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' EDIBLE AND POISONOUS
A DESCRIPTIVE HANDBOOK TO ACCOM-
PANY THE AUTHOR'S COLORED CHART
OF EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS
WILLIAM ALPHONSO MURRILL, A.M., Ph.D.
ASSISTANT DIRECTOR OF THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN, ASSOCIATE EDITOR OF NORTH
AMERICAN FLORA, EDITOR OF MYCOLOGIA
PUBLISHED BY THE AUTHOR
By William Alphonso Murrill
THE NEW ERA PRINTING COMPANY
Edible Mushrooms i
Poisonous Mushrooms 6
Preparing and Cooking Mushrooms 9
Descriptions of Edible and Poisonous Mushrooms. ... 11
Species Figured on the Chart 68
Peck's List of Edible Mushrooms 69
Index to Genera with Species 72
Index to Species 75
EDIBLE AND POISONOUS
The popular and widespread interest in mushrooms of all
kinds is almost phenomenal. This is due to their beauty of
form and color and the supposed mystery surrounding their
origin and growth, as well as to the use of certain kinds for food.
Their nutritive value is not great, being about equal to that
of cabbage, but they afford variety in flavor and add greatly
to the relish for other foods.
Mushroom eating is much more common in Europe than in
this country. The struggle for existence is greater there, and
the edible and poisonous varieties are better known by all classes
of people. In China, it is almost impossible for a botanist to
get specimens on account of the thorough manner in which all
wild food is collected by the natives.
The use of mushrooms in this country is as yet very limited,
being confined chiefly to our foreign-born population. Even in
New York City, many excellent kinds go to waste every season
because they are different from kinds known in Europe. This
is especially true of the pufifballs, which do not seem to be gen-
* Attention is called to Wood's Reference Handbook of the Medical Sciences,
Ed. 2. 4: 574-596, plates 34 and 35, with 22 colored figures, and text figures
2654-2679. 1914. This valuable work should be found in any good reference
2 EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS
erally recognized as edible. On the other hand, many doubtful
species are collected in a wholesale and indiscriminate manner
by ignorant foreigners, who, while searching the lawns for the
common mushroom and the stumps for the beefsteak mushroom
and the honey agaric, appear to gather everything they find at
all resembling edible forms known to them.
All knowledge regarding the edible and poisonous properties
of mushrooms is based on experiments, either intentional or
unintentional. The only safe rule is to confine oneself to known
edible forms until others are proven harmless. If one is a be-
ginner, he is like an explorer in a new country with an abundance
of attractive fruit near at hand, which may be good or may be
rank poison; he cannot tell without trying it, unless some native,
who has learned from his own and others' experience, shares his
knowledge with him.
The writer on this subject undertakes a very responsible task,
owing to the vast number of similar forms among the mush-
rooms which are distinguished with difficulty by those not
accustomed to fine distinctions; but it should be possible with
the aid of colored figures to describe a few striking kinds in
such a way that no serious mistakes will be made.
The common field mushroom is known to almost every one
who pretends to collect mushrooms at all, and the majority of
collectors limit themselves entirely to this one kind. It grows
in low grass on meadows or on rich, moist, upland pastures, being
common after rains from August to October. The upper side is
white with brownish fibrils or scales, and the under side is a
beautiful salmon-pink when young, changing gradually to almost
black when old. The stem is colored like the top and has a
loose white ring around it. There is little or no swelling at the
base of the stem and no "cup," as in the deadly amanita, which
EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS 3
latter, moreover, is white underneath and grows usually in
woods or groves.
The "spawn," or vegetative portion of the common mush-
room, is hidden in the soil and feeds upon the dead organic
matter found therein. When the proper season arrives, small
fruit bodies, known as "buttons," appear on the spawn and
soon develop into "mushrooms," which are in reality only the
mature fruit bodies of a delicate and widely branching plant
entirely concealed in the earth. The parts of the fruit body
are popularly known as the "stem" and the "cap." On the
under side of the cap are the "gills," which bear countless tiny
bodies known as "spores," which are distributed by the wind
and produce new plants as seeds do in the case of the flowering
plants. The cottony "ring" on the stem is what remains of a
thin white "veil" which covered the gills in the younger stages
of growth. This veil is not present in all kinds of mushrooms.
In the cultivation of the common mushroom, bricks of spawn
are planted in suitable soil and the conditions of growth attended
to with great care. Any one wishing to grow mushrooms should
provide himself with a good handbook on the subject, or learn
the secret from a practical man in the business. It is not easy
to do successfully unless done properly.
I have frequently noticed a tendency in ignorant or inex-
perienced persons to belittle the dangers of mushroom eating,
apparently believing that a show of bravado or fearlessness will
overcome the effects of the poisonous kinds, as though they
belonged to the category of myths or ghosts. It is, indeed, true
that many varieties have been called poisonous when they were
not, just as most of our snakes have been under the ban on
account of the mischief done by three or four; but there are a
few mushrooms that contain poisons just as deadly as that of
4 EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS
the rattlesnake or copperhead, and these are responsible for
practically all of the deaths due to mushroom eating. These
poisons are narcotic rather than irritant, and their effects are
usually slow to appear.
If distress is experienced within four or five hours after eating
mushrooms, it is very probably a case of indigestion or minor
poisoning and should readily yield to a prompt emetic. If,
however, from eight to twelve hours have elapsed since eating
the mushrooms, disagreeable symptoms should be taken very
seriously, since it is almost certain that one of the deadly poisons
is at work. A physician should at once be called and the heart
action stimulated by a hypodermic injection of about one-
sixtieth of a grain of atropine, which- should be repeated twice
at half-hour intervals. Atropine is an antidote to the poison
of the "fly amanita," which paralyzes the nerves controlling the
action of the heart. If the "deadly amanita" has been eaten,
the atropine will probably do no good, and death will surely
follow if the amount eaten is sufficient.
The deadly amanita, shown in three of its forms in the chart;
is a very conspicuous and beautiful object, occurring through-
out the summer and autumn in open groves and along the edges
of woods. Neither its odor nor its taste is disagreeable, as is
the case with most inedible mushrooms, and it must be recog-
nized by a careful study of its form and parts, which are, fortu-
nately, very characteristic.
The most important part of the deadly amanita is the sheath
at the base of the stem known as the "death-cup," which is
well shown in the illustrations. This is what remains of the
outer coat of the "egg" after the cap has burst from it and has
been carried upward by the growing stem. The ring on the stem
is similar to that of the common mushroom, but the gills are
EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS 5
white, both when young and old, those of the common mush-
room being at first pink, then black. Nothing can be told from
the color of the upper surface of the cap because it varies so
much, being pure white, yellowish, brownish, or blackish.
Sometimes the surface is perfectly smooth and at other times it
is adorned with pieces of the death-cup which were carried up
on it when the cap burst through the roof of the egg.
When gathering mushrooms, it is exceedingly important to
get all of the stem and not leave a portion of it in the ground,
since the death-cup may thus be overlooked. Mushrooms
should not be gathered in the "button" stage unless mature
specimens are growing in the same place, otherwise an egg of
one of the poisonous kinds may be collected by mistake.
The fly amanita is as beautiful as it is dangerous. The cap
is usually bright scarlet, yellowish, or orange, sometimes fading
to nearly white, and covered with conspicuous warts, which
are portions of the death-cup carried up from below. The rest
of the cup will usually be found in fragments in the soil about
the swollen base of the stem. The gills are white and remain so,
thus differing from those of the common mushroom. The warts
on the cap also distinguish it. I have not found this species
common about New York, but it is very abundant in many
localities, both in this country and in Europe.
The death-cup and its remains on the surface of the cap should
always be looked for, and no mushroom of this group should be
eaten by the beginner, although some of them are excellent.
My advice to beginners is to confine themselves at first to the
common mushroom, the beefsteak mushroom, the puffballs, the
coral mushrooms, and other readily recognizable forms, being
careful to carry with them when collecting an accurate mental
picture of the deadly kinds which have the death-cup or the
6 EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS
peculiar patches on the cap, and to avoid mushrooms that are
either too young or too old when selecting specimens for the table.
If one must experiment, let him begin with experiments in
cooking, since the way in which a mushroom is cooked often has
much to do with its flavor and digestibility.
Mushrooms for Beginners. — Common Mushroom, Morel,
Chantarelle, Beefsteak, and Sulphur-colored Polypore. Shaggy-
mane, Common Inkcap, and Glistening Inkcap. All Puffballs,
provided they are white, tender, and homogeneous within. All
Coral-fungi, if they are fresh, crisp, tender, and have neither bad
odor nor bad taste. The Oyster Mushroom and its near rela-
tives. These are large, with white gills and short stems, and
grow on dead wood above ground. •
Some Critical Edible Species. — Polypores that are sufficiently
tender, avoiding certain Boleti and Fomes Laricis. Boleti that
have been tested and found edible, avoiding Suillellus luridus,
Ceriomyces miniato-olivaceus , and Tylopilus felleus in particular,
or all species with red tube-mouths and bitter or peppery taste,
and species that turn blue quickly when handled. Species of
Russula and Lactaria with pleasant odor and flavor, avoiding
such species as L. rufa, L. torminosa, R. foetens, and R. emetica.
Several species of Lepiota, avoiding L. Morgani, with green
spores, and species of Venenarius. Marasmius oreades must not
be confused with M. urens, nor with Inocybe infida. Clitocybe,
Tricholoma, and Collybia are usually edible; avoid Monadelphus
illtcdens, Vaginata too closely resembles Venenarius,
Considering its importance and interest, it is remarkable how
little is really known about the subject of poisonous mushrooms;
and the statements and opinions of various authors are so con-
EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS 7
flicting that one often does not know what to believe regarding
the commonest and best known forms. Most of the literature
centers about two species, Venenarius muscarius and Venenarius
phalloides, which, owing to their abundance, wide distribution,
conspicuous appearance, and deadly qualities, have been the
chief causes of death from mushroom eating the world over.
The clinical side of the subject is an old one, but careful chemical
investigation into the causes of the effects observed dates back
only about two decades, being dependent upon the development
of modern methods in organic chemistry.
As the use of mushrooms in this country for food becomes
more general, the practical importance of this subject will be
vastly increased and it may be possible to discover perfect anti-
dotes or methods of treatment which will largely overcome the
effects of deadly species. This would be a great boon even at
the present time, and there will always be children and ignorant
persons to rescue from the results of their mistakes. Another
very interesting field, both theoretical and practical in its scope,
is the use of these poisons in minute quantities as medicines, as
has been done with so many of the substances extracted from
poisonous species of flowering plants, and even from rattlesnakes
and other animals. Thus far, only one of them, the alkaloid
muscarine, has been so used.
The poisons occurring in flowering plants belong chiefly to two
classes of substances, known as alkaloids and glucosides. The
former are rather stable and well-known bases, such as aconitine
from aconite, atropine from belladonna, nicotine from tobacco,
and morphine from the poppy plant. Glucosides, on the other
hand, are sugar derivatives of complex, unstable, and often
unknown composition, such as the active poisons in digitalis,
hellebore, wistaria, and several other plants.
8 EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS
The more important poisons of mushrooms also belong to two
similar classes, one represented by the alkaloid muscarine, so
evident in Venenarius muscarius, and the other by the deadly
principle in Venenarius phalloides, which is known mainly
through its effects. Besides these, there are various minor
poisons usually manifesting themselves to the taste or smell,
that cause local irritation and more or less derangement of the
system, depending upon the health and peculiarities of the
The history of mushroom poisoning dates back to Babylonia
and ancient Rome, and every year since then has added to the
list of victims, many of whom have been persons of importance.
In some cases, poisonous species ' were used in committing
murder. The annual number of deaths in the United States
due to mistaking poisonous species for edible ones is probably a
hundred, many of which are not reported.
The tests used to distinguish poisonous mushrooms have been
most varied and curious, and nearly always mixed with queer
traditions and superstitions. If the percentage of deadly forms
were not so small, probably not over one per cent., the fatalities
from this source would have undoubtedly been much more
numerous. The only safe rule to follow is the one used with other
plants, namely, to know each species accurately before eating it.
Even the rules carefully formulated by mycologists are almost
certain to prove unreliable as men grow bolder and attempt to
eat species not previously tested, because ever3^thing that is
known in this field has been discovered by experiment, and pre-
dictions or generalizations of any kind are both unscientific and
unsafe. It may be possible to forecast accurately the discovery
of a new chemical element with given properties, but mushrooms
have not yet been reduced to that basis.
EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS 9
The Chief Poisonous Species. — Venenarius phalloides, V.
muscarius, V. cothurnatus, and V. solitarius. Clitocyhe illudens.
Inocyhe infida. Panaeolus venenosus. Panus stypticus. Chlo-
rophyllum molyhdites. Russula and Lactaria, about ten species.
Rosy-spored species, a few. Several of the phalloids, probably.
Several species not yet tested, doubtless.
Preparing and Cooking Mushrooms
Reject old specimens or those infected with insects, cut off the
stems unless they are unusually tender, peel a few kinds that
seem to require it, wash quickly in cold water, drain and keep in
a cool place until ready to cook. As a rule, mushrooms cannot
be kept very long in a fresh condition, and this is particularly
true of certain very desirable species. When more are collected
than can be used at once, it is best to boil them ten minutes,
drain, keep in a cool place, and finish the cooking next day as
desired. If allowed to stand in water, the flavor is impaired;
also, peeling may remove some of the best flavored parts.
The flavor and digestibility of mushrooms depend very largely
on the way they are cooked. Tender varieties should be cooked
quickly and served at once; tough varieties require long, slow
cooking. When the flavor is good, it should be retained by
covering during the cooking process and seasoning in a simple
way. When the flavor is poor or when the specimens are slightly
bitter or otherwise objectionable in the raw state, they may
often be greatly improved by boiling for a short time and throw-
ing the water away, then cooking thoroughly and seasoning
well. It is often desirable to mix a few highly flavored specimens
with those lacking flavor. Mushrooms are also excellent cooked
with meat, poultry, oysters, tomatoes, or sweet peppers, and as
a flavoring for soups and sauces.
10 EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS
The most practical and successful methods of cooking mush-
rooms resolve themselves into broiling, baking, and stewing.
In the first, which I prefer to all others, the mushrooms are
cooked thoroughly but as quickly as possible on both sides
over a hot fire; seasoned with pepper, salt, butter, and perhaps
small bits of toasted bacon; and served hot on toast. To bake
mushrooms, line the pan with toast, add the specimens, season,
pour in half a cup of cream, cover closely, and bake rather slowly
for fifteen minutes or more according to quality. In stewing,
the mushrooms are boiled in water until thoroughly cooked,
then seasoned, thickened, and served on toast. This last
method is often used for the tougher or poorer varieties. Certain
modifications of the above methods may be suggested later
under individual species requiring special treatment.
DESCRIPTIONS OF EDIBLE AND POISONOUS
No reliable general rules can be given for distinguishing edible
and poisonous fungi; each species must be known by its own
characters. In addition to the scientific descriptions, many
illustrations and descriptive notes are added. The order of
treatment follows the lines of classification adopted by the best
authorities. It is impossible to use keys in an incomplete list
of this kind without being misleading; keys are possible only
when all the known species of a group or of a region are included.
Technical terms are defined in a brief glossary at the end of this
Morchella esculenta Pers. Edible. Fig. 23
Common Morel Esculent Morel
Pileus ovoid, three to six centimeters long and two to four
centimeters thick, yellowish-brown, becoming darker with age,
marked over its entire surface with broad pits separated by
ridges forming a network; stipe white, granular, about as long
as the pileus, but only half as thick.
All the morels are edible, similar in appearance, and readily
recognized, so that it is unnecessary to describe other species.
They occur in thin woods, especially pines, in May and June.
On account of their pitted surface, they must be cleansed very
thoroughly, and because of their toughness and lack of flavor
they must be cooked slowly a long time and well seasoned.
Place them in a stewpan with butter, salt, pepper, and a little
lemon juice, and cook slowly for an hour, adding at times a little
beef gravy. The only poisonous species that might be confused
12 EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS
with the morels is Gyromitra esculenta, known by its dark red,
irregular cap, which is not pitted, but folded and convoluted
somewhat like the surface of the human brain ; however, it occurs
at the same time as the morels and assumes brownish hues with
age. Although young and fresh specimens of G. esculenta are
eaten without harm, old or decaying specimens or those kept
too long before cooking have at times been found to contain
helvellic acid, a deadly poison similar to that occurring in
Venenarius phalloldes, and it is therefore wise to refrain from
using the plant for food in any form.
Members of this large group produce their spores on thin
membranes spread over the surfaces of gill-like structures or
tubes or spines, or, in some cases, over the smooth surface of the
sporophore. The chief families are: (i) Tremellaceae, sporo-
phore irregularly expanded, gelatinous; (2) Thelephoraceae,
spore-bearing surface even, pileus present; (3) Clavariaceae,
spore-bearing surface even, sporophore club-shaped or bush-like
and fleshy; (4) Hydnaceae, bearing spines; (5) Polyporaceae,
tough or woody and tube-bearing; (6) Boletaceae, fleshy and
tube-bearing; (7) Agaricaceae, bearing lamellae. The last two
families are by far the most important for our present purpose.
The coral mushrooms are easily known by their striking
resemblance to clusters of branched coral. They grow on the
ground or on rotten wood in dense shade, and are usually whitish
or yellowish in color. When tender and of mild flavor, they
make a delicious dish. None of them are known to be poisonous,
although some are insipid or bitter. A very common white
EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS 1 3
Species of Lachnocladium, resembling Clavaria, will readily be
recognized as much too tough for the human stomach. Coral
mushrooms may be cooked as other mushrooms are, or escalloped,
or stewed slowly for half an hour with the usual seasoning and a
little lemon juice, then thickened and cooked longer until tender.
Clavaria flava Schaeff. Edible. Fig. 24
Pale- YELLOW Clavaria
Sporophore bushy, seven to fifteen centimeters high, five to
ten centimeters wide; base thick, fleshy, white, dividing abruptly
into a dense mass of erect, pale yellow branches, the tips more
deeply colored but fading with age; context white, mild, of good
This excellent, as well as beautiful, species occurs rather
abundantly in woods during warm, wet weather. In collecting
it, the base should be examined for insects, which might give a
disagreeable flavor to the whole plant. The golden Clavaria,
C. atirea, is similar, but more deeply colored. The rarer red-
tipped Clavaria, C. botrytes, has red-tipped branches, the color
of which fades out with age. There is also an unbranched,
club-shaped species, Clavaria pistillaris, which is often eaten.
In this family, the spores are borne on the surface of spines.
No poisonous species are known, but most of them are too tough
or too poorly flavored to be recommended for food. Fistulina
belongs to a related family which need not be discussed here.
Hydnum repandum L. Edible
Pileus convex to plane, irregular, very brittle, varying greatly
in size, two to sixteen centimeters broad; surface dry, glabrous,
14 EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS
smooth, white to buff or brown, margin wavy; context white o
whitish, tender; spines white or yellowish, straight, very brittle
stipe eccentric, usually clavate, concolorous or paler, two to tei
centimeters long, one to two centimeters thick.
This species is widely distributed, occurring during late sum
mer among moss or leaves in woods. 1 1 is too tender to requir
long cooking, but most directions call for an hour or more. I
sliced and steeped for twenty minutes in warm water befon
cooking, the flavor seems to be improved. Some of the specie
of this genus that are bitter may be used if boiled for a short tim^
in water before cooking. Hydnum imhricatum differs from H
repandum in being blackish-brown as though scorched am
conspicuously scaly, with bluish-gray teeth. Although rathe
tough and dry, it is frequently eaten.
Hydnum caput-ursi Fries. Edible
Bear's Head Hydnum
Large, fleshy, tuberculiform, immarginate, pendulous, rarel
erect, white, seven to fifteen centimeters or more thick, th
surface everywhere emitting short branches, which are clothe
with branchlets and awl-shaped, deflexed spines one to tweh
centimeters long; context firm, white, somewhat tough, of mi
flavor; spores globose, hyaline, 5-6 fx.
This striking species occurs in temperate regions durii
summer and autumn on dead or dying trunks of deciduous tre(
especially beech and birch. While somewhat tough, it can
made very attractive by proper cooking. Hydnum coralloid
resembling a mass of white coral, is a closely related spec
found chiefly on dead beech trunks. It is more tender and \
an excellent flavor.
EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS 1 5
Fistulina hepatica (Huds.) Fries. Edible. Fig. 15
Pileus large, fleshy, very juicy, dimidiate to flabelliform, five
to fifteen centimeters broad; surface dark red, somewhat sticky
iv^hen moist, radiate-striate with age, margin entire to lobed;
context thick, soft, tough, streaked with dark and light reddish
lines, acid to the taste; tubes at first short, yellowish or pinkish,
becoming three millimeters long, plainly distinct from one
another, and dull ochraceous with age; spores ellipsoid, smooth,
y^ellowish, 5-7 fi long; stipe usually short and thick, lateral,
colored like the pileus, often reduced to a mere tubercle and
This species occurs on decaying trunks and stumps of chestnut,
Dak, and certain other deciduous trees in this country and in
Europe. On account of its resemblance to a piece of beefsteak,
it has long been recognized and used for food. It should be
thoroughly cooked, and, if the acid flavor is objectionable,
sodium carbonate should be added during the process of cooking.
I have found this fungus much more common on chestnut than
Dn oak, and I have noticed that foreigners regularly visit old
:hestnut stumps and trunks in the vicinity of New York during
late summer and autumn to obtain it. Since the chestnut trees
have all been killed by the canker, the beefsteak fungas should
appear in great quantity for a time.
Most of the species of this group grow on dead wood in brackets
Df various sizes and shapes, the fruiting surface being composed
oi tubes or furrows. When the fruit-body is perennial, the
tubes are often arranged in layers. Polypores as a class are
very destructive to trees and timber. On the other hand, one
species possesses medicinal properties, some of the encrusted
l6 EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS
species supply tinder, and several of the more juicy ones are
excellent for food if collected when young. The only species
recognized as poisonous is the rare medicinal one, Fames Lands,
usually known as Polyporus officinalis, and it is so tough and
bitter that no one would think of eating it.
Grifola frondosa (Dicks.) S. F. Gray. Edible
Polyporus frondosus (Dicks.) Fries
Pileus imbricate-multiplex, fifteen to forty centimeters in
diameter; pileoli very numerous, branching from a common
trunk, imbricate or confluent, variable in size and shape, dimidi-
ate to flabelliform, one and one-half to six centimeters broad;
surface smoky-gray, fibrillose, radiate-striate; margin very thin,
tough, fragile, having the odor of mice; tubes white, two to three
millimeters long, mouths circular and regular when young, three
to a millimeter, often large and angular with age, edges white,
thin, entire to lacerate; spores subglobose to ellipsoid, smooth,
hyaline; stipe tubercular, white, connate-rimose.
This large, branched species grows commonly at the base of
oak trees or arises from their roots, on which it feeds. It also
attacks the roots of chestnut trees, and in the Italian chestnut
orchards it is often allowed to destroy the host because it is
much esteemed in that region for food. It must be collected
when young or it will become too tough. It is best broiled with
butter for about twenty minutes, or it may be stewed for nearly
Laetiporus speciosus (Batt.) Murrill. Edible. Fig. 30
Polyporus sulphureus Fries
Hymenophore cespitose-multiplex, thirty to sixty centimeters
broad; pileus cheesy, not becoming rigid, reniform, very broad.
EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS I7
more or less stipitate, 5-15 X 7-20 X 0.5-1 centimeter; surface
finely tomentose to glabrous, rugose, anoderm, subzonate at
times, varying from lemon-yellow to orange, fading out with
age; margin thin, fertile, concolorous, subzonate, finely tomentose,
undulate, rarely lobed; context cheesy, very fragile when dry,
yellow when fresh, usually white in dried specimens, homo-
geneous, three to seven millimeters thick; tubes annual, two
to three millimeters long, sulphur-yellow within, mouths minute,
angular, somewhat irregular, three to four to a millimeter, edges
very thin, lacerate, sulphur-yellow, with color fairly permanent
in dried specimens; spores ovoid, smooth, or finely papillate,
hyaline, 6-8 X 3-5 M-
This very large and widely distributed species appears in
conspicuous yellow clusters on dead spots in trunks of oak and
various other trees, which are seriously attacked by it. It has
long been used for food and can hardly be confused with harmful
species. I have found it best broiled, when it reminds one of
Many of the best edible fungi in temperate regions belong to
this group, and the dangers of being poisoned are relatively small.
Species w^ith bitter or otherwise objectionable taste should be
avoided, and especially all plants having red or reddish tube,
mouths. The sensitive bolete, which promptly turns blue when
touched or broken, has also caused poisoning in some cases.
Many species have not been thoroughly tested, however; hence
it is wise to eat sparingly of all such plants until well known.
Gyroporus castaneus (Bull.) Quel. Edible. Fig. 3
Pileus convex to subexpanded, slightly depressed, gregarious,
three to seven centimeters broad; surface smooth, dry, minutely
1 8 EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS
but densely tomentose, orange-brown, fulvous, or reddish-brown;
margin thin, usually paler; context white, firm, nutty in flavor,
unchanging when wounded; tubes depressed, sinuate, short,
watery-white becoming light yellow to dark cremeous, mouths
angular, small, stuffed when young, the edges thin, entire; spores
ellipsoid, smooth, hyaline to pale yellowish, 8-9 X 4-5-5-5 Ml
stipe subattenuate above and below, cylindric or somewhat
flattened, tomentose, bright brown, lighter at the apex, brittle,
loosely stuffed, with a small cylindric cavity at the center, four
to five centimeters long, six to ten millimeters thick.
This species is common in Europe and the United States in
sandy soil at the edges of woods. It is rather small, and varies
in color from orange-brown to chestnut; the flesh is white, un-
changing, of mild flavor, and edible.
Tylopilus felleus (Bull.) P. Karst. Inedible. Fi-j. 43
Boletus felleus Bull.
Pileus thick, convex, usually eight to fifteen centimeters
broad, sometimes reaching a diameter of over forty centimeters;
surface smooth, glabrous, variable in color, usually some shade
of tan or chestnut, often pink or purplish when young; margin
entire, concolorous; context white, often tinged with pink where
wounded, at first firm, but soft and yielding in older specimens,
decidedly bitter, especially when young, sometimes losing its
bitter taste with age; tubes adnate, depressed, one to two centi-
meters long, slender, white, colored at maturity with the flesh-
colored spores, mouths angular, of medium size, edges thin,
entire; spores fusiform, smooth, flesh-colored, 8-1 1 X3-4M;
stipe cylindric, enlarged below, glabrous, subconcolorous, usually
reticulate above, and sometimes entirely to the base, firm, solid,
becoming spongy in large specimens, five to twelve centimeters
long, one and one-half to two and one-half centimeters thick.
Found abundantly on the ground in woods throughout tem-
perate North America, often reaching a foot or more in diameter.
EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS 1 9
It may be recognized by its pinkish tubes and usually very bitter
flavor, which is not destroyed by cooking. It is therefore ined-
ible, although not generally considered poisonous.
Ceriomyces crassus Batt. Edible. Fig. i
Boletus edulis Bull., Boletus separans Peck
Pileus thick, broadly convex, gregarious or cespitose, six to
twenty centimeters broad, three to four centimeters thick;
surface smooth, glabrous or finely tomentose, subopaque, dry,
slightly viscid when moistened, sometimes pitted or reticulate-
rimose, varying in color from ochraceous-brown to reddish-
brown, sometimes paler; margin acute, entire; context compact,
two to three centimeters thick, unchanging, white or yellowish,
sometimes reddish beneath the cuticle, taste sweet and nutty;
tubes adnate, at length depressed, plane in mass, white and
stuffed when young, yellow or greenish-yellow when mature,
changing to greenish-ochraceous when wounded, about two
centimeters long, mouths of medium size, angular, edges thin;
spores fusiform, smooth, greenish-yellow to ochraceous-brown,
12-15 X 5-6 /x; stipe subequal or enlarged below, stout, con-
colorous or considerably paler, becoming bluish or discolored
when wounded, wholly or partially reticulate, solid, tough,
fibrous, yellowish within, tinged with red at times near the
surface, five to ten centimeters long, three to four centimeters
This excellent species is abundant, well-known, and widely
distributed in thin woods throughout temperate regions. The
sporophore is large and usually yellowish-brown, while the stipe
is more or less reticulate, especially above. In one variety,
the stipe is reticulate to the base, and in another the stipe, as
well as the cap, is brownish-lilac in color. It may be distin-
guished from Tylopilus felleus by its mild flavor and differently
20 EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS
colored tubes. This species is much used in Europe, and is
often sliced and dried for winter use. It is best baked in a
covered dish for an hour, after removing the tubes and stipe
and cutting it into small pieces.
Ceriomyces scaber (Bull.) Murrill. Edible. Fig. 2
Boletus scaber Bull.
Pileus convex, three to twelve centimeters broad ; surface very
variable in color, white, red, or brown, usually smooth and
glabrous; context white, becoming slightly darker or flesh-
colored when bruised; tubes long, slender, depressed about the
stipe, white or stramineous, becoming brownish with age and
flesh-colored or blackish when bruised; spores oblong, smooth,
brown, 13-16^1 long; stipe firm, solid, tapering upward, whitish,
roughened with numerous reddish or brownish dots or scales.
This is a very handsome edible species and the most abundant
of the fleshy tube-bearing fungi, being found on the ground in
woods or groves from June to November. It varies greatly in
size and color.
Ceriomyces ferruginatus (Batsch) Murrill. Poisonous
Boletus piperatus Bull.
Pileus convex to plane or nearly so, umbonate when young,
circular in outline, two to five centimeters broad, reaching seven
centimeters at times; surface smooth, glabrous, sometimes
rimose-areolate, slightly viscid in damp weather, varying from
ochraceous to fulvous; margin regular, entire, sometimes quite
thick because of the lengthening of the marginal tubes; context
thickest at the center and gradually thinner toward the margin,
yellow or yellowish-white for the most part, but light pink or
roseous next to the layer of tubes, darker when exposed to the
EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS 21
air, acrid and peppery, remarkably free from insects; tubes
adnate, at length depressed around the stem, latericeous, be-
coming slightly darker when wounded, tinged with ferruginous
at the maturity of the spores, equal to or longer than the thick-
ness of the context, mouths large, angular, unequal; spores
subfusiform, ferruginous, 9-1 1 X 4 m; stipe central, slender,
nearly equal, two to five centimeters long, four to five millimeters
thick, rarely reaching seven centimeters in length and eight
millimeters in thickness, pulverulent, slightly veined above,
smooth below, usually somewhat paler than the pileus, citrinous
or flavous at the base, solid, fleshy, and yellow within.
This small species occurs rather rarely throughout the North-
ern United States and Canada in woods and open places near
woods. It may be recognized by its yellow cap, acrid and
peppery context, and brick-colored tubes. Stevenson pro-
nounced it poisonous, but Mcllvaine claims that it loses its
peppery taste on cooking and becomes harmless.
Ceriomyces miniato-olivaceus (Frost) Murrill. Poisonous
Boletus miniato-olivaceus Frost
Pileus firm, convex, becoming nearly plane and somewhat
spongy with age, cespitose, becoming olivaceous or ochraceous-
red, changing to blue when handled; margin acute, slightly
exceeding the pores; context pale yellow, changing immediately
to blue when wounded, mild or slightly unpleasant to the taste,
said to be poisonous; tubes adnate or subdecurrent, slightly
depressed, bright lemon-yellow tinged with green, becoming
brownish-yellow with age, changing to blue when wounded,
mouths subangular, of medium size; spores oblong-ellipsoid,
smooth, yellowish-brown, 10-13 X 4-6^1; stipe equal or en-
larged above or below, pale yellow with pink markings, especially
near the base, glabrous, faintly reticulate at the top, solid,
yellow within, six to ten centimeters long, one-half to one and
one-half centimeters thick.
22 EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS
Found in open woods or wood borders from Maine to North
Carolina. It is easily distinguished among the red boleti by its
quick change to blue at any point, either outside or inside, where
bruised or even touched with the fingers. This species is recog-
nized as distinctly poisonous to some people, although others
can eat it without danger.
Suillellus luridus (Schaeff.) Murrill. Poisonous. Fig. 42
Boletus luridus Schaeff.
Pileus convex, gregarious or subcespitose, five to twelve centi-
meters broad ; surface dry, smooth, glabrous or minutely tomen-
tose, sometimes clothed with rather conspicuous, appressed,
felted fibers, occasionally rimose-areolate, brown with shades of
red or yellow, often bright brownish-red, becoming paler with
age; margin thick, obtuse, entire, sometimes slightly differing
in color; context firm, whitish to flavous, quickly changing to
blue when wounded, sometimes unchanging in older plants,
considered somewhat poisonous; tubes nearly free, rarely adnate,
plane, or slightly convex in mass, yellow within, changing to
dark greenish-blue when wounded, mouths small, circular,
cinnabar-red, becoming brownish-orange, darker with age;
spores oblong-ellipsoid, smooth, olivaceous when fresh, 11-16
X 4-6^1; stipe subequal, five to ten centimeters long, one to
two centimeters thick, usually furfuraceous or punctate, at times
nearly glabrous, rarely reticulate at the apex or on the upper
half, red or reddish-brown below, yellow or orange above, the
dots rosy or dark red, solid, yellow within, varied with red or
This is one of the most variable species in the famil)^ of fleshy,
terrestrial, tube-bearing fungi, but the small genus to which it
belongs is readily recognized by its red or reddish tube-mouths,
and all of its species should be avoided by mushroom eaters
EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS 23
until their properties are better known. This particular species
is said to contain a small amount of muscarine or closely allied
alkaloid, as well as choline, although it is often eaten. When
cut, the entire cut surface of the cap, tubes, and stem changes
at once to blue. It occurs in abundance throughout temperate
North America and Europe on clay banks or roadsides in open
Rostkovites granulatus (L.) P. Karst. Edible. Fig. 5
Boletus granulatus L.
Pileus subhemispheric to nearly plane, gregarious, rarely
cespitose or solitary, four to ten centimeters broad, one to one
and one-half centimeters thick; surface very viscid, with easily
separable cuticle, very variable in color, usually pinkish-gray to
reddish-brown fading to yellowish, often obscurely spotted,
especially at the center; margin sterile, projecting, incurved
and somewhat appendiculate when young; context thick, com-
pact, elastic, pale yellow next to the tubes, white above, un-
changing when wounded, taste mild, somewhat mucilaginous;
tubes short, less than five millimeters, adnate, subdecurrent,
plane in mass, simple, subcircular, ii regular, edges rather thick,
flecked with pinkish-brown glandules; spores fusiform, pale
yellowish-brown, 7.5-9.5 X 2.5-3.5 /z; stipe short, thick, sub-
equal or enlarged below, white or pale yellow, dotted with
pinkish-brown droplets which become darker on drying, solid,
white within, two and one-half to five centimeters long, one to
one and one-half centimeters thick.
This abundant and widely distributed species occurs from
midsummer until frost in sandy open groind under or near
conifers. Rostkovites suhaureus, with yellow cap usually streaked
with red, often grows with it in eastern North America. Both
are among our finest edible species and can hardly be mistaken
for dangerous kinds.
24 EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS
Boletus luteus L. Edible. Fig. lo
Egg- YELLOW Boletus
Pileus convex, solitary, five to ten centimeters broad; surface
smooth, glabrous, very viscid, yellowish-brown, grayish-brown,
or reddish-brown, sometimes streaked, becoming darker and
duller with age; margin thin, entire or undulate; context com-
pact, pale yellowish, darker with age, unchanging when wounded,
edible; tubes one and one-half to two and one-half millimeters
long, plane or convex in mass, adnate or slightly decurrent,
somewhat depressed, dark melleous, unchanging when wounded,
darker with age, mouths one millimeter in diameter, nearly
circular, the edges adorned with reddish-brown dots; spores
oblong-fusiform, smooth, yellowish-brown, 6-9 X 2.5-4 z^; stipe
slightly tapering downward, pale yellow to reddish-brown,
glandular-dotted both above and below the annulus, solid,
•yellowish and unchanging within, about three to six centimeters
long, one to two centimeters thick; annulus large, membranous,
white to slightly brownish, glandular-dotted, persistent.
Common in sandy soil in coniferous or mixed woods through-
out the eastern United States. Edible.
Strobilomyces strobilaceus (Scop.) Berk. Edible. Fig. 21
Pileus hemispheric to expanded, five to ten centimeters broad;
surface dry, soft and spongy, blackish-umbrinous, adorned with
thick, projecting, floccose, squarrose, blackish scales; margin
fringed with scales and fragments of the veil; context white or
whitish, changing to red and then to black when wounded, mild
to the taste, edible; tubes adnate, often depressed, white or
cinereous, changing like the context when wounded, becoming
brown or blackish with age, mouths large, angular; spores sub-
globose, asperulate, blackish-brown, 8-1 1 n long; stipe equal or
slightly tapering upward, sulcate-striate at the apex, densely
floccose-tomentose, brown or blackish below, lighter above, solid,
EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS 25
firm, fragile, six to twelve centimeters long, one to two centi-
meters thick; veil dense, cottony, white to grayish, adhering to
the margin and to the stipe in mature plants.
This common edible species is known by its black color and
shaggy appearance. Its flesh is white, changing to reddish and
finally to black when wounded. It is abundant on shaded
banks in woods throughout temperate North America, especially
in northern regions.
Gill-fungi are usually divided into groups based on the color
of their spores as seen under a microscope or in mass on a piece
of paper upon which a mature pileus has rested, gills downward,
for an hour or more. The spore-prints thus obtained will be
found to be variously colored: white, yellowish, rosy, ochraceous,
rusty, brown, purplish-brown, and black. The white-spored,
brown-spored, and black-spored groups contain most of the
recognized edible and poisonous species.
Chanterel Chantarellus (L.) Murrill. Edible. Fig. 6
Cantharellus cibarius Fries
Pileus fleshy, firm, turbinate, nearly plane, sometimes de-
pressed, gregarious, cespitose at times, three to eight centimeters
broad; surface glabrous, luteous, rarely paler yellow, margin
involute to expanded, undulate; context white, nutty or slightly
acrid, edible; lamellae thick, narrow, distant, decurrent, forked
or irregularly anastomosing, luteous, or sometimes much paler;
spores ellipsoid, somewhat irregular, smooth, pale-ochraceous,
8-10 X 4-5 m; stipe attenuate below, glabrous, concolorous or
paler, solid, two and one-half to five centimeters long, six to
twelve millimeters thick.
Common throughout temperate regions in deciduous or coni-
ferous woods, especially in dense evergreen thickets, appearing
26 EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS
in midsummer. It is egg-yellow all over, and has peculiar
narrow, blunt, decurrent lamellae. It has long held a high
reputation for edibility, and the only poisonous species with
which it may easily be confused is Chanter el aurantiacus. It
should be stewed for nearly an hour and seasoned with butter
or meat gravy. It is an excellent addition, also, to hashes, meat
stews, and omelets.
Chanterel aurantiacus (Wulf.) Fries. Doubtful. Fig. 47
Orange Chanterel False Chanterel
Pileus compressed, hemispheric to funnel-shaped, convex to
expanded, plane to depressed, fleshy, flexible, gregarious to
subcespltose, three to six centimeters broad; surface subtomen-
tose, pale orange, often darker at the center, margin involute,
entire to undulate; lamellae decurrent, crowded, narrow, rather
thin, regularly and two to four times dichotomous, bright orange;
spores ellipsoid, smooth, hyaline, 5-7 X 3-4 m; stipe usually
central, cylindric, enlarged below, slightly ascending, two to five
centimeters long, four to seven millimeters thick, subglabrous
above, tomentose below, stuffed, subconcolorous, varying to
palliji or dark brown.
In woods, on decayed wood, or on soil rich in humus, from
Canada to South Carolina and Nevada. It was long considered
dangerous, but very recently Sartory investigated it in France
and declared it harmless. Later, Dr. Peck tried it and added
it to his list of edible species. I still believe it is slightly poisonous
to some and should not be eaten, but it is gratifying to know that
amateur mycophagists may now eat Chanterel Chantarellus with-
out very much risk.
Many species of this genus were formerly considered poisonous
on account of their acrid^ taste, but, since it has been found that
EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS 27
these peppery, resinous substances are usually decomposed on
cooking, it will be necessary to make an experimental revision of
the genus. Lactaria rufa seems to have the worst reputation, from
all accounts, while L. fuUginosa, L. vellerea, L. pyrogala, L. tor mi-
nosa, and L. theiogala are pronounced either poisonous or suspicious
by most authors. Care should be exercised in collecting mem-
bers of this genus for the table. The species considered harmful
may usually be distinguished by their acrid flavor.
Lactaria deliciosa (L.) Fries. Edible. Fig. i6
Pileus fleshy, convex-umbilicate, becoming plane, then infundi-
buliform, five to twelve centimeters broad ; surface orange, yellow-
orange or paler, zoned with deeper orange, becoming paler with
age, sometimes mixed with grayish and greenish tints, viscid
when wet, glabrous, somewhat roughened; margin involute,
then arched and at length upturned, glabrous; context firm,
yellowish, often staining greenish next to the lamellae and the
exterior of the stipe, edible; latex orange to red-orange, aromatic
and somewhat acrid ; lamellae deep-orange with yellowish reflec-
tions, paler when old, often becoming greenish with age or where
bruised, many forking near the stipe, and shorter ones branching
into longer ones, often connected with cross veins at the base,
close, somewhat decurrent, rather narrow; stipe of the same
color as the pileus, spotted with brighter orange, nearly equal,
glabrous, or sometimes a little tomentose at the base, smooth,
stuffed, becoming hollow, two and one-half to ten centimeters
long, eight to twelve millimeters thick; spores yellow, subglobose
to ellipsoid, slightly echinulate, more or less hyaline, 8-8.5
X 8-11 fx.
In moist woods, especially under firs and hemlocks, in moun-
tainous regions throughout most of the United States, but not
so common as in Europe. Long considered one of the best
mushrooms and readily recognized by its orange-red milky juice,
28 EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS
which becomes greenish on exposure to the air. It should be
cooked slowly for nearly an hour. I have not found it so deli-
cious, but rather coarse.
Lactaria lactiflua (L.) Burl. Edible
Lactaria volema Fries
Pileus fleshy, convex, then nearly plane or slightly depressed,
five to thirteen centimeters broad; surface fulvous, buff, or
brownish-terra-cotta to brownish-orange, sometimes much paler,
azonate, dry, glabrous, smooth, or at length rimose-rivulose;
margin involute at first, then extended; context firm, thick,
whitish, changing brown where exposed to the air, having a
strong, persisting odor, edible; latex white, unchanging, mild,
sticky, abundant; lamellae creamy- white or tinged with the
same color as the pileus, becoming darker with age, changing
brownish where injured, often forking two or three millimeters
from the stipe or midway to the margin, close, adnate, two to
five millimeters broad; stipe of nearly the same color as the
pileus but paler, nearly equal, glabrous, pruinose, solid, some-
times becoming hollow, two to ten centimeters long, one to two
centimeters thick; spores white, globular, echinulate, 7-10 11 in
diameter; cystidia 20-35 n long, colorless or yellowish.
Common in woods and groves, especially near oak trees,
throughout the eastern United States.* When raw, the flavor
is somewhat unpleasant and astringent, but it is fairly good when
cooked slowly for forty minutes. It should be very carefully
distinguished from the poisonous Lactaria rufa, which is bay-red
to rufous and very acrid.
Lactaria rufa (Scop.) Fries. Poisonous. Fig. 36
Pileus fleshy, rather thin, convex, umbonate, at length in-
fundibuliform, five to ten centimeters broad; surface bay-red
* Lactaria hygrophoroides Berk. & Curt. (Fig, 17) resembles this species.
EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS 29
to rufous, not fading, azonate, dry, minutely flocculose-sllky,
becoming glabrous and shining; margin involute at first, whitish-
downy, becoming glabrous; context not very compact, pallid
or tinged with pink, odorless, very poisonous; latex white, un-
changing, very acrid; lamellae ochraceous, then rufous, some-
times forking, somewhat decurrent, three millimeters broad;
spores subglobose to broadly ellipsoid, slightly echinulate, hya-
line, 7-8 At in diameter; stipe rufous, but often paler than the
pileus, nearly equal, dry, glabrous or sometimes pruinose and
downy at the base, stuffed, firm, at length sometimes hollow,
five to ten centimeters long, six to ten millimeters thick.
I have found this species common in damp woods in northern
Europe, where it is considered dangerously poisonous and is
liable to be confused with the edible Lactaria lactiflua. In
America, it is rare and does not seem to extend farther south
than New York nor farther west than Michigan.
Lactaria piperata (L.) Pers. Edible
Pileus fleshy, convex-umbillcate, at length infundibullform,
four to twelve centimeters or more In diameter; surface white,
azonate, dry, glabrous; margin involute at first and naked, at
length uplifted ; context compact, white, unchanging or becoming
sordid, edible; latex white, unchanging, very acrid, abundant;
lamellae white or creamy-white, forking dichotomously, close,
more or less decurrent, arcuate at first, then extending upward,
only about two millimeters broad; stipe white, equal, dry, often
pruinose, solid and firm, two to eight centimeters long, up to two
centimeters thick; spores white, subglobose, nearly smooth,
8-9 tx In diameter.
Found In great abundance in oak woods throughout temperate
North America. It contains an acid and a resin, "piperon,"
which is extremely acrid in the fresh state, but Is disorganized
by heat. This species is therefore harmless when cooked, but is
30 EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS
coarse and poorly flavored. If eaten, it must be carefully dis-
tinguished from poisonous species that are acrid in the fresh state.
L. torminosa appears to contain a poison which is destroyed by
Most of the species of this genus are edible, and some of them
are particularly good, but they are usually scattered, are fragile
and perishable, become infested early with a variety of insects,
are eaten by squirrels and other animals, and resemble one
another so closely that it is advisable to go to the trouble of
tasting nearly every specimen before selecting it for the table.
There are no violently poisonous species known in this genus,
and if specimens have mild taste and an agreeable odor they are
probably harmless, but it must always be remembered that it
is necessary to test each new species thoroughly before using it
in any quantity for food. Russula emetica is poisonous, con-
taining choline, pilz-atropine, and probably muscarine; R.foetens
is also poisonous, but in a lesser degree; while R. nitida, R.fragilis,
and other species belong to the mildly poisonous or suspected
Russula delica Fries. Edible
Pileus fleshy, of medium thickness, firm, broadly convex-
umbilicate, then spreading, and at length infundibuliform, eight
to sixteen centimeters broad; surface white, sometimes with
yellowish stains when the pileus has brought soil up with it,
easily staining yellowish in drying, dry, glabrous, or sometimes
under the lens appearing obscurely tomentose from the pulling
apart of the fibers in the outer layer; margin even, involute,
late in expanding; context firm, white, unchanging where bruised,
slowly becoming slightly acrid; lamellae white, the edges often
becoming faintly glaucous-green when mature or in the process
EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS 3I
of drying, becoming yellowish where rubbed, some equal, some
forking, narrowed at both ends, decurrent, subdistant to distant,
rather narrow; spores hyaline, subglobose, tuberculate, 10 X 9 m;
stipe white, sometimes with a glaucous-green ring at the apex,
glabrous or sometimes slightly downy at the apex under a lens,
two to five centimeters long, one to two centimeters thick.
Found commonly in dry woods, especially under conifers,
from Maine to Alabama and west to Colorado. It very much
resembles Lactaria piper ata, but is without milky juice and
the hymenium is usually tinged with glaucous-green. Peck
includes it in his list of edible fungi and remarks that it is excellent
fried in butter. It is more compact and lasts longer than most
species of Russula.
Russula Mariae Peck. Edible. Fig. 4
Pileus fleshy, convex and subumbilicate to depressed, reaching
seven centimeters broad; surface dry, rose-red or purple with
darker disk, having a bloom like a peach, margin slightly striate
at times, especially in old plants; context thin, of good flavor,
white, pinkish under the cuticle, odor not characteristic; lamellae
white or stramineous, broad, subcrowded, interveined; spores
subglobose, minutely conic- tuberculate, yellow, 7 m; stipe equal,
solid, rosy, sometimes partly white, glabrous, about one and
three-tenths to one and one-half centimeters thick.
This is one of our prettiest species, and it may be looked for
under oaks anywhere in the eastern United States after summer
rains. It is distinguished from poisonous species similar in color
by its mild flavor when raw.
Russula emetica Fries. Poisonous. Fig. 44
Pileus regular, firm to fragile, convex to plane or depressed,
five to eight centimeters broad; surface viscid when young,
32 EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS
polished, red, often fading to pallid or yellowish, cuticle separating
very readily; context white, reddish under the cuticle, very acrid
to the taste; lamellae white, then dull-yellowish, free, subdistant,
broad, equal; spores globose, echinulate, hyaline, 8-10/1; stipe
rosy or whitish, glabrous, spongy-solid, three to seven centi-
meters long, one to one and one-half centimeters thick.
Common in woods throughout Europe and the eastern United
States, often growing where logs have decayed. Distinguished
by its red color, viscid surface, readily separating cuticle, and
very acrid taste. In addition to its acrid quality, it is definitely
poisonous, containing small quantities of choline, pilz-atropine,
and probably muscarine. When taken in any quantity, it acts
as a prompt emetic. It is mainly because of this species that
most specimens of Russula should be tasted before selecting them
Russula virescens (Schaeff.) Fries. Edible
Pileus fleshy, globose, becoming convex, then nearly plane and
often centrally depressed, five to twelve centimeters broad;
surface green or grayish-green, dry, with small, flocculose patches
or warts resembling those of Venenarius; margin even, rarely
slightly striate in old specimens; context white, mild to the taste;
lamellae white, a few short ones present, some forking, narrow
toward the stipe and nearly or quite free, rather crowded ; spores
subglobose, echinulate, hyaline, 7X8/1; stipe white, firm,
nearly equal, two and one-half to five centimeters long, one and
one-fifth to two centimeters thick.
Found in oak, maple, or mixed woods from Maine to Virginia
and westward to Michigan and Ohio. This beautiful species
has long enjoyed a reputation for edibility, but, unfortunately,
it is rather rare and its flavor is not really of first rank. It may
be recognized by the greenish color and warted appearance of
its pileus. The pileus of Russula fur cata, a bitter species formerly
EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS 33
considered poisonous, is green but not warted. The green form
of Venenarius phalloides and the poisonous Entoloma lividuniy both
common in Europe, are easily distinguished by other characters.
Russula flava Romell. Edible. Fig. i8
Pileus fleshy, broadly convex, becoming plane or slightly
depressed in the center, five to eight centimeters broad; surface
flavous or golden-yellow, sometimes discolored with age, viscid
when wet, glabrous; margin even to slightly striate when mature;
context white, becoming gray with age and in drying, the taste
mild ; lamellae white, becoming pale-yellow, then gray with age,
equal, not forking, adnexed, close, broader at the outer ends;
spores pale-yellow, globose, echinulate, 8-9 ;u in diameter; stipe
white, becoming more or less gray with age or in drying, nearly
equal, obscurely reticulate-rivulose, spongy, five to eight centi-
meters long, one to two centimeters thick.
Found in mixed woods from New England westward to
Michigan. Unfortunately, neither this species nor the two
other beautiful yellow species, Russula lutea and Russula flavida,
are very abundant.
Russula foetens Pers. Poisonous. Fig. 45
Pileus firm, rather thin, globose to plane or slightly depressed,
five to ten centimeters broad; surface very viscid, slimy, con-
spicuously striate-tuberculate, ochraceous-melleous, testaceous-
fulvous in the center with small, bay or blackish areas; context
whitish, tardily acrid and mucilaginous to the taste, with the odor
of prussic acid; lamellae mostly equal, adnate or adnexed,
subcrowded, arcuate, white, staining brownish when injured,
usually decorated with small drops of water when the air is
damp; spores globose, strongly echinulate, hyaline, 10 /z; stipe
cylindric, equal or somewhat ventricose, glabrous or subglabrous,
34 EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS
white, staining brownish when injured, hollow, five to eight
centimeters long, one to two centimeters thick.
This conspicuous species is common under oaks in groves or
woodlands throughout most of Europe and the United States,
sometimes occurring in great quantity in one spot. Its odor is
similar to that of peach kernels, and in some specimens it is
strong and unpleasant, although at times it may be scarcely
noticeable. This unpleasant odor and the very slimy character
of the surface render the plant unattractive and one would
hardly collect it for food. It is known to be definitely poisonous
to a certain extent and should always be avoided by mycoph-
Panellus st3rpticus (Bull.) P. Karst. Poisonous. Fig. 40
Panus stypticus (Bull.) Fries
Pileus tough, conchate, spatulate to reniform, about one to
three centimeters broad; surface isabelline to subfulvous, nearly
even, zoned at times, the cuticle breaking into granules or small
scales, margin entire or lobed, incurved when young; context
thin, firm, rather tough, watery- white, the taste not always
evident at once, but becoming strongly acrid and astringent;
lamellae narrow, thin, crowded, interveined, isabelline, deter-
minate; spores globose, smooth, hyaline, 2-4 X 1-3 Ml stipe
lateral, short, swollen above, solid, compressed, pruinose, pale
isabelline or dull white above, darker below.
This small, inconspicuous species is common throughout
temperate regions during autumn and winter on stumps cA
deciduous trees in woods. It is phosphorescent, and also
poisonous, possessing a strongly acrid and astringent taste, but
it would hardly be collected for food if well-flavored because of
its small size and apparent toughness.
EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS 35
Marasmius oreades (Bolt.) Fries. Edible. Fig. 29
Fairy- RING Mushroom Scotch Bonnets
Pileus convex to expanded, often umbonate, slightly striate
at times when moist, fleshy-tough, drying easily, two to five
centimeters broad; surface glabrous, buff or tawny, fading with
age or on drying; context thin, white, of pleasant odor and taste;
lamellae broad, distant, free or adnexed, yellowish-w^hite ; spores
subellipsoid, smooth, hyaline, 7-9 m long; stipe cylindric, rather
slender, solid, tough, yellownsh-white, villose-tomentose, five to
eight centimeters long, two to four millimeters thick.
This very excellent little species is to be looked for in pastures
during spells of wet weather in late summer or autumn. Its
habit of growing in circles will aid one in recognizing it. It
should be cooked for some time, owing to its tough texture.
One should be very careful in picking small fungi growing on
lawns for table use, to avoid getting Marasmius urens; Inocybe
infida, a dangerous species with yellowish-brown spores; and
certain species of Panaeolus, having black spores.
Crepidopus ostreatus (Jacq.) S. F. Gray. Edible. Fig. 9
Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) Quel.
Pileus convex or nearly plane, irregularly fan-shaped, eccen-
trically or laterally stipitate, cespitose, imbricate, five to twelve
centimeters broad; surface smooth, glabrous, variously colored,
usually white, yellowish or brownish ; context white, mild-flavored,
somewhat tough; lamellae broad, white, decurrent, rather distant,
reticulate behind; spores white tinged with lilac when shed on
paper, 8-12 X 3-4 Ml stipe eccentric or lateral, short or wanting,
varying according to position in the cluster, strigose-hairy at the
Very common on dead trunks of deciduous trees, especially
elm, from June to November. In Hungary, it is cultivated on
36 EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS
sections of elm logs. The sapid mushroom, Crepidopus cornuco-
piae, is confused with it in this country and for our present purpose
need not be distinguished, as its properties are similar. Both
species are rather tough and lack flavor but they occur in such
large masses and are so readily recognized that they are to be
recommended for general use as food. The young and tender
caps should be selected and cooked slowly in a sauce pan for at
least twenty minutes. The only similar poisonous species known
is the tiny Panellus stypticus, found on the tops of stumps and
readily distinguished by its acrid, astringent taste.
Gymnopus camosus (Sow.) Murrill. Inedible. Fig. 37
Collyhia maculata (Alb. & Schw.) Quel.
Pileus fleshy, firm, convex or nearly plane, five to ten centi-
meters broad; surface even, glabrous, white or whitish, often
variegated with reddish spots or stains; context white; lamellae
narrow, crowded, adnexed, sometimes nearly or quite free,
white or whitish; spores subglobose, at times slightly apiculate
at one end, 4-6 n\ stipe firm, striate, white, usually stout, equal
or subequal, often curved below, commonly attenuate and
radicate at the base, five to ten centimeters long, six to twelve
This species is one of the largest of the genus and occurs in
humus or on much decayed wood in woods throughout the
greater part of the eastern United States, as well as in Europe.
The surface is usually decorated with rusty or reddish spots or
stains, but varieties occur in which these spots are entirely
absent. It is very bitter, even when thoroughly cooked.
EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS 37
Clitocybe sudorifica Peck. Poisonous. Fig. 46
Pileus fleshy but thin, broadly convex or nearly plane, often
becoming slightly depressed in the center or umbilicate, irregular
and splitting or lobed on the thin spreading margin, gregarious,
two to four centimeters broad; surface glabrous, watery-white
when moist, whitish or grayish-white when dry: context watery
when moist, white when dry, the taste mild, the odor none;
lamellae thin, narrow, crowded, adnate or slightly decurrent,
whitish: spores subglobose, 4-5 X 3-4 m: stipe short, equal or
sometimes narrowed at the base, glabrous or merely pruinose,
stuffed with a white, soft or spongy center or hollow when old,
often curved or somewhat flexuous, white or whitish, one to
three centimeters long, two to four millimeters thick.
This plant has been found in open grassy places in northern
New York and is apparently a poisonous variety of the common
edible species, Clitocybe dealhata. At least, there seems to be
no way of distinguishing the two morphologically. When eaten,
this variety acts like a small quantity of Venenarius muscariuSy
causing profuse perspiration, and has been used to break up a
Another very closely related plant, Clitocybe morbifera, was
described by Peck from specimens collected on lawns in Wash-
ington, D. C. It is said to have a very disagreeable and per-
sistent taste. In Bulletin 150, Peck reports specimens sent by
Dr. Whetstone from Minneapolis, Minnesota, and by Dr.
Fischer from Detroit, Michigan, and in both cases sickness was
produced after the fungus had been eaten in quantity. Dr. Peck
concludes that although C. morbifera is scarcely distinguishable
morphologically from C. sudorifica the ill effects of the former
are much more serious and uncomfortable than those of the
latter species. Specimens of C. dealbata collected by the author
38 EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS
at Seattle, Washington, were compared at Albany with speci-
mens of C. morbifera collected by Dr. Whetstone in Minnesota
in 1905, and found to agree in every particular.
Clitocybe multiceps Peck. Edible. Fig. 25
Pileus convex to expanded, cespitose, three to eight centi-
meters broad; surface smooth, glabrous, watery-white to pale
avellaneous-isabelline, the disk more grayish; context milk-white,
mild, somewhat oily, firm, and persistent; lamellae adnate or
slightly decurrent, rarely sinuate, white or pale stramineous,
close, and narrow; spores globose, smooth, hyaline, 5-7 m; stipe
cylindric, equal, solid or stuffed, firm, white or pale stramineous,
pruinose above, five to ten centimeters long, seven to fifteen
This species occurs in wet weather in dense clusters on lawns,
especially in rather long grass, and is usually found in great
abundance when found at all. Its context is firm, with a slight
oily flavor, and sporophores may be kept for several days before
cooking. It is known only from New York and a few other
states, but should stand transplanting in sod rather easily.
Having used it in quantity from my own lawn, I can recommend
it as a valuable edible species.
Monadelphus illudens (Schw.) Earle. Poisonous. Fig. 33
Clitocybe illudens (Schw.) Sacc.
Deceiving Clitocybe Jack-my-lantern
Pileus convex to plane or depressed, irregular, often umbonate,
densely cespitose, ten to twenty centimeters broad; surface
glabrous, saffron-yellow; context thick, white or yellowish,
becoming sordid with age, with a somewhat disagreeable or
bitter flavor and at times a strong odor; lamellae broad, decur-
rent, saffron-yellow; spores abundant, globose, hyaline, 4-5 Mi
EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS 39
stipe long, firm, glabrous, concolorous, tapering toward the base
of the cluster.
. This species is readily recognized by its large size and brilliant
coloring. It occurs throughout the eastern United States from
midsummer to autumn in large clusters about dying trunks and
stumps of deciduous trees. On dark nights, these clusters and
also pieces of dead wood containing the mycelium are usually
conspicuously phosphorescent. The plant is distinctly poison-
ous, showing a muscarine reaction on the nerves of the heart,
and producing nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Atropine is an
antidote for the depressing effects of this poison.
Lepista personata (Fries) W. G. Sm. Edible. Fig. 8
Tricholoma personatum (Fries) Quel.
Masked Tricholoma Blewits
Pileus thick, firm, convex to expanded, five to twelve centi-
meters broad; surface moist, glabrous, lilac or purple, fading
to grayish, becoming slightly brownish on the disk; margin in-
rolled and frosted when young, glabrous and often irregular
with age; context white, firm, pleasant to the taste, becoming
dull colored with age; spores ellipsoid, smooth, dingy-white,
dull pinkish in mass, 7-10 n long; stipe short, solid, often bulbous
at the base, fibrillose to glabrous, lilac or violet, three to six
centimeters long, one and one-half to three centimeters thick.
This exceedingly valuable species is of excellent flavor and not
easily confused with dangerous species. It may be found in
open woods or among weeds or long grass in rich fields during
the autumn months. Its large size and the violet or lilac tint
of all its parts should distinguish it from most other species.
In large, mature specimens, the flesh becomes soft and readily
absorbs water during wet weather, which somewhat changes the
appearance of the mushroom and lessens its value for edible
40 EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS
purposes. Only one species of Tricholoma, T. sulphureum, with
a strong and disagreeable odor, is considered to any extent
dangerous, although not all have been tested. Certain species
in other genera resembling L. personata in color, Laccaria laccata,
Laccaria ochropurpurea, Cortinarius violaceus, Cortinarius albo-
violaceus, and Lactaria Indigo, are all edible.
Armillaria putrida (Scop.) Murrill. Edible. Fig. 28
Armillaria mellea (Vahl) Quel.
Pileus convex to expanded, cespitose, very variable, four to
twelve centimeters broad; surface usually dry, smooth or be-
coming striate toward the margin," pale honey-yellow to dark
reddish-brown, usually adorned with minute tufts of brown or
blackish hairs, which are more abundant on the disk; context
white or whitish, somewhat acrid and unpleasant to the taste;
lamellae adnate or slightly decurrent, white or whitish, becoming
discolored or spotted with age; spores ellipsoid, smooth, hyaline,
7-10 /i long; annulus white, cottony, with dark specks, or thin,
arachnoid, and evanescent; stipe melleous, reddish-brown or
dirty-brown below, paler above, nearly equal, firm, fibrous,
spongy within, usually floccose-scaly below the annulus,
four to twelve centimeters long, five to fifteen millimeters
Very widely distributed and very abundant on stumps and
buried roots of both deciduous and evergreen trees, on which it
grows as a parasite, the sporophores appearing in dense clusters
in autumn and the shining brown cords, or "rhizomorphs,"
being often seen in dead logs and stumps. Although of inferior
quality, it is much used as food. When raw, the flavor is un-
pleasant, and it was therefore formerly considered poisonous.
Only the young and tender caps should be selected.
EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS 4I
Lepiota procera (Scop.) Qu^l. Edible
Pileus soft, fleshy, ovoid to expanded, umbonate, solitary or
gregarious, eight to sixteen centimeters broad; surface radiate-
fibrillose and rufescent beneath the cuticle, the cuticle thick,
at first smooth and continuous, whitish or rufous to umber in
color, at length torn asunder, except upon the umbo, into large
irregular scales which become scattered and gradually fall away,
margin deflexed, silky-fibrillose; context thick, soft, white; lamel-
lae broad, close, white, at times yellowish or pinkish, tapering
slightly behind, free, remote; spores ellipsoid or obovoid, apicu-
late, i-2-guttulate, 12-18 X 8-12 /x; stipe tall, tapering upward
from the bulbous base, hollow or fibrous-stuffed, the cuticle thin,
flocculose, rufous or brownish, at length drawn apart into minute
scales, fifteen to twenty-five centimeters long, eight to sixteen
millimeters thick, the base tv\^o to three centimeters thick;
annulus thick, soft, subcoriaceous, movable, apical.
This handsome edible species is found rather sparingly in
thin soil in meadows, pastures, and open woods from New Eng-
land to Alabama and west to Nebraska. It is also widely dis-
tributed in Europe and Asia, where it is highly esteemed as an
article of food, in some places being dried in quantity for winter
use. It should be cooked quickly with dry heat. On account
of its scaly cap and bulbous stem, it must be very carefully
distinguished from species of Venenarius. In Lepiota, the scales
are a part of the cap and do not separate readily; in Venenarius,
they are fragments of the roof of the volva and may be easily
removed from the cap. The parasol mushroom also differs from
species of Venenarius in having a free and movable instead of a
fixed ring, and in having no cup nor fragments of a cup at the
base of the stem, although the base is swollen.
42 EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS
Lepiota americana Peck. Edible
American Lepiota Blushing Lepiota
Pileus ovoid to convex and at length expanded, umbonate,
five to fifteen centimeters broad ; surface white, umbo and scales
reddish-brown, the entire plant becoming reddish-brown when
wounded or on drying; lamellae white, free, close; spores subellip-
soid, smooth, hyaline, uninucleate, 7.5-10 X 5-7 Ml stipe thick-
ened below, white, hollow, seven to twelve centimeters long;
veil white, forming an apical annulus.
A conspicuous and easily recognized edible species of wide
distribution in America, occurring in groups or clusters on rich
lawns or about old stumps, sawdust piles, or compost heaps
from midsummer to autumn. Lepiota Morgani (Chlorophyllum
molyhdites) , a poisonous species resembling it in shape, has
green spores, causing the lamellae to assume a green color as
Lepiota naucina (Fries) Quel. Edible
Pileus thick, globose to convex, five to eight centimeters broad ;
surface dry, usually white and smooth, at times slightly yellowish
or granular on the disk; context firm, fleshy, white, mild; lamellae
free, white, dull pinkish with age; spores usually white in mass,
rarely tinged with pink; stipe white, smooth, enlarged below,
bearing a white annulus above, six to ten centimeters long, eight
to sixteen centimeters thick.
This excellent species occurs in the autumn in lawns and
pastures where the common mushroom grows and is often picked
and thrown away because the lamellae are white. There is no
harm in using it for food if the collector and those who may
imitate him distinguish it carefully from the white variety of
Venenarius phalloides, which is so common in this region and
EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS 43
has been the cause of most of the deaths among mushroom eaters
in the vicinity of New York City. It must be remembered that
this deadly species is picked by some persons for the common
mushroom, in spite of its white lamellae and bulbous stipe.
How much more easily might Lepiota naucina, which has both
characters, be confused with it! The deadly Amanita phalloides
may be distinguished from Lepiota naucina by the "death-cup"
at the base of the stipe, by the longer and usually more bulbous
stipe, and by the gills remaining white instead of becoming
slightly dull pinkish with age.
Chlorophyllum molybdites Mass. Poisonous
Green-spored Lepiota Lepiota Morgani Peck
Pileus fleshy, at first globose then convex and expanded or
depressed, gregarious or in rings, ten to twenty centimeters
broad; surface white beneath the cuticle, radiate-fibrillose, the
cuticle at first continuous, buff to pale umber, soon broken up,
except at the center, into irregular scales and patches, which
are gradually drawn apart and at length are more or less de-
ciduous; context thick, firm, white, changing to reddish when
bruised, poisonous to some persons; lamellae rather broad, ven-
tricose, close, remote from the stipe, at first white then changing
to a greenish hue, at length dull green; spores in mass at first
bright green, fading to dull green and becoming sordid with age,
subellipsoid, obliquely apiculate, uniguttulate, 7-1 1 X5-6/X;
stipe hard and firm, tapering upward from the thickened base,
fistulose, fibrous-stuffed, the surface glabrous, white or buff to
pale umber, ten to twenty centimeters long, one to two centi-
meters thick at the apex, two to four centimeters thick at
the base; annulus thick, ample, soft, subcoriaceous, movable,
Found in meadows, pastures, fields, and open woods from New
Jersey to Iowa and southward to Texas, the West Indies, and
44 EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS
Brazil. It sometimes occurs in large fairy rings on lawns. It
may be readily distinguished from Lepiota americana and other
species of that genus by its green spores, which soon color the
lamellae green. It is often eaten and is harmless to some persons,
but distinctly poisonous to others, though never fatal. Old
specimens appear to contain more poison than young ones.
Vaginata plumbea (Schaeff.) Murrill. Edible
Amanitopsis vaginata P. Karst.
Pileus thin, fragile, campanulate to expanded, three to eight
centimeters broad; surface dry, glabrous, deeply striate on the
margin, exceedingly variable in color, ranging from nearly white
to reddish-brown; lamellae free, fragile, white; spores globose,
smooth, hyaline, 8-10/1; stipe nearly equal, scarcely enlarged
below, glabrous or adorned with minute scales, variable in color,
hollow or stuffed within, six to twelve centimeters long, four to
eight millimeters thick, entirely devoid of a ring, but conspicu-
ously sheathed at the base with a long, loose, white volva, por-
tions of which are sometimes carried up as patches on the
This attractive and very variable species is abundant in woods
throughout Europe and North America during summer and
autumn, and possesses excellent edible qualities. It may be
distinguished from species of Venenarius, some of which are
deadly poisonous, by the total absence of a ring on the stem,
although the conspicuous volva at the base suggests its- close
relationship to that genus. The variations in color presented
by this species are often very bewildering to the beginner, and
it must be selected with great care to avoid confusing it with
EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS 45
Vaginata agglutinata (B. & C.) O. Kuntze. Poisonous. Fig. 41
Amanitopsis volvata (Peck) Sacc.
Pileus hemispheric to plane, sometimes slightly depressed,
very variable in size, two to eight centimeters broad; surface
dull white or yellowish, rarely reddish-brown at the center or
entirely reddish-brown, pulverulent, floccose-squamose, or with
large volval patches; lamellae free, rounded behind, broad,
crowded, white; spores ellipsoid, smooth, hyaline, 10-12 X 6-7 /i;
stipe very variable in size, one to seven centimeters long, three
to eight millimeters thick, equal or tapering upward, enlarged
at the base, whitish, minutely floccose-squamose, stuffed or
solid; volva unusually large, firm, membranous, persistent, more
or less lobed.
Found in open woods and wood borders from New England
to Alabama and west to Ohio. It varies much in size and its
surface may be entirely glabrous or adorned with a few large
patches from the immense volva, or covered with powder.
Ford says it is poisonous, and, even if it were edible, it is too
much like poisonous species of Venenarius to be recommended.
The genus Venenarius is distinguished from all other white-
spored genera by the presence of a universal veil which encloses
the entire sporophore in its young stage and remains either at the
base of the stipe or as warts on the surface of the pileus when the
sporophore is mature. Nearly thirty American species are listed,
and about half a dozen of these are known to be deadly poisonous.
Venenarius phalloides (Fries) Murrill. Deadly Poisonous. Fig. 32
Amanita phalloides Fries
Deadly Amanita Destroying Angel
Pileus convex or campanulate to expanded, three to fifteen
centimeters broad; surface smooth, slightly viscid when moist,
46 EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS
glabrous or decorated with scattered patches of the volva, vary-
ing in color from pure white to yellow, yellowish-green, green,
gray, brown, or blackish, margin rarely striate; context extremely
poisonous, white, not objectionable to the taste but having at
times a somewhat disagreeable odor; lamellae white, unchanging,
broad, ventricose, rounded at the base and free or adnexed;
spores globose, smooth, hyaline, 7-10 fi; stipe subequal, bulbous,
long, smooth or floccose-scaly, usually white, stuffed or hollow,
six to fifteen centimeters long, one-half to one and one-half
centimeters thick; annulus superior, membranous, thin, ample,
persistent or at times becoming torn away, usually white; volva
white, adnate to the base of the large, rounded bulb, the limb
usually free, conspicuous, lobed, thick and fleshy, persistent, but
at times breaking partly or wholly into irregular patches that
are either carried up on the surface of the pileus or remain at
the base of the stipe.
This most deadly species, for which no antidote is known,
occurs widely distributed in many forms and colors, but is al-
ways distinguished by the presence of a distinct volva or death-
cup at the base of the stipe. The principal poison is not ac-
curately known chemically, neither have its exact effects on the
animal system been determined, although many attempts to do
so have been made both by physiologists and chemists. It is
reasonable to expect that at no very distant date an ancidote
will be discovered for the deadly amanita, as has been the case
with rattlesnake poison and the toxin accompanying diphtheria.
The effects of the poison are rather slow to appear, usually from
six to fifteen hours, when there is sudden and severe pain in the
abdomen followed by loss of strength and of flesh, and the patient
gradually sinks into profound coma and dies in from three to
eight days if the amount taken has been sufficient. Convulsions
are not usual with this kind of poisoning.
It is frequently stated that poisons may be removed from
EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS 47
mushrooms by boiling them in water and throwing the water
away. This may be true of some species, but it is by no means
true of the deadly amanita. This species has only recently been
subjected to severe tests with both dry heat and steam without
disorganizing or extracting the poison from the substance of the
The variety of colors assumed by this species — white, yellow,
green, gray, brown, blackish — and the fact that the annulus
and the limb of the volva may sometimes be lost, make it neces-
sary to use great caution in selecting any white-gilled species
with bulbous stipe for food, whether an annulus is present or
not. All species of Venenarhis and Vaginata, and several species
of Lepiota, must be examined with great care.
Venenarius muscarius (L.) Earle. Deadly Poisonous. Fig. 35
Amanita muscaria (L.) Pers.
Fly Amanita Fly Agaric Fly Poison
Pileus globose to convex, at length nearly plane, eight to
twenty centimeters broad; surface slightly viscid when fresh,
red or orange to yellow, rarely paler, adorned with numerous
whitish or yellowish warts, margin slightly striate; context white,
yellow under the pellicle, extremely poisonous; lamellae white,
rarely pale yellowish, rather broad, reaching the stipe and
forming slight decurrent lines upon it; spores subglobose to
ellipsoid, 9-10 X 7-8 ii\ stipe subequal, white or pale yellowish,
stuffed or hollow, usually rough with concentric, margined
scales adnate to the bulbous base, eight to twenty-five centimeters
long, two to three centimeters thick; annulus superior, large,
membranous, persistent, white; volva white or yellowish, usually
entirely fragile, rarely slightly margining the bulb.
Widely distributed in woods, wood borders, and thickets
throughout temperate regions, being especially abundant under
and near pine trees. It is a strikingly beautiful plant and all
48 EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS
the more dangerous because of its beauty. Its colors are usually
paler here than in Europe. Italians have often mistaken it for
the royal agaric, and it is even picked at times by the ignorant
for Agaricus campester. The volva usually breaks up very early,
so that a definite cup is rarely seen at the base of the stipe, but
the fragments of the volva are conspicuous on the surface of
This species has been celebrated for centuries on account of
its poisonous properties due to the alkaloid muscarine, which
afifects the ganglia controlling the nerves of the heart and thus
retards and finally stops its action if taken in sufficient quantity.
Atropine has the opposite effect on the heart, and has therefore
been successfully used as an antidote for muscarine. Other
heart stimulants have also been used. The effects of the poison
are slow to appear unless taken in quantity. Convulsions are
often among the symptoms. Atropine should be administered
by the attending physician as quickly as possible. The literature
of this species is more extensive than that of all other poisonous
species combined. It was formerly widely used as a fly poison;
and is still used in certain parts of Russia as an exhilarant. It is
celebrated in history because of its long and distinguished list
of victims. It has been chemically investigated more often and
more successfully than any other species, and a perfect antidote
for its principal poison has been discovered.
Venenarius cothurnatus (Atk.) Murrill. Poisonous. Fig. 38
Amanita cothurnata Atk.
Pileus globose to convex, at length expanded, three to seven
centimeters broad; surface quite viscid when moist, decorated
with small, scattered, soft, floccose warts, white or tinged with
EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS 49
lemon-yellow, or with the center tawny-olive, even or finely
striate on the margin; context white, without odor; lamellae
rounded behind, crowded, plane, white; spores globose, smooth,
hyaline, 7-9 Ml stipe cylindric, bulbous, flocculose or floccose-
scaly, white, hollow or rarely stuffed, five to twelve centimeters
long, two-fifths to one centimeter thick; annulus white, thick,
persistent, volva white, adnate to the large, ovoid bulb, circum-
scissile, breaking uniformly and leaving an abrupt ring at the
top of the bulb.
Found in woods from New York to Alabama and west to
Pennsylvania and Tennessee. I have noticed that it has the
same effect upon flies as V. muscarius. Its close relative,
Venenarius pantherinus, is considered poisonous by all authors,
causing intoxication similar to that caused by V, muscarius^
though in milder form, and containing both muscarine and
choline. It is said to be the chief poisonous mushroom of Japan,
but has been rarely known to be fatal.
Venenarius spretus (Peck) Murrill. Poisonous
Amanita spreta Peck
Pileus subovoid to convex, at length expanded, seven to twelve
centimeters broad; surface white or pale grayish-brown, sub-
viscid, glabrous or with few volval fragments, faintly striate on
the margin; lamellae adnexed, subcrowded, rather narrow, white;
spores ellipsoid, smooth, hyaline, 10-12 X 6-8 /i; stipe cylindric,
equal, not bulbous at the base, smooth, nearly glabrous, slightly
pruinose at the apex, white, solid or stuffed, seven to ten centi-
meters long, about one and one-half centimeters thick; annulus
membranous, persistent, white, attached about one to two centi-
meters from the apex of the stipe; volva thin, membranous,
ample, persistent, closely sheathing but not adnate.
Found sparingly in open or bushy places from Maine to Ala-
bama in the eastern United States. This species is poisonous,
50 EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS
according to Ford, and it must be remembered when collecting
Vaginata plumbea for food, since the sheaths in the two species
are very similar.
Venenarius solitarius (Bull.) Murrill. Poisonous. Fig. 31
Amanita solitaria Fries, Amanita strohiliformis Vitt.
Warted Amanita Pine-cone Amanita
Pileus subglobose or convex to plane, solitary, five to twenty
centimeters broad; surface dry, usually white or slightly yel-
lowish, rarely cinereous or murinous, densely pulverulent, or
pelliculose adorned with seceding, angular warts that may be
soft, floccose, and flattened, or firm and erect, often becoming
glabrous with age, margin smooth, at times appendiculate;
context firm, white, usually of mawkish flavor and odor re-
sembling that of chlorine; lamellae usually adnexed and rather
narrow, occasionally free and rounded behind, more or less
crowded, white; spores ellipsoid, smooth, hyaline, very variable
in size, 7-14 X 5-9 m; stipe subequal, usually radicate, bulbous
or enlarged or equal below, concolorous or paler, mealy above,
squamulose or imbricate-squamose below, solid or slightly
spongy, four to fifteen centimeters long, one to four centimeters
thick; annulus white, apical, fragile or lacerate, often appendicu-
late or evanescent; volva white, usually friable, rarely remaining
as concentric, margined scales or a short limb at the base of the
An exceedingly variable species, usually white and scaly and
often with a chlorine odor, occurring in the open or in thin
woods throughout most of the United States. It has been
considered edible, but Ford finds that it contains a small quantity
of the deadly amanita-toxin found in Venenarius phalloides and
it should therefore never be eaten.
EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS 5 1
Venenarius rubens (Scop.) Murrill. Edible
Amanita ruhescens Pers.
Pileus ovoid to convex, at length expanded, six to twelve
centimeters broad; surface adorned with numerous thin, floccose
or farinose warts, variable in color, always tinged with reddish
or brownish-red, changing slowly to reddish when bruised,
margin smooth or faintly striate; context white, changing slowly
to reddish when bruised, with a pleasant odor and taste; lamellae
free or slightly adnexed, crowded, nearly plane, white, charac-
teristically chalky- white when dry; spores ellipsoid, smooth,
hyaline, lo-ii X 6-7 m; stipe equal or slightly tapering upward,
usually bulbous, squamulose, whitish suffused with red, becom-
ing reddish when bruised, stuffed, six to twenty centimeters long,
six to twelve millimeters thick; annulus superior, ample, white,
easily torn; volva very fragile, most of the fragments appearing
on the surface of the pileus, while a few remain clinging to the
margin of the bulb.
Found commonly in woods and groves from Maine to Ala-
bama and west to Ohio. It contains poisons when raw, but these
are disorganized by cooking or digestion. Although edible, I
cannot advise any one to eat it, since many of its near relatives
are so deadly. It might easily be confused with Venenarius
muscarius, for example.
Venenarius Caesareus (Scop.) Murrill. Edible
Amanita Caesar ea Pers.
Caesar's Agaric Royal Agaric
Pileus hemispheric to expanded, eight to sixteen centimeters
broad; surface red, orange, or yellow, rarely pale yellow, smooth,
shining, occasionally decorated with a patch from the volva,
margin thin, deeply striate; context yellow, unchanging, mild
and agreeable to the taste, odor none; lamellae free, subcrowded,
52 EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS
bright yellow; spores ellipsoid, smooth, hyaline, 8-10 X 6 jit;
stipe cylindric or subventricose, not bulbous at the base, white
or pale yellow, slightly flocculose, stuffed, ten to sixteen centi-
meters long, one to two centimeters thick; annulus ample, white
or pale yellow, apical; volva large, membranous, tough, white,
forming a wide, free cup with lobed or toothed margin.
Found in woods throughout the eastern United States, espe-
cially in Virginia and southward. It is said that the earlier
Italian immigrants often confused this species with Venenarius
muscarius, with fatal results. The expert would notice at once
the large white volva, the yellow lamellae, and the differently
colored pileus; but my advice, even to experts, is to avoid all
species of Venenarius when selecting fungi for food.
Pleuropus abortivus (Berk. & Curt.) Murrill. Edible
Clitopilus abortivus (Berk. & Curt.) Sacc.
Pileus of developed form fleshy, firm, convex to nearly plane
or slightly depressed, usually entire on the margin, gregarious
or cespitose, five to ten centimeters broad, the sporophores very
commonly represented by subglobose aborted masses of cellular
tissue three to six centimeters in diameter; surface of developed
form dry, silky-tomentose, becoming glabrous, gray or grayish-
brown; context white, with farinaceous odor and taste; lamellae
adnate, close, thin, strongly decurrent, whitish or pale grayish,
changing to salmon-colored; spores angular, uninucleate, salmon-
colored, 8.5-10 X 6-7 ju; stipe subequal, solid, slightly flocculose,
longitudinally striate, concolorous or paler than the pileus, three
and one-half to eight centimeters long, five to twelve millimeters
Common on rich earth or much decayed wood in woods during
late summer and autumn, from Canada to Alabama and west to
Wisconsin and Mexico. It is very abundant about New York
EDIBLEAND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS 53
City, both In its fully developed and aborted forms, and I have
seen the latter on sale in Mexican markets. The flavor is very
poor, in my opinion, but some special method of cooking may
be found to improve it. One must not confuse it with poisonous
species of Entoloma, nor with the "eggs" of certain phalloids.
Similar aborted forms are frequently found in Armillaria putrida,
an edible species.
Two relatives of this species, unfortunately not common in
this region, are considered delicious. The plum mushroom,
Pleuropus prunulus, is five to ten centimeters broad, whitish or
grayish above and pinkish below, occurring in rich woods. The
sweet-bread mushroom, Pleuropus Orcella, occurs in more open
places, and is smaller and more irregular but with the same
mealy odor and taste. None of the species of this genus, with
pinkish, decurrent lamellae, are known to be poisonous.
Pluteus cervinus (Schaeff.) Fries. Edible
Pileus rather thin and fragile, bell-shaped to expanded, six to
ten centimeters broad; surface smooth or slightly radiate-
fibrillose, avellaneous to subfuliginous, rarely white, sometimes
streaked; context white, almost tasteless; lamellae free, broad,
white when young, becoming salmon-pink; spores broadly ellip-
soid, smooth, flesh-colored, 6-8 X 5-6 /z; cystidia ellipsoid, stout,
thick- walled, hyaline, forked at the tip; stipe equal or enlarged
at the base, white above, more like the cap below, usually
glabrous, nearly solid, brittle, eight to fifteen centimeters
This species occurs quite commonly in open woods about
stumps and on decaying wood of various kinds from June to
November. It is of poor quality, and must be carefully dis-
tinguished from poisonous species of Entoloma.
54 EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS
Paxillus involutus (Batsch) Fries. Edible. Fig. 7
Pileus convex to expanded or depressed, four to eight centi-
meters broad; surface variable in color, grayish, yellowish-brown,
or reddish-brown, margin downy and inrolled when young;
context yellowish, becoming brownish when bruised; lamellae
decurrent, reticulate on the stipe, pallid to greeni^ih-yellow,
changing to brown when bruised; spores ovoid, 7-9 X 4-5/^;
stipe central or eccentric, short, equal, concolorous, three to five
centimeters long, one to two centimeters thick.
This species is widely distributed, occurring in late summer
and autumn on open ground or on dead logs and stumps in
woods. In England and in Oregon, where the climate is moist,
I have seen much larger specimens than in the eastern United
States. Farther south, Paxillus rhodoxanthus, another excellent
edible species, with tomentose, reddish-brown pileus and yellow
lamellae, is very common on clay banks along roadsides.
Inocybe infida (Peck) Earle. Poisonous. Fig. 39
Pileus ovoid to campanulate, at length expanded, umbonate,
gregarious, one and one-half to three centimeters broad; surface
silky-scaly, shining, light tawny-brown, sometimes paler, dark
reddish-brown on the umbo, often splitting at the margin ; lamellae
free, crowded, pale yellowish to grayish-cinnamon; spores ovoid,
irregular, nodulose, yellowish-brown, lo-ii X 6-7^1; stipe sub-
equal, concolorous, pruinose, scurfy above, three to five centi-
meters long, two to four millimeters thick; veil white, evanescent,
clinging in delicate threads to the stipe and the margin of the
This species occurs abundantly every summer and fall on the
lawns of the New York Botanical Garden, and has been carefully
studied. It is like Venenarius muscarius in its poisonous effects.
EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS 55
Inocyhe infelix, Inocybe decipiens, and Inocyhe rimosa are also
considered poisonous. These latter are mostly small, wood-
loving plants, but /. infida grows where Marasmius oreades does
and must be carefully avoided. Species of the related genus
Hebeloma should also be avoided until better known.
Pholiota candicans (Bull.) Schrot. Edible. Fig. 12
Pholiota praecox (Pers.) Quel.
Pileus fleshy, convex to plane, at times umbonate, solitary or
gregarious, three to seven centimeters broad; surface smooth
or pitted, glabrous, moist, whitish, cream-colored or isabelline,
the center often darker; lamellae adnexed, crowded, white,
becoming fulvous; spores ellipsoid, smooth, ferruginous, 7-8
X 5 m; stipe subconcolorous, equal, glabrous, four to eight centi-
meters long, three to five millimeters thick; veil large, white,
forming a conspicuous and permanent annulus near the apex of
This is one of our best edible species, and it occurs quite
abundantly during spring and summer in grassy and open places
throughout temperate regions. Pholiota autumnalis, recently
found to contain a powerful poison of unknown composition,
occurs later in the season. Most of the ocher-spored gill-fungi
that have been tested are harmless.
Hypholoma appendiculatum (Bull.) Quel. Edible. Fig. 20
Pileus fleshy, fragile, thin, convex to expanded, cespitose or
gregarious, two to six centimeters broad; surface glabrous or
whitish-pulverulent, rarely floccose-scaly, usually cracking with
age, hygrophanous, varying in color from pale-yellowish to light
brown or dark honey-yellow, fading when old or dry; lamellae
adnate, close, narrow, white or creamy- white to purplish-brown;
56 EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS
Spores ovoid, smooth, purplish-brown, 7 X4m; stipe slender,
equal, hollow, white, glabrous below, pruinose at the apex, five
to seven centimeters long, four to six millimeters thick; veil
white, delicate, evanescent, clinging to the margin of young
plants as shred-like appendages.
This is everywhere recognized as one of the best and most
dainty edible species. It is very widely distributed and grows
in abundance throughout the season about dead wood or in soil
rich in decayed wood.
Hypholoma perplexum (Peck) Sacc. Edible. Fig. 19
Pileus convex to nearly plane, cespitose, slightly umbonate at
times, five to eight centimeters broad; surface smooth, glabrous,
dry, latericeous to bay, the margin cream-colored to ochraceous;
context usually of mild flavor, sometimes bitter, white or nearly
so, becoming yellowish with age; lamellae adnate, somewhat
rounded, sometimes slightly greenish, and finally purplish-
brown, 7-8 X 4 Ml stipe subequal, firm, hollow, slightly fibrillose,
stramineous above, ochraceous or reddish below, six to ten centi-
meters long, five to seven millimeters thick, ornamented with an
arachnoid annulus when young, which becomes conspicuous by
reason of the spores which collect upon it.
This species occurs abundantly on stumps and roots of de-
ciduous trees in autumn, appearing in conspicuous reddish
clusters of considerable size. It is edible, but not very good in
quality, being useful because of its late appearance. Peck
separated it from H. sublateritium chiefly because it usually lacks
the bitter taste ascribed to that species, of which it may be only
a form. In collecting this species for food, young and fresh
specimens of mild flavor should be selected, and they should be
cooked for at least thirty minutes. Soaking in water with a
little vinegar for twenty minutes before cooking improves the
EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS 57
Agaricus campester L. Edible. Fig. ii
Common Mushroom Pasture Mushroom
Pileus convex to expanded, 5-9 cm. broad; surface dry, silky,
and whitish, or floccose-squamulose and light reddish-brown,
the color being chiefly in the scales; context white, thick, solid,
of mild flavor, sometimes becoming reddish when broken;
lamellae free, rounded behind, ventricose, crowded, white when
young, becoming salmon-pink, and finally brown or blackish;
spores ellipsoid, smooth, dark brown, 10-12 fi long; annulus
delicate, inconspicuous, formed from a thin, white veil, which
covers the lamellae in their younger stages; stipe smooth, white,
cylindric, nearly equal, stuffed within, three to six centimeters
long, one and one-half to two centimeters thick.
The common mushroom occurs in low grass in meadows or
on rich, moist, upland pastures, being common after rains from
August to October in this latitude. The "spawn," or vegetative
portion, is hidden in the soil and feeds upon the dead organic
matter found therein. In the cultivation of this species, bricks
of spawn are planted in suitable soil and the conditions of growth
attended to with great care. This is the mushroom usually
found in market, either in the fresh stage or in cans. Most
persons who collect fungi for food in the fields limit themselves
to this one species. Great care must be taken not to get young
plants of the deadly amanita when collecting "buttons" of the
common mushroom at the edge of woodlands. Also see Pan-
aeolus venenosus, which may appear in mushroom beds.
Agaricus placomyces Peck. Edible
Pileus rather thin, convex to plane, solitary, five to twelve
centimeters broad; surface whitish or grayish, adorned with
small brown scales, darker at the center and usually becoming
58 EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS
brownish over the whole surface with age; lamellae white, then
pink, and finally blackish-brown; spores brown, 5-8 X 3-4 m;
stipe long, slender, whitish or slightly yellowish, bulbous at the
base, five to ten centimeters long, five to seven millimeters
thick; annulus superior, somewhat double and radially cleft.
This species resembles the common pasture mushroom, but
has a longer stipe and grows in thin woods or wood borders. It is
excellent, but unfortunately not common.
Agaricus arvensis Schaeff. Edible. Fig. 27
Horse Mushroom Field Mushroom
Pileus large, convex, six to fifteen centimeters broad; surface
white, becoming yellowish with age or on drying; context white,
thick, highly flavored, and easily digested; lamellae white to pale
pinkish at first, at length brown; stipe long, white, often en-
larged at the base, five to ten centimeters long, eight to sixteen
millimeters thick; annulus of two parts, membranous and white
above, radiately split and tinged with yellow below.
This species grows in rich soil in pastures, fields, and wood
borders from midsummer to early fall. It resembles the com-
mon mushroom, but is larger, with longer stipe, paler lamellae,
and a peculiar double annulus. I have often eaten it in Sweden
and found it delicious. A slender wood-loving edible species,
Agaricus silvicola, can hardly be distinguished from it.
Species of this genus usually occur in manure or rich soil in
open places. P. papilionaceus and P. retirugis are said to pro-
duce hilarity and a mild form of intoxication in man if eaten in
quantity. Ford found the latter species poisonous to guinea
pigs. A century ago, P. campanulatus was reported poisonous,
inducing sleep. Macllvaine has tried it in small quantities
without harmful results.
EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS 59
Panaeolus venenosus Murrill. Poisonous
Pileus thick, fleshy, hemispheric when very young, then hat-
shaped, and at length expanded, cespitose, 3-5 cm. broad; sur-
face moist, sHghtly viscid when very young, hygrophanous, bay
becoming fulvous or isabelline according to age and moisture
conditions, glabrous, smooth on the umbo, rugose and folded on
the broad rim when in the hat-like stage; margin entire tolobed,
not projecting, smooth, entirely free from fibrils or remnants of
a veil, incurved when young, marked with a water-soaked, dark-
fulvous zone about 3 mm. broad; context white or slightly
yellowish, very thick at the center and very thin toward the
margin, the odor and taste resembling that of the common
mushroom; lamellae squarely adnate, without sinus or decurrent
tooth, plane, somewhat semicircular in shape, at least when
young, inserted, fuliginous, gray or whitish on the edges, not
distinctly marbled, purplish-fuliginous when viewed from below,
of medium distance, about 8 mm. broad; spores broadly
ellipsoid or ovoid, somewhat pointed or narrowed at both ends,
black, smooth, opaque, 11-13X7-8.5^1; cystidia not found; stipe
thick, fleshy, sometimes equal but usually much enlarged upward,
whitish or rosy-isabelline, not polished, longitudinally striate
at the apex, whitish-pruinose above, whitish-tomentose below,
conspicuously hollow, 6-10 cm. long, 5-10 mm. thick.
This species was brought to me for critical examination on
May I, 19 1 6, by Mrs. Rufus Hatch, of Pelham Manor, New
York. It grew plentifully in her mushroom beds the past
winter, almost to the exclusion of the common cultivated mush-
room, and was eaten by Mrs. Hatch and four members of her
household with nearly fatal results. At first sight, the speci-
mens suggested the genus Psilocybe, since the gills were purplish-
brown and the margin did not project beyond them; but the
spore-print proved to be black and the spores typically those of
the genus Panaeolus. The species is aberrant and might be
60 EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS
placed in a different group or subgroup with species like
Panaeolus digressus Peck and Panaeolus acidus Sumstine. Other
species of Panaeolus have been considered somewhat poisonous,
but apparently none have exhibited such poisonous properties
The public is hereby warned against any mushrooms appearing
in mushroom beds except the common cultivated species with white
cap and pink gills, Agaricus campester.
The "ink-caps" are abundant and excellent, and it is almost
impossible to confuse them with poisonous species on account of
the peculiar way they have of melting into a black fluid when
mature. The species of Panaeolus dp not deliquesce. The three
species here described would constitute an important addition
to our food supply if more generally used. They are very tender
and very digestible, but are perishable and should be cooked
Coprinus micaceus (Bull.) Fries. Edible. Fig. 22
Pileus thin, ovoid to campanulate, cespitose, one and one-
half to two and one-half centimeters in diameter, soon expanding
and becoming discolored; surface striate, tawny-yellow or tan,
yellowish-orange on the umbo, usually covered with minute,
glistening scales when young; context thin, white, of nutty flavor,
quickly deliquescing in wet weather; lamellae white when young,
soon becoming purplish-brown and finally black; spores ellipsoid,
dark brown, 6-7 fi, stipe white, slender, fragile, hollow, three to
ten centimeters long.
The glistening ink-cap grows abundantly in dense clusters
about stumps and dead trunks, especially of elm, and appears
EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS 6l
very early in the season, developing after rains from April to
November. It is of small size, but delicate in flavor and easily
prepared in a variety of ways. The plants should be gathered
young and cooked within a few hours.
Coprinus atramentarius (Bull.) Fries. Edible. Fig. 14
Pileus ovoid to campanulate, finally expanding and deliquesc-
ing, densely cespitose, three to six centimeters broad; surface
glabrous or slightly scaly, especially on the disk, grayish or
brownish, often with a yellowish tint, blackening with age;
context white, quickly deliquescing; lamellae crowded, white
when young, soon becoming black and dissolving; spores ellip-
soid, black, 7-10 /z; annulus sometimes apparent near the base of
the stipe as an indistinct line; stipe slender, smooth, white,
hollow, five to ten centimeters long.
This excellent edible species is quite common in rich soil on
lawns and elsewhere during late summer and autumn. As it
appears in close clusters, it may usually be obtained in greater
abundance than the shaggy-mane. Owing to its deliquescent
character, it must be cooked very soon after it is collected.
Coprinus comatus (Muell.) Fries. Edible. Fig. 13
Pileus at first oblong, subcylindric, expanding and deliquescing
with age, four to six centimeters in diameter; surface shaggy,
white, with yellowish or brownish scales, tinged with lilac in
places, grayish-black on the margin, blackening with age; con-
text white, tender, of nutty flavor; lamellae crowded, white when
young, soon changing to pink, then to black, and finally melting
away into an inky fluid; spores elHpsoid, black, 13-16 )u; annulus
white, small, movable or slightly adhering, often falling away
at an early stage; stipe slender, smooth, white, hollow, seven to
twelve centimeters long.
62 EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS
The shaggy-mane is a very conspicuous object on lawns in
autumn, although it is not always so abundant as might be
desired. On account of its peculiar shape and decided colors, a
single specimen rarely fails to attract attention. It is considered
one of the very best and most digestible of the fungi, and is
often eaten raw by foreigners. At times, this species occurs in
enormous quantities in rich, loose earth by roadsides or in weedy
places, and it then becomes an important source of food supply.
It requires little cooking, and is best broiled and seasoned simply.
Puffballs are the safest of all fungi for the beginner in my-
cophagy, none of them being poisonous; and they are at the same
time excellent and easy to obtain.. Being tender, they cook
quickly and are easily digested. They should as a rule be
cut open before cooking to see that they are not too old and that
they are really puffballs. If they are white and firm like cream
cheese inside, showing no yellow or brownish discoloration, they
are of the right age to use. If the interior shows no special
structures, but is smooth and homogeneous, then one may be
sure he has a puffball. The ''egg'' of the deadly amanita con-
tains the young cap and stem inside, which is readily seen when
the " egg " is cut; and the ''egg'' of the stinkhorn shows the stem
and a green mass inside surrounded by a layer of jelly-like
substance. Both of these "eggs" are shown on the chart.
Puffballs may be cooked alone in various ways, or used in
stews and omelets, and for stuffing roast fowls. When used in
omelets, they should be stewed first. All kinds except the very
small ones should first be peeled and cut into slices or cubes,
after which they may be fried quickly in butter, or dipped in
beaten egg and fried like egg-plant, or cooked in any of the ways
EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS 63
recommended for the ordinary mushroom. The smaller kinds
are much inferior in flavor to the larger ones and need a few
specimens of some good mushroom to make them attractive.
Lycoperdon gemmatum Batsch. Edible
Peridium turbinate, subumbonate, usually whitish or gray,
two to four centimeter? in diameter, narrowed below into a short,
stem-like base; cortex of long, erect spines or warts of irregular
shape scattered among small granular and more persistent ones,
all of which finally fall away, leaving the surface reticulate with
fine dotted lines; capillitium and spores greenish-yellow, at length
pale brown, columella present; spores globose, smooth or slightly
roughened, about 4 )u in diameter.
This is a very common species, growing usually on the ground
in woods. Although extremely variable, it is recognized with-
out much difficulty by the character of its spiny covering, the
larger spines somewhat resembling the shape of cut gems. The
plants generally grow near together and are occasionally cespitose,
but are rarely so crowded as in the case of the pear-shaped puff-
ball, Lycoperdon pyriforme, a small species of poor quality oc-
curring in great abundance on decaying wood or sawdust.
Lycoperdon cyathiforme Bosc. Edible. Fig. 26
Large Field Puffball Common Pasture Puffball
Peridium large, subglobose to turbinate, five to fifteen centi-
meters in diameter, the base short and thick; surface smooth,
glabrous or finely floccose, whitish-gray or brown, becoming
purplish and rimose-areolate above with age, cuticle thin, easily
separating; capillitium and spores purplish-brown, falling away
in age with the upper part of the peridium, leaving a persistent
cup-shaped base with a ragged margin; spores sessile, globose,
distinctly echinulate, purplish-brown, 5-7 n in diameter.
64 EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS
This puff ball occurs commonly in the eastern United States
in meadows and pastures where the common mushroom may be
expected to grow, but its excellent qualities appear to be unknown
to most persons. It is the largest puffball in this region except
the giant puffball, which is much rarer. Bosc originally de-
scribed it from the cup-shaped sterile base, hence the specific
name is hardly appropriate. It sometimes grows in circles,
and it has been known to be so abundant as to seriously injure
The giant puffball, Lycoperdon giganteum, may be readily
recognized by its large size, usually about the size of a man's
head, and its smooth, white appearance. It occurs infrequently
in fields, pastures, or woods throughout most of the United States.
Scleroderma aurantium (L.) Pers. Inedible
Common Scleroderma Hard-skinned Puffball
Peridium depressed-globose, subsessile, radicate, often cespi-
tose, two and one-half to eight centimeters in diameter, thick,
corky, usually pale with yellow shades, or orange, sometimes
brown, mostly covered with large warts; gleba at first white,
then vinaceous to bluish-black, finally greenish-gray, lines of
trama whitish; spores dark, globose, warted, 7-12 ^i,
A very common and widely distributed species growing in
dry woods, especially under chestnut trees. I have eaten the
young sporophores, but do not consider them attractive. Persons
have brought them to me thinking they were truffles. This and
related species were formerly considered poisonous but are now
believed to be harmless, although not desirable for food. They
may be readily distinguished from the true puffballs by their
black interior and hard skin.
edible and poisonous mushrooms 65
Remarkably little is definitely known regarding the properties
of the phalloids, the only suspected group of the Gasteromycetes.
It seems that the strong and disagreeable odor of many of these
plants has discouraged experimentation in this line, and certainly
no one would use them for food unless by mistake. Phallus
impudicus, Dictyophora duplicata, Clathrus cancellatus, and other
species have been usually considered poisonous. Macllvaine
has tested the "eggs" of a few species and considers them harm-
less, while mature specimens are said to be uniformly fatal to
swine. If the "eggs" of all species should be found to be harm-
less, the danger of confusing puffballs with poisonous fungi would
be reduced to distinguishing the undeveloped stages of species of
Venenarius, which on sectioning show the tiny pileus and stipe
within the membranous wrapper.
Dictyophora duplicata (Bosc) Ed. Fisch. Considered Poisonous
Pileus campanulate, five centimeters long, the surface appear-
ing strongly reticulate-pitted after the fetid, olivaceous gleba
has been devoured by flies or washed away by rains; apex trun-
cate, perforate; spores oblong ellipsoid, 4X2/1, involved in
mucus at maturity; stipe fusiform-cylindric, tapering at each
end, cellular-spongy, white, hollow, ten to twenty centimeters
high, two and one-half to three centimeters thick; veil white,
reticulate, variable in length, sometimes much expanded, always
conspicuous, fragile; volva globose, nearly white, very poisonous,
five to seven centimeters in diameter.
This very conspicuous and objectionable species occurs in the
United States about buildings and near stumps in fields and in
the edges of woods. It may be easily recognized by its con-
66 EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS
spicuous veil, which is attached near the apex beneath the
pileus and hangs down to the middle of the stipe or lower. The
mature gleba is extremely fetid, proving attractive to flies, which
probably disseminate the spores. A similar species, D. Ravenelii,
possessing similar properties, occurs in abundance in old sawdust
piles and about rotting logs and stumps in woods and fields in
the eastern United States and Canada. It may be readily
distinguished from the veiled stinkhorn by the absence of a
conspicuous, reticulate veil; its cap is also smooth instead of
coarsely pitted, and its odor is less disagreeable.
Adnate, attached squarely to the stipe.
Adnexed, attached slightly to the stipe.
Annul us, the ring or collar on the stipe.
Appendiculate, hanging in small fragments to the margin.
Bulbous, with a bulb-like swelling at the base.
Circumscissile, splitting transversely at the middle.
Context, the substance of the pileus.
Decurrent, extending downward on the stipe.
Dimidiate, semicircular or nearly so.
Disk, the central part of the surface of the pileus.
Distant, said of lamellae when they are far apart.
Eccentric, not centrally attached.
Echinulate, minutely spiny.
Equal, said of the stipe when of uniform thickness.
Floccose, clothed with hairs.
Free, not attached to or not reaching the stipe.
Fuliginous, sooty or dark brown.
Furfuraceous, clothed with numerous minute scales.
Glabrous, devoid of hairs or scales.
Gleba, the spore-bearing tissue of puffballs and their allies.
EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS 67
Gregarious, growing in groups.
Hygrophanous, as though water-soaked.
Hymenium, the fruiting surface or layer.
Hymenophore, the fruit-body.
Imbricate, overlapping like tiles on a roof.
Involute, rolled inward.
Isabelline, light leather-colored.
Lamellae, the gills of a mushroom.
Mycelium, the vegetative part of a fungus, made up of delicate threads.
Ochroleucous, yellowish- white.
Ocreate, fitting like a stocking or boot.
Peridium, the wall of puffballs.
Pileus, the cap of a mushroom.
Pulverulent, covered with powder or dust.
Reticulate, net-like or marked with net-like lines.
Sinuate, notched where they join the stipe.
Sporophore, the fruit-bodj', or part bearing the spores.
Stipe, the stem.
Superior, said of the annulus when near the apex of the stipe.
Testaceous, pale brick-colored.
Tomentose, clothed with dense, matted hairs.
Umbilicate, slightly and abruptly depressed at the center.
Umbo, an elevation at the center of the pileus.
Veil, a membrane at first covering the gills, at length forming the ring.
Ventricose, enlarged at the middle.
Volva, a membrane covering the entire fruit-body when young, at length
forming a cup at the base of the stipe or distributed in fragments over the surface
of the pileus or stipe.
68 EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS
SPECIES FIGURED ON THE CHART
1. Ceriomyces crassus Batt. (Edible Boletus)
2. Ceriomyces scaber (Bull.) Murrill (Rough-stemmed Boletus)
3. Gyroporus castaneus (Bull.) Quel. (Chestnut-colored Boletus)
4. Russula Mariae Peck (Mary's Russula)
5. Rostkovites granulatus (L.) P. Karst. (Granulated Boletus)
6. Chanterel Chantarellus (L.) Murrill (Edible Chanterel)
7. Paxillus involutus (Batsch) Fries (Involute Paxillus)
8. Lepista personata (Fries) W. G. Sm. (Masked Tricholoma)
9. Crepidopus ostreatus (Jacq.) S. F. Gray (Oyster Mushroom)
10. Boletus luteus L. (Egg-yellow Boletus)
11. Agaricus campester L. (Common Mushroom)
12. Pholiota candicans (Bull.) Schrot. (Early Pholiota)
13. Coprinus comatus (Miill.) Fries (Shaggy-mane)
14. Coprinus atramentarius (Bull.) Fries (Common Ink-cap)
15. Fistulina hepatica (Huds.) Fries (Beefsteak Mushroom)
16. Lactaria deliciosa (L.) Fries (Delicious Lactaria)
17. Lactaria hygrophoroides B. & C. (Distant-gilled Lactaria)
18. Russula flava Romell (Yellow Russula)
19. Hypholoma perplexum (Peck) Sacc. (Perplexing Hypholoma)
20. Hypholoma appendiculatum (Bull.) Quel. (Appendiculate Hypholoma)
21. Strobilomyces strobilaceus (Scop.) Berk. (Pine-cone Boletus)
22. Coprinus micaceus (Bull.) Fries (Glistening Ink-cap)
23. Morchella esculenta Pers. (Common Morel)
24. Clavaria flava Schaeff. (Pale- yellow Clavaria)
25. Clitocybe multiceps Peck (Many-headed Clitocybe)
26. Lycoperdon cyathiforme Bosc (Field Puffball)
27. Agaricus arvensis Schaeff. (Horse Mushroom)
28. Armillaria putrida (Scop.) Murrill (Honey Agaric)
29. Marasmius oreades (Bolt.) Fries (Fairy-ring Mushroom)
30. Laetiporus speciosus (Batt.) Murrill (Sulphur- colored Polypore)
31. Venenarius solitarius (Bull.) Murrill (Pine-cone Amanita)
32. Venenarius phalloides (Fries) Murrill (Deadly Amanita)
33. Monadelphus illudens (Schw.) Earle (Deceiving Clitocybe)
34. Dictyophora duplicata (Bosc) Ed. Fisch. (Veiled Stinkhorn)
35. Venenarius muscarius (L.) Earle (Fly Amanita)
EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS
36. Lactaria rufa (Scop.) Fries (Bay-red Lactaria)
37. Gymnopus carnosus (Sow.) Murrill (Spotted Collybia)
38. Venenarius cothurnatus (Atk.) Murrill (Booted Amanita)
39. Inocybe infida (Peck) Earle (Unsafe Inocybe)
40. Panellus stypticus (Bull.) P. Karst. (Astringent Panus)
41. Vaginata agglutinata (B. & C.) Kuntze (Large-sheathed Vaginata)
42. Suillellus luridus (Schaeff.) Murrill (Lurid Boletus)
43. Tylopilus felleus (Bull.) P. Karst. (Bitter Boletus)
44. Russula emetica Fries (Emetic Russula)
45. Russula foetens Pers. (Fetid Russula)
46. Clitocybe sudorifica Peck (Sweat-producing Clitocybe)
47. Chanterel aurantiacus (Wulf.) Fries (False Chanterel)
Peck's List of Edible Mushrooms
Dr. Charles H. Peck, former state botanist of New York,
studied fungi fifty years. The following list comprises species
definitely stated by him to be edible. His nomenclature is
slightly different from mine in some groups.
Agaricus abruptus Pk.
Agaricus arvensis Schaefif.
Agaricus campester L.
Agaricus diminutivus Pk.
Agaricus haemorrhoidarius Schulz.
Agaricus micromegethus Pk.
Agaricus placomyces Pk.
Agaricus rodmani Pk.
Agaricus silvicola Pk.
Agaricus subrufescens Pk.
Amanita caesarea Scop.
Amanita rubescens Fr.
Amanitopsis strangulata (Fr.) Roze
Amanitopsis vaginata Roze
Armillaria mellea Vahl
Boletinus grisellus Pk.
Boletinus pictus Pk.
Boletus affinis Pk.
Boletus albidipes Pk.
Boletus albus Pk.
Boletus bi color Pk.
Boletus brevipes Pk.
Boletus castaneus Bull.
Boletus chrysenteron albocarneus Pk.
Boletus clintonianus Pk.
Boletus edulis Bull.
Boletus edulis clavipes Pk.
Boletus eximius Pk.
Boletus frostii Russell
Boletus granulatus L.
Boletus laricinus Berk.
Boletus luteus L.
Boletus niveus Fr.
Boletus nobilis Pk.
Boletus ornatipes Pk.
Boletus pallidus Frost
Boletus rubropunctus Pk.
Boletus rugosiceps Pk.
Boletus scaber Fr.
Boletus spectabilis Pk.
Boletus subaureus Pk.
Boletus subglabripes Pk.
Boletus subluteus Pk.
Boletus versipellis Fr.
Bovista pila B. & C.
Bovista plumbea Pers.
Cantharellus cibarius Fr.
Cantharellus cinnabarinus Schw.
Cantharellus dichotomus Pk.
Cantharellus floccosus Schw.
EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS
Cantharellus infundibuliformis (Scop.)
Cantharellus lutescens Fr.
Cantharellus minor Pk,
Clavaria botrytes Pers.
Clavaria hotrytoides Pk.
Clavaria conjuncta Pk.
Clavaria cristata Pers.
Clavaria flava Schaeff .
Clavaria pistillaris L.
Clitocyhe adirondackensis Pk.
Clitocyhe amethystina (Bolt.) Pk.
Clitocyhe clavipes (Pers.) Fr.
Clitocyhe infundihuliformis Schaeff.
Clitocyhe laccata Scop.
Clitocyhe maculosa Pk.
Clitocyhe media Pk.
Clitocyhe monadelpha Morg.
Clitocyhe m.uUiformis Pk.
Clitocyhe nehularis Batsch.
Clitocyhe ochropurpurea Berk.
Clitocyhe suhcyathiformis Pk.
Clitopilus ahortivus B. & C.
Clitopilus micropus Pk.
Clitopilus orcella Bull.
Clitopilus prunulus Scop.
Collyhia acervata Fr.
Colly bia dryophila (Bull.) Fr.
Collyhia familia Pk.
Collybia platyphylla Fr.
Collyhia radicata (Relh.) Fr.
Collyhia velutipes (Curt.) Fr.
Coprinus atramentarius Fr.
Coprinus comatus Fr.
Coprinus micaceus Fr.
Cortinarius alhidipes Pk.
Cortinarius cinnamomeus Fr.
Cortinarius collinitus Fr,
Cortinarius corrugatus Pk.
Cortinarius evernius Fr.
Cortinarius violaceus Fr.
Crater ellus cantharellus (Schw.) Fr.
Craterellus cornucopioides Pers.
Crepidotus malachius B. & C.
Entoloma grayanum Pk.
Fistulina hepatica Fr.
Gyromitra esculenta Fr.
Helvella crispa Fr.
Hydnum alhidum Pk.
Hydnum caput-ursi Fr.
Hydnum coralloides Scop.
Hydnum repandum L.
Hygrophorus cantharellus Schw.
Hygrophorus chlorophamis Fr.
Hygrophorus flavodiscus Frost.
Hygrophorus fuliginosus Frost.
Hygrophorus laricinus Pk.
Hygrophorus laurae Morg.
Hygrophorus miniatus Fr.
Hygrophorus nitidtis B. & C.
Hygrophorus pratensis Fr.
Hygrophorus pudorinus Fr.
Hygrophorus puniceus Fr.
Hygrophorus speciosus Pk.
Hygrophorus virgineus (Wulf.) Fr.
Hypholoma aggregatum sericeum Pk.
Hypholoma incertum Pk.
Hypholoma perplexum Pk.
Hypomyces lactijluorum (Schw.) Tul.
Lactarius camphoratus (Bull.) Fr.
Lactarius chelidonium, Pk.
Lactarius deceplivus Pk.
Lactarius deliciosus Fr.
Lactarius distans Pk.
Lactarius gerardii Pk.
Lactarius Ugnyotus Fr.
Lactarius luteolus Pk.
Lactarius rimosellus Pk.
Lactarius serifluus (DC.) Fr.
Lactarius suhdulcis (Bull.) Fr.
Lactarius subpurpureus Pk.
Lactarius volemus Fr.
Lepiota americana Pk.
Lepiota cepaestipes Sow.
Lepiota clypeolaria (Bull.) Fr.
Lepiota naucinoides Pk.
Lepiota procera Scop.
Lycoperdon atropurpureum Vitt.
Lycoperdon cyathiforme Bosc.
Lycoperdon gemmatum Batsch.
Lycoperdon giganteum Batsch.
Lycoperdon suhincarnatum Pk.
Marasmius oreades Fr.
Mitrula vitellina irregularis Pk.
Morchella angusticeps Pk.
Morchella bispora Sor.
Morchella conica Pers.
Morchella deliciosa Fr.
Morchella esculenta Pers.
Morchella semilibera DC.
EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS
Paxillus involutus Fr.
Pholiota adiposa Fr.
Pholiota caperaia Pers.
Pholiota discolor Pk,
Pholiota duroides Pk.
Pholiota praecox (Pers.) Fr.
Pholiota squarrosa Muell.
Pholiota squarrosoides Pk.
Pholiota vermijiua Pk.
Phylloporus rhodoxanthus (Schw.) Bres.
Pleurotus ostreaius Fr.
Pleurotus sapidus Kalchb.
Pleurotus ulmarius Bull.
Pluteus cervinus (Schaeff.) Fr.
Polyporus sulphureus Fr.
Psilocybe foenisecii (Pers.) Fr.
Psilocyhe polycephala (Paul.) Pk.
Russula abietina Pk.
Russula albida Pk.
Russula brevipes Pk.
Russula compacta Frost.
Russula crustosa Pk.
Russula earlei Pk.
Russula flavida Frost.
Russula fur cata (Pers.) Fr.
Russula mariae Pk.
Russula nigricans (Bull.) Fr.
Russula ochrophylla Pk.
Russula pectinatoides Pk.
Russula pusilla Pk.
Russula roseipes (Seer.) Bres.
Russula rugulosa Pk.
Russula sordida Pk.
Russula subsordida Pk.
Russula uncialis Pk.
Russula variata Banning
Russula virescens Fr.
Russula viridella Pk.
Srtobilomyces strobilaceus (Scop.) Berk.
Srtopharia bilamellata Pk.
Tricholoma hirtellum Pk.
Tricholoma imbricatum Fr.
Tricholoma nudum (Bull.) Fr.
Tricholoma personatum Fr.
Tricholoma portentosum centrale Pk.
Tricholoma radicatum Pk.
Tricholoma russula (Schaeff.) Fr.
Tricholoma silvaticum Pk.
Tricholoma sordidum (Schum.) Fr.
Tricholoma subacutum Pk.
Tricholoma subsejunctum Pk.
Tricholoma terreum fragrans Pk.
Tricholoma transmutans Pk.
Tricholoma unifactum Pk.
Volvaria bombycina (Pers.) Fr.
INDEX TO GENERA WITH SPECIES
Agaricus arvensis, 58
Amanita Caesarea, 51
Amanitopsis vaginata, 44
Armillaria mellea, 40
putrida, 40, 53
Boletus castaneus, 17
lurid us, 22
Cantharellus cibarius, 25
Ceriomyces crassus, 19
Chanterel aurantiacus, 26
Chlorophyllum molybdites, 42, 43
Clathrus cancellatus, 65
Clavaria aurea, 13
Clitocybe dealbata, 37
Clitocybe illudens, 38
Clitopilus abortivus, 52
Collybia maculata, 36
Cortinarius alboviolaceus, 40
Crepidopus cornucopiae, 36
Dictyophora duplicata, 65
Entoloma lividum, 33
Fistulina hepatica, 15
Fomes Laricis, 16
Grifola frondosa, 16
Gymnopus carnosus, 36
Gyromitra esculenta, 2
Gyroporus castaneus, 17
Hydnum caput-ursi, 14
Hypholoma appendiculatum, 55
Inocybe decipiens, 55
infida, 35, 54
Laccaria laccata, 40
INDEX TO GENERA WITH SPECIES
Lactaria lactiflua, 28
torminosa, 27, 30
Laetiporus speciosus, 16
Lepiota americana, 42, 44
Morgani, 42, 43
Lepista personata, 39
Lycoperdon cyathiforme, 63
Marasmius oreades, 35, 55
Monadelphus illudens, 38
Morchella esculenta, 1 1
venenosus, 57, 59
Panellus stypticus, 34
Panus stypticus, 34
Paxillus involutus, 54
Phallus impudicus, 65
Pholiota autumnalis, 55
Pleuropus abortivus, 52
Pleuropus prunulus, 53
Pleurotus ostreatus, 35
Pluteus cervinus, 53
Polyporus frondosus, 16
Rostkovites granulatus, 23
Scleroderma aurantium, 64
Strobilomyces strobilaceus, 24
Suillellus luridus, 22
Tricholoma personatum, 39
Tylopilus felleus, 18
Vaginata agglutinata, 45
plumbea, 44, 50
muscarius, 47, 52
INDEX TO SPECIES
abortivus (Clitopilus), 52
abortivus (Pleuropus), 52
acidus (Panaeolus), 60
agglutinata (Vaginata), 45
alboviolaceus (Cortinarius), 40
americana (Lepiota), 42, 44
appendiculatum (Hypholoma), 55
arvensis (Agaricus), 58
atramentarius (Coprinus), 61
aurantiacus (Chanterel), 26
aurantium (Scleroderma), 64
aurea (clavaria), 13
autumnalis (Pholiota), 55
botrytes (Clavaria), 13
Caesarea (Amanita), 51
Caesareus (Venenarius), 51
campanulatus (Panaeolus), 58
campester (Agaricus), 57
cancellatus (Clathrus), 65
candicans (Pholiota), 55
caput-ursi (Hydnum), 14
carnosus (Gymnopus), 36
castaneus (Boletus), 17
castaneus (Gyroporus), 17
cervinus (Pluteus), 53
Chantarellus (Chanterel), 25
cibarius (Cantharellus), 25
comatus (Coprinus), 61
coralloides (Hydnum), 14
comucopiae (Crepidopus). 36
cothurnata (Amanita), 48
cothurnatus (Venenarius), 48
crassus (Ceriomyces), 19
cyathiforme (Lycoperdon), 63
dealbata (Clitocybe), 37
decipiens (Inocybe), 55
delica (Russula), 30
deliciosa (Lactaria), 27
digressus (Panaeolus), 60
duplicata (Dictyophora), 65
edulis (Boletus), 19
emetica (Russula), 31
esculenta (Gyromitra), 12
esculenta (Morchella), 11
felleus (Boletus), 18
felleus (Tylopilus), 18
ferruginatus (Ceriomyces), 20
flava (Clavaria), 13
flava (Russula), 33
flavida (Russula), 33
foetens (Russula), 33
fragilis (Russula), 30
frondosa (Grifola), 16
frondosus (Polyporus), 16
fuliginosa (Lactaria), 27
furcata (Russula), 32
gemmatum (Lycoperdon), 63
giganteum (Lycoperdon), 64
granulatus (Boletus), 23
granulatus (Rostkovites), 23
hepatica (Fistulina), 15
hygrophoroides (Lactaria), 28
illudens (Clitocybe). 38
illudens (Monadelphus), 38
imbricatum (Hydnum), 14
impudicus (Phallus), 65
Indigo (Lactaria), 40
infelix (Inocybe), 55
infida (Inocybe), 35, 45
involutus (Paxillus), 54
laccata (Laccaria), 40
lactiflua (Lactaria), 28
Laricis (Fomes), 16
lividum (Entoloma), 33
luridus (Boletus), 22
luridus (Sdillellus), 22
lutea (Russula), 33
luteus (Boletus), 24
maculata (Collybia), 36
Mariae (Russula), 31
mellea (Armillaria), 40
micaceus (Coprinus), 60
miniato-olivaceus (Boletus), 21
miniato-olivaceus (Ceriomyces), 2i
molybdites (Chlorophyllum), 42, 43
morbifera (Clitocybe), 37
INDEX TO SPECIES
Morgan] (Lepiota), 42, 43
multiceps (Clitocybe), 38
muscaria (Amanita), 47
muscarius (Venenarius), 47, 52
naucina (Lepiota), 42
nitida (Russula), 30
ochropurpurea (Laccaria), 40
officinalis (Polyporus), 16
Orcella (Pleuropus), 53
oreades (Marasmius), 35, 55
ostreatus (Crepidopus), 35
ostreatus (Pleurotus), 35
pantherinus (Venenarius), 49
papilionaceas (Panaeolus), 58
perplexum (Hypholoma), 56
personata (Lepista), 39
personatum (Tricholomaj, 39
phalloides (Amanita), 45
phalloides (Venenarius), 45
piperatus (Boletus), 20
piperata (Lactaria), 29
pistillaris (Clavaria), 13
placomyces (Agaricus), 57
plumbea (Vaginata), 44
praecox (Pholiota), 55
procera (Lepiota), 41
prunulus (Pleuropus), 53
putrida (Armillaria), 40
pyriforme (Lycoperdon), 63
pyrogala (Lactaria), 27
Ravenelii (Dictyophora), 66
repandum (Hydnum), 13
retirugis (Panaeolus), 58
rhodoxanthus (Paxillus), 54
rimosa (Inocybe), 55
rubens (Venenarius), 51
rubescens (Amanita), 51
rufa (Lactaria), 28
scaber (Boletus), 20
scaber (Ceriomyces), 20
separans (Boletus), 19
silvicola (Agaricus), 58
solitaria (Amanita), 50
solitarius (Venenarius), 50
speciosus (Laetiporus), 16
spreta (Amanita), 49
spretus (Venenaiius), 49
strobilaceus (Strobilomyces), 24
strobiliformis (Amanita), 50
stypticus (Panellus), 34
stypticus (Panus), 34
subaureus (Rostkovites), 23
sublateritium (Hypholoma), 56
sudorifica (Clitocybe), 37
sulphureum (Tricholoma), 40
sulphureus (Polyporus), 16
theiogala (Lactaria), 27
torminosa (Lactaria), 27, 30
urens (Marasmius), 35
vaginata (Amanitopsis), 44
vellerea (Lactaria), 27
venenosus (Panaeolus), 57, 59
violaceus (Cortinarius), 40
virescens (Russula), 32
volema (Lactaria), 28
volvata (Amanitopsis), 45
Books on Fleshy and Woody Fungi
By William A. Murrill, A.M., Ph.D., Assistant
Director of the New York Botanical Garden, Editor
of Mycologia, and Assistant Editor of North Ameri-
EDIBLE AND POISONOUS MUSHROOMS .... $2.00
A large colored chart and a descriptive handbook
containing the chief edible and poisonous species in
AMERICA'N BOLETES, issued December 8, igi4 . . . $1.00
Including all the species found in temperate and
tropical North America, both on the mainland and
on the islands, south to South America.
NORTHERN POLYPORES, issued December 8, 191 4 . . $1.00
Including species found in Canada and the United
States south to Virginia and west to the Rockies.
SOUTHERN VOLYVORES, issued January 30, 191 s . . $1.00
Including species found in the United States from
North Carolina to Florida and west to Texas.
WESTERN POLYPORES, ww^^ M^rc/i 25, /p/5 . . . $1.00
Including species found in the states on the Pacific
coast from California to Alaska.
TROVlCkl. VO^YVORESy issued June IS, 191 5 . • . .$1.50
Including species found in Mexico, Central America,
southern Florida, the West Indies, and other islands
between North America and South America.
The above prices include prepaid postage, even to foreign countries. No reduc-
Hon is made to any one, dealers included. The author regrets that, owing to the
small editions, no copies can be distributed for examination, but a free desk copy
will be supplied, if requested, with an order for ten copies of the same book sent
to one address.
Remit by PostofRce or Express Money Order, or, if by
Check, please add Exchange.
W. A. MURRILL
NEW YORK CITY
University of Toronto
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