.^ Canarium strictum, Roxb.f BuRSBRACBiB. 

Gum ; 
Dammar, Rock, Eng,t Hopea odorata, Roxb., DiPTEROCARPBiE. 

Gum ; 
Dammar, White, Etig.j Vateria indica, Linn.y DiPTEROCARPEiS. 

Gum ; 
Dampel, Hind., Garcinia xaothochymus, Hook.., /., Guttifer;e. 

Gum ; 
Dam-ul-akhwain, Hind,^ Calamus Draco, Willd., PALMiE. 

Gum ; 

Dan, Burnt., Lawsonia alba. Lam., LvTHRACEiE. 

Oil ; 
Dandons, Mahr., Dalbergia lanceolaria, Linn., Leguminos^e. 

Dye ; Oil ; 
Dandua, Mark., Anogeissus latifolia, Wall., CoMBRETACBiS. 

Gum ; Dye 5 
Dan-gywe, Burm., Cassia Tora, Linn., Lbguminosa. 

Dye ; 
Danimma-chettu, Tel., Punica Granatum, Linn., LvTHRACBiB. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Dan-tha-lone, Burm., Moringa pterygosperma, Gaerin., MoRiNGACEiB. 

Gum ; Tan ; Fibre ; Oil ; 
Danti, Mahr,, Baliospermum montanum, MulUArg., EuPHORBiACEiE. 

Oil ; 
Danti, Tel., Celastrus senegalensis, Lam., CELASTRiNEiS. 

Oil ; 
Darahalada, (the stem of) Berberis aristala, DC, Berber id BiE. 

Dye ; 
Danyalu, Tel., Coriandrum sativum, Linn., Umbellifera. 

Oil ; 
Darakhte-kinnab, Pers., Cannabis sativa, Linn., URTicACBiB. 

Fibre ; Oil ; 
Darakhte-nar, Pers,, Punica Granatum, Linn,, LvTHRACBiB. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Darchioi, Bom., Cinnamomum Tamala, Nees.f Laurain^. 

Dye ; 
Dargu, Tel., Ougenia dalbergioides, Bentk., Leguminosjb. 

Gum ; 
Darhalad, (the wood) Bom., Berberis Lycium, Royle, BERBERiDEiS. 

Gum ; 
Darhaldi, Hind., Berberis aristata, DC, BERBERiDEiE. 

Dye ; Tan ; 
Darim, Hind., Punica Granatum, Linn., Lythracbjb. 

Gum ; Dye 5 Tan ; 
"DixuA, Mahr., Argemone mexicana, Linn., Papaverace^. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Darshana, TV/., Albizzia Lebbek, ^^n^/t., LEGUMiNOSiE. 

34 Index to Volume I of the Catalogue of 

9 ^^ 

Danri, San^.^ Coscinium fenestratum, CoUht^ MsNispBRMACBiB. 

Dye ; 
Dasai, Rani^ Jasminum officinale, Linn,^ OLBACBiB. 

Oil ; 
DaswaiUi, N^W, P., Rhus semiaUta, Murray ^ Anacardiacba. 

Oil ; 
Danla, Hind.t Phyllanthus Emblica, lAnn^ Euphorbiacbji. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Mali, Mahr.^ Anogeissus latifolia, WiiU,y Combretacba. 

Dye ; 
Dawi, Hind,t Woodfordia floribunda, Salisb,, Lythracbjb. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Dayshins^, Bhutia, Daphne papyracea., IVall.t Thymblasacea. 

Fibre ; 
Debdiri, Hind., Polyalthia longifolia, Benth. & Hook. /., Anonacea. 

Fibre ; 
DebreUtfa, Nepal, Spatholobus Roxburghii, Bentk*, L^guminosjs. 

Gum ; 
Dekamali, Hind,^ Gardenia gummifera, Idnn,, Rubiacbjz. 

Gum ; 
Deodar, Eng.^ Cedrus Deodara, Lomdon, Conifbrx. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Deodir, Garkwal, Haaar a, Kashmir, Kumaun, Cedrus Deodara, Loudon ^ 

Conifers. Gum ; 
Deo kupas* Mysore^ Gossypium arboieum, L., MALVACSiS. 

Fibre ; 
Dephal, Beng., Artocarpus Lakoocha, Roxb,, Urticacbjs. 

Gum ; Dye ; Fibre ; 
Dera,^^ft^., See Gossypium berbaceum, L^ var. herbaceum, Malvacb^. 

Fibre ; 
Der Saflor, Ger.y Carthamus tinctorius, Linn,, Compos iTiS. 

Dye ; 
Devadaru, Tel., Polyalthia longifolia, Benth. & Hook,/,, 

Anonacb^. Fibre ; 
Devadarn, Tarn,, Erythroxylon monogynum', Roxb^, LiKSiB. 

Oil ; 
Devakanchana, Bom., Bauhinia purpurea, Linn^ LBGUMiNOSjiS. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Devi-dlar, Ravi, Cupressus torulosa, Don,, Conifbrjb. 

Gum ; 
Deyardanga, Cingk,^ Dolicbandrone Rheedii, Seem,, Bignoniac&s. 

Dha, Hind,, Woodfordia floribunda, Salisb,, Lythrac&A. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Dhiaoii, Makr., Anogeissus latifolia. Wall,, CoMBRBTACBiB. 

Gum ; Dye ; 
Dhak, Hind., Butea frondosa, Roxb,, Leguisinos.b. 

Gum ; Dye ; Fibre ; Oil ; 
Dhakur, Beng,, Cerbera OdoUam, Gaerin., Afocynace^. 

Fibre ; Oil ; 
Dhamin, Hind,, Grewia tiliaefolia., Vahl,, Tiliaceje. 

Fibre ; 
Dhammaa, Pb,, Grewia oppositifolia, Roxb,, TiLiACBiB. 

Fibre ; 
Dhamna, Hind., Ulmus integrifolia, Roxb,, Urticacea. 

Oil ; 
Dhamono, Uriya^ Grewia tiliaefolia, Vahl,, Tiliaceje. 

Fibre ; 
Dhana (seed), Makr,, Coriandrum sativum, Linn., UMBELLiFERiE. 

Oil ; 
Dhania, Beng,, Hind,, Coriandrum sativum, Linn., UMBBLLiFERiE. 
Oil : 

the Economic Products of India. 35 

Dhanicha, Beng.^ Sesfaania aculeata, Pert.j Lbguminosa. 

Fibre ; 
Dhannah. See Gossypium herbaceumi £.> var. herbaoettin, Mm<vacba. 

Fibre ; 
Dhanyaka, Sans^^ Coriaadrum sativum, Linn,t Umbb(.lifbrje, 

Oil ; 
Dharaofi, Hind,, Wrightta tomentosa, Rdem., & SchetUt, Apogw^M' 

«... Dye ; 

Dhatte, Gond., Orozyimn indicum, Benih,, Bignoniacra. 

Dye ; Tan ; 
Dhaula, Hind., Woodfordia iloribunda, Salisb.t Lythracba. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Dhauli, Hind. J Hymenodictyon ezcelsum, Wall., Rubiacb^. 

Tan ; 
Dhaura, Hind., Woodfordia flonbunda, 5'a/t9&,> Lythragbje. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Dhaura, Hind., Auogeissus latifolia, Wall*, CoMBRBTACBJi. 

Gum ; 
Dhaura, Oudh, Zizyphus rugosa, Latnkf, Rhamnbjs. 

Gum ; Dye ; 
Dh^uri, iff^m., Woodfordia floribunda, Saliab,, LvTHRACBiB, 

Gum ; Dye ; 
DhiLwa, ffind., Anogeissus latifolia, WalU Combrbtacbji, 

Gum ; Dye ; 
Dhayatiy Mahr,, Woodfordia floribunda, Salisb., Lythrace>b, 

Dye ; 
Dhenras, Beng.^ Hibiscus esculentus, Linn,, Malvacba. 

Fibre ; 
Dhedumbara, Mahr,, Ficus infectoria, Willd,, Urticacb^ 

Fibre ; 
Dhera, Beng., Gossypium herbaceum, Linn., var, herbaceum, MALVACBiS. 

Fibre ; 
Dhewti, Oudh, Woodfordia floribunda, Salisb., I^ythracba. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Dhobein, Hind., Dalbergia paniculata, Roxh*, I^bguminosa 

Gum ; 
Dhokri dau, Raj., Anogeissus latifolia, Wall., Combretacb/b. 

Gum ; Dye ; 
Dhondri, Gondi, 3auhinia racemosa, Lam., Lbguminosjs. 

Gum ; 
Dhorara, Hind., Bauhinia racemosa, Lam^f Lrguminosjb. 

Gum ; 
Dhuna, ^4^5., Canarium beng^euse, Roxh., Bursbbacrje. 

Gum ; 
Dhundhnl, Be fig., Carapa moluccensis. Lam,, Mbliacrjs. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Dhup, N,'W, P.9 Juniperus ezeelsa, M. Bieh,, Conifbra. 

Gum ; 
Dhup, Bom., Boswellia floribunda, Endl., Bursbracea. 

Gum ; 
Dhup, Kan,, Ailanthus malabarica, DC, Simarubbjs. 

Gum ; 
Dh6p, Oudh, Nepal, Pinus longifolia, Roxb., Conifbra. 

Oil ; 
Dhupiy Nepal, Juniperus ezcelsa, M, Bieb., Conifbrjk. 

Gum ; 
Dhupinaram, Tam., Vateria indict, Linn., Diptbrocarpbjk. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Dhuvi, C. P., Woodfordia floribunda, Salisb., LYTHRACBiB. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Diar, Kashmir, Hagara, Garhwal, Kumaun, Cedrus Deodara, Loudon, 

Conifbrjb. Gum ; Oil ; 

36 Index to Volume I of the Catalogue of 

Ihir, Sind, Satradon oleoides, L£n»., Salyadorackm. 

Dye ; OU j 
Dido, Bnrm^ Bomhax mabbariciun, DC., If alvacex. 

Gmn ; 

DUEUttli, Hind., Gtuf., Gardenia gammifera. Limn,, Rubiac 
Gum ; 

Dindnga, Kan., Anogeissos latilolia. Wall., Combretac&k. 
Gam ; Dye ; 

Umg)aan, Kkdsia, Rhus sucoedanea, Linn., Amacardiac 

Oil ; 
Dmgn, Khdna, Pinas kasjra, Royle, Conifbrx. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Diiigaolir, Kkdsia, Mjrica sapida, WaU., MTKiCACBiC 

Tan ; 
DifBsan, Tel., Albizzia Lrbbeck, Benth., Lbguminos^ 

Gum ; Tan ; Oil ; 
DtjaMXm, Cingh., Wormia triqnetra, RaUe , DiixBNiACKiB. 

Dodm, Sind., Nelnmbinm spedosnm, Willd., Hymphmacrm. 

Fibre ; 
Dodan, Hind., Sapindos detergens, Xoxb^ Sapindacba 

Gam ; j 

Dodan, Hind,, Saptodns Mokorossi, Gaertn., Sapimdac&c 

Gam ; Oil ; 
Dodder, Eng., Coscuta refleza, Koxb., CoNvoLVULACBiK. ' 

Dye ; 
Doha, Uriya, Anogeissas latifolia, Wall., Combmmtackm. 

Gam ; Dye ; 
Doln, Hind., Rheam Emodi, Wall., PoLTGONACEiE. 

Djre ; 

DoodUp, Tel., Orozylam iodicum, Benth., BiGNONiACSiS. 

Dye ; Tan ; 
Doon, Cingh., Doona zeylanica, Tkwaites, Diptbrocarpba. 

Gam ; 
Dooflkola, Cingk., Nicotiana Tabacum, lAnn., SoLANACBiE. 

Oil ; 
Doptttti, Ast.9 Cinnamomum Tamala, Nees., Laurines. 

Dorga-kaia, Tel., Cacamis sativas, Linn., Cucurbitaceje. 

Oil ; 
Doii Pb., Polygonum bistorta, Linn., Poltgonaces. 

OU ; 

Dosray, Tel., Cucamis Melo, L., forma atilissimus (sp. Roxb.), CucuR- 

BITACBiE. Oil ; 

Dowari, Nepal, Lacalia gratissima. Sweet, RuBiACBiB. 

Dye ; 
Df6bdiir, Pb., Pinos longifolia, Roxb., Com fees. 

Oil ; 
Drawi, Pb., Cedrela Toona, Roxb., Meliacej^ 

Gam ; Dye ; 
Drdc, Hind., Melia Azedarach, Linn., Mel i aces. 

Gam ; Dye ; Oil ; 
Do, Pb., Qaercas Ilex, Linn., Cupulifbrjb. 

Tan ; 
Duddi maddl, Tel., Briedelia retasa, Spreng,, EuPHORBiACEiB 

Tan ; 
Dadbi, Banda, Wrigbtia tinctoria, R. Br., Apocynace X. 

Gum ; 
Dndhi, Ber^., Ichnocarpus fnitescens, R. Br., ApoCYNACEiE. 

Fibre ; 
Dndbi, Hind., Wrigbtia tomentosa, Rdem & Scheult, ApocvNACBiE. 



the Economic Products of India, 37 

Dudhi, Banda^ Wrightia tinctoria, R. Br., Apocynacea. 

Dye ; 
Dudhu-ki-lakti, Hind.., Holarrhena antidysenterica. Wall., Apocynacea. 

Oil ; 
Dndi-palla, Tel., Dregea volubilis, Benth., Asclbpiadea. 

Fibre ; 
Dudippi, Tel., Careya arborea, Roxh., Myrtacejs. 

Gum ; 
Dudiyetta, Tel., Hymenodictyon excelsum, WalL, Rubiacb^. 

Tan ; 
Dudla, Pb,f Prunus Padus, Linn., Rosacejb. 

Gum ; 
Dndla, Pb., Rhus semialata, Murray, ANACARDiACBiS. 

Oil ; 
Dttg^arphort, Sind, Calophyllum inophyllum, Linn., Guttipeila. 

Gum ; 

Oil ; 
Dukak Kundar, Boswellia floribunda, Endl., Burseracbjs. 

Gum ; 
Dukh, Arab,, Balsamodendron Playfairii, Hook,,/., BuRSERACBiV. 

Grum ; 
Dul-surkh, Pers., Pterocarpus santalinus, Linn ,/., LBGUMiNOSiS. 

D^e ; 
Dum tali, Pb., Adiantum Cappilus-Veneris, Linn., Filices 

Oil ; 

Dumba, Cingh., Calophyllum inophyllum, Linn , GuTTiFBRiB. 

Gum ; 
Dumbur, Beng,, Ficus Cunia, Buck,, Urticace^. 

Fibre ; 
Dunmi, Chenab, Jasminum officinale. Linn., OLEACEiS. 

Oil ; 
Dumshing, Bhutia, Abies Webbiana, LindL, Conifers. 

Gum ; 
Dnn-dul, Beng.^ LufFa aegyptiaca, Mill, ex Hook. /,, Cucurbitace^. 

Oil J 
Dupadu, Tel,, Vateria indica, Linn., Diptbrocarpe2B. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Dupa maram , Kan., Vateria indica, Linn., DiPTBROCARPSJi. 

Gum ; 
Duss, Pb,, Elsholtzia polyst9ch}ra, Benth,, LABiATiE. 

Dye ; 
Dwabote, Burm., Kydia calycina , Roxb., Malvaceae. 

Fibre ; 
Dyer's Oak, Eng., Quercus infectoria, Oliver, CuPULiFERiB. 

Dye J 


Eint-kati, Tel., Pavonia odorata, Willd., MALVACEiS. 
Fibre ; 

Elandap-pazham, Tam,, Zizyphus Jujuba, Lam., Rhamne^k. 

Dye ; Tan ; 
Elava maram, Tam., Eriodendron anfractuosum, DC, Malvacbjb. 

Gum ; 
Elephant-creeper, Eng., Argyreia speciosa, Sweet,, OoNVOLVULAC^iH. 

Oil ; 
Elephant-grass, Eng,, Typha elephantina, Roxb., Typif ace^. 

Fibre ; 
EUakay, Tam., Tel., Ellettaria Cardamomum, M^(cn., $citaminh^. 

38 Index to Volume I of the Catalogue of 

Efloiii, Jfo/., Bassia longtfolia, WilUL^ Sapotacbjl 

Gum ; 
PHf»*f*M'*'***-r*^^*^"'j Tam., Citrus medica, Linn,^ Rutacba. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Elapft, Tawi^ Basna longiloUa, WiUd^ Sapotacbjl 

Gum ; 
EJopft, Tarn^ Bassia latifolia, iRa»l., Sapotac&x. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Elnpi^, Tarn., Terminalia belerica» Roxh^ Combrbtacbji. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Eliqiiy 7afl»., Mimusops manilkaia, Don^ Sapotacbjk. 

Gum ; 
EndMidtt-gBlui, Cingk,, Enrthrina indica, Lam,, Lbguminosjb. 

Gum ; Dye ; Fibre ; 
Enadi PBhari, Hind., Beng.9 Jatropha Carcas, Linn., EuPHORBiAcsiB. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
ErandB, Sans., Ricinus oommunbi Linn., Euphorbiacejb. 

Oil ; 
Enada, Jaagafi, Bon^,, Jatropha g1andulifera» Roxh., Euphobbiacbjb. 

Dvc ; Oa, ; 
Eimodiy Maht,, Rhus Cotinus, Lmn., Anacardiacbjc 

Tan ; 
ErendL See Morinda cttrifoliay Linn.^ Rubiacba 

Dvc s 
Erendi Sind.^ Ricinus communis, Linn., EuPHORBiACBiS. 

OU ; 
Erim-pBimB, Tam., Caryota urens, Linn,, Vklum, 

Fibre ; 
Efimgaadliapn-chekka, r(r/.|Pterocarpus santalinus, Linn, J., Lbgum iNoSiS. 

Dye ; 
EfTB-g^em-lcBya, Tel,, Hibiscus sabdariffa« Linn,, Malvacb^. 

Emirjilgiia, Tel,, Sesbania aculeata, Pers.^ Lbguminosjb. 

Fibre ; 
Eiuidnikti, Sind.^ Ricinus communis, Linn,, Euphorbiacbjl 

Oil ; 
Ernvadl, Tam,, Dalberffia latifolia, Roxb,, Legum inosce. 

Oil ; 
ErradoB, Bom,, Pimpinella Anisum, Linn., Umbbllifbrje. 

Oil ; 
Eteth, Bom,, Boswellia floribunda, End!*, Burseraceje. 

Gum ; 
Exile Oil, Eng,, Thevetia neriifolia, Linn^ Apocynacbjb. 

OU ; 

Fafira, Tel,^ Biza Orellana, Linn,, Bixinejb. 

Dye ; 
Farad, Hind., Erjrthrina indica, Lam„ Lbguminosje. 

Gum ; Dye ; Fibre ; 
Faranj-mnshk, Hind, (seed of) Ocimum Basilicum, Linn. Var. pilosum, 

Benth., Labiate. Oil ; 
Fans, Pb,, Tamariz articulata, Vahl,, Tamariscinejs. 

Gum ; 
Farat, Ass,, Biza Orellana, Linn., Bixinbje. 

Dye ; 
Farwa, Pb,, Tamariz articulata, Vahl,, TAMARisciNBiB. 

Gum ; 
Fenjeaghiat, Arak., Vitez Negundo, Linn., Vbrbbnacbjb. 

Dye • ; 


the Economic Products of India. 39 

Fennel, Common, Eng,^ Fceniculum vulgare, Gaertn., UMBSLLiFBRiK. 

Oil ; 
Fennel, Eastern Giant, Eng^^ Dorema Ammoniacum, Z%m^ Uubbllifera 

Oil ; 
Fever Nut^ Eng^ Cssalpinia Bonducella, Roxb.^ LbguminoAs. 

Oil ; 
Findik, Pd., Corylus Colurna, Linn,^ Cupulipeiue. 

Oil ; 
Fir, Silver, Efig,^ Pinus sylvestris, Linn.i Coniperae. 

Fibre ; 
Flax, Travancore, Eng,^ Crotalaria juncea, Linn.^ Lbguhinos^. 

Fibre ; ^ 

Flax, Linen, Eng.^ Linum usitatisslmum, Linn.t LiNEie. 

Fibre ; 
Flax, New Zealand, Eng,, Phormium tenaz, LiLiACEiS. 

Fibre ; 
Franldncense, Eng,, Boswellia floribunda, Endl,, BuRSERACEiS. 

Gum : 

Gaby Beng., Hind,^ Diospyros Embryopteris, Pers^^ Ebbnacejb. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Gabdi, Hind., Cochlospermum Gossypinm, DC, Bixinejs. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Gachod^, And.^ Albizzia Lebbek, Benth,, Lequminosls. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Gada-neUi, Tel,, Sponia orientalis, Planch,, URTiCACBiB. 

Gum ; 
Gad^nibal, Pb,, Rhus Wallichii,,, Anacardiace^b. 

Gagfgaru, 7W., Gardenia gammifera, Linn,, Rubiacejb. 

Gum ; 
Gajaga, Mahr., Ca&salpinia Bonducella, Roxb., Leguminos^e. 

Gajar, Beng,, Hind,, Daucus Carota, Linn,^ Umbellifera. 

Oil ; 
Gajjara eadda, Tel,, Daucus Carota, Linn,, UMBELLiFERiB. 

Oil ; 
Gajjara kelangu, Tam,, Daucus Carota, Linn., UMBELLiPERiE. 

Oil ; 
Gajkai, Kan,, Caesalpinia Bonducella, Roxb., Leguminos^b. 

Oil ; 
Galgal, Hind., Cochlospermum Gossypium, DC, Bixinbjb. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Galgoja, Chenab, Pinus Gerardiana, Wall,, Conipera. 

Oil ; 
Gall, Eng., Quercus infectoria, Oliver, Cupuliper^. 

Dye ; 
Gallu, N. W. P., Taxus baccata, Linn., CoNiPBRiE, 

Gum ; Dye ; 
Galmendora, Cingk., Cynometra ramifiora, Linn., Leguminos;e. 

Dye ; Oil ; 
Galu, Tel,, Cicer arietinum, Linn,, Leguminosa. 

Dye ; 
Gambler, Eng., Malay, Uncaria Gambler, Hunter, Rubiace^. 

Tan. ; 
Gamboge Tree, Eng., Garcinia Morella, Desrouss., Guttifer<«. 

Gum ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Ganaba, Cingh., Brassica nigra, Koch., CRUCiPERiE. 
Oil : 

40 Index to Volume I of the Catalogue of 

G•IlMfi^^ Makr,, Croton oblongifolius, Roxh.y Euphorbiace^. 

Oil ; 
Gandahferozah, Boswellia serrata, Roxb.^ var. serrata, BuRSERACEiS. 

Gum ; 
Gand-bAbol, Hind,, Acacia Farniciana, Willd., Lbouminosjs. 

Dye ; Tan ; 
Gande, Nepal, Daphne papyracea, Wall., TMYMELiCACE^. 

Fibre ; 
Gaadere, Kaner, Pb., Nerium odonim, Soland, Apocynacea. 

Oil ; 
Gandhabenit B^^-i Andropogon Schoenanthes, Linn,, Gramine^c. 

Gandhaki, P5., Delphinium saniculaefolium, Boiss,, Ranunculace^e. 

Dye ; 
Gandnal riiice, Bom., Andropogon citratus, DC, Graminb^. 

Oil ; 
Gandhapa-diekk, Tel., Santalum album, Linn,, Santalace.«. 

Oil ; 
G^ndhanmhaia, Mahr., Ficus infectoria, Willd., URTiCACEiE. 

Fibre ; 
Gaadi, Pb,, Murraya Kcenigii, Spr., Rutacba. 

Oil ; 
Gandla, Pb,, Murraya Koenigii, Spr., Rutace^. 

oa ; 

Gandnmnigam-nettnim, TV/., Pterocarpus Marsupium, Roxb., Leguminosjs. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Ganeii, Mahr,, Cochlospermum Gossypium, DC.,BixiNEiE. 

Oil ; 
Gaogai, Ass,, Mallotus philippinensis, Mul. Arg.^ Euphorbiacb^e. 

Dye ; Oil ; 
Gangal, Hind., Cochlospermum Gossypium, DC., Bixinejb. 

Oil ; 
Gangam, Gond, Cochlospermum Gossypium, DC, BixiNEiE. 

Oil ; 
Gangly Burm., Mesua ferrea, Linn., Guttiferje. 

Oil ; 
Gangaraya, Tel., Thespesia populnea, Corr.^ Malvacbjb. 

Gum ; Dye ; Fibre ; Oil ; 
Gansichu, Pb., Euphorbia neriifolia, Linn., EuPHORBiACEiE. 

Gum ; 
Gang^U, N, W. P,, Andropogon laniger, Desf., GRAMiNBiS. 

Fibre ; 
Gangwa, Beng., Bxcaecaria Agallocha, Willd., Euphorbiacejs. 

Gum ; 
Ganhira, Pb., Nerium odorum, Soland., Apocynace^a. 

Oil ; 
Ganiiir, Hind., Cochlospermum Gossypium, DC, Bixine^b. 

Oil ; 
Ganj6, Hind., Beng,, Bom., Tarn., Cannabis sativa, Linn., XJrticaczm. 

Fibre ; Oil 
Ganjam. Burm,, Mesua ferrea, Linn., Guttifer>b. 

Dye ; 
Ganjivi-cfaettu, Tel,, Cannabis sativa, Linn., URTjCACEiB. 

Ganjika, Sans., Cannabis sativa, Linn,, URTiCACEiB. 

Fibre ; 
Ganni, Hind, Beng., Saccharum ofiicinarum, Linn., Gramineje. 

Fibre ; 
Gannera, Tel., Nerium odorum, Soland., ApocYNACEiS. 

Gantelu sajyalu, TV/., Penicil'.aria spicata, Willd., Cramine;b. 


the Economic Products of India. 41 

Ganuga, TeL^ Pongamia glabra, VenL^ Leguminosjs. 

Oil ; 
Gaoshir, Pers,^ Ferula Galbaniflua, Boiss.f Umbbllifbrjs. 

Gum ; 
Garan, Beng,^ Ceriops Candolleana, Amoit^ Rhizophorb^. 

Tan ; 
Garan, Beng^ Ceriops Roxburghiana, Arnott,, Rhizophorea. 

Tan ; 
Garanji, Gond, Pongamia glabra, Vent., Leguminos^. 

Oil ; 
Garbijaur, Hind»t Tetranthera lauriifolia, yacgm, Laurinea. 

Gardal, BotH.^ Entada scandens, Benth., Leguminos^. 

Oil ; 
Gardalu, P6., Prunus armeniaca, Linn., Rosacbjc. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Gardundi, Kan., Ochrocarpus longifolius, Benih & Hook. /., Guttiferae. 

Gar-ea, Tel.^ Garuga pinnata, Roxb,, Burseracea. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Gari, TV/., Badanites Roxburghii, Planch.f Simarubea. 

Oil ; 
Gari-kulay, Beng , Glycine Soja, Lieb,, Leguminos^. 

Oil ; 
Gating^ Hind., Carissa Carandas, Linn,, Apocynacea. 

Dye ; Tan ; 
Gaijan, ^f fi^., Dipterocarpus alatus, Roxh.^ Dipterocarpejb. 

Gum ; 
Gaijan, Beng.^ Dipterocarpus turbinatus, Gaertn.f.f DiPTBROCARPEiG. 

Gum ; 
Gaijan-oil Tree, Eng., Dipterocarpus turbinatus, Gaertn /., Diptero- 

Garlic, Eng», Allium sativum, Linn., LiLiACEiE. 

Oil ; 
Gamikura, Sans., Hibiscus cannabinus, Linn., Malvacejv. 

Fibre ; 
Garrah, Gond, Balanites Roxburghii, Planch., Simarubea. 

Oil 5 
Garso, Hind., Albizzia procera, Benih., Leouminos^. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Garso, Hind., Albizzia Lebbek, Benih., Leguminosje, 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Gartashiara, Kumaun, Villebrunea frutescens, Blume., URTiCACEiB. 

Fibre ; 
Gamga, Tel.t Garuga pinnata, Roxb., Burseracba. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Gasa-gasa-tol, Tam., Papaver somniferum, Linn., PAPAVBRACBiis. 

Oil ; 
Gasa-gasa-tolu, Tel.t Papaver somniferum, Linn,, Pap averages. 

Oil ; 
Gauli, Hind., Briedelia retusa, Spreng., EuPHORBiACEiE. 

Tan ; 
Gattsam, Hind., Schleichera trijuga, Willd., Sapindacb;b. 

Oil ; 
Gauzaban, Hind., Onosma echioides, Linn , Boraginb^b. 

Dye ; 
Gavuldu, Mysore, Careya arborea, Roxb., Myrtacejs. 

Gum ; 
Gaz-anjabin, Arab., Tamariz dioica, Roxb*, Tamariscinba. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Gech-chakkay, Tam,, Caesalpinia Bonducella, Roxb., Leguminosjb. 
Oil : 

42 Index to Volume I of the Catalogue of 

Gda, Hind., Briedelia montana, WiUd,, EuPHORBiACSiS. 
Tan ; 

Gdo, Nepal, Briedelia retusa, Spreng^ EuPHORBiACSiC. 
Tan ; 

Gdo, Nepal, Briedelia montana, Willd, EuPHORBiACEiS. 
Tan ; 

Gdaphala, Makr,, Randia dumetorum, Lam,, RueiACSiB. 

Dye ; 
Gdi, N. W. P., Taxus baccata, Linn., CoNiPBRiS. 

Gum ; Dye ; 

Genda, Hind,, Beng^ Tagetes patula, Linn,, Composite. 
Dye ; 

Genddi poiaa, Ass., Ganiga pinnata, Roxh*, Bursbracb;b. 

Gum ; Tan j 
Gendia, Bet^,, Tagetes patula, Linn^ CoMPOSiTiB. 

Dye ; 

Geor, Beng^ Excaecaria Agallocha, WUld., Bupmorbiacbj!. 

Gum ; 
Geredi, UHya^ Entada scandens, Benth., LsGuifiNOSiB. 

Oil ; 
Geiia, Beng., Excaecaria Agallocha, WtUd,, EuPHORBiACEiB. 

Gum ; 
Geri-m&ti, Bev^^ Ochre. 

Ghaftz, Ph,, Delphinium saniculaefolium, Boiss,, Ranunculacejb. 
Ghariam, Ass., Maogifera indica, Linn., A.'CACARDiACBiE. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Ghittipittiq>6 p ada, Bom,, Peristrophe tinctoria, Nees,, AcANTHACBiS. 

Dye ; 
Ghattya, (root oQ Morinda dtrifolia, Linn^ Rubiacje. 

Dye ; 
Gfaazld, Ph,y Tamarix articulata, Vald., T. dioca, Roxh,, T. gallica, Linn, 

TAMARisciNEiE. Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 

Oil^ ; 
GhikuiBari, Hind., Aloe vera, Linn,, Liliacbjk. 

Dye ; Fibre ; 
Ghila, Hind,, Bauhinia racemosa, Lam,, Lbguminosje. 

Fibre ; 
Ghirgilly Oil from Kanara. 

Oil ; 
Ghirta-knm&ri, Beng,, Aloe vera, Linn., LiLiACBis. 

Dye ; Fibre ; 
Ghogar, Hind,, Ganiga pinnata, Roxb,, Bursbracejs. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Ghonasaphan, Mahr,, Sansevieria zeylanica, WUld., Hmuohorkckm, 

Fibre ; 
Ghent, Hind,, Zizyphns xylopyra, WiUd,, Rhamnb^b. 

Tan ; 
Ghoran, Beng,, Ceriops Roxburghiana, ArnoH,, RHizoPHOREiE. 

Tan ; 
Ghora mm, Beng,, Meiia Azedaradi, Linn,, MBLiACBiE. 

Oil ; 
Ghor-rai, Hind., Brassica nigra, Koch., Crucifers. 

Oil ; 
Ghosali, Bom,, Luffa aegyptiaca, MUl., ex Hook,/., CucurbitacejB. 

Oil ; 
GhiitaktUBarl, Sans., Aloe vera, Linn,, Liliacejs. 

Dye ; Fibre ; 
Ghwareshtaiy Afg,, Prunus persica, Benth. Hook./,, RosACEiE. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Gia, Mecki, Garuga pinnata, Roxb,, Burseracb^b. 

Gum ; Tan ; 

the Economic Products of India. 43 

Giam, Tibet i Cedrus Deodara, Loudon, Conifbrji. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Gidhro, Sindy Cucumis Melo, L», CucurbitacbuK. 

Oil ; 
Gidiiri, Sind.y Cordia Myxa, Linn. Boraginb^. 

Dye ; Fibre ; 
Gilas., Ph., Pninus Cerasas, Linn,, Rosacbjb. 

Gum ; 
Gilead, Balm of, Eng,, Balsamodendron Opabalsamum, Kunth., Bursb' 

RACEA. Gum ; 
Gilla, Beng., Entada scandens, Benth,, Leguminosa. 

Oil ; 
Gmgf Eng., Odina Wodier, Roxb,, Anacardiacea. 

Gum ; Tan ; Fibre ; 
Gingtan, Hind,, Odina Wodier, Roxb,^ Anacardiacb^. 

Gum ; Tan ; Fibre ; 
Ging^elly, Eng,, Sesamum indicum, Linn,, Pbdalinbjb. 

Oil ; 
Ginger grass, 

Oil ; 
Gira, Afg,, Alnus nitida, Endl,, Cupulifbra. 

Dye ; Tan ; Fibre ; 
Girdu, Pers^, Juglans regia, Linn., Juglandb£. 

Dye ; Tan ; 
Girdagaiiy Pers., Juglans regia, Linn,, Juglandejb. 

Dye ; Tan ; 
Gixya, C. P,, Chloroxylon Swietenia, DC, Mbliacbje. 

Gum ; 
Gliir, Kashmir, Saliz babylonica, Linn., SALiciNBiE. 

Fibre ; 
Gobia, Nepal, Cephalostachium capitatum, Munro, Graminba. 

Fibre ; 
Gobli, Kan., Acacia arabica, Willd., Lbguminosji. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Gobriasolah, Nepal, khUes Webbiana, Lindl.,ComFERm. 

Gum ; 
Gogu, TeL, Acacia concinna, DC, Leguminosje. 

Dye ; Tan ; 
Gogul dhupy Nepal, Canarium bengalense, Roxb., Bursbracbjb. 

Gum ; 
Gokatu, Cingh., Garcinia Morella, Desrouss., GuTTiFBRJi. 

Gum ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Golab, Hind., Beng., Pb., Rosa alba, Linn,, RosAC&s. 

Oil : 
Goladara, Mahr,, Sterculia guttata, W, & A., Sterculiacejb. 

Fibre ; 
Goldia, Paj., Anogeissus latifolia, Wall., Combrbtacba. 

Gum ; Dye ; 
GoQca, Kumaun, Bcehmeria macrophylla, Don,, Urticacea 

Fibre ; 
Gol kamela, Pb., Phyllanthus nepalensis, Mull. Arg,, EuPHORBiACEiE. 

Fibre^ ; 
Gol kaddn, Pb,, Benincasa cerifera, Savi, Cucurbitaceje. 

Oil ; 
Gol-kaddue, Hind., Benincasa cerifera, Savi,, CucuRBiTACEiE« 

Oil ; 
Golpatta, Beng,, Phcenix paludosa, Roxb,, Valvlx^ 

Fibre ; 
Golra, Raj,, Anogeissus latifolia, WaU., Combrbtacbji. 

Gum ; Dye ; 
Gombo, Fr^ Hibiscus esculentus, Linn., Malvacea. 

Fibre ; 

44 Index to Volume I of the Catalogue of 

Gondani, Mahr., Cordia Rothii, Rcnn, & Sch., BoRAGiNBiK. 

Gum ; 
Gondiy Hind.^ Cordia Rothti, Rdem. & Sch.^ Boraginbjb. 

Gam ; 
Condi, Hind.f Cordia Myxa, Linn.t BoRAGiNBiB. 

Dye ; Fibre • ; 
Gondni, Hind., Cordia Rothii, Rdem. & Sch., Boraginbjc. 

Gum ; 
Goiig;kiiim, Tel., Hibiscus cannabinus, Lintt., MALVACBiB. 

Oil ; 
GonS^O, Uriya, Njctanthes Arbor-tristis, Linn,, Olbacbjb. 

Dye ; 
Gon iqrin* Burm., Entada scandens, Benth., Lsgum inos>«. 

OU ; 
Gopi, Nepal, Cepbalostacbium capitatum, Munro^ GRAMiNEiB. 

Fibre ; 
Gonm, Beng., Ceriops Candolleana, Arnati.^ RHizopHORSiS 

Tan ; 
Gonuita, Kan., TeL, Lawsonia alba, Lam., Lvthracb^. 

Dye ; Oil ; 
Goren, Burm., Boehmeria nivea, H. & A., Urticacrs. 

Fibre ; 
Gori HUB, Bom., Melia Azedarach, Linn., Mbliacrs. 

OU ; 
Gorkstii, Kashmir, Indigofera atropurpurea, Ham., LBGUiiiNosiB. 

Fibre ; 
Gofklu, Kan., Sponia orientalis, Planch., Urticacbjb. 

Gum ; 
Gota g^aiaba, Hind., Garcinia Morella, Desrouss, Guttifera. 

Gum ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Goti, Hind., Zizyphus xylopyra, Willd., Rhamnba. 

Tan ; 
Goti, Tel., Zizyphus zylopyra, Willd., Rhamnra. 

Tan ; 
Gonknim, Tel., Hibiscus cannabinus, Linn., Malvacba. 

Fibre ; 
Gourd, Eng,, Cucurbita maxima, Duchesne, Cucurbitacea. 

oa ; 

Gourd, Bottle, Eng., Lagenaria vulgaris, DC., Cucurbitacea. 

Oil ; 
Gonrd nnt 

Oil ; 
Gonrd, White, Eng., Cucurbita Pepo, DC., Cucurbitacb.c. 

Oil ; 
Gram, Common, Eng., Cicer arietinum, Linn., Leguminosa. 

Dye ; 
Granades, Fr., Punica Granatum, Linn., Lythracbje. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Graoats, Ger., Punica Granatum, Linn., Lythracb JC. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Granthipami, Sans., Artemisia vulgarb, Linn., Composite. 

Oil ; 
Grass, China, Eng., Boehmeria nivea, H. & A., URTiCACBiK. 

Fibre ; 
Grass, Geraninm, Eng., Andropogon Schcenanthes, Linn., Grahinb^. 

Grass, Lemon, Eng., Andropogon citratus, DC., Graminrs. 

Oil ; 
Grass-mats, Eng., Cyperus tegetum, Roxb., Graminra. 

Fibre ; 
Grass, Manj, Eng., Saccharum Munja, Roxb., Graminba. 

Fibre ; 

the Economic Products of India. 45 

Grass, Rhea, Eng.t Boehmeria nivea, H. & i4., Urticace^. 

Fibre ; 
Grass, Roussa, £fi;^.| Andropogon Nardus, Linnet Gramike^b. 

Fibre ; 
Ground Nut, Eng,^ Arachis hypogoea, Linn.^ Leguminosa. 

Oil ; 
Guily Beng,y Areca Catechu, Linn., Leguminosjs. 

Gum ; Dye ; Fibre ; 
Cu&b6blk, Bom., Acacia Farnesiana, Willd., Lbguminos^. 

Dye ; Tan ; 
Gnava, Eng,, Psidium Guava, Xaddi, Myrtacejl 

Dye ; Tan ; 
Gubadarra, Tel., Helicteres Isora, Linn., Stbrculiacea. 

Fibre ; 
Gub^k, Sans,, Areca Catechu, Linn., Leguminosje. 

Gum ; Dye ; Fibre ; 
Gudurichik&nda, Bom., Costus speciosus, Sm., SciTAMiNSiE. 

Oil ; 
Gugal, Bom., Balsamodendron Roxburghii, Arn., Burserace^b. 

Gum ; 
Gugal, Tel., Shorea robusta, Gaertn., Dipterocarpejs. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Gngala, Beng., Balsamodendron Roxburghii, Arn., Burseracejz. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Gugal Gum., Eng,, (also Sind name of plant), Balsamodendron Mukul, Hook., 

BuRSERACE^. Gum ; 
Gugg^, N, W, P., Juniperus recurva, Ham., Coniferji. 

Gum ; 
Guggol, Beng., Balsamodendron Mukul, Hook,, Bursbraceje. 

Gum ; 
Gag|[ala, Tam., Boswellia serrata, Colebr., BuRSERACBiB. 

Gum ; 
Gug^, Tel., Boswellia serrata, Roxb., var. Glabra, BuRSERACEiB. 

Gum ; 
Gug^y /fm<f., Balsamodendron Mukul, Hook., Bursbraces. 

Gum ; 
Giignlapfychetttt, Tel., Boswellia serrata, Roxb., var. Glabra, BuRSSRACEiS. 

Gum ; 
Gug^li, Beng., Hind., Argyreia speciosa. Sweet., Convolvulace.«. 

Oil ; 
GuhUy Hind., Sterculia urens, Roxb., Sterculiacea. 

Gum ;^ 
Gu-ldkar, Hind., Acacia Famesiana, Willd., Leguminosjs. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Gul, Bom., Rosa alba, Linn., Rosacea. 

Oil ^ ; 
Gttlal-tulsi, Beng., Hind , Ocimum Basilicum, Linn,, Var. glabratum, 

Benih., Labiates. Oil ; 
Gular, Hind., Sterculia urens, Roxb., SxERCULiACEiB. 

Gum ; 
Gttl-bola, Pb., Sterculia villosa, Roxb., Sterculiacbjb. 

Gum ; 
Gul-i-ajaib, Hind., Hibiscus mutabilis, Roxb., Malvace^s. 

Fibre ; 
Giil-i-pista, Hind., Pistacia vera, Linn., Anacardiacea. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Guljalil, Bom., Delphinium saniculaefolium, Boiss., Ranunculacea. 

D^e ; 
Gulk&iro, Hind., Bom., Althaea rosea, Linn., MALVACSiB. 

Dye ; 
Gulla, Simla, Cupressus torulosa, Don., CoNiFERiE. 

Gum : 

46 Index to Volume I of the Catalogue of 

Gnl shab bo, P6., Polyanthes tuberosa, Linn.t Polyoonac&x. 

oa ; 

Gnmbens^oaff, Meehii Pleoospermum spinosum, 7V#<r«/., Urticacb^ 

Dye ; 
Gnm, Bine, Eng^^ Eacalyptos globulus, Lab,t Myrtac&s. 

Oil ; 
Gnianuuldikmia, Tel.^ Cucurbita maxima, Duchesne^ Cucurbitacb/i. 

Oil ; 
Gnmmar, Gond^ Careya arborea, Raxh^ Myrtacbjb. 

Gum ; 
Gnmpiiii, Tel^ Odina Wodier, Ra»h,t Anacardiacbji. 

Gum ; Tan ; Fibre ; 
GtmdA-bhadnU, Beng,, PaBderia foetida, Linn.^ Rubiacbjb. 

Fibre ; 
GnndarbincMUid ? Hind., Boswellia serrata, Roxb., Bursbracea. 

Gum ; 
Gonda-siUa, Beng.^ Baubinia macroatachya, Wall., Lbguminosjb. 
Gundafi, Hind., Paederia fcetida, Linn., RuBiACSiB. 

Fibre ; 
Gnndra, TV/., Sans., Saccharum Mara, Roxb,, Graminb^. 

Fibre ; 
Gnimr, Magh., Adenanthera pavonina, Linn., Lbguminosa. 

Dye ; Oil ; 
Gnngflay, Mahr., Cochlospermum Gossypium, DC., Bixinb^. 

OU ; 
Gnng^y TeL, Cochlospermum Gossypium, DC, Bixinbjb. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Gumpa-badam, Tel., Sterculia fcetida, Linn., Stbrculiacb/e. 

Oil ; 
Gw, Hind., Albizzia procera, Bentk., Lbguminos^. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
GmbM, Hind., Albizzia procera, Bentk., Legumino&s, 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Gnxia, Beng,, Kandelia Rheedii, W, & A., Rmizophorba. 

Dye ; Mordant ; 
Gniial, Hind*, Baubinia racemosa. Lam., Lbgum INOSJS. 

Gum ; 
Gnrinda, Hind, Prinsepia utilis, Royle, RosACBiK. 

Oil ; 
Gnijiiii, Beng., Dipterocarpus turbinatus, Caertn.,/,, DiPTBROCARPBiS. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Gnrkur, Hind., Al bizzia procera, Bentk., Lbguminos^. 

«Gum *,Tan ; 
Gurmalay Gug., Cassia Fistula, Linn,, Lbguminosjb. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Gurosatnisi, Tel., Leucas cephalotes, Spreng., Labiate. 

Dye ; Oil ; 
Guttarpercha, Eng., Dichopsis Gutta, Bth. & Hook.f., Sapotacbjl 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Guy^ babuli, Beng., Acacia Farnesiana, WUld., Lbguminosjb. 

Gum ; 
Gwa, Hind., Tetranthera monopelata, Roxb., Laurinba. 

Oil ; 
Gwa, Pb., Tetranthera laurifolia, Jacq., Laurinb/b. 

Oil ; 
Gwedauk, Burm,, Connarus speciosus, McLell., CoNNARACBiS. 

Oil ; 
Gw^i Burm., Spondias mangifera, Pets., Anacardiacea 

Gum ; 
Gwayral, Hind., Baubinia retusa, Ham,, Leguminosjs. 

Gum : 

the Economic Products of India. 47 

G70, Burm.f Schleichera trijoga, Willd,, Sapindacejs. 

Oil ; 
Gyootnway, Burm., Gaetum scandens, Rotcb.f Gnetace^. 

Fibre ; 


Haba, Bom,^ Marsdenia Roylei, Wight^ Asclbpiadea. 

Fibre ; 
Hab-ul-48, Pb,i Myrtus communis^ Linn,, Myrtacbs. 

Oil ; 
Hab-ul-kalby Arab,, Semecarpus Anacardium, Linn,,/,, Anacardiacb^. 

Gum ; Dye ; Oil ; 
Hadavami, Bom,, Crataeva religiosa, Forsi,, CAPPARioBiS. 

Dye ; 
Haddu, Hind,, Cornas macrophylla, Wall,, CoRNACSiB. 

Oil ; 
Hakuch, Beng., Psorelea|corylifolia,'jLm»., Lbguminosa 

Oil ; 
Hakiin, Hind,, Baliospermum montanum, MUU, Arg,, EuPHORBiACEiS. 

Oil ; 

Hal, CingK, Valeria indica, Linn,^ Diptbrocarpbjb. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Haldi, Hind., Curcuma longa, Roxb,, SciTAMiNEiS. 

Dye ; 
HaldiHEdg^-luta, Beng,, Cascuta reflexa, Roxb,, Convolvulacea. 

Dye ; 
Haldi, Ban, Hind, N,-W, P., Curcuma aromatica, Salisb., ScitaminbiB. 

Dye ; 
Haldi-g^ach, Beng,, Coscinium fenestratum, Colebr., Menispermacba 

Dye ; 
Haldi, Jangfli, Hind,, N,-W, P,, Curcuma aromatica, Salisb,, SciTAMiNSiE. 

Dye ; 
Haleem, Dec, Lepidmm sativum, Linn., CauciFERiS* 

Oil ; 
Haleo, Hind,, Comus macrophylla, Wall,, Cornacba. 

Oil ; 
Hari, Dec, Terminalia Chebula, ReiM,, CoMBRETACBiS. 

Gum ; Dye ; ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Halu, Pb,, Impatiens Edgeworthii, Hook., GsRANiACBiB. 

Oil ; 
Halud, Beng,, Curcuma longa, Roxb,, Scitamin&s. 

Dye ; 
Halud, Ban* Beng,, Curcuma aromatica, Salisb,, SciTiMiNBiE. 

Dye ; 
Hamxa, Gug., Prosopis spicigera, Linn,, Lbouminosa. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Hanjal, Uriya, Terminalia Arjuna, Bedd., Combrbtacba. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Har, Hind,, Nyctanthes Arbor-tristis, Linn,, OLEACBiE. 

Dye ; 
Har, Hind,, Terminalia Chebula, Retg,, Combrbtacba. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan Oil ; 
Harabar4| Mahr., Cicer arientinum, Linn,, LEQUMiNosiE, 

Dye ; 
Harara, Hind., Terminalia Chebula, ReiM,, Coif BRETACBiB. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Hardwari peon, Pb., Peori Dye. 

Dye ; 
Qarg^narka, (root of) Morinda citrifolia, Linn,, Rubiacba. 

Dye ; 

48 Index to Volume I of the Catalogue of 

Haiiy P&M Prnnus armeniaca, £«»»., Rosaceji. 

Gum i Oil ; 
Haridri, Sant.^ Curcuma longa, Roxh^ SciTAMiNEiS. 

Dye ; 
Haridri, Ban, Shim., Curcuma aromatica, Salisb.t Scitamine^b, 

Harm harra, Hind., Amoora Rohituka, W. & A,, Mbliacb;b. 

Oil ; 

Harin kfaaaa, Hind., Amoora Rohituka, W. &. A., MsLiACSiK. 

Oil ; 
Haritaki, BrMf., Termioalia Chebula, Rett,, Combretacbjb. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Haritaki, Beng,, Termioalia citrina, Roxb., CoMBRBTACBiK. 

Dye ; 
Haxkn, P^., Rhus Wallichii, Hook./., ANACARoiACBiS. 

Oil ; 
Harla, Dte,^ Termioalia Chebula, Retm.^ Com BRBTACBiS. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tao ; 
Hamanfi, Salt Range, Ricious commuois, Linn., EuPHORBiACEiB. 

Mordaot ; Oil ; 
Hanm, Hind,, Termioalia Chebula, Ret»., Combrbtacejl 

Gum ; Dye ; Tao ; Oil ; 
Hanari, Nepal, Acacia \xk\s\a^Willd., Lequminosjk. 

Dye ; 
Hani, Hind., Murraya Koeoigii, Spr,, Rutacba 

OU ; 
Harro, Gcnd, Termioalia Chebula, RetM., Com BRETACBiE. 

Gum ; Dye . ; Tao ; 
Haislhir, Hind,, Nyctaothes Arbor-tristis, Linn,, Oleaceae. 

Oil ; 
Haraiiisahar, Hind,, Beng,, Bom,, Nyctaothes Arbor-tristis, Ltnn, 

Oleacea Dye ; Oil ; 

Hanring^har, Hind,, Nyctaothes Arbor-tristis, Linn,, OLEACSiB. 

Oil ; 
Harwar, TeL, Acacia leucophloea, WUld., Leouminosa. 

Dye ; 

athlkhatyan, Dec,, Adaosooia digitata, Linn,, MALVACEiB. 

Fibre ; 
Hatian, Hind., Eriodeodroo aofractuosum, DC., Malvace^. 

Gum ; 
Hawar, Oudh, Dolichaodrooe falcata. Seem., Bignoniacea. 

Fibre ; 
Hayamaiak, Sans,, Wrightia tioctoria, R, Br^ Apocynacea. 

Dye ; 
Hazel Not (Indian), Eng,, Corylus Coluroa, Limn,, CupULiPERiS. 

Oil ; 
Hebalsa, Makr., Kan., Artocarpus hirsuta, Lamk., Urticacb;e. 

Grum ; 
Heboo, Burm,, Carthamus tioctorius, Linn., Composites. 

Dye ; 
Heela, Burghers, Garcioia Cambogia, Desrouss., Guttipbrji. 

Gum ; Dye ; 
Hemlock spruce (Indian), Eng., Abies dumosa, Loudon, Conifbrjs. 

Gum ; 
Hemp, Eng., Caooabis sativa, Linn., Urticac&a. 

Fibre ; 
Hemp, Bow-string, (fibre of) Calotropls gigaotea, R, Br., Asclbpiadea. 

Fibre ; 
Hemp, Bow-atrins^, Eng,, Saoseviera zeylaoica, Willd,, LiLiACEiB. 

Fibre ; 
Hemp, Sun, Indian., Brown, Bombay, Jabbulpore, Eng,, Crotalaria 
juocea, Ltnff , Legumino&£. Fibre ; 

the Economic Products of India, 49 

Hemp, Deccani, Eng,^ Hibiscus canuabinus, Linn., Malvaceae. 

Fibre ; 
Hemp, Manilla, Eng., Musa textilis, Louis., Nees., Musace^e. 

Fibre ; 
Hendl, Ass., Barringtonia acutangula, Gaerin , MYRTACBiS. 

Tan ; 
Hengra, Bomb., Ferula Narthez, Boiss., UMBSLLiPERiB. 

Gum ; 
Henna, Ettg., Hind,, Lawsonia alba, Lam., Lythracb^. 

Dye ; Oil ; 
Herbadoce, Portuguese, Pimpinella Anisum, Linn., Umbellifer^. 

Herpa, Hind., Girardinia heterophylla, Decaisne., URTiCACEiE. 

Fibre ; 
Heru, Pb,, Quercus Ilex, Linn., Cupulipera. 

Tan ; 
Hesswa, Kan., Artocarpus hirsuta, Lamk., TjRTicACEiB. 

Gum ; 
Hewar, Mahr., Acacia leucophloea , Willd., LEGUMiNOSiE. 

Dye ; 
Hibiscus, Edible, Eng,, Hibiscus esculentus, Linn., Malvace^. 

Fibre ; 
Hibiscus, Hemp-leaved, Eng., Hibiscus cannabinus, Linn , Malvace^. 

Fibre ; 
Hibiscus, Changeable, Eng., Hibiscus mutabilis, Roxb., MALVACEiS. 

Fibre ; 
Hijal, Beng., Barringtonia acutangula, Gaertn., Myrtacea 

Tan ; 
Hijili badam, Beng., Bom.t Anacardium occidentale, Linn., 

Anacardiacea. Gum ; Tan ; 
Hijuli, Beng., Anacardium occidentale, Linn , Anacardiace^. 

Oil ; 
Hilika, Ass., Terminalia citrina, Roxb., Combretacea. 

Dye ; 
Hilikha, Ass., Terminalia Chebula, Reie., Combretacea. 

Gun ; Dye ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Hims, Arab., Cicer arietenum., Linn., LEGUMiNOSiC. 

Dye ; 
Hing, Bomb, /Tiff^^., Ferula alliacea, Boiss., UMBELLiFERiE. 

Gum ; 
Hing, Beng., Hind., Ferula Narthex, Boiss., UMBELLiFERiE. 

Oil ; 
Hingan, Mahr., Balanites Roxburghii, Planch., SiMARUBEiC. 

Oils ; 
Hingol, Hind., Balanitus Roxburcrhii, Planch., Simarube^e. 

Oils ; 
Hingota, Hind., Balanites Roxburghii, Planch., Simarube^. 

Oil ; 
Hing^, Sans.f Ferula alliacea, Boiss., Umbellifer-B. 

Gum ; 

Hingu, Hind., Balanites Roxburghii, Planch., Simarubea. 

Oil J 
Hing^, Sans., Ferula Narthex, Boiss., Umbellifer^. 

Oil ; 
Hintal, Beng., Phoenix paludosa, Roxb., Palma. 

Fibre ; 
Hippe, Kan., Bassia longifolia, Willd., Safotaceje. 

Gum ; 
Hirabol, Hind., Balsamodendron Myrrha, Nees., Burserace.k , 

Gum ; 
Hirada, Mahr., Terminalia Chebula, Reig., CoMBRETACEiE. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Oil ; 

50 Index to Volume I of the Catalogue of 

Mnidalrhana, Mahr.^ Calamas Draco, WiUd., Palm je. 

Gum ; 
Hiiada Uhub, Hind^ Calaxnos Draco, Willd., Palm Ji. 

Gam ; 
Hinkosh, Hind,, Beng.^ Proto-Sulphate of Iron, 

Dje ; 
Hinuidocfiy Makr.f Dregea volabQb, Beutk., Asclkfiabkm, 

Fibre ; 
BQtal, Beng,j Phioeniz paludoss, Roxb^ FaluM, 

Fibre ; 
Hlo-sarkiot-kniij, Lepcha, Pruaos Paulus, Lin*., Rosacea, 

Gum ; 
Hlo«ii LepchUf Quercus pachyphilla, JCurM,^ Cupulifeils. 

Dye ; Tan ; 
Hman, Burm., Feronia Elephantum* Corr^ Rutaceji. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Hnrfarseflc, Burm., Antiaris toxicaria, Leech., URTiCACEiE. 

Gum ; 
Hnan, Burm., Sesamum indicumi Linn,, Pedalinb^. 

Hoanlongyaing^, Burm., Acacia Farnesiana, Willd., Leguh iNOSiE. 

Tan ; 
Hogla, Beng., Typha Elephantina, Roxb., TvPHACBiB, 

Fibre ; 
Hog^ PlniBy Eng^ Spondias mangifera, Perz,» Anacakdi- 

ACE.M. Gum ; 
Hog:. Sea, See Dngfone Oil 

Oil ; 
HoQy-bock, Eng,, AlthcBa rosea, Linn., MALVACRis. 

HoUy-leftred Oak, Eng., Quercus Ilex, Linn,, CuPULiFBR^e. 

Tan ; 
Holm Oak, Eng., Quercus Ilex, Linn,, Cupulifkrc 

Tan ; 
Horn, Phekial, Strobilanthes flaccidifolius, Nees., Acanthace/E. 

Dye ; 
HoofiTC* Ean^ Bassia latifolia, Roxb., Sapotacbjb. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Hooi, Bom., PterocarpQS Marsupium, Roxb., Lbguminosa. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
HooiB, Bom., Saccopetalum tomeotosum, Hook.f.,AHONACKM. 

Gum ; 
Hoci, Ctngh., Dipterocarpus zeylanicos, Tkmaites, Diptbkocarpe.s. 

Oil ; 
Hofse-iadish Tree, Eng.^ Moringa pterygo^terma, Gaertn., Moringrs. 

Gum ; Tan ; Fibre ; 
Hortaki, Cachar, Terminalia dtrina, Roxb., Combrrtacra. 

Dye ; 
Hom-sorat, ^4^., Girardinia heterophylla, Decaisne, Urticacrs. 

Fibre ; 
Hotai, SolanU, Balsamodendron Playfairii, Hook./., Burseracea. 

Gum ; 
Hpalan* Burm.^ Bauhinia racemosa, Lam., Leguminos^b. 

Gum ; 
Hpet-woona, Burm., Berrya Ammonilla., Roxb., Tiliacrji. 

Fibre ; 
Hob-nl-mnshk, Arab,, Hibiscus Abdmoschus,, Linn, Malvace^s. 

Fibre ; 
Hinle-de-Castor, Fr., Ricinus coi^mimis, Limn., EuPHORSiACRiK. 

OU ; 
Hnile-de-S^ame, Fr., Sesamuin indicuii^ Linn,, Fedajluukje, 

Oil : 


the Economic Prdducts of Itidta. 51 

Hujed, Arah,-t Adansonia dieitata, £mn., MalvAC&A. 

Hukmchily PhoenLc sylvestris, Roxh,, PalMJI. 

Gum ; 
Hulashingf, Ph.^ Rhus semialatai Murray^ AkacardiacHa. 

Oil ; 
Hnldi kungf, Ilind.t Setig.t Morinda citrifolia, Linn.t var. bracteata, 

RuBiACBA. Dye i 
Hvldi kting, Lepcha, Morinda persicsefolia, ffam.t RuBiACSiB. 

Dye ; 
Hnl-knusa, Bva., Beng^,j Leucus cephulotes, Spreng, Labiatjb. 

Dye ; Oil ; 
ntilluch, Ass,, Terminalia belerica, Roxb., Combretacbjb. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Hiingai, Hind,, Abutilon asiaticum, G, Don*, MalvacilM, 

Fibre ; 
HuragalUj Mysore, Chlorozylon Swietenia, DC,, Mbliacejb. 

Gum ; 
Hurdi, Hind., Beng,, Morinda citrifolia, Linn,, var. bracteata, Rub iacbjb. 

Dye ; 
Hnrhuria, Beng., Cleome viscosa, Linn,, Capparidsa. 

Oil ; 

Humala, Bom,, Piganum Harihala, Linn,, Rutacba, 
Dye J 

Ichal, Kan,, Phoenix farinefera, Willd., PALMiB. 

Ichal, Kan., Phoenix sylvestris, Roxb., F^alMA. 

Fibre ; 
Ij41, Hind., Barringtonia acutangula, Oaetin., MvRTACBiE. 

Tan ; 
Ililchi, Beng.y ffind.j Amomum subulatum, Roxb., Scitaminb^. 
Ilang-ilang, Eng., Mai., Cananga odorata, H.f. & T., Anonacba. 

Oil ; 
Illavam, Tam,, Eriodendron anfractuosum, DC, MALVACBiS. 

Oil ; 
niavaniy Tam,, Bombax malabaricum, DC, Malvacba. 

Gum ; Dye ; Fibre ; Oil j 
lUipi butter, see Bassia latifolia, Roxb,, Sapotacrs. 

Oil ; 
Illupi, 7am., Bassia latifolia, Roxb., Sapotacbjc. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Oil j 
Imbul, Cingh., Eriodendron anfractuosum, DC, Malvacb^. 

Imburel, Tam., Oldenlandia umbellata, Linn., Rubiacba. 

Dye ; 
Imli, Hind,, Tamarindus indica, Linn., Lbguminosjb. 

Gum ; Dye ; Mordant ; Oil ; 
1% Burm,, Dipterocarpus tuberculatus, Roxb., DiPTBROCARPEiS. 

Gum ; 
Ind, Hind,, Ricinus communis, Linn., Euphorbiacba. 

Mordant ; 
Inderjau, Hind., Holarrhena antidysenterica, WaU,, ApocYNACBitf. 

Oil ; . 
India-rubbery Eng,^ Ficus elastica, Bl., Urticacbjb. 

Gum ; 
Indigo, Eng,, Indigofera tinctoria, Linn,, Lbguminos/b. 

Dye ; Oil ; 

52 Index to Volume I of the Catalogue of 

ligo, Ceylon, E%g.^ Tephrosia tinctoria, Pers.t LBGUiiiN08.s« 

Dye ; Oil ; 
Indraphal, Makr.^ Citnillus colocynthis, S'cArai^., Cucurbitace^. 

Oil ; 
Iildfmwan, £Vc*, Citrullus Colocynthis, Schrad., Cucurbitacb^. 

Oil ; 
Indnyan, Hind^t Mahr^ Citnillus Colocynthis, Sckrad., Cucurbitacea. 

OU ; 
IngDA, Hind,, Balanites Roxburghii, Planch., Simarubea. 

Oil ; 
InSfiiva, Tel,, Ferula narthex, Boiss., UMBSLLiFSRiS. 

Oil ; 
InS^yiD, Burm., Shorea Siamensis, Miq., DiPTBROCARPEiE. 

Gum ; 
Ippa, Tel,, Mimusops manilkara, Don., Sapotacba. 

Gum ; 
Ippi, Tel., Bassia longifolia, WUld., Sapotacba. 

Grum ; Dye ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Irak, Arab., Salvadora persica, Linn., SALVADORACBiE. 

Oil' ; 
Inq;m, Tam., Cynometra xamiflora, Linn., LBGUMiNOSiE. 

Dye ; Oil ; 
Iripa, Mai., Cynometra cauliflora, Linn., LBGUMiNOSiC. 

. Oil ; 
Iris, Ef^., Iris florentina, Linn., Iridacb^. 

Oil ; 
Iroa-^700d Tree, Eng., Xylia dulabriformis, Benth., Leguminosje. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Iroopoo, Kan., Cynometra ramiflora, Linn., Lbguminosa. 

^ Dye ; Oil ; 
Irrip, Gond., Bassia latifolia, Roxb., Sapotacbjc. 

Gum ; Dyt ; Tan ; 
Iml, Tam^ Xylia dolabriformis, Benth., Lbguminosjs. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Ir6p, Gond, Bassia latifolia, Roxb., Sapotacbal 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Isband Lahonri, Pb., (seeds of) Peganum Harmala, Linn,, Rutace^. 

Dye ; Oil ; 
Iser, Kashmir, Prunus armeniaca, Linn., RoSACBiE. 

Oil ; 
Iskabena, Pers., Sagabenum. 

Gum ; 
Ispanaj, Arab., Spinacia oleracea, Mill., CHENOPOOiACEiS. 

Oil ; 
Ispanda, Bom., Peganum Harmala, Linn., RuTACEiE. 

Dye ; 
Itah, Godavari, Helicteres Isora, Linn., STBRCULiACEiE. 

Fibre ; 

Jack-firnit Tree, Eng., Artocarpus integrifolia, Linn,, Urticaceje. 

Gum ; Dye ; Fibre ; 
Jack Tree, VHld, Eng., Artocarpu3 hirsuta, Lamk., URTiCACEiE. 

Gum ; 
Jadi, Kan,, Tectona grandis, Zmit., VERBENACBiB. 

Gum ; Dye ; 
Jadicai, Tam,, Myristica moschata, Willd., Myristicba. 

Oil ; 
Jaephal, Hind., Myristica moschata, Willd., Myristice^. 

Oil ; 

the Economic Products of India. 53 

J^firan, Beng.^ Crocus sativus, Linn.f Iridacejb. 

Dye ; 
Jagfg^arwah, C. P,, Cassia Fistula, Linn., Lbguminosa. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Jahi, Kufnaun, Jasminum grandiflorum, Linn.f Oleacbjb. 

Jai, Pb., Jasminum humile, Linn.f OLEACEiB. 

Dye ; 
Jala-phula, Beng.^ Myristica moschata, Willd y MYRiSTiCEiS. 

Oil ; 
Jaida rami. Hind,, Calamus Draco, Willd , Palma. 

Gum ; 
Jaipal (Nutmeg). Hind,, Myristica moschata, Willd.y MYRiSTiCBiE. 

Oil ; 
Jaipatii, Bom.^ Myristica moschata, Willd. ^ Myristice^. 

Oil ; 
Jaiphal-jari, Garhwaly Memorialis pentandra, Wedd., URTiCACEiC, 

Fibre ; 
Jait, Hind., Sesbania aegyptica, Pers.t LEGUMiNOSiE. 

^ Fibre ; 
Jajikala, Tel., Myristica moschata, Wall,, MYRiSTiCBiS. 

Jal, Pb,, Salvadora Oleoides, Linn., Salvadorace^. 

Dye ; Oil ; 
Jalghoza, A/g., Pinus Gerardiana, Wall., Conifbr^b. 

Oil ; 
Jali, Kan., Acacia Farnesiana, Willd,, Lbguminosa. 

Gum ; 
Jallaur, Hind., Bauhinia Vahlii, W, & A., LBGUMiNOSi^. 

Fibre ; 
Jallur, Hind., Bauhinia Vahlii, W, & A,, Leguminosje, 

Gum ; 
Jam, Beng., Eugenia Jambolana, Lam., Myrtacb^. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Jama, Tel., Psidium Guava, Raddi, Myrtace^. 

Dye ; Tan ; 
Jamalagota, Mahr., Croton Tiglium, Linn., EupHORBiACEiB 

Oil ; 
Jamaleota, Hind,, Croton Tiglium, Linn,, Euphorbiace.c 

Oil ; 
JiuBan, Hind,, Eugenia Jambolana, Lam., Myrtace^e. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Jamba, Mahr., Xylia dolabriformis, Benth., LBGUMiNOSiC. 

Oil ; 
Jambe, Kan., Xylia dolabriformis, Benth., LEGUMiNOSiC. 

Gum ; 
Jambira, Sans,, Citrus medica, Linn., var. acida, Rutacejb. 

Gum ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Jambu, Hind., Xylia dolabriformis, Benth., LEGUMiNOSiE. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Jamne-munda, Nepal., Berberis nepalensis, Spreng., BERBERiDEiE. 

Dye ; 
Jamoon, Hind., Eugenia Jambolana, Lam., MYRTACEiS. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Jamu, Ass., Eugenia Jambolana, Lam,, MYRTACEiC. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
"Ika, Pb., Girardinia heterophylla, Decaisne, Urticace^. 

Fibre ; 
Jangama, Bom., Flacourtia Cataphracta, Roxb,, BixiNEiE. 

9il ; 
Jang^, Him. name, Corylus Colurna, Linn., Cupulifer^. 

Oil : 

54 Index to Volume I of the Catalogue of 

JmagfUU'WatamMt Bom., Agave americana, Linn,, Amastllidle. 

Fibre ; 
Jaasalibttdaiiiy Makr^ Stercnlia foetida, £s«s., STEKcm-iACEiK. 

JaDgla bttdoi, Hind^ Canarium eomuniiie, Limn^ BuKSKRACEik 

Gam ; 
JutUffieatadm, Bowu, Jatropha glandolifera, Roxh,, Ecphokbiac&c. 

Dje ; 
Jftogfi fanhml. Dee*, Clcome Tisoosa, linn , CArrASLWEM. 

OU ; 
JmtjbMB, Hind^ Sesbania aegyptica, /Vrs., Lsgumiko&s. 

Fibre ; 
}9a6m, Hind^ Sponia politoria, Planck^ Usticacbjl 

Fibre ; 
Jafiwa, Pb.t EbDodendron glancnm, Pers^ Cblastrinex. 

Gam ; 
Jiphala, Miakr., Aleorites mohuxana, Willd^, Euphorbiaceje. 

on ; 

JasS^, Tel», Woodfordia floribonda, Salisb., LvTHRACSiE. 

Gam ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Jarijm, Hind., Brassica campestris, Linn., CRUCjFBRiE. 

Oil ; 
J«iki-hiildi| Dee., Hind., Cosciniom fenestratom, Cdebr., Mbnispbrmacsa. 

Dye ; 
Janily Beng., Lagerstroemia Flos-Reginae^ Ret»^ Ltthracbs. 

Gam ; 
JatavandA, Bom,, Hibiscas rosa^inensis, Linn., Malvac&s;. 

Dye ; Fibre ; 
JatlitliiMldhn, Beng,, Bom,, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Unn^ Lbguminos& 

Dye ; 
J ■■mine, Arabian, Eng, Jasminom Sambac, Aiton., Olbac&s. 

Oil ; 
JaMBUie, Sponnll, Eng,, Jasminom grandifiornm, Linn*, OuBACSiE. 

oa ; 

Jttnm, Dec., Hind., Hibiscas rosa-sinensis, Linn., Malvacem, 

Dye ; Fibre ; 
Jasnt, Dec^ Hind., Hibiscos rosa-sinensis, Linn,, Malvacb^k. 

Dye ; Fibre ; 
J^tamatwl, Beng., Nardostachys Jatamansi, DC., VALERiANACBiE. 

Oil ; 
Jati, Mai., Tectona grandis, Linn., Vbrbenacbx. 

Gam ; Dye ; Oil ; 
Jati, Hind., Beng., Sans., Jasminum graadiflorom, Linn., Olbacb^e. 

Oil ; 
Jati, Hind., Myristica moschata, Willd., MvRiSTiCBiE. 

OU ; 
Jatiko, Uriya, Woodfordia floribunda, Salisb., Lythracejl 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Jatili, Ass., Akingia ezcelsa, Noronha, HAMALiDBiB. 

Gum ; 
jBtiphala, Sans., Myristica moschata, WiUd,, Myristicb.^. 

OU ; 
JatipiilluiB, Cingh., Myrbtica moschata, Willd., MmiSTiCEAS. 

OU ; 
Jan, Hind, Beng., Tamariz dioica, Roxb., TAMARisciNEiE. 

Gum ; 
Jaa, Hind., Beng., Casuarina equisetifolia, Forst., Casuarinacb^s. 

Gam ; Tan ; 
Jaimtari (Mace), Hind., Myristica moschata, Willd., Myristicbs. 

OU ; 
Javarpuahpamu, TV/., Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Linn., Malvacba 

Dye ; Fibre ; 

the Economic Products of India. 55 

— \ 

Javasa, Bom,i Linum asitatissimtim, Linn., LiNBiB. 

Fibre ; Oil ; 
Jawashir, Pers^ Ferula Galbaniflua, Boiss, Ubibellifer^. 

Gum ; 
Jayanti, Beng., Sesbania agyptica, Pers.y Leguminosje. 

Fibre ; 
Jayap^la, Sans., Croton Tiglium, Linn., EuprorbiacBjb. 

Oil ; 
Jaypal, Beng., Croton Tiglinm, Linn., EuPHORBiACEiE. 

Oil ; 
Jelladd, Tel., Calatropis procera, R. Br., AsCLEPiADBi«. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Fibre ; 
Jemudu, Tel., Euphorbia TiriicalH, £xnn,, EuPHORBiACEiE. 

Mordant ; 
Jenapariiara, Tel , Crotalaria juncea, Lin^, LsGUMiNOSiB. 

Fibre ; 
Jenappa-nar, Tam., Crotalaria juncea, Linn., LeguminOsj!^; 

Fibre ; 
Jethi-madh, Hind., Glycyrrhiza glabra, Linn., Leguminos^. 

^ Dye . ; 
Jnadihaladi, Dec, Coscinium fenestrahrm, Colebrooke, MlNisPERMACEi^t. 

Dye ; 
Jhal, Hind., Salvadora oleoides, Linn., SalvadoracejiS. 

Dye ; Oil ; 
Jhal, Raj., Salvadora persica, Linn., Salvadoracba. 

Oil ; 
Jhampi, Hind., Abutilon asiaticum, G. Don., Malvacbji. 

Fibre ; 
Jhand, Pb., Prosopis spicigera, Linn., LBGririNOSjB. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Jhar» Sind., Salvadora oleoides, Linn., SALVAbORACE^. 

Dye ; Oil ; 
Jhar, Pb., Salvadora persica, Linn., Salvadoracb^. 

Oil ; 
Jharambi, Mahr., Garcinia Xantbochymus, Hook.f., Guttifer*". 

Gum ; 
Jharan, (root of) Morinda citrifolia, Linn., Rubiack^. 

Dye ; 
Jhau, Hind., Sind., Beng., Tamarix articulata, VakL, T. di6ca, Roxh., and 

T. gallica, Linn , Tamariscine^. Dye ; Tan ; 
Jhaura, Hind., Lagerstroemia parviflora, Roxb., Lithrace^c. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Jhinga, Beng., Luffa acutaingula, Roxb., CucuRBiTACEifi. 

Jhingan, Hind., Odina Wodier, Roxb., ANACARDiACBiB. 

Gum ; Tan ; Fibre ; 
Jhinja, Ajmere, Bauhinia racemosa. Lam., Lbgumfnosa. 

Gum ; 
Jhinjan, Hind., Sesbania segyptica. Pets., Leguiuno&s. 

Fibre ; 
Jiaputa, Hind., Putranjiva, Roxburghii, Wall., EupHORBiACBiK. 

Oil ; 
Jiban, N.-W. P., Odinia Wodier, Roxb,, Anacardiace^k, 

Gum ; Tan ; Fibre ; 
Jidi, Tel., Semecarpud Anacardium, Linn.,f. Anacardiace^. 

Gum ; Dye ; Oil ; 
Jidi mamidi, Tel^ Anacardium occidentale, Linn., AKACARDkACE^^ 

Gum ; Tan ; Oils ; 
Jilledu-chettu, Tel., Calotropis gigantea, R. St., AscLEPiADEiE. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Fibre ; 
Jinga, Hind , Beng., Luffa acutangula, Roxb., CuCurbitaceuE. 

56 Index to Volume I of the Catalogue of 

Jinti, Chenabf Prinsepia utilis, Xoyle, Rosacea. 

Tint, Beng.y Carum Canii, Linn,, Uhbbllifbrji. 

Oil ; 
lira, Beng,, Cuminnm Cyminum, Linn.y Umbbllifera. 

Oil 5 , 

Jiraka, Sans., TeL, Cuminum Cyminum, Linn., Umbbllifera. 

Oil ; 
Jiri, Tel., Semicarpus Anacardium, Linn , Anacardiacea. 

Gum ; Dye ; Oil ; 
Jiyal, Seng., Odina Wodier, Xoxh. 

Gum ; Tan ; Fibre ; 
Joba, Beng., Sans., Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Linn., Mklwacem. 

Dye ; Fibre ; 
Jonkaphal, Hind., Helicteres Isora., Linn., STERCULiACBiE. 

Fibre ; 
Jooreejttf, Sind., Casuarina equisetifolia, Forster., CASUARiNACEiB. 

Gum ; 
Joti-Juti, Hind., Putranjiva Roxburghii, Wall., EuPHORBiACEiE. 

Oil ; 
Jovi, Tel., Fiscus Tsiela, Roxb., Urticacejb. 

Fibre ; 
Iowa, Beng., Bambasa Tulda, Roxb., Graminba. 

Fibre ; 
Jowan, Beng., Carum copticum, Benth*, UMBSLLiFERiS. 

Oil ; , 
Juari, Pb., Jasminum humile, Linn., OLEACBiS. 

Dye ; 
Jaephal, Hind., Myristica moschata, Willd , Myristice/B. 

Oil ; 
Jnk, Pb., Impatiens Balsamina, Linn,, GBRANiACBiE. 

Dye ; 
Jnk, Pb., Impatiens Edgeworthii, Hook., GBRANiACEiB. 

Oil ; ^ 

JuflHy Beng., Garuga pinnata, Roxb., Bursbraceje. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Jimgli badam-ka-tel, Hind., Neeradimootoo oil. 

Oil 5 
Jupong^, Ass., Sponia orientalis, Planch.^ Urticacejs. 

Gum I 
Jurfjor, Sind,, Casuarina equisetifolia, Forst., Casuarinacea. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Jute, Eng., Corchorus olitorius, Linn., and C. capsularis, Linn., Tiliacb^ 

Fibre ; 
Jute, American, Eng,, Alentilon avecennae, Gaertn., Malvaceae. 

Fibre ; 
Juwa, Beng., Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Linn., Malvace-«. 

Dye ; Fibre ; 
Jy-chcc, Beng., Euphorbia dracunculoides. Lam,, Euphorbiacea. 

Oil ; 


Kaat-amnncky Tam., Jatropha Curcas, Euphorbiaceje. 

Kabab-chini, Bei^., Guz., Piper Cubeba, Linn., Pipbracejs. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Kabaing, Burm., Ceriops Roxburghiana, Arnoti., Rhizophore^ 

Tan ; 
Kabaly Cingh., Albizzia stipulata, Boivin, Leguminosjb. 


the Economic Products of India, 57 

Kabanngf, Burm., Strychnos Nuz-vomica, Linn.y Lbguminosa. 

Dye ; Oil ; 
Kabbflir, Sind., Salvadora oleoides, f^inn,^ Salvadorace^. 

Dye ; Oil ; 
Kabbar, Sind., Salvadora persica, Linn., Salvadoracb^. 

Oil ; 
Kabeng^, Burnt., Cynometra ramiflora, Linn., Lbguminos^. 

Dye ; Oil ; 
Kachal, Kashmir^ Abies Smithiana, Forbes, Conifers. 

Gum ; 
Kachara, Bom., Cypems rotundus, Linn., Cypbracba. 

Dye ; 
Kachein, Suilej., Melia Azedarach, Linn., Meliace^. 

Oil ; 
Kachfr, Hind., Cornus macrophylla, Wall., CoRNACEiE. 

Oil ; 
Kachnal, Hind., Bauhiniaracemosa, Lam.^ LsGUMiNOSiB. 

Gum ; 
Kachnir, Hind., Bauhinia variegata, Linn., Leguminosa. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Kachnar, Hind., Bauhinia tomentosa, Linn., LBGUMiNOSiC. « 

Fibre ; Oil ; 
Kachnar, Hind,, Bauhinia acuminata, Linn., LBGUMiNOSiS. 

Oil ; 
Kachori, Bom., Curcuma aromatica, Salisb., Scitamine^. 

Dye ; 
Kachor4, Bom., Curcuma zerumbet, Hoscoe., (non-Roxh.), Scitaminea. 

Dye ; 
Kachu, Kan., Acacia Catechu, Willd., Lbguminos^. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Kachnr, Hind., Cornus macrophylla. Wall., Cornacea. 

Oil ; 
Kachar4, Hind., Curcuma zedoaria, Roscoe, {non-Roxb), SciTAMiNEiE. 

Dve ; 
Kachur-Kachu, Pb., Hedychium spicatum, Ham., Scitaminb/E. 

Dye ; 
Kadag^ho, Tam., Brassica nigra, Koch., CRUCiFERiE. 

Oil ; 
Kadakai, Tam., Terminalia Chebula, Rets., Combretacbjc. 

Gum ; Dye, Tan ; Oil ; 
Kadalay, Oicer arietinum, Linn., LBGUMiNoa/B. 

D;re ; 
Kadah, 7am., Lagerstrcemia Flos-Reginae, Reta., Lythracba. 

Gum ; 
Kadali, Sans., Musa paradisiaca, & M. sapientum, Linn., SciTAMiNEiC. 

Dye ; Fibre ; 
Kadam, Nepal., Jatropha Curcas, Linn., Euphorbiacb^e. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Kada-mi,, 7am., Cerberaodallam, Gaertn., ApocvNEiE. 

Fibre ; Oil ; 
Kadami, TV/., Eriodendron anfractuosum, DC., MALVACEiE. 

Oil ; 
Kadapg^nam, Burm., Cananga odorata, Hook.f, & T., ANONACEiE. 

Kadar, Arab., Pandanus odoratissimus, Willd., Pandanb^e. 

Fibre ; 
Kaddu, Hind., Pb., Lagenaria vulgaris, DC, CucuRBiTACEiE. 

Oil ; 
Kaddu, Safed, Beng., Hind., Cucurbita Pepo, DC., CucuRBiTACBiE. 

Oil ; 
Kadet, Burm., Crataeva religiosa, Forst, Capparide^e. 
Dye ; 

58 Index to Volume I of the Catalogue of 

Kadi, Pers.^ Pandanus odoratissimus, Willd., Pandanbac. 

Fibre ; 
Kadfrnah, Beng,^ Hind,y Cocarbita Pepo, DC,t CucurbitAcisa; 

Oil ; 
Kadmero, Nepali Tetrantbera monopetala^ Rexb., Laurinba. 

Oil ; 
Kadol, Cingh,, Rbijeopbora mtiCTonata, Lamk., RhizophorbvB. 

Tan ; 
Kadot-kadet, Burm.y Connams speciosus, McLelL, Coi«KARACBiC. 

Oil ; 
KadmjitTi, Tel., Putranjiya RoKbargbii, Wall,, EuPHORBiACSiS. 

Oil ; 
Kadu, Hind., Cucurbita maxima, Duchesne^ Cucurbitacb^ 

Kadn, Nepal, Gynocardia odorata, R, Br.j Bixina. 

Oil ; 
Kadnkar, Tel., Terminalia Cbebula, ReiM., CoMRRBTACEiB. 

Oil ; 
Kalnr, Hind., Pers., Camphor. 

Oil ; 
Kagara, Hind., Afahr., Saccbarum spontaneum, Linn.f GBAMiffEiC. 

Kagbati, Nepal, Edgeworthia Gardneri, Meisn., TnyMELJEACtje, 

Fibre ; 
Kaghuti, Nepal, Dapbne papyraoea, Wall., Thymelj&acbm. 

Ffbre ; 
Kagiri, Khasia, Ficus elastica, Bi., Urticacbji. 

Gum ; 
Kagshi, Kumaun.i Villebruiiea friitesceas, Blume, URTiCACEiC. 

Fibre ; 
KaStitxxjtlk, Lepcka, (in Gamble's list) Hedyotis (aipitellata, WaU, 

Rubiacb^. Dye ; 
Kahi, Pb, S4ccbanim spontaneum, Linn., Graminea. 

Kahu, Hind., Lagenaria vulgaris, DC. Composit/b. 

Oil ; 
Kahu, Sind., Sdccbarum spontaneum, Linn., GRABitNEiv. 

Fibre ; 
Kahiia. Hind., Terminalia Arjuaa, ^«</£l., Combretaceje. 

Gum ; Dye, Tan ; 
Kaida, Mai., Pandanus odoratissimxis, Willd., Pandane^. 

Fibre ; 
Kai-day, Mechi., Symplocos racemosa, Hoxb., SxYRACEiE. 

Dye ; Tan ; Mordant ; 
Kaikar, Hind., CJ*. Garuga pinnata, Roxb., Burseracea. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Kaikni, Gond, Odina Wodier, Roxh.^ Anacardiceajb. 

Grum ; Tan ; Fibre ; 
Kail, Hind., Pinus excelsa, WaU, CoNiPERiti. 

Gum ; 
Kaimal, Hind., Odina Wodier, R^txb., Anacardiace/k. 

Gum ; Tan ; Fibre ; 

Kain, Pb., Ulmus Wallichiana, Planch., Urticace«. 

Fibre ; 
Kaiphal, iV.-PT. P., Myrica sapida» Wall., Myricacea 

^ Tan ; 
Kaisho, Ass., Briedelia montana) Willd., Euprorbiace:^. 

Tan ; 
Kaist, Tarn., Feronia EIephantum> Corr., RuxACEiB. 

Oil ; 
Kait, Hind., Feronia Elephantum, Cofr., Rutacejb. 
Oil : 


the Economic Products of India. 5^ 

Kaita-du, And.^ Artocarpus Chaplasha, Roxh., Urticacea. 

Gum ; 
Kajra, Hind.^ Makr.t Strychnos Nux-vomica, Linn., Loganiace^. 

Dye ; Oil ; 
Kaju, Mahr.j Hind.y Bom.^ Anacardium oocidentale, Linn.y AnacardiaceJI. 

Gum ; Tan ; Dye ; Oil ; 
Kaka, Pb.^ Pistacia integerrima, % L, Stewart^ Anacardiacbjs. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Kakadasingf, Boin.y (Galls oQ Rhus saccedanea, Linn.^ Anacardiacf^. 

Oil ; 
Kakadi, Bom,, Cucamis MeIo> L., utilissimus (sp, Boxb,), Cucurbitacea 

Oil ; 
K^Lkadi, Bom,^ Cucumis sativus, L^ Cucurbitace^. 

Oil ; 
KakamAii, Sans., Ananurta coculus, W, & A,, Meni sperm aceje. 

Oils ; 
Kakari-kai, Tam., Cucumis Melo, L., momordica {sp, Roxb.) Cucurbi- 

TACEiE. Oil ; 

Kaki, Tarn., Cassia Fistula, Linn^ Leguminosji. 

Gum ; 
Kaki-champa, TeL^ Anamirta Coculus, PT. &^., MENispERMACBiE. 

Oils ; 
Kakkar, P^., Pistacia iutegerrimay J. L, Stewari^ Anacasdiace^. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
K&kXBaxi, Hind,, Dec^ Anamirta Coculus, W. & A.^ Menispermaceje. 

Oils ; 
Kdkola, Mahr.f Piper Cubeba, Linn./.f Piperace^b. 

Oil ; 
Kakrai Beng.^ Bruguiera gymnorhiza, Lam.j Rhizopitore^. 

Tan ; 
Kakrasinghi, Beng,, Pistacia integerrima, y. L, Stewart , ANACARi>tACEJE. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Kakrezi, Furukkabady Iron Sulphate. 

Dye ; 
Kakri, Beng.^ Cucumis Melo, £., utilissimus {sp, Roxb) CucuRBFTACEiS. 

Oil ; 
Kakri, Pb.y Rhus semialata, Murray^ ANACARDiACEiB. 

Oil ; 
Kaksh, ffind,t Cornus macrophylla, Wall,j Cornace/e:. 

Oil ; 
Kala, Beng,, Musa paradisica, and M. sapientum, Linn,, SciTAMiNEiE. 

Dye ; Fibre ; 
Kala, Hind.f Beng.y Tel.j Ocimum sanctum, var, sanctum, LABiATiB. 

Oil ; 
Kala-buntha, Tam.y Aloe vera, Llliaceje. 

Dye ; Fibre ; 
Kala dammar, Hind.^ Beng.tGug., Canarium strictum, Roxh,y Burseracbs. 

Gum ; 
KaUi'gofu, TV/., Stereospermum suaveolens, DC, BiONONiACBiB. 

Gum ; 
Kalaka, Tam.y Carissa Carandas, Linn,, Apocynace^. 

Dye ; Tan ; 

K^lakadd, Bom.^ Mahr,, Hymenodictyon excelsum, Wall., Rubiace^e. 

Tan ; 
Kalakadu, Mahr.t Hind.^ Wrightia tinctoria, R. Br., Apocynace^. 

Dye ; 
Kala-kastiiri, Beng., Hibiscus Abelmoschus, Linn., MALVACEiE. 

Fibre ; 
Kalakat, Pb,, Prunus Padus, Linn., Rosacejb. 

Gum ; 
Kalanikh, Mahr., Dalbergia latifolia, Roxb., LEGUMiNOSiS. 

Oil : 

6o Index to Volume I of the Catalogue of 

Kalammda, Mahr.^ Barleria prionitis, Linn., AcANTHACEiK. 

Gum ; 
Kah-til, Hind., Guizoda abssyinica, Cass^ Compositje. 

Oil ; 
Kala titamliym, Kumaun, Vibumam ooriaoeiim, BLy Capri FOLLiACSiE. 

Oil ; 
KaJL-hmffld^ Kan,, Albizzia sdpulata, Botvin, Legum inosa . 

Gum ; 
Kal-bftgfait Kan., Albizzia Lebbek, i?^if/A.,LBGUMiNOSA. 

Gum ; 
Kalfin, Burm., Oesalpinia BondnceUa, Roxb., Legum iNOSiS. 

OU ; 
Kalejait (color produced from) Caesalpinia Sappan, Linn., LEGUMiNOSiS | 

Dje ; 
Kalefai, Allahabad, see Iron Sulphate. 

Dje ; 
Kal^irm, Bom^ Hind., Nigella sativa, Linn., RANUKCULACSiE. 

Kafiendym, Burm,, Caesalpinta Bondncella, Roxb., LBGUMiNOSiE. 


Hind., Vemonia anthelmintica, Willd., CoMPOSiTiE. 

Kafilara, Nepal., Marsdenia tinctoria, R. Br,, Asclbpiao&s. 

Fibre ; Dje ; 

Kalingada, Mahr., CitruUus vulgaris, Schrad., CucuRBiTACEiE. 

OU ; 
Kalln, Salt Range, Chamaerops Ritchieana, . Griff. ^ Pal ma. 

Fibre ; 
KafimB, Salt Range, Chamaerops Ritchieana, Griff., Pal ma. 

Fibre ; 
Kalivikayl^ Tel., Carissa Carandas, Linn., Apocynacra. 

Dye ; Tan ; 
Kafi-zeecie» Dec, Vemonia anthelmintica., Willd,, Composite. 

Oil ; 
Kalkifiiigiy Nilqiris, Cedrela Toona, Roxb., Maliacrb. 

Gum ; Dye ; 
KaUa-kaatmi, Hind., Hibiscus Abelmoschus, Linn,, Malvacrs. 

Fibre ; 
Kally Chemnda, Tel., Euphorbia Tirucalli, Linn., Euphorbiacba. 

Mordant ; 
Kalongiy Bom., Hind., Nigella sativa, Linn., Ranunculacrs. 

Oil ; 
Kaka, Ajmir, Sterculia urens, Roxb., Stbrculiacba. 

Gum ; 
Kalsis, Hind., Abbizzia Lebbek, Bentk., Lbguminosjk. 

Gum ; Tan ; Oils ; 
Kalwa, Burm., Cerbera OdoUam., Gaertn., Apocynacra. 

Fibre ; OU 
Kalyana-mnnildcay 7am., Erythrina indica. Lam., Leguminosa. 

Gum ; l>ye ; Fibre ; 
Kamal, Mysore, Tamarindus indica, Linn., Leguminosa. 

Gum ; Dye ; Mordant ; OU ; 
Kamal, Pb,, Hind., Mallotus philippinensis. Mull. Arg., Euphorbiacea. 

Dve ; 
Kamala, Sind,, Nelumbium speciosum., Willd., Nymphaacra. 

Fibre ; 
Kafludakadi, Sind., Nelumbium speciosum, WiUd,, Nymphaacea. 

Fibre ; 

i, Beng., Mallotus phUippinensis, Midi. Arg., EupHORBiACSiE. 

Dye ; OU ; 
Kamaiottarm, Sans., Carthamus tinctoria, Linn., Composite. 
Dye ; OU ; 

the Economic Products of India, 6i 

Kamanji, 7am., Briedelia retusa, Spreng.^ EuPHORBiACBiS. 

Tan ; 
Kamarakas, N.-W. P. (Gam of) Butea frondosaj Roxb,^ LEcuMiNOSiS. 

Gum ; 
Kamarri, Hind.y Gus.^ Gardenia gummifera, Linn.f Rubiacb^. 

Gum ; 
Kambal, Pb., Rhus Wallichii, Hook./., Anacardiacea. 

Kambi, Kan.^ Gardenia gummifera, Linn.f Rubiacea. 

Gum ; 
Kambu, Tam.^ Penicillaria spicata, Willd., Gram ink A. 

Dve ; 
Kamela, Pb., Hind., Mallotus philippinensis, MiUl.-Arg Gramine^. 

Dye ; Oil ; 
Kam kasturiy Kan., Ocimum Basilicum., Linn,, Labiates. 

Fibre ; 
Kamliu, Hind., Odina Wodier, Roxb., Anacardiacea. 

Gum ; Tan ; Fibre ; 
Kamli, Nepal., Bohmeria macrophylla, Don., Urticacba. • 

Fibre ; 
Kamtni, Beng., Murraya exotica, Linn. (Murraya Koenigii, Spr.,) RuTACEiE. 

Oil ; 
KasBsaarega, TeL^ Artocarpus Lakoocha, Roxh., Urticaceje. 

Gum ; Dye ; Fibre ; 
Kamo, Sind., Rhizophora mucronata, Lamk., Rhizophore^. 

Tan ; 
Kampilla, Sans.^ Mallotus philippinensis, MUll.-Arg.y EuPHORBiACEiB. 

Kamra, Kan.^ Hardwickia binata, Roxb.^ Leguminosjb. 

Gum ; 
K^mrang^a, Beng,, Averrhoa Carambola, Linn., Geraniace^. 

Dye ; 
Kamwepila, 7am., Murraya Koenicrii, Spr,, Rutacea. 

Kan, 7am., Pterocarpus lAdssyi^mm., Roxb,, Lbguminosa. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Kana, Pb., Saccharum Munja, Roxb., Gramine^. 

Fibre ; 
Kanagi, Kan., Myristica malabarica. Lam., Myristicea. 

Oil ; 
Kana^goraka, Cingh., Garcinia Morella, Desr.^ Guttifera. 

Gum ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Kanalla, Hind.^ Bauhinia retusa, Ham., LBGUMiNOSiB. 

Gum ; 
Kanala, Dec, Albizzia procera, Benih., Leguminosjb. 

Gum ; 
Kanana erand, Sans., Jatropha Curcas, Linn,, Euphorbiacea. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Kanapa, TV/., Barringtonia acutangula, Gaertn., MvRTACEiE. 

Tan ; 
Kanazo, ^Mrm., Baccaurea sapida, MUll.-Arg,, EuPHORBiACEiE. 

Dye ; Mordant ; 
KiLnchan, Makr., Bauhinia, variegata, Linn., Leguminos^. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Kanchan, Beng., Bauhinia acuminata, Linn,, Leguminos^. 

Oil ; 
Kiinchan, Tel., Bauhinia purpurea, Linn., Leguminosjb. 

Grum ; Dye ; Tan ; Fibre ; 
Kanchini, 7am., Bauhinia tomentosa., Linn., LsGUMiNOSiE. 

Fibre ; Oil ; 
Kanchivalo-do, Kan., Bauhinia variegata, Linn., Leguminosji. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Oil : 

62 Index to Volume I of the Catalogue of 

Kanchn, TV/., Acacia Catechu, Willd,^ Lbgumxnosac. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Kanda, Mahr.^ Allium Cepa, Ztnn., Liliacba. 

Oil ; 
Kandal, Bokhara, Dorema Ammoniacum, Don., VuBELUtKRM. 

Oil ; 
Kandalanga, Tarn,, Carapa moluccensis, Lam. Meliacbjb. 

Gum s Oil ; 
KjknAma, Hind., Bauhmia variegata, Linn., LBGUMiNOSiS. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Kaadan, Hind., Bauhinia purpurea, Linn., LEGUUiNOSiB. 

Gum ; Dye '; Tan ; Fibre ; 
Kandi, Sind, Prosopis spicigera, Linn., Lequmxnosx. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Kaodiarmy Pb., Carthamus ozyacantha, Bieb», Composite. 

Oil ; 
Kandiari, Pb., Argemone mezicana, Linn., PAPAVERACEiB. 

Gum ; 
Kandira, Bom,, Musa teztilis, Louis., Nees., Scitamine^. 

Fibre ; 
Kandla, Hind., Bauhinia retusa, Ham.^ LsouKiNOSiE* 

Gum ; 
iQLiidnia, Mahr., Sterculia urens, Roxb., SrERCULiACEiS. 

Kaner, Hind., N.-W. P,, Pb., Nerium odonim, Soland, Apocynacea. 

Oil ; 
Kanga, TeL, Poneamia glabra, Vent., Lbguminosjb. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Kangai, ^»ff<2.,2Abutilon asiatlcum, G. Don., Malvace^. 

Fibre ; 
Kangar, P6., Pistacia integerrima, % L.Stewart, Anacardiacea. 

Gum ; Dye | Tan ; 
Kangar, N.-W. P., Anthistiria arundinacae, Roxb,, Gramine^. 

Fibre ; 
Kanghi, Hind., Abutilon asiaticum, G. Don., Malvaceae. 

Fibre ; 
Kangi, Nepal., Wendlandia tinctoria, DC, Rubiace^. 

Mordant ; 
Kangltt, Pb., Sponia politoria, Planch., Urticacrs. 

Fibre ; 
Kangoi, Dec, Abutilon asiaticum, G. Don., Malvace^ 

Fibre ; 
Kangfuni, Bom., Celastrus paniculatus, Willd., Cblastrinba. 

Oil ; 
Kanheia, Bom., Nerium odorum, Soland., Apocynacba. 

Oil ; 
ICanhil, Lepcha, Lagerstrcemiaparviflora, Roxb., Lythracba. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Kanlar, Hind., Bauhinia variegata, Linn,, Leguminosa. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Kasxiar, Hind., Bauhinia purpurea, Linn., LBGUMiNOSiS. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Kamra, Kan, Pb., Nerium odomm, Soland., A^ocyi^acea. 

Oil ; 
Kaniyur, Hind., N.^W. P., Nerium odorum, Soland., Apocynacbjb. 

Oil ; 
Kanj, Hind., Toddalta aculeata. Pets., Rutaoba. 

Dye ; 
Kanju, Kumaun, Ulmus integnfolia, Roxb., URTxCACiB. 

Kaoka, TeU, Dendrocaktmua HamUtonii, Nees., Grahinba. 

Fibre : 

the Economic Products of India. 63 

Kanka, TV/., Dendrocalamus strictusi Nees,^ Graminb^. 

Fibre ; 
Kankada, Bom., Garuga pinnata, Roxb.^ Bursbracbje. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Kankola, Bom,^ Piper Chaba, Bl.y Pxpbracea. 

Dye ; 
Kankola, Mahr., Piper Cubeba, Linn,, Piperacem, 

Gum ; 
Kankra, Beng,, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Linn., Rhizophorbs. 

Tan ; 
Kankrei, Hind., Butea frondosa, Roxb., Lbguminqsac. 

Gum ; Tan ; Fibre ; 
Kankri, Hind., Cucumis Melo, L., utilissimus. (5^. Roxb.) CucuR- 

BITACE-ffi. Oil ; 

Kanlas, Hind., Bauhinia retuia, Ham., Lbguminosa. 

Gum ; 
Kanmar, Hind., Sapindus Mukorossi, Roxh.^ S A find ace A. 

Gum ; 
Kanmar, Hind., Sapindusi Mukorossi, G<grtn., Sapindacba. 

Kannucli,, Pinus Gerardiana, Wall,, Conifers. 

Gum ; 
Kannu-palle, Tarn., Mimasops indica, A, DC, Sapotacbs. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Kanom> Lepcha, Terminalia belerica, Roxb., Combretacea. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Kans, Pb,, Saccharum spontaneum, Linn., GRAMiNBiE. 

Fibre ; 
Kilns, Hind., Saccharum spontaneum, Linn., Graminb^. 

Fibre ; 
Kanseri, Meywar, Dolichandrons falcata, Se€m., BiGNONiACEiS. 

Fibre ; 
Kanta, N.-W. P., Zizyphus nummularia, W,& A., Rhamne^. 

Gum ; 
Kantala, San$., Agave vivipara, Linn,, AMARVLLiDEiB. 

Fibre ; 
Kantan, Hind., Eriodendron aufractuosum, DC., Malvaceae. 

Gum ; 
K^nta-nate, Beng^ Amarantus spinosus, Willd,, AMARANTACBiE. 

Dye ^ ; 
Kinta-natia, Beng,, Amarantus spinosus, Willd., AMARANTACE-ffl. 

Dye ; 
KBateuLf N,-W. P., Argemone mexicana, Zi»n»., Papavbraceje. 

Gum ; 

Kante-mat, Dec,, Amarantus spinosus, Willd., AMARANTACEiE. 

Kante-m4tha,|^om., Amarantus spinosus, Willd., AMARANXACEiB. 

Dye ; 
Kinthal, Beng., Artocarpus integrifolia, Linn., Urticacbje. 

Gum ; Dye ; Fibre ; 
Kaotiari, Pb., Carthamus oxyacantha, Bieb,, Composit-«. 

Oil ; 

Kanwal, Hind., Nelumbium speciosum., Willd., NyMPH.EACBiB. 

Fibre ; 
Kany^, Sans., Aloe vera, Linn., Liliacba. 

Dye ; Fibre ; 

Kanyin, Burm., Dipterocarpus alatus, Raxb., Diwbrocarpb*. 
Gum ; 

Kanyin-ni, Burm., Dipterocarpus laevis, Ham,, DiPTBROCARPEiK. 
Gum ; Oil ; 

Kanjin-ni, Burm., Dipterocarpus turbinatus, Ga^rin.f., Dipterocarpejb. 
Gum ; Oil ; 

64 Index to Volume I of the Catalogue of 

Kanyoung^y Magh.^ Dipterocarpus turbinatus, Gaertn.f.y DiPTEROCARFEiK. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Kanzaa, Burm., Bassia longifolia, Willd.y SAPOTACEiS. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Kao» Pb.^ Olea ferruginea, RoyUy Olbacba. 

Oil ; 
Kaonng-wa, Magk.t Metocanna bambusoides, Trim., GRAMiNKiS. 

Fibre ; 
K&pas, Betig.t Dec, Gossypium herbaceum, Linn., Malvacea. 

Fibre ; 
Kaposi, Him, name, Corylus Colurna, Linn., Cvpu lifers. 

Oil ; 
Ki^Msiy Hind., Helicteres Isora, Linn., Stbrculiacba. 

Fibre ; 
Kapasiya, N.-W. P., Hibiscus ficulneus, Linn., fAALVACEM. 

Fibre ; 
Kaphal, N.-W. P., Myrica sapida, Wall., Myricacea. 

Tan ; 
Kapila, Bom., Tarn., Mallotus philippinensb, MtUl.-Arg., EuPHORBiACSiE. 

Dye ; Oil ; 
KapH, Tam., Mallotus philippinensis, MUlL-Arg., EuphorbiacB/E. 

Dye ; Oil ; 
Kapor kachii, see Curcuma aromatica, Salisb., Scitamine^. 

Dye ; 
Kapur kachri, Pb,, Hedychium spicatum. Ham., SciTAMiNEifi. 

Dye ; 
Karabi, Beng., Nerium odorumi Soland., Apocynac&s. 

Oil ; 
KarachUy C. P., Cassia Fistula, Linn., LBGUMiNOSiB. 

Gum ; Tan ; i 

Kaxai-good, Bom., Sterculia urens, Roxb., STERCULiACEiC. 

Gum ; Fibre ; 1 

Karail, Beng., Dendrocalamus strictus, Nees., GRAMiNSiE. 

Fibre ; 
Kaiail, Beng., Dendrocalamus Hamiltonii, Nees., Graminf^. 

Fibre ; | 

Karaka, Tel., Terminalia Chebula, RetB.^ Combrbtacejb. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Karakftfia, Bom , Grewia tiliaefolia, Vakl., LsGUMiNoSiE. 

Fibre ; 
KarakOi Tel., Sterculia colorata, Roxb., Stbrculiac&£, 

Fibre ; 
Karalluy Bom., Albizzia procera, Benth., Lbguminosjs. 

Grum ; 
Karamara, Bom., Averrhoa Carambola, Linn., Gbraniacbje. 

Dye ; 
' Kara marda, Tam., Terminalia tomentosa, W, ^ A, Combrbtace.'B. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Karamcha, Beng., Carissa Carandas, Linn., Apocynacb^. 

Dye ; Tan ; 

Knram kanda, Nepal, Oraxylum indicum, Benth., BiONONiACEiE. 

Dye ; Tan ; 
Karang^, Hind.y Prinsepia utilis, Royle, Rosacea. 

Oil ; 
Karangal, Pb., Cassia Fistula, Linn., LEGUMiNOSiB. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
KarangaUii Tam., Acacia Catechu, Willd., Leguminosa. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Karangiy Mysore, Tamarindus indica, Linn., Leguminos^. 

Gum ; Dye ; Mordant ; Oil ; 
Karanj, Hind., Bom., Pongamia glabra, Vent., Leguminos^ . 

Gum ; Oil ; 

the Economic Products of India, 65 

Kanmja, Beng.t Pongamia glabra, VenUy LsGUMiNOSJi. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Karanji, Hind,t Ulmus integrifoliai Roxb,^ XJktickcem. 

OU ; 
Kaiapn dammar, 7am., Canarium strictum, Roxh.^ Bursbracba. 

Gum ; 
Kampu kongillaiay Tam,^ Canarium strictum, Roxb.y Bursbracbjs. 

Gum ; 
Kai^, Pb»y Efauhinia purpurea, Linn.^ Lbguminosa. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Fibre ; 
Karannday Hind , Carrbsa Carandas, Linn.^ ApocYNACBiB. 

Dye ; Tan ; 
Kaiiavanda, Mahr.f Carissa Carandas, Linn., Apocynace^. 

Dye ; Tan 
Kaiaviray Sans., Nerium odorum, Soland., ApocvNACBie. 

Oil ; 
Kaibuz, N.'W, P., Citrullus vulgaris, Schrad., CucuRBiTACBiE. 

Oil ; 
Kardai, Sind.t (seeds of) Carthamus tinctorius, Linn., Composite. 

Dye ; 
Kare, Kan., Randia dumetorum, Lam.^ Rubiacba. 

Dye ; 
KaredJ]a» Uriya, Terminalia Chebula, Retz.^ CoMBRBTACBis. 

Karepak, TV/., Murraya Koenigu, Spr., Rutacb^. 

Oil ; 
Kareta, Beng^ Hind., Sida carpinifolia, Linn., Malvacba. 

Fibre ; 
Karhi-nimb, Mahr,, Murraya Koenigii, Spreng,^ Rutaceje. 

oa ; 

Karhar, Hind., Randia dumetorum, Lam., RuBiACBiE. 

Dye ; 
Kargnalia, Hind,, Briedelia montana, WiUd., EuPHORBiACSiE. • 

Tan ; . 
Kari, Hind., Fhyllanthus nepalensis, MUll-Arg., EuPHORBiACBiS. 

Tan ; 
Karijali mara, Kan., Acacia arabica, Willd., Lbguminosa. 

Fibre ; 
Karinga, Tel., Gardenia lucida, Roxh., Rubiacbji. 

Gum ; 
Karingi^ Nepal, Wrightia tomentosa, Rom & Scheldt, Apocynacea 

Dye ; 
Karir, Hind., Acacia leucophloea, Willd., Lbguminosa. 

Dye ; 
Kaiivepa, Tel., Murraya Koenigii, Spr., Rutacb^. 

Oil ; 
Kariya-polUB, Tam,, Aloe vera, Linn,, Liliacba. 

Dye ; Fibre ; 
Kaika, Gond., Terminalia Chebula, RetM., Combrbtacbjb. 

Gum J Dye ; Tan ; 
Katka, Beng., Arundo Karka, Roxb., Graminba. 

Fibre ; 
Kaikanna, Afg., Ziziphus nummularia, W. & A., Rhamnbx. 

Gum ; 
Kaikapilly, Tarn., Pithecolobium dulce, Benth., LBGUMiNosiB. 

Oil ; 
Karkath, Hind., Oroxylum tndicum, Benth., BiGNONiACBiG. 

Dye ; Tan ; 
Kaikttva, Tam., Elaeodendron glaucum. Pets., Cblastrinbjb. 

Gum ; 
Karkaya, Hyderabad, Terminalia tomentosa, W. & A., CoMBRBTACBiE. 

Grum ; Dye ; Tan ; 


66 Index to Volume I of the Catalogue of 

Kirla. Ph.^ Girardinia betarophylla, Dgcaitne, Urticacx/e. 

Fibre ; 
Kanuiy Seng.t Bauhbia malabaricai Willd., Lbgum inosH. 

Gum ; 
KarauU, Pb., Pegamun Hannala, Linn^ Rutacss. 

Dye ; CHI ; 
KamaL Hind., Averrhoa Carambola, Linn,, GsRANicsiK. 

Dye ; 
KMXmoTMdtL, Sans., Caritsa Carandas, Linn., ApocYNACBiB. 

Dye . ; Tan ; 
Karo, Hind,, Albizzia prooera, Benth,, Lboum inosjb. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Karoh, Oudk, Sborea robosta, Gaertn,, Diptbrocarpbjs. 

Gum ; 
Karomangly Tel., Averrboa Carambola, Linn,, GBRANiACBiB. 

Dye ; 
K^urpas, Sans., Gossypiom herbaoeum Linn., Malvacbjb. 

Fibre ; Oil ; 
Urp6a, Sans., Gossypium arboream, Linn., MALVACBis. 

Fibre ; OU ; 
Kaxjmr, Beng., Campbor. 

Oil ; 
Kafpurai Sans., Campbor. 

Oil ; 
KarponuB, Tel., Campbor. 

Oil. ; 
KafpnvarafUhi, Tam^ Paoralia corylifolia, Linn^ LEGUMiNOkSis. 

Oil 5 
Kanm laarda, Tam., Terminalia tomentosa, W. & A., CoMBRBTACEit. 

Gum ; 
Karre yeiBbay Tam., Garuga pinnata, Roxb., BuRSERACBtt. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Kani, Hind., Saccopetalum tomentosum, Hook., Anon ace Jb 

Gum ; 
Karroni, Hind., Carissa Carandas, Linn., ApocYNACBiS. 

Dye ; Tan ; 
Kanuwa, Tam.y Cinnamonum 2eylanicam, Breyn., LAURACBiB. 

Dye ; Oil ; 
Kara, Tel., Psorelea oorylifdiai Linn., LBOUifiNOSiB. 

Oil ; 
Karfinda, Hind., Carissa Carandas, Linn*, ApocYNACBJ^ 

Dye ; Tan ; 
Karapale, Tam., Putranjiva Roxburgbii, Wall., Euphorbiacbs. 

Oil ; 
Karnppnram, Tam., Camphor. 

KaruTaya, Tam,, Albizzia odoratissima, Benth., Leguminosa. 

Gum ; 
Kamveliim, Tam., Acacia arabica, Willd., Lbgum inosjb. 

Gum ; Dye ; 
K4s&, Sans., Saccharum spontaneum, Linn., Grauinbjk. 

Fibre ; 
Kash, Beng., Saccharum spontaneum, Linn., GRAHiNBiE. 

Fibre ; 
Kashappu, Tam., Prunus amygdalus, Baill., Rosacejb. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Kasbfa, Boswellia floribunda, Endl., BuRSBRACBiE. 

Gum ; 
Kashi, Garo., Briedelia letusa, Spreng,, EuphorbiAcbjb. 

Tan ; 
Kaabmali Hind., Berberis Lycium, i?0y/#«, Bbrberidba. 

Gum ; Oil ; 

the Economic Products of India, 67 

KashsBal, Hind.t Berberis aristata) DC,t Bbrberide<«. 

Dye ; Tan ; 
Kashtl, Him, name, Ravi., Pinus Gerardiana, Wall., CoNiFBRJi. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Kashu, Tam., Acacia Catechu, Willd., Lboum ino&s. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Kashukattiy Tam,, Acacia Catechu, WiUd,, Lbguminosji. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Kashnmba, Tam., Carthamus tinctorius, Linn,, Composites, 

Dye ; Oil ; 
Kasir, Hind., Cornus macrophylla, Wall., Cornacbjb. 

Oil ; 
Kasis, Hind., Beng., Protosulphate of Iron. 

Dye ; 
Kasmal, Simla, Berberis Lycium, Royle, Berbbriobji. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Kasmal, Ph., Berberis aristata, DC,, Bbrbbridba. 

Dye ; Tan ; 
Kasrike, Mysore, Casuarina equisetifolia, Forster, CasuarinbA. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Kassi, Hind., Briedelia retusa, Spreng., Euphorbiac&s. 

Tan ; 
Kasturi, Hind., Bom., Hibiscus Abelmoschus, Linn., Malvacbac. 

Fibre ; 
Kastura-benda, Tam., Hibiscus Abelmoschus, Linn., Malvacbac 

Fibre ; 
Kasturi-bendaTittiilu, Tel., Hibiscus Abelmoschus, LiHn., MALVACEiit. 

Fibre ^ ; 
Kasturi-manjal, Tam., Curcuma aromatica, Salisb., Scitaminb^. 

Dye 5 
Kasturipapusa, Tel., Curcuma aromatica, Salisb,, Scitam inb^. 

Dye ; 
Kasul, Gondi, Grewia tiliasfolia, Vahl,, Lbguminos^. 

Fibre ; 
Katan, Hind., Eriodendrou anfractuosum, DC,, MALVACBis. 

Oil^ ; 
Katarali, Tam., Cerbera Odollam, Garin,, Apocynacba. 

Fibre ; Oil j 
Katat, Burm., Crataeva religiosa, For si., CAPPARiDBiS* 

Dye ; 
Kat-bel, Hind., Feronia Elephantum, Corr., Rutacbji. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Kat-ber, Zizyphus xylopyra, Willd., Rhamnbji. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Katbhilawa, Garhwal, Buchanania latifolia, Roxb., Anacardiace^e. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Katele, Pb., Argemone mexicana, Linn., Pupavbracbjs. 

Gum ; 
Katguli, N.-W, P., Salix Wallichiana, And., SALiciNEiB. 

Fibre ; 
Kath, Hind., Uncaria Gambler, Hunter, RuaiACBiB. 

Tan ; 
Kath, Nepal., Adhatoda Vasica, Nees, Acanthacb/b, 

Dye ; 

Kath&, Hind., Dec, Bom., Beng., Pb., Acacia Catechu, Willd, Lbgo- 

MI NCSA. Gum ; 
Kathe, Burm., Samadera indica, Garin., SimarubbjS. 

Oil ; 
Kathalai, Tam., Agave vivipara., Linn., Amaryllidb.v. 

Fibre ; 

Kathalya s^ond, Bomb., Cochlospermum Gossypium, DC., BixiNEiE. 
Gum : 



68 Index to Volume I of the Catalogue of 

Kath-bdy Beng.^ Feronia Elephantom, Cc/n^ Rutacbjl 

Gam ; Oil ; 
Katlie, Kashmir, Indigofera atroporparaa, Ham^ LBGUMiNOSiB. 

Fibre ; 
Katfaekastmi, Tam., Hibiscas Abelmosdras, Linn., MALVACBiB. 

Fibre ; 
Kati]a» Stercdia areas, Raxb^ Stbkculiackjb. 

Gum ; 
KatiUl, Hind., Astragalus bamosas, Linn., Lbguvinosa. 

Kit ilttpi. Tarn., Bassia latifolia, Roxb., Sapotacba. 

Gum ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Kat illupi. Tarn,, Bassia longifolia, WiUd., Sapotaces. 

Gum ; Dje ; Tan ; Oil ; I 

Katin (The Gam), Stercolia areas, Roxh., Stbrculiace Ji. 

Gam ; I 

Katiim, Pb., Saliz babylooica, Linn., SALiciNBiS. ! 

Fibre ; j 

Kattouiiy, Hind., Caesalpinia Bondnoella, Roxb., Legum inosa. 

OU ; I 

gatrniB^, Tarn*, Buchanania latifotia, Raxb., Anacardiacbje. 

Gum ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Kat-OMi, Tarn., Spondias mangifera, Pers., Anacardiaceji. 

Gum ; 
Katmowa, Garmkal, PhjUanthos nepalensis, MuU. Arg., EuPHORBiACBiE. 

Tan ; 
Katorl, Sind., Feronia Elepbantom, Carr., Rutacrs. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Ka^KXm, Kan., Calophyllom Wigbtianum, WaU., Guttifers. 

Oil ; 
Katrar, Kumaun, Acacia Intsia, WiUd., Lbgumino&x. 

Dye ; 
Kataixia, Oudh, Dalbergia panicolata, Roxb.^ Lbguminosji. 

Gum ; 
Kattarkanbii, Tam., Acada Catechu, WiUd., Lbguminosa. 

Gun ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Kattale, Tam., Aloe vera, Linn., LiLiACEiB. 

Dye ; Fibre ; 
Kattang, Hind., Bambosa arnndinacea, Retx., Graminbs. 

Fibre ; 
Katti, Tam., Acacia Catechu, WiUd., LBGUMiNOSiB. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Katti mmidiiy Te^., Euphorbia Cattimandoo, £//»/, Rutacbji. 

Gum ; 
IfattwtM Hind., Murraya Koenigii, ,^r., Rutacbs. 

Oil ; 
Kattra, Ass., Bauhinia malabarica, Roxb., Leouminosa. 

Gum ; 
Kattn, Tam., Terminalia belerica, Roxb., Combretace.s. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Kat tnnuigiy 7am., Albizzia stipulata, Boivin., Lbguminosjb. 

Gum ; 
Kattfis, Nepal., Quercus pachyphylla, Kurg., Cupulifbrs. 

Dye ; Tan ; 
'Kattat-tumatti, Tam,, Cucumis trigonus, Roxb., Cucurbitacra. 

Oil ; 
Katu-imbnl, Cingh., Bombaz malabaricum, DC., Malvacea. 

Oil ; 
Kat Yaghe, Tam., Albizzia Lebbek, Benth., Lbguminos^ 

Gum ; Tan ; Oik ; 
Katyalu, Tam., Atalantia monophylla, Corr., RuTACEiE. 

Oils : 

the Economic Products of India. 69 

Kan, Mind., Pb.^ Olea ferra?inea Rwle^ Olbacba. 

Oil ; 
Kaunki, N.-W. P., Rhus Wallichii, Hooktf.,AiiACAKDiACKM. 

Oil ; 
Kaurijal, Pb., Salvadora persica, Linn,, Salvadorac&s. 

Oil ; 
Kauri-van, Pb.^ Salvadora persica, Linn.^ Salvadoracba. 

Oil ; 
Kaya, Burm., Mimusops Elengi, Linu.f Sapotacbs. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Oil ; 

K&vali, Mahr.y Sterculia urens, Roxh.^ Sterculiacb^. 

Gum ; Fibre ; 
Kavanchi, TV/., Helicteres Isora., Linn.^ Stbrculiacba. 

Fibre ; 
Kavatha, Sind.^ Feronia Elephantum, Corr.^ Rutacba. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Kawili, Tam.y Sterculia guttata., W. & A,y Stbrculiacea. 

Fibre ; 
Kayan, Burm., BzcaEM:aria Agallocha, Willd., EuphorbiaCbji. 

Gum ; 
K&ya-phala (mace) Bom., Myristica malabarica, Lam., Myristicba. 

Oil ; 
Kayaphala, Bom., Myrica sapida, Wall., Myricacba. 

Tan ; 
Kayu-puti, Eng., Matricaria Chamomila, Linn., Composite. 

Oil ; 
Kazhirah, Pers., Carthamus tinctorius, Linn., Composite. 

Dye ; 
Kazu, Lepcha, Girardinia heterophylla, Decaisne., URTiCACEiB. 

Fibre ; 
Kchai-tun, Phekial, Morinda angustifolia, Roxb., Rubiacba. 

Dye ; 
Kea, Beng,, Pandanus odoratissimus, Willd., Pandanba. 

Fibre ; Oil ; 
Keenatil, Ceylon, See Calophyllum tomentosum, Wight, Guttifbra. 

Oil ; 
Keharsu, Pb., Quercus Ilex, Linn,, Cupulifbra. 

Tan ; 
Kekuna, See Aleurites moluccana, Willd,, Euphorbiacba. 

Oils ; 
Kela, Hind., Bom., Musa paradisiaca, and M. sapientum, Linn,, 

SciTAMiNBA. Dye ; Fibre ; 
Kelu, Him, name, Cedrus Deodara, Loudon, Mbliacea. 

Gum ; 
Kempu z4ru, Kan., Anacardium occidentale, Linn., Anacardiacba. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Kemuka, Bom., Sans., Costus speciosus, Sm., Scitaminea. 

Oil ; 
Kenbun, Burm., Acacia concinna, DC, Leguminosa. 

Dye ; Tan ; 
Kend, Beng., Diospjrros melanozylon, Roxb., Ebbnacbjz. 

Gum ; 
Kendu, Ass., Dtospjrros Embryopteris, Pers*, Ebenacba. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Kendu, Hind., Diospyros melanoxylon, Roxb., Ebbnacba. 

Gum : 
Kao-khin, Burm., Alum. 

Dye ; 
Keol, Hind., Ficus infectoria, Wtlld., Urticaceje. 

Gum ; 
KeoU, Him. name, Cedrus Deodara, Loudon, Conifbrjb. 

Gum : 

JO Index to Volume I of the Catalogue of 

Keor, P6., Wrightia tomentosa, Roem. and Sckeuli, ApocYNACSiB. 

Dje ; 
Keori, Beng., Puidaniis odoiatisstmas, WUld,, PAMOANBiS. 

Fibre ; OU ; 
Kcnm, Bom^ Guizotia abyssjaica. Out., Compositjk. 

OU ; 
KtnajtLf Arab., Pramis Cerasns, Idnn^ RosackjB. 

Gai9 ; 
Keri, Pb., Girardinia heterophjUa, Decaitne,, URTiCACBiS. 

Fibre ; 
Kcfing, Garo, Orozjliun indiciun, Bentk., Bignoniac&s. 

Dye ; Tan ; 
r, ffind,t Crocos sativns, Linn^ Irioacbji. 

Dye ; 

L, zahan. Hind,, Crocus sativns, Linn., Iridacb^. 

Dye ; 
Kesaxi|«, Beng., Wedelia calendulaoea, Lets., Composite. 

Dye ; 
Keshwri, Bgng., Bciiptaalba., Hassk., CoMPOSiTis. 

Dvc ; 
Kesoti, Btng-t Edipta alba, Hassb., Compositjk. 

Dye ; 
Ketmi de Coddn CUlie, Fr, Hibiscus rosa^sinensis, Linn.t MALVACBiE. 

D^e ; Fibre ; 
Ketnki, Bettg,, Pandanus odoratissimus, WiUd,, Pandanbjb. 

Fibre ; Oil ; 
Ke6, Beng,, Hind.y Cosius speciosqs, Sm,, Scitaminba. 

Oil ; 
Kemm, Hind,, Pandanus odoratissimus, WUld., Pandahb^. 

Fibre ; Oil ; 
Kenma, Bom,, Helicteres Isora., Linu,, Stbrculiacba. 

Fibre ; 
Kewan, Bom,, Helicteres Isora, Linn., STBRCULiACBiS. 

Fibre ; 
KejsnriA, Beng,, Edipta alba., If^ssb., Compositjk. 

Dye ; 
Khadira, S^ns., Acacia Catechu, WUld., Lbguminosji. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Khair, Hind., Dec, Aoada Catechu, WUld,, Lbouminosjb. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Khainwil, Hind., Bauhinia variegata, Linn,, LBGUMiNOSiS. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Khaja, Hind , Briedelia retusa, ^eng, Euphorbiacbje. 

Tan ; 
Khija, Hind,, Briedilia montana, WUld., Euphorbuce^. 

Tan ; 
Khaj^ Hind,, Phoenix sylvestris, Roxb., Palmji. 

Gum ; Fibre ; 
Khiyar, Hind., Phceniz sylvestris, Roxb,, Palm Ji. 

Gum ; Fibre ; 
Khakhan, Mahr,, Salvadora oleoides, Linn,, Salvadoracejb. 

Oil ; 
Khakhan, Makr., Salvadora persica, Linn,, SALVADORACSiB. 

Oil ; 
Khaki« AUahabad, See Iron Sulphate. 

Dye ; 
Khamrak, Dec, Averrhoa Carambola, Linn., GBRANiACEiB. 

Dye ; 
Khamraka, Bom., Averrhoa Carambola, Linn,, Gbraniacbjb. 

Dye ; 
Khan, Sind., Sacchanim spontaneum, Linn,, Graminbjb. 

Fibre : 

the Economic Products of India, 7 1 

Khandoia, N,^W, P., Anthistiria arundinacas, Roxb.^ Graminba. 

Fibre ; 
Khankhina, Bom,^ Salvadora Oleoides, Linn,^ Salvaqoracba. 

Dye ; 
KMoi, Neptd,y Sponia politoria, Planch., UsTiCACBiB. 

Fibre ; 
Khar, Pb., Prosopis spicigera, Linn., Lbguhinosjb. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Kharabuja, Bom., Cucumis Melo, L^ CucuRBiTACBiE. 

OU ; 
Kharat, Pb., Celastnis senegalensis, Lam., Cblastrinbje. 

Oil ; 
Kharani, Nepal., Symplocos theaefolia, Ham., Styracbjb. 

Kharbuja, Hind., Cucumis Melo, L., CucuRBiTACEiE. 

Oil^ ; 
Kharbuj, Cucurbita moschata, Dtickesne, Cucurbitacr«. 

Oil ; 
Khare-vazhum, Pers,, Achyranthes aspera, Linn,, AMARANTACEiB. 

Dye ; 
Khareza, Pb., Carthamus oxyacantha, Bieb., CoMPOSiTiS. 

Kharidjar, Sind., Salvadora persica, Linn., Salvadoracb^b. 
Kharmuj, Beng., Cucumis Melo, L., Cucurbitace-*:. 

Oil ; 
Kharpat, Beng., Pb., Garuga pinnata, Roxb., Bursbracb-B. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Kharua, Hind., see Morinda citrifolia, Linn., RuBiACBiE. 

Dye ; 
Kharwala, Afg,, Debregeasia bicolar, Wedd., URTiCACE-fi. 

Fibre ; 
Kharzahra, Pers., Nerium odorum, Soland., ApoCYNACBiS. 

Oil ; 
Khas, Hind., Andropogon muricatus, Reig., GRAMiNBiS. 

Fibre ; Oils ; 
Khasaroa, Hind., Sponia politoria, Planch., URTiCACBiB. 

Fibre ; 

Khas-khas, Beng., Andropogon muricatus, Reig,, Gramine^. 
Fibre ; Oils ; 

Khas-khas-ka-post, Dec, Papaver somniferum, Linn., PAPAVERACSiS 
Oil ; 

Khassach, Pers., Ferula galbaniflua, Boiss., Umbelliferj8. 

Gum ; 
Khau, Sind., Olea ferruginea, Royle, OLBACBiE. 

Oil ; 

Khayer, Bet^., Acacia Catechu, Willd., Legvuiuosjb, 
Gum ; 

Khenti jund, Kaghan., Indigofera atropurpurea. Ham,, Lbquminos.k 

Fibre ; 
Kheri-nun, Sulphate of Soda. See Salt. 
Khesla, Gond., Grewia tiliaefolia, Vahl,^ LBGUMiBTosiE. 

Fibre ; 

Kheu, Manipur, Melanorrhcea usitata, Watt., ANACARDiACEiB 

Gum ; 
Khewnan, Hind., Ficus Cunia., Buch,, Urticace-«. 

Fibre .; 

Khljra, Raj„ Prosopis spicigera, Linn., Leguminosjb. 

^ Gum ; Tan ; 
Khili, Gdro, Albizzia procera, Benth,, LBGUMiNOSiS. 
Gum ; Tan ; 

Khin, Kumaun, Acacia lenticularis, Ham,, Leguminosjb, 
Gum : 

72 Index to Volume I of the Catalogue of 

KUp, Dtlhi^ Orthanthera yiminea., Wighit,^ AscLBPiADACSiB. 

Fibre ; 
KUr, Hind,^ Mimnsops indica, A, DC., Sapotacbjs. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
KUrm, Hind^t Bom^ Cacumis sativns, Linn., Cucurbitacrs. 

Oil ; 
Khlffdal, Arab.f Brassica nispra, Kifck., Crucifbiub. 

Oil ; 
Khiroi, ffind.t Makr,, Mimusops indica, A. DC., Sapotacba. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Khimi, Meywar, Wrightia tinctoria, R. Br., Apocynacba. 

Dye ; 
Khoaasi, Mahr., Sterculia colorata, Roxb,, Stbrculiacbjb. 

Fibre ; 
Khoira, Ass., Acacia Catechu, Willd., Lbguuinosa. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Khoobani, Hind., Prunus armeniaca, Linn., Rosacejb. 

Oil ; 
Khor, SiTtd., Acacia Senegal, Willd., Lbguminosae. 

Gum ; 
Khofif Beng., Saccharum semidecumbens, Roxb., Graminb/e. 

Fibre ; 
Khour, Nepal, Acacia ferruginea, DC.» Lbguuinosjb. 

Grum ; 
Khnbaniy Hind., Prunus armeniaca, Linn., Rosacbjs. 

Gum ; 
Khnlen, Pb., Ulmus integrifolia, Roxb., Urticaca. 

Oil ; 
Khnm, Manipur, Strobilanthes flaccidifolius, Nees., Acanthacb.«. 

Dye V 
Khmaa, Manipur, Strobilanthes flaccidifolius, Nees., AcANTHACBiC. 

Dye ; 
Khimmi, Hind., Careya arborea, Roxb., Myrtacejb. 

Gum ; 
KhniMj, Hind., Cucumis Melo, L., CucuRBiTACBiE. 

Kbnrhnr, Hind., Ficus Cunia, Buck., Urticacb^. 

Fibre ; 
Khnri, Pb., Sponia politoria, Planch,, Urticacb^. 

Fibre ; 
Khwan, Trans-Indus, Olea ferruginea, Royle, Olbacba. 
Khyia, Burm,, Argemone mexicana, Linn. , PAPAVBRACBiB. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Khyar, Pers., Cucumis satiyus, Linn., CucuRsiTACEiS. 

Oil ; 
Kiaiail, Hind., Odina Wodier, Roxb,, Anacardiacejs. 

Gum ; 
Kiar, Pb., Cassia Fistula, Linn., Lbguminosji. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Kich-cbilik-kizfaaiiga, 7am., Curcuma Zedoaria, Roscoe (non-Roxb.), Scita- 

MINBJB. Dye ; 
Kichlie-gaddalu, Tel., Curcuma Zedoaria, Roscoe (non-Roxb.), Scitamine^. 

Dye ; 
Kiditsai, Chinese, Brassica nigra, Koch., Crucifbiue. 

Oil ; 
Kikajon, Hebrew, Ricinus communis, Linn., Euphorbiacba. 

Oil ; 
Kikar, Hind., Bom., Pb., Dee., Acacia arabica, Willd., LBGUMiNOSEis. 
Gum i Dye ; 
[iki, Jewish, Ricinus communis, Linn., Euphorbiacba. 

the Economic Products of India. 73 

'~'  " I .  , — . — - 

KUar, Him. namey Cedrus Deodara, Loudon^ Conifbrjb. 

Gum ; 
Kil6r, Pb.f Parrotia Jacquemontiana Decaisne. HamamblidbjE. 

Fibre ; 
Kilawa, Pb.t Wrightia tomentosa, Roem and Scheldt^ Apocynacb^. 

, Dye ; 
Kili, Bom,, Albizza procera, Benth,, Lbguminosje. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
KaHk, N.'W .P,j Saccharam fuscum, Boxb.t GRAMiNBiS. 

Fibre ; 
Kilfflira, Pb., Garuga pinnata, Poxb.t Bursbracba. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Kilu, Salt Range, Chamsrops Ritchieana, Griff., Falum. 

Kimul, Hind.y Odina Wodier, Roxb., Anacardiacbjs. 

Gum ; Tan ; Fibre ; 
Kinai, Makr,, Albizzia procera, Benth», Lbguminosa. 

Gum , ; Tan ; 
Kindaly Mahr., Terminalia paniculata, W. & A., Combretacba. 

Dye ; Tan ; 
KinS^i P^-i Girardinia heterophylla., Decaisne, Urticacba. 

Fibre ; 
Kingma, Chinese, Abutilon Avicence, Gaertn., Malvacba. 

Fibre ; 
Kini, Bom., Albizzia procera, Benth., Lbguminosa. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Kinjal, Mahr., Terminalia paniculata, W, & A., Combrbtacba, 

Dye ; Tan ; 
Kinnen, Pers., Ferula Galbaniflora, Boiss,, Umbellifera. 

Gum ; 
Kino, Eng., Pterocarpus Marsupium, Roxb.^ Leguminosa. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Kino, Bengal, Eng,, Butea frondosa, Roxb., Leguminosjb. 

Gum ; 
Kip, Sind., Orthanthera viminea , Wight, Asclbpiadea. 

Fibre ; 
Kiramber, 7am., Caryophyllus aromaticus, Linn., Myrtacea. 

Oil ; 
Kiri, Sind., Ceriops Candolleana, Arno'^., Rhizophorba. 

Tan ; 
Kiri, Kashmir, Jasminum officinale, Linn., Olbacea. 

Oil ; 
Kirldria, Hind., Cinnamomum Tamala, Nees., LEGUMiNoSiB. 
Kinaa, Nepal., Yillebrunea frutescens, Blume., URTiCACSiE. 

Fibre ; 
Kima Hind., Saccopetalum tomentosum, Hook., Anonacbjb. 

Gum : 
Kirrari, Sind., Ceriops Candolleana, Arnot., Rhizophorba. 

Tan ; 
Kirrn, Pb., Parrotia Jacquemontiana, Decaisne, Hamamblidbs. 

Fibre ; 
Kishur, Beng., Mallotus philippinensis, MillL Arg,, Euphorbiacea. 

Dye ; Oil ; 
Kishur Kundur, Boswellia floribunda, Endl,, BuRSERACBiS. 

Gum ; 
Kitchli, Tam., Citrus Aurantium, Linn., Rutacejb. 

Gum ; 
Kitpli, N.'W. P., Cassia Fistula, Linn., Lbguminosjs. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Kittali, Tel., Citrus Aurantium, Linn., Rutacea. 

Gum : 

74 Index to Volume I of the Catalogue of 

KsttoL Ctfjota mens, Liwm, Falmm, 

Fibre ; 
fifcwafi, y. W. P., Cassa Rsteb, Zmiji^ Lbsuii ixosx. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Ko, P6., Olea ferrnginea, ^^Ir, Oleaceji. 

g^^wn p^^ Phjilanthos aepakasb, JfMil. Arg^ Euphorbiackji. 

Tan ; 
Kmn, Fb., Tamarix articnlaAa, VakL T. dioca, Xaxb^ and T. galUca» 

Linn., Tam ariscin&c. Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Koflt **— ~*^ Tarn., Jatropha Corcas, Linn^ Euphosbiac&S. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Kobos, liepal, Mjrica sapida, WaU^ Mtricac&s. 

Tan ; 
Kodii, Hind., Acacia condnna, DC., LBGumNosiK. 

Dje ; Tan ; 
Kodoga pall, 7e/., Holarrbeiia antidysenterica, WaU^ Afoctmackje. 

Oil ; 
Kodii* Beng^ Lagenaria Tiilgans, DC., Cucusbitacbjb. 

Oil ; 
Kohl, Ph., AInos nepalensis, D Dim, Cupulifkbjl 

Dye ; Tan ; Oils ; 
KohoMiy Makr., Benincasa, cerifiera, Sami^ Cucurbitacejb. 

Oil ; 
Kohn, Sind^f Oleaferrnginea, Royle^ Olbacxjk. 

Oil ; 
KohmalMi^ Gum., Melia Azadirachta, Linn^ Mbliackx. 

Gum ; 
KolmidaaauiSiil, C. P., Celastrns panifailatns, WiUd., Cblastrin&s. 


Koaarflnkii, Td., Wriglitia tomentosa, Roem. k SeheuU,, Apocynaceji. 

Dye ; 
Koir, Ass,, Acacia Catechu, Willd., Leguminosjb. 

Dye ; Tan ; 
KoifaC Beng., Pb., Banhinia porpaiea, Linn., Lsguminosjk. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Fibre ; 
Kokaiaa, Bam., Garcinia indica, Chois., Guttifbrjk. 

Mordant ; Oil ; 
Koki, Tain., Cassia Fistola, Linn., LBGUMiHO&aE. 

Gam ; Tan ; 
KoUco, Burm., Albizzia Lebbek, Bentk., Leguminosjb. 

Gum ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Kokn, Tarn., Salvadora oleoides, £m«.,SALVADOBACBiB. 

Dye ; Oil ; 
Koknm, Bom., (Oil oQ Garcinia indica, Chois., Guttiferx. 

Mordant ; OU ; 
Knimni, Butter, Eng., Garcinia indica. Chats., GurriFERiK. 

Mordant ; Oil ; 
Kola bog^Oti, ^epal, Baccaurea sapida, MOU, Arg., Euphorbiacbx. 

Dye ; Mordant ; 
Kola fluva, Tam., Anacardinm occidentale, Linn., ANACARDiACBiE. 

Oils ; 
KoUuiy Gurhwal & Kumaun., Pinus longifolia, Roxb., Conifeilb. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Kolaniy Tinnevelly, Hardwidda pinnata, Roxb., Legvmino&b. 

Gum ; 
Kofi, Kan,, Baecaurea sapida, MAll. Arg., Eupho RBiACEiE. 

Dye ; Mordant ; 
Kofiar, Hind., Bauhinia purpurea. Linn., Legithinosji. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Fibre ; 
Kofiar, Hind.^ Bauhinia variegata, Linn., Lbguminosjb. 

Gum i Dye ; Tan ; Oil ; 

the Economic Products of India. 75 

KoUu, 7am,, Dolichos biflorus, Linn,f LbguminosjB. 

Oil ; 
Konda, TV/., Xylia dolabriformis, Benth,, Lbgumi 

Oil ; 
Konda-amaduffl, Tel., Ballospermum montanum, Mull. Arg,, Euphor- 

BiACEA. Oils ; 
Konda-kashinda, Tel,, Toddalia aculiata, Pers., RuTAcSiS. 

Kond tangedu, Tel., Xylia dolabriformis, Benth., Leguminosa. 

Gum ; 
Konda vaghe, 7am., Albizzia procera, Benth., Leguminosjs. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Khondha, Hind., Benincasa cerifera, Savi., Cucurbitace^. 

Oil ; 
Kone, Tarn., Cassia Fistula, Linn., LegxtminosJe. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Kong^, TV/., Cochlospermum Gossypium, DC, Bixinb^. 

Oil ; 
Kongillam, Tam., Cochlospermum Gossypium, DC, BixiNEfi. 

Oil ; 
Kongkl, Lepcha, Prunus Puddum, Roxh., Rosacejb. 

Gum ; 
Kongki, Lepcha., Semecarpus Anacardium, Linn.f., Anacardiaceje. 

Oil ; 
Konkudii, Tel., Sapindus trifoliatus, Linn., Sapindacea. 

Oil ; 
Kooail, Nepal, Sponia orientalis, Planch., Urticacejs. 
Koor^k, Bom., Garuga pinnata, Roxb., Burserace^. 

Gum ; 
Koosam, ^»m</., Schleichera trijuga, PFi//</.,SAPiNDACE£. 

Gum ; 
Kopar, Hind., Dendrocalamus Hamilltonii, Nees., GRAMiNEiS. 

Fibre ; 
Kopar, Hind., Dendrocalamus strictus, Nees., GRAMiNEiE. 

Fibre ; 
Kopasia, Uryia, Kydia calycina, Roxb., Malvaceae. 

Fibre J . . . 

Korala, Mahr., Bauhinia malabarica, Roxb,, LEGUMiNOSiB, 

Gum ; 
Kora-mau, 7V/., Breedeliaretusa, Spreng., EuPHOREiS. 

Tan ; 
Koranju, Uryia, Pongamia glabra. Vent., LEGUMiNOSiC. 
• Oil ; 
Koray, 7am., Cyperus rotunda, Linn., CvPERACEfi. 

Dye ; Oil ; 
Kor-ke-jhar, Dec, Cyperus rotundus, Linn., Cyperacb;e. 

Dye ; Oil ; 
Korinta, 7V/., Acacia Intsia, Willd., LsGUMiNOSiE. 

Dye ; 
Koriti, Tel., Plecospermum spinosum, Trecul, Urticace^. 

Dye ; 
Korna nebu, Beng., Citrus medica, Linn., Rutace^. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Koroh, Oudh, Shoria robusta, Gaertn., DiPTEROCARPEiE. 

Gum ; D^e ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Koroi, Beng. Albizzia procera, Benth., Leguminosa. 

Gum ; 
Kosa, Hind., Saccharum spontaneum, Linn., Gramine^. 

Fibre ; 
Kosuni, Hind,, Schleichera trijuga, Willd., SAPiNDACEifi. 

Oil : 

76 Index to Volume I of the Catalogue of 

Komiutay Ph^ Bauhinia racemosa, Lam.^ Lbguminosjb. 

Gum ; 
y<i*«malH Tam.^ Coriandrum sadyam, Linn.^ Uubbllipbrjb. 

Oil ; 
KoUuunifm, Mahr.^ Coriandnim satiyam, Linn,^ UMBBLLiFBRiK. 

Oil ; 
Kottai-iMkka, Tam,, Areca Catechu, £m »., Palilb. 

Gum ; Dye ; Fibre ; 
Kovaryifti Bom,^ Cassia Tora, £tnfi., Lbgum iNO&fi. 

Dje ; 
Koal, Lepcha, Alnus nepalensis» Z>. Z>0fs,CupuLiPBR^. 

Dve ; Tan ; Oils ; 
Kowal, Lepeha,\i^zxA regia, Linn.^ Juglandba 

Dye ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Kowti, Mar,^ Hydnocarpus Wightiana, Blume, Bixinb^. 

Oil ; 
Krim, Lepcka, Tabernaemontana coronaria, WiUd.t Apocynacba. 

Dye ; 
Ifrfffliftafwlal ffind.f Beng., Tel,, Ocimum sanctum, var. sanctum, 

Labiate. Oil ; 
Kobinde, Nepal, Kydia calycina, Boxb., Malvacea. 

Fibre ; 
Kachandaiui, Sans., Pterocarpus santalinus, Linn./., Lbgumino&a. 

Knchila, Benq,, Strychnos Nux«yomica, Linn., Loganiacb^. 

Dye '; Oil ; 
Knchla, Hind , Strycbnos Nox-yomica, Linn., Loganiacbje. 

Dye ; Oil  ; 
Kadm, Kala, Mahr,, Wrightia tinctoria, B. Br^ ApoCYNACEiS. 

Gkim ; 
Kndaka, Bom., Cedrela Toona, Roxb, Mbliacb^. 

Gum ; Dye ; 
Kildoly, Kan., Cicer arientinum, Linn., LBGUMiNOSiB. 

Dye ; 
Knja, Pb., Jasminum humile, Linn., Olbacb^b. 

Dye ; 
Knkar, C. P., Garuga pinnata, Boxb., Bursbracrs. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Kiikh»4Kvalii, Tel., Cleome yiscosa, Linn., Capparidb^. 

Oil ; 
K^lM^nili Beng^., Alpinia Galanga, Sug., Scitaminb^e. 

Dye ; 
Knki, Kan., Baccaurea sapida, Mull., EpHORBiACBiE. 

Dye : Mordant ; 
Knkto-pooi, Beng., Basella cordifolia, Lam., Chbnopodiacea. 

Dye ; 
Kukurchita, Beng., Tetranthera laurifolia, Jacq., Lauracba. 

Oil ; 
Knl, Hind. Beng., Zizyphus Jujuba, Lamk., Rhamnejc. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Knlanjan, Beng., Alpinia Galanga, Sum., Scitamineas. 

Dye ; 
Knfinjan, Hind., Alpinia Galanga, Sui., SciTAMiNBiS. 

Kufinjaiia, Bom., Alpina Galanga, Sub., Scitaminba. 

Dye ; 
Knlttba gaS^Up, Sind., Dolichos biflorus, Linn., Leguminos;b. 

Oil ; 
Kutt-poime, Kan., Calophyllum Wightianum, Wall, Guttifbrjk. 

Oil ; 
Kiilihi gahat, Hind., Dolichos biflorus, Linn., LBGUMiNoSiS. 

Oil : 

the Economic Products of India. 77 

Kultt, Hind., Sterculia urens, Roxh,, Stbrculiacba. 

Gum ; 
K6mam, Konda, Beng., Hind.i Cucurbita Pepo., DC,t Cucurbitacba. 

Oil ; 
Kusabi, Tatn,y Gardenia lucidai Roxb^ Rubiacba. 

Gum ; 
Kumbiy Hind.i Cochlospermum Gossypium, Z>C.| Bixinbji. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Kumbi, Hind. J Careya arborea, Roxb.j BuRSERACBJi. 

Gum ; 
K^fflbuk, Cingh.f Terminalia tomentosa, W, & A.y CoMBRBTACBiC. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Kumbmli, Tam.^ Benincasa cerifera, Savi.y Cucurbitacka. 

Oil ; 
Kumhra, Kumaun^ Benincasa cerifera, Savi.t Cucurbitacba. 

Oil ; 
Kumila, Hind.y Pb,^ Mallotus phiiippinensis, MUll.Arg.j EuPHORBiACSiB. 

Oil : 
Kma-Jameva, Beng,, Styrax serrulatum, JRoxb., Styraceje. 

Gum ; 
KoiBkama, S'an^., Crocus sativus, £mff., Iridacba. 

Dye ; 
Knnilriiwa, Tel.t Mallotus phiiippinensis, MUll. Arg.^ Euphorbiacbje. 

Oil ; 
Komla nebu, Beng., Citrus Aurantium, Linn,, Rutacbje. 

Gum ; 
Kiimri, Beng., Benincasa cerifera, Savi., Cucurbitacba. 

Oil ; 
Kaiara, Beng., Hind., Cucurbita Pepo, Z?C., CucuRBiTACSiS. 

Oil ; 
Kufflta, Raj'y Acacia Senegal, Willd., Leguminosjb. 

Gum ; 
Kumveru, Tel.y Andropogon muricatus, RetM., GRAMiNBiE. 

Fibre ; Oils ; 
Kun, Burm., Areca Catechu, Linn,, Palmjb. 

Gum ; Dye ; Fibre ; 
Kundanug^ Tel., Lagenaria vulgaris, DC., CucuRBiTACBiE. 

Oil ; 
Kundi, Sind., Prosopis spicigera, Linn., Lbguminos^. 

Gum ; 
Knndash, Fb., Alnus nitida, Endl., Bbtulacb^. 

Dye ; Tan ; Fibre ; 
Kundur, Arab., Hind., Boswellia floribunda, Endl., BuRSBRACBiB. 

Gum ,' 
Kunduni, Sans., Boswellia floribunda, Endl,, BuRSBRACBiS. 

Grum ; 
Kundur Madharaj, Boswellia floribunda, Endl.^ BuRSERACEiE. 

Grum ; 
KundurUy Sans., Boswellia floribunda, Endl., BuRSBRACBiE. 

Gum ; 
Kundur Unsa, Boswellia, floribunda, Endl., BuRSBRACEiS. 

Gum ; 
Kundur Zakur, Bobwellia floribunda, Endl,, BuRSERACBiS. 

Grum ; 
Kungiy Bura, Hind,,Beng,, Abutilon graveolens, W. & A, MALVAcSiE. 

Fibre ; 
Kung^liy 7am., Boswellia serrata, Colebr., Bvrseraceje. 

Grum ; 
Kuns^unuipu, Tam., Crocus sativus, Linn, iRiDACSiE. 

Dye ; 
Kunhya, Nepal, Ficus Cunia, Buck, URTiCACEiE. 
Fibre : 

78 Index to Volume I of the Catalogue of 

Kani Gniiiy Bng.^ Odina Wodier, Roxh,» ANACARDiACEiE. 

Gum ; 
Knnia, Knmaun^ Ficus Cuniai Btuh^ URTtCACBiS. 

Kniij, Hind.t Uimus inteffrifoluL, Roxh., UftTiCACBiE. 

Oil ; 
Knxjia, Beng,^ Urena sinuata, Linn.y MALVACSiB. 

Fibre ; 
Kankhoofm, Asf., Bohmeria nivea., H, & A.^ Urticacbae. 

Fibre ; 
Knntheebiiiy Burm., Areca Catechu, Linn,, Palm jr. 

Dye ; 
Knxmgnnuuigjal, Tam., Bixa Orellana, Linn,, Bixinb^e. 

Dye ; 
Kimj, Hind,, Bauhinia variegata, Linn^ Lbgitminosjb. 

Gum ; 
Knnd, Ph., Bauhinia retusa, Ham,, Lbgitminosjb. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Knnng, Simla, Mardenia Roylei, Wight., Asclbpiadejc. 

Fibre ; 
Knri, Pb.9 Nyctanthes Arbor-tristis, Linn,, OLBACBiB. 

Dye ; Oil ; 
Kurkn, Tam,, Ficus infectoria, Willd., Urticacbjb. 

Fibre ; 
Knrka coningai-auyi, Kan., Mallotus philippinensis, MHU. Arg„ Euphor* 

BIACBA. Oil ; 

Knrkur kat. Hind., Hymenodictyon ezcelsum, Wall., Rubiacba. 

Tan ; 
Knrpi, Tel,, Barringtonia acutangula, Gaertn., Myrtacba. 

Tan ; 
Kurpa, Bom., Memecylon edule, Roxb., Mblastomacbje. 

Dye ; 
Kurpooni maram, Tam., Mahr,, Eucalyptus globulus, Lam., Myrtacbje. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Kmtam ussal, Arab.^ GossyPium herbaceum, Linn., Malvacbae. 
Kurti-kalai, Beng., Dolichos biflorus, Linn., LBOUMiNOSiB. 

Oil ; 
K6rdka, Bomb., Garuga pinnata, Roxb., BuRSERACEiS. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Kurumia, Beng., Carisa Carandas, Linn., Apocynace^. 

Dye ; Tan ; 
Kiirwe-b4dam, Hind,, Bom., Prunus amygdalus, Boill., Rosacea. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Kus, Hind., Saccharum spontaneum, Linn., Graminea. 

Fibre ; 
Kiish, Pb., Prunus armeniaca, Linn., Rosacejs. 

Gum ; 
Kushaeta, Kan., Diospyros Embryopteris, Pers., EsENACEiE. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Kushmal, N.-W, P., Berberis Lycium, Royle, Berberidbjs. 

Gum ; 
Ktishumbd, Tam,, Carthamus tinctoria, Linn., Composite. 

Dye ; 
Kusi, Hind., Briedelia montana, Willd., EuPHORBiACBiB. 

Tan ; 
Kusimb, Bomb., Schleichera trijuga, Willd., SAPiNDACBiE. 

Oil ; 
Knst, Beng., Hind., Costus Speciosus, Sm., Scitaminea. 

Oil ; 
Kuaturi, Tel,, Acacia Farnesiana, Willd., Legttminosjb. 

Gum ; 

the Economic Products of India* 79 

Knsum, Beng, & Hind., Schleichera trijuga, Willd,, Sapin dacbjb. 

Gum ; 
KususB, Hind.f Beng., Dec^ Carthamus tinctoiiusi Linn., CoMPOSiTiB. 

Dye ; Oil ; 
KusuiBb, Hind., Schleichera trijuga, Willd^ Sapindaces. 

Gum ; 
Kusnmtia, Bom., Carthamus tinctoria., Linn., Composit^e. 

Dye ; 
Kutaki, Tel., Pandanus odoratissimus, Willd., Pandanba. 

Kuth, Beng,, Acacia Catechu, Willd., Lbguminosje. 

Dye ; Tan ; 
Kiitha, Hind,, Uncaria Gambler, Hunter, Rubiacbje. 

Tan ; 
Kutki, Gond., Eriolaena Hookeriana, W, & A., Stbrculiacb^. 

Fibre ; 
Kutki, Gond., Eriolaena spectabilis.. Planch., Sterculiaceac. 

Fibre ; 
Katlanimbu, Hind., Citrus medica, Linn., Rutacbjs. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Kwam-thee-bengi Burm*, Areca Catechu, Linn,, Palmjb. 

Gum ; 
Kutri, Pb., Adiyranthes aspera, Linn,, Amarantacbjb. 

Dye ; 
Kwaytanyengf, Burm., Pithecolobium dulce, Benik., LBGUMiNOSit. 

Oil ; 
Kwer, Chenab, Jasminum officinale, Linn., Oleacb^. 

Oil ; 
Kyabaing, Burm., Ceriops Roxburghiana, Arnoti,, Rhizophoreje. 

Dye ; 
Kyaitha, Burm., Barringtonia acutangula, Gaertn., Myrtace^. 

Tan ; 
Kyakatwa, Burm,, Bambusa arundinacea, JRetg,, GRAMiNS^t 

Fibre ; 
Kyam, 7am., Ferula alliacea, Boiss., Umbbllifbrjb. 

Gum ; 
Kyat-thon-bega, Burm,, Allium sativum, Linn., Liliacb^b. 

Oil ; 
Kyaukchin, Burm., Alum. 

Kyaiik-pa-yon, Burm., Benincasa cerifera, Savi.t CucuRBiT^CEiS. 

Oil ; 
Kyellowa, Burm., Bambusa Brandisii, Munro, GRAMiNBiS. 

Fibre ; 
Ky^, Burm., Barringtonia acutangula, Gaertn., MYRTACSiE. 

Tan ; 
Kyetpaung, Burm., Wiceola elastica, Roxb,, ApoCYNACBiS. 

Gum ; 
Kyetsu, Burm., Ricimus communis, Linn., Euphorbiacba. 

Oil ; 
Kyetsu, Burm., Ricinus communis, Linn., EuPRORBiACBiS. 

Mordant ; 
Kyetthwun-ni, Burm., Allium cepa, Linn., Liliacea. 

Oil ; 
Kyetthwunbyu, Burm,, Allium sativum, Linn,, LiLiACEiB. 

Oil^ ; 
Kyinghi, Lepcha, Ponzalzia viminea, Wedd., Urticacba. 

Fibre ; 
Kyinki, Lepcha, Maoutia puaja, Wedd, Urticace^. 

Fibre ; 
Kyu, Burm., Terminalia citrina, Roxb., CoMBRETACBiB. 

Dye ; 

8o Index to Volume I of the Catalogue of 

Kyanngbaii, Burm,, Vitez trifoiia, Linn., VBRBBNACsiE. 

Oil ; 
Kyonnglia, Burm,, Oroxylum indicom, Benth.^ BiGNONiACBiB. 

Dye ; Tan ; 
Kynn, Burm,, Tectona grandis, Linn,, Vbrbbnacba. 

Gum ; Dye ; Oil \ 

Laber, Hind., Desmodium tiliaefolium, G, Don., LBGUMiNoSiS. 

Fibre ; 
Labnrniifliy Indtan, ^nsj^^ Cassia Fistula, Liim., LBGUMiNOSiS. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Lac, Eng,, Coccus Lacca. 

Dye ; 
Ladori, Pb,, Nyctanthes Arbor-tristis, Linn,, Olbacbji. 

Dye ; 
Lahan, Raj,, Toddalia aculeata, Pets., RuTACBiB. 

Dye ; 
Lahiiiabodaim, Bom,, Lagerstrcemia parviflora, Roxb,, LvTHRACBiB. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Lahokongf, Lepcha, Butea frondosa, Roxb,, Lbguminosjb. 

Gum ; Tan ; Fibre ; 
Lai, Hind., Sind., Tamarix articulata, Vahl,, T. dioca, Roxb., and T. gai- 

lica, Linn., TAMARisciNEiS. Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Laila, N,'W, P., Saliz tetrasperma, Roxb,, SALiciNBiB. 

Tan ; 
Lij, Pb,f Symplocos crataegoides. Ham,, STYRACBiB. 

Oil ; 
Lakhar, Pb., Rhus succedanea, Linn., ANACARDiACBiS. 

Laknch, Hind., Artocarpus Lakoocha, Roxb,, Urticacbjb. 

Gum ; Dye ; Fibre ; 
Lakncha, Sans,, Artocarpus Lakoocha, Roxb,, Urticacba. 

Gum ; Dye ; Fibre ; 
Lala awbadi, Sind., Hibiscus Sabdariffa, Linn., MALVACBiS. 

Fibre ; 
Lal-ambari, Dec, Hind., Hibiscus Sabdariffa, Linn., Malvaceae. 

Fibre ; 
Ii6lBrhfl"l1^«^, Bom., Hind., Pterocarpus santalinus, Linn./., Lequminosa. 

Dve ; 
Lal-Bnopala, Bom,, Cucurbita maxima, Duchesne, CucuRBiTACEiB. 

Oil ; 
Lal-bherenda, Beng., Jatropha glandulifera, Roxb., EupHORsiACBiB. 

Dye ; Oil ; 
Lalchandan, Hind., Beng., Symplocos phyllocalyx, Gierke, STVRACBiB. 

Dye ; 
Lal-dadiya» Bom., Cucurbita marjima Duchesne, CucuRBiTACSiE. 

Lai jhau, Beng,, Tamarix dioica, Roxb,, Tamariscinba. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Lalld, Dec, Albizzia amara, Boivin, Lbguminosjs. 

Gum ; 
Lai malata, Nepal, Macaranga indica, Wight, Euphorbiacejb. 

Gum ; 
Lal^mugm, Beng., Celosia cristata, Linn., CHBNOPOoiACEiE. 

Fibre •; 
Lancbar, Trans-Indus, Orthanthera viminea, Wight, AsCLEPiADEiK. 

Fibre ; 
Landar, Pb., Symplocos crataegoides, Ham., STYRACEiS. 

Oil : 

the Economic Products of India. 8i 

Lang^hur, Him, name, Juniperus communis, Linn., ConiferJ£. 

Gum ; 
Lang^ra, Bhutia, Corylus Colurna, Linn., CuPULiFEKiE. 

Oil ; 
Lanka, Beng., Hind., Cucurbita Pepo, DC, CucuRBiTACEi£. 

Oil ; 
Lanka-Sij, Beng., Euphorbia Tirucalli, Linn., Euphorbiace^. 

Mordant ; 

Oil ; 
Lard kunel, Hind., Thevetia neriif olia, 3^uss., ApocYNACEiE. 

Oil ; 
Lari (root), Morinda citrifolia, Linn., RuBiACEiE. 
Lasan, Hind., Allium sativum, Linn., Liliace^. 

Oils : 
Lasora, Hind., Cordia Myxa, Linn., Boraginbji. 

Dye ; Fibre ; 
Lasuna, Sans., Mahr., Allium sativum, Linn., Liliace^e. 

Oils ; 

Laswara, Pb., Cordia Myxa, Linn., Boragine.^:. 

Dye ; Fibre ; 
Latkan, Hind., Beng., Bixa Orellana, Linn., Bixine£. 

Dye ; 
Latechu, Ass., Baccaurea sapida. Mull. Arg., Euphorbiace.%'. 

Dye ; Mordant ; 
Latikat, Nep., Phyllanthus nepalensis, Midi. Arg., Euphorbia.e.ij. 

Tan ; 
Latjir^y Hind., Achyranthes aspera, Linn., Amarantace.e. 

Dye ; 
Lau, Beng., Lagenaria vulgaris, DC, CucuRBiTACEiE. 

Oil ; 
Lauki, Pb., Lagenaria vulgaris, DC, CucuRBiTACEiS. 

Oil : 
Laurel, Alexandrian, £mjp., Calophyllum inophyllum, £{»*/., ( urniEKjc. 

Gum ; 
Lavang^a, Beng., Caryophyllus aromaticus, Linn., Myrtace.e. 

Oil ; 
Lavang;ala, Tel., Caryophyllus aromaticus, Linn., Myrtace^. 

Oil ; 
Laynuagf, Manipur. See Khaki. - 

Dye ; 
Lebu, Beng., Citrus medica, Linn.y Rutacea. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Lei, Pb., Tamarix dioica, Roxb., Tamariscinea. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Leinjru, Pb^ Tamarix articulata, VafU., T., dioca, Roxb., and T ga'lica, 

Linn,, TAMARisciNEiE. Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Lemon, Eng., Citrus medica, Linn., var. Limonum, Rutace^. 

Gum ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Lesu, Nepal, Ficus elastica, Bl., Urticacea. 

Gum ; 
Lesuri, Sind., Cordia Myxa, Linn , BoRAOiNSiE. 

Dye ; Fibre ; 
Letkop, Burm., Sterculia foetida, Linn., Sterculiace^. 

Oil ; 
Letpan, Burnt., Bombax malabaricum, DC», MALVACEiB. 

Gum ; Dye ; Fibre ; Oil ; 
Lettopg;yi, Burm., Holarrhena antidysenterica, Wall., Apocynace^e. 

Oil ^ ; 
Lettop-thein, Burm , Wrightia tomentosa, Roem. & Scheult, Apocynacea. 

Dye ; 

82 Index to Volume I of the Catalogue of 

Lettuce, Common, Ef^,^ Lactuca Scariola, Linn,j Comfositas. 

Oil ; 
Liar, Sindf Cordia Rothli, Roem. & Sck.^ Boraginacsjs. 

Gum ; 
Libidibi, Bom., Oesalpinia coriaria, Willd,, Lbouminosa. 

Tan ; 
Libu, Betig., Hind.., Citrus medica, Linn,, var. acida, Rutace^a. 

Gum ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Lichea, Rose, Eng., Parmelia kamtschadalis, Esch., Lichbnes. 

Dye ; 
Ligemotku, 2V/., Butea superba, Eoxb., LEGUMiNOSiC. 

Fibre ; 
Lilac, Persian, Eng., Melta Axedarach, Linn., Meliace2B. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Limbolee, , Murraya Koenigii, Spr., RuTACBiB. 

Oil : 
Limbu, Hind.y Citrus medica, Linn., var. acida, Rutacb^. 

Gum ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Lime Tree of Europe, Eng., Tilia europsea, Linn., Tiliacb«. 

Fibre : 
Lime, Sour, Eng., Citrus medica, Linn., var. acida, Rutace^e. 

Gum ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Lime, Sweet, Eng., Citrus medica, Linn., var. Limetta, Rutace^. 

Gum ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Lime, Wild, Eng., Atalantia monophylla, Corr., Rutacb^. 

Oils : 
Limone, It., Citrus medica, Linn., var. Limonum, Rutace^. 

Gum ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Limooier, Fr., Citrus medica, Linn., var. Limonum, Rutace^e. 

Gum ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Limoun, Arab., Citrus medica, Linn., var. acida, Rutace^. 

Gum ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Limu, Hind., Arab., Pets., Citrus medica, Linn., var. acida, Rutace^. 

Gum ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Linhe, Burnt., Acorus Calamus, Linn., AROiDEiE. 

Lipiah, Nepal, Villebrunea appendiculata, Wedd., URTiCACEiE. 

^ Fibre ; 
Lipic, Nepal, Villebrunea appendicillata, Wedd., Urticace^. 

Fibre ; 
Liquorice, Eng., Glycyrhiza glabra, Linn., LEGUMiNoSiE. 

Dye ; 
Litbora, Hind., Litscea zeylanica, Nees, Laurine^. 

Oil : 
Litchi, Eng., Nephelium Litchii, Camb., Sapindacejb. 

Gum ; 
Lodh, Kumaun, Symplocos cratsegoides. Ham., STYRACEiE. 

Dye ; Oil ; 
Lodh, Hind., Beng., Symplocos racemosa, Roxb., Styrace/E. 

Dye ; Tan ; Mordant ; 
Lodh, Hind., Symplocos spicata, Roxb., Styrace^e. 

Dye ; 
Logwood, Eng., Hsematoxylon Campechianum, Linn., Legjminos^. 

Dye ; 
Lobar bhadi, Beng., Odina Wodier, Roxb., ANACARDiACEiB. 

Gum ; Tan ; Fibre ; 
Loja, Sutlej, Symplocos cratsegoides. Ham., Styrace^e. 

Dye ; Oil ; 
Lokandi, Bom., Ventilago madraspatana, Gaertn., Rhamnea. 

Gum ; Dye ; Fibre ; 
Lonepho, Burm., Buchanania latifolia, ^0;rd., AnacardiacsvE. 

Gum ; Tan ; Oil ; 

the Economic Products of India, 83 

Longf, Hind.f Caxyophyllus aromaticus, Linn., Myrtace^* 

Oil ; 
Losh, Pb., Symplocos cratsegoides, Ham,^ Styracba. 

Dye ; Oil ; 
Lotus, Eng.^ Nelumbium speciosum, WiUd,^ Nymphaacba. 

Fibre ; 
Loiiz-ul-miiiT, Arah.^ Prunus amygcblus, BoUl,^ RosACEiC. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Lovag^e, Eng,y Carum copticum, Benth.^ UMBBLLiFERiC. 

Oil ; 
Lovi, Dec.f Artocarpus Lakoocha, Roxh., URTiCACEiE.. 

Gum ; Dye ; Fibre ; 
Lowi, Dec, Artocarpus Lakoocha, Roxb,^ Urticacea. 

Gum ; 
Lu, Pb.^ Symplocos craetagoides, Ham.^ STYRACBiS. 

Dye ; Oil ; 
Luban, Arab.^ Hind.y Boswellia floribunda, Endl., BurseracEuS. 

Gum ; 
Luban, Beng,, Boswellia serrata, Colebr,, Burseracejz. 

Gum ;^ 
Luban meyetiy Arab.t Boswellia Frereana, Bitdw., Burserace^. 

Gum ; 
Luir, Him. name, Juniperus excelsa, M. Bieb.j Coniferjb. 

Gum ; 
Lukrabo-oil, Siam, Gynocardia odorata, R. Br,, Bixine^. 

Oil ; 
Lulingyaw, Burm.f Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Breyn.^ Laurine^. 

Dye ; Oil : 
Lullai, Dec, Albizzia amara, Boivin.y LEGUMiNOSiC. 

Gum ; 
L6-]ilndar, Pb.^ Symplocos crataegoides, Ham., STYRACEi£. 

Dye ; 
Liinbo, Burm., Buchanania latifolia, Roxb., Anacardiace^. 

Tan ; 
Lust, N.'W. P., Taxus baccata, Linn., CoNiFERiE. 

Gum ; Dye ; 
Lutco, Hind., Baccaurea sapida, MUlL Arg,, Euphorbiace^. 

Dye ; Mordant ; 
Lut-ter, Nepal, Artocarpus Chaplasha, Roxb., Urticacea. 

Gum : 


Mail, 7am. Burm. Magnifera indica, Linn., Anacardiaceje. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Mace, Eng., Myristica moschata, Willd., Myristice^e. 

Oil ; 
Machi-patri, Tel., Artemisia vulgaris, Linn., CoMPOsiTiC. 

Oils : 
M^chi-pattiii, 7am., Artemisia vulgaris, Linn., CoMPOSiTiis. 

Oils ; 
Machugan, Garo, Mallotus philippinensis, MUll. Arg., Euphorbiace^. 

Oil ; 
Mada, Tel., Avicinnia officinalis, Linn., VERBBNACBiE. 

Tan ; 
Mada, And., Ceriops Candolleana, Arnoii, RHizoPHORBiC. 

Tan ; 
Madag^aii vembu, Tel.., Chickrassia tabularis, Adr. ^uss., MELiACEiB. 

Gum ; Dye ; 

Madalaich-chedi, Tam., PunicaGranatum,Zt»ft., LYTHRACEiB. 
Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 

84 Index to Volume I of the Catalogue of 

ICadar, Hind.^ Calotropis gigantea» R. Br.^ Asclbpiadea. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Fibre ; 
BCadar, Cacharf Erjrthrina indica, £am., Leguminos^ 

Gum ; Dye ; Fibre ; 
Madat, Makr,y Terminalia tomentosa, W, & A,, CoMBRBTACE.e. 

Gum ; Djre ; Tan ; 
Bffadder, European, Er$g., Rubia tinctorium, Linn., Rubiace.^. 

Dye ; 
Madder, Indian^ Eng,, Rubia cordifolia, Linn., RuBiACEiC. 

Maddi, Tel., Terminalia tomentosa, W. & A., Combretace£. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
BAaddi, Mysore, Terminalia Arjuna, Bedd,, Combretace^i:. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Madh1lfcE^ Sans., Bassia latifolia, Roxb., Sapotacejs. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Oils 
BAadhuka Sara, (oil) Sans., Bassia latifolia, Roxb.^ Sapotacew^: 

Oils ; 
BAadhurika, Sans., Fceniculum vulgare, Gaertn., Umbelliper.e. 

Oil ; 
Madu-karray, 7am., Randia dumetomm, Lam.^ RuBiACEiC. 

Maestapat, Beng., Hibiscus cannabinus, Linn,, Malvace.c. 

Oil ; 
AAagadam, 7am., Mimusops Blengi. Linn., Sapotace^e. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Magsher, Pb., Salix tetrasperma, Roxb., Salicine^. 

Tan ; 
Mag^yf, Burnt., Tamarindus indica, Linn., Leguminos£. 

Gum ; Dye ; Mordant ; Oil ; 
Mahahleg^byu, Burnt.; Baubinia acuminata, Linn., Leguminos.e. 

Oil ; 
BAahahleganf, Burnt., Baubinia purpurea, Linn., Legumino3.s. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Fibre ; 
Bflahalimbo, C. P., Melia Azedarach, Linn., MELiACBiG. 

Gum ; Dye ; Oil ; 
BAaha Und>u, Uriya, Cedrela Toona, ^o;r3., Melia cb£. 

Gum ; Dye ; 
Mah&langpa, Bom., Citrus medica, Linn., Rutace^. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Maha nieba, Citrus decumana, Willd., Rutacb.'e. 

Gum ; 
f^f(\)sknitn^ Hind., Cedrela Toona, Roxb., Meliace£. 

Gum ; Dye ; 
|^flb ft"i"»l^ i Sans., Melia Azedarach, Linn,, Meliace.c 

Oil ; 
Maha nikh, Hind., Makr., Ailanthus excelsa, Roxb., Simarube.e. 

Gum ; 
Mahanshada, Sans., Allium sativum, Linn., LiLiACEiE. 

Oils ; 
Mahlbans, Nepal,, Bambusa nutans. Wall., Gramine^e. 

Fibre ; 
Mahlu, Lepcha., Bambusa nutans. Wall., Gramine^, 

Fibre ; 
Mahog^y tree, Indian, Eng., Cedrela Toona, Roxb., Meliace.e. 

Gum ; Dye ; 
Mahua, Hind., Bom., Bassia latifolia, Roxb., Sapotacb^. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Oils ; 
Mahui, Hind., Orthanthera viminia, Wight., Asclbpiadb.e. 

Fibre ; 
Mabula, Beug., Bassia latifolia, Roxb., SAPOTACEiE. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Oils ; 

the Economic Products of India, 83 

Bllahwa, Beng , Hind., Bassia latifoHa, Roxh., Sapotacb£. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Maida, Pb,, Tetranthera laurifolia, Jacq., Laurine^. 

Oil ; 
Maidal, Nepal.^ Randia dumetorum, Lam., Rubiace<<£ 

Dye ; 
Maidal-lara, Nepal, Piecospermum spinosum, Trecu\ UKTicACEi«E. 

Dye ; 
Maiden-hair, Er^,, Adiantum Cappilus-Veneris, Linn,, Filices. 

Oil ; 
Mainakat lara, Nepal, Piecospermum spinosum, Trecul, URTicACEi£. 

Dye ; 
Mainphal, Hind., Randia dumetorum, Lam., Rubiace^. 

Dye ; 
Maize, Eng., Zea Mays, Linn., Gramine^. 

Fibre ; 
Majnun, Pb., Salix babylonica, Linn., Salicin^. 

Fibre ; 
Majtaii, Hind., Artemisia vulgaris, Linn., Composite. 

Oil ; 
Majuphala, Bom., Quercus infectoria, Oliver, Cupulifera. 

Dye ; 
Makanim, Tel,, Melia Azedarach, Linn., MsLiACEiC 

Oil ; 
Makara-rai, Hind., Brassica nigra, Koch., CRUCiFBRiC. 

Oil ; 
Makar-limbu, Mahr., Atalantia monophylla, Corr., Rutackm. 

Oil^ ; 
Makha-jowari, Dec, Zea. Mays, Linn., Graminea. 

Fibre ; 
Makhal, Beng., Citrullus Colocynthis, Schrad., Cucurbitace^. 

Oil ; 
Makhmah, Bom., Tagetes patula, Linn.^ CoMPOSiTiC. 

Dye ; 
Makhur, Mahr., Atalantia monophylla, Corr., Rutace^^ 

Oil ; 
Makka, Hind., Zea, Mays, Linn., GRAMiNEiC. 

Fibre : 
Makka cholam, 7am., Zea, Mays, Linn., Gramine.£. 

Fibre ; 
Makka-zonalu, Tel., Zea Mays, Linn., GraminevC. 

Fibre ; 
Makkaly Pb., Populus balsamifera, Linn., SALiciNEiE. 

Gum ; 
Makki, Tam.f Garcinia Morella, Desrouss., Guttifer^. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Makkvna, Hind., Bauhinia racemosa, Lam , Leguminosa 

Gum ; 
Makulii, Cingh., Hydnocarpus Wightiana, Blu?ne, Bixine.£« 

Oil ; 
Makur-kendi, Beng., Hind., Diospyros Embryopteris, Peis., EbenacevB. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Mala, Hind., Spatholobus Roxburghii, Bth., Leguminos£. 

Gum ; 

Oil ^ ; 
Malag^, N.-IV. P., See Hedychium spicatum, Ham., ScTiAMiNEii. 

Dye ; 
Ma-laing^, Burm., Broussonetia papyrifera. Vent, Urticace^. 

Fibre ; 
Ma^ai-veppam, Tam., Melia Azedarach, Lirm., MELiACEiE. 

Oil ; 

86 Index to Volume I of the Catalogue of 

Burm^t Psidium Giiava, Raddi, Myrtacea. 
Dye ; Tan ; 
Male, Burm.f Jasminum Sambac, Aiton , OLEACEis. 

Oil ; 
Malawponga, Tinnevelfy, Garcinia travancorica, Seddome, Guttifcrji. 

Gum ; 
Malgfian, ffitid., Bauhinia Vahlii, W. 6r A., Lbguminosa. 

Gum s 
BflAli, Mahr., Pogostemon Patchouly, PoU^t., Labiate. 

Oil ; 
Maljan, Hind., Bauhinia VahliiyTT. dfA.^ Lkguminosic. 

Gum ; 
IfaHcakiii, Oudh^ Kumaun, Celastrus paniculatus, Wil/d., Celastrine^. 

Oil ; 
Malkangni, Pb, (seeds of) Celastrus paniculatus, Willd., CELASTRiNBiS. 

OU ; 
M^lkangooi, Bom*^ Celastrus senegalensis, Lam., Celastrin&s. 

Oil ; 
MaHatrfiB, C. P^ Melia Azedarach, Linn,, MsLiACSiE. 

Gum ; Dye ; Oil ; 
Bfallai, SeUem^ Sansevieria zeylanica, Willd., Hmuodoracem. 

Fibre ; 
HaUai veiBba, Tam^ Melia Azedarach, Linn.^ Meliacejs. 

Gum ; Dye ; Oi! ; 
Mallow, Conntiy, Eng.^ Abutilon asiaticum, G, Don^ Malvacea. 

Fibre ; 
Mallow, Indian, Eng,^ Abutilon avicennae, Gaertn^ Malvacea. 

Fibre ; 
Mallow-Mask, Eng.^ Hibiscus Abelmoschus, Linn.f MALVACBiC. 

Fibre ; 
Bflala, Hind., Bauhinia Vahlii, IV, & A.^ Lbguminosjs. 

Gum ; 
Manuuli, Te/., Mangifera indica, Linn.^ Anacardiacejs. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Mamech, Polygonum bistorta, Linn.f Polygonace^. 

Oil ; 
Bfandd, TV/., Mangifera indica, Linn,, Anacardiace^. 

Oil : 
Manaloo oU. 
Oil ; 
Manrhe, Tel.t Euphorbia Tirucalli, Linn.y EuPHORBiACEiC. 

Mordant ; 
Manchi-nnne noovooloo, TV/., Sesamum indicum, Linn., Pedaline.c 
Oil ; 
anda, TV/., Randia dumetorum, Lam.y Rubiacea 
Dye ; 
Manda dhup, Kan,, Canarium striatum, Roxb,, Burseracbjb. 

Gum ; 
Mandiu:a, Bom.^ Calotropis grigantea, R. Br.j AsCLBPiADEiC. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Fibre ; 
Mandir4, Bom.j Calotropis procera, R. Br., Asclepiade^e. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Fibre ; 
Mandg^y, ^am.^^nibusa arundinacea, Reia., GRAMiNEiC 

Fibre ; 
Mandkolla, Pb,, Randia dumetorum, Lam,, Rubiaceje. 

Dye ; 
Mang^, Lam., Mangifera indica, Linn., Anacardiaceje. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Mang^hati, Uriya, Lawsonia alba^ Lam., Lythrace^. 

Dve ; Oil ; 
Mano^l, 7am., Bambusa arundianaceae, Ret^., GRAMiNEiC. 
Fibre : 

the Economic Products of India. 87 

Mangi, Salem,^ Sanseviria zeylanica, Willd., HoEMODORACBiE. 

Fibre ; 
Mang^o, Eng.f Mangifera indica, Linn,, Anacardiacba. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
BAangosteen, Eng,, Garcinia Mangostana, Linn., Guttifbrjb. 

Gum ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Bllangrove, Eng., Rhizophora mucronata, Lamk., Rhizophorba. 

Tan ; 
Mangrove Bark, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Lam. RHizopHOREiS. 

Tan ; 
BAangrove, White, Eng., Avicennia officinalis, Linn., Verbenacbac. 

Tan ; 
Manipussupu, Tel., Coscinium fenestratum, Colebr., Mbnisfbrmace^. 

Manjadi, Kan., Adenanthera pavonina, Linn., Lbguminos^b. 

Gum ; 
BAanjal, Tam., Curcuma longa, Roxb., Scitaminba. 

Dye ; 
Manja-pa, 7am., Nyctanthes Arbor-tristis, Linn., Olbacbac. 

Dye ; Oil ; 
Manjati, Mai., Adenanthera pavonina, Linn., Leguminosa. 

Oils ; 
Manjistha, Beng., Rubia cordifolia, Linn., RuBiACBiS. 

Dye ; 
Manjit, Hind., Rubia cordifolia, Linn., Rubiacba. 

Dye ; 
Manjitti, 70m., Rubia cordifolia, Linn., RuBiACBiC. 

Dye ; 
Manjushta, Kan., Rubia cordifolia, Linn., Rubiacea. 

Dye ; 
Manneli, Mai,, Indigofera aspalathoides, Vahl., Leguminosa. 

Mannoa, see Gossypium herbaceum, L., var. herbaceum, Malvacba. 

Fibre : 
Mansa sij, Beng., Euphorbia neriifolia, Linn., EuPHORBiACBiB. 
Manu, Ph., Rhus Cotinus, Linn., ANACARDiACBiB. 

Dye ; Tan ; 
Manyul, Hind., Randia dumetorum, Zam., Rubiace^. 

Dye ; 
Maralingam, Tam., Crataeva religiosa, Forst., Capparidba. 

Dye ; 
Maramunjil, Tam., Coscinium fenestratum, Colebr., Menispermacb^. 

Dye ; 
Maxan, Pb., Ulmus Wallichiana, Planch., URTiCACEiC. 

Fibre ; 
Haravetti, Tam., Hydnocarpus Wightiana, Blume, Bijcinb^. 

Oil ; 
Marda, Hind,, Tetranthera monopetala, Roxb,, Laurinb^s. 

Oil ; 
Maredu, Tel., i^gle Marmelos, Corr,, Rutacbjs. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Maildng-nut, Semecarpus Anacardium, Linn., ANACARDiACBiS. 
Margosa Tree, Eng., Melia Azadirachta, Linn., Meliacba. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Marich Kala, Beng., Hind., Piper nigrum, Linn., Piperacea. 

Oil ; 
Marigold, Eng., Tagetes patula, Linn., Composite. 

Dye ; 
Marithondl, 7am., Lawsonia alba. Lam., LvTHRACBiB. 

Dye ; Oil ; 
Mark, Pb,, Briedelia retusa, Spreng., Euphorbiacb.e. 

Tan : 

88 Index to Voiume I of the Catalogitc of 

BSarliimiiltat 7am.» Xanthium strumarium, Linn., Composite. 

BAarni, Hind.^ Sponia politoria, PlaHch.f Urticace^. 

Fibre ; 
Maror-phal, Hind,, Helicteres Isora, Linn., Sterculiace.'e. 

Fibre ; 
Martan, Hind,, Desmodium tilisfolium, G. Don , Legumixo \jf.. 

Fibre ; 
BAarti, Sutlej, Jasminum humile, Linn., Oleace^. 

Dye ; 
Marul, Tarn., Sansevieria zeylaiiica, Willd., HiEMODORACi^.^. 

Mamra, Sans., Sansevieria zeylanica, Willd., H^CMODORACEii . 

Fibre ; 
Marvil, Hind., Bauhinia racemosa, Lam., LEGUMiNOSiE. 

Fibre ; 
Maseni, Beng., Linum usitatissimum, Linn., Line^. 

Fibre ; Oil ; . . . 
Mamina, Beng., Linum usitatissimum, Linn., Line^. 

Fibre ; Oil ; 
Maslnm, Pb., Polygonum bistorta, Linn., Poly^onace/t. 

Oil ; 
Massi, Garhwal, Nardostachys Jatamansi, DC, Valerian \cr e 

Oil ; 
Mastaki, Pistacia Cabulica, Stocks., Piperace^. 

Gum ; 
Maatani, Beng., Artemisia vulgaris, Linn., CoMPOSiTiC. 

Oils } 
Matau, Burnt., Garcinia Xanthochymus, ^o<7i./., Guttifer^e. 

Gum •; 
Matayen, Travancore, Hardwickia pinnata, Roxb., LEGUMixoSiC. 

Gum . ; 
Matela, Beng., Bambusa Tulda Roxb., Gramine^. 

Fibre ; 
Mati-phal, Tam., Ailanthus malabarica, DC, Si ma rube. E. 

Gum ; 
M&t-kaliu, Beng., Arachis hypogoea, Linn., LEOUMiNoSiB, 

Oils ; 
Mati, Huldi~or Kai — Beng., Ochre. 
Matti, Beas, Orthanthera viminea, Wighty AsCLEPiADEiB. 

Fibre : 
Maul, Beng., Spatholobus Roxburghii, Bih., LEOUMiNosiB. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Maul, C. P., Bauhinia Vahlii, W. & A., LEouMiNOSiE. 

Fibre ; 
Maul, Beng., Bassia latifolia, Roxb., SAPOTACEiE. 

Gum , Dye ' ; Tan ; Oils ; 
Maulser, Hind., Mimusops Elengi, Linn,, SapotacejE. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Mauraia, Hind., Bauhinia Vahlii, W. & A., Leguminosjs. 

Gum ; 
Mauri, Beng., Foeniculum vulgare, Gaertn., Umbellifer-<b. 

Oil ; 
Mausa, Cingh , Laportea crenalata, Gandich., URTiCACEiK. 

Fibre ; 
Mawtda, And., Heritiera Uttoralis, Dryand., Sterculiace-«. 

Oil : 
May, Tel., Schleichera trijuga, Willd., SAPiNDACEiB. 

Oil ; 
Maya, Sind., Quercus infectoria, Oliver, CuPULiFERiE. 

Dye ; 

the Economic Products of India. 89 

Mayo-bengfy Burnt.y Calotropts gigantea, R. Br., Asclepiade^. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Fibre ; 
Mazri, Trans-Indian^ Chamaerops Ritchecana, Grijf., Palm..^. 

Fibre ; 
Mealum-ma, Lepcha, Laportea crenulata, Gandich., URTiCACEiE. 

Fibre ; 
Meda, Pb., Tetranthera laurifolia, ^acq., Laurine^. 

Oil ; 
Meda, Hind,^ Tetranthera monopetala, Roxb., LaurinEwE. 

Oil ; 
Mee, Cingh., Bassia longifolia, Willd., Sapotace^. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Meena-hanna, Bom., Balsamodendron playfairii, Hook./., Burserace^. 

Gum ; 
Mehndi, Pb., Elsholtzia polystachya, Benth., LABiATiE. 

Dye ; Oil 5 
Mehndi, Hind., Lawsonia alba, Lam., Lythrace^c. 

Dye ; Oil ; 
Meinkara, Nepal^ Toddalia aculeata, Pers., Rutace^e. 

»'ye ; 
Melon, Musk, Eng., Cucurbita moschata, Duchesne, Cucurbttace^. 

Oil ; 
Melon, Sv7eet, Eng., Cucumis Melo, L., CucuRBixACEiE. 

Oil i . . 

Melon, White, Eng., Benincasa cerifera, Sam , Cucurbitace^. 

Oil ; 
Menda, Hind., Tetranthera laurifolia, Jacq., Laurine^. 

Oil ; 

Mendah, Gond., Tetranthera monopetala, Roxb., Laurine^e. 

Oil ; 
Mendi, Bom., Beng., Lawsonia alba, Lam., Lyth raceme. 

Dye ; Oil ; 
Men^t, Burm., Garcinia Mangostana, Linn., Guttifer/E. 

Tan ; 
Mentulu, Tel., Trigonella Fcenum-graecum, Linn , Leguminos^. 

Oil ; 

Mesquit, Eng., Prosopis glandulosa, Torr., Leguminos-TI. 

Gum ; 
Mesta, Beng., Hibiscus sabdarifa, Linn., Malvace^, 

Fibre ; Oil ; 
Mesta-pat, Beng., Hibiscus cannabinus, Linn., Malvace/E. 

Fibre ; 
Mestapaut, Beng., Hibiscus Cannabinus, Linn., Malvaceae. 

Oil ; 
Methi, Hind., Beng., Trigonella Fcenum-graecum, Linn., LsGUMiNOSiE. 

Dye ; Oil ; 
Metungfa, Beng., Meocanna bambusoides, Trim., Gramfne^. 

Fibre ; 
Mhendi, Hind., Lawsonia alba, Lam., Lythrace^e. 

Dye ; Oil : 
Miah-sayelah, Arab., Liquidamber orientalis. Miller., HAMAMELioEiE. 

Gum ; 
Milagu, 7am., Piper nigrum, Linn., Fiveracem. 

Oils : 
Mil-karanai, Tam., Toddalia aculeata, Pers., RuxACEiE. 

Dye ; 
Milkisse, Nepal, Berberis nepalensis, S^r^n^., Berberide^. 

Dye ; 
Minbo, Burm , Caryota urens, Linn , Palm^e. 

Fibre ; 

MInbu, Bur m, Garcinia mangostana, Linn., GuTTiFERiE. 

Gum :. 

90 Index to Volume I of the Catalogue of 

Mentoln, TV/., Trigonella Foenum-graecam, Linn.y Leguminos^. 

Dye ; 
Ifindla, Ph,^ Randia dumetorum, Zam., Rubiace/c. 

Dye ; 
Mmgat, Makr.f Euphorbia nenifolia, Linn., EuPHORBiACEiE. 

Gum ; 
Milli, Tarn., Sponia orientalis. Planch., URTiCACBiB. 

Gum ; 
Mi-on-lonke, Burm., Artocarpus Lakoocha, Roxb,, URTiCACBiC. 

Gum ; Dye ; Fibre ; 
ICpitmnk, Lepcha, Flemingia congesta, Roxb,, LEGuiMiNOSiC. 

Dye ; 
Bfinuidtiy Ph., Elaeodendron glaucum, P^s.jCsLASTRiNKiE. 

Gum ; 
Miriya, N.-W. P., Andropogon laniger, Desf., GRAMiNEiE* 
Miriyalu, TV/., Piper nigrum, Linn., PiPSRACEiC. 

Oil ; 
Bftirri, Chenab., Pinus Gerardiana, Wall., Conifers. 

Oil ; 
Bflishmiat, Pers, Prunus armeniaca, Linn., RosACEiE. 

Oil ; 
BAtthivan, Pb., Salvadora oleoides, Linn., Salvadorace^. 

Dye ; Oil ; 
Mocha, Sans., Bombax malabaricum, DC, MALVACEiC. 

Tan ; 
Mochras, Gum, Bombax malabaricum, Sw., Meliacba. 

Gum ; Dye ; Fibre ; 
Modala, Ass., Macarangaindica, Wight, Euphorbiacbje. 

Gum ; 
Modhuriam, Ass.^ Psidium Guava, Raddi, MvRTACiC. 

Dye ; Tan ; 
Modagfu, TV/., Erjrthrina indica. Lam., Legfminosjr. 

Gum ; 
Modug^, TV/., Butea frondosa, Roxb., LEGUHiNosiB. 

Gum ; Tan ; Fibre ; 
Mogalieranda, Bom , Jatropha Curcas, Linn., Euphorbiacba. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
fAogrk, Bom., Jasminum Sambac, Aiton, Olbace^. 

Mohanimba, Sans , Melia Azedarach, Linn., Mbliace^. 

Gum ; Dye ; 
Mohi, Uriya, Garuga pinnata, Roxb., BuRSERACBiE. 

Gum * ; Tan ; 
Mohin, Hind., Odina Wodier, Roxb., Anacardiace^. 

Gum ; Tan ; Fibre . ; 
Moho, Mahr., Bassia latifolia, Roxb., Sapotacb^. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Mok, Burm^, Aloe vera, Linn., Liliacba. 

Dye ; Fibre ; 
MoiBchiiia, Beng,, Excaecaria sebifera, Mull. Arg., Euphorbiacba. 

Dye ; Oil ; . 
Mo-ma-kha, Burm., Salix tetrasperma, Roxb., Salic inea. 

Tan ; 
Monkey bread tree of Africa, Eng,, Adansonia digitata, Linn., Mal- 

VACEA. Fibre ; 
Moala, Burm., Raphanus sativus, Linn., Crucifbr^. 

Oil ; 
Mooda Hoora. See Dugong oil. 

Oil ; 
Moola, Beng., Sterculia colorata, Roxb., Stbrculiacb^. 

Fibre : 

the Economic Products of India » 91 

Moor^l mani, Tatiu^ Garcinia indica, Ckois,^ Guttipbr^. 

Mordant ; Oil ; 

Oil ; 
Mootoo, Tam.^ Neeradimootoo Oil. 

M ora, Makr.t Bassia latifolia, Roxb.^ Sapotacejb. 

Oil ; 
Moradu, 7am., Boswellia serrata, Colebr., Bursbracejb. 

Gum ; 
Mored, Hind.f Ulmus Wallichiana, Planch., URTiCACEiC. 

Fibre ; 
Morin^, Nepal, Laportea crenulata, Gandich, Urticacea. 

Fibre ; 
Morlt, Tel., Buchanania latifolia, Roxb,, Anacardiace£. 

Gum ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Moning^ay 7am., Moringa pterygosperma, Gaetln., MoRingea. 

Gum ; Tan ; Fibre ; Oil ; 
Motha, Hind., Desmodium tiliaefolium, G. Don.^ LfiGUMiNOSiB. 

Fibre ; 
Mova, Bom., Bassia.latifolia, Roxb., SAPOTACEiE. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Mowa, /Tm^., Bassia latifolia, Roxb., Sapotace^s. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; Oils ; 
Mowa, Trans-Indus, Orthanthera viminea, Wight, AscLEPiADBiE. 

Fibre ; 
Mowa, Hind., Phyllanthus nepalensis, MUll. Arg., EuPHORBiACEiE. 

Tan ; 
Mowen, Hind., Odina Wodier, Roxb., Anacardiacejb. 

Gum ; Tan ; Fibre ; 
Moya, Bom., Mahr., Odina Wodier, Roxb., Anacardiace^. 

Gum ; Tan ; Fibre ; 
Mucherus, (tan of) Bombax malabaricum, Malvaceae. 

Ian ; 
Muda kaiyeya, Cingh., Pandanus odoratissimus, Willd,, Pandane^. 

Fibre ; 
Mudarktai, Beng., Cyperus tegetum, Roxb., GRAMiNEiS. 

Fibre ; 
Mududad, 7am., Chloroxylon Swietenia, DC, Meliacea. 

Gum ; 
Muduga. See Butea Frondosa, Roxb., LEGUMiNOSiE. 

Oil : 
Mng^i, Kan., Mimusops Elengi, Linn., SAPOTACEiE. 

Gum ; * 

Mug^alik, Tel., Pandanus odoratissimus, Willd., PANDANEiE. 

Fibre j 
Mugra, Hind,, Beng,, Jasminum Sambac, Aiton, OLEACEiE. 

Oil ; 
Mug^ela, Beng., Nigella sativa, Linn., RANUNCULACEiE. 
Mulsari, Hind., Mimusops Elengi, Ltnn., Sapotaceje. 

Gum ; Dye j Tan ; 
Mujjum, Bom., Casuarina equisetifolia, Forst., Casuarinace^e. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Mukld, Tarn., Garcinia Morella, Decsr., Guttiferje. 

Gum ; Tan ; Oil ,- 
Mukta-jali, Hind., Drosera peltata, Sm., DROSERACEiE. 

Mukta-maya, Uriya, Sapindus trifoliatus, Linn., Sapindace^e. 

Oil ; 
Mukta-pati, Beng., Maranta dichotoma. Wall., Marantace^e. 

Fibre : 

92 /// ^.'.r /.'' I'o 'I'jr'e I of the Catalogue of 

ftfilwil^ Hind. J Bal^modmdron Mokul, Hook., Burserace^. 

Gnm ; 
Mala. Beng., Raphanns satirb, Ltnn., CRUciFERiE. 

Oil : 
IfiffiiiHp*"**" Tei , Cocamis Me!o. £., Cccurbitace^. 

O-l ; 
^Mwmfmthi Hind., Gljcyrrhiza glabra, Lsmm., Leguminos.c 

Dye ; 
Molbcfr/, Eng^ Moms indica, Linn,, Urticace JC 

Gum : 
Ifofi. Beng., Melocanna bambusoides, 7W at.. GRAMiXEiC. 

Fibre ; 

Ifnfi. Hind., Repbanus sadris, Linn., Crucifer^e. 

Oil ; 
M"lw»^ Pb., Oroxyliiiii iodicum, Bmth.^ Bignoxiace^e. 

Dye ; Tan ; 
IfaOnk-lcCfsL Tam, Amaraotus spinosus, U'iHd , Aiiaraxt\ce.i^. 

Ifolsari, Hind., M imosops Eieogi, Linn., Safotace^. 

Gam ; Dye ; Tan ; Oil 
IfnlOf Hind., Spat hoi obos RTxbiirghii, Bent^t., L'-gusi i\os 7.. 

Gum ; 
Mobnrelari, Tam., Cncnmis satiTos. Linn., Cvcvrbit.kcex. 

Oil ; 
Mnlmrengsj, Tawu, Briedelia retusa, Spreng., El'phorbiacs.'e. 

Tan ; 
linndiri kottaiy Tam., Anacardinm oocidentale, Linn,, Anacaiidiac^m:. 

Gum ; Tan ; Oil ; 
Ifanciiphafi, Hind, Arachis hypogoea, Linn., Legumixos.i;. 

Mmg. Eng., Saccbamm Mnnja, Roxb., Graiiine.c 

Fibre ; 
Mmqa. Pb., Saccbamm Monja, Roxh., Gramixe^c 

Fibre ; 
M vja pavattary, Tam., Morinda citrifolia. L/nn.. var citrerV.ia, RuBi- 

ace^. Dye ; 
Mmj-sar-kanda, Pb., Saccbamm Mnnja, ^^.r^., Gramixe.c 

Fibre ; 
Bfmmoah. See Gossypinm berbaoeom, L., var. herbaceum, Malvaceae. 

Fibre ; 
Mmahara. Beng., Sansevieria zeylanica, Willd., H(emadorace^. 

Fibre ; 
liorba. Beng., Sansevieria zeylanica, Willd., Hcemadorace.c 

Fibre ; 
Ifnrgafi, Dec, Sansevieria zeylanica, Willd., Hcemadorace^. 

Fibre ; 
Mm^. Beng., Sansevieria zeylanica, Willd., Hcemadorace^c 

Fibre ; 
Mnxia, Garhwal, Bnc h ana n ia latifolia, Roxh., Leguminos.v.. 

Gum ; Tan ; 
Mukiila, Hind., Marsdenia Roylei, Wight., Asclbpiadk£. 

Fibre 5 . .. . 

If Oft, Hind., Desmodium tiliaefolinm, G. Don., Leguiiinos;e. 

Fibre ; 
Mnmdasenga, Bom., (jtmM of) Helicteres issora, Linn., Stzrculiaceje 

Fibre : 
Marnka, Tam., Erytbrina indica. Lam., Leguminosjb. 

Gum : Dye ; Fibre ; 

Oil ; 
Mnmte, Cingh,, Lagerstrsemia Flos-Reginac, Retm., LvTHRArEi. 

Gum : 


the Econo7nic Products of India, 93 

Murwa. See Gossypium Herbaceum, Z., var. herbaceum, Malvace^. 

Fibre ; 
Sllusadi, Tel.y Strychnos Nux-vomica, Linn., LoGANiACEi£. 

Dye ; Oil ; 
Musanbdr, Dec , Aloe vera, Linn,, Liliace^e. 

Dye ; Fibre ; 
Mushambdrain, Tel., Aloe vera Linn., Liliace^. 

Dye ; Fibre ; 
Mushk-bhendi-ke-binj, Dec, Hibiscus Abelmoschus, Linn., AlALVACEiC. 

Fibre. ; 
Mushk-dana, Pers., Hibiscus Abelmoschus, Linn., Malyackje, 

Fibre ; 
Mushti, Tel., Strychnos Nux-vomica, Linn., Loganiace^. 

Dye ; Oil ; 
Musta, Sans., Bom., Cyperus rotundus, Linn., Cyperace^e. 

Dye ; 
Mustard, Black or True, Eng., Brassica nigra, Koch., Crucifer^. 

Mustard, Indian, Eng., Brassica juncea, H. F. & T, T., Crucifek^. 

Oil ; 
Mustard, White, Eng., Brassica alba, H.f. & T. T., Crucifer^. 

Oil ; 
Mustard, Wild, Eng., Cleome viscosa, Linn., CAPPARiDiS. 

Oil ; 
Mustic, Eng., Madura tinctoria, D. Don., Urticace^. 

Dye ; 
Muta^y Kan., Butea frondosa, Roxb,, Leguminosjs. 

Gum ; 
Mutha, Beng., Hind., Cyperus rotundus, Linn., Cyperace^. 

Dye ^ ; Oil ; 
Mutha, Nagur, Beng., Cyperus pertenuis, Roxb,, Cypekace^. 

Dye ; 
Muttava, Hind., Sida cordifolia, Linn., Malvace^. 

Fibre ; 
Muttug^, Kan., Butea frondosa, Roxb., LEGUMiNOSiE. 

Gum ; Dye ; Fibre ; 
Myauk-si, Burnt., Zizyphus rugosa, Lamk., RHAMNEiE. 

Gum ; 
Myatle, Burnt., Jasminum grandiflorum, Linn., Oleace.e. 

Oil ; 
Myauklot, Burnt., Artocarpus Lakoocha, Roxb., URTiCACEiK. 

Dye ; 
Myeng, Burnt., Cynomera ramiflora, Linn., Leguminos-*:. 

Dye J Oil ; 
Myenkapen, Burnt., Cynometra ramiflora, Linn., Leguminos.b. 

Dye ; 
Myinwa, Burnt., Dendrocalamus strictus, Nees, Gramine^e. 

Fibre ; 
Myinwa, Burnt., Dendrocalamus Hamiltonii, Nees, Gramine/E. 

Fibre ; 
Myjinka, Burnt., Cynometra ramiflora, Linn., LEGUMiNOSyE. 

Dye ; 
Myoosay, Bhutia, Thamnocalamus spathiflorus, Munro, GRAMiNEiS. 

Fibre ; 
Myouklouk, Burnt., Artocarpus Lakoocha, Roxb., Urticaceje. 

Gum ; 
Myaukseit, Burnt., Ulmus integrifolia, Roxb., Urticace^. 

Oil ; 
Myepe, Burnt., Arachis hypogsea, Linn., LEGUMiNOSiE. 

Oil ; 
Myrosyne, Eng, Sec Brassica nigra, Koch., Crucifer-<e^ 

Oil : 

94 Index to Volume I of the Catalogue of 

Myroxdc add, Eng.^ Brasssica nigra, Kock.^ Crucipee^. 

Oil ; 
Myrrh, Eng,^ Balsamodendron Myrrha, Nees^ Burseracba. 

Gum : 


Nab&talqniisiah, Arahy Cannabis sativa, Linn., URriCACE.e 

Fibre ; Oil ; 
Nabe, Burm.f Odina Wodier, Roxb.^ ANACARDiACEiC. 

Dye ; 
Nabhay, Burnt,, Odina Wodier, Roxb,, ANACARDiACRiB. 

Gum ; Tan ; Fibre ; 
Nas^raem rik, Lepchuy Acacia Intsia, Willd., LEcuMiNOSiC. 

Dye ; 
Naga, 7am., Eugenia Jambolana, Lam., MvRTACEiC. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
NAgachampA, Bom., Mesua ferrea, Linn., GurriFERiE. 

Oil : 
Nagadali, Tam., Opuntia Dillenii, Haw., CACTEiC. 

Fibre ; 
Nigak^saia, Tel., Mesua ferra, Linn., Guttifer^e. 

Oil : 
Nagakand^, Bom., Morinda citrifolia., Linn., var. bracteata, RuBiACEiE. 

Dye ; 
Ndgaramothi, Bom., Cyperus pertenuis, Roxb.^ CvPERACEiS. 

Dye ; 
Nagesar, Hind., Beng,, Mesua ferrea, Linn., Guttifer^. 

Dye ; Oil ; 
Nagpnana, Hind., Opuntia Dillenii, How., Cactea. 

Fibre ; 
Nagphanai, Hind., Opuntia Dillenii, How., CACTSiC. 

Fibre ; 
Nag^pot, Sylhet, Bauhinia anguina, Roxb», LEGUMiNOSiC. 

Fibre ; 
Nagiaem rik, Lepcha, Acacia Intsia, Willd., Leguminosb^. 

Dye ; 
Naha, Cingh., Lasiosiphon ericephalus, Decne., URTiCACEiG. 

Fibre : 
Nahar, Ass., Mesua ferrea, Linn., Guttifbr/c. 

D^e ; Oil ; 
Nainiri, Tel., Eugenia Jambolana, Lam., MyRTACEiC. 

Gum ; Dye ; Tan ; 
Naiwilli, Nepal, Bauhinia anguina, Roxb., LEGUMiNOSiC. 

Fibre ; 
Nai-yunir, Tam., Achyranthes aspera, Linn., AMARANTACEi«. 

Nakhtar, A/g., Cedrus Deodara, Loudon, Conifer jr. 

Gum ; Oil ; 
Nakhtar, Afg., Pinus longifolia, Roxb., CoNiFBRiB. 

Nal, Beng., Arundo Karka, Roxb., Gramine^. 

Fibre ; 
Nala-rojan, TV/., Canarium strictum, Roxh., Burseracbje. 

Gum ; 
Nala Sandra, Tel., Acacia Sundra, DC, LEouMiNoSiC. 

Gum ; 
Nalkhnd, Pers., Cicer arietinum, Linn., Leguminos^s. 

Dye ; 
Nalki. Beng., Hibiscus cannabinus, Linn., MALVACEiC 



the Economic Products of India* 95 

Nalku, Beng.y Hibiscus cannabinus, Linn., Malvacb^. 

Oil ; 
Nalla-mada, Tel., Avecinnia officinalis, Linn., Verbenace^. 

Tan ; 
Nalla-tig^ Tel., Ichnocarpus frutescens, Br., Apocynace/c. 

Fibre ; 
Nallareng;a^ Tel., Albizzia amara, Baivin, Leguminosji. 

Gum ; 
Nal lenney, 7am., Sesamum indicum, Linn., Pedalinea. 

Oil ; 
Nal valanga, Tam., Dalbergia lanceolaria, Linn., Leguminos^. 

Oil ; 
Namli, Tel., Ulmus integrifolia, Hoxb., URTiCACEi£. 

Oil ; 
Namme, 7am., Anogeissus latifoHa, Wall., CoMBRBTACEiE. 

Gum ; Dye ; 
Nandi, Tel., Cedrela Toona, Roxb,, Meliace^. 

Gunl ; Dye ; 
Nangal, Tam., Mesua ferrea, Linn., Guttifera. 

Dye ; Oil ; 
Nanjunda, Tam., Balanites Roxburghii, Planck., Simarubeje. 

Oils ; 
Nanta^-yop, Burm., Altingia excelsa, Noronka, HAMALiDEiE. 

Gum ; 
Nan nan, Burm., Coriandrum sativum, Linn,, UMBELLiFERiE. 

Oil : 
Nann-withy 5y/A^^,lGnetum scandens, Roxb., Gnetace^e. 

Fibre ; 
Nar, Beng., Arundo Kirka, Roxb., Gramine^. 

Fibre ; 
Narangi, Hind., Citrus Aurantium, Linn.y Rutaceje. 

Gum : 
Nar-botku, Tel., Eriolaena Hookeriana, W. & A., SxERCULiACEiB. 

Fibre ; 
Nar-botku, Tel., Eriolaena spectabilis, Planch., SxERCULiACEiE. 

Fibre ; 
Naiial, Hind., Cocos nucifera, Linn., Falvm. 

Fibre ; Oil ; 
Nari kadam, Tel., Cocos nucifera, Linn., Palm^. 

Fibre ; Oil ; 
Narikel, Beng., Cocos nucifera, Linn., Palm^e. 

Fibre ; Oil ; 
Naringi, Hind., Citrus Aurantium, Linn., Rutacea. 

Gum ; 
Narld, Pb., Tamarix articulata, Vahl., Tamariscineje. 

Gum ; 
Narockpa, Lepcha, Canarium bengalense, Roxb., Bursbracea. 

Gum ; 
Narra alagi, Tel., Tetranthera laurifolia, Jacq., LAURiNEiE. 

Oil ; 
Narvilli, Tam., Cordia Rothii, Roem. &a