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THE 



EDINBURGH ENCYCLOPAEDIA ; 



COXIMtCrBB ST 



DAVID BREWSTER, LL.D. 

p. H. & LUND. A>U L.UI>. A>U M. R. L A. 

•acHT or tcmcs mr rAsa, 4«» sr t«i mnu. t e tam n 

tt AUBonr or oBMaa «* ■oaau i ■ww««i mmkuts or noi 
noBavLnMi wa«wrf«iBn»tT*rq>it— pm—i HaHi^or tbi ararr or t«b *><• 

MB tMBi m TIB uuBMV «>• PMunfWcaL «uui oT pnarar i or t«b rMiLOMraicu. 
i «v T«a uTHuar 4» 4»T«aB«au« mobtv or pam. or tsb »u« i mui ownrt-noM. mb or 

or anunt or i«aiufaui. ■ivi nanrr or rtiwwi » or twt 
Mc«aytoriaBo;orT«iapi«L«B0MatCAi.Mc«TTa»Oinnrui, 4W» or ti pwmworwirAL 



» rru TNB AMHTAXCS or 

GENTLEMEN EMINENT IN SCIENCE AND LITERATURE. 



IN EIGHTEEN VOLUMES. 

VOLUME XIV. 



EDINBURGH: 

PRINTED FOR WILLIAM BLACKWOOD; 

AND JOHN WAUOH, KDINBUROH; JOHN MURRAY; BALDWIN k CRADOtK 

J. M RICHARDSON, LONDON; AND THE OTHER PROPRIETORS. 

M.DCCC.XXX. 



M 



THB 



EDINBURGH ENCYCLOPAEDIA. 



MEDICINE. 

f l\w. that the CTciMb wt oAn eanptctctr daMd. About \h» Ptacitw. 

cirmlh <Lt. ttM i«id ia the partnlc* >w*mww opaque, "^^^r"^ 




■««MndalHfift«rdM; tkay iMvaalMdwHOi. wrfiJtyjitiar iipi iiiriii ^ ifct — tT«r 
«i»ii#iy«il,M<A»yM»wn>iliiUMi Pistil pnMd ia *t ■«• aite wlk thaw «• d 



tk* otiMr piM* af dw bodjr 
bat 



. ■» Vakk. Vacdi^ V«i.. md an 

la tha «iteai Mi laat vial«( ihm af Iha 



V 



Tlw*aM«#V«i^l^OTaHllpaB.iirkMacaMmr ityftwafclw wlw tlw mutiaaiac— ylalai 

iM«aa« thapaiad af 

a«MllT vialm. aHl i* iMlnd aMta to ba 



MB waa I — t dli !>■ dwiwl tl— ' tiw PlMwa JtmM. afc mMm iHa m i !■ —y caadJwAb J i fiM ; biM, ip tha 
fcdiainiiHlli HMfliaf tb»rtMiLarti»M»- cadhaM variaty. «bt fe oAad dw aaandn lb*v 

• baafafa&Uaavflal- iMaa aa « tha aaiad af aalwadan. vlddk ■ aAaii 



•■Arw ika tNi, or dw anMiva frvar. All tha 






pviad, ddMngli at the I 



wm ba I 111 I a— da »l Wnl wnlw. ;dtteiiadMdi«hK(kiml.i 

widi wWdb Vahola iwid tMr iMifiB. TIm 6«ot k abo of a diCmnt 

, It aawtilalai'tw* irtadai, wWdi ald»^ wti- him*, «UWiiM man ti dw tjrplMMa tjrpe, and dw 

dwdy tdi^jiig l» tlw —a dhat, —i iwiwliNi tytf ia eMwr ta— f W —w mp iiiiii l and tar- 

iaia awJlagr. ■■ i iiillllj iathririji ijl .— d pid. td tabehaicMabbaf la aitiaa The pwgaoaia 

NMaMdnarnaalaMBa; ftaathaaaadtar af the db— a diiiiaili traty wadi apca the aatere «€ 

af dia iiaiiliM, dtay Iwwa iitiiiiiii| ifca dw fkty to tHBdi it iiirliaiij far wMa, iadiadb. 

lardMactandeMiaaM. tiart ll Mi l fn .waaayfi — j y lwpafor a&vaawbia 

r trmm' iww. tfca aaadairt I^ fcr dta waat aart. aluncedur bo. 

ibaa^ MadthanachaTaarraaMdiaL Wliat diCHaMiaacc it 

tjrae. Md k dwHMriaad by vaadiaw, aad by b vhtcb ptailafM d» two »ariadw w« know noc : it 

dw dt|Makbi • CiMtdmiaa. apaawholawybacalkd 

on dk la airiii i w dwtaMw ti tbe w id na i r ; ia waaa tha 

, , At dbtfct. Mafia adww dw i! i Hi i ill, baii^ wach Uw 

body. Happawa ia the fanaafwrftad|iiiBtt^wyA waitftaqaaH; bat we w»wotabb»a —i aic t thawdiC 



thMwfaarth day. thaarapliwibiSiMloaBpwea dkiandiiin chwaMw af the ydw** ; atwawtiw 

dwlbaa.aadjaaboat twod^b illlotar^t dbtfct. Mafia adww dw i! i Hi i ill, baii^ wach Uw 

tbady. H iwiimi ia dw fanaafMaaPtad i i n i nH . a h i t h waMftaqaoit: bat wearenotabbloaiMWCtdwwdie. 

WbrwaRbffaaiaiapiaipb>,andalbi«lh.bydwMh I bw if la dw aataw of dw if i iiiii ir widi aay trtw. 

ar MMh 4tf, are c a aTWW d iato vadahiw awMdMW • nai circaaMlMMa^ or with aay paculbr rtataa af the 

lii^ TClaw Caid. -" .. I- I, 1,^-^ CMHdtadaa. We h«vata«cbMevidaocadwt«da« 

aa biMBad aMTRin, w w to uibiIbw a eHaMarabb aat danad b|Mi wqr mtditf difkaac* in the nataic 

radamofar die whale Mffaca of die badv. which b of the aMfcAaa awttar : liai— wbndt dwyaibtbaare 



ofar die whale Mffaee of die body, whbh b ofdw ilar i aiattar ; lm-nliiirit diayariKbawe 
liilii diiiiiliw, ■III capaUaarMMVradacadfkaBthaHMMareaaruw 



al d» aoA patta, aapacbtay tha faeis b to 
vat. un. rurr i. * 



MEDICINE. 




Practice. Small-pox is always produced by its own specific con- 
tn|;iun ; and when once the individual has gone through 
the disease, in however slight a degree, he is securetl 
from any future attack. Upon this fact is founded tlic 
practice of inoculation ; for we learn, that where a por- 
tion of the matter is inserted under the cuticle, it will 
communicate a much mihler disease than one that is re- 
ceived in the usual way, which is probably by the lungs. 
We are, however, totally unable to explain the cause of 
this difference. The relation which the fever bears to 
the eruption, or the degree in which one is to be regard- 
ed as the cause of the other, is a point that has given 
rise to much speculation. According to the humoral 
pathology, the eruption was thought to afford a remark- 
able example of the critical discharge of an offending 
matter from the system; and, proceeding upon this 
principle, the great object of the practitioner was sup- 
posed to be, to promote tliis discharge ; a system which 
led to a practice precisely the reverse of the true one, 
and which must no doubt have proved highly destruc- 
tive. In what way the fever operates, or what is the 
proximate cause of the disease, we know not ; but it 
appears that the eruption is the consequence of the fe- 
ver, and that, whatever diminishes the fever diminishes 
the eruption, and at the same time lessens the violence 
and danger of the disease. Our general plan of treat- 
ment is accordingly founded upon this principle, to di- 
minish the febrile action of tlie earlier stages by the ge- 
neral application of tlie antiphlogistic plan, especially by 
purgatives and by external cold, and in some cases, 
where the infljimm<itory tendency is considerable, by 
blood-letting. In the distinct variety this may be re- 
garded as comprehending the whole of the treatment ; 
for it would appear, tliat all direct attempts to act upon 
the eruption, except so far as we can subdue the fever, 
are at least useless, if not positively injurious. Tonics 
and stimulants are seldom indicated, or only in conse- 
quence of some unusual occurrence ; and when the dis- 
ease has run through its course, the powers of the con- 
stitution soon return to their accustomed standard. 

In tlie confluent Sniall-pox we have a much more for- 
midable disease to combat, and one which, unfortunate- 
ly, but too often bafEes all our endeavours. From its 
very commencement it exhibits symptoms that have so 
much of the typhous appearance, as almost to deter us 
from the use of any active antiphlogistic treatment, and 
even purgatives and cool air appear to protluce a dan- 
gerous shock to tlie oppressed and languid powers of 
life. Still, however, they stSord tlie only rational means 
of relief ; but tliey must be pursued with caution, and 
under the constant inspection of some person who is 
well qualified to judge of tlieir eff'ects. The circum- 
stance which renders the practice, in this variety of the 
complaint, so critical, is, that when, from any cause, 
the eruption suddenly disappears — an effect which some- 
times ensues from the sudden application of cold to the 
surface, or from the operation oi' a brisk purgative, the 



or I be con- 
fluent. 




external wamitli, and to administer moderate doses of 
stimulants ; but this is to be done with caution, lest in 
this way we exasperate the violence of the febrile 
action. Sometimes, without any obvious cause, this 
deficiency of action ensues, when we are immediately 
to have recouj-se to tlie same means with those men- 
tioned aJ)ove. When the symptoms of variola assume 
the de<;ided typhous type, and" especially in the secon- 
diirv fever, it has been generally conceived that wine, 
bark, and otlier stimulants and tonics, are tlie appro. 



priate remedies. We doubt how far this can be de- Practice, 
pended upon as a general mode of treatment ; but we ""nr""* 
apprehend that we are, in these cases, to proceed very 
much upon the same plan which has been already re- 
commended in the latter stages of other malignant fe- 
vers, of prescribing very much to obviate or palliate 
particular symptoms ; bearing in mind, that we have 
to contend, on the one hand, with a tendency to febrile 
excitement, and, on the other, with the state of ex- 
haustion, which generally succeeds the former, when 
it has been violent and long protracted. There is often, 
in confluent Small-pox, a state of restlessness, or extreme 
agitation, which is found to be alleviated by opium; 
and although we do not expect any benefit to be de- 
rived from sudorifics, we conceive that gentle diapho- 
retics are often productive of great relief to the sensa- 
tions, and, by removing a source of irritation, conspire 
with opiates in procuring sleep. One of the most dis- 
tressing effects of confluent Small-pox, is the injury 
which it leaves to the constitution generally, or to par- 
ticular organs, of which the eyes are the most apt to 
suffer, so as not unfrequently to produce the complete 
loss of sight. 

Sect. XX. Vaccinia. Cow-Pox. 

The singular affection of Vaccinia has become an ob- Vaccinia 
ject of great attention, in consequence of the remark- 
able property which it possesses of protecting the con- 
stitution from the attacks of Variola ; and as it is, un- 
der all its forms, a comparatively mild disease, and like- 
wise possesses the peculiar advantiige of being commu- 
nicated only by absolute contact, it forms the means of 
securing the individual, without spreading any danger- 
ous infection through the community at large. 

The characteristics of Vaccinia are to produce a ve- 
side of a circulai- form, witli a dei)res6ion in the centre, 
which makes its appearance in tliree or four days after 
tlie insertion of tlie matter under the cuticle. On the 
eighth day it becomes filled with a transparent watery 
lymph ; which, about the tenth or eleventh, is convert- 
ed into a dark coloured scab, and falls off, leaving a 
permanent mark on the part. Although the constitu- 
tion receives so important a change by the disease, yet 
the general febrile affection is almost too slight to be 
ob^ervilble; and, except in some extraordinary cases, 
the only medical treatment which it requires is the ex- 
hibition of a purgative at its termination. It was not 
to be expected, that so great an innovation in practice 
should be generally received without opposition ; but, 
whatever may have been the motives of the parties 
concerned, the results of all the tonti'oversies that have 
been carried on have been very fortunate ; for we have, 
by their means, had an opportunity of viewing the sub- 
ject y.der every possible form, so as to arrive at a de- 
gree of well-grounded confidence, which could not 
otherwise have been obtained It is admitted, that 
there are cases where Small-pox has succeeded to Cow- 
pox ; but they are of very rare occurrence ; perhaps 
not more so than a second attack of Small-pox, of which 
a few unequivocal cases are upon record : and it has, 
moreover, appeared, that the Small-pox which follows 
Cow-pox, has had its virulence so mitigated, as to be 
nearly witliout danger. VVc may titrtlier add, that the 
accounts which were, at one period, so industriously 
propagated, of loathsome eruptions succeeding to Cow- 
pox, are now considered to be altogether without foun- 
dation. 

Varicella, or Chicken pox, is a complaint which ex- Varicella, 
hibits the characters of a true Exanthema, but is so mild 



»r«»k* in its «■■<■«■ M ■CMcely erer to become the »ubject 
>•»-<-■*• of mameH tKCtmeiit ; and is only worthy of our notice, 
m being MMMtinie* confounded with slight caaea ol 
8taall-pox. and thus given riae to the idea of a second 
attadi of VarioU, ur of ita occurrence after Vaccinia. 
Varicdia may, however, be distinguished from Small- 
poKby theperiodof ita aucceaaiwatagea, which arcal- 
tagecfacr much •horter, not escMding, in the whole, 
five or six days, and in the nature of the fluid contain- 
ed in the vesdM, which i» watery and nearly tranapa< 
rent, nerer Manming the purulent 



•caiWtaa. 



S«CT. XXI. Scttrlatima. SearlH Fever. 



VatisiiM. 



TrsatSMal. 



Conaderable difarenca of opinion haa ariaen on the 
wtHjttt. ot tbia diaaaia, whether all tha tamu of it be> 
long to one l iKtitkm, at which they are merely varie- 
tica ; whether dw ftrer be aym|» o witir of the inflaro- 
mation of the throat ; or whether it more properly be- 
looga to the Exanthemata, where the frvcr and the erap> 
tion am both eaaential paita at the d iwai e Thia latter 
w« bdicve to b* the oorrect view at the avbjact ; fod 
,M fathv coMciTC the* all the wioM Cgma which 
Sosbt <br«r aanoBaa are simply vatietiaa, lilw thoae 
which we noticed in ftnJl pur, principally depending 
upon itt degree at \ irulaiei 

The liis—e iwnbti uf a lever, which usually incline* 
to tiM inflaanaalorT type. About the fourth day the 
ftc* btwmw awelfed. and large patchaa of a red eflb* 
leatanie appear, which gradoallyMnd vnr a cwi ri 
dmbia poitiea of tha ■■*•■). TImh, intwo or three 
dm, tenniaateinaiaBMiMiaaaf mmU brvmy acaka; 

dine of the other ay wpt cMe. Thia may be eomidcrcd 
m tha aapio Ibnn of the cowplaiwt, when it exisu in 
• ■hM dagrae; bvt, in ita Bora violent tUtc, all the 
■ra aygtavated. Tha Aver, from the oom- 
I, haa mtan at the typhoid type ; the rcdneas 
MiillialiW. atd, at the same time, the de- 
gfaititian and the la apiiati on are aflactad, and an inAam* 
mation is «h ee i »a d m tha mteraal baoea. Theaa frntt, 
when fixat aSKlad. cshibit a dean rad colaav ; they 
— ^wickly aove w d with a Uu w Mi far ; and vcaides 
purulent aapaet, and finallv da- 
la ateaghe, Oraat ganaral de> 
on; mti the patient iaoarriad of in 
a few dmra, with ah the a yp fc — » af canplctc exhaus- 
tion, and an a p n awn t fwiw in ikm eonatitucnu of 
the body to Ml into a stale ar daaoapaakian. 

The disease, whan moat aenta. aoBaa to ita aoa* in 
five or six dsy*. and re<)uirra an equal pviod la pam 
through the remaining stagee. When it laimiiialia ISa> 
tally, the event usually eatan from the sixth to the 
tenth day ; but it not u a ft a ^ aea t ly hapnrn* that the 
patient survivea laog after thia period, ana ia finally d^ 
atroyed. as it appear*. (Vom the i fce ta of mere weali* 
neaa. It miftht appear hif{hly improbable, that so se- 
vere an affection as that of the throat should be only, 
aa it wera, an inddental part of the diaaaaa ; yet thie 
to be the caac : (or, in the aanM e p J iWam , we 
peraon* in wboai tha throat ia ae va ialy a£- 
and other* where it i* not ao, ahhaojeh, aa waa 
ith fi apart to the two varictia* of Saiall pox, 
•vary epidemic hea its characteristic form, or prevailing 
tendency, in whirti one variety ia met with BMre fr»> 
qoently than the other. 

We are quite unacquainted with tha natara of the 
coaaexian which the different parts of tha cam pla i nt 
bear to eadi other, but we have learned the iwajrtant 



MEDICINE. 3 

fact, that they all have an exact relation to the nature Prscti(«. 
or d^ree of the fever ; anil hence we deduce the prac- '"nr""*' 
tical ooosequence, that whatever means tend to subdue 
the fever, will mitigate all the nubsj-qiirnt symptoms. 
There is no complaint in which the cold aff^isio.i provea 
ao valuable a remedy as in Scarlatina. I'he tempera* 
ture of the body seems to be more increased in ihia 
complaint than in any other febrile affection ; anil we 
find, that this method of applying cold, not only effec- 
tually reduces the hrat, but materially diminishes the 
virulence of the disease, so as, in a gre^t meanure. to 
ward off the danger whidi arisea from its putrid ten- 
dency. If, however, these remedies fail in their de- 
aired effect, or if we have not had an opportunity of 
aeeing the patient in the early period of the diaeasc, we 
have unfortunately to struggle with a succaaiian of 
symptoms, which it is commonly beyond our power to 
remove. Bark and wine were, at one time, regarded 
as eaaential to the cure; but, we apprehend, rather 
from theoretical opinions, than from any experience of 
their good eflecta. Emetics have been strongly recom- 
mended, as well aa adds and acrid stimulants, together 
with topical remedies, tuch as have been supptMed 
were adapted to »ubdue the trndenc)' to putrrtaction, 
or to counteract the effect of the putrid matter that was 
discharged from the ulcer*. Some benefit appears to 
have been gained by the use of stimulating garbles ; 
but, in general, we shall find the irrcre form of the 
aewlatina, when it arrives at its later it^ea, to be one 
of tlM Boat untractsble and formidable of all ooroplainta. 
Stimulants and excitants may be given, as affordmg 
the only proapcct uf relief; and all circumsunces are 
to be carefuuf obviated, that nuy. in any wav, ex- 
haaat the languid p ow c r a of the patient, or produce a 
degna of morbid axdtcment Aa the diaease is ex. 
tha aama nieana of prevention are 





to as we recommended above in other 
and we have reaaon to think, that the 
the aama power of extinguiab> 
tha eontagien of Scarlatina as of 
I difiraaea of opinion has arisen respect- 
whether Scarlatina can occur twice in 
I person f We believe that it cannot do so in 
any considerable degree ; yet it would appear, that the 
aamc individual is subject to repeatetl attacks of a slight 
local affection of the throat, and even to a degree of fe- 
ver, provided he i* much about the person or the aick, 
or lumedutdy cxpoaed to the aooroea of iafiKtian. 

Sect. XXII. Rubeola. MeadeM. 

The only remainiM affection of the proper exanthe- Messlsa. 
"i«»tinit kind ia the Kwaiea, a diaaaae which is charao- 
terwad bv a fcver of the ioiammatory type, together 
with all tne aynploaM of a violent catarrh, and {Muti- 
cularly by a i<nwnaa diadunc of watery humo-ir from 
the eyaa and tunc. About Oie fiwrth cuy an eruption 
t£ nnall red points makea it* appearance all over the 
of the body, which, after omtinuing three or 
(kya, diaappaars without priM-redin^ t<> suppu- 
ration, and is aueeceded br the <lc^|uainaiioii of the 
cuticle, in the faraa of small branny scales ; the fever 
and lalaiiiial affection disappear about the same period. 
A very remarkable drcumctance in Uie histury m inedi- 
dne u, that Scarlatina and Rubeola were mit pro|ierly 
iliiiliiigiiidiwl from each other until about Uie coiii- 
menoement of the laat century, a rircunixuiu-e which 
haa led Mtaa writers to aoppoae that ScarlatiiM is en- 
tirely a diaaaae of BMNkm tuaaa* and that it did not ex- 



MEDICINE. 



rraMic*. iirt iintil just previous to that period, in wliich it was 
^-^.'■^" first noticwl a* a distinct affettion from Rubeola ; but, 
U|x>n the whole, we do not see sufficient evidence for 
this opinion. Tlie diagnosis between tlie two com- 
plainUs in mild cases, is perhaps not always very easy, 
nor is it very important ; but whenever they are either 
of them severe, no difficulty occurs in the discrimina- 
tion, and it tlicn becomes a very important practical 
point, as tliey are of an opposite tendency, and re- 
quire very different modes of treatment 
Treatment. The measles, in every part of their course, exhibit 
an inflammatory aspect, and indicate the antiphlogis- 
tic regimen. Unless tlie constitution be predispos- 
ed to pulmonary affections, the disease be unusually 
severe, occur in very early infancy, or under .some pe- 
culiarly disadvantageous circumstances. Rubeola is not 
a very dangerous complaint, but it is one in which it 
is necessary to act in the earlier stages witli prompt- 
ness and vigour, as if this opportunity be suffered to 
pass by, our remedies will be far less efficacious, or 
perhaps altogether inapplicable. The degree to which 
we are to carry the antiphlogistic system must be de- 
termined by the circumstances of the individual case, 
by the character of the prevailing epidemic, the season 
of tlie year, and other collateral circumstances. Bleed- 
ing, either general or local, will be often necessary; 
purgatives are always proper, and we are carefully to 
maintain a regulated temperature, avoiding the extremes 
of heat, but shunning the direct apjilication of cold. 
Any circumstance which may cause the sudden disap- 
pearance of the eruption is always to be guarded 
against, as indicating a dangerous state of inaction in 
the sanguiferous system ; and, should it occur, it must 
be removed by the means that were pointed out with 
respect to Small-pox. The cough is sometimes so 
troublesome a symptom as to require particular atten- 
tion ; but, for the most part, whatever relieves the fe- 
brile state will relieve the affections of the chest. At- 
tempts have been made to produce the disease by ino- 
culation, but it does not appear that any great benefit 
is obtained, or that the disease, when communicated in 
this way, is mitigated in tlie same manner as it is in 
Small-pox. 

Sect. XXIII. Erysipelas. 

Urticaria There are two other diseases, that are usually placed 

Pemphigui.by systematic writers among the exanthemata, al- 
though it would appear without any sufficient claim to 
this situation. Urticaria or Nettle-rash, and Pemphigus. 
They both consist of peculiar eruptions, the former, 
as its name indicates, very much resembling the sting 
of a nettle, the latter consisting of large irregular ve- 
sicles. A degree of fever attends them, but it is uncer- 
tain what relation the topical bears to the general af- 
fection ; and as tliey are diseases not very well charac- 
terized, and often so slight as not to become subject of 
medical treatment, we nave not much accurate infor- 
mation respecting them. Urticaria is generally con- 
ceived to dejiencl upon a peculiar state of the stomach 
and bowels ; and Pemphigus appears to be symptom a^ 
tic of, or conseouent to, a general morbid condition of 
the system. Tncir treatment chiefly consists in remov- 
ing any obvious sources of irritation, and in restoring 
the healthy state of the digestive organs. 
Ei7>ipclif. ^^ have placed Erysipelas as an ajipendage to the 
l^us Exanthema, because although wanting some of 
Its characteristic circumstances, it seems to be more 
allied to it than to anj other cIms of diseases. It con- 



sists of a fever, which is succeeded at a certain pe- Fricticir. 
riod by a cutaneous affection ; the fever is of the in- ^^V"^ 
fljimmatory type, is attended with a degree of drowsi- 
ness, or even sometimes with coma and delirium ; the 
head and face are hot and swelled, and a considerable 
part of the surface is attacked with an inflammation, 
which frequently produces large vesications that be- 
come filled with a serous fluid ; it usually appears on 
the face or on the extremities. This disease differs 
materially from the other Exanthemata, in occurring 
more than once to the same individual ; indeed when 
a person has been affected by it, he is ever afterwards 
peculiarly liable to its attacks. Its exciting cause is 
obscure ; it attaches itself to particular constitutions, 
which however it is not easy to characterize, and seems 
to liave some connexion with peculiar states of the at- 
mosphere, as it is epidemic in ceitain situations, as in 
hospitals or other places where numbers of sick are 
crowded together, and especially patients suffering 
from wounds or surgical operations. It is doubtful 
whether it be ever properly contagious ; but, upon the 
whole, the evidence appears to be in favour of its not 
being so. It has been thought that, when the disease 
prevails epidemically, as in hospitals, its symptoms 
differ from those of the cases that occur sporadically, 
and that in the former instances it assumes altogether 
a different type, possessing more of the malignant or 
typhous character ; we are inclined, however, to doubt 
this conclusion, and are more disposed to attribute it 
to the greater violence of the complaint under these 
circumstances, in consequence of which its primary 
symptoms are more highly inflammatory, and are there- 
fore succeeded by a state of greater exhaustion. 

Considerable difference of opinion has arisen re- Treatment-, 
specting the treatment of Erysipelas, and especially re- 
specting the question, whether the antiphlogistic plan is 
to be employed, and whether external cold is admissible; 
or whether there is the same danger to be apprehend- 
ed from repelling the inflammation as in some of the 
proper Exanthemata ? Perhaps no general answer can 
be given to this question, which will apply to all cases; 
in the first stage of the disease, the antiphlogistic treat- 
ment, both general and local, is the one which usually 
ought to be pursued, but afterwards a medium course 
seems to be the best ; external warmth .iggravates the 
fever, while the feelings of the patient, and the weak, 
ness which supervenes, are adverse to the employment of 
depletion or of any considerable degree of external 
cold. General bleeding is often necessary at the com- 
mencement ; and purgatives, in this, as in all febrile 
affections, form a very valuable remedy. Although it 
may appear to be indicated by the symptoms, yet topi- 
cal bleeding is generally condemned, in consequence of 
the difficulty which sometimes exists in healing the 
wounds made by the leeches or the scarificator. Dia- 
phoretics are commonly prescribed ; but if they aro 
administered so as to become sudorific, they aggravate 
the irritation of the surface. Small doses of opiates are 
often rendered necessary by the restlessness and agita- 
tion which attends the disease ; and it is for the same 
cause peculiarly important to avoid all sources of irri- 
tation, or to remove them whenever they are present. 
When the disease terminates fatally, it appears to be 
from the inflammatory affection being communicated 
or transferred to the membranes of the brain ; it is 
therefore of great consequence to prevent all those cir- 
cumstances which might tend to lay the foundation for 
such a crisis, and to obviate the first appearance of any 
symptoms which indicate the impending danger. 



rnHic«> 



StcT.XXrv. Hi 



MEDICINE. 

Duchargu of Blood. 



Practice. 



Man 



the HKnorrhagie*. Umm cl in t w tlMt are chanctcr. 
izcd by a diacharg* of bkiod, whieh ia not th« conae- 
anwrr of cxteniM riolcnce or an obviotu breach of the 
MHhce. At we hare already remarked, there it con- 
ridarmbi* obacurity respecting the proximate cauae of 
bvoMrrhaKc; bat it najr be rtatca to concirt ea a e o* 
tialljr in an irregiriar distribution of the blood, or a 
diapoaition of it to acciunutate in certain paita of the 
•anfBifcraoa tyalcm. It haa beca aaiial to dtride hr. 
wiailmiii into active and paaMve, aa a upfw ae d to de- 
pend npoo lh« rdativ* d ag r iw of action in the reiaeU ; 
and llMe* aeema to be a real foondation for thi* dia- 
tn-*i— , whalaear wan ba our opiaioa cooceminK the 
{■■•dfafM eaoaa wbmi civea ria* to the two tutea. 
W« da not pwaya to dear np thia diAcnhy, but we 

; tbara ia anfcient graand for the opinion, 
iha AnMT origiaaAaa BMra particularly in soote 

i«f Ihaartarial, and the latter m the ve> 

ipattaflkedradafliaB. Upon ikia principle we have 

iihi^iaa nndar iha twn ganara nf artarin 

iB amagMfMnt wbidi we think moj be 

wafolly adharad to. bothibv tiM pntpoaa of etacidMing 

«ar thaarjr and ilirrrtinK oar pmetian; aillwfh at Iha 

CliDM it ia admitted, IMt than ■• cnmn db» 
which it aaaj be dilknk l» nAr to Ihair pnpar 



I of Mood aajr ocoir ttom the aaaa pa^ which 
b aT OM tima arterial, and at another vaa«n. To 
the irat ganna wa nan rtCv Epiatwri^, HaaMptjraia^ 
■Bfl ManofnM^giaif or the diachnigaa oa b tood ftvni the 
aaaa^ the Inaga, and tha aCaraa ; to Ihn klUr genna, 
the diadiargaa of Mood ft«n the aMaaah. the tntaa- 
1km, tha hniMitiuidal vwaala. and tha bhddar. and 
tfMt pacnfiar aftition af the aUn lanaod PHachi*. 
Wa ha«« added, aa atumwlagaa to Ihn vaaoaa haaaoiw 
, tha diadhMoa af Mood Ana tha Kw mi tha 
b. ahhaagh il la prababia that thejr arr, in 
aO -. - -. 



Arltrial Ht 



Xr-tuw. Fjnataria, 



M 



to be alwayi an 
Md ahhoifh hi oooMqaaBca of 
f, and the aaall aiaa of the eaaala cob- 
, red to tha whole extant of tha ignifc 
(jralrai,' it ia aaidoai attaadait with fever, jret h 
aaann* alway* to ba caaaaMad with an influnmatory 
toa d a ncy in tha itiatilaliuii, aad ia oAaa loUowed \n 
Mrikaftetiona. Ihai ahhnrtili pwteo of aarieaa ca». 
•aqaaaee. We oraat. howOTor, abaarva, thM Mood ia 
aaawlhaaa di a chai^ ad ftoaa tha noaa^ which aapaart to 
ba af iW HM ongn, bat in thia eaaa it tt alwavi 
ajaiplaBHlic^ ad oaoacquent cither npaa great debiii- 
tf, m apoa • l aa dmc T to ilauanpuahTua «if tha leiiik, 
whi*, aa wa haw* had occarioB toaade^ oiala towanb 




af varioua naliiTMnt f« 
aftction u to 
it ia 



to 



Iha 

ia 

iMtof 

Itha 

an und'oa loro* or vriodty in the 
•1 heat, ri oia a t amdae, or intern- 
ptrance in diet Tha diachargi mj gcacnUy be re- 



atrained without difficulty by the application of extertial 
cold to the part, but if it recur frequently, and the state 
of the body appears to require it, we must have recourae 
to bleeding, and the other parts of the antiphlofpstic re- 
gimen. It ha* been stiled that Epistaxis is what has 
been latmad vicarious, thA is, the consequence of the 
oeaaing of aome other habitual discharge ; perhaps this 
idea is not altogether without foundation, although we 
apprehend that it has been carried to a very extrava« 
^nt length, in consequence of a false theorx.which pre- 
vailed on tlie subject ; it may, however, be necessary 
to bear in mind tna poaaibility uf this occurrence, and 
to regulate our trantnaat accordingly. 

Sect. XXV. Ho*moply$i*. SpitlUg of blood. 

■ All the remarks that we have made respecting Epis- Hscmap- 
taxis will apply to Hw m opty a ia, making allowance onlv ijtit. 
for the greater siae of tlia organ, aad the function which 
it exercises giving a much greater degree of importaoca 
to any of its affections, and naoaaaar.ly producing a 
much greater disturbance in the aniaaal aconomy. Th« 
diacharge of blood from the lunga aoldoa ocmra, except 
in persona of tha aanf ina temparamant, and in them 

wliich odlaa Uie part to undue action, and 
■aaaoaoaaal detanainationoTblood to it. Tha 
I doaa not appear toba aaaMliallir eoaaectetl with 
aad it oAea asiata iadapwdantly of the febrile 
batwlMa it ia aaeerc, aad frai|aantly rccnra, tlm 
of fcvar an gaaenJlj axcMod, and tbeaa, ia 
, appear to ^g ginwto tha eaaiplahit. If tha 
ba aal pradiipoaaii to nhthiaa by Itaraditary 
J in the nature of the diaeaaa 
render it of a fatal tendency ; 
bat it io frequeativ luppens that it is connected with a 
phtliissaU dis p oai twn , m always to become the cubjcct 
ofpeatalana. 

Itacara eoaaiala, aariMp^ aMM ia carefully abstain- TrMtmcni. 
iag Ana all tlta caatiag aoaaea than in any very active 
Tha ^aantitj of Mood that is lost by ihedia- 
■anly renders bleeding iiiiiiafaaaaijf, 
iraa, which we have so Mnerally re- 
in other afactiona of a Mwik tendency, 
ila, boeaaaqnenoeofthe 
which ii aacitHi by thair opantian. I>»rftct 
rtat, both of body and mind, alwti n a B C a, and an eqnaMa 
temperature, are perhaps the l>eat raaaadiea for Harmop- 
tyate ; acids, emdally the sulplniric, and variooa mn 
iral sahs, have oecn reoommended, but we apprahead 

thaanr; and wa doobt the aCeaej of tiM practice. In 
cartaoi caMB af H wu o pty aia, where tha ctrcuLaioo is, 
at the aaiM tiaa, weak aad mick, digitalia haa been 
praacribed, and ap p ar ent l y withaaoeaaa: K must, how> 
•ear, be given in small daiiaa, aad ila eCects assiduous- 
ly watched, aa an overdoae woald produce a atato of 
torpor which might prove danganaa, both fhxn ita di« 
rcct and Its indirect effiMta. If tlw diaeaaa be attended 
with cough, we araal employ thoae pelliativaaby which 
tUi ag J Kti o n ia ■anally rcliciWd, and if there be pain in 
tiM dual, bUaMrab or perhaps the topical detraction of 
Idood wiU ba aaeaaaary. In this compliint we are al- 
moat l aiti icta d Anm one of the most powerful means 
of rwtrainiag hamui i hage. the appiicalion of external 
coM, in i:aaaet|uuiLa of the apprehension that such a 
practice might produoe Catarrh, or iadammation of tho 
chest, whidi, under these drcomataneas, moat be i«« 
garded as a very uofavounble drcmnstancc. 




6 



MEDICINE. 



Fraelle*. 



Sect. XXVI. Menorrhagia. 



Menorrba- UTiaterer may be our opinion respectinjj the nature 
8* of the menstrual discharge^ or the use which it serves 

in the animal economy, we can have little doubt, that, 
when it exists in excessive quantity, it is generally of 
that kind which we have termed arterial. It is gene- 
rally attended with pain in the back and loins, and, 
when it has continued for any length of time, produces 
a febrile condition of the system, as matiifcsted by the 
state of the pulse, and the other functions immediately 
connected with the circulation. The principal danger 
of Menorrhagia dependi upon the immediate loss of 
blood, which is often so considerable as to reduce the 
vital actions to a very alarming state of debility ; but 
it may be observed, that unless it arises from some 
structural disease of tlie organ, or is connected with 
pregnancy or parturition, when it becomes a sympto- 
matic affection, it may usually be restrained by the pro- 
per application of remedies. These are both general 
and local ; the latter are employed to remove the ur- 
gent symptoms, and the former to prevent their recur- 
rence. 
Treitmcnt. In stopping hffimorrhage, the immediate object which 
we have in view is, to produce a coagulum at the mouths 
of the bleeding vessels, which, in this case, is princi- 
pally to be accomplished by the topical application of 
coltL This, partly by its mechanical astringent opera- 
tion, and partly by its sedative action on the vital 
powers, seems to diminish the flow of blood along the 
capillary arteries, and thus admits of the coagulation 
of the fluid which lies near their termination. Perfect 
rest, abstinence, and the means which were recom- 
mended in the other external haemorrhages, are to be 
pursued in this complaint ; and, in the same manner, 
we may employ the lancet, or may administer digitalis, 
where they seem to be indicated. There is often a de- 
gree of restlessness in this complaint which renders 
opium necessary. We generally find that acids and 
neutral salts are prescribed, upon the principle of their 
being refrigerant ; but this effect we are disposed to re- 
gard as altogether hypothetical. The former, at least 
the citric acid, may be useful in quenching thirst ; but 
the latter we conceive to be always injurious. Astrin- 
gents and tonics of various kinds have been administer- 
ed in Menorrhagia, with a view of securing the system 
against its recurrence. We are of opinion, that it is 
impossible to produce any astringent effect upon an in- 
dividual organ through the medium of the stomach ; 
and, with respect to tonics, we may observe that their 
operation is of a critical nature. Perhaps, when the 
system has been much exhausted by the violence of the 
complaint, or where copious bleeding has been thought 
necessary to repress it, such remedies may be indicat- 
ed; but we must bear in mind, that their effect is ulti- 
mately to produce that state of the system which will 
tend to lay the foundation for the return of the com- 
pLiint In most cases, a suitable attention to diet, and 
to those circumsUnces which are calculated to establish 
the healthy action of the digestive organs, will be found 
auflBcient to recruit the system, and is the safer plan of 
proceeding. We think it may be questioned how far 
there is ever an idiopathic Menorrhagia, which pro- 
cee<U from absolute weakness of the part, although 
such a stale is generally desi ribed by systematic writ- 
ers ; for it must be observed, that even where there is 
a general langour of the circulation, still a relative state 
of activity may prevail in the uterine system. It; how- 



ever, such a state really exist, the stimulating plan Piaciice. 
would be improper, or, at least, of doubtful effect, not- "^"y^ 
withstanding it might appear to be indicated by the 
state of the constitution. We must abstain from de- 
pletion, or employ it with great caution, and arc to 
trust to topical remedies, with the assiduous employ- 
ment of those me.'ina which may confirm the general 
health without increasing the activity of the circula- 
tion. 



Sect. XXVII. 



Venous htemorrhagies. 
Piles. 



Heevwrrhois, 



Although, considered either in a practical or a theo- Venous 
retical point of view, there seems no reason to doubt of •'f^""'"''*" 
the actual existence of venous, as distinct from that of S'^^* 
arterial hacmorrhagies ; yet they appear, in most cases, 
to be rather symptomatic than idiopathic affections, 
being either consequential upon some other disease, or 
indicating a structural derangement in the organ from 
which they proceed. This remark, will, we apprehend, 
apply to the discharges of blood from the stomach, the 
intestines, the liver, and the bladder, which are, for the 
most part, either the effect of previous inflamniation of 
these parts, or of actual disease in them, by which their 
mechanical texture is obviously deranged. The only 
means of relief, therefore, is to remove the morbid con- 
dition on which the discharge depends, when this can 
be accomplished, an object, however, which it is too 
frequently beyond our power to effect. Various pallia- 
tive remedies have been employed in these cases, but 
we conceive without much prospect of relief; deple- 
tion is not indicated by the state of the system at large, 
nor do we apprehend that any benefit can be expected 
from the usual routine of astringents and tonics. Mild 
purgatives are useful, both from their local and their 
general effect, and opium may be given to allay irrita- 
tion and to ease pain ; but beyond these we have little 
to trust to, except the assiduous application of all those 
means which strengthen the digestive organs, and 
through their means tend to establish the general 
health. 

There is, however, one of the venous hsemorrhagies Haemoir- 
which is to be regarded as an idiopathic disease, and •">'*• 
which admits of a more direct and decisive treatment, 
haemorrhois or piles, consisting of a discharge of blood 
from the hasmorrhoidal veins. This disease has excited 
a considerable share of attention, as appearing to coin- 
cide with the pathological hypothesis of the Stahlians, 
respecting the salutary efforts of the intelligent super- 
intending principle, or anima. It was supposed that 
these veins afforded a kind of outlet for the superfluous 
fluids, when the sanguiferous system was oppressed 
with too large a quantity of blood, being analogous to 
the menstrual evacuation of the female, of which this 
was supposed to be the prime object. We have, how- 
ever, no hesitation in asserting, that the facts upon 
which this hypothesis was built were much exaggerat- 
ed, and that when we view the complaint without pre- 
judice, we shall find it to be, like many others, in a 
certain degree useful in restoring the balance of the 
circulation, when it has been deranged by various cir- 
cumstances, but, like them, always to be regarded as a 
disease which we must attempt to remove, and which, 
if suffered to proceed without restraint, lays the foun- 
dation for much future inconvenience. 

We shall not in this place inquire into the causes Treatment, 
which tend to produce congestion in this particular set 
of vesseb ; it will be sufficient to remark, that in cer- 

1 




MEDICINE. 

|Nriad*ariife, 



it CHMiB Mrtod* or life, the 
I aT tfc* aiMtiMi anal «re 
dkundedvith Mnd, tte dMy an 
, ail riiirhTgn 
and evaa dangaw 
celldbr 
( tmwid, it M uieaiaary that ihajr thamid ba •?»• 
; ml k k MiU aan dcairabia dM tlw tHgaa. 
•hould. if iiiiiiitilB, be m iim h J ftvn taking 
place. A«tha4iaaa«,ailfaaagb aTa localnabva, ge. 
neraliy depcMli ■pan a i m lilii lif i l cwae, wa are to 

> af the I iiigaifti i ii aymm ; Ar th« pvpew the 

tba M|J a / ai , bat nthar hi it* 

akhaogh bk«iinfr 

are ta aspect Maaa pai . 

ai csarcHet and enly a node- 
k Whan that* m 




fore whatever rejftrd* either it« caute or ha cure, may Pmctic*. 
be coiuidered more in the light of« queation ofcurioua """"V"^ 
•peculation, thin of any great practical utility. 

CHAP. II. 

NemroMt. P r imm ry Dutatri of iKe Nervem* System. 

We now come to the N'earo«e«. the (econd (ipvat class NcuroM* 
of diseaae*— those drpendini; upon a primary affection 
of the nerrout «> ttrm. At the phenomena of tenoibili. 
ty are more peculiar, and more unlike the other fuiic- 
tiona of matter, than even those of the mu»ctilar fil<re, 
io iu morbid affectiona are proportionally ainifular and 
difficult both to comprehetMi and to detcribe. The 
connexion which the different partu of the nrrvoo* «t»» 
tan bear to each other, is one of it* mo*t remarktble 
prapertica, and it i* exhibited in a variety of ttnkin^ 
csaniplaa in it* morbid itatca. We can generally xMign 
la aadi af the VuAmmmiat '*» primary aeat, etiher bjr 
■Nana of oar aenia ti e n a, or of tome vi»ible change 
which the part eaperiencea, but in the N'euroaca, we 
have neither of thr«e circunHtanoaa Io direct nt ; there 
ia ftnqnctttly no *itible alteratiaa hi the alrwtnre of the 
part aflaciad, while our feeliags alTord bat little aatict- 
ance in inMHraiag u« of the original Mtnation of th» 
dMnu« iWatcMtaUBea whKhmvat chiefly difwt 
■a in ear anaiigNMM af ihia ahaaw ia the dwrae n 
which the paver aifafli^ whether it be morbidly in< 
rrraacd. er laihiilly diainiahed. with relation to the 
Haadacd af haaMb ; ta ihia we have added another di- 
viriaa ti aedana, which are ainiply irrrsuiar, without 

vt elect produced* 
faapcdiealyf 



ifaaaniMlthe 
teMMdipa 



g,^ ^|» 10 S«CT. I. Hypmflh«§im. 



hal«*«atardjri 

•aaaaa^ which we have placed 
aad Pmrfmn, the im aajr 



laaai 



Poryw^ 



Of the two 

in thii ga 

be alwaja 

aaiatinK in the acta fiania. aa we ebaerve it in infimts, 

ceonectcd with the diMnie which u popularly oalied 

Thi urf i.arinthafarechwnic»uu. apfiaarinshi 

neaien with Scarry, ar attacking indit 

anihiiiJ from a \anf( laaidaaea in hat diaaiaa. !■ 

•Maetbe cure 

tiaaaftha 

Igr MMBfMd hi the 

b Khcwier, at laaat fcr'the aiMt part. 




pmcipai a^|acl oc onr atlnM 
dar ihaK chcMMtaaaaa, the 



, ap p a w i na in the leicr rtagca • 
r eaparialTy in thaae where the 
■ant pwti of the bady aaaaa IO have a tendency to 'A^ 
•e, however, hare uccuiied, 
•ad wiihenl a prapartianabla 
the fcbrile Male, ar faidaed where thiahM 
abaent. but they are inroired in eon> 
irity ; ami we have little certain inlbr- 
either titeir na la r a , ar their iama- 

ef the Uiapathic Parpara ; for while we 

high a lh cri l y, that it it reHeveil by «». 

aapecnally by the mineral acida, we bare 

evidence in &venr af Uood-lcttin«. 

iaafir • • 




Jjfirlicm* dtpendiiig mpam m 
fr Mr nc^mv ntttwu 

We ha** dteidHl the «rd» EMhimna into the two Hrprm*. 
fiencraof ffypei«a|haii»afidA«talgi»;the<lrsloanaiat- thMiOb 
mg in liutf laaid narvoita aiiMitiititj , aa waniftatrd by the 
■M w d i n a te action of the a Aia i n al •enaea, or of the urfpi- 
nie flmctieaa, the httm namprrfwntltng thoae dittwea 
^ In any organ, which, » far aa we 
jodge, dapcada aacialy npan a nervoua afllKticNi of 
part. The diMaaaa which laaa to beloM to the 
i to the gnwa HypawwthiNia, hi 
of them evidntly ayawHi a n a lic, 
with aome other d i a r aa r , whidi is the 
yet oocaaionally, un> 
of the narvoua aya* 

Xihe mam paint toward* 
fta. ThM,aneof the 
ia ftvcr ia wantof alcap, and 
we haverawrved the praskaato cmmc af tnedia. 
aanwtimc* atill condHMB, and bv ica haiaaa 
irrvcMa the cotopbto ra aalablidwnem of 
The aanm rtourfca apply to all thaae a4ao> 
tiona which emairtfai h iewacr d acmihiliqr af theor. 
gan* «i aenae, anch mt a marbidly aorta aiato tt the 
aghl, the hamhif, Ac. ar iaoaaaad aanaibility in parts 
that MTva ior the aserdia af the organic functiena, aa 
the ttoOMidl and the kidney. For the moat part we 
ind them Ba» »nt e<l with agme rooregaaaral aflbction, 
which duafly eUimi our notice, ahhengh, aa we ra> 
marked above, they aamatimaa beeaaw the immediate 




8 



Trjcllce. 



TreMoient. 



EihlliUion 
•r Mda- 



must also bear in mind, that tliere are cases in •» hich 
they indicate some local affection of the part or or- 
gan in which, although symptomatic, they are import- 
ant, aa indicating the existence of the primary affection, 
or assisting us in ascertaining its nature. Thus, a mor- 
bid increase of appetite, which is denominated Bulimia, 
is sometimes merely a symptom of Diabetes, and can in 
no degree be relieved by any palliative remedy ; while 
at other times it originates from a disease of the stomach 
iUelf, which may be either structural or functional, and 
will of course acquire its appropriate mode of treatment. 
In the rapid sketch of the practice of medicine which 
wc propose to offer to our readers, it will not be in our 
power, nor would it accord with our plan, to examme 
eacli of these affections in detail. _ 

With respect to the method of proceeding in their 
management, the first point is to ascertain how far the 
disease is primary or symptomatic ; if primary, whether 
it depends upon a local cause of a mechanical nature, 
upon a visible alteration of structure, or upon an ef- 
fect which operates through the medium of the system 
at large. If they are symptomatic, we inquire whether 
we are able to remove them by removing the primary 
disease, or by remedies appropriated to the removal of 
the nervous affection itself. It is not easy to lay down 
any general principles of treatment in a class of affec- 
tions, which are so various in their origin, and depend 
upon such a diversity of causes. There is scarcely any 
condition of the system by which they may not be ex- 
cited ; and with respect to individual symptoms, they 
bear so little relation to their cause, that our judgment 
must be formed more from the general history of the 
case, and from a number of circumstances connected 
with it, than from any train of morbid actions which 
can be detailed, as constituting the essential character 
of the disease. The opposite states of plethora and in- 
anition, of excitement and of quiescence, sometimes pro- 
duce what appears to be the same complaint, and must 
of course be combated in the individual cases, atone 
time by depletion and by sedatives, and at another 
by nutrients and stimulants. Generally speaking, how- 
ever, we think tl.at the modern practitioners have lean- 
ed too much to the latter class of remedies, biassed by 
their hyiiothesis of debility, which they have applied 
with so little discrimination to such a variety of dis- 
eases, and anxious to avoid the errors of the older wri- 
ters, wlio ascribed nervous complaints to the affections 
of a subtile fluid, the existence of which they unfortu- 
nately neglected to ascertain before they assumed it as 
the basis of their pathology. We shall farther remark, 
that what are styled nervous diseases, are much more 
frequently than is commonly supposed, symptomatic of 
derangements of the digestive organs. Some remark- 
able examples of the effect which peculiar states of the 
alimentary canal produce upon the brain and nerves, 
are generally known ; of which one of the most import- 
ant is Hydrocephalus, and we are daily accumulating ex- 
perience of the same kind, with respect to Epilepsy and 
various kinds of convulsions, when not proceeding from 
local or structural causes. Purgatives will therefore be 
always indicated in the Hyperaesthesia-, if not by the 
iinmediate symptoms, at least as a means which is to 
be always tried, even although we proceed entirely 
upon empirical grounds. 

After we have duly considered how far depletion 
may be indicated, and removed all local sources of irri- 
tation, we then proceed to the exhibition of sedatives, 
of which opium may be regarded as the prototype, and 
that whiqhi, for the most part, supersedes all the rest. 



MEDICINE. 

The method in which this medicine operates, and the Practice, 
immediate effect which it produces, have been the sub- '*'"^/~~' 
ject of many volumes, and have formed the ground- 
work of some of the most violent and angry controver- 
sies of modem times. We have no space, nor indeed 
have we any inclination, for entering into these dis- 
cussions ; we shall merely state our opinion, that the 
operation of opium is primarily upon the nervous sys- 
tem, and that it acts upon it as a sedative. Its agency 
is equally extensive with the nervous system itself, and 
it is consequently experienced through the medium of 
so many organs and functions, that we have seldom an 
opportunity of witnessing its unmixed sedative powers, 
without, at the same time, observing some secondary 
effect, which may diminish, or even entirely counteract 
the primary operation. Thus, by lessening the sensi- 
bility of the intestines, opium tends to produce costive- 
ness, and this retention of the fajcal evacuations may 
prove a greater source of irritation in certain cases, than 
the symptom for which the opium was administered. 
It is principally, perhaps, from this circumstance, that 
there is no remedy which is more uncertain in its effects 
than opium ; and besides this, different individuals have 
remarkable idiosyncracies with respect to it, which of- 
ten interfere with the best regulated plans of the prac- 
titioner, and which cannot possibly be learned, except 
by a previous knowledge of the individual constitution 
of the patient. 

Opium, when given in too large a dose, in an impro- 
per state of the stomach, or indeed to certain indivi- 
duals under all circumstances, produces effects which 
are very similar to those of the vegetable poisons ; and 
on this account, it has always been a favourite subject 
of inquiry to discover a medicine which might possess 
the mere sedative effect of opium, without its delete- 
rious properties. Hyosciamus, hop, the extract of let- 
tuce, and other substances, have been pioposed ; but it 
may' be doubted, whether every benefit may not be 
gained by a sufficient reduction of the dose of the opi- 
um. Various preparations of opium have also been 
tried with the same intention ; and upon one of these, 
called the black drop, in which the medicine is com- 
bined with a strong vegetable acid, great commenda- 
tions have been bestowed from sources of very high 
respectability. 



Sect. II. Hydrophobia. Canine Madness. 

Notwithstanding the acknowledged obscurity which Hydropli*- 
exists respecting the nature of this disease, we do not bia- 
hesitate to place it in the genus Hyperaesthesia, as we 
think that the only consistent and probable hypothesis 
of its pathology proceeds upon the supposition of its 
originating in an increased sensibility of the nervous 
system. The exciting cause is well known to be a 
specific contagion, communicated by the bite of a rabid 
animal, and it appears to be always produced by means 
of the saliva being conveyed tlirough the absorbents 
into the circulation. We conceive tliat the disease 
never originates in the human species from any other 
cause, although certain symptoms, in some measure re- 
sembling it, may have proceede<l from other circum- 
stances, but these we shall be disposed to refer to Hys- 
teria. The question is not so easy to answer, whether 
Rabies be capable of being produced in other animals 
besides those of the dog and cat genus, although these, 
when affected, may communicate it to others, as \a the 
human species, to horses, and to oxen. The disease 



MEDICINE. 



rnciie*. commencm bj a paealiar feeling of anxiety, cmuunt 
"— I — a/putdim, and unaccmmtable Umiditx ; to thaw aucceccl 
dilBcaltjr of braathing, pain a^d oonrtr>cti«n in the re. 
giun of the ftmnach. and all over the alMkanen, tOKCtber 
with the charactcriAic ^pBftaa ot an inability to 
•wallow fluid*, which wn w lei i da to d«|glutitian i^ene. 
rally, aul beconie* la J J ati M w n g aa to iaanraaa the 
mind with rsuaatdiamy tanor at tha vary idea of re- 
Dewing the attamiic A* the dii e a a a advanea* the pnlae 
bacomaa weak and quick, and a dcfraa of in«K«laJr Cr. 
v^ ntpcrranaa ; all die fttnctiona which depnid npon 
tbr oanrcwa power are rendered morhidly ac«t« ; then 
ia mtttmwnn at light and tound, the aarfaoB ba fomea 
cs(f»;<:t«:v ^i..:>4e to the iropeaaun of ceid air, whik 
to u$km there m a eoiwma diadaargr of 

«i*«.» ^...> ;.„.a the Cmicc«, the mantal bcuhia* aie 
darai^ad, and gcoanl ooavulMoa. with a total da- 
ftnictioa of aU the actkw^ both aniaoal and ofganic, 
are the iwmadkta fowninnari of dMaetiitina. The die- 
npid in iu conne, and iMHt draadAtl in iu 
veal horrata have been 

aceMMta which tn aaat 
with in the oUer writan, of the vialaat liiiy af the pa- 
tients and of their attewyt* to wia* the byalaadera. 
ar« prwbahhr alliylhw t tt iti—a; and the draad of 
walar, whidt haa mmi vi«w«l ia ao aayatanoM* a iigfal. 
ia Cwnd to trim timfAj hmm tha astnoi 
and dilKnihj which we Nnhappy anflhnr 



ayptama and aipect. yet ita r 
eiaggeraiad by tar larroe and 
whohave witMMed it. The aa 



^n»m^m^. ^'f*^ R«pacl to the event af the dinw. we bcUevv 
il to be alway* iaial ; ns* only haa no cara yet baan 
(Kieaaafeil fw it. bat it ia domfU whether wa aiv in 
p oM i ai i o n of any planoftraal— ait, by which ittijwp 
toaaa, when enee aatabliahed. can even be allevtaled. 
The gancia l mode of twati i iai i t haa baan the "adwinia- 
tration of lame niiantllTii of ophm, npon the obvioua 
principW of the aarvana eyalaai bauia la a Mate of prcw 
tmatnral aadta aieat ; BMrcary haa oeoa cxraa andar 
vari a a a fbeaM^ bat we know of no ralienJ iadiration, 
either (rnm theory or expericure, which can U-«,f ua to 
expect any beacat Aam it, while Ui^ I -fme 

blwiiiiig haa beaw en«pl«»yed. but wr fr ■ i-dla* 

doaa pr u apart of mocaaa. Br*idM th ai , wladt aM|r 
ba o un a id ge d aa the mMt powerful fCT n adioi that ha«« 
itttn had reaeano to^ a araai vwiatv of naOiativai^ and 
a «(iU graalar aanbar of aottraaai (ave bam aakk om 
of i lor in prnmtkn to the violoaca and aatnMahlr 
natare af the Aaaaae, an haa the eieddU^ af — — Sirtd 
lad them to piara c a a i dnw a in iho nom araaa and 
afandaloaa iaa p oait iun c But ahhough we imvo had 
each little aocceaa in the curt of llydnithabia, we luve 
happily in oar hniMia a prwmtaiive. which ia oioet 
caaea m ti caiw appUcatioa, and of tolerably certain eC 
fcct; thia iataaasoaion of the wounded part, aadtha 
aanplete removal of every portion tt the latataina, 
which can be a i p | >e M i J to have been in caniact with 
the aaiiva of the rabid aninBL \S'hm, however, thi« 
haa been ncKlected. when, from the aituatian of the 
woond. it coald na« he aocanmliahad, or when, from 
any other caaae, the diic a aa Baakaa ila a|niaaiawa. we 

CIIBROC VBRftlO IABCtlV9 MMCSBbOVB 4V 

andnatanOy inquire what plan of 
the laaat praapact aa aacerva, or nay aaan in any d^ 
eakalaied to ralia** the aiicrii^ of the neiiem, 
•tioa wa era not able to Maara a aaaMhetk 
ryanarrar; wodaaol r* — •* **■ T -r^irana apon 

nordoweiiri aaadi taawhaylhM ihaMctTdal 
vou XIV. patT L 



pletKMi, from opium, or fra«n meroity. Gaided, hov< Praciier. 
ever, by the Uiiit analofcy whii-h present* itaelf, we """V*^ 
know of no treatment which ii more pmmising, and 
therefore feel ^uatified in bcsinimu| with a ver>, copious 
bleedinfc. which i* to be fi^Iowea by a powerful mer< 
curial puixative, and when this haa operated, by Urfe 
doaaa of opium, combined with an equal of 

calonel. We think it extremely important i ct 

quiet (hould bo anjotned, that all motioit UmmiIJ, aa 
much aa poarihle, be avoided ; and aapecially all unar- 
oaaaary touchii^ or handliqv of the patient. On thta 
aoeount we conoeiva that mctiona may be icgurioua; 
md indeed we think that any raawdy which ia taerdy 
iialilfcram, and i« not given ta proaiata aonia definite 
purpwe, ought to be alXained ftoat. at likely to do 
miachief, from the carcuiMtance of ita exciuiig the 
patient, or giving him any unnooaaavy cause fur the 
exertMm either othU mental or hia ourporaal power*. 

SscT. III. Amialgia. Paimful mervtuu Afftclioiu. 

We have Aeaiad oar aeoond gonaa of the order Era* Auulg'M 
dun«M of the AalaUae, tlwae diinaai which depaod 
apon a araaary aMcUaa af the aarvaaa ayalem, 
and whica an caanelaeiaod by aevare pain and an- 
'm part aOttaJ. TImm an flfa^nanl^ 
•jiainuaMtH. bat we an often nnable to peneiva an 

anaphdai to which they manr be r efte i ad; 

■• mm ia the aan. the violence of their 
ay a nKia aa laqain oar attention le be immediatelv di- 
WMd la iha kieal aft cu' a n . The dianaa* which we 



gmcah 
btbiai 





ianireanlgia,C«phai. 
ajgi% IViwiphilftia, Olalgk Odwilalgia. HaHed^aia. 
Pla u n dy aa^ GMtradyaia. Arthopuoaia, Sdaika, and 
Praritaa, to which wa ouht petwip* to add LunhMo. 
Tram a view af thie Kn tt wiD «poar that than afln- 

of in- 
•bnetanl de* 
the moat ai|m« 
of reraodiea, that the 
in the awea of the part. We parti- 
calariy aaAv to that aioat painihl aflbction I'riMi>|>haU 
gia, or M ic ia popularly termed. Tic iloionMix. where 
Ma disaaBt aMy be cUariy lr:.crd aloi .raaoTa 

laatfadw nerve, anit I. ut U^m far a i. . : ,-Lriod en« 

tMytaawmlliy tlir trunk of the nerve. In 

^•dar to Arai « i-., — : ^..i^ncnt of t hen complaint*, 
it ia partiealarly n<>cr<rtafy to attke uara alv n acquaint- 
ed with their Juatory and »j ii Hptwi ta tVam the ooni. 
riie there will be dat^ar of our coo- 
rith the el tit . In aome of tlieo, 
prinary derangaaeitt i* moat evidmily in 
the norvoua ayatem, we bid obvioua ■ymptoina of in- 
fnanJ action in the bluod-vnari* to aupervene ; and 
it even appear* that a more pormannit alteration in the 
Mnietim of an organ may mr produced by an «(rittion, 
which, in the ffr«t in«tanoe, wn amply attached to the 
ncrveaof the pnrt. It ta diScolt to expluB the nature 
of the oyeratMHi by which a diaean of the nerm ia 
oonvaNad into nir of the aanguiAroua or nmiimji 
veiMla; but wei|iprehcndihanGanbeaodoubtorthe 
fcct, and we behave that it may be even affected by the 
mtn mfluence of awntai nnnreaaiaM, if they be auO. 
cieatly powarlU and aleadily dfavrted to the same 

The cure of the Aatalipa! ncceaMrily depend* npon Trtaunent. 
a number of minute circunutanoM whi ■ I 

with the local ahuatien and function* 
fected ; and in agme of them there are certain rti.ii<i 

> 




10 



MEDICINE. 



r»c(le«. of a tpecific nature, which it is not easy to account for 
'^'■"■V^^ uiMMi general principles, of which the use of the oxide 
of bifflinith in simple pain of the gtomncli may be ad- 
duced as an example. In deciding that the disease is 
either idiopathic, or tliat it must be made the object of 
direct medical treatment, we first inquire whether there 
are any symptoms of inflammation which may render 
depletion nei-essary, or the other means by which we 
subdue the inflammatory action ; we then apply blis- 
ters, issues, or other stunulatinc remedies, upon the 
principle of exciting what is called counter-irritation, 
proceeding upon a general law of the animal economy, 
according to which we remove a morbid action, by sub- 
stituting for it a new, and probably a more consider- 
able one, in some contiguous part, which latter is at- 
tended with no dangerous consequence, and which we 
have it in our power to remove at pleasure. In the 
Autalgite, as well as in the Hypera?sthesia", purgatives 
•re generally useful, although perhaps not so universal- 
ly ; and opium, if it does not accomplish a radical cure, 
is at least one most effectual means for affording tem- 
porary relief. It has been observed, that some of the 
most severe pains to which the human frame is liable, 
recur at periodical intervals ; and it has been found that 
in these, as in all other periodical diseases, bark, and 
even arsenic, may be employed with success; this lat- 
ter remedy, however, we should not be disposed to 
try, until all other methods had failed ; and it should 
likewise be accompanied by proper evacuations. Of 
their mode of operation, as well as of the circumstan- 
ces which tend to give the diseases in question their pe- 
riodical character, we are totally ignorant, and our 
practice, in tliese instances, is entirely empirical. 



Section IV. Nervous Fever. 

Vervou* The second order of the Neuroses is Asthenia, includ- 

^▼•r. ing those diseases which consist in a diminution of the 

nervous energy ; and under this we include three gene- 
ra, the first of which is simple Nervous fever. W e are 
aware of the apparent incongruity in placing the dif- 
ferent kinds of fevers in different classes, and in sup- 
posing them to proceed from totally different causes, 
connected with a different set of functions, more par- 
ticularly as it must, at the same time, be admited, that 
the two diseases slide into each other by almost imper- 
ceptible degrees, so that it is often extremely difficult 
to know into what class any particular case ought to 
be referred. But, notwithstanding these objections, 
we are clearly of opinion that certam sporadic caiies of 
fever, as well as certain general epidemics, exhibit 
symptoms which may be supix>st'd to arise from a 
primary affection of the nervouN system, while the 
sanguiferous system is but little affected, and that the 
two fevers are not merely different gradations of the 
same species of disease, in which the proportion be- 
tween the symptoms remains the same, uliile the de- 
gree of both is equally diminished. We think it is not 
difficult to perceive a difference in the exciting cau.se, 
as well as in the effect produced ; for while contagion 
is pmbably the sole cause of the proper Typlius, or 
putrid fever, the nervou>- fever never arises from this 
■ou'Ce, but from mentd agitation, from over-fatigue, 
from complete exhaustiini, or from other circumstances 
which might be expected to act upon tlie brain and 
nerves, more than upon the heart and arteries. The 
symptoms, and general character of the two diseases, 
mhea we take the most stiongly marked cases, are no 



less easy to discriminate from each other. In the Nerv- Fractice. 
ous fever we do not observe the successive stages """'Y'™" 
which we have in Typhus ; there are no marks of op- 
pression or congestion, nor of the subsequent attempt 
at re-action ; but, from the very commencement, there 
are indications of weakness and irritability, the pulse 
quick and feeble, the heart little affected, not much 
thirst or disorder of the alimentary canal, except a less 
relish for food than ordinary ; while, on the contrary, 
we have delirium, and all that derangement of the 
sensations, which indicates an irregular action of the 
brain and nerves, but, at the same time, without any 
appearance of turgescence in their vessels, or of that 
oppression which arises from a congestion of the fluids. 

In the cure of Nervous fever, we must refer to the Treatment 
same principles which we have laid down with respect 
to its pathology ; we require no general depletion, but 
we begin from the first with stimulants and excitants, 
exhibited in moderate doses, and proportioned to the 
effiect which they have in rousing the dormant powers 
of the system. It is obviously of great importance to 
remove, if possible, the exciting cause, when it still 
remains applied, and in the later stages of the disease 
we most have recourse to stimulants and tonics, and 
shall find the proper management of the diet a most ef- 
fectual part of the medical treatment. It is in fevers 
of this description that wine becomes a valuable reme- 
dy, and it is often found more grateful to the stomach 
than any stimulating compound which we can procure 
from the apothecary. It would have been fortunate 
for mankind if its use had been restricted to this dis- 
ease, and had not been extended, by a false or imper- 
fect analogy, to other affections which it resembles 
scarcely in any thing but in name. 

Section V. Anmsthes'ue. 

Tub second genus of the Asthenias, Anaesthesia, is Anxsthe. 
divided into complaints which consist in general debi- si:^ 
lity of the nervous system ; defects of the external 
senses, not depending upon a change in the structure 
of the iirgans; and in debility of the organic functions. 
The two first of these subdivisions may, almost all of 
them, be considered as symptomatic of some more ge- 
neral affection ; the latter, under which we include 
Aphonia, Dy.«^phagia, Anorexia, Dysuria, and Anaphro- 
disia, are not unfrequently primary, although at other 
times, like the former, only symptomatic. They de- 
pend occasionally upon an obvious change of mecha- 
nical structure, when they properly belong to a differ- 
ent part of the nosological system, and must be remov- 
ed by mecanical remedies, as is frequently the case with 
dysphagia and Dysuria. When, however, they are 
■menly nervous affections, the cure is to be accomplish, 
ed upon the same general principles which were detail- 
ed above, regard being always had to the local situa« 
tion and specific functions or the part. 

Section VI. ApopUxia. Apoplexy. 

The third genus of Asthenia is formed by tho Dys- 
cincsiae, those diseases which essentially consist in a 
loss or diminution of the power of voluntary motion, 
arising, for the most p.irt, from an organic derange- 
ment of the brain ; we include under it the species 
Apoplexia, Paralysis, Hydrocephalus, and Lethargus. 

Apoplexy is charncterized by a sudden abolition, or Apoplexia. 
considerable diminution of both the external and the 
internal senses, and of the power over the muscles of 



W E D I 

volunttry motion, while the circulation and the orpa- 
nic functions continue to perform their actions. The 
pulte is, however, slow and oppressed, and the inspi- 
ration performed alter long inter\*al», and accompanied 
by stertor, while the countenance is flushed, and the 
sensibility so much impaired, that the patient is uncon- 
scioui of the most lowerful impressions that can be 
made upon him The immediate cause of Apoplexy 
appears to be, almost in evenr instance, the effusion of 
blood or senun on the surface of the brain, or into 
•ante of ita mvitiea, which may be supposed to com- 
presK this orgnn, and thus prevent it frocn performing 
Its due functions Occasionally, however, we obwrve 
persons to he attacked M'ith symptoms, which have 
every claim to be considere<l as apoplectic, where, from 
the complete and very speedy recovery that takes place, 
we are unavoidably le<l to conclude that no consider- 
able injury has occnrre<l to the structure of the brain, 
an opinion which has been confirmed by some caaca of 
disaection, althouf;b it is obvious that such opportuni- 
tie* can only be of accidental occurrence, where the 
patient has died from some other caaae soon aAer his 
recoven' from the Apoplexy. The state of inaensibility 
which IS occasioned by complete intoxication is very 
fimilar to Apoplexy, to much lo, that except from 
the previous history of the case, from the length of 
time « liich it continues, and from the odour exhaled 
by the breath, we have frequently ipvat difficulty 
in discnminatinK between these affections, although 
arising from tuch very different causes, and producing 
•ach different ultimate effects upon the system. I'er- 
aons who have suffered from Apoplexy n* ubwifd la 
be of a peculiar tempcranient or ixKLly coalbnBatMa ; 
they an MwnUy corpulent, with abort necks, and 
large heads, and exhibit various imiications of a torpid 
•Ute of the blood-roaeU, attended, at the same time, 
with conaidnabk force of the circulation, and firmncaa 
in the texture of the components of the body. Ac- 
cording to the nature of the fluid which is effused, whe- 
ther it be entire blood or ool^ serum, the disease has 
beer divided into the two varieties of sanguineous and 
serous, and it seems that this division has an actual ex- 
istenre, but we doubt much whether we have any cer- 
tain means of ascertaining them before death froaa the 
symptom* of the case. 

Tne pruximate cause of the disease is supposed to be 
a congestion of blood in the vcaaeb of the brain, gene- 
rally terminating in effusioo ; it haa been a coatrovcrt- 
etl quettion wlicthjr a proper Apoplexr can be pn>. 
duced by the mere accumulation of blood in the vcMeia, 
without absolute effusion taking place, a question which 
we should be disposed to answer in the affirmative, al- 
though it is difficult to prove the point by a reference 
to dissection, because when there is no actual rupture 
of the vessels, recovery may be suppoMd generally to 
uke place, so as not to adroit of our examination. Th« 
exciting cause* of Apoplexy are various, bat mar, for 
the roost part, be referred to thnae dfcoiBataiices which 
incrcaae the impetus of the blood tlirongh the arteries of 
the bead, or retard iu rgma from them. Violent exer- 
cise, sudden flu of paasion, severe mental exertions of 
all kinds, certain poatnres of the body, the direct ap. 
plication of the sun's rays to the head, blows, or me- 
chanical Ifyuries of the part, and especially intemper- 
ance ID Mmg or drinking, are among the moM frequent 
<inaM Meigned for Apoplexy, and may be obviously ac- 
coonled for upon the above principle. There are, bow- 
ever, other causes, socfa as narcotic poisons, meullic 
Mma of vanotu kinds, some of the unrespirable gates. 



CINE. il 

especially the carbonic acid, and intense cold, which, Prscttes. 
although they induce the symptoms of .Apoplexy, may *"''V"~' 
perhaps be supposetl to act upon the nervous system 
generally, by diminishing the sensibility of all its parts, 
rather than by producing any local affection upon the 
brain in particular. After a severe attack of Apoplexy, 
except it arise from some obvious external cause, the 
functions, both of the bo<ly and the mind, seldom re- 
gain their former vigour, and, for the most part, 
either one side of the body is left without motion, con- 
stituting what has been termed Hemiplegia, or the whole 
of the voluntary motions and mental powers continue 
in a very imperfect and enfeebled state. We have 
sometimes curious instances of the loss of individual 
faculties, as the memory of names, of dates, or of places, 
and occasionally of a particular language : such cases • 

have given rise to many pathologic.il and metaphysical 
speculations, but these do not hitherto appear tu lutve 
bieen sanctioned by the results of our anatomical exa- 
minations. 

The cure of Apoplexy consists first in removing the TreaimeBi. 
exciting cause of the discaae, should thiii still remain 
applied, and afterwards in endeavouring to relieve the 
congestion of the vessels. I'his last ia attempted by 
large bleedings, which are thought to be mure effectual, 
when the vessels near the head are opened, such as the 
iugular vein or the temporal artery ; we may also take 
bkwd from the cutaneous vessels liy the scarificator or 
by leeches, and atV.Tw;irds a|>)>ly large blisters to the 
neck ; along with these drastic purgatives are tu be 
given, so as to procure a free evacuation from the 
bowels. Where the disease -appears to have been im- 
mediately produced by repletion of the stomach, or by 
any noxious substanee reeeiTed into it, an emetic will 
be proper, but in other cases vomiting is thought to be 
rather miurious, or at least does not seem to have any 
claim to oe considered as a remedy of general applica- 
tion. When depletion has been carried as tar »t has 
been thought necessary, or as the state of the p.iiient 
will justify, little efficient treatment remains to be em- 
ployed ; stimulants roust at first be used with great 
caution, as any degree of over-exciteroent might bring 
back the original complaint ; the longer the disease has 
continued the more freely they may be given ; but it 
must, at the same time, be conlessed that we can have 
less expectation of benefit from them. Upon the whole, 
if the complaint be not relieved, either by the efforts of 
nature, or by the operation of our remadiea soon af\er 
its first invaaion, we are not to hope for much advan- 
tage from any thing that can be done in future, but 
mutt confine ourselves to relieving particular symptoms, 
and soothing the helpless condition of the patient, by 
an attention to a variety of minute circumstances, for 
which oo general rules can be prescribed. 

SicT. VII. ParaltftU. Paby^ 

Paralysis may be regarded as a partial Apoplexy, and p»ralrsi*. 
is, in most instances, the sequel oi' that disease, when it 
does not terminate fttally. The two diseases originate 
from the tame causes, and commence nearly with the 
same symptoms in the roost severe kind of I'alsy ; but 
besides these, we have partial Paralysis, sometimes of a 
single limb, or even of a single muscle, which proceeds 
entirely from some local injur\ ut the nerves of the part. 
We have also another variety of Palsy, in which the 
affection i* general, but less violent, where there is no 
sudden seizure, and where the lota of tcnsation and 
motion is not complete in any one part, bat where ibero 



It 



MEDICINE. 



yrtfilc*. ig a tlej»rce of weakness over the whole body, nnd espe- 
'•■' y ~' cially in the voluntary muscles, accorapanieii by tremor, 
partial convulsions, numbness, and frequently by a ge- 
neral wasting of the part. This kind of Paridysis is 
the consequence of the excessive use of opium, or a too 
free indulgence in ardent spirits, and is occasionally 
observed to come on in old age without any assignable 
exciting cause. In the more severe cases of Palsy, and 
in those that are left after an apoplectic attack, ve 
usually find that exactly one half of the body is affected, 
constituting the variety of Hemiplegia ; and upon dis- 
section we find, in most of these cases, that the injury 
to the brain is on the opposite side to that of the paralytic 
limbs, a fact which has been much employed by those 
•who have speculated upon the pathology of the nervous 
system. Another variety of Palsy is Paraplegia, where 
the diseased is separated from the sound part of the body 
by a transverse section ; this proceeds, in almost all 
cases, from an injury to the spine, and of course the 
extent of the tlisease depends upon the part in which 
the spine is aifocted. 
Trettment. Where the Paralysis occurs in its violent form, or is 
the sequfl of Apoplexy, its treatment must, in every re- 
spect, coincide with what was recommended above for 



perceive the ravages which it commits in the structure Practice, 
of Uie hones, we can scarcely imagine how mere rest, "^"Y"^ 
although a powerful afljunct, can alone perform a cure, 
and we are led to conjecture, that in those cases where 
this plan has been successful, the symptoms depended 
simply upon weakness, or a loss of voluntary power, 
arising from a nervous affection, but without any struc- 
tural disease. In Palsy of long continuance, where the 
original cause ol the disease is removed, and where the 
structure of the part is irremediably injured, it has 
been found of great importance for the patient to use 
as much voluntary exertion as possible in the affected 
muscles, and in this way the healthy action has been 
restored in parts which were previously almost quite 
useless. 



Sect. VIII. Hydrocephalus. WateY in the Head. 

We have placed this disease in the genus Dyscinesia, Hydroce- 
although it is in fail a species of dropsy, because both phalus. 
its symptoms and its treatment connect it more with 
the primary diseases of the nervous system, than with 
those of any other part of the animal economy. The 



this complaint: we must begin with copious depletion of origin of this disease, and its predisposing causes, are 

.% -n - * ii _J :_:,.* — __.; -i — . :«. _ir i^ _ i._i.i_ ■_ .. ^o ..i_ ..- .. 



the sanguiferous system, then administer active purga< 
tives, apply blisters, and gradually have recourse to sti- 
mulants. But, in many cases, the accession of Palsy does 
not indicate that state of the blood vessels, which leads 
us to suppose th.1t bleeding is necessary ; and although, 
perhaps, purgatives are always proper, we place our 
chief reliance upon the stimulating plan, after we have 
done all that lies in our power to remove the exciting 
cause. Tlie stimulants that have been employed in 
Palsy, both general and local, are very numerous; the 
choice must depend upon circumstances connected with 
the nature of the constitution of the patient and the 
part affected. They consist both of various articles of 
the materia raedica. and of different mechanical appli- 
cations ; among the former, we may enumerate ether, 
and spiritous compounds, lytta, oleum terebinthinae, am- 
monia, ^inapis, the warm essential oils, and the whole 
class of vesicants, and rubifacients. Among the more 
efficacious of the mechanical applications, is friction in 
various forms, hot fomentations, electricity, and gal- 
vanism, a remedy which, however, has not answered 
the high expectations that were formed respecting it : 
the natural thermal springs are had recourse to with 
benefit in the later stages of Palsy, 
f artial p»I- It would be incompatible with our object to point 
tit" ; dis- out the means employed for removing the various local 
ease of the causes of Palsy ; but there is one that is connected 
V'ne- yfhh diseases of the spine, which forms so important 

an object of our attention, as to require being distinct- 
ly noticed. When the disease occurs spontaneously, it 
has been conceived to originate from a scrofulous ten- 
dency in the constitution, and it must therefore be 
combatetl by all those means which are supposed to be 
useful in counteracting this tendency. Practitioners, 
however, are but too well aware of the little benefit 
that is to be derived from the most approved of these 
means, and generally all that lies in our power is to 
endeavour to remove the local complaint, and this has 
been usually attempted by the application of caustic 
issues near the part affected. A new plan of treatment 
has been lately proposed, in which, instead of issues, 
the patient is strictly confined, for a great length of 
time, to the horizontal posture. When we consider 
the nature of the affection, and especially when we 



obscure : it affords a remarkable instance of the exist- 
ence of a peculiar train of symptoms, indicating an af- 
fection of a part remote from that whence they might 
naturally be supposed to proceed, and of the sympathy 
between two ports, not related to each other by their 
local situation, or by any obvious action of their func- 
tions. The disease, when it exists under its u.sual 
form, commences with fever, violent pain of the head, 
characterized by an acute darting sensation, which is 
generally felt in the temples or across the forehead ; 
great sensibility to light and noise, extreme agitation 
and restlessness, with the expression of sudden parox- 
ysms of severe suffering ; along with these sym})toms 
there is great derangement of the digestive organs, 
vomiting, and obstinate constipation, with a peculiar 
morbid appearance of the evacuations. After these 
symptoms have continued, the state of excitement ap- 
pears to be succeeded by one of oppression ; there is a 
considerable degree of coma and stupor, while the 
pulse becomes preternaturally slow, the pupils dilated, 
and the bowels still more torpid. The indications of 
severe suffering are exchanged for those of insensibili- 
ty, and at length a complete state of Paralysis super- 
venes, and announces the near approaches of death. 
The acute disease is seldom, if ever, found after the 
age of puberty : it has been supposed, although, as we 
think, without sufficient foundation, to be connected 
with a tendency to Scrofula or Rickets ; it is, however, 
hereditary, and therefore may be conceived to attach 
to some original peculiarity in the structure of the 
body. Its exciting causes are not well ascertained; 
for although it may occasionally appear to follow an 
injury of the head, in most cases we are unable to trace 
it to any thing of the kind. With respect to its proxi- 
mate cause, we apprehend it must be regarded as ori- 
ginating in on inflammatory action of the capillaries of 
the brain, although probably of some specific kind, and 
that the effusion of the fluid is the consequence of the 
increased action of the vessels. In what consists the es- 
sential difference between Hydrocephalus and Phreni- 
tis is not well ascertained, whether upon a different set 
of vessels, or upon a different action of the same ves- 
sels ; the diseases are, however, in all respects very 
different from each other, both with respect to their 



MEDICINE. 



13 



PnrtiM. 



•ad their Imtmmt. The omnexiun which 
W9 uliwin between the rtate of the alimentary canal 
Mid the head i* difficult to explain ; and what increaeee 
tlw tfiCealty b, that qrteatMne woich very nearly re. 
■cmble thoae of Hy J i uM f lM iii not aaftcquently cxitt, 
where it wo«ld appew fhatt th* h«d ia not actually 
Ihv «■! of diaeaee, ml which are reCnnd to the efect 
ti WMi. B«t ai eij i thii^ that r e ey e cta the esiataice 
of wanM^ or th« e y yt i wa which they pradsee. ia 
eery clxcare, mti m m> much iweoly d in eiidrii iini, 
that we af* alwaya at a Iota to dMiawiiii what d»- 
gree U ciwht ie to he ittirind to tiie etatciBenu that 
an node •■ thia loUiet UpoB the whole, we are 
dii| Med to cowidar the peealiar ttate of the bowela 
iB pwtly the cme aad partW the riect of the condi* 
ties of the btahi, aad, aa far a« rrKanl* the point of 
pnitiot. whidMrecr ia actnally the primary dietaae, 
theplBii of treatment ia net wu r i elly Jiff e w iH. 
The core of Hydraeephalae ia to bo oHeBpledlnr di- 

inc the overueaoUBMBt of the eeaaele at the 

bv rcatomiir the action of the el eia e n tary 

The Irat ie to he e t t eiii w a d hy 

b geaarally local, and whiWi amhI 
ia at far a Iha tumfflh of the patiaot, er'liw other 

wkUk ie addato eikliial wUeaa it bo earried to aa »• 
tont whieb woidd not be JMiMed mder 
aireMMtoaccB. Pnaatftw ai« to be aba 

■atiltha 

MM II M ||9MVMr^ 

Ir anapoMeB. Aloag wktt thaae, which 
IMM af Kriieft wa apply Mittrrt to 
I win eatanal oaM, aad hkowiaa 
free each laaeadifa ea laay ae iadwatoa by taa fcnetal 
aave ae towrf ^e ay cay aSMP aaciHMeiy avucaA 
~ ~»a«»Mbaaeadhithafln 

9 
i 9m MnMHHI 



■haald thk be 



«»y. 



rrtatM* 
«d Aa 



ttftm 



win be anavailinf . bat etiU it ie 
daiy to attaaipt what odrn the 
ttrMif, aad aaMMff the r emediee which haee baca r»> 
I at thie period ie auriiaij, fieen m> ee to 
ila apecMe cibel apon the eyalaak How far 
«• aav alM u ata hlooiUlettiBir ie a qaeeti «i c which 
ibedecid^ by the eyaiptaaM of each hidieidttal 
bat the aaeidaoaa imo of pargaliece wdl rtOI be 
be caaiefttl. leal in oar 






aMcnMM to edmini*(er medicine*, we aKKnvale the 
■aiWMie af the patient, an<l, hy an ill-dirrctnl anKoi* 
tBi*e. oatarb the ahort riaiaii mf period of hie esiat* 
enee. 

which we hare aow been do> 
j,«»Uch{aelto||etherof a rrryacote kind, there 
ie a daaaic ifydpeaeplanae. whetv the dieraee ooMae 
on M alowly aa MatcHy to pr o d a e e aay ccneral eihe 
tioB of the e ie toa i. The booee ef the tkult m thaae 
eaeae ga d aa lhr jpre wey to the preewre of tha flaU 
•■HcdfaiAateMtoryaitiof thabrxn, end the head 
' to a d tgi aa which woald have been 
«Me with the eserciie of my of the 
ar indeed with the actual rnntiniiaiifr of 
life TWe r i w a l i i iit U i rri aie dla bl i , ar. V mf relief 
can be eliCafaiad, it nnat be by haaarding an aparalioa 
whidh p iBBii w i aa Mttic adrantaite. that nothing bat 
Ike aiiMnMa iMb of etirtence in which the patient it 
ladaowl by the (Smmc ceald tanction the ezperi- 




Sect. IX. Spatmi EpUepsia. Epilepty. 



Pr«ctic«. 



After the two fint ortlert of the Neuroses, including Epllrp^y. 

the (liteates that are chararteriird respectively l>y an 

increate, and by a diminution of tlie nervous power, 

we come to the third order, where it it exercised in 

an irregular manner ; to three we give the name of 

SpaamL We derive the genera of the Spatmi from the 

relation which the part aflitcted heart to the exercite of 

voiitioa, into diteaaet of the voluntary mutclet, the in> 

voluntary nnudea, aad thoae which po t e e t t a middle 

ranh betwee n the two. One of the mott important of 

the apaciae bekaigiiig to tlie firtt genua ia Epilcpty. 

ThiadiaaMa mn he wcitly dcAaed a ladden acceation 

of violent oonvuwiDtH of the whole body, with a lost 

of tenaation and voluntary aaotion. Each' attack con- 

tinocaior, eomparativcly, a thort period only, when 

the patient. reeovert hie uttial ttato of body and mind, 

and expvtfeneea a degree of stupor and drowiinrtt, but 

wtthoot wiy r ecollection of what hat pened. AU 

iboaahi however, the effec* of a tingle nt is not pro* 

daenva at any v itiblr rlumge npon the animni economy, 

yet, when the diaaaM recon Avquontiy, and the attacka 

are violent, tha ftmclione tha> depend upon the nervooa 

eytttm gradaally baeome weakened, and uliimately 

aiach deraqged, oo at to bring oa imliceility of tite men- 

to! fiKukiee, and aa imperfect po« < try 

Binetlet It haa been uaaal to to 

hiiapalhir aad eyaipathetic ; the Utter Umg tuppoMd 

to ocpaad apaa aaaw ohvieiut exciting caute s but we 

db aoC appnbmd thai there ia any rw foundation for 

dda di i i a hai ; h is CmC aaMaatt to oo more than that 

ia taaa caaaa era aia able to detect the exciting ctuie, 

while ia alhan wa ■« igaorant of it. The exciting 

' to ha eery variaai^ origiaating from a 

mat naaibar of iUfcint liiiaawlintae, that bear dif. 

nvent r el ariatwtoaadialhar, and all produce nearly the 

■aaie Byaaptaaaa. Thoae that general'y fall under our 

ahaervatiana ere, I at. Injury and malconformation of 

the tkall, or tha partt incfucicd in it ; Sd, Certain itatea 

of tha aUaaatory canal, particularly wormt. or that 

morhid wdhion of their contentt which it tuppoted 

to be favoaraMa to the ptodactian of these pera\itical 

auimaU; Sd, The pecaliarirritMioocauaed by teething; 

4th, Violent ateatal raietieiii, capedally turpriie and 

lerrar; 5th, Repeated IntaaicaliBB ; and, lattlv, an he- 

laditaer taadeaey in tha e wmi talian, which we are 

aal able to d ee crih e or daflne, ahhoagh we can have 

Kola tbobt of iu exittenoe. The invasion of Epilrpty 

ie aooMtiaiea to taddcn tfut tIte patient hat not tlia 

laail warning of ita approach but fall* down at onoo 

la a tiato of complete iiMen*ibility. at other tiroes there 

ie a fitehiMi of oppraaaion in the hrad, with vertigo, 

daaiHea ofeight, and eenAnion of thought, and occa- 

riaaaRj there ia a pecaHar aenaatiun of cokl, which haa 



baeti named the aaia cpilafMicB, paning up (Vom tome 
part of the bady to ika haad^ when the complcto pa> 



Aa the diacaaa McnM to originate (Vom toch a varie- Ti 
ty of cau»ce, ao ita prognoai* it extremely uncertain, 
and its cure hat been attempted by a greet variety of 
BMana When the excibng cau -e it clearly aacertained, 
wa, of eotir.^ dtrrct our whole attention to the remo« 
val ' >acceaa of our attempts in this way 

mu-' Mid npan the degree in which thw 

can be a«»atnpM>lied. When the caaae ia not obvioat, 
we havo bat bttle to goida aa in oar opefadoiw, except 



14 



MEDICINE. 



Priciicf. a reference to the general state of the functions, and 
""—V""' si.me analogies wliich are too often very obscure and 
uncertain. The state of the bowels is one of the first 
thinjts to be attended to ; and, in children, we are of- 
ten able to remove very formidable attacks of the dis- 
ease by completely evacuating the alimentary canal. 
It is generally the custom to mnke calomel one of the 
principal ingredients in the purgatives that are admini- 
stered in Epilepsy, and it is probably used with more 
advantage when united to jalap, scammony, colocynth, 
or some of the drastic medicines of this description. 
When the digestive organs seem to suffer from acidity 
and flatulence, or from any other particular symptom, 
we are to endeavour to remove them by the appropriate 
remedies; and when there is a general weakness of the 
digestive organs, we employ, according to circumstances, 
stimul.ints, stomachics, and tonics. It has been pro- 
posed, in those cases where the fit is preceded by the 
aura, to cut off the communication between the part 
whence the peculiar sensation proceeds and the brain, 
by compressmg the nerve, or even dividing it ; but it 
is doubtful how far this practice has been attended with 
success, or how far we ought to expect any benefit 
to be derived from it. When there is no obvious ex- 
citing cause, and when the different organic functions 
do not exhibit any evident irregularity, we can have 
but a faint prospect of removing the disease ; and our 
practice must, for the most part, proceed entirely upon 
empirical principles. In this, as in all other similar 
cases, we find, that in proportion to the obscurity of the 
complaint, and the real difficulty which there is in re- 
lieving it, so is the number of infallible remedies that 
are held out to the hopes and fears of the unfortunate 
sufferers. The remedies that have been proposed for 
epilepsy under this form of the disease may be divided 
into three classes, those that are called antispasmodics, 
generally possessing some property that powerfully af- 
fects the external senses ; tonics ; and a miscellaneous 
description of remedies, which can only be referred to 
their power of acting upon the imagination. Some of 
ijie principal antispasmodics are ether, valerian, castor, 
and musk, to which it has been the custom to add 
opium, and various other sedatives. In certain cases of 
convulsions, we conceive it not impossible that benefit 
may have been derived from these substances; but 
we have no conception that they can have any great 
power over proper Epilepsy. The second division of 
remedies, the tonics, although of very problematical 
operation, possess more claim upon attention. Of these 
the most powerful are certain metallic salts, as the ni- 
trate of silver, cuprum ammoniatum, the oxide of zinc, 
and various salts of iron and arsenic. In what manner 
these substances act, and for what particular varieties 
of the disease, or states of the system, they are each of 
them more particularly serviceable, are points on which 
we have little certain knowledge. Vegetable tonics are 
among the remedies usually prescribed for Epilepsy ; 
of these cinchona may be supposed to supersede all the 
rest, although, by way of giving variety to our prescrip- 
tions, we may substitute other articles of the same de- 
scription, or may occasionally give them in combina- 
tion. We have mentioned worms among the exciting 
causes of Epilepsy, and this appears to be the case 
more particularly with the tape-worm. As the oil of 
turpentine seems to act very powerfully upon these 
animals, we may be fairly allowed to try tiie tfft-ct of 
turpentine in all cases of Epilepsy that have huffled our 
othci; means, even when we have no evidence of the 



existence of the ta;nia, more especially as the indications Practice, 
of its presence in the intestines are not always very ob- ^"""Y""^ 
vious. 

Nearly allied to Epilepsy, and perhaps differing from Convul- 
it chiefly in degree, are the convulsions with which sions. 
children are so frequently attacked, more especially 
about the period of dentition. These affections are ge- 
nerally removed as the exciting cause ceases to operate, 
and are not productive of any permanent injury to the 
constitution. It is, however, necessary to use the ap-* 
propriate means for facilitating the passage of the teeth 
through the membrane that covers them ; while, at the 
same time, it will be desirable to evacuate the bowels 
completely, and to be extremely guarded witli respect 
to the diet. The paroxysm is supposed to be shortened 
or relieved by immersing the patient in the warm bath ; 
and It is a remedy which may be always employed with 
safety, if not with advantage. 

Sect. X. Hysteria, Hysteric Disease. 

Hysteria is a disease of so multifarious an aspect. Hysteria, 
which exists under such a variety of forms, differs so 
much in its violence at different times, and is so pecu- 
liar in its nature and in its effects upon the sinimal eco- 
nomy, that we feel some difficulty in giving a concise 
and summary account of it. 

It usually occurs in fits or paroxysms, which consi- 
derably resemble those of Epilepsy, except that they are 
less violent, and that the consciousness is not altogether 
lost ; but there is the same convulsive exertion of the 
limbs, and the sensations and mental faculties, although 
not entirely suspended, are much disordered and per- 
verted. There is Ukewise in Hysteria a symptom w^hich 
may be conceived to bear some analogy to the aura epi- 
leptica, which has obtained the name of the globus hys- 
tericus. It commences with a peculiar feeling of pain 
and distention in some part of the abdomen, which gra- 
dually rises up the course of the intestinal canal until it 
reaches the stomach, and, finally, the upper part of the 
throat, where it remains stationary, and seems to threat- 
en immediate suffocation. The convulsive affections 
now come on, and are attended with faintness and par- 
tial insensibility, while the patient laughs and cries al- 
ternately, exhibiting almost an appearance of delirium 
or fatuity, until the paroxysm is terminated by an 
eructation of flatus, to which succeeds a copious dis- 
charge of pale urine, and sometimes a degree of stupor 
and drowsiness. 

The nature of the convulsions, as well as of the other 
symptoms, varies in all possible ways. Sometimes the 
limbs are rigidly fixed in one position ; at other times 
they are violently agitated : occasionally there is a ge- 
neral stupor approaching to coma ; at other times pains 
are felt, wliich are so violent as to cause the patient to 
utter the most horrid screams. 

There is something very mysterious about the excit- 
ing causes of Hysteria. It appears, in many cases, to be 
merely a mental affection, induced by violent passions 
or strong emotions ; and so much is this the case, that 
the patient is certainly able, by voluntary exertion, ta 
prevent the accession of the disease, which, if it had 
been suffered to proceed in its usual course, would have 
assumed the formidable appearance that has been de- 
scribed above. The symptoms are frequently induced 
by a kind of imitation, where the sight of a patient la- 
bouring under the disease will bring a similar disease 
on the bye-standers. These facts have led some per-- 



MEDICINE 



tiatuet. Mnt, both pror<!«sional and anprofcMioru]. to eondder 

^•"V^^ Hjr«l«ria as alway* a ficthioa* complaint ; one entrrely 

MMcr the oontroi of the »ill ; vhtch, like the rxprea- 

iiaa oTangnr, nay be alvayt rr*iraiiM'd, beinp a»aiiirc<l 

fir the parpoae of esciiing •jrmQtfby. or mttrr timilar 

■ottre. To a certain cxttnl iMa najr be true ; Init we 

' that no one who Itai rreqncntlv witnewed 

r ia its aMTavated form can *appaac that it it 

alwar* to. Indaad, we cannot eoneme how any vo. 

lantanr eCirt conld prodaea tbeeiNtomaa the 

•mnic foBctiaaa that are ao fi r q we iii lr o 

Im diaaaie. or tkat anr thing exorpt a hie 



15 

leg oTooe aide more than the other. It consist* in a Pneiiec. 
loaa ot roluntary power over the parts, so that the pa- '-. i — ' 
tient is unable to move them in the required direction, 
while they are subject to a variety of spontaneous mo- 
tion*, which ht hjM it not in hi* power to restrain. 
Other parta of the body, e»pecially the face, are sub- 
ject to involuntary twitching*; and, when the disease 
IS violent, ami hu been of lung standing, the speech 
affected, and at length a d^ree of fatuity su- 



m 



thing exoppt a highly i 
I of tlM nimmi teoaamj coald enable the pa- 
in ftitbim ibe cqjBrsiaiTe ir>u-cular czartiona, 
which hr iwaj what i* evrr ob>eTve«i in the same in- 
dividual at ( 



idual at athar ttmca. It i* well ktiuwn that Hyste- 
nM i» alBMMl aMirclj coafcwd to i««Mlea, and. awiaig 
these, it ia fiMilly asC witli in these of racfale mw- 
enlar powers, tmt or great nerva na tenaibiliiy. Seaae 
I OMsliinaWy occor in the omIo sex, wUdi we 
r MMillHl to be claased wit* Hysteria, whoM 
I of bedjr aad aiiad are most aiaiilar to ( ' 
' latioa. We iMve alrswly awwi i ewe J I 
wUch Hjralvia bears to Easbpijr ; and we eaa- 
eaire that it is eAm catmaab d«niH lodMiii^iaHh ba- 
tw«entheai,whewtliea*>ei li i r ais a ppas ia iaito a i il»lr st 
and the other in iti m<~t acuta tana. Tbeghlai ia not 
always prtecnt in Hy«t< ra ; aad tlMfv «* coftaia cases 
whiHi •««■ entitlsd 10 the sppellliew ti Eailaaiy. yet 
where the iaiMiNNlity i» not twap li f. aad wiwro the 
I of the fciliag aad of tha arrsaaa fa 




iai«f HyMaris : aad, bsssdastkia, 1 
liHMi osWrntly coavrnible bmo each 
^jj-^^theronaofHyaterieia-l,, 

Tnaiami. HyMsria. whn it appaan to ila anaitacd 

ia ae« the fcrcrannrr of EpiWpty. or syasptewatic of 
■ay oiiMr disease, i< •rldom aitrndrd wiib deagar, aU 
tkoagh it BMy he diScult to i w os a. Oar iw dicat i aM 
■a to preveat or cat shart tlw pwaiiwa, and to ob> 
vino ila letara. The frsi ia aeMMailMMd bjr aay aad. 
dM iaipra i iiaa apon the mhid or no iigaiii of aaaae. 
Tlie gsaaral diraetieaa for tbia paipaaa it i* alaMit te- 
r to lagr dowa, as so aaMk di pa ai fa apoa tlw 
i i awi U a tH 9t the case, both with 
ia the bodily and aMMaleaMtitatMaaf the patientl A 
•t has beea pm aafc d hy 1 i il i l il i d^<% Sdwater 
aver the pa t i aat , hy wlliiii—iitiL iiitoilives^ or 
aliaiiiUnt*. and fav variaaa ■•■« which only 
threogh the lasd laai of the faaagintian. In 
piwent the ivtara of the Ik, we aadaavoar to 
Ihe dao balaMt between the power* of the mieai. by 
tow iiilg H aliawHh wh ile we dimiaish action. Tim u 
■MMplMad prlncipaDr by taates of various kind*, »e- 
P*'M» ' '' ^.*'****' '-' "^ ^nich, perhaps^ tht most tC 
■escieae is eiaahana, comiMneil whb soaio fyv f ^ im 
of iron Ameng the aaxiKary aiean*. we may men- 
tiao iMddy esrrciae. the caU badi, abstinence in diet, 
oariy ris«ng, and sadi athar aiean* a« are i;merally al- 
lowed to iavigHala tiM sysltai, while, during the whole 
coarse of the di i i a i . we are la be especially careful to 
I a v«T open state af the r 



CksrtJ. 



y oaarata 
order ta 



8ccT. XI. CAorro. SL rttmTt Damet. 

Thi* i« a peculiar kind of coovnleian, which princi- 
pally aiccU the MtniaitJaa, aad geaerally the arm and 



Chena aakos ita first appearance almost excludvel}- 
in yoong penooa, for three or four years previously to 
the period of puberty ; but if it be not removed by 
ump ei lamadus, it will oontinae, in a certain degree, 
for a long period, or even during the remainder of life. 
The patienta are generally of a delicate habit of body. 
and aacfa aa have not enioyed a auffiw-iency of nourish- 
ftaah air, or bodily excrciae. It occasionally oc- 
to parecysaM^ or, at least, is more violent at some 
tMB-dk others; but generally its progress it gra« 
daal, irti aahibittog itself to certain gesturss or mo* 
tiaaaof the liaiba, which aeeai rather objects of ridicule 
thaa of Madieal traataMBl. Saasatinea ilie 6r*t symp> 
lamliMt ia aolieod ia a dnagtoc of tiM leg in walking, 
similar to what we obaarvaui Wght paralysis. Along 
with the more sppropriata ay ia p t uww . we generally 
find, that the digestive organs are deranged, aad eqw- 
cially that the bowels are torpid. The diaeaae, in aotno 
case*, appear* to Iw avnipatlMtic of a local irritation, 
snch a* that fram testa or from worm* ; but, generally, 
we da ae( ubsarra any local esating cauae to which it 
eaa be la faifiil . It m aaid to be disposed to disappear 
ly at the 1^ of paberty, but we doubt the 
of thia olMcvTatMa. 
The rare of C haraahaa been attOBptcd by various Ti«atia«ab 
that are verj oppoait o to aach other. By some 
a depletion is reeoauaendad, while, by others, 
and stimulants are prescribed ; and in each case 
are directed generally, with little regard 
la tha aatare of the indivitlual csM-t. or the diflercooa 
■ay rtist between tlirm. Thi* apparent inoao- 
. perhap*. ilepen<i* partly upon the nature of the 
int. which, like •ome other* of the Ncuroaei^ 
art*e from oautrs that are almoU diametrically op> 
to each other, and yrt may exhibit nearly the 
■a. Tha plan u^" treatment which we sltall 
, thai the slate of the bowel* be always 
the fir« atjject of attention ; that brisk cathartic* be 
ailmiiii m iii t oaaaisiiag of caleai e l eeanbiaed with a 
dranic purgative, until the evscualions areof the natu> 
nl aaantJty and nuahty. If the appetile be difective, 
«a MMidd thn adi am ista r ■tomachm ; and if the sys- 
laai a a h i h i l narka af gaaeral weaknr**, we may enw 
ploy tonic* and rtimulanlSk We believe thai less ad- 
vantage will be obtained from the uae of opioai and 
other aadalivoa thaa the aatare ami aymptoma of the 
diaoasa arigh* lead aa ta expect ; nor do we apprehend 
that much will be gained 'nbe of anii<|Numo. 

die*. The application oi to thr origin of the 

nerves which rappiy the ai^cteti port, osnecially to the 
difierent rrgioaa of the spine, has bam bund a oseful 
araetioe ; aiercary given so a* to affect the >y*trro, has 
ooaa stron^^ laaamaMiidod by (ome wriirrs, and Idte* 
wiaoeleetncMyi bat we do not teel murh conlideace 
to ckhar «f thaae laa i a J ia*. We need (carccly remark 
that it b axtmcly importaat in all cases of Chorea ta 
examine tha sUtc of the teeth, and to remove every 
probable caase of irritation which nay seem to be d<^ 
rived fhaa this souroe. 



16 



MEDICINE. 



Praellce. 



Sect. XII. Tetanus. 



TeUau5. By Tetanus, in its most extensive sense, we mean 

a rigid contraction of any muscle or set of muscles ; 
but it is usually applied to a general condition of the 
system, where all the muscles of the body, and espe- 
cially those of the trunk, neck, and jaws, are in a per- 
manently contracted state, so as to render the patient 
almost incapable of motion, speech, and deglutition, 
while the most acute pain is experienced in all the af- 
fected parts, and particularly about the pit of the sto- 
mach and over the abdomen. The disease is some- 
times principally confined to the jaws and the neigh- 
bouring parts, when it is styled Trismus or locked jaw. 
It usually commences with a desrree of stiffness in the 
back of the neck, with some difficulty in opening the 
mouth ; to this succeeds the rigidity of the muscles of 
the trunk, where it is often so violent as to bend the 
body into the form of an arch, and it finally extends 
' to the extremities. The disease is aggravated by par- 

oxysms, which are generally, but not always brought 
on by some voluntary exertion, as by changing the 
posture, or by swallowing, when the contractions be- 
come much more forcible, and the pains more acute, 
until the patient is carried off in one of these acces- 
sions, exhausted as it were by his excessive exertions, 
and worn out by the violence of his sufferings. The 
exciting causes of the disease are of two kinds ; the 
most frequent in this climate is a certain species of 
mechanical injury, not productive of much pain, but 
exciting a specific irritation, which, from some unknown 
cause, affects the nerves so as to induce the disease. 
Wounds of a nerve are perhaps the most frequent 
cause, but laceration of a tendon is also said to excite 
it ; and it is often observed to follow gunshot wounds 
or surgical operations, in which large bones have been 
divided ; in these cases it is generally supposed that a 
loose splinter of bone has been left in the wound, that 
a nerve has been torn, or perhaps included in a liga- 
ture. The other class of the exciting causes of Tetanus 
is even more obscure; it occurs principally in hot cli- 
mates, and generally originates from those circum- 
stances that are supposed sutldenly to check the cuta- 
neous perspiration, where the body is exposed to damp 
and cold after great heat; of these one of the most 
frequent occasional causes is sleeping on the moist 
ground, after violent exercise under a tropical sun. 
It does not appear that the symptoms of the disease in 
these two varieties are materially different, although 
arising from such different causes ; but those of the 
latter kind, which are termed idiopathic, are, for the 
most part, less violent than such as arise from wounds 
or other mechanical injuries. Although fever is not 
an essential symptom of the disease, yet after it has 
subsisted for some time, the pulse becomes accelerated 
and the temperature increased ; and it has been sup- 
posed that the best means which we possess of form- 
ing a prognosis is derived from the state of the pulse, 
especially with respect to its velocity. 

Treatment In attempting the cure of Tetanus, the first object is 
to remove tlie source of irritation, if it depends upon 
any obvious mechanical cause; if it proceeds from a 
wound of any kind, it has been recommended to di- 
vide the nerve which passes from the wounded part to 
the brain ; but this practice .has not been attended 
with the expected relief, nor has even amputation of 
the limb been successful, when the disease has once 
taken possession of the constitution. Applying caus- 



tics, or heating stimulants, as the oil of turpentine, to Practice. 
the wound, so as to produce a copious suppuration in the ""^'Y""' 
part, has been thought to afford a probable means of re- 
lief, upon the principle that where Tetanus has followed 
from a mechanical injury, the discharges have assumed 
an uniiealthy aspect. It is, however, extremely doubt- 
ful whether any advantage has been derived from 
these practices, and at all events our main reliance is 
to be placed upon internal remedies, of which the 
most important is opium. When the symptoms of the 
disease unequivocally manifest themselves, we must im- 
mediately have recourse to this medicine in frequently 
repeated doses; the extent of the dose must depend upon 
the effect which it produces on the system; but the quan- 
tity which has been taken in this disease is very large, 
and much more than could have been borne in the or- 
dinary condition of the functions. Many substances 
have been united with opium, upon the idea of increas- 
ing its efl^cacy, but it may be questioned whether they 
are of any essential benefit ; perhaps indeed in those 
cases where there is much fever, a combination of 
opium and ipecacuanha may be preferable to opium 
alone. Some cases are upon record where idiopathic 
Tetanus has been relieved by dashing cold water over 
the patient, or by immersing him in the cold bath, but 
this has probably been in the slighter cases onh', and 
in Tetanus from wounds has been found completely 
useless, perhaps even injurious; for in such cases the 
sensations of the patient rather indicate the application 
of warmth than of cold to the surface. Besides the in- 
ternal exhibition of opium, it has been fimnd to pro- 
duce its appropriate action on the system, by being 
rubbed on the skin in the form of ointment; when the 
process of friction does not add to the sufferings of the 
patient, this will at all times be found a useful ailjunct 
to the internal exhibition of the remedy ; and where 
the deglutition is very much impeded, we are under the 
necessity of entirely depending upon it. Mercury, 
which in modern times has been regarded by some au- 
thors as a universal panacea for all complaints, has 
been employed in Tetanus, and as we are informed, 
with the usual success ; bi:t it has not produced the 
same good effect in other hands. Wine or ardent spi- 
rits, taken in large quantities, has been recommended 
in Tetanus, and some cases are upon record where this 
plan has appeared to be successful ; but, upon the 
whole, we think it is less effective than opium, and we 
perceive no motive for preferring it. Purgatives in 
this, as in all the Neuroses, are valuable adjuncts to our 
other remedies, but in I'etanus we are not to depend 
upon them as affording a radical means of cure. 

Sect. XIII. CoUca. Colic. 

Perhaps the only idiopathic disease which can be Colica. 
considered as belonging to tlie next genus of the 
Spasrai, those which consist in an irregular action of 
the involuntary muscles, is Colica. Colic consists in 
pain of the bowels, especially characterized by a twist- 
ing sensation in the umbilical region, accompanied 
with spasmodic contraction of the abdominal muscles 
and obstinate costiveness. There are many varieties of 
Colic, which are clearly referable to different exciting 
causes, but which nearly resemble each other in their 
symptoms: the peculiar state of the digestive organs, 
and of the biliary setretion ; various articles of food, or 
merely an excessive quantity taken into the stomach ; 
retention of the faeces ; the application of cold and 
moisture to the feet; perhaps worms; and certain me- 

5 




MEDICINE. 

ptrticiilarlf lead. It haa baan aacribH 
«f Goat (tvm tb* atTMiiitiM, and it baa 



17 



Pr«flic«. 



.,., I that tba nlaMtaa ware tabjcct to Kha»> 

I : bat vbalavar ba tba arifia ol the l i iiiia , k 
m pwbabia tbat ita paeaiaartecaaaa ia alwajrt tba aaaM^ 
•■ irr*|piUr c ontt acti u B af tba voaoilar fibtaa af aooM 
U tha 




Ui 




tha _„ 

llaiarthalliaepMiian. Tharaiaae 

coBMClad wMb Calk, and by thia 

ba dialiwgiiihirl Ana Estatitia ; i 

tbat is Entantia tba pain ^ tba 

b* Bfcaaara, abawai hi C«lic h ia 

"^ *' wa; bt alllMmfc tfaa'diaaawa aia 

.fraaaach ethar, yat C«lie. iT sat 

ra l i w ad; ia Nabla ta ' ' ' 
•eaaMM. vhaa it ia tm 
>witk 

ttm tha 

ti pargatiaaa 

Tba ufaat al^^adp havavif « ia to ptacttfa tba 
tram tha ba*«k ; bat whaa tha vaoiitmit it 
I ia a pamt «bidi it U aAan ditfeiilt to ac^ 
Far tha mati part it ia 
W0t9 tha taBaannr ta vaaaitam^ lart ^ 

m invaniaa <tf tha yiialallii SMtiaa af tha . 

jat aaiaatiMa tha ataiMdi i» nliaaad bjriha Ibaaaa*. 

aaapiaai laaaanuaMHrthaaaMcaaaaHMaa^ Waaaa. 
hawaaar, ta plaaa aar aMia ^MatlMca apaa parja 
tivaa. i J i ii i i iliiii l hi AavMaMy nvaalad daaaa, aT 

Ihitha 



which ialaaatahaaaiaai by thiirhalharthrir 

^aalttiaa. Tha apamiaa af paMalivaa ia aa ^. 

■a l ad by iiitmiaai> vbiah ihaalJ ba aa nawtiuaa at 
tha pafU WW laariva; and wa aujr mulrr tbaai aMaa 



activa by mtiliui aaaM ibartic higrailmii with thaaa. 
Tba choir* of tha paijpMiaa dtpnoa apaa a aariaty at 
cwcanwlaaaai^ annaaalaa ariih tha habita aod oaaatMa* 
tiaa aT tba aatiaot. 6r triach it ia aat aaav 10 Uv dawa 



till 



it ia aat aaiy la Uyiteara 
gaawaHililiMaiii plaaa graataaa. 
iilhaf aiaaa ai iwailiiBad withaaaia 
tha tta. 



tha aaatfal aaha, aipadaUy tha aahdMaaTaMff. 
, win ha fcaad aaaM a^iaacta la thaaMiapaww 



^rfal M a mh aa. Tha Biriwit la aAaa aiach 

with 1 Italian tm wliiah ha aay 

niM' hy aanaiMliaaa aaid alhaalaat 

««ar. oiaat alway* b* tcivcn in mmU daaaa Whan tha 

bawala ha«a bwn fully avacvaiadl tha paia ia giaarally 

raiiaaad ar aiach ai tM a ta d ; hat if thia ba aat thaa 

tha eaia^ wa aay aaMy adaaahtar apiaa. 8haaM 

«fc*w b » a iaah iiii w iiief tba ill iii, which ia in- 

(tvaaad by ataaaara, iadiialiin' a liBdaary la ia 
MaiiOTi af Ilia paiitaaa uui or tha aaiirfdiaatiiMi i 
••achraer biiMaaa wiUba prapar; ' 
•• ahall Sad raliaf hvm hat fikaaat 

MH wha ha«« laffiwd ft«a Colie ihaahl ba 
^ . j aa ti aai with raaprct to tiwir diat. aad 
I canfally gaard anainat cxurnal ootd. aa it ia 
I ikat a arrcra flt of tha oeBiplaint al waya Uya tha 

Il». P*BT L 



foundation for Mbtrquent rrtums of it, wluch may 
tanainate either in acute inflammation, or may lead U» ■""V"' 
aaoaa organic <li»ea«e uC the |Mirt, le*a rapid iii ita pro- 
grcaa. but equally I'aul in iu ultimate result. 

We have placed in thi* part vf our syklem the dia- Trmpani* 
aaaa of Tympanitia, an affcctioa which is characteriacd ('»• 
by an aa laia aia aw t of the aUlomen, cautad by a coU 
leolioa af air, either conuinrd withm the intcatinei, 
or diiiiacd throoKb the cavity of the peritoneum. Al- 
thaagh it ia ganrrally deacribad aa a primary affection, 
wa thinh there ia moeh ub ac ar it y altaehc«l to it, and 
w* are area diapoaad ta doobt of it* existence aa more 
than a nat* ayaaptom afDyaaepMa. at least in that va- 
riaty whara tha air ia retaiaad vithia the bowels. With 
raapect to tha other variety, it aaaat naeeaaarily be tlie 
reaok of a itnictaral deranfcawnt of tha part, as con- 
arqornt upon aoeae other diiaasr, and ia obviouily in« 
eaaipatibia with tha a«i*t>tic» 9t tha patirnt for any 
mat hnglh wt time. Many of tha erne* which have 
baaa dasoibcd aa Tympany wa ahould be disposed to * 

raliir to Dropsy, and others to anlaixnaent of the ine> 
aaMarie alaadi. in both caaca aceompaBied by flattt« 
Icacaw arwiaa ftwn the veahaaad alaia of the dilgaatiTa 
imam, which aaoally atuiuls thia cMnpUint. 



SicTveii XIV. PtrtMMti*. Hoofmg'eaKgk. 

Tba third gaaaaaf tha Spaaad aoataiaa tha 
dial atigiaala Aan inegalar eatiactiana of tha aemi* 
ooeaiatiiiK aliBost vachi*i>rK ofcar- 

ef tha tharax. or tha part* ininit-Jiiirly 
with it. Tha disaata* whieh u. .rU. 

ad aa priaary, or af aaCcArat ianpoilaacc ._ i uur 

allaatian, mm Taaaa, PartaaM^ DysptMaa. Asthma, and 
Aagiaa pactaria. Althengh we think that caaaa of 
aaagih aceaaioaally ocear, which camtot be rrfcrrrd to 
any laara geaatal tfcctirai, and which tmiat be rtfpad- 
ad aa aieraly iwra ua s^ yet. aa tha disaair is (rnerally 
ayaaptaawlic^ and aben it is not ao, miy drpentl upon 
a variaty of eaaara, which mu<t necr*aariiv rrndir it 
a l aaoat an p u iaihli to lay f^> - - emeral pnnaplea 
for ita cata; wa ahai) not . ' i;t«e any fanhar 

aceaam of it in thia plarc, uui •■■■11 prooeeu to ilia 
wm as d eration of tha natt anadca, Peilaaaia. 1 his it a 
pa e al i ar hind of e wig h, which ia rharacteriaed by a^ 
vaial ayaplaaw that paiat it out aa a disea«e »r a apa> 
dBc natorr, a dnmmUam which ia decidedly proved 
hr tJw fact of ita aaaamaf only anea dutiag tne Itfa 
ai each individnal, and by its baiag pt«pagate<l by 
It come* on in vioiant parmysms of re> 

espirationiw which are swrcre<lcd by a 
^oich, darp ioapsration, attaadcd with a peculiar sound, 
laa aotaiiied 



rmuwiSi 



that baa abtaincd the 
which ana ct ita popalar 
iadarivad. Tha 
■itin|r, aad in duc aa a 
""" which, iMivaver, 



t parte. 



af baop, or whoop, from 
that af Haopinc eoagh, 

it oAca (enainatcd by vo> 

of gteat debility and rs. 

is so transient, that aftrr 
Hm patient baa been atrncirlinK fur breath, and appa- 
raally ahaost expiring, in a frw naiaents hia functions 
raaaaw their natural sUte, and he cxbibita acareely any 
traeaa at di*ea«c. As the c wn pUint ia eoatagiout, ami 
occara once only during hfe, it iMrr««ariU hao^iena that 
efaUdren art tha BMat mmaeirt •< it wbca 

it haanot baaa gnor ihnMifh du: :„ . . 
a«eae*ais tabaf ' e to it • attack*. 

few rimiiiialaBti i :. ,-^ - '^oxy whici> >» 
cuh ta r « pla i a than tlie manner in w: 
Hooping coagh can prove runtagiout, ^.„k 
ccsaarily of a (ebrile nature, where there appear* to be 
c 



-il, every 

There are 

"Te di(E- 

' asc like 

not ne> 



IS 



MEDICINE. 



Praaicc. j,o matter generated which can be the medium of in- 
^"^""^"^^ I'ection, and where there is nothing of the putrid or ma- 
lignant nature, which is supposed to indicate a tenden- 
cy to decomposition in the constituents of the body. 
As a point of practical importance, it has been ques- 
tioned whether the contagion can be conveyed by a 
third person. We are not in possession of any facts 
which can enable us to decide positively on this sub- 
ject, but we should suppose that this could not be the 
case, but that the breath of the patient must be actually 
inhaled in order to produce the disease. But whatever 
conclusion we may form upon this point, we have suffi- 
cient evidence from our daily experience, that conta- 
gion is its most usual, if not its only cause. When a pa- 
tient is under the influence of tlie complaint, the indi- 
vidual paroxysms are generally brought on by some 
obvious cause, as by muscular exertion, by taking food, 
or even by sudden mental emotions. At its commence- 
ment, the symptoms are scarcely to be distinguished 
from those of a common catarrhal cough, and three or 
four weeks often elapse before the characteristic marks 
of Pertussis make their appearance. The cough gra- 
dually becomes more severe, the expirations succeed 
each other more rapidly, and are followed by the so- 
norous inspiration, vomiting then comes on, and the 
patient falls into a febrile state, which seems to aggra- 
vate all the other symptoms. During the violent pa- 
roxysm of coughing, the passage of the blood through 
the lungs is so much impeded as to produce a deep suf- 
fusion of the face ; and it frequently happens that some 
of the small arteries are ruptured, and that blood is dis- 
charged, mixed with the matter expectorated, or bursts 
out through the thin cuticle of the nose and mouth. 
When the disease has acquired its greatest degree of 
violence, it remains for home time stationary, and then 
declines. The period which it occupies in the whole 
process is very uncertain, and it is sometimes protract- 
ed for many months. Whenever it exists in its aggra- 
vated form it is accompanied with fever, and, although 
not necessarily of an inflammatory tendency, it often 
produces inflammation of the chest, and in this way 
proves fatal. In persons who are disposed by heredi- 
tary constitution to Phthisis, this complaint is frequent- 
ly brought on by the Hooping cough, and occasionally 
it seems to lay the foundation for a state of general ma- 
rasmus or tabes, which ultimately proves fatal without 
the lungs being the actual seat of disease. 
Treatment. The cure of Pertussis is often tedious and embarass- 
ing, and we have scarcely any general principles by 
which to direct us in our course. General bleeding is 
sometimes necessary at the commencement, and leeches 
may frequently be indicated by the pain or soreness of 
the chest; but it is not a disease in which copious de- 
pletion is necessary, or in which it appears to be at- 
tended with benefit. As the paroxysm is usually ter- 
minated by expectoration, so it has been the great ob- 
ject of the practitioner to administer medicines which 
may promote this process. Unfortunately, however, 
they are of very uncertain effect, and very dubious ope- 
ration ; and it not unfrequently happens that greater 
injury is experienced by their heating or stimulating 
quality, than is compensated by any benefit to be deri- 
ved from the discharge of mucus which they produce. 
Perhaps the most unexceptionable of this class are those 
that act as emetics ; and, .upon the whole, we think 
that the most effective treatment of-Pertussis consists in 
giving ipecacuanha, so as to pro<luce gentle vomiting 



once or twice daily. Antimony we think less proper. Practice, 
on account of its debilitating operation, an objection- **"'-y'»' 
able circumstance in a disease of such long continuance, 
and where the patients are often young and delicate. 
Diuretics have been prescribed in Hooping cough ; but 
we doubt whether they are of any use, while they are 
liable to the same objection with the expectorants. 
Next to emetics, perhaps the most generally useful re- 
medies are blisters, which may be small, but fre- 
quently repeated. The disease is apt to degenerate 
into a chronic state, and, when all the inflamma- 
tory symptoms are gone, but the cough still remains, 
violent, opium becomes admissible, and is often found 
very effectual ; its good effects are increased by be- 
ing combined with ipecacuanha. We have not much 
confidence in the tribe of antispasmodics, which have 
been recommended in Hooping cough. There is, how- 
ever, one remedy, which, in the latter stage, is univer- 
sally admitted to be very useful, a change of air ; and 
it is remarkable, that it appears to be merely the cir- 
cumstance of change, and not any quality in the air it- 
self, as the same benefit is obtained, by taking the pa- 
tient from the pure air of the country to the confined at- 
mosphere of a crowded city. 



Sect. XV. Asthma. 

We not unfrequently meet with symptoms of simple Asthma. 
Dyspnoea, which we find it diflicult to refer to any other 
primary affection, yet it is so generally sympathetic, 
and its treatment depends so much upon the particular 
circumstances of the individual case, that we shall dis- 
miss the farther consideration of it, and proceed to 
Asthma. Asthma is characterized by difficult and pain- 
ful respiration, in which the breath is drawn at short 
intervals, and with what is termed a wheezing sound, 
attended with pain, and a sense of constriction in the 
chest, and a degree of cough. It occurs in paroxysms, 
which usually come on about midnight. It is frequent- 
ly attended with a copious expectoration of mucus: but 
at times this discharge is not present ; and according- 
ly the disease has been divided into the varieties of 
moist and dry. When the fit comes on in the night, 
the patient is affected for some hours before the acces- 
sion with langour and drowsiness, and a degree of tight- 
ness in the chest, with some cough. These symptoms 
gradually increase until the paroxysm arrives at its 
greatest degree of violence, when, in three or tour hours, 
it subsides spontaneously, leaving behind great debility 
and heaviness. It not unusually happens, that the same 
train of symptoms occur for several successive nights, 
when the disease becomes less violent, and for a time 
totally disappears. Generally, the patient is able to 
trace these accessions to some obvious exciting cause. 
Certain states of the atmosphere, as the air of large ci- 
ties, fogs, or exhalations from damp ground, indiges- 
tion, or repletion of the stomach, and violent exercise, 
are the circumstances which we observe to operate the 
most powerfully. When once the disease has invaded 
the constitution, and gone through a complete set of 
paroxysms, we find that it is much more easily excited 
than at first; and at length it occurs when we are un- 
able to assign any probable reason for it. The proxi- 
mate cause of Asthma is obscure. The morbid contrac- 
tion of the muscular fibres of the bronchiae, which has 
been usually employed to account for it, we conceive 



MEDICINE. 



19 




I ; but th«f« arc i 



Trwnka. to W a point of doablM eih to w ^ and Kaaealjr ade. 
I to tlw efcot. Thai* an, Iww a Tai , many circum- 
witii tka iumu. which land to iha 
it ia a priwaiy afci c ti o n ofthanarvoaa 
•jrkaa. Wa nt — fta^aalty abaawa indiwd— h who 
p— a long life — daa tb« jnllnanoa «f Aaduna, ami ap> 
paMBl^ a» na* apariaca any oanMdtnbie evil, rs. 
eapt Um pain and Manvcnirnce arimat ftnaa tlw actual 

wMabklafi 

• ■iwwiliii arthadiart. iiilaiaiMMl of tiw I 
Ai 

wkiali'aMi 
I— faly piwraafttaL 
Tr<aiimrt. Tba ebrioni indi ca i i a m ctrmn m Aaiin— aw, toi 

itkoviolannaor the paiaajai, aad to nvawaot ita 
I of which we laAatoaaMlr mi it vafr 

difcnlttoamiaapliali AWlBi^ ttm i irf irf ftn. 

aflfaadiaaMakaani 




rof iha 
dtoiiVtlto. 

yrt webaNrrailiaaH*! 

relief. NariatlWi 

to BMny of ton WannMai awl W aav nndto d» anw 
naaarkwiili raapacc to UMtora. vtoak. to afttofaw af 
, are uiualljri 

TW (h •NwjiietrtJy i iwnl niw to n| iia » ia iiu ii i ^ia 

trti'S*a::;i: 




ocanr, 'llnnnflktoraMiltovconaaianol^^Mr^^^^^Hi 
?nl?ilim _^ ^ ^r^ " - V* ** -^ 



talfcn and* af lifc aad oacopotjaw oTtfia 



Pnrtic 



SacT. XVI. AngiMM pedoris. 



Thii diMaaa ia c harartw i a ad bj audden attacka aTAngin* 
acute pain in tho lemtr part of the ehaat, which thooU Priori*. 
np the ahottldcr and oxtandi (town the am ttf the left 
aide : thejr are at lan d o d with laborioua reapiration and 
an appnoanaioo of immediata wfocatioo, while thare 
ia ftaqaantlj an irragular aetioo of the Mnguiferooa 
aptan. or atrcn a tamporary raapenaioa of the motion 
d[ tbm haart The pannymia are of short duration, and 
oonw on at uncertain intanrala, while, at other time*, 
the patient ia nearly in bia ordinary tute of health, 
until the diicaaa, b^ frequent repetition, gradually un- 
daminca the rwi a litm i u ii , and the attacks become ntora 
and aaoac nolaat. natil at length one of them prarea 
6taL Their aoeaaMa BBw geMrall* be traoad to sooM 
obrioua excttla^ cauM, of which the moat ftcqnant ia 
walking fariaUy opa ilaop aaoeat. and this ia aapMially 
the case, when the MsoMcfa ia in a atato of rapiataoB ; 

[ ^M ascidnc ftiMnt of 

. MMacxIatoiniUTioUnt 

MB. it nqr be tndaoad by abnost any ■MMcnbr exaaw 
tion however aligk, or aeaa trithont any obvionaoauaeL 
It ia wA a littla (amikafab, toat natil about the nuddb 
of the laat oaatniy, tlna affactJan, akkn^ ao acran 
*•& aaalMd in iia avavtoaM. and not of vary ran 





have bean 

SHwAilly aiacained; 

thatit 

of aone oT 

Akboughtfaiai 



littlei 



Yet it 

the hoaianMal 

tlie 6t. or 

portane etojnnaaiiii 

naoditMa, by a airii 

and we nnut avoid aU 



pradnctM 
of thcUood 
thatiu 
to aonw dr- 
wkh the roechanim of the dmn 
^>^ r ai p a tt to the cure of the discaae, our 
bma of rdiaf OM* da|MBd very much upon the period 
when it o«hmb nadar onr care ; in the latter at«gaa, 
haa actaally taken place, we can do 
than MOB ail onr endaavoiif* to obviato the 
b«t in the aarliar ataaea, when tham 
MnoaoabidcbaMwafalnMSwa, vaay dedded banaft 
hfa boaa i lt i h i J by lacy* eawtic iaanaa. Onr attoa. 
ttaai ia tedbly diractod to the attnation of the natiant 
the pa i o iy— . which i« not only attended with 
' wfciqg, but is aumatin m a imnediataly &uL 
dauMbl whether mf rluag, except laat in 
will be of aer«ioe in Mortening 
iu vioienoa. It ia of graat im> 
and bowela in a Jtealthy 
to diK and pargativni, 
dan of cither the bodily 
It daaa aat >ppov that o^>iuin, 
aftcd rnief in thia csom- 

I - — ■ that the employment uf atimo- 

laaca or cadtaato ai%fat bt poaitivaly ityanona. 

CHAP. III. 

We have amngud the idiopathic affections of the Vsssr 
•nental facuhiea in a acparate clst*. under the ilenomi. 
"•I»«a af Vfwaia ; for although we may eoocvi ve, that 



V the mental powavi. 
or any of the a ' 
plaint, and we 



20 



MEDICINE. 



frortice. they always depend upon some derangement of the 
^— "/""^ lirain, the instrument by which they are exercised, yet 
their phenomena are so peculiar, and the relation which 
exists between the corporeal and the intellectual part 
of our frame, is so ob>cure as to be altogether beyond 
our comprehension, at the same time that tlie two 
kinds of diseases require a tot illy different method of 
treatment. This part of m.edicine has unfortunately 
been much embarrassed, by the application of what has 
been tenned metaphysical rcdsoning, but which has in 
fact consisted of the use of certain ill defined and un- 
meaning phrases; the effect of which has often been, 
toprotUice the same confusion in the mind of the reader 
which must have existed in that of the writer. Another, 
and perhaps a still greater source of difficulty, in every 
thing that respects the pathology of insanity, has arisen 
from an unreasonable prejudice that has attached to 
certain opinions respecting the nature of the intellectual 
faculties, in consequence of their being supposed to be 
adverse to religion and morals. Respecting the real 
merits oT the doctrine of materialism, the one here al- 
luded to, we do not pretend to decide ; but we consider 
it a fair and legitimate object of philosophical inquiry, 
and it is one which is intimately connected with any 
hypothesis that we may form respecting the nature of 
the human powers, and their relation to the external 
world. It has not, however, any immediate or neces- 
sary connexion with pathology ; for whatever may be 
our opinion respecting the cause on which the faculties 
ultimately depend, we know that they are always ex- 
ercised through the intervention of the brain ; and with 
respect to the subject of insanity, it becomes an impor- 
tant practical question, whether the structural derange- 
ment of this organ corresponds, or is proportional to the 
mental disease. On this point, we are disposed to de- 
cide in the negative; for although we are informed, 
fiMm high authority, that whenever the brain has been 
accurately examined in cases of insanity, some disease 
in its structure may be detected, we are of opinion, that 
it frequently bears no proportion to the violence of the 
complaint, while, on the contrary, we have equally nu- 
merous cases of great destruction, or disorganization of 
the brain, without a corresponding injury of the facul- 
ties. 
Arrange- Insanity has been divided into different genera and 

■lent of species ; but we think it sufficient to consider it under 
genera aiij two forms only — that where the faculties are prevented, 
•pccie.!. j,p,j f[,gj where they are, in a greater or less degree de- 
stroyed ; the first constituting Mania, the latter Amen- 
tia. Although the phenomena of Mania are familiar to 
every one, botli professional and unprofessional, yet 
there is perhaps no disease which it is so difficult to de- 
fine, and the existence of which it is often so difficult to 
ascertain. The question of Insanity frequently comes 
to be discussed in courts of law, and we perpetually ob- 
serve men of the most acute discernment and extensive 
information differ in their opinion upon particular cases 
that are subjected to their judgment. This in fact de- 
)}ends upon a circumstance, which may appear suffi- 
ciently mortifying, that there are really no exact limits 
by which insnnity can be separated from that state of 
mind which is deemed sufficiently sound to enable a 
person to transact the usual affiiirs of life. The most 
lamentable weakness of judgment, and the most singu- 
lar perversion of the reasoning powers, unless exercised 
. in a certain way, which is dangerous to the existence of 
the patient, or those about him, pass by as not differing 
from the condition of the rest of mankind except in de- 
gree ; and it u frequently from some accidental circum- 
»tauce connected with it, that it acquires the name of 



disease, and subjects the patient to restraint and con- Practice, 
iinement. It is indeed usually more from the degree of — /— -" 
the affection than any thing specific in its nature, that 
our judgment is ultimately formed, and rather by a de- 
tailed history of the circumstances of the case, and by 
comparing the present with the former state of the pa- 
tient, than by any single diagnostic circumstance, that 
we finally decide. 

There are several varieties of mental derangement Varietio.- 
which it is important to attend to ; the first and most 
equivocal kind is that wliich consists in extreme caprice, 
or irritability of temper, and is the most difficult to dis- 
criminate from a sound state of the mind, as passing in- 
to it by shades that are absolutely insensible. Another 
variety is, where tlie disposition and habits undergo a 
complete change, which is independent of external cir- 
curastances, or of moral causes ; a state that is often 
characterized by the mind becoming exclusively devot- 
ed to some one object, which is at one time of the most 
important, and at another of the most trifling nature, 
but stdl not decidedly beyond the limits of what may 
be considered as the result of rational deduction. From 
these we proceed to that variety of the disease where 
there is a complete perversion on one or two points, 
while on every other subject the mind retains its full 
powers ; and from this we glide insensibly into that de- 
plorable condition of the human nature, where tlie un- 
derstanding is entirely deranged — where the individual 
is unconscious of the effect of his actions, and almost 
insensible to the impressions of surrounding objects 
upon the organs of sense. 

Besides the difficulty which so frequently exists re- Nfan»g«- 
specting the actual presence of the disease, other equal- °i""- 
ly embarrassing points come under the cognizance of 
the physician. The first of these respects the question, 
whether the state of the patient requires his being re- 
moved from his friends, and whether the symptoms 
are such as to render him a proper inmate of a public 
asylum. As a general rule, we conceive it to be clear- 
ly established, that the patient is always best managed 
by those whose business it is to take care of the in- 
sane; and in a great majority of instances it seems 
that recovery is more promoted by the patient being 
removed from his accustomed abode, than by any plan 
which can be pursued, while he is surrounded by the 
scenes with which he had been previously familiar. 
The unpleasant association which must attach to a re- 
sidence in a lunatic asylum is no doubt an objection to 
the removal, and formerly, while these institutions 
were regarded rather as places for coercion than for 
medical treatment, every one must have felt anxious to 
avoid the painful necessity of subjecting a friend or a 
relation to their cruel discipline. The enlightened 
spirit of the present age has, however, happily reform- 
ed the greatest part, if not the whole, of this system, 
and has thus not only rescued a large portion of our 
fellow-creatures from unmerited suffering, but has 
afforded them the prospect of a restoration to the bless- 
ings of health and the comforts of society. 

In this brief sketch, we shall not enter into any de- t'ure. 
tail respecting the means of curing insanity. One of 
our first objects must be to inquire into the exciting 
cause, and if possible to remove it; we are next to 
examine the condition of the system generally, and of 
the circulation in particular, whether there be any de- 
viation from the healthy state, which we may have it 
in our power to relieve. Beyond this we have perhaps 
no general principles on which to proceed. The diges- 
tive organs are always to be carefully attended to, and 
ia females we are minutely to watch the state of the 



MEDICINE. 



M 



Yttxif uUrinc fiioction*. The employment of the T«rioui 
**^''"~' in««m of dcplnion '» to he re««l«t«l entirely by cir- 
eyMWt*i»ce». •nd the "amr - tiat be m««leM tothe 

tMeofttimuUnUor tecii' for the mo»t ptrt, 

lhecur»CM«ilolb«iieeoi«piiT>eij ny the mere iweof medi- 
cine, imirpefKlent aTtfrnrnml tmmnmemmt or moral di»- 
cipiine. Every th'mg tiimemn to |jro»e. thM vtoience and 
hanhne** are as ««rit« •• they «re inhuman ; that roiv- 
■mint » only M far proper, as to ptweM Iha patient 
I injurtn;; himself, or those ai wmi Mm ; thai we 
: reipwd the in«sne as mtiilr«l to all lh« privilevea 
of huiMMii J ; ami that. wSm the nmtan'mf powers 
mn not too (ar pervenr>i. ihry may. in a majority of 
caM«, be rMtomI, by trratinjt the patient with • d«e 
mixture tit Kcntleiteas and irauMsa, and by •MCapyiug 
him with such pwrMiita aa mmf enmc* hb Htm wkh- 
oat h«rMd*« then. The care of Aiaeniia is awv* h^»> 
of Mania : it marc Avqucntly dependa 



opon m obvieos aMMniral srectton of tho fanin, and U 
mere fteonenlly either eonnaie, oethe eCectof ■erne ir- 
T— adioHeinjorT. The t i Mi ms t ia the ( 



tha 



■ny 



fiwboch 
speciai^ NNiMd there is m osMt UmM 
i; to that in tha aama patient, thay ( 
their appaaranoa at diibrent periodaoftha 
or fH*<W imtMibijr ini* tMk athar. It may ba 
»ed, that tha ptOfiMMia la HMee Miflwomahla whan tfta 
aihctien ia hereditary, or when it canaa on wkhont 
amr oheious caaaa ; whil^ on tha coalrary, tha 
wMdl oBWiist of what ia 
violeM dalirinn, nn mora cwily laUaeod 
aacn to depcftd apan nMre waakMam* 
a dhBimittaa rather thM esena af 
Witit iwpect to the o pat ati aa of partSoilar laaa iU ai ia 
Imanity. we may remark that Mtadfec ia nrt to ba ■■• 
ployed, nerpt there ba soom i mln ali un of iia naa from 
Iha tiaaa af tha cirailation. It duaa not appear to haea 
ipeoMe effect ««ar tha 4baaM: and aailMw avi ba 
diigianfW to tha pratoiion. than tha i nAwaii i- 
nn an nff Jnirhirti h -m ■■ i n'"' ■— " — T^'^'f 
In oar fln« pablie aMbliahMMnfc Tbaimna'ab. 

■My ba aMda nmmHmg all tha other evi 
which aaa aniy ID ba had laeaafaa 10 wl 
hi tha state of tha Amatiaos 
to call fSgr thair ampli y ian t . Opiwo, 
» aodk h«l ihairodaoMlao. as 
bath, tha MlieBtiaaar«aM ndar 

: btttitHw ba d oabtadwhatharanyf y dac id ad 

It ooghl to Va aspeoMi Aoa thaaB,orat laart aora 

what caabainppoiad to ii p ind open thair aiact 

fapwanotjagthaaf teaftha^aniw lh aalth. Ma^ of 

tha iiiliM of thoiiiniiiilifin, 
anijr partial, ao aa to Maea tha 
pallHitniatitiialian tobacanadanaaf what waa pom- 

h— at baa ttf i li ntaJ I ll y to tha iwa—— ana afctoaf 





n,. 



Wai 



CHAP, nr, 

Fitratnpie: 
I. Djfi pt pm a . JmJ ig ttl iom. 
a to aor fowtfa daae af 



bid aflections that are concerned in the function of nu- Prsetic^. 
triuon, of which the most important are the stomach, ^^i""^ 
the io'estinal canal, the liver, and the absorbent sys> 
trm. The first of the four orders into which we divide 
thta elass, consittJ of diseases of the stomach and its 
I, of which we begin by an account of Dys* 
"Dyspepsia, or Indigestion, as it is popularly 
tetimed. is a complaint that is infinitely diversifiad in ita 
symptooM, and depends upon a great variety of causes, 
aooa ooanactrd with the »tructure and cumpoaition of 
the parts, and others with their functions, independent 
of any visible alteration. It is a complaint which does 
not run throogh any regular course, or observe any 
ttniform pregrcaa, but cunsisls in a number of morbid 
which sacMid or aooompany each other, as it 
aaaraly fraaa incidan ta l circumstances. Among 
I ay aapt o Mi a of Dyspepsia, we may enu- 
tha Mlowira: loaa of appetite, or somatimea 
tha oontrarv suta ofan acute feeling of hunger, while 
tha sinniain is incapable ol' digesting the food that has 
been teeairad into &, naiuaa, vomiting, pain uf the sto* 
or Iha opposite state of clisrrhaea, 
of tha faeal diicliarges, flatulence, 
aad-ache. and a furred appear- 
of tha tongne; a drcoaastaoca which aflurds the 
of the most cartain imlications of tha 
state of the padant. and tiblaa turn to form his pra|> 
ooaia. Tha ilisaaw ia not aOandtd with fever, nor u 
tha polaa naeaMarily aiac ta d, until it be ao firma tha 
which iamdooad when it isof loagatandiof, 
tha powafa af the body begin to fail from 
of nattriahownt. It is observed that the 
heonoactod with, or influenced 
b^. tha oanditkn af tha atoatoch; so that the same in- 
dividual, who paaaacMa tha aoat aativa and chaerAil 
disposition while tha digaitiea Qr§/nt» arv fraa from op- 
tifossion. after a fkll maal b aceMia languid, melancho- 
lic, and drapundin^. Tha a iciti n g oausas of Dyspep- 
iia an aa varioos aa tha aspect* which the di«casr as- 
Every other tliaaaae which in an^ way influ- 
tha Mate of the general hralih, may induce Dys- 
pspsia ; all violent mental emotions, especially those of 
a aipiiasing kind ; sedentary habiu, or exercise carried 
to the length of exhaustion ; and, what is tlie most frc- 
' tha one which produce* the most ur- 
symptoma, a luxurious diet, or 
aaraly too graat rapkdon ; and eepadally the exces- 
aiva iMa of fsiai anted or spinioua li«|uors. The ha- 
hitnal antplajroMnl of opium or tobaooo aaems to act 
varjr nnfiivmiably npon tha diyartiva ofgaaa i and, in 
■hart, whatever may baaappaaadafthwtodiariniih tha 
tM powers, or to produoa their irrtgolar action, ftv- 
noantly aMHiifesU iu injurioua eflecte through the mc« 
iimm af tha stoaach. Another data of causes which 
tlte digestion, ara ihoM that consist in some 
of the various chylopoetic viscera, aa 
ifiTirtt*T inianimation, eootractitm, or schirrus of tha 
■tetoach itaalf, which ■■■ally oecnra aboot tha pylorus ; 
afc ctjanaof tha iplc e a end fttwm ; and whatever im- 
pcdes the due aecratian of iba bila, ar iU diacharga into 
the alimentary cnnaL 

Tha indicationa of cure to baobearrad in Dyspepaia Trcatmsab 
ara enlHciently obvioua, but tha aaoamplialmMnt of 
them ia often very difficult ; and perhaps, in a iiMJori- 
ty of caaacb we are rather to practice with a view to ob- 
viate paiticwiar synptonw, than in pros ecu tion of any 
Our first obiect miut be to ascer- 
wbethcr there be any structural dis- 
or ibe digestive organs, a circua* 



quant Gam 
■ant and 



*'"' general ptindplea. 

diaai«,thaaa tain, if paaWe, v 
idhwthaaav. MMflftb*M«B« 



22 



MEDICINE. 



Vrictlte. itance which must materially influence our treatment, 
■^^^(-^ and still more our prognosis ; for while we may hope 
to relieve tlie most obstinate djspeptic symptoms, as 
long as the structure of the part is unimpaired, so our 
prospect of success must always be very small on the 
contrary supposition. In this latter case, the disease 
is to be regarded as entirely symptomatic, and, until 
the primary affection be removed, not only would most 
of the remedies that are proper for Dyspepsia be useless, 
but probably even injurious. When we have reason to 
suppose that the affection of the stomach is altogether 
independent of the structural disease, our first object 
is to inquire into the habits and modes of life of the pa- 
tient, and especially into the nature of the diet; and, 
for the most part, we shall find that, by a proper regu- 
lation of these points, the most urgent symptoms tnay 
be relieved even more effectually than by the exhibi- 
tion of the most powerful medicines. Yet painful and 
distressing as the complaint is, so much so as to destroy 
all the comforts of life, and even to render existence it- 
self a burden, so inveterate are the habits of self-indul- 
gence, and so unable is the patient to resist the calls of 
a pampered appetite, craving for its accustomed grati- 
fications, that we too frequently find all our admoni- 
tions to be in vain, and our advice to be totally ne- 
glected. With respect to other remedies, the numbers 
that have been employed, and the various forms in 
which they have been administered, to accomodate the 
taste or the caprice of the patient, are almost infinite ; 
but we may arrange them under the three heads of 
evacuants, stomachics, and tonics. It generally hap. 
pens that the intestines are either torpid or in an un. 
natural state, and there is perhaps no instance of DyB« 
pepsia, of all the numbers that fall under our care, in 
which we shall not find it highly beneficial to com> 
mence with active purgatives. They will be frequent- 
ly found to supersede the whole tribie of carminatives, 
antispasmodics, and antacids, which have been so li- 
berally prescribed in this complaint, and will lay the 
best foundation for the subsequent use of stomachics 
and tonics. It would not be consistent with the na- 
ture of this treatise to enter into any account of the 
particular medicines or combinations of them, which 
may be adapted to the various symptoms or conditions 
of the disease, but we generally think it desirable to em- 
ploy them in a simple form and in small doses, and 
rather to rely upon a change in the external circum- 
stances, which may be conceived likely to promote the 
general health, than upon the administration of any 
particular article of the materia medica. Country air 
and exercise, temperance in diet, avoiding the oppres- 
sive cares of business ; and, we may add, as what is 
scarcely less necessary, the unreasonable pursuits of 
pleasure, are the grand remedies for Dyspepsia; and 
we conceive that no mie who has given them a full 
trial, and has experienced the relief which is obtained 
from them, will be disposed to relapse into those luxu- 
rious habits, from which it is so difficult, in the first 
instance, to wean the patient. 

Among the remedies which are of the most decided 
benefit in Dyspepsia, next to purgatives, and after they 
have performed their full effect, we may place the tribe 
of stomachics, consisting of the simple bitters, of which 
perhaps the most efficient are gentian and quassia ; and 
of those substances which seem to consist essentially of 
a bitter and an aromatic, of which we should select ca- 
lomba and cusparia, as the most generally useful. Of 
the tonics, perhaps the most powerful in strengthening 
the digestive powers, is the union of one of the stoma* 

7 



chics with iron : for simple pain of the stomach, the Practice, 
oxide of bismuth has been recommended upon high au- """""Y""^ 
thority j but we apprehend that the complaint in 
which this medicine has been found so efficacious, is 
rather to be considered as a species of Autalgia, than 
the pain which is symptomatic of Dyspepsia. A very 
valuable medicine, and one which is applicable to every 
form of the disease, is the carbonate of potash ; it ap- 
pears not only to neutralize any acid which may exist 
in the stomach, but so to regulate the process of diges- 
tion as to prevent its formation ; and it has been found, 
that it may be taken for months or years if necessary, 
without producing any kind of injurious effect. An 
irregular state of the alimentary canal is almost a con- 
stant attendant upon Dyspepsia, and altiiough it general- 
ly produces constipation, it occasionally manifests itself 
'n the opposite state of diarrhoea. Except in very pro- 
tracted cases, or where there is reason to suspect some • 
structural derangement, this symptom generally yields 
to a cautious exhibition of purgatives, together with a 
due attention to the state of the diet ; and without any 
specific treatment the bowels acquire their proper tone, 
as the system returns to its healthy state. Astringents 
we conceive to be seldom necessary, and for the most 
part injurious ; diaphoretics, particularly opium com- 
bined with ipecacuanha, are frequently found benefit 
cial, and this may be regarded as the best form of giv- 
ing opium, where pain or any other symptom indicates 
its employment ; it must always be preceded or accom- 
panied by mild purgatives. 



Sect. II. Diabetes. 

Next to Dyspepsia we have placed Pyrosis and Pica Pyrosis and 
in our list of diseases, which depend upon a defect of P'ca- 
the digestive organs ; the former of them consisting in 
the eructation of a watery fluid from the stomach, at- 
tended with pain, heart-burn, and flatulence ; the latter 
in a species of perverted appetite, by which the patient 
is seized with an almost unconquerable desire of eating 
indigestible substances, that are not properly articles of 
food. Although these are usually considered by sy»> 
tematic nosologists to be distinct diseases, and occa- 
sionally occur almost unconnected with any other 
symptoms, yet we are induced to regard them as mere 
modifications of Dyspepsia; and, with respect to their 
treatment, we have little to offer in the way of general 
principles that has not been stated in the preceding 
section. We shall merely remark that Pyrosis is gene- 
rally supposed to originate from the habitual use of 
an indigestible diet, which must of course be attended 
to in the cure, and that Pica is commonly found to be 
connected with a torpid state of the uterine system, as 
well as of the digestive organs. 

The next disease which we have placed in this divi. Diabetes, 
sion is Diabetes, an affection of a very peculiar nature, 
and which, both with respect to its origin, its proxi- 
mate cause, and its treatment, has given rise to much 
controversy. Its most remarkable symptoms are a 
great increase in the quantity of urine, a voracious 
appetite, a stoppage of the cutaneous perspiration, 
thirst, emaciation, and great muscular debility. The 
urine is not only prodigiously increased in its quantity, 
but likewise has its composition completly changed; 
the substance named urea, which it contains in the 
healthy state, is entirely removed, or exists in very 
small proportion, while in its stead we find a large 
quantity of a body possessing the physical and cherat- 



MEDICINE. 



f3 



lft*e\-tt. 



\Tbether diabetic difiMSM- 
lu^ar, i« to be regarded more 



nl propettiM of sunr. 

MHliaU* Aval vageuinle iugar, i« w iw rvKsrucu wmm 

m a chMiral qnestion, than m what in any reapcct 



•«»P**a^gr 



or Mtr practice; and it 
whether there be a 



baa haan a 

DiabalM 
the iaiiiMid ilitrliar||a af wiac, tife voracioaa 
t, and th* ^arbid Mate af the akin, but where 
' eoalai* aiifar. There ia much ob- 
tht flrisi'i of Diabalaa; it I 
paper diet, to tha aac of 
MqMn. t» larne'quantitica of watery fwda, to an^ 
to ceU during perspiraaaa, to viotant asatCMe, 
to aojr tain( which Wfkt ba aappoaad 
■jUBM gaMnBjT. or Ih* d i g aa ri f 



likaiy to waakan the mtoto gaM 
oqiaiw •■ partioalar. It daea net, 

M to aatilla it to ha 
/oTthato 

or briaf llinto 

«.Ww«.ar u 1i » i «» »di«tfc« 




■Hi athas to a priaarjr diaeHa af the kidoMr. Upon 
tha wfaak «• eoneeiva that tha fcf ir ia bjr <ar the 
oMat pmbdila HppeAiaa i far akha^h iha •■■■<■»> 
tian af tha had* after dlth haa datoatod a ■lahM 
Mito af *• kUbeya. thi* we ihaald aacriba to tha 
aiaat iliitiiii hi the qoaad^r Md aaalito aT the 



Aaid which paaMi t h iaa g h thaai. rather ttMa have tm- 

I to theidaa that aajr dtaa«a in tha aacMling «a>- 

aab aftha kidney »«M pradaea Mdk a aaaiftato p». 

WMawafthaaetiaaaofeaary pattaftha niliai 

D iiiiaM h m, fdhim, nr ipi T i » — aaal a hawaf 

oiMaiatfaMaaaMMtodwMi ha 



which might have been apprehended. The old atethod Crseticr. 
of treating the campUint, and the one which ia still '""Y"^ 
oAcn bad reconrae to, ia by astringents of various kinds, 
to which opium is often conjoined ; and of the efficacy 
of this practice we have many flattering accounts, but 
frasn its total &ilure on other occasions, we suspect 
that the alledged caaes have either not been proper 
Diabetea, or that the medical attendants have hastily 
caogfat at aooa (kttari^g appaarancea of amendment, 
and mistaken them for a radical cnre. Upon the 
whole, we believe that where the urine was in large 
quantity and highly iaocharine, where Bulimia eziated 
in any ooBaidarabia dMrae, and where the cutaneous 
panpiration was abolished, no cure has ever been ao> 
campliriied. With respect to the treatment whidi may 
afiird the beat chance of tuccras, or which may poaaibly 
remove the complaint in its incipient state, we should 
recuramend that a moderate bleeding be premised, and 
that a diet bfc employed of which vegetable matter 
abould faai enl^ a amall piwpert i on ; at the same time 

ly aiiiiiiiilMai v^gatohle tonics, and may endea- 
vour to raalare the natural action of the skin by dia- 

- and the «a 



Gear. 



Gaat any ba chnactociiad m a diiaaM which recurs Podagra. 
Miaiaiiy aaaantiaUy in the pain of one 
W the lallrr joints of the hands or feet, moat 
only ef the gratf tae, which is attended with 



III. 



end aweOiqgaf tha 



loeal alJMliaa ia preceded by a atatooTgcn** 
nailiuii. and aaiiei iaily by various dyrprptic 
1 1 and we aanaUy find that, when the inflaaa- 



ta tha 



f. by 



ahmaa \ 

I tat ene into wMeh 
kuaadienC led to the idea that by 

laaithadiei 
'at the laid ai%hl he 
It waa aneawinglT (auad 
llMCt ky ampiayiag a aaaiplate aMmal diit, tha ea^v 
waa aa Mgar praoacai t end it waa i 

». the dis 




ia the cxtnaaitiee, the itianarh ba< 
ia e ed. The pariMMfiai came on at uncertain 
and AaqaaBtlir wilhaat any obvious exciting 
bnt it ia faaanUy oannaKed with an hereditary 
, and ia a c ar cal y ever met with exoeot 
ia the higher ruiks of life ; and for tne 
■eat part, whan net hereditary, may be clearly traced 
to habita of iasnry end aelf- indulgence. When Gout 
eaiala in a well marked farm, that* ia no difficulty in 
diatingaiahtug t (Wan all other aCtction* ; it is easily 
raeogniaed by the state of the atoeBach, the part which 
ia aMded. and the nature of the pia ilniiiMim and ex> 
citiim cease ; tmt in iu more imgukr waiai, it i» apt 
to he eanCninilfxl with KheumatiiB, and it aiaaeii ia> 
dead, that the two diteaM^ are aooMtitoM fffrnwimd in 
the Mtoe aauant. In tboac who are pre-dispoaed to 



■aa MHi ainaa piapaaad, and 
Natwithatandnig the 
pawAa, and the ditf 
t tha aaaraaa af debilitv, very cefgeaa Meed. 
I haan aMpleyad, and if not with tooah haa^ 
it, at VmA without that aggravataoo cf iha 





Gaat, it aim ba cinted by Miy thing which producea 
an increaaed acticm in the part, aa by eicesaive exercise, 
by a strain er a bruise, bat in thtwe who inherit the 
diaeaac, or who have onoa aafcrad severely fVnm it, we 
eAen ftnd it impoaaible to deted any aaaignable cause 
§ar the paroxysm. The bet that Gout never attacks the 
pear, while even a canaiiliribU proportion of the 
wealthy ate mat»orleseaat;)ecttoit, is known to every 
one^ and haa neoaaaarily given rise to much speculation 
ri a pfctiBg both ita prt-diaposing an<l its pn xmiate 
caan. It is net very eaay to determine U) « hich uf the 
tai w i to si a n cea that aHach to the condition of the rich 
it* predaction ie to be attributed ; mere excess in c«t- 
ing. although it produces stomach oomplamti, does not 
generatv that specific state of the digestive organs wliicb 
give* riac to Gout, nor do we find that the abaaa of far* 
m«-nt<:<l or ipiritous liquors, which is to ""—'nw uaaam 
the lower claiac*, subjccu them to this complaint It 



24 



MEDICINE. 



Trteticc. 



TjrifliM. 



would appear that it depends upon the combined ope- 
ration of luxurious habits of various kinds, of which, in- 
dulgence in the gratifications of the table, and the want 
of a due quantity of bodilj' exercise, are probably the 
most important. 

Besides the regular forms of the disease, where it 
occurs in paroxysms, that alternate with, or succeed 
to complaints of the stomach, and leave the patient in 
perfect health during the intervals, tliere are other va- 
rieties of the disease, in some of which the different 
stages exhibit considerable irregularity, both with re- 
spect to their degree of violence, and the order of their 
succession ; in one of these, which is called retrocedent, 
or repelled Gout, after the disease has settled upon the 
joints of the extremities, it suddenly leaves the part, 
and attacks some of the internal viscera, the brain, the 
lungs, the heart, or the stomach ; and if not relieved 
by the appropriate remedies, may suddenly prove fa- 
tal, by preventing these organs frtim performing their 
ordinary functions. The regular Gout is not a disease 
which is usually considered as productive of danger to 
the life of the patient; but it materially impairs his com- 
forts and utility, for the fits generally increase upon 
him, both in their violence and their duration, so that 
at length he is doomed to pass a considerable part of 
his time under their influence, while the joints, by the 
repeated attacks of inflammation, become distorted, or 
nearly immoveable. The irregular Gout, although pro- 
ductive of less urgent symptoms, and of little or no 
injury to the joints, has the effect of imbittering the 
life of the patient, by an almost constant state of in- 
disposition ; and it has a peculiar tendency to induce a 
distressing lowness of spirits, and a feeling of despond- 
ency, which are more intolerable than acute pain. 
Stale or the The phenomena of Gout werefoimerly regarded as 
tu\<ii. affording the most direct evidence of the theory of the 
humoral pathologists, in which a morbific matter exists 
in the fluids, is capable of being conveyed from one 
part of the body to another, and manifesting its pre- 
sence in them by its appropriate symptoms. Palpable, 
however, as this conclusion was conceived to be, the mo- 
dern pathologists have denied the existence of this mor- 
bific matter, of which it has been said that no evidence 
exists, except what is derived from the symptoms of the 
disease ; anil these, they have asserted, might be better 
explained upon other principles. The researches of the 
modern chemists have, however, given some plausibili- 
ty to the doctrine of the humoralists, by discovering 
thai gouty urine contains an unusually large proportion 
of lithic acid ; and as the same substance has been 
found exuding from the joints, in combination with so- 
da, it would seem to follow, that the general mass of 
the circulating fluids are impregnated with it. But 
although the fact must be interesting,*both in a patho- 
logical and a practical point of view, it cannot be con- 
sidered as throwing much light upon the proximate 
cause of Gout, as we have still to inquire how the pre- 
sence of the lithic acid can produce the peculiar affec- 
tion of the stomach, why it is transferred from the sto- 
mach to the joints, why it particularly attacks the small 
joints of the extremities, why the general and local 
symptoms alternate with each other, and, in short, what 
connexion or relation it bears to the ordinary symptoms 
■of the disease. 
Treatment. The treatment of Gout has. varied very much at dif- 
ferent times, according to the prevalence of particular 
ttiedical theories, or the pathological doctrines that have 
been enteruined respecting the nature of the complaint. 
While all diseases were regarded as salutary efforts of 



nature, the paroxysm of Gout was considered rather as Praetin 
a curative operation which was to be induced or pro- *"""'Y"~' 
moted by the practitioner, than as a morbid condition 
of the system which it was his business to remove. 
Accordingly, all our attempts were more calculated to 
increase, than to diminish tlie inflammation of the joints, 
by the application of warmth, and by the use of stimu- 
lating diet and medicines ; and even during the inter;, 
vals of the fits, so great was the apprehension of the 
mischief that might arise from checking the efforts of 
the vis medicalrix, that nothing was attempted more 
than a mere palliative plan, which was generally alto- 
gether inert. Of late, however, we have ventured up- 
on a more active practice, and we have not hesitated 
to oppo.se the regular progress of the disease, or even 
to counteract the natural actions of the system. We 
administer brisk purgatives to clear the alimentary ca- 
nal, we attempt to moderate the inflammation of the 
joints, if not by the application of cold, at least by the 
abstraction of heat; and we occasionally employ bleed- 
ing, either general or topical, and enjoin the strict an- 
tiphlogistic regimen. To what extent this plan is to be 
pursued, must be left to the discretion of the practi- 
tioner, as determined by the urgency of the case ; while 
we have ample evidence of its safety, when judiciously 
employed, we are to bear in mind that the inflamma- 
tion of Gout is of a specific kind, and that the imme- 
diate danger of the disease consists in its being repelled 
from the extremities to the internal viscera. After we 
have carried the depleting system as far as is thought 
proper or necessary, opium, either alone or in combi- 
nation with ipecacuanha, will be found useful for re- 
moving irritation, and bringing back the functions in- 
to their ordinary state. When the fever and inflamma- 
tion have subsided, we shall probably find a course of 
bitters and stomachics necessary to strengthen the di- 
gestive organs, and to prevent the recurrence of that 
state which lays the foundation for future attacks of the 
disease. But this object, which is even of greater im- 
portance than the cure of the individual paroxysm, is 
to be attempted more by regulating the habits of the 
patient, than by the employment of any particular ar- 
ticle of the materia medica ; provided the constitution 
be not too much impaired, and the alteration be not 
too hastily adopted, we find that, by e.xchanging a life 
of gluttony and indulgence, for one of temperance and 
activity, we are generally able to accomplish the desir- 
ed efltect. Simple, however, as this plan may appear, 
it is but seldom that the practitioner is able to put it 
into execution ; for so wedded are the patients to their 
accustomed indulgencies, that they shut their ears to 
the salutary counsels of their medical attendants, and 
voluntarily resign themselves to pahi and disease, in 
preference to health and comfort, when they are to 
be purchased by the renunciation of their luxurious 
habits. 

An important circumstance yet remains to be noticed Specific for 
respecting the cure of Gout, the discovery of a medi- B*"'- 
cine which is supposed to have a specific effect upon 
the disease, so as to remove it by a kind of operation 
which we cannot refer to any general principles. The 
medicine was introduced into practice in the form of a 
secret recipe, but it appears to be ascertained that its 
essential ingredient is the colchicum autumnale. This 
is one of those substances which, when taken in a large 
quantity, prove highly deleterious; but in moderate 
doses it may be taken without danger, and usually 
operates by producing an evacuation either from the 
bowels, the kidney, or the skin. It affords ahnost a 



MEDICINE. 



25 



rractlM. uaiqM nunple of « remedy beiiv; introduced into 
"■■■" i^^ {wsctice under an empirical form, which miuntained iu 
reputation after it« compoatton had been detected; 
for we leem to be in pow wrim of the moet unequivocal 
evidence ofiu power, both in prercnting and reniov. 
mg the goaty paroxym. Sometimes the aalutary ef- 
fect enaue* without any ienaible operation, but gene- 
rally the benefit is more apparent, and there ia «up- 
poaed to be Icm danger ef any deletcrioua action on the 
vital powers when Mme kind of evacuation haa taken 
l^aoe. Caiea have oocnrred, in which, by giving the 
medicine in too laq^e a quantity, or in an improper 
■tale of the i^Mem, it appmrs to have pntduced ahniMt 
the rr-— i<i^*« deatractian of life ; but by uang the 
pnper precaotiana, we conceive that the colcnicum 
may be adminirtered with tafety and advantage. 

Sscr. IV. Cack€»it. Scnfidm. 

fcnMbu In the order of the Cmetmdm we ihall find aome of 
dw owrt finudable diaeMca which attack the huoMn 
,boliiftaBtheexta«tof the nuachief which they 
and the little power which our mnedie* 
rcr tham. The flnt that we atttll notice ia 
fttla, U> which, aa indicating it* pia Miinwrly bcH^ 
ibl inf uenoe, the name of et</ haa been populiriy i^ 
plied. The term acrafula haa, we think, bMn uaed in 
too vague a nunner. ao ai to include a vwioty of ano- 
■aloua aflcctjons which have little CMinwion either in 
thohr aeat, their ejiftMiH, or their tenunetiaa. We 
•eac rioe that it o«ght to to reatnctod priaHrily to an 
■fcctioii of the eb a e i b e u t glende, ■radudng. in the 

aatioB, afte r w awl a a herdwied or a—pertid Male of 
them, in which they are ao la»gm able to 
thdre iMMuiei atefttn ct ie n a; 



ttnmtM with a peculiar train of mnplHaa, which tat- 
foHidy diatinguiah it from all oUWr iiiJM atuij t£- 



hiMrd 
nd, laitlyi 



ScnAile ia a diierne which mpacian^ 
ocftaincDBKitntiaaaor habiti of body ; the i 
it arc gcnanUy p—ma of bir akint nd mi 
y i ei iwia. and fiinjaaidy poaaem graat deUcaey of teU 



mg end brilliancy ef mental powan, indicatmg what 
haa been termed the aamraiae temperaoMnt. Ita firM 



aa It wert^ to 



mvaMM la during cl>ilrll>onrt ; it m 
|k* period of puboty; and after the adok ^, if the 
VMe can bear up to loqg egaimt k» nn^m, it gradn> 
a&y dadinca. It uauaUy makes iu firat «onMee ia 
dw glanda of the neck, where it ftnna larpe fngfsd 
olcars, that are very Stkak to heal, but whicnare 
oAan productive of no iaeanveniancc, acept the «»• 
aldlMlr Man which they leave behind them. It h« 
Bead been wipyoaed that the diacfaane ftmn thoM 
ukan M favoartttte to the gtnenl heuth, by giviiy 

bumoor, which otherwiae 
anna imneiiiiencai, by af- 
_ I vital oeigaa ; "Wt ihii «minion we are di*. 

poi^d'to regard aa dmived from a tkbe theory, and aa 
not m n c t ion ed by experienoe. Other glandnlar parta 
arc. however, often aflccted, which arc move conotmed 
in the ciardae of the vital fiuictiana, of which ihoae of 
the maaentery. or other part* more immediately can> 
■acted with the vital organ* arc the moat important. 
Aen these beoocDe the aufajecU of ScraAda, tiiey prove 
•Mtmctive to health, by preventing the dae aopplv of 
diyle, and induce a Hwcim of atrophy or tabea, which 
i« diaracterised by a bald and tumid abdomen, and by 
the eumne emanation of the iace and extremitiea. It 
is odir this ftem that ScraAila provca iatal. 

VOL. IIT. PART I. 



It is now generally agreed that it i» not a contagious Prictico. 
disease ; that it is endemic in those countries which ."'"!"Y""^ 
have a damp and cold atmosphere ; that its exciting '^^'■'■"C 
cause is improper food, impare air, want of exercise, 
and a deficiency of clotbin)^ ; and that these causes 
act the moat powerfully upon the individuals who are 
predisposed by an bere<iitary taint, or by previous 
weakiiesa, but from the influence of which probably no 
one is entirely exempt. We have stated Scrofula to 
consist e s s e n tially in a disease of the absorbent glands, 
and we believe that, in evcrv inatance, ita commence- 
ment may l>e traced to an aflactian of these organs, but 
it frequently happens that in the pro nrem of the com- 
plaint, glands of other deacriptioaa D oecm e diaea a ed. 
and even parts which are not ^andular; two of the 
most frequent of these varieties are certain affections of 
the evca and of the bonea. How far these should be 
strictly called Scrofula, or whether they mif^ht not, with 
more propriety, be considered as distinct diaeaaea 
brought into action by Scrofula, is a question we aball 
not new diacuaa, The same remark applies to the 
longs, the glanda of which likewise frequently become 
afccted in Scrofula, and ^ive rise to the fatal disease of 
Phthisis pnlmonalis ; butthissffectionis oneof somuch 
iatportme^ and la charactcriaad by so many peculiar 
sympleni. that whatever may be our opinion respecting 
iu nosalogieal chanctar, we mast make it the subject 
of a diatfaict section. 

Many hypotheses have been formed respecting the Proiimtia 
prooiiinate causes of Scrofula, but we are disposed to rautc 
think, that they have thrown no real lieht either upon 
iu nature or its traalment ; indeed, with respect to the 
latter dreaoMlaBce, we conceive that the doctrines of 
the hamoral pathology, which Uught that Scrofula 
upon a morasfic matter existing in the blood, 
which waa to be corrected or removed by rigid abeti- 
nenoe, or by a long c«aHinii ed oaane of pur^^ve me. 
dicinee, was often productive of aerious injury. In- TrMiuMnt. 
JeedthemanMSiiinitof ScmAila, although so frecjuenU 
ly aa ot:;)eGt of the grmlmt inieiest to practitioners, is 
a point concsraiiy whiA the art of medidne haa yet 
aaade but little ainrancs^ and raapecting which we are 
atill leA in a stato of graat ignorance and unceruinty. 
It ia indeed sn ffi ciend y seeartalned that our great ob. 
ject naaat be to improve the general health, and every 
one will see the p r uy r iKy at carefully removing the 
anating oauae where it can be aacrrtainrd, hut iM^ond 
this we (ear we have little upon which we can build 
with the least degree of canidenoe. Whether it lie the 
caose or the efcct of the acrofuloua diapoaition, a de« 
tHtgod atalB of the a ll i asiHaiy canal ia a uaual attendant 
npoa the diaeaae, so that purgatives will be fm|uently 
Immd a naoesaary part or our treatment ; and in that 
variety, where the mescntary is pccoliariy afliMted, the 
torpor of the bowels often makes it necessary for na ^ 
emiiloy the most powerful drastics. The weekheaa of 
all the vital powers, which characterises the s<Tofulaua 
constitution, sugj^ests the employment of tonics ; and 
they have a ec u r uiij^y , nndv some fiirm or otlier, ge- 
nanlly made a part of every plan that haa been pro. 
posed for the core of the diamae; but the peculiar dis. 
poAion to inllawnation which belonn to the sanguine 
tonparament, and the liability wliidi local inflamma- 
tion haa, in thoae predisposed to it. to assume the 
scroAiloua aapect. always renders their employment 
critical. This remark applii-< particularly to cinchona 
and iron, whieh, under various forms, have been long 
prescribed as the crand remediea for this compUint, 
but which, althouf^ they may be bene6cial iu ootaia 




36 



MEDICINE. 



Prtcttee. states, where the system is exhausted by long continued 
'"-^^""^ disease, probably possess no specific power in counter- 
acting the scrofulous action, aud seem but little adapt- 
eil for tlie constitutions which are the most disposed to 
its attHcks. In a chronic affection, and in one of so ge- 
neral an operation, wc are naturally led to regard the 
cflcct of diet as an important agent in the re-establish- 
ment of the health ; yet on this point very opposite 
plans liave been adopted in the disease now under con- 
sideration, for, while a strict antiphlogistic system has 
been strongly enforced by some practitioners, others 
have equally insisted upon the importance of a nutri- 
tive and even a stimulating regimen. Both these ex- 
tremes we believe to be injurious, and on this point, as 
well as respecting the articles of the materia medica, 
we have jjerhaps no more explicit rules to guide us 
than that every thing should be directed towards the 
establishment of the general health; if the patient be 
languid and emaciated, we are to supply him with as 
much nourishment as the digestive organs will admit ; 
but if, on the contrary, he be of an inflammatory habit, 
we must proceed, although with caution, on the oppo- 
site system. The use of sea air, of sea bathing, and 
of the cold bath generally, respecting which so much 
has been said in Scrofula, may all be referred to the 
same principle. To the inhabitants of large towns, 
who generally pass their time in close apartments, and 
are immersed in smoke and impure air, the freshness of 
the sea breezes must be highly salutai-y ; but we appre- 
hend that there can be nothmg of a specific nature in 
the air of the sea, and that many inland situations are 
even preferable, as being less liable to dampness and 
moisture. For bathing, however, salt is perhaps al- 
ways preferable to tresh water, and it has been sup- 
posed tliat sea-water has a beneficial effect upon scrofu- 
lous ulcers as a local application, although the evidence 
for this opinion be not very decisive. In speaking of 
the remedies for Scrofula, we must not pass by in si- 
lence the alleged virtues of mercury, and especially of 
calomel, which has been held up as a kind of specific 
in that variety of the disease, where we suspect there 
to be a schirrous state of the mesenteric glands. How 
far mercurj', in any fonn, possesses the power of resolv- 
ing glandular tumours, we are scarcely prepared to de- 
cide, but we are much disposed to refer a great share 
of the benefit which has been gained by the use of this 
medicine merely to its power in promoting the opera- 
tion of the purgatives with which it is usually combin- 
ed. With respect to all the specifics that have been 
proposed for Scrofula, the acids, alkalies, earthy and 
metallic salts, and various vegetable extracts, we con- 
fess that we are extremely sceptical as to any benefit 
that has ever been derived from them. The manage- 
ment of the local affections, whether schirrous glands, 
ulcerations, enlargement of the bones, or in whatever 
form the disease makes its appearance, falls under the 
especial province of surgery ; we shall only remark 
concerning it, that their treatment appears as difficult 
and uncertain as in the constitutional form of the dis- 
ease; and that notwithstanding the numerous plans 
that have been brought before tlie public with so much 
conBdence, the cure of these complaints must still be 
considered as one of the great desiderata of the art. 

SiCT. V. PMhisls pulmonalis. Pulmonary Cotuumption. 

rbthUli. We have already referred to this complaint in the 

preceding Section, and have noticed its probable con- 
■exion with Scrofula ; but whatever be our opinion on 
5 



this point as a pathological question, it is a cdseasc Praetice, 
whJcn amply deser\'es to be made the subject of dis^ """V"^ 
tinct consideration. It is characterized by pain in the 
side or the ehest, attended with cough, dyspnoea, and 
with expectoration, which, as the disease advances, be- 
comes purulent. A febrile state is induced, which ul- 
timately terminates in acute hectic, while in the latter 
stages there is colliquative diarrhoea and profuse per- 
spiration, attended with excessive debility and emacia- 
tion. Although persons of the sanguine temperament 
are the most subject to this affection, yet it shows so 
powerful an hereditary tendency, that the children of 
phthisical parents, whatever constitution or tempera- 
ment they may possess, 5nd whatever may be their ap- 
parent vigour, are always liable to its attacks. Its ex- 
citing cause is in most cases to be traced to some cir- 
iiunistaiice which produces inflammation in the lungs, 
although where there is a decided hereditary dispo- 
sition, it is often very difficult to assign any imme- 
diate cause for its invasion. A great proportion of all 
the cases appear to originate from Catarrh, so tliat, in 
our moist and variable climate, where the excess of ci- 
vilization and refinement has tended to diminish the 
vigour of the natural constitution of the inhabitants, 
and where many of the modes of life are peculiarly 
adapted to render the body liable to suffer from the 
state of the atmosphere, I'hthisis may be regarded as 
the great scourge of the island. It lias been calculated 
that not less than 5.5,000 persons are annually destroy- 
ed by it, which, if we estimate the total population of 
England at 12,000,000, will not be very far short of 
TWO 3 P^*'* °f ^^^ whole population. When the disease 
exists in its fully formed state, its character is too well 
marked to admit of much doubt or uncertainty ; but as 
it often comes on in a very gradual manner, and super- 
venes upon the affections of the chest, it is sometimes 
difficult to decide upon its presence. The circumstmice 
which has been usuidly had recourse to, as forming the 
diagnosis, is the stater of the expectoration, whether it 
be mucous or purulent ; but as this is a point which 
cannot itself be, in all cases, very easily decided, va- 
rious tests have been employed for this purpose. Upon 
the whole, however, we conceive that an attention to 
the general condition of the patient, to his previous 
constitution and hereditary disposition, are more im- 
portant than any one symptom, and will generally en- 
able us to form a correct judgment. Although the state 
of the lungs in Phthisis has been carefully examined, 
and the appearances which they exhibit very minutely 
detailed, tliere still remains much uncertainty respect- 
ing the nature of the proximate cause, or of the man- 
ner in which the exciting causes produce the change 
of structure which the parts experience, ^^'hen we 
examine the limgs after death, we find them to be filled 
with hard tumours, called tubercles, which seem to be 
composed of indurated glands ; these are at first of an 
indolent nature, but they acquire the inflammatory state, 
and proceed to suppuration, when the hectic fever 
comes on, antl the disease assumes its characteristic- 
features. We have already spoken of the connexion 
which there appears to be between Scrofula and Phthisis, 
and the morbid appearances in the lungs may seem to 
confirm the idea of the connexion ; it must, however, be 
acknowledged, that the two affections do not bear any 
exact ratio to each other in the same individual, and 
even that some whole families are more disposed to 
Scrofula and others to Phtliisis. 

With respect to the treatment of Phthisis, we have Treatment, 
little to ofl'er, except a melancholy narrative of the 



MEDICINE. 



27 



' all the jhm that have b««i prMentecl to the 

lie indeed to thcMewhohavewitncMed the condition 

«o vliidi the lung* are mhwad, after tbey have ex- 
' the ravage* of tilia emnpkiiH, it ran excite 
I tiMt att KleiuyU at coie rfwald be entirelr 

^ and nKHt iiii pr ca* the mind with the fuU 

coimctiiia that it can oidT be in the venr earfie* i*afca 
rdief n to be obtained fVon the intemaaitMfi 
_jine. It iallMraCg(«t0the|ireNa(Miaf Phthiaw 
• than to iu cwrt that we are to ducet our eftrta. 
ami Afa, if it can be acoHaplMhcd. must depend upon 
avetdnff the exciting caana, opecially cold and mei*- 
tnre, and Mill morv, hj naing every mcam for fortify* 
ii^ the bodjr agaiiHt tneir infliNiie». Wann ctothing 
and airjr roema, moderate exareiaa, re^larity in diet 
■nd in all the habita of life, ntajrdomuchinprrventing 
the extrcne anaceptibaity to catairh, but far thoar 
«ha» alaalion wul admit of it, and who are diapoaad 
to aalw ao great a aaerifice, the rcmoral to a aaiuia 
and more icttlcd dinate, ia the only eflectaal prrvcn* 
tatiTe How ftrdliaiatebeadviied whendw Aaaaae 
bm aetMlly iMahliAid itarif, or what ttage of Phlhiaia 
MMlaaf a«liaBcc«fcn*by ihiamcana. ia a n ii iti a ii 
oBirWehitia extrandy diAmk to decide ; and there 
b no faint eoacarnlitg wfaidi a practitiaMr freU a more 

^^^•^^■Aal ^L^A^ * - *^ - ■ L^^^ ^W^^M ^^ M^^Hi^^flaa^a»^^n Aa^^ 

■■■ni OMy Mnoaaa Dpan nnn, lomi co pnaxMncv oa 
oaow of ma patient to be irvwocnblaf by dfaconragl^f 
Ma ranaral. or to aobject him to a mora pdnfU fate, by 
••pvMinf Mm ftom the eonforta of hia hona and the 
atlni'Mma of hia n l e i Ml a, withovt a nftM|iert of fCML 
In theearliar itagaaafnifihM*,ar wnarethvAmaaaii 
" at the Imifi baiM aetaaOy diamw 
object ia to 



for oa to tooth the termination of life, by diminishing, 
as far aa lies in oar power, the various sources of un> 
easines* that from time to time rise up to distress the 
patient. Every candid practitioner will confess, that. 
Beyond this, he can Itave no entectation of obtaining 
the least relief &om the aid of medicine ; and it is a 
duty which he owes to himself no leas than to his pa« 
tient, to refuse his consent to any of thoae experiments, 
which, with whatever pretension* they may be sup* 
ported, most be regaidad a* the off^mi^ either of de- 
huiaB or of empiriciflB. 

Sect. VI. Rackitis. RkkeU. 



PrteVit*. 



r £ 



I, Old yat'tfaia «■« w daa* In iseh a way 
* in aa mmO • danae a* noa- 



dhaammgth 
Oanml Uaod-lctthig ia 
it awt bo alwaya had 




vc amy arith lam iMntd amplay twtinil bliwlliia, 
the pafe of tha dM and Mto af r 




' it, and atOI maaa biblma, 
■MM powerful f«BMdiaB that wa peaaam in illb 
Wa BM*t endeavoar to allay tha eaiwh br mtrihgi- 
naaa mixture*, to winch anwll qaanliM* ofapiom bm^ 
bt added, and we may idaatum to allay tha frrer 1^ 
dlannoralica ; but we maat proeaaa wwi gtaat caatian 
in the admaitemtian of any tabatanoe that ia int endaJ 
to act npan tike eaplllarie* of the akin, in 



af tha tendency to profnae permiration, which always 
I in tha lattor atacf* of Phthiai* ; the anae remarli 



( 



of the 



) alto to tha bowala. How lar any bencit b to 

aa Apectod num aadatTvea ia itnl a aunliwaitod noa^ 
tian ; Cse alnoaigh weappa aiim d tnavaaMi lie no ilaabt 
BM^ga wlncii i* acvaaianaliy .ocnvad flpom 
1 andn ifliaamalary Maica af tha cheat, 
yet we are iMt d iapeie d to expect moch ftom it where 
the structure of the laaga ia aflitctcd. As, however, 
we have aomcanaaf anettaining when t*^ haa 

actually oocorred, a eaatieae ani p l aj met -alia 

may Iw generally admiMible : hat it ahoui<i aiwayslM 
giemi in small do«e«, and we think it may be aatumad 
a* a ga n aia l principle, that if no beneft be obtained 
IVam HMdl daam or this medicine, we ate not to hapa 
Ibr any a dv a nta g e hj incraaamg tlia ^aantity. on ine 
contrary, we tteaM aspect ttnt iia delalatioaa opera, 
tin waaid ba iadnaMl with all it* train of d l a tiaa tiwg 
aawaqaaMM^ WiMn the hectic is folly tatabHtba^ 
nathioK i«to be attempted but the palliative treatment, 
and for this we most refer to the remark* that we have 
already ederad on the l a l fjac fc It only now remain* 



Another diseaae, which, like Phthisis, is suppoaed to nacfaiiit, 
be nearly allied to Scrofula, if not to be a mere modi- 
6catian of it, is Rickets. It would seem to have firtt 
made ita appearance in modem time*, for it is too re- 
■aitable in Ita symptoms to have been overlooked ; 
and tlierc i* probably aonie reaaon to believe that it i* 
not now ao itVquent aa it waa half a century too. It 
i* aaaentiaUy a disease of the bones, in which thvy in« 
Craaac in bulk, and tt the tame time lose their firmness, 
ao as not to bear the wri);ht of the parts attached to 
tiiem without l>ein|i bent out of their natural form. It 
malM* its first appearance at an early age, and conti- 
■■ca until about the period of pabeity. Durine thia 
interral tlie patient RdTert fVom the immediate eflrcta of 
tile dialoftioo tiiat is produced in variout narta of tlta 
badr, aa wail aa hum irrcgnlarity in the ditTrrmt or- 
gmeAmctioa*, and aspecially in thoae of the digestive 
ao aa to induce a great degree of emaciation 
Ideliility, which not unfrequently affect the mental 
aa well a* the oarporeal faculties, and ultimately pro* 
cead to a (iMal larmination. When the diseaae aatomea 
a lam acate Ibtm, tiw powara of tha oomtitution finally 
oeerc u ma tlie vl de nca of tiie diaeaae ; but the deformi' 
ty of tlie liane* still contimies ; and when it has affected 
tne tmnk ef the body, it often materially derange* tome 
of the functions, and laavw the parts m a state from 
which they can never aftarwanu recover themselve*. 
Tha caaaaaf Rickets ia not yet aaocrtalned; many of the 
'eiimiBafanriia which tend to induce SooAila teem alto 
to Ibvoar the appearance of Rickets : but we are dispo> 
aad to regard tncm aa distinct ooraplainu, because we 
do nat pereaive that the symptoms are nec««s«Hly con* 
neded togetiier ; but, on the contrary, that the> com- 
monly attack certain imiividuala separately, and are not 
eanvcrtible into each otiier. The affection is generally 
tlwaght to ba harcdiianr, jH. tha tcndencr is not to ob* 
viona in thi* ease a* in Snofab, or in Phthisis ; and we 
perpetually obaerve examplea, where a single memlier 
efa family is diseased wiliioutany other suffering from 
it. The proximate cause of Rickett appear* to be a 
change in the phvsical and chemical constitution of the 
lieiMa, the animal matter which enter* into their com* 
patition being nrobably in a morbid ttate. and the earthy 
matter either de6cient in quantity, or altogether want. 
ing } bat in what way these ciiangee are effected, or 
iMttr llMy follow from the exciting caoae, we are alte- 
gfltlier unable to explain. 

We have very little to offer reapccting the cure of TrtatatcBt. 
Rieketa more tlun that we must adopt every mean* 
which lie* ia oar power for removing tne rappoaed ex* 
citing canaaa^ and for promoting the general health. 
Tha diaaaaa aaidom exhibit* any inflammatory tymp* 
torn*, so aa to render bleetling necetaary ; but tlie de- 
rangement of the digestive organs, and the torpor of 
the alimentary canal, make purgative* an e**eQtial part 



28 



MEDICINE. 



Pr«rtic«. of the treatment. To these tonics and 8timulanU may 
'— -Y"^ be occasionally added ; but we do not conceive that any 
great benefit is to be derived from them, unless where 
theappetite is particularly defective, and when the bowels 
are brought into a natural state. Still less confidence 
do we place in any of those remedies, which have been 
from time to time offered to our notice, as possessing a 
specific effect in Rickets, such as phosphate of lime, upon 
the principle of supplying the deficiency of this sub- 
stance in the bones, or the carbonate of ammonia, for 
neutralizing the supposed acid in the blood, — remedies 
which we believe will be found as useless in practice as 
we apprehend them to be incorrect in theory. It is a 
difficult point to determme upon the means that ought 
to be adopted for counteracting the mechanical defor- 
mity that arises from the state of the bones. Perfect 
rest in the horizontal posture has been recommended ; 
but in very young children this is almost impossible to be 
strictly adhered to, while the want of exercise is itself 
a means of increasing the tendency to disease ; nor in- 
deed does it appear, that, with all our care, we are able 
to prevent the bones from beiflg distorted by the action 
of the muscles that are attached to them, or by the 
weight of the different parts pressing upon each other. 
Upon the whole, it may be desirable to recommend the 
horizontal in preference to the erect posture during a 
part of the day ; but we should not sacrifice to this sys- 
tem, the benefit that may be supposed to arise from the 
general salutary influence of air and exercise. It ap- 
pears to be agreed, that the mechanical contrivances 
for supporting or straightening the limbs are not of 
much use Iq Rickets. 

Sect. VII. Syphilis. 

Bfphilii. The treatment of this disease is considered as rather 
falling under the province of the surgeon than of the 
physician, yet it offers so many curious subjects for spe- 
culation, and involves so many interesting questions of 
pathology, that we cannot pass it by in our system, al- 
though exclusively appropriated to the practice of me- 
dicine. Notwithstanding Syphilis is a disease of the 
most frequent occurrence, and one that has engaged 
the attention of medical men for some centuries, there 
are many very important points respecting it which still 
remain undecided. The first accounts that we have of 
the unequivocal symptoms of SyphiHs appeared about 
the end of the 15th century ; but how it was produced, 
or from what quarter of the world it proceeded, are not 
yet correctly ascertained. The disease, in its ordinary 
form, is communicated by the actual contact of parts 
previously infected, which necessarily happens most 
frequently to the generative organs, and, independent- 
ly of their situation, it is probable that their structure, 
as possessing a surface covered by a thin cuticle, and 
furnished with secreting glands, is peculiarly liable to 
receive the infection. The first symptom is a local ul- 
cer, to which the name of chancre has been applied, 
and which seems to be altogether a local affection ; but 
it is a property of the chancre to generate contagious 
matter, which is capable of being absorbed, and of con- 
taminating the system at large. Besides the local sy- 
philitic ulcer or chancre, there is another form of vene- 
real infection, in which, without any wound or breach 
«S the cuticle, a mucous, or secreting surface, becomes 
inflamed, and exudes a large quantity of semi-purulent 
natter, which has the property of inducing the same 
state on a similar mucous surface with which it is in 



contact ; to this the name of Gonolrhcea has been ap- Practice, 
plied. It has been a much disputed question, in what ^"^"Y"^^ 
manner these two affections are related to each other, 
whether they are distinct diseases, or whether they ori- 
ginate from the same poison having experienced some 
modifications, or assume a different aspect from the dif- 
ferent nature of the parts to which it is applied. Upon 
the whole, perhaps the most decisive facts are in favour 
of the diversity of the two diseases ; but, at the same 
time, we must remark, that some authors of the first 
eminence profess the contrary opinion. It would be 
inconsistent with the brief and general view which we 
profess to take of the subject, to detail all the symptoms 
of this proteiform disease, which, as it affects a great 
variety of parts and structures, and attacks indiscrimi- 
nately all constitutions and temperaments, exhibits a 
greater diversity of appearances than perhaps any other 
complaint to which the human frame is obnoxious. If 
the local ulcer be not cured by the appropriate remedies, 
and if means be not taken to prevent the contamination 
of the system, a portion of the infectious matter is taken 
up by the lymphatics, and seems to be carried into the 
mass of the circulating fluids. In its passage along 
these vessels it usually affects some of the glands, pro- 
ducing in them tumours, which are styled buboes, and 
afterwards abscesses, which partake of the same infec- 
tious nature with the original chancre, and still farther 
contribute to the general diffusion of the disease. When 
the system becomes in this manner completely contami- 
nated, there are certain parts of the body which are pe- 
culiarly disposed to manifest the presence of the poi- 
son, and in these it exhibits itself in a uniform order of 
succession. It first appears in the mucous membrane 
of the throat and fauces, producing an inflammation and 
superficial ulceration, which terminates in an erosion 
and loss of substance, so as materially to injure the 
form and organization of the part. About the same 
time, various portions of the skin begin to exhibit the 
effects of the disease ; brown or copper-coloured spots 
make their appearance, from which a quantity of mat- 
ter exudes, which concretes into a scurf. This, when 
it falls off, is succeeded by another scurf, and so on un- 
til at length ulceration is established. The next set of 
symptoms, or the next order of parts that is infected, 
is the periosteum, and the various appendages of the 
bones ; these become thickened, and at lengtli give rise 
to painful tumours, called nodes, until the structure of 
the bones themselves is finally disorganized. There are 
certain bones which seem peculiarly disposed to suffer 
by the syphilitic poison, especially the small bones of 
the palate and the nose ; and when the disease has got 
firm hold of the constitution, they are entirely corroded, 
so as to cause a great defect in the speech, and the most 
dreadful deformity of the countenance. Along with 
these symptoms, which are all more or less of a local 
nature, although depending upon the general diffusion 
of the poison, the powers of the constitution begin to 
suffer, the appetite fails, emaciation and loss of strength 
ensue, hectic supervenes, and the disease terminates fa- 
telly. These symptoms are usually recognized as the 
effects of chancre, and it has been a much disputed 
point, whether a similar train of complaints can be in- 
duced by the poison of gonorrhoea. This we are dis- 
posed to decide in the negative ; but we do so, as in the 
former case, in opposition to the judgment of many 
persons, who are the best able to decide upon the sub- 
ject. Whatever opinion, however, we may form re- 
specting the contamination of the system by the matter 



MEDICINE. 



29 



Fnetic^ of gaeon lM Ba, the inflammation with which it i« attra(l< 
' cd has the power of extending itaelf alonfr the urethra, 
and the duct* connected with it, thus producing tu- 
Doar* of tb* Baghbouring glancb. and e«pecially uTthe 
tMIM. TIm taawnn thus formed, unlew the inflam- 
•Ctiao Im nbdoed by proper application, majr 
I to tnpparation ; but tli« maUar Uuu gwnUA 
Bot appear to be capable of r wH— iiirtiwg Om ay- 
ten at Urge : at IcMt thu i* the opiniaa of tKoae who 
regard the potaon of ganorrhcn to be different from that 
of chancre, or th« proper Luc* renerea. 

Thia vcrr general outline of the leading feature* of 
Syphilu will ne tmtmmH to prore, that many difficul- 
ties attach to the palMagjr of the diaeaac, and we khall 
fad dMt there ia not >•■• obacurity with r—pect to iu 
iTMttMBL And tbia doM not ariie from th* aame 
ciivaaMaacfa which we meet with in the management 
of odMT diMMn. depending upon the otittucle* that 
pnHM Ibiinliii to our r ce— r chM into liie opcratioa 
^mtJUmm on the living bodjr ; bat here we nave to 
•acounter th< —t dirert aamwHrtian af evidwce. — d 
«• ate called spaa tm dacide b««MB tha oppaang cat- 
■iooa af Ihata who aught be Mippoaad to poHOM tna 

A m a tf ofa w y haa fbt i Ha d for Maaa time an A» qoa^ 

wy ia gaaatTboM a* in chancre, a qucatioo whidi ia eb- 

nooaljr C H iii i a c U d with the conuuvanjr laepeitiiie iha 

idatity of the i n fc rt iaa g a nw alii ^ the two Tariatiee of 

the J i iaaea With raepact, faowavar, to the prapcr n. 

,and to ita conttitutiaaai nmptoau, under 

ISgem they aunilcated thaoMaivae, there waa, 

lalaly, bM aoa a^inian, tfaitthaenljr rmicdy 

I qaaMMB ht oowidantMB being 

way tbia w a d i cin a ehaald ba aahib i t ad eo ■■ to 

tha hMt i^fHy to the nnmtittiaa. Every 

Mraad that awmry poaaaMad a ipaaBc power 

the laiiaiaol peiea n , t k e t no other medicine poe- 

d the Maw power ; and ao fcmiy wa* ihi« opiniaa 

it waa aa awed a aulideDt di^pioetic 

«r dM p iae Hn ia of tha diaeaaa, where the syt^taoM 

aOToaed a daabliy aaMci, that they rialded to the ae> 

tieaofthiaiwieilj. Bat, natwithatanniim the awppoaed 

pwpa rty of ■i i carj f a* aa aoti^philitic, 

wat* aware that it ie a aahetaticr which 

, . aafrroarabla cfltrt upon tha ayataaa. if 

aaad ia too laifa a qoaatity, and it waa adaoittad that, 

ia ontaia caaaa. it waa a qaeatiao of aatmady diflcuh 

ea h rtio a , whether eartaia aHtfaid appeorancaa ware to 

baaaoribadtathediaaaaeitaelfartothanaMdy. SttU, 

howevar, no oaa tfaB^ffat of coBiqg ia n u aati i i M the iiv 

** " aaoaaaity ti OMicaiy br toe rare 

tha iiQ a fiu ae efccU which it aaeoie 

ly to prodoce. ware atttibatad ather to 

i d i oey BCT a c y ia the reaaitMtltai of the individual, to 

the iiyarioaa ■ ih ai id a t ia ti i iH af the medy, or to the 

■ywiM r ■aay aMBta f tha patiaat whik oodar ita 

ionaaaee. A lew yaara ap aone practitioncra of eaii- 

aaoca bafpoi to talM a i lifw aa t view of the aaijcct ; 

Aer oonoeivcd that there were eartaia afactieaa, which 

had alwaya baaa daaacd ae ayphOitic. hi eoaaeqaenca 

af the aMdeia which tlkcy were ooatmunira<ed, and 

Oct af their •yontooM, but which were 

af balm outd without mercury ; from tbia 

oraaaalaaaa they eoodadcd that they mutt necoaaari- 

ly be af a difeeat naturr, and they accordingly term. 

M than pa eu da lyphilitic. It then became a point 

tf great lapaitaBoe to fonn a diagnoais between tbeac 



of Sy- 



cases and tho^ of genuine Sypbilia ; for not only was Pi»ctic«. 
the Paeudo-syphili* curable without mercury, but it ' 
aa cm ed to be even agjjravated by the use of this sub- 
stance. As the investigation continued to be pursued, 
opinions aroke that were still more remote from thoae 
that had been formerly adopte<l ; it was now advanced 
that mercury is not essential to the removal of Syphilis 
itself, and farther, that a considerable part, if not the 
whole of the constitutional symptoms, are really the ef. 
feet, not of the disease, but of the deleterious operatioai 
of mercury. We tXa.lt tbeae poinu, not as articles of our 
own faith, for we coofcaa our aceptidsm upon the sub- 
ject, but as what have received the sanction of great 
authorities, and this not of mere theorists, but indivi- 
duals who have been actively engaged in the deuils of 
practice, whose testimony, had it not counteracted all 
our former experience, and opposed some of the opi- 
nions whidi seemed to stand upon the most incontro. 
Tcrtible cvideivcr, we shoultl have been the roo<t dis- 
posed to receive without he^iution. It seem* that we 
moM regard the public amtimmt on this question aa 
now ia the progrea* of a great revolution, the reeah of 
which it ia i mp oaa ih l r to prrdici ; after various oacilU. 
tiooa of opiniaa, w« ahall perhaps finally settlp in a 
medium sute; we shall probablv find that tliere are 
either different kinds of venereal infection, or that it 
undcrgoe* ocitain inodi6oBtiao*, whid) cause it to be 
difereRtlr acted upon by the aame remedy, or to re» 
quire different remedies for ito removal. The gene- 
ral and indiscriminate use of mercury we may aafe- 
Iv pronounce to be improper; and when we conai- 
oer the quantities in which it haa been given, with 
so little r yard t o pacnliarity of oonatituuon. or dif- 
fcrrnoaa or temBctaaMnt, we can acarcely doubt that 
iu aActa have oeen aloMMt aa ii\}urioas as those which 
would have reeohcd (Vom the nvage* at the diacaao 
which it waa intended to cure. Yet we ahoold be ait - 
ii» in oppoeitioa to the ooncurring taattmony of the 
whole BMAcal pr e ft aai w i fbr aoma ^oa, were we not 
to allow of the mctie aflect of mercury over that form 
of SrahOia whidi uaoally praaenu itself to our notice, 
•o tJw* "- •""' '-ntufe to a a a ert , that if we are to give 
up tl is no one position in the practice 

OS nif. .• lauM ncA be regarded as dinputable. 

For reasons which have been alicadr stated, we shall 
iKAaatcr upon the eonatderation or the various local 
ferma ct the disease; and while such a achism exiata 

p ,:..„ ji,^ ff[g^ gf nieminr, it would be prena- 

Iter uDon any pathologioal specultfiane r*. 
.jn-»iin^ iJie mcxle of its operation. We shall only ob- 
serve, Uiat, indepetidetit of iU anti-ayphilitic power, ita 
action on the variiwa ornna aeema to be that of a sti- 
mulant, increaaing tfasar natural powers, whether of 
abaorptioa, aecretion, or aMration, aa well as the vital 
ftia ct io n a of contractility and aenaibility. We know 
not how thie a t im n l a ttn g property can have any in- 
floMMO over tha neotralintion or eipulaian of the sy. 
).'■■" ;ri»; we see no ODnnexion between the two 
I r can we conceive of the nature of the rela- 

tioB which they bear to each other. 

SacT. VIII. SeorimlMM. Sta Stuny. 

' «eaae is characterised by gmera) muanilar Scurvy. 
<>' 'y livid apota on various par*s of the bodv, 

spouKiiies* of the gums, and bwrnorrfaage fVom the ali- 
mentary canal. It is one of thoae diMaaea in which 
the soft parts of the body aeem to have experienced a 



30 



MEDICINE. 



Pnetic*. morbid change in their physical and chemical composi- 
'" » ■• tion ; for not only do we find a depravation of all the 
functions, but, if we except the bones, there apjiears to 
be an alteration in the nature of all its constituents, 
both solid and fluid. The exciting causes of Scurvy 
are ascertained to be all those circumstances which de- 
prive the boflv of its due quantity of nutrition, or 
weaken Uie action of the digestive organs, and prevent 
them from completing the office of chylification, such 
as exercise an<l fresh air ; and upon the same principle 
we find, that whatever depresses the spirits has a pow- 
erful influence in aggravating scorbutic affections. As 
it.^ name imports, it generally makes its appearance 
among sailors during long voyages, when they have 
been for a long time without a supply of fresh provi- 
sions; but precisely the same symptoms have made 
their appearance among the inhabitants of besieged 
towns, or among armies who were exposed to the same 
deficiency of fresh food; and from a similar cause 
Scurvy is generally endemic in Greenland, and the 
. j)ther northern countries, where the inhabitants are ne- 
cessanly depr^.T.''; ^"""g the greater part of the year, 
of all vegetable food. Tft= prpx.mate cause of .Scurvy, 
or the way in which the exciting et^ses niduce the 
symptoms, has been the subject of much speculation, 
and has given rise to many pathological i.;'jK)tliese^ 
all of which, however, we apprehend will prove to ts 
without foundation. The symptoms which arise from 
the mere privation of food, do not correspond to those 
which form the leading features of Scurvy, nor do we 
know in what way the peculiar condition of the soft 
parts which constitutes this disease can proceed from 
the use of salted provisions, of impure water, or of a 
putrid state of the substances received into the sto- 
mach. With respect to the theories which ascribe 
Scurvy to some chemical change in the blood, such as 
a defect of oxygen, they may be considered as altoge- 
ther unfounded, and resting entirely upon the most 
fanciful analogies; and although the old hypothesis, 
which conceived tlie fluids to be in a putrid state, is 
deficient in evidence, still it appears to be less incon- 
sistent with the acknowledged phenomena. We must 
therefore consider this to be one of those points of me. 
dical theory which are not yet ascertained, and not, as 
far as we can judge, referable to any general principles. 
Treatment. Fortunately, however, the want of a correct theory 
has not prevented us from acquiring an effectual man- 
ner of treating the disease, for we may consider Scurvy 
as one of the few complaints for which we possess a cer- 
tain specific, which in all cases removes the disease, 
provided no circumstance intervenes to counteract its 
effects. This remedy is the citric acid, which effec- 
tually cures Scurvy almost in its worst form, provided 
only that we have it in our power at tlie same time to 
remove the exciting causes. We find indeed tliat when 
we are able to afford tlie patient a proper supply of 
fresh vegetable food, the symptoms will generally yield 
without the use of the citric acid, although this will, in 
all cases, contribute to expedite the cure. It does not 
appear that any other acid possesses the same power in 
Scurvy with the citric, except so far as they may con- 
tribute, in certain states of the digestive organs, to aid 
in the process of chylification. 
Nautical We may remark, in connexion witli this subject, 

medicine, that no department of the medical profession has con- 
ferred more benefit upon mankind than that which re- 
spects the health of seamen. To so great a degree of 
perfectioa we we arrived in every part of die naval 



police, with respect to food, clothing, and discipline. Practice, 
botii moral and medical, that scurvy is now become a 'y^^'y^^ 
comparatively rare occurrence ; the longest voyages are 
accomplished with little risk of disease, and even with 
less injury to the health than what usually happens to 
the same rmmber of men placed under the ordinaiy 
circumstances of civil life. 

Sect. IX. Hydrops, Dropsif, 

The third order of the Paratrepses consists of the Hydrops 
Hydropes, a set of diseases which appear to originate 
from an affection of the minute vessels belonging to 
the serous membranes that line the close cavities of the 
body. These vessels, in their natural state, secrete a 
serous fluitl, which is taken up by the absorbents as 
rapidly as it is discharged ; but in certain conditions of 
the system these two operations do not proceed in ex- 
act proportion to each other, in consequence of which 
an accumulation of fluid ensues, which produces the 
diseases in question. This accumulation may take 
place in the cellular texture, which pervades all parts of 
the body, essentially consisting of a series of small cells, 
ti'iat are furnished each of them with the appropriate 
apparatus for secretion and absorption. 

This species of Dropsy has obtained the name of Anasarca. 
Anasarca, and, according to circumstances, it either 
extends through the whole of the cellular texture, or 
occupies certain portions of it only. The exciting 
causes of Anasarca, as well as of Dropsy in general, are 
various and not well ascertained ; it is a frequent se- 
quel of other diseases, by which the vital powers in 
general, and especially the contractility of the mus- 
cular fibre appear to be weakened ; it is also induced 
by other debilitating causes, as excessive evacuations, 
w'ant of proper nutrition, over fatigue or exhaustion. 
There is also another set of exciting causes, which ap- 
pear to be more of a mechanical nature, and which 
may be all referable to a physical obstruction of the 
absorbent vessels ; and there is a third set of exciting 
causes of dropsy, which are not strictly to be included 
in either of the preceding classes, viz. various circum- 
stances which impede the digestive functions, espe- 
cially structural diseases of the different abdominal 
viscera. In some cases indeed these affections may be 
attributed to the pressure of the parts, when they be- 
come indurated, upon the thoracic duct or the trunks of 
the absorbents, but in other cases it would seem to pro- 
ceed from a constitutional cause ; the Dropsies that are 
produced in tliis way are principally those of the cavity 
of the abdomen, to which the term Ascites has been 
applied. There appears to be, in some individuals, 
what may be called a Dropsical Diathesis, where serous 
effusion, in one or more parts of the body, is liable to 
take place from very sliglit causes, or perhaps without 
any assignable cause whatever. 

The proximate cause of Dropsy must obviously con- Prnximate 
sist either in increased secretion or in diminished ab- cause. 
sorption of the sel'ous fluid, unless we suppose that 
these two states can exist at the same time ; we have, 
however, considerable difficulty in deciding to which 
of the two causes each individual case should be refer- 
red, or to determine in what manner some of the ex- 
citing causes can operate. As they are in most cases 
debilitating, we might conclude that the deficiency of 
absorption was a more frequent occurrence than the 
excess of secretion; and the treatment wriich is found 
most successful in Dropsy, may probably seem to 



MEDICINE. 



31 



. tUi idM, jr«t it WMl W Mknowledgcd 

CiU tiM patb^kvjr of ihr diMaM w dtogcthcr obwure, 
•aJ that wm b«ve no direct f«cU to f(u>^« "* i" o*" 
dccnion. One of the laoit icnMrlubU »jrmptoiM in 
DrofMy i« tbe chanxa wkish ia tfc c W d in the Hate of 
tbe urine; it i* much rtkrinyiirl in qiMntitjr, and it 
altered in itt aoalitjr : the |»u pa rti a M of th* wattfj 
^n to the solid contenu bcinff c aBa iiiii ab W rcdae- 
•d, ae aa to tcntlrr it thick and high enlofau, and to 
fMM* it to daaoiite at it coot*, a copiova w d ii aat . In 
•oaw caaca of Drapay tlw urine haa been tcmad to co> 
Miku by tb» a|>|Mieatien of hc«t, proving that it con* 
MM a pattian of albwnen ; and aa the p wa en c a of al- 
biiian naa been eoaceived to indieate a diffmnt can> 
ditioo of ttie tyitem (Voa that which prevail* in the 
more ordinary kinda of DropaiMc cooaidenkble import* 
■Doa haa bean attached to thia rirHiiifiri, both in a 
pathailagical and a practical point af view. 

In attamptinc to rare Drapajr we are Crat to inqnire 
whalhar IM <maaaa be piiiaarj or ijuipt— atir; and 
if we ci Mich ii i a it to he only ajaipliiaMtir, we are of 
«ane to apply our liimdiii to the win awai of the eei> 
final diataae. But whaa thia cMSot be aeeeeipliahad, 
or when we are not able to detect any peinMry aft e 
tion, we nanat direct onr aWentien to the Dropty itadf ; 
and the two obviona indicatiawa will he to ramuia the 
effaaed faid and to prevent 
rffutcd fluid may be rcinovod by 
tie* which cuniain il, and tbne 
ingit: but thia aetdinn 
rary rdicf, aa nhfla the 
raaMna, the waur *Rain rafmlly 

naaotity then beArab and that the general h 
jnmd by the apaialiun. It nwat alao he 





Anni 



ftamthe 
We 

toid through the intarw 
. and of tbeae the BMat efr 
ftctoal are each aa prodncn an iiinaeaad action efaeaae 
of the CMntary ornna, eapadally ihn imaatiiial anal 

andtheUdnay. Ihninia of that ii 

nniai whfck anbaiata betoraen aU p«to ef the 
we ind that if by any wiani we pieduw an k 
d i a tih a rg a Aeni ane organ, aU the teat aaaa to he •>• 
ctedh the aiMtoenner. Whet ia the CMt nntara 
aTtyacMnesianweanMaraaiirabtetoaaoartain, hot 
we an ae^painled with the iftu. and we ha«e fre* 
enant eppoatnidltea of cwpleying it with advantage hi 
tAe cnre of diaeear. We have itaied that nvfallvto 
and diotetica arc the two rian ai of ■adfainii which 
arc usually had reconne to for maaiiiig eallectiefia ef 
aerau« fluula whan afoaed into any of the eaeitieB of 
the body ; and it ia acoardhigly to thaw la h rtai i Mi. 
and arpcdaUy to the laltar. that we ganarally leak Cor 
Ttii ran nf Prnf in nrall ihenlwiii' When we m 
ahlete | i w d i m the de aiwd afct npe n the kidney, we 

it unfuitanMiIji happene that then ia no daia of wedi. 
dnaa thtf ia ao onceruin and apMMady ae canriei o na 
in their aperatian aa diuratica. The naaher ofartidaa 
that hwre bean aapleyed for thia purpoae ie vaty eanai* 

J — u ■« .t.^ -rrr- irj ilifii ini in iktk iiai i iii J 

' propenee, thet we can acanely eaMtiae then 

the aanw nrhiciple, or even to prodaee tbe 

; B|Kin the body. Many of them MMlced. it 

' ' * are entirely inert, and hare ae> 



quired their reputation aoMy from some acciilental Praetln. 
rircunutance ; but then- are others of obvious activity, - ,, ^ ^- 
although even of these it is not easy tu say in what 
manner tl>ey act, or how subatancca of such different 
qualities can all conduce to the same end. The medi- 
cinca that are esteemed the moat eflkacious diuretica 
are squilh, d' j^taiia» Gcean of tartar, and certain pre. 
paration* of mercary. Of these the squill is the one 
which it the aaoat certain in ita effects, and which 
seems to be apniieable to the greatest variety of cases, 
ao that unlets there be some prruliarity in the consti* 
tution, which prevents as from administering the me* 
dione in praper qaatity, or awae structural disease 
which countvacia ita op«Btien, it seldom fails in in- 
creasing ilic Bow of urine. The varieties of Uropty in 
wtiich the squill is thought to be the most useful are 
and Ascites. Digitalis is a medicine which 
great power over Uie system, but which, al. 



though aocaasahally very beneficial, manifetu its delo> 
eflacttt and beconiea 



decidedly injurious, if it 
be aiiiplaywi iaaproperly or in excessive quantity. 
MThaa we tonaiiUir the nature of the primary action qf 
aqaUla and 'Hg*— '»«. we can scarcely suppose that they 
operate open the aaae principle, yet as we are not 
able with any dagrea ef pradaien to aplain the nature 
of tliair operation, we are decided almoat entirely by mem 
esperienoe, in determining u)>on the indivi<iual cam 
for which they are each of tlicai more peculiarly adapt- 
ed. The variety of Dropey called Hydrothoras, in 
whidi *e cavity of iha ahaat ia the aaat of the disease, 
haa baan ganarally c a u c ai ee d to be the one in which 
digitalis is moat serviceable ; and it is agreed that a 
languid, or as it ia metaphorically tennetl, a relaxad 
habit and a phla§Baalk laaparaaBcnt, i* better adaptetl 
for the cshibiiion af thia toadidne than a constitution 
of an appeaite daacHption. The aapaftartiau of pot- 
apekrn of by aany leapactahla pnicti- 
a powerful diuretic: and thera are ether 
neatia l salts, principallv those into tha eompeeition of 
which the taitarie ana aeatic acida enter, which sre 
gesMvally annpeeed to peateae the efivt of promoting 
the action or the kidney, bat they are all of uncertain 
nparatian. When they prove succcasful in increasing 
tha qaflMity of tha urine, tiiey comroonlv, at the aanto 
time, act aa pnrgatives; and it nay be qaeationod 
whether Ihey era to ha aanaidend aa any thing mora 
thaa niBd hydragefaea, the peeaUar property of which 
ie to caae e a eoniaaa nat ai| discharge frani tha mu- 
eane sMfsoe of the totsathisa, in which the urinary or- 
gana aMjr also partake. We lure sufficient evidence 
of the ciact of merrury as a diuretic, but it may AcIIm of 
p rehably he l e fs i rt d with more propriety to its opera. uMrcury, 
tion as a gaaaral stimulsni, thaa to any specific action 
open tha kidney; and this opinion appears to be coun- 
tenanneil by the foct, that the nae of mercury in Drop. 
tm ia prinapeBy as an adjuvant to other iiihstaaiiaa, 
far etampla to squills and digitalia. If the hypothaaia 
be net loo Bienhanirali we nuy regard mercury aa • 
sdinulant to all the s ecr e to r y organs, probably in pro* 
poitiiin to their degiaa of vitality, f>r their ooanezion 
with the circulating syaleia ; bat that its operation may 
be more particuhu^y diractrd X» anpr one of them, by 
being united with a midlrina which ecu ^laoificaJly 
open the part: of thia wahavaan BhMttallan hi what 
we obserre wuh ropect to par|atives as well aa diure- 
tica. i^rrhapa the only caaes in which we can con- 
aider uic ie aiy at having any direct effirct in the re. 
moval of Drop^, ia wlMte the disease depend* upon 
the enlaifOHMat af aaaa glandular part, citber by the 



32 



MEDICINE. 



Practire. constitutional derangement, as connected with the di- 
•.m^f-m^ gestive organs, or merely by its mechanical pressure 
upon the great trunks of the absorbents ; the power 
which mercury is conceived to possess in discussing 
glandular tumours, being independent of its action on 
the kidney. As to the second indication in the cure 
of Dropsy, to prevent the re-accumulation of the fluid 
after it has been removetl, all that can be said on this 
point may be included in the single direction of adopt- 
ing every means for improving the general health, we 
must avoid the exciting causes, and we must endea- 
vour to strengthen the digestive organs by temperance, 
exercise, preserving an open state of the bowels, and 
by the proper exhibition of tonics. 
Treatment After these general remarks on Dropsies, as constitut- 
or Anuv> ing an order of diseases, we must proceed to make a 
c«- few ob?ervations upon the different genera. Concern- 

ing Anasarca we have little to add to what has been 
saicl above, either as to its symptoms or its cure ; for 
as it is the most universal in its seat, so it presents us 
with the fewest peculiarities with respect either to its 
symptoms or its treatment. Purgatives, exhibited ac- 
cording to the strength and constitution of the patient, 
of which the neutral salts and the hydragogues will 
probably be found the most appropriate, are sometimes 
alone able to effect tlie removal of the eifiision. If 
these fail we proceed to diuretics, of which squills, in 
combination with calomel, suggest themselves as the 
first to be tried. Along with these, or rather to com- 
plete the cure after they have accomplished their ob- 
ject, we must have recourse to the same kind of tonic 
treatment which is employed in other diseases, where 
the strength has been much reduced. 
Ascitet. Ascites is a more formidable disease than Anasarca, 

as it generally depends upon a structural affection of 
some of the abdominal viscera, or upon a local derange- 
ment, which is out of the reach of medicine, or is con- 
nected with some other morbid condition of the sys- 
tem. The disease is characterized by distension of the 
abdomen, in which the fluctuation of a fluid may be 
distinctly perceived, and to this local symptom, which 
properly constitutes tlie disease, we have always con- 
siderable disturbance of the system generally, loss of 
appetite, and torpor of all the organs concerned in the 
function of digestion ; the usual deficiency of urine oc- 
curs, and as the disease advances, the strength fails, 
the flesh wastes, and ultimately hectic, with complete 
atrophy, supervenes. Besides other causes of uneasi- 
ness, the patient suffers great distress from the mere 
bulk of the abdomen, which is often so large as ma- 
terially to interfere with the various vital and organic 
functions, especially the respiration and the circula- 
tion. The fluid is usually effused in the general cavity 
of the peritoneum, but in some caaes it is contained in 
a partial cyst; in these instances the constitutional 
symptoms are generally less urgent, as the affection 
may be supposed to proceed from some cause of a 
more local nature, which, at its commencement, has 
but little effect upon the system at large. It is indeed 
principally from the proportion which the general 
bears to the k>cal symptoms, that we are to form our 
judgment respecting tne seat of the effused fluid, whe- 
ther it be encysted or not, a fact of some consequence 
in the treatment of the disease, and one of very great 
importance in its prognosis. 
Treat Tient. In treating Ascites, the only point to be considered, 
in addition to the general principles which we have 
laid down above, respects the propriety of discharging 
the water by an operation. Where the tumour is very 



large, and where it seems, by its mechanical bulk, ta Practlre. 
injure the action of any of the functions that are essen- "'"^"y"^ 
tial to life, we occasionally find it necessary to punc- 
ture the sac, but, for the most part, we derive little 
permanent benefit, and it would appear that we not 
unfrequently bring the disease more rapidly to a fatal 
termination. Ascites, when it proceeds from a struc- 
tural disease of any of the abdominal viscera, which is 
one of its most frequent causes, can only be effectually 
treated by the employment of those remedies which 
act upon the diseased organ ; and it must be confessed 
tliat, in these cases, our prospect of success is very 
limited. A cautious use of mercury, in combination 
with squills, is perhaps the best remedy that can be 
tried ; but it will be often found ineffectual, and a va« 
riety of occurrences almost daily present themselves, 
which will demand our attention, and oblige us to 
swerve from any regular plan of treatment which we 
may wish to adopt. 

Hydrothorax, or Dropsy of the chest, is characterized Hydroth«- 
by difficulty of breathing, which is increased in the ho- ■■"• 
rizontal posture, by disturbed sleep, palpitation of the 
heart, irregularity of the pulse, and frequently by all 
the symptoms of general Dropsy. Sometimes, by cer- 
tain motions of the body, or by certain postures, the 
presence of the fluid in the chest may be perceived by 
the patient himself, and it may be felt by the practi- 
tioner, when he employs a peculiar method of striking 
the chest, or pressing upon the contiguous parts. The 
immediate cause of Hydrothorax, like that of Ascites, is 
generally a disease of some of the viscera ; and as, from 
its local situation, it is more connected with the func- 
tions which are essential to life, its prognosis is more 
unfavourable. It has been generally supposed that 
this species of Dropsy is more peculiarly adapted for 
the administration of digitalis than any other remedy ; 
a circumstance which, if correct, may perhaps be ex- 
plained by the power which this remedy possesses 
over the circulation. When we determine to prescribe 
this substance, it should ahvays be done with the 
greatest caution ; and if we do not find it to be useful 
after it has been taken for a short time, we are not to 
expect any benefit from the faither continuance of it ; 
for were we to persevere, we should probably expe- 
rience its deleterious effects. Purgatives are always 
indicated in Hydrothorax, and the operation of the va- 
rious neutral salts, as being the least stimulating, and 
at the same time possessing the hydragogue property, 
we conceive to be the most appropriate. It may be 
doubted whether blisters or other remedies applied ex- 
ternally to the chest can be of any avail in this com- 
plaint ; and with respect to the operation for discharg- 
ing the fluid by an artificial opening, besides the ob- 
jections that were urged against the analogous practice 
in Ascites, we have here the additional objection, that 
it is more diflicult and painful, that it is less easy to 
ascertain the unequivocal existence of water in the 
chest, and that the subjects of Hydrothorax are more 
frequently persons advanced in life, of a bad habit of 
body, or debilitated by other diseases, and therefore 
less likely to derive any benefit from the discharge of 
the fluid, than many of the subjects of Ascites, so that, 
upon the whole, we should conceive, that it can only 
be under a very rare combination of circumstances 
that this operation should ever be recommended. 

With respect to the other kinds of Dropsy, we have 
already given an account of Hydrocephalus among the 
diseases affecting the head ; for although it may be cor- 
rectly placed among the Hydropes in a nosological sys- 



MEDICINE. 



S3 



fnctiM. t«ia, yet. In •] 



et. In a pathological and pnetieal point of vi«w. 
It wan pnpoiy comM imdar tat Nmroaea. The Ht- 
<li«M pa t i c ardi i ia a iMaaaia tfa* niatenc* at which it 
ia mmtak to aaccrtain belbr* d aat h , and for which wc 
havo no appropriate rwnodioa, while the other genera 
that hare been emimenled, m> far aa tbeir treatment it 
conoemed, fall nndar the province rather of the tur. 
geoQ than of the phjrtkiaii. 



SacT. X. Catanettu Dutate$. 



We kaea lartr the variona dinam of the alun the 
foMtli order of the Paratrcpaea. an arranKement which 
we are mdnced to adopt, boeaaM we rrpirtl then aa, 
for the OMMt part, proceeding fhNB. or drpendinf upon, 

a oMHMd condition of the h~'- , . i - .1- - j^. 

feet of MMMof tha Amclioii -rt- 

ly cu oetrned in tha ^lfu ea^ em 

f laoi tin 

of tlirir ()rojjTc«« , 'Hit iii inr g«- 

we arp now taking of the ml^oct, it 
' ' r to attend to theaa aninute di*. 
Uailiwii, nar'iadaad ia tha Uwt between tho^ that 

aa eaar ci ie a man gmml 



tha akiB, attha«(h it oMy aypa 
af othart that •aaeiiwta tha df 



•ear the bodr. dtawa with that exaanaaa, a* 

aa, aeon wttli eeevr O9gn0 01 atiMtion« to 

af tha tDd WJ»al» way 

vhiM ■ awnHivaly 

at cntHMMa afli^ 

e«ary aanpWM af 

' to ba only ana ay«^ 

■poitMMoraiMwSrr 

>s bMhiaiMraga- 

oTtha 

jorte 

aftha e i i r a w i fi ithigiwe 

in a pwmlBil ftmat 

awaa'wMM he derit ad. aat io ■wbftMMMr eWbIa 

ihiwiWaiiiai «hich might threw Vffht upon their teat 
or their pratfaaate emae. We are, howerer, altogether 
unable to acwapHJi thia, mcept in a Ihw ' 
and tharalhre we maai have ravanna loa 
eal nwthod of daaafaig than aoaardhig to thair ntanial 

thia 




VMt> 



belonging to the two great diTitioni of acuta and chro- Prtetie*. 
nic, or what amountj nearly to the lame thing, of «uch "^""Y^^ 
aa are constitutional, and nuch aa are local. The first 
of theaa ooma on aoddenly, and produce some distur. 
bance of the fiinctiona, and at^r running through a re< 
gular ooone, nanifeat a tendency to a tpuntaneout cure ; 
the aeeond eooie on gradually, continue for an indefi- 
nite length of time, diwppear, and again make their ap- 
pearance in an irregular manner, and this wiihoui ne- 
ily produring any con>titutional action, or being 
ipanied by any change in the date ot° the func« 
A teoond important circumstance respecting 
ia. whether they are coniagiuua or 
Dot ; tha gfaataat part of them are certainly not to, but 
there are othera which exhibit thia property in the moat 
marked manner, and which it it therefore neceaiary for 
ua to gnanl againat in onr Bian a g aiuent of auch case*. 
In the Sd place, aoma c a t an ao n a onaaea are obviously 
hereditary', thf children of thoaa who have been aff°ect- 
ed by them having a fiecuhar tendency to auch aflec* 
tiona. In the 4th place, ddbnnt cutaneous di^eaaea 
are ohacnrad to attach themaaleia especialiv to different 
periodi of lilir, aoeae being confined to chilclhood, others 
appearing mora cow aao n ly about the period of puberty, 
and othan again in old age. In the 5th plaoa, the ba- 
b)ta«#lifh,aapecially with respect toewrciaeMd tarn- 
peraoca. tha natnre dt tha ■wplnjiaant, loeal aitaatioa 
and dimaia^ aadoHnj olhar tiiBwaHamai both axtar* 
nal a*d iaianMl, ha*a a very powerful influence in 
(ha M whm Jo B of eataneooa diaaaafi ; and the tame 
■aw ba u hawiad with rmpact to tha atata of aociaty, 
B thad^paaaf dvihaattoo, wbich, aseapt m a law 
•aoeea, where thaia ha> bean toemaeh fatdolgmca 
tha hisunuu* gratMcatiaaa af the palate, tanda moat 



Tba 
b thai ia which tha ^_ 

hila cigfat aanafBi aaasfdaig at they at* 

jb1_, j — 1_ ...I — !„ o, .po,^ ll »fl^ 1^ j^ 

o<. N tha iiaiiua and eUact of thia 

wvTH, i" rii«c^ iiTiv « ndnota esatmnatian ot all tha eari* 
v» wiodifcrtiaaa w h ic h tiiaaa ifi ta am aaaome, or even to 
datchha them indiTidually hi thair more oRttnary fonna. 
l ada el , tha a wn a g amii u of ihem may almoat w oomi* 
darad aa a separate d-~ — * ''*^e an, Hka that of 
aargarr, and as not t e cugniaanoe ef a 

MiffM ttiatiae on itw practice 01 medidne. We ahall, 
maialheik aha at nothing mora than to offer a very few 
iwnaifca^ relatira to the getictai pri n dp h a apca which 
va traal tbaaa aamplainu. withaat ilwaiiiJhif to a aa> 
parate aaamaimlian of them. 
•'■aval ak. In tha InC plaaa, rwioaive of thote cutaMona dia> 
aaaw which aaaraiially oondft hi Perar, and of irhich 
the mtpUaa b aniy an acaa 
aa SmaUifaR and Mmlia, 
vafc. xiT. rAiT L 



iranaj 



thoa •■ 



I tha eialaoce, or even altogether 
lafthataotthiothaomcof them. In- 

we are qojla vadMa la aia|iNlMDd, ftom the 
a p ae a riea af wWn eartaia alhctitpi of tha akin prevail 
at caicaia pariodi, and afWwarda hacame nearly ex- 
tiacti h thia n a p ac i raa tm bling earioaa other ri ati w of 
di a e aaaa, in which thera altarMtiana of increate and da. 
dine are not unfrrquently obee n r w l, and which are 
equally diAcult to refer to any aatignable caute. 

la na aire of eataaaoaa diaaaaea, the first point to " -niHn 
bt a Wan d e d to ia. hew fiv wc ara to employ gener«l 
w adita. or how Or we are to reat aatiaBed with 
aMra topical applicatlona. Probably, ia a great majo- 
rity <A in*un«ci^they will both of them ba ntraatt 
ry. There are, mdeed, aoma of three aliMtiont which 
my be nirad taMy by topical reaMdiat, while, on tha 
ooRlnryi ihara era otiien which rttpiir'' r-'- ■ ;u- 
tiooal traotaMnt The ganaral remeil • ~i. 

ad aader the beada of t '--<-- »' • le. 

brila cMftnoeni, of p c a, 

to which we must - ' ' ti cure tha 

d ia ra ae without pr c, which we 

caa raftr tn a genrr*! I hcser^ 

■aifiaa, we mnatobrioi; ^ to the 

•oppaaad neoaaaitT of tbe c««e. wt iiK^uirL Mliciher 
than ba any Mirtit ncfteoMnt, any iiir|>or of the l>ow. 
ela, dryneaaof the skin, defect of ap|H-iitp, or general 
weakneas. and we then use the aptironrixte renie<liet. 
Tha locel faoMdlea <br cutaneous aSectiunn may t>e ar. 
langed nnder tha bcadi of atimulania and seilativea, 
these si' '(> or diminish the action of the vea- 

aab of tl : inullients, those which mechanically 

•often or tcUx the paru ; and hcra alao* at in the form* 



34 



MEDICINE. 



Tnetler. er case, we must introduce a class of specifics. Of tlie 
^"■""V'"*' existence of a class of remedies, which liave the power 
of stimnliitinp the skin when applied to its surface, we 
have sufficient evidence ; but there is considerably more 
difficulty in clearly distinguishing the action of seda- 
tives; and when we wish to produce this effect, it is 
generally accomplished in an indirect manner, or sim- 
ply by the removal of some stimulating cause. The 
cirumstances which direct our iudgmet.t in the choice 
of remedies, are derived partly from inquiring whether 
the symptoms indicate an excess or a defect of action in 
the part, and partly by tracing an analogy between the 
disease under consideration, and others, with the treat- 
ment of which we are better acquainted, — a kind of 
practice, it must be confessed, which is often verj em- 
pirical, and the result of which is very uncertain. Of 
this uncertainty we have the most convincing evidence 
in thp writings of those, whose judgment and informa- 
tion on these topics is held in tlie highest estimation ; 
for we find that they proceed principally upon the ex- 
perience that is derived from insulated facts, and that 
they frequently recommend, for the cure of the same dis- 
ease, remedies that appear to be of the most opposite na- 
ture, in the selection of which we have vtry little explicit 
direction, but are reconune ded to try them in succes- 
sion, and to adhere to th^it which appears to be the most 
beneficial. Upon the whole, we may conclude that 
whatever promotes the general health, must be always 
favourable to the relief of these diseases, and in many 
cases will effect a cure; that, for this purpose, it is of the 
highest importance to obtain a healthy state of the di- 
gestive functions, and that temperance, fresh air, exer- 
cise, and purgatives, are to be regarded as the basis on 
which we are to proceed, and which will materially as- 
sist us in the future progress of the cure. Upon this 
principle, we shall be at no loss to account for the be- 
nefit that is obtained from purgative saline waters, and 
when they contain sulphur, which has a decided claim 
to be considered as a specific in certain cutaneous dis- 
eases, they present us with the most effectual remedy 
for some of these affections. Calomel has been very 
generally employed in these cases, and there can be no 
doubt of its frequently proving highly useful ; but we 
should be disposed to refer its good effects to its action 
as a purgative, or at least to the power which it exer- 
cises over the organs that are concerned in the process- 
es of digestion and assimilation. We have but little 
confidence in most of the boasted specifics for cutaneous 
diseases, they are generally given after the exhibition 
of more active remedies, if not in conjunction with 
them. Their operation, even as admitted by their ad- 
vocates, is slow, and unattended with any sensible ef- 
fects, and they are commonly prescribed in connexion 
with some system of regimen, or with some change in 
the occupation or mode of life, to which we may, with 
more probability, refer any advantage that is gained. 
We must, however, make an exception in favour of 
sulphur, of the efficacy of which no one can doubt, and 
the same remark may be also extended to arsenic, and 
probably to iron, but of the nature of their operation 
we do not presume to offer any opinion. As to the 
whole tribe of stimulants, both the various chemical 
preparations, acids, alkalies, metallic oxides, and salts, 
as well as the acid vegetable substances, we have little 
to observe in the way of general principles, how far any 
of them ought to be regarded as possessing specific vir- 
tues, or whether they differ from each other .solely in 
tjie degree of their stimulating power, or m their me- 
chanical properties, we do not feel competent to decide. 



Practice 



CHAP. V. 

Pareccrises. 
Sect. I. Diarrhcea. 

We have placed the diseases of the secretory organs in 
a separate clas.s, under the title of Pareccrises, and have 
divided them into the two orders of .Apoceno.ses and Apoceiio- 
Epischeses, according as they produce an excess or a *'^^* 
defect in the quantity of the secreted fluid. In the first 
order, we have the following genera depending upon the 
organs which they immediately affect, Diarrhcea, Cho- 
lera, Hyperuresis, Blennorrhoea vesicas, Lithiasis, Me- 
i;orrhagia, Leucorrhoea, I'tyalismus, Ephidrosis. 'I hese 
diseases may be considered as, in a great measui-e, local 
in their origin, and during their prognss are not essen- 
tially productive of any constitutional disturbance ; they 
are not necessarily attended with fever, they have no 
effect upon the nervous system, except upon those 
parts of it with which they are in immetliute contact, 
and they may frequently be removed by remedies that 
seem to act locally, or without the intervention of any 
organ besides that to which they are directly applied. 

The first genus of this order is Diarrhoe;?, a very com- Diarrhoea, 
mon disease, which consists in an increased discharge 
from the alimentary canal, the evacuations being but 
little affected except in their assuming a more liquid 
consistence ; they are generally preceded or accompa- 
nied by flatulence and a griping pain in the bowels, 
and frequently by sickness ; but this sliould jjerhaps 
rather be attributed to the .same cause whch ])roduces 
the Diarrhoea, than be considered as a part of the dis- 
ease itself. 1 he symptoms of this complaint are so 
obvious as seldom to leave any doubt resjjecting its 
existence ; but there are two diseases that resemble it, 
and from which it is important to distinguish it. Dy- 
sentery and Cholera. For the most part an attention 
to the nature of the evacuations is sufficient to point, 
out the distinction, or if, as occasionally happen, the 
diseases appear to run into each other, our remedies 
must be administered according!)', always adajrting 
them rather to the symptoms than to a technical no- 
menclature. I he exciting causes of Diarrhoea are va- 
rious ; perhaps the most fre(juent is repletion of the 
stomach, or the reception into it of some kind of in- 
digestible food ; cold applied to the surface of the body, 
and especially to the legs and feet, is also an exciting 
cause of Diarrhoea ; and it is occasionally produced by 
impressions upon the nervous system, or even by mere 
mental emotions. In children the peculiar irritation 
produced by teething seems to be a frequent exciting 
cause of Diarrhoea, as well as that which arises from the 
presence of worms in the alimentary canal. Although 
the evacuations in Diarrhoea essentially consist of fVecu- 
lent matter, they vary considerably in "their appearance; 
and from observing these variations, we have it in our 
power, in some cases, to judge of the state of the p;irts 
which immediately give rise to it. Diarrhcea is often 
symptomatic of some other disease, many instances of 
which have been stated above ; of these one of the most 
violent is the colliquative discharge from the bowels 
which occurs in the latter stages of hectic fever. It is 
also a frecjuent attendant or sequel of the affections of 
the liver that come on after a residence in hot climates, 
and is then found to be one of the most unmanageable 
symptoms of these diseases.. 



MEDICINE. 35 

h te ■■ j to iigmi DitfiiMM is not difficult of cure, and tonwtimw it hM appeared tluit tlie warm bath, or Practicr: 

I thm removal to a nulder cliuiate, luu been of per> ^"'^ '^^ 



, in a great nMfioritj of cawa, would be re- even tho removal to a nulder cliuiate, hu been of per. 
b^^w mere effurts of nature, u it ia a «aa»> oaanoit utility. 
lot wbidi a direct ronedy ia pruvnied in tiio 

of tha tmng body, ao aa to aftml one of o ,» /•« . 

- . 77! ia fr««ar of the doctHno. Skt- II. CAofcr.. 





I maraUjr adopted, that all 
afthaan 



Ijr imaaded to Chafara coMtita in the Toinitins and pui^gingof bili- Chotm. 



ward off aoaa ^mMt daagar, urhidi thajr aikt vith> oaa aaallRv It a ndwi with painful griping, and with 

" I difficult I 
_BaMlv had i»> tfea 1mm batwaaa ttna rtJaaaar and Uuurhaa, alttiou|rtt, 
itho vklaaeaafnadaaaaaak whan il aiMlB in aa acntB atate. it ia eaaflj diatinguub- 



; tha ialamalMa of art. lb aMM flBHiw however, mnna af tha kn. It ia aometiniea difficult to draw 

had !»■ tka hae batwaaa &» dii 




aid of medidaa nw ba iilialapHadi had i»- tka hae hataaan ttai diaeaae and Diarrfanw althoufrit. 




, t it ham daaiaiirariiy iato aeaaa afcdka ud bjr tha aatai* of the cvaoualiaaa. It aeldam ocnm 

of • aua* imariaaa taaMcjr. The obvioua i ad J c a t ii i a in Ihia ooaalrjr oxoept in tha a i ita mn a l mnn>ha, and it 



to laaMva tha aaataiv OMHe, if it atill lanaiaa b then fuund to be the nwat prevalent in the hotteat 

"jr, ta abviato that rti«e of the ^Mb iwainni ; but it ia ynetully ubaaiiad to come oo rather 

1^ tha inawidiati action af tha ooa* aA« tha pahod of tha graatsit haat than during its 

to be aa Tha laailiiMlij iiipuwi of Am diaaaae aeem to mark 
it aa ariaiqg £oa> aaaia pacnliar condition of the bile, 
aad tha liaaa of itt iavaaioa ftvoura the idea, that ax- 



in tha laraal teatpantare haa an iai p wta nt in6uanoe in its 



it naara aaaflv afactad by dM adiaafy pndactian ; but wo at* aoaracly abla to aspiain the na- 

Whta tha dianMa dananda uBoa tha flnt af tareof the oonnaxian batwaaa thaaa drcuaaatanoaa, or 

beta can ba ao doabt of tha anthod to to ahew in what aMaaar tha heat of the weathar pro- 

dw can i aad aa caaaa ef thia J aa uai daoaa tho chang* ia tha Hato of tha bila, or inoead 

• gfuat aaywity af tfaoaa that hU malar what ia the eaart natosa of tha change which it en*. 

diaaan, aad ana whieli ia 



paiMti aaa, ftvan hi naaU dawa, and ft aon w i tly ifaat choekad 
aad. by whd tha o fcndin g aiaMw ia d i aAar g a d aaddaaly ted. 
laActaaOy. and with laaa pain and dktraaa to tha Itaoaraiati 



_ litaecaaawyto rieneaa. Chalaniaa 

chief a w a w iia n to thia ah j a rt . Porthiaparw vavy naid in ila pragiaaa { radadag tha patient in tha 
twihail fcd tha awat ifca to al i niiidlM la ha apaaaafafcw hoara toagiaat dtyaa of debfli^, 

' ' aat chorhad by tha aparaariaM m iia di a t, pn 
ddaalyfaluL 
Itaoara ia to ba aAdad by completely evacuating TrMim«a«. 



poaavaihaU and tha aaoM aftMaal laiaattaa la ba aaaaaafafcw hoara toagiaat Jfyaa of debili^.and, 
whU pamd—a, ftvan hi nnall daaaa, and ft aon w i tly iff nat ahaekad hy tha ap pi w pt i a to taaiadiat, fnria^ 



iaU tha ia taa tin a l cmhJ af tho ivntaliac maiur which a|>. 

. „ > *f paan to ba tha ascitiM OMaa of tha ditcaae, and thia 

» will ba faaad la n i n a bl i t and dto Ihad ja gaaataUy liriaipliiiij awwiy by d» aahibitiaa af 

Ibaafdwleaat i li iaal l i iM | haid. and ba aam. anid ddaaat^ wMdlM ba tahan aa eopioaaly aa dw 

.. ..^.. Thodkairaof af nanrh wdl teoaiva dwm Whan dia acrid bile haa 




af tho «» bam aatiar|y lanMaaad. wa tl(aa aadaavoar to allay the 

aadalmwi 



Mtation by apiilait aad a ftatwa i da to laoait tha as 
awgaaaia. aia BOThapa aaMig hanrtad paaran of iho tyatem by Mntia atim 
gmnilyMipl&bloidwIatt awitoata. To alUydto grip hig ■■"■.»■ Wti 
r whni wo ha*a laaaon to aaa- ba aap l ia d to tha abdomi. aad aaaathaaa i 



to aaa- ba app l ie d to tha , 

AAerthadaa ia wann wolar will ba Aand highly gratafnl to tha 
wa ihall genandly fiad dw tfci lhm i ti tha patient, when u can ba cammodioual] 



a Mau genanuiy aaa taa iaaia«a aff tba patiaat. when u can ba conHBodioualy 

tdMaaoof anyodMr f*. appliMi After tha violanca of dw diaaaa hM aabaidad, 

' dM (fiat, dto thTaatii 



«fdM«at.dM tha patiaM ia left hi a atato af gfaat waakaem and 

BaaianaUy. how. laairour : but by tha praparngalalien af dia diet. and 

allthaaAndiiwnM»> try a n itiim ■!! iiiiiiiraaiaij lainn nf atriliiaaHl. ihu 

mr aaaBM to ba taaaavad, aad the dignrtivo pcoccm ra. •trength ia Mimully raaluiiii with nuMfa rapidity than 

irad, whda tha p a t iiii t ia. at tho mnm might have Wa ia^tiaad Aaai tha degraa of axhaua. 

idi gti p ia g paina aad l u al anra . Vm- tian. Batanaad lonimaf vaiieaa kiadaaregoMrall^ 

'" " "~" ^""^ *~ aatiin. adbai n lnaia J for tho pannna mt atrap^hening tha du 

an of gaoiivo powan. aad of thoio cahaaho la tha ona which 

dapiatoa, Thanaplujiiaiataf iiiimnm m ftaad to ba tha iMat aaafaL 
wo do aat. h aa a ia i . a w wa e i ia to be very 
Aa^aandy necaamay; aad it ia Cmad. bodi with t^ 

Mel to ttiia rima of ramadioa mid to opiaa^ tiMt if Sbct. III. UUuuu, SUme, 
IfeaydaafltehadlithaonMpliint by thoaahihidonof a 

fcw daaaa, aa aHMMdanUa bnnil ia to ba aipiilail ^* '>**'* phwad aaknlooa oompUiota a« rorming a t :.t,f ,rtt 

► ftaai thank Tha vaiaafala aanmaaad of apiaa ««! ipe- fr^*** u"dcr tho order of the Apocrno»e«, brcaua« they 

•Maaria, which wa have aa rfaiiwnii| lafiind to aa. •''P<'(>(' "po** tho romation of crruin lubatancr* in the 

-tl-ttiTimf if IT i Tifi in— iItt. II a rtn aaaflil laimi *'"*''' -'-'-^ '^- -nate, in iLr Grtt inatance, 

dyia long paatramad Daaihaa.oipeeiaiqraAaaiaaon- ^"^' ^ion of the trcrrtory vea. 

kI» «,i ii.. 'lararterixcd by unca. 

ainrx in i tlic bladdrr, or tome 



pnMUan cf anrnnalhif with jMnaatwa. CanaidMahle 
annmiac* haa bam gpiaad by no uae of warm aiad^ 
^banapaMMatanpaiwnnal worn next to tha ddn. in 



«.« of U»e paaMi^rs ciinnmrti mitn toem ; by a difficulty 
af OimAami *"<' r**** i" ^■■•''V ^ ■■'■'■* i frequently by a depo- 



56 



MEDICINE. 



Trtetir*. gition of calculous matter from this fluid ; or by the 
"■■'Y'""^ presence of a calculus in the bladder, as ascertained by 
the introduction of the sound. 

The exciting or predisposing cause of the disease is 
probably, in all cases, a derangement of the digestive 
organs, by which the fluids undergo some change in 
their nature, so that, in passing through the kidney, 
certain substances are secreted that concrete together 
into solid masses. These, according to their form, and 
the situation where they are deposited, produce various 
distressing symptoms, that are immediately to be at- 
tributed to their mechanical bulk, either pressing upon 
the contiguous parts, or obstructing the discharge of 
the natural excretions. Very minute attention has been 



dies. In one of these a calculus is formed of an acid Practice. 
nature, which it may therefore be supposed will re- '"•""Y"™^ 
quire alkaline medicines for its prevention ; wliile in 
others there is a tendency to the formation of a calcu- 
lus in which an alkaline earth predominates, and which 
may therefore be supposed to indicate the employment 
of acids for its prevention. Upon this principle, we 
have been directed, in the treatment of Lithiasis, first 
to examine into the state of the urine, and into the na- 
ture of the calculous deposition, or of any solid matter 
which may have been discharged, and to administer 
either the cirbonates of the fixed alkalies, or diluted 
muriatic acid, according to the result of the examina- 
tion. Besides these, we are to give purgatives freely ; 



paid of late years to the chemical analysis of urinary to enjoin a plain diet, especially abstaining fiom ft-r- 



TrcatmcDt. 



calculi ; and, according to the most accurate experi. 
ments, we may arrange them under the following 
heads: 1st, The lithic calculus; 2d, The bone earth 
calculus, consisting principally of phosphate of lime ; 
3d, The ammoniaco-magnesian phosphate ; 4th, The 
fusible calculus, consisting of a mixture of the two 
former; 5th, The mulberry calculus, composed of oxa- 
late of lime ; 6"lh, The cystic, consisting of the peculiar 
substance called cystic oxide. To these we may add 
the alternating calculi, those that are formed of differ- 
ent substances arranged in alternate layers ; and the 
compound calculi, composed of different ingredients 
mixed together without any regular order. 

As urinary calculi are properly extraneous bodies, 
and do not possess any vital properties, it has been al- 
ways considered a most important point to discover 
some chemical agent, by which they might be render- 
ed soluble, and in this way discharged along with the 
urine. Until very lately all the attempts that had been 
made of this kind were entirely empirical, and, not- 
withstanding various flattering accounts which, from 
time to time, had been laid before the public, were al- 
together abortive ; but since the greater accuracy of 
modern chemistry, their nature has been thoroughly 
investigated, and we are well acquainted with means 
by which most of them may be readily dissolved out of 
the body. It still, however, remains a doubtful point, 
■whether, while they are in the bladder or the urinary 
passages, any re-agent taken into the stomach, can be 
carried along the circulation so far unaltered, as to be 
capable of acting upon the calculus through the inter- 
vention of the urine ; and, upon the whole, we are dis- 
posed to think that but little can be expected from this 
mode of proceeding. But, although we may fail in this 
object, there are still two methods of relieving the dis- 
ease ; one, indeed, which is extremely painful, and af- 
ter all merely palliative, viz. by cutting into the blad- 
der, and removing the calculus ; the other, which, if it 
can be accomplished, must be regarded as the more de- 
sirable plan, is by counteracting that state of the diges- 
tive organs, which gives rise to the disease. Upon the 
whole we may conclude, with respect to this latter 
point, that whatever remedies would, in other circum- 
«tances, tend to improve the process of digestion, and 
establish the healthy action of the intestinal canal, will 
be equally serviceable in preventing the formation of 
calculi. But, besides this general view of the subject, 
it will be necessary for us to examioe the state of the 

urine in the individual cases of Lithiasis that present ,. , 

themselves; because in mostof them we can distinctly in its simple form, although, as we have remarked 
perceive the existence of two conditions, of the system, above, it is considerably debilitating, and proves a 
which are very different from each other, produce dif- source of much inconvenience, it is seldom to be re. 
fcrent effects, and may probably require different reme, garded as dangerous. 

7, 



.-nented and spiritous liquors ; and, in short, to adopt 
that system of regimen which is the best calculated to 
induce a healthy action of the stomach and bowels — a 
circumstance which we are inclined to think is much 
more important than any direct chemical effect that can 
be produced on the fluids. The propriety of an opera- 
tion will depend upon the urgency of the pain, or the 
other symptoms arising from the mechanical bulk of 
the stone. VV'e shall only remark, that sometimes a 
large calculus in the bladder may be borne with tole- 
rable ease, when, by the use of the proper remedies, it 
can be prevented from increa.sing in size ; this proba- 
bly arises from its more prominent and irritating parts 
being rounded off, and the organ becoming accommo- 
dated to its reception. 

Sect. IV. Leucorrhcea. 

We have placed Menorrhagia among the Apocenoses, 
because there is reason to suppose that the menstrual 
discharge is, strictly speaking, a secretion ; owing, how- 
ever, to the nature of its symptoms and treatment, we 
have enumerated it among the Haemorrhagies, and have 
given directions for its management in that part of our 
system. Leucorrhcea, which consists in an increased 
secretion from the mucous glands of the uterus, is cha- 
racterized by the appearance of the discharge ; by pain 
in the loins ; loss of appetite ; general debility ; and 
wasting of the flesh. The discharge is sometimes of so 
acrid a nature as to excoriate the parts on which it 
lodges, and occasionally it even communicates the same 
symptoms by contact to a second person. 

It is not very easy to ascertain either the exciting or 
the proximate causes of Leucorrhcea. Whatever stimu- 
lates the parts in an excessive degree has been conceiv- 
ed to give rise to the complaint ; but, on the other 
hand, it has also been attributed to a variety of circum- 
stances that tend to debilitate the system. Perhaps we 
ought to ascribe the affection to general debility , com- 
bined with local excitement. The debilitating effect of 
the complaint is much greater than might have been 
expected from the quantity of matter discharged, indi- 
cating that the complaint is to be referred chiefly to 
some constitutional action, depending upon the relation 
which the uterme system bears to the other parts of 
the animal economy. The complaint is often sympathe- 
tic of some structural disease of the uterus, and is then 
more unfavfurable in its prognosis, and often more 
distressing in its immediate efl'ects ; but when it exists 



Leucor-- 
rhceiu 



MEDICINE. 



37 



rriexKt. Tli« iaSeiAmt of core we not rery otmow. and 
.Jr-nr"^ the effect of ri ■«*!»■ U uncertain. Tl»e ummI method 
Tiwiant. 1,^, Ijj^ ^ employ tonic* and stimalanU ; but we »re 
ftcqnentlj liimpperntcd in o«r expcctationi of benefit 
firea them, ancl. under certain cil f il l ti n ii i . it would 
appear, that the oppotite pbn of U — l i Bin t i<a>areMie> 
ot*>fuL We oecanoBalljr derive advaitage fVoa the 
topical appUeatioB of ■•trtnr«^t», tueh m loiution* of 
taa, alum, or aalphate oi zinc : but it may be doubted, 
whether the aftct of thr-p ,ul.»uiice». a« eaMniiaily 
of eold flMid*, i« not >• powerful aa an^ ep*. 
ilmvcd frofn the natare of their inhere* 
CaWliaiiilii haee lately beta rrcummrnlefl in 
LeoeerrlMBa. bodi ukcn iuMmally, ind applied exter- 
nally in tha fbm of Uitlert, to the parts cootiMou* to 
the utrra> ; but it may be doubted how lar ney will 
be found to corrr>po«id with the hiKh character that 
taaa bean green of ttian. A« tharc b ganarally a tor- 
par of tba imealinaa, fc ia ahriot m lr ii i r iiiii j r to 
nloy poriprtirr* ; and H b wupMirl that aana pattieu- 
ar oanaflt i* obtained from timm ikni an of ■ alimo- 
ImAmp iwara. aa the i«iw and ntract^ b«t we ara 
t0 donht th« uBiminiw of thia opiaian. Vw. 
afaO kinda appMn to ba 

a 

tba aini^tli aftha 
iiiM.«d 



gkn of the lirer, and the patient experieaeea aa unu- Fnn.^t. 
mal degree of lamitade and general weaknecs. In ""^-^^ 
what way the phenaaena of Jaundice are connected 
together, whether a mere obatructioii to the passage of 
the bOe fttmn the liver to the inte»tiiifn is the primary 
canw of all the other (ymptoin*, whether there is wme 
original defect in the aecretiaa of the bile iu«U', or 
•aae torpor in the digeatire ornna or their appendages 
BMy ba danbted; nor aupDoamg it proved that the 
dJMaaa pro ce a di from a mwiumcal canaa, are we able 
todetcraune how theda6ciency of bile in the inteatinal 
canal can produee the aflieela that we obaerve on the 
digestive proceas i In many caaes Jaundice evi<lentJy 
depencb upon some diaeaaa in the structure of the 
liver, by which its fancti o na are permanently injured, 
snawtimee by an eKtraneous body fUliiiK up the duct, 
or prwaing' upon it; but Uiare are cases in which, so 
ftr aa w« eaa^ndge, it appaars to arise from •onw 
r that ia attre strictly idiopathic, mm! of a leas i 




afasMartha 

of thia aniar ia ObstipBiki. aa 
iaaanataPyijaimiMlif of 
oTtka 

bat winch 
• toiperaflha 
to ba obviated by tka 
ia the w lac ti on of wWdi wa 



In the care of thia complaint we are firat to ascertain Tmtmenl. 
wtwthar it dapaada apon a scirrhns of the liver, or 

of thia organ, in which 
aMMt ba obvioaaly direMed to thia 
Is wa ai^pact a to arise ntan a mere 
gcaaraUy have recourse 
leas; and tbete rwuadira are probably the 
beat that we ean eaaploy ia Jaundioa that is more 
strictlr i i l i«i p a lhir Ilia more active pargatives are 
aaaam baad to ba the amst rM ca ciu aa, aid it ia gena- 
wiy Aanght daai i al iU to eombiaethem witheahaael. 
" " of the ■to> 

■id by thia mMdy weaoteoiy ftae thia 
aaaraaava c 




bat It ^weaia 
by the act of ve« 



the particalar tiirywiraa of the caae, thaa bv aiqr lian 
■raaral rales that can be laid down opaa the nibfect. aala. 
Tha ipirat iu ii of thaae mn adiai ia alwaya m a th pre, hapi 




is a Adbai which gaaaraOy 
■^ ahaiaitiua la tha p 
bhith»aal 
The wrest raaaahabla a y iwiaB a of laaa* 

ithaiiliiiini II of Ma wta the drew. 




dMBda the pacaHvealoaraf the skin and the camaa, ainHr 
wM ay ftw B the saraai of the biaad baiay tiy dwith Smm 



p 



n It. TWbiWbainfi 

of it « 

>n thedi. 

bi or of a 

rhile the 

I the whole p r a c ass of digestion and 

Thaa ia abo pain in the la. 




its lead of , 

wUch b pi 

fteai thadncts 

attended with 

newsaarv ; and be* 

h thay aCird, mry some- 

«€ the oonplaint, by ra> 

contractiena of the parte 

, by increasing the obstrae- 

ef the bile along >ta natural chan> 

After the diaaare iterif hat baaa aabducd, the 

state OT the digaalian onaa landare it necesai^ 

rjr Mr aa ta have rac wuw a to steaiarhita and tonics, of 

to be dw Beat aaaAil. Can. 

byaloageoa. 

of the aaliaa aaaanl watera, to 

which the ikeah air aad aaaraae wUeh fcm a part of 

ia each caaat will UMtmally contri- 

One of the oatsca of Jeaedice, def. nan a Choidithia* 

itothajMMagaoi iithe 

I 0t the peeaMv badim cslicd Luiuir\ uilculi, 
: riav to the diaaare of cheWithia or (°>a1UtotK-. a 
which preaeriy bateqga to the order of the 
gaas, bat liw qi i a Mw ati ow of which we have 
I to thia p la re i oa a cwian i of its connexion with 
a There aabstanow are partlv eompused <d 
I and hadaned bile, and partly of a crystaU 
cancrete* lato rouaded 
layera, and posaasaed of 
propertirei In what way rbtj are 
generated, ar what particular stalm of the liver and its 
sacretionaareftvonrable to their prodactaon, U not as- 
eretained, aar are we acquainted with aay metltod by 
which their fiaaMlion can be p rese at a d . U hm thry 
an iopactad in the ducu^of the Uver, they i 





88 



MEDICINE. 



l'r«rtlee. acute pain, which is generally referretl to the pit of tlie 
«^ V^' rtomach, and is often attpnded witli severe vomiting, 
and by this operation the obstruction is occasionally 
removed: the same effect is sometimes produced by 
brisk purgatives Opium and warm fomentations re- 
lieve the pain, and likewise the spasmodic contractions, 
which, as was remarked above, seem to exist in these 
cases, and lend to aggravate the complaint. There are 
instances in whichthe distension produced by Gall- 
stones is so great as to produce inflammation, when 
bleeding must obviously be had recourse to, at the same 
time that we may try the warm bath and emollient in- 
jections. 

Sect. VI, Amenorrhaea, 

Amenor- Ischuria, or a difficulty in the excretion of the urine, 

rhiu. ig perhaps in all cases a symptomatic affection, either 

occurring in connexion with some other more general 
disease, as Dropsy, or depending upon some obvious 
mechanical obstruction, as in Lithiasis. We shall there- 
fore pass on to Amenorrhoea, or the deficiency of the 
menstrual discharge. It occurs under two forms, that 
of retention and of suppression : the first, where the 
discharge does not make its appearance at the proper 
period of life ; the s-cond, where, after it has appear- 
ed, it does not return at the usual intervals. There is 
another affection which ought perhaps to be regarded 
as a mere variety of .■Xmenorrhoea, in which the dis- 
charge takes place at the proper times, but is in small 
quantity, and is attended with considerable pain ; this 
has received the name of Dysmenorrhcea. When Amen- 
orrhaea, in any of its forms, has continued for some 
time, it produces various constitutional derangements ; 
there are pains in different parts of the body, espe- 
cially in the neighbourhood of the uterus ; the appe- 
tite fails, the bowels are torpid, the head is oppressed. 
Anasarca supervenes, the breathing is short, the pulse 
is weak, and the whole body becomes languid and en- 
feebled. In some cases, particularly in those where 
the discharge does not take place at the proper age, 
there is a remarkable sallowness of the complexion, 
from which circumstance the disease has obtained the 
name of Chlorosis; it is likewise attended with a sin- 
gular tendency in the patient to take into the stomach 
various articles of an indigestible nature, which would 
seem to be the mere effect of caprice, did we not ob- 
serve this morbid appetite to exist, where we have no 
reason to suspect this disposition from any other cir- 
cumstance, and where tlie stomach is evidently in an 
unnatural state. The proximate cause of these com- 
plaints is evidently, in the first instance, the same, a 
defect of power in the vessels of the uterus, by which 
they are unable to propel the blood into the capillaries 
with due force and in the proper quantity. In what 
way this condition of the capillary vessels produces the 
general symptoms is perhaps not easy to explain ; and 
uideed it may be suspected, that at least in a gi-eat 
number of cases, the peculiar state of the uterus is ra- 
ther the effect than the cause of. the constitutional ir- 
regularity. 
Tr««tinent. But whatever may be our determination upon this 
t jjoint, it does not affect the principles upon which we 

proceed in our tiratment of .^ menorrhcea, which is to 
excite the system generally, and the uterus in particu- 
lar, by the use of those means which may increase the 
action of the arterial system, and especially of the ute- 
rine vessels. The state of the bowels obviously re- 
quires purgatives, and those of a stimulating kind ; 

4 



Practice. 



such as the resins and more acrid extracts, scammony, 
aloes, colocynth, &c. The degree of flatulence which ^"nr— 
is generally present indicates the employment of what 
have been termed carminatives; and when there is 
much pain or irregular action of the parts, we may 
prescribe antispasmodics, of which perhaps tlie most 
efficacious is assaftetida, with an occasional opiate. 
Exercise, and especially horse-exercise, as much as can 
be borne without exhaustion, is a necessary part of 
the regimen ; and the diet should be as nutritive as the 
patient can bear, without inducing indigestion or any 
degree of febrile excitement. We have hitherto taken 
no notice of that class of remedies that are styled em- 
menagogues, becr.use we are extremely doubtful whe- 
ther there be any to which this title ought to be ap- 
plied, except to some substances, the action of which 
is so violent as not to be admissible into practice ; we 
consider the savine to be of this description. Perhaps 
there is nothing which is better entitled to the specific 
appellation of an emmenagogue than electricity, and 
this application may be safely tried in conjunction 
with purgatives, and the other treatment that has been 
mentioned above. The warm hip-batli, or even warm 
water applietl to the feet, frictions with the flesh-brush, 
and warm clothing, are generally thought to be ser- 
viceable. Besides these remedies, which appear to be 
more particularly indicated by particular symptoms, 
we often find it necessary to use stimulants and tonics, 
as the various kinds of bitters, and the preparations of 
iron ; with respect to the latter medicine it should not 
be employed until the bowels are rendered completely 
soluble, and in all cases it may be proper to combine 
it with aloes, or with some of the purgative resins or 
extracts. 

CHAP. VI. 

Paramorphice. Local Structural Diseases, 

Having now, in our five first classes, gone through Paramor- 
the different diseases which proceed from primary af- phise. 
fections of the systems of the blood-vessels and the 
nerves, the mental faculties, the organs of nutrition, 
and those of secretion, we now come to the diseases 
which are of local origin. These form the two classes 
of the Paramorphiae and the Ectopias ; the first denot- 
ing a morbid change of structure, the latter a mechani- 
cal displacement of tlie parts concerned. The greatest 
number of these diseases fall under the province of 
surgery ; they frequently require the assistance of 
some manual operation, or of external applications ; 
and although they are often accompanied by constitu- 
tional affections, yet these are obviously sympathetic, 
so that our main attention is to be directed to the topi- 
cal derangement. 

We have divided our class of Paramorphiae into Phy- 
mata and Phtharmata; the first including tumours of 
all descriptions ; the second denoting an alteration in 
the substance or structure of the part, as where a mem- 
brane is converted into a bone, where a sol't part be- 
comes rigid, or a hard part becomes soft and flexii)le. 
Of the different genera which compose this order, per- Diseases ef 
haps the only one wiiich can properly be considered the hearu 
as falling under the province of the pliysician, is that 
which consists of the organic affections of the heart. 
Besides the inflammation of this viscus, which has been 
already treated of among the Phlegmasia;, it is su'iject 
to many other organic derangements ; its valves, and 



MEDICINE. . 



PrartiM. t 



^ndagn, which are •abwryitnt Ui the mechuw 
circulation, are liable to btamm oMificd, and 
k» larze artcnai tmnlu are sufaject lethe tame aiTcction. 

" ■ withoat awumii^ the bony trxturr, the 

pnta bccooiM rigid and int l a ti c ; tone- 
th« oontniy, tiw araada that coaopoar the 
oftht haaitafpaarto loaa tfarar tone or eon- 
metife powar, and an rtkcied, ao aa to admit at the 
RMif (Bitaidcd to an CBarmoaa aixe, and 
thaw a« diincnt kimb of maUcnnfor. 
in the original cotMtruction of tha heart, which 
r with the performance at iu appnipriate ftin^ 
Tka ay uiptMu a that are producM are very va- 
■d oIm at* diflmh to oe ■ecounted for ; thcr 
anabit aa to predict ia what Mate the paru win 
be fboad after death, and eren when we hare aaoertained 
thia point bjr dJaection, it it not ahraja aaay to raton- 
cile the •japtoaai with the actual Ji a e aa r . A rerjr re> 

ia the dHarofaftian bacweea the riolenoe of die ajrnp- 
nraoMid^ and the actwd dieraUan in ifaeavyaa; 
h ItiaMMfdan. whidi ha haea ao acaie aa to 
aaniaritiniif and finally to prove fltfalt 
atate hoi nvqoently not b>«n prvrioaalj hwHcated 
pais in the part, or evca by the itate oTthe pobe. 
nave already had iiccaaon to rcnark. that the diaa 

■a nv^aentiy, if not m every mlaBce, 
■a^gavoat of the valvaa, 
to the hoartj 
aad we fttm raaaoa to bellev* thet'many afcticna, 
vhUi an reAned to the long* or the ttoaoch. ot^ 
nale fron the mbbo caaae It aaMl be obvieaa that toe 



■at 




•f than diaaaan ia, fbr the matt part, bayoad the 
af the medieBl aat, mmI that ia iMat af than we 
an BoC flMe to de naoi even I 
The ooly gnanl priniali opi 
ia, to aadaaeoar |» iw Ui a t a the Ifaiea of the armU- 

wwan; byavaiding 
I. byaHnctj 
ia a 
fanaadagnoaTi 

Dl |B0 BBrti CO H CWmo HI Om I 

Unlan dMn dwold be My 
' _ ia not iadband, nor an , _ 
n a a ioaial p a artin, aalaaa than'be'aa ob- 
1 dM bowib. ar aane Iteihv af hahgnlM 



39 

for we may remark, that in order to prevent a plethoric l^actic*. 
•tate of tKe «y»tctn, it is much mere destrable to avoid '"""V""^ 
repletion of the stonud), than to endeavour to obviate 
iu efccta. Blisters and iaaoea applied to the chest have 
bean fimnd oaeAd in relieving aaections that have cer< 
tainly aeeaMd to ptooeed from an organic itiarair of the 
heart, aad it wifi therefore be proper to try their ef- 
fect. As it i< so ilifficult to snbetantiate the existence 
of these oomptaints, we are, for the moat part, reduced 
to the neceaaity of pracribiiig for particular syinptama ; 
and ahhoogh in tnis way we can expect to do little 
I than palliate, it must be admittra that very un- 
eana bave oocaaionally molted. Caa aa have 
I uuuuied, when every circuuutaiKC seemed 
to tndicatea serfoos iiiMinii election, but where, by the 
eshibitioa of nan Modan that improved the atate of 
the atoaaaeh, aU the alarming symptiana have vaniab- 
ed, aad tiw patiaat hn regained a ataM of pecftet 



With than obecrvaliona we shall oondude the iketdi Caadadsa. 
that we nafoasd to oler of the priadpln of medicinet 
In a worm expnaaiy iamdad nr gaairal pcnisal, we 
have a h a t ai nw i ftom eniariag ian miaate oetails, con- 
vinced t» we mn, that popular treatian of practical 
mcdiciite arc aeldaan nacnil and often da n eeroua. We 
tu«r endnvoored to peodooe a work whi<£ may mark 
the praaaac atale of aiedical acimce, and which wtj 
ttm n a baaia ftr Aen who an darfnaa ef caMriqf 
men rainatcly into the nbject. We have givca a oaa- 
dae view of OMMt of the doctrines which nave either 
prodaead aay oanaidenUe efect upoa the Hate of ra»> 
di nl|w«ti n>, or whid<.fton their raal merila, nam t» 
bv ^notltd to ovf itt<iitWMi» n on Msny points wv 

OWI Din OBBHMI OV OHT P««OBQMM«^ 

be that tB^Tin their day, diaaenled 
dkon who went bcfta* them; and if it be 
oli^aolad that «• imve ftcqoent^ coaftiial the inaaf> 
ioeecjr of oar art, aad have left nuny ftnnidablo di^ 

waaU pR»> 

of prrfrction, if 

ihenisrlvr* within 

ded uct io n , and had 

not thei ^ h t it fn taw b an upoa then te peiat out a ro- 

wttttf me every 



our 



we majr reply, that the 
bably have a 



writan had man atnctly i 
thelaaJteofnpninwBd 




(•) 



»>TIwXa 



itBAafadki 



Ml. lafa « Vai XIIL mi i 

INDEX. 



iMawa»,iailwBaaami T< 





B 



.lha.«te 
Ba||IM.anau(iAMt 



40 

BoertiuTe, aecount of, 6 IS 

'» pathology, account 

of, ST* 
Tlancius rcferrttl to, 6.i8 
Ilorelli, account of, t>5i) 
Bronchitis occuun of, T2S 
Brown, account of. hid 

'» pathology, account of, 
677 
BulTv coat of the blood described, 

71!) 
Biuseriui, account of, 658 



Cachexis, account of, 712 
Ca'lijs Aurcliaiius, account of, 

637 
Carditis, account of, 7?1 
Catarrhus, account of, 728 
Caunia, account of, 7 1 S 
Causes of disca&e considered, 66ii 
Cclsus, account of, 638 
Ceiealca, their use in diet, 693 
Chaldeans, state of medicine 

among the, 626 
Charleton's pathology, account of, 

660 
Chemical pathologists, account 
of, 659 
pathology, aaount of, 
680 
Chemistry, origin of, 643 
Clieniists, medical sect of, 648 
Childhood, diet proper for. 688 
Chiron introduced medicine into 

Greece, 627 
Cholelithia, account of, 37 
Cholera, account of, 35 
Chorea, account of, 15 
Chrytippus, account of, 633 
Climate, its effects on diseases, 

669 
Qothing, its efTects on diseases, 

695 
Coffee, an article of diet, 687 
Colic, accoimt of, 16 
Condiments, effect of in diet, 694 
Connexion of diseases, remarks 

on, 670 
Constitutional causes of diseases, 

66* 
Contagion, operation of, 667 
Contractility defined, 662 
Conversion of discises, remarks 

on, 670 
Convulsions, accoiuitof, 712 
Cookery, effect of on food, 687 

products of, 693 
Critical days, account of, 736 
Croup, account of, T2? 
Crustacea employed in diet, ac- 
count of, 691 
Cullen, account of, 656 

's nosology, account of, 703 

's pathology, account of, 

679 
Culaoeous diseases, account of. 

33 

D 
Darwin, account of, 657 

'» nosology, account of, 
704 
■ ■ 's pathology, account of, 
678 
Defluxiones, account of, 710 
Diabetes, account of, 22 
Diagnostic symptoms defined, 

673 
Disrrhon, account of, 34 
Diet, ellfcct of upon diseases, 669 
observations on, 684 



MEDICINE. 



Dietetics, general principles of, 

6S4 
Digestion, account of, 685 
Idiocies, accoimt of, 633 
Dioscnridcs, account (if, 640 
Disease, causes of arranged, 660 
definition of, 660, 698 
nature of, 660 
Dogmatic sect, acamnt of, 635 
Drinks, use of in diet, 693 
Dysentery, account of, 728 
Dyspepsia, account of, 21 

E 

Eclectics, account of, 638 
Kctopiie, account of, 713 
Kduc'ition, pathological effect of, 

666 
Eggs, use of in diet, 691 
Egypt, origin of medicine in, 626 
Empirical sect, account of, 635 
Enteritis, account of,725 
Epilepsy, account of, 13 
Epistaxis, account of, 5 
Erasistiatus, account of, 634 
Erethismi, account of, 711 
Erysipelas, account of, 4 
Erythema, account of, 731 
Exanthemata, account of,71 1 
Excitants, definition of, 693 
Exercise, effect of upon disease, 

667, 694 
Extrinsic causes of disease, 667 
Eustachiui referred to, 648 



Farina, use of in diet, 680 
Febres, account of, 710 
Febrile contagion, account of, 

735 
Fermented liquors, effect of on 

the stomach, 693 
Fernel, account of, 646 
Fever, observations on, 732 
Fish employed in diet, account 

of, 690 
Fojsius, his edition of Hippo- 
crates referred to, 630 
Forestut, account of, 647 
Freind, acoount of. 651 
Fruits, vise of in diet, 692 
Functions, nature of, 660 

G 

Galen, account of, 641 

's successors, account of, 648 

Galenists, account of, '148 

Gastritis, account of, 725 

Gaubius, account of, 0A6 

's pathology, account of, 
675 

Genera of diseases, remarks on, 
700 

Glisson referred to. 656 

Gluten, vegetable, use of in diet, 
080 

Good's nosology, account of, 707 

Grecian philosophers, improve- 
ments in medicine by, 628 

Greece, early progress of medl' 
cine in, 626 

Gruter, inscriptions preserved by, 
628 

Gymnastic medicine, account of, 

H 

Habit, effect of on disease, 695 
Haimoptysis, account of, 5 
Hwmorrhajptt, account of, 711 
Hsemorrhois, accoimt o(, 6 
Haller, refcncd to, 658 



Heart, diseases of referred ta, 

38 
Hectic, account of, 731 
Hepatitis, account of, 724 
Heretlitary constitution, effect of 

in diseases, 664 
Hetodicus, account of, 629 
Herodotus, account of the early 

history of medicine by, 626 
Herophilus, account of, 634 
Hippocrates, account of, 629 
_ I I I , commentators on, 

630 
his principles de- 
tailed, 631 
his successors, 633 
Hofihiann, account of, 653 

's pathology, account 

of. 679 
Humoral pathology, aocount of, 

674 
Hunter, account of, 657 
Hydrocephalus, account of, 12 
Hydropcs, account of, 712 
H ydropliobia, account of, 8 
Hydrothorax, account of, 32 
Hygeine, object of, 696 
Hypera?stliesiae, account of, 7 
Hysteria, account of, 14 



Icterus, account of, 37 

Idiosyncracies, effect of upon dis- 
ease, 666 

Ileus, account of, 17 

India, early state of medicine in, 
626 

Indications of cure considered, 
682 

Infancy, diet proper for, 688 

Inflammation, remarks on, 720 

Intermittcnts, account of, 733 

JudiEa, early state of medicine 
m. 6-26 

Juncker, account of, 653 



laryngitis, account of, 722 
Leaves, use ot in diet, 691 
Leucorrhaa, account of, 36 
I.icutaud, account of, 658 

- • 's synopsis, accoiait of, 

70S 
Ivinnsus's nosology, account of, 

liquids, use of in digestion, 68T 
Litliiasis, account of, 35 
Lommius, account of, 647 

M 

Machaon, account of, 627 
Magic employed in medicine, 647 
Mania, account of, 80 
Materia alimentaria, arrange- 
ment of, 689 
Mathematical sect, account of, 

650 
JMead, account of, 651 
Medicine, definition of, 625 
history of, ib, 
origin of, ib. 
Menorrhngia, account of, 6 
Mesne, accoum of, 644 
Methodic sect, account of, 636 
Milk, use of in diet, 691 
Mollujca employed in diet, ac 

count of, 691 
Mondino, account of, 644 
Morgagni, referred to, 659 
JMucilage, use of in diet, 680 
MusoUar system, 669 



N 

Natural functions described, 661 
Nervous fever, account of, 10 

system, account of, 662 
Neuroses, account of, 711, 7 
Nicholls, account of, 655 
Nomenclature nosological, re- 
marks on, 709 
Non-naturals described, 064 
Nosology, general principles of, 
696 

natural and artificial 
methods describ- 
ed, 697 
Nutritive system, accoiuit of, 
602 

O 

Oil, use of in diet, 686 
Opthalmia, account of, 72T 
Opium, action of, 8 
Oribasius, account of, 648 
Otitis, account of, 728 



Paracelsus, account of, 647 
Paralysis, account of, J 1 
Paramorphia, account of, 713 
Paratrcpses, account of, 712 
Parcccrises, account of, 712 
ParhaeniasiaB, accoimt of, 709 
Parotitis, account of, Itl 
Parr's nosology, account of, 704 
Parry's pathology, account of, 

681 
Passions, effect of upon disease, 

696 
Pathognomic symptoms defined, 

6T3 
Patliological hypotheses, account 

of, 674 
Pathology, arrangement and de- 
finition of, h59 
general principles of, 
659 
Paulus of jEgina, account of, 643 
Pertussis, account of, 1 7 
Pestis, account of, 738 
Phlegmasia, account of, 710 
PhJogismi, account of, 709 
Phlogosis, account of, 731 
Phrenitis, account of, 720 
Phtharmata. accoimt of, 713 
Phthisis, account of, 26 
Phyinata, account of, 713 
Pipel's nosology, account of, 701 
I'itcaime, account of, 651 
Plater, account of, 647 
Plato attended to the medical 

sciences, 633 
Plethora, pathological hypothesis 

of, 681 
Pleuritis account of, 723 
Pliny, remarks on medicine by, 

636 
Pneumonia, account of, 723 
Podagra, account of, 83 
1 odalirius, account of, 627 
Powers of the anim^ body de- 
scribed, 668 
Practice of modicino, 715 
Praxagoras, account of, 633 
Priests, early practitioners of ffi*. 

dicine, 6^5 
Prophylaeiios, acoount of, '.88 
Puerpurai fever, account of, 726 
Purpura, account of, 7 
Pyrexias, account of, 732 
Pythagoras attended to the medi- 
cal sciences, ,688 



MEDICINE. 



41 







s 


Ijjj^ 





•Tl 





«• if ai diM, Wt fljilmlw. aaeNM if. <M TmMmwit. aeeooBt «f, 851 

of. US SjMw, aMiHl if. 649 Vw Swalcn. arcamnt «f, C5S 

tt. vn Wiw^umtmlagf dMo ft ii t . 6Tt Vapoun, cAct of in produang 

I <^. MT BjmiiiWi. ilMHriiim at. <Tt diiewc 6<* 

ddUtfaa if. <Tt VirirA, iHomt of, > 

•r.MS gjm idi rf I ilni^r i l im ar VariMia if dinMi dMotai. 

if as «HM. •«« MM. Tl« TOO 

if; BjrpUib, MaMl d; M ▼amk.MMMif. 1 

dcMdHiTM - , • *~ T iMfaa. 6W 

«£C«S SkTM iiir'r-' ■iHriiii al Tm. wiif tedht. MT Vqcctabli MbMMi mpliTid 

'— T I -'■ -'^-' "^ iadkt. Ml 

Mi, MS VtaMm a tm wX to,' 6*8 ' 

hatfafMdii' Vk ■idJMrti MiM JMCiibwI. 

«T1 

< !• TiMl AavtiMi dMcribid. Ml 

if. at VkribM. MMMttif. Mi 

M« m4 ar- Va|ri^MMia|y,aenaMor, 70S 

aaoM^ClT W 

aawi<Ttl WiBi,aMa«tif. 6M 



lif^tft 

I A SI* 
irfAabidy. irmi—i— T 
if. MS 

iii— ,aitiwnf, aw 
^aari, acxMM < Tit 
8 Spitteif 

3ri«*(ifi>'>M.M« y«».ifc«rfi>*it.M* 





lai; Spbiiw amMn. i*M if M itM TrndMi. mmm < Ttfl 

lot MiMk. MS Titaaaa. i ii i w lrf. \% 

its SMI. anaMt if. Ml T)aif n l i li. ii ri a al W. IT V 

•CI* 'bHHAvaMMMif.STi Ty|liaB,iCMM«f. 135 Y Jo»-fc m. jawmit of. TS T 



MED 

\ gx Nrai, a city of Arabia, ia tht dutrict 
of 1.. ii..^.j^, or lb* iWmi ^ P^^'lMtg*, which com* 
prdbanda the ilmJia /Vnoaof th« andmU, bat bayond 
tba coBlnca oTtho Bcfed al Hana. n kofy Immd oft: 
Imm, a tci ihw/ thai aopa, azeepthig If ahomataiu, ar* 
allowad to aMcr. Thb dtr •Cancis oo a frrtik apot, 
in a aoantatDoaa daam. Tba moaiiiaina. which coo- 
■titate a ptamincBt fcatva in the whole land of PH* 
EiiwM|i. are bighaK in ba vidnitjr. Water it team 
UwoMPoot the tet iilo r y , befaig obtained from a frw in> 
caa ri da ia ble tfvinft and deep wclb ; bui brre and at 
Maeea the rain water ia pKacrvad bjr the inhabitant* in 
iJalaim, and the nei(hboarin« gaiifaiia and plaiiiati"n« 
ar* MmpHad pleBtiroIly with il The me jrieidinc the 
raal baMS or Mecea, which ia eaOcd ttbmm, growt in 
the aorroaadinf drant, thooefa it ia not obtained at 
Maeea haalf. 

ia MBall, and •arroonded by a aiiffbt wall. 
atraiKtbencd whan the in- 
habilanti werr nenaced by an army vt iectarin a frw 
year* a^ It i* a piaca of no inportanoc, cicrpt rrwn 
catHaiutvg the tepulchre of Mah«(n«t, the approach to 
wbitb wat al«a;t itnctly intrrdtcted to Jewi and Chria- 
tiana ; bat th« inhabttanta enjoy the privitrf* of ex- 
a npti ew Atxn tbe impoat paid to the acbcriC U^ Mecca, 
the iMtnral lord of the cowitry, and ihr irnth exacted 
by the aectanrs now alluded toi The Turkiih emper- 
or daima the forrreixnty of Medina and the ncifihbtmr- 
inf territory, and had twu oOfeer* in the rity ; but 
the ather i ffo^ Mccra, enjoyintr an indrpen'Irnt powrr, 
held the real rapremacy, and had a riztr in M& 
dina. 

Tiir tnrr.ti »f MafMBet H indoieH '>«■ 
« iicta of k nKMqiie > 

tu;. - .-roonded by a rich br. vM • ...— -• 

eoid, on a fcrrm groond, tbe rolnur < 

y,-,.i!,,, ,y, •. ~,i, nor (he niooi|«ic are duimj^iMMivw i.^ 

a »• ; but an Jinmania treaauw had accu- 

. vc. Al.. i'AkT I. 



"n gnVng 
•1 nt ttmc- 



M E D- 
molatod for afia, tha pcarla and preciooi itoiMa in which 
exceodcd all aatimatmo. Nrar to the tomb ia seen an 
opening, which the Mahometant aflino i« for tbr pur. 
poie ofrvcrivinK Jcatii Chrut, ai they beliivr be i» yet 
to return, and clie at Mrtlma. Here alto are the tombi 
of the Caliph Othmao, and other friend* ur dracendanta 
of the prophet ; and the chair or pulpit from which be 
waa accaatooMrd to preach, ia yet preierved with iuper> 
•titiova ear*, to ba aaod at miirala. A fable was for. 
merly preralent, that the tomb waa autpendcd in the 
air between two maxnrtt, or without any viaible tup* 
port. Pooort, a French phytidan, who drtigned vi. 
kiting Medina about the year 1700, an<l travelled much 
in tM Eaal, dadarca that ha eiaitad a monatury of 
Abyaaiaia, tor the pBrnote of aacing a aimilar pbeno> 
■unan. Thefa he beheld a roundgolden ttaff; about 
tan ibrt long, raapcnded in the air ; and, to detect any 
artifer, ha raqneatad the abbot to permit hi* examining 
BMra narrowly whether there waa not 10010 invisible 
prop or aupport. " For my better aamrance," aaji 
lie, " and to take away all doubt, I pawad my cane 
over it. and under it, and on all (idea, and found that 
tbia tiaff of gold did truhr hang of itaelf in the air." It 
M not inprabable, therewe, tnat aome deception wu 
praetiaed in tuspending this celebrated aepulchrr, which 
thoaa who determine on aeooonting for everv thing, 
enoccivcd was accsapUahad by nuKnetJ. I'he tomb 
wat enclnied by the iron grating, and wa< also guarded 
by 40 eunuchs, in oonteooence, it it commonly believed, 
of an attempt to carry off the bones oC the prophet. 

Medina aiid Mecca an two placei of pilgrimage, re« 
sorting to which ciinTers grcjt dittinciion on tbadevout 
Mahometan! ; but it appears that the latter is more 
frequentetl. Nevcrthilcss a caravan annually repairs 
•■' ^'^int fnm DamaM:us, the principal purpose of 
.< to carry a rich carpet from the Turkish etn> 
l« riir iur the torib of the prophet. It travels under 
tbe dircCtioD of the puba ot that dty, as prince of the 
r 



Medina. 



MED 



42 



M E K 



Medina 

Mcdiier- 

nnrtn Sea. 



pilgrims, is gtiarded by troops and artillery, and accom- 
panied by a great number of women. 

Of later year«, both the religious and politicnl state of 
Medina underwent an important alteration ; nor can its 
condition at the present time be precisely ascertainetl. 
The environs of the city gave birth to a Mahometan 
sheik, named Abdoulwehliab, about the year 1720, who, 
after pursuing his studies here, contemplated great in- 
novations on certain principles of the Mussulman faith. 
But finding Medina itself unsuitable to his views, he 
left it to make a proselyte of Ibn Saaoud, prince of 
the Arabs, whose son Alxlelaaziz endeavoured, in suc- 
ceeding years, to subdue all the neighbouring countries. 
The Scheriff of Mecca, unable to resist his forces, reti- 
red to Medina in 1802 ; but the city proving untenable, 
he again withdrew. However, it withstood a body of 
troops sent from Mecca, wliich had been pillaged pre- 
viously, and their commander Saaoud was obliged to 
retreat to Draaija, the capital of the sectaries, seven- 
teen days journey east of Medina. But Saaoud having 
renewed the attack after his father had been assassina- 
ted in 1803, rendered himself master of Medina in 
IHOi, where his followers shut and sealed the doors of 
the temple, destroyed all the ornaments of the sepul. 
chre, and took possession of the vast treasures which 
superstition had accumulated. In 1805, the great ca- 
ravan from Damascus obtained access to the city on- 
ly by means of heavy sacrifices; and the reformers sig- 
nified to the pasha, that in future it should come no 
longer under protection of the Turks, or accompanied 
by troops, trophies, music, or women, bat that it should 
consist of pilgrims exclusively. The caravan liaving 
attempted to travel thither next year, without strictly 
conforming to theee injunctions, had hardly rc.-iched 
the gates of Medina when it was obliged to retire in 
disorder, persecuted and annoyed by the sectaries. De- 
votion to the person of the prophet being prohibited as 
sinful, the reformers refrain from visiting his tomb ; and 
they have destroj'ed the sepulchres, chapels, and temples 
erected in honour of saints. In the year 1807, the 
whole priests, servants, and slaves belonging to the 
mosque of Mahomet's tomb at Medina, were command- 
ed instantly to quit the city, as also all pilgrims and 
soldiers, together with the Turkish judge. A com- 
plete revolution, both religious and political, was thus 
accomplished ; but we have understood, that in the 
year 1817 or 1818 the Emperor of Turkey , in order to 
regain his influence in Arabia, sent a large military 
force against the reformers, by which they were de- 
feated, and their leader being taken prisoner, was car- 
ried to Constantinople, and there put to death. Lat. 
24" North, Long. 40" 10' East. 240 miles north of Mec- 
ca, (c) 

MEDITERRANEAN Sea, is the largest inland sea 
in the world, forming the southern limit of nearly the 
whole of Europe. It is about 2000 miles long from 
east to west, and has an dverage breadth of from 4C0 
to 500 miles. From the Eosphorus a strong current 
«et3 into the Mediterranean; at the Straits of Gibraltar 
anotlier current flows in from the Atlantic ; two weak- 
er currents flowing outwards along the northern and 
•outhern shores. The tides in the Mediterranean are 
very small and irregukr. 

Dr. Marcet has lately shewn, that the water of the Me- 
diterranean contains rather more salt than the ocean. 
This fact has been explained, upon the supposition that 
the Mediterranean is not supplied by the rivers which 
flow into it with a quantity of fresh water sufficient to 
replace what it loses by evaporation under a burning 



EUTi, aided by a powerful radiation from the African Mediter- 
shores, and the parching winds blowing from the ad- ranean Sea 



jacent desarts. Philosophers have, therefore, attempt- 
ed to explain why tliis sea does not gradually increase 
in saltnesg, and indeed be ultimately con\erted into sa- 
turated brine. This has been ascribed to an under cur- 
rent of water, ealtcr than the ocean, which runs out at 
the Straits of Gibraltar, and unloads its waters of their 
excess of salt. This idea of a submarine currents 
countenanced by the fact, communiaited to Dr. Mara 
cet by Dr. Carmichael, on tlie authority of tlie British, 
consul at Valentia, that some years ago a vessel was 
lost at Cetita, on the African coast, and its wreck after- 
wards thrown up at TarifTa, on the European shore, 
fully two miles west of Ceuta. 

A similar fact is stated by Dr. Hudson. " In 1712, 
M. de L'Aigle, of the Pha?nix of Marseilles, giving 
chace near Ceuta Point to a Dutch ship, came up with 
her in the middle of the Gut, between Tariflk and 
Tangier, and then gave her one broadside, which sunk 
her. A few days after the sunk ship, with her cargo 
of brandy and oil, came on shore near Tangier, at 
least four leagues to the west of the place where she 
sunk, and directly against the strength of the current ; 
which has persuaded many men that there is a recur- 
rence in ike deep water in Ihe middle of the Gul, that 
sets outward to the grand ocean, which this accident very 
much demonstrates." Phil. Trans. 1724, vol. xxxiii. 
p. 1 92. See also Phil. Trans. 1 8 1 9, p. 1 77 ; and Edin- 
burgh Philosophical Journal, vol. i. p. 236, and vol. ii. 
p. 358. 

MEDWAY. See England, vol. viii. p. 688 ; and 
Kent, vol. xii. p. 436. 

MEKRAN, or Mecran, is a province of Persia, 
stretching from Cape Jask to the frontiers of Scind, 
along the Indian Ocean, which bounds it on the south. 
On the north it is bounded by Seistan and Arokaje ; 
on the east by Scind ; and on the west and north-west 
by Kerman. Mekran is divided by a range of moun- 
tains running from east to west. The northern pai-t 
has got the name of Balouchislan. To the east there 
is a small independent state called Lus. Balouchist^n 
is again subdivided into the seven following provinces 
or districts : Jlialawan, the most southern, and Sara- 
ivan, the most northern, both of which are extremely 
mountainous, and in general barren, though some of 
the vallies are capable of high cultivation, and produce, 
in favourable seasons, very abundant crops. — Cutck 
Ganda-ca, which is about 150 miles long, and 40 or 5'J 
broad, is chiefly low country, having a rich black loam 
soil, and producing all sorts of grain, besides cotton, 
indigo, and madder. — Aiiuiid Dejel, to the northward 
of the former, whose climate and soil are excellent. — 
Shal and Mustungj which are of very inconsiderable ex- 
tent, but distinguished for the excellence and cheap- 
ness of their productions; and Zuhrce, which is well 
peopled, and has the name of being the most civilized 
district of Balouchistan. 

The province or district of Lus is of a circular form, 
and nearly surrounded by mountains, which separate 
it from western Mekran, Balouchistan, and Scind. The 
country itself is flat and sandy, and remarkably fertile 
in every description of grain. It has two small rirers, 
Wudd and Pooratce, (the ancient Arabius, ) which, ris- 
ing in the mountains near Bayla, falls into the ocean 
at Sonmeany, the principal sea-port of Lus. In order 
to obtain water, the inhabitants of this district, who are 
chiefly fishers, are obliged to dig holes in the sand, and 
having taken a supply, they fill them up immediately, 



11 

Mtkran. 



MEL 



45 



MEL 



krt the wttcr ikMld bMoaM «k. vkicli h eeruiiiljr 
doca wh«n iIm httUn an kft Ofmt, 

Pungaor, or Pmger, which u mnffcdUe for lU 
datM. M • •ohII. fitrtilr, and well pMfM diatrict. It 
lie* at Uw (fiHaoce of aboal Ian dayt joamey, in a di- 
rection nertli nort h awt fram Kej, tha capiul of Me- 
kran, the whofe of tiM — nt a ioona tnMta to tho waM* 
ward fanmnc tlia aamOma boondarj of llw aaady do. 
fert. and on Um poralM of Paii}gaor. It hoa oliUinad 
the geneikl nan* of Wm»k»t«t, or JfWI. Vooahky 
h m anaB maij bamn dbtrict, Mtwfft^mmm o# 
■boot 96M|«aroiirile*, wboao inhafaitaali awatediiaif 
hf pliMMler. GaraMrl i« abo a eery ■nail but esti«me* 
\j lertik diitrict. and u about 6*e dayt joornc^ to tbo 
Bortb-wcat of Nooahkjr. It ia a narrow atrip, tn aetne 
place* frequently not cxccedin|( half a mile in breadth, 
and bein( Hanked on both (ride* with hif(h banks it ro- 
aonbko iIm drjr bod of a river. It derivae its axiraor* 
r fbfrilhjr ftoa thoanntMl 



1 placed tinder private 

the 






7l5i 



\ chaia. la Wottara liokfM, 



peovmco 
Tbo nortnem and aowlhiifi 

1 a* a coolbnd iMao of tro- 

in iangth abo«t 590 aiWo. 

b bii«dlb;iid tbo awdl 

loo bvoM 

thoOMMBtl 




T^' 



parallel with tbo ihore. at the dialMW of dght or (aa tbo Mftnal 

Bile*L At Cbobor, however, aad Capo Jaik, iboy op> bk y onth, 

Bnocfa tbo ooMt. Tbia cMa mikm hacrMMt oHVfc tbno 7«aii 

tkn at Sofko. tbo ilriiMi on th» Mr* ridt iMrbw «■§ than o 



at Soffco, thoi 

tbo PtoiioB G«lf. I 



Tbo livon n MoIdsi prmnl o 

diy. The MIoviaf on tbo "jiliiiliiil of vhMi' wo 
bovo receivod aaj oeeoaal : Tbo Nan Ihar. or aah 
tioor. wbicii fclh bH» tbo ■■■ KTk. TboCido»i 
frycbfiaMbi tiM bOo at Smn, wd Jobia tbo < 
tbirtjr aailoa woat of Cbobor, be t woea JlaojtM and Tmmk. 
Tbo B nap oer rivor, wbooo eoorao ia ftoa i 



oat to 
Aftor fca'Bwitomw vitb oaotbar atrtooi wbicb tra- 
vtraco Hw fatilo plafaM of I^nhar, it loaea itaolf fai tbo 
Madi abegt ibvtj MiioB to the wertwanl of the town of 
Ammbt. Wbaa viailod hj Capt. Grant in tbo aentb 
•rPobrnory, it waa 90 yatda wido^ad S teC dao^ 
Tbo popnlatMM) of Mckna ooiMMi of imbt diWKnl 



faitboi 



ano gold aKl nbor bovo 
Soo'Una^a 



^^to wboir Foroo of MoknB a 
tajoao mm. Land and boa aro | 
lofKdot fl 
and at NoL Copper. 
a. and aorirfo aro alao fonnd. 
OMir. Mem. «fPtnim,pk tOi— M5. 

MBLAN'CTHOV. Fiiii ir Tha rolihndoil ftiwd ■■! 
eondjntor of Luther, waa bora bi Ibation, o laani of 
on Febraary 16, 1497. Hit rather, Oaarga 
1. (which waa the German family naaao,) 
ieoofeammiaaary of artiBtoj, and w« di»> 
1 by bii iuiau i ii ty in the inooMlMMf alHtay 
• wtB aa by tbo ailrti— of bio piety 
lorhianMrak TbooanofMoianctfaon'* 
I (In CMMtpnner of feia ftftbevli poUic an. 
a) war anuiial o d to Ma natomol grandbther. 
Rai^, who lonf fllled the oOeo of aoyor in 
Ho waa at firet aont to a pobUo acbool ni hi* 
I ; bat, a oaaM^gionadiaaaao having appearrd 




tbo acfaolan^ bo wao aoon 

He ifaa inatraclad in tlie l.atin Unf(uafte by 
John Hongam*. (who afterwarda becane a PtoWHant 
pro a char ;) and f;ave early i n d i o otiu na of hio great na- 
tural capodty. Ho atadied tbo Gic^ l a n ou ogo with 
equal diligence and aoeeaaa at Pfbisbaia,iinaerGeorgo 
Salem* ; ond doriiv tho oooae of bia atadiea in tbit 

fc, bad ftcqnant appiatnuiliii of aecoiv wt g tbo 
lly advioea of John Reochlin, or Captiio, a« he i« 
ganarally oallod, wbo waa one of the principal 
of learning in fliiiaony. and who woa gaaa t ly 
' nag taloits and ttadioao bobita 
of yinaf lialanatbon. At tbo ogo of twotvo bo wreta 
aovneal piaeeo ia Latin «or8% ana in tbo feOowin* year 
ODiapoaid a huoMarana eamedv, which lie drclicated 
to (>pnio, front wboaa bo raeetvoil, on that occasion, 
the name of Melancthon, wbicb rignifio* in Greek what 
Schwartxord doea in German, namelv " black earth." 
After a raaidanea of two yean at ffbraeim, he wao 
aant to tbo nnivoaaiiy of Heidelberg, where he toon bo. 
diiting«ii*hod by bia lalenU, application, and 
M. Ho wrote mo«t of the public bo- 
at tbo anivenit)-, durinf; hi* attend- 
tbaeo ; aad waa entnuted with the education of 
tba two aona of Count Leonatein. Tbo *itu«uon of 
K to be unfavooiablo to bia Icobio 
bod^, and hi* miad boing obagrinod by 
tbo laftiaal of a b^ior btcrary deirree, on accoant of 
bo left ttat naivonity aAer a laaidaata of 
yoon, and iiaiavod to tiMt of Tubtngoa, whiah 

btaaebofUtoratai* and theology, rhare ba dovotod 

l«-pn«taa».lo. 

at the ago of aovan* 
pbiloaophy. or maaNr of 
Ho aooa aftarvada bnawi a pnblie bolanr fai 
tba aaivani^, and oadlad ganeral a d a ibatha i bv bia 
knowlodgo and elegant taalo in tbo Latin 
Ho waa at tbia pcnod tbo reatoror of To. 
poaitioaa had hitherto ap- 
in a proaate form ; and ba apccdily attracted the 
attanlien of tbo graataal acbabn of the ago. He waa 
particularly oa hy aa d , when only a yootb of eighteen. 
by tbo loaiBod ii iana u a , wboao worka abound in the 
atimgcat laaliBaniaa both to tbo eiain o nce of Melanc- 
tbon'a oUdaaHMa aad to tbo aicoUaaca of b>* charac 
tar. 

Tbe hiitary of bia laUgioo* principle* cannot be do* 
tailed with tbo laano poMaion a* that of hi* literary 
progvaaa; and tbo principal fact, illurtrative of thia 
poi^ ia tbo gift of a anail Bibla fioaa bia friend Cap> 
niok npoa wbicfa bo waa aaeattooMd to aoto aacb o» 
planatory binta aa oocnrrod to bio own mind, or aa 
i bios in tbo worba of otbora, and which be 
bio oo n a t a nt oonpanon, patticalariy during tJw 
of public wonbiBk After reaMiniag aix yaan 
at Tubmgoa, bo t oaiooan to tbo Univenity of Wittann 
berg, whero bo waa a p pni mwl to the Grerk pnNmai^ 
abip ; and wbare bo ot ti ne tod aacb nttmber* of atn. 
danu, that be ia aoid to bovo aoaoetimaa bad an au> 
dianca of IMO pMiaaa. Hero ba aoon became the ink 
tiiiMti ftiaad mA bwalnafala aaaoeiate of Luther, by 
whoa bo waa oona u lto d on all oeeaaioaa, and to wboaa 
mot caoao ba randorod tbo moot i aiaiitlal aarrieo by 
bia litoTHV noourrea and temperato mnnaali Fm 
took a loadfiig place in the improvement of phfloaopbl 
cal ttodioa, anitinx the ttiuly of the Aristotelian rae> 
thod, with all that vrtn valuable in the writingt of the 
Sloica and Platoniat*, and thua formiog a kind af 



bfaaaalf particularly to mathtiaal 

C, mediriaa, aad tbaalepr, and 
Bk wna a I a l l J daetor in pbi 



44 



MELANCTIION. 



eclectic system, which was named from him the Philip- 
pic method, was speedily introduced into all the Lu- 
theran schools by abri<lgments from his own pen on 
the various branches of philosophy. After the celebra- 
tetl disputation at Leipsic between Luther and Eckius, 
at which Melancthon was present, he applied himself 
more intensely to the study of the scriptures, and the 
illustration of pure Christian doctrine. Having been 
ass«ile<l by Eckius in an abusive letter, on account of the 
opinions which he had expressed of the different dispu- 
tant.s he published a reply, drawn up with so much 
elegance of language, acuteness of argument, and mild- 
ness of spirit, that it proved extremely favourable to 
the cause of his friend. In 1520 he married a young 
woman of a reputable family in Wittemberg, and of a 
character in every respect congenial with his own. 
They soon became distinguished patterns of genuine 
piety and Christian beneficence. His house was crowd- 
ed by paupers, who were never sent away empty ; and 
his time was beset by equally numerous applicants for 
his advice, his recommendation, his literary aid, or 
merely for the pleasure of seeing so celebrated a per- 
son, to all of whom free access was granted. But, 
•however devoted by principle and feeling to literary 
leisure and domestic retirement, Melancthon was fre- 
quently called, by his sense of duty, to encounter that 
publicity, and to share in those contests, which he 
■would otherwise gladly have shunned. During the 
period of Luther's seclusion in the castle of Wurten- 
berg, he found himself placed at the head of the reform- 
ed cause, and was fully aware of the high responsibility 
attached to such a situation. He discharged, at the 
same time, many of those clerical duties which belong- 
ed to the office of Luther ; and, notwithstanding all the 
sensibilities (we may almost say the hypochondriasm) 
of his nature, he often appeared in the front of the con- 
test, which was now thickening on every side. In an- 
swer to the condemnation of the reformers' principles, 
published by the divines of the Sorbonne in 1521, he 
wrote a small but satirical pamphlet, entitled, " Ad- 
versus Furiosum Parisiensium Theologastrorum decre- 
tum pro Luthero Apologia ;" and another in the same 
year against Placentinus, or rather Emser, in which he 
details the history of the Lutheran controversy, and re- 
futes the calumnies of the anti-reformation party. He 
was busy also in his university-labours, exciting the youth 
under his care to the diligent study of Christian truth 
in the writings of the apostle Paul ; and about the same 
time he produced his celebrated work, entitled, Theo- 
logical common 'places, which excited great attention, 
and obtained an extensive circulation, not only in Ger- 
many, but also in France and Italy. It was published 
in Venice under the name of Philippo de Terra Nera, 
(the Italian translation of the word Melancthon ) ; and, 
under this designation, was either approved, or at least 
uncensured ; but, as soon as it was known to be the 
production of Philip Melancthon, it was instantly sup- 
pressed by order of the Inquisition. This work was 
extolled by Luther as the best book next to the Holy 
Scriptures, and recommended along with his own 
translation of the Bible, as sufficient together for the 
formation of a good divine. His pen was much em- 
ployed in revising the translation of the New Testa- 
ment by Luther ; and particularly in comparing that 
of the Old Testament with the Septuagint version. 
About the middle of the year 1 522, Luther having se- 
cretly got possession of a manuscript commentary by 
Melancthon on the Epistle of Paul to the Romans, 
printed it without the author's knowledge ; and sent 



him a copy with a very characteristic apology prefixed, 
of which a few senstences will not be thought unworthy 
of being transcribed. " Martin Luther to Philip Me- 
lancthon, grace and peace in Christ. ' Be angry and 
sin not. Commune with your own heart upon your 
bed, and be still.' I am the person who dares to pub- 
lish your annotations, and send you your own work. 
If you are not pleased with it, it may be all very well ; 
it is sufficient that you please us. If I have done 
wrong, you are to blame : Why did you not publish it 
yourself? I threaten you farther, to steal and publish 
your remarks upon Genesis, the Gospel of Matthew 
and John, unless you supersede me by bringing them 
forward." 

In the course of the dispute between Luther and 
Erasmus, the latter made several artful attempts to draw 
Melancthon from the cause of the reformers, by the pros- 
pect of promotion from the popish party. The reply 
of Luther's friend sufficiently shewed that his modera- 
tion and mildness were very different from timidity or 
indifFerence : " For my part I cannot, with a safe con- 
science, condemn the sentiments of Luther, however I 
may be charged with folly or niperstition — that does 
not weigh with me. But I would oppose them stre- 
nuously, if the scriptures were on the other side. Most 
certainly I shall never change my sentiments from a 
regard to human authority, or from the dread of dis- 
grace." In the year 1525 he repaired to Nuremberg, 
on the express solicitation of the senate, to assist in 
planning the establishment of a public seminary in that 
place, and afterwards delivered an oration at the open- 
ing of the academy, but declined the offer of one of its 
professorships. Amidst all his public and private en- 
gagements, which he mentions in his letters as at once 
oppressive to his mind and injurious to his health, he 
found means to publish a variety of useful composi- 
tions ; among which were introductions to several of 
the sacred boeks, a Latin version of the Proverbs of So- 
lomon, and an Epitome of the Doctrines believed and 
taught in the Reformed Churches. 

He was employed by the Elector of Saxony to draw 
up in the German language a memorial on the side 
of the reformers, to be presented to the diet, which met 
at Spires in 1526; and was regularly consulted by the 
Landgrave of Hesse on the means of promoting the re- 
formation in his dominions. His pen was employ^ 
ed also in preparing a directory for the churches in 
Saxony, which was entitled Libel/us Fisitnloriiis, in 
which the Papists pretended to discover a difference in 
sentiment from Luther, because it was expressed in a 
strain of moderation ; while Agricola, a friend of the 
author, and the founder of the Antinomian heresy, de- 
claimed against its doctrine on the necessity of repent- 
ance, and involved him in a painful dispute on the 
subject. But he was soon called to take part in the 
still more serious controversy among Protestant divines 
on the subject of the sacrament ; and, while he adhered 
at first to Luther's notion of consubstantiation, his opi- 
nion became gradually more inclined to that of Zuin- 
glius. It was a more important task even than this, to 
which his whole faculties were required, when he was 
called to extend the materials furnished by Luther, and 
to draw up the Augsburg Corijessinn of' Faith; and 
though, in the course of the discussions on the various 
articles at the diet, in which he bore the principal part 
on the side of the reformers, he was inclined to yield 
more than Luther approved, in regard to the eccle- 
siastical jurisdiction of the bishops, (of whose good in- 
tentions he hoped too favourably ;) yet, in all doctrinal 



nielanc- 
thon. 



M E L A N C T H O N. 



4& 




point*, be nuunUined the character of an enligbtened 
and inflexible Protestant. In tlteae various conferences, 
be dispUye<i all the excellence of bis character, as well 
M tbc abilities of his mind : and all the efforU of the 
Roaianists were exerted, without iuccess, to gain him 
orer to their cause. Amidit all bis oon s ti tn tin n a l soiu 
ncM, the iniejjT'ty of hi« principles, and tb* Hilrepidity 
of hi« mind were repeatedly manifested ; and, when 
Cardinal Campegius ultimately refused all toleration of 
the Frotcatant sentiments, be made thia mild but rcatK 
lute repljr. " Well, then, we cooimeDd o ut m i rm and 
our concerns to God. If he be for us, who can ^e 
against us * We shall wait with patience whatever 
may happen to us. If it be neoaaaary, we would (tf 
aucb be the will of God) rather fight and die than be- 
mjraaniany souls." In the year 1534, be waa com* 
'to confer with Bucer at Casel on the sacra- 
oootrawariy : and would naoat likdy hare 
] iiiairtn. bad Luther been Jia poatd to OM^ 
derate bia violcnca: bat. as it was. he sue c aadad is 
crcatly abating tfaa hoatilitT of tb« Saxon nktmmt In 
am brethren of SwitscrinJ. In tlM Minnvaar h* was 
mffmprti In a similar oooiSvnnca with Iha BMaaniata at 
I licrc he equally ISuted in bia oktiact, tkrongfa 

I. I ig obstinacy of lb* papiata. wlHk ha tqonU 

Iv ■:..i> !,«tMi the axcalkoca of bia own tfirit. Hia 
OMuv l^ now attained tha kighMt ealabrttjr thnn^ 
oat tho nationa of Europe ; andhe waa w ie eaw t yi l y »• 
Vitad, or rather earnestly entreated, both bjr Franda I. 
•f Ftanocand by Henry VIII. of England, to vi«tt 
Ibcir respectise ooortai but waa prevented, in both 
caaaa. by the wiahas of iha Blactor of Saxony, wbo waa 
afraid of giving oflencc to Charlaa V. and who prab»> 
bl> augured little guod frooi aitbar of th« nMoarcKa. 
They had doubtlea* '' '' "^n political viawa to 
fy in th« proposal ; es the 

lancthon's name, wnm imah tbaaa pewarfol 
were dwiraua to avail thswaaWaa at hia inHnanwI Bodi 
ba and Lotbcr had oonaidenbla bopoa of indaeing the 
kjag of England to ni ina hia appafMBtljr fii*o«iral>le 
Ji ap iw i ti on towaida the cause of tM wfanwalion : and 
lldanclbon wrote arveral letters, baaidaa liaasinitting 
soma of his poblicationa to Henry, fraa whom ba re> 
caivcd in return a pr«Mnt of 200 crowna, and the bigb- 
<8t «xpftsaion» ' 'l>atioa of bia aeal in tba eaoae 

of tba Chriatian In oooaaqnaaea, bowa w r, of 

this oomnranicatuiii u ;a> tba Ei^iw oaort. he fonnad 
an acquaintance with Archhiabap C»— ar, to whom ha 
had raCDOinMnded Alexander Alcaa, a liainad Seotcb- 
BMD, who bad been driven fran hia native co ontr y bv 
tba violence of tbc Popiah party, and who aiWwanto 
acqimod great iavrntr with King Henry. 

Upon the amioit - a general coooril to meet 

at Mantua in May i >ervioea wcra agam requi- 

red by the Protestant leadcts, to (levi«e seaM ~-»— ^^ 
fora of doctrine, which might uniu tba faferinad 
i and to select tbosa artielaa of <aitb, whidi, 
tbair railical importance, wcra iiii issarj to ba r»> 
lainad and avowed at all baxarda in the 
eommodation with the Catholic*. In the _ 
of these objects, he drew up a treatise on the su^ 
cy of tbc pope and jurisdiction of the btshops, which 
met with great approbation from tbc ProtesUnt depu- 
ties; and which manifaated at once hi« firmness in 
what he conceived to be essential principles, and hi* 
■tniw deairc of a reconciliation. But many were ready 
to nii*ililaijM(l his intentiuii, and tu censure his love «€ 
pMce, whUe be was reaiatibg offers from the Popish 
priiKef, which pcrbapo frw ottbatc calumniator* would 

1 




have been able to withstand. In 1539, in the Protest- 
ant conference at Francfort, he was deputed to write 
on the subject of lawful defence ; and soon afierwards 
addressed a letter of strong remonstrance to the waver- 
ing and wayward King of England on his conduct in 
the cause of the reformation. 

To give a full view of the services of this eminent 
and indefatigable labourer in the c.iuse of revealed re- 
ligion and of the refonnrd doctrines, would require u* 
to enter into all the leading eventa of the age in which 
he lived. In a c o nfcr a ii cc at Wornu in 15il : in aid. 
in^ the plans of the Elector of Cologne for promoting 
the reform-ition in the diocese in 154'< ; in rendering 
similar services to the Elector Palstine Frederic in 
1545 ; in preparing for tbc expected council of Trent a 
atatement of the cnief reasons of the Protestant dissent 
in 1546; in alrooat ever)' thing, in short, that was to 
be written — bia.pen waa raooeasively and unremitting- 
ly employed. After the death of Luther, with whom 
ba eoDMiltcd and i unaapiaidi d on all occasions, he 
loand bimaelf still more onceasingly harassed by the 
■eeamulating interoats of tbc refomtation, at the most 
critical period of ita pi o a r aa *. Upon the publication 
of tbc temporary mlc M nitb for all partiee, calle<l the 
Irtbum, (of wibeb tbc cmpc io * cnforce<l theolMer- 
vaneo fay necc of arma.) Mdanctbon attended seven 
CMtleraBem at Laipaie. and wrote all the pieces which 
were then praaented in the diacnaaion o( this imperial 
creed. The rcault of tbeac dcUberations waa the pub. 
bcatioB of a trcatiac from hia pen, and a decree or the 
SaoMo Bofaility and dcrgy. on the obMTvancv of things 
ofaniodiibfaBtBatarc. latbiawork. and thedispotaa 
which Mlowod, oaUad tba Adinpboristic controversy, 
' M baan moat unjustly accused of having 
the troth through cxeeaaive timidity and 
ik compliance ; but a few qoetatioBs from hi* pub* 
ata at the moment, will anflcieatlyinpaa* 
tba ■■fttidiil Datura of ibcaaaspanions: "Thoagk 
threatened with war and doatnietian, we must still ada 
here to the word of OM, aod not deny acknowledged 
truth. Aa to tbc danger incnrrcd by the defence of 
what ia preached in oar churche*. and we know to be 
truth, wc will entrust the affair to God." — •' Let the 
poletilates and mlera oonsiiter, amidst the alarms of 
war now prevalent, whst they will, and what they 
oogbt to do in thit sflair, fur the peace of the churdi. 
Aa for myself, I am ready, by the grace of Go*!, to do* 

K hence, and if need be to aaSer.**— '• We have bean 
y writtea lot and admonished net to praacfa, taacb, 
or write againat thi* Interim ; but neoea*ity oompcU uf 
to say this much, with alt humility of mind, that we 
will not alter in what we have hitherto taught in our 
cborcbca; fitr no creature pcaieaaM power or authority 
to rbang e tbc srord of God, and it ia at every one's pc 
ril to dmp er fcnake the known truth. As. therefor 
this Inlcmi ia oMaaad, in many of iu articles, to the 
truth we have advocated, we (eel it neceaaary to pub. 
liah in a Christian spirit an cxphcit answer : the danger 
incurretl bv thia meaaure we cheerfully face, cnmmiu 
ting all to the eternal God, the father of our Lord Jesua 
CbriM." 

Beaidea arranging the order of the churches and 
academic* in .Mi>nia. in 1553, and assisting at a con. 
ferance at Niucmburg in 1554, for the purpoac of 
mn aolidariag a naion between the houses of Saxony, 
Brandenburr — ' flesae, be waa engaged in diacaa* 
sing the sui le union of two nature* in the Sa^ 

viour, agatnsi uiiander and Staocanu, and also in vin. 
dicating hiaeclf £mn the damouis and calumnies cx« 



Mrllnc- 
tbon. 



46 



MELANCTHON. 



Meunc- cited against him by Flacius. In the expecUtion of 
thon. being driven into banishment by the intemperate pro- 
'"-^r™^ ceedings of his enemies among the more violent of t!ie 
reformed, he had adopted the resoUition of withdraw- 
ing to Palestine, and devoting the remainder of his life 
to the retirement of a hermit, and the composition of 
'works in defence of divine truth. " At the head of all 
the principal literary and ecclesiastical transactions of the 
age," says Cox, "consulted by princes, dispatched upon 
every urgent occasion on different journies, summoned 
to private conferences and public councils, necessitated 
to maintain a most extensive correspondence, opposed 
and even insulted by a violent faction, and watched as 
a heretic by the partisans of the Roman hierarchy, he 
represents himself as tormented upon the rack of in- 
cessant engagement, and absolutely distracted with writ- 
ing disputations, regulations, prefaces, and letters." Ex- 
hausted at length by his unremitting exertions, by grief 
for the loss of friends, and by anxiety for the fate of pure 
religion, he became desirous of a release from his toil- 
some life ; and, afier lingering several weeks under the 
influence of an intermittent fever, he expired on the 
19th of April 1560, in the sixty-third year of his age, 
ia the full possession of his mental faculties, and in the 
most placid state of pious hope. Upon being asked by 
one of his friends in liis last moments if he wished 
any thing else, he replied, " aliud nihil, nisi coelum," 
" nothing else but heaven ;" and requested those who 
were endeavouring to adjust some parts of his cloth- 
ing, " not to disturb his delightful repose." The pub- 
lic were allowed to gratify their anxiety to see his body 
before its interment ; and their attachment to his cha- 
racter was singularly manifested, by their picking up 
every pen, or piece of paper upon which he had writ- 
ten, or any thing that he had used, however insignifi- 
cant in itself. His remains were placed in a leaden 
cofEn, and deposited close by the body of Luther. 
We could dwell with much complacency, and at great 
length, on the delineation of a character, which pre- 
sents so rare a combination of intellectual and moral 
endowments ; and which, even when it is exliibited to 
the world, is so seldom estimated as it merits, amidst 
the violence of human contentions. But it is our pro- 
per province to select and abridge the materials of bio- 
graphy, rather than to expand its lessons of instruc- 
tion ; and we must content ourselves with a very rapid 
sketch of what would well deserve to be placed, in 
all its most attractive lights, before the exasperated 
spirits, who crowd the departments of modern contro- 
versy. 

Philip Melancthon has been invariably numbered 
among the most illustrious instruments of the refor- 
mation ; and was by far the most powerful coadjutor, 
as well as the warmest personal friend of the Saxon 
reformer. He was peculiarly qualified to supply the 
deficiencies, and to correct the errors, of his intrepid 
associate ; and it would be a difficult task to decide 
whether the cause of true religion was more indebted 
to the zealous spirit of the one, or to the persuasive vir- 
tues of the otlier. Nothing at least can be more plea- 
sing, than to contemplate the high opinion which they 
entertained of each other, and the uniform steadiness 
of their mutual friendship amidst all the attempts of 
their enemies to create a disunion. " Though not per- 
fectly agieed, they were perfectly united" says Cox, and 
never could be induced to regard each other as rivals. 
" Pomeranus is a grammarian," said Melancthon, " I 
am a logician, and Justus Jonas is an orator; but Luther 
is good at every thing, the wonder of mankind ; for 



whatever he says or writes, it penetrates the heart, and 
makes a lasting impression." " I am born to be a 
rough controversialist," said Luther, "I clear the ground, 
pull up weeds, fill up ditches, and smooth the roads. 
But to build, to plant, to sow, to water, to adorn the 
country, belongs to Melancthon.'' 

Melancthon's early talents, extensive learning, and 
classical acquirements, have been already noticed ; but 
his intellectual acuteness in discriminating between 
truth and sophistry, was not less distinguished than the 
elegant perspicuity with which he conveyed his senti- 
ments. He possessed an extraordinary memory, which 
was greatly aided by the regularity of his habits, and 
the equanimity of his mind ; and was not less remark- 
able for the facility with which he could recollect his 
well arranged stores of information. He spared no 
time or application in the investigation of every im- 
portant topic ; and, in all his researches or discussions, 
was actuated by the most undeviating love of truth. 
His own intentions were as upright as his conceptions 
were clear; and there was a kind of transparency (as 
has been well expressed) in the whole stream both of 
his arguments and his motives. " I will give you an 
answer to-morrow,'' he said on one occasion to Eckius, 
who had made use of some puzzling sophism in their 
disputation. " There is no merit or honour in that," 
said his antagonist, " if you cannot answer me imme- 
diately.'' " Mi doctor," replied Melancthon, with the 
greatest composure, " non qusero meam gloriam hoc in 
negotio, sed veritatem : eras, volente Deo, me audies.'' 
It was his avowed principle to speak what he thought 
firmly, but modestly ; and to concede what he deemed 
might be conceded with unambiguous ingenuousness. 
This was not a spirit likely to please any party in an 
age of violent contention ; and he was incessantly as- 
sailed and tormented, through the whole of his life, by 
the bigotry both of friends and enemies. Yet his dis- 
passionate temper, unbiassed candour, and love of 
peace, were by no means (as has been often advanced) 
the consequence of scepticism in principle, insensibili- 
ty of feeling, or timidity of spirit. The most fiery zea- 
lot in the cause of the Reformation never pursued its in- 
terests with greater perseverance than he did ; nor did 
he even temporize in those points, which his penetrat- 
ing mind saw to be essential ; and he would have died 
(as he often avowed) for what he maintained. He pos- 
sessed also all that acute and excitable feeling, which 
generally accompanies true genius ; and his anxiety for 
the success of the great cause which he had embraced 
with all the ardour of enlightened piety, arose often to 
the degree of absolute hypochondriasm. 

His acquisitions of knowledge were made with little 
exertion ; and his unclouded serenity of mind kept his 
faculties always fit for service. His bodily frame was 
slender, and his constitution never robust ; but his ha- 
bits were regular, and his mode of living strictly tem- 
perate. He retired to rest at an early hour, and usual- 
ly rose a little after midnight. He estimated time as 
the most precious of all possessions ; and, when he 
made any appointment, expected it to be kept literal- 
ly to a minute. His services to general literature 
were of the highest order, and he had great influence 
in reviving the study of the ancient writers. He led 
the way in classical composition among his countrj'- 
men ; and, though his attempts at vei'sification were 
far from being successful, he wrote Latin in prose with 
an ease and purity rarely equalled. Amidst all the 
avocations in which he was involved, he employed the 
greater part of every year in giving lectures to 1500 pu- 



Mclanc- 
thon. 



MEL 



47 



M B L 



U.« Crt 



•k; aad, cvvb nmaag the iBcnucd tnfimitic* ct bU 

witk Ml aMidokj aJnoat affmadMng to 
B«t MdHr lib attaebaietit I* litanlin*, nor hk aolli- 
MfMliiic ■&■«,« 

Hk Itention to hi* own flaaOy v« arw nkxed 

hk KTMmt pttple»dw, aad Ik w— ■winBilly 

by hk TWMB boUiw a book in aot haai mi 

clMdAhcradk with Ike «dMr. HewwCwd 




•war lotheint 
folbm; Mdkk 



whoaufbt hi 

Ibal, oa caw occMka. iMviM 
■Bjr {Mrtkakr ««>ek in ■ Urn* og(> 
WM A i i w i B g to Imb, and the TiaitaM 

• wiih 




hoasM are buflt of a aoft ftee-atona. It cootaiiM a pamh 
ehwdi, «m1 three meeting'houaet for Quaker*, Imle. 
pencknu, and BaptisU. It carrie* on the manufiictaret 
•f hwd dotbfc Niunbcr of boaaea 78^ Population 
4O30L 
MELLITIC Ario. SceCHiMirraT, VoL VI. p.5S. 
UELUDY. ia Mucie. mdi a pleaak^ aaecrMtoa of 
iDMMal aounda, a* was by tlie earlieat writer* on niuic 
calkd Habmomv, (•«« that aitide,) a term which now 
k aaduMvely api>lietl Ut denote the pkaaing efiect* of 
a pwfWT ■ekcti«Mi «f ttmadt ktmi logitker at the aaaae 
tkne. In cwrect iiBrftoiiawnei by a chair ef yod voice*. 
*r by a haad of PcwaCT ImtUtmM t t, nakmfi Ptrfiect 
Uarimmiv, (aae tbeM artkk*.) auch aa viollna, viuluiw 
eaUa%&c oraLktonko or I' vie Orgom, are 

eaBafaiaofpraditoiM whentk ed, a oomider* 

•bw MuabHr of tbeMpaer fU-pk ut Uxc inekidy in tuch 
are Beccaaarily tempered, or made a small 
than that exict quantity 
■ hkh aarh rf rurh itTp rr interval* mu it have when 
in harmaov; that i*. when the limiting 
of audi imenraM are beard loigether at the Mnie 
A nice and weQ ptnrtked aar for lauaic, will 
p aic ti wa the tnymmtaU ^ llm mttlcdy of 

ftil, on first 

_ t eoharmonic 

to eanaidw ikam m dafieta, and wi*h for 

aeoidcd. Kf ary tttmaM, however, to do 

•o, by 1111 lii^ tba t— pnwwrtanwp tha aaiody to 

tho baniwy, k ateaaanankd bv a» moeh interruption 

fran lit hmlt, by which auch temper* 

ad k««HMioa arc acwwiiiMnied, aa to produce oonvio 

naUinataiiocatobekept 

the Vtrnfmrntmllt, by wUcli WMvoidably 

ail mmit m paita k annM* MMi ba ikrowa entirely 

laa^ of tba HMio^ft wban no beat* or beating* 

wSk be fewwi 10 at iiliwil tbair aae. Sea thk aali|)oot 

flM lI b i dk—aaad m mm Pkikmtkkd Mt gui m t, voL 




oAm givt danbtkta p aac ti wa tk* 4r«iMrMMal of i 
Midtoaak whidi w« an apadu«f^ and cm hardly 



>ar 

Iwa e— <— —af 
\ nave baan anaHadf vt 
Nor waa he. by any ■ 

bat. wkik *> ho «ne apt tn 



Utva, p. 4M of tbk vdni 
pridikithacBi, 
flnomiartk to aantn aooot (e> 



of Rox« 



a kind 




8aaM»- 



by kk aao^n*kw 
WittMBberg. hi l60l, m fbnr voli 
^kakali Bmln. HiU. vol iv. ' 

Bayk'i Okmmt Dkliommry ; Camerahi Htm 

- - -■ / Milnar'a Cfart* Mia. 

Saa WiTHooTN. 

m the eonntyof 



>; Cm»IJ>ftf^Udm 
«, vaL iv. Mid ▼. (• ) 
MBL0OMBE.RBOIS. 
MBLK4HAM 




trUdi 



iMiinwiBnnwif loaavapndka. Tha 
kabaatC44«. 
laaAaftbk pariah kvanooai Toward* the louth, 
k k Car Ike SMat part a ■trooa dayi cxceUantly adapt- 
ed km wheat. Tha baidu of Aa twaad. whidi winda 
tkriinjk tha pMkk, ii w i t of a fna lioht dry loil, fit 
IvdlkindaofpaM. On tha notth mle of the rirer. 
Ikaiaik af tkraa kkida: let, A Ught aarth, mixed 
wilk *Bnd« upan a gravelly bottom ; td, A *tran|r da v 

Ka tiU, fbll of apriog^ and vary wet ; and S<I. 
. TW nattkara patt of tka panah U hilly, and 
■Mkaa MarihtifcaappM ti— ^ fci lati pa r a e d with a few 
anHll ialda n a ikr caltieaikn. Tka wdnad rent of the 
parith k M X^JU'^i. 4«. 6d. Seata. 

The town of Hekoae, whkh gi*M iu nana to thi* 
parkh, wa* fjiMwIy a b«ugh w regality. It k plea> 
eantly aitaaiad at too battoa of the Eildon hill*, on the 
nortb aide, and on ika adga af a fctttk valley, upwards 
of a mile in Iri^th, intanaalad by tha TwriMl, which 
mm througii it in a **tiwtit dk ac l ia a , and surround- 
ed bv bilk of a »anaMawbla kaigkt. In thii v*lUy. 
baaidaa Maboaab are tba vill^ea of Daoialtoun, D*r. 
nick. Bfkka mi, Gattaoiida, Newaicad, Eiklan, New. 
town, andniahiilii, 

Mclraaa waa kng oUbraiad for iu mannftetort of 
linana ; bat Ar aavaral yeaia pat thu trade baa been 
very much upon the daeitna. The buakiaa* of blcach- 



JLUIl.tic 




MEL 



48 



MEL 



JIdrow. inp; linens is carried on to a considerable extent ; and 
'■""V"' the woollen manufacture has, of late, been cultivated 
with success. 

A little to the south of Melrose are the three Eildon 
hills. The base of them may be in compass six or se- 
ren miles ; the heifrhth of two of them to the north 
about a mile and a half. On the top of the north-east 
hill are plain vestiges of a Roman camp, well fortified 
with two fosses ami mounds of earth more than a mile 
and a half in circuit, with a large plain near the top of 
the hill, on which may be seen the prcctorium, or the 
general's quarter, surrounded with many huts. The 
situation seems to have been skilfully selected, and it 
has all the properties of a well chosen camp, according 
to the rules of Vegetius. There is a large prospect 
from it of all the country ; it has many springs of good 
water near it j the sides of the hill have been covered 
with wood ; and the camp is so extensive, that neither 
man, bejjst, nor baggage, could be straitened for room. 
On the north side of the middle hill there seems to 
have been a second camp, from which there is a large 
ditch for two miles to the west, reaching to another 
camp on the top of Caldshielhill. This camp has been 
Strongly fortified with a double trench, and the circum- 
vallation of it continued for a considerable way ; and, 
along with the camp called Castlestead, it forms almost 
a triangle with the large camp in Eildon hills. The 
vestiges of two other large camps are also found in this 
neighbourh )od ; the one on the head of the hill, on the 
side of which the village of Gattonside is founded, north 
of the Tweed, which is surrounded by a wall of stone 
about half a mile in compass ; the other about half a 
mile to the east, on the top of the hill opposite to New- 
stead, which seems to have been about three quarters 
of a mile in circumference, and is called the Chester 
Know, or Knoll. The eastern Roman military road is 
visible in many quarters of this country, raised in 
some places considerably above the adjoining fields, 
and of a considerable breadth, with military stations on 
some parts of it. 

But the most remarkable monument of antiquity to 
be found in this quarter, is the abbey of Melrose. Va- 
rious religious foundations, of different dates, appear to 
have existed at this place. The ancient monastery of 
Old Melrose, situated on a little peninsula formed by 
the windings of the Tweed, was probably founded about 
the end of the sixth century. The venerable Bede, who 
•was boni in 673, gives an account of its situation on the 
bank of the Tweed, and also of its abbots. It was a 
famous nursery for learned and religious men, and pro- 
bably continued until the other one, at the present 
Melrose, was founded by king David. The convent of 
Old Melrose was enclosed with a stone wall, reaching 
from the south corner to the west corner of the Tweed, 
where the neck of land is narrow ; and the foundation 
of the wall is still to be seen. 

About a mile to the i< est of this, on the Tweed, stands 
the vUlage of Xewstead, a place remarkable for another 
abbey on the east side of it, called Red Abbey-stead ; 
and about half a mile from Newstead, on the south side 
of the nver, stands the present abbey of Melrose. This 
monastery, from the ruins which yet exist, appears to 
have been truly magnificent and spacious. It still con- 
tinues to be the admiration of strangers ; and from the 
height and erabelli hment of its columns, the symme- 
try of Its parts, the beauty of the stone of which it is 
built, and the delicacv of its sculpture, it may be re- 
garded as one of the finest specimens of Gothic archi- 
Ucture which exist in tliis country. It was founded 



by king David in 1 1 36, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, Melrose. 
and endowed with large revenues and many immuni- —"'V*" 
ties, as appears by the charters granted to the abbot 
and convent by our kings. The monks were Cister- 
tian, and the monastery of Melrose was a mother 
church or nursery for all that order, in many various 
and remote regions of Scotland. 

The church is built in the form of St. John's cross. 
The chancel, which is a very stately fabric, is still 
standing ; its roof is very curious, and has much of the 
scripture history sculptured upon it. Much of the 
western part of this building is so entirely demolished, 
that it cannot be precisely ascertained how far it reach- 
ed in that direction. What still exists is of the follow- 
ing dimensions. Its length is t>S8 feet, breadth 1 37-1, 
circumference about 943 ; height of the east window 
24, breadth 16; height of the south window 34^, 
breadth 15§ ; height of the steeple 75, the spire gone. 
The east window, at which was the great altar, is a 
beautiful structure, consisting of four pillars or bars, 
with a great deal of curious work between them ; and 
on each side a great number of niches for statues ; on 
the top, an old man with a globe in his left hand, rest- 
ing on his knee, and a young man on his right, both 
in a sitting posture, with an open crown over their 
heads. (See Plate CLXX. of Civil Architecture.) 
On the north and south of this window are two others 
of smaller dimensions. The niches are curiously carv- 
ed, both the pedestals and canopies, on which seve- 
ral figures of men and animals are curiously cut. On 
the south-east of this church are a great many mu- 
sicians admirably cut, with much pleasantness and gaie- 
ty in their countenances, accompanied with their vari- 
ous instruments ; also nuns with their veils, some of 
them richly dressed. The south window is very much 
admired for its height and curious workmanship. There 
are niclies on each side and above it, where have been 
statues of our Saviour and the apostles. Besides, there 
are many other figures on the east, or on the -yvest side 
of this window : monks curiously cut, with their beards, 
cowls, and beads ; a cripple on the back of a blind 
man ; several animals cut very nicely, as boars, grey- 
hounds, lions, monkeys, and others. There are about 
sixty-eight niches in the whole standing ; the statues 
were only demolished about the year 1649. 

With regard to the inside of the church, on the north 
side of the cross, there are beautiful pillars, the sculp- 
ture as fresh as if it had been newly cut. On the 
west side is a statue of St. Peter ; and to the south of 
it one of St. Paul. In the middle of the cross stood 
the steeple, a piece of noble architecture ; a quarter 
of it yet standing, but the spire gone. The roof of the 
south side of the cross is still standing, where there is 
a beautiful stair-case, much admired, the roof of it wind- 
ing like a snail- cap. There was within the church a 
vast number of fonts, curiously carved, and altars dedi- 
cated to various saints. In the portion of the church 
where worship is at present performed, there are two 
rows of pillars of excellent workmanship, especially 
that to the south-east, which for fineness looks like 
Flanders lace. 

With regard, lastly, to what was in part or altogether 
separated from the body of the church, there was a 
cloister on the north side, a part of the walls of which 
are still remaining ; and where may be observed plea- 
sant walks and seats, with a jrreat many fine flowers of 
various kinds, nicely cut. The door at the north entry of 
the church is curiously embossed ; and the foliage here, 
and in several places of the church, very beautiful. 



M E L 



49 



MEL 



There vere alto here a great many fine buildinf^ within 
the convent, for the use of tiie abbot and moiiki, with 
gaidena and other convenience* ; all inclosed within an 
bieh wall, about a mile in circuit. Brtidr^ the high 
ihere ha* been a laree fine cha|H-l where the 
jw ulaiids ; and another hou.'e aiijuiiun^ to it, 
wUre the Ibundation of tbe pillar* ia Mill to be teen. 
On the north aideof tbia hoiue. there has been a curi. 
oiu oratory, or private chapel, the foandation of which 
hat l>epn Nteljr diaeoveretl, and ■ \»rgr ri»tcm of one 



•tot: 

Se. 
Br- 
Pa: 

in I 



leaden pipe, conre' 

Acrotin! of Smth 



population 



«)< 



•on. . 



waa bum on 

jre«r >-.- I -• 
bro 



water to It. 
; Forayth'a 
ipliom oftMe 
1743. («) 
isrlaiMl, 
i.inluot* 
!rrr are two goad bridfca, 
lo nUo cTv m t A by • good 
I. Tbttowaeen- 
<. and hat Many 
fwjr wfge, 
• nerf. wkb a 
lowrr in tttr centre. 1 here i* here 
){irls and three annual fain. The 
of the pariah in 181 1 waa 411 inhabitatl 

I 1 I inli.iliilanl*. 

a laafaad Bwniwan, aixl 

■;...K— —vd MMcaMon of John Knox 

■>n ehiifcih. «•* tha yoanunt of nine 

•■"■■■eof Baldovy, in For»r«hire. ami 



\i>«»«t. 1545. Ill hi* ■ecotid 
.. .....w at the battle oi' Pinkia, and waa 

tbe family of bi< rideat brother Richaitl, 

for 



aAenrard*, at the solicitation of Archbishop Boyd, end 
other leading men in the west, he aiceptetl the office of 
Principal of Glasgow college, and carried his nephew 
Jame* along with him to act as regent. In this situa'^ 
tion he laboured with great diligt-nce and success, in* 
troduced a new plan of study, and made many useful 
improvements in the mode of teaching ; and a now 
founilation, which was given to the college at this time 
bv royal charter, ratified all the dispositions which Mel- 
ville had made for the advancement of learning. A> 
mong his other to the university, he deserves 

the credit of^^- led the public library, though 

it doe* not appear iti<it he enriched it with any dona- 
tions firom his own collection. About this time, he fir»t 
became known as an author, by the ap|iearance of his 
poetica] tranalation of the .Song uf Moses, &c. printed at 
Basil, in 1574, — a collection which expcrienci-d a must 
flattering reception from all the men of learning and 
taste in Europe. 

The ctm*titntion of hitoflBce,asa pn>feMorordivinity, 
■Otitlad bim to a teat in the ecclesiastical judicatories ; 
and be took a verr active interest in the public aflurs 
of tha chnteh. When he arrived in .Scotland, an in« 
eancmana apaciaa of chur< h cnviTiiimiit, — nominally 
Eptscopalian, but «' I EpiM^palians 

nor Prvabytcriana, — — - - j .jc«J ; but Mel- 

ville was cenv i ncad that prelacy is not founded on the 
authority nf^t-ripii 
time* ; an : 
rtan parit), ... «...»^ 
eflecta h) Geiiava, I 
— labBah tha mr-o - 
■MMh of Man 
Gaaaral Asani'. 



wwnty, aa Mr tba dalicney at hi* 



raaolvad lo gt«« him a* 

' 'juration a* tha aac eonki albrd. He sras 

:i gnnmar by Thosnaa Andaraoo, then 

and aftcrwaftU aaiiMr, a> Mamfoaa, who 

tiim into the priaoplaa af iha raflanan* 

ton, iii'i alter having oompletad iha nasud rontina of 

( Uini II tary education at tha Latin school, ha stodiad 

' k and French language* nndar Piarra da Mar- 

> Frenrhwan, who waa than angngad in lanch- 

-<>«e. In l.:iji>, be bccaaaa a Mndant in 

.lUge. $t. Andrew's; and after complat- 

-'>.aiieniical course there, ha sailed to FrMwe in 

toanth JMT, ami engagad ardently in tha ctiady 

, and philoeof>hy in tha nnivarsity of Paria. 

porpoaa of iCudying tha civil law, ha repair* 

cil Ut i'uitien in his twenly-£r*t year ; and, oa hi* ar> 

rival, ha waa made a regent in the eotlega of Sc Mar- 

caon. Here ha continueil - <••••, 

with great suoocta the atu' 

the tame time di >ig iuouclf aa a laafhtr of 

rhetoric. Ifisn<> was to >tudy thaolagr, and 

<. whevahaiaaa^ 
. tbavacMldMirot 
. humanity. 

In the vmr t.',74, at the urgent denra of hi* friend* 
in Scm' lie resigned hi* ofiee at Cienct a, and 

ratnntei utivc counuy. Sane of hi* friend* 

BOW endeavoured to panuada him to aceapt tlia ap. 
nointroent of dosn«*tic matractor lo tha Regent Martan ; 
but this be dedinad, and tpent a few month* in hia al- 
det bri.therN huuwr. atni.ting the atudie* of hi* nephew, 
■cently completed tha naoal 
.. .-.a. .....jtMoatSt. Andrew'*. Soon 

«aT I. 6 



Me!»iW». 
Andrew. 



iIh 



• d< 

.-1^1 



trfU 



nrx'iif'c of apostwlical 
y for i'reabyte- 
. |i. . ;t'nce of its good 
to eiert hims«-lf to 
ii... ..«n country. In the 
was first a member of the 
- name was included in a 
r with the government on 
tha ib jsct of the pt'iKy OI ti . '', and to prepare 
ascheaaof aedeeiaaiicaladn to be submit- 

ted to a rutnre Aaaambiy. in ini- \i^T I57S. the se- 
cond book of Diacinlina wa* appro\ ed by a General 
Aaaembly, in whicn Melville prceMied ; and from that 
period it ha* been the standard of Pn*i>yterian diurch 
govenment. 

Bntlba General Ataembly, in their zeal to reform 
tha gwvamntant of t' n, were not inv -t 

tha HMOns of impr seminaries »t 

At tha snggailion of Melville, in <.■■ 
bnthnotaad flRiclen. plans were I < ^ 

tha oaMtttmiona of toe univrniiieo »f St. 
Giaagow, and Aberdeen, on n pnn<>iple «iiii 
whWi bad been reooanocnde'l 
Aral book of Disdpline. A f< 
villa wa* to tranaiorm oTv 
Andrew'* into a •chool • , t 

inflaancn wkb tha govet' 
•ign waa aceonpK*tied i; 
•mwas pUced at t' 

wriataj, by the v<> c 

tbao twenty yaan tha * utw of tbe institution exceed- 
ed thanaoat aanruine ettw«tatiaiM. 

MeMilih^g .c the duties of principal 

and pealbaaar OI 'iicoew college of ht. An- 

drew's, in Deormber, 15S0, with tlie as^isUince of hi* 
nephew Jame*, a* professor of the or'-n'ril l.tn'mnoi',, 
and John Robertson, as professor of ■ 

nent. Hia daa* waacrowdeil «>>'' .'•<! ^ i ,; 

not only of student* of theolriL masters in the 

other colUfo* • •" »>f whom H' ,,i i1, ...,,.,. ,i..r 

ability wit lie acoompi 

dertaking. .\.^....!e, however, ".;;.».. ^.^ v.,^v..c.iw^^. 



.t 
formers iii liie 

-n]fft with Mel- 



50 



MELVILLE. 



MeWillr, 
Andrew. 



appears to have been passionately fond of innovation ; 
and to a rational discernment of the defects ot the Aris- 
totelian philosophy, he added an undue admiration of 
the writings of Ramus, whose lectures he had attended 
in his youth, and whose spirit he had freely imbibed. 
The Peripatetic prejudices of the professors in St. Sal- 
vator's and St. Leonard's college were roused to fury 
by the attacks upon their favourite author ; and, for 
gome time, their indignation could scarcely be appeased. 
Yet such was the address and superior intelligence of 
the principal, that he not only disarmed their animosi- 
ty, but speedily converted the most obtinate among 
them to his own peculiar views. 

In addition to his academical charge at St. Andrew's, 
Melville, during the first two or three years of his resi- 
dence, generally performed divine service, and took a 
share of the other ministerial duties of tlie parish. His 
gratuitous labours were highly gratifying to the inha- 
bitants in general ; but the freedom and fidelity with 
which he reproved vice, exiwjsed him to the resentment 
of several leading individuals; and the most atrocious 
calumnies against Melville were conveyed to the king, 
whose mind was predi«posed to receive any insinua- 
tion to his disadvantage. He was accordingly sum- 
moned to appear before the privy council, on a charge 
of treasonable expressions uttered in one of his ser- 
mons ; and though he produced the most explicit pr. ofs 
of hi.s innocence, he was sentenced to imprisonment in 
the castle of Blackness, for having declined the juris- 
diction of the council, and for having conducted him- 
.self proudly and contemptuously in their presence. 
Melville, however, contrived to make his escape to 
England ; whence he returned twenty months after- 
wards, in company with the banished noblemen, wno 
had been denounced as traitors on account of the affair 
of Ruthven, and who appeared before the gates of Stir- 
ling castle, with such a numerous force, that the king 
was glad to re-admit to his councils the men who, only 
two years before, had fled from his vengeance. 

After being reinstated in his office at St. Andrew's, 
Melville and his nephew took an active part in the 
proceedings of the synod of Fife, which terminated in 
the excommunication of Archbishop Adamson, for hav- 
ing diciated and defended the laws subversive of eccle- 
siastical discipline. When Adamson was relaxed from 
censure, and restored to his see, Melville was charged 
to retire to the north of the Tay, and was not permit- 
ted to return to his post, till the college had reluctant- 
ly consented to oblige one of the king's menial servants, 
by renewing a lease, to the great diminution of the 
rental. Not long afterwards, the king, accompanied 
by Du Bartas the poet, on a visit to St. Andrew's, had 
an opportunity of hearing from Melville a most spirit- 
ed and learned, though extemporaneous refutation of 
an elaborate lecture by Adamson, in favour of his views 
of royal prerogative. 

In the year 1,588, Melville, who had been modera- 
tor of the preceding General Assembly, summoned an 
extraordrnjay meeting, to concert measures for avert- 
ing the dangers apprehended from the Spanish armada ; 
and, at his suggestion, a deputation of the ministers, 
barons, and burgesses, waited on his majesty with the 
result of their deliberations, proffering their lives and 
their fortunes in defence of the religion and govern- 
ment of the kingdom. The. king was offended with 
the officious loyalty of his faithful subjects, but was 
pleased to appoint a committee of the privy council to 
co-operate with them, in devising means for frustrating 
the designs of the enemy. 



On occasion of the queen's coronation, Melville, who 
was invited as one of the guests only two days before, 
pronounced a Latin poem, which was received with so 
much applause, that the king publicly declared that he 
and the country had that day received such honour as 
could never be requited. This poem, entitled Slepha- 
nis KioH, was printed next day, and was received with 
the highest expressions of admiration by the first scho- 
lars of the age. Lipsius exclaimed, Revera Andreas 
Melvinas est serio doclus ; and Scaliger, with far more 
liberal praise than he was accustomed to render, was 
not ashamed to say, wov ialia non possHvius. 

Soon after the death of Archbishop Adamson, in 
1.592, an act of parliament w^as passed, ratifying the go- 
vernment of the church by general assemblies, provin- 
cial synods, presbyteries, and kirk sessions, and ex- 
plaining away, or rescinding the most offensive of the 
acts of the year 1584. This important statute is consi- 
dered to this day as the legal foundation of the Pres- 
byterian government ; and it was regarded by Melville 
as an ample reward tor his laborious efforts. 

A tumult which took place at Edinburgh on the 1 7th 
of December, 1596', was seized by the court as a han- 
dle for the piirf)ose of effecting a change in the consti- 
tution of the church ; and Melville's influence with the 
synod of Fife, and with the leading ministers, was most 
strenuously exerted to counteract the projected mea- 
sures. A General Assembly was summoned by the 
king to meet at Leith ; and as it was composed chiefly 
of ministers from the north, who were studiously in- 
fiectetl with prejudices against their southern brethren, 
the adherents of Melville were left in the minority. 
The next Assembly at Dundee was not quite so tract- 
able, ownig to the presence of Melville. 'Fo annihilate, 
or at least to depress this ascendancy, the king pro- 
ceeded in person, accompanied by his council, to St. 
Andrew's, to hold a royal visitation of the university ; 
and there, after searching in vain foi matter of accusa- 
tion against Melville, it was ordained that all professors 
of theology or j)hilosophy, not being actual pastors, 
should thenceforth be precluded from sitting in sessions, 
presbyteries, synods, or assemblies, and from teaching 
in congregations. Preparation was now made for re- 
storing the order of bishops, and the first approach to 
this measure, was to induce the commissioners of the 
General Assembly to solicit that the ministers and el- 
ders of the church might be represented in parliament. 
A statute was accordingly passed, declaring prelacy to 
be the third estate, and asserting the right of such mi- 
nisters as should be advanced to the episcopal dignity 
to the same legislative privileges which had been en- 
joyed by the fbi-mer prelates, VVhen the Assembly met 
at Dundee, the king did not venture to introduce the 
business, till he had commanded Melville and his col- 
league Johnstone to retire from the town ; and the 
measure was at last carried by a majority of ten. In a 
conference at Falkland, Melville, in presence of his 
majesty, maintained his sentiments with his accustom- 
ed fearlessness and vehemence, and the king judged it 
prudent to refer all the matters which were still intend- 
ed to be adjusted to an assembly which met at Mon- 
trose in Maich l6i)0. Melville appeared as a commis- 
sioner from his presbytery, and though not suffered to 
take his seat, his counsels and his unconquerable zeal 
served to animate and confirm the resolution of his 
brethren ; and the assembly was with great difficulty 
prevailed upon to adopt the scheme of the court, imder 
certain modifications. 

Melville was a member of the assembly at Burnt- 
1 



Melville, 
Andrew. 



jr E L 

in Utif 1601, wlMfi tJie kinf tlMM«fat it to mrw 
I M a covcnanMr, and naile a tp urfi to 

tbe nrcnaitj of mriofr tlw tfwriiwn ti thm 
Scriplurei. ! n the covtm ti Am fn l b wiw g jtm, hit 
M^aqriMMd « lettrt de evekit, dMfimr llahriU* to 
«aiM hnanlf wKhin tbe walls of the 




«rik»N«r 



ttodto 



> trsntfrr th* — ci w 

oy thr Latin tmifpm i 

At the ■cMwiwi of 

,MclviIk,«lieliMina« 

mflw romd St. Andrew's, 
_ BOM, whick prove at 
^ Imo not tne powcf ei 




51 MEM 

the lue of pen, ink, and paper. When the rigour of MalnM*. 
faif oooSmmcM wa* rriaieo. ne wm oanaulted both by Andre* 
Arauniaaand hie ant^ooiat Lulibertua on their thco- .^^*"''^. 
lopical diapates. He (till cuntiiiue<i to rcfita h hia ' '~ 
Buad hj orm ii nn a l poenu ; and in two or three letters 
la Ua aephew, he reviewed Dr. Downham't iifKion on 
EpiMapacT. In 1610, he printed a a p e dm e ii of poe- 
tical t»analatinm of the Psalro* into Latin vcne; and 
hanavar wrate a letter to hia nephew, without trans-* 
■Htting oo|Hea of «otne of hia vcnaa. 

Albr fbor jrcan imphaoanent, Melville, on the inter- 
cmman of tbe Duke of Bouillon, wa* pemiitt«-d to ac 
OMt tiM eCea of praAaaor of divinity at the Proteetant 
■■mnityof Sadan. in France ; but' the iufirmitic* in- 
cidaat to tboMO of three aeon and ten were now «»- 
tharn^ loand nia head, akhoiwfa he condaMod to wnle 
and act with aQ the force and we of hia jrouth. In hia 
74(h year, he wroto an eptfhalamitta» on tbe narriagv 
of tiM Oaa da la Tmouille to tlie daughter of hia be- 
Du Bonilkw ; and he wrote and publiahed a 
ymm ar two aAerwarda, a tnatiae in oppowtioo to the 
Aiticka of Fkith. Hia hoakh, howercr. which had 
ban broken by hia long M i n e anK , was now aadlj 
and he died in the y«ar l(ilS, at the ago of 



them woa n da d ae doapty, or 
.aathaotWaolpooM. 



In I0M ml l«M, the actiritT of MalviUe and hia 

' - > the righu ef *• Oenoeal Av 

: to the a««MM, ikat a wor- 



mmaStji 




«r 

Mi idaa. .»raa • iMan««t mff ^ » ^^ 
to the king. Iha aMh« waa niMMMd to 

^Ei^ jw»y«a»ca; mI the pro 

toktolM Mi wa Bctog Mtoa fjtty ct aoaadaAraa wag 
■ a w , aad oaMailtod to the Tower. Hie oAca waa 
Jii l wii mem», and one Robot Bowdio ww 
■ilhiiiairiiiiii 

Tbe tm year of hia _ 

by waMoa aaronty. and fMrtienlarly by that 
■MM of awlto «M attompied toihacklatfwteat 
tftoofhiaaMlkydqvmBghiflioftboMMa 9t mi. 
proaaiag kia Aai^[kto either by writing or oral can- 
wii n i r a li r a i, ThroMh the influenoe of inr JaaMa 8mm. 
pillrkji«|f |HM*t4 Mtba oad eflaa aoMha, to a 
' and apadoM ipartaxnt, and waa allowed 



. MtunI talma, nd hia 

with the c^oioaat Mocaa of ancient 

jg. Hia aaomdaBcy waa owing civ 

aad aiwlition, and not to any ofiho 

nd intrigue. Hia piety waa Cer- 

. hia brnavokBca onlaiged but un« 

ka waa ardrat in hia puniMt% and diiinter. 

, - -laaa in the pfblic aenrice. Ho noaacaaad 

independcnco of apirit, an unjridding boldneaa in 

and action, and awiating rcadmeaa and rapidity in 

a. la abort, hia talcnta, hia cruditiao, and hia ho« 

roic coarage. wall qualified bun for a Pretbytcrian lead- 
er in the diScak tiMOi in which ha lived. Sao Dr. 
MOie-a Li/k qf Amdnm Mthitk, Ac; Edinburgh, 
1819 (*) 

M£M£L. a immm of Eaaiera PruoMa. ia traveraed bv 
Iha mmA riter I>ai«o. wkich man the Kariacho-Had, 
aad which baiM hero ahaat II Ibat deep, allow* wnall 
nbeArotfealWi baato to paaa Anctly to ibe aaa. The town conaata af 
IT II • I II BMto. tw* pacta. Al«adt. the oM town, and FiederMatadt: 
laflhaiAiraor and it haa alao thaaa Mk«K av of whiA b bayoMi 
■a ankaatod aaa- ihaDangc The town i* well Ibrti5ed, and hw a Oar< 
Miiad ky a na- iiii.iil l iaiii i i ii. and a Calriniat ckurak. Akkoiigh 
d Seaafak aofaili- tha h aibiiai af ili al ie lafga^ rat it w obrtwctad by 

Bt t ra il li tkat draw mmn than 

. Tka trade of Mend. 

affn«ki-liiiig.EJU 

■n^ dkna, kiap and flax, 

tallow, beiatlas, wax, ft il h ii H aad Lkhtianhai yam. lu 

at* chieiy actidea of colonial produce. Tha 

a«Bb« of voaaalo which trade to thia port b 

> 600 and 190, than twu ihkdb of which are 

In 1800, 57i voMb armed, and 584 dcarad 

OM ; of which SiS wo* Britiab, ItS taawn, 88 Dan- 

bk. Hid S6 Swcdiak. In 1815. 441 vewb arrived, and 

4C9 daved oat. In 1816. 460 rasaeU anired, and 4S<) 

In 1801, there were here SO graat cnn- 

a. There b held annually at McBcl a fair, 

ft a q aeatad bv tha iahakitaiita ofCourfand and the Jrwa 

of Poland, wbaa a aa ily 480,000 crowna worth of mcr. 

ckandiae are tM. Popalatian about 6000. East Lon- 

ntode SI* 50* «r. and North LaU 5S* 4S' 15'. See 

Cattnu'i TeUraa Jt Im Mtr BaitifK, vol. ii. p. S04 ; 

and RorMbDS*! Empnn Coimmtrvt, p. 110. 



fSftMof 

which baaaly tk* 




ME M 



Memory MEMORY. See Mnemonics. 

H MEMPHIS is the name of an ancient city of Egypt, 

•■^'*"'*1- wl>'ch was both large and po|)uloug, and celebrated 
' ~ for its magnificent temples and palaces. Dr. Shaw is 
of opinion that Giseh or Djiza now occupies the scite 
of Memphis; but there is reason to think from the 
testimony of Strabo, Pliny, &c. that it was situated at 
some distance from Giseh. Savary places it at Menf 
or Memph ; but Dr. Clarke, who agrees with him in 
his locality of Memphis, says that the name of the village 
is Menshee a Dashoo, wliich seems to be Pococke's El 
Menshich Dashour. See Herodotus, Lib. ii. Pococke's 
Description of the East, Vol. i. p. 49. Savary 's Letters 
on E^t/pl. Hamilton's E'::yplincn, Chap. xi. and Clarke's 
Travels, Vol iii. p. 128, and 158. 

MENELAUS. See Greece, Vol. x. p. 460, 461. 
Lacedkmon, Vol. xii. p. 4.92. 

MENGS, Antho:<v Raphael, a celebrated painter, 
■Was bom at Ausig in Bohemia, on the 1 2th of March 
1728. At the age of 13 his father, who was a miniature 
painter, carried him to Rome, where he remained three 
years, studying and copying the works of celebrated 
painters. Upon his return to Dresden, he employed 
himself in painting portraits in crayons, in consequence 
of which he became known to the king of Poland, who 
made him his cabinet painter, and gave him a house 
and a pension. Mengs now returned to Rjme to re- 
sume his early studies, and he began to compose his 
own pictures. Here he married a lady, Margarita 
Guazzi, with whom he hopeJ to establish himself per- 
manently at Rome ; but at the end of four years his 
father forced him to return to Dresden in 1749, and 
having seized his whole property, turned him from his 

M E N S U 

Mensura- (jteometrical magnitudes of every kind may be ex- 
-^^'°" pressed in numbers, by considering how often each 
' ~ contains some unit of its own kind. 

A square, the side of which is the lineal unit, serves 
to measure surfaces; and the number of times a super- 
ficies contains its unit, is its area. 

A cube, of which the base is the superficial unit, or 
its side the lineal unit, is the unit of solids ; and the 
number of times it is contained in a solid is the content, 
or solidity. 

Mensuration is the system of rules by which the nu- 
meral measures of geometrical magnitudes are found : 
It may therefore comprehend Plane Trigonometry, al- 
though, for reasons of convenience, we propose to treat 
that subject as a distinct theory. 
X The smallest lineal unit in common use is an inch, 
and from this other measures are formed, as in the fol. 
lowing Table. 

TABLE OF LINEAL MEASURES. 

12 Inches . . . . = 1 Foot. 
3 Feet =1 Yard. 

2 Yards .... =1 Fathom. 

5i Yards . . . . = 1 Pole or Rod. 

40 Poles =1 Furlong. 

8 Furlongs . . . = 1 Mile. 

3 Miles .....= 1 League. 
60 Geographical Miles! , _^ 

or 69i English Miles . J " ' Degree. 
Note — An inch is supposed equal to 3 barley corns. 

4 Poles or 66 Feet . \ , t? i- i ^, • 
100 Links each 7-92 inches J = ^ English Cham, 
loo Links, measurmg 74 feet = 1 Scots Chain. 



52 MEN 

house. The king of Poland, with the greatest libera, 
lity, gave him a house and carriage, doubled his pen- 



Mengn. 



sion, and permitted him again to visit Rome. 

Here he copied the School of Athens by Raphael, 
for the Earl of Northumberland ; and, in consequence 
of the stoppage of his pension, he executed a fresco- 
ceiling in the church of the Augustines, which ob- 
tained him great celebrity. 

The king of Naples, who had admired some of 
Mengs's-pictures, sent for him to Madrid when he as- 
cended the Spanish throne, and offered him a salary 
of 2000 dollars, a house and a carriage. Mengs ac- 
cepted this splendid offer, and arrived in Spain in 
October I76I, where he was received with great kind- 
ness. 

Having fallen into a decline, he obtained permission 
to return to Rome for the benefit of his health. Here he 
regained his usual strength, and was employed by Cle- 
ment XIV. to paint in the Vatican. The king of Spain, 
however, commanded him to repair to Madrid ; but he 
had scarcely continued in Spain more than 2i years 
when his ill-health returned. The king gave him full 
libt-rty to return to Rome, with his pension of 3000 
scudi, and 1000 more to divide among his daughters. 

After he had been sometime in Rome, he had the 
misfortune to lose his wife; and his old complaint 
having again attacked him, he died in 1779, in the 
58th year of his age. 

His writings were published after his death by his 
friend the Chevalier Azara, who states that all the 
technical part of Winkelman's History of the Arts was 
written by Mengs. 



RATION. 

The measures of France m.iy be converted into Mensiura* 
those of England, by considering that a French toise tion. 
= 2 1315 English yards ; and a French metre = 39.37 1 ^— -y--^ 
English inches. 

TABLE OF SUPERFICIAL MEASURE. 

14'4 Square Inches . . . . = 1 Square. Foot. 

9 Square Feet =1 Square Yard. 

30J Square Yards . . . . = 1 Square Pole. 

40 S((uare Poles =1 Rood. 

4 Roods r= 1 Acre. 

10 Square Chains or 100,0001 , . 

Square Links . . . j = ' A"«- 

640 Acres =1 Square Mile. 

Nnle. — The Scots acre is to the English acre as 
100.000 to 7S,694, or, in smaller numbers, 48 Scots 
acres = 61 English acres. 



TABLE OF SOLID MEASURE. 

1728 Cubic Inches ~ 1 Cubic Foot. 
27 Cubic Feet = 1 Cubic Yard. 

.Nbfe.— 282 Cubic Inches = 1 Ale Gallon. 
231 . do. . = 1 Wine Gallon. 
2150.42 do. . = A Winchester Bushel. 
105 . do. . =1 Scots fint. 

The Wheat Firlot contains 21 i Scots Pints. 
The Baiiey Firlot contains 31 Scots Pints. 



MENSURATION. 



55 



-»'^*«i'-"«KTION I. 



MCNacaATioN or tlark rrouRu. 



Rectilineal plane figwrei mar tw muJved into tii- 
•i^Im ; th<rcfocT ihr menfunition of their ■iile* and 
I mar be rf ft rre J to PUne 'I ri j p w waiiett y . The 
unation of thetr amf fonnt the rabject of dm 



Pnoattst. 

To find the area of a parallekf^ram. 
C\tm I. When ih« baae and perpandicaW ar* giwHL 
Qi-i . u^!i,n!f ike Ad«r A;^ lAt perftmlieiUmr httgkt, 
lie fir kr ike mrea. 

' > ■ • ih' %u\v* of a recunffle ABCO, be 

each eqaal to the baeal anit by 
caamcd. and kt tine* ba dnwn 
of divUcn pandlrl to tha «dea : 
bilB eqaal aouaraa, aach 
And ainc* nci* will be 
w in the ditectian oT ekher 



tiiv.tir tilc 



thai liJe, «mI a 
ai tarrr wr una* in tne etliar aide, Ik* whale 
at tqaerra. or the««a,«iB be thepradactef dia 
ben whidi uynm the liaeol BMaaaraa at the 
Fee ■laaijili, d the lineal anit be ccwtaiiifd fuar tiare 
in aaa «de, «id thiaa tiaira in the othar tide, the araa 
</ the rectangle will be 4 X 5 = IX; that i^ it will 
eootahi the aaperfcial ok It timeiL 

Saaa evarjr paraOck^faaai ia aoaal to a ivcmgte 
haviac the aaae haM mtd akitadr. (See GaoMttav, 
Sect. TV. Prop. I ) iu aiaa * ill be the fradad of the 
baMbjr the pnndicalar hei^C. 

EzaarLc I. A rtdaagalar ward i* 5 feet 6 iacfac* 
long aad 9 iacfae* bniad. wfaaliaiuaraaf 

Hofa the hate ia 5/ 6 i*. = (i6 ra., and the pcrpcndi- 
calar height 9 ie.: The areas fl6 x 9 s A9i«y m. s 
4«f.y. ti to. iM. s ^ tc /. Or, hj »u!ifmf fturtiofia, 
rfnca 5/ 6 n s 54 = V/ md 9 «■ - 

area = V X f = V = ♦* *V '^ = » , , *- 

Or d*e by deciiaal fractiob* /. Q te. = i.S/. 

and9ra =.7V. «*• araa = . . ., .. J s 4.lt5«f./ 
sz i»q.f. 18 Jf. M. 

Ex. 8. Rf<|air(d the area oT a aqoat* ABCD, whoae 
tide ABU lo^inchce. 

Ho* 104 X 104 = 105 X 10 5 s ||0.t5 aquare 
iachei ii the area. 

EjlS. FtndthearaaoraparBlMagraaiABCD.whaie 
lei^ AB = S7 feet, md breadth OE = i{. or 5.V5 
Urn. Here S7 X 5.f5 a I9«S5 aqaare fctt s S1.50S 
aqaare yarda ia the area. 

Caaa II. When the two adjacent lUea and the an. 
gle they contaia are girra. 

Rt;LC. ftadhu it /e Ikr fnimU uf Iki mdu M lit 
time of the amgU Ikij comintm to Ike mrem. 

In the paralleiagnai ABCD draw the per,. r 

DE. Then rad :«in. i^::AD: OF. (srr 
u • ^' DE: : AB X AD 

' r>rapwar4thSm ). 

A Li X 1>L u tiic am, therrfore Bad. : Sin. A ; ; AB 
X AD: area. 

Ea. The adea oT a rhenboid are I « feet 4 inchea 
and 15 faal, and the ai^le between thaaa ia 4S* 15', 
, what iaiu ana r 

Mti. innnooo 

Wr»-L la. Sia.4n5' 
(13 4 s trsss 

15 iMOO>J 



PaOBLEW IT. 



To fitul the area of a triangle. 

('\se I. Wheti the bi»e ana perpendicular are given. 
Ii( ir. Multipiif Ihe bate by Ike perpfnJiaUar, and 
ki luci mill bf Ike area. Geo. f>, 4- 

!>aae ofa triangle it 350 yard*, and the per« 
peiMlicuutf Hi yards 2 ft«t : Find the are*. 

Reduring the feet to the fracu'on of a yard, we have 
^158 . __ «50 X 158 ^ 

54,. if. 3 -y- jwdr. Thearea= _^^_= 6583f 

aqoare yarda. 

Caaa II. When the two ndet and the indaded angle 
ot a triangle are ^«cn to find the area. 

Ruta. lUdtM» M f« Me ai'ae ^ the utcimdcd angle oa 
tkejrodmcl of Me lidet to Imiet ike area. 

Thia rule £uUowt immediataly fWxn Hide S. for find< 
iM the araa of a parallrlopaBi. 

■ Ea. Two aidey of a triangle are 14^55 and 12.9 
chaiaa^ and the i n c l u d w l angle ia ^■if SO*, what i« iu 

R^ 10.00000 

r Sine 7«* «or 9-9790« 

Log.{ 14.58 1.15776 

It 9 I.II059 




I 



Twice the «i 


«a I7.fi75 t.t4757 




r •.SS75 *j. tk. 


The area, . . 


A. R. P. V. 




.= 5 tl I8.I 



r«nc III When the thiae aidee of a triangle era 
girtn to And the aia^ 

R171.K. Fromkalflkemmoftketkrtfidatmttnat 
lh»»idmmmnlLf. Mnlttftg lim kalf mm md the Utrt* 
rtmn a 4r$ e mi bmal h f la^tiker, mmd tkt ammtt rmt < 
Ikt iatlmoJntt mill be ike area. 

Let ABC he a »iaaglc. produce AB one of it* Mdea, rig. 4. 
and take BD and B rf each equal to BC ; join CD. 
and C< ead throagh A draw « Ime narallrl to EC, 
aaecting CD and C ^ pnxl. »nd e. The angle 

AED will be coual to li , si. j.) which ia 

eqoaltoihe angle BIXT. (I*.l.) or ADE; therefore 
AE=AI) (13.1.) In like manner, becaiue the angle 
K* d'u equal to the angle BC rf. («l.l) that i», to 
B rf C (l«.l) or A rf r, (4J.I), therefore A e=AD 
(JS.I.) 

Frwa A aa a centre, with AD or A E a* a radiui^ 
dr«cribe a circle meeting AC in F and (i ; ami Atm 
the Muae oeo're, with A d or A r aa a radius, dcMriba 
another circle Bccting AC in / and g, and take 
FOsrCn 

Fm |XM>tio«i of the lines it i* manifest that 

CI -r ACsAB^-BC+ACaperineter, 

CO=«CA. "^ 

F/=Di^=«BC, 

Eg=F/+/-g=« Brf+«rf A=8 BA. 

In order to abridge, let p reprrse nt half the perime. 
ter, and cm i seq ae« U |y t p the whole perintetcr ; alao 
let e, 6, c denote the lida* oppeaste to the angle* A, B, 
C reapretively t thea it CaUewa that 



The area . . 124.58 #f./nrf. t.U9477 



Draw lii 
and bcc«u«< 
the circiiir!' 
meter, ther. 



-TCF-CO=2;>-2i, 
=:«/)— 2 «, 
=2/^2 c. 

iteroeiidicular to CD and C d, 
B i/sre «<iiiil. itir point C is in 



« circle, 
iml C d sr< 



' > tf is the dia* 
d at H and k. 



(C2) and the angU DC d ia a right angle, (I9.S) 



54 



MENSURATION. 



Mensau- 

tlon of 
Plane Fi- 
gures. 



hence the figure CH B /i is a recUngle, and B h=C — = 
iCD,nhoBHzzCh=iCd. (26.1.) 

Join BE, Be; and because £ e is parallel to BC, 
the triangle BAG is equal to each of the triangles BEC, 
B e C, (0 4.) But the triangle BEC is equal to ^ EC x 
BH, (2.4) that is to ^^ ECxC d; and in like manner 
the triangle B e C is equal to ^ e C x B /<, that is, to 
i eCx CD ; therefore the triangle ABC is equal to 
I EC X C rf, and also to ^ e C X CD. 

Now since CD : C rf : : CE xCD : CE x C rf (S.4.) 
and also CD: C d : : C exCD : C exC </; 



Mensurn. 

lion of 
Plane Pi. 

giires. 



Fig.£. 



therefore CEx CD : CE xC rf : : C exCD : CexCrfj 
that is, because CExCD = FCxCG, (29.4.) and 
CexCrf=/CxCff, FCxCG : CExCrf :: Cex 
CD-.fCxCg. 

From this proportion, by taking one-fourth of each 
term, and putting the triangle aBC for its equivalent 
▼alues I CE X C rf, and + C <? X CD, we also have 
i FC X i CG : trian. A BC : : trian. ABC : ^fCxiCg. 

Instead of ^ FC, i CG, i/C, ^ C g, substitute their 
values found above, and the proportion becomes 
pX{p—b) : trian. ABC : : trian. ABC : (p—a) {p—c.) 

Hence it appears that the triangle is a mean propor- 
tional bettveen two rectangles, one contained by half the 
perimeter, and the excess of half the perimeter above one 
of the sides, and t/ie other contained by the excesses of half 
the perimeter above the other two sides. 

The rule i« got from this theorem, by considering 
that the mean of three proportionals is the square root 
of the product of the extremes. 

NoTK.— This rule is particularly well adapted to 
logarithmic calculation. 

Ex. 1. The sides of a triangle are 2*, 36, and 48, 
chains. Find the area. 

«=24 
b=36 
c=48 

Sj=108 

«=54 
s — n=SO 
s—b=18 
s — c= 6 
* X {s—a) X (s—b) X (.s—c)=54! X 30 X 18 X 6= 
174960, 
^174960=418.282 square chains the area. 
Or, by logarithms, 

«=54 1.73239 

«— fl=30 1.47712 

»— i=18 1.25527 

s— C= 6 0.77815 

2)5.24293 

The area =418.28 sq. ch. 2.62146 

Problem III. 

To find the area of a trapezoid. 

Note. A trapezoid is a quadrilateral, of which two 
opposite sides are parallel but not equak 

Rule. Multiply the sum of the parallel sides by the 
perpendicular distance between them, and half the 
product is the area. 

In the trapezoid ABCD, draw the diagonal AC, 
and from its extremities draw AE, CF at right angles 
to the parallel sides DC, AB. The figure is made up 



of the triangles ACB, CAD ; tlie area of the fornr.er 
is J ABxCF, and that of the latter ^ CDxAE, or 
^ CD xCF, because AF.rrCF: therefore the area of 
the trapezoid is ^ABxCF+iCDxCFr: J (AB+ CD) 
XCF. ' ^ J . 

Ex. Let AB and CD, the parallel sides of a trape- 
zoid, be 7-5 and 12.25 chains respectively, and CF 
their perpendicular distance 15 4 chains. What is the 
area .> 

7.54-12.25=19.75 the sum of the par. sides. 
10 75X 15.4 
— 1 =152.075 sq. ch. =15 ac. 33.2 poles the 

area. 

Problem TV. 

To find the area of a trapezium. 

Case 1. When a diagonal, and perpendiculars on it, 
from the opposite angles are given. 

Rule. Multiply the diagonal by the sum of the 
perpendiculars, if they are oii opposite sides of the dia- 
gonal, or their difference, if they are on the same side, 
and half the product is the area. 

For the trapezium ABCD is the sum of the triangles fig. C. 
ABC, ADC, the areas of which are by Prob. 2. Rule I. 

i ACxBE+^ACxDF = ^ACx(BE.fDF). 
In this figure, the perpendiculars are on opposite sides. 
of the diagonal ; but the truth of the rule may be 
shewn in the same way when they are on the same 
side. 

Ex. The diagonal of a trapezium is 20 feet, and the 

perpendiculars on opposite sides of it are 4.2 feet and 

3.8 ; feet find the area, 

4.2 -f 3.8=8 the sum of the perpendiculars 

8X20 

— - — =80 sq. feet the area. 
2 

Case II. When the two diagonals and the angle they 
make with each other are given. 

Rule. Radius is to the sine of the angle contained 
by the diagonals as their product to double of the area. 

The trapezium ABCD is made up of the triangles Fig. 7. 
BEC, CED, DE A, AEB. The doubles of the areas of the 
two first, by Prob. 2. Case 2. are BE xEC x sin. E 
and DE x EC x sin. E ( supposing rad. = 1 ), and twice 
their sum is BD x EC X sin. E. In like manner twice 
the sum of the triangles BEA, AED is BDxAEx 
sin, E, therefore twice the whole area is 

BD X EC X sin. E + BD X AE x sin. E= 
BDxACxsin.E. 

Ex. The diagonals of a trapezium are 326.8 and 
269.2 feet, and they contain an angle of 541", how 
many square yards are in the area ? 

rad 10.0000 

sin. 54*30' 9.91069 

269.2 2.43008 

326.8 2.51438 



twice area 71621.5 4.85505 

area 35810.7 sq. feet. 

Problem V, 

To find the area of a regular polygon. 

Note. A polygon is said to be regular when its sides 
are equal, also its angles. 

Rule. Radius is to the tangent of half the angle 
contained by two adjacent sides of the polygon, as lialf 
the side to the radius of the inscribed circle ; and the 
area of the polygon is equal to the rectangle contained 
by half the perimeter and the radius of the inscribed 
circle. 



M ENSURATION. 



55 



Ttem C, the centre of the inscribed circle, draw CD 
•*•■ af perpnidicuUr to the «ide AB, and join CA, CB. IImti 
riut tt' CO will be the r uliu* ut'iiie circle, and AB will be bi. 
**"*" sected in O, «!*> ihe an§le« at A and B will be bi- 
•ected by AC and BC. 

In the Tigfut an^ed tritm^ ADC rad. : un. A : : 
AD : DC, ( VngommMttif) i hence the truth of the fint 
part of the rate ia r\ iJe-it. 

Aiptn, nncetfae poi/gon is equal to dte trian^e ACB 

taken m <Aen as the aipin has sidea, and this space is 

manifeatlx equal to a rectaqcle oontained by CD and 

AB taken aa often as the f^ure faaa side*, that is. to 



i 



D and half the perimeter of the figure, therefore the 
area of the polygon is equal to a rectangle oontained bjr 
CD and hafriu perimeter. 

Ex. Find the area at a heugen. ti» side being «0 
yards. In thia eaae^ half the m^ of the polygon is 
CO*. 

Rad. 10.0 000 

Tan 60* 10 inS6 

Halftheside, 10 IXXXXW 

Log. ofrad-afinsudrde I.S38J6 
Half per. 60 1.77*15 

1099JS3 S.0IG71 

PaoaLKM VI. 
To find the area of any rectilineal fignre. 
RiiLK. Rcaolve tha fignre int* trian^ee and tnq»> 
aokU, Hid cia n n ta their stcm atiMratuy : the sum will 
bethcaraaef tnawctiltnaatfitureas is sufidcmly eri. 
dent 

Pmblbm VII. 

To find the diwaler and riiriiMfcinue of a circle, 
the mm Aw* the oihsr. 

IvLs I. As 7 is la tS, a» ia the Jkmmmtt to ih* ctr. 
mwftasim nearly. 

As ts is to 7, s* b th* cbcaaAtaMa to the dkam- 
tar n e ar l y . 

RuiJt 8. As I IS is to S5S, so is the diameter to the 



AaSM is to IIS, so is the drcanftMooe tatbedi*. 
meter nearly. 

Rptc ». MakWf the diameter by S.UI6, the pro. 
dnct is the drrumwww aaarly. 

Divide the drc nnilhi s uc a by 3.UI6, the quotient ia 
the diameter nearly. 

The truth of these raica will appear from Prop. 10. 
of SecL V. GaoMETaT. 

Ex. I. The diameter of a drde m 18 feet, what is its 
tuuimlef euce f 

■ynii«1at,7:89: 



H:i*^!- 57.71 fcH, nearly. 



the 



ByraleSd. 3.l41«x lS=S7.6g08. 



iQtheinrtb. 



BjrroieSd, 11S:SM:: I«:l?^|^ sr 37.699115 



imfrrmce of a drde is one pele, or H 

I- liiamrter? 



Ea « 

_±» 

3.l4lff 



1.757 yards. The 



PaofeuM VIII. 

Te find the length ef any arc of a drde. 

RvLi 1. Find the nomber of degreee in the arc ; then 
aa liW ia to (hat mmibcr. id is 3.i4l6 times the radius 
to the length of the arc 



By prob. 7.— .3.1416 timet the radius is half the rir< Uenton. 
cuniference, which is an arc of ISO* ; and arcs of a cir- '<on of 
cle have the same ratio as their measures erpressed in **'*"* ''* 

dMIMS. Jl^ 

u. Required the length of the arc ADB, whose p|., 9. 
chord AB is 6, the radius being 9f 

From C, the centre, draw CD, bisectine the arc; 
thia line will be perpendicular to the chord, and will 
bisect it. (Gko. 6. 2). 

By Trigonometry. CA = 9 Ar. Comp. 9.04576 
istoAPzS 047718 

aarad. laoOOOO 



Agam, 



Tosin. ACP= I9*S8|' 932888 
Hence ACB = SS'' 66i|' s S&944 



38.944 X 3.1416 X 9 . 
I8J 



ISO :38.&H:: 3.1416 X 9 

6.1l7a:ADa 

RcLB II. A near approximation to any arc of a cirde 
OMiy be found by this proportion, 

9 rad. 4. 6coe. a: 14 ra^. -^ CM.m : itbi.mzttrtt. 

This approximation wax inreetigated as fdlowa. 

AmMMUM' the ndiai «f the drde to be unitr, let as 
MMBna toe WpMHW, 

A sin. a .f- B sin. 8 a = a (C + D roa.a), 

in which A, B, C, D are numbers to be presently de- 

tcnniocd. and aa we are ssfliiiM only an a|iproximation 

to the arc, let us suppose it to be such a fraction of the 

radiut that it4 7th and hij(her powers may be neglect- 

ad._ Then by well known exprrsaiens for the sioe and 

eMMM of an arc See A«itumbtic i»r Sihbs, { S9^ 

_. a> a' ■ 

am. a = a — > — -— + 

6 ^ KO 



8« = 8 


a — 


8a> 
6 
a> 


1 


S8e' 
180 
a' 






a 




84 



an<l hence A =: —^, B = Ti. C = 



Let th«^ values of sin. a, sin. 8 a, and a cos. a, be 
nfaatitntcd in the aasvmed equation, and then, by ma- 
king the oo^Sdanto of hke powers of a equal to each 
oihv, we find 

A.f.8BsC + D, A + 8B = 3D, A -f S2B=5D; 

D „ SD 

~r' 

These values of A, B. C bebig substituted in the aa« 
soBted equation, and 8 Sin. a Cos. a put instead of 
Sia. 8a, we bare 

afa>.e (14 4. COS. a) = a (9 4- 6 cos. a). 
Hence the truth of the rule is evident. 

Taking the seme example as in last problem, we have 
rad.= 9, end sin^^asS; hMMaooa. ^ •& y^ (rad.* 
— sin.'ia) = v^7<=g.aiW.wdlwah«wby the rule 

ISI.9I 168 : IS4.48M8 : : 8 : !*^^^' - g^UMS 

= *•• 

Hmce the length of the arc is 6.1 1706; this valae is 

true to the last figure. 

Nora. For anmier approximate value to an arc of a 
drde, tee Obombtrt, Prep. II. Sect. 5. Part I. 

Pboblbm IX. 
To find the area of a drcle. 

RtLB I. Multiply the radius by half the drcumfe* 
rcnce, the product is the 1 



56 



MENSURATION. 



Mennira- 
tion of 

Plune Fi- 
gures. 



fig. 9. 



Fig. 9. 



Note. This rule also applies to a sector of a circle. 

RoLB 2. Multiply the square of the diameter by the 
ruraber .7854, the product is the area. 

The first rule has been demonstrated in Geometry, 
Prop. VII. Sect. 5. Part I. 

If the diameter be supposed = 1, the circumference 
will be 3.1415927 (10.5), and the area, 

=; 4 diaro. X i circum. = .7853982 = .7854 nearly. 
And since (8.5) circles are as the squares of their dia- 
meters, 1 x 1, or 1, will be to the square of the diame- 
ter of any circle as .7854 to the diameter of that circle : 
Hence Rule 2. is formed. 

Ex. Find the area of a circle whose diameter is 12 
feet. 

In this case half the circumference is 3.1416 X 6 = 
18.8496 feet, and the area, by rule 1, 

18.8496 X 6 = 1 13.0976 sq. feet the answer. 

Or, by Rule 2, the area is .7854 X 144=: 1 13.0976 
sq. feet. 

Problem X. 

To find the area of any sector of a circle. 

Rule I. Multiply the radius, or half the diameter, 
by half the arc of the sector, and the product will be 
the area, as in the whole circle. 

Rule II. As 360° is to the degrees in the arc of the 
sector, so is the area of the whole circle to the area of 
■ the sector. 

The first of these rules is contained in the last pro- 
blem, and the truth of the second is sufficiently evi- 
dent. 

Ex. Required the area of a sector CADB, the angle 
ACB at the centre being 18°, and the diameter three 
feet. 

By Prob. 7, 3.1416 X 3 = 9.4248 the whole circumfe- 
rence; and by Prob. 8, 360 : 18 : : 9.4248 : : 47124 the 
arc of sector: Hencp, by Rule 1, .47124 X .75 = 
.35343, the area of the sector. Otherwise, by Prob. 9, 
the area of the circle = .7854 X 9 = 7-0686 ; and by 
Rule 2, 360 : 18 : : 7-0686 : .35343, the area of the sec- 
tor. 

Problem XI. 

To find the area of the segment of a circle. 

Rule. Find by the last problem the area of the sec- 
tor having the same arc as the segment, also the area 
contained by the chord of the arc, and the two radii of 
the sector, their sum, or difference, according as the 
segment is greater or less than a semicircle, will be 
the area of the sector. 

The reason of this rule is sufficiently evident. 
, Ex. Find the area of the segment ADB, which is 
less than a semicircle, its chord AB being 12, and the 
radius AC or BC 10. 

By Trio. AC : AP : : rad. : sin. ACP = 360 sg'.s = 
36°. 87, the degrees in the Angle ACD ; and their 
double, 73.74 = the degrees in the arc ACB. Now, 
.7854 X 400 = 314.16, the area of the whole circle : 
Therefore 360» : 36° 87 : : 314.16 : 64.3504 = area of 
the sector CADB. Again, the three sides of the tri- 
angle ACB being 10, 10, and 12 ; its area (Prob. 2, 
Rule 3.) will be v'ClS X 6 x 6 x 4) =48. Therefore 
the area of the segment = 64.3504 — 48 = 16.3504, 

Problem XII. 

To find the area of any segment of a Parabola. 
Rule. Multiply the base of the segment by its height, 

and take — of the product for the area. 



Men tun 

tion of 

Plane Fi 

gurcc. 

Fig. 10. 



The truth of this rule is proved in Conic Sections, 
Sect. 7, Prop. 1. 

Ex. The base AB of a parabolic segment ACB is 
10, and its altitude CD is 6. Hence, by the rule. 

The area = f X 10 x 6 = 40. 

Problem XIII. 

To find the area of an ellipse. 

Rule. Multiply the product of the two axes by the 
number .7854 for the area. 

Let a denote the transverse axis AB, and b the con- Fig. 11. 
jugate axis CD ; the area of a circle that has a for its 
diameter is .7854 a' (Prob. 9-) And a is to 6 as the 
area of this circle to the area of the ellipse, (CoNiC 
Sections, Sect. VII. Prop. 3.) that is, 

a: b: : .7854 a' : area of ellipse. 

Hence area of ellipse = .7854 a b. 

Ex. The area of an ellipse, whose axes are 10 and 8 
feet, is required. 

10 X 8 X .7854 = 62.832 sq.feet. 

Note. I. Rules for computing the areas of elliptic and 
hyperbolic sectors, may be derived from the investiga- 
tions given in Conic Sections, Sect. VII. Prop. 3, 4, 
and 5. 

Note 2. Rules for hyperbolic areas are also investi* 
gated in Fluxions, Art. 150. 

Problem XIV. 
To find nearly the area of a figure bounded by a 
straight line BQ, two straight lines BA, QP perpendi- 
cular to BQ, and any curve line A a o' a" .... P. 

Rule. Let BQ, the base of the figure, be divided into Fig. IJ. 
any number of equal parts by the perpendiculars b a, 
b' a', b" a", &c. which meet the curve in a a! a'', &c. 
Let F denote the first perpendicular, 
the last. 

"the sum of the remaining even perjien- 
diculars, viz. a b, a" b', &c. the 2d, 
the 4th, &c. 
' the sum of the remaining odd perpen- 
diculars, viz. a' b', a!" b'" , &c. the 
3d, the 5th, &c. 
the common distance between the per* 
pendiculars. 

The area of the figure will be nearly equal to 

4Dx(F + L + 4E+2 0). 

And the approximation will be so much the more accu« 
rate, according as the number of the perpendiculars is 
the greater. 

To prove this rule, join the tops of the first and third 
perpendiculars by the line A a, meeting the second per- 
pendicular in E, and through a draw CD parallel to 
A a', meeting AB and a' b' in C and D. The space 
bounded by the curve A a a', and the straight lines 
AB, B b', b'a' is made up of the trapezoid AB b'a' and 
the space contained by the arc A a a', and its chord 
A a' ; now if the arc be small, it may be considered as 
a parabolic arc, and then the curvilineal space between 
the arc and its chord will be ^ of the parallelogram 
ACD a'. (Conic Sections, Sect. vii. Prop. I.) There- 
fore the spr'.ce A a a'b' B will be nearly the sum of the 
trapezoid AB b'a', and f of the parallelogram ACD a' ; 
that is, the sum of 4 of the trapezoid AB b' a', and ^ of 
the trapezoid CBi'D. 

Now, Trap. AB b'a' = (AB+a'i') B b (Geom. Part I. 
Sect. 4. Prop. 7-) 



E 



O 
D 



•r 



MENSURATION. 



•49 




And Trmp. CB 6' D = (CB+D 6')B6 = 2«6xBA; 
Tbercfore the area of the space Aaa'b' B is nearly 

B6 



= h(AB + a'5')+t«*} 
= 1 (AB+4«4+«'&')B&. 



Menturi- 
tion or 
Solids. 



a'*'*'" 



rig. 13. 



In like manner, it may be ahewn that the 
o^' m nearly 

= I (•'A'+4 •'i'+a-ft"') B 6, 

and that the (pace «"'»" PQ 

and ao on ; hence the area of the whole figure, which 
i« made up of these, is 

fAB + PQ 
*B«x.I + 4(a6 + o-ft' + a"4") 
[+«(«'»' + «'" 4"0 
la was to be demonstrated. 

Ex. To find the area of the space ABC, su, 
it to be a qoadnnt of a circle, the radius of w 



'1 



mg 



Let the sector BCE be one-third of the quadrant, 
draw ED perperolicular to \C, then CDzscm. 30»=i 
CA. DiTide CD into four equal parU, and draw the 
Per p e n diculars r $, pa, m m. 

Baeaaaa C.A=I, therefore CD= 4, Cr=J, C ps\. 
Cm=\l bcncepE=v^(l— i)=l^^, and in lilce man- 
ner, rtzs\'/u,p«t=W^i> ■• t—k^Ss. Thereforr, 
F4.L=l-t-| 'ssi.flfiSO 
4 E= !•«->. tv'fis=7.67tfr 
COsiv^l5sl.gs85 



Tb* warn 
Midtiply by I D 



The product s .47M 

SidMnct the triangU ODE = .Sl65 




TIm Mctar CEB = 



JZ618 



TIm triple of which ia the quad. ABC=.7854 

SECTION II. 

MixiVKATioM or SOUOI. 

Tmamuat I. 



Ilea alio. 



To find the sutfiwe of a right prim or fjUnilii 
BoLcMahip^ the pariBMv«r the end ^ the length 
or height of the solid and the pradnct will be the Mifw 
Plf.l«kI<<AaiaraUitaMdM. To thi% whan the whok lorftn of 
tht prisn ia raqaired , the aicaa of the ends nuiat b« added. 



If the plana totfisoia which fem the aidca of an np- 
ri|^ pnan were extended into one plane, it ia maai* 
M, that tha sntftca thaa fiain a d woiild be a rectangle, 
having one of ita aidaa equal to tha height of the prim, 
and itt other side equal to tha perimeter of tha end : 
Hence, the truth of the rule ti nMnifist in the case of 
any ri^ prism A cylinder may be regarded as the 
limt M aU priama which can be inscribed in, or cir. 
coaMcribad abwat ita base, therefore, ita surface will be 
tha Ihail af their anrfacca ; now, the exprcaaion for the 
Ifadl ia aridmly the product of the dreafanr bMe by the 
hai|ht. 

Ex. I. How many aqoare^arda are mthesorftoeof 
the walU of a ftnaof any pnamatic form, whoae hakht 
is 10 feet, and ciicunift ia M ce 5« (eet f 

10 X 58 = 5M) sq. ftats 6*) aq. yards the aiuwcr. 
Tou xxT. rkwt t. 



Ex. 8. What is the conrex surface of a cylindrical 
pillar 1 2 feet long, and one foot in diameter ? 

Tha drcmnference of the base, is 3-1416 feet, (Prob. 
7. Sect. 1.) And the surface of the pillar S.1416 X ^ 

IX = 37.6993 M) feet. 

PSOBLCM II. 

To find the surface of a right pyramid or cone. 

Kl'Ll. Multiply the circumference of the base by the Pig- It, IT. 
slant height, and half the product will be the surface 
oftliesiciM; to which the area of the end may be added 
when the whole auriace is required. 

The truth of tha rule will be evident, if it be con- 
sidered that the fiKca of the pyramid are equal trianglea, 
having the alant aida of the pyramid fur their altitude 
and that a cone may be considered as a pyramid having 
an infinite number of rides. 

Ex. 1. The slant height of a triangular pyramid 
A BCD is SO feet, and each side of the basa i feet: Fig. 16. 
What i» its upper surface I 

S X 3 X to 

—2 — 5_ = 90 feet the surface. 



Raqaiiad the convex surface of a cone, the 
ht vaBi§ i feet, and the diameter of the 



Ex. 8. 
slant heigfat 
3 feet. 

3 X S-I4I6 =: 9*48*8 the circumference, 
I X P-^MS X A s tS-Sft aq. feet the surface. 

PaOBLEM III. 



To find the aai&ce of the frustum of a right pyra- 
mid or caa% that ia tha lowar part, when the top is cut 
oCby a plana patalial to tha baae. 

RvLB. Add I m s lh w tha pw lm at ar a of the two ends. Fig. IS. 
and maltipiT tha awn by wa slant height, and take 
half tha prmtact for the surface. 

Far tha aoHhea ia aqniralent to a tranesoid. whoae 
paraMal sidaa art tha peihn a f i of tha Ida, and height 
u the slant surface. 

Ex. Find the aurface of AG, the frustum of a square 
pyramid, the alant height KE being 10 feet ; each side 
of tha greater and AC 3 feet 4 inches, and each side of 
thalaaaer and EG S feet 8 inchea. 

HaraSf x4= 13} tha perim. of greater end. 

<ix4= SftheparinLoriemrand. 

Their sum = 82 feet. 

AndXSxlO ,,„-. .. 

— - — = 110 feet, the aniwer. 

Problkm IV. 

To find the solid content of any prism or cylinder. 
RoLC. Multiply the area of the base or end by the pj., 14 i^ 
perpendicular height, and the product will be the solid ' 



This rale follows (ram Gbom. Pait S. Sect t. Pi«p. 
11. and Sect. 3. IVop. 8. 

Ex. I. The rides of tha baae of a triangular priim 
are 3, 4 and 5fect, and itthaight ia 18 feet : What is its 
solid content .> 

By rule 2.;_of Problem 8. Sect. 1. the area of the 
base is 

v'CSxl X2x3)=:6sq. feet 

Hence, the solid content =6 x 12=72 cubic feet 

Ex. 8. The Winchester bushel is a cvlinder 18^ 
inches in diameter, and 8 inches deep : Wbat ia iU so- 
lid coatCDt.^ 



0^0 

Mennira. The base =.7854X 18.5'=268.803 sq. inches. Part 

tion of ] . Prob. 9. 

Solids. Therefore the solid content=268.803 X 8=2150.421 

* ~ cubic inches. 

Problem V. 

18, To find the solid content of any pyramid or cone. 

Rule. Multiply the area of the base by the height, 
and one third of the product is the solid content. 

This rule has been proved in Geometry, Part. II. 
Sect. 2. Prop. 17. and Sect. 3. Prop. 3. 

Ex. Each side of the base of a triangular pyramid is 
3 feet, and its height is 10 feet : What is its solid con- 
jitentt 

.y By Prob. 2. of Sect. 1. the areaof the base=3.897ll 
\ square feet. 



^I E N S U R A T I O N. 



The greater end = 41.57 

The lesser = 23.38 

The mean =-v/{41.57x23.3S) = 31.18 

3)96.13 




Fir. 
17. 



Fig. 18. 



Hence 



S.89711 X30 



=38.9711 cub. feet the solid 



content. 

Ex. 2. The diameter of the base of a cone is 8 inches, 
and its height is a foot . What is iU content ? 

The area of the base=.7854.x 8=6.2832 sq. inches. 

. , T. VI . . 6.2882x12 
And the solid content = ^ 



-=25.1328 cub. 



inches 



Problem VI. 



To find the solid content of the frustum of a pyra- 
mid or cone. 

Rule. Add into one sum the areas of the two ends 
and the mean proportional between them, (that is the 
square root of their product) and one-third of that sum 
will be a mean area, which, multiplied by the perpen- 
dicular height of the frustum will give the solid con- 
tent. 

Jiwesli gallon. Let ABCD be the base of the frustum, 
EFGH its top, P the vertex of the pyramid, and PM 
a perpendicular on the base, meeting the top in- L. 

Let S denote the side of a square equal to the base, 
s the side of a square equal to the top, put H to denote 
LM the height of the frustum, and put r for PL the 
remainder of the perpendicular. By last problem, the 
content of the whole pyramid is fS"(H-fO' and the 
content of the part above the frustum is J*'V, hence the 
frustum, which is their difference, is 

^S»(H + r)— ^i2;._iS,,H4-f(S^— s2)r 

=^^H+f(S^-.) (S-.)r. 

Now the base ABCD=S2, and the top EFGH=s- being 

similar figures (Geom. Part II. Sect. 2. Prop. 13.) they 

are to one another as the squares of their like sides ; 

(Geom. Part I. Sect. 4. Prop. 27.) that is, S«:«2 : : 

AB- : EF^ ; hence S : « : : AB : EF. But because of 

the similar triangles PAB, PEF, AB : EF : : AP : EP, 

and, again, (Part II. Sect. 1. Prop. 12.) AP: EP : : 

(MP : LP : :) H-J-r: r, therefore, S : 4 : : U + r : r, and 

S — s : «: : H : r, hence, (S — s) r=«H. This value of 

(S — i) r being substituted in the expression given 

above for the solidity of the frustum, it becomes 

?S^H-|-i(S-i-s) .H=KS' + Ss-1-«'')H. 

If it be now remarked that the product or rectangle 
S« is a mean proportional between S^ and s^ , the top 
and bottom of the frustum, it will appear that the for- 
mula just found gives the rule. 

Ex. The ereas of the ends Of a frustum of a pyramid 
ttt cone are 41.57 and ■^S.88 square feet, and its height 
i« 9 feet : Find its solid content. 



The mean area 32.04 
32.04 X 9 =288.36 cubic feet the solid content. 

Problem VII. 

To find the surface of a sphere, or of any segment or 
zone of it. 

Rule. Multiply the circumference of the sphere by 
the height of the part required, and the product will 
be the curve surface, whether it be a segment, a zone, 
or the whole sphere. 

This rule has been investigated in Fluxions (§ 163.) 
We shall here give a different investigation. 

Let HIKL be a square described about a circle, and Fig 
AB a diameter joining two opposite points of contact 
Take D d an indefinitely small arc, and draw DE, d e 
perpendiculars to AB, and produce them to meet the 
side of the square in F and/. Suppose now the circle 
and square to revolve about AB as an axis; the cir- 
cumference will generate a spherical surface, and the 
side of the square will generate a cylindric surface. 
Let s denote the spherical zone generated by the arc 
d D, and c the corresponding cylindric surface gene- 
rated by the straight line F/; also, put n for 3.1416. 
Then, since D d, on account of its smallness, may be 
reckoned a straight line, s may be regarded as the sur- 
face of a frustum of a cone. Hence, by Prob. 7. of 
Part I., and Prob. 3. of this Part. 

«=i(nX2DE+nx2rfe)XDrf, 

That is, because DE and d e are almost equal, 
s=2nxDExDrf: 

In like manner, 0=2 n X FE X F/ ; 

Therefore, s : c : iDExD d : YExFf. 

Draw DG perpendicular to d e, and DC to the cen- 
tre, and because of the similar triangles DG d, DEC, 
D rf : DG : : CD : DE ; or D rf: F/: : £F : ED 

Hence DE x D d=FE x Fy; and therefore s=c : 

Thus it appears, that the corresponding indefinitely 
small elements of the spherical and cylindric surfaces 
are always equal, and hence, that any finite portions of 
them comprehended between planes perpendicular to 
the axis AB will be equalj so that the truth of the rule 
is evident. 

Ex. I. What is the superficies of a g^obe 6 feet in 
diameter i" 

First 6 X 3.14l6=lS.8496=the circumference. 

Then 18.8496x6=113.0976 square feet the super- 
ficies. 

Ex. 2. What is the convex surface of a segment, 2 
feet in height, and cut off from the same globe. 
18.8496 X 2=37.6992 square feet the surface. 

Problem VIII. 

To find the solid content of a sphere. 

Rule I. Multiply the area of a great circle of the 
sphere by the diameter, and ^ of the product is the so- 
lid content. 

Rule II. Multiply the cube of the diameter by the 
decimal .5236, and the product is the content. 

The first rule has been demonstrated in Geometry, 
Part II. Sect. 3. Prop. 6. The second is deduced from 
the first thus : put d for the diameter, then .7854 d'= 



in. 



MFKSURATION. 



*51 






F'l la 



areaofa frreat c'- I) and bj Rale I. 

Kx. Wliat M tke content ot' « »phere 2 feet in dia- 
meter? 

Antww «»x.5236=*.l888 cubic feet. 

Pboblcm IX. 

To find the lolid content of a upherical sej»Tttent. 

Rule. From three lime* the diameter of the sphere, 
taVe twice the height of the segment, then multiply 
the remainder by the tquareof the height, and the pro- 
duct by the decimal .989(> for the coManU 

Thii rule may be derived from Ex. 3. Art. l6l. 
Fli^ion^ ; or it may be fband in a mor« elementary 
form, v.part ii. Sect. 3, prop. 5.) at follows: 

I,ei < a (quare deacnbed about a qtadrant of 

a circ. B the dia)(onal drawn to the centre. 

Draw C ... i L-rpendicuUt to the radiui CF, meeting 

the diagooal in O, the nuadtantal arc ia H, and th« 
aide of the xjiiiire in R. Conceive the sqiure to revolve 
about CF as on asii ; then liK, the tid« of the tquare, 
will gcDcrate a cylinder, C£, iii<- -^i.-ii^.-io^ will generate 
■ ea«r, and Ibc qnadmnUl arc. rate a he- 

n.;.„i..^ i..^.;n{( the conunoa -.-.- ^ . . .' ..-.-corer the 
li: :ier8te a plane, the icction* of which, 

., . .(.. I.. • 

»- 



P(ff.tt 



■ Y.X. Tf nr, the radius of the ba«e of a paraboloid, be 
5, and -M? i?« hHsrht, be 12 feet, whst is its content \ 

Firtt 1 '.S&^tll*.an>eB ot the base ; 

Next : - 1 . a»fa <t<tie solidity. 

Problkm XI. 

To find the solid content of a frustum of a parabo- 
loid. 

Rl'lc. Add together the areas of the circular ends ; 
than multiply the sum by the height of the frustum, 
and take hnlf the product for its solid content. 

To ■ " ■ - - - - 

the 
to I 
ten' 
thai ui 
frustum is 



'here, and the cone, will 
i:)d GO for their radii. 



Nuw 



Ik l> ■UlllV.iV I4kl 



lA)] 



X» 




...^..;, from the above quoted 
prapoaitiaa in gcocMtry, that any aectico of the cylio- 
der will be equal to the turn of *'" < — retpooding see* 
lion* of the cone and ■phcre. !° we conceive 

the three solids to be made uji «• ''"- c>'ltndera 

haring thin sections for their ba«e< « that any 

portioo of the cylinder oomprebrtnini Diiwcen two 
planea, parallel to its beae, will be equal to the sum of 
the e e treai weKliH K poe t iom of the hemwphere and cooc. 
Pat d for the dHmeter of the aphaR, h for FG the 
coonaefi hoght of the cylinder EE'R'R. ;' frua- 

turn ££'0'0. and the apherical segaeri- indn 

for the nombcr '7834. 'c area (t mc com- 

mon beae of the cylinder and conic frustum 

EE'O'Oise^; and bccau»r l>(J=GC, the diameter 
of the top of the frustum will be d — i k, and its ana 
n{d—i My i also the mean proportional between the top 
aa4botlMBwilIbeed(<£.-Si) Therelbte (bj Prob. 
3,) the solid content of the frustum u 

=e (/<•*-« d»»4.**».) 

V ,w the »<}1»1 content of ine cylinder i» nd* h (by Prob. 
Theri-fore the tpherical segment, (which lathe 
dtfftrcnce of the rrlinder and conic frustum) is 

This last formula is the analytic expreaaion of the rule. 

Ex. In a sphere whoee diameter it 21 inches, what 
is the solid coaleiu of a segment whose height is 4.6 



Fig. ?l. 



rule, put A and a for the ends, h for 
rusium, and c for the height wanted 
ral>oloid. TW ' >-' problem, the can- 
dle solid ^ 4 A (A-f-c) and 
.uloffjac, ti>ii>.iu>v the content of the 



54X4.5x4.5x.St36=:57.25566 incfaca the 



ducT 

lU . ... 
and take 

Tliis ruiv 
£i.1. 



PaOBLtM X. 

• •"li'l content of a parabolnM r,r i,.i;h pro* 

>it of a paraDota ab' 

•he area of the ba.**. .._, ;..v height, 

rotluct for the content. 
.... ^,;en investigated in Ftuwrni, ) l6i. 



4A(M-c)-i«c=i {A/.-J.c(.Wfl.) J 

But from the nature of the parabola A : a :: A-f c : c 
and A — a : a :: A : c, hence c (.\— o)=:n h, and the con- 
Unt of the aolid ia 

4(AA+«A)=4A(A+«.) 

Ex. The diainoter of CC, the greater end of a para- 
bolii- tVuftum, is 58. that of DD' Uie leas 30, and tlie 
height 18 inches. T ' "u- content. 

The areas of th. ><54(3a« + 58«)=SS48 945€. 

The content=:i2lk.iji:iox9=30140.5104cnb. in. 

PaOBLCM XII. 

To find the aolid content of a parabolie spindle, or 
aobd generated by the rotation of auarc A£B of a pa- 
raS't" aliriiit AB an ordinate to the axis. 

i .liiply the area of tl>e middle section by its Fig. tl. 

Xtv.^ uke ij- of the product fur the content of 

the solid. 

For the investigatioa of this rule, sec Fluxions, Art. 
161, £x. S. 

PaOBLIM XIII. 

To find the soKd content of a frustum of a paral)olic 
apindle, one of the end* of the i'ruitum pasting through 
tnc centre of the spindle. 

Add into one sum eight times the aijuare of the dia- ir;., u, 
meter of the greater end, and three times the square of 
the diameter of the lesser end, and four times the 
product of the diametcra; multiply tlie sum by the 
length, and this product again by .0523^1 ( via. ^^ of 
7.854,) and the result will be the content, 

Patting p=CU, the abc^issaof tlie generating curve, 
which ia also the radius of the greater end of the frna« 
tuA. 9= AC thesemiordinatc of tlsecurve, .v=('Il=PQ 
the radios of the leaser end of the frustum, t=PR=3 
QC its length, and n^.7854 ; it has been found (Flux^ 
loxs. Art. 161, Ex. 2.) that the content of the frus< 
turn is 

Now, from the nature of the curve, PR* : AC* : : DR 
:DC, that is «* : o* : : p— -sf : p, hence o*=^ . 

' }>—y 

Ixt the values of 9* and q* be sulistitiited in theab^W 
formula foe the «aalent of the frustum, it then beooOM 

^'(8p'+4;.y + 3^'.) 

an esprcBsion from winch the rule is derived. 



*52 



MENSURATION. 



McnsurS' 
tion of 
Solldt. 



Fig. 93. 



Fig. ii. 



Ex. Suppose the diameters of the ends to be 8 and 
6, and the length 10; required the content. 
^ First 8x8»+3x6* + 4x8x6=812, 

Then 8l2x 10x.05236=*25.1632 the content. 

Problem XIV. 
To find the solid content of a spheroid, or solid ge- 
nerated by the rotation of an ellipse about either axis. 

Rule. Multiply continually together the fixed axis, 
the square of the revolving axis, and the number .5236 
(or I of 3.1416,) and the last product will be the solid 
content. 

This rule has been investigated in Fluxions, Art. 
161. 

Ex. 1. The greater axis A B of an oblong spheroid is 
50, and the lesser axis CD 30, what is the solid con- 
tent ? 

Here the greater is the fixed, and the lesser the re- 
volving axis. 

Therefore the solid content is 

50 X 30« X .5236=23562 the content. 
Ex. 2. What is the content of an oblate spheroid, the 
axes being as in last example } 

30 X 50« X. 5236= 39270 the content. 
Problem XV. 
To find the solid content of the frustum of a sphe- 
roid, its ends being perpendicular to the fixed axis, and 
one of them passing through the centre. 

Rule. To the area of the less end, add twice that of 
the greater ; multiply the sum by the altitude of the 
frustum, and y of the product will be the content. 

Note. This rule applies also to the frustum of a 
sphere. 

Investigation.— l,et ABE be a quadrant of an ellipse, 
C its centre, CAFE a rectangle circumscribed about it, 
and CF the diagonal. Draw any straight line DG pa- 
rallel to CE, meeting AC, CF, ABE, and EFin D, H, 
B, G. By Conic Sections, Part. I. Sect. 2. Prop. 16. 

DB» : CE' : : C A"— CD" : CA', 
and by sim. trian. DH^ : CE« : : DC^ : CA^. 
Therefore, (Geom. Sect. 3. Prop. 10.) 

DB»-J-DH' : CE' : : CA^ : CA^. 
Hence DB'+DH'=CE«=DG2. 
Suppose now the figure to revolve about AC as an 
axis, so that the elliptic quadrant may generate the half 
of a spheroid, the rectangle AE a cylinder, and the 
triangle AC F a cone; it is evident, as in the case of 
the sphere, ( Prob. Q.) that every section of the first of 
these solids is equal to the difference of the sections of 
the other two ; and consequently, that the frustum of 
the spheroid between CE and DG is equal to the dif- 
ference between the cylinder having DG or CE for the 
radius of its base, and the cone having DH for the ra- 
dius of its base, and CE for its altitude. 

Put n=3.Ul6, then (Prob. 4.) the content of the 
cylinder is 4nxDG'xCD, and (Prob. 5.) the con- 
tent of the cone is * »x DH^xDC: Therefore, the 
difference, or the content of the spheroid, is 
4 n X CD (DG'— I DH'). 
But it was shewn, that DH'=DG«— DB', therefore 
the content of the solid is equal to 

*nxCD(2DG»-|-DB«), 
and hence is derived the rule. 

When the altitude becomes the semiaxis, the frustum 
becomes half the spheroid, which is | of the circum- 
scribing cylinder, agreeing with the nde of Prob. 12. 

Ex. Suppose the greater end of the frustum to be 
15, the less 9, and the length 10 inches, required the 
content ? 




The area of the gr. end =15* x .7854. 
The area of the less=9« X .7854. 
The contents .7854 (9' -H 2 x 15*) X ^='390.158 
cubic inches. 

Gauging. 

The geometrical rules by which the content of any 
cask may be computed, form a particular branch of 
Mensuration called Gauging. 

Casks are usually considered as having one or other 
of these four forms : 

1. The middle frustum of a spheroid, (computed by 
Prob. 15.) 

2. The middle frustum of a parabolic spindle, (Prob. 
13.) 

3. Theiwo equal frustums of a paraboloid, (Prob. 11.) 

4. The two equal frustums of a cone, (Prob. 6.) 

The content of any cask whatever may also be near- 
ly found, in wine or ale gallons, by the following ge- 
neral rule: 

Rule. Add into one sum 39 times the square of the 
bung diameter, 25 times the square of the head diame- 
ter, and 26 times the product of the diameters. Mul- 
tiply the sura by the length, and the product by .00034 ; 
then the last product, divided by 9, will give the wine 
gallons, and divided by 11, will give the ale gallons. 

In investigating this rule, it is assumed as a hypo- Fjg. is. 
thesis, that one-third of a cask at each end is nearly a 
frustum of a cone, and that the middle part may be 
taken as the middle frustum of a parabolic spindle. 
This being supposed, let AB and CD be the two right 
lined parts, and BC the parabolic part. Produce AB 
and DC to meet in E, and draw lines as in the figure. 
Let L denote the length of the cask, B the bung diame- 
ter, and H the head diameter: Then, since AB and DC 
have the same directions as the parabolic curve BFC ; 
at B and C, they will be tangents to the curve : There- 
fore FI =i EI. But BI = I AK, and hence by similar 
triangles EI = -^EK; consequently FI = J- EI = |^ 
EK =fFK=Tli5^(B — H); so that the common dia- 
meter BL=FG — 2 FI=:B — f (B — H )=f (4B-J-H) 
which call C. Now, by the rules for parabolic spindles 
and conic frustums, we obtain (putting nfor •7854'.) 



8B«+4BC + 3C2 L n_ 328 B'-j- 44 BH + 3 H^ 

15 ^~3 ~ 25X45 

for the parabolic or middle part ; and 
C«+CH-i-H» ^2L»_160B' + 280BH + 310Hs 
^ 3 



X -:;-=- 



xL» 



XL» 



3 3 25x45 

for the two ends, and the sum of these two, after pro- 
per reduction, is 

(39 B2+ 26 BH -I- 25 H^) X ^ nearly, 

for the length in inches ; and the factor — or 

. . 90 90 

being divided by 231 (the inches in a wine gallon ) gives 

.00034 
-^ the multiplier for wine-gallons ; and since 231 

.00034 
is to 252 as 9 to 1 1 nearly, - — — — will be the multi- 
plier for ale-gallons, as in the rule. 

Ex. Suppose the bung and head diameters of a cask 
to be 32 and 24 inches, and the length 40 inches, re- 
quired the content in ale, also in wine gallons. 

Here (39- x 32' + 26 X 32 x 24 + 25 x 24') x 
40 X -00034 = 1010-5, which being divided by 9 and 
by 11, we obtain 112'3 wine gallons, or 919 ale gal- 
lons for the content. (|.) 



M E Q 



•53 



M E R 



MENTZ, or May«xc«, «nc««ntl3r Jiagunlimm, u a 

a if Gmnany, in the Grand Duchy of HcMe. It 
St nearly in the form of a setni-circle on the led 
bank of the Rhine, below iu junction with the Maine. 
Menu i« oae of the strongest citic* in Germany. The 
works are numerous and strong, and of <och an extent 
as to require a garrison of about S0,000. 

The streets oi Ments are narrow and long, and the 
booaw by no means baadaoine. The principal edifice* 
an the electoral pelace. which has bean med as a mi- 
litary hospital since 1793, the house of the Teutonic 
Knights, and the arsenal. The principal churches are 
the Catbednl Mid its towers, the church of Ij^atius, 
the miae ef tkc church of Notre Dame, the church of 
the Augustinea, the church of St. Peter, and the ancient 
chorch of Si. Stephen. There is an university at 
Ments, founded in 800, and aMablished in I Mi'i by the 
Archbishop of Dietber, bcadae aOBe other literary esta- 
faliatMsents. The public library cwntaine 80,000 to. 
laaMi^ and cabineU of medals, nalvel Uebiry, phi. 
**— f**"-' ioatniBMDts, Rooun moaiuncnts, and ptc- 



The trade of Mcnta is chiefly in Frendi and Rhcniah 
wines ; and ita chief nanofactures are tboee of oottoo 
■id «Ae ef eyeorjr. The popu latioo is about 80,000, 
EaatLa^.«* IV.and North Lax. itf> SV. A very full 
and interesting account of iiewtl, anch as it was in 
17>iO will tx- found in the Voyage t*r le ft /tin Hermit 
M Diuttldu Is. 

/, or .Mtv 'v in 

the province of Fes, and the northern capttal ot' tiir rm> 
pire of Morocco, is situated fai S4* tS' North latitude, 
and abotti 5* SC West Loogitade. It stands in a beau, 
tiful ralley, abovt 60 milae eastward from Salee, sur> 
rooadad l^gMlfeeBiaMBM Mid hifUjr eoMnrtw) vale*. 
It ii an madmat tows, tnwiAtii aboal IIm end of the 
tenth century, by a ItSm of the Teoetee called Mequi. 
na. who had rerokad frma the rnler of Fes ; but it owes 
itt preiwl cUent and importance to Sultan Muley I*, 
wael, AAer bBTin|| subdued the petty idngdoms, which 
now (bm the ennm of Morocco, he reaoived to est*, 
btiah two inperial citiaa, in order to keep bis tuliirrt* 
nadir man csiinpleH antheeity ; and made > 

the capital of the north, as Morocco was of U: 

He (leatly enlsMcd the dtr towards the wr«t, and 
erected a beautifulpalaee, with many other public build- 
iagt. On the north- wcat, be encloeed a large apoee fbr 
the Ikanlies of hi* black troooa, called the SegroeaQuar. 
tar, and which nearlr ifieaHed the city to extent ; bat 
of thia black town nothing now remain* cxeepc the wall<. 
AiQafaiing to thia pUee is the Mfllah, or that part of the 
dty inhabited by the Jews, which is walled mand and 
in a good state of repair. On the side fd the city to- 
ward* the Atlas mounlaina, ia a wall of c'rcumvallstion 
about six feet in height, which was built as a defence 
against the iapetamia bat momentary attacks of the 
Benbbers. The palace alanda at the aooth end of the 
dty ; and is a rery eiteaaira aqoaie, conumtng aeireral 
well watered gardens. The baBdings arc all of one 
storey, and the roonu though narrow are long and lofty, 
being about 13 feet wide, S5 king, and 18 high. The 
walls are inlaid with glased tile* of br^t ooloon, and 
the light ia eoamianioatcd by meana of large fttldiay 
doors. Between the different suites of apartments are 
cowta paved with marble, some of which have a foon- 
lain in the centre ; and in different parts of the palace 
are m rgm tM buildings called tLobfaahSj which oontain a 



spacious snuiire room with a piTsmidal roof, curiously McquiiKs 
carved anu ornamented in the mside. In the centre of II, 
the whole is the harem or seraglio, within which is a M*'"'** 
spacious garden planted with tall cj-press trees ; a gallery 
supported by columns runs round the insideof the square, 
and communicates with the adioining apartments, 
which terminate in a common hall, or large chamber, 
where the females look through the iron-latticed win* 
dows, to tske the fresh and perfumed air of tbe gar- 
dens. A hospitium, or convent of Spanish monks, 
was established in Mequinrs by the king of Spain, 
about the beginning of the 18th century, for the relief 
and spiritual comfort of Catholic captives and Christ- 
ian travellers ; and was much respected by tlie inha- 
bitants, on account of the exemplary lives of the fathers, 
and the groat service which they rendered to the poor 
bv the giatuitoas distribution of medicines ; but the 
place wasdaaarted previous to the acceiaioo of Soliman, 
the preaent emperor. 

Ine bonace of Mequines, like those of other Msho- 
metan towns, have no windows towards the street, ex- 
cept a few small holee, and open into the inner court, 
which are surrounded with galleries or pillars. The 
streets are narrow, and without any pavement ; so that 
the mud in winter is accumulated to a d^ree which 
renders them almost impeaaable on foot. The inhabi- 
tants are milder in their manners than in any other 
part of the empire ; and are extremely hospitable to 
strangers. The women of this town are particularly 
and almost universally distinguished for their beauty ; 
so that the term Mcqainasia has become a proverbial 
epithet for a lieautiftil woman. Their eyes are large, 
black, and sparkling, their teeth white, and their com- 
plexion of a healthy red and white, forming a striking 
eootraat to the woaMn of Fes, within a day's journey 
of them, who ate generally of a sallow or pale complex- 
ion. They have alao elegant forms, and poascu a mo- 
desty and suavity of auuiners rarely met with in other 
places, even among the moat polished nations of Eu« 
rope. The population is eeiimated by Jackson at 
1 IO,00a See Chenier'* Prtitml State of the Empirt of 
J u-Vtim' m AceimMt of Morocco, (q) 

lOLAS. .See Fli;xio?is, Vol. IX. 
;...._^.rics, Vol. XIII. p. .S67. 
Y. See AsTKoNOMV, Vol. II. p. ()20 anil 
.ICMISTHT, VoL VI. p. 19. 

MERIOA, Ih* Augwila Emenia of the Romans, an 
andeat town of Spain, in the province of Estremailura, 
is sitiiatcd on an rmineiKe near the River Guadiana, 
which is croescd by a lar^ and good bridge. This 
town, which hs* now dwin<lled into insignificance, is 
principally celebrated for the remains which it still 
exhibits tiC Roman msgniAcence. The psvements of 
the streets, of the houses and the churches, are so - 
many vestiges of their works, and the wells and the 
cellars sre filled with them. .Vumcrous inscriptions, 
ruined columns, raaea, capitals, friese*, ststues, smi bas. 
reliefs are everywhere seen. Two Roman squr<liict* 
are still seen in ruins, and also tbe vestiges of a fortress. 
The ancient baths sne in sn excellent state of preser- 
vation. Besides these, there sre two Urge reservoirs 
of water like lakes, called A Ibnfera and Albuera, which 
npaar to have been need for combaU on the water. 
One of them, which is a league from Merida, is <>0 feet 
long, and 51 deeo. It is surrounded with thick wall* 
snd adorned wiqi two beautiful towers, a very fine 
flight of step* leadmg to the bottom. Tbe other rc- 



Mofocto ■ 
MER< 

p. SUfi 

^■ 

65 1, 



*54 



1\I E R I O N E T H S TI I E E. 




Divisions 
and towns. 

SuKace. 



Meride servoir, which is 2 leagues from Uie town, is small, 
but the walls which retain the water, and the great 
tower which serves it for an aperture for air, are much 
finer. The environs of Merida abound in com, wine, 
and fruits. Its population is about 4500. West Long. 
6° 3', and North Lat. 3So 48. See Laborde's Ficiv of 
Spain, Vol. i. p. 347. 

MEUIDE, a 7nttsicaUnlerval,yf as so named byM.Sau- 
veur, (see Mem. del'Acad, l6mo, 1701, p. 407^88 the ,V 
part ofthe octave,= 14.2761314Z + m, = 14.28399382; 
its common log. is .9929993,0243 ; and it is equal to 7 
Eptamehides, which see. 
MERIDION'AL T-VRTS. See Navigation. 
MERIONETHSHIRE, a maritime county in North 
Wales, is bounded on the north by Caernarvonshire and 
Denbighshire; it is divided in part from the former coun- 
t}', by an immense ravine, through which flows a small 
river; on the eastby Denbighshire and Montgomeryshire; 
the division of it from the latter county is partly formed 
by one o£ the most ^celebrfited; passes in Walps, called 
the Stoney Mile; on the wrest it js bounded by the Irish 
Rxtent and Sea ; and on the south by Cardiganshire, from which it 
boundaries. 13 divided by the river Dovey. Its form, is nearly that 
of a triangle, the apex of which is to the south. Its 
length, from the vicinity of .Snowdon to the confines 
of Montgomeryshire, is 43 iniles, and from Harlech 
to the boundary of Llangollen parish, it is about 38 
miles broad. Its circumference is about lat miles, and 
its area C9I square miles, or 442.240 acres. It is divi- 
ded into 5 hundreds, and contains one county town, 
Harlech ; the other towns are Dolgelly, Bala, and Bur- 
mouth. The surface of the county, though on the whole 
very mountainous, is a good deal varied, as there are. 
some lower hills, and beautiful and fertile valleys, in- 
terspersed with woods, lakes, rivers and cataracts. 
These circumstances, together with the grandeur of its 
sea views, render it one of the most romantic and pic- 
turesque of the Welsh counties. Some of the principal 
Mounhiins. mountains and vales deserve a short notice. At the 
north-eastern angle of the county is a long chain of 
mountains, which branches intoDenbighshire and Mont- 
gomeryshire ; they are called the Ferergn Mountains ; 
their northern boundary is the Dee, and the southern 
the Tannad ; their.length from north to south is about 
16 miles, and iheir^breadth varies from 5 to 10. There 
are no lakes in these mountains, and no river of conse- 
quence flows from them. The fine vale of the Dee lies 
below them. The other most celebrated mountains are 
Cader Idris and the two Arrans. Cader Idris is the 
beginning of a chain of mountains which, beginning 
near the sea, about a mile above Towyn, extends in a 
north and north-easterly direction, and includes the 
Arrans. It is in height the second in all Wales, Its 
peak rises above the town of Dolgelly about 2,850 feet. 
It is very steep and craggy on every side, and nearly 
perpendicular on its southern, on the borders of Ta- 
lyllyn lake. The breadth of this chain in no part ex- 
ceeds 4| miles, and in some parts it is a mere ridge. 
The loftiest of the Arrans is said to be only 1 20 feet be- 
low Cader Idris. Beyond tliis mountain, towards the 
sea, are round smooth hills, which form a rich and ex- 
cellent sheep walk, and then meadows and bogs. To 
the north of Dolgelly there is a mountainous tract, con- 
taining several lakes ; this tract extends to the north 
part of the county, which is celebrated for the beautiful 
Vale of vale of Festiniog. This vale is scarcely 3 miles long, 
re»Unio£. and not one in breadth. There are few vales which af« 



ford such delightful prospects; tlie hills wluob bou«d ^!er orti'i. 



fhire. 



Cader 
Idri*. 



it are covered with oaks, and a small and beautiful ri- 
ver flows in a serpentine course through it, in the midst ^— ^"~-' 
of rich cultivated fields. Near the vale are the falls of 
the Cynfaol : the upper consists of three steep rocks, 
over which the water falls into a black bason, which is 
overshadowed by other rocks ; the other is formed by 
a broad sheet of water precipitated about forty feet. The 
principal lake in this county, and indeed the largest Lakes, 
lake in all Wales, is Pemblemoer, or Bala Pool, on Bala Pool. 
the banks of which stands the town of Bala ; from 
north-east to south-west it is 4 miles long ; its greatest 
breadth is 1,200 yards. Its water is said to be so pure 
that the most delicate taste cannot detect any admix- 
ture. The scenery around it is mountainous, but not 
grand or picturesque. In stormy weather its waters are 
raised 8 or 9 feet, covering the adjoining vale, and 
sometimes threatening destruction to the town of 
Bala. The river Dee flows through this lake. There 
are several other lakes of smaller size, some of which 
are remarkable for the beauty of the surrounding 
scenery. 

The principal rivers are the Dee, the Descenny, the Rivers. 
Dyssi, the Avon, and the Dyrwhydd. The Dee has two 
spring heads, in the eastern part ofthe county, near the 
sides of the Arran mountain ; these, after uniting and 
passing through the lake of Pemblemoer, run by a north- 
east direction into Denbighshire. The Descenny rises 
about 3 miles to the south of Dolgelly, and falls into the 
Irish sea a little to the west of Towyn, the Dyssi or 
Dovey rises in the west part of the county, and falls into 
the Irish Sea at Abcrdovey. The Avon rises to the 
south-west of Bala, passes by Dolgelly, and falls into 
the Irish sea, a little below /Barmouth. The Dyrwhydd 
rises in the north of the county, on the borders of Caer- 
narvonshire, and falls into the Irish Sea about 3 miles 
north from Harlech. The coast of this county pos- Sea coast, 
sesses only one port, Barmouth, which stands on a lit- 
tle arm of Ihe sea, and is of difficult entrance, the bar 
admitting only Vessels that draw 8 or 9 feet, even at 
high water. On the northern part ofthe coast adjoin- 
ing Caernarvonshire, are two inlets of the sea, Troeth 
Bach and Troeth Maivr, having one entrance, and each 
receiving a small stream ; the greatest part of them are 
dry at low water, and become quicksand. 2000 acres of 
the latter have lately been recovered by embanking. 
Tradition states, that a whole division or hundred of 
this coimty has been swallowed up by the sea, and there 
are appearances that strengthen it. This hundred is said 
to have stretched north and south 12 miles, and to 
have been about 5 in breadth ; and to have been si- 
tuated between Harlech and Barmouth. About half- 
way between these towns is a causeway, 24 feet thick, 
which runs for a considerable way into the sea, the end 
of which is met by another causeway, which stretches- 
out from a point to the north-west of Harlech. The 
space between these is supposed to have been the hun- 
dred. The inundation is said to have happened about 
the year A. D. 500. The natural history of this coun- Mineralo- 
ty, so far as its mineralogy is concerned, is ratl>er inter- 87- 
esting. The mountains consist principally of granite, 
porphyry, and other unstratified rocks. The secondary 
hills are composed of mixed schistus ; the valleys con- 
tain schistose clay, and the level parts of the county a- 
bound with peat earth. The Ferwyn mountains are 
composed of jirimitive schistus, in thick irregular lami- 
nae, interaected in places with veins of quartz. There 




M E 

)Ute« in 



R 



►55 



M E R 



•i« Urge qi >Ute* m Uw«e ommMmm. The 

(IcT Idrucon»ut i m«««. n 

iecuti by veins. •- u.»e jv.rni. 

•Ito inunectwl lirtz i •rg.lUe. 

pT uo, a:. I :i IM««. There aii; 1- J 

B, ucartaii. !helak««fBJ«abou«U 

inawiruf. „..«; red trout and the gw>- 

Otad »rc lli' '** e»t«*intd. It » remark- 

ed tkat the ''« ••«»« while flesh, *h*reai 

those in tl;. «■• "Iw^y* »wli- IT** clinwle 

of thit ci. r>- told, ami el the tame time 

nout, »n<l -he pMtituUrly un&vooiable to 

fruit. The iuU m KWie p«rt of the »«lle3i • i* fruitAil, 
but in general it it vrry tterile. 

After having deMribed die t«rfaoe. the moontn n = 
aod lake* of \l«ri(ioelli*birc. liMfe renaiiu to be t.i 
thi* ooanty, fur N« agricullufe cannot ba a matter oi 
any importafM*. when w« refect •• iha nature of ht 
•oU, turfac- date, aUorwktcbareaiilneadiy to 

agriculturr ^leya potatae*. b«lat. and oau are 

ciJtivateJ uii a tuM aeak. and in m iofcnor OMnaar ; 
the pa»tari» iii ibaae vaUigr* aivgoad; and the Icat leAy 
li i:.. eapecially on Uio m»-«mt*, Martha noalli of liie 
IX.VCV, furniik Mtcntive shd etwiUaBl abec^walfca. 
Inotncr part* of the cot: 'Img aad loo 

are atterdcd to with MWc lanca 

II cvrn t pKMeot w«il wuodad. i iM rri a ll y wfam 
c .fii;>.>r«'I Willi tba adjoinit^ coonty of Gaeiuarvoa- 
t. r.-, \ct funnerly, fraa the aeroMtt af Lclanii, it ap. 
^^•^r^ \li have b««n Mtadi men ikicftly oovercU with 
I nlwT. There are on* or two targe Ue*» in it, which 
Jeu:r%e notice. In tha rfiurch-yard of MjIwj Jd i« 
r. r-urUUc yaw tree: the sirth af tba trwiik, a yatU 
high. It '.i feet aud a half, tbt radiaa «f tha brancJie* 
39 Act, Cpnaioc * cirrawf««ica of aboat ««0 tufi. 
The pcaiantrr naar Hariacb. cfaaont -with lb* kavp 
•on' I calafaMtioo of an oak trer, tba «mk 

of »l. . teet in laagtb, and 85 in drewBArRiea, 
Bteanircd 000 oibk faeC From tfie fork it diriik 
cd inta «cvcral bfimlMa, .1 of whidi cMended to tba 
lensUi of 43 4c«l. The toad* of tbii omty have 
bcas mu'^i iiuDri.vcd within theea faw jpcan. Pron 



too dairr 
Though 



tkcacoeu 
the yr" 
pikt> 
fengt 
faqg 



m 



k4JIU IJ 

bary : 

T -• 



til* 

1: 



131^. 



Annual value of real property 
Muney raided t>y parochial rate* 
^loney expendeJ for the poor 
" toiiev in removal*, snits of law, SiC 
'I • : luiiitia purpoaca 
L 11-..; I :i : ite, county rate, 8cc. 
Total expenditure 

Pertona rclievetl out of workhou«e* 
Pcraona relieved in ditto 
Ooeaaiaaaliy in and out of ditto 
Mrmbara of Friendly Societic* 



£111.436 

I4,v;ji 

. 12,096 

«5 

50 

.1713 

jCU,2S5 



Mer<«acth- 
•hire. 



Poor rate*. 



2213 
none 

a* 



Annual amomt of charitable donations for 

)>ari*b schools i.'Sl 

for other purposes 221 18 

the parochial rate* amonnted to 
that in 1815, there had been an 
;i<.r cent. 



vr»r ISOn 



In the 
the sun: 
increati 

Tba foltowing are tba retolta of the latt population f dpulatloa. 
rMum : in thr \rAT 1700, ^,800 inliabitanta ; iit 
17aO,SO,90<i . 90,500, a decrease; and in 1811, 

30,i;9t, ftoiu I .. .. appears tli.it the pnpulition in 
1811. though grstar than scarcely cx> 

c<«(Ied that in IT*^'' Tlvi ■' ' 



bitaau ; ana b«r 
H 

H 
II 

r 

All others 

Male* 

FcoaUa 



111 to -to mba- 
and one marriage to 1?9. 

6V20 



■J lliem 

...J . " . ' 
■:l in agriculturo 




ToUl 40.924 



Set Daviet's / 
Afltta's Tn.r I' 
Cansftr. 



ii.'hoUon'a 



rose ParliaiBent, it ay pu r i that in 

k:9gth of llir pared ttsaata aid tarn* 

unty was M0 mica S finlonin; and tba 

:I,^- o-Iicr higbwaya SOS iMin 1 Air. 

uaaf ttboar expanded an their 

unpoiftiao asoncjr, £M9 ; th* 

-id tha flMdey expended in bw, 

... jCiI0« fcr tba aMintcaaaea of 

I<aig« of atfects «id higbwaya. 

.. . i< caMMtrd for tta we u iii omim* 

ig cloth is made priaeipaUy near Dol* 

A every littla %tm»T nakraiMbs; tnd 

/•n are without a loom. The cloth is generally 

I iii« spot, tboagh oona h still aent to 8hrews- 

m gfvat dbal is etported lbr«U((b l>iverpoot and 

- *- Mallaod, Garaaaay. and America ; the mc 

le. Staekiaga, wig*, socks, and gtovca, 

i« Iowa and arfgbbourbo4d af IMa; tliey 

[>a>chaaad by < li a t) iB i% wfca sell them in 



Fjiglith 

returns ooa a winb a i to Ruflamffnt ; >« 

iioceae of Bangor, and partly In that of 

I in the provinre of Canterlmrr. The 

reaaha of tba lataiM' to FaHiament 

»<gtl><fApTfl, 



(iuiJe. (w. *.) 

:i:kma!(, a marina animal, the ap> 
per MTti ot which are supjioml to reaenble titota of 
thf hv.f.i :i ir cv-'f-. and tlic luwtr the tail of a fi»h. 

• at it is understood to be, haa 

OC'l; - ^ ''tc oS'.t*r\atuin of anv iiiti Hi^ent 

natniralist, and h iro- 

vtrtie* At-rV :._ ,,. ^ :^ ; .^mu* 

imdcr mermaid may be comprehended with 

there l^~.-.. ...lies, Sirkx, Dcntca Piffnoe d»a 

(aa/eas ta Mo eorpore. CamJa pinmala nulla. Caput, 
eolttm tt ftciu ad ur-'i': ».— ./■..■..• humanam rprciem 
hahent. But at the > lyt, " I wish that 

■ome skilful ichthyo'.c^-; ^. ...... tj^amine this animal. 

to ascertain whether it be iroaj|{inary, or a real fi>h ; it 

is better to refrain fr •■■■;irms, than to give ibam 

prcctpitiitcly." Uiblti: hyologica. Othrrihave 

shown less reserve. Him luitc tkclarcd positively that 
the laennaid is an animal <ai gmeri$, oairowly reaeas* 
bling the human - - 

Tnc ancients < irens, Tritona, and Nereid*, 

a« ■ ' ' • - waters; and it has been 

I;, native* of ail maritime < 

that "iicn tHiiigi amially exiat; but the di^.n;. 
tha deacription by those who have seen ti . mi 
or merman " ' ni times, are socb that they can> 
not refer me animal. Sane aArm it is 

; Othcri call it hairy ; and, aooording to a third 



•56 



MERMAID. 



Merm aid, class, it is covered with scales. There is the like dif- 

^■■"Y"*^ f'erence regarding the real figure of the animal, which 

is said either to have a single or divided tail ; or to 

have none as seems to be the case vfith that alluded to 

by Artedl. 

In an early account of Newfoundland, the narrator 
describes a " mareraaid, or mareman," which he ob- 
served within the length of a pike, as a strange crea- 
ture, which came swimming swiftly towards him, 
" looking cheerfully on my face, as it had been a wo- 
• inan. By the face, eyes, nose, mouth, chin, ears, neck, 
and forehead, it seemed to be so beautiful, and in those 
parts so well proportioned, having round about the 
Iiead many blue streaks resembling hair, but certainly 
it was no hair." The observer further remarked, that 
the shoulders and back, down to the middle, were 
square, white, and smooth as the back of a man : and 
from the middle to the end, it tapered like a broad- 
hooked arrow. This animal put both its hands on the 
side of the boat wherein he sat, and strove much to 
get in, but was repelled by a blow. (See VVhitbourne's 
Discourse of Ncivfoundland m fine.) Probably the narra- 
tor's imagination has embellished the appearance and the 
boldness of the animal. In the year 1 671, another marine 
animal was seen by six negroes, who being strictly exa- 
mined on the subject, agreed in general, that from 
the head to the middle it resembled a man, and from 
thence downwards a fish, terminating in a forked tail; 
the head, face, eyes, and mouth were like those of a 
man : the nose extremely flat. Its hair, which was 
grey, hung over the shoulders ; and the beard, also 
grey, was about seven or eight inches long. Grey 
hair covered the breast, but the throat and rest of the 
body were rather white. The size of the animal was 
about equal to that of a youth of 16 or 17. It stood 
half out of the water, looking boldly on the negroes, 
and raising its hand as if to wipe its face : it was with- 
in a few paces of them ; and, after showing itself three 
times, plunged into the sea. De Maillet, Telliamcd, 
torn. ii. p. 320. 

Nearly about the same period, there was given a 
very distinct account of an animal referred to this 
tribe, though the author, an English surgeon, does 
not design it by any name. About three leagues 
from the mouth of the river Rappahanock in America, 
while alone in a vessel, he observed, at the distance of 
about half a stone throw, " a most prodigious creature, 
much resembling a man, only somewhat larger, stand- 
ing right up in the water, with his head, neck, shoul- 
ders, breast, and waist, to the cubits of his arms, above 
water ; his skin was tawny, much like that of an In- 
dian ; the figure of his head was pyramidal and sleek, 
without hair ; his eyes large and black, and so were 
his eye-brows ; his mouth very wide, with a broad 
black streak on the upper lip, which turned upwards 
at each end like mustachios. His countenance was 
grim and terrible. His neck, shoulders, arms, breast, 
and waist, were like unto the neck, arms, shoulders, 
breast, and waist of a man. His hands, if he had any, 
•were under water. He seemed to stand with his eyes 
fixed on me for some time, and afterwards dived down ; 
and a little after rose at somewhat a greater distance, 
and turned his head towards me again, and then im- 
mediately fell a little under water, that I could discern 
him throw out his arms, and gather them in as a man 
does when he swims. At last he shot with his head 
downwards, by which means he cast his tail above the 
water, which exactly resembled the tail of a fish with 
a broad fane at the end of it." Glover's Account of 
Firginia, Ap. PhU. Trans, vol. xi. p. 625, for 1676. 



The mermaid is not confined to any quarter of the Mermaid. 
globe; for according to Debes, in 1670 one stood near ~^' '~ 
the shore of the Faroe Islands, in sight of many of the 
inhabitants, during two hours and a half, up to the 
navel in the water. '• Long hair hung from her head all 
around her, down to the surface ; and she held a fish 
in her right hand." The modern historian of these is. 
lands, Landt, is silent on this subject. 

Pontoppidan, a credulous author indeed, yet willing 
to take a comprehensive view of doubtful subjects, 
affirms, that if the existence of European mermaids be 
called in question, it proceeds entirely " from the fa- 
bulous stories being generally mixed with the truth." 
Hundreds of persons, of credit and reputation, in the 
diocese of Bergen, maintained, with the strongest as- 
surances, that they had seen this creature, sometimes 
at a distance, sometimes quite close to their boats, 
standing upright. It was formed like a human being 
down to the middle, but they could not see the rest. 
Nevertheless, Pontoppidan could find only a single 
person who had actually seen and handled one out of 
the water. His informer, a clergyman, said, that in 
the year 1719, a merman had been cast up dead on 
the shore, along with other fish. It was much longer 
than any others described. " The face resembled that 
of a man, with mouth, forehead, eyes. The nose was 
flat, and as it were pressed down to the face, in which 
the nostrils have ever been very visible. The breast 
was not far from the head ; the arms seemed to hang 
to the side, to which they were joined by a thin skin, 
or membrane. The hands were, in appearance, like 
to the paws of a sea-calf." Natural History of Nor- 
way, vol. ii. p. 190, 191. Pontoppidan observes, that 
the most recent account of the animal related to the 
year 1723, when three ferrymen afiirmed on oath, that 
one had been seen by them at the distance of not more 
than 7 or 8 fathoms. In appearance, it resembled an 
old man with strong limbs and broad shoulders: its 
skin was coarse, and very hairy. The head was small 
in proportion to the body, and had short curled black 
hair, which did not reach below the ears. The face 
was meagre, the eyes deep sunk, and the beard black. 
It stood in the same place half a quarter of an hour, 
exposed down to the breast, and the tail was remark- 
ed to taper like that of a fish. The men, beginning to 
be alarmed, retreated, when the animal, inflating its 
cheeks, made a kind of roaring noise, and plunged 
into the water. One of the same ferrymen affirmed, 
that 20 years before he had seen a mermaid with 
long hair and large breasts. Pontoppidan adds, that a 
creature is often caught on the hooks of fishermen, 
which he inclines to call the offspring of the merman, 
some being as large as a child of three years old. One 
had been taken recently, which, in the upper parts, 
resembled a child, but the rest of it was like a fish. 
Vol. ii. p. 195. 

Torf^us maintains, that mermaids are seen near the 
southern coast of Iceland ; and according to Olafsen, 
two have been taken in the surrounding seas ; the first 
in the earlier periods of the history of that island, and 
the second in 1733. The latter was found in the belly 
of a shark. Its lower parts were consumed, but the 
upper were entire. This creature was as large as a 
boy eight or nine years old ; the head shaped like that 
of a man with a very prominent occiput ; and the fore- 
head broad and round. The ears were situated far 
back, and had large lobes. On the head was long stiff 
black hair, hanging down to the shoulders, pretty 
much resembling ihefucusjiliformis. The skin above 
the eyelids was greatly wrinkled, and bald; and 



MERMAID. 



57 



Mmnrid. 



throDj^hjat the bociy, of a clear olive colour. The 
eyea reaembled tbote of a cod ; and both the cutting 
tectk and grinden were \onf(, and shaped like pint. 
The ansa ware of the natural proportion, and each of 
the 6ts fii^era connected br a lar|^ web. The neck 
was ahort, tha aboalder* fairb, and tbe breaat and badt 
taatdy wjwb l ing thoae of a man. Olaftea eonaidera 
the peniliaritiea of thia anJaial to be dnaonatrated in 
tbe hair, teeth, and ilifna. But, from the rapid 
cknf* taking place ia &e atomacfa of a shark, and 
the jj>Mt dfitanoe it caa ipeadily trarerse, he ia almost 
inclined to believe that these were human remain*. 
Vet the islanders were differently impressed ; for all 
firmly credited this creature to be the marmeniU, bj 
which name the mermaid is known among them. Olaf- 
aen fcgagt em Utandr, torn. iii. p. 22S. 

The attention of the public lus been more lately at- 
tracted toad B on m aofaaeiBMida. suppoaed to have been 
aecB an the eoaat ti Scotland and Iceland. Acoottiing 
to old hialariana, aome remarkable animal* were taken on 
the ooMt of Etifland, which were called " a triton, or 



Jour, were small, as also the nose. The mouth was M«rmiM. 
large ; and, from the jaw bone, which was straight, "" » — ' 
the face was apparently short. One of the arms was 
frequently extended over the head of the animal, as if 
to frighten a bird, which, hovering about it, seemed to 
distress it much. When this had no effect, the crea- 
ture turned round several times successively. Both 
here, and in the former instsnce, the sun shone bright, 
and the objects were sufliciently near the observers. 

Nearly three years afterwards, in October 1811, a 
singular creature is said to have been seen on another 
part of the ooaat of Scotland, remote from the former. 
A peaaant made oath in presence of a magistrate, that 
aboat four miles south of {'ampbeltown, his attention 
was attracted by a white object on a black rock. He 
crept through a field of com, and then advance<l amonjf 
the rocks on the shore, until he approached within 12 
or 1 5 paces of it The upper part was white, and resem. 
bled the human form, and tapered gradually towards 
the tail, which terminated like a fan 12 or 1 4 inches 
broad. The under half was of a 



regarding their nature. In tbe couiae of last 
ccntory, aUo, a plate waa engraved, we have under- 
««Md, of a marioe aaianl, b)r the aame dcneoinatiasi, 
vbicfa waa taken iboot the jtmt 1746 or 1747. It ia 
fanerdiy credited, anong the inhabifrticf the north, 
'and, that 



Cs SootJasid, 

and 



the 
.Mr. Mnno, 



inh^ta 



the 

ef 



, that about the jmt 1797 he ofaMrrwl ■ 
jiadtRMle, tittM 
hM» thesea, aft taidride Bawl, 



.like I 



CTVti 



a rock imAceting 



*j.j.i_.- . J .t ■ .. . . ., -. brindled or reddish 

man Btb .•* I»t Deaccnrrteand aatbaatie deacn|«ion haa grey. apparenUy covered with scale* ; but the extremi- 
•»•• tiaBWitted, from which we «• oiablad to deter, ty of the tail itseR* iraa of a greenish-red shining colour. 

lu whole length appeared to be four or five feet, and it 
was of the thickness of a yonth. The bead, hair, arms, 
and body down to the middle, re*erablcd thoae of a hu- 
man being; but as the creature lay flat on the rock, and 
with itt head towards the aea, and was constantly strok. 
mgand waahing iu brent, the peanant could not dis. 
ooverwhether or not the boaom waa forme<l like that of 
• woman. The neck and arraa accnicd short in pro. 
pornon to the body. l.o«g ligfit blown hair covered 
the bead, which bein» aometiaMa niaed over it by gusU 
or wind, the animal kettad towarda one side, and with 
Whmd on tho o ther atrok«l h back, then shifting iu 
P''*^"' ■$'?•'' •*•"*•'• •"■• manner on the oppo. 
it owde. Dnr fay two hoars it remained thus expoaed 
to abaarraCson ; Mt the tide having recctlcti, so as to 
leave the rock dry five feel above the surface of the 
water, the animal, leaning forward on one arm, then on 
pother, drew iu body .towards the edge, and tumbled 
°— »)y. ' "to t*»e •«•- Now for the first time the face 
waatti^Mly aeen, having all the appearance of the 
"<•■■ "^wct. with very hollow evea, and the cheeki 
of tho •■■• ooloor ae tbe raat of the face. 

**P ■«»• l*^ «t bM been dSraaed, that in tht 
f^yy of autumn, I8I9, a creature appearvd on the 
coaat of Ireland, about tlie siae of a girl of ten yeara 
ef age. with a boaom aa prominent aa tbat of one of six- 
teen, having a proAuian of kmg dark brown hair, and 
fbll dark 9jm. The hands and arms were formed 
hke thoae of man, with a slight web connecting the 
upper part of the fingers, which were frequently em- 
pimed in throwing back and dividing the hair; and the 

•ST"^- '■''* **"* "'" • ''°'P^'"- This creature re- 
rnaiaed baaking on tlie rocks during an hf>ur, in the 
sight of nombers of people, until frightcnid bv the flash 
•(t musket, when it plunged with a sore.im into the sea. 

Thcae are aome of the most recent narratives regard- 
ing roarrae animals, that had a resemblance to the hu- 
man figure. But a ouestion na*iinilly arises, what were 
Ihe^e animals? Had they actually some of the part* 
an<l proportion* of man, or do they belong fo another 
onler, on which credulity an<i inaccurate obaervation 
hare beatowed a false character ? 

We are, no dootK, very impeHfecfly acquainted with a 

multitude of anhnaia, eapectallv those of the aquatic 

tribe*; and the lownod Bfahop of Bergen jurti v exclaima. 

t tbo tea could be draini 



, m tbe pnrian of Rcor. 
Ita bcMl waa eovend witb long thick Ugbt brown hav, 
' ra on tho ahoolden. The ftinbeod wm 

npa reaemosea laoao 01 ■ noBan niiiw ; 
eyea were blue. The arma, fngara, tnaoala, 
men, were aa large aa thoae of a full-grown 
Thia cnatato waa appanntly in the act of 
jtebiirwith to «a«an~whkb aeemed to i«. 
Ard it lilm i n ; and it iiiiiiii l tbM oeeapiod dor. 
JM aeme miantea, when h dropped* kite the im. 
n* ebearr ar did not remark wbethor thf Jnawi 
were webbed. On the whole, he inftn tbat this waa 
a marine animal, o€ which be bad a dktinct and satia. 
tmetmj view, and thai the portiaa aoan by him bore a 
narrow resemblanoa to the hamgn Iblmi. Dot fbr tbe 
daagaroaa MMatini it hid choaan, aid to 
aaieag tbe waivoi; h* wMld tove 
■ M. T wdve ymn later, and not very di 
**• ''^'f^ ■• wo BBti)(i.<ia, aeveral perHna oh. 
aervert what waa wappoted a mermaid, ft floated at 
the distance of only a few vards from them, and re. 
in aigbt «>«t an hour. Nothing except the 
■ m fcA vwbic ; and as the sea run high, the 
I aonk gently under the wave*, and then l»«p. 
The bead waa very round ; the hdr ^<*Tk 
and lone, ef a green oil cart ; and it appcw^l trouble. 
len tbrawu over the creature's face by the 
As they receded, it removed its hair with 
to hands, which, as well at the arms and finger* 
' "S.lTi.'*' *nder. The last were net weU 
™» *J*to"*t »«•, and chin, were white, and 
•*• •*•*■ *de moe^a bright pink colour ; the thrtiat 
y* **** wbho, ilander, and smooth ; and tlie •mootb. 
■MB of tfie akin, on which neither hob nor aealae were 
pvticalarly attracted attention. The faco 
plump and round ; the eye*, of a light grey co. 
VOL. XIV, rajiT 1. 



Ware it poanUt Ikt 1 



drain«i of ita 



M E R 58 

Mermaid waters, what incredible numbers, what infinite variety 
U of uncommon and amazing sea monsters would exhibit 
•^l^^lw themselves to our view, which are now entirely un- 
~ ' ~ known." Natural History of Norway, vol. ii. p. 1 85. 
Many, however, have supposed, that because a narrow 
link appears between the human and the brute creation 
on land^ the same should exist in the sea ; and various 
other causes have contributed to the prevalence of this 
opinion. Nevertheless, the most skilful naturalists of 
the present age deny the existence of the mermaid: 
regarding those seen in the sea, as some of the various 
species of seals ; and those exhibited as such on shore, as 
natural subjects disguised by art. The triton of jElian 
and Pliny are different ; the woman Jish of Santos, Bar- 
chewitz, Bartholin, and Artedi, cannot be considered 
the same ; nor can any of those animals we have descri- 
bed be referred to the Musague of the Pelew islands, 
sixteen feet long, and twelve in circumference, which 
has been lately classed with " the merman of Norway." 
The nature and properties of the seal are yet suscepti- 
ble of many illustrations ; and some have found an im- 
perfect resemblance of the human form in certain or- 
gans, to the corresponding parts of phoca;. Parsons, 
ap. Phil. Trans, vol. xlii. p. 383. A recent voyager to 
the North remarks, that " these animals, in swimming, 
often raise themselves as far as the shoulder above the 
surface of the water. The first I saw in this position 
was at a considerable distance, and might easily have 
been mistaken for a man." Laing, p. 107. But the il- 
lusion may be heightened still farther ; for according to 
some authors, the tvomanjish of the African seas, when 
taken in nets by the Negroes, shrieks and cries like a 
woman. Captain Colnett relates also, that in the South 
Seas, when far from land, an animal arose beside the 
ship, and uttered shrieks and lamentations, so like 
those proceeding from a woman, as to occasion great 
alarm. They continued for above three hours, and 
seemed to increase as the ship withdrew. Captain Col- 
nett conjectured that they came from a female seal that 
had lost its cub, or a cub that had lost its dam, but he 
declares that no resemblance could be nearer the hu- 
man voice. Voyage to the South Seas, p. 16'9. The 
extreme rarity of what has been called the mermaid, 
ia far from being an argument against its existence. 
During late years, naturalists scarcely believed in the 
giraffe and hippopotamus; they still debate concern- 
ing the unicorn and the mammoth ; and that such a 
creature lived as the great sea serpent, was resolute- 
ly denied, until one was cast up by the waves on our 
own islands. The existence of a marine animal, part- 
ly resembling the human species, is therefore to be con- 
sidered a question of evidence, which remains to be 
decided (c) 

MERSEY. See England, vol. viii. p. 6%Q. 
MERTHYR Tydvyl, is an ill-built and irregular 
town of Wales, in the county of Glamorgan. It is si- 
tuated on the river Tay, in the midst of bleak hills, 
and derives its importance from the iron forges in its 
neighbourhood. There is here a parish church, which 
is a large and handsome building, about eleven meet- 
ing-houses, a philosophical society, a printing-house, 
and a theatre. The iron works are on a very large scale, 
and strangers are much interested by the celebrated 
water wheel, 100 feet in diameter. No less than 250 
tons of iron ore are said to be furnished weekly, and 
340 tons of coal consumed daily. The articles which 
are here manufactured, are exported by means of na- 
vigable canals to Cardiff, in vessels of 300 tons. Num- 
ber of houses, 240. Population 1256. 



M E S 

MESSINA, a city of Sicily, situated at the north- Messin 
cast extremity of that island, and on the eastern shore ^"""V^ 
of the Straits of the same name, which are particularly 
celebrated from containing Scylla and Charybdis within 
their precincts. They are formed by a promontory of 
Calabria on the continental side, and Cape Pelorus on 
the Sicilian coast, the intermediate distance being 
about two miles. Scylla is a lofty rock, rising abrupt- Seylla, 
ly from the sea, on the shore of Calabria, twelve miles 
north-west of Messina : it is surmounted by a castle, 
and declines towards the town of Scylla on the.coast. 
At the distance of two miles from it a murmuring 
noise like the confused barking of dogs is heard, which 
is occasioned by the dashing of the billows among the 
caverns below : and hence the ancients fabled a hid- 
eous female monster, surrounded by ferocious animals, 
ready to devour those mariners who came within her 
reacli. In calm weather no danger is to be apprehend- 
ed, but a vessel brought into the conflicting wind and the 
current of the Straits, which sometimes runs with great 
violence, is still exposed to destruction. — Charybdis, Obar;bd] 
described as a raging whirlpool, which absorbed whole 
vessels with their crews, and then rejected the broken 
fragments and mangled bodies, lies 750 feet from the 
city. At present, when viewed from the shore, it ap« 
pears like a body of water in tumultuous agitation, 
and on nearer approach the waves are discovered to 
be larger and more disturbed, dashing together, so 
as to produce a revolving motion among themselves, 
throughout a circle of about 100 feet in diameter, 
where the sea is 500 feet deep. The smallest barks 
may now cross it in safety; but when a strong wind 
and current are opposite, the waves become more tur- 
bulent and extensive, and three or four, or a greater 
number of whirlpools, are formed. Vessels driven 
among them are not manageable, and if unassisted by 
the pilots of the country, they founder, or are impelled 
on the opposite shore, and wrecked. Charybdis, how- 
ever, is not properly a vortex ; it has no power of ab- 
soi-ption ; and vessels, on the contrary, are rather repel- 
led from it by a centrifugal force. Though extricated 
from Charybdis, a ship meeting an adverse wind on leav- 
ing the Straits, may fall on Scylla, thus verifying the 
words of the ancients. Twenty-four pilots are kept in 
the service of the Sicilian government, to assist vessels 
navigating these Straits, which were passed for the first 
time by a modem fleet, it is said, when the British ad- 
vanced to the battle of the Nile. 

One side of the city of Messina rises from a narrow 
plain on the shore, along the declivity of a chain of 
mountains, finely wooded and diversified, and another 
sweeps along the margin of a beautiful harbour. It 
is built with considerable regularity, nearly in the 
figure of a parallelogram, and consists of two long 
principal streets besides a third on the quay, inter- 
sected by a number of others, at right angles, all of 
which are paved with large blocks of lava from the 
volcanoes of the island. It contains several squares 
and open spaces, embellished with a number of sta- 
tues and fountains, the latter copiously supplied from 
the neighbouring mountains; from whence also tor- 
rents descend through the streets, where they are con- 
fined by walls to prevent their injuring the buildings. 
A street called the Marina or Palazzata, formed of a 
row of lofty elegant buildings, extends above a mile 
along the harbour, where the great depth of water ad- 
mits of the largest vessels approaching to the very 
edge. It is penetrated by eighteen or nineteen gate- 
ways, leading to the respective streets in the city, over 



MESSINA. 



59 




which are iculptured approprUte desiptw *nd inscrip- 
' tions : and one end terminates with the royal pabce. 
A conaiderable portion of the whole, howerer, as well 
as the statue* in front of ibcM edifice*, was ruined 
in the year 1783, and ia acovdy yet completely re- 
ftorcd. 

MeHina contains numerous public edifices, among 
whidi are about fifty cfanrches, many of fine architec- 
tnre, and intemallr decorated with pahitin^, for the 
BMMt part from toe pencil of native masters. The 
<atbcdral, a fpacioa* buildinj^r of Gothic architecture, 
and highly embellished within, stands in an irregular 

auare, where there is a bronze equestrian aUtoe of 
urles III. of .Spain in the centre. Antique granite 
eohtmns, brou);ht from a temple of Neptune once 
standing on the Straits, support the vaulted roof and 
the timber work of the nave. The great altar coiuist* 
of rooadc, richly executed ia JMpcr, agate, lapis Uaali, 
nmmkMm matUea and paste* of Tarioos colours, wboae 
eooilmutien, together with gilded bronse, pndooce an 
inpoaing cAcc There i* a inaible polptt hare, the 
work of Gaggini, a .Sicilian sculptor of the aixteentfa 
ccntnrv, which is much admired. Thia oathedrml waa 
aneled by Roger. Count of SkOjr, in the end of the 
el ev CT th or beginning of the twaifth centary ; it ia 
dedicated to the Virgin Mary, an eridaal Wlter 
whom, addra a e ed trom Jeraaalem to their j 
dM Meafaieae boeat of yet poaaceafatg. Mnana ia an 
archlawiampel aec. Directly oaporit* to the cathedral 
there is a fountain, omamente<l with a number of fine 
marble statue* of nymphs and deities, alike elegant in 
deasgn and execution. It ia to be wmerked, that aoow 
part* of the city, such aa the SfUKW ^fOm Fmr Pmm- 
utins, arc named ftniB the aInMtaNi of thia kind «b> 
bellishing them. 

H«n Vtmn are not fewer than thirty cw t ia tat 
both (avce, which for the most part ate very Urgt, and 
oMtly oniamented with all tlie ernbola of tiM Ciitlio> 
l^fiiith. 

The public hoeptel ia a line building, capaltle of r^ 
ceiviiy aevend Imadred patientab It ia supported by 
aonsidenbie vrrannaa, anaing fttm land* and Itoaaaa, 
and ia managed by a c u n iw i Ma a of noMewen But, 
owing to prevalent aboaai^ tftan are ftw patient* ad> 
mittrd, and even theea ara not eoilaUy treated, both 
from the want of oaMaaary attandaaeri and (Vein too 
ripd ecooewT. Tha other charitabia iaalitatione, oon- 
Mng of an aayhnaa Ar tha poor, a hooaa for 
the l aaa miw of wj—illhiai, aad two aMafer di fidm, 
ihailw' drfeti. Thaaa laat ai« pisbUe 
guveiiiuieht, where iiieney at a ■Ball 
par caolaga ia advanced on goode to the naeaaaituui, 
and tha prate qipliad to anpport acnuaarie* for tlte 
ed u c at ica of yoath. 9ach iaatitatione Mibaist in va> 
fiott* towna of Sicily, where they are prrxloetive of 
dM BOH bcneiidal effecto, and obviate the inoonrcw 
which is felt in other coontric* from the loan of 
, by IndiTidaals on pledgca. The public prison, 
which by a singular deviation from a real aenae of ita 
purpose, \t exMMtad in a very fine almctnre, in 
one of t! r.al streets; it is spadou* within, 

and auper ttiat of the capital in certain re> 

apeeta, out drfident in roo*t of the eaeential requi- 
ntc* of such a place ; deanlineaa, for example, and in 
the sexes being •enatated, which ara prec aati ona alike 
important to heahli and morals. Meaaina also oontatna 
two hoaaea ef oorrectinn for women. The royal pa» 
lace aad unata houit are fine building*. 



There are four public libraries, but only two of them ^feMina. 
are of importance. The British residents in Messina, """'V^ 
however, have established reading rooms. A new». 
paper, said to be the only one in the island, is published 
Dere, in Italian, called the BriiUk Gazette. 

The state of the drama is considered very low in 
Messina, and the theatre in every respect unworthy 
of so large a population. Friday is selected for the 
performance of tragedy, on which evening the theatre 
was shut previous to the dissemination of the writings 
of Alfieri. From the scarcity of public amusements, 
gaming tables are frequently resorted to, especially by 
the more fashionable Sicilians. 

The dty is defended by two forts, Gonsago and Ma- 
tagrifone ; and the harbour is protected by a pentagon 
nal fortification, called the citadel, which was erecteil 
in the year 1679. This is the strongest place in the 
island, and it ha* casemates for 5000 men. Near to it 
ia a laxaretto, wWcfa, notwithstanding the prevalence of 
the plague in many part* of the Mediterranean, is the 
only one in Sicily ; and ao little regard is paid to safety, 
that the rcatrictions both on lairing goods and the 
crrws of ships under quarantine are very easily evaded. 

The harbour of Meaaina ia the best port of Sicily, 
CDntaintag not lets than from SO to 40 iathanu water, 
to toe quay, and it* situation ia esteemed supe- 

to any other in the Mediterranean. Hence this 

d^ has been *l^n7* * phwa of considerable trade. 
A large proportion ofthe pradnce of the ialand, aflbrding 
no less than ninety ^tx articles of export, is to be found 
in the dty. The produce of the environs is princi- 
pally ftaits aad wiacs, and the chief manufacture con- 
sists of silka. Wh.t ;. rnHn.l the Faro red wine, ii in 
great repute wit n accotmt of its streni^th 

and reaemblanct .« ^ — ;, v.;.,^U it also equals in quality 
when kept three or fimr year*. In addition to the 
quantity aiada ftr hosae consumption, about lO.uoo 
pipea are exported yearly. The other ezporta are dried 
nga, dtrona, or a nge a , lemons, lemon iuice, manna, es- 
aenoe of bemmot, ml tartar, goat skins, hides, mot- 
tled aoep, for the American market, linen and rags, 
|Mrtly to England, partly to the lulian porU. Some 
tine ago it wa* computed that there were exportid 
9000 caesta of oranges, and 6000 chcaU of lemone. 
each containing 408; likewise 880 barrel* of lemon 
juice. During aevccal emtariee ailk.worms have been 
sneeceaAdly reared ia tha vidnity of Mcasina, and 
thafar pradaoe ia to be ranked among the Srst sourcee 
of its opulence . There are several extensive manufac- 
totiaa of that article here, and many years since 1200 
looses were employed in the dty. The silks, however, 
are not highly esteemed, but by the recent introduc- 
tion of the machinery constructed in Britain, thdr fa- 
bric throughout Sidfy is in a state of progressive im- 
prureiaeut. An ample aasortment of the produce of 
the Leraat and the Morea is brought hither by the 
Orseka, consisting of carpets, silks, cotton, timber, 
fruits, gama, drugs, and other merchandise. During 
Uter year* a number of British merchants hare settled 
here, by whom an active oomaMrce is prosecuted, yet 
it is supposed with leas real adraatajge than their origi. 



nal promects conteoiplalad. 
but not ui the full 



Messma is a free port, 
of that term : ana the 
inhabitaats, in con a equenee of the mitfortunes of the 
dty, have hail an immunity from Uxcs for 25 years. 

Part of the inhabitants find occupation in the coral 
fiahcry ; and in that of the sword-fish and shark dur- 
ing certain seasons of the year. About dghteen or 



60 



MESSINA. 



Messina- twenty vessels are ertgaged in the first, each navigated 
'"■'nf"^^ by eight men, who are exclusively Messinese, on ac- 
count of their superior personal strength and skill, and 
also from the dangers attending it. They obtain near- 
ly SOOO pounds of coral yearly ; but the fishermen 
consider this a secondary employment, and to be fol- 
lowed only when none more profitable occurs. In 
the capture of the sword-fish, from eight to twelve 
barks, each provided with two boats, are employed. 
The fishermen use either strong nets, or a harpoon, 
which is so constructed, that, on striking the fish, the 
shaft is disengaged from the iron head, while both are 
retained by a cord 600 feet long. Much dexterity is 
practised here ; and the fishermen, who are very su- 
perstitious, repeat a Greek sentence, as a chai'm to at- 
tract the fish to their barks. Most of those taken are 
consumed in Messina, where this fish is favourite food ; 
and some, being salted, is sent in presents to Naples. 
The fishery of the shark is not regularly followed, as 
it resorts, at uncertain periods, to the Straits ; and the 
occupation is attended with danger, from the great vo- 
racity of the creature. 

The judicial establishments exceed all proportion to 
the population, which in itself produces many incon- 
veniences ; and the inhabitants are greatly dissatisfied 
with the discharge of the duty of their functionaries. 
There is a senate, consisting of fifteen members, or of- 
ficers, civil and criminal courts, whose proceedings are 
subject to appeal in the courts at Palermo, and civil 
officers superintending the whole, amounting to no 
less than 300. It is impossible to obtain a prompt de- 
cision, which keeps a number of litigants constantly at 
law ; and, in consequence, a great many professional 
persons find employment. Justice is very partially ad- 
ministered, which is the source of great annoyance to 
the parties ; and the police of the city is bad. A few 
years ago, an Englishman having been robbed and 
murdered in the streets, his mercantile countrymen 
resident here demanded the punishment of the offend- 
ers, who, after much equivocation ahd delay, were 
convicted. Nevertheless, their relatives endeavoured 
to redeem them from the penalty by bribery ; and it 
required the most vigorous efforts to obtain their exe- 
cution. Forty-eight villages are dependent on the city, 
and governed by the same laws. 

Messina is the second city in ^cily, and is at pre- 
sent in a high state of prosperity, notwithstanding the 
defects of its internal administration. The population 
of few cities has undergone greater fluctuation within 
an equal period. During its most flourishing condi- 
tion, in the course of the preceding century, the inha- 
bitants are supposed to have amounted to 100,000 ; 
successive public calamities, however, reduced them 
to 25,000, or 26,000, in 17S1. In the year 1798, 
by an actual enumeration, the population was found to 
amount to 45,000 souls ; but so rapid has been the in- 
crease of late, that it is now computed at between 
80,000 and 90,000. The cause of so unexampled an 
augmentation, is ascribed to the growing prosperity of 
the island in general, the extension of commerce, cir- 
cumstances which have driven many families from 
agricultural pursuits, and particularly to the presence of 
the British forces. This is the only place in the is- 
land where there are any Jews, as that nation has been 
proscribed since the year 1492, when they were ex- 
pelled from the Spanish dominions. 

Messina is a place of great antiquity, first known by 
tb^ xmnf oi Zancle, or ZancUa, from one of its found* 



ers ; though some etymologists maintain that this is a Messina. 
Greek word, characteristic of the shape of its harbour, ^— "V "^ 
which resembles a sickle. A new colony having come 
hither from Mycene in Greece, it was thenceforward 
called Messana, and at a later date was the scene of 
sanguinary hostilities between the Romans and Cartha- 
ginians. Since that time it has participated in the ge- 
neral fortunes of the island. But in modern history it 
has been chiefly celebrated for its misfortunes. When 
in a very prosperous condition, the plague, introduced 
by a vessel from the Levant, in 1743, swept away 
35,000 souls in the course of a few months ; and be- 
fore having completely recovered from this disaster, the 
inhabitants were visited by another awful calamity. At 
noon, on the 5th of February, 1783, a long thick cloud 
%as seen on the opposite shore of Calabria, which was 
instantly followed by a hollow subterraneous rolling un- 
der the city ; and, amidst a torrent of hail and rain, ac- 
companied by loud peals of thunder, an earthquake 
shook it to its foundations. The inhabitants fled from 
their houses to the squares and open places ; while a 
suffocating smell of sulphur escaped from the earth, 
opening in fissures under their feet. Incessant undula- 
tions continued during several successive hours, when at 
length a tremendous concussion, at about 7 or 8 o'clock 
of the subsequent evening, completed the overthrow 
of the more solid edifices, which had resisted the feeble ' 
shocks preceding it. Numbers of the citizens were 
overwhelmed by the ruins ; many, in the scene of terror 
and dismay, hurried to the quay to get on board of 
the vessels lying there; some sought refuge in the 
country ; but others, more intrepid, disregarded their 
own safetjf, to rescue their weaker relatives from the 
walls and rafters which were crashing around them. 
Half of the whole city was now levelled with the 
ground ; one quarter of it rendered ruinous ; and the 
remaining portion greatly damaged. Churches, con- 
vents, colleges, and palaces, all had fallen ; the palaz- 
zata, almost throughout its entire length, was injured; 
houses, fountains, and statues were demolished ; and 
scarcely any, excepting those structures occupying the 
higher grounds, were spared. To aggravate the pub- 
lic calamity, conflagrations succeeding the earthquake, 
ravaged the city during seven days ; and the licen- 
tious, availing themselves of the general disorder, pil- 
laged and murdered the defenceless without remorse. 
Yet, amidst such a field of desolation, only 700 or 800 
of the inhabitants perished, owing to the survivors 
having had time to quit their houses before they tum- 
bled, and from so many having been driven to the 
country by their first apprehensions. Temporary huts 
and barracks were erected for those preserved ; and 
the public magazines having been saved, these, along 
with immediate importations of provisions, alleviated 
their distresses. But such were their sufferings, that 
even with the lapse of six years they had not fully re- 
covered from the horror and stupefaction occasioned 
by the disaster. A long time elapsed before the earth 
recovered its stability. Above 200 shocks were felt 
within the two months following ; and the city, since 
that time, has been repeatedly threatened with another 
convulsion. At present, most of the ruins are remov- 
ed, and new edifices supply the place of many that 
were destroyed. 

During part of the late war, Messina was the head 

quarters of the British army, amounting, in the year 

1806, to 10,000 men, sent for the protection of Sicily; 

and a flotilla lay in the harbour when Murat collected 

4 



MET 



61 



MET 




a fint CB tte mouta dUa of tfea Sinitt. 

naTcrtbalcM, art aeouad of baviag aogagcd 



with tba 



bm. 




to betray 

intbaytar lt>l:i, 

' bjr (MMoUace 

partly of Britidi. 

EMt Long, li' W, 



Tbamha. 
bitint*, 
ia a «■ 

■Ddaan^of taa 
tt aniiitary 
and partly of SieilMB 
Jfortb Lat S8« lO'. 
MESTA. SeaSpAia. 
METALLURGY, in iti 
meani th« working of netala ia 
pildiM, 
ID its flMwa MBnilM i 
tka pramaof 

fram tiMir arat, for tha |iu > puw of 
of thaw, with tha view of an 
la thk lart mmm it i« hcraoMd. 
» AkMMt all tha 9n» anpiovad ia 
badiad hi qMitqr mMm. htm vWeh Ihiy anul be 

thay aia witjrend to 
Tha aMihodi fcOewad ia tfe 
hi 
ThaaMyofenaia 
vith Iha 
aU tha 
aalytha 
Tba 



ttgfitflcatio09 
It way. It 
•Mayinfr, 
it ia uted to 
Iha icparatioa of 
' art, tiul the 




hi taw dMSacnt ways, 
ahwtha oaalitiMaf 





WhM aMvhw M flw, i» Iha porpaM of I 
Iha 
iaafawaeoUactin af h. W 

by 

laaiBlJty af 
■MilaithadifcaalpiMM. laaltha "~ 
tha an awat ha ladaatd to pawdor, or to 
baftaa it k wdghad, aad CM toMM ba lahan, that! 
ft bdkrawB aaft af Iha v«m1 dariac tha 

tnfi'it Mito eoU. If tha 

tha ai oto lMn hMMon nhtoiimt. w«i bavaa 

tea, Md wot ha ofiaiKhiM dnrily ; dia aoork wtQ ba 

caaipial, aad withoat tha adBblaro ^ toatollie ciaaMt 

«■ aevaaal tiiMiW aad.ai hi naanl, thara wiD baa 
i|l|h> irf I I . 1 hilharawka. wo auNl taha iha DMaa 
iflha whala, at tha oHalily af aMtal ia Iha aao. 
lalhaMlMriflvvddi^ aadwaach toalal^ wOl ba hfe 

-*-*-* •*- ■"*-! r^T1fT fnrtiiii iw iha raiiliim 

af ila ora^ aad tha to^W vlddh aw agdhraad a^tei? 
with Iha viow af aocwtaodnc thaqaaali^ of aMial ia 
Ihaa, te whiA thoy art oaad. Tha aMtala anloyad 
ia tbaaitaara 

Ittm. 

Vat tha redaction of iioa oiaa, a«a Ikon. 

Astajf. Tba aaay of Ina ana differ* a littla, accanl> 
iMto tha ora cnpioyad. 

Tha OMBiBon maoetk ban-atsaa ia WMycd by nix. 
iq^ n, whM radttcsd to powdor, with aboat twice iu 
WMhl of a iox. coawowd of I of charcoal. 6 of chalk, 
mat cf bottlag l aai. The mixturemuatbcazpaaed toa 
*yy •^"■I bM» in a blaat fanuoa, lor ahoat an hour, 
al«r whidi ihe mm will bo fband at tha batlcaa of tha 
craaiblc. If tha ora contain autpbur, it awat be roa*t* 
•dproiMwa to Ha aiixtara with the flax. 

The other ore* of iron an aaaayad oaarly in tha t 
way. Wbcs very littla earthy matter ia preaeol, they 
nay be rcdaccd by using charcoal without the diu ; and 



if the ore oontain much calcareous matter, the quantity 

of chalk ia the dux may be dimiai«hed. . tf- 

Cold. ^"^^ 

Gold is always found in its native state, generally al> Gold. ; 
loyed with ailvcr and copper, and occasionally with tel< ' " 
lurium. SoBMof the iron pyrites, and galena also, con« 
tain a mftdant quantity of Uiis metal, to make them va> 
luable as otaa of gold. 

When gold ia found allorcd with silver mixed only 
with stoney matter, the method of extracting the metal 
is very simple. In working a mine containing gold 
in tliis state, the whole of the matter procured from the 
vein, is collectetl and brvkrn into pieces, about the site 
of a nut. which are arranged into heaps, according 
to thair riclwaaa. The small fragmenU, and tlie re- 
ftiM of tha different procesaes, arc alao collected and 
arranged according to their value. The quantitica thoa 
procured,' are afterwards broken into smaller piirca. 
and freed as much as possible from impuritiasi They 
are then reduced to powder, and made into a thick 
paste with salt and water. Mercury is now squeaaad 
through a laathar biy on tha mixture, and as the metal 
flows m. in very mintttogkfaalaa, it isintimaUly blend. 
ad with it by nxana of woodta apatules. W hm the 
requisite Quantity of aitrcury is added, the whole is 
boat tag«ti>er, and kapt at about the temperature of 
bailing water, for two or throa days, by which the 
union of tha gold aad atarcary ia promotad. Tha 
atrthy aattar ia than cvriad off by lavigation. and tha 



•aparflaoas ancanr ft i u iod, by aqucesin^ the amal. 
flaai tbroogh a laothar ba*. What remaina it tabioclad 
to di t ii l l atto B , by which Uia aaarcanr ia driven oa, and 
tht aM it ahtanadi |MthaBa wmtomii^ a littla silver. 

Tha aathod of atpantii^ thtat will bt explainad whan 
trtafing of ailwr. 

Wbea tha othar orat eootaining gold ara found in 
tha MM aiaa, ther ara owcfully aaparatcd from the 
Ibtmr, aid an coUac t ad nto haaipa, arranged acconU 
iag to thair richaaaa and hardnns. Tha proceaa for ex« 
traeting tha gokl tram thaaa, is mnch mon oomplicau 
ad than that Jnat deacribcd. 

In extracting ^1 from tbaaa ore*, the first fiart of 
tha pwi o w t , contiau ia tmsrating tha matallic (Vom tha 
atrthy subatanott. For thia purposa the on is reduced 
to powder, in a s toi/a ay mi l L the stamning-mill con. 
■»«* of a lar^ cistern, m which the ore u |3accd, and 
tbvoagb which a stream of water paatca, and of tha 
alanpera, which an heavy beams of^wood, terminated 
below, by iron, and which an moved upwards and 
downwards by a watar-wheel. 

Great attention ii naoaoaary in thia part of the pro. 
ceat, that tha whole of tha foreign matter which can 
ha reaunrad by the hand, b« sepantod bcfon the on it 
pot iato tha ciatam, and that tha proper force be ap- 
plied, accordina to tha hardnote of tha ora. Thia it 
auily rtgnlatad, by mcreaaing or diminishing the depth 
of Uto layer of on m tha dstem ; hence the quantity 
ofon out in, it always inversely si iu harilncaa ; ao> 
eordingly whea the layer of ore ia thin, tlic sUmpera 
have a greater fall, and the ore is thus subjecU-d to 
greater force. It is necataary also, that the ore be 
placed in a particular way. Tha layer is so fonned. 
that below the two outer stampen it it thickest, and 
gradually diminishes towanl* tha amln. When tha 
on is reduced to powder, and lufBdantly fine to float 
in the watar, it is carried off, by the ttresra of this fluid 
into veatalt, in which it is deposited ; the heaviest b«> 
tog dapoaitrd nearcit tha cittara. Particular care ia 



62 



METALLURGY. 



MetaMur- also necessary, that the stamping be not done too rapid- 
8?' ly, otherwise the stampers are apt to throw up pieces 
' *~ of the ore, not sufficiently pulverised, which flow out 
with tlie fine powder, and prove detrimental in the sub« 
sequent part of the process. The stamping should 
therefore be performed slowly, and the fresh ore as it 
is put in, must be placed below the middle stamper, 
where it is subjected to the greatest force, and from 
which it is thrown under the other stampers. 

The vessels into which the water flows from the cis- 
tern, are arranged in a particular way, and a great deal 
depends on the performance of this part of the process ; 
for by altering the velocity of the current of water in 
them, the rapidity with which the powder is deposited 
also alters. The vessels are of different dimensions, 
that nearest the cistern being about 12 feet long, and 
9 inches broad, and as many deep. The others gra- 
dually enlarge as they retire from the cistern. They 
also vary in their inclination, the first having a slope of 
about 3 inches, the second about 1 inch, the third and 
fourth about ^ an inch, and the fifth and sixth being 
level. Each vessel is furnished with a groove at the 
extremity farthest from the cistern, into which pieces 
of wood are placed, varying in height, according to the 
quantity of ore that is collected in the vessel, and each 
vessel communicates with that beyond it. 

When the water flows from the cistern into the first 
vessel, the heavy part of the ore is deposited and col- 
lected where the wood is put into the groove ; as the 
powder reaches the top of this, another piece is put 
over the former, and so on till the vessel is nearly filled. 
When this is the case, the water is allowed to flow into 
the second vessel, and from this, when full, into the 
third, by which means the different parts of the ore are 
collected, according to their specific gravity in the dif- 
ferent vessels. The parcels of ore thus procured, are 
still farther freed from impurities by washing. For 
this purpose, each parcel is put into a wicker basket, 
into which a stream of water slowly flows, and which, 
as it issues, is received on inclined tables, grooved in 
various directions. By this means, the ore is still farther 
separated, according to the specific gravity of the par- 
ticles, the heaviest being deposited in the upper groove. 
Some of the ores of gold are subjected to another wash- 
ing, in a vessel similar in shape to a fire-shovel, called 
a huddle. This is immersed in water, and a particular 
motion is given to it by the workman, by which the 
lighter particles are thrown out, and the heavy metallic 
matter is left in the buddle. If the gold procured by 
this process, be mi,\ed only with earthy matter, it is 
subjected to amalgamation, as already described ; or it 
is fused in crucibles with nitre. If, however, it be 
mixed with inflammable matter, as sulphur, it is roast- 
ed, by which the sulphur is expelled. It is then mixed 
with lime and galena, in quantity proportionate to the 
gold contained in it, which is ascertained by assaying 
it, and kept at a red heat, in a reverberatory furnace, 
till part of the sulphur is expelled. The heat is then 
increased, till the whole becomes fluid, after which it 
is poured into moulds of sand. The product of this 
operation consists of scoria above, and beneath of a 
metallic matter, composed of gold, silver, copper, lead, 
iron, and a little sulphur. By repeated fusions the 
gold is obtained, alloyed only with silver, copper, and 
lead, from which it is freed by the process of refining. 

The refining of gold is performed in different ways, 
according to the metals with which it is mixed. Of 
these the most common is cupellation, or testing, the 
former term being employed when the operation is 



performed on a small, the latter, when it is practised Meullur. 
on a large scale. gy. 

Gold is one of the metals which is not oxidated by ^""y — ' 
heat and air, while the other metals, with which it is 
usually alloyed, except silver, pass into the state of 
oxide, at a high temperature. This constitutes the pro- 
cess of cupellation, which is merely the separation of 
the precious from the baser metals, by means of oxida- 
tion. When, however, the base metals are in small 
quantity, compared with that of the gold, the oxidation is 
not complete ; but if a metal, which is easily oxidated, 
and the oxide of which is very fusible, be added to the 
alloy, the oxidation of the base metals is promoted, 
and they are completely separated. The metal always 
employed is lead, and the quantity added depends on 
the proportion of gold which the alloy contains. (For 
a particular account of the process of refining, see 
Silver, in this article, p. 6S.) 

If lead be the only metal with which the gold is al> 
loyed, the process of cupellation is sufficient for its 
purification ; if however, which is usually the case, sil« 
ver and copper be also present, other methods are ne- 
cessary to free it from these metals. When copper 
only exists, the gold is mixed with silver and lead, 
and then subjected to cupellation, by which the base 
metals are removed, but the gold still retains the silver ; 
it is necessary, therefore, to have recourse to means for 
separating these two metals. When the gold amounts 
to about one-fourth of the alloy, the process is car- 
ried on by means of nitric acid. Silver is easily 
acted on by nitric acid, while gold is not ; if, however, 
the gold exceed what is stated above, the whole of the 
silver is not dissolved ; it is necessary, therefore, for 
this process, that the alloy employed do not contain 
more than one-fourth of gold ; if it do, it must be 
fused with poorer alloy, i. e. alloy which contains a 
great deal of silver. When in this state, it is poured 
into cold water, by which it is reduced to powder, or 
granulated as it is called. The granulated alloy is 
then put mto parting-glasseSjVihich are vessels of a pear- 
shape, about 12 inches long, and 7 wide at the bot- 
tom. Into each of these about 40 ounces of the alloy 
are put along with nitric acid, so that the acid cover 
the alloy to about the depth of two or three inches. These 
are gently heated on a sand bath, and when the action 
has ceased, the solution is poured off, and another quan- 
tity of acid is added, and the process is repeated a third 
time, which is, in general, sufficient to dissolve the 
whole of the silver. The last portion of acid, as con- 
taining little metal, is used as the first quantity, in the 
next purification ; the two first are decomposed by the 
immersion of copper plates, by which the silver is de- 
posited in the metallic state. The gold left after the 
action of the acid, is washed with warm water, till the 
fluid which comes oflT does not alter the colour of a 
piece of copper, and is then fused in a crucible with 
nitre and borax, by which all impurities are removed. 

When the proportion of gold in an alloy is much 
smaller than that mentioned, a different process is some- 
times followed for separating it from the silver. For 
this purpose, the alloy is melted and granulated. About 
seven-eighths of it are then mixed with about one- 
eighth of the flowers of sulphur, and the mixture heated 
in a covered crucible, first slowly, and afterwards till 
the whole is brought into fusion, in which state it is 
kept on the fire for about an hour ; one-third of the 
alloy kept out, is then added and thoroughly stirred 
with it by means of a wooden rod, and the whole is 
again heated for about an hour. Another third of the 



METALLURGY. 



63 




alloy ia afttnrarda mixed with it, and after a similar 
operation, the rcoiaining quantitv is added, and the mix- 
tin* kapt fiMtd for about three hours, during which it 
ia ftvqoRidy Unred. It is then, when the surface has 
tmeame auite white, poured into oonca srcMcd in the 
iukiaL Vhen it is solid, it is foond to nare acpanted 
into T^ti*"*** parts, the upper ia mlphnret of silver, the 
lower M a metallic botton coinpoicd of gold and silver. 
If the fanner contain gold, it ia ezpoara to heat in an 
open cndbW, by which part of the snlnhur ia diaaipated, 
vtd the tihrcr set free, unites with toe gold, and ooU 
kcu at the bottom of the veiacl aa tfaa matter ooola. 
Tba metal thus obuincd, ia l apaat c dlT lubiccted to the 
aamepcoccaa, till the alloy procurad contain a large 
cnougn qnantity of gold to admit of iu separation 
from the silver, by the prooeaa of patting already dea- 
cribcd. 

Gold ia occasionally daprived of the baser metals by 
tfaa naa of sahibarct of an tinwaiy , sulphur having a 
alrangcr attraction fat tba otfaar matala than for anti- 
oMny, while it doaa not cambina with goM. To pu- 
tify gold by thii maana, it ia naoaiaary to employ en- 
cibWa, wfajcfa ara not porooa, Toranderthom so, tber 
— aoakad in oil, and than b ii i aai d in tfaa insida with 
fini'w't'' bcraz. Tha gold alknr ia fnaed in tfaair, and 
abont twiee ita wa^gkt of salpfaarat of antimony ia 
iridad in aaciamira partien. taking can that tfaa mix> 
tnra docs not swoO and flow oat of tha crodbtc. If 
tha qnantity of aold ba vary maall, tha sttlphofat ouat 
ba Bnviaaaly raaad, with an additiooai qoaaiity of 
anlpOT, so oiaft too mneh aatiaMnr may not ba wad. 
Whan tfaa wbola of tha ouzlara ia m a slau of fbaon, 
and arhaa k tpvklaa, itiapoorad into gtaamd eanaa, 
wMtfc — It bi Urncfc «antf|r m thi maftar itm— *HiTt% 
to OHMt tba goU to aI 10 tba botlaa. Whan oald, 
tba gold M fewid oniSid with tba anthnony, and alao 
with a httla of tha aOoyfaig matala; it nraat. tfaarafocc, 
ba ■Bbjaalad to tfaa mma pracam, with an additianal 
qMMqr of ■iliiburat, a aaeoad and a third tinw, by 
which tba whola of Ibaaa are ramovad. Tha neat part 
oflbaptoeaM ia to separata tha gold and antimony. 
For Ibia mii p o aa tha alloy, reduced to ftagmenU, ia 
iUi ona-fMBlh of ita weight of sulphur, in a 
cracibia, by which tha graadcr part of tba an- 
qadla tba gold, and vnilaa with the inflamm». 
Uabady. Tba raaadmatlmia than nannd into graaiad 
«oa«i : and wbaa aald, tba gold atfll ivtaining a littla 
atiaany.iaeaaaclad at tha bottom. To fraa it Asm 
Ihia, It moat ba (bead, and a atnam of air mada to jpaia 
a«er it. by which the antimony is oaidatad, and cami> 
pated by the heat, and the gold ia left. If not oaila 
pariiad W Ibiapraeaaa, it mMt ba Ibaad with a little 
oilra^ vbKb wiO oridata tha antlmu w y , and leave tha 
gold pma> Tba aalphnret of antimony formed by the 
raaion of tfaa aMoy and rslpbar. containa a amall qaan> 
tit^ of goicL To obtain thi« from it, it must be loaad 
with about one-fifth of its weight of iron filing*, which 
will onttc with the sulphur ; the antimony will com* 
bina with the gold, and may be srparated by tha m*. 
noa motfww otMraMOo 

ThapmemofporifyiiWgoldbyeraMNMMa, ia atiU 
pr a cti aa d in aama particalar eaiafc It eanaiaU in beating 
tha alloy to thin plateau and placing thaaa in altamata 
layers, with a cement eampaaadof 1 of nitia, S of caU 
dncd green vitriol, and t af paonded tilai^ made into a 
paste with urine, ukinf can Oiat than ba eament at the 
tap and bottom of tfaa vaaaalm TbaaaaroplaoKlinarur. 
and kapt at a baal, bdow the malting point of 



gold, for 24 hours. The gold is then removed, and Mctaliur- 
boiled, first in water, and afterwards in nitric add, by fy- 
which the foreign matter is washed off. The plates are -''»"'-* 
repeatedly subjected to a similar operation ; and in this 
way a great deal of the alloying metals are remove<I by 
the nitric add, set at liberty from the nitre, by the ac- 
tion of the acid of the salt of iron on it. The superiori- 
ty of this proceaa depends on the nitric acid, at the 
tamperatare to which it is exposed, acting on silver 
and copper, though in small quantity, which is not 
tfaa caae when the liouid acid is boiled on the alloy ; it 
doM not, however, anford the gold pure, it is therefore 
practiaed only when this metal is not required very 
fine, as in the formation of trinkets. 

Atsay tif Gold Ortt. — .\s gold ores contain in general Assay of 
but few ingredients, their aasay ia easily performed. For gold ore*, 
this purpose the ore is reduced to powder, and mixed 
with 1 of fused borax, and 4 of sub-carbonate of potassa, 
and subjeoted to heat in a crucible. When fused, it ia 
ponied out, and if any remain in the vessel, it must be 
rmaovad by muriatic add. This, with the fused matter 
reduead to powder, ia digcated in muriatic add, to which 
from tima to tima a BtUa nitric add is added. When 
tfaa action c e aae i, the aohrtion is poured off, and the re- 
■due is well waahed with water, the waahings being 
mixed with the solution. To the solution, neiitraliaeu 
by a fixed alkali, green sulphate of iron ia added, aa 
loog m It canaea any precipitation ; the predpitate, after 

' g wariMd, ia macd ia acrudble with a little nitre ; 
aSada g^ in a atata of purity. If the part of tha 
Mt actad on by tfaa add become black by ex|>o- 
to light, it contains silver. To procure this, it 
ba fused with about thrice ita weight of sub-car« 
baaata of potaaaa, by which the silver is reduced and 
ia mixad with tiia earthy matter. By washing tha 
pradnct in mnriatic acid, the latter ia separated, and 
tha ailver is left. 

Iron pyritea containing gold ia analysed by digeet« 
in^ the ore in moriatic acid, to which a little nitric 
aod is added. What is left must be roasted to drive 
off tba sulphur, and again ilicritcd in add. The solu- 
tiona obtai ned moat be nein . potassa. and pro- 

t»«itnteof mercurr isad(i< j)redpitate thrown 

down, ia then fu«ed with nitre, by whicn the gold ia 
p roc ur e d . If sUver be also contamed in the ore, it b 
obtataad by tnatiag that part of it not acted on by tha 
aoid, witb aab>carbanata of potassa and muriatic add, 
aa abewa dcacribad. Galena, containing gold, is ana- 
lyaad by digesting it in nitrtvmuriatic acid, evaporat- 
ing the solution, and afterwards adding proto-nitrata 
of m a fcu ry. The insoluble part, when treated as above, 
willyidd the ailvrr if any exist in the ore. 

The aamy of gold, aa performed on tu alloys, will bt 
given when treating of aamy of ailver. 

Sihtr. 

Silver is obuined not only from tha proper ores of Klvar. 
silver, but likewise fWm some of the orca which are 
wrought to yield other metala. Of thaae the principal 
aro the orca of lead. 

Rtductim of Ora. 

Two methods are practised for procuring silver, the ntdoeiioa 
one is by amalgamatioH, the other is by/Htion. The of orss. 
former is followed when the ore is rich in silver, the 
latter when it contains little of the precious metaL 

AmaigamaiioH. The ores which are subjected to the 
proceaa of anulgamation, contain in general, besides 
i 



64 



METALLURGY. 



lead and copper, a small quantity of iron pyrites ; if 
they do not, some of this is usually mixed with them, 
by which the extraction of the silver is facilitated. The 
ore, after being freed as much as possible from its 
stony ingredients, is mixed with common salt, in the 
proportion of 8 or 9 per cent, if the ore contain 8 oz. 
per quintal ; and 10 or 12 per cent, if more silver be 
contained in it. It is then exposed for some hours on 
the floor of a reverlieratory, till the vapour cease to 
come off; the mixture being frequently stirred to ex- 
pose the whole of it to the flame. If, when removed, 
too little or too much of the salt have been added, 
(which the workman by experience easily knows,) the 
proportions must be adjusted, by adding either more 
of the salt or of the ore, and the mixture is again roast- 
ed in the reverberatory. During this part of the ope- 
ration, the sulphur of the ore is partly dissipated in the 
form of sulphurous acid, part of it in the state of acid 
combines with the alkali of the salt, and the muriatic 
acid set free unites with the silver. When the matter 
is cold, it is reduced to powder in a mill, and tiien 
amalgamated with about an equal quantity of mercury. 
The amalgamation is performed in barrels, which are 
made to revolve, or in tubs which contain an appara- 
tus for keeping the mixture in constant agitation. The 
mixture is put into these vessels, and made into a 
thickish paste with water, and kept agitated for about 
two days, and after the amalgama has fallen to the 
bottom, it is withdrawn through an aperture in the 
lower part of the vessel. What remains is washed, by 
which more of the amalgam is got from it, and the re- 
sidual matter, if the ore contained a great deal of silver, 
is again roasted with about 3 per cent, of sulphur, and 
subjected to a similar process, by which the whole of 
the metal is extracted. The amalgam procured by 
these different operations, is freed of its superfluous 
mercury, and is then subjected to distillation, by which 
the whole of the mercury is expelled and the silver is 
left ; retaining, however, a little copper, which is re- 
moved by cupellation. 

Fusion. — The ore generally subjected to the process 
of fusion, is lead glance, which almost always contains a 
small quantity of silver. When lead mines are wrought 
on account not only of the lead, but also of the silver, 
the earthy matter mixed with the ore is considerable, 
and the quantity of silver is very various in different 
mines. In some, as those formerly wrought in York- 
shire, the silver amounted to about 230 oz. in the ton, 
while the Durham and Westmoreland mines afford on- 
ly 17 oz. per ton. 

The first part of the process for procuring silver 
from these ores, consists in stamping and washing as 
has been already described, after which the substance 
contains silver, lead, iron pyrites, blende, and earthy 
matter. The ore is then roasted in a reverberatory to 
drive off the sulphur, taking care that the heat be not 
80 high as to fuse it, and that when it begins to adhere 
together on the surface, it be well stirred. In about 
five or six hours, the flame from the ore changes from 
blue to white, charcoal in powder is then thrown in, by 
which part of the lead ore is reduced, and collects at 
the bottom ; when a sufficient quantity is formed, 
quicksilver is mixed with the scoria to thicken it, and 
uie fused metal is drawn off. After this, the heat is 
continued, and the metal as it is formed, is repeatedly 
taken out, the temperature being increased towards 
the end of the process, to cause the scoria to become 
more liquid, so as to allow the metal to fall through 
it. The metal as it is collected, is covered with char- 



coal ; and the scoria which is formed, is removed. It 
i« then covered with saw-dust, pieces of wood, and 
a little resin, and constantly stirred; and when the 
flame ceases, it is poured into moulds. The scoria 
procured in the different operations, is afterwards 
heated in a blast furnace, to procure the lead from it. 

The lead containing the silver obtained by the above 
operations, is then subjected to the process of refining, 
which is the same as cupelUition, only performed on a 
large scale. For this purpose, a reverberatory furnace 
is employed, but the process differs in different places, 
owing to a difference in the nature of the ore. In 
England, the cupel or vessel in which the refining is 
performed, is composed of 6 parts of bone ashes, and 1 
of fern ashes, made into a paste with water. In the 
centre of this there is a shallow cavity, for the recep- 
tion of the metal, and at one end there is a hole for the 
escape of the litharge, formed during the operation ; 
the litharge flowing into this, along a groove made in 
the cupel. When the cupel is heated, the metal is put 
in through an aperture in the furnace, and a stream of 
air is made to play on it, by which the litharge is formed, 
and escapes along the groove. As this groove is de- 
stroyed, the litharge is made to run along another, and 
in this way the whole of it is withdrawn. Tlie metal 
in the cupel is again subjected to a similar operation, 
after which it is poured into moulds, and formed into 
ingots. 

In other places, the lower part of the reverberatory 
is covered with wood ashes and clay, so as to form a 
cupel. On one side of the furnace, there is a hole for 
the exit of the litharge; and on the opposite side is 
another for the admission of air to the surface of the 
metal, which is introduced through an aperture above, 
to which a cover is adapted. After the lead is melted 
and brought to a red heat, the blast of air is admitted, 
and the scoria as it collects is removed. When the 
litharge is formed, the heat is increased, and the quan- 
tity becomes greater, and is withdrawn through the 
opening in the furnace. At the same time some 
lead is volatilized. Towards the end of the pro- 
cess, the litharge which comes off, contains a small 
quantity of silver, and is therefore kept separate from 
the rest. After the whole of the litharge is removed, 
and the surface of the metal in the furnace becomes 
bright, a quantity of water is poured on it, to prevent 
the metal from spirting, which it is apt to do when 
congealing. The metal thus obtained, is subjected to 
a similar operation for about five hours, in a smaller 
furnace, and at a higher temperature, by which it is 
freed from the lead. 

Silver is also occasionally procured from the silver 
ores by the process of fusion. The process, as carried 
on in France, consists in mixing the ore (which con- 
tains native silver, sulphuret of silver, iron pyrites, ar- 
senic and cobalt,) with lime, the scoria of a former 
operation, and slag from an iron furnace to make it 
more fusible. Galena and litharge of a previous pro- 
cess are also added. These, when mixed, are exposed 
to heat in a blast furnace, along with charcoal, by 
which a metallic matter, composed of silver and lead 
is obtained. This is again fused with litharge, and 
the metal procured, is afterwards subjected to the pro. 
cess of cupellation, at a temperature higher than that in 
the other instances, owing perhaps to the presence of 
iron, which occasions a considerable loss of silver. 

When the ore also contains copper, a different pro- 
cess is followed for procuring silver from it. The ore 
is mixed with another ore, containing silver, iron, and 



Mctallur* 



METALLURGY. 



65 



lutphur. and with the scorU oTa fonner proceas. The 
mixture ii fuaed in • blast fumace, and the mlphur 
unite* with the silver, with the lead, and with the cop. 
per. The matter, during cooiinc, aepanitcs into two 
parts ; that below, amoonting to aooat one-fourth, it the 
aflver raised with lead, capper, iron, lulpbar, and «•»• 
nic, and i« roatted to expel the two last in^fadicBta, 
■id to oxidate the iron. It ia than laind with about 
one and a half of rich ore.andsaawacorMsaBdia fiiaed. 
The metallic matter that obtaiaad i» fim raaalcd, 
■nd fused with about one-half of litfaarM, and aa macfa 
Who) cold it teparatca into Uirae pafta, IM, 
ianl with (ilver ; 'id, tooKt and auver ; 3d, 
Maria, al«0 containinf^ copper. Yba aacond of thoM 
b mehed with lead and copper Moria, and aftorwartia 
with litharge and aeoria, bjr which the ailver anitea 
with the IcmL ShoMld the whole of ttaa 
laui oi ed , the metal moat be 
^Mth not only the eoppcr, bot 

pmMd. Tho aoaria of thia 

I witb ore in oliiar op arat iowa. 
'is MM samtj 



eopparnot be 
If AMsdi by 



iskeptMMl 



gopperby thopTBcaaaofdiq wri — ■ The aUqMliaa of 
■Itw ore is u atf o i ui ad fay <Mki>>|K *l>* ■"^ "'' ^fVP" 
and silver mued with lead, or wftb NtftarM and diar. 



For this purpote a blait ftit wace la emplojrcd, 
borfag its bottoa hocU with dMrcool, beat togcUicr, 
and fonuBC an fncHBod pine. Whan tho Untan k 
kJadMrhls MM wMb dMraoal. to whkh soow seo- 
ria is addsd, whicb. by tlw hcot. ia AMed, and adhcraa 
to the sidsa of tfao Arniae*. A oMBtily of lead aad 
of tba aBejr is than thiuwn in. ana alte inss d s liliias|o 
mixed witb i4— «~' Another ({vantity of Ibe allof 
and lithargo is Ibso added, and lastly soow load. By 
the appUcmoa of astraof boat, tbaae sob 
fliaaif snd itit Hrlbanri if riihiriil lij tfir rhi 



r Htboffs ia r a da csd by tbocbarooal; the 
' caBscM at tba bottosn, aad is drawn off 
HBod witb de^, and p r uiu at lj r haaisd. 
While the metal in tbaaa b in a slala of flisia n , a bar 
of iron bent at the sad la nbaigod a Httia way into it, 
by vMca it is laiuovadp wbaa coldt ftoM tba n wkL 

TlwloaToa are tbea plaesd ia a Avnaeai oabanof 
iroa. and ssparatadftooi each fltborbvbcklui By the 
^yMcatlon of beat, As lead is naltaa, and mas along 
a groove in the lower part of tba flnrnaes, carrying 



with it the lilrer. In this part of the pracaas, freat 
cara arast ba taken not to raiao the boat too bigb, 
elbanritanart of tba capper will ba la s l lsd and nm 
oat with tba Itad. Wboa tba laad esaoea ta law ftoa 



the loaves, tba tra a 
wloft ia tba 



-wbfablba 



f as a ladAiB spoaay n 

aaoanca in the lOOpoaatb; they are 
t b aialb w sxpeoad to beat, by which a metallic matter 
•sades fron then, eonriitina of sflver, load, litbaaga^ 
arsaide, and scoria, and if tbehaat has not been can* 
tiaaaly applied, of some copper. When the metal 
trfaicB azade* has a reddish coioor, the process mutt 
ba steepadL The metal procured by thi« mi ot aUuB ia 
Aaad Of sooia of iu impuhtics by waihing, snd is then 
oaljactad ta capcllatioa. Tba ooppar left in the tar. 
aaeab naoriy pw*. 

In the first part of this process, the heat nnM be less 
than what is necessary to melt the copper; and by 
aaiag litharge and charcoal instead of lead, tiie opera, 
tlon u expedited, bccaoae the litharge, before it m re« 
duoed, proves a good flux. If lead be employed, it 
Aeald aaioant, at least, to two and a half tines the 

TOk xiT. raar i. 



quantity of copper, otherwiie the whole of the silver Mei*llur< 
will not be extracted. On the contrary, it should not gr- 
exceed four times the quantity of copper, otherwise ^""V"^ 
part of that metal will be carried along with it and the 
silver ; the proper proportions therefore are between 
three and four parts ; the exact quantity will of course 
depend on that of the silver. It is necessary also, that 
the etc contain a certain quantity of silver, otherwise 
tbo piiirasa ia aot complete. From one to three-fourtlu 
par ceat. oecai the best. Should therefore the different 
osas base difliwent quantities of tlus metal, they must 
be mixed so as to get a collection, which contains the 
proper proportion ot iL 

In Germany, where the copper alloy contains alx)ut 
three-fourths per cent of silver, the proportions of the 
sobitancos cmploysd, are three of the alloy, and eleven 
of lead. When the alloy doea not contain so much 
aihrsr, about }cn of lead are used. If instead of lead, 
Bttaatge be employed, 120 of the Utter must be used 
for each 100 of the former, that were requisite. 

Xasa e .—The word aaaay, in its extended sense, means Assay. 
tha snalysis of the difocnt metallic area, with the view 
ofasesitaining the qnontily of valuable awterials which 
tbar flsotaia ; ia its more limited soceplation however, 
oaa ia which aonoo it is mually employed, it signi6es 
the process fatlowe<l for asccruining the qtuintity of 
gobl and silver, either in an ore, or in alloys of these 
BMtals. In a still mors limited tense, it applies only 
to tba analysis of the letter, as in determining the 
qiiasHity of mid or silver in plate, coins, and articles d* 
J owsi l as y . Tbo ataer of gold and silver alloys requires 
to ba potfenasd with very great care, as it is done on 
a very aamll scalo. BeliM« • P*«ee of plate can be 
stamped, it aatst ba asssysd. ror tliis purpose, before 
it is ilnisbtd, it is taken to the assay-master, a person 
ia tha pay of the Company of Goldtmiths, who scrapes 
o# a tamll tpmatity of it at different places : these he 
mother, aad sets aside for the assay. The 
> ia piaetiaad wkb the other alloys submitted to his 



Whsa Iraatiag of gold, it waa mentioned that it and 
sihror mist tha action of beet and air, wliile the other 
motals with whidi they are alloyed, are oxidated at a 
high fiipti store. On this depends the aaaay of gold 
and silver alloys. For the complete success of this pro- 
osss, it is neecssory that the quantity of bata metal be 
lane, otherwiae the attfactian between the noble metal 
aad it psaronls tboir separation. For this raoson, a 
qaa n titr of lead is slwsyt mixed witli the alloy. The 
sa p aio l i uii of gold and silver from other metals, by 
of 1^, ia called emjMalion, and the proeeaa is 
porfonaod on a eujid placed in a mtiffie. A capd ia 
a diah of a eircabr or pyramidal shape, amde of bone 
ashsa, aad having a small depnssion on its upper sur- 
fhoe, iato which the siloy is put. A muffle is a vessel 
made ef sarthm ware, flat below, and arched above, 
open at one end, and shut at the other, and at the tides, 
except where it is perforated b^ small holes. The fur- 
aaca omplayad in cayeUalioa, is one in which a strong 
heat can be €uitei, and having a hole in it* side* for 
the ailiiiissiim of the muffle. When the cupelUtion is 
to he pcifuiiucd, the muffle is placetl in the furnace, to 
which it ia jrenerally secure<l by luting. The furnace 
it then kindled, snd the muffle and cupels are slowly 
heated. When these are red hot, the alloy, beat out to 
a thin plate, and rolled up in a sheet of load, obtained 
by the reduction of litharge, is iHit into tba csmaL T» 
pu Toa t tba air which enters the muffle from lowering 



66 



METALLURGY. 



Assay of 
Gold AU 



the temperature of the metal, a quantity of burning 
charcoal is put at its mouth, by which the air, previous 
to its entrance, is heated. After the metal is put in, it 
very soon melts, and emits white fumes, and a quantity 
of a reddish substance is formed, which is absorbed by 
the cupel. This is the lead oxidated, carrying along 
with it the metal with which the silver is alloyed. As 
the process proceeds, the fused metal acquires a globu- 
lar form, and its surface is studded over with melted 
litharge; at last the silver acquires a beautiful bril- 
liancy, which is a proof that the cupellation is finished. 
The cupel is then allowed to cool slowly, to prevent the 
contraction of the outer parts of the metal from scatter- 
ing about the internal unconsolidated portion. The 
silver is then taken out and carefully weighed. 

It is of material consequence to know the exact 
quantity of lead that must be added to the alloy, for 
if too little be used, the whole of the base metals 
are not extracted, which is known by the metal left in 
the cupel being flat,of a dull colour, and adhering to the 
dish. If too much lead be employed, the litharge 
formed carries along with it a minute quantity of the 
noble metal ; accordingly, if the litharge be again sub- 
jected to cupellation, it leaves a little silver on the cu- 
pel. To ascertain the quantity of lead requisite, touch- 
needles were formerly employed. These were bars of 
alloys, containing different known quantities of silver 
and copper, with which the alloy to be assayed was 
compared. This mode is however almost abandoned, 
the assay-master trusting to the appearance of the alloy, 
the ease with which it is cut, its malleability, and the 
colour of its surface when heated. It is of very great 
importance also to attend to the heat required. If the 
heat be too strong, part of the silver is volatilized; if 
too low, the litharge is not absorbed by the cupel. 

If the process of cupellation be well performed, the 
button of metal left adheres slightly to the cupel, its 
surface is brilliant, and quite clean, and it has a globu- 
lar shape. The silver also sometimes presents a lami- 
nated structure, which, when viewed through a mi- 
croscope, appears composed of scales of a pentagonal 
shape. This is a good test of the purity of the metal ; 
for when any of the alloying metal is left, the surface 
is quite smooth. Where great delicacy is required in 
the assay, two portions ought to be subjected to cupel- 
lation at the same time ; and should the results not 
agree, the operation must be repeated. 

The assay of silver ores, with the view of ascertain- 
ing the quantity of silver, is performed nearly in the 
same way as the assay of the alloy. For this purpose 
the ore is roasted, and then mixed with litharge, and 
quickly fused. The product is then fused with black 
flux, by which the litharge is reduced, and the lead 
falls to the bottom, carrying with it the other metals. 
The metallic button is afterwards mixed with the 
proper quantity of lead, and subjected to cupellation, 
by which the silver is obtained pure. Should the ore 
contain gold, this will be found along with the silver. 
These must therefore be separated by the process of 
parting, described under the assay of gold. 

The analysis of the ores of silver, with the view of 
ascertaining the quantity of all the ingredients, is per- 
formed chiefly by the action of nitric acid. That just 
described is, however, the one usually followed in the 
arts. 

Assay of Gold Alloys. — The affinity between gold and 
silver is so strong that they cannot be separated entirely 



from each other by cupellation, unless a quantity of sil- Mstallur- 
ver be added ; besides, gold is frequently alloyed with gy- 
copper and silver, or with silver alone, as in some coins """"V™' 
and trinkets. This makes the assay of gold more com- 
plicated than that of silver, asthegold and silver must al- 
so be separated from each other. In general, the silver 
added to the alloy, amounts to about three times the 
quantity of gold, though some recommend that only 
twice the quantity should be employed. 

The alloy being mixed with the requisite propor- 
tions of lead and silver, is placed in a mufflle, and 
the cupellation is performed in the same way as with 
silver. When the process is finished, the button of me- 
t?.l is taken out, and kept in a state of fusion in a cru- 
cible for some time, by which the whole of the lead is 
expelled. It is, when cold, beat into a plate, again 
made red hot, and slowly cooled. It is afterwards ex- 
tended into a thin leaf, between steel rollers, and coil- 
ed loosely up, in which state it is submitted to the pro- 
cess of jiarling, by which the gold and silver are se- 
parated. 

In the cupellation of gold, the heat required is 
stronger than is requisite for that of silver ; and there 
is little risk of making it too high, as the alloy of gold 
and silver is not volatilized. 

As in the cupellation of silver, it is necessary that 
the due proportion of the metals with which the alloy 
is to be mixed, be employed. This is ascertained in 
different ways. A tolerably accurate idea of the quan- 
tity of gold in an alloy is acquired by the use of Tmtch, 
needles. Of these there are four different kinds : \st, 
gold alloyed with silver ; 9,d, gold and copper ; 3d, 
gold, with two of silver and one of copper ; 4//i, gold,, 
with two of copper and one of silver. These have dif- 
ferent quantities of gold alloyed with them ; they are. 
not, however, much employed, more particulai-ly those 
containing copper, as the colour communicated by this 
metal to gold does not differ much from that of the 
different kinds of copper. 

Another method by which the quantity of gold is 
estimated, is by the streak which the alloy gives on 
the darker sorts of basalt, or on black pottery. The 
streak is compared with those given by touch r.ecJles, 
which is, in general, made more distinct by the stone 
being previously wetted. Occasionally a drop of ni- 
tric acid is put on the streak, and by the effects produ- 
ced on it, the quantity of gold is estimated. By the 
different colours communicated, the workman acquires, 
by experience, an idea of the quantity of gold present. 
When the proportion of gold is large, it is necessary to 
add a little muriatic acid to the nitric acid, otherwise the 
streak is not affected ; the gold seemingly protecting the 
other metals from the action of the acid. According to 
Vauquelin, the best acid is composed of <)8 nitric acid, of 
specific gravity 1340, 2 of muriatic acid 1173, and 25 
of water. When this acid is used, it must not remain 
long on the streak. 

The quantity of lead added to the alloys of silver 
and gold is differently stated by different assay ers. Ac- 
cording to the experiments of Tillet, Hellot, and Mac- 
quer, 

1 copper, 3 silver, require 40 of lead. 
1 5 48 

1 23 QQ 

The quantity of lead necessary increasing with the sil- 



METAJLLURGV 



67 



ver. Otbcfs rMoramend m mrullcr auftntitj of lead. 
Th« proportion of lead added to gold allojs i« nearly 
the mne. 

After the cupelUtion, the product most be rabjcct- 
cd to the procH* oTpartingv which i* nearljr the Mne 
aafaaabccn deacribed whan cxnlaining the roethoda 
pfBflliiaJ in the purification of gold. For thU purpoae, 
th« oofl of metal ia p«t into a pear-ahapad *Um renel, 
with two or thtca tmaa i(* w«i|;ht «f tlightlj dilated 
nitrie acid, and heat ia applied, bv which (he add acta 
«a tfa* aBiW, and learca the gold. When the action 
whid) ia known by the caaMtion of the rtd 
the coil ia left eomded, bat unbrakcn t the 
then ponrad off, another ^jwali^ of acid it 
beikd on it for a frw ninntM, and aneiB decanted off; 
the TBiini ia then filled with water, and inverted, bv 
which the coil ialla ovt entire. The im-ul i* aflerwartu 
anbjaetad to • h^ tenperatorr, by which it ahrinlu, and 
■t lait fcnaa a batten of rcapieiMMnt gold ; aAcr w hich 
it ia ecmratelr weighed. The advcr in eolation ia 
^it.SiMj ftf the ioBMraioo of m piece of copper, or by 
the MMT*t«« of eoBOMa aalt, and Aieiao with^peerl 



h ia of greet wan^HMB IB be dble, by eeay 
lu ee|ieiele galil fti— ■elrie,-wilh whicfait iaalioyed, 
wfcf tiwee ere in large pope r ticB , aa in gold lace, and 
iafiUedgoedL 

In aeparoting gold ham goM laee^ the OHtal ia fuaad 
— d gwnalaleiC vf fearhig it into cold water. It ia 
iImi traaled ncarfy m tiM aaow way aa haa been ex. 
piainad liw aepaie lin f geld and ailrcr, wImo the fbmar 
M in oBwO prapertiee. 

Far thia potpeae, ■ iioenlitr ef the greaulalcd metal 
ia mixed with eae ci^Mh of iowcia of aalphar, and 
kept to a atote ttNdao lor aheot mt hoar, or till a kind 
ef flaaUagappaanea ila aerfiwe. A qoantity of the 
graBolMed naetal, e^oal to altoat MioOTlemth pert ef 
UM wricht of tlHft fbaed with tiM aalphar ia mixed with 
ane half ita weight of Utharge, and one ei pht bef aa»» 
dhvr. The ooe-heif ef tliii ia thenedded m aarcaaiire 
paMioM to the Ibaed miatoi e, which ia well tfirred oa 
eeAedditioo. After tide ie added, tlic niiture u kep« 
in the foaed itate for about ten nutiatea, and the upper 
partof it, which ia mIvct in naioo with aolphor, ia 
iMiiieil , tiie iimeimlir ie then poored into giaaaed 



The portion liiweil ia h ro iM h t to a atoU ef fiwion. 
and the i iii ihiiiig ^If eTthe emtafe of aUoy. Utharge 
Mid iMlim. ia edded in the aeme way ea above 
deaoribed, and the prodact ia poortd into a eonr. 

At the bottcee of tlw eonea a OMtallic OMttar, 
peaed of aSver, with alaort the whole of the fold, ia col- 
lected. The aabataneeebove thia, atill,howaTer,retaiM 
a little gold ; it ia theteAre again Aucd, and a aoMtl 
qoantity of an alloy of equal parte of copper and lead 
ie edsed with it. by which the whole oftae fold ia —• 
panledt or collected at the hettoai of the oeoe into 
wtUk dbe BHstsre it poaied. 

IWdUeKT < of OMtal procorad are mixed 

Mdllmriwitli I ith of lead, and treated in the 

aaae way a» l>ciorr, with «ulphnr, theodxtaretf alloy, 
litharge, *n<) •«n<li%<r. U bat ia oollecled ia then fntcd 
with or 4 :t of tulpbur, and kept in that 

atatefori It ia then poured into the cone, 

the ailvcr and tolphar collect at the top, and the gold 
Mb Id the botlook The aulphnrctor silver muttMain 
and anaia be fuacd with aalpbnr, till the whole ef the 
fold ■ aeperated. The gold collected ia then futed 



with one-sixteenth of copper and granulated; the same MeuHur- 
quantity of sulphur is now mixed with it, and the mix- . P?' 
ture it fused for about a quarter of an hour, and then ' 
poured into a cone. The gold found at the bottom of 
this, is afterwards purified by sulphur and antimony, 
aa alrffi''-- -'"-rribed. 

In ^ |)er goods the quantity of gold is very 

trifling;, ^im nuwever, it ia of consequence to separate 
it from the other roetals ; this is done in two ways : 1 st. 
The gilded metal it fused, and granulated, afler which 
it is again fused and Bowers of sulphur are gradually 
added, till the whole becomes dark.coloure<l. When 
cold, it it mluced to powder, and amalgamate<l, as aU 
ready described wlicn treating of the ores of gold. — By 
thia meant the mcrcnry combines with the gold, and 
leave* sulphuret of copper. 

Sd. The metal is brought to a state of fusion, and 
about an equal Quantity of a mixture of litlinr^e and 
sulphur, previously fused together, is a<1(led to it, and 
the whole is well stirred. Charcoal in fine powder it 
then thrown in, in small portions at a time, the mixture 
being coniUntly ttirred with a copper rod. I)y thit 
mwnt the litharge ia deprivrtl of its oxygen, and the 
lead iaUa to the bottooi, carrying the gold along with it. 

The alloy of thcee mctalt it then subjected to the 
proccaa of cupelUtion, by which the goUl it obtained 
pare. 

The qoantity of silver on plated copper goods it oAen 
to greet, aa to make it an object of considerable irn* 
pottaace to be able to separate thit metal from the 

^le pnam tat aapeiatin^ sQvcr and copper, when 
the ftnier ia in large qoantity, has been ah'-'- 
plained, bat the proportion of the latter metitl 
coodt ia ao greet, that the silver cannot bv tiit-.v ...<.„»« 
be obtained <rom them, because they will not boar to 
Im •Iknred with a aaffiCMOt quantity of lead ; recourse 
BMHt therefore be bad to ether methoda. 

The bert mode of aeperatir : , r and sih-er in 
plated good* wee reeoomcadi r. Keir. Thia 

gcntleoMn <'■'- --rrrf^, that an ,t< :ci composed of suU 
phuric and It did nut act on copper, while it 

diaaotvcd s>iwr : he therefore applied this to the se. 
peratian of thrte mrtalt. For this purpose, I lb. of ni- 
tre it diaaolvcd in 8 Uk or 10 lb. of tulphuric acid, w ith 
the aid of a gentle licat, in a gUxrd earthcnwaro <Ii<>h. 
Picne of the gooda are then thrown ii> lirat 

ia raiacd to about the SOOdth degree. V : jiole 

of the ailvcr is diaaolved, the fluid is poured ofT, and the 
metal ia precipitated by muri«t<> or »oc1a, .-nd !• ob- 
tained in tlie ntual way ; or tl • 
water, and pieces of copper arc . 
the silver ia prccipiuted in the lUKtitllic form, Uie diiut* 
cd acid acting on the copper. 

TImr ia still another method of separating silver 
from oopper, by means of thr M.trk oxide of maoganrtc, 
when the silver it in large n. 

The procr.'' ronMiis in ' , V •'"'n pieces of the 
alloy, turr . black oxide of manganese, to an 

intense hc.r ch the meUl is melted, and a black 

powder is procurrd. This it mixed with three timet 
lU bulk of pounded green glass, and again exposed to 
a ttrong hnt, after which the silver is obtained pure at 
the bottom of the vetsel. In tlie fin^t part of this pro. 
c«ta the silver and copper are oxidated, and in tlie 
latter, the oxide of silver is re<luced by heat alone 
whereat the oxide of copper requires the pretence of in> 
flammable mxttcr for ita reduction. 



68 



METALLURGY. 



Platinum, 



Platinum. Owing to the infusibility of Platinum, it is with great 
difficulty obtained in mass, so as to have it in a state fit 
to be wrought intodiflerent articles. The simplest and 
the cheapest method of working Platinum, is that prac- 
tised in France. For this purpose, the grains of Pla- 
tinum are mixed with an equal weight of white arsenic, 
and one-third of pearl-ashes. This is thrown, in suc- 
cessive portions, into a red-hot crucible, and well stir- 
red with a platinum rod. When the whole is in a state 
of fusion, the crucible is removed from the furnace, and 
the mixture is allowed to cool. It is then taken from 
the pot, and bruised, and again subjected to a similar 
process. If after the second fusion the metallic mat- 
ter is magnetic, it must be a third time treated in the 
same way. 

After this it is mixed with an equal weight of white 
arsenic and a small quantity of pearl-ashes, and again 
fused in a fiat earthern dish, in which it is allowed to 
cool. 

It is next exposed to a heat in a muffle, sufficient to 
expel the arsenic, but not so high as to fuse the mix- 
ture. It is then, when hot, plunged into oil, and the 
exposure to heat and immersion in oil repeated, till the 
whole of the arsenic is driven off; the heat being gra- 
dually increased as the metal becomes less fusible. 
After the arsenic is expelled as completely as can be 
effected in this way, and the charcoal of the oil is con- 
sumed, it is digested in nitric acid, and then boiled in 
water to remove impurities. Several of the pieces of 
metal thus obtained are put together, and then exposed 
to a high temperature ; in which state they are struck 
so as to make them adhere. The mass is then heated 
in a forge and beat on an anvil, by which one compact 
piece of metal is procured. 

Platinum obtained by the above process is not pure ; 
it contains arsenic, and the foreign ingredients of the 
grains, by which it is not so capable of standing an 
intense heat, or of resisting the action of chemical 
agents. 

The other methods of obtaining platinum is by re- 
ducing its oxide obtained by dissolving the grains in 
nitro-muriatic acid, and precipitating liy muriate of 
ammonia. For doing this, different processes are fol- 
lowed, though they all nearly agree with each other. 

The best of these is, perhaps, that recommended by 
Mr. Cook. 

It consists in exposing the precipitated oxide to heat, 
by which it is reduced, and the superfluous muriate of 
ammonia is expelled. About half an ounce of the 
spongy mass obtained, is then put into an iron mould, 
and squeezed together by a wooden pestil. After this 
another half ounce is added, and in this way the opera- 
tion is continued, till about six ounces are squeezed into 
the mould, which are still farther compressed by a strong 
iron screw, by which the whole of the air is expelled. 
It is then laid on burning charcoal, and exposed to a 
high temperature, and when hot beat on an anvil till it 
is of uniform density. Al\er this operation, it is coated 
with a reddish crust, which is removed by covering it 
with borax and exposing it to a white heat ; it is tlien 
washed with muriatic acid, which dissolves the foreign 
matter, and leaves the metal resplendent. 

Platinum thus obtained still retains Iridium, which 
was precipitated from the nitro-muriatic solution ; it is 
however sufficiently pure for the manufacture of uten- 
sils. 
Before subjecting Platinum to any of these processes, 



the grains must be spread on a table, and a current of M«taIIur- 
air from a bellows must be passed obliquely over them. gy- 
By this the lighter particles, which consist of quartz and ''" ' "-'' 
iron ore, are removed. 

Occasionally the grains, as brought to Europe, con- 
tain a minute portion of gold. This may be got from 
them by treating them with a small quantity of nitro- 
muriatic acid. To the solution green sulphate of iron 
must be added, and the precipitate thrown down, puri- 
fied by fusion with nitre and borax. 

Copj}er. 

The ores of copper generally employed for yielding Copper, 
the metal, are the sulphurets. These are wrought 
principally in Cornwall, in Anglesea, and in Hungary. 
In Cornwall, the ores of copper are broken into small 
pieces, which are roasted in a furnace, somewhat simi- 
lar to a reverberatory furnace, having a very long chim- 
ney to increase the heat, and to carry off the sulphur 
and arsenic with which the ore is roasted. During the 
roasting, which continues for about twelve hours, the 
ore is frequently stirred, so as to expose the whole of 
it to the flame. It is then put into a small furnace of 
the same form, and brought to a state of fusion, occa- 
sionally mixed with a little lime, to increase the fusi- 
bility. As the impurities collect at the top, they are 
raked out, and put into oblong moulds, in which they 
are allowed to cool. They then form a hard mass, 
which is used in building. The fused copper is drawn 
out through a hole in the lower part of the furnace, 
which was stopped by clay, mixed with a little coal, to 
prevent it from hardening. Fresh quantities of the 
roasted ore are then put in, and the process is in this 
way carried on for a considerable time. 

The fused copper is conveyed into vessels suspended 
in a well, through which a stream of water runs. By 
this means the metal is reduced to the granular state. 
It is still, however, impure, being mixed with sulphur 
and arsenic. 

To free it from these, the metal is repeatedly sub- 
jected to heat in a reverberatory furnace, and each 
time put into the well. During these processes, the 
slag collects on the surface of the fused metal ; but 
as this contains a considerable quantity of copper, it 
is kept, and mixed with the fresh ore, previous to its 
being put into the furnace. 

The copper after this is kept at a low red heat for 
two days, and is then repeatedly fused, and cast into 
moulds about 14 inches in length. It is lastly put into 
the refining furnace, with a little charcoal, in which it 
is again fused. If after this it bear the hammer, it is 
fit for sale. When the fused copper is cast into the 
moulds, the purest part of it rises to the top, and may, 
when cold, be easily separated from the rest, by a blow 
of a hammer. 

The copper ores of Anglesea are wrought nearly in 
the same way. The ore there, after being reduced to 
fragments, is put into a kiln, the flues of which termi- 
nate in a close chamber. Heat is then applied to the 
ore, and the sulphur, which sublimes, is carried through 
the flue, and condenses in the chamber. Fresh quan- 
tities of the ore are from time to time introduced, and 
the roasting is in this way kept up for several months. 
The poorer part of the ore only is smelted in Angle- 
sea, the richer portion being exported. 

The smelting of the ore is carried on in a series of 
reverberatory furnaces, having tall flues to increase the 
draught. In these the ore mixed with a little coal- 
dust is fused, and purified by repeated fusions. By this 



METALLURGY. 



69 



Amuftl 



Om. 



_, twrire hundred-weight of th« roaated oc^ jidd 

sboot ooe-foorth of a hundred- weight of maDaabk n*. 
Ul ; and each charm of the tonace, which ia about 
twelve hundr«d.weight, ia finiabcd in five hours. 

In Hvnnry, the copper ore ia treated in the same 
way, butu* porification of the metal ia accomnliabcd 
by meana of lewL For thia pwpoM, the OMlal k fu- 
■ed in a (unuee, and about on»>twdfth or aa»-iAMnth 
of lead ia added, which fcnna a aooria aloof with the 
impuritiec of the coppM'. Thia ia removed aa it ia form- 
ed, and the copper n left in iu pore Mile, after which 
it i« kept faeed te aone time; To Mcartain when 
the whole of tke ioqparitiee of the flomr have bean i» 
■0ved, the wwfcman takea oat a htUe of the melted 
metal on the end of a MBOOth iron rod. If the me- 
tal be pore, AieMlaeff wheait ie dipt iatocoid water. 

The parity of the metal ia alao known by the red* 
neea of the acoria, thet of the imp«« floppar being al- 
vaya dark ealanna. 

The tUn rfHali at flonpar wmI hi the arte, ere pre- 
parad when the ■eiri i» in a ataie ef Ihaion to the fur- 
neea. For tki* parpoer, when the whole ef the hapn- 
rWea have been reaBOfed, the wetal m a l lewed te eoel 
to near ili peiM ef eoncaialien. A wet faitmn ie then 

ktonade !• pHi hModtenM Maaa. Thie k r». 
nwrad, and ianadkfldy plnagad into wlai, by which 
kMnriraa a fine red cMar; and the pncMa k f 
pMKl till the whaU k iaiaed hito thhi Aaeta. 

Copper, to a atau ef eoneidendile parity, k aonw* 
thaaa p iot ut ed Aon the wiiy whieb eonlato the 
ealphett of thj< metaJ. With thia view, pkoea ef iron 
era pal into the water, by which the copper k preci* 
pkalcd. «wfef la tfw aapRior aAaity of the bw tut 
theadd.aidad,perhepe,b7 afrifaafeadknu When 
the whole ef the Iran k dkntaed. the 
k faked eat, and k Itaied to a tmnmei 
■toed with aeoe of the pooler eepper era. 

The dcpoek o bt ain ed m thk way, when fliaad aletw, 
canMMnly yieiae eooat oO per caait« of oeppav. 

ifaaey cf Copper Ore* — ^Tbe eaaay or eoppar area 
aaqr be made eitber in the dry or m the humid w^ ; 
the fonncr, haweae r, when the ealphareta are ea>- 
pleved, k iaapartet; bat when any of the oaddae or 
fliibonelee are to be amayed, thk BMlhod aneweri very 
weO. Thean,aftarbetogiadaeadl0p0W(hr, karfiad 
with ch«aal, and espoaad 10 a aliaaf heat to a craci. 
Me, l iM u iin i fim eceria ee it k B aai e d . Aa the era 

he rapaiMd OTreral tanea beiora we oliiawi it para. 
Theae eraa era h u weae r aaldeai aaaaleyad to a i e t a l - 
htfgy I it k aaMamiy ttorafera to have racawiae to 
adMT aane^ ta awMMto the valae ef theee which are 
I to ykid cpppcr. Ver ihk the ore meat be di> 
in mariant arid, te which > little nitnc add ia 
by whtoh we obtoto the diOereni 
From thk the oappernH^ be 
lor in themetallie Cina^ the oiaer nMiaia in 
the aalal i en being p r a ale a e ly aipweied. Lead, if pre- 
•ent, aiqr be thrawn down bjrealphale ef aoda and 
Hon, by the additMm of ennnenH to enoraa. 

The i|aantitir of eof^ier aay than be aaoeitaiaed, 
dther by preopitatinc it by aabi«wbenate of aede, or, 
which k batlv, hy the imiii er a ieo of a alate of iron. 
For tbk pnrpoae the aototion k dilated with water, 
' «e erpoMMd iron k pat kite it, which aoon 
) a CoalinR of oopper, and ai the 
in thin 



m I 




nlalHii When the whole of it is aeparated, it ia col- 
Jeded, waahed, and weighed. Towarda the end of the 
proceaa the fluid shuuld be heated, which favours the ' 
aeparation of the copper. 

For obtaining the copper in this way, it ia neceaaary 
that we have the metal dissolved in muriatic or aulphuo 
ric acid, for the nitrate of iron generated by the decom« 
poaition of the nitric acid aotution, ia itself liable to be 
deoompoaed by heat. If therefore the copper be dis- 
aolved in nitric add, the solution must be evaporated 
to dryneas, and the residue dissolved in muriatic add, 
again evaporated and dissolved in water ; or the metal- 
lie ingredients of the nitric add solution may be preci* 
pitated by potaaaa, and the nredpitate dissolved in 
muriatic ado. Into either of tneee aolationa, the plate 
of iron k ii am er a ed. Zinc u aoqMtiaMa employed to 
predpitate copper, but as thk aeperatae iron also if 
preaent, it is liable to fallacy. Even if the solution do 
not contain Iron, yet if there be an excess of acid, and 
the sine itaelf contain that metal, it will first be dis« 
solved by the add, and then predpitated by the zinc ; 
te thk raaaen iia aae k improper. Occasionally the 
pradpilBlad copper, belbrt it ia weighed, u mise<i with 
oil and borax, and anbiectcd to heat in a crucible, by 
which it w ftaed from impuritiea, and the metal is thus 
ofatained m ita pure it at eh 

^aaaf ^ ^^"Pf ^Uojft. Pcrhapa there it no metal Assay of 
ihealkTa of wuch are mora nameRMa and mora aaeful Copper 
than thoee of eopper. It k of coptroaence, therefara, AUojs. 
to be aMa by anabraa to aaoertain ine proportiona of 
the toarad kal B which they contain. It must be re* 
BM ik <i il ,howe» i r. iliat tho«igh, by the aid of chemistry, 
wo OHI aeeartato with prcdaion, not only the ingredi- 
enla, bat the pi w poitio iM of the aubatances coDtaioed in 
thara alloya, yet we often GuJ in fonaiag an alloy poa- 
•Mnd of^all the prapertiea of that aalii^eted to analy. 
ria. Thk dependa, to a great aaeasure, on the diflerence 
to the parity ef the aaetok which we employ ; a slight 
difcenoe to thera oaaaiag an alteration in the proper- 
lice of the alloya which ttey form. The asaay of theae 
esaa k alao aarail. aa it enablea ua to procure from them 
the laatak to ttieir aeparate autc. Thia is chiefly 
praetiaad with the view of obtaining the copper. 

The meet important of the alloys of copper are thoao 
with tin. Tin, when added to ooppar, renders it hard- 
er, mora aonorous, and mora ftiaiPle : hence it is cm- 
ployed to the fuamation of ben-metal, and the other 
aaanil alleys of eopper. When cooper u alloyed with 
tto to the proportion of 100 of the ionner to almit 8 or 
18 ef the latter, it fonna the metel empkiyed in the 
of ordnance, fironsc, and l>ell-metal, are 
of about 1 00 copper and from IU to 80 of tin, 
to which occaaionaHy a little cine and aocfietimea also 
antimony k added. 

When the tin is in larger proportion, aa about 50 of 
copper to about 15 of tin, the alloy is speculum metal, 
which is very hard, and adaiti of a fine polish. With 
this, a little sine, silver, and araenic are mixed. 

When the alloy oomiate oidy of copper and tin, we 
have an easy way ef iiaaialing these metals. Tin not 
only it more eaaily nrinated br heat and air than cop- 
per, but the protoxide of the former metal has tha pro- 
perty of depriving the protMcideof the Utter of iU oxy- 
gen, by which it ia rrdaced. We have only therefore 
taaobjcct the alloy to heat to obtain the copper in ita 
inetalUc form. In this proeess we do not procure the 
whole of the copper existing in the alloy ; besides, if 
we apply the heat by which the metals are oxidated too 



70 



METALLURGY. 



Meiiillur' long, the tin attracts more oxvfjen from the air, and 
sy- does not thus deprive the protoxide of copper of its oxy- 
^"■"V"^ gen. Thus Fourcroy found, that when he exposed an 
alloy of 80 of copper and 20 of tin to heat and air till 
they amounted to 104, 54 parts of copper were obtain- 
ed by afterwards subjecting the whole in a covered ves- 
sel to a high temperature. When, however, 100 p.irts 
of the same alloy were heated with access of air till they 
increased to 1 1 7, a very minute quantity of copper was 
olitained from them by the subsequent heating. Ac- 
cording to Fourcroy, when copper is to be obtained by 
the method just mentioned, the alloy, supposing it com- 
posed of 80 copper and 20 tin, should be heated in the 
air till it gain about 6 or 7 parts in weight, and then 
subjected to a high temperature in close vessels. When 
the alloy has been too much oxidated, it must be mixed 
with the due proportion of alloy, and then exposed to a 
high temperature, by which a large quantity of metallic 
copper will be procured. 

Occasionally a little nitre, or black oxide of manga- 
nese, is mixed with the alloy, by which the oxidation is 
more speedily accomplished. Some glass or salt should 
fclso be added, to increase the fusibility of the oxide of 
tin formed, and thus allow the metallic copper to fall to 
the bottom. The most accurate experiments on this 
subject on a large scale, are those of Pelletier and Dar- 
cet, which were done by exposing the alloy to heat and 
air, and by the addition of black oxide of manganese. 

In one of these, 400 lb. of alloy, known to be com- 
posed of 80 copper and 40 tin, were heated, and con- 
stantly stirred till they increased to 425 lb. 2 oz. These 
were added to 800 lb. of alloy brought to a state of fu- 
sion in a reverberatory furnace, and the mixture con- 
stantly stirred during 20 minutes, and occasionally af- 
terwards for 9 hours. The fused metal was then drawn 
off, and amounted to 761 lb. 12 oz. ; 7 lb. 4 oz. of me- 
tal were also obtained during the trials to ascertain its 
purity, and the scoria yielded 64 lb. more, making in 
all 833 lb. ; that is, very nearly 70 parts of copper from 
the 100 of alloy, which contained 80 of this metal. 

In another experiment, 800 lb. of alloy were melted 
in the furnace, and 25 lb. of oxide of manganese were 
added to them. The mixture was then well stirred, 
and in two hours afterwards 1 5 lb. more of manganese 
were thrown in, a similar quantity being added every 
two hours till the whole amounted to 100 lb. and the fu- 
sion and occasional stirring were continued during 10 
hours. At the expiry of this time, the copper was 
drawn off, and amounted to 520 lb. that is, 65 per cent. 
of the alloy employed. The scoria still retained a good 
deal of copper, but this was not extracted from it. 

When the alloy contains silver, it may be assayed 
by dissolving it in nitric acid, precipitating the silver 
by muriate of soda, and the copper by a plate of iron. 

Tin. 

.. Different methods are followed in reducing the ores 

of tin. 

The ore, which is procured from the mines of Corn- 
wall, after being hand dressed, is freed from impurities 
by stamping, as has been described under gold, after 
■which, it is roasted in a reverberatory, to drive off the 
sulphur, part of which, however, is acidified, and unites 
•with the copper and iron of the ore. The ore is again 
washed, by which it is nearly freed from all impu- 
rities ; it is then mixed with one-fifth of its bulk of 
culm, and subjected to heat in a reverberatory for 
about six hours, during which the oxide of tin is re- 
duced, and the metal collects at the bottom, covered 
4 



with a black scoria. The tin is then drawn off into a 
shallow pit, in which it is freed from the scoria which 
collects on its surface. It is then taken out with '"^ 
ladles, and poured into moulds. 

The metal thus obtained is afterwards exposed to a 
gentle heat in a small reverberatory furnace, by which 
the purest part of it melts first, and is drawn off. This 
forms grain tin ; what is left behind is common tin, 
which contains a small portion of iron, copper, and ar- 
senic. 

The water employed in the second washing of the 
ore contains a considerable quantity of sulphate of 
copper, on which account it is kept and decomposed 
by iron. The scoria separated from the tin, when drawn 
from the reverberatory, retains a good deal of the me- 
tal — it is therefore stamped and melted along with 
the ore. 

The stream tin stone of Cornwall is melted in a dif- 
ferent wa}'. As the ore is in a powdery state when 
procured, it is submitted to a stream of water, by which 
a great deal of the impurities are removed. It is af- 
terwards bruised, and passed through wire sieves. 

It is then thrown, with alternate quantities of char- 
coal, into a blast furnace, in which it is reduced, and es- 
capes through a channel at the bottom, into pits ; the 
scoria being removed as it collects, and thrown again 
into the furnace. 

The metal is then put into a large iron pot, in which 
it is kept fused. When in thisstate, pieces of charcoal 
are plunged into it, which cause a fresh quantity of 
scoria to be separated. The metal is then tried by re- 
moving a quantity in a ladle, and pouring it into the 
pot. If it appear bright like silver, and of uniform 
consistence, it is pure. After this it is poured into 
moidds, and forms good grain tin. 

Aisaij. — In assaying an ore of tin, it is first reduced Assay, 
to coarse powder, and then washed, to free it from 
earthy matter. If it contain arsenic, which is known 
by its emitting the odour of garlic when fused before 
the blow-pipe, it must be exposed to heat with char- 
coal, till the vapours of arsenic cease to be emitted. 
What remains is then mixed with pitch and saw-dust, 
subjected to a strong heat in a crucible, lined with 
charcoal. The metallic button collected at the bottom 



Metallur- 
gy- 



is tm. 



Lead. 



The only ore of lead from which the metal is extract- Le«d. 
ed is galena, the smelting of which is very simple. 

The ore after being brought from the mine is hand- 
dressed, by which it is freed as much as possible of im- 
purities. What remains is then washed, to remove 
still farther any extraneous matter, and is put into a re- 
verberatory furnace, where it is speedily made red hot. 
When in this state it is frequently stirred, and when it 
begins to become soft, the heat is reduced till the whole 
of the sulphur is ex|)elled. The fire is then made 
brisk, by which the lead is melted, and collects at the 
bottom. A little lime is then thrown in to thicken 
the scoria, and the lead is drawn off into oblong moulds; 
a sufficient heat is again applied to the scoria, by which 
another portion of lead is procured. The lead obtain- 
ed in the first operation is considered the best, as it is 
more malleable than the other. 

Assay. — The assay of galena is very simple. It may Assay. 
be done either in tlie dry or the humid way. 

The lead ore is first reduced to powder, and then di- 
gested in diluted nitric acid. To the solution, after 



METALLURGY. 



71 



Anmit. 



filtndoa. tatphitf of mxLi is added, whicfa throw* down 
tfaeMlphateaflead: 100 gr.sTl Wad. 

Or, the ore k first rossted, and then fused with 
thrice iu weif;ht of black 6ux, and corered with salt. 
The metallic button at the batten of the vessel is the 
laad, oeatainin^ the other nctaU present in the ore, 
wrWdl however are in very miall qusntity. 

Shnald the etc contain silver, the naetallie button 
tkm abuincd most ba soibjected to copdladan. or it 
■uj be dissolved in nitric add. an<l Riim«te of soda 
nMed 111 Iha aalntion The precipitate man then be 
diluted in wwk nitric acid, which will dissolve the 
muriate of lead, and leave the silver. 100 of the preci- 
pitate after tliis, when dried =75.3 of silver. 

Ar$tme. 

Arsenic very fVequently cxiaU with other metals. 
It is not, bowaver. nsed in the maUllie ataU in the 
arts. The eonpound of it gCBerallv employed is the 
wbiu oside, or, as it ia eoomonljr called, white araenic^ 
which is firecpMntly nbtaineri in the p fecmiM fbr cx< 




ia tkttmmmk hy sai^aalatg the arsenic 
itolMat,inlar||eoaat benbeua, lowMchflaes 
dMelylatad. 
■asei MrMnfeoDoiy 

t wlHle of the vaietUe 

eeeiapnt in, and tbeprewia ia 
I Ar abenft li kmn, dwiag which timc^ about 



Ttiaaa ai« haoud bv fluaa ftom a fur- 
16 lb. «f Uie ore are thrawn 




IdOBk ef the ore have bam aanioved. What ia eoU 
lactad in the iues of the beseais brakan off bjr ban- 





ners, and is freed fton aaj foreign mtftar adhviag ts 
iL 

AnollMr prepatatian (if araanie much used ia the arte, 
is jellew orp tm e nt . wfakh is p rac ui e d ia the same 
war ; the ore being flrarionalv niaad vilii half iu 
~ ' Vt af sulpber. 

lie ia easily nhlained from the white 

fimtjal Amq^ tf Jntmie On.^—Thm moat accnrate method 
i ef sasayhig an ore of ansnic, is that painted out by 
Cbaaevni. which ooasista in addifriag the arvnic, 
and p r i i p i te l i ey it bv a salt of leao. For thia pur* 
paitthe ere ia tieetaa with nitiic add. so aa com* 
pharir to acUiiythearaaaie. Potaaaa is tiboi added, 
and e fc e i na iJ a ailmleef bad, vhidi throws down a 

Bewe^had. if itia tjiily aoiableiBailnc acid, 100 
aTli a •§ of aaatallic arMnk. 

If any of the precipitate is aet soUde in aitric add, 
it ia «4hate of Issai. the add of wlddi k fiiraed by 
Iheadieaofthenitncacidan tlw adphwr of the ore. 
The w^eht of what ialsil, after the action of the nitiic 
acid, will indicate that of litepeodBitale diaaalved. 

A more easy way of asMiina toe ore, thongh not 
qnin so accnrate, but snfieNBUy so fur the paipmes 
of art, is to dissalve the ore alewlv in muriatic aeid. 
to wbiob a little nitrie acid ia aldad. In thia w^ the 
watel ia di ote Wrd , and the snipiaa is left. The qnan> 
lilf <f Aia iadieatea that of the arsenic; loO being 
e le about 1 M of mctsL 



Cetah. 



Cobahi 



CoL.iH. 

net procuiad in iu natallic state lor the 
of art. The preparation of it in general use 




isthcoxidek Two different kinds of th!>: are employed, Meuliur- 
rsffre and smalt ; the former of which is the oxide f/- 
mixetl with a c^uantitv of vitriHable earth ; the latter "^"y^ 
is the oxide which is brought to the state of skss by 
being exposed to heat with some fusible subatanoe. 
TheMare prepared in Saxony, in Bohemia, Silena, 
and Lorrain. That from the former is considered the 
best. To prep aw safirr, the cobalt ore ia exposed to 
heat by roeaaa of the flame of wood, which is made to 
play on it. The vapour arising from the ore is convey- 
ed through a long flue, in which it is condensed. Af< 
ter the vapours have ceased to arise, the ore is removed 
and redwied to powder, and a second time exposed to 
heat. It is again reduced to fine powder, and iiassnil 
through sieves; and after this is mixed with powdered 
fiinte m o is t en e d . In this state it forms aaffre. Smalt 
ia prepared by mixing the oxide of cobalt, obtained in 
the above proeeas, with about ctjual parU of potashea 
and powdarwi flints. The mixture is exposed to heat 
in laiqpB pota, and ftequently stirred, when in the fused 
rnatm, dnring 10 or IS hours. It is then token out in 
ledlei^ and diupp e d inte cold water, by wliich it ia 
aAwMtib BMre easily r e d nced to powder. 

Thepewderiiigof amak ia performwiby large stene 
rallcra, indeaad m oaaca of wood. When reduced to 
it ia of a fine bine aaloui, and is aome ti iaea 
■a. It is awp loye d not only in the arte 
to inptet iteeotenrtosvhabnoes with which it is fused, 
in vaahiag, to prevent linen from beoora- 
iagyellow. 

CMadt la obteined in the metallic state by deflagrat- 
iw4 parte of smalt, Sefm'tre. and 4 of charcoal. The 
lamdoe of the liaiagialiiai must be again su^ected to 
a aiaiilar pru c i as , and aftcrwarda fused with 8 parte of 
biadi flm. The product of thia operation, weighing 
about ann>ffth of the smalt, ia mixed with one-sixth of 
iu wcigiit of nitre, and the same qiuntity of black 
nitida of aMaganeM, aad expoaad to a strong heat in 
a eowrad crociUe tor about an hour. liy this procesa 
it ia ftaed fton iron ; it still, however, retains a small 
qnnnti^ of arsenic; or the product of the defli^ntiaa 
may be dissolved in nitric aod, and carbonate of pat< 
aaaa added to the solution, aa long aa a brownish pre- 
cipitate ia thrown down ; when, however, the precipi- 
tate fhUs of a violet coioor, the addition of the salt must 
be d ia cemiimed . By thia neaaa we f€i quit of the 
ilea, aad leave the oobalt in union with nitric add. 
The nitrate ia then expoaed to heat, tiic acid is ex« 
pellad, ssmI the oside may be reduced by fusion with 
biedi flux. By these p ro c aai ts cobalt is obtahied suffi- 
ciently pore for many purposes. 

^Ify — Theaawy of cobalt ore may be performed, Ximt 
thooghnoC with gTMt accuracy, in the dry way. The 
ore ia mixed with sawnlust, and roasted to expel the ar- 
senic^ and the reaidue afterwards exposed to an intense 
heat for about 15 mmutes, with iu own weight of a 
mixture of carbonate of potaasa and tartar. The mcul- 
lic button ooUectad below is cobalt. The scoria of this 
contains a co n sid wa ble quantity of metal ; 
whole of the cobalt ia therefiira not procured, and 
it is even doubtful if by thia means the whole of the 
arsenic is expelled. 

Mercury. 

Diflcrant methods are practised for procuring ner- MtKurv. 
cnry from iU ores ; they are however all very simple. 



72 



METALLURGY. 



MetaUur* 



Atsay. 



Maoga< 



In Spain the cinnabar is collected and divided into 
three portions. 

1st, The richest part of the ore. 

2d, That which contains less metal. 

Sd, The powder of the two first. 

These are exposed to heat in a furnace, by which 
the mercury is expelled. The furnace employed in 
this operation is of a particular construction. It con- 
sists of a long horizontal building, divided into an un- 
der and an upper compartment, by a grating of iron. 
On this are placed flat rough stones, over whicli ore 
No. 2. is first put, and then ore No. 1. A layer of 
ore No. 2. is placed above this ; and on the top of the 
■whole is laid ore No. 3. made into a sort of bricks, 
■with clay kneaded and dried. Wood is then kindled 
in the lower compartment of the furnace, by which the 
moisture is driven off. The fire is then continued till 
the sulphur begins to burn ; after which the heat ex- 
cited by the combustion of the sulphur, is sufficient to 
volatilize the mercury, which is condensed in the re- 
ceiver attached to the furnace. Along with the mer- 
cury there is collected a quantity of sooty matter, which 
is removed by placing the metal on an inclined table. 

In this process there is a considerable loss of mer- 
cury, as the sooty matter which is thrown away re- 
tains a great deal of the metal. 

In Germany, the finer part of the ore is separated 
from the coarser part, and is reduced to powder. It 
is then mixed with about one-fifth of slaked lime, and 
put into iron retorts, each of which holds about one- 
half cwt. From 40 to 50 of these are built into a fur- 
nace, and have receivers adapted to them. Heat is 
applied to the retorts, by which watery vapour is 
at first expelled. The receivers are then luted by 
means of clay, and the mercury which comes over is 
condensed in them. By this process 100 lbs. of ore 
yield from 6 to 10 oz. of mercury. 

Assay. — Theassay of the ore of mercury is very simple. 
Cinnabar, the ore usually employed for yielding the 
metal, is reduced to powder, and digested in nitro- 
muriatic acid, composed of one of nitric, and three of 
muriatic acid diluted with water, till the whole of the 
soluble matter is extracted. Carbonate of potassa is 
then added to the solution, and the precipitate, after 
being dried, is mixed with lamp-black, and exposed 
to heat in a retort, to which a receiver is adapted. By 
this means the mercury is expelled in the metallic 
state. 

The ores of mercury which contain silver are as- 
sayed in the same way, so as to ascertain the quan- 
tity of mercury. The insoluble residiie is then roast- 
ed, to drive off the sulphur, after which it is mixed 
■with twice its weight of pearl-ashes, and again ex- 
posed to heat in a crucible. The product is then 
digested in muriatic acid, which dissolves the alkali, 
and leaves the silver in its metallic state. 

A more easy way of assaying the mercurial ores is 
t» reduce them to powder, and to mix them with one- 
fourth part of lime, and as much iron filings, and then 
expose them to heat in an iron or earthenware retort, 
by which the mercury is expelled, and is collected in 
a receiver. 

Manganeie. 

Manganese is not used in the arts in its metallic 
State. The black oxide, which is a native production, 
answers, without any preparation, all the purposes for 
which the metal is employed. 



Zinc. 



Metallur- 
gy- 



The ores of zinc used in metallurgy, arc calamine Zinc. 
and blende. From these the metal is procured by a 
very simple process. The ore, after being hand-dress- 
ed, to free it from foreign matter, is roasted, by which 
the sulphur of the former and the acid of the latter 
are expelled. The product is then washed, by which 
the lighter matter is separated, and the heavy part 
which remains is mixed with one-eighth of its weight 
of charcoal. The mixture is next reduced to powder 
in a mill, in which state it is put into the pots to be 
smelted. The pots in which the smelting is perform- 
ed resemble oil jars in shape. Through the bottom of 
each there passes a tube, the upper end of which ter- 
minates by an open mouth near the top of the pot, the 
lower end goes through the floor of the furnace into 
water. The pots are filled to the upper end of the 
tube with the mixture of ore and charcoal, and an in- 
tense heat is applied to them, by means of a furnace. 
As the ore is reduced, the zinc is volatilized, and es- 
capes through the tube into the water, where it is con- 
densed in the form of globules. These are afterwards 
melted and cast into moulds. 

Zinc, as thus procured, is not pure; it almost al- 
ways contains iron, manganese, arsenic, and copper. 

To free it from these, it is again melted, and then 
well stirred along with sulphur and fat, the former of 
which combines with the foreign metals, and leaves the 
zinc nearly pure, while the latter prevents this metal 
from being oxidated. 

Assay. — The assay of zinc ores may be performed Away, 
in two different ways. 

The simplest is reducing the ore by charcoal. For 
this purpose, after being freed from impurities, it is 
roasted, to drive off the sulphur. It is then mixed 
with one-half its weight of charcoal in powder, and 
exposed to a strong heat, for about an hour, in an 
earthen retort, the mouth of which terminates in wa- 
ter. The zinc condensed in the water and in the 
neck of the retort is collected and weighed. 

The second method of assay is to expose to a strong 
heat for about an hour the mixture of ore and char- 
coal, in a covered crucible with slips of copper, by 
which means the two metals unite. After the pro- 
cess is finished, the product is washed, and the weight 
which the copper has acquired indicates the quantity 
of zinc in the ore. 

Bismuth. 

Bismuth occurs native and mineralized by oxygen Bismuth, 
and sulphur, and is very easily obtained from its ores. 

When native bismuth, and the oxide, are employed to 
yield the metal, they are merely exposed to heat, in 
contact with fuel, generally in shallow pits dug in the 
earth. The metallic matter which collects at the bot- 
tom is then mixed with an equal weight of black 
flux, and put into a crucible, and covered with com- 
mon salt, to about the depth of half an inch. A strong 
heat is applied for a short time, by which the mixture 
fuses, and the bismuth collects at the bottom of the 
pot. 

Instead of the above process, the ore is sometimes 
mixed with half its weight of borax and of pounded 
glass, and subjected to heat in a crucible lined with 

charcoal. 

2 



I 



METALLURGY. 



T3 



Thei 



MtulHr. WbcB tfi»i« l| i l > u r i t of the metal b OTsployed, it >> 

f7- fint ro«aed by m frmtW heat, to drive off •• raucii of 

'-^r-^ the •uipbar u poMibte. After thi*, it U mixed with 

black fliui. cml tubierted to heat» corcrcd with cocft- 

all, M in the nrtt praeew. 

jmnilll obtained bj the** diSere:it proccMM con* 
I in gnieral ie«J. ulvcr. or cohmlt, provided iheec 
I prtwnt in the ore ; it i* (ufficiently poiw bawever 
fior most purpoeet. 

»j oT the ores of biimuth, with the riew of 

w tbr qoamitir of that metal, ti nerformcd by 

I of nttiie acid. Tbeore iadiuoWedin thi« acicl, 

dilmad vkb oae-l»ir ita weiritt of ^ater, by the aid 

af baaL To llw wlalian, a mge ouantity of wnter i* 

added, by whiaboBUo of bimothie precipitated. The 

fluid after Umtiaa ia then ovapamlcd a* Or •■ poa. 

Boaiinir tba dupoailiiw of any oi ita 

Mnrialie aeid ia taaa aMod, and the pre- 

k it|Oilail ill ninii ariit With iha eoloiion 

lriMd,alMfo^aaBlity oTwatar iamxad. ad 

the wbola af tba osida af bianntb ia tbrava dow«. 

Thia, with ibe faiw uiocipitla, ia ibai fimcd with 

black iax, b^ wbich tba biemutb b pwc aw d n the 



Mcuflur-- 

tr- 



ir tba ••• oonlain ailrer, tbo peao'nibiii 
down bjr nnriatie add will beeoHM blacit aa « 
«o lifbt. To ■intabi tba i|aMililjr of tbb— tal pc«« 
tantmtbaore. the wiidaaof tba pca cipi t a t a . alter tba 
FaMM^fa* waabadtand 



ianiirtcaeedf i nOf waatadt and tbm «■• 
1 to a rad haai. 100 gr. af it s 7&5 af ailMr. 
Or. the mctaUie bnMeii. abtaiaad by tbo Udm ti 
the ore with black in. awf bo m kj m .< tt A tocaprik. 
ticia. by which tha baae aolalawill M aaMMad, and 
abMvbad by the dbh, and Iko tSMr vB-to bit 

Tbo Mdpkanc of antimaiiy i* tba onljr ore of tbb 
tMta) that b aaed b» tewwiica. TMa b pwrifed 
mciely by fwaiow. in which atala it b naoally employ- 
od ia tbo arta. For pniiyinf tbo ent pb a nt, two mc> 
thodaaroomplayod. 

\$l, Tba mn alter beinK broken, and frre't at mnch 
aa pninbla ftam atony mattar, b put into a Urn cru> 
ciblab to tbo bottom of whieb there w a amalT bob. 
From tbb tkcro pwreada a tnbo, vbidi aaaaea tbroagh 
tbo rovoaeo hi wUck the eraciMo b plaiod, and ter^ 
ainalaB in a laa tr i uii . Aa the beat b appNad, dio 
ealphoret Ibaea^ and rwna tbr«a||fa tba tube into tba 
rewnroir, whib tbo iiwiy ■Mtor b bft ia tbo am. 
able. 

id. Tha tVacwMMi of tba aolpkaiot, aftar baiav 
free d fram tboaa nbj hi gn Jbata, aroprtaatbohaarMi 
or a fovorbaratary IbRwoa. and eaiorad wWi ckaroaal. 
They aa* than b iai ^ |k t to«ko«oid aute, whib the fo. 
reisn iq|pHliaaM itot oa tko turfaee, and ar* rrweiad 
bylailMb Whan iaM, tb» aripbwt b pomd into 
■ tovhMiaiatob- 



FNaa tba crodo aitiaMny the metal b procured 
by dMbaal paMaMiL Tbo fbat of tbato ia» by what 
b caBed atoi^lCiaMan. Par thb pnrpoae S parte af 
Anely powdered aalpbarct are mixed with 6 of crncfe 
tartar, and S of vlan, and the mixtnre b daown 
in MOtaMieo pottiene into a ret^bot pot. When the 
▼'••el b nearly fiUed, it b eovcrrd, and a alrww beat 
ia applied to it ler aboat balf an boor ; tha Ibaad mat- 
Mr la than eMnr aMowad to aool, cvititpoorcd into 
roL. uv. r.iNT t. 



»utc It sliU 



iir 

.t llic 
I. :n...l 

cuuLiiiua a 



aconcial iron reaael, greaacJ in the inside, in -which 
it aeparatc* into diflerent Uyers ; ' consisting 

of aooriae of alkaline matter, an'i - \ antimony; 

the lower one of antimony in ita metallic ttate. 

It haa been recommended by some to deflaf^^nite the 
nitre and tartar nrevioua to the Miiphur<.-t bein^; mixed 
with them ; ae nowerer the use oi° tlie nitre is to aci- 
dify the Hiiphur, it ia best to mix the whole of the 
aubatancfi U^gether. and then to deflagrate tlieni. In 
thi< proceaa it ia neoeuary to avoid u^ing an excess of 
tartar and nitre, otherwiae not only tlic expense ia iu- 
creaaed. but leaa metal ia obtained. The propor- 
tiona ab««e atated are what Lemery found to answer 
beat. 

The aecond method of reducing the aulphuret ia by 
nattiig. The on-, reduced to amaU piece*, is placed 
on the hearth' of a rercrbemtocy Aunaca^ and oeat b 
applietl to it, b^ which the sulphur is consumed, and 
the antimony b oxidated. In Uiis pert of the proceaa 
it ia ncc«aaary that the heat be at first slicht, other- 
wiae the aabpharet run> 
b rofiimeJl and the fu 
h btm^ibt to a red beat. \^ 
edonr of anlphanms acid, tl. 
the oxide b mnovecL In 
email ({uantity of solphuret. 

Dimranl mttht i d e are foUowod Ibr pnmirinr the 
metal float thtoakks. It baemetiinea mixed wiui one 
half ita weight of oncfe tartar, and expoaed to a strong 
brat, in c m o wd rrsasli, by wbich the nrrcen of the 
oaido ■nilw wMl tlW carbon of the ac t.irtar ; 

ndthoaMtal, baslatr affusion.<aUsi torn of 

the vcasaL There b also formed a compound of tlie 
antimoair with the aulphuret oC potaaaa, which is ^ 
neratcd oy the anion or the alkali of the tartjir with 
the sulphur contained in the oxide. The iiu.iiitity of 
metal obtained by thb praoem amo- >ut 70 

perorat. of the oxiilf m>ii!,iveil, and ! . wie aul- 
phuret vidd about Je. 

Another metlux I .ii2antim<^>' '-I'^p^-l'ing 

the oxide along w I' charcoal. \- 

tare is in a sUle ot nitre, in tl.v ,.,,.,„.,; of 

about I OS. to the pound, is ffradually added. The 
whob b then poured oat, and allowed to oooL By 
thb aHana BMre of tbo metal is procored than by the 
aboro prooaM. 

The third method of obtaining antimony ia bv add- 
ing same bodr as a aMtal. which unite* with tne sul- 
pkur. For tab purpose iron i» alwaya employed. In 
do cMWino e i ng the ealpbaret in thb way, S parts of iron, 
in aoail placsi , an heated to whtienoM, in a crucible ; 
16 parti ofcoareai y powdered aalphuret are thm added, 
and tha rs w il b oovored for a short time. When the 
wliobbin foaon, Spartaof nttre ' ^n 

in, and the product, after a abort to 

gfcaaad oaoea, which rauat be gently »truck fru..^ t..,i.' 
to time, aa the autter ooaeeliduea, to oanee the t-.uul 
to fhll to the bottom. When the whob has become 
■olid, about 10 paru of antimony are foaod in the rca« 
ael, which, however atill retaina iron and calphur. To 
ftwr it fVom these, it muat be again melted witli .S parts 
of nitre, and S of alphoret, which muat be repeated 
twicw before the aatfaaony b obtained pure. From 1 8 
of aulphuret 8 of metal arc procured by thb proceaa. 



Auey of ike Sulfhurtl. 

Sulphiiret of antimony, besides sulphur and anlimo- Ami «r 
ny, conuint abo lead, iron, copper, ttony matter, and ■>" '"'- 
^ fhunu . 



74 



METALS. 



Mettli. 



Selenium. 



occasionally silver. The assay, with the view of as- 
certaining the quantity of antimony, is however easily 
performed, by digesting the sulphuret in nitric acid. 
After the action has ceased, the solution is poured off, 
and the insoluble residue is dissolved in nitro-muriatic 
acid. To the solution a l.irge quantity of water is add- 
ed, and the precipitate thrown down, is mixed with 
twice its weight of crude tartar and a little nitre, and 
exposed to heat, by which the antimony is obtained in 
the metallic state. 

METALS. The metals, if we except the bases of 
the alkalies, and earths, are distinguished by hardness 
and tenacity, great specific gravity, opacity, and pecu- 
liar brilliancy, generally termed metallic lustre. 

The properties of the metals have been already de- 
scribed in the article Chemistry. At the time when 
that article was wx'itten they amounted to 27. 



1 Iron. 


15 


Rhodium. 


Copper. 
Lead. 




Palladium. 
Bismuth. 


Zinc. 




Cobalt. 


5 Tin. 




Nickel. 


Mercury. 

Antimony. 

Arsenic. 


20 


Molybdena 
Tellurium. 
Chromium. 


Manganese, 
10 Gold. 
Silver. 


25 


Titanium. 
Tungsten. 
Tantalum. 


Platinum. 




Cerium. 


Iridium, 


27 


Uranium. 


Osmium. 







Since then three new metals have been discovered, 
and an account has been given of a fourth, of the ex- 
istence of which, however, considerable doubts are en- 
tertained. 

The three first are Selenium, 
Cadmium, 
VVodanium, 
The other is Vestium, or Siriura, 

Selenium. 

The sulphur procured from the pyrites of I'ahlun, 
when employed in the preparation of sulphuric acid, 
was observed by Bjuggren to leave a reddish brown 
substance, which, by some chemists, was supposed to 
contain arsenic ; on which account the use of the py- 
rites of Fahlun was discontinued. Berzelius has sub- 
jected this brown matter to analysis, and has discover- 
ed, that besides iron, copper, lead, zinc, tin, mercury, 
and arsenic, it contains a peculiar substance, possessed 
of metallic properties, to which he has given the name 
of selenium, (from selene the moon,) to recal its ana- 
log with tellurium, which it very much resembles. 

Berzelius, in his analysis of the brown matter, left 
after the preparation of sulphuric acid, digested it in 
nitro-muriatic acid. Water and sulphuric acid were 
then added ; and the mixture was filtered, by which 
sulphur and sulphate of lead were separated. To a 
portion of the filtered fluid ammonia was added, which 
threw down a precipitate, which, when heated with 
potassium, was decomposed with ignition. This pre- 
cipitate was partly soluble in water ; the solution ac- 
quired a brown colour ; and, on the addition of nitric 
acid, deposited a reddish substance, which, when 
brought in contact with flame, communicated to it a 
blue .tinge, and emitted the odour of horse-raddish. 
This made Berzelius suppose that it contained tellu- 



rium ; but he afterwards found that it was caused by 
the new metal. When the fluid which had yielded 
the precipitate on the addition of ammonia was sub- 
jected to distillation, a yellowish liquid was collected, 
which contained sulphurous acid, and deposited a 
brown powder. A black substance was sublimed into 
the neck of the retort. The fluid, when boiled, de- 
posited more of the brown powder ; and the sublimate 
when washed, afforded the same matter. These were 
selenium. 

To procure selenium free from the other substances 
contained in the pyrites, Berzelius passed sulphuretted 
hydrogen through the fluid obtained by filtration, after 
the digestion of the substance in nitro-muriatic acid. 

a By this means, an orange-coloured precipitate was 
produced, which was treated with nitro-muriatic acid. 

6 Water was added to the solution, which occasioned 
a copious white precipitate. 

c This, when heated to redness, yielded a crystalline 
sublimate, having a strong acid taste ; and when sub- 
jected to heat with soda and borax, it left a metallic 
button, possessing the properties of tin. It was there- 
fore an oxid of tin, in union with the sublimed acid, 
which Berzelius found was an acid of selenium. 

d To the liquid from which the above precipitate 
was obtained, muriate of baryta was added, which 
threw down the sulphuric acid. The fluid, after fil- 
tration, being subjected to heat, afforded a white crys- 
talline sublimate, and a whitish matter was left be- 
hind. 

e The sublimate (d) was an acid having a metallic 
taste, communicated to it by mercury ; for when pre- 
cipitated by potassa, it yielded mercury on the appli- 
cation of heat. What remained was potassa in union 
with the acid. 

J This, when mixed with muriate of ammonia, and 
distilled, first yielded water and ammonia. Selenium 
then sublimed in small quantity. The residue, when 
washed, left a coarse brown powder, which was sele- 
nium, and which was sublimed to free it from impu- 
rities. 

gThe substance left after the distillation (d) was 
found to consist of baryta, copper, and tin, in union 
with the acid of selenium, and of ai-.-seniate of baryta. 

Selenium is of different colours, according to the 
mode in which it is prepared. After being fused, it 
has a deep brown colour, and metallic lustre. When 
allowed to cool slowly, its surface becomes rough. In 
the former case, the fracture is conchoidal, and pre- 
sents the appearance of lead ; in the latter it is granu- 
lar, and resembles a piece of cobalt. 

When, on the contrary, selenium is precipitated from 
some of its combinations, it assumes a cinnabar-red 
colour ; and in some particular cases, the colour ap- 
proaches that of gold. When selenium is in powder, 
it is red ; but when pounded, it sticks together, and 
becomes grey. 

The specific gravity of selenium is 4.32. It is a 
bad conductor of caloric ; a small piece of it, which is 
heated to near the fusing point at one end, may be 
held by the other end in the hand. It is a very im- 
perfect conductor of electricity, and what is remark- 
able, it has not been made electric by friction. 

When selenium is heated to 212°, it becomes semi- 
liquid, and, at a few degrees higher, it fuses. As it 
cools, it becomes semifluid, and then passes into the 
solid form. When semifluid, it may be drawn into 
fine threads, or beat into plates, which, when thin, are 
transparent. These, when viewed by transmitted light. 



Metals. 



METALS. 



75 



Mtittt. tn nd, bf reflected light they arc grey. Selenium 
^-"v-^ nwT b* aad* to wnuae tlw g yH i lKm rttfc, tboogh 
wia iligrihj When ikmly diyoMtott bom ■ Mhi- 
tion of nne of ha talu. it p«U «a the dciMlrttie fom, 
the cryitala of which •ppew. bjr the aid of • glaii, 
to be priemi termiottcd by pyrwidt. 

When ■eknium ij beatcd in doM iwi il i , it botla, 
■ad BMMB «r IB v^ow. af • flolaar radwr ditkar thn 
Am uf ■hlwJBit «k1 «ydi ooDdcoMi ia dM caol p«t 
of tfM lyMiilui in black drop*. 

WkaakMlidiBtWflir, or in very luf* rmmit, a 
f«d-ealoarad MpMr ia tmmai, vfaicli eoadcaiM in 
p0«d(r. Whaa iIm Mlal it hulmA m oonlact with 
Amm^ Iha iMaa aeonirca at iu adBea a bhw «ola«r, aad 
the Mieniain it volatilized with iha odaar tt 



ThapimliMli in Ihia a 
HMmd «r aekMM and 



■Bda , 

oarbeakoudab Bara e l u n haa 
nieasidai. 

ffiiiiii tiHi hyneanA by 
liwdml fiMiirt m tha 
wiaa ba obtainad by 
c— laiwit aBjrgan, «r by « 
Aa Mild aad iilfhar ia 

• lalaMaia walar, but 



■ipitUr to 
itaala- 



cw 



. tha 

haMqrliiw- 

liaslarfavaaaal 

IIH •■■■■Bd of 

MaTtoia 
taa to thi« 
at to 



oxygen. According to this experiment, 100 of aele- 
niuB combine with 40.274 oxy-etn. 

Berzeliiu it inclined to consider, that the true com- 
poaitioo of the acid it 

lOOtelenium, 71.86, 

40.SS oxygen, 98.74; 
and that it contain* 1 atom of aelenium, and i of oxy- 
gta. If ao, the number for aeleniiun ia i.959, that of 
oxygen being 1. 

1^. ThoaMon, fnm nakulafion fiDanded on the for- 
mer at tktm ofttkamilM, inkn that the add is com- 
poaed of 

100 adenium, 

S8 oxygen. 
Tha eaiiae of this difccnce is owing to a difference 
aitenaiBad with raapeot to the caaaliluiMB of the pre. 
dpilau. aflonkd by the Btttato of ailvar. Aconrdiny 
to Dr. Thomson, the equivalent number for selenium u 
^185, that for the add 7-1^3. 



CUoridr of Stltmum. — When selenium it kept in 
aria«, the fao M abaorbcd« the metal becomes hot. 



aWiihe 

MMc AM 



rfacid 



SdaBtma ceiwbinoa with a lae g ee 



Wl 



est 
of fi 



chiaria^ 

aad a Iwiiaa yiJaaiad liqaad ia Ibnaed, which asaumcs 
a whito oolaar m the ahiiyiiHca of tha oea proceeds. 
Aceardiag to Beraeiiea. the yodact «f ihia aapariaaiut 
ia leleaie aad aianatie actda. Acoaediiw to Sir H. 
Davy's decbia^ it ia a chkxida. Whca tiiaadred in 
water, it Araa « ttaaifafaat aeiaarloM add sdntion. 
Whea this nnaaiiii ilia heated ia eeatoct with so. 
ayeUeenahlufalUl 



aad baraa with a whito faas^ havhiff a^aaaiah tiafe 
at 1k» adpea ; the | ao J ea ia aeleoie aeai wWeh oai^ 
deaaee ki the eael fert of the aafaralafc Mile add 
ia Mate eeeily aeoeered by «iiaaelvkif ealeaiMB in 



the Cna of* whito aMa WkeatWaiai 
Wglar liMWtii, k wlarilieai « 

aeaaa to be below thai of beahag I 
vaaoar haa oaetly the a f^i aa r e ne a af 
ka the eed part of the 



1 ia formed, whicfa. when put 
it, aad grneratea muriatic and 
a el a aic adds, aad'dcpoaita laliiaai. It is prafaablo 
that Ihia is aaolher oatoaeaad of eelcnium and 
rise, rr a l dai aa leae ehliriiie. If ao, it ia tta 



metal 

MtmtmrHltd 



pro. 
the petchloride of the 



tiltd Hydngin Selenium conbinea with 
■ad fignae a aaeeoaa fluid, railed arleniuirt- 



mr laala. leeeiaa a haeakig ea^ 
Itk ear* aeMb ia aeU waMr. 
r m that flaid at a baiMHr 



by adding murialie 
;of potaaaa. It 
[ a tnni|iai«nt colourless 
le, aad which staiaa the 
The eokition, after be- 
Doe tartid, ftom the de- 
to the eir, the 
The same 
lia eenlact with a 



aa theaalalioaof sden* 



ia 

1 of aeleaiaai aaiiod with 1.79 of 

r h t eiaie AeeetdiiHt to Beradiae^ 1.79 of «u^i» 
ere oamTalent to 4yOiS of aaj r g ea 100 of 
the r e fu rr, aaito with 4043 of eaygea, tola 



r. and 



la aaolher 
iaslhepa< 

the ■artetir 

talad by aitaato of 



Ihepeedael 
wea diaaelted ia 




•kin fed, aad reddoM litaaa. 
iag kept for aoaae tiew, beeoi 
If iikiiief Mlwii ii w Wbaa 
aai^^Hi^iiMi t^imwg&n le 
tokea ^aae whea the ya ia I 
■ajA Body, aad what m raa 
a e tiat ee the swhalance, if] 
it a red oolonr. 

Nilrio acidca u aea no 1 
ia r eitod lydi^f ia water. 

The aolatiea, when added to the metallic aahs, 
thrawe dowa pradpiutc* frooi then, which arc in ge> 
aeral bladi or beown. Tboae Item e salt of sine, man* 
■aaeae, eadoariaa^ ere however of a red oelonr. The 
tonaar ate oaaakierad selcniurcU, the letter hydro- 
iilaaiiiila, aad atoordiay to Beneliu*, when expoaed 
to the ^, era wu ref te d aito aelatiiureu of the oxide 
eflheaaelala. 

aelau iar e tt od hydeegen producea remarkable effecta 
on the erj p e a e of napiaation. When admitt<Kl into the 
Boalrila, rt exdtea a aaiofiil acnsatton, and destroy* 
aeaploldy ior aevard noura the aenae of amrll, Ibilaw. 
ed by eevere n ata rrh , deep peia of the chest, aad ea. 
pecloration of naeaa, hartaf the taato of the vapour of 



__ The , ^ 

by beiliay dilated nitric , 

I LM of aauwlie add = *M1* of 




Thcee eActa at* prodeoed by a verr minute quan. 
tiqr of the fas. Beraeliaa auppoece that the aeleniu- 
tettadl^drofcitii deeoopoecd by tlM oieiatare, and 



.Meml*. 



T6 



METAL S. 



~Met«l*. that the selenium adheres to the membrane of the nos- 
'"■"»""' trils and trachea. The eyes are likewise affected with 
inflammation when exposed to this gas. 

Seleniuretted hydrogen, according to the experi- 
ments of Berzelius, is composed of 
97.4 selenium, 
2.6 hydrogen. 
This compound of selenium may be considered analo- 
gous to sulphuretted hydrogen. 

No compound of selenium and carbon has yet been 
formed, though, from some experiments, it is conjec- 
tured that these bodies do unite. 

P/wsphtirel of Selenium, is formed when selenium 
and phospliorus are heated together. The compound 
is fusible, and is of a dark colour, having a vitreous 
fracture. When digested in water, it decomposes this 
fluid; seleniuretted hydrogen is formed, and selenium 
is deposited. 

Sulplinrcl of selenium may be procured by passing a 
sti'eam of sulphuretted hydrogen through a solution of 
selenic acid, and then adding a few drops of muriatic 
acid, by which thesulphuret of selenium is precipitated 
of an orange colour. This compound is very fusible, 
passing into the liquid state at a temperature a little 
below that of boiling water. By the application of a 
stronger heat it volatilizes, and again condenses of an 
orange colour. Sulphuret of selenium, when heated 
in the air, bums and emits the odour of sulphurous 
acid, and of liorse-raddish. When exposed to heat 
with selenic acid, it is decomposed, and the sulphur 
combines with the oxygen. 

This compound is not easily acted on by nitric 
acid; nitro muriatic acid, however, dissolves it. 
Sulphuret of selenium is composed of 
100 selenium, 
60.75 sulphur. 
Selenium, and the alkalies and earths. — By the action 
of selenium on the alkalies and earths, compounds are 
formed, analogous to those generated by the action of 
sulphur on these bodies. It is probable, therefore, 
that they are compounds of the bases with seleniuret- 
ted hydrogen, having the selenium in excess. If so, 
they are seleniuretted hydro-seleniurets. 

When aqua potassa: is boiled on selenium, a solution 
is formed, having the colour and odour of sulphuret- 
ted hydro-sulphuret of potassa. The same compound 
may be obtained by exposing to heat selenium and po- 
tassa, or its sub-carbonate. 

When an acid is added to the solution of this sub- 
stance, selenium is precipitated. 

Ammonia does not, either in the state of gas, or in 
solution in water, act on selenium. 

W^hen seleniuretted hydro-seleniuret of lime and mu- 
riate of ammonia are subjected to heat, a reddish-co- 
loured fluid distils over, which, when exposed to the 
air, emits ammonia, and deposits selenium. By the 
addition of a large quantity of water to it, selenium is 
also precipitated. There is left in the retort after the 
distillation, muriate, scleniate, and hydro-seleniate of 
lime. When selenium and lime are exposed to heat, 
the two unite, and form a black substance destitute of 
taste and smell, and insoluble in water. On the addi- 
tion of an acid to this, the selenium is left in the form 
of a spongy mass. This compound may be got crys- 
tallized, by exposing to tire air a solution of hydro- 
seleniuret of lime. The crystals appear to be four- 
sided prisms, with truncated summits. 

The compounds formed with baryta, strontia, mag- 
Jiesia, and alumina, are insoluble. By the addition of 



an acid to them the selenium is separated, and the two 
last yield that metal on the application of heat. 

Selenium and the metals. — Selenium combines with 
the metals, presenting with most of them the same 
phenomena as sulphur. 

The seleniurets have in general a metallic aspect, 
and are usually more fusible than the metals wliich 
they contain. By the application of heat to them, the 
selenium burns with a blue flame, emitting the odour 
of horse-radish. 

Seleniurel of potassium.— When selenium and potas- 
sium are heated together, they combine, and during 
their union emit caloric, sufficient to raise the temper- 
ature of the compound to ignition, by which a portion 
of selenium is sublimed. 

Seleniuret of potassium resembles iron in appearance, 
having a crystalline structure. When thrown into 
water, decomposition ensues, and hydro-seleniuret of 
potassa is formed. The solution is of a reddish colour, 
and possesses the property of keeping dissolved an ex- 
cess of selenium, for when nitric acid is added to it, 
selenium is deposited. 

When selenium is heated with an excess of potas- 
sium, an explosion occurs, and the product is scattered 
about by the potassium which is converted into va- 
pour. The compound formed in this instance, when 
put into water, is dissolved, and hydrogen is disen- 
gaged. 

Seleniuret of iron may be procured by passing the 
vapour of selenium over iron filings, at a high tempe- 
rature; during the union, caloric is evolved. The 
compound has a dark-grey colour, and metallic aspect. 
It is hard and brittle, with a granular texture. When 
heated at the flame of a candle, part of the selenium is 
volatilized. Seleniuret of iron, when acted on by mu- 
riatic acid, affords seleniuretted hydrogen. In this 
case the first portion of gas disengaged is decomposed 
by the air in the apparatus, and selenium is deposited, 
which gives to the liquid a reddish colour. Along 
with seleniuretted hydrogen, another gaseous fluid is 
given out, which has a disagreeable odour, is inflam- 
mable, and is not dissolved by water, nor by the solu- 
tions of the alkalies. When passed through a solu- 
tion of proto-nitrate of iron, a black precipitate is 
thrown down. 

Selenium unites with a less proportion of iron, and 
forms a compound not soluble in muriatic acid, and 
which, by exposure to heat, parts with the excess of 
selenium. 

Seleniuret of copper is formed by passing seleniuret. 
ted hydrogen through a solution of copper, by which 
a dark-grey substance is precipitated, which, on ex- 
posure to heat, loses half of its selenium, and proto- 
sulphate of copper is left behind. This compound 
may also be procured by heating selenium and copper- 
filings together. 

Seleniuret of lend. — Selenium and lead unite with an 
evolution of caloric. The seleniuret is of a grey co- 
lour, and porous. When heated before the blow-pipe 
on charcoal, part of the selenium is oxidized, and sub- 
seleniate of lead is formed, which is afterwards decom- 
posed, and seleniuret of lead is regenerated. 

Selenium unites with more lead, and forms a com* 
pound less fusible than the former. 

Seleniuret of tin is of a grey colour, and possesses 
the metallic lustre in a high degree. When exposed 
to heat, the selenium is volatilized, and the tin is oxi- 
dated. 

Seleniuret of zinc. — When selenium and zinc "«re 



Mctalc. 



METALS. 



77 



Mcuk. 



bcaird together, th« mdtcd leletiiuni coren the tarrace 
of tbt sine, but doM not combine with it. If the 
koft be incr«*Md much Above the fusing point, the 
Ibrmcr it Tobtiliscd, and the iattar lenuiiu covered 
with a yellow pdlidci 

When line, at an t l cfa to d temperatare, ii introduc- 
ed into the vapour of adenium, an exploMon occurt, 
■ad the veaael u lined with a Irmon-oolourrd powdery 
■abatancF, which i* i«1cniuret of xiiic. Thi» it toluble 
ia nitric acid, with the (li«eii|;agcniM>t of mtric oside. 
IMtmiurrt cf wtrcury.—'WQn ae hniwi and ncrcurpr 
an hMted togcthar, • aabatance raaembliiig tin u 
Anned. If incrcnry be in exeeaa, this ia expelled, 
vhea the eompoand ia aolnected to beat i the aelenin* 
Mt then anblimea witboat fmdag, end condeneea in the 
I ot white leave*, having; a metallic luftre. Scleni> 
; of mercury ia not eatilj acted on by nitric add. 
Whin tbia ia boiled on it, praK»-aelaniale of veicury ia 
fanned, and tbe nitric aind ooataina teioiic acid. If 
■Hria«ie acid be|MaradaD dw eeWniate, aeliBina ia 
practfitaMd; tiMesTpenaf thcaelenieacidp«aing to 
ry, by wbick iIm red oxide it je owa le d . 
« nwicaiy ii aolabla ia aitrn iwnalk acid, 
haa a metallic liutre and ■ 




Stkalc 
A«^ aa 



^aramir.— When araenic ia put intofnaad 
the two mrtalt unite, and a black maaa ia 
which, whrtj hr«ted to rfdneaa, boil*, and a 
ia famed, which appeen to be per-tclciiiurct 

tkrwt e^pfah'tniv— Platinnm in powder, and •»• 
, feadily eomUae with t>^ 'ieo of calorie, 

narate a grtr anbttaacv, - hen »«li)ectcd 

to heat, parta witB file aelenhiin, and Uavnt the piati. 

nam. On thi* aeeoont the — H*H— act readily oo a 

Mnaarcf e^ncflwIEHai i« of a gnj colour, and bn> 
for* th* Maw.pme eniti part of the tclenium. 

SHmiartt of titmmlK haa a tilvenr eoloor and metal* 
He hulre. and reanirca a red heat Ibr its ftanoa. 

SAmmrrt ^ feffar^M ia fbeible, and aubUmeo in the 
fctm cf ajnetaPicwaaa h ie aho catithted, and gcn»> 
rMet t Henl i t e of teOnrima. 

S*Umie Add atid Ba$tt. 

Tha afinitv ofselenic acid fee the boaee acema to be 

' tkal m anaalc add. The nsaMral aakniatea are 

^■iajly aolaMe ia vnkr. Ben«> 

illMthaaeidoirikHieantdne JaatHnnMll 

iathebnae. UMaaantky of osyMa 

is a baae anaeiaM to aMiuM* 100 oTadd ia 14.57. 

fawtwo ci ofanpetwaaitt; the frat 

m Mail add aa niM» in th» neotral 

. of conaa than is fcw timca the qnantity 

ofosyimithMllMnisintkabaee. Thoa* «lto Bem^ 



liua calie b i ails B l d ea. The other snpar-aahs appsar to 
conuin fwr tinMS tiM aaltf af the nentni (iwaimmiJ ; 
ther art thtnfifft lirawd qaadri iilsiiiaiia 

MiBie add Ctraa also aab>«du with the dkaliea, 
and with aoMe of the nMials. The alkaline lelcniatcs 
have a aaUne taatc. Those, with the cartha and the 
■d il l, p wiiw ia ceaeral the taele af the baea. 

Th* r am p sa na s of sdenie add are daoompoaed 
by heat, wMdi aaMaa tn be accationcd br their con. 
_ fersigB hiiimalila natter. The lanw oe. 
when the sohahia of sn alkali or earth is hwtiJ 
el. Castaale aci<l and caHxmic oaids are 
, and a souU qoantity of lelenium aubiinMa. 
When a OMtailic leleniate i« trcatnl in tins way, the 



(clenium unites with the metal of the base, and fonni a 
teleniuret. 

Selfniaie qf poiaua is ver}' soluble in water, and may 
be obtained in small metalline grains by the evapora* 
tion of the fluid. When evaporated to dryncM, the 
residue attracts moisture on exposure to the air. When 
heated to rednes* it Auet, and beoomes of a yellow co^ 
lour, but af^in assume* its former appearance when it 
cools. It is insoluble in alcohol. 

Bi-atlniialt of oolaua i* deliquescent and soluble in 
water, but crystvllisca with difficulty. Dy the applica- 
tion of long continued heat, half of the acid is driven 
off. This salt is sparingly adabte in alcohol. 

Q,iuidru»tie»iale ofpelatta cannot be obtained crystal- 
liaed. It ia very deliquescent. 

SeUfiiale of iodt hais the taste of borax. It is very 
soluble in water, and affords, en evaporation, small crys> 
talline grains, which do not deUc|ttesce. It is not so- 
luble in alcohol. Uv exposing thu salt with muriate 
of aoMnonia to a red heat, muriate of soda ialefL Inthia 
way lOOof seleniaU afforded 66j muriate of aoda = to 
S5.5 soda. The salt is therefore oompoacd of 
Ci5 acid 
Stf.5 soda. 

Bi'telemu^t ofmtim is obuined in the crystalline state. 
When boated, it n n dergoe a AHion : and if the heat be 
*naf, it perls with its escass of acid, snd forms th* 
selenute. Thu salt is composed of 7 7 83 acid, 

S2.l7aoda. 

Qandrs-irfraseto ofiod* crystalliaes in needles. It 
doeaaet ako bp csposare to the air. 

StUmittt tfmmmcmm \» tkftaiatd in foor-sided prisms, 
vhldl ■• daliaaaMaBL 

Bi-^ d l fwi i elt rfmmmamm ia obtained by exposing a so- 
latieaaftkepraeadH^adttatheair; and the 

Qifrs-edBsiafe ^ sawiBsii b procnrcd by a<Iding 
sdeoie add la a sohttiaB af thabi aalwiate, or by eve. 
poratinij the solution by hceC 

iW wis fr ^ mmwmua ia < l eee — n o o ed by heat, water 
end aaiMaia are 6rst diaaqfagoa ; the selcnic acid ia 
tlM* deeoaposod by tJw ■nmonia, and selenium is left 
in the retort, 

S t /tn it Mt ^Bmt is sparingly soluble ; when heated in 
a ^iam eaw il it forms btibblca in the glait, and at last 
pmoraleaic 

Bi-arUuimtt u fanned by dissolving the abme aalt in 
theacid, " 

8tlemi»tt ofhmyU is insoluble in water. It is com- 
pesodor lOOecid, 

197.7 earth. 

Bi id wf ei r ia formed b^ dissolving rsrbonate of 
bii^le ia sdenie add. It is soluble, and crystallisea. 
It w composed of 100 acid and about 
68 baryta. 

SrUmUlt qf ilrtmtia is insoluble. 

The bi-ttUuiale is sparingly soluble in water. By the 
epnlicetion of heat, the excess of acid is expelled. 

it/tKUilf of magnuia is sparingly soluble. It at- 
tacks glass in the same way aa the aeleniate of lime. 

Setemiale of almwnma ia formed by adding bi-seleniate 
of anmenia to muriate of alumina. It ia decomposed 
by heat grvinc oot iu adcL 

SeUniaU ojglmeina is insoluble in water. 

Srieniat* ^ ttnonim is airo insoluble. 

Vro»o-»dmtmte of irtm. Selenic acid art* with diffi- 
cnltv on irea. When a salt of iron rontaining the black 
osioe is addadlo a solution of an alkaline scFcniale, the 
p t iKe a ilm ia t i of iron is nrccipiuted. This salt is de- 
composed by heat, and the oxide of the meul is re- 
duced. 



Metals. 



78 



METALS. 



Meuli. The bi-seleniale is obtained by disolving the seleniate 
"■"V"™^ in the acid, or by adding the salt of iron to a solution 
of an alkaline bi-seleniate. 

Per-seleniale of iron is procured by double decompo- 
sition. It is of a yellow colour, and yields its acid by 
the application of heat. 

Proto-itcleniate of copper is obtained by dissolving the 
protoxide of the metal in selenic acid. It is of a white 
colour. 

The per-seleniale may be formed by mixing sulphate 
of copper and bi-seleniate of ammonia. It is insoluble, 
and affords its acid by heat. 

Selcnialc of lead is formed by mixing muriate of lead 
with seleniate of ammonia in excess. It melts on the 
application of caloric, and at a white heat it is decom« 
posed, and sub-seleniate is left in the vessel. 

Scleniale of zinc is insoluble ; the bi-seleniale is so- 
luble ; the former, when exposed to heat, generates 
the sub-selenialc. 

Per-seleniale of tin, is a white powder, insoluble in 
water, but soluble in muriatic acid. It yields its acid 
by heat. 

Proio-scleninle of mercurt/. Selenic acid, when added 
to a salt of mercury, cont.iining protoxide, throws down 
a white precipitate. This salt is decomposed by po- 
tassa, the alkali uniting with the acid. Muriatic acid 
combines with the oxide and a little of the acid, and 
leaves selenium reduced. 

Per-seleniale of mercury is a white insoluble powder. 
The bi-perselcnia/c is formed by dissolving peroxide 
of mercury in selenic acid, and evaporating till crystals 
are formed. When a solution of this salt is mixed 
with sulphurous acid, proto-seleniate of mercury and 
selenium are precipitated. 

Seleniate of manganese is a white powder, which, 
when exposed to the air, attracts oxygen, and the acid 
is disengaged. This salt possesses the property of de- 
stroying glass. 

Seleniate of silver is white. It is soluble in boiling 
nitric acid, and when water is added to the solution, it 
is deposited in acicular crystals. It is composed of 
100 acid, 
205.75 base. 
Seleniate of cobalt is a rose-coloured insoluble powder. 
Seleniate of nickel, when dry, is pale green. 
Proto-scleniale of cerium is a white powder, soluble 
in selenic acid, forming bi-seleniale. 

Per-seleniale of uranium is a yellowish powder, which 
is decomposed by heat. It is soluble in selenic acid, 
and forms bi-perseleniate. 

Seleniuretled hydrogen and bases. The hydro-seleniu- 
rets of the fixed alkalies are easiest formed by passing 
a current of the gas through a solution of these bodies. 
When seleniuretled hydrogen and ammonia in the state 
of gas are brought into contact, they combine and 
form a powder of a pale red colour. 

The hydro-seleniurets of lime, baryta, strontia, and 
magnesia, are soluble. The hydro-seleniurets of the 
other earths are insoluble. 

Berzelius has not examined particularly the proper- 
ties of the hydro-seleniurets. When sileniuretted hy- 
drogen was passed through lime water, a reddish pow- 
der was precipitated. The clear liquor kept in a phial, 
not well stopped, became red on the surface, which 
gradually descended, till the whole acquired the same 
colour. A reddish substance was then depo.<iited, and 
the fluid became colourless. According to Berzelius, 
the coloured solution contained seleniuretled hydro>se- 
leniuret of lime. The hydro-seleniurets of the alkalies 



are likewise decomposed when kept in contact with 
air, and selenium is separated, forming a pellicle on 
the surface of the fluid. If the separation of the metal 
occur slowly, and if the vessel be not agitated, the se- 
lenium is deposited in the dendritic form. 

All the metallic solutions are precipitated by the al- 
kaline hydro-seleniurets. The precipitates from the 
salts of zinc, manganese, cerium, and probably also 
uranium, are hydro-seleniurets. Those from the other 
metallic salts are seleniurets. 

From the properties of selenium, we may consider it 
as more nearly allied to sulphur than to any other sub- 
stance ; at the same time its high metallic lustre and 
specific gravity would induce us to class it among the 
metals. Berzelius thinks that it belongs to the divi- 
sion of these bodies, called electro-negative, or those 
which, by their combination, generate acids ; among 
these are arsenic and tellurium, to which also it seems 
nearly allied. 

It may be considered as another substance added to 
that class of bodies which generate acids by their union 
both with oxygen and hydrogen. 

Berzelius has found selenium in two other mine- 
rals, the one of these is a seleniuret of copper, mixed 
with carbonate of lime, the other, which was obtained 
from a copper mine of Skrickerum, he found contained 

Silver S&.QS 

Copper . . . . . 23.05 
Selenium .... 26'.00 
Foreign earthy matter 8.90 
Loss 3.12 



Metal*. 



100.00 



Cadmium. 

Professor Stromeyer, when examining a compound Cadmium, 
of zinc, prepared at the chemical laboratory of Sals- 
gitler, which was supposed to contain iron, from its 
acquiring a yellow colour when heated, discovered that 
this property was owing to the presence of p. jieculiar 
metal not previously known, to which he has given 
the name of cadmium. He has since found this sub- 
stance in tutia, and in several of the other compounds 
of zinc. It exists also, according to him, in metallic 
zinc, though in very small quantity. 

Previous to the experiments of Stromeyer, a prepa- 
ration of zinc from Silesia was thrown aside by the 
apothecaries, for containing arsenic, l>ecause when dis- 
solved in acid, it was found by Roloff' to give a yellow 
precipitate on the addition of sulphuretted hydrogen, 
which was considered by him to be orpiment. Roloff, 
however, in repeating his experiments, ascertained that 
this precipitate was not occasioned by arsenic, but by 
another metal, not then known. 

Specimens of the Silesian oxide of zinc, and of the 
precipitate, were afterwards sent to Stromeyer, who 
ascertained that the phenomena presented by this par- 
ticular oxide, were owing to the presence of the peculiar 
metal which he had cliscovered in the compound of 
zinc prepared at Salsgitter, and to which he had given 
the name of cadmium. 

Cadmium is procured by dissolving the substances 
containing it in sulphuric acid, and passing a stream 
of sulphuretted hydrogen through the solution. The 
precipitate formed, after being well washed, must 
be dissolved in muriatic acid, and the excess of acid 
driven off by heat. What remains is dissolved in 
water, and carbonate of ammonia is added in excess. 



METALS. 



79 



MMaU. to tliMolve the copper and rinc precipitated by the 
»'y —' tulpberetteil hydrogen. In this way carbonate of cad- 
mium is nbuined, the carbonic acid of uhjch is ex- 
pelled by beat. The oxide i« then reduced by ex- 
poatng it with charcoal to a high tempettiture. Cad- 
mium is of a lif^ht whitish colour, inclining to greyi 
TMry newly resembling that of tin. It possesses con- 
■derable brilliancy, and take* oa a fine polish. It is 
of a compact texture, and possesses also considerable 
lustre. It is likewise very ductile, and may be beat in- 
to thin platea. 

The specific gravity of eatlmium at 62 is 8.604. After 
bnqg hammarcd, its specific gravity is increased to 



Cadmium, when subjected to caloric, fuses, and on 
cooling, it crystallise:] in octahedrons. At a tempera- 
ture not much exoecding that of the boiling point of 
mercury, it bmm* into vapour, which has no peculiar 
odour, and which CMKlenaM in small drops, exnibiting 
■ crystalline struetnie. 

By mere exposure to the air, cadmium doM not un. 
dergo any change. 

WhaoaMtad in oootact with atmoapharicd air» it 
likea fire, and forma a brownish yellow addt. 

OriJg ^iiutmimm. Cadmium naihaan made to noite 
with only one propottioa of oxygen. 

The oxide naa a yellawiah-gTcen odour, which, 
faoirevcr, by Mpoeara to heat, lireonw yellow. If the 
applica t ion of the haat be long continued, the oxide 
becomes brown. These c ha ngee in the coioor are eop- 
poaed to be owing to tiw dtiinnoe in the cohesion at 
the bedjr ; tat when thejr are dimolved hy an acid, the 

The egnde at i s ai lMWiii i doca not antleigo any parti* 
cnlar change by the application of haat to it Whan 
kept at a white beat in a covered cracftle tor aame 
tfane, H did not nndargo foMin. When heated m coo. 
tact with charcoal, it la radnead, the fednction tak^ 
plac* at about a red beat. 

The oxide of cadmiaai iaeoaaaaadcf 
lUOoadnnaH, 
l^MSmygtm, 

From this it is infemtd that the eqnnJent nambar 
te the metal ia 69.677, that of osyi^ being 1. 

n^ifthmnt ^ CMh m mm . Cadmium combines with 
phoanhocna, md IbewM a gtey-colovred compound, 
whin i« very brittle, and has a sUgfat mcullic lus- 
tre. When pot on burning eoalt , it cmila a bcaotiful 
4ame, and u nwneiitd into phfftph a te at emitmmm. 
Muriatic acid deoDoipoeM it with the evolntion of ph(» 
powtted hyorogen. 

Sulflmnl ^Cmhmmm. Cadnuaa nnitca with tol. 

; fu i ui e J by heat» 
It baa a yellow 



phor ; the inlphniat is however i 
'barthe acid 



oaide and snlphnr. 



•old, but when cxpoecd to haat it net be- 
I. and than ntiiiiii. At a white beat it 



c nl o u r whan 



fbaee, and on cooling erritaUiaes in transparent yellow 
Sal^hnrrt of c a d mium ia deootnpoaad bv atnmg 
' ! add, with the disengsg— iwi of ■nlphmtted 



It is composed 

100 cadmium, 
S8.17a solphar. 
It is reoommendad as a good pigment. 
CMorUt t^ Cadmumm, ia obtainad 

which, whan snbiected to hart. anUiaa and ef- 
■paava to the air. It is wnpoaed of 
61.99 cadmium, 
M.6t chlorine, 
/odidc ^Cadbam ia obtained in bexacdnJ tnnapa* 



rent colourless tables, which are decomposed at a Meuu 
strong heat, and part of the iodine escapes. It is not '*"^<'^ 
altered on exposure to the air, and is not soluble in 
water. It is composed of 

100 cadmium, 
287.43 iodine. 

The oxide of cadmium unites with acids, and form* 
with these, salts, which are in general of a white 
colour. It is insoluble in the fixed alkalies. Ammo- 
nia, however, dissolves it It is also soluble in carbo- 
nate of ammonia. Cadmium is acted on by nitric acid, 
nitric oxide being disengaged during the solution. It 
is also dissolved, though slowly, by sulphuric and mu- 
riatic adds, accoaipanied with the evolution of hy- 
drogen. 

The salts of cadmium are decompoaed by thealkaUe*. 
By the addition of potassa or soda to the solution of 
the nitrate, the sulphate, or muriate, a precipitate of a 
white colour is thrown down, which is not soluble in 
an excess of alkali. The precipitate is supposed to be 
the yellow oxide, in combination with water, which 
gives it the white colour. By the addition of ammo- 
nia to these salta, the same predpitate is formed, but 
is dissolved on adding an excess of the alkalL 

Sulphuretted hydrogen, and the hydro-sulphurct of 
an alkali, throw down a yellow precipitate, which, 
when fined, acquires an orange yellow colour, some- 
thing similar to orpiment. The precipitate formed in 
this eaae ia co n ai d e iad a hydro-sulphuret ; it is recom- 
mended aa a yellow pigment, for which, from its dura- 
bility, it seems well aifaptcd. 

Pm«aiate of pnta— , when added to a solution of a 
salt of eadiMnn, throw* down a white precipitate^ 
Cadmium ia precipitated in the metallic state, from a 
atdntiun of any of iu talu by sine, the predpitate put- 
ting on the dendritic form. On the contrary, when a 
piac* tt WMhllillBl is put into a solution of a salt of 
gdd, aflMT, copper, or lead, these metals are predpi- 
tated. 

Silratt rfeadmimm cryatalliset in prisms, and is de> 
liqoescent. It is composed of 
no add 
IIT.Moxide. 

Ca r i amt Ut qf Cadmium is insoluble in water. Its 
bomponant parte are 100 add, 

S9S.88 oxide. 

Pkotpiait ttf Cml m i um i» also inaokihle. What ex- 
noaed to a red heat it malu into a transparent gUss. 
It ia conpoaed of 100 add, 

SS5.49 oxide. 

Barmie ^ Cadmimm is httie soluble. When dry it is 
composed of 87.88 add, 
7S.I2 oxide 

Sulpialt of Cadwtimm is obtained in large rectangular 
transparent crystals, which are very soluble in water. 
It is cfloreMcnt, and whmi ezpoeed to a strong heat is 
deconpeaed, and 6me a anb iwlphatr. The sulphate 
is oem p aaa d of 100 add, 

161.19 oxide. 

Acttale of Cadmium is soluble and crystollisable. 

Tarlrale and Citrate qf Cadmium are little soluble. 

OsaUUe tfCadmitm is insoluble. 

CadsmoN mtitee with other metals, and forms alloys, 
which ore brittle. 

The alloif milk copper has a slight tinge of yellow. 
By the application of a strong heat to it the cadmium 
is volatiliacd. It is composed of 
100 copper, 
84.2 cadmium. 



80 



METALS. 



Metals. When the cadmium does not exceed the one-hun- 
^■"V"™^ dredth part of the copper, the latter is rendered very 
brittle. As however the cadmium is expelled by the 
application of heat to the alloy of these metals, there is 
no danger of brass made with the substances which 
contain cadmium being injured by the presence of the 
latter metal. 

The alloy mlh viercuri/. Cadmium combines with 
mercury with great facility, and forms a hard brittle 
alloy, fusible at ]6"7°. It is composed of 
100 mercury, 
27.78 cadmium. 
The ally with plali/nim is composed of 
100 platinum, 
1 1 1.3 cadmium. 
The alloy tvilh cobalt is brittle, and not easily fusod. 

Wodaniiim. 

Woda- Lampadius, when examining a mineral, supposed to 

nium. contain cobalt, discovered in it a new metal, to which 

he has given the name of wodanium. The mineral in 

which this was found, has a metallic lustre, and a 

greyish colour: its specific gravity was 5.1,02. 

Wodanium has a bronze yellow colour ; it is mallea- 
ble, and strongly attracted by the magnet. Its specific 
gravity is 11.47. 

When exposed to the air it is not tarnished ; when 
subjected to heat in contact with the air it is oxidated. 

Nitric acid acts on wodanium, and forms a solution 
which affords colourless needle-formed crystals, which 
are very soluble in water. By the addition of ammo- 
nia to the solution of a salt of wodanium, a blue preci- 
pitate is thrown down. The alkaline phosphates and 
the arseniates do not afford any precipitate. 

Prussiate of potassa throws down a pearl-grey preci- 
pitate. 

A piece of zinc, immersed in the solution of the mu- 
riate, precipitates a black metallic powder. 

The infusion of nut-galls does not cause any change 
when added to a solution of a salt of wodanium. 

Vestium, or Sirium. 
\ estiiim or According to Dr. Vest, there exists in the cobalt ore 
of Schladming, in Upper Steiermark, a peculiar me- 
tal, to which. the name of Vestium has been given. 

To procure this metal, the ore, after being freed from 
its impurities, was mixed with powdered glass, and 
fused ; what remained was digested in nitric acid, and 
the arsenic which was dissolved, was sepu-ated by the 
addition of acetate of lead and sulphuretted hydrogen. 
Carbonate of potassa was then added, which threw 
down the oxide of iron. By evaporating the filtered 
fluid, a flaky substance was separated, which was a salt 
of vestium. By the addition of potassa to the fluid af- 
ter filtration, a precipitate fell, which was dissolved 
in sulphuric acid. To the solution, sulphate of potassa 
was added, and another portion of the flaky matter was 
deposited, mixed with a salt of nickel. These were 
separated in a great measure by washing. To obtain 
the salt of vestium pure, the matter deposited was mixed 
■with sulphate of potassa, dissolved in water, and crys- 
tallized. What was obtained, was boiled in a solution 
of carbonate of potassa, by which a precipitate was 
thrown down. This was dissolved in nitric acid, the 
solution was evaporated to dryness, and the residue, 
after being exposed to a red heat, was washed with cold 
muriatic acid, and then dissolved in that acid at a boil- 
ing temperature. By the addition of potassa to the so- 



Sirium. 



lution, the oxide of vestium was precipitated frep, as 
Dr. Vest imagines, from the other substances contained ' 
in the ore. By mixing the oxide with arsenic, and ex- 
posing it to heat, it was reduced, leaving a metallic 
button, which was brittle, and had a granular tex« 
ture. 

Oxide of vestium is soluble in nitric, sulphuric, muri- 
atic, and acetic acids. The salts formed are soluble in 
water. The solutions on evaporation afford crystal*, 
which, when acted on by water, deposit the oxide. 

Sulphuretted hydrogen, when added to a solutior» 
of a salt of vestium, throws down a reddish-brown pre- 
cipitate, provided tliere is not an excess of acid pre- 
sent; if there be a superabundance of acid, no change 
takes place on the addition of sulphuretted hydrogen. 

The alkalies afford precipitates with the solutions of 
the salts of vestium ; that thrown down by ammonia 
is soluble in an excess of the alkali. The carbonate of 
potassa and of soda precipitate a carbonate of vestium. 
Carbonate of ammonia separates a white powder frora 
the muriate, but scarcely effects any charge on the sul- 
phate. 

Sub-borate of soda does not afford any precipitate 
with a diluted solution of a salt of vestium. 

The phosphate, oxalate, and prussiate of the alkalies, 
throw down white precipitates. 

Lime-water, and the infusion of nut-galls, also preci- 
pitate a white powder. The same occurs when a piece 
of zinc is immersed in a solution of a salt of vestium. 

Such are the properties ascribed to vestium. The 
existence of this as a distinct metal, has, however, been 
called in question by Dr. Wollaston, and Mr. Farraday, 
chemical assistant in the Royal Institution of London, 
to whom a small piece of the metal called vestium was 
sent for examination. 

Mr. Farraday dissolved the metal in warm nitric acid. 
The solution, on the addition of nitrate of baryta, yield- 
ed a precipitate of sulphate of baryta. Ammonia add- 
ed to the solution, afforded oxide of iron. The fluid, 
after filtration, was of a bluish colour, and afforded, 
with prussiate potassa, a white precipitate. These ex- 
periments indicate the presence of sulphur, iron, and 
nickel ; the first of which was acidified by the nitric 
acid, and yielded the precipitate of sulphate of ba- 
rytt. 

By the action of nitric acid on the metal, a blackish 
substance was left undissolved, which, according to the 
experiments of Mr. Farraday, contained an arseniate, 
for when dissolved in an acid, it gave a yellow precipi- 
tate with nitrate of silver, and a greenish one with the 
sulphate of copper. 

With the above results, the experiments of Dr. Wol- 
laston agree. These chemists, therefore, assert, that the 
substance considered by Dr. Vest as a new metal, is 
merely a combination of sulphur, iron, nickel, and ar- 
senic, and also cobalt, which was indicated in their ex- 
periments. 

The principal circumstance that led Dr. Vest to pro- 
nounce the substance which he obtained from the co- 
balt ore of Schladming, a new metal, was its not being 
precipitated from its solution by sulphuretted hydro- 
gen, when an excess of acid was present, but being 
thrown down when the solution was neutral. This, 
however, is the case with nickel. 

If a new metal, therefore, do exist in the ore of 
Schladming, Dr. Vest does not seem to have procured 
it free from the other bodies contained in the ore, nic- 
kel, arsenic, and cobalt. 



Metals. 



81 



METAPHYSICS. 



' ' Mivsrcs h»ve been called the First philotopJty, 

cme of K'CHccs. as their objtct i» to expUiii the 

- and cau««« of all tiling* exi-tini;, and to sup- 

;«fect» o«' interior science*, which do not de- 

UMMMtrate. or wfficiratljp explain tli>-ir principle*. Me- 

taphyine*. *ity^ L"fd Monb«xldo, con>idir the t* •«« n 

trti ' le term»ot propo'itions or 

t\\\ >-!, and as exiitiiiK in na- 

A» lli« >ul>j<^kl of any particular «cience, 

<■ the priiKijilen of all science*, and ol'all 

•e. 

tnrtaphysica have derived 
mdaBce of their liring 
>il«, and have L>uf{bed 
iiiy a imnt* U> a acience, tVoni its ac- 
, nonjfthe writtnin of a r<-r!atn au- 

thor. I •■ 

ridtculr ■■ -••', 

wh: ipieaat°thinf(>. Tart ^tra T« 9v>t> 

mM, ■ had on* of twolhinK* in view : 

h« I r have meant that the subject* treatnl uT 

oo;: iiriicr of •tudjf, to oocne after physical re> 

tea' mat tbry were of a hi|rfa«r character, and 

rei|>> ' „ er fxculiica to comprriiMMl them. In ei- 
ther ol' ihcae acec(>talioiis, the temi metaphysics it pe. 
Citiiarly annrunriittr ; anil wcfc wi- toRiliuil thil it Wat 
impoieil by tlie i\ rmt^U tn^to- 

ranee, ai- .t any autl ni.n'rr. »•? 

would certainly say that it 

cidence of an accidcntaJ naiiiL ... :.., . — .._: — _. 

the science to be found in the hiatory of acicatUic no- 

ni-iw'l >f IIP,* 

'licatcd the nam* from the charge of a 

., u... r. ir ili.t •>. .)..>il have alill frrealer 

rrom the uppro- 

i'lllen in the esti- 

ilioa. M'e gr'nt 

V ^ ■„ . science is aufli- 

jtul we are itot *urpria««l that the 
II.KK,- ... ..... .v», ma/azii" ^■■■' •-■•-•'- <hould 

•brink with liorrur at the liuii of 

be.ida into wh-'-'- •' '• -• > 

OntuloKy; U 

cbology : ' .i.i..' , .i.oio- 

«T. Tti ce«-ary a. . it for 

toe niosi |>'i['. 'I tij crvate di«(iii(tioii« where 

there w«s n<> • ncr, and to render a science, 

""'■'" :' • '(i iijYi- M. . - ' i.Uory of every other, 
-rate, peri d uncartMin ; and w« 

' (leiNleiioe of 
.ea, and un- 
ii> cjtienU the lioun- 



.111' 
dar 



Bm liw «jiir.I III li ;4iKii tit 111. ' , 

been expelled by such means - 

)ikr tlie ilemonolugy ot' ' ' 

light of superior knu 

by fiend* more fell and m ri- io>. mo- 

ranre, indolence, and aver«iun til le- 

tiphysic* are not the only Kicucc proscribed by ibe 



ion* haa not 

•t haa not, 

' ! to the 

<m nut 



reignin); taate in Great Britain ; every thin^ that ha« 
the app-.-arance of profound discussion, if it he connect- 
ed with mind or with morals, is thrown aside with (lis- 
^Ukt ; and nothing; can obtain so much a< an exdrain.i- 
tion, if It u not connected with palpable science, or 
with that vitiate<i taste which teeds for ever, without 
being satislir<i, on the fnnuous productions of superfi- 
cial knowledfje. What John>on said sarcastically of 
the literature of Scotland, ?eem« to be in a fair way of 
being rfalizn) its to the whole of Great Britain : it will 
soon be like a city in a siege, where every man has a 
ration of fuod,*liut no one gets a bellyful. 

In such circumstances, we cannot expect much at- 
tention to Ih- j>Hi<l to inelaphy..ic*, when the subject both 
labour* under a bad nsme, and requires too much ex- 
pence of thiiught for the present irivolous taste of the 
mgt. " It ia c«riaa« to remark," says an eloquent de- 
fender of metnhyaical science *, " the strange notions 
which men, wno *n quite ignorant of its nature, have 
fcgfntA at thrjira phitnmph/.' There are some who 
ai e ni scriooaly to be! this science serves only 

toilarkcnand bewdiii urstanding ; while others 

aappoae. that it consitis in toe babbling of a pedantic 
juipn, sthich constituted the barbarous language ot 
thv sch fl hrt ic learning. If a perplexed reasoner puzzle 
hiaMdf and his audience, we are almost sure to hear 
his metaphysical aubtlety reproved or lamented ; and 
lie, upon his part, seldom fails to ascribe the confusion 
ideas to the obscure nature of all speculative doc- 
I-—-!, If a pert rhetorician get entangled in his own 
•opIliatrMa, he is ever ready to accuse himself of having 
loo miscb of the ver^ logic which he wants. There is 
not a mere tyro in literature, who has blundered round 
the meaning of a chapter in Plato, but is content to 
mistake himself for a philosopher. A scioli»t cannot 
«ri >,.. r..r.sn Atheist, without first hailing himself a 
■ I I'O ; while an ignorant dogmatist no sooner 

lii -tif eml>arr«ssed with a iloubt, thsn he seeks 

to avenge hi* o!fende<l vanity, by representing all me- 
taphysical inquiries as idle or mischievous. Thu' the 
n<'bie<t o( the science* is mistaken and vilified by the 
^- "■■ "f some, and by the prejudices of others ; by the 
rtinent pretenaians of a few, who could never un- 
tin- land it, and by the unjustifiable ccnaarea of niiiny, 
who have never given it a fair and candkl examination. 
He, however, who haa been acctistoined to meditate on 
the principles of things, the springs of action, the foun- 
dations of political gor smi neut, the snurces of moral 
law. the nature of the paseioBs, the influence of habit 
and asaocistion, the formation of ch ' i.| temper, 

the faculties of the soul, and tne i , of mind, 

will not lie persu.ided that these Uiiii;;.i arc unworthy 
patient aiteiiiiun, because presumptuous writers 



of hi 



have abused the liberty of investigation, or beciuve dull 
ones have found it to be unavailing. He knowx that 
metaphysics do not exclude other learning, that, on the 
contrary, they blend ihemsilve* with all the sciences. 
He feels the love of truth to grow strong with the search 
of it. He confesses the very bounded powers of the 
human understanding, while he contemplates the im. 



'SirWyBaDn DfumnMiid. 



VOU UT. Max I. 



82 



METAPHYSICS. 



Metaphy- 

■ics. 



mensity of nature, and the majesty of God ; but he 
thinks that his researches may contribute to enlarge and 
correct his notions, that they nuiy teach him liow to 
reason with precision, and that they may instruct him 
in the knowledge of himself. His time, he believes, is 
seldom employed to greater advantage, than when lie 
considers what may be the nature of his intellectual 
l)eing, examines the extent of his moral duties, investi- 
gates the sources of happiness, and demonstrates the 
means by which it may be more generally diffused." 

We readily grant, that metaphysics have often been 
crossly abu.M;(i ; they have been disgraced by the un- 
couth and fantastic dress in which they have been ex- 
hibited, or by the perverted purposes to which they 
have been directed; they have been rendered contempt- 
ible by the quibbling of the schoolmen, and by the so- 
phistry and scepticism of Hobbes, Spinosa, and Hume ; 
and we may justly despair of redeeming their credit 
with those who argue against the general use of any 
thing from its occasional abuse. Such persons might 
argue against the benefit of the solar heat, because it is 
often the cause of pestilence and disease. But we are 
firmly convinced, that in proportion as intellectual or 
metaphysical studies are neglected, taste will degene- 
rate, and the general energy of mind will be impaired. 
That man is a genuine metaphysician, who dives into 
the nature of things, who methodizes seemingly ano- 
malous farts, and reduces to simple and perspicuous 
rules tliose appearances which present to others no- 
thing but a mass of disjointed and incongruous m.ite- 
rials : the man who does this is a benefactor of the hu- 
man species, and his memory will be honoured as such, 
while the names of the grovelling herd, who laughed 
at his pursuits, will be covered with sudden and ever- 
lasting oblivion. 

How would those who pretend to despise metaphy- 
sics have been able to stand before the acuteness of the 
celebrated sceptics, whose names have been already 
mentioned ? It was necessary that such men as Locke 
and Berkeley should oppose the dangerous doctrines of 
Hobbes and Spinosa, on jiolitics, morals, and religion ; 
and that such men as Reid, Campbell, and Stewart, 
should encounter the dangerous sophistry of Hume. 
If it should be said, that an instrument so convertible 
to the best or worst of purposes had better be kept 
out of the hands of the generality of men, this is as 
much as to say that the power of reason should never 
be exercised, because it is equally the means of disse- 
minating truth, and of giving currency to error. If 
any evil consquences have ever resulted from metaphy- 
sical discussions, it is only a farther illustration of what 
has generally been regarded as an axiom, that the cor- 
ruption ot the best things produces the worst effects. 
Whatever has much power to do good, must, if abused,' 
have much power to do mischief ; and if metaphysics 
have occasionally been employed to unhinge belief, or 
to unsettle the foundations of virtue, it should be re- 
membered, ttial we derive the means of cure from the 
same source ; and employ the same instruments, but 
differently handled and applied, to erect the temples of 
truth, happiness, and virtue. 

If mankind knew but where to stop in their re- 
searches, metaphysics would aj>pear the most useful, as 
veil as the most sublime science that ever engaged the 
feculties of Uie human mind. But they are often 
brought into discredit, not through any inherent defect 
in themselves, but from '..ha restless and insatiable de- 
sire of the mind to comprehend all mysteries and all 
knowledge. As this attempt must necessarily prove 



unsuccessful, we may expect to see the blame laid on Metaphy- 



the science, which has been employed as the means of 
investigation. Let man be blamed for attempting im- 
possibilities ; but let the science be respected, which 
will carry him as tar as lie can go with pleasure and 
with safety. 

Let all the absurdities, then, that have ever proceed- 
ed from the brain of a bewildered or sceptical metaphy- 
sician, be mustered up to sustain the arraignment against 
the utility of ontological science, the whole host must 
instantly give way, before the immortal works which 
have put them down, by the judicious application of 
the same principles which less sober or less viituous 
men had abused. Is it not in the highest degree ungene- 
rous, then, to remember only the evils which the abuse 
of the science has produced, without acknowledging 
the benefits which it has conferred, and feeling grate- 
ful for having laid the sure foundations of taste, reason- 
ing, and knowledge ? No man will doubt the utility 
of metaphysical studies, who knows anything about 
them, and who is disposed to conduct his researches 
with that coolness, and philosophic caution, which is 
necessary to ensure success in any investigation. Let 
no one then, be deterred from entering on this study 
by the outcries of ignorance or prejudice ; or by the 
misrepresentations of those who rail at what they do 
not understand. Sioil canes ianofos semper allatrant. 
Let those abstain from metaphysics who think that 
they never ought to grapple with any thing that is pro- 
found : let those avoid them, who think that there is 
no knowledge but what is apprehended by the outward 
senses: but let those continue to maintain the honour 
of the science, who wish to explore the recesses and 
resources of their own minds, who seek to be acquaint- 
ed with the nature and essential qualities of things, or 
who wish to know any thing of substance, its attri- 
butes, and its adjuncts. 

ITnde anima, atque animl coiistet naUura, videndum, 
Quaflant ralione et qua vl giiaqiic gera?itvr 
In icTris* 

But we admit that metaphysics have not only been 
abused by faulty investigations and unwarranted as- 
sumptions, they have also frequently been brought into 
disrepute by the ridiculous pretensions of some of 
their advocates. Were we to give credit to Mr. Har- 
ris or Lord Monboddo, we should scarcely believe that 
a man could be confident of the number of his own 
fingers, unless he were instructed in the metaphysics of 
Aristotle. What can be more puerile than the observa- 
tions of the Scottish senator, when he says, that " a 
mechanic who applies a foot or a yard to the length of 
two bodies, and finds that both agree exactly to that 
measure, and are neither longer nor shorter, can give 
no reason why he believes the bodies to be of equal 
length, not knowing the axiom of Euclid, that two 
things which are equal to a third thing, are equal to 
one another.?" (^Ancient Mdaphysics, \o\. v. p. 15t.) 
Is it not evident, that the mtcha'nicknew the axiom as 
well as Euclid, and could give just as good an account 
of it." When he knows the fact he knows the axiom ; 
and he knows with infallible certainly, that what he 
has observed in one measurement is applicable to all si- 
milar ones: he, therefore, instantly and intuitively 
adopts the fact as a general principle of knowledge. 

We do not know that our readers would thank us, 
were we to attempt to give a complete system of meta- 
physics. But, in truth, notwithstanding all that has 
been done, the attempt is too vast for any individual. 
Many have elucidated with peculiar success, particular 



METAPHYSICS. 



83 



Atitlo'.W. 



^Wmi- 



fep*« un- 

Ml Iliac- 



MHiphy- brandwt of meUphytical science ; and they who have 
••«»• attempted more, have, in jjeneral, only demonstrated 
'"^''^^ the deficiency oftheir qualificatiorit, and the futility of 
their labour*. We doubt not, therefore, that our pru- 
dence will be approved in declinirij^ an undertaking in 
which to many have failed, though gifted with respec- 
table talents, and armed with high pretensions. We 
hav*st*m in the article Looic, under the head Pneu- 
■aatMacjr, (which we have considered as embracing 
P%ytbolofu, the most interesting branch of metaphy- 
no*,) an account of the origin of our knowledge, of the 
way in which the mind receive* it* impression*, of the 
roctbod* which it employs to communicate its ideas, 
and of tht wioiu circamaUoce* which tend to modify 
h* conc«ptiw M . These topict, which might with pro> 
prMty hew firilen under the present article, being al- 
ready fhaoueed, shall not be repeated. In the article 
MoBAL PaiLOCoPHV alio, will be found sooie imporunt 
d iTiw e i eae respecting the influence of the will and the 
aSMtiMM, «ad the libetty or necessity of hamen actions. 
It i* therefore en n ec M— ry to dwell on these subjecU 
here. We shall merely attempt a mpid sketch of what 
has been done in metaphysics ; and this, rather with a 
view to point oet to our readers the laljiRti and aeope 
•f the sdenoe, than to require their aeqirieeecnce in tae 
dactrines and speewlaliene which have been *o elabo. 
rMely detailed. 

AriMotle Mands at the head of metaphysician* in 
peiM ef priority of time, and probably also m point of 
pr»— in en ee of intellect. What he fails to elucidate, 
ke Mieelopca in such a veil of mysticiim and perplex- 
ing phraeeolog)-, that it is scarcrly poasible to divine 
hie mcamng, much less to correct his errors. This cir- 
eamitince has mi»le<l many of his folluwers and admi- 
rers, who, trusting to his infallibility, and convinced 
thai eeeiT thing he says must have a profound, if it ha* 
nrt mt obrioua meaning, have laboufed with most in- 
BdMtry t* elttddau hie inscmuble re- 
, and to p en oad e the worM that they contain 
tho w^ii lMm and eaetaee of all knowledfc. The very 
oheenritT which hanga over the writings of Aristotle 
hat iHided to hicrease bis fame, and to exalt the repn- 
tation of bb genhis. For ingenious men finding many 
fataagm of tnaecendent excellence in the writings of 
Amtotle, and many most profound and sublime specu- 
lation*, have given him credit for a species of omni- 
■eiawe in every kind of science ; and whenever any 
IMm occurs which is not very obvious, they unifurmly 
itam the diAcaky to the proAmditjr of tlie aothot'i 
tirwe, and nM to the obecnrity of'^hii conce pti on*. 
Thair 9wn nind* hctnf et tho eeme time pr».ocoaptcd 
by eowa fceoorite nwt aa h y ric a l notion*, ui^ eagerly 
watch for any hint in the srritings of their idol, which 
may serve to confirm their own opinion. These hints 
they may easily find. Ry dinjoining one paaaige frtm 
■»>«<her, or by connecting remote passage* actonfing to 
their own cw i cepti une , rfiey may make .Aristotle speak 
niyhnHa^, and lend hb Mirragc to any set of philo- 
safiMarapwitMM. Those pasuges which are most ob- 
Waa^ «JH gmMdly answer the purpone best. As they 
Mnan he dacMsdly clarmed as •upporting an obvious 
4m^rim», *v are feady to feel thnnkful to any who can 
attach t* them a rational meaninj; ; and we generally 
•nd it as easy lo assent to it, as to establish a dffi^nt 
OT opaMtes^bOcation. 

f^ m fc»"«»«l , hnt fWr to remark^ that Aristotle i* 
perhep* srarrely chargeable with one naif of the obscu- 
rity which now enveUipes his irritings ; and probably 
also, he i« not entitled to full credit for many of the 
molt UKful UocUiDC* contained in them. We allude 



to the vicissitudes which his writings hare undergone, M»tsphy- 
and to the mangled and mutilated state in which many •'"• 
of them were found. After having lain in a subter- "^^"^^^ 
raneous cavern, in the town of Scepsis, for 130 years, 
they were brought to light, and sold to Apellico, a 
Teian, who, with injudicious industty, supplied from 
his own conjectures such passages as had become ille- 
gible. It is impossible to ascertain the extent of these 
supplementary emendations, which, in all probability, 
aavoored more of the opinions of the transcriber than 
of the spirit of Aristotle. But this was not the last or- 
deal which they underwent. It is well known that 
they were transferred to Rome by Sylla, after the Uk- 
ing of Athens. Here Tyrannion, a grammarian, hav-, 
ing obtained permission to make use of the m»nu«cripts 
employed ignorant amanuenses to uke copies of them, 
which he suflereil to pass out of his hands without pro- 
per correction.^ These errors have been continued by 
succeeding commenutors and transcribers, who have 
of^en introduced into the text conjectural emendations 
and variations. All ancient writmgs are liable, in a 
greater or lesa degree to such accidents ; but none 
so much as those which record philsophical doc- 
trine* ; Ar here, if there is a possiliility of perversion, 
the oomneniator or tnin»criber will endeavour to make 
the text subservient to his preconceived opinions. 

At present, we are only concerned with the metaphy- Summsrr 



sics ol Aristotle ; and of these we shall 



give as concise 



of hu me- 



an account as possible. According to him. the funds- »«I*J»'«»' 
■wntal prindpleof ontology is, that it is hnpossible that 
the same thing should be. and not Ije, in the same sub- 
j««*. at the same time, and in the same respect. To 
this universal principle all demonstration may be re- 
duced. Being may be reducetl into the ten categories, 
or predicaments, whicfl are, I. SMktiamce, which is ei. 
ther primary, and can neither be predicated of, nor in- 
herent in, any other subject : or secondary, which sub- 
sists in primsry substances, as gnura or speciet. 8. Qmms- 
Itty, continued or discrete ; «^ich has no contrary, and 
denominates things equal or unequal. 3. lielatinn, ex« 
pressing the manner in which one thing is sITected to- 
wards another. 4. Quality, by which a thing is said to 
be soch as it is. 5. Action, signifying the motion of 
the agent 6. Patriot, signifying the state of the pa- 
tient. 7. IVhn, denoting time. 8. Wherr, denoting 
place. 9. SttttaHtm, etpretsing the extemsl circum- 
stance of local relation. 10. liabit, expressing the ex- 
ternal circumstance of being habited. 

/irtag is either notional or real ; ncAional, as it is con- 
ceived in the mind ; real, as it exists in nature. No- 
tional bring is either true or fsisc ; true, when it cor- 
responds to the real nature of things ; fal*e, when the 
oostception and the reality differ from each other. In 
the knowledge of things immut.i1)1c the intellect can- 
not be deceived ; mistake and error can only arise con- 
cerning contingent and variable objects. 

Aristotle's notions respecting the first mover were, 
in some respects, sublime ; in othen confused and un- 
intelligible. He admitted an original principle of mo- 
tion, which he raid must be simple pure energy, void 
of matter, eternal, immutable. The essence of the 
first mover is different from that of corporeal substances, 
indivisible, l>ecausc unity is perfect; immtiUible, be- 
cause n<ithing can change it-elf; and etema!, because 
motion itself is eternal: (this is a gratuitous assumption,) 
This power is sn incorporeal intelligence ; happy in the 
contemplation of himself ; the first cause of all mo- 
tion ; and, in fine, the Being of Beings, or GoA. 

As to the soul, he said that K was the principle of ac- 
tion in an organized bvdy possessing life potentially. 



84 



METAPHYSICS. 



It does not move itself, for whatever moves is moved by 
some other moving power. It is not a rare body compos- 
ed of elements ; for then it would not have perception, 
more than the elements which compose it. The soul 
has three faculties, the nuiritive, the sensitive, and the 
rational; the superior compiehending the inferior po- 
tentially. The nutritive faculty is that by which life 
is produced and preserved. The sensitive is that by 
which we pei ceive and feel ; it does not perceive itself, 
nor its organs, but some external oliject, throufih the- m- 
tervention of its organs, which are adapted to produce 
thesensationi of sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch. 
The senses receive sensible species or forms without 
matter, as wax receives the impression of a seal with- 
out receiving any part of its substance. The externil 
senses perceive objects, but it is the common or inter- 
nal sense which observes their difference. 

He defined the mind to be the principle by which 
we live, perceive, and understand. When he attempted 
to form an abstract conception of this principle, he saw 
that there must be some subst^ince which enjoys such 
perfection, as to be capable of performing this function : 
and in defining this substance, he made use of a term, 
which his followers suppose to express some very pro- 
found and recondite merming : he called it Enlekcheia, 
that is, perfection, or perfect energy. This word was 
conceived to be so very mysterious, that Hermolaus 
Barbarus, who translated the Rhetoric, and other pieces 
of Aristotle, is said to have implored the assistance of 
a divinity to enable him to understand its meaning : 
had he obtained this favour, it is probable that he would 
have been farther advanced than Aristotle who framed 
it. It was differently understood by different authors, 
according as it suited their particular views, and is 
thus explained by Leibnitz to accommodate his leading 
hypothesis : Nomen Entelechiarum imponi possit omni- 
bus substantiis simplicibus seu monadibus crealis. 

Aristotle's metaphysical notions respecting matter 
were very singular, and we believe we may say incom- 
prehensible. This, of course, is not admitted by adepts, 
who maintain that he has given us the only intelligible 
views on the subject. We shall allow the master and 
the scholars to explain their own ideas. Matter, ac- 
cording to Aristotle, is either Tr^mrn or Tr^anyjn ; that is, 
primary or proximate. Thus, iron and wood are not of 
the same proximate matter ; but their primary or ele- 
mentary matter is the same. If the primary matter 
did not exist, neither could the proximate or immedi- 
ate. The primary matter is neither earth, nor air, nor 
fire, nor water; it is neither hot, nor cold, nor dry, nor 
moist, nor iolid, nor extended. It is the universal ele- 
ment, but can never become objective to sense. Spi- 
noza, who was an acute sopliist, and a deep-read, though 
we cannot think a profound metaphysician, availed him- 
self of these sublimated, or rather incomprehensible 
notions of matter, to establish his system of universal 
materialism, by which he makes Deity himself mate- 
rial. The French philosophists, during the revolution- 
ary phrenzy, went still farther than this ; and one of 
them had the insanity to announce, that he hoped soon 
to be able to ascertain the particular form of crystalli- 
zation which constituted Deity ! Spinoza, like Aris- 
totle, contended that primary matter, or substance as 
he calls it, is something completely distinct from atiy 
of its modifications, in order to elude the oiijections 
which had been urged against his system, from the mu- 
tability and divisibility of matter. For it was said with 
justice, that if Deity was material, the self-existent and 
eternal principle which Spinoza admitted must be mu- 



table and divisible, which is absurd. Sir William Drum- Metiphy- 
mond, in his academical questions, has given a pri'tty «'«• 
full exposition of the physical and moral system otS pi- '"^^'"^ 
noza, and has given every advantage to the interlocu- 
tor who supports it, without adducing any counterba- 
lancing refutation. 

His design in this was singular; for he is any thing 
but a Spinozist. But as his object is to explode the 
existence of matter, independent of the perrepti<ms of 
mind, he seems to wish to terrify his readers into his 
doctrine, by stating the dangerous ccmsequences which 
result from admitting the independent existence of mat- 
ter. The experiment is a little dangerous ; for were 
there no medium between Spinozlsni and idealism, a 
good part of mankind might be puzzled how to form a 
decision. But there is a medium; and whatever diffi- 
culties may attend the conception of matter as existing 
independent of our perceptions, it certainly involves 
no impossibility. 

If our readers find any difficulty in forming a con- 
ception of matter abstracted from all its qualities, they 
shall have the benefit of Mr. Harris's illustration : " We 
gain a glimpse of it by abstraction, when we say that 
the first matter is not the lineaments and complexion 
which make the beautiful face ; nor yet the flesh and 
blood which make those lineaments and that com- 
plexion ; nor yet the liquid and solid aliments which 
make tiiat flesh and blood ; nor yet the simple bodies 
of earth and water which make those various aliments; 
but something which, being below all these, and sup- 
porting them all, is yet different from them all, and es- 
sential to their existence." 

But our elegant author is not content with giving us 
a glimpse of this subtile and evanescent substance : " We 
obtain a sight of it, he observes, when we say, that as 
is the brass to the statue, the marble to the pillar, the 
timber to the ship, or any one secondary matter to any 
one peculiar form, so is the first and original matter to 
all forms in general." 

This certainly seems to be pushing matter to the 
very verge of existence ; and, therefore, t^ir William 
Drummond, a keen immaterialist, observes, that we 
had better pause before we break the bubble of the ideal 
philosophy, lest it be all that is left to save us from 
utter annihilation. 

The metaphysics of Aristotle formed the text book 
on these subjects to Europe and the world, for many 
centuries, The Arabians were as great adepts as the 
monks of the dark ages. To be able to comprehend 
and to wield the Orgaiium of Aristotle was considered 
as the highest attainment in knowledge, and the most 
desirable accomplishment in literature. It was reckon- 
ed presumptuous, and almost heretical, to call his au- 
thority in question. Of this we have a remarkable 
proof in the fateot Peter Ramus, an intrepid impugner 
of the Aristotelian philosophy. His bold attacks on a 
system which had been admired for so many ages, gave 
great offence. His antagonists, however, attacked him 
at first only with arguments. But finding him refrac- 
tory, or rather too strong for them, they proceeded to 
harsher measures. He was accused of an attempt to 
subvert both religion and philosophy ; and though he 
challenged his opponents to a public disputation, he 
could not obtain an impartial hearing ; and was pro- 
hibited by Francis I. from writing or teaching philo- 
sophy. This sentence was afterwards reversed by Hen- 
ry II. and Ramus was appointed regius pro'ejsor of 
eloquence and philosophy, and afterwards of mathe- 
matics. His enemies, however, became more virulent 

7 



METAPHYSICS. 



85 



•in 



than erer, wh«n H wm found that Ran. 

principl«a of ihe Kj-t'onnation. H« w»' 



Dccnn* of 






rtfl the 

^ leave 

litnnany, 

ai lately rr- 

•olvcU tu rvturu U> l'jji», wtxetu Ue lu*t Uu Jite by the 
ImmI of a hired a«Mi»in in the infainaua mawairc of 
St. Bartbolonirw't eve. 

But it wa* the reformation in reliiti'in which ooid> 

'•■ ovrrthrow of the Ariilotcban philotopby. 

.!>! t>eeii early initructeci In the t'erifMitrtic Hoc 
Uiiie*. aott in all the •ubtlcties of the achol 
■ophr a taiii;fit by I'hoiaas Aquinaa, DsB* > li 

etbrr Mail attarht-d himaelf to the |Mriy ol ilie 

Notii :i the tii»pute attout univertals. VV'hrii, 

ho* ' •ye* were openrti to ire the errora ot the 

Roni \ lie*, he t>esan to qucstiixi the vnlijity of 

the pnoci|tlr» on which thete errora had chirAy nnted 
for «iippnrt. The rrauli waa a tharo«mh cotiviriion of 
the rnuulity of the Ariatolelian method, and .;- 

naat and contunetioiu ootttrmpt of it* q'> :«1 

Cllae itAwwi lU. " M'hat duaa it oontribote. lay* be, 
towanU the knowledge o4 thin||a, to be perpatuaily 
tnfliOR anil caviUiim la laqgMige c«ic««v<«l and p«- 
■cnbeil liy Artaloik eoocw ii ing maMer, fona, moUMi. 
•ml liine f" In Luthrr'a ardent trntperaineni, tlte heat 
of corlroveray miKht easily carry him unwarranleil 
lanKth* in espreaanK hit contempt for An*tutlr'* doc- 
trine*, (le waa no enemy to tound philoauphy. but 
be waa anxioua to free the work! Iroa the yoke vt au- 
thortty, both m philoaophy aad reli|pan. 

The defection being Ibua bqn>'*> ^ revolt ioaa be- 
came gmrrml. Ttv in««i"-l of induction in'iwmiinil 
etl liy tl>e powrrfiii Bacon, complrtely umler- 

milled the aMlhar>i> 
ami Dnemnta 



hegtui III 



til UKi SI I ri' * c( ' 

H* wetit 
1 -" — • 



■''•▼•icnl meafche* ; 

himaelf. and to 

»•*•• r— ^ — •*"-' "»-■■■ I JiikMopliy of the 

i wa* to iliamiaa 

' - - ' <-trinM 

inpUd 

wji« ri«>v c iiJiOl 

, then, waa to 

tain the rT.iiit\ <.i nn own rxotrncr; and we abottld 
think it would not have been very ea*y to have done 
ibi* til the MiMfaction of a man who •eriooily doubted 
of It. He *ati*fir«l buoai'lf on thi* point, however, by 
leflectinx. tliai wfi. ■ ' (. /I«^iu«a/ nUM 

at jm tmtu id ouu: i/wre quo c fiiiat 

IMo f^ittrt .if peat ii.c Acre le^Hiito, tgo ctmti», tigo 
mm. *>t mmmimm frimm tt rrrti im mm , ftm emtkitl anbm* 
fktif tiina atiitai bttn«elf 

•fh '.•da to a— i w t n a what 

•videtux hc.baa tu.' ■ 'jector 

nhaanw be<Maa l turned 

to I" m rstcrtul wufid , on rtlirctuxi, luiwrver, 

be I 'ill he knew of that world wa* in him- 

mI) rrfore he waa eiititWd to doubt fe reality 

of • e: beeau<« •••iMr •uperior heini; might 

have d4'aif6d to dei But he t r-annot 

be Ar-^rrA •* \-> rti J>y wh -.-» hi* 

OW I ■ ■ .| 

lam t ■ . ■•■ 

bo. ■ uUBMi r be iinda tliat be had 

bel'- 'xivteiicci" . u objecta only nr.o f;/i. 

fOO trnprnif ; «nd he now pmcectU to »e«ri 
n»^ T« Art! firiT hr latisfit.* himself \\\ ■ 
\ clear idea at' hit | 
M'owt do not exist i 
'" '' ' iin* trie idea of tliem, there mun lie 

aiiu-.K:,^ ..latidca; and thia carhe* him at once 



to the Supreme Bein^r, as poMcssing all tlie attributea 
which he had conceived of him 

(ill reasoninir i* inf;eoii>us, and we shall give it in his 
own word<:' • Quin Dei, five entis >umiui ideam ha- 
bemu* in nobis, jurr p ssumus rxaminarr, a quanam 
causa ilUm balieainut : tantamque in ea imnieiisitatem 
invenivmus. ut plane <■> eu siniUA certi, iioii |>o.ise ilium 
iitibt* fuiuie iiiditarn, ni«i a re, in qua sit rever.< oiiinium 
|» ' "irntu'ii, hoc est, nisi a Deo reali- 

ti . :i luiiiinen.iturali noti'Kiroum, Don 

mu%lu a tiiliilo mliil tirri ; lire id qu<id e*l pfriectiiis ab 
e« qiKwl r-t minus perfectum ut a causi efficiente et 
tf 'uci ; »eil nrqiie eti<m in nobis I'.lesin »ive 

iii^ iiliu« rei eve posse, ruius non alicubi, sivcin 

nutii, iji-'-. -M- extra no«, archrtypus aliq'iis oinnca 
ejii« p» n.-. iii>ii.-« reipsa contineiis, existnt. Et quia 
stimina* ilta> |iert'ectioii s. qiiarum iileain habemu), nuU 
lo mutlo in noois repenmus, tx hue ipso recle concludi* 
mus ras in .iliqiio a nohis divrrso, nenipe in deo, ease; 
vrl cene idiquando luM<e, ex quo evidentissime ■»• 
quitur, ipaasiidhuce»<e." P'inciii PMiliuu: h.pin firima. 

Thta ia perhaps a* nooilaii a prion argument for the tx> 
iataaee of a G<>d a* Dr. CUrke's; snd indee<l, in -ome re> 
•pecta,ili*nutiinlikr It. Dr.CUrkeaeemstohave liorrow* 
cdliisarKU lollowini; paasajte in Newton ■ 

PrtHctpia: r infiriitu«. omnipotrns, et om« 

iiiK-iens . id r<t ilurat ail etenio in elemuin. el a>leit ab 
uifinitu in inriiuiiiin Son i'>t eterniiiisel infinilas, sed 
rternu* et non e»l iluruiio rt spatium, sed 

dur.it fl aii. ' %,-ini.«T ft .ii),*..! ■ihifiii,. ; ^ CXii* 

(• >i ronsti- 

ti. (>ur way, 

at , ul rot'tj». 

p:.. ..X.. ... .... I., Mowing 

Use of it: . art- only niv 

•!'■■•■•-—■ ,...,..., tt — •••,■ ■!• 'lich 

f" <m uiir belief; and a* n .iiid 

t! iitn. •ubslance*, lliey n u*t be liit- .atmiutea 

o' who ia n««e«»in°ly immense and rtemat. 

V\ r Mi«ii ity and by examine the foundation of tbia u- 
gumcnt. 

Dracattc* ha\ i * '' ' ' iiiKiras to the exittence 
of ■ God, no l> . in aiknowledyiiig the 

reality of an exirrn <i Mi>ri<i ; lur lie cuiicludi » liiMt the 
God wlium he serves will not deceive him : a* a J(.>>ire 
to deceive can ..'.'■ r. ,,r 

weakneaa; DMic ' I 

Descartr- 
C«|Kkia. '1' 

ed that cert ■.■ pru).>a^utcil l> , lii 

•ooMWMiX' r, wliich pro. ,s in 

the mind, .\riautlc, as we have ah t.d, illu»- 

trates tiiis, by saying that the sen- ' sensible 

•peciea, or forroa, witiiout mntter, i» wax receives the 
iniprr«si< n of a seal, witlkiut r«v<.ivipp any pajt of the 
i>uti*laiirv. The reieivcl maxim •• Pi-ripaletics, 

and wc do not s>e liuw it can li I is, that no- 

ibinir can act where it is not ; add llivrefon-, if nutter 



Descartes* 
argument 
for the ci- 
iKtcoce of a 



rs tO' 

iu...i.iian. 



be diflermt from mind, there 
intcrpo«c(l to bring them, a« it 
opinion h,i« piven rt«e to .n vnt 
taphys cal, ' 

•pfVits. or a 



niti-t hf •(ifn>- medium 

• irt. This 

half me> 

as tiiat ut' animal 

, and tl e like, with 

■ I the way in wiiii-ii the iii>material sub- 

il n artrd upon hy external olijfctt. 

'.» he Jul lie ; nor Can we 

I lictween a matrral and 

an immaterial subatancc ; or of tlie nianner in which 

body acta on apiht, or thi* oo iiuttctial tidMtaacea. An 



86 



METAPHYSICS. 



Metaphy- author of some celebrity*, has advanced a very extra- 
sics. ordinary hypotliesis to explain this mysterious subject ; 

"""nr™^ we shall give a part of it in his own wonls, to caution 
our readers against the danger of theoriiSing : " Were I 
permitted to conjecture in a matter where nothing bet- 
ter than conjecture can be had, I should suppose spirit 
naturally penetrable, but capable of rendering itself so- 
lid upon occasion, with respect to particular bodies, 
and that hereon our activity depends. I have former- 
ly given my reasons for imagining, that the force where- 
with we move our limbs, is derived from the animal 
circulation rushing into the muscles through certain 
nerves, and that the orifices of these nerves are provid- 
ed with stoppers, which the mind draws up at pleasure 
to give the animal spirits admittance ; now what should 
hinder our conceiving these stoppers pushed up by lit- 
tle hairs, or fibres, whose other ends lie within our 
spiritual part f, which, by its natural penetrability, ad- 
mits them into the space where it resides ? But, upon 
the mind rendering itself solid with respect to any par- 
ticular fibre, it is driven forward, thereby lifts up the 
stopper, and opens the passage into the nerves ; until 
volition, forbearing to act, the penetrability returns — 
the fibre, no longer pressed, falls back to its former sta- 
tion, the stopper following, closes the passage, and mus- 
cular motion ceases.'' 

The author proceeds in the same style ; but we have 
given enough to exhibit a complete specimen of me- 
taphysical absurdity, or rather of the danger which 
must always attend physiologico-metaphysical specu- 
lations. 

Locke. Locke is by far the most celebrated metaphysician 

in modern times. There is a perspicuity and good 
sense apparent in his writings, which insures the at- 
tention and good-will of the reader. He carefully ba- 
nished the pedantic phraseology of the schools ; and 
the world was astonished that subjects so profound 
should be rendered so simple. Even yet he is scarce- 
ly considered by some as a metaphysician, solely, we 
believe, because he employed the language of common 
life and common sense, in illustrating some of the pro- 
foundest points in ontology and psychology. For- 
merly none but the initiated dared to approach these 
subjects. They were discussed in a peculiar language, 
which was as remote from the common conceptions of 
mankind, and as unintelligible to common understand- 
ings, as the signs of free-masonry are to the uninitiat- 
ed. Socrates was said to have brought philosophy 
down from lieaven : and we may at least say of Locke, 
that he has brought metaphysics down from the clouds, 
and planted them in a congenial soil, and reared them 
with proper culture on the surface of this earth. Per- 
haps no one ever accomplished so much on such a 
subject, with fewer errors, and fewer marks of failure. 



In the article logic, we have pointed oat what we coti- 
ceive to be deficiencies or mistakes in his reasoning ; 
but we shall have conveyed to our readers an impres- 
sion very different from our real feelings, if tiiey ima- 
gine that we do not entertain the very highest reve- 
rence for the genius of Locke, and the highest grati- 
tude for the important services which he has perform- 
ed, in rendering easy and attractive the science of me- 
taphysics and the study of the human mind. 

Descartes had said that the Peripatetic philosophers 
resembled blind persons, who, in order to equalize the 
combat with persons wlio had the use of their eyes, 
endeavoured to draw them into a dark cavern, whero 
vision could be of no use to them. It is impossible 
not to admit the justice of the remark, for if ever there 
were any who darkened counsel by words witiiout 
knowledge, this charge may be applied to the school-* 
men who adopted the philosopiiy of Aristotle. No 
small part of the merit of Locke consisted in sweeping 
away this useless rubbish, and in teaching mankind to 
define their ideas and conceptions before they attempt- 
ed to reason about them. 

We are extremely sorry that an attempt has been Kant, 
made in modern times to veil philosophy in her an- 
cient mystery, with a view to exclude her from the 
profane eyes of the vulgar. This attempt consists not 
in reviving the phraseology of the Peripatetic school, 
but in the invention of a set of new terms equally in- 
comprehensible, and equally susceptible of ambiguity 
and misconception. The author who has made this 
attempt is Kant, the founder of the Critical and Tran- 
scendental Philosophy/, as it is called in Germany. We 
have never been fortunate enough to meet with any 
who pretended to comprehend his system ; and for 
ourselves, we have never yet attempted it. We will be 
excused for this confession of our ignorance, after the 
following declaration from Mr. Stewart. " As to 
Kant's own works, I must fairly acknowledge, that 
although I have frequently attempted to read them in 
the Latin edition printed at Leipsic, I have always 
been forced to abandon the undertaking in despair, 
partly from the scholastic barbarism of the style, and 
partly from my utter inability to unriddle the author's 
meaning. Wherever I have happened to obtain a mo- 
mentary glimpse of light, I have derived it not from 
Kant himself, but from my previous acquaintance with 
those opinions of Leibnitz, Berkeley, Hume, Reid, 
and others, which he has endeavoured to appropriate to 
himself under the deep disguise of his new phraseolo- 
gy J." This mode of philosophizing deserves to be re- 
probated and exploded ; and we sincerely hope that 
the German adepts will never be able to make a sys- 
tem of mysticism popular in any country which has 
been imbued with the philosophy of Locke ||. 



• Tucker. 

•f There is a curious coincidence between this wild notion and one advanced by M. Formey. to account for the phenomenon of dream- 
ing. He supposes, like Hartley, that sensation is carried on entirely by means of vihati&tis^ which are communicated through the nerves, 
from the first point of contact till they reach the farthest extremities, which are iHppcd in d spiritual fluid. It is worthy of remark, that this 
Essay of Kormcy's is published in tlie Transactions of the Royal Academy of Sciences and Uelles Lettres at Berlin, in the year 1 746, three 
years before the appearance of Hartley's Observations on Man. This author, then, has anticipated both Hartley and Tucker. The coinci- 
dence is curious ; and we should be inclined to suspect them of plagiarism, had the tliought been worth stealing Foraney's words are, " Les 
emanations de ces corps, ou leur parties mcme heurtants nos nerfs, les ebranlent a la surface de notre corps, et comfiie lorsqu'on pince une 
(tordft tmdue, dans quelque cndroit que ce soit, toute la corde tremoussc ; de meme, Ic nerf est ebranlo d'un bout a I'autre, et I'ebranlement 
de I'exffemite Interieure est fidelement suivi, et i omme accompagno, tant ccla fait promtement, de la sensation qui y repond." We can- 
not help thinking the coincidence between this doctrine and Hartley's too striking to be accidental. Now for Tucker's penetrable spiritual 
substance : " (Jn con; oit de plus aisement que cette extremite interieure est la plus facile a ebratiler, parce que les ramifications dans les- 
quelles die sc terminc sont d'une extreme tenuite, et qu'elles sont placees a la source meme de ce fluide spiritueux, qui les arrose, les pe- 
cetre, y court, y serpente, et doit avoir une toute autre activite, que lorsqu'il a fait le long cheiuin qui le conduit a la surface du corps." 

J An attempt is made to explain Kant's system in the second number of the Edinburffh Heviev. See also Sir W. Drummond's Acadc- 
ilticnl Qiicslions, and J)e GeraHdo, IJht. de Syatrmas, torn. ii. p. !08, 209. 

II See the article Kant, ^•here a general view of his philosophy is given by a gentleman who has read, and probably understood 
his works. £d. 



METAPHYSICS. 



87 



Uct*'* 

4i€Ukmt- 



»€rtLlWj'» 



Uit Ika 
■OB nit*- 
•nc* ol 
aatlcr. 



For Mine account of the leading principlei of Locke's 
rjrttam, and tome «trictares upon them, aee the article 
Looic. Atpre«ent, we mean merely to advert to the 
revotutieo which hit opinion* have produced in the 
pbikMophj of the human mind ; and to the vtry lin- 
gular and opposite conclationi to which they have been 
■Md« Miba^ient. For, on the one hand, they K*v 
riM to the lyttem of Berkeley, Hume, and other idcal- 
i»U, who deny the »eparate exittrnce of matter, and 
bold, that what we call by that name ia onU a modifi- 
cation of thouj^t ; whilat, on the other band, they have 
S* ma birth, particularly on the Continent, to the mata- 
liratem of Diderot and others, «ho maintain that 
Blind i* only a more refined apeciw of naterial aub- 
Manee. 

It may appear ttran|^ that laeh oppoaite conclu- 
•iont thould arise oat of the same system ; but it must 
•pacer etrangcr still, that they are both Irgitimatrly 
Je d need Amn it. That is to say. that Locke, by not 
■ u gciea ri r gvardinf aoow of Me priadpiae, haa^aibrd* 
•d raoai rar their Seine applied er Denretted » betb 
theae ways. He himscTf never intended to leech any 
such doctrine* as thoae which succeediqg ph U oeopben 
end aeeptka have deduced ft«B hie epia i e m . 

The meet wlab r e te d ef tlWee e ye He ae k that of Berke- 
ley ; end we have no hniteri— in saying, that it it the 
moat difficult to refute by feeeoninif. It not only de- 
nie* the exitfence of the OMlcriel world, but affirms that 
the existence of matter ia iapeaetble. Talking of the 
qnalitk* of matter, Locke had acid, that " the ideas of 
jwrasery fmtlUin of bodiea ate newblenrei ct them, 
and their pettcma do reeily exiat in the bediea then- 
Mlvce : bat the idea* piwacad ia ca by theae tree md 
my qmahliei have no iMflahlMMe of them at alt. There 
ia nolhinelike our idcae csillina in the bodies them- 
mIvc*. They ere in bediea we aewwinUe IVom them 
cply a power to nreJaee theae MnecriBW in us; and 
whet ia aweet, bltie, er wena in idrc. ie bat the certain 
balk, inre, aad oMliaa of the tn e enrt ii e pattj in the 
hodiae theaeelvca which we call to." 

Or dMae dHa Berkeley builda Us syatcn. " They 
who eesert," says he, " that figure, motion, and the mt 
of the prinary or original qualities, do exi^t without 
the flrind in aalfeiakiag aabelaacta, do at the >amr time 
c cfc a oi H adee thct coleaw. aomda, heat, rolii, and such 
lUte n ee w ci n y ncHliee do aot ; which, they tell us, 
«• unacliene ciMtiBg hi the amid akioe, that depend 
en, aad are nrraaigntd by the d Uai t at «se, texture, 
and SMtien of the naaala pertidea of matter. Thia 
thay take far ca u nd o ub ted truth, which they can de> 
■Moatretr hryond all esception. Now, if it be certain 
that thoae original qmKtiee err insepefaMy tmlted with 
the other armible (puKtiei, and aot even in tlioufht 
c ap a b le of heitig attracted firam them, it pUinly fol- 
lows thet thry exist only in the mind. But I desire 
aay one to reflect, aad try whether he caa, by any ab> 

atractioo of thought, conceiTr ■■ "naion aad motion 

of a b^dy wi'Jiout all other *• lUtice. For my 

•wn pert. I see evidently th^i .l !•. i...( :- — t ' to 

IVame an idea of a body extended ami n -i 

wilhail give it some colour, or o*'- - ir ijuantr, 

which Ie acknowledged to exiit oi mind. In 

ahor« .T- on, figure, and motmn, ii:'ttrscte«l from 
an '! -ire inconceivable. Where, therefore, the 

n>i ic qtuKtin are. there ma<t be these alao, to 
it, in the mind, and no where else." 
Bctore we advert to the way m which these argu- 
have been answered, we may take notice of the 
which are suppoicd to flow fhim tfaeia. 



These are thought to amount to nothing less than the 
unhinging of all belief, and the introduction of uni- 
veraal scepticism. Nothing certainly could be farther 
from the intention of the amiable and ingenious author. 
For, in the preface to hi.< Dialogues, he says, " If the 
principles which I here endeavour to propagate are ad- 
mitted for true, the consequences I think that evidently 
flow from them are, tliat atheism and scepticicm will 
be utterly destroyed; many intricate points made plain ;. 
great difficulties solved ; cpccuUtion referred to prac- 
tice; and men reduced from paradoxes to commoa 



Mrlaphjr- 

•ia. 



In fact, nothing was ever so completely misunder- 
stood and misrepresented as the aystem of Berkeley, 
and that too by men of some name in philosophy. 
Berkeley anticipated the»e conclusions, and, in our opi« 
nion, gives a most triumphant refutation of them. To 
do him full justice, we use his own words : " 1 am of a 
vulgar cast," Ays he, " simple enough to believe my 
acnaea, and leave things as I find them. It is my opi- 
aioB, that the real things are those very things I tee, 
and feel, and perceive by my senses. That a thing 
should really be perceived by my senses, and at the 
acBM time not ntiij cxiat, ia to me a plain contratlic- 
tion. When I deny aenaibte thing* an existence out 
of the mind, I do not mean iwy mind in particular, but 
all minds. Now it is plain thry have an existence ex- 
terior to ay Bliad, aince I find them, by experience, to 
he indeocadcBt of it. There is, therefore, some other 
mind wntrein they exiat during the intervals bt-tween 
the times of my perceiving them, as likewise they did 
before my birth, and would do at\er my annihilation. 
And as the same is true with regard to all other finite 
croalad epirits, it neceaaarily follows that there is an 
oonipolont eternal mind, which knows and compre- 
hends all thian aad exhibits them to our view in such 
a manner, aaa aoearding to such rules as he himself 
hath ordained, and are by ua termed the laws of na> 
ture." 

No man who knows any thing of philosophy can 
doubt that all this i« perfectly possible, and, if receive 
ed in the wav m which Kerkrly has explained it, could 
have no unfavourable influence on the conduct, the 
happiness, and the hopes of men ; and we may affirm, 
without hesitation, that it is groasly misrepre'<ented, 
and indretl totally mi4un<ler»tood by Beattie, when he Berkeley's 
Mys, " It is tubveriive of man's mo^t important inter- *j*1"do(- 
acta, aa a moral, intelligent, and |)ercipient being ; and '*" "^^' 
not oidy ao, bat al»o, if it were universally and scri- '•"»"'"• 
ously adopted, tlie disMilution of society, and the de- 
struetien of mankind, would necesaarily ensue within 
the cmapam of a laonth." So thought not Plato, who 
conceived it poaeibic that liie might be a continued 
sleep, end all our thoughla and sensations only dreams. 
Beattie seems to have confounded the principles nf Ber« 
keley with those of Fyrrho, who also denied the exist- 
ence of the material world, in the most unqualified 
aenae ; so that his friends, as it is reported, were obliged 
to accompany him wherever he went, that he might 
not l>e run over by carrisges, or fall down precipices. 

Wc evr think that Mr. Stewart, the most candid of 
all philosopher*, has scarcely given a fair view of Rer- 
kriry'* xystcni, when comparing it with that of tlie Ve- 
lUnti scIhmiI among the Hindoos. " I'he difficulties," 
says Sir William Jones, " attending the vulgar notion 
of material substances, induced many of the wiaest 
among the aacienta, and vome of thr mo<t enlightened 
among the OMdcms, a* well as the Hindoo philosopliers, 
to believe that the whole-creation was rather an energy 

ti 



88 



METAPHYSICS. 



than a work, by which the infinite mind, who is pre- 
sent at all times, anfl in all pi ice-*, exhibits to his crea- 
tures a set ot" pi-rceptions like a woiKlerliil picture, or 
piece of music, always varied, but always uniform." 
;.An(l ii-jain, " The Vt-danti-, iinnble to form a distinct 
idea of brute matter indt pendent of mind, or to con- 
ceive that the work of supreme froodness was left a mo- 
ment to it-elf, imaijine that the De'ty is ever present 
to iiis work, !'nil cou^tantly supports a series of per- 
ceptions, which in one sense they chII illusory, though 
they cannot but jidmit t''e reality of all-created forms, 
as far as the li.ippiiiess of creatures can be affected by 
them." 

Mr. Stewart says, that this creei) of the Hindoos has 
not the most distant affinity in its origin or tendency, 
to the system of idealism, as it is now commonly un- 
..derstood in this part of the world ; the former taking 
its rise from a high t'^eological speculation ; the latter 
being deduced as 3 sceptical consequence from a parti- 
cular hypothesis concerning the origin of our know- 
ledge, inculcated by the schoolmen, and adopte<l by 
Locke and his followers. Whatever difference there 
;.may be as to the origin of the i<leal system and that of 
the Hindoos, there can be little doubt that Berkeley's 
principles led him to nearly the same conclusions.. The 
passage already quoted seems cleai ly to prove this ; for 
he says, " It necessarily follows, that there is an om- 
nipotent eternal mind which knows and comprehen<ls 
all things, and exhibits them to our view in such a man- 
ner, and according to such rules, as he himself hath 
ordained, and are by us termed the laws of nature." 
■Hume. On this system of Berkeley was founded the con- 

temptible scepticism of Hume. We could respect an 
honest sceptic who erred in his researches after truth. 
But Hume was not an honest sceptic: he had as little 
faith in his scepticism as in the creed of his country, 
and was actuated .solely by vanity, in the attempt which 
he made to unhinge the belief of mankind. It has 
been beautifully observed by Mr. Stewart, that his aim 
was, not to intcrr( nale nature with a view to the dis- 
covery of truth, but, by a criss-examinutinn of nature, 
to involve her in such contradictions as might set aside 
the whole of her evidence as good for nothing." {Phil. 
Es.mi/s.) Berkeley having said, that matter and all its 
qualities have no existence but in the ideas which are 
in our own minds, Hume proceeded a step farther, and 
endeavoured to shew that nothing could exist but the 
impressions of our own minds ; by which argument he 
wished to sweep away the world of spirits, and the Fa- 
ther of spirits. This is a pitiful sophism, which Ber- 
Hu seep- l^f ''■y foresaw and obviated. He introduces ofie of the 
ticism fore- interlocu (M-s in his dialogues as driwing these very 
seen, and Consequences from his principles : " In consequence of 
obviated by your own pruiciples, it should follow, that you are only 
Berkeley. ^ system of floating ideas, without any substance to 
support them ; and as there is no more meaning in spi 
ritual substance than in material substance, the one is 
to be exploded as well as the other." To this the other 
speaker, who supports Berkeley's principles, answers : 
" How often must I repeat, that I know or am con- 
scious of my own being, and that I myself am not my 
ideas, but something else ; a thinking, active principle, 
that perceives, knows, wills, and operates about ideas? 
I know that I, and the same self, perce've both colours 
and sounds ; and that a colour cannot perceive a sound, 
nor a sound a colour ; that I am therefore one inde- 
pendent principle distinct from colour and sound ; and, 
for the same reason, from all other sensible things and 
inert ideas. Farther, 1 know what I mean when I af- 



firm, that there is a spiritual substance, or support of Uetaphy- 
ideas, that is, that a spirit knows and perceives ideas. "' "• 
But I do not know what is meant when it is said, that ~ iT™^ 
an unperceiving substance h.ith inherent in it, and sup- 
ports either ideas, or the archetypes of ideas." And 
afterwards he says, " My own mind and my own ideas 
I have an immediate knowleilge of: and, by the help of 
these, do immedi itely apprehend the /) s.iihiliit/ oi' the 
existence of other spirits and ideas. Fart her. from my 
being, and from the dependency I feel in myself and 
my ideas, I do, by an act of reason, necessarily infer 
the exi.steiice of a God, and of all created things in the 
mind of God." 

Dr. Reid (whom we have heard called the Newton 
of pneumatology ) udmits, that Berkeley's .system was 
perfectly incontrovertil)le, according to the received 
doctrines respecting the orii/in of our ideas. He em- 
ploys a distinction which Berkc'ey himself had intro- 
duced, and says, that although we cannot have an idea 
of matter, as an idea can exist only in the mind, yet 
we may have a volinn of it ; as Berkeley himse'f ad- 
mits, that though lie cniinot have an idea of God. yet 
he can have a nulioii of his existence. But Keid says 
this only to combat Berkeley's pretended demonstra- 
tion of the impossibility of the existence of m.iteriai 
substances : he does not attempt to prove the actual 
existence of matter, but assumes it as an axiom which 
cannot be proved, because there is no truth plainer 
than itself. Now, though we do not pretend to say 
that Descartes was completely successful in his attempt 
to demonstrate the existence of a material world, yet 
we certainly do think him completely successful in de- 
monstrating the possihilily of its existence. He admits Descartes 
the possibility of Berkeley's system, though no one had demon- 
then promulgated it to the world ; for he says he con- st rates that 
ceived it possible, that his waking thoughts and sensa- ""^ *'"^'' 
tions might be of the same nature with those which n,-,,„f ;- 
passed through the mind in sleep, which he knew could possible, 
not proceed from external objects. His maxim being 
to doubt of every thing till it was proved by demon- 
strat:on, his first ground of doubt as to the existence 
of the external world is .stated in these words : " Quod 
nulla nnquam dum vigito »ie senlire crediderim, quce non 
eliam iuter dormicwlum jMssim aliqnando pulare me sen- 
tire : cunique ilia qua: senlire mihi vidior iu sumiiis, non 
credam a rebus extra me posilis mihi advenire, non adver- 
tebani quart- id polius crrderem de its quce senlire mihi 
videor -ig'la/'do. Mrdilatio sejcta." This is certainly 
giving all due advantage to the system which he was to 
op|)ose. He then proceeds to state the arguments which 
induced him to believe that matter might exist. He 
says, that whatever we can clearly conceive is possi- 
ble ; that we are conscious of certain faculties of the 
mind, such as sensation, imagination, and the like ; 
but that we cannot conceive these to exist except in an 
intelligent substance. In the same manner, we are 
forced to recognize certain powers, sued as motion, 
change of shape, and tlie like, which we must also 
consider as belonging to some substance, otherwise they 
would be inconceivable. But it is evident these powers, 
of which we have such a clear conception, must belong 
to corporeal or extended substance ; for they are incon- 
ceivable as applied to mind. 

We are not sure that any thing more satisfactory has 
been written in answer to Berkeley, than these argu- 
ments of Descartes, which were written so long before 
he was born. In fact, they appear to us to give exact- 
ly the same evidence for the existence of matter, as we 
have for our own existence ; and this is, on all handSj 



METAPHYSICS. 



8$ 



MHapkr- admitted not to need a proof. Grant the esktanoe of 
no, muiJ, thi-n, and we think Deacartea haa appraached aa 
"""V^ near aa po«Mblc to a demonatratioa ot' the exiatenoe of 
■Mttcr. We think it proper that he ihould apeak for 
hfrat'*' oa thta aubject. " Prtelerra imwemio im me f'a- 
ambata tpaciiMiu qmAiuJam wtodu cositewtf prwiitas, 
pmtmfocmlUUa immfpaamd$, H arWieadii, atire qmilmM lo- 
ttm mi pastum eUra H SUimeU iaUUigere, ud aom wiea 
atrm iita* thta bm, Aae eat, aime mAatmalia tmuUiftnte eui 
imaaat i jmltUartiimam aam wa a mm lla m im amofm-aiaU ee*' 
cfiU» imciadmmt, made ptnifi* illu mm*, ml modo$ a re 
dutiagai. Agaaaea etiam fiaadam ahat rixeubatet, ut 
laemm atalaa£, amriaa Jigmraa tadar ^iln, qmr 

qaidam, mam awfif t/mam j ^ a m d e mU j. _. ., .. ali^a tab. 
alaatia cat iatiai paiaaat $mltlBgit aee prtamde ttiam aha- 
f «e ilia eaitUra. Sad amm/tMmm eat luu, at ^aidem ea- 
talaat, unaaa dtbera imhalaalim e u t y m t m aiaa nfraim, nam 
matem ialMgtatit fww aa m pe abq ma eattmtio, ao.i calrai 
mUm plaae iatetUttia ia tanam ciero ft dialimeto eaaetfta 
toaUaetma." 

Or hii amnBenl may be put th«a : If «c can form 

Of cxteoaioa, aiaCian, fans, ftc. which ■»- 

ij we can. thao they najr cxiM ; and at they 

. niat ia a iptritttal •abattncv, they moat be at. 

a of iuiathin|f elae ; and the onljr other •ob' 

) of which we hara any knowledge, la that which 

we call aatter. We think thia eoaapWtely i wai aal a 

Pafkalay'a afywaeat aa to the imfaaiUtili^ of naterial 

We adbnit, however, that it ' t amoont to a 

deoMiu a tia tion that aaattcr ac .i>. raccpt on 

priaci|ilab tkat avery Umtjf which are caa 

re mud, aaoMwlMfa or other, have an atf twtypf . 

TiMy who woaU wiah to rataiii ihair belief 

iateaee of the inaHiial worhi had bettfrn" 

to the haaard of a praof. or wa tarn P ar k eley wUl he 

toe Biaeh for thaa. Dr. Raid, the mod at fcw w oaa ho. 

' of Barkelay'a aamaat, waa ooea a decided Ber> 

*< I oaea baBeaed tMa doctriae of idaai aa 

^/ aaya ha, *• aa to adopt the whole of Beritalejr'a 

I in BBwaqaiina of it ; till finding aoa 




I la follaw from it, which aaae 
naaa than the wast of a aMMcnaT world,. it 
ny miad, amra than Ihrty yeara aga, to pat the naca- 
tioD, what aridaaca have I nr th« doctrine, that all the 
^Uecia of my knowl«dire nrr ideaa fai my own mind .>" 
Taetratli !< ir ilip exi*tence of atattar ia not wimit- 
led aa aa I i^ercvption. it will be tmpoariUe to 

prove it. ""'hing ia more iaeoa^iialMMiUt 

than iK I material ahjeeta 

4'« u> uu ..». We rathrr think BwMey'a 

mmteUigibie than the orthodaaapinieii; and 
wa wouM gladly amhr a ca it if we coaM. Bat h prv- 
aonla tlaa ArmlaaMa oUtetion, that, if wearedcccfr- 

kI a* r~ •' =nence or matter, we roay be deceived 

in c»< • l*c : for nothing i* more orruin. 

The I4I1C- »t i>eaawtaa' oalebratad axiom to prava \Aa 
own esiitaaea. ahoold teach aa to beware of alniii[H 
ing tonpUin nhiaMte prhtriplea. Caaiiln, rrga tarn, 
he oantklrrrd aa kicontrovertiblc ; but it involveaapci. 
titiaprimeipk m the very ffmt «tep. Cofiia '» equivalent 
to. fam a Maktma bti»g, ami ergoaam, to ikerrfarr I am 
im taiaf. Here « to evident that every th 
amaarf. The primim haply, that he eaiata : 
iay be ing ; and then he caiployf them to prove thiit he 
evMa at aJL The tyllogiam to which hi* propofiiion 
may hr rcdaaad baa bam jaatiy compared to that ridi- 
coliHi by daaa: 8i laotf, hut: Imut aatem: lacei igi. 
tar. 

VOL UT. PAST I. 



. Thiu we have teen, *' .' — consequence of Locke's 
philoaophy ha* been, i o( ihe txictence of the 

material world by UerKt-U'y and bis iullowtrs. This 
oonaequence naturally enough arote out of the receiv- 
ed doctrine concerning idea.1, and pjirticularly from 
Locke'* a**ertiun, that the ideas at' the priirary quali- 
tica ol' matter were actual rcaemblance* ; whi!t>t he ad- 
mitted, ttiat the ideas of the aacondary qualities were 
ooiy sensations in our own minds. Berkeley easily 
perce i ve d , that ttiere could be no more resemblance 
between exteiuion and the idea it prtxiticrd in ttie mind, 
than between the sensation of siurll and the object 
wl I'd it ; and on this he built his sy»trm. 

D \ t. though a disciple of Locke, had much 

mora oonact viewa on this subject : he says, that the 
aenaation by meana of which we arrive at the know> 
lodge of eatearioa, is, in its nature, as incomprehensi' 
bte aa extenaion itself. And, in the Preliminary Uis- 
course to the Eaqehpadie, he says, that as there is no 
relation whatever bctwcmi a sensation and the object 
which excitea it, or to which we refer it, we cannot 
trace, by reasoning, any poaaible paaaage from the one 
ta the other ; and therefore he thinks, that it is by a 
•pcdeaof iiietiBCt that we are forced acroaa the f;ulf 
which aapanlca mind from roaUer ; a mode of reason- 
iac vary nearly c oi ncidin g with that of Dr. Reid. 

Vl'e now tarn ta the eooiideration of some other in> Conrluaiona 
f a r aa w a deduced by the oontinental philoaopher* from drducrd 
Locke'a arindplai^ whieb era the vary revene of Ber- ['°'" , 
kalay'a ideal aeheaw. If it b true that aen»ation is the )^^^',*^ ^ 
inlet of all our kaawleilne, it seema to follow, a* a n*> ,h'^ comi-' 
taiai aaoaaqaaacr, that there can be no ideas in the ncniai phl- 
■iad bol aaah aa have their origin in material and sen- loaopbna. 
atbiaaMecta. At laaat tfato u the use which has been 
made of Lach«'* doctrine by the materiali<t< on the 
oeatiaent. We shall tee by and by, tlut nti> 

oantal writers give a very diiferenl intrq: ■> it. 

The ductrioe of the aiaterialisU, aa deduced from DideroL 
IxK-kc't prindplaa, u thua stated by Diderot, in the 
6lh volume of hia works. We use the words of Mr. 
Stewart with very lutle ah'Tatii.ii. which combine the 




light of a eomneaAary wiii 
" Every idea mast necc. 
stale of altioMte dec 
seaaiMr repraeentation u; , 
ia aar aniHTBtandmg baa i 

of aafimtion. what. ... |...-v.v 

iaeitber dmnencal, or mii»i 
the aame road, to re atuch 
.ype. Hence an iiii|Mirtant 



ty of a triUialation. 

M brought to ita 

iliell into a 

.. „i ,.rv thing 

the 

V .- ..i,i ./i tlie un« 
be able, in 
it'^elf tu ita 
rule in phi. 



vhicti cannot find an ex 
which it can attach it 



io^^my, that - 

temal and n 

self, i* destitute r. I -iguiMr.imjn." 

Theae are certainly most portentous contequencea of 
Locke's doctrine, and such aa neither he nor any of 
hta aober admirvra ever oontamplated. Th'y are made 
the fau a dwi aB of the amat avowed and unqualified 
m at ttia t ia m; aad an aaployed to per<uade u< that we 
ottttht to reject from the book of l> 
eyery word which doaa net preaent 
like a picture or image, fraoi seme arcltctype among 
the obirct* of eatemal perception. 

Such are ' -d oonaeqaencea of 

too literally ; .of the acbools, ci>' 

posed to Mva bean preacribed by Aristotle. 
was framed in latter timea, a* n cornirirv 
from hi « doctrine. The maxim 
qmod nnnfmt priaa in ittiru, wl 
n act wa n ly, 



■ "g Miilm of 
'<p- Ibe schools, 
but which 

<lr'Ill<il>|e 

la. 

. ,: , ">d, 

we ahoald think, lead to material'- 



90 



Metaphy- 
sics. 



Corrected 
by Leib- 
nitz- 



Error of 
the mate- 
rialists. 



Inconceiv- 
able — that 
thought 
should re- 
st; It from 
4ny combi- 
nation cf 
matter. 



ism : for it implies that Ihe senses are the beginning and 
the end of all our knonledge ; a maxim which might 
easily be employed to cut up by the roots metaphysics, 
ethics, and religion. It is unfortunate that these scep- 
tics, who have so eagerly perverted the doctnne, clicl 
not attend to a most judicious criticism made by Leib- 
nitz, on the fundamental principle of Locke s system. 
It is in these words : Nempe, nihil est m tnteUecUt, 
quod non fuerll in sensit, nisi ipse intellectus. Had 
Hume attended to this, he never would have coti- 
founded mind with its impressions, nor supposecl it 
possible for them to exist but in a spiritual and intelU- 

^^The" erroTof Hume, as well as of the continental 
materialists, who attempt to build their systems on 
Locke's principles, consists in this, that they view the 
mind merely as a kind of intellectual machine, or ws. 
thclical instrument, which receives impressions some- 
thintr in the same way as a camera ohscura, with this 
only difference, that the figures, once introduced, re- 
main as it were in some quiet corner, till, on the in- 
troduction of some of their old friends, they start forth 
to renew their acquaintance. But in all these theories 
the attention is confined entirely to what may be called 
the mechanism of perception, whilst no regard what- 
ever is paid to the perceiving principle. It would be 
mst as rational to suppose that a clock not only indi. 
cates the hours, but perceives and calculates the flux ot 
time, as to suppose that any sensation whatever could 
arise in a mere material substance; the very concep- 
tion of which implies that it is insentient, lo say 
that extension, figure, motion, solidity, &c can ever by 
anv possible combination become susceptible ot thought 
and volition, is as inconceivable, and as utterly repug- 
nant to every principle of sense and reason, as it 
would be to suppose that a thing may be itself and its 
contrary at the same time; or that a figure may be at 
one and the same time a square and a circle ; or that 
light and darkness may exist in the same place, and at 
the same instant. In short, the sceptics confound 
themselves and their followers, by making the mmd 
itself the instrument of sensation, instead of ascribing 
this office to the organs of sense, with which the body 
is furnished. So distinct is the mind froin the mate- 
rials furnished by the senses, that we firmly believe its 
most important feelings are independent of the senses : 
we mean the feelings of pleasure and pain, which are 
coeval with our existence as sentient beings, and may 
be nay, we doubt not, must be perceived, before the 
seAses a^e called into exercise. All that the senses do, 
so far as the mere animal is concerned, is to supply 
those pleasures which the mind desires or to remove 
the uneasiness which it feels: and we have elsewhe e 
supposed, and we think it incontrovertible, that the 
mind may continue susceptible of pleasure or of pain 
in the absence of all the external senses. Take aw;ay 
sight, hearing, taste, and smell, will a inan then be m- 
capable of feeling pleasure and pain ? No Take 
away the remaining sense of touch; is he then an in- 
sentient mas3.> No: supply his wants, and he wil 
still be happy, so far as his mere animal existence is 

concerned. , i i- 

We have seen some very sober philosophers leading 
themselves astray with the greatest deliberation on this 
subiect; puzzling themselves to which of the senses 
thev should ascribe pleasure and pain, and the liHe ; 
evidently supposing all along that the senses were 
themselves sentient, and not mere instruments of sen- 
sation. When a man sees with a'telescope a star invu 



METAPHYSICS. 

sible to the naked eye, or hears witli an ear-trumpet a Metaphy- 
sound otherwise inaudible, he would not surely say ^J^^t^ 
that the telescope sees, or that the trumpet hears : and 
it would be as improper, strictly speaking, to say that 
the eye sees or the ear he.irs : but it is accurate as well 
as philosophical language, to say that we see with the 
eye and hear with the ear. Had the sceptical writers 
attended to this, they never would have confounded 
the mind with its ideas, and the thinking principle 
with the instruments which it employs, and the per- 
ceptions of which it is conscious. , , ., ... 

It is true, indeed, we know matter only by its qua- A substra- 
lities, and mind by its operations : still, however we n.mnece,- 
have an irresistible conviction that there is sometlung ' 
more than the mere qualities of matter to serve as a 
substratum, in which they must inhere, otherwise mat- 
ter could not exist ; for the qualities of matter are not 
materipl, any more than the sensations of mind are 
sentient In both there must be an invisible, incom- 
prehensible substratum, in the one case, as the recipient 
of qualities, in the other of sensations. And we have 
always been of opinion that, were the question to he 
solely between the materialists and the idealists, every 
philosophical, as well as every pious mind, must, with- 
out hesitation, give its suffrages m favour ot the latter, 
and cling to them, as the best supporters of the dig- 
nity and immortal hopes of man. For we say again, 
that Berkeley's system is infinitely more intelligible 
than its opposite, we mean than that which would ba- 
nishmincffrom ihe universe; for in that case maUet 
would be inconceivable. 

We must therefore be content to embrace the old 
system, and admit the existence of mind and matter 
as ultimate facts, of which we can give no accoiint, 
(otherwise they would not be ultimate,) and as there- 
fore referable alone to the sovereign will ot him who 
commanded all things to be as they are. It ,s stifficient 
that we know the existence of our own minds by con- 
sciousness, and the existence of the external world by 
perception. Of these two points we are absolutely 
certain, if there is any certamty in human knowledge; 
if there is not, it is equally in vain to argiie on the one 
side or on the other.^ This seems to be the conclusion 
to which Hume would wish to reduce us; and it is the 
conclusion of one who ought to be denounced as the 
asLsin of human happiness. To the authors of all 
such attempts, the words of Seneca are pecuharly ap- 
plicable. Non facile dixcrim, utrum magts trascor ti- 
lls qui nos nihil scire voluerunt. an illis, qui ne hoc qut- 

nr£rrS:mu^'£rti;atthoughonthe^ 

mission of a material world }^^ °^ '^'''''^'^f'Z^fJoL 
the scholastic maxim. Nihil fuU m intelkctu, quod Hon ,,^^^,^,,3, 
fuit prius in sensu, the consequences which Diderot, Berkeley's 
and the other materialists, deduced from these premises principles, 
must naturally follow, yet on the scheme of Berkeley 
the maxim of the schools is perfectly harmless ; nay, U >s 
the very foundation of his doctrine : and several of the 
continental philosophers have adopted Diderot s pre- 
mises without coming to the same <=°"'=1"^'°"- /,V,7 
TramactionsoftheBerlinAcademy for the year 1757, 

Sts a paVer by M. Merian, in which he adogsm M. Mer.an. 
their full extent, the very principles which Diderot 
makes the foundation of materialism, and argues that 

such consequences by no ^^'^fJ'^^^^lJl'^^a^Z 
<• If we are once fully persuaded," says he, that sen- 
sation is the foundation of all our knowledge, we have 
only a single step to advance, to be convinced that all 
our knowledge consists of sensations It is even im- 



W E T A P 

»ici iiSy. ponible to conceive that cur Vnowled^, being mere 
>_ "[''_. wowtioo in it« origin, (houlti ever become «njr thiiijj 
' ~ but lentation, by any after prooeM. Sui-h a transition 
woulJ not be a change, but a magical Iranafurmation ; 
in conaequence of which, tentatiun muitt hure been anni- 
hilated, and a new tet of idea* : '^ — * f 

nonentity *." N'otbiog can bi 

yet tliia author is not a toiaterian^t. i ie vcema to auopt 
the opinion of Berkeley ;#rithout, however, iBCBtiaQillg 
hit name, or alluding to Wn *ystera. For, in a aubie- 
quent part of the ume pajter, he makes the following 
obacrratioiu. " I'he materialitU believe that the 
gnMad b all their own, when we ailroit that all the 
wca hi w of the aoal may be reduced tu the aenaea ; and 
th« tfirilm^ittt think their cause eumtially injured by 
thb conceaaion. (n thii inatance, both partica are un- 
der tlic influence of prejudice ; fur wttat is that msUer 
of which the one is so food, and tba other so much 
afraid ? /> it any Ikiof tbt Mm m atuwtUage o/" «r»- 
aalioM t Tbo fiiadameatal error of mattriatum lies in 
coofcandmg the acntitat aubaiance with seipe of iu 
paftienlar seniatinnt : and the state of the soul with 
the soul itJelf. It wou'.dbeabaardlesay that tiiesout 
ia whiu, or black, or cold, or hot : and it ia lutl hasa 
ahaord to aay, that it is cxtandod or soli<L Tb«e ar* 
■U sansationa which tba so«l feola. bat th^ aie noc the 
and itself: and every one of thaac aeniationa I may 
eeaae to feel, yet my soul will not, on that account, 
enae to esiat t.** 

^1^ . ■'*• «*** •"* «' «•>• F»»»ch phfloaoiihcra 
"x •'''^ ft«B their ooaaaire Wre of gm^ndbZeo. 1 

hadaoPVlilM the philoaopby o7 the hwMa ndad hf 
an mental phssMOKtw to 

i* theffrand inlat 



tioo. fifnaalim \» the grand inlat of knowledf* ; and 
fy «f <fc». ^f^fwb which have thna been mtrodocad 
inloihe aahMi, variaua mmpounda are fonacd, the ooo* 
stilaent psets of which have all ottcml by the — nrr 
The doctrine \etj evidently pointo o«t a farthse aim- 
^/ae smoe L4id(e's ideaa of leilection are on- 
ly ■ndiUcatitw e of the ideaa leoeivad by 
natwaOy sMN^ fidlova that every idea of the 

ney nkaMlalf be TC*md to aoMation. On 



pkan. 



c 



Bclmiiia. 



these pr iiiciplea Hdvatiaa oonalnMtad hia aystem. and 
rcterred all the nhenomena of mind ianniediately to 
aensBtian, which he oalla araasMK^^ ^J^sMiM^ 

He bagine, rery unfiliilaaeiifaiany we wnst be per- 
wttad to think, to prore tlMt nasMiT la only m 
but waelaned. W e hnee el anwfcw 

\o taaaery nnMh aaere important iiiiiMiMaa 
thMMt aiqiplies the place of inabnct ; and when Tk ».. 
oqacta an |neaented to the aund. if they hare erer 
' •«» »»»tew before it at anv other time, the me- 
7, by ramllaciji^ the qoalitMa of each, en^laa the 




a kind of eomlimmu ■iifohiin, hf wiuA we 
the ratantion of the c^faal iiba t bat we 



HVSICS. 91 

mind to form an immediate decision respecting them. Met;i|>hy. 
But in all Uiis there is no senaation : on the contrary, " "• 
nieuiory and sensation cannot exist together, on any ^T'7^'^ 
urinciple of philosophical propriety: the niemorj-, we mcmnrv 
believe, merely exhibits the signs of past sensations ; ,nU jutip- 
and when these happen to excite an uncommonly live- mem «iih 
ly intereat, so that the original fL-elings are repnxlucetl, »en»aiion. 
we could not, in strictness of sjieech. call that memory ; 
it is intense feeling ; it is, in the strictest sense of we 
word, senation. 

To complete his pLui, he has only to prove next, that 
judgmnl is a modiAcation of aensatlon. And he makex 
this supposition : A quertioo ia agiuted, the object of 
which u to decide, whether .lustice or Generosity 
be the most useful qualities in the ruler of a state * 
And he attempu to prove, that this moral question 
is decided on the principle of sensation. For how, 
says he, would the orator, or the poet, re|e«aenl 
thu subjea^ The orator, he remarks, will preaent 
to the imagination three pictures : in the one he will 
exhibit a just king oondaominga criminal, and causing 
him to be executed: in another, he will represent a ge- 
n«rous prince, opening the doors of the prison, and 
atn1un(f off the fetlan from the criminal : and, in the 
tluni pictura, he would shew the same criminal, iinme- 
diately on hia escape from the orison, arming himself 
with a d^ger, and murdering fiiftr citizens. Tliese re- 
prrsantationa would instantly enaUe anv man to decide 
that juatica was tlte most vahiable quality in a ruler ; 
and that it was real mercy to sacrifice one for the safety 
of many. He!> -•;•■- i>nving tlius analysed, as he thinks, 
the leatimeiit ught to arise in'tlie mind, by ex- 

hAitiqg the *...„.» ..^im amployed to rqvcaent it, he 
talla aa, in randa a i o n . that aU this is mere sensation. 

Th«i^ ocftainlr, here, a jpusa abuse of language, 
■«>«• • f««t want of phi lo sophical precision. For our 
part, were we even to aaa the aaaaaata plunge the knife 
into the breast of hia friend, we ahoold acarcely think 
that the aentnnent of horror which wouM arise in the 
mind ooukl be ascribed to ttntibUUi pkyrijue. We 
would aacribe it to a moral aensibility ; anil nr« inclined 
to think that the physical sensibility of Hclvetius is a 
phrase scarcely admisaible in phikauphy. 

But b««h he, and manv othera of the French philo- Word. 
■opfaer^ have been misled by the material origin of tlie "hich re- 
wonts, m which even the most refined. moraC and spi- P"^"' •P'- 
ritual idcaa of the mind are expreaaed. We have «i- '""•' '"'*•• 
deav«uml to shew (see Looic) that every word of^TZ 
whK* Uj^guage u cnmpoaed, is originally a picture. 3 or" 
drawn from n»tenal ot^ ; and that as mind ^ on^ t^ 
ly be known by certam seoaible eftcta^ its operations 
never can be explained but by aenaible images. There 
u an obvious analogy hetwaan the progress and culture 
of the mind, and many of the objecu of external nature • 
between the growth of our bodies, for inatance, and the 

• ; fl M nans riMt qn'on pai a 

* ~" ' '""'>Ofd M in MD- 

fcalmt am h 

ror^jade* 



•-^ sal jei. .. ,as rrf<s ,ii lal -Mcs^s sfci fc* tim aa assaH-fl-sii &«a V- ismi^^ 

■f l^ ■BMrisMass cnyat srab mm Bmat qaaad sa kv ssasidt am tanks b fc^h^ ^ I'm,. • . . 
HSa wiisMaM aaiM sawiliBiaiwi i |<w cans m l^mt sans csm^b. r.jl I ia ■■.• m .i<»». r^ 

saaM^ l-^Cr-- 1 -i-es-ke. ?«lltS!y i m^L-l'hZ'Zi^'^nL^^SZJl "aTf^H'^' 

"-"^ Is ^miSBhasM, Is *w M k aMi. oa isat eda ■niaiili. mm d* £rt que je n 
•Msai^psfspNaTti €^ as 4sac fas pi ri Slim s t Js as pais smst d'tot am « ttUa'ya 



'*—** '** "''"" aox «»«« et In ipjrittul. 

tl dlHtre. On Bc prouven janiak qu'il 

"*"""' et que In wa„. ^, 

' da CMftodn rE«i« 



'■•*<siBdtdiNaas>wkkMaeaB 

«rii r«i«lo sa k I.H&, M <ak TTte 
4s CSS <hssss ^ j( at pakM csMCT 



92 



METAPHYSICS. 



MeUphy- enlargement of our faculties ; or between the progress 
»'* =»• of our minds, and that of vegetable nature ; and tiiere- 
^ fore the one can be employed to illustrate the other 
without the smallest conliision, or the least danger of 
confounding their identity. We talk of cullivaling the 
inind, or of cut/iva/iiig a field, without the smallest dan- 
ger of mistake ; and we are as little apt to suppose the 
mind material from this mode of sjieaking, as we would 
be to niist<ike the respective culture of each ; or to ima- 
gine that the manure employed to fertilize the fields 
could be applied to the improvementof the human mind. 
We can admit, then, without the smallest fear for the 
consequences, that even the words which express spiri- 
tual iijeas have a material origin : they are merely the 
description of certain visible effects, by which the soul 
manifests its operations ; and, when we talk of a storm, 
or a conflict in tlie soul, we are merely borrowing what 
we conceive to be an analogous representation to make 
known the troubled state of our feelings. 

We may here observe, that though Helvetius adopts 
the s.ime doctrine with Diderot, as to the origin of our 
knowledge ; yet lie is not a ])rofessed materialist. He 
. says his doctrine is equally reconciicable with both 
plans ; and he very absurdly alleges, that the exist- 
ence of the soul as a thinking substance distinct from 
matter, is a doctrine which could only be established 
■ by the autliority of the church. This is a very suspi- 
cious way of talking ; it was very generally adopted by 
Hume and all the sceptics who had not sufficient cou- 
rage to avow their disbelief of Christianity, but who 
brought it forward on all occasions, as patronizing du- 
biou> opinions, and as establishing certain doctrines 
which they affect to spare because they are sheltered by 
its authority. Thus Hume, in the conclusion of his 
Essay on Miracles, after having attempted to demon- 
strate that a miracle was impossible, and therefore could 
not be believed on any principle of reason, affects to say 
that it was made quite ea.sy by Revelation, and that there 
could be no difficulty in believing, when we were thus 
positively commanded to do so. Helvetius was not 
distinguished for orthodoxy ; but what he says respect- 
ing the soul seems rather to be in opposition to Descar- 
tes's pretended demonstration of its existence, than to 
have arisen from any sceptical doubt on the subject. 
Though he perceived that the subject was, in its na- 
ture, not susceptible of demonstration, yet he foolishly 
imagined that it was necessary to have some authority 
for believing it, not perceiving that ultimate facts, which 
admit of no proof, can be strengtliened by no authori- 
ty, but must rest on the evidence of our consciousness 
or of our senses, according as they belong to mind or 
to matter. De I'Exprii, Chap. Prem. 

But it was not merely among the continental philo- 
sophers that Locke's doctrines were perverted from their 
original purpose, and made subservient to a scheme of 
materialism. The opposite system, indeed, obtained 
much more eclat in this country, and the abettors of ma- 
Harllcy. terialism have scarcely acquired a name. Hartley, by his 
physiological theory of vibrations, seemed to give some 
countenance to it, though he himself protests, and we 
believe with perfect sincerity, against any intention of 
deducing such a conclusion from his hypothesis. This 
we can easily believe, when we find M.ilebranche, whose 
general doctrine certainly approached much nearer to 
the sentiments of the spiritualists than to those of the 
materialists, holding exactly the same opinions with 
Hartley as to the immediate cause of sensation. La se- 
conde chase, sjiys he, qui se tr itrc daiis chucunc des sen- 
sations, est I'ehranlcmeiil, des fibres de nns ne?/s, que se 
communique JHsqu'au cetvcati. There could not possibly 



be a clearer anticipation of the Hartleian hypothesis ; Meiaphy- 
and it must also be evident that this hypothesis is en- ''en- 
tirely unsupported by proof Hartley says that it is a '*"'*Y"™'' 
sufficient proof of the truth of his hyptrthesis, that it ac- 
counts for all the phenomena of sensation and percep- 
tion : for, when the key answers to the cipher, he says, 
we may be sure that we have found the true one. There 
is a fallacy in this illustration. When we meet with 
an unintelligible cipher, and »t last discover the means 
of exjjlaining it, we may be sure that we have found the 
right principle ; it can have no meaning or signification 
on any other. In the same manner, when we find a 
piece of mechanism designed for motion, a watch, for 
instance, standing still, or moving irregularly from the 
want of some particular wheels, and when we discover 
at last the wheels which exactly answer the purpose, we 
are sure they are the right ones. 

But these illustrations are totally inapplicable, either 
to the phenomena of mind or to the laws of nature ; for 
here tlie machine is not standing still, it is in constant 
and regular motion : and the question is, not to disco- 
ver the wheel which is wanting, but the one which 
principally regulates the movements. Here any wheel 
in the series may be taken, according to the views and 
knowledge of individuals ; and it will account for the 
motions of all which depend upon it. But if we inquire 
what put our first material wheel in motion, we shall 
find that it either dejjends on another, or that it derives 
its motion from a spring, or a weight, or from water, or 
wind, or steam, &c. Any of these will answer the pur- 
pose. In the same manner, the physical phenomena of 
the universe are equally explicable on the principle of 
Malebranche, who held that every effect was produced 
by the immediate interposition of Deity ; or of Leibnitz, 
who maintained that there was a pre-established har- 
mony between cause and effect, in consequence of which 
they acted together, without influencing each other ; or 
of Spinosa, and the Materialists, who hold that matter 
is eternal, and possesses in itself the principles of mo- 
tion ; or of Berkeley, who contends that tliere is no mat- 
ter, but all that we perceive is a vision of the mind. 
Each of these philosophers had a ict/ which he tliought 
was the right one Hartley's cipher has neither use nor 
meaning without the kei/. The phenomena of mind, 
and of the visible universe, are equally interesting, al- 
though the real key should never be (liscovered. 

Hartley's system has been adopted by Priestley and Priosilcy 
Darwin^ who have founded on it a system of materialism. "■]'' •''"• 
Their views, in establishing this conclusion, were, no "'"' 
doubt, very different Darwin was regardless of conse- 
quences, in following out a philosophical tlieory, and was 
not withheld by any religious scruples from dismissing 
mind from the universe ; whilst I'riestley was led to 
imagine that it would'materially strengthen his peculiar 
views of Christianity to suppose the soul material, and 
natiu-ally perishable along with the body. In the Uni- 
tiirian scheme which Priestley so warmly espoused, the 
death of Christ seems to present an irisurmountable ob- 
stacle ; and orthodox Christians ask why it should have 
taken place, attended by so many circumstances of pain 
and ignominy, if no object of great importance was to 
be accomplislied by it ? Priestley's answer is, that tliis 
event took phice, tliat by our Saviour's resurrection, 
the hopes of our natunJly perishable souls might be re- 
vived, and we miglit thus be authorized to aspire after 
immortality. To give currency to this conceit, this j)re- 
cipitate and dogmatic reasoner chose to give up all the 
natural arguments for the soul's immortality, and to re- 
present it as a material substance, and by necessary con- 
sequence, as he imagined, perishable in its nature. By 



METAPHYSICS. 



93 



Mcuphy. thin conduct he threw away many solid advantages, 
«*» «• w iiliout gaining the shadow of a benefit in return ; and 

*''"^''™' his condiuioo doe* not seem neceMiarily to follow from 
his own premiaea. For, even allowing the soul to be 
material, ■why should it, on that account, be mortal ? If 
the Almiflhtv could endow matter with the power of 
feeling, thinking, &c. which Mr. lAxke senns to think 
does not imply an absolnte ah«imlity •, and which Dr. 
Pneitley reMona upon a .iscertained, we do not 
aee why we ahoald mm i a substance to be na> 
turally mortal an<l ; In fact, we believe mat- 
ter to be as iniprr :i its nature as mind itself. 
We see no process winch cnn give us any idea of the 
anniliilaliiin of matter. W'e see alteralion, decomposi- 
tioti dissolution, and all this without the loss 
of a ^ arant tKirticlt- of the original mass. We 
do not, I: t either mind or mat- 
ter arc n:it , ._..uy immortal; but this, 

we say, that i- t the suae power which called 

them into exi-:.:. .. ...n reduce them to annihilation. 

Vet we hold it abcurd to talk of any created subatknoe 
as naturally and essentially inimartal ; for, if we might 
pwauui e to assign any bounds to the oower of the AU 
mighty, we would say it was limitea by thia, that be 
cnoid not make tny aeated substance independaot of 
htmtelf. 

We hare perhaps said more than eno«igfa of Priest- 
ley, who is unworthy of notice as a metaphysician ; 
and whose character as • philoaopher must rest on his 
phrsical researches. He had an acnti' -■■-'•! : but he 
fell into the error which tuu mioled ni.. !it me> 

taphysicians ; for he thought that lie notuMi unly to 
draw ftum his own resources ; and tliat, tlie province 
ct mind being alwajrs acc ess ible, he might find in his 
• own stares those materials of knowledge which others 
aeek by painful study in the works of tbe learned. 
Aieh a teniper has itj< adrantagts ; bat they are near- 
ly cmiBlerlMlaneed by oppoarte iimuuvamcnccB. For 
whilst, OB tbe one hand, toe Aarinsacas of diarawian 
which d!.<tinguisbcd Priestley may occasi'" 
out new lights, and lead into a path of i. 
hitherto uiuttemptcil ; there is, un the oUkt tuiul, a 
dimmer that tJic mind which is unacquainted with what 
others hare already done, may be wasting its strength 
in porsoin^ pharttmn* which Bare nlrejidr been bunted 
down, or rect a <a»ir liaa already 

been nn- ■ v mrtapli Miald be ac- 

tirccssors : and 
I his own inde- 
!'■ • to extend the 

l""iii!:r. . HUdeaerved lau- 

reU, in the ample lield presented to him by thejlrti 
J>hilotnr''u 

CtmAWXte. ( > iaao|rfiers, CoodDlae has obtain- 

ed til aa a rommpnt.iinr un \.iK\e ■ 



and indr 
Locke's V 
philosopl 
adopted I 



n<t to bf 



they are very fur from being agreed as to the conse 
quences which may be deduced from it. " Give me 
matter, and motion," said Descartes, " and I will make a 
world." — " Give me sensation," Condillac seems to say, 
" and I will make a man." In his Essay on the Origm 
of Human Knowledge, Uiere is often much ingenuity, 
but there is fully as much of confident assertion. He 
lays great stress on attention, and makes it a principal 
iniitrument in transforming his ideas of sensation into 
those which we are accustomed to call ideas of reflec- 
tion. He seems to have given the cue to Mr. Stewart, 
and some other succeeding philosophers, to consider 
allenii'tn as an original power of the mind ; though we 
think it is ncitiier more nor less than a natural or arti- 
ficial interest lent to the .iffections. Condillac Ilhs also 
made great use of the principle of association, as the 
means of effecting a transniuU-ition of sensations into 
ideas the itiost recondite and prutbund. This was also 
tiie grand arcanum of Hartley's system, which was 
published al\er Condillac's Euiti tur COrigine det Con- 
mautanees Humninct ; yet we do not mean to say that 
it was borrowed from it. It seems to form an unavoid- 
able article in every system which as sum e u sensation 
alone a* the origin irf* hiuian knowledge, and therefore 
may be daimea as common property by all who hold 
this creed. 

This coincidence between the opmions of Condillac 
and Hartley has been observed by Mr. Stewart ; but 
there is a still more striking resemblance between tlieir 
physiolecioBl theories, which he has not noticed. " I 
suppose nere, and in other places." says Contlillac, 
" that the physical cause of the perceinions of the 
mind, is the ooocuasion of the fibres of tne brain ; not 
that 1 look npon this hypothesis as demonstrated; but 
that it seems the best adapted far explaining mv 
thoogfat If this is not the way they are produced, 
it nmst be in some other, not very ditferent manner. 
For Ike brain earn bf aatd upnu oa/jr bji moliom. There- 
fore, whether we suppose the p erceptions are occaniim- 
' ' ' the concusAian of the mires, or by the circula- 
r the animal spirits, or by some other cause, it is 
all liic aame to the purpose m this discourse." Nu' 
gent's Translation. 

But the truth is, that the more we extend our know- 
ledge of the lii«torj' nf philosophy, we will be the 

• ty of o])inion», nnd the 
iinong the tiifTcreiit .nu- 

it:ilii>ii : hir. IM>( kiKiw- 
ji' I'tiire them, many writers 
tr II k I it' their predecessors, and 



Metaphy- 
ties. 



more struck with tl 

ap par en t want of or 

tnors In most can- 

of ignorance as mm 

ing what has been i 

continue to tread in ti 

think, all the while, ttwt 

world with original diitcoveries. 

Mr. Stewart lean* towards the opinion of Cudwortl), Siswart.' 
and otIiiT* »ilni 111 liiitiun that certain ideas, which ne- 
ver C" I by sensation, are generated 
by a I ■ - <ir 'pring out of the natural 
rr*»nii :;. Cudworlh compares 
the vi«..i... V i^.. -written book, which con- 



tbey are enlightening tbe 



• " W* bare the iilcM of maltrr sad lUtlir 
tm '• 'm being i iinwft i* fur um bf tlie coDUnil 
•a ssoM fumu «f laMtar fiiiy dnpcacd. s povi 
lisl labiis ai s, k Win. in tw p t c t lo ma oMian< . 
si^nadd M mt u t t a liealtr 9l ikinkinfc. ibaa i: 
I 6 <. %V« ihink aaoM of ibc HKtm ■dnneed ^ 
that »• can be turc of mj ibiaa. becalm «( do 
nriM wUcb implM* a cmMiadisiias, dia( a thing 
■ AUy ilmild bt U*«k sad vUis, «r boi astl > 



< "V, siKihcr anj mere malrrial being (binkf or 

. to diKOTcr whether onmipotcncy has nut girea 

Hnd !• matter to di>puKd, a thinking imniate- 

lisMlsa lo coDccin, that iiuA ran. if he plra<c«, 

....;^nc*.wiib a faculty of Ibinlung." Book IV. lb. 3. 

/\eo>nJin|( u> Un* way nf rtaaaoiog, we can nercr iay 

.>er. W't arc turrly warranted to lay, that nothing can 

•i ui.iHUr tiling at ihc aame linic ; and «c i:in just a( catily eonceivc, that 

ikilid, at the tame instaat, u that mitid ibould be matler, or that matter 



m 



METAPHYSICS. 



Mclsphv- 
■aes. 



Deficiency 
«f Locke's 
doctrine 
pointed out 
bjF Leibnitz. 



Bttended 
view of per- 
ception. 



vey3 Iwtli pleasure and information to a cultivated 
mind, but is totally unintelligible to an ignorant per- 
son, or a brute. " To the ej-es of both, the same cha- 
racters will a])j)ear ; but the learned man, in tliose ciia- 
racters, will see heaven, earth, sun, and stars ; read 
profound theorems of philosophy or geometry ; leatn 
a gre;it deal of new knowledge from them ; and ad- 
mire the wisdom of the composer ; while to the other, 
nothing appears but black strokes, drawn on white pa- 
j)er. The reason of which is, that the mind of the 
one is furnished with certain previous inward anticipa- 
tions, ideas, and instruction, th.it the other wants."— 
" In the room of this book of human composition, let 
us now substitute the book of nature, written all over 
with the characters and impressions of divine wisdom 
and goodness, but legible only to the intellectual eye. 
To the sense both of man and brute, tliere appears no- 
thing else in it, but, as in the other, so many inky 
scrawls ; that is, nothing but colours and figures. But 
the mind which hath a participation of the divine wis- 
dom that made it, upon occasion of these sensible de- 
lineations, exerting its own inward activity, will have 
pot onh' a wonderfid scene, and large j)rospects of 
other thoughts laid open before it, and variety of 
knowledge, logical, mathematical, and moral, display- 
ed ; but also clearly read the divine wisdom and good- 
ness in e%'ery page of this great volume, as it were 
written in large and legible characters."' This passage 
contains nearly a summary of Mr. Stewart's doctrine, 
which he thus briefly explains in his Philosophical Es- 
says. " All our simple notions, or, in other words, all 
the primary elements of our knowledge, are either 
presented to the mind innnediately by the powers of 
consciousness and of perception, or they are gradually 
unfolded in tiie exercise of the various faculties which 
cliaracterize the human understanding. According to 
this view of the subject, the .sum total of our knowledge 
■may widotibledhi be said to originate in sensation, inas- 
much as it is by impressions from without, that con- 
sciousness is first awakened, and the different faculties 
of the understanding put in action." At the same 
time, he admits that tliis enunciation is liable to the 
grossest misconstruction, as is exempHfied in the crude 
notions of Locke's French commentators. 

That many important truths, which cannot be trac- 
ed to sensation, in the sense in which Locke under- 
stood the word, gain admission into the human mind, 
is jjerfectly apparent, when we consider that mathema- 
tical truths are eternal, and necessary, and are forced 
on the mind by an intuitive conviction, and not in con- 
sequence of the experience which we have had of their 
certainty. Tliis was early perceived by Leibnitz, who 
says, that if Locke had been careful to distinguish be- 
tween necessary or demonstrative truths, and tliose 
with wliich we become acquainted by exjjerience and 
induction, he would have perceived" that the former 
could only be proved by a power of intuition inherent 
in the human mind ; and not by a reference to any 
knowledge already acquired by the senses. This is a 
comnientary rather than a translation ; but we think it 
sufficiently expresses the sense of tlie author. Si 
Lockius discrimen inter veritales necessarias seu demon, 
slratione percc])tas, el eas qua: nobis sola inductione in. 
notescuni, satis considerassel ; animadvertisset necessa- 
rias non pcsse ccmprobari, nisi ex principiis menli insi- 
tis ; cum sensus quidan doceant quid Jiat, sed non quid 
necessario fiat. 

For our part, though we ceruinly do not think that 
mathematical truths can be referred to sensation in the 



sense in which Locke understands tlie word ; for they Miiiiphy- 
derive no confirmation from experience, being as con- *^^- 
vincing the first time they are presented to the mind, '^"^ 

as after a hundred repetitions ; 3'et we think they may 
find easy access to the mind by perception, in the ex- 
tended view which we are disposed to take of it. For 
we maintain, that ])erception not only makes us ac- 
quainted with the existence of external objects, but 
with those circumstances wliich, in process of time, 
come to constitute mathematical science. By jiercep- 
tion, we not only discover the primary qualities of 
matter, such as extension, figure, ivc. but we discover 
proportion, equalitj', resemblance, number, relation, 
analogy, and the like. When equal objects are pre- 
sented, we see that they agree ; when unequal, we see 
that they differ : and out of a few incontrovertible 
axioms, which the mind admits the moment they are 
presented to it, we erect that fabric of mathematic;il 
Knowledge which is supposed by many to constitute 
the chief glory of the human understanding. Dr. 
Reid, on several occasions, seems willing to extend the 
boundaries of perception, and to allow it all the iatiu- 
ence which we contend for ; and we have only to re- 
gret, that he does not prosecute his views to their le- 
gitimate consequences. Towards the conclusion of his 
Inquiry into the Human Mind, he says, " Every oper- 
ation of the senses, in its very natiu-e, implies judg- 
ment, or belief, as well as simple apprehension. 'Thus, 
when I feel the pain of the gout in my toe, I have not 
only a notion of pain, but a belief of its existence, and 
a belief of some disorder in my toe which occasions it ; 
and this belief is not produced by comparing ideas, and 
perceiving then- agreements and disagreements ; it is 
included in the very nature of the sensation. When I 
perceive a tree before me, my faculty of seeing gives .. 
me not only a notion, or simple apprehension of the 
tree, but a belief of its existence, and of its figure, 
distance, and magnitude ; and this judgment, or belief, 
is not got by comparing ideas, it is included in the 
very nature of the perception." 

In the rapid sketch w hich we have attempted to give nescartcj 
of the progress of metaphysical science in modem tlie father 
times, our attention was necessarily led to Descai-tes as of meta- 
the founder of the modern school of metaphysics. phy»ic6. 
Those who came after him, and who have taken the 
lead in such discussions, have done little more than 
modify or alter some subordinate points ; whilst the 
grand pillar of the system, the doctrine of ideas, re- 
mained untouched: and Dr. Reid has very justly ob- 
served, that the system which, till his time, was gene- 
rally received, with regard to the mind and its opera- 
tions, derives not onlj' its spirit from Descartes, but its 
fundamental principles ; and after all tlie improve- 
ments made bj' Malebranche, Locke, Berkeley, and 
Hume, may still be called the Cartesian system. The Male- 
first of these philosophers must always be mentioned tranche, 
with respect as an original and profound thinker, and 
as a valuable contributor to the philosophy of mind ; 
tliough we have not brought him forwai-d in chronolo- . 

gical order, having been ^carried along with the cur- I 

rent of dominant opinion, which has thrown his writ- ' 

ings aside, and consigned to neglect many elegant and 
valuable speculations. Indeed, he is so independent 
that he could scarcely be brought into the train of any 
other author : and he is so singular that he has had few 
followers, and has failed to establish himself as tlie 
head of a sect. The leading feature in his doctrine is, 
that the x^auses which philosophy investigates are only 
occasional causes, and that God himself is the efficient 



METAPHYSICS. 



95 



MttMfhj. end iraroedUte came of every effect cognisable by our 
^_^ tenaea or oar reason. It had bwn stated before his 
OcciiioBrT ^™*» '^'** ^' ■'^ completely ignorant of the manner 
caattt. i" which phys-cal causes and effecU are connected ; 
and that we taw nothing but a constant conjunction, 
and invariable sequence. This U a doctrine which af- 
terwards brought con«iderable celebrity to the name of 
Home, who i* (till by many tuppoMd to liave been 
the first who illoatrated and explained it. But it was, 
in fact, unfolded at great length, and with great inge- 
nuity, by Malebranche, whose doctrine of cecatkmal 
anu* hingta upon it. He auppoaed that what we call 
Moond caaaea nave no existence, and that the divine 
power, inetsaantly and nnivenally exerted, is the im. 
Hwdiate eauae of all the phenowiena of nature. In this 
conduaion, he went fartner than his premise* warrant* 
ed : for though we cannot discover any neoeaaary con- 
nection between phvaical canaaa, «id tiie eflbela which 
iollow. we are not therefore anthforiaed to eoadnde that 
such OMmectiona are impovoble. At all evanta, we 
may aafdy affirm, that the French meUphysician who 
imrodnoed the immediate agency of the D«ty in every 
riaible change that take* place in the universe, is more 
fully m mm ui mi in bia oandusion, thas the English 
sceptic, who, fimn -not p ei B a i t ing any ncceaiary link 
bc^freen preceding and aabaaqnant piiiiMiiiia, would 
have wiabed to pcrsvade hi* renders, that tbey had no 
groand to infer, from any thing which they saw, the 
cxialenoe of an all-powertul and inteliigent first cause. 
In &ct. Dr. Qarke seem* to haw anlertained nearly 
the same idea* m MaMMcanche l eapect i ng the laws of 
nature. " The coora* of oatnre," aays he, " trulv and 
properly apeakins, is nothing hot tiw will of Goa pro* 
ducuig catain ancta ia a c c nt i nmrt, icgnlar, canatmt, 
and onilbnn mamer.'* 

Matefaranclw boilt a theory of p ercep ti op oo the 
■■» fewt da ti o n : for aa, according to hia syaMm, the 
MMDcy of the Deity waa iiiUipuM«l in carrying into 
«Mct every volition of the mind which pctnnnted to 
bodily action, it wa* no lea* natntal to andaoe, that 
•very perceptiom was tho eiiBct at an iwiediate divine 
illumination. Hence he eoodnded, that the idtat of 
things exist only in the divine mind, and that ire set 
mU limgt in God ; a notion which has often been ridi- 
culed, and acarcely ever adopted by anr sncoeeding 
anthor ; bat which bear* a strain w a whlanco to aone 
ti the opiniona of the latter Pbtonists, and man par* 
tieslarly to the ayaum of aome Hindoo phil oaop h era, 
which we have alrwd) itttad in the worth of Sir WiU 
ham Junta. Accotding to thia ijiiliiin, the nnivcrae i* 
to be ooaadered rather aa an energy than aa a work ; 
by which the infinite miad. being everywhere always, 
exhibit* to the minda of aentient beings a ict of per* 
ceptiona like a w u odai fu l picture. 
thatjutm The orctuMMio/caiue* of Malebranche wereaMackod 
«r Uibalii. hj Leibniu, to make w«y for hi* doctrine of fra niai 
tmikt ik m imu m j f, and aiMatitt rtmrna. Itwaselqeetad 
thaa^ aeooiding to Maldbraadic, every phenonenoa in 
the nnirerae was a miracle ; an objection which is ob- 
viated by the regular coarse of nature ; the liiaturb* 
ance or interruption of whidi constitutrs a mirade. 
We are surprized to find a modem author*, of great 
metaphyaicaJ acumen, joining in the cry againat Male* 
bnocbe, and oppoaing his doctrine by sucn arguments 
M thaae .- " Oocaaional cause* are oonaiatent neitber 
with the omnisdcnce, nor with the omnipotence of 
God. The act* of the Deity must be supposed aa per* 



feet as possible. It is not to be imagined that infinite 
jwwcr IS continually employed in sustaiiiin;; and re- 
pairing the tottering fabnc of a crumbling etlificc — the 
crazy constitution of the material world. It would, 
indeed, be to detract from the Divine Majesty, if we 
admitted this doctrine, and believed that a curintut cl 
fimut nt^otii Den* was perpetnally busied in correct- 
ing the error* of hi-s origmal plan, and in preventinj; 
the destruction of his own works." If no better ar- 
guments than these can he pro<luce<l against the sys- 
tem of Malebranche, it may be pronounctnl to l)e un- 
answerable: for they are all drewn from the wi>rst 
source of reasoning that can be conceived, viz. tliat of 
measoring the omnipotence of God by the limited 
powers of man. The objectors to Maieljmnche's >v<i- 
tem represent the universe as a machine contrived and 
set in motion bv the wisdom and power of God, and 
rendered capable of continuing its operations in coufc- 
quence of the' constitution which it has receive*! from 
omnipotence. Tliis is to us incx>nceivnble .- wc do not 
pretend to comprehend the operations of the Alnn'^h- 
tr ; but we betieve his presence constantly necessary 
fur the preservation of every created thing ; and tiiat be 
could not make any thing ca|>al>le of existing inde- 
pendent of his immediate power: for this M-oui<l Im> to 
communicate hi* eternity and self-existence ; which 
implies a contradiction : and the principle of conlradic- 
tum, according to Wdff, tJie disciple and expounder 
of Leibnita, i* the test of tnith. 

We can conceive an engine, contrived by human 
skiH, and put in motion by mechanical means, to be 
perfectly independent of the inventor. A mill, for in* 
(tanoe, will continue in motion fur ever, unless the ma- 
terials give way, or the supply of water fail. The 
pr in ci p l e applica by the mill-wright mny be said to be 
of petpctual operation ; and when once cniploj-ed has 
no farther dependence on him. Out thia rva^oning is 
totally inapplicable to the eternal workman, who fonn* 
ed ttie stara of heaven, and laid III ' 
earth. The existence of the raat< c 

tlie universe, and of the laws by wlucli Hay arc inuta- 
ally affected, depend continually upon the will of him 
!' '■ they were creatnl and ordninotl. He is the 

iple of life and ni<ition in the universe ; and 
wliercvcr tnc laws which he has appointed are in ope- 
ntion, we perceive his agency. 

Petfaap* MalcbrsDcfae waa pre('i|>itat- <>( IWs 

concliisiaa* ; perbapa aome invt<!l<lc ." lie in- 

terpoaed to Imk together tl • •■wn ui nature. 

Ekrt, even admitting the po«>: litis, it is only 

discovering another link m tJie diain of being wliicli 
hang* from the throue of tlie eternal. In fact, tlic sys- 
tem of Leibnita does not appear to be ckc 
finnent from that which he opposes; and, wli 
differ from it, it seems to be worse, and *a\ 
strongly of iktaliam than the other does of < 
Wepassover hiai^stem of monads, wl ^ bui- 

rowed or stolen from Pythagoras and «: I plii. 

losophcrs, to consider that iiwas 

intended to meet the ar^ .... ..c It 

may l>e thus abridged: " As we are alwavs able to as- 
sign the causes of every event with which we are per- 
fectly acquainted, «o we m.iy assume it as true, tli.it 
every thing exists for a tufficient reoion; and that if we 
knew all the facts, wc could always tell why every 
thing happens as it docs, rather than otherwise. There 
being, then, a sulficicnt reason fur every thing, and f«r 



• gd Vtiuism DnunaMSi^ 



96 



M E T A P n Y S I C S. 



the universe itself, that sufficient reason must be found 
in something. It cannot be found in the course of con- 
tinjfent events, because a contingency does not imply a 
necessary, cause ; and where tlie cause is not necessary, 
the reason cannot be sufficient, why a thing happens as 
it does, rather than otherwise. It cannot be discover- 
ed in what are called the qualities and substance of 
matter ; because matter is inert, and because every 
change in its st;ite being induced by a prior change, 
the series would be infinite, and the ultim;ite cause 
could not be found. The sufficient reason, then, which 
has occasioned the existence of every thing, can only be 
attributed to some intellectual substance, bearing in itr 
self the reason of its own being, together with the 
knowledge why all things happen as they do, and not 
otherwise. This substance accounts to itself alone for 
all things, since it alone is acquainted with all things. 
It acts from itself, and for itself; and it ordains the be- 
ing of atoms, and of worlds, of monads, and of systems, 
according to laws pre-established by infinite wisdom. 
This substance is God. 

All things, therefore, act with each other, according 
to that hnrmon;i which lias been pre-eslablished by God, 
and which consequently is universal and necessary. 
By him our bodies are pre-disposed to obey tile voli- 
tions «»f our souls. By him the individual monad, and 
the universe itself, were regulated in every vicissitude 
which they can experience. The soul acts not upon 
the body, nor does the body influence the soul. Their 
mutual concurrence was ordained by God himself, who, 
in regulating the order of worlds, regulated also all that 
they contain *." 

This is certainly a bold attempt to account for the 
phenomena of the universe ; but we cannot perceive a 
single advantage which it possesses over the system of 
Malebranche to which it was opposed. It approaches 
nearer to fatalism; for, according to the doctrine of 
pre-established harmony, the deity is supposed to have 
ordained all motion, and all change which may take 
place in corporeal substances. The human body acts 
in conjunction with the volitions of the soul, because it 
was predisposed to do so from eternity ; and ouf limbs 
are moved, and our organs of sense are affected, by the 
immutable decrees of God himself. 

This doctrine avoids the interpositions of Deity sup- 
posed by Malebranche ; it also avoids the notion enter- 
tained by the author of the Syslcme de la Nature, and 
other materialists, who maintain, that there is an effi- 
cient principle in every cause, which leads of itself, 
and by its independent influence, to the production of 
the effect. Hut it is clogged with difficulties equally 
perplexing, and consequences equally revolting. We 
cannot well see how any one can adopt it without ad- 
mitting, that the Deity is the ultimate cause, if not the 
immediate instrument, of evil. It might lead to infer, 
-that the Almighty could not be displeased with any ac- 
tion which men may commit, since every action and 
every volition are pre-ordained and pre-established to 
accompany each other ; and we might suppose, that he 
•organized for the very purpose the hand which should 
pollute his altars, and the tongue which should blas- 
pheme his name. These consequences certainly were 



not intended to be deduced from this system by its vci-y l^etapliy. 
profound author ; thougli they may be slienn to result ''^ 
from that harmony which he thought was pre-establish- ''""'V'"" 
ed for a t^ufficlent reason. 

But certainly one le-^ding principle of the T-eibnitzian 
system is not less apjjlicable to that of Malebranche, 
who would readily have subscribed to' the following 
maxim of the opposite school. " Ce n'est pas dans les 
corps qu'on peut tlecouvrir la raison pourquoi ils suivent 
ces loix plutot que tout autres ; elle ne se trouve que 
dans une etre distinct des corps." 

Before we leave Leibnitz and his school, which has 
never had much influence in this country, we may re- 
mark, th.it they are careful to distinguish between the 
reason why a thing is as it is, and the cause oi'iti being 
as it is. This is particularly developed by Wolff, but 
it had been noticed by Descartes long before : " There 
is nothing which exists." says that philosopher, " re- 
specting which we may not inquire into the cause of 
its existence. Such inquiries may be extended to God 
■ himself; not that he needs any cause of his existence, 
but because the very immensity of his nature is the rea- 
son why he cannot have a cause of his existence.'' Sir 
William Drummond has, with much learning, traced 
the monads of Leibnitz up to their Pythagorean source, 
through all their windings, as discoverable in the writ- 
ings o( Hippocrates, Stobasus, Sextus Empiricus, &c. ; 
and has shewn how largely the (Jerman philosopher 
has availed himself of the scattered fi-.igments of Gre- 
cian ontology, which occur in the rarer and less acces- 
sible authors ; we must therefore transfer to his learn- 
ing whatever deductions we may be disposed to make 
from his originality. But his doctrine of sufficient rea- 
son is also borrowed ; and its originjil may be found in 
the forty-sixth chapter of Plato's Phaedon. Socrates is 
intrwluced as saying, that he was delighted when he 
found that Anaxagoras had assumed mind or intelli- 
gence as the origin of all things. He conceived, that 
this principle would be sufficient to account for any 
thing being as it is ; because if mind orders all things, 
they must be disposed in the situation and order which 
is best ; and that if we wish to know why any thing is 
produced, or is destroyed, or exists as it is, we have on- 
ly to inquire in what respects these several accidents 
and circumstances are most befitting in the cases in 
question. If any thing, for instance, happens to man, 
he is to consider that this, being regulated by supreme 
intelligence, must be the best that could befal him, and 
he has only to inquire in what respects it is best for 
him. In the same manner, after inquiring whether the 
earth be fiat or round, the next point is to shew, in what 
respects that figure is best adapted to it. Were these 
things once properly settled, Socrates conceived th;it he 
would then have discovered a sufficient reason for the 
existence of things as they are, and that it would be 
unnecessary to search any farther into their causes H". 
We may easily perceive, then, that the doctrine for 
wliich this prince of philosophers expressed a partiali- ' 

ty, agrees, in many respects, with the svjficietit reason 
of Leibnitz, and also with the doctrine which Pope un- 
dertook to illustrate without understanding it, that 
" whatever is, is right" 



• Academical Questions, p. 326. 

•^ AicHaas fitiv TcTt IX /3/£A/v nfos Atti^ayt^a umytyvtua'xov'n;, Kect Xtyarrss wf k^bc ws m 9 %XK9fffi6n vi koli vuvrav siirios, raurj) dn tjj ai- 
^ix lif^tf Tl, xen |S«|£ fjiot T-^aTuv riva IV tx^'*> ^^ ''''"' *'"' *'*'*' iravTwy atriov nett itynirctfivtv^ it rvre cvrois i;^!/, rev yi vsv KoffAHit-rtt, vavra xor- 
fttiv, xai ixafsy, Ti3i»a/ Tai-TJi, iktu «» /iiXTifx i^"- *• ''• *■• Siicrates, however, expresses his extreme regret at the ilisappointniciit of the 
high expectations wliich he had fonned, when he first heard of Anaxagoras having introduced mind as tlie principle and disposer of all 
things. For he says that he did not find him treating of one of the subjects on which he wished to be infonned, but bringing in aerial9 
ctbeml, ot watery fluids to atxount for the conititutioii of things ; and as the causes of tb« various phenomena which they exhibit. 



Mcuphf. On a genera] view of tlie subjert, we may d 
._,"^*^ _, three grand SBTM in the liistory ut' meUphysicv 
Thrtt^ e<ju*l in point of time, but each of tbem marked witii a 
grand ir.'» *«y clirtuict and decided character. The lirst eztemla 



I\r E T A P H Y S I C S. 



97 



in meta- 
Icarniof. 

AriftMJc 



from the time of ArittotJe to that of Dewartes. During 
Uie currency of thia long period, many pcraonti arose, 
diati ngiinh ed fiir metaphytacal acumen, who attacked 
MocntfaUjr aome of the oatworka of the Arirtotelian 
" " ft™* : hot they made little or no impremon on the 
foeral achem*, and Ariatode continuedtbe undiiput> 
ed wverngn of netapbytidana. Lord Bmxmi gare a 
dMdly blow to his enipin, and waa the «Jrat who shew. 
^ ed, in detail, the inutility of bia Boethod for the diaco- 

o'tfntM. vay of trudi. W hetber Oewwtca ought the tpirit of 
Bacon, (if be di<l, be does not acknowledge it ; for we 
do not recollect that any allusion is made to Bacon in 
any part of bia worka.) or whether the atrvngth of hia 
^iiu led bim to aaaert tbe aame indcpendcfiee of think- 
2? *• ^ °*T. **'*'•. y* ««M> it ia, tb« h« intradneed 
tO0 maa ■nCMlaiiad Hiapn aai nQ into metapbyaica, wbich 
Bmoo h«l anlied ao aoeoMafitUy to the biterpntatioa 
M nata*. Hia malfaoa waa both daw and anginal ; 
aad. m afka of tbo attcnpta which wan OMde to raaiat 
it. it aeon ohttinod pn ai a aaio w of tb» achoola. and diore 
AriatotW Iran the thioiie wbicb be bad oonpiod for ao 
many handrod jmn. Ail the — «>«H'ng p&lawabcn 
of any imm were CartcNana ; and LMfce bimailf b^ 
kwged to tha aaiBM adbool. «a iMa akHdy fawn obocrved. 
Bm bo aarved bia ■««« in tbo aanowny that ha ImnI 
done Ariatatk. by pwbiag bim flrom the aont of pbilo. 
aophy ; and to eoaplcto waa bia victoy, or bia imhiii*. 
tioi, tbot tbo Hnno of bia iUaatrioua prodeoaMT is new 
MobiMd aa an antbority in nMtanbyaical 
Bntwooertwnlytbinkitbat Jnaiiesto Dsa. 
to «y. that no man «ror bonrowtd low Aon bia 

tiL "■- -'— '- TJfhna TTiTi iIIiooikI Ttr «Ti it- 

cipsto bis Mind fnmfnmyfnim»B».mAl»tammun. 
btMoadtotbouivost«Biiaaaftn«h. Tbaic wow 
■bonrdittca, bowovar, caanaMad with bia dect. 
nob aa bia torficf and nuHto Uooa. by wbich bo m*^ 
dntood Iboao ideaa wbich bo ponaivod conld not aw 
t<» ^ Ibo cxtnml aenaea. and which he tbaKfon snp. 
poaod to asiat in tba mind pravioua to thoir agicrdbo- 
thoao notioiM, aa well aa many otbor VMvtbonMd ool 
wbich were indnairianaly aipumd by bia 
. brought diacndit on bia tbicttino: ondoM. 
the world for tbo cniliona ond aanaibio ayitom 
ofLodu ia«in(r»b«waslUao,orttnwS,«t. 

ed^r «flMin»,aodanH*iyintwbotwaa 

uaafnl.^piaUy uMntod thouMioof tbofanndcr of oww 
•cboet n pbilooophy. 

k wm for a ieiig tiaao aapnoaad that bo hmi am. 
occvpi«l tbo granS aa • MtoMc^ond « 
tolo|ri«, aa eomplotolv aa Newton bod doM in 
wttca and natural philoaophy. Indeed onr 
n^ South teem, m gnmti. to bo atill of the 
oMkin; and aueb of tham aa bovo ouonded their 
•h» M«tb*r. have not vantatMl to go beyond the 
q^aMhfbMof Uanley. In ibatt. Bncland baa baaa 
woit Wff oo d iagly borren in met aphywAo a , « 
inUtw time* : and bad it not given birth toCi 

aiidMc^ Mtie or two more, it wa mM 

booobet-' (hniughout Enrope to bavoovarbor. 

boiiwdtbepb»^jjophyoftheb«n»nnrind Thonortbom 
put of our laiond ha* bom murh inon pradocti** ai Ifaia 
aMMa of Ittcrature ; and the SroUA tdmi bw obtain. 
•** • ?T*/^ ^ Cont.n. ■» - tland hai reaaon to be 
jfWNl of thia fMrnaim, , .,lubiunt« are likely. 

for a while, at Uatt, to ci.j..^ i.,vir Uuivb nndistarbad^ 

TOt. Jilt, tAWt I. ^^ 




unl^ they are annoyed by the aflkted sm6t% of their Meuphy. 
neighbours at Scotch metaphjtica. which, since the day* "<* 
ot Hume, have been represented as sjuonymous with ~ v ^ 
scepUcism. 

ftold deservedly takes the lead as having brought Reid. 
about an important refomiaUon in philosophy. He haa 
not only corrected many misitakes of Locke ; but he hw 
endeavoured to explode the »hole doctrine a( ideas, 
which prevailed from the time of Aristotle, till it waa 
attacked by the Scotch philosopher. According to this 
doctrine nothing can be present to the mind but an 
idea, which is supposed to be some kind of representa. 
tion of tlie object from which it proceeda. It is not 
wwugh that the senses be aifected m a particular way : 
the only resuh of such afiection is the production of an 
idea, and this idea alcme is perceived Ijv the mind. Our 
readers must recollect, that when the C'arteaiana speak 
of «<ea«, they use the word in a sense quite diff«TFntA^Dm 
«to«rdinanr aooepUtion in our Uiiguage. 'Ihey under. 
rtood M t^ aa a wptc oaua tiop tranamitted to the mind 
throu gh the senses, and which communicates an im- 
CP^ i!"*'f?* «■*!«««« wy portion of its subsunce. 
Inu u the pml oo ryiu cal meaning of the word idea aa 
■Tf^J*^ yi ''***• and oU the Cartesians. In our 
Mttgaaf^ It is now oooadmd ao aynonymous with ao* 
boa or coowptioM. 

oJili!?*^'* "^ '^T ^'"'* i^ •"?* poo»esaion of Docir.« of 
too scboeU &r upwards of two thousand years ; (for it Ueu. 
did net originate with Descartes, he only explained and 
iHiMOatod It more fully than had ever been done before : ) 
tbu dortnne originated in an attempt to aolve the diffi. 
culty »hi^ baa alwaya been felt in understanding how 
"??*" "3*^"° ""•'^ •" hapfwiiuu on a spTritual 
"*^f"° » j** *«. — * ; mi, UMtoad of being fCuiidcd 
mammm inhi IbUiu or i w factioa , it rests on the flimsy 
boMs ef unwarranted analogioa. It waa thus illustrated 
I gr Ans totle and his foUowors: As wax receives the 
improsiioa of a seal without tbo subatance of tlie seal. 
•* J* • h»kiM.<Uas rMahres the iuiagco of objecta 
]'■*■'»■• ■ dMin>co iWan it; in tbo aame manner, the 
■■■woBToa ibo raprasantation of thii^ which can- 
MtMoo^ato it, or which may be at a distance from it. 
andiiotoo only foundation of the doctrine of ideas ; 
ffl.'y?' ""^"Jy* '" the history of the world, did 
•«»ob MBOutous r(«sr<)uenccs arise out aX a mere ana. 
lyy. For many agoa H filled the world with systems 
rfpbiloaophy .- tfll at laat it boniabcd from the world 
•^^•■T thing Init ideas and impreoaiono. 

We admit that in many instances, anakigy is a Icgi- 
tnaote grotind of orgoment When we meet with no- 
2!ir^*^ »WAa« first accm insuUted, and not re. 
■■^hio to any gomal rule, we anxioualy kxdc around 
•" *» MW*ya tiona, under the firm conviction tlut the 
^ hy "y** "" •*" Mrture i« linked together by indiaao> 
laUa cnmodMna : and tbot notfatac eon appear sep*. 
rM_Md detached, except than oar wnot an co of iu a£. 
and rebtiona. When at laat we diacover a 




oppenmotok ■nd perceive that be- 

which, at frst, we reckoned singular and 

— i9onoii*e that we hove received a sufB- 

1, and hove discovered a law of nature 

•n. This, indeed, is the foundation of 

oxoept aaeboo rest on axioms or neceaaary 



all 
truths. 

Had any osM, then, been aensible of an image de> 

pMted on hia mind, in the aoaw manner as it is proaent« 

«1 ma lookiMglaa, he might have fah-ly concluded 

that he l»da^n|Biccd a step in cxpUining the phenc 

of pcrcqKioo. But we are caOKioDS of nothing 



98 



METAPHYSICS. 



Metaphy- but sensations, which, in general, we can refer to cer- 
"'"• tain organs ; but beyond that every thing is inscnitable ; 
' ~ and we may say of sensation what St. Augustine said 
of time, Si non roges, inlelligo. 

There is anotlier circumstance which has misled phi- 
losophers on this subject. In vision, for instance, an 
actual picture is painted on the reliiia, and when this 
picture is not produced, there is no perception of visible 
objects. This lends some countenance to the opinion, 
that an actual picture must be presented to the mind 
in every act of perception. This is the most fiivourable 
example that can be produced in support of the doc- 
trine of ideas ; and yet we do not see that it advances 
our knowledge a single step as to the real nature of 
perception. We have got an additional preliminary 
fact ; but we can scarcely be said to be nearer to ulti- 
mate knowledge ; and the optician or phigiologist who 
is most intimately acquainted with the structure of the 
eye, knows no more of the nature of perception, than 
the clown who never heard of its lens, or coats, or hu- 
mours. 

They who have attempted to combine physiology 
with metaphysics, have endeavoured to penetrate a little 
farther behind the scenes, and have carried the image 
from the retina to the brain by means of the optic 
nerve. They have, no doubt, some grounds for this 
process ; for when the optic nerve is destroyed, no sen- 
sation is produced. But it is quite clear that the 
image on the retina cannot be transmitted tlirough the 
nerve on any principle of optics or mechanical philoso- 
phy. The picture on the retina is exactly the same as 
that which is produced by means of any lens similarly 
constructed : and even supposing it carried, by any 
process, to the brain, we still know no more of per- 
ception than we did before. For why should the mind 
be able to perceive this image rather than the object it- 
self from which it proceeds ? 

But, then, it is argued, that as we know for certain, 
that external objects cannot be present to tlie mind ; 
(because the mind itself perceives that they are at a 
distance ;) there must be some representations, or ima- 
ges of them, present to the mind, since a thing cannot 
act where it is not. Here again the principles of me- 
chanical philosophy are brought in to explain a subject to 
which they are entirely inapplicable. It is said, indeed, 
that our senses are adapted for the communication of cer- 
tain sensations. Taste, smell, sounds, are confined to par- 
ticular organs ; and without these organs, we can have 
no conception that such sensations could be excited : 
yet these sensations, as well as every other, are mere 
affections of our minds, bearing no conceivable resem- 
blance to the qualities in external nature which produce 
them. Taste, and smell, and sound, are no more like 
any thing we perceive in the qualities of matter, tlian 
the written characters in music are like the melodious 
tunes which they represent. 
The im- We hold, then, that the affections of the senses are 

pressions mere signs, or signals to the mind, to excite certain sus- 
on the ceptibilities, or to call into exercise certain faculties, 

senses are -pj^j^ pgrbaps might be admitted by all parties upon al- 
Eiens to the , • "^ ..i. ., c . u . . •' "^ , . ^ 

mind. lowmg them to nx their own mterpretation upon it. 

The Peripatetics and Cartesians would say, that the 
signs call the mind to the consideration of the subject, 
in the same manner as the picture of an acquaintance 
brings him to our recollection : whilst others would say, 
that they are arbitrary but invariable signs established 
by the author of our nature ; bearing no kind of re- 
semblance to the things which they represent, yet ex- 
hibiting them to the mind as infallibly, as the arbitrary 
characters of a known language convey to our minds 



an idea of the sentiments which they represent. The Metaphy. 
only difference between the two cases is this : that in »'«»• 
the one, the signs are fixed by God, and are immutable ; '^"'V""^ 
whilst in the other, they are selected by ourselves, and 
may be altered or varied at pleasure. 

We venture, then, to call the intimations of our senses 
natural characters, which the author of our being has 
established as the indices of certain sensations: and 
there is, perhaps, about the same connection between 
the signs and the things signified, as there is between a 
smile and the feeling of happiness. A smile is not an 
artificial sign : (at least we dislike it very much when 
it assumes this character : ) we are irresistibly impell- 
ed, by the constitution of our nature, to express certain 
feelings by certain modifications of the features. 

Format cnim natura pruts nos intits ad omncm 

Fortttiuirnm liahitum ; juvat, aut hnpeltit ad iram, 

Aut ad hitmitm mcerore gravt dedncit el augit : 

Post ejf'ert animl ntotus intcrjyreie tiiigiia^ 

There is nothing left to accident here : every thing is 
fixed and determined ; and a man generally makes a 
very awkwaitl figure when he endeavours to exhibit the 
signs of emotions diiferent from those which he actual- 
ly feels. Yet, can any possible connection be traced 
between the feelings of happiness, or grief, or anger, 
and a particular modification of the muscles of the face ? 
It is to no purpose that we are told, that certain emo- 
tions put in action certain muscles about the heart, we 
shall say ; and that these muscles affect others which, 
in their turn, communicate the impulse, till the result 
is depicted in the human countenance. This is, no 
doubt, a very interesting subject of study to the ana- 
tomist or physiologist ; but it is perfectly useless to 
the metaphysician who is inquiring into the origin of 
sensations, and the connection between natural organs 
and a thinking spiritual substance. AH that the ana- 
tomist does is to describe the machinery ; the metaphy- 
sician endeavours to ascertain the principle of motion. 

But, then, some metaphysicians affirm that the per- The per- 
ception of objects is not immediate ; but that the rapi- eeption of 
dity with which we interpret the signs is the result of ."''•'"^'f." 
early and deep-rooted association. This is the opinion 
of Hartley and of man}' others. Dr. Porterfield says, 
that " it is not the external sun and moon which are in 
the heavens, that our mind perceives, but only their 
image or representation impressed on the sensorium." 
Perhaps we do not perceive any of the objects of nature 
as they really are ; yet this does not interfere with our 
ready and rapid apprehension of them. The picture 
of objects alway^appears inverted on the retina, yet we 
always perceive them in their right posture. Philoso- 
phers and physiologists have puzzled themselves ex- 
ceedingly to account for this ; but all to no purpose. 
They talk of the rays which proceed from the object, 
crossing each other in the eye, so that those which come 
from the upper part of the object strike on the under 
part of the retina, and vice versa ; and therefore they 
imagine that we perceive objects in their right posture, 
in the same manner as we would judge an object which 
strikes the roof of a room to come from below. This is 
egregious trifling : was any man alive ever sensible of 
any crossing of the rays, or of any impulse either on the 
upper or under part of the posteri6r coat of the eye i* 
The truth is, that in tracing the image to the retina, 
we are attending only to one stage of the process. We 
can form no conception whatever of what takes place 
afterwards; nor can we conceive how it should be easier 
for the mind to apprehend the image of an object than 
the object itself. 

It is said, indeed, that there must be a communica'- 



METAPHYSICS. 



act upoa 
Mcb Mhcf 
to MUDy 
ODkaewa. 



tion between the object and the mind. Correctly ipeak- 
ing, we can form no conception of any connection exorpt 
between the outward object and the bodily icn*et. Hear- 
ing i« produced by undulations or pvlaatioiMoftbe air on 
the Mr; taate by the application of npid MbetMices to the 
palate; Tision by a picture on the eye, Ac. Here, then, 
we perceive an evident connection between external 
•l^ccti and the organ* of tense: but itill the distance 
bcCvccn the imprwaioni on our organa, and the sen*a- 
tiona of oar minds it immeasurable ; and we consider it 
■a perfectly anpbiloaopbical to ulk of either an object 
or any image being preaent to the mind. Who can fix 
the localHj of a apirit, or say that it can even be in 
contact with a material substance t Or how can a spi. 
ritsal rabatance be affected by any thin;r but a spirit ? 

Thcae ai* qnectiont which no n>an can answer ; yet 
we tee that particalar objecu produce, with infallible 
certainty, paiticolar ae iM a fMn a in our mlnda. Bnttbcae 
impreaeiona on our tmm» are merely aigna ettabliabed 
by the author of our nature to call o«ir attention to ob- 
jects which it is our interest to pursue or avoid, okl 
whicli v^ praBote or mipair our haoMMH. 
TiMwayia By Mliwaig tbe tnin of oor own eonecptiaaa, we 
whkkaiM hsf* ben ltd to aoaM ooMfauiam net trery remote, we 
«nbMid, ftoa iJm onniana of MalcbiHwIie and of 
LAmiu : for thoogh their ayalcaM are profaaaadiy op. 
poaed to ewfa o«bcr, we do nocfMe that tbc^ differ 
widely eo the point m qneetien. But all that we mean 
to aay la this, thai aftar mamieiag, with the atmoat 
minuteneas, the BadMnim of the aaaan, and dbowinf 
the organic affectsoa which takaa place whan • Man* 
tion ia produced, we are aa &r aa erar Ava Mt^ abl* 
toeonneetmind with matter, or to aaocrtain the way hi 
which they mutually aloct each other. Such an intcr- 
eonne, however, ia establiahed by the author of our na. 
tare : but there ia no chance that we shall ever get b^ 
kind the soenae, ao aa to be able to diaca>ver every part 
•f the machinery. tiU av Aaee t^mMtd^Mt morUU eoU; 
and Mr soob are diaangagad Ann the gram encaa- 
brancaa, which at pnaent dog nd imede thdr CMi 
rationa. 

All that we know for certain, i*, that when impreo* 
•iona are e o rnm i m i ca ted to the senses, they are at the 
aaae iMtant imparled to the mind .- and we conclude 
that thia ia done i mm uJiut i if , how compiicaled aoerer 
the macMnvy BHy be wfaiah la pnt in notion by the 
eitemal h npr w ri un . When, Ifar ini(»ee. we handle a 
cube, ar >Jt|ah«, we neeive iNaMfialr faitimation that 
we are handling an e x tende d anbatance, distinct fram 
ear own bodies. There ii not the most distant foonda* 
tion Ibr the eoppoattion of any image being faiterpoacd 
to make the el^ a ppraha w& le by the mutd; and we 
do not aee that it makaa any malarial diference, thoogh 
Ike aUecta be placed at a diatanoe; they are atPI con. 
ne^cd with tbt ainaea by certain aentibic intermedia, 
which faring them into contact, when an immediate per- 
cndoo ia prodoead in the mind. We condnde, then, 
NMIMI the anaDeat heattation, tfaataderaa/etutaice is 
lkammtttat$ c^ a ^cTctftiom, and not the leank of 
■Modariao^ or of the mterpoaitian of imagea or idoM, 
of which no man waa ever aensible. 

Indiort, we do not think that there ever waa a phi« 

■pkitd dMinwhidi, with such a alight fonndaMo, 

■tad inck afnaea over tlte hanan undarMandiiw. 

It ia, at laaat, aa old aa Plato^ nerftctly conformable to 

hia poetical genioa, which dap^ttad m analogical and 

iiliMtraliona. Ha a a ppoaea a man to be 



99 



. , * . . ■ ■ ■i irw w ns . ru au|yu aea a man to Oe 
rfS? '" "^ ^ * dark cave into which aome raya of 
«pt M a dmitt ed tfaroogfa an aperture. Theae ray* 
ftU on the «de of the cave to which the eye* of the 



prisooer are directed. In the meantime, a number of Meuphj. 
persons or objects, in passing, intercept part of the »'"• 
light, and their shadows are cast on the opposite side of """"V""^ 
the cave. Theae shadowa, and not the thinjjs them- 
selves, are perceived by the nrisoner. In the same 
manner, Plato conceivetf that the senses perceive not 
the things themselves, but only the images pf them. It 
is evident that all this is mere fancy ; yet wc do not 
think that the doctrine of ideas has any better founda- 
tion to support it. 

Descartes, like all the old philosophers, took it for 
granted, that what we perceive must be either in tlic 
mind itself or in the brain, to which the mind, as he 
supposed, is immediately present : for this purpose, he 
fixed the teat of the soul in the pincnl gland. 1 f objects 
are perceived in the mind, Hume argues fairly enough, 
that the mind must be extended ; for we cannot con- 
ceive how theedra of extension, (which, according to 
Deacartea and. hia followers, is an image of the original, ) 
can ever be ra an unextended substance. And, as for 
the anal of the tout, were not the subject now exploded, 
we would recommend it to the ridicule of the poet, ra- 
ther than to the discussion of pliilosophers. At one « 
time, however, it occupied no tmall space in their spe- 
culation*, and i* thus ridiculed by Prior in hia Alma. 



Hoc Afattbrw aid. 



AlaalD vans, la pnsslbsoiiDd 



By Ansl8dv*s psB dstfasd. 

T imnl ii llha ksdvtmalarlatl. 

la,»ma,M^saiad. 

Aad ]«, dtr dsth. ii an ^iria 

la swrf aasv, aarva, sad vsia { 

Baas ban sad iktsa, Hhs Hsiolct-i ghtM. 

WUs s ss ifh s t a A* nJat dw wn. 

TMs tyitmw RMwrf. «• aiviaU. 

The avB «r Otftsd fcaiy Md I 

w wm tftt ausi 10 ciMy. 

IW aqr, (Ibr, ia gead tradi, tMy mtkk 

iruk naaU n^aet of ikat old Oicck,) 

Thai, iMtias dl U 

ThlhrssUus 



Thm. pMtiBK an Ms wai* tsntber. 
" bases iaoas Mae Ui 



r oa kar duaos the btsin : 
And, Asa dial SBBI of ihoi^lfat, di^MosM 
Ilw t*t Ms%B pkBMB* to the ssasch" 

Dr. Beid had the honour to be the first who called in Dr. iteid 
qoaation the Cartesian doctrine of ideaa j and, in our 'he fir.i 
opinian, hiaaaoeaM haa been eoanlate. We have adopt. »>>o died 
ed Ua c oac hid e na without adhemg to hU train of ar. '" i"***'"" 
guroent ; for we think hia opinions need only to be '^•^'*'''''« 
known, to derive illustration from a thousand different " ' *"' 
aoorce*. Wc make no pretcnaiona, then, to any disco- 
veriea of oar own on thu anbiect : we were trained in 



hia doctrinea under his illustrious 



pupi 



il ; wc therefore 



la^ claim to nothing but the illustration, and even this 
eoi nc ide a in many inatancea, as might be expected, with 
tfaatof Rcid. 

We have aaid that the impreaaionanMideon the aensea 
are merely aigna which the mind interpreU with infal- 
lible certainty. Theae aigna. Dr. Reid remarks, are the 
language of nature to man : and, aa in many respects it 
has great affinity witli the language of man to man, so 
particularly in thia, that both are partly natural and 
original; partly acquired by custom. Our original 
or natural perceptions are analogous to the natural 
langnagc of man to man > and our acquired percep- 
tiona are anaiogoua to artificial language, which, in 
our mother tongue, ia got very much in the same 
manner with our acquired percep t ion*. When we per- 
ceive that thia is the taste of cvder, that of brandy ; 
that thij is the smell of an apple, that of an orange ; 



Metaphy- 
sics. 



The touch 
is the only 
one of our 
lenses 
vhich 
makes us 
immedi- 
ately BC- 
qua nted 
with the 
extcrn.il 
world. 



100 

that this the noise of thunder, that the ringing of bells ; 
this the sound of a coacli passing, that the voice of a 
friend ; these perceptions, and others of the same kind, 
are not original, they are acquired. But the perception 
vrhich we have by touch of the hardness and softness 
of bodies ; of their extension, figure, and motion, is not 
acquired, it is original. 

" E:(perience teaclies us, that certain impressions upon 
tlie body are constantly followed by ceitain sensations 
of the mind ; and that, on the other hand, certain de- 
terminations of the mind are constantly followed by 
certain motions in the body ; hut we see not the chain 
tliat ties these things together. Who knows but tlieir 
connection may be arbitrary, and owing to the will of 
our Maker .>" Such are the words of Dr. Reid ; and 
we think he need have no hesitation in declaring, that 
every thing which depends on the will of the Almighty, 
as sensation, and every thing else undoubtedly must, is 
most certainly arbitrary, and determined by nothing 
but his own free will. This is nearly an identical pro- 
position : and it is certainly the most obvious of all 
truths, that wliatever the Almighty does, he does it be- 
cause he wills it. This is equally true of man : but 
tliere is this difference in the general result, that the 
■will of Deity never can be influenced by extiinsic mo- 
tives ; for he is all-sufficient and independent ; and 
contingent motives in liis case are wholly incomprehen- 
sible. Every thing is different, in this respect, with 
regard to man ; he does what he wills, but his will 
must necessarily be influenced by various motives over 
which he has no controul. 

Those things which appear natural to us, must be 
arbitrary to God : we call that natural which continues 
to retain the qualities, and present the appearances 
which we have been accustomed to observe in it. VVe 
refer, then, both the natural signs of our sensations, 
and our power of interpreting them to the will of our 
Creator, who had only to say, " Let such things be, and 
such qualities exist," and forthwith the connections 
which we see were established ; which may be called 
•necessary connections, inasmuch as they must necessa- 
rily continue till the will of the Almighty shall change 
or suspend them. 

Dr. Reid farther observes, that " we know nothing 
of the machinery, by means of wliich every different 
impression upon the organ, nerves, and brain, exhibits 
its corresponding sensation ; or of the machinery by 
means of which each sensation exhibits its correspond- 
ing perception. VVe are inspired with the sensation, 
and we are inspired with the corresponding perception, 
by means unknown. And because the mind passes 
immediately from the sensation to the conception and 
belief of the object which we have in perception, in the 
same manner as it passes from signs to the tilings sig- 
nified by them, we have therefore called our sensations 
signs of external objects." 

We have stated the doctrine a little differently ; and 
have made the impressions on the organs of sense the 
ti^ns by which certain sensations in the mind are ex- 
cited, and by which its attention is, at the same time, 
directed to the exciting cause We might have had 
all the sensations whicli we now possess, those arismg 
from touch excepted, without any knowledge of an ex- 
ternal world. By the experiments first made by Che- 
selden, and subsequently confirmed by many others, it 
appears that visible objects, when first presented to the 
eye, do not appear extt-rnal to it ; they seem to be in 
k : they present merely a variously coloured picture to 
the mind. In the sam^ manner, sound is a mere sen* 



METAPHYSICS. 

sation : habit alone enables us to judge of the quarter Metaphy- 
from which it comes, and of its being referable to ex- '"'• 
ternal causes. If any man will stand blind-folded in » ~ 

the middle of a room, and allow his most intimate ac- 
quaintances to walk repeatedljr round him, without 
speaking, and afterwards stand still and address him, 
he will not know, for several trials, the position of the 
speaker. It is evident, too, that it is only by experi- 
ence that we loam to refer smell to odoriferous particles, 
issuing from external bodies ; and that we might have 
had the sensations of taste without the application ol' 
sapid substances to the palate; for nothing is more 
common than to have a particular taste in the mouth, 
without being able to ascribe it to any external cause. 
Nay, it is habit alone which makes us refer particular 
sensations to particular senses ; and, were it not for 
this, we could have no conception of any existences but 
our own sensations; excepting always the sensations 
which arise from touch, and which lead us at once to 
the conception and knowledge of something exter- 
nal. 

In short, we conceive the mind to possess in itself all 
those capabilities which are roused by an excitement 
applied to the senses ; but we cannot tell how : this 
only we believe, that it is immediate and instantaneous, 
however complicated the machinery may be which is 
interposed. Who can tell how many muscles must be 
put in motion before a smile or a frown can be depicted 
on the human countenance ? Yet the sensations of 
joy or anger are no sooner felt, than a visible portrait- 
ure of them is displayed on the countenance. To ac- 
count for the explosion of gunpowder by the applica- 
tion of a spark of fire, would require a complete know- 
ledge of pneumatic chemistry, and of the constitution 
and properties of the atmosphere : yet, notwithstanding 
of all this, the ignition and explosion appear simulta- 
neous. So we believe it to be with the impressions on 
the senses; the sensation they iirodxxce; and the perception 
which acompanies it. in the case of touch they are 
simultaneous ; and they soon become so, or appear to 
be so, with regard to the other senses ; for as soon as 
we have learned that they are excited by external 
causes, which no man can avoid learning, the impres- 
sion, sensation, and perception, are produced at one and 
the same time. 

Perhaps we have gone far enough on the subject of 
ideas, as our object is merely to give our readers some 
notion of the questions generally agitated by metaphy- 
sicians ; and, as far as in our power, to furnish them 
with the materials for forming clear conceptions, and 
accurate opinions respecting them. We have dwelt the 
longer on the doctrine of Ueid respecting ideas, as liis 
writings form, in fact, a new rera in the philosophy of 
mind in this country ; we mean Scotland, for his works 
seem to be very little valued, or known in the soutliern 
division of the island. Indeed we cannot help think- 
ing it a matter of regret, that the fame of Reid is now 
almost absorbed in that of his pupil Dugald Stewart ; 
not that we think this philosopher unworthy to occupy 
the very highest rank among ancient or modern pneu- 
matologi>ts ; but we are persuaded he himself will re- 
gret, should even his own fame obscure that of his mas. 
ter, whose merits and achievements in mental philoso- 
pliy he has blazoned witli so much eloquence and 
affection. 

With regard to Mr. Stewart himself, we have only 
to say, that we consider him as the mo=t elegant and 
jiuiicious philosophical critic at present in existence. 
His merits, as yet, appear chiefly in explaining and 



METAPHYSICS. 



101 



Xtupky. 



expanding the views of his master, in spparatini; what 
is salutary in other nystcras, from what is trifling or 
noxious, and in inspiring a conviction that it is pes* 
•ibie to render the phQosophy of mind both interesting 
and useful. To this praise, we venture to add, that, 
of ail living authors, l>e is the most accurate and most 
elegant writer of the English language. Our subjects 
of regret with regard to nim are, that he is either too 
timid or too indolent; for, just when be has brought 
na to the brink of an original diacaaaioa, to which his 
powers are adapted, he put« u« off with the promise of 
a separate diawrtation on the subject- If he lives to 
redeem all his pledges, he will have no reason to cum- 
nlaiaof the brevity of human life; and the world will 
Bavo maoo to be thankful for so many additional 
lof CDJoyiacnt. 



VMtf ot 
Ddapliy- 
tint Mu> 

dKS. 



Xo roof e 

tjim 
ykyttes 




bucsi Ac 



W« eonmenoed tbia article, with alatimf the advan* 
tigii anaing from the study of mstaphyairal sdefioe ; 
and we saspact than will ba aooe who will think that 
we have been andcnnining oor own position, bv de> 
tailing the jarring, insoaaaleot, and uncertain apecuU* 
tiona of ntctaphyaiciana. Bat, in truth, the advantact 
of nctapbyaaeal atndies ■ppwri, not ao much in the 
adoptki of any ptticnlaf STMaai, or in adherenoa to 
any particular master, aa ia UM habit of accurate aM»« 
tafanalyais, and in oormI iawaiigation into the ori- 
gin of our faoUnga, aaMsMBllb ^HopiBiaDa. Noman 
who baa not boan aemalamad to aaefa MiTtitigalioaa 
tan ovar attain to any thing like accuracy in OMral or 
nrtolWctiial waaarchta t hemay, indeed, bic highly ose- 
fiil both to hiwsflf and oiheia, by adharing to the mica 
aad OMzima prcacribed by saparior viaoiiini ; but bo 
bo a airangcr to tboae rafinad plaaaaraa which 
ftom eootonipbting tho bi— tiftil adaotation of 
I to «nd% by which tho miad ap proa ch aa, as it 
were, a step neonr to tho Doily. 

The meuphyMCipn may go wroag in hia naaarchaa; 
but be is like tho advantaroos mariner, who e xpUw ea 
seas unknown, aadat Waowa risk points out the rocks, 
sboals and auickaandt, which might endanger future 
voyagers. Ferhapa bo enters what he may reckon a 
aocore harbour, or ■ettiea on what be su|}poses a fcr- 
talo island ; but if ha doea aot diacover hia mistake in 
tine, others are taoghl fav hia ftte to avoid the experi- 
menu which have nislod Mb. 

There u ao Moro oaocftainty in metapbyaica than 
ia any other oab^eet wUefa ia not founded oa ni nwi jr 
Tho MBM aaaMHia^ oecoia in an discBMiona 
la l j gi M; aot that tboae sabjcctt 
>ion, bat ftoai tho laipaadbiBly 
with parftct aceoracy, tho ninwptiliii of 
tho aBOMrTCapociiag thaaai fraa which rcaaltdiAiw 

^^"^^^ ^^" ^^■^^•■^^Ma^ Sa^ta ^KM^avwAaoa^^P IWavw ^^HaV^nRaQwlB « 

when, perfaape, all tho wfailo both partica arc perfectly 
right acnrdmg to tha eoneoptioos which they have 
faf ad , and the OMoaiag which they have atuched to 
paMioahr worda. Tbarc is no uncertainty, then, in 
tiw priariplaa of laorals ; tho oncertainty ariites wholly 
oat of ausaadcfatanding on the part of the disputanu, 
who ftaqoaotly find, ai\er long and furious wrangling. 



_^ twaaeting politica 
rkaaoaooiftaiafa 



mftt 

it 



• 
^ • c •(■((« s!m saeOMr 

f ips iu rf s» nth. Bos iht Ucm of 

<•!]) ita tsBM si sbmU, eouU hsic te idsa cf aaakst as isso'm tm diffctci 



that they hsve been fightint; about a phsntom, and .McUphy* 
that there is, in reality, no difference of opinion between ""• ^ 
them. ~' ' ~ 

The superiority of the mathematical sciences has aU 
ways been supposed to consist in the superior accuracy 
of the definitions ; it might have been said, in their 
infallible ceruinty : for they are all necessary truths. 
It has been said thst the certainty of geometry arises 
solely from thi», — that the gcometriciiin measures and 
calculates only the ideas of his own mind, which he de. 
termines and circumscribes ncconling to his own plea« ^ 
sure *. We do not think this an accurate view of the 
subject. The mind, we conceive, is as much conver* 
sant with realities in geometry, as in any other science ; 
and the definitions employed, so far from being arbi* 
trary, are all founded on necessary truths. 

M. de MaupiTtuis has pkced this subject in a very Cause of 
dear point of view in an Elssay, (in the twelfth volume the auperi. 
of the Tranaactions of the Berlin Academy,) entitled, •"■ c«f««io- 
Etam t e m pkilotapkiaue de la preuve de P existence de Dieu, '^ *"**, 
&& Ho aaya, that number and exteiuion are the sub- k),q;^ 
jects of rigid demonstration, not because the mind has 
tho power of forming gratuitoiia definitions ; but be- 
caoae there is in these n iaaco a a principle of wliat he 
caUs RrpBeMiilif : that b, we can divide number and 
anantity into any portions ; we can halve them, quarter 
Uaem, or raise them to any power, and still they will 
praaM'n in all thair diviaiona, or multiplications, defi< 
aito and nacosaary proportiona t. Hence we can pro« 
oeed with infallible certainty in all our researches con- 
eemmg them ; and our most complicated calculations 
aMT ul bo rodaoed at last to identical propositions, 
ia<» oa AM mnd two ore *q»al lojlur, andjomr u eaual 
to /wo and Imo ; or to the metaphysical axiom, \Vbat> 
ever is, is. 

Nothing of this kind can take place in metaphysical 
•cicnee : our sensatioiu may, indeed, be stronger or 
weak er ; but we cannot increase or diminish them in 
deiaito proportions. We cannot divide a sensation 
iato halves and quarters ; nor indicate the square root 
of a conceptioTi. Wc cannot even ascertain, that any 
definition which we can give, can convey to the mind 
of another, an accurate ide* of our own conceptions 
and ■onaations. 

From thoa* drcaaMUneei^ wo think it must appear, 
that thoagb tha* aniat napaasarily be much diversity 
of opinion in morals, metaphysics, and religion, yet 
there is no reaunn whatever to snspert that they liave 
not as sure ' ' ''fh as the '' i live sciences. 

Amidst all ti ■vofsontiu 1 1 occurs, who 

can divest hints*.'. rnoral and religious feelings 

which grow op \ irom his birth, and influence 

his ha{<pincaa and his liopaaf And ia it not a proof 
that these fee1tn;rs have a sore imd immoveable basis, 
when they r ■ r influence in spite 

ofthejarriii; 1 1 respecting them ; 

and tho daiiKeriws and ab*urd conclusions which are 
sometimes landed upon them t 

We have already noticed inridwitally, some of the Mrtsphy. 
metaphysical argumcnu for the rxistmcoofa God ; but •'"' •>vi>- 
as thu u a subject of the greatest importance, and in- '"*'>'• '<»° 

cnceof a 
lacsor* (t B« calcuic qiie dcs idsis, Ics God. 
McrauL 

HoU HMhfc Oor otber psrupdoDS Sfs eoo- 
J>s pa l s< r . to. de aes-la t si an with the prntinfw oltuck «<h»r; ihcy have diatiact psieqaioii* ap. 
~' sad «f r yWa sM i ysathy, nqr ' nd bjr ndi and all the tawc*. A being vith 



|r< a breocksr, aos Is fMlssiiuhi, c'nt gsiqiMaMnt pan* qu*!] n* 
loi nsBS a (s y t is nt sas Mrm. nr «yyn t«/ p . Ac. far M. Mcris 
• ftr *• toaarisr daaniea vldi viick •• diaccm Hadaaaiiod li 



L'-MAUS Rscticd bis aassi and so vidi llw a«fae* 



IDS 



METAPHYSICS. 



MeU))hx- volving some fundamental metaphysical principles, we 
, ''"^^ , shall treat it a little more in detail. 
■ ~ " ~ ~ As the belief in the being of a Gotl is the most im- 
j)ortant principle which can enter the human mind, so 
there is none wliich can be established by such a varie- 
ty of proofs. In attempting to discover new arguments, 
or to display superior ingenuity, tliere can be no doubt 
that too much stress has often been laid on circumstan- 
ces which are doubtful or inconclusive. The marks of 
design, of wisdom, power, and gootlness, displayed in 
the works of nature, are generally supposed to afford 
both the most obvious and the most satisfactory evi- 
dence of the existence of an infinite and eternal cause. 
The Sacred Scriptures often illustrate this subject in 
Vei-y beautiful and sublime language, not so much to 
produce the belief of a God, as to excite feelings of re- 
verence and adoration at the contemplation of his works. 
Thus it is said, in the Psalms, that the heavens declare 
the glory of God, and the firmament shetvcth forth his 
handywork ; and tlie Apostle tells us, tliat the invisibte 
things of God are clearly seen, being understood by the 
things tvhich are made. 

At the same time, it must be confessed, that we are 
extremely apt to err in our speculations respecting final 
causes, and that the utmost caution is necessary in se- 
lecting instances, lest we fix on such as may be subject 
to challenge, and thus weaken an argument which, if 
judiciously managed, must be irresistible. We know 
no author who has handled this argument more success- 
fully than Paley, in his Natural Theology, in wliich, 
from an examination of the various parts of the human 
frame, he has traced the clearest proofs of benevolence 
and wise design, and has shewn, at the same time, that 
any inconveniences or evils that may arise to the sys- 
tem are incidental, and fonn no part of the original 
plan. 

We have no doubt, that the same reasoning is appli- 
cable in all the different departments of nature ; though 
we are, in many instances, too ignorant to discover the 
■wise adaptation of their several parts, and their mutual 
subserviency to promote the good of the general plan. 
We even see many things which puzzle and perplex us, 
„ and which we cannot reconcile with our limited views of 

expediency and wisdom. We may", for instance, admire 
the wisdom displayed in tne structure of a snake, or a 
scorpion, or a poisonous plant, or venomous insect : but 
then we are led to inquire, " why all this apparatus, in 
the case of things which are positively hurtful .''" We 
suspect that it is quite impossible to give any thing like 
a rational system of theology from the light of nature. 
But if we admit that man is a fallen and sinful creature, 
and obnoxious to punishment, we can perceive a reason 
•why he should be subjected to such scourges. They 
reinind him of his delinquency ; and they teach him 
caution, prudence, and preparation for death. Virgil, 
indeed, without the aitls of which we speak, discovered 
a final cause for the existence of noxious animals, not 
very remote from that which we have suggested. 

Ille malum virus serpen tibus addidit atris, &c. 
Ut varias usus mcditando extunderet artes : 
Nee torpore gravi passus sua regna veterno. 

Atheistical The atheistical arguments, if arguments they can be 
objections, called, are all extremely frivolous and absurd, equally 
destitute of foundation, either in metaphysics or in facts. 
Some of them are built on tlie apparent irregularity and 
want of benevolence, discernible in the arrangements of 
nature ; yet it is from the beautiful order and wise de- 
sign manifest in all the parts of nature, which we have 

5 



been enabled to examine, that the theist derives some 
of the most convincing evidences of a Supreme Creator 
and Governor of the universe. When we see, however, 
the two contending parties taking their stand on the 
same ground, and endeavouring to draw from the same 
source arguments to support their opposite systems ; 
we may see the necessity of caution in selecting our 
instances, lest we fix on some point which may be un- 
tenable, or on some fact which may be imperfectly as- 
certained, or on some intention of the Author of nature 
of which we are not competent to judge. 

But it is surely fair to conclude, that wisdom and be- 
nevolence prevail throughout the whole, since we have 
always discovered them in those parts wliich we have 
most thoroughly investigated, and that our ignorance of 
the uses and application of any of the objects of nature 
or arrangements of Providence, forms no ground what- 
ever for arguing against them. Were this rule obser- 
ved, atheism would be deprived of all its arguments 
drawn from the apparent imperfection and irregularity 
of the works of nature. 

To obviate the arguments for the being of a God 
which Theists have drawn from the structure and pre- 
servation of animals. Atheists have alleged, that blind 
chance, or fate, or whatever else they may choose to 
call it, produced at first an infinite number of animals 
of all possible natures, forms, and structures ; but that 
those only survived which happened to have the qua* 
lities and properties adapted for preservation. The 
animals without mouths, for instance, would soon pe- 
rish ; those deprived of the organs of generation could 
not propagate, and wherever the structure necessary to 
the vital functions was impecfect, life would soon be ex- 
tinguished ; the animals only which happened to be per- 
fect could live and propagate. Atheism must be redu- 
ced to miserable shifts, indeed, when it has been obli- 
ged to have recourse to such arguments. Perhaps they 
ought not to be answered in any other way, than by 
shewing that they are not only unfounded in fact, but 
directly opposed to every known fact in the constitu. 
tion of nature. For wliere have we ever seen any in- 
stances of such promiscuous and casual productions ? 
Are there any who now believe in the production of 
animals by the solar heat acting on the slime of the 
Nile, independent of the usual process of generation ? 
If there are any such, they may be influenced by the 
atheistical hypothesis which we have stated ; but no 
man in his senses would attempt to argue with them, as 
they hold principles totally inconsistent witli the known 
facts and analogy of nature. 

But it may be demonstrated, on the soundest princi- 
ples of metaphysics, that the hypothesis is absurd and 
impossible. For when did tliis chatice, or fate, or what- 
ever it was, begin to operate ? If it had a beginning, it 
must have had a cause : this is a metaphysical axiom ; 
and the man who denies it, is no more a subject of ar- 
gument than he would be who should deny that two 
and two make four. If then, this chance, fate, &c. had 
a beginning, it cannot be the cause of any tiling, since 
it is itself caused by something else. 

But we are prepared to hear the Atheist affirm, that 
this principle of his is eternal, and had no beginning. 
On tliis supposition, then, it must eternally operate ; 
and what has been must always be, for to suppose any 
interruption in the continuity of eternity is absurd. But, 
according to the atheistical supposition, this eternal 
principle acted only once in a confused and random 
manner, and has ever since acted regularly and uni- 
formly. Here, then, is an evident change, in an eter- 



Metaphy. 

sics. 



METAPHYSICS. 



103 



Mctaphf. nal, self-existent principle, which is also absurd ; for if 
'*"• chuige and chance be essential to it, they should ope- 
' '~ rate always, which is not the case. 

The philosophy of F.picurus is atheistical, though he 
himself, and many of hi* followers, admittetl the exist- 
ence of a God. But this was merely to save appearan- 
ces, and to escape the inflictions of the law, which was 
pafticulxrly aevere against Atheism in all the heathen 
ataleai indeed, the prevailing error was quite of an op- 
poaite description, and ran into the extreme* uf Poly- 
theum and idolatry. This error, pernicious as it is, 
is, nevertheless, infinitely more excusable than Athe- 
ism : for Polytheism may easily arise out of wrong coi>> 
ee p don a of the attributes of God, whilst Atheism can 
ouy apeing out of the most criminal inattention to the 
•vident display* of the divine power, goodness, and 
visdom. 

Epicurus and his followers, whilst they admitted a 
God, denied his providence, and endeavoured to shew 
how the world could be made without Him. This they 
•chieved by the fortuitous concourse of atoms, which, 
Boriag from all eternity, were, at laat, by sonw win^ 
culoa* accident, jumbled into the present goedly order 
of things. (seB AtoaMcal Philoaopby.) This hypothesis 
is too absord to have any supporters in modern times, 
■ad yet it is as rational as any otlier system which cs- 
dadcs the agency of Deity in the ilamMtJoa and go- 
vwaaMnt of the onivene. 

Anotfcor Atlicistical brpotlMsis ia, that tho ptcaent 
order of things ia eternal, and that one thing haa pra> 
d«cad another in infinite sofleesaian. An infinite sne- 
•anion a parte motl, ini^t, in one sense, be admitted, 
for wo CHI mmn conceive an order estabhabcd by the 
Almighty which shall never have an ond. Bat an ii^ 
finite soeoassiaii a parte atUr, is abs ur d, fur it wonld im- 
ply thot iaflaity ia made up of ink* ports, and that it 
■say bo iocnsHd or dimtnisbad, whidi is m witf odie- 
tun. If the scries of causes and rfiiKta waa infiako a 
ii it ia mtan infiaile now, lor it has 
■ MkUtiaiw. Hero, than, would be 
laiaiailjr which ia not yet iainit*. Or, viewing it 
dMfanMliy, if the infinite series waa compkte a tlHM- 
soad yoars ago^ then, in that case, we hsve an infinity 
wbiaB ioo hrady terminated, which involves an absur- 
dity. 

but. leaving the afaaurdities and iapsatiaa of Atbo- 
iam, let any laaa oast hie oyes on the riaibU creatiosi, 
aad on tho varioua objects of nsture, and without an- 
l as iiig iaio any speculatiotia as to thr uses and ends ot 
partinilar porta, let him ask faiaiarif liiis pUin 
'• Whenoe aroae this order of things ?" To 
flatnal. woald bo to make thca self-existen't.' taaaati^ 
bio, indaatnsctibU ; ia other words, it would be tosup- 
poao that they had a ntceasMy existence, and that the 
««fy «miasit,on of thoir destructten waaM iarolvo an 
Jwpoat i hi lity. Bat how ill do aa^ of these altiibutaa 
opplT to any of tho oineol* of the naibic universe? In- 
stcod of bemg innaatablo, we arc them every moment 
liable to change ; inatead of bein^ indestructible, we 
hovoao difficulty in conceiving their utter annibilaUon : 
indeed, wo cannot conceive how they should be kept 
Irom it, but inr the sustaining influence of Ilim who 
cioatod tham, for God himself CHiaot make any thing 
indepondcMof himself 

\V henoe. diea. had the world iu beginning f It could 
not exist without a eaasa ; ior this is the property of a 
id f w ia tisit and nsrasiiry being, which, as haa already 
bora seen, the woald ia not, neiUier could it be the cause 
of iu «rwD eijalanca, tat, ia that case, it must have acU 



ed before it was, which is impossible. It must owe its Metsphy- 
existence, then, to a being, self-existent, uncreated, eter- . "^ 
nal : and this being we call God, who created all thin^ » ~ 
by the word of his power, and who has informed us in 
the records of inspiration, that a time shall come when 
the elemenu shall melt with fcr\ ent heat, and all things 
shall be dissolved into their original non-entity, or 
moulded into new forms and modes of existence, by th« 
Jial of the Almighty. 

All the ancient pliilosophers held creation, in the Tbeancknt 
sense in which it is now generally understood among phiUwo- 
Chriatiana, to be impoasible. It was an axiom with them, P^'" '^ 
that oofAttig can be produced oul ^nothing ; nihil JU ex \^^^^*' 
mihilo. On this prmciple all that they allowed to the derniL 
agency of the Deity, was the arrangement ofpre-cxist- 
ent materials, and the moulding of an eternal material 
substance into the furoi which it now exhibits in the 
>i>it>ie universe. This is liable to all the objections 
which we have already stated. It gives to matter a ne- 
eeasary exiatonoe, and, of course, represents its destruc- 
tion aa inpoaible. The doctrine of Spinoza is the le- 
gitiawlo o&pring of this axiom of the ancients. He 
saw, that to make matter eternal, was to invest it with 
the fas> ntisi atthbutca of Deity ; but, instead of beii^ 
staggered bv thia consequence, he made it the founda- 
tion of hia tacoiogical svatem ; if tliat can be called theo- 
logT whidi is fonndea on the notion of a material 
Deitr. He held, that no being can communicate any 
thing but its own natnre to another ; taking it, there- 
fore, fbr granted, that the material world exists, he 
tfaonght that it followed, of course, that it must have 
proceeded from a material origin. 

ThoR cannot bo a g roa ser mistake than to suppose, 
that the Supremo Boms can be compared to any tning 
which we obosrve ia me visible universe. Aristotle, 
though no great theologiaa, yet avoided sudi an unphi- 
loao^ical notson a* thia. For, whilst he admitted tlut 
tho Deity waa the first mover of all thingN, he laid it 
down aa aa ia co e t r cwertible maxim that he himself wao 
unmovod, primeipn tmim nulia est origo. instead of 
being tss s-iitia l tu his nature to possrss the qualities of 
any visiblo sabatniR-c. Iiis essence is to be conceived as 
directly oppoaite to every thing that is cogniEable by 
our acnses. Every object in nature may be increased 
or diminiahad, bat (>" 'lite, and mini its of new V 

thar iacreaae nor dinj . . < very tiling tliat we aec 

is mutable, but truh Gixi ihtre i* no varitMenett nor 
tfiadom of Immiiig ; in short, hia cMcntial attributes can- 
not he imparted to any created being : the very idea of 
a creature exclude* t^ possibility of sudi communioa- 
tioa, for, if it ia created, it cannot be self-existent and 
•letiuL None of our lacaltica can enable u* t<> form 
any thin^ like on nhip ia lr cance|)tiuii of the nature of 
God ; nny, they noctaaarily load us to form wrung con- 
ception* of Him. Wecaajudgcof things only by com- 
parison, by numlier, measura, or weight. But to what 
ahall we oomparc Ciod I We may compare tile flame of 
a candle to tne light of the sun, or a grain of sand to 
the globe of the earth, or to the massea of matter which 
compose the heavenly bodies ; for, however vast the 
diflerence may be, there miiU Ik.- definite proportions 
among all crested things. But God is infinite, and can- 
not be c o rop ar e d with any object which wo have ever 
seen, or with any standard which our minds have ever 
conceived. The only idea that wc form of infiility, is 
by adding continually till the amount exceeds our 
powers of comprehension, and then we fancy that we 
nave a ooooMtMO of something which is infinite. But 
it is a c nntB i a i Btinn int«nns,a»ba*alr<ady been shewn. 



t04 



IM E T A P H y S I C S. 



to suppose an infinity constituted by the endless addi- 
tion of finite parts. 

This, however, we may know with certainty, that we 
duily see and feel the operations 6f an infinite eternal 
being, and this is sufficient for our purpose, and for in- 
spiring confidence and hope, though the nature of God 
be unsearchable, and his ways past finding out. We 
imagine, indeed, tliat we can form some idea of the 
manner in which tlie Almighty actuates and pervades 
universal nature, by comparing it with the way in which 
tlie soul actuates the body, and communicates its influ- 
ence to its various organs and members. This analogy 
or illustration has been employed in almost every coun- 
ti'y where any discussion has taken place respecting the 
nature and operations of the Supreme Being. Hence 
he was called the anima mmidi, by the ancient philoso- 
phers; and the poets taking up the same idea, repre- 
sented all things as full of God. Jovis omnia plena. 

It is perhaps a legitimate illustration to say, that as 
the soul actuates the body, so God actuates the frame 
of nature. But beyond this we cannot advance a step 
with safety; for we shall soon find that the comparison 
must utterly fail. Our souls and bodies are only a 
part of the general machinery of nature, (if we may 
use this expression,) put in motion and upheld by the 
hand of the eternal workman. We may, then, infer 
•with infallible certainty, that he is wise, and powerful^ 
and good ; in the same manner as we can judge from 
effects, that these qualities may belong to human 
agents : but the motives which influence men to the 
practice of virtue can afford us no explanation of the 
counsels of God. He v/orks in us to will and to do of 
his good pleasure : the motives which impel us to ac- 
tion are exceedingly various, and very often beyond 
our control : they are often entirely unforeseen ; and 
the most important events in the history of our lives 
frequently arise out of circumstances unexpected, and 
apparently accidental. All this is entirely inapplica- 
ble to God. He acts of himself alone, and never can 
be influenced by external motives, since all things are 
ordered by him, and are dependent on him. 

From what we have already said respecting the na- 
ture of God, we think it must follow by necessary con- 
• sequence, that there can be but nne God. One infi- 

nite being excludes the possibility of any other pos- 
sessed of equal or independent power. Hence God, 
in order to give the Israelites the most impressive idea 
of the unity of his nature, made himself known to 
them by his attribute of self -existence. For when Mo- 
ses asked his name, he commanded him to say to his 
countrymen, " / am hath sent me unto you." 

As God is infinite, self-existent, and eternal, he is 
also unchangeable. Every change in any being is a 
proof of imperfection, even though the change should 
be for the better : for a being susceptible of improve- 
ment cannot be absolutely perfect But God is the 
Immutabi- tame, and changelh not. No addition can be made to 
lity ef God. his knowledge or happiness, he can therefore have no 
reason to wish to change : and as there is no power 
superior or equal to his own, there can be no necessity 
which can compel him to change. None of those cir- 
cumstances which produce a change in human conduct 
can have the slightest influence with God. We are 
often compelled to change our purposes, because they 
have been planned in ignorance, and circumstances 
which we could not foresee have rendered them im- 
practicable. The most pernicious of all absurdities 
would be laws and rej^'ulations which could not be al- 
tered. Sucb^ we read, was the case with the laws of 



Metaphy. 
sics. 



Unity o 
God. 



the ancient Medes and Persians ; and the only conse- 
quence of such regulations must have been to obstruct 
the improvement of the human race in happiness and ^ 
knowledge. But nothing can ever occur to induce 
God to alter his purposes ; for they were not formed 
after the manner of the short-sighted plans of mortals. 
They are always founded at first in infinite wisdom, 
and with a perfect knowledge of every thing that is to 
come to pass, and therefore there can be no reason why 
they should ever be changed. When we see a nation 
at one time prosperous and successful, and at another 
discomfited and depressed, and when we ourselves ex- 
perience alternate vicissitudes of gladness or sorrow, 
we must not suppose that these outward changes of 
fortune proceed from any change in the counsels of 
God. He has always the same object in view, viz. 
the happiness or improvement of men ; and he ad:ipts 
his dispensations to their circumstances, according as 
they need encouragement, correction, or assistance. 

We have already alluded to the argument which Dr. DrClarkeS 
Clarke employs to prove the existence of a God. Itarguracnt. 
arose ont of some sublime metaphysical ideas of Sir 
Isaac Newton, respecting the nature of the Supreme 
Being. He had said, tton est duratio el spalium, sed 
durat et adest, &c. Dr. Cbirke conceived, that in 
space and duration he had got hold of two qualities, 
which, as they could not belong to any created sub- 
stance, must be attributes of the necessary self-exist- 
ent being. We give the sum and substance of his 
doctrine in his own words. " The supposal of the 
existence of any thing whatever, necessarily includes 
a pre-supposition of the existence of space. Nothing 
can possibly be conceived to exist, without thereby 
pre-supposing space ; which therefore I apprehend to 
be a property, or mode of the self-existent substance ; 
and that, by being evidently necessary itself, it proves, 
that the substance of whidi it is a property must be 
also necessary." 

We iMost willingly do justice to the many profound 
and enlightened views which occur in Dr. Clarke's 
Demonj>tra:ion of the Being and Attributes of God : but 
we think his main argument rests on a false founda« 
tion. So far from space being necessary to the exist- 
ence of every thing, mind, with its affections, has no 
relation to it : and, with the exception of the ideas 
which arise from touch, we might have had every 
other idea, feeling, and affection which can enter the 
human mind, without being so much as able to form 
an idea of space. Where was space when there was 
nothing else but the Deity .' It was then a non-t 
entity ; and it is still so ; never having had any actual 
existence ; but possessing the potentiality of admitting 
the existence of every created thing. In short, space 
is a mere privation ; and we might as well assign a 
real existence to silence, because it has the potentiality 
of admitting sound, or to darkness, which has the pcu 
tentiality of receiving light, as ascribe reality to space, 
which has merely the capacity of admitting the exist- 
ence of material substance. It has been said, that we 
cannot conceive tlie annihilation of space : annihilate 
matter, and we cannot conceive that space can have an 
existence. It exists only in our conceptions ; and is as 
foreign to the nature of God, as the passions and feel- 
ings of men, which never can be predicated of the di- 
vine essence. 

Mr. Locke saya, that though a man were placed at 
the utmost conceivable verge of creation, yet he would 
still be able to thrust out his hand beyond himself: 
and hence he argues that space is infinite. It would 



MET 




be jtut at ntjonal to mjt, thrt there are no Hmiu to non 
entity. God alone is infinite : ami he has provided a 
thertre for the display o«' lii« infinite jMwer ; and to 
»"PPJ»« •">■ '»niiu beyond which created subMancn 
could not exirt, would be to hniit the power of God. 

We hope that we speak with sutticient reverence, 
when we sav, that the infante mind on have no idcn 
cf h me, which arises aolely (ram the wifTfwiim of 
MMM in our own minds. No such iiirrwiiii can 
take place in the divine mind. W ith God^ a lAomtand 
jreart are a* mt dag, am,i me day a* a Uomtamd meart. 
tntoejWM manner, space has only a re&wnce to our 
cwmpuoaa; and we view it as conaiMinK of definite 
pnttWM, added tnfrether without end. We can evi. 
«nt^ divide it into parU: we can auppon any aab- 
wooe to be amihilated ; and v« we can form a dear 
MHwyi ioo of the apeoe which it occupied, and of the 
«*«?w««n« whidi thia q>ace pnw M i s. Bat nothinfr 



105 



MET 



■Cstsphjr. 

ileal srgu- 
■(•nt« lor 



UHtj U 

UMbMOIMI 

•ool. 



-- *^^ *^ «rf <ic<nite parts and proportiana cwi li 
y ^ yj^ Divine nature, whhh u without be. 
without end, and witiiuut limitation, in6niie, 
■ ixl omaipreaHn. 
The moral irgiamM for the immortality of the soul 
befound WMier the attiele Here/ PkHom,*^. I he 
■MUphysical arsmnama ior the aool-* immortalitv are 
^nomeana ao satiaftctary aa thoae which we have 
addoccd to prove the eurtenc* of a God. The an. 
oent m«t^A™««M -«„^ly ^„j(^, that the sonl 
wa« immoftal: but they inferred this tnm the doc^ 
tnre of the sool's pt»«iit,n«,, which waa ahwM 

tb^- aamittod that the muT waa cfeainl, they man in. 

cwild lay daim to natnnd iiwiiiality. They Mmpoe. 
•dAe «ul to be an ewmmim A«n'the t)^r. iTan 
•Rent freo hi* whatanee. and that it would again be 

JJ!L?I!^**^ ««ncfa.fcmt which miRfat be dedi^ 
«»«nthe son! • immor- r it went to annihiUte 

pwwt-t Kle mrty. an.l v to set a»ide a sute of 

'''""^l'.™ * *?*. ?»*Md. It waa attended with r«her 
M«««»ea, which aw thna stated by Sc AmcuMinc— 
. '^' P««». qnem Dei partem vapo- 

.' P"l»« ' J-n vein pence Dm fieri b*. 

qvas. uuiju. .^^ ^„j^ daoinabile., qui* 

mrepecesti. > r«rMM inMniL" 

rwAl£™SSl2^*i^ •njumwt. of any weight. 
»1^ !3K!?^ "f^ •*••"•*'«'• the soul ean- 
netbeafected by the vicMtwke which alter or d». 
ceMfM mMcrtal nUCBBoaa, it can be deatimred only 

iSTwi^ ' "^JJ* have never .,« any thhvr liki 

■M«l«w^eve« with r«pird to matrnal ibstaSc^ 
OMfa^ MolamM r, Niul interit :" of course we have 
.1 «A^i.'*T? •* " "P " ^ »'"• "-'■•■'•■Utioo of the 
' u Y •**: "**• > '<» any of the 

^^wh,rh Trrnd„ce m^l .. .,, ..u^uticd in the 

BppeOTMice.^ -M of matter. 

th. ilnlTi-- .^ •'•-» «»"pl«ely aatablJshed than 
tftem«« and reh*ious arjpimenu drawn Crom the c 

aS^fj^l^ r*' .*^ '""^ administratwn of 
God wrthreg^d to this lower world; and more e«e. 
«*^he- we attend to the instnirtiwis of that Di vme 
nms ber mMi kas 6rnu..kt Oft ad tmmorlatuw In ligkt. 



METASTASFO, PietroAbate, the celebrated dra. MetMiaski. 
matist, was bom at Rome on the 9d of January 1 698 •. —"V^ 
His birth name was Trapassi. We shall immediately 
have occxsion to mention the circumsUnce in conse- 
quence of which it was changed. His family had once 
been opulent, though reduced to poverty by gradual 
decHne. His ^rrandfather, Felician Trapassi, was one 
of the thirty inhabitanU of Assisi, to whom the free, 
dofti of the city belonged. The father of the pott, Fe- 
lici Trapassi, was however unable to subsist in his na- 
tive place, and enlisted for a soldier in the regiment of 
Corsi. He soon afterwards marrie<l Franceica Cialasti, 
of Bologiu, by whom he had many children. The 
poet wa* their second son. Felice, whilst be was in 
garriaon, added something to tlie scanty pay of a sol- 
dier towards the maintenance of a family, by becoming 
an amanuensis ; and having fulfilled his miliury ser- 
vice, and by extreme industry and economy saved a 
little money, he entered into partnership with a shop- 
keeper at Rome, for the sale of goods which l>elong to 
what the Romans call I'arte biaiica, consisting of oil, 
doer, pastry, and other culinary materials. Having 
piTMpered tolrrahly in this kind of merchandise, he 
placed hia two eldest sons. Leopoldo and Fietro at a 
gnmmar school. Pietro (our subject^ soon discovered 
an extraordinsry quickness for learning, and a dispo- 
sition for poetry. He could turn extrmpore verses on 
any given subjtrt before he w. » ten years of age. Thia 
faculty he used to exercise after school hours at his fa- 
ther's shop, where crowds would askemble in the street* 
to hear tlie young improvisatori. During one of those 
tuneful fiu. the learned civilian and critic, Gravina, 
accidrnullv tui~..,|, ,nd was so struck by the harmony 
•^ ''•* t"'' ' ', and the sweetness of his voice, aa 

well as In ; 'Imrss of the thoughts which he threw 

out •• «/ impnmi^a." either on persons who -.toixl near 
him, or any subject of their suggesting, that be slopt 
to admire hiin, and oflerr<l him money. The polite r». 
fu«alof the little bard to accept of his donation iiicreas- 
eti his admirstion of him — he resolved to adopt him, 
ami went immediately to soHcit the consent of tii» pa- 
rents for that parpoar. As the civilian did not pro- 
pose to Uke him from Rome, his fatlier saw no nccessi. 
ty for refusing the proffered patronnge, and the next 
roaming Pietro was consigned to Grsvina's care, who 
gave him the (ireek name of Meta»tiisio, as f,nmn»ti(, 
■nrfe/M. seemed at once to expreu hit former name of 

?P *^' * "*' •"• •"•' »ituat;«in as an a<io|>t. d child. 
_ _" 'e uiws at *■ • ' t rat':er incon^iaifnt, that hi* 
P**?"' *bo h . i him on account of hm poetry, 

•hoald hevedei.(tiie<i tim to a study %o unpropiliout to 



iJ«io«/eve«'wJth';i;;,'to;.::;:i7^ Cr^-ST'^JIL''"''; ••"'Gr.-vina w.s himself . 

■ie laotaatur. rf.aTlL^ir.-^^?^.!!!??!^''^^ »2*,'' '^' "W^K ."'• •^♦»'"''. there w« no other 

proieMlon by wbicb cawluments and Itonours oould be 
then atUined. At fint. Metaatasio was set to the per- 
lual of pandecu. deercea, and diets— he neverthelesa 
ried the poet«. by Gravina's permission, particularly 
AnoMo and Homer j and having, at the ajje of f,.ur- 
teeti pro.luce.1 liistragwly of Ciurtino. an a.u.n.^hinir 
work for a boy. though MeUslasio a»terw,.nls regretted 
It. appearanwr smong his riper work. ; his iwtron not 
only tolerated but encouragetl his poetical bias. Gravi- 
na took him. when he was 1 8, to Naples, expressly to af. 
ford him an opportunity of singing extempore with the 
m«Mt celebrated improvisatori at that time in Italy 
When he appeared in N.ple,, he soon became an unu 
ver**i favounu. Nothing was to be beard of but his 

,:./-,£:^*'*''«'-— "^--»*«''-«-^ ^ «- dwaussf d- H* ,^eau..h.fWi„.Mi,k«<^«.. 
^<u^ xiv. fa«T I. 



106 



METASTASIS 



Metasiuio. beautiful extemporaneous verses, which his hearers car- 
'"'V'"' ried away in their memory — the grace and dignity of 
his elocution — and the inspired expression of his coun- 
tenance. 

With his poetical pursuits, he still continued the study 
of the law ; and in order to obtain a passport through 
the only other promising road to preferment at Rome, 
he took the minor orders of priesthood, by tiie advice 
of his affectionate master. At 20 years of age he lost 
his patron Graviua, who died, aged 5t, leaving behind 
him the clviracter of a moderate poet and orator, but 
of great learning and classical knowledge, and con- 
siderable acuteness in criticism, though not unble- 
mished by asperity. He rendered his name more cele- 
brated by protecting Metastasio than by all the works 
of his own pen. The benefit of his influence on Me- 
tastasio's taste has been doubted, for he was a precisian 
in his ideas of classical purity, and it is supposed that 
if he had lived, his advice might have cramped his pu- 
pil's genius with rules of Greek art, and implicit imita- 
tion. However this may be, Metastasio's expressions 
of grief for his loss, which were strongly conveyed in 
poetical effusions, were never suspected of being insin- 
cere, though liis mourning for him was that of an heir, 
which is sometimes so ludicrously doubtful, — for Gra- 
vina, faithful to his promise of treating him as his own 
child, bequeathed to him 15,000 Roman crowns, an 
excellent library, rich fi'rniture, and a small estate in 
the kingdom of Naples. The specie alone, (equal to 
between three and four thousand pounds,) was, ac- 
cording to the value of money in those days, a sufficient 
independence ; but among the lessons which his pa- 
tron had taught him, he seems to have forgotten those 
of worldly wisdom. His legacy was soon spent, not 
indeed in vicious courses, but in the munificence of 
good cheer which he shewed to the admirers of his 
poetry and the frequenters of his table. In two years 
only an insignificant landed property remained ; but 
though his f;dl was like Timon's, he had nothing of 
the misantlirope in his bland and benevolent disposi- 
tion. At two and twenty, he set himself to renew the 
study of the law as a profession ; and as if he had re- 
L solved to secure himself against the seduction of the 

*, muses, he placed himself under an advocate of tlie 

name of Paglietti, a man who is described as " all law," 
a bitter enemy to poetry — one who hated the sound of 
verse, and the very sight of a poet ; and was merciless- 
ly intolerant of the slightest deviation from worldly 
prudence. One may figure a whimsical scene in con- 
ceiving the shrewd and suspicious lawyer receiving 
such a noviciate, a youtli already known and celebrat- 
ed for poetical genius, but with his fortune spent, 
obliged to determine in earnest tliat he would prosecute 
his legal studies. The assiduity of Metastasio is said 
to have at first inspired Paglietti himself with confi- 
dence, that he was tiioroughly weaned from poetry; 
and we are told, tliat many who had before admired 
his verses, now regarded the rapidity of his progress in 
legal knpwledge with still greater astonishment ; but 
this cliartge was an effort against nature, and could not 
continue. At the end of a year, we find him making 
a sly breach of his contract with the rugged advocate, 
by writing an epithalamium of 100 octave stanzas, at 
the instigation of the Countess of Althau. Then came 
his drama of Endymion, under tlie same sedative influ- 
' ence. The viceroy of Naples next prevailed on him to 
write the drama of the Garden of the Hesperides, on a 
promise that it should be kept a profound secret from 
his inexorable lawyer. His next drama was Angelica, 



the plot of which is taken from Ariosto. The poems -Metajtario. 
which he produced at Naples were universally admired, ' i' -' 
particularly the Gardens of llie Hesperides, but none felt 
the beauties of that drama so forcibly as Signora Ma- 
rianna Benti Bulgarini, commonly called the liomanina, 
the greatest female singer and actress of her time, who 
performed tlie part of Venus in that piece, and was so 
enchanted with the poetry that she would not rest till 
she was introducetl to the acquaintance of the author. 
She felt on seeing him, (siiys his biographer), an un- 
common regard for him, and it was believed to be mu- 
tual. Meanwhile his legal friend Paglietti did not re- 
gard him by any means with the same pleasant looks as 
the actress his admirer, the liomauina. His poetisal re- 
putation was now blazoned abroad ; and his disgust at 
the law, added to tlie severity of the old advocate, soon 
became sufficiently strong to make him wish to abandon 
the profession. Meanwhile the Romanina pressed him 
to take up his residence under her roof, and her hus- 
band joined in the simie request. Metastasio was not 
insensible to the apparent indecorum of quitting a grave 
profession, as well as of laying himself under obliga- 
tions to the family of Bulgai-ini ; but after a struggle in 
his own mind, he gave way to his love of poetry and 
leisure, and possibly also to his partiality for the lady, 
and accepted the invitation. To Uiis proceeding, what- 
ever may be thought of his motives, the world was per- 
haps indebted for the direction of his exquisite genius 
into its proper channel. 

At the request of the Romanina, he wrote his " Di- 
done Abbandonata," which was perhaps the first perfect 
musical drama that ever graced the Italian stage. The 
Romanina was a great actress, and a good judge of dra- 
matic poetry, and Metastasio was obliged to her for 
suggesting the finest situations in his Didone. She 
was thought, with the exception of Mingotti, to be the 
only instance ever known of a female singer who had 
studied stage effect as well as harmony, sufliciently to 
enlighten the author of the words which she sung, as 
well as tlie composer of the music. The celebrity of 
the Didone occasioned its being set by the best compos- 
ers of the time, for the other principal theatres of Italy, 
and it brought the author a considerable pecuniary re- 
ward. 

In 1727, the Romanina having fulfilled all her thea- 
trical engagements at Naples, was ready to return to 
her native city of Rome, provided her beloved poet 
would accompany her. Metastasio hesitated for some 
time, but at length consented, on condition that in re- 
turn for the hospitality which he had received under 
her roof at Naples, she and her family would consent 
to be liis guests at Rome, where the relatives of Me- 
tastasio still resided. He therefore wrote to his agents 
to procure a house for the reception of his two fami- 
lies of the Trapassi and Bulgarini ; and from the time 
of his arrival in that city, till his departure for Ger- 
Bttany, they all lived under tlie same roof. The Ro- 
manina, as more accustomed to the superintendance of 
a family, managed the household ; the rest attended to 
tlieir own pursuits ; while Metastasio received his visi- 
tors, wrote his verses, and increased his celebrity. 

He finished several operas during his residence at 
Rome, as the " Calone in Ulica," Egio, Semiramide 
Reconnosciuta, Artaserse and Alessandro nelle Indie, 
and his reputation continued to increase, not only in 
Italy, but spread beyond tlie Alps. But with all the 
praises which he acquired, it does not appear that he 
reaped much profit from his labours ; and though he 
could not be said to be in necessitous circumstances. 



METASTASIO. 



107 




with hit generous friend's purf« at hU cammand, he 
anil surrounded by b«m>n prospects com- 
with the claims whkh he had upon the gT«ti> 
tnde of his country, as tlie restorer of her poetry, and 
M the greatest living ornament of her language. He 
had invited the Komanina to be his guest, but was ob- 
liged to be indel>ted to her liberality. She tried to 
ajnaole him with the most affectionate appeals to his 
fortitude, but his spirit, though naturally ciieerful, be- 
gan to sink into gloom and despondency. His affairs 
were in this unpromising state, when, in 1729, he re- 
ceived an invitation from the Court of N'ienna to come 
and reside there as coadjutor to Apostolo Zeno, the im- 
perial laureate. His pension was to be three thousand 
iarint (L.300) a year. The offer was the more flatter- 
ing, that it came in conieaacnee of the recommenda- 
tion of Zenn himself, who ud enjoyed the laurel since 
the rear 1718. His chief empk>3rment ImuI been to 
fumtah lyrical dranias for the iro])erial tlieatre, and 
they were reckoned the best dramas of the kind which 
the Italian laqgaac* ooakl boMt of, befbre tboaeof Me* 
taatasio. Zeno^ Mdining in health and years, most 
honoorably l e uwiuien ded • substitute for himself in 
this empkiyment, who, be must here clearly foreseen, 
would eclipse his own poetical memory. 

On quitting Rome for the imperial capital, Metasta- 
sio oonaigned the care of aUhbefkcts Mid conccmato 
his seeloos friend the Romanina, who willingly took 
charge of his little places, and of the suma«f money 
which he led behind him for the support of his ftther. 
He arrivetl in Vienna the 30th of Julr, 1790. The 
first r^ular ofiem which he ptodnced for the imperal 
theatre was " Adriano in Stna," which waa set to nn- 
tit by Caldara. Of its snnwss we hare no account ; 
bat we may conjecture that it was well received, from 
the &raur tHiidi wm riiawn to it by the rest of Eu- 
rope. In onv of Iris letters to Marianne Bnlgarini, he 
gives a pleaainf aeoxint of the rccefitiaB of " Deme- 
trio," the seeond opera which he oompased in Vienna. 
The applaaae, he says, waa audi as the oldcat people 
never Knamband havmg been givan to any tlMatrfcal 
piece. The audience repeated parts of it in conversa- 
tion as if it had been German. He had not onl^ been 
I, but had conquered the envy attendmg on 
and " those," be myt, " who were before his 
are now become his apestlea." His corres- 
with Romaoina oontiiraed to detail to her the 
re reeeptian of his pieces, and the other ind. 
dents of his liie, till no grnt time before her death, 
which took place in 17.H. She aaanifealed her attadi- 
msm by hanrathing to him all her |n— asiuiii after the 
dcoease of ner husband, to the araomt of 85,000 
crowns ; bat Matastaaio, with nradi nctitade and pro- 
priety, deeUnad the beqaest. In c on s i st a rt as it may 
■aan with oar ideas of bw and decoran, the legality* 
of this will is not q u M tiuu a d by anv of his Italian 
bi^gtaphcrs ; snd his rHimidation of it is spoken of 
by them all as a most disinterested sacrifice. Of the 
of his ronnecthm with the Romanina, it is no 
■•■di of charity to judge, that it was not nro- 
qailo pla tnwi c. The circumstance of her nus- 
ra si Htna in the ssme house with them, both at 
Naplee and Resne, might be thought indications of 
oDojui^ fidelity ; but a chaste actress and opera singer 
is a still more uncommon phenomenon in Italy than in 
England. The female Italian opera singers, as Dr. 
Biuaty observes, generally fin<l it convenient to have 
anoounal husband, who will fight their battles, and 
contend with the imprcssario, or manager of the opera. 





In the course of their corfespondence, it appears as if Metasta^fo. 
the Horaanina was at one time anxious to go to Vienna '"^'Y"™^ 
as a singer, and suspected Metastasio of not spelking 
o|ienly on the subject. It was thought that he was 
fearful of the eSect which her nrriTal might have had 
on his own reputation, as the Emperor Charles VI. 
was a prince of very rigid ideas of decorum. Yet, 
after all, it is not easy to p.irt, on very harsh terms, 
with the name and memory of tlie womnn who solaced 
the heart, and cherished the genius of Metiistnsio. 
Something may be allowed for the general manners of 
her country, and her vocation. She was no ortliiiary 
peraon ; she mode no vulgar choice in her affection ; 
and waa neither mercenary nor inconrtant in preserv- 
ing it. The age at which she died is not precisely 
known ; but she was probably older than Metastasio, 
having attained to the zenith of her reputation as a 
singer in Genoa in 1718. Metastasio spe.iks with deep 
Brief for her deatli to those witli whom it was not his 
interest to be ostentatious of such feelings. In a let- 
ter to his brother, he says — " Poor M.irianna will 
never return ; and I l»clieve that the rest of my liffe 
will l)e insipid and sorrowful." It lias Iwen already 
noticed, that in early life he took the minor orders of 
priesthood. In one of his Ic^tters to his female firiend, 
nementif ■'■ ''iith of a certain abate in Sicily, to 
whose vfli y he would have wisheil to succeed ; 

but i' ' '^v in what (V - - • • itpd, or 

whr^ - requisite thnt ■ Id l>e a 

regiMHr cc< ii'siastic. It appears trom ntlirr letters, that 
althoogh he wished for secular ]>referment in the ^ 
church, he had no intention to be an ecdesiastic " in 



His coarse of life, after his removal to Vienna, was 
little varied by other events than the successive pro- 
duction of his operas. In 1738, he was, without soli- 
citation on his part, complimente<l by the city of Asisi 
with a patent of iiobilitv. His appointment of lau- 
reate, and the profits of nis compositions, enabled him 
to support a respectable appearance in society, and to 
live with all the comforts n ece ssary to his retired and 
mo<lcrate habits. It may l)e suspecte<l, howe\-er, that 
he was obliged, for many years, to cherish retired and 
moderate habits from necessity as much as choice ; nor 
does he write to his friends at all times with unqtiali- 
ficd satis&ction about his pecuniary affairs. " Charles 
VI.," he mys in a letter to a friend, " as a reward 
ftir my long services, and to make up ftrr ray unpaid 
salary, granted me a thousand crowns in Sicily on a 
bidiop n dt or benefice in that kingdom ; but all the 
b i shop s , abbots, and beneficed clergy became from that 
time immortal, and the kingdom was lost before I had 
r ece i ved a penny. The trensurrrhip of Cosenza in Ca- 
labria becoming vacant, my . • ron, remember- 
ing my unpaid arrcirs, destim me. I took poe« 
session— spent more than 800 ducats of my own mov- 
ney in fees and other expenses ; but before I had b©»- 
gun to reap the first crop, the Spaniards entered the 
kingdom, antl I remaine<l with my patent in my hand, 
ready for curling my hair, or folding up sugar plums." 

Tne Empress Queen, he farther relates to his corres* 
pondent, impoverished by a seven years' war, was ob- 
liged to diminish the salaries of her servants. To con* 
sole him for this diminution, and for his other losses, 
she assigned him 1500 florins in Milan ; but at th6 end 
of five years the promise was unfulfilled ; and after fif- 
teen years service he found himself in a worse state 
than when he had left his native oaontr^. This was 
undoubtedly a faithful picture of bis afiiurs at one pea 



108 



METASTASIO. 



MeUitasio. riod of his residence in Germany. It is clear, how- 
'""'Y'*^ ever, that he must have ultimately saved money at 
1 Vienna in the course of liis long life, from the sums 
■which he left at his death. 

These particulars of liis private history are contain- 
ed in his correspondence with the celebrated singer 
Farinelli. A friendship subsisted between our poet 
and that musician for fifty years, after they were sepa- 
rated and established in the service of different nio- 
narchs in the two most remote capitals of Europe. 
The poet and musician were nearly of the same age, 
and began their public career in the city of Naples at 
the same time. They regarded each other as twins of 
public favour, brought to light at the same birth, and 
united in one common interest. Metastasio never ima- 
gined his poetry injured by Farinelli's too florid style 
of singing ; and such was his fraternal affection for his 
" caro gemello," that he overlooked or forgot the want 
of simplicity, action, and pathos in his singing so en- 
tirely, as to censure young performers for these defects 
in his letters to Farinelli*. 

The tenor of his life was vmiform and placid at 
Vienna, if not remarkably happy ; and whatever dis- 
turbance the absence and remembrance of Marianna 
may have given him, he never seems to have fallen 
again in love. " You believe me," he says in one of 
his letters to a friend, " in danger here from the charms 
of some tranquil Teutonic beauty : how mistaken you 
are. Here, love and hatred never disturb the sleep of 
any mortal ; here the body cares very little for the af- 
fairs of the mind ; at night you may be a favourite, 
and in the morning unknown. Eagerness, agitation, 
solicitude, little quarrels, reconciliations, gratitude, 
vengeance, &c. all that gives terror or pleasure in the 
commerce of delicate souls, is here thought ridiculous, 
or fit only for the embellisliments of romances. It is 
incredible to what a pitch of indolence the placid 
nymphs of this place are arrived. I should despair of 
finding one tliat would relinquish a game at piquet for 
the loss or death of her dearest lover. There are many 
who would think the turning aside from their sampler 
among the most mysterious excesses of genius." He 
divided his apartments with the family of Signor Mar- 
tinez, the imperial librarian, whose sister, brought up 
from the cradle by the poet, and highly accomplished 
in literature as well as in music, devoted herself with 
filial attachment to his amusement. From the period 
of his fixing in this intimacy with the family of Mar- 
tinez, he acquired a habit of dividing his time so re- 
gularly, that a single day became something like a mi- 
niature of his lile ; and he was often in jest, though 
■with great justice, compared to a clock. In tlie morn- 
ing he went always at the same hour to hear mass at 
the church of the Capuchiiis ; from thence he went to 
visit the CoiAitess of Althau, with whom his Italian 
biographer says, that he regularly spent his time from 
eleven till two, in the morning, and from eight till ten 
in tlie evening ; and after her death he spent the same 
allotted hours with liis friend I'erlas, the canon of 
Breslaw. We must suppose that he met at that lady's 
house the circle of friends to whose society he was 
chieHy attached. He rose, took his meals, and went 
to bed always at a sUited hour. At six in the evening 
he received at home the Sardinian minister, and Baron 
llagen, tlie president of the imperial Aulic council. 



With these friends he spent his time till eight, usually Metastasio- 
reading the Greek and Latin classics in chronological "^"y"^ 
order. In the intervals of the day he wrote his verses 
and his letters. W'hen he had finished his writing, he 
never left a scrap of paper on the table. He was in 
short such a lover of order in all his ways, that he used 
to say jocularly that he feared Hell chiefly because it 
was a place of utter disorder, and because he undei<- 
stood that in the infernal regions " nullus ordo sed 
sempeternus horror inhabitat." He was accused of 
being finical in his person, from his attachment to odo- 
riferous washes, and delicate soaps and pomatums. In 
his dress he was excessively neat and simple. He had 
a frailty in his advanced years of being averse to de- 
clare his age, and was not fond of alluding to his hum- 
ble parentage. Having never had the sraall-pox, he 
coukl not bear to hear the word mentioned ; and when 
Lewis XV. died of that distemper, not only that 
circumstance, but even every thing concerning the 
Court of France, were forbidden topics in his presence. 
This weakness was the result of the uncommon dread 
of death, with which he was so tormented, that when 
any of liis friends were given over, he never inquired 
more about them, nor was willing to hear their names 
mentioned. These were foibles in a character upon 
the whole highly estimable ; for if not possessed of the 
strong and active virtues, he was perfectly free from 
jealousy, envy, malignity, and tiie selfisli passions. In 
the April of 1782, having attained his 8Vth year, he 
was suddenly seized with a fever, which for some time 
made him delirious ; but on reco\ering his senses he 
received the sacrament with symptoms of devout sen- 
sibility, which drew tears from the surrounding spec- 
tators ; he also had the Apostolic benediction pronoun- 
ced upon him in the article of death. This benetUc- 
tion was sent to him from Pope Pius VI., who was 
then at Vienna, by the Nuncio Garampi. He was 
buried with great funeral-solemnity by his principal 
heir, Signor Joseph Martinez, to whom he left his 
house and library, and about 1CX),000 florins. A re- 
mai^jing, though small portion of liis fortune, went to 
his sisters. 

Metastasio was of middle stature, rather inclined to 
be large, but well proportioned in iiis person, with 
fine dark cye.s, an aquiline nose, a well-shaped mouth, 
and fresh complexion ; and, even at his advanced age,, 
never wore glasses. Dr. Burney' found him, at 72, 
looking like a man of 50, and the handsomest person 
for his age he had ever seen. On his features, he says, 
was painted all the genius, goodness, and propriety, 
which characterize his writings. He was cautious and 
modest in his mtercourse, and so polite that he was sel- 
dom known to contradict any body in conversation. 

Our limits necessarily oblige us to give a general 
character, and not an analysis, of the works of Me- 
tastasio. They contain, besides his poetry, a number 
of letters to friends, which were published after his 
death, and s^ome reflections on the poetics of Aristotle. 
Gravina had taken care that he should be a good clas- 
sical scholar, and he had studied with some depth the 
principles of his own art. He has left also some poe- 
tical versions from Horace and Juvenal. He composed 
eight-and twenty regular operas, without reckoning a 
number of short pieces and entertainments, containing 
both airs and recitatives, like his greater operas, and 



■ * Farinelli (whose voice was found to operate on tlie disordered mind of Philip V. like the harp of David on the evil spirit of Saul,) 
vas tetained in the seirke of tUe JSpaniih court with s pension of £300 a-ycar, which, after X'hilip V. died, was continued under his sue- 



MET 



109 



MET 



often animated with theatrical action. His nibject* are 
taken in<liir«rently from mytholofry and history ; and 
deal not only with antiquity, but, in one instance, with 
the middie Uffe*, in tlie romantic and chivalrous piec* 
at Rogero. This grand variety of age* and countries. 
Hid ■Mnner.i, not only give* much scope for theatrical 
daeontion in the repie— Hallow oT his pieoM, but 

I the reader's imagination, even witbMt wilacs*- 

J tbtir exhibition, to form rich ami niMMMMS wmk 

Miitluiia a£ a ceoery and spectsiJe, ami fumisbes the 
poct'a own 6ncy with a weitlth of local imagery. With 
all this wide field of subjects, bowercr, MatuUsio is 
far from exhibiting a fertile divtraity of Inmmii eharac- 
Cer*. interests, and oosmos ; nor has he even attempt- 
oil to be a great painter of nature and history The 
•Miae of lhi4 deticiracy may have partly lam in tiie frame 
of his gcniu«, and partly in the nature of the opera, to 
wbieb iJm tompcrament of his genius, by long habit, 
1 kaetf. Mis soal, as a poet, was no doubt 

; with iiwpaasinnrd feelings, and with high furms 
I at the sublime and beautiful ; but he 
from nature, a profooad or daring 
>of tfaOHght; or, at all events, if bo had it, 
I not ourdao it in the soft. voiap f OMa, and 
rtvorioa of tfa* opera. He devoted hiaaaif 
to the mutical dtaina with an e«yi i aila fMing of »»• 
«c; and, whata paatry im inoorpomad wita aMisie. 
bowavar ancliantii^t thair mitad aiiNi nm^ be, seoic. 
ikhiff of th« indapandcat and awa u mwa ngeor of the 
la' eoaaariljr be aaarifaed. The anehantment 

wti ' xparianot tram h sasiii g same noble war. 

aong. or afiaebnf strain of tender oaaiMa, nowcrfully 
•ung, may seen (or a moment to tnraw a atmbt upon 
tbis truth. We are apt to feel, in turh instance*, that 
poetry and music are natural, and ought to be insepa- 
rable alliaa. And we are right in thua aporaciating the 
magic reciprocity which ia bare exchanged between the 
two sister arta. whan it a U end a na fivther than to a 
simple burst of fsiliny. ar the reailafiMn of a short and 
Maple story; for ma I M n m e« pr siss pessinn, snd power- 
fully aid tbe verbal ^ pwa s i on of psasian. But w|»en 
poetry extends to tJic unfoldiiw of caa^^MaMart situ*. 
tioR*. to dialogae, and direraiaed daMnptaoaa ol life, 
it leaves the cxpiaanve powara of aaaie hahiad it ; and 
if it accoinmadalae iiaeif to aiadial iiapriisiun, it aaaat 

ners, but would iirg<nerate to I mil^ ae and aaiaiicry 
if it atirnipied to do so Tbe opera poet, theretorr, 
wboae aim is to give hie poeliy that aiaald aieae u 
which nusioal tipswaian can diaa, aad that baaatj 
alone which anMC eaa bt igb l a n aad adem. thaagb be 
may l>nng the pasaitaia into play, and though be mav 
be rich, i dea I. aad peraaasive, cannot carry into imi- 
tation that boldness and tmth. which make the drama 
" hold ap. M mtrt. a aarrar «a malKre." 

Mataataaio. the finest geniaa who ever attempted tbe 
musical drama, illuslrafr* this theory in hi* wliolethca> 
tre. His charartrr* are all ftmeral ami abstracted re. 
prcataaations o( human nature. They have indivitlual 
lUHBta, bat not individusl natures; they l>um with 
they are exslled by virtue or debased by vice ; 
aMnelononsly good or bad, without the parti- 
cular and Minaie trsit* which mske the picture* of hu. 
nan beinf* iUasive semhlancea of neality. 1 he hero of 
oae age Mtd country is exactly the same with the hero 
of another. They are viriu- * and viots personified, 
and in the ettreme ; they are defective in pbyaiogno- 
my. Yet, if wc weigh Mctastasto, not by hie graenc 
but tpadfie worth la the drama, as a writer of operas. 



and not of tragedies, we shall find room for almost un- Msisstatls. 
qualified admiration His operas are, on the whole, in _'_'"" . 
so far exquisite dramas, that the story which they tell ~ ' ~ 
is managed with classical and skilful arrangement ; their 
plots are striking, interesting, and well ad5uste<l ; the 
story is irresistibly captivating, fraught with grandeur 
and fire, a* well as temlempss of passion. Love, toy. 
alty, and patriotism, are eloquently expressed ; and the 
harmony snd diction, both of air and recitative, are 
supported with exquisite power and simplicity. His 
l ang u ag e is so perspicuous ss to be almost as intelligi- 
ble to foreigners as prose itself. His nine dramas the 
most esteemed, are those which he compo»«l during 
the ten first years of his residence at Vienna. Issipile, 
Olimpiade, Demophoonte, Laclemenza di Tito, Achille 
in Teiro, Semirami de Riconosciuto Temistorle, Zeno- 
bia, and Regolo. In our own opinion, the tenderness 
and luxuriance of feeling in Demetrio is equal to any 
thing in his works, and almost unrivalled in the dr.nma. 
The third scene of the third act of Demetrio is pecu- 
liarly touching, where Cleonice, the princess of Egypt, 
who had been induced, by a false sen«e of honour, to 
give up her lover Alcestes, when repentance seizes 
her, when she find* herself unable to suport a longer 
straggle against alTection, snd overtakes Alcestes on 
the sea-shore, in the moment of his embarkation. The 
etoonence of love wa» never more rt)mantic and beau- 
tiful, than in her speech in that scene which begins— 

" XU <aa fim » sAny* 
Qm'ttU /mcf go4$», (Aria rtfitliMo 
Lmnf tc U iwlifti wit t%r mom giiC 

Metastasio is eminently the poet of love, and, in ge< 
neral, very hmiy ia delineating noble and amiable 
sentiments It is astonishing liow much a/iiW, and sim. 
pie feeling, and natursl language, he has thrown into 
the most artificial department of the drama ; with how 
little constraint he moves in lyricitl poetry, and with 
what artless, unaiipctcd language, he nnites the richest 
ornaments of imagination. In the opera, he is a poet 
without m<idels, and without rivals. (*) 

.MKl'KLIN, anciently M\TCLCNiand LiSBOs, an 
island in the Mediterranean, at the month of the 
Gulf of Adramyti, on the sooth.west coast of Asia 
Minor. 

This islaml is of a triangular figure : its precise di. 
Bww ions are not asrertained ; but in so far as we can 
oallrct, it seems aUiut 48 iniles in extreme length from 
north-wnit to south*eakt, S6 in extreme breadth, and 
tbe saprrftdea psabaliljr may lie computed at SOO 
square miles. Several rorky flats environing it are 
con j ec tu red to have been once an integral part of Me- 
telin, and some have soppoaed that an ancient concus- 
■ton of nature rent the island itself from the neigh, 
bouring continent. The 1nterme<iiate channels be- 
tween two sides of it snd tbe Asiatic coast are nine or 
ten miles wide, with 50 or 60 fathoms of water. 
, There are no rivers here, but mountain torrents from 
the r'lins ; numerous fountains, and mnny hot springs 
aH ditfrrent qualities, to which valetudinarians resort 
at all seasons, both for drinking snd bathing. l'h« 
southern coast is pcnetrate<l by two canals, each ter. 
minating in a •pacious basin, forming two excellent 
and >ecure hart>oun, which arc separated by the lofly 
Mount Olympus^ Uf these Port Caloni is the Isrger, 
but ikK so aiuch frrqiientf<l as the other port Hiero, 
or Ulisiere lying towanls the south-east extremity of 
the island. Traders rrpa'r hither duriiii; the whole 
year for cargoc* of oil, and foreign navigators take 



110 



M E T E L I N. 



Metelin. shelter in it when advene winds oppose their access to 
the Gulf of Smyrna. 

The face of Metelin is mountainous : one chain of 
hills traverses the island in a longitudinal direction, 
and is intersected by another. Volcanic and calcare- 
ous productions abound. Granitic rocks on each side 
of the two channels, dividing it from the continent, 
arc cemented by a calcareous substance; and among 
the petrifactions which occur at Port Sign, the west- 
ern extremity, are entire trunks of trees. Some parts of 
the surface of the earth are covered with a hard shin- 
ing stony incrustation. 

Climate. The climate is very fine ; it rarely freezes during 

winter, and the summer heats are tempered by breezes 
from the sea. The island nevertheless is exposed to 
sudden storms from the Asiatic mountains, and to- 
wards the south coast it is insalubrious. Great mor- 
tality prevails in certain seasons ; and whole villages are 
said to be occupied by leprous persons. Hippocrates 
celebrates the beneficial effects of the Lesbian climate 
on the body, and Demetrius Phalerius conceives that 
it invigorates the mind. 

Produc- The ground is clothed with perpetual verdure, and 

tions. the most luxuriant vegetation : almost all the moun- 

tains are well wooded, and exhibit a great variety of 
plants. Vineyards hang on the declivities of the hills, 
for the soil is friendly to the vine ; and extensive plan- 
tations of olives afford an abundant produce. The an- 
cients celebrated the quality of the Lesbian wine, but 
at present it is both rare and inferior, partly from the 
unskilfulness of the inhabitants, and partly because the 
grapes are converted to raisins, and also employed by 
■ the Greeks for making brandy. Neither the grain nor 
live stock are in sufficient quantity for home consump- 
tion. Horace speaks of Lesbian flour whiter than 
snow ; and wool was formerly an article of export. 
The chief products, natural and artificial, of the pre- 
sent day, are about 50,000 or 60,000 quintals of olive 
oil j'early, most of which is carried to Constantinople; 
-wood for shipbuilding, and pitch extracted from pines, 
for the same purpose. Nothing but pine is said to be 
used in the construction of the vessels, which are very 
light, and last ten or twelve years. Pococke mentions 
a manufacture of stuffs made of silk and flax, at a place 
called Peribole. 

Trade. Considerable trade was carried on with France for- 

merly: the French had a consul, and the English a 
vice-consul : but the former seems to have been with- 
drawn when it was ascertained that the oil of the 
Morea and of Candia could be obtained at a cheaper 
rate. 

Inhabi- I* '* computed that Metelin contains about 40,000 

unts. inhabitants, consisting of Turks and Greeks in equal 

proportions, and a few Jewish families. The women 
are very handsome, with fine large expressive eyes 
and a beautiful complexion, which, however, they dis- 
figure with paint ; and they shave off part of the eye- 
brow, replacing it by an artificial one, connecting the 
remainder with the hair at each temple. The ancient 
Lesbian females are said to have had a public competi- 
tion for the palm of beauty, which was adjudged by 
young men in the fane of Juno. But such contests do 
not seem to have been favourable to morals, as the 
people were considered dissolute: and a traveller of 
the last century remarks, that " the women have no 
better character for their chastity, nor the men for 
their sobriety, than in former times," In manners the 
modern females are rather masculine; they do not 
'Bhun the gaze of strangers ; they enjoy an uDcommon 



Metelin. 



portion of liberty, and even assume a paramount autho« 

rity in all domestic arrangements. "■"nr"^ 

Until lately, a remarkable deviation from the com- 
mon customs of mankind prevailed regarding the law 
of succession here. The eldest daughter inherited the 
whole fortune of the family, while all the other chil- 
dren, male and female, were left entirely destitute. 
If there were orjly two daughters, the younger ob- 
tained no succession ; and when the elder married, the 
remained in a state of subservience to her, wearing 
a particular habit, and attending her as a domes- 
tic. If the family consisted of more than two, this 
became the lot of the immediate younger daugh- 
ter always, as her immediate elder sister married. 
Farther, it appears that the whole family possessions 
were transferred to the eldest daughter on her mar- 
riage, whereby she and her husband were kept in af- 
fluence, and her parents were reduced to an indigent 
condition, " and we ourselves," says the Earl of Char- 
lemont, " have frequently been shewn the eldest daugh- 
ter parading through the town in the greatest splen- 
dour, while her mother and sister followed her as ser- 
vants, and made a melancholy part of the attendant 
train." Something similar may be traced among va- 
rious ancient countries ; and there are some even now 
where the birth of a son deprives the father of his pub- 
lic functions. In Metelin, a modification of the usage 
alluded to has been recently effected by the interven- 
tion of the Patriarch of Constantinople, together with 
the bishops and clergy of the island. Certain rights of 
primogeniture are preserved, by which the eldest 
daughter receives a third of the inheritance, the second 
a third of what remains, and the younger successively 
a third of the residue. Thus the immediate younger 
daughter, whatever be the number of the family, al- 
ways receives a third of the remainder, after those be- 
fore her have drawn their proportion. 

The principal town, which is called Metelin or Cas- Towns, 
tro, is situated on the east coast, where two harbours Metelin. 
are formed by a mole of ancient construction. It is 
protected by a castle about three quarters of a mile in 
compass, consisting of two divisions of lofty embattled 
walls, each having its own governor and garrison, and 
these fortifications are defended by five or six hundred 
janizaries, most of whom are domesticated there. The 
population of the town amounts to two or three thou- 
sand Turks, three or four thousand Greeks, and thirty 
or forty Jewish families. It is a Bishop's See. Mete- 
lin covers pai-t of the ground occupied by the ancient 
city. Molivo stands on the north coast, on the site of Molivo. 
the ancient Methymnee, extending up the side of a hill, 
crowned by a spacious castle. It is about a mile in cir- 
cuit, and contains about two or three thousand Turkish 
and Greek inhabitants ; the latter have three churches 
and a bishop. The natives of this place are said to be 
distinguished as of old by a taste for music. Besides 
these, which are the principal places of the island, there 
are several villages, such as Petra, Akerona, Eresso, 
chiefly of small extent. Petra, or Porto Petra, on the »,,_, 
west coast, is so named, from a high rock in the centre, 
which is accessible only from the north, and is surround- 
ed on the top by a wall, whether the most valuable pro- 
perty is deposited by tlie inhabitants when alanned for 
the depredations of Corsairs. At Akerona, on the north Akerona. 
of Port Caloni, there is a desolate monastery, detlicated 
to St. John the Baptist. Eresso stands a little to the Rressc 
south of Cape Sigri in the neighbourhood of Ruins, de- 
noting the situation of the ancient city of the same name. 
The houses in Metelin are constructed atler a peculiar 



MET 



111 



IVl E T 



BmioMtt 



AocicBl 



fubiaa, consisting; of a square tonrcr of hewn stone, nu« 
aed so high as to overtop the trees, and command a view 
of the sea and the neigiibouring ialoniL The lower 
starejr is reserved for atures and granaries ; and nt the 
top are the apartments for the fiimily, which are gained 
bjr a stair, chiefly built on the ontsiae, and surrounding 
the tower. 

Many celebnted aaen owe tbeir birth to this island, 
■monf whom, perhaps, Theophtaatus was the most dis< 
tiiiguished, from having been a diaeifile of Plato, ftam 
Aristotle designiog him for his aacecaor, and also for 
ifae incredible f^^ti^ of his works. Pittacus, esteem- 
ed by the Giedca as cne of their sages, was bom m 
Lesboa, as also Alcaus and Sappha Inmodem timet, 
the two brothers named Barfaai uaaa, the sons of a pot- 
ter, who successivelv attained the rank of Dey of Al- 
giers aboat the middle of tbe sixteenth oentiuy, owe 
their birth to this island. 

Lesbos was one of the most faiaoiu islands of anti- 
<iaity, but almost tbe whole l e wiai n a of its grandeor 
■re totally obliterated. Nothing but tiw fiuntost tnwos 
can be diacorerad a€ some of the aigiit eilMi whioh 
PUilennr says it contained. Four or Bve mileB nortfa- 
west OS the town of Metelin are tlu- ruins of a fine aque- 
duct wliiob has oonaisted oriciDaUy of two arcades of 
grey matfala ii iiiuyiiml by a liiiid of brick. In other 
places are seen die faaodtmrnm of aadeiit cartlea and 
«abtacraBeous dstems. A white morble chair, of the 



age of Tiberius, which long a tt iatled the mtice ef ti«- 
TeUers, we have understood, has b«B bMljr Mifihail by 
a Scottish Noblonan diatingiiiabad by hia ta«BteGre- 

ha Bnne. Aceovdiof to 



Diodonis it was called Issa ; and after being occnpied 
by sewn generations of men, it was submerged by a 
flood, separating it from the continent, and destroying 
the whole inhabitants. Hnving r^^ined sufficient fer- 
tility after subsidence of the waters, it was repeopled 
at a' period which some conjecture to have been 1734, 
and others 15K) years anterior to the Christian n?ra. 
This island was often the theatre of warlike contentions 
durinff the subsistence of die Grecian States, and the 
influence of other nations in the Mediterranean. Un- 
der the name of Lesbos it became tributary to the A- 
tfaenians, and afterwards formed part of tlie Homan Em- 
pire, h is uncertain when this appellation was chan- 
ged ; but Eustatiiius, who flourished in the twelfth cen- 
turr, mentions that it hod been lately called Mytelene, 
as it was ancietttly denominated LoMoa. The Empe- 
ror John Paleologus ceded it to Gatilusio, a Venetian 
Nobleman,, under whose family it remained until be- 
sieged by Mahomet, who met with a determined resis- 
tance ft^oni the inhabitants. But their Commander 
tocacheroualyMpened the gates of tlie town to the ene- 
mj in I46S, on • promise of being rewanled'with the 
aoreieinty of the Island. However, Mahomet, equal- 
ly treeaMrena, put him to death when his services pro. 
Ted no longer useful. See Diodorns Sictilus, lib. iv. 
f Ht. Dallaway's Conttrndmnpie, Ancient and Modrm, 
p. SIS. Pococke's TrwttiM. vol. ii. parti, p. 15. Tran». 
aeliout of Ike Royal Iritk Aemdtmf, «m. Hi. Guy's 
FoMW* Li/ttretre, toei. i. p. 898. (c) 

METELLUS. See Jl-ourtha and Rome. 

MrT"'"" '-^••o Mbteoroloov. 

M 10NE.7 c M 

MLll.UUUl.irE. j See METEoniT.. 




METEORITE. 



Mctsoriu. i. HIS tcnn, derifed from tbe Creek MiIm^, is here 
^rry"^ preferably adopted, as the ahortest and moat eanv*> 

iklis from the air, and whose ocseeot is, generally, pr^ 
ceded or acconpanied by a fiery meteor. 
Porport of That stony, and even metalline bodies, have repeaU 
Ibis srUclc. cdly impinged upon the earth's surface, and from greet 
eleinlioas, is • nkyaeil jiositian freo which no cosw 
fldcnte Md oaMud hgiwan «■■ sny longer withhold 
Am — swt The object of the ensuing ftffa, them 
§im, ie not so noch to prove the reality of anch e ph» 
oooMBoa, M to sappiy our tsadsri withosvimaanr, 
hnt continnoue reriew of ile hitory, er, mi eth rr worda, 
with a transcript of ita e mdi fcti eos, and of the leait 
ing observations and reeseniwgi to which it bee given 
thus epproximatirc the TCsoka of vanens and difr 
documents, snd rsdnciag ssithin a detinUe 
the grouodwork of liitan inqwir and di*. 
We may, at the seme time, confidently ven- 
tore to indulge the rcoaoBiiile espectetion, that our 
ipnoitioo of facts and shaarioliiina will auffice to oen- 
Tinee thorn who here not horetofom cusnine<l the na- 
tare of the evidence on which it rests, that the pheno- 
manon in questton it neither doubtful nor chimerical, 
bat entilied to all the credibility which can attach to 




Mcttorie 

iron, tnd 
pulvtni- 



oikcraao. 



■howcn 
C0Ba«cu4 
wtih ih« 
sutjcct. 



In oar present state of knowledge, we can (eel no 
heHtalion in sacribing a anotMrie origin to certain de- 
of native iross, net eierely because tradi- 
wilh oar vgkuaa, but principally because 



the circiuBstance of their fall has been, in one instance Meteorite. 
at Uasi, duhr aathenticated, and because their chemi- '^'y-m^ 
cal oeaatitntiaB ia, in aotae important paniculars. ana- 
legaas to that of nndoulited meteorites. According to 
the diseovcries of I'rouat and Klapreth, for example, 
native iron, reputed meteoric, differs fVom that which 
occurs in a fossil state, by the presence of nickel. Of 
the two pieces of Siberian iron in the Grevillian ooU 
icction, one exhibita a cellular and ramified texture, 
eneiogoas to that of aome very light and porous vol- 
■anic slags. An attentive eaaninadon, moreover, re- 
voale impressions or cavitiea of ^raeter or less depth, 
and in some of which there remains a transparent stib> 
alance, of a yellowish-green hue. The iron itself is 
very malleable, and may be cut with a knife, or flat- 
tened under the hammer. The other specimen is more 
solid and compact, but so blended and incorporated 
with the yeliowiih-green matter, tiiat if the whole of 
the latter were subtracted, the remainder would consist 
of iron in the metallic state, and would present the 
sane cellular ap p e a r an ce ma tbe preceding, I'he >tuny 
portions of the composttiao mually aisaMe the form of 
small nodules, generally of an irregular outline, but 
acmrtimes nearly globular, with a smooth, shining, 
and vitreoiia surface, and, both in aspect and proper- 
ties, approaching to olivine. " I cannot help observe 
iog," says the Count de Boumon, " that there appears 
to exist a very interesting analogy between these trans- 
parent nodules and the globule* I described as making 
part of the ttoacs said to have fallen on the eaith." 

3 



112 



METEORITE. 



Meteorite. The native iron from Bohemia, like the larger speci- 
'^^'v^^ men from Siberia, is compact, anil contains nodules, 
but not so numerous. They are, besides, quite opaque, 
and very much resemble the globules in atmospheric 
stones. This iron contains nearly 5 percent, of nickel; 
and between 5 and 6 per cent, of the same metal seems 
to exist in a piece of native iron, brought from Sene- 
gal. 

In like manner, we shall offer no apology for includ- 
ing in our chronoloijical recital the mention of pulver- 
ulent or coloured showers, since the products of some 
of them seem to indicate a similar origin, and since, in 
several instnnces, their fall has even accompanied that 
of concrete masses. The colouring matter of alleged 
showers, however, has sometimes been found to be of 
a vegetable or animal nature, so that cases of this de- 
scription are to be admitted with caution. Thus, the 
crimson snow, described by Captain lioss, in his ac- 
count of his recent voyage to Baffin's Bay, is supposed 
by Dr. Wollaston to owe its complexion to some vege- 
table protluction, and Mr. Bauer fancies that he has 
detected in it the existence of a non-descript Uredn, 
which he, very appropriately, designates nivalis. With 
the exception of such instances, however, the black 
and reddish dusts to which we shall have occasion to 
refer, may, perhaps, be regarded as replacing the grey 
and earthy portions of the friable meteoric stones. Nor 
is it improbable that the vitreous matter which accom- 
panies the masses of native iron, may be the same por- 
tions coinpletely fused, and that the dusts, meteorites, 
and ferruginous masses may have undergone different 
degrees of heat, which would account for their differ- 
ent modifications and appearances. Certain it is, that 
even sand was mingled in the Siena shower of stones, 
thus pointing to an intimate connection between silex 
in the loose and in the consolidated state, and thus jus- 
tifying our insertion of the few examples of atmosphe- 
ric sand that have come within our knowledge. 
The regis- 't may, moreover, be proper to premise, that al- 
ur of ex though we have adopted Dr. Chladni's revised cata- 
amples fnr logue of meteoric appearances, and an article inserted 
Itri™!*'^"'^ in the second number of the Edinburgh Philosophical 
curat e''(ir'^ Journal, as the basis of our historical recapitulation of 
complete, ""ecorded cases, we by no means wish it to be under- 
stood, that we vouch for the truth of them all indiscri- 
minately ; for some of them rest on vi-ry slender or 
doubtful evidence ; and a few we have purposely dis- 
carded, because we have been apprised, on unquestion- 
able authority, that they were apocryphal. We may, 
however, pretty fairly presume, that the number of 
genuine occurrences of the phenomenon is, at least, 
not inferior to that which we purpose to quote ; for it 
is reasonable to infer, that while the learned continued 
incredulous, even true reports might be rejected as 
fabulous; and several foreign collections of fossils con- 
tain specimens of reputed atmospheric origin, and ex- 
hibiting the features of meteoric physiognomy. It is, 
likewi.se, worthy of remark, that many fragments of 
heavenly descent may, at this moment, lie scattered on 
the e.'irth, because, if abandoned but for a short time 
to the variations of humidity and temperature, to which 
the surface of our planet is constantly exposed, their 
metallic portions would be as speedily oxidized and 
degraded as a bit of polished steel, and thus render 
them to the eye of casual observation undistinguishable 
from morsels of those ferruginous stones which may be 
met with in almost every region of the globe. Be- 
sides, many relations of the pheiromenon may have 
junk into oblivion from the waste of time, or the stroke 



the pheno- 



of calamity ; and, on a fair computation of chances, Meteoiite. 
meteors may have frequently exploded over desert -ii~>— i»J 
tracts of land, or the patliless expanse of the waters. 

From the sacred Scriptures of the Old Testament, Sacred 
we are not aware that any passage can be cited in di- scripture 
rect proof of the descent of stones from the atmosphere. afi'"rds no 
The ingenious but fanciful A/'. Edward King, indeed, ^"^^' '"''- 
in his " Remarks concerning stones said to have fallen .T"'!.u".°- 
from the clouds, both in these days and in ancient 
times," points to two passages as announcing such an 
event. The first occurs in the 1 3th verse of the 1 8th 
Psalm— ~T/ie Lord also thundered out of heaven, and the 
Highest pave his thunder: hail-stoties and coals of 
FIRE. This last expression has, no doubt, been con- 
jectured to denote real hard bodies in a state of igni- 
tion : and the term a»Cj«jie;, employed by the cautious 
Seventy, rather favours such an inteqiretation. The 
same expression, however, occurs in the verse imme- 
diately preceduig, without admitting of this significa- 
tion; and the phrase seems to be only a figurative 
mode of painting lightning ; for, even in the sedate 
latitudes of the north, and in plain colloquial discourse, 
we currently talk of balls of fire, and thanderboUs, 
without any reference to solid matter. The other pas- 
sage adduced by Mr. King, is the 11th verse of the 
10th chapter of .loshua. And it came to pass, as they 
jied from before Israel, and were in the going down to 
Belh-horon, that the L'nd cast down cnrAT stone.s /roi« 
heaven vpon them unto Azekah, and they died: they tvere 
more irhich died with hail-stones than ihcij whom the 
childreTi of Isiael sletv with the sword. Here the ex- 
pression great stones is, perhaps, less ambiguous than 
coals of fire : yet the context hardly permits us to 
doubt, that these great stones were really hail-stones, 
or rather, perhaps, lumps of ice, formed in the atmo- 
sphere, such as occasionally fall in summer, and such 
as alarmed the whole of Paris and its neighbourhood, 
in July, 1788. At all events, the slaughter of the 
Canaanites is represented as resulting from the special 
interposition of divine power ; and the consideration of 
miracles is irrelevant to our present purpose. In the 
New Testament, however, we find a passage, which 
may, perhaps, be construed as alluding, at least inci- 
dentally, to the traditionary fall of a meteorite ; for, in 
the Acts of the Apostles, the chief magistrate of Kphe- 
sus is represented as thus addressing the peojjle : Ye 
men of Ephesvs, what man is there that knoweth not hoiv 
that the city of the Ephesians is a worshipper of the 
great goddess Diana, and of' the imaqe which fell 
DOWN FROM JupiTEK .'' Or, morc literally, or that 
WHICH FELL DOWN FROM JuPiTER. According to some 
learned commentators, this image was merely a conical 
or pyramidal stone, which fell from the clouds; and it 
appears that various other images of the heathen dei- 
ties were nothing else. Thus, Herodian expressly de- 
clares, that the Phenicians had no statue of the sun, 
polished by the hand, but only a certain large stone, 
circular below, and terminated acutely above, in the 
figure of a cone, of a black colour, and that they report 
it to have fallen from the heavens. Nor is it at all sur- 
prising that rude and superstitious tribes should attach 
ideas of veneration and mystery to a solid and ignited 
body, precipitated from the sky. But even the com- 
plete silence of the sacred volume with respect to any 
physical appearance, does not imply its non-existence 
during the periods to which that volume refers ; for 
scientific statements form no essential part of the plan 
of revealed religion ; and stony bodies may have occa- 
sionally descended from the sky, in the peopled or un- 



METEORITE. 



lis 



MfUOfUft 



of tbc ph» 
oooMiioa 
Inat bo- 

HMO/. 



Mount 
AltM. 



Crrtf. 



_ of the globe, M comeU and aclipie* 
mar Bsrr cttrmcted the attention of mortal*, tbouffh not 
imuctrd by the inspired peninen. 

If firon tacreU we turn to the ear'- 7— -:— )< rf pro. 
bat history, we «hall find the ann.. ic events 

vcnr ctjpiouih' interspersed with ikkhv^ i>i produnea 
ancl »trang«; a{)pearances, many of which we may saiely 
ascribe to the ascend.i' ' '1 superstition long main- 

tained over the ham: n -0 that it becomes ex- 

^^emely difficult, after uic laine of nuuiy •>«% and in 
the cnUation of record* whicn savour of ua marveU 
kms, to separate truth frui " Thus, in r^ard 

to the topic before u«, wr y aulborised to dis- 

card from our ex-tcrr«strial catoit^ue certain modifira- 
tioiu of solphuret of iron, beiemoites, orthoocratitn, 
&c. which the observations of intelliynt iwtMnliitt 
have proved to be of mineral or aniwu iigsBMtioti. as 
also Ute heads at airows and sharpwud fliats, which 
have been fiahioned by tha hand oC mas, though the 
vmlgar may, in tha tarlier stage* cf sacialy, have attri- 
btttsd to tliam a oeWstial origin, and naikadthcm 
amoi«li«»^-«(o«c(; but, whan 
from ueaa, and ooinddiag in any oaa 
rith osodam s iw i m a wa of 
by the anciants t* hav« fallan 
I of theapacha, ami tbc 
mi^ ooiuiderably aSnt aai 
tha reputed eridaooa. Hanca. when we 

re ughtlj on the anciciit than osi 

snt ti'stiiniaiies, wa are Ur froo 
certainty even of the particular intancm 
M the indisinminaae aeenticism of the lenroed ie 
ly less reprehensible than tha blind crsdnlity of the 
barbarian, we reckon it fair to admit their prebebilily, 
and the weight which the mmtiim of ihsm aaay be c«a> 
■dered u adding to that of Mbseqocnl and man dr- 
' aarrativaa. 



of a burnt ctdoar, near Egospotamos in Tlirace, and >tcic ofUt. 
affims that it was still cxhibitwl In his time. The ^"""^"""^ 
wmgmlmdim vtkit of this author may probably mean, ^^'*'*' 
that it was of such dimension*, that it rould be con- 
veyed in a cart ; and rnme commentators read vehibim 
lit. The Greeks pretended that it had fallen from the 
sun, and that Anaxagoras had prinlirted the day of iu 
arrival on the earth's surface. Such a prediction, the 
naturalist obaerves, would have been mure marvellous 
than the stone; and all knowlc<lge. he adds, must be 
oonfomided, if either we admit the sun to be a stone, 
or a stooe to fall from that luminary tu the earth. Yet, 
whMew may have l>een the ingenious or the absurd 
surmises of those day*, the reputed event became a 
subject of such notoriety, that the author of the Athe- 
nian Chronicle, a docimient pul>lislie<l by Sclden, along 
with the Arundelian njirbles. formally places it umler 
the 5Sth epoch, and in the 1 13th year of the Attic or 
Cecronian era. I'hat .\naxagoras loretold tlie day of 
the fail, may as well be doubted, as that Sir William 
Herscbel ahould have lent himMrlf to the occupation 
of Moore the almanack-maker : but we learn from a 
in the fir<t book of Silenus, preserved by Dio< 
laartiiil. that the incident which we are now 



the 




ManBg, suggested to the philosopher uf Clazumene 
tha hgrpotSeab which he delivered to his diiciples. 



the 
but. 



Cc«M> 

Otrtwai*- 
•«>■ 
Ida. 
AM|l8. 



Chfcmalagicml Uiitory af Mlmrrtm, imltnpertt^ wilk 



A.C. UTS. 
MaJcAus. 



Moonr 
Satrr. 
Numa, 



The thundanteoe in Crete. 
P '^ "too. Stooe* 

s. A mam at 

(. nu-. I ,ir. < ttroH. — 705, or 704, 
"T JmcyU, which fell in the 



The 
of 



■II ni-ariy the sanie ahape with the mam thai Ml 
at Agrain. But. if it really wm of irmm, ami Ml iMB 



Htmdt kai%d», as mantiwwd by MiiaMfk, wa naff wed 
awpact a BMM>raHtf 6Mb DwiM the leigB of Tul- 
hia HaatiBua, a shower of alaMa Ml m Mimnt Alba, 
and, when the maatm depalad nnwMiMimaii ie Mcar- 
tain the (act, they were aamrad tbtf mmm bad really 
fallen, a* thick aa hail impelM by the wiad. Similar 
events, adds the eleqacat Lm/, wcea eaWwaiad bjr a 
festival of nine daya. At that pariod, tben, tlw Ml af 
ileiM* wa* solemnly leongniaaii m a Mparnataial oc- 
OTTcnce : the wrture ef ibe maaMa, bowavw, i* not 
partiealarly described ; awl, a« aubeaqaawt aMaaiaaa, 
the same historian haa usually r e c om e to tha gaaaml 
ampraiMB Itfidiimt piutrt, without farther eaaaaMOt 
or atnla— riim — 6H, Aoeording to Dt Gmgaar, the 
aart^ hiilnrimi af Chiaa laako mantiaa ef tn atoMs 
bavwg 6B« ftnmlha bcafvaaa. ia the diatrict af Sai^ 
MX A stane Ml ha Crete, ia the tiaM wt 
CtlmH. *66. Plimy. in the Mtb chapter of the 
book af hi* Natural llistory, 1 iiiaaiaMiiBalm the ( 
in lh« day-time, of a atony ouse, aa iaqge aa a cart, 
roh, XIV. raaT k 



the sky was a solid vault, composed of 
which its rotatory motion kept at a due 
from the centre, to which they would, other- 
wise, inevitably tend. We nuy aWo remark, that I'liny 
broedty asserts the frequent occurrence of the pheno- 
WWiai rfrrWfrs lamat crttuo, hand erit dubiitm. Some 
ca tl eaa bo(><'« r.-Uiive to the Thraclan stone bare 
M k aaiaa ber: ed by Plutarch, in his Life of 

Lyamdar. 1; ;. i- remsrks, at Egospotamos. waa 

of aMroHNis dimensions, and was exhibited a* a public 
spectacle by the people of ih.- C'hersonesus. who held 
it in great veoeration. Mit account of the meteor is 
pri n c i pa l ly borrowed from Damadius or Osimachus, 
wbaM Strabo represant* as sddicted to fiction, aud ig» 
aotant of geometry. 

" During seventy- five successive days." says the bia> 
graabtr, " (.r •■> the fall of the stone, a large fiery 

DOOf, like ^ : flame, was observed in the hea- 

vens, net fixeu 10 one point, but wandering about with 
a broken, i r ie gu l a r motion. In consequence ol' its vio< 
laat Mitabon, several flaming frsgmenta were forced 
hmmn, which were impelled in various directions, and 
darted with the velocity and fplrndoiir of so many 
falling stars. After this body had alii;htecl in the 
Charaoaasos, and the inhabitanu, rt'< ' ''leir 

alarm, bad amaaabled to see it, they ^ no 

inlsmmable matter, nor the slightest trace ut' tire, but 
a real stone, which, though Urge, was nothing when 
iii|Mriid to the volume of thst fire-ball which they 
bad aaea in the sky, but sppearetl only as a piece de- 
tached fVmn it." " It is ol >ntinue« Plutarch, 
*' that Daaiachus must ha\. 'ulgent readers, if 
thia account of his gains credit It' it ii a true one, it 
completely refutes those who allege that this stone was 
merely a rock, torn by a tempeak fram the top of a 
mountain, and which, after being conveyed for some 
time in the air, liy mrani of a whirlwind, settled on 
the first spot where the violence of the latter abated. 
This phenomenon, which lasted for so many days, 
was, perfaans, aAer all, a real globe of fire, which, when 
it dtaparaao, and became nearly extinct, might induce 
a cbaage in the air, and generate such a wbirU 
p 



114 



METEORITE. 



Meteorite, wind, as might tear the stone fronr its native bed, and 
^~'V~' dash it on the plain." 

Damachus, it is true, may, on this occasion, have 
given way to his love of the marvellous ; and we can 
readily believe, that the seventy-five continuous days 
are either an error of the copyist, or an original exag- 
geration. When we reflect, however, that he is not 
the sole reporter of the occurrence, and that some of 
the circumstances which he specifies are very analo- 
gous to those which remain to be stated on less ques- 
tionable authority, we can hardly refuse to acquiesce 
in the presumption, that a meteorite really fell at the 
period, and on the spot which are here so particularly 
specified. 
Mother of 465. The stone denominated the mother of the gods, 
the gods, alluded to by so many ancient writers, and the source 
of so many learned, and so many foolish conjectures, 
is stated by Appian, Herodian, and Marccllinus, to have 
Jiilkn from heaven. Aristodemns, quoted by the Greek 
scholiast on Pindar, asserts, that it fell, encircled by 
fire, on a hill, and at the feet of the Theban bard. It 
is said to have been of moderate dimensions, of a black 
hue, of an irregular angular shape, and of a metallic 
ixspect. An oracle had predicted, that the Romans 
would continue to increase in prosperitj', if they were 
put in possession of this precious deposit: and Publius 
Scipio Nasica was, accordingly, deputed to Attains, king 
of I'ergamus, to obtain and receive the sacred idol, 
whose worship was instituted at Rome, 204 years be- 
fore the Christian era. According to Valerius Maxi- 
mus, a stone fell in the March of Ancona : Livy even 
says, lupidibvs pluit, which would intimate a shower of 
tliem. — SIS. A shower of stones near Rome. Jvl. Obseq. 
2 1 1 . — De Gingnes relates, that a star fell to the ground in 
China, and was converted into a stone — an event which 
created an extraordinary sensation. The inhabitants 
of the district, willing to convey a moral lesson to their 
unpopular emperor, caused these words to be engraved 
on the stone : Chi-Hoang-Ty draivs near to death, and 
his empire will be divided. In the plenitude of his in- 
dignation, the emperor ordered all the inhabitants of 
the district to be put to death, and the stone to be 
broken in pieces ; but he died in the course of the fol- 
lowing year ; and, three years after, in the reign of his 
successor Eul-Chi-Hoang-Ty, in consequence of a ge- 
neral revolt, the empire was partitioned into many 
kingdoms, and the dynasty of the Tsins was extin- 
guished. — 205, or 206'. A shower of fiery stones. Plut. 
— 192. A stone fell in China. De Guignes. — 176". A stone 
is reported by Livy, to have fallen into the Lake of 
Mars, in the Crustumenian territory. — 90, or 89. A 
shower of stones like bricks. Plin. — 89. Two large 
stones fell at Yong, in China ; and the noise of the ex- 
plosion was heard over forty leagues. De Guignes. — 
66, or 52. Spongy iron in Lucania. Plin. — A shower 
of stones at Acilla, a town in Africa, mentioned in 
Cmsar's Commentaries. — 38. Six stones fell in the pro- 
China, vince of Leang in China, De Guignes. — 29. Four at 
Po, and two in the territory of Tching-ting-fou. Id.— 
22. Eight in China. Id — 19. Three in China. Id.— 
1 2. One at Ton-Korean. Id. — 9. Two in China. Id. — 
6. Sixteen in Ning-Tcheou, and two at You. Id. We 
may believe, on the authority of De Guignes, that such 
notices are inserted in the records of China ; but we 
are too little conversant in tbe literature of that singu- 
lar country, to determine the precise quantity of cre- 
dence that ought to attach to the notices themselves ; 
yet, hatl no such events ever occurred in that part of 
J. 5 



Ancona. 



Near 

Kome. 

China. 



Fiery 

stones. 
China. 

Lake of 

Mars. 

Swnes liite 

hricks. 

Yong. 

liUcania. 

Acilla. 



the world, it is not very probable that they would have 
been so repeatedly and distinctly registered. 

P. C. A stone in the territory of the Vocontii, 
deposited a little before Pliny saw it. — Mondognetius, 
in his Life of Marcus Aurelius, relates, that, in the 
reign of the Emperor Valentinian, such a copious 
shower of stones fell at Constantinople, that it killed 
most of the cattle in the fields, and even some people. 
— 452. Marcellinus, an ofRcer of the empire, and Count 
of Illyria, who lived in the reign of Justinian, and con- 
tinned the chronicle of Jerome, from A. D. 379, to 
534, makes mention of three large stones which fell 
from the heavens in Thrace ; but he is silent as to par- 
ticulars. — Nov. 5, or 6, 472. A great fall of black 
dust, probably at Constantinople, during which the 
heavens seemed to burn. — Procop. Marcell. Thcoph. 
&c. Sixth century. Stones fell on Mount Lebanon, 
and near Emessa in Syria. Damascius, in an extract 
of his Life of Isodorus, preserved by Photius, relates, 
that the former issued from a globe of fire. — About 
570, a shower of stones, near Bender, in Arabia. Alco- 
ran. — 648. A fiery stone at Constantinople, according 
to several chronicles. — 652. A shower of red dust at 
the same place. Thcoph. Cedren. Math. Erelz. — 811. 
In the third moon, on the day Wou-siu, between the 
third and fifth hour after mid-day, the sky being 
cloudy, and the weather cold, there appeared a globe 
of fire as large as a hou, (a measure of about ten bush- 
els,) which fell between Y an and Yun. A noise, re- 
sembling thunder, was heard at the distance of many 
leagues, and the people fled with a violent outcry. 
Above the place where the globe fell, a reddish vapour 
remained, arranged like a serpent, and a tchang 
(nearly 12^ feet) in length; it remained till the even- 
ing and then disappeared. Ma-louan-Un. — 81 7. In the 
twelfth year, in the ninth moon, on the day Ki-ka'^ 
about the third or fourth hour after midnight, there 
appeared a running star towards the middle of the 
heavens ; its head was like a bucket, and its tail like 
a bark of 200 hou burthen; it was more than ten 
tchang in length, and made a noise like a number of 
birds flying ; it produced a light similar to that of the 
torches used in illuminations. It passed beneath the 
moon, moving towards the west ; on a sudden, a great 
noise was heard, and at the moment the globe fell to 
the earth, a crash took place thrice as great as that of 
a falling house. Id. — 823. A shower of pebbles in 
Saxony, Mezeray, and Bonaventure de St. Amable.— 
839. It is recorded in the history of Japan, that, in 
the sixth year of Nin-mio-teno, the 29th day of the 
eighth moon, there occurred at a place to the west of 
the town of Thean-tchhenan, where no fragment of 
stone previously existed, thunder and rain for ten 
days. The weather having become clear, stones simi- 
lar to the points of arrows and to hatchets, were found 
on the earth, some being white and others red. — July, 
or August, 852. A stone fell in Tabaristan. De Sacy, 
and Quatremere. — Middle of the ninth century. Red 
dust, and matter like coagulated blood, fell from the 
heavens. Kasmini, Elmazen. — December, 856. Five 
stones fell in Egypt. De Sacy, Quatremere. — 885, 886, 
and 887. Thunderstones fell in Japan. Ma-touan-lin. — 
892 or 897. A stone fell at Ahmedabad. Qnalremere. — 
905. Stones fell at Hoanglie, in Coree, which caused a 
noise like thunder. The officers of the place having 
sent these stones to the court, the president of the ce- 
remonies assured the king that the phenomenon of fall- 
en stars had occurred so frequently that it was no long- 



Meteorile, 



Vocontii. 
territory. 



Constant!- 
nopto. 



Tbrace. 

ConstantJ- 
nopte. 
Mount IjE' 
bauun, tsM. 



Bender. 

Oonstanrt- 
nople. 

Cliina. 



Saxony. 



Tabaristan. 
Red duab. 



Egypi. 
Japan* 

Ahoied^ 

bad. 

Cor^e. 



METEORITE. 



115 



hfi-itotU: 






AMm. 




tarxctrj. 

\Vuri<- 

t.T.', 



Frtodb*^ 



CaaoR7 ol 

MorUblA. 
Ac 

Torkihlra. 
OidMibaif, 

Ml: 



a reguded m > prodigy. In China, wrUin itonei of 
a bkck or riolet colour arc called thunJer./ujicIult, scu' 
sort, hawmert, &c. according to Uuir tbrinc ; and, al< 
though they may have been wantonly multinlicil. seme 
dTthetn are, probably, of meteoric orif^in. '• 

Irw, who registers the occurrences of tailing- : ui 

China, suppose* that these thunder-stones are identical 
with them. — <)S9. A fall of red sand, from a red sky, at 
Bagdad. Qualremirr. — 951. A stone fell near .\u?sburp, 
(not in Italy.) AlirHut Sladiut, and others.— Between 
956 and 972. Platina, in his Life of Pope John X 1 1 1 . e- 
Onmerates, among the prodigies of the times, the descent 
of a vt-ry large stone during a furious tempest of wind 
and rain.— 09^- Cosmas and Spangenbers relate, that 
two large stones fell with an explosion like thunder, 
ODe of them alighting in the town of Magdeburg, and 
the other in the open country near the Elbe..— 1009. 
ATtoenaa affirms, that when in Djordjan, (misrepreaent- 
•d Lurmaa and Cordova,) be saw a sulphureous kind of 
ftone fiul from the atmoaphere.— Between the £4ih of 
July and the Slst of Augoat, 1091, stones fell in M'n- 
CM. Dc .Vacy.— 1056. Red snow fell in .Armenia. Math. 
ETeti.—\\\0. A burning body fell into the Lake of 
V'an, in Armenia, and made its watcra htood-red, while 
the earth was cleft in several plaeca, prabably with 
•tooca. Id. — Ills. Stoaea or iron Ml naar Aquikia. 
Flafouor.— 1 1S5 or 1IS6. Span g caber g and otam in- 
fonn us, that a stone as large as the human head wu 
precipitated from the air at Oldisieben in I'huringia — 
1l6i. Gcorga Fabridua. in the First Book of the His- 
tOfjr of Mtmia, apprixea us of a shower of iron in that 
flpui ^ntide.— 1196. Stooca fell near Parif. 

Be>.' '!y 26, 12*9. Spangtnbm and ICi- 

raoder again mark iha da acant of atonca in toe ncigb- 
bouritoodof QnrdlinbuT^ BalkiMtaadt, and Blanken- 
burg, in Saxc tcoith ccntory. A atone fell at 

Wurtabnrg. ■' ^>«. Car.— Between 1251 and 

1363, Stones felt at Wcliaoi-Ussing, in Kuasia. liilb. An. 
—1280. A ktiiiu' fi n it Alix-indria, in Egypt- Dt Sacy. 
—Oct. 1 coottOt of Saxony, and 

•evcral ut :... — :s, concur in stating, 

that many stsnea fell near Fritdland or I'icdclamd, and 
il>-.f iK,.y did great damagt to the fields. But the 
/ of tliMe authors, who probably copied frooi 
1..^ »,.»Uier, is not sufficiently particularised, aa therl 
we many small towns and villages of that name. Span* 
geobe rg more pointedly mentions Fritdberg, near tha 
SaaW. 1305. Duming stoocs fell in the country of the 
Vandala. Bunar. dt St. AwmU(.—Jm. 9, 1328. Stone* 
fell in Mortahia and Dakhalia. QiialrcHurt.—XH^. be> 

vcral ' ' " observed to fall from tha clouds in 

Yor- 7rij;.— 1368. A maaa of iroa fell in 

the ivucnj- oi 1 Milcnburtf. Sicbran/I. .Vryer.^May Hit 
1379* Stones fell at Minden, in llsnover. Ixrbtciiu. 
—1416. Red rain in Bohemia. Spamgaiitrg, 

1438. According to Pruust, the cnrmirt, atones of a 
•pongy texture were obaerved to fall near Iloa, at no 
gnat distance from Burgoa, in Spain ; and, in support 
of hu aaaertion, he quotes the ensuing extract of a let- 
ter firom the Bachelor CibdariaL 

" King Don Juan and bis court being engaged in a 
hunting party, under the village of Roa, tha aun waa 
obscured by white clouds, and they aaw dcacending 
(nm the air bodies which resembled grey and blackish 
atones, and of aueh considerable dimcnaiotn aa to ex> 
dte the greatcat aatooisbment. 

" This phenaoHMO continued during an hour, after 
which the sun fti apyiared, and the falconers, mounted 
on their horses, immediately repaired to the spot, which 
waa not half a league distant They reported to the 



5. ' n wliifh these ftones lay, was eo Meieorfic. 

t: _i ■• I ^ ui tliero, of all sires, as completely '——v^"^ 
to conceal the soil. 

" The king was desirous of visiting the scene, but 
his courtiers restrainetl him, by representing, that the 
place uliirh hp^ven had selected for the theatre of its 
operu'. it be unsafe, and that it would l>e more 

advi;t-.... .^ .:c'tach one of his suite. Goroeti Bravo, 
Captain of his Guards, volunteered his services, and 
brought with him four of these stones to Roa, \*hithcr 
the king hail now retiretl. They were of a ctmsidera^ 
ble size, some round, and as big as a mortar, others 
shaped like pillows or half fanega measures: but the 
circunutance which created most astonishment, waa 
their extreme levity, for the largest did not weigh half 
a pound. They were of such a delicate texture, that 
they resembled sea-froth condensed more than any 
thing else. You might strike your hand against them, 
without any apprehension ot' contusion, pain, or the 
least mark." 

In respect of apectfic gravity, these stones must have 
differed very materially from the heavier specimens of 
rcorat date. Frain the fragility of their texture, no 
trace of their existence probably now remains ; but tlie 
narrative, which bears all the n>arks of a genuine do> 
cuaent. may be regarded as, in aoroe measure, corru* 
borative of the fall of the spongy nuuaea, noticed by 
Pliny, and vfthtjUttf abowers of that naturalist. In 
the present instance^ too^ do mention i« mndeoiony lu- 
minous appearance or exploaion, ai t even said 
that the masse* felt hot when firtt i 

Soma time, in the same century-, a stone, and a maaa 
like coagulated blood, accompanied by a >Wy ilrttgam, 
(netcor,) fell near Lucerne. Ci/tat — l480.Sloo«£idlia Luume. 
Saxony and Bohemia. Philot. Mng. — 1491. A •tonafell Saionjr, 
near Crttna. Simomrlta. 



Noveiabar 7, 149S. — The far-famed stone of Enaia- 
baim has exercised the talent* of contemporaneous wri. 
ters, both in proae and verse. Professor Batenschoen. 
of the central school of Colmar, first directed the atteit- 
tion of naturalists to some of the did chronir!- - •■ '"-h 
record the circumstances of its fall with mi 
city, and in the true spin* .•■!■" •:■""- I '--. i,,.,^ v,,„y.U 
aSGOaipanie<l the stone, ^' led in the 

church of ! I...... \ !»■ n inn iv.li iiiu.-. ; 

" In tl l^.rd 1H>2, on Wedncwlay, 

which wa» Si.iriiiiiiia« i-tc, tlie Ttli of Novenil)er, then; 
hanicaad a aingular miracle ; for, between 1 1 oVluck 
and iMon, there wat ' .d of thunder, and a pro. 

lunged coofuaed noi- was heard to a great di»> 

tanco, and theri '° ' ' •' ■■ jurisdiction of 

Enaiafaatm, a St' |>i>uiul.i. and tlie 

oonfiiaed noise was, • 
Then a child aaw it 
per jurisdiction, tov 

dittrict of Gisgand, ^ I 

did it no hanu I 

tlleti tlu-y i-<in\i 

were broken Iruiii it, wliicli tlu; Laii>. 
They, therefore, caused it to be placed ; 
with the intention of suspending it, aa a uiirade ; aiut 
there came here many people to sea this stone. So 
there were remarkable conversationa about this stone, 
but the learned aaid that they knew not what it was, 
for it waa beyond the ordinary course of nature thnt 
such a large stone should sotite tlte earth to the depth 
of a man's stature, which every l)o<l)- explained to be 
the will of God that it ahould be found, and tlie noiae 
of it waa heard at Lucerne, at Villing, and in many (Jiher 
placca, so loud, that it was believed houses had Ijccn 



fte. 
Crtma. 



Emltbcuil. 



116 



METEORITE. 



Mttcoiitc. overturned ; and, as the King Maximilian was here, the 
'*""~V'"^ Monday after St. Catherine's day of the same year, his 
Royal Excellency ordered the stone which had fallen to 
be brought to the castle, and, after having conversed a 
long time about it with the noblemen, he said that the 
people of Ensisheim should take it, and order it to be 
himg up in the church, and not to allow any body to 
take any thing from it. However, his Excellency took 
two pieces from it, of which he kept one, and sent the 
other to the Duke Sigismond of Austria, and they spoke 
a great deal about that stone, which they suspended in 
the choir, where it still is ; and a great many people 
came to see it." According to Trithemius, it fell with 
so much violence that it broke into two pieces, of which 
only the most considerable was suspended in tlie church. 
Paul Lang describes its form as corresponding to that 
of the Greek Delta, with a triangular point. Both of 
these writers lived at the period which they assign to 
the descent of this remarkable mass ; and, although their 
names are fast hastening to obscurity, it behoves us to 
observe, that Trithemius yielded to few of his contem- 
poraries in labour and learning, and that Lang, though 
a Benedictine monk, travelled in quest of liistorical mo- 
numents, and had the candour and boldness to arraign 
the license of the Roman Catholic clergy, while he ap- 
plauded the independence of Luther and Melancthon. 
We may add, that Maximilian, who, shortly after this 
period, was elevated to the imperial dignity, in a Re- 
script, dated Augsburg, November 12, 1503, expressly 
refers to the stone in question, as having fallen in an 
open field before him, when he commanded the army 
which he had levied against the French ; and that, 
availing himself of the apparently miraculous event, he 
exhorted the Germans to a new crusade against the 
Turks. 

During the French Revolution, this large meteorite 
was found still suspended in the church, but it weighed 
only 171 lb. The French removed it to the National 
Library at Colmar, and, notwithstanding the many 
fragments which have been detached from it, the mass 
still weighs 150 lb. A large specimen is preserved in 
the Cabinet of the Parisian Museum, another in the Im- 
perial Cabinet at Vienna, and we have seen another 
small fragment in the valuable and interesting collec- 
tion of Robert Ferguson of Raith, Esq. 

The Ensisheim stone is of a schistose texture, of a 
slate-grey colour, and composed of small shining parti- 
cles of granular portions of a whitish-grey, blended with 
thin laminx of a slate-gi-ey fissile substance, of grains 
or globules of pure iron, and of grey and shining sul- 
phuret of iron and nickel. The cross fracture is very 
unequal, and the longitudinal waving, in the direction 
of the laminae, and, at the same time, tough and harsh. 
Such parts of the outer surface as remain entire are 
coated with a blackish vitrified crust. It gives no ar- 
gillaceous odour by insufflation ; and, under the blow- 
pipe, the grey portions become black, and are converted 
into frit. Its specific gravity is 3.23, and its analysis 
yielded to Vtfaquelin, 

Silica 56. 

Lime 1.4. 

Magnesia 12. 

Oxide of iron, 30. 

Nickel 2.4 

Sulphur 3.5 



105.3 
'ft« principfti peculiarity, therefore, is its scliistose tex- 
Mxae. 



January 28, 1496. Marcus Antonius Sabellicus, in 
the second volume of the Lyons edition of his works, 
(p. 341,) mentions the fall of three stones between Ce- 
sena and Bertonosi. Bonfinius, or rather, we pre- 
siuTie, his continuator, reports, that a shower of stones 
fell near the village of Munkbergen in the course of 
the same year, and that the inhabitants amused their 
fancy by tracing on the fallen fragments outlines 
of the human countenance and diadems. — 1501. Ac- 
cording to different chronicles, showers of blood fell 
in several places. — 1510. In the Commentary of Su- 
rius, a Carthusian monk of Cologne, mention is made 
of a shower of large stones in Lombardy ; they 
are described, probably with some exaggeration, as 
harder than flint, smelling of sulphur, &c. But the 
same event is more particularly commemorated by Cai'- 
dan, in his Treatise De Rerum Varictatc ; for he in- 
forms us, that between Cremasco or Crema, and Milan, 
and not far from the river Adda, at five o'clock in the 
evening, about twelve hundred stones fell from the air, 
one of which weighed 120 lb. and another 60 lb. Many 
were presented as curiosities to the French Governor 
and his Deputy. At three o'clock in the afternoon, 
the sky appeared as if in a general blaze, and the pas- 
sage, though somewhat ambiguous, would lead us to in- 
fer, that the fiery meteor was visible for two hours. 
Like many of the learned and unlearned of his day. 
Cardan immediately connects the extraordinary appear- 
ance with the political transactions of his petty district. 
The same incident is noticed by Leonardus in his Mir- 
ror of Stones, and by Bondini in his Thealrum Nalurce. 
The following passage is extracted from a series of Ob- 
servations on Natural History, Meteorology, &c. made in 
the early part of the 1 6th century, by Andrea da Prato 
of Milan, which, though not published, have been re- 
peatedly copied in M.S. It seems to allude to the same 
occurrence, although the year quoted is 1511. 

" On the fourth of September, at the second hour of 
the night, and also at the seventh, there appeared in the 
air at Milan, a running fire, with such splendour, that 
the day seemed to have returned, and some persons be- 
held the appearance of a large head, which caused great 
wonder and fear in the city. The same thing happen- 
ed on the following night at the ninth hour. A few 
days after, bej'ond the river Adda, there fell from Hea- 
ven many stones, which, being collected at Cremasco, 
were found to weigh 8 lb. and even 1 1 lb. each. Their 
colour was similar to that of burned stones." Dr. Bos- 
si, in commenting on this statement, endeavours to ac- 
count for the space of time which appears to have in- 
tervened between the meteor and the fall of stones, by 
supposing it occupied in conveying the intelligence 
from Crema to Milan. 

1516. In the year Wan-li, of the dynasty of Ming, 
in the 12th moon, on the 25th day, at Chun-khing- 
fou, in the province of Soe-tchhouan, there was nei- 
ther wind nor clouds, when the thunder rumbled sud- 
denly, and six globular stones fell, of which one weigh- 
ed eight pounds, another fifteen, a third twenty-seven, 
the smaller not more than a pound, and the smallest 
of all only ten ounces. Ma-touan tin. — May, 1520, 
stones fell in Arragon. Diego de Sayas. — April 28, 
1540, a stone fell in the Limousin. Bonav. de St. 
Amable. — Between 1540 and 1.550. Albinus, in his 
Chronicle of Misnia, records the fall of a large ferru- 
ginous mass, in a forest near Neuhqf, between Leipsic 
and Grimma, in Saxony ; but Johnston and Alberti 
write Neuhalem, others, Naunhoff-Na, &c. A speci- 
men of this mass is still to- be seen in the imperial ca- 

3 




Munkber- 
gen. 



Showers of 
blood. 

Lombardy. 



China. 



Arragon. 
Limousin. 



Saxony. 



METEORITE. 



117 



MHMtltc 



MaufcUi. 
SeUcB- 



Bmbd«n, 



EUmbaff. 
C<luia(«a. 



C««tfo«U> 



PMiaael. 
iui}. 

dorr. 

U Ma«l* 



1! 
1581. 



binet in Viwin*. Sometime about the uroe period, 
iron fell in Piedmont. Meraili «nd Scaliger.Sa- 
vember 6. Ifl4s. Acroniing to Sjuingenberg mnd Bo- 
narenture i*- ^ >ble, a blackish maw, accompa- 

nied with a !ice, like cnaj^ulated blood, and 

with a loud noi-e, fell at Mansfeldt in Thuringia.— 
May 10, 1 /■»"?. From the same jource we learn, that 
• (bower of (tones nude great baToo in the environs 
of Sdilensinfren, also in Thuringia. That thia was not 
■ hail shower is obvious, from the circumstance that 
Spangenberg carried several of the stones with him to 
Etaleben. — 1359. It in reUte<l in the 16th vol. of the 
Bretfaw ColUcikm, and in Isthuinfius's History of Hun- 
gary, that fire atones, said to be preserved in the 
trcasurr of Vienna, each of the size of a man's bead, 
exceedingly heavy, of a msty.iron colour, and emit- 
ting a stron? ^mi-'l of iiilDluir. fell from the heavens, 
with expio' <t concussion of the air, 

at Miscoa, ii. .a . a -i A hinunlide, 1560. Red 
rain at EmUien, Ixiuvain, &c. Fromtmd, — December 
14, 1560. K fierr meteor, and red rain at IJ^.•^»^nn.• 
VatidU C'o«i<->.— May 17. I56l. A stone fell 

in the Torgan r...^rr .n,? rfj. BoU. — ."..~_, -,. 
Stone* fell n< Bamge. — July 26, 

Between one «..•. l-.. ■ -^ ., ^ in the afternoon, 
weighing 59 lb. of a blue and lirownish co- 
lour, s" ' -'• S gave fire with steel, fell Iron the air, 
in Th<: 'h an explocion which shook thceaith, 

■nd •(.-cTnnjuiMini bv the a|>pcarance of • toudl tight, 
wUch waa sappoara to be a fir«-b«ll, the heavens be- 
ing, in other retpecta, aerene. It sank into the aoil 
to the depth of a yard and a quarter, to**c<l up tba 
earth to twice the beigbt ofa man ; aixi waa at mt ao 
hot that Dabody coala toads it. After toam time had 
eUnaed, it waa carried to Drcaden. Binhard'a dro. 
micl* of TkMriMgim, demrnu.—Jmnarj 9, I5M. •tooca 
fell at' Castrovinari. Catto. Mertati, and IwnrrmtL— 
Idea of January, 1583. Mercati mentioDa, that ioine 
of the inhabitanta of Roaa, in Lavadie, who were walk- 
ing on the Dei|driioarin( beiarlita, in aerene weather, 
obaenred a thick blade cloud, which exploded 
them with such violence, that they fell annoat 
lea* to the ground, and that, on recovering from their 
alarm, they immediately repaired to the spot, and 
(band a atone of about SO lb., which reaemblcd iron. 
— Mardi 9, I58S. A stone, of the sixe ofa hand gre- 
nade, fell in Piedmont. — 1585. A atone fell in luly. 
/amra/i.— Dceeinber 8, 1586. A great quantity of 
rea and blacfciah aMtier, which bomed aomc plaikt, 
and waa acconpanied t^ thondcr and Kgbtninf. fell 
at Verden, in Hanover. Solooioa, Senator ti Brcown. 
—Jane 9, 1%1 . Angeloa, in the AmmaUi Marckue, and 
Ijn:at affirm, that tome large atooaa fell at Kunrndorf. 
— 15gi. .\ shower c/ blood at I_i M.ii».!(! iln.- nMr 
Orlcana. i Stmr. ! 

»March 1, .. '.one* fell .t. . 

, Sometime in the course of the sixteenth cmtury, and 

' not, aa allege<l, in IGOS, a atone, exhibiting metallic 

veina, ia re^Nted to bare deaoended in the province of 



Valencia, in Spain. Ccttiut, and the JtsvUt of Coim- Mcttorite. 
bra, in their remarks on Aristotle's Meteorology. — Au- ^T^'"^^ 
^%t, 1618. a great fall of stones, with a shower of ^•'*""*- 
blood, occurretl in Styria. D» Hammer.— \Gl%. A Stjru. 



metallic mass fell in Bohemia. Kronlamd. 



Bolwroia. 



April 17, 1620, the Kinperor, Jehangire, in his Me- 
moirs written by himself, in the Peraian language, and Jalindttcr. 
tranalated by Colonel Kirkpatrick, from an old MS. 
thua relatea the fall of a piece of meteoric iron. 

"A. H. 1030, or, 16th yrar of the reign.— The fol- 
lowiqg ia among the extraordinary occurrences of thi* 
period. 

" Early on the 30th of Furverdeen, of the present 
year*, anid in the the Eaatem quarter (of the heavena,) 
there araae in one of tlie villages of the I^lrgunnah of 
Jalindhcrf , such a great and treniendnus noi>e, a.<i had 
nearly, by it* dreamul nature, deprived the inhabitanta 
of the place of their aeDaea. During this noise, a lu- 
minooa body ^Iraa obaervcd) to fall from above on the 
earth, asggeatuig to the beholders the idea that the fir- 
mameiit waa raining fire. In a short time, the noiae 
having aobaided, aiM the inhabitants having recovered 
Atvo ttieir alarm, a courier waa dispatched (by them) 
to Habommcd Svrcd, the Auntil { of the idnresaia 
Porgmnnah, to «dverti*e him of tbi* event. The Au- 
mil, instantly mounting (his horae.) proceeded to the 
■pot ^where the luminoua body had nllen.) Here be 
perceived the earth, to the extent of ten or twelve gux{, 
m length and breadth, to be burnt to aoch a degree, 
that not the leaat trace of verdure, or blade of graaa re> 
mained ; nor had th« beat Qarhicfa had been eonunum*. 
calcd to it) yet aubiided eottrdy. 

" Mahwimiad Syeed herenpon directed the aforesaid 
■pace of grouiid to be dug up; when, the deeper it 
waa dug, the greater was the heat of it found to be. 
At length, a lump of irao made ita appearance, the 
heat oiwhich waa ao violent, that one might have »up- 
poaed it to have been taken from a fiimaee. After 
aome time it became cold, when the Aumil conveyed 
it to hia own habitation, frosn whence he aftcrwarda 
di«iMtched it, in a sealed bag, to ooort. 

" Hire f fvid (this aubManoe) weighed in my pra* 
aence. ' 'it waa one hundred and sixty tolahs|]. 

I camm i ' ' .i skilful artisan, with orders to make 

of it a aabrr, a knife, and a dagger. The workman 
fsoon) reported, that die aobatance waa not malUabU, 
but immd i»to pitett mmdtr Ute kmmmtr: 

" Upon this, I ordered it to be mixed with other 
iron. CVaifurmably to my orders, three parts of the 
irtai ^ kgktmingi were mixed with one part of cam- 
moo tfon ; and man the mixture were made two tabrea, 
one knife, and ane dagger. 

" By the addition of the common iron, the (new) 
iubctance acquired a (fine) tenner ; the blade (faliri- 
oated (hm it) p rovin g aa elaatic a* the most genuine 
blafle« of UhiiannyJ, and of the South, and liendiiig, 
like- tlirin. witlKMit leaving any mark of the Ix-nd. I 
bad tlkeni tried in mj nreaence, and foun«I tliein cut 
excellently ; aa well (mdeed) aa the beat genuine sabre*. 



• •* Tb« amaf KarvoAaa *f dus r*at. (A. H. loao,) issiiiiiiaili I villi Satonlax lh« STih ^ BiMi ol AUritt cwMMMllr. 

i ** A paspssaak is a Mntorisl 4i«Waa, ot ariteary caiwt The puixnsaah sT Jatiadbw is iiuMed in Uw ruqjaub, and afaeat 
100 adss %Jt^ *f udbssa.* 

I •• AfeaisfalharlasadMiaTwd.'* 

' -lMmaf,*him^mmA^mmL^\\imm. bM M la aiseo.- 
t "Tlisisiiii lis Jsnalarifctio — lanart—fdwt.ll.'' ^^ 
X " T-i II I if f- 1* ri kill iis%iii k ilmliifiil- 



118 



METEORITE. 



Devon- 
shire. 

Hatloi'd. 



Volo. 



^ret<>orile. One of these sabres I named Kalai, or the cutler; and 
''""y"^ tlie other Burk-ierisht, or the lightniiig-nalured. 

" A poet* composed and presented to me, on this 
occasion, the following tetrastich. 

" This eartli has attained order and regularity through 
the Emperor Jehangire: 
.,^: " In his time fell ratv iron from lightning : 

" That iron was, by his world-subduing authority, 
" Converted into a dagger, a knife, and two sabres." 
But, what is more to our purpose, the late Hon. 
Charles Greville, at whose request Colonel Kirkpatrick 
translated the foregoing quotation, has remarked, that 
the Emperor Jehangire was not a prince on whom his 
courtiers would idly venture to impose; and that there 
can be little probability that an Aumil of a district 
sliould invent such a story, or be able to produce a 
substance like iron, but which, on ti-ial, should differ 
from manufactured iron. 

January 10, l622, a stone fell in Devonshire. Rumplt. 
—April 9, 1628, stones fell near Hatford, in Berkshire. 
Gent. Mag. — December 6, 1631. The following letter 
from Captain William Badily, is inserted in the first 
volume of the Philosophical Transactions. " The 6th 
of December, 16.S1, being in the Gulf of Volo, riding 
at anchor, about ten of the clock that night, it began 
to rain sand or ashes, and continued till two of the 
clock next morning. It was about two inches thick on 
the deck, so tliat we cast it overboard with shovels, as 
we did snow the day before : the quantity of a bushel 
we brought home, and presented to several friendsf , 
especially to tlie Masters of Trinity House. There 
■was in our company. Captain John Wilds, Commander 
of the Dragon, and Captain Anthony Watts, Com- 
mander of the Elizabeth and Dorcas. There was no 
wind stirring when these ashes fell ; it did not fall on- 
ly in the places where we were, but likewise in other 
parts, as ships were coming from St. John d'Acre to 
o«r port : they being at that time a hundred leagues 
from us. We coxnpared the ashes together, and found 
them both oue^" 

October 27, 1634, stones fell in the CharoUois. Mo- 
rinus — June 21, 1635. Francesco Carli, a learned, 
jmd highly respectable gentleman of Verona, reports 
the fall of a lai'ge stone at five o'clock in the evening. 
It was preceded by a great mass of flame, which tra- 
versed the Lago dl Garda with such velocity, that the 
eye could scarcely follow its motions, illuminated all 
the country in the path of its passage, shaking the 
houses with its loud explosion, and alighting on the 
grounds of the Benedictine monks, under the town of 
Vago, about six Italian miles from Verona. Next 
morning, there was found on the spot on which it 
liad alighted, a stone, invested with a black and chan- 
nelled crust, which had penetrated about a yard into 
the soil, and was broken into several pieces, the larg- 
est of which was of a cubical form, of nearly a yard 
and a half on every side, of the colour of ashes, giv- 
ing out an offensive odour of sulphur, and having mi- 
nute particles of iron disseminated through its sub- 
stance. 

Saturday, July 7, l635. During a violent storm, a 
stone, weighing alsout 1 1 oz. fell at Calce, in the Vi- 
centine territory. Valisnieri March 6, 1636. Dur- 
ing a perfectly serene sky, a large stone fell, with a 
loud crash, between Saganand the village of Dubrow, 



Charuiluis. 
Vago. 



Calce. 



in Silesia. It was covered with a crust, had, internal- Mct«oih«. 
ly, the appearance of n metallic slag, and seemed as if JT"^'""^ 
it had been acted on by fire. Lucas, Seschiche's Ckron. ^''^sia- 
Cluver. Geosr. — 1638. Red rain at Tournay. — Novem- Tourndy. 
ber 29, 1639, (not 1629, nor 1627, as mis- quoted by 
some writers.) In the third Section of the Second 
Book of his Piiysics, the celebrated Gassendi, whose 
accuracy and veracity will not be readily impeached, 
states, that, at ten o'clock in the morning, a stony 
mass, regarded as a thunder-stone, was seen by three 
creditable witnesses, to fall on Mount V^aision, one of Mount 
the Maritime Alps, when the ground was covered Vaislpn. 
with snow, and the sky perfectly serene. The spot is 
indicated as lying between the small towns of Guil» 
laumes and Perne, in Provence. Many, for a great 
way round, heard the explosion, but only three indU 
viduals saw the fire-ball. The noise wliich preceded 
it, they compared to the repeated discharge of artil- 
lery ; but two of the concussions were particularly 
tremendous ; and the reverberation of the last was im- 
mediately followed by a rumbling noise, like the beat- 
ing of four or five drums, when a flaming circle, of 
varied hues, and apparently of four feet in diameter, 
passed before the eyes of the spectators, accompanied 
with a loud hissing, like that of fire-works, and with 
a strong sulphureous odour. So far as could be con- 
jectured, it had rushed on their view when at the dis- 
tance of only a hundred paces from their persons ; and 
they saw^ it strike the ground, like a black-bird with 
white spots, and smoke issue from the place where it 
fell, which was not beyond thirty paces from their own 
station. The noise which ensued on its striking the 
ground, was compared to the firing of musketry. The 
inhabitants of both towns flocked to the smoking 
scene, and found a hollow of nearly one foot wide, 
and three in depth, the snow being melted for five feet 
round, and the earth and small stones obviously cal- 
cined. In the bottom of the hollow was found the 
stone, about the size of a calf's head, but rounder, and 
more approaching, in form, to that of a man. It was 
of a dark metallic colour, extremely hard, and weigh- 
ed 54 Proven5al, or 38 Parisian pounds, its specific 
gravity being to that of common marble, as 14 to 11. 

Mons. Izarn not only mis-dates the year and day of 
this appearance, but asserts thatGassendi himself saw it ; 
whereasthatpliilosopherexpressly says,z/)ie cum ahessem. 

August 4, 1642, a stone, weighing 4 lb. fell between Suffolk, 
Woodbridge and Aldborough, in Suflblk. Gent. Mag.— 
1643, or 1644. Stones fell in the sea. JVurfhain. — Jan. 
23 or 24, 1645. Red rain fell at Bois-le-Duc— Oct. 6, Boia-le- 
1 646. Red rain at Brussels, Kronland, fVendeliiius.— ^"^■ 
Feb. 18, 1647. A stone fell near Zwick^. Sckmid.^ Brussels. 
August, 1647. Stones fell in the bailliage of Stolzenau, z^j-u^u 
in Westphalia. Gill). An. — Between 1647 and 1654, a 
stone fell into the sea. Willmann, Malle-Brun.—Au- ^^estpha- 
gust 6, 1650. We find it mentioned in Senguerd's F/ij/. '^' 
steal Ej:ercitntions,thiLta. stone fell at Dordrecht. — March ^°' 
SO, 1654. Thomas Bartholinus adverts to a shower 0[Oor^r<xbt. 
stones, in the island of Funen, in Denmark. A large F^n^"- 
stone fell at Warsaw. Pet. Borellus. A small stone fell Warsaw. 
at Milan, and killed a Franciscan monk. Museum Sep- Milan. 
talianum. — June 19, or 21, 1668. A great fall of stones 
near Verona. Valisnieri, Montenari, and Carli. From Verona. 
a book which was printed at Paris, in 1 672, and which 
has now become very scarce, entitled, Conversations 



• « The poet is named in tlie original ; but the name is not perfectly lej^ble." 

+ Some of these ashes were produced by Mr. John Evelyn, before the Koyal Society. 



METEORITE. 



119 






GU 



Co p ii h > 



tirit$ ii rAeaitmk * Mmu. tAhhi BmnUol, eontemmt 
dtttrttt rtdtereku et obienmHoiu pktfiiqitet, pv le Sieur 
L^aQoM. we nikke the euaing extract : 

•♦ One of the member* presents a frmement of two 
atone* which fell near Verona, one of which weighed 
800 pound*, and the other 200 pound*. Theae rtooea/' 
he My*, " fell durinjf the night, when the weather was 
quite mild and lettled. They seemed to be all on fire, 
■nd came from above, but in a tUnting direction, and 
with a treoMixlous noise. This prodigy terribly alarm- 
ad three or four hundred eye-witnessca, who were 
puzzled what to think of it. These stones fell with 
such rapidity, that they formed a ditch, which, af- 
ter the noiM and flam* had ccated. the spactaton ren- 
turcd to approach, and eiamine them more nearly. 
They then sent them to Verona, where they were de- 
posited under care of the Academy ; and tliat learned 
body tant ftagntcnu of them to diffiarent place*. This 
a t'WMiitf iadoced the Society to consider the fragment 
in nimtiiiii with particular attention ; and th«y remarit* 
ed that it was of a yellowiah coloor, Tery aasily redod- 
ble to powder, and that il saaallad eTsvlphar." In the 
trntrtt nf TTBm'r'-g aMoTlhaM Maaa*, M. l^ngier, 
fj ro fc asnr tijkmmmj it Vmm, datactad in it, by awana 
flf tba eaaatie alkaU, tka ptasan c a of ehnne. 

Fabmarr «7, l«7l. Slonaa fell la Swabia. Gilb. Am. 
— 107S. Sana ■tooaa Ml in tha laid* new Ofading, aad 
ware Jipoiilad hi liw mascuin of Brackcaholhr. Laaa a r 
4m de Grmmk, and Af naarja itdta AaMa C sfcailai' i a 
fMrearfiMe..-Octobar l>, lti74.SolM«Mrafi»a iMsdala 
to tha daaeaat af two Itfg* stoaaa ia the eanUMi of Gla- 
nu ->BaiwMB I97A mm I977> ■ *aa» fell into a Mu 
ing boat naarCaptesha. ia tiw Orknaya. Wallaoe'a i<i>. 
ODsml rf Orhttf, Gtnl. Mmg. - Tha air and dooda 
hera," sa^ Dr. WaUaca, " bj tbaoftaratioa of iba aaa, 
do ■oaatnaes asiurt a aavanl things ; a* seaia vaara 
■oca, aaaaa fuMnaea fishiag half a leagva frasn land, 
a««r aaainn Cupinaha, in a bir day, taara Ml down 
froai Uia air a slaaa aboal tba bigaaaa wt a fcat.ball, 
whkh Ml ia tha middla oftbe boat, aadapning a leak, 
to tba g is a t danaet of tha Uvea of tba man t&t wera 
ta it, wnicfa eoald ba ao other thaa aocoa subatanea gc» 
Dcntad ia tba elonda. The stone was like condcnsad 
or petrified day, and was a long tin* in the custody of 
Captain Andrew Oidt. at that tima steward of this 
ooDotry ; and Caolain Dick, wh" i« v«i( alirc, told naa 
he frire it to tba lata Earl of < " Fromtbeaa 

partaeolars, w* eaa aniertsin i... . . .>ul)t of the fact, 

Li w a se i aradb we may b*dispo**d to stuila at the Dr.'* 
fadliiy of theori iin g. 

MardiSS, O. S. I97& About an hoar and three quar. 
(afs after sa a e s t, a fir* ball was aren to procrcd, ■* if 
ftoai I>dMdB, paasiM ohiiqas ly over luly with a hisa- 
iag aoisa, Xd aKplpi&if to tba soatb aeutb.w«at of 
LMbom with a tanibi* report. It* ftagBMBtt ar* said 
ttt hava CdJaa MM0 tba saa, with tba aaiaa aert of aoM* 
aa whan red hot iraa is exiiagniahad in water. It* 
t ahitnda in tba aoalb soalh-east at Dologna, waa 
,8ad ila graaiast, at Siana, ia tba north natth-wast, 
iSr. Oa eoaaidacfthaiiiiaaiij it aaamaJtoba 
nearly vattical, at Biaaad and SavigHaaav aad at Lag. 

■ctbamoafatlaaatlOOaulaahtaaihmt*. lua|m> 
Bolagaa awaadrdthat of tba Ml 
■aaMtar, nd waa abora half a* big again 
n tha other. Dr. Udlajr hat ooodanacd tha •dMuiot 



of MonUnari's Report, in No. eccxli. of the Philotophi' 
cal Trantadioiu. 

May 28, 1677. Many stony masses, supposed to hare 
contained particles of copper, are said by Balduinus, in 
hij Appendix to tlie MUceilanea S'atitrce Curiotf,ntm, 
for 1(J77, to have fallen near Ermendorf, in .Saxony.—* 
January 12, l683, a mass of stone or iron fell near Cas- 
trovilUri, in Calabria. Mercaii. — March ;{, 1()83. A stone 
fell in Piedmont. Id. — 1689. Red dust fell at Venice, 
See. Viilunitri.—Jua. S, 1697. In Soldani's catalogue, 
published in the 9th vol. of the Trantaetiont of the Aca- 
demw of' ScifDcei at Siena, stones resembling those aU 
ready described are said to ha\-e fallen at IVntolina, 
near Siena.— May 19, 1(398. Scheuier, in his Satvrat 
Uislory of Stvitzerleml, intbrms us that a black stone 
fell from the atinotphere, with various explosions, near 
the village of Waltrine, in thecanton of Bemr, and that 
it was transmitted, with an account uf the drcumst.-in- 
cas, to the public library at Berne. It is doubtful, 
however, if thcstone preservetl in that repository is the 
same which fell — June 7. 1706, a stone, weighing 
72 lb. is said to have fallen near Larissa, in Macedonia. 
It waaobserrad to proceed from the north with a loud 
bisaiag, aad anraloped in a small clbud, which cxpIocU 
ad witB a Hai ui i il eaa aoia*, diacharging a stone, which 
had tha app t at aa a* of iron draaa and tba smell of sul- 
phur. Lmmw.— May 5 and 6, 1711. Red rain at Orsio, in 
aw ad a a . Act. Littr. Huee. A gelatinous matter fell, 
with a globe I the iale m Lethy, in India. Air. 
tkmitzj^'Ky i.tbarefell intotbcAtlanticOcean, 
k> Vfi Lat. N. and SiS* 45' Long, flrom Pari*, a »hower 
tA Mad, which laatad from ten o'clock in the evening 
ttU ooa a''doeli of tha aAarnooo of next day. It was 
' hf a laninoaa aMtaor. The wind was then 
' .aaat. The captain of a reasel, and all the 
I oanifiad iha fact to Father Peuillce, who pre- 
aaatad a apiriaita of tba aand to tha Academy of Sd- 
aacaau It had the appaaranoa of oonunon, but very fine 
•and. Jana 5, I7ti atoaaa fdl near Sdwfthu, in Frei. 
aaagML JfadWlhe(<-^nna 82. 17S3. Dr. Rost {Drtt- 
Um CoUitt.) ralalaa, that at two o'dock in the after, 
aoon, tba waathar baiag than calm, there was seen at 
PIcskowics, aoiaa miles ftvm Rdcbatadt, in Bohemia, a 
•mall cloud, from which several large xxl •i«iill »tones 
were projected, under loud rxplo«ioii - ntut any 

lighttung. Tbcae stones, which were , „ ..,, the out- 
side, bad iatatnally tha apoesranre of meul, and exhal- 
ad a slroBg mlpbaraoat odour. Twrnt,v>five of them 
war* collected m one place, u)d saran or ei^ht in ano- 
ther. Tbi* instance is likewise noted by Stepling, dt 
Phmm Ijtpidra.—Jii\y ««, 17«7. Stone* fell at l.ilas. 
dau, in Bobcaua. iiteftmg.^\',M. Fo*«l metal fell at 
Lcasay. //a%^— Aogtiat 18, 1738. Slona* fell near 
Carncntras. Ctutilkm.—OeL S.S 1 7 4a Stones fell at Ras- 
grad. Gitb. Afi.—nw, or 1741. A lai|eston* fell, du- 
ring winter, in Greenland, l^^afie.— 174S. Stones fell 
at LiboscfaiU. in Bohemia. S/<)a^.— 1 744. Red rain 
at San Pietrod'Arena, near Genoa. fficAan/.— .October 
t2, 1750. M. da Lalande, the celebrated astronomer, 
informs uf that a loud notsa was heard in Lower Nor- 
maiidy, and thit a very targa aiaa* of stone fell at Ni. 
ort, in the vicinity of Coutance*. 

May 26, 1751. at SIS o'clock in the evening, a re- 
BMrkable fire-ball waa obaerved near Hraschina, in the 
district of Agram, in Upper Sclavonia. According to 
Mr. Stutz, an intelligent nataralist, atladied to the Im. 
perial Cabinet of Vienna, this meteor borst asunder into 
two parts, exhibiting the appearance of twisted chaina 



Met«or)IC 



Brroendorr. 

Csstrovil. 

I*ri. 

Piedmont. 

Venif*. 

Pentotiiia. 



WshrrD(. 



Urissa. 



Oraio. 
Ltthjr. 

Alljll>!IC. 



SciKfttu. 



Pinko* • 
let. 



LilsKblis. 
Lcsttjr. 

Onrpcnfrw. 
Rilfrad. 

Gram hind. 

cbks. 
CcaoAi 

Ntori. 



Agrom. 



120 METEORITE. 

Meteorite, of fire, accompanied with smoke, rushing down with a for a very short duration. This noise was loudest in Meteorite. 

'"'^'""^ dreadful explosion, and with such force as to shake the the neighbourhood of Pont-de-Vesle ; and, at Liponas, ^"^-v""^ 

earth. The larger fragment, which weighed 71 lb. a village three leagues from the last mentioned place, v°",''''V 

sunk to the depth of three fathoms, and made a breach it was even accompanied by a hissing like that of a "'*•*'• 

of two feet, round which the soil was greenish, and cracker. On the same evening there were found two 

seemed to be scorched with fire. The other, of only blackish masses, of n form nearly circular, but very un- 

16 lb. weight, fell in a meadow at 2000 paces from the even, which had fallen, the one at Liponas and the 

first, and made an opening of four feel wide. The other at Pin, into ploughed ground, and sunk, by their 

largest, which consists of native iron, and presents on own weight, to half a foot beneath the surface. One 

its surface the most evident marks of fire, is preserved of them weighed about 20 lb. and a fragment of the 

in the Imperial Cabinet of Natural Curiosities at Vien- other weighing 1 1 jl lb. was preserved in the cabinet of 

na, with an official attestation from the consistory of the M. Varenne de Beost, at Dijon. The basis of these 

bishopric of Agram, who interrogated several eye-wit- masses resembled a greyish trap, and was very refrac- 

nesses. A great many people in that part of thecoun- tory ; and through the substance of the stone, and es- 

try heard the explosion, and likewise saw some fiery pecially in its fissures, were disseminated some ferrugi- 

body fall from the sky, though, on account of the dis- nous particles in grains, filaments, or minute nodules, 

tance, they could not determine the precise spot. Dr. This iron, when subjected to a red heat, became obe- 

Chladni and Dr. Noehden mention, that they saw the dient to the magnet. The black coating on the sur- 

larger mass in the Vienna museum ; and the latter re- face M. de Lalande ascribed to fusion, induced by vio- 

marks, that it is not smooth and even on the outside, lent heat. These circumstances, though slightly no- 

but rough, with depressions and protuberances, and des- ticed, are strictly conformable to the history of more re- 

titute of the vitreous particles observable in the cavi- cent cases, which remain to be detailed. 

ties of the Siberian iron. Klaproth's analysis gave of July, 1755. A stone fell at Terra-nuova, in Calabria, Terra-nu- 
native iron 96.5, and of nickel 3.5, — a composition which weighed 7 oz. Domzn. Ta/fl. — October 20, 1755. ova. 
nearly identical with the specimen of native iron A black dust, like lamp-black, fell in Shetland between Shetland, 
brought by Humboldt from the province of Durango, three and four o'clock in the afternoon, when the sky 
in Mexico. was very hazy. This dust smelled strongly of sulphur, 
Eichstadt. January 1753. A stone fell at Eichstadt, in Germany, and covered the faces and hands, and blackened the 
Cavallo. — July 3, 1753. Four stones, one of which linen of the people in the fields. As the wind blew 
Strfc»w. weighed 13 lb. fell at Strkow, near Tabor, at eight from the south-west, it is not probable that it was eject- 
o'clock in the evening, when the air was tranquil, and ed from Hecla, which is situated between 500 and b'OO 
the sky little shaded with clouds. Their fall was pre- miles farther north. Phil. Trans, vol. 1. — Nov. 15, 
ceded by three loud and prolonged peals, like the dis- 1755. A red sky, and the fall of red rain, in several Red rain, 
charge of artillery. The people in the fields fled for countries. Nov. Art. Nat. Cur. t. ii. — Oct. 9, 1763. Red 
terror to their houses, or climbed up into the trees ; rain at Cleves, Utrecht, &c. Mercttrio Histor. Polk. — Cleves, &c. 
and a shepherd, who applied his hand to one of the Nov. 14^, 1760. Red iron in Picardy. Richard. — End of pij„jy 
stones after it had fallen, felt it very sensibly heated. July, 1766. When the sky was clear at Albereto, in Albereta. 
A fragment of one of them was distinctly labelled in the neighbourhood of Milan, it was dark and cloudy in 
the Bornian collection, with the additional annotation, the direction of the western hills, and in the valley to 
Quxfragmaita, Slio JuUi, 1753, inter tonilrua, e coeto the north, with frequent thunder and lightning. About 
pluisse creduliores quidam asserunt. The expression of five o'clock in the evening, when the peasants were dis- 
creduliores quidam, may be alleged to invalidate the persed over the fields, engaged in their rural labours, 
purport of the label, yet it deserves to be remarked, there was suddenly heard, not only in Albereto, but in 
that, in regard to the present subject of our inquiry, other places at a considerable distance to the west, and 
what was formerly accounted the credulity of the vul- even at Modena, an unusual noise, like the discharge of 
gar, may now, on several occasions at least, be constru- artillery, succeeded by a whizzing in the air, like that 
ed into probability, if not into matter of fact, that Step- produced by a cannon bullet when powerfully propel- 
ling reported the phenomenon only the year after it is led. The Duke of Modena's gardener even believed 
stated to have taken place ; and that the late Hon. that a cannon ball was descending into the garden. 
Charles Greville, who procured the identical specimen Others either did not hear the whizzing noise, or had 
from the Bornian collection, and Mr. Howard, found it not paid attention to it. In Albereto, however, it was 
to coincide in composition with other atmospheric not only heard, but a body was moreover seen travers- 
«tones; for its analysis gave, ing the air with great velocity, and falling abruptly to 
„. the earth. To some of the distant bystanders it appear- 

fi '. 17 07 ed in a state of ignition; but to two ladies, who were 

Magnesia ilvJ within a mile of the spot, it seemed opaque and smoking. 

J^?" : 070 They instinctively clung to a branch of a tree, but an 

^"^^^ "'^ ox, which was near them, fell to the ground from ter- 

"~r~" ror. The stone, which diffused an odour of sulphur, 

"' •' had penetrated the soil to nearly the depth of a fathom. 

Its specific gravity is 4.28. Another specimen is de- was still hot when taken up, and had the appearance of 

posited in the Imperial Cabinet of Vienna. a sandstone of great weight, of an irregular triangular ti- 

September, 1753. We have next to direct our at- gure, with its external surface uniformly burnished over 

tention to another report of M. de Lalande, inserted in with black, as if from the effect of fire. The person who 

the Historical Almanack of Bresse, for 1756. About took it up broke it into pieces, and the fragments were 

one o'clock, P. M. when the weather was very hot, and distributed among different people in the town. Father 

very serene, without any visible trace of a cloud, a very Troili, who relates these circumstances, as they were 

loud noise, like the discharge of two or three cannons, communicated to him by eye-witnesses, and particular- 

wai heard within the circumference of six leagues, but ly by the individual, who, with the assistance of a young 



MfiTEORITE. 



121 



Meteorite. iiiiMnt. txtnctcd the stone from the earth, published 
^^•Y'— ' in the coone of the tame year a curious treatise, entit- 
led, Delia Cadnta di uh &uso daW Aria Ragkmamento, 
Sec m which be adduce* many excellent argtiments to 
prore not only hit own aaaertion*, but the truth of the 
general doctrine of the descent of meteorites on variout 
ocOMiona. Out we cannot learn that the reasoning of 
the Jesuit produced much impreaaion on the public 
mind ; and certainly it had no weight with men of 
■ciencc. At the distance of half a century, howerer, the 
book bM been eagerly coveted by tlie learned ; and a 
eopy, with the pemaal of which we have been pnlitel y fa- 
voured by Thomas Allan, Esq. of this city, belonin to 
that gcnUeman's traJuable repository. Vassalli, in his 
rUiiri Mtleenhgkal IjUlert, allude* to the fall of the 
AlDcreto atone ; and Beccaria likewise adrerts to it in 



«at«na» 



^ 



the poatscript of his letter to Dr. Franklin, entitled, De 
EkKtridtal* Hiuike, havin;; «pp«rrntly procttrcd his 
iaftnBation of the fact from Fogti.mi, lii«hop of Mode- 
na, a highly reapectabie character, and a aealooa natu- 
raliit — Augnat 15, 1 766. Between six and aerenoTclock 
P. M. ■ small stone Ml near Korellara, at a little die- 
taoee Groa a popltf (he* was ainsck at the aaa* tiaa 
bj lifbtning. But ifTroili. whoaMotioaathe&ct. bo 
conecs In his conjecture, it was • fitet tit tho baric of 
the poplar vitriAed by lightning,—* a nppo aiti on which 
•MOM to be scarcely admiaaible. 

Sept. IS, 1768- The Abb* BmtktUf ac q u ii n i a u*. 
that, abont hatf peat four o'doek in tlw aftvaoon, 
there appeared near the OMtW of Cboralario, in tho 
neighbonrhooa of L^oce, a inMul towtt in tiio pwviuco 
of M ai m , a Mofwjr c i um l , inm vmcIi peoceeoed a 
pwl of tboadar. IiIm tho di oebat g o of a eanaon, which 
waa aMCioaaa bjr a s oon d ao ataiflar to tho wvi^g of 
ealtio, as to inipaM on aeeanl people who bard it. ki 
a dfout of two loy Md ■ balf. bnt ■nateoMpBiiJ 
with OBJ pcrcoptiMo •■■•■ SonM raapari. hi tho 
Bwiah of Parign*, abont thrat loagasa from Lae». on 
■0BT<Bg the sane noiae. looked np and saw an opaque 
bodv. wbieb doacribed • cunre, and fell on soA turf on 
tho higb road, near which thry were at work. They 
■II (luickly ran up to It. and losad a aort of ttono, 
nearly half of which was bnriad to tfca oartb, and the 
whole ao hot that it could not bo toached. At Aral 
they (led in a panic; hot on rataming to the spot 
lime tftrr, they found tho Maai pwriaaly in the 
sitaation. and luiTicienily c oelsd to admit of being 
and narrowly examined. It weighad aeeea 
and a half, and was of a triaagalar focai. pra« 
_ asit were tfareo roanded bona, aaaof wMeb, 
■lllw'inenMM of the fall, hadantafadiiilolhagTaimd, 
and was of a grey or ash wilsnr, whilo tha fast wMch 
was e^^osed lo tha mr waa eery black. Wbae tha 
Abb* laaaautad tbia stone to the Academy of BcJeacaa, 
that body appoiatad Massra. Lavoisier, F u a g ai um , 
and Cadet, a e u a nalt ls i, to examine and analyse it, a 
taak which ihcr aefffaraied with naore care and aoca- 
lacT than M. do LalssMle bad done oa a p iaca dh y oo^ 
caaiea ; bat their trial was Uautod to an iat^rral part 
of the whole, eoeaidered aa a haaBogeaooaa sulMunce, 
hi plaoa of being applied to each of tha etnaiituent 
parts, Tha raaalt was 

Silica 55.5 
Iron 36 
Salphur 8 

99 5 
Tha nAa aiKa of tha itaaa waa of a pala aah-gfty, 

VOL. %n. PART I. 



speckled with an infinite number of minute and shin- Meitorlie. 
ing metallic points, visible throuph a msgnifj ing glass. ^^V""^ 
The thin black outer coating, which seemed to have 
been fu«ed, alone gave a few spsrks when struck with 
steel. Its specific gravity was 3.58. From the few 
small fragments of this meteorite which have been 
preserved, it seems to be nearly allied to those from 
Benares. The committee, very unwilling to allow th*t 
it could have descended from the air, conjectured that 
it hid previously existed in the ground, ami had 
merely been struck by the electric flash. The singu- 
lar position in which it was found, however, with one 
of its angles inserted in the turf, was mon likely not a 
permanent one: ami reslly witlvrespect to a matter of 
fact, subject to the cogniiance oT the senses, we may 
believe a rustic spectator, in preference to a philoso- 
pher who speculates in his closet. 

Another otone, of nearly the same composition, ao- Aire, 
companied^by the history of its fall at Aire, in .Artois, 
was presented to the academy in the course of the 
same year, by M. Ousson de Boyival, honorary lieu- 
taaaa^^tmarai of the bailliage of Aire, to which was 
addad, bj the younger Morand, the »pecimen from 
Conlanceo. According to the academical report, these 
daaa Mbbmb, when eompared, presented no difference 
to the r\' ^ ' of tha aame colotir, and nearly of the 
same gr r>par*ad with metallic and pyntous 

particles, and coverad with a black and ferruginous 
merustation. Their c o nw Boa aspect did not convince 
the acadmy that thtr had baca conveyed to the earth, 
tho cohMidMiaa of ' 



P* 



tha altcated circumstances in 



three plaew, dittinctly separated f^om ona anothar, 
and tho rhanwlni which discriminated them fVvat 
athar aloaae, iadoood tha laaraad body to announce 
thaw Wilofy, and to meita ita dtacossion. 

November CO. 1768. A stone fell at Mauerkirchen, Mraerkir> 
Bear tha Inn, in Bavaria, at four o'clock, p.m. which cbtn. 
weighed thirty-eight pound*. It was of a triangular 
farm, and eight inches in thickness. Its fall was pro- 
claimed by a hiains noise, and great darkness in the 
air, and it ptustialsd two feet and a half into the soil. 
IwJtgf, i« Gi/6. An. — A detached fragment is preserved 
in tM Imperial Cabinet of Vieniu, another in the Gre* 
viUiaa Cohaction, and another in that of Robert Fsfw 
gaaoa oTBaitb. Esq. 

Noveariwr 17, 1773, the CapUin- general of Sara- Scaa. 
goasa diapalcbed the following letter, accompanied 
ariih tha elaaa to which it refers, to Don Manuel de 
Roda-MiaMerofSute. 

'* In Noveeeber last, an extraonlinary occurrenciv 
Hid to haeo happeaod on the 17th of that mcnth, m a 
plonghad iaid at Sena, a village in the district of Si« 
gaaa, waa tho topie of coneeraation in this city, 

" The sky being perfectly serene, three reports re- 
sembling those of cannon, were heard, and followed by 
the fall of a stone, weighing nine potimis and one 
ounce, at a little distAicc from two labouring men. 
One of them went up to it ; but the strong small 
which it emitted stopt him for a moment. 

'• Recovering (k«m his surprise, he went nearer, 
heaved it up with his spade, and waited till it was su^ 
fkaently cold for hiai to carry it to the village, where 
ha ddiverad it to tha priaat 

'< Fraai ia^BMai iMda iaHaadfately afterwards on 
dM spot, aad aaong the people in tho neighbourhood, 
it appaata that the noi«e in the air and fall of the stone 
were not aooompanied with any storm or with light- 
ning." 

This stone is still preserved in the Royal Collection 
Q 



123 



METEORITE. 



Meteoriif. at Madrid. Professor Proust, who was allowed to 
''•"^r*" analyse it, on condition of leaving the principal portion 
untouched for the gratification of the curious, has fa- 
voured the public with several particulars relative to 
its texture and aspect. When delivered to him, it 
weighed six pounds ten ounces. Along with it was a 
piece of three or four ounces, the only one remaining 
of those which had been broken from it by the inqui- 
sitive. It was interspersed with spots of rust, both 
externally and internally, owing probably to its having 
been immersed in water, to try the effect of that fluid 
on its composition. Its shape was an irregular oval, 
•even or eight inches long, four or five broad, and four 
in its greatest thickness. One side was flattish, a lit- 
tle depressed in the middle, and much rounded on the 
edges. It appeared to have had the black vitreous crust, 
common to stones of this kind, though from its fra- 
gility the greater part had fallen off in passing through 
many hands, and receiving occasional blows, so that 
none remained except in the hollow of the base, and a 
little on the faces of the pyramid. On examining this 
crust, it was judged to be the effect of heat, powerful, 
though momentary, because the metallic and sulphu- 
reous particles immediately beneath the crust, had not 
had time to change colour, or even to lose their lustre. 
It had the porousness of an aggregate mass of arena- 
ceous particles, without any cement, so that the breath 
would easily pass through a piece held between the 
teeth ; nor did it give sparks with steel. Its colour 
was a uniform bluish-grey, like that of a black sub- 
stance, enlightened by a white one, or like the hue of 
fm earthy compound, tinged by the least oxj-dation of 
iron. The rounded oval grains, of which the mass 
was composed, were very small, the largest being 
scarcely bigger than hempseed, among which were 
sprinkled metallic and sulphureous particles, charac- 
terized by that light tint of kupfernickel, observable in 
most meteorites. The microscope ascertained that the 
earthy grains, so far from having been fashioned by 
the movement of water, were globiiles, rough with 
crystalline, or reflecting points, so that they could not 
be confounded with common sand. A piece of about 
two inches being exposed to a red heat, in a crucible, 
for half a quarter of an hour, was much changed ; 
for the sandy globules became of a darker grey, and 
the metallic particles, deprived of their lustre, were 
sensibly oxidized. About two ounces were heated for 
half an hour, in a forge fire, which converted the stone 
into a semi- vitreous mass, blackish, slightly porous, and 
interspersed with globules of iron, which had not 
time to precipitate, though upwards of 100 grains of 
regulus were collected at the bottom. The magnetic 
iron was not uniformly mixed in the mass, as some 
parts yielded 22, and others only 17 per cent. This 
iron was combined with nickel, in the proportion of 
about 3 per cent. ; but no nickel was traceable in any 
other part of the stone. After ,this alloy was separated 
by the magnet, the remainder was found, by analysis, 
to contain of 

Iron, sulphureted at a minimum, . 12 
Black oxyd of iron, ... 5 
Silex, . . . 66 

Magnesia . ... 20 

Lime and magnesia in quantities too 
small for appreciation. 

103 
A fragment kept for twelve hours under water, was 
taken out^ covered with spots of rust, which distin« 



guished the grains of alloy from the sulphureous parti- Meteorite, 
cles with which they were formerly confounded. "^""Y^"^ 

September 19, 1775. A stone, which is still preserv- 
ed in the Cabinet of Natural History at Cobourg, fell 
near Itodach, a village in the principality of that town. Rodach. 
Gilb. All. — 1775, or 1776- Stones fell near Obruteza, Obruteza. 
in Volhynia, Id. — January or February 1776, a great 
shower of stones fell near Fabbriano, in the territory Fabbriano. 
of Santanatoglia, the ancient duchy of Camerino. 
Soldani and Amorelli. — 1779- Mr. Bingley relates, in 
the Gentleman's Magazine, that he has in his posses- 
sion two pieces of an atmospheric concretion, which 
actually descended in a loud peal of thunder on a 
meadow at Pettiswood, in the county of Westmeath, Pett'swood. 
Ireland. They weigh three ounces and a half, and are 
supposed to have formed two-thirds of the whole mass, 
which in shape resembled a twopenny heart-cake. 
" At the instant this rude lump descended," says Mr. 
Bingley, " our little village was enveloped with the 
fumes of sulphur, which continued about six minutes. 
To its descent five witnesses are now living, three of 
whom reside in London. It lighted upon the wooden 
part of a harness, called a stradle, belonging to a filly 
drawing manure to a meadow, and broke into three 
pieces. At the same instant the affrighted beast fell 
to the earth under her load ; as did the two equally 
affrighted gassoons (boys,) the drivers, who in good 
Irish came crying to me with two pieces of the stone, 
declaring that themselves and the filly were all murder- 
ed by this Ihtinder-boll ; none of whom, however, have 
received the least injury. The two pieces, when I re- 
ceived them after the resurrection of the boys, were 
warm as milk just from the cow ; whence it may natu- 
rally be concluded that the cake came from a scorch- 
ing atmosphere, and pretty well accounts for the out- 
side of it in its formation, and during its stay there, 
having been tinged to a whitish brown, whereas inter- 
nally it is of a silver white." — April 11, 1780. Stones 
fell near Beeston, in England. Loyd's Evening Post.— Beeston. 
April 24, 1781. Count Gwe«i observed in the third 
region of Mount Etna, every thing to be wetted with Mount 
a cretaceous grey rain, which, after evaporation, left Etna, 
every part covered with it, to the height of two or 
three lines. All iron work touched by it became 
rusty. Phi/os. Trans, vol. Ixxii. — 1782. A stone fell 
near Turin. Tata and Amorelti. — February 19, 1785. Turin. 
Baron MoU, in a German publication, has communi- 
cated some notices of stones which fell in the princi- 
pality of Eichstaedt. One of the masses transmitted to Eicfastaedt. 
Baron Hompesch, had the aspect of a grey ash-colour- 
ed sandstone, speckled with small grains of both mal- 
leable and ochreous iron. A brickmaker saw it fall 
when the ground was covered with snow, and imme- 
diately consequent on what he termed a loud peal of 
thunder. On running to lay hold on it, he felt it so 
hot that he was obliged to let it cool in the snow in 
which it was immersed. This specimen was about 
half a foot in diameter, and completely enveloped in a 
black vitrified incrustation of native iron, ten lines in 
thickness, which indicated the action of fire. It yield* 
ed to Klaproth, 

Silex . . .37 

Magnesia . . 21.5 

Iron . . 1^.5 

Oxyd of do. . 19 

Nickel . . 1.5 

Sulphur, a trace. 

96.5 



METEORITE. 



133 



Charkow. 

BarboUa, 
Ac 



Mt m rix. A ■pcdmcn miy be »«*n in the Imperi»l Cabinet of 
^--Y— ' Vienna. See al»o Piciel and S/hIz — October 1 , 1 787. 
StofiM fell in the {irovince of Cbarkow, in Rossis. 
CM. A»n. 

July 84. 1790. The shower orstonct which fell ne^ 
BarboUn and other places in the landn of Botirtlesux, is 
worthy of particular conunemoration. The fiery me- 
tcor from which it procee<!ed, and which was seen at 
Agen, and in the nt-ighbouring departments, about nine 
o'dock in the evening, after traversing a certain por- 
tion of the sMKNplMre, and dragging a luminous train, 
which was risibfe for at Irast 50 aeconds, exploded 
with an extraordinary noite and scintillation. Of the 
BaoMtWM aceottttts of this phenomenon, some of the 
BMMt inlamlinfr an addfnaed to M. Darect, the che- 
miat. An inhalritBet of St S^t^-re, for example, im> 
part* the cnaoing circumftancca. 

" Yetterdar our town's people were agitated bj a 
very unusuaf alarm. About a quarter past nme 
•CCHck, there anddenly appeared in the air a fire-ball, 
(taf a lenf train, wfcwh spread a very rivid light 
liw harJMO. J hM fireball sooa dnappcared, 
wmd aacBMd to lall at one bandied paoea man as. 
8oa« nllcr we hwrd an explosiaR, nach louder than 
that af oMHien or of Ibundcr. Everr body dreaded 
basnf baricd under tba boiisea, wfaidi tbteatenetl to 
give way froaa the vioUmtu of the coneoidon. The 
aame pbanaoMMn waa otcn, and the report bean) m 
the nsi^MwilBg towns, sach as Mont du Marsan, 
Tartas, aod f)az. In other respects the weather waa 
▼ery ealm, witboat a breath of wind or a dood, and 
liw laon ahone in all her brigbtneaa.' 

M. Dareit'a brother, a clergyman in that part of the 

e u n aW ji MOI Ura a sma'l »tone, which was picked up 

en the aoniiag after the rxpUMion, and the biatorj of 

which he waa acrupukwaly anxiont to investigate. 

' with respect to all the parrticulara, he 

it to Pana, aooompasned with aoaoe curioua 

*• When the stones feH,' be dbservce. "they 

Mt Ibeir pi w it degree of hardnese. Some of 

Mt ou straw, bto or which stock to the stone*, 

lacarporated with there. I hare spcn one in this 

It it at present at la Baitidr, but I can. 

the owner to part with tt... Those 

Ml an the hooace, prodnced a noise not like 

that ef atonea, bat rather like that of a subotanec which 

d iMfl yet aeqnired eompactneaa, 

Wa iMll alao cite the proems *«r 

•• In the year one dMMuand seven hundred and 
and the 30th dm of die month of Aurust, we 
Jean Daby, Mayor, and Loots Manlton, Pro. 
«C the r««"»ni<iri« n»* fhe M u nici p ality of Iji 
Gnage de Juill . miiiie, resident in the 

ef k Cirmt,!^ ..^ .; „, , ccrti^r in troth and ve- 
rity, that an flaiarday the S4th of July laU, between 
Bine and tcti t/elack, there passed a great fire, and after 
ll «• head in the air a very kxid and extraordinary 
aoiae : and abeat two minutes after there fell stones 
fteOi Mwren ; b«t forttinately there fell only a very 
ftw ; and tbey fell about ten paces fVom one another in 
•aoM piaeca, and in olhen nearer, and finally in some 
ether place* farther, and falling, most of them of the 
woigbl ef about halfofaquarter of apound each; some 
a t b wa of tbout half a (lound, like that ftiund in our 
p*illi of k Grange ; and on the bordeH of the parisli 
m Ctmn, they ware fbond of a pound weight, and m 
frlUag they aeenad not to be inikmed, but vary hard 
ad Vmk, witboat and within, of the colour of steel ; 



iwria/, ■ simple but an- 




and, thank God, they occasioned no hami to the peo- Mttforiie. 

Cle nor to the trees, but only to some trees which were ^^'Y^^ 
rokcn on the houses ; and most of them fell gently, 
and others quickly, with a hissing noise ; and some 
were found which had entered into the earth, but very 
few. In witness whereof we have written and signed 
these presents. 

•• Dray, Mayor! DARMiTTt." 
M. Baudin states, that as Mr. Carris and he were 
walkinj; in the conrt-yard of the castle of Mormes, 
atxnit half- past nine o'clock In the evening, when the 
air was (|uite calm, and the sky cloudless, they fouitd 
themselves suddenly turronndcd by a p.ile dear light, 
which diminished U»at of the nearly full moon. On 
looking up. they observed, almost in their xcnith, a fire- 
ball iA a larger apparent diameter than that of the 
moon, dragging a tail five or six times longer than its 
body, and which gradually tapered to a bloo<l red point, 
while the rest of the meteor was of a pale white. The 
direction of this luminous body, which procee<lcd with 
great velodty, was from south to north. In about 
two seconds, it iplit into portions of considerable site, 
which fell in diRerent directions, like the fragments of 
a bomb that bursts in the air. These fragments be- 
came extinguished before tbey reached the ground, and 
some of tliem, in falling, assumed that blood red colour 
which had been ob^rved at the point of the tail. Two 
or three minutes after, they heard a dreadful explosion, 
like the simultaneous firing of several pieces of ord- 
nance. The concutaion of the atmosphere pro<liiced 
effects similar to those of an earthquake ; fur win- 
dows shook in their frames, and kitchen utensils were 
thrown down from their shelves ; but M. Baudin and 
his friend were not sensible of any motion under their 
feet. From the court of the castle these gentlemen 
wrn*. into tbe garden, when the noise still conti- 
nued, and I tem ed to be directed over their heads. 
Sometime after ithad cmsetl, thry heard a hollow snimd 
rolling in echoes, for fifty miles, along the chain of the 
Pyre n ee s , continuing for four minutes, and gradually 
d^ing away in distance, the atmosphere all the time 
diffusing a sulphureous odour. 

The mten-al which occurred between the bursting 
of the meteor and the loud remirt, induced M. Baudin 
to conjecture, tliat the fire-ball must liave been at least 
eight miirs from the earth's surface, and that it fell 
about four miles from Morm6a ; and the latter part of 
hit conjecture was confirmed by the fact. It appears, 
indee<l, from the concurring reUtions of intelligent per- 
sons worthy of credit, that the meteor really exploded 
at a little diatance from Juillor, and that the fallen stones, 
of dilTerent sizes, were found lying in an almost ciroulsr 
space of netrly two miles in diameter. Though some 
of them fell in courts and gardens, no houses were ma- 
terially injured ; but, in tbe neighbouring woods, 
some branches were broken and torn off. According 
to some of the accounts, one of the stones, fifteen inch- 
es in diameter, broke through the roofof a cottage, and 
killed a herdsman and a bullock. People deserving of 
credK, mentioned that one of four pounds had fallen 
near a farmer's door ; and another, which weighed be- 
tween twen^ and twenty-five jxjunds, was csrrietl as a 
curiosity to the town of .Mont-du-Msrsan. Though ge- 
nerally smooth on the outside, thry presented some 
longitudinal cracks or fissures, while their internal sub- 
stance, transversely striated, exhibited indications of 
metallic veins, especially of a ferruginous complexion. 
When yet red hot, and scattered in various directions, 
they formed that magnificent fire- work, that shower of 



124 



METEORITE. 



Meteorite, flame wliich illuminated the horizon over a large track 
^""V™^ of country. The meteor is supposed to have been per- 
pendicular to Juillac, since at Dax, situated to the south- 
west of Messin, it was perceived in the north-east. It 
■was seen at Bayonne, Auch, Pau, Tarbes, and even at 
Bourdeaux and Toulouse, though at the last mentioned 
place it excited little attention, on account of its great 
distance, and its appearing only a little brighter than a 
shooting star. 

When all the circumstances of the case are duly con- 
sidered, we need not be surprised tliat the publication 
of them shuuld produce conviction on the minds of 
many men of science, who had avowed their disbelief 
in every thing of the kind. In fact, when we are pre- 
sented with the joint testimony of the learned and un- 
learned o( the district in which the phenomenon is 
stated to have occured, when we find tlie Professor of 
Natural History in the central school of Agen retract- 
ing his former scepticism, and the accurate and skilful 
Vauquelin revealing the samechemical substances which 
he had detected in other atmospheric stones, and near- 
ly in the same proportions, it would be highly unrea- 
sonable to withhold our assent, merely because we have 
not in person witnessed the particulars. The few ap- 
parent discrepancies which may be observed in the dif- 
ferent accounts, are all capable of an easy solution, and 
ought in no respect to invalidate the testimony in fa- 
vour of the general fact ; yet, it is not a little singular 
that different narratives, published at no great distance 
of time subsequent to the event, assign to it erroneous 
dates, some placing it in 1789, others in 1791, some in 
August, and others in September. Specimens of the 
Barbotan stones are not uncommon in the collections of 
the curious. 

May 17, 1791. Stones fell at Castel Berardenga, in 



Castel-Be- 
rardenga. 

Sieai. 



Tuscany. Snldani.— June l6, 179*, the late Earl of with the point of a penknife, 



pound. The outside of every stone that has been as- Mcieorlte. 
certained to have fallen from the cloud near .Siena, is — V""' 
evidently freshly vitrified, and is black, having every 
sign of having passed through an extreme heax'] when 
broken, the inside is of a li^^ht grey colour, mixed with 
black spots, and some shining partii-les, which the learn- 
ed here have decided to be pyrites; and therefore it 
cannot be a lava, or they would have been decom- 
posed " 

The Abbate Sotdani, Professor of Mathematics in 
the University of Sien.-i, has published a more detailed 
account of the same phenomenon. He informs us, that 
an alarming cloud was seen in Tuscany, ne-.r Siena and 
Radacofani, proceeding from the north, about seven 
o'clock in the evening, discharging sparks like rockets, 
and throwing out smoke like a furnace, with explo>ions 
more resembling the discharge of cannon and musketry 
than thunder, and casting down ignited stones to the 
ground, while the lightning which issued from it was 
remarkably red, and less rapid than an ordinary flash. 
To persons in different situations, the cloud appeared 
to be of different shapes ; and, though it remained sus- 
pended for a considerable time, its fire and smoke were 
visible in every direction. Its altitude, from a combi- 
nation of circumstances, was judged to be nmch above 
the common region of the clouds. One of the stones, 
which was of an irregular figure, weighed five pounds 
and a half, was black on the outside, as if suffused with 
smoke, and seems, internally, to be composed of matter 
of the coli^ur of ashes, and in which were perceived 
small specks of metal, as of gold and silver Besides 
this, about nineteen others were shewn to Soldani and 
all of them characterized by a black and glazed outer 
surface, by their resistance to acids, and by a degree of 
hardness which permitted them not to be scratched 



Bristol's account of the Siena meteorite is thus related 
by the late Sir William Hamilton, in the Philosophical 
Transactions for 1795. 

" I must here mention a very extraordinary circum- 
stance indeed, that happened near Siena, in the Tuscan 
State, about 18 hours after the commencement of the 
late eruption of Vesuvius, on the 1,5th of June, although 
that phenomenon may have no relation to the eruption ; 
and which was communicated to me, iii the following 
words, by the Ear) of Bristol, Bisliop of Derry, in a 
letter, dated from Siena, July 12, 1794. ' In the midst 
of a most violent thunder-storm, about a dozen stones 
of various weights and dimensions fell at the feet of 
different people, men, women, and children ; the stones 
are of a quality not found in any pirt of the Sienese 
territory ; they fell about 1 8 hours after the enormous 
eruption of Vesuvius, which circumstance leaves a 
choice of difficulties in the solution of this extraordina- 
ry phenomenon ; either these stones have been generat- 
ed in this igneous mass of clouds, which produced such 
unusual thunder ; or, which is equally incredible, they 
were thrown from Vesuvius, at a distance of at least 
250 miles ; judge then of its parabola. The philoso- 
phers here incline to the first -olution. I wish much, 
Sir, to know your sentiments. My first objection was 
to the fact itself; but of this tliere are .so many eye- 
witnesses, it seems impossible to withstand their evi- 
dence, and now I am reduced to perfect scepticism.' 
His Lordship was pleased to send me a piece of one of 
the largest stones, which, when entire, weighed up- 
wards of five pounds ; and I have seen another, which 
has been sent to Naples entire, and weighs about one 



Signor Monlauli, who observed the cloud as he hap- 
pened to be travelling, described it as appearing much 
above the elevation of ordinary clouds, as wrapt in 
smoke and flame, and as gradually becoming white, 
without being visibly affected by the sun's rays, which 
beamed full on its lower portions. In the heart of it 
he could discern, as it were, the basin of a fiery furnace, 
with a rotatory motion. This curious observer like- 
wise gives an account of a stone, which, he was assur- 
ed, dropped from the cloud, at a farmer's feet, and was 
dug out of the ground into which it had penetrated. 
It was about five inches long, and four broad, nearly 
square, and smooth, black on the surface, as if singed, 
but, within, like a sand-stone, with various small par- 
ticles of iron, and bright metallic stars. Most of the 
others which he examined were of a rudely triangular 
shape, and some so small as not to weigh more than an 
ounce. 

The ladies at Cozsne, about twenty miles from Siena, 
saw a number of them come down, with a great noise, 
in a neighbouring meadow ; and one of them, which 
was soon after taken up by a young woman, burned her 
hand ; another burned a peasant's hat ; a th rd struck 
off a branch from a mulberry-tree ; and a fourtn very 
nearly hit a girl who was tending a flock of sheep. At 
Cozone, however, the stones were of a small size, and ac- 
companied with the fall of sand ; thus intimating a close 
connection between meteorites and showers of sand. 

The specific gravity of the Siena stones was found to 
be about 3.3, or S.^; and one of them, treated by Mr. 
Howard, as particularly detailed in the 92d VoL of the. 
Fhilosophicai Transactions, yielded. 




WoU Cot. 



METEORITE. 125 

flilieB, 4fi.66 h« was «trurk very forcibly bjr »ome of the mud and Meteorite. 

Mignwa, 8S 67 earth raise<i by the rtone dashing into the earth, which """y^ 

Iron S4.67 it penetrated to th»- depth of twelve inchei, antl seven 

Nickel, 2 afterward* into Oe ctialk rock, making in all a depth 

^—— of iiinrteen inchct I'rum the surface. 

|(i6 •' While the stone was pas-iinK through the air— which 

A pretty entire specimen occur> in Mr. Fergu«on't it did in • nort-east diret-tiuii troro the seacoast — 

collcctioa. numbers of peraonsdiKtinKUimhed a body parsing thruugh 

The preceding cm* affords a striking exumple of the the clouds, though not able to aBCerlAiii what it was; 

diSrrent manner in which wr regsrd a pheiiomenou by and two aooa of the clcf;gynian of Wold Newton (a vil- 

itself and the eery same phenomenon, when we conn, laye ncwe) MW it pass -o distinctly by them, that 

d«r It in connection with others. 1'he natur^liats of they ran ui> iminediati-Iy lo my house, to know if any 

BmtM, aware tlut the stones had fallen alter one of the thii<g extraortlinary had happened. 

rialen iMBpcais, and on the da* immediately sub- '* In the diiferenl village* over which the stone took 

to one of lh« moat fomtidatJb eruptiuos of V*- its direction, vdriuu* were the people who heard the 

•uvius, w«w indntMl to view it a« electrical or volca> noise of aomethmg passing through the air, accurately 

nic ; and SoMwii stood almost single in the opinion, and distinctly, though they could not imsgiiie what 

that the amwiwin wa< inde|M-n<ient of the erutKion. was the cauv of it; and in many of the provincial 

But (hey woo now conteroplatr the «an>e fact in its re newspauers, these accounts were publirhed at the time 

many other*, who know that tb« Sitm ftooi different persons. 

both the same physical cb fa cters, and " In fact, no arcumstance of the kind had ever more 

rssuha srith alotts which are asc«r> concurrent te*timnnie> and the appearance of the stoiip 

I diArvot parta of the world, itself, while it rrsrmblrs in coiupusitioii thoM which 

■ Mvsas, or • cla«d intemiiKeti the serenity are suppossd to have t'«llm in vanous utiier parts of the 

atthg wsil hsr . ara dacidtdty eonvmced tii.t it has no world, naa no counterpart or resemblance in the natural 

r e fer « «ic« lo any votesnic cnption, or lo any ordinary Moaas of iha eouniry. 

storm. <> Tha stone in its fall, excavated a pl<icc of the depth 

April IS, 1795. Ktona* M io Caylan. Bwk. baim wtutt<inad. ami of something m<>re than a vard 

'Ina ctreum'>tanc«* MUmUmm tba AJl of tha York, in itiswilsr It bad fixed itaelf m> strongl> in the chalk 

shire stone urn Uioa deaaiM by Major l^tpUm: rock, that it reqiursd sas«a labour to dig it out. 

" Tha man, wbo^ by aesaa fcrtukous rimiiMsiants, •• On being brutht bomr, it waa weighed ; and tlia 
happaaa to poaNsa any estrjordin«ry curiosito, has a nacl waifiM. at Um liaw. was 5ti pounds ; which has 
very tfwililraama coapanion. ..it was my goad fataat baaa dtniniahad in a small decree at preM»>t, by dif. 
to inmble into this ppsdicaiMitt by a stooa hibrng naar fmnl picess being taken from it as prrmnits to 'liffe- 
By h aws e in the cawiuy: ami ninagil I baeo basn rent Utrrmli of tho country.. .All the three wilnosos 
oslM apaa. bath p«bliciy and pri y a ls ly, )or a thou- who saw it fall, agree ptrtectly in thu account of the 
sand ai wwwH a, and hare anawsrart i n nmu ar a ble inqui manner of its fall, and that they saw a dark body pass- 
lias. .1 was raaohmd to eoosigo the stone in onestioo inn ihrangh the air, and nitimauly »tnke into the 
to siane pnblie mnaanii, sao to delnrer with it the groand; and though, Irom their situation and ch«rac- 
■MM aacnraW accantw I was able to take Irom living ters in life, they could have no po«ible oi>j<-ct in de> 
wftoaassaati tha anal, as I waa st that time engaged on tailing a false account of this tnuisactum, I felt *o de- 
bnsinsM in L a n oa tt The staiM. therefore, will no sirens of giving thi* matter ever> degree of autlirnti- 
lenger •* blnali nnaaaa," bnt be sniijcct to be csamits- city, that, aa a magistrate, I took their accuunu upon 
ed by every philiaaphii in the aaited kit>(ilam, who oeth, imaaedistoiy on my return into the counirv. I 

■aay Hioase to risit tbe JfaasMn of Mr. Amvrly saw no maaan to doubt any o< their evidence, alter the 

" Having premised tiMMHMcfi, I ihalJ pincard to most mnwtoinvaaligvtion of it" 
itoto whe d nn mns w s altonds d liw MImht of the Of a hundred and siity-two parts of the oomposition 

Mooe n qaestics i . wMeh waa wit n s l id by many pco> of the Yorkshire siooe, Mr. Howard found, 
pk whn eonld hare no in tewst in fidvitotjng a false 

a rm n m , and were far too siaipla to have dona sok Silica, 75 

What ia aMst singular ia, that it shenU haer been so MMnesia S7 

well attested, bi cansi. an the high wohls of Yarhabiie, Ouda of iron, . . 48 

t h o u sands of stense might have fsllen. and there might Oxide of nickel, . . S. 

ant have besn rr>-n a *olitary >hephcrd, or his more — ' 

•ohtary doy, to have witnessed the oerarrsnce. IfiS 

• It was en Sunday, ahont three ^dock, the ISth 
of December, n the year 1795. that the stone in qnea- M. de Dr^, we may a<id, found it to correspond ex« 
tian fell Within two ftelds oi ray house. The weather actly, in a«pect and cliaraiter, with the irrtroric fVag- 
was mai^, antl, at tiara, indiaiqg to lain ; and ihnafh mcnts from Benares and Villefranche, ui which men- 
there waa tome thwMier end HgaMMf ■* a dislanoab it tien wdl be made in tiic nquel. 

waa nn« tdl the fallinit of the stone that the exfilasion J niury 4, 1796. Stones icll near Belaia Frrkua, in BrUls-Fa- 

took place, which slsrmed the •urronnding country, Russu (jHh. An. — Febmarr 19. l7iM). The rn»uin({ re- kua. 

■ad whicH r rea t t d o distinctly tlie sensation that lation is exuacted from Mr. Southry's Leilert J'rvm 

samelhing very singuUr had happened. Spai* mud PnrlmgaL 

** Whaa the rtaae Ml. a shepherd of mine, who wm " A phenomenon has occurred here within these few 

retnmii^t Amn hia sheep, was about IM yards from day», which we someiimes find mi-ntioned in hi>inry, 

the spat; neeano itomlen, a esrpsnler, wsa passing and slway> disbelieve. I <hall luskr no ti>innicnt on 

within 6i) yard* ; and John Shipley, one of my (arm- the account, but give you an authentic ropy of the de- 
waa so near tha spot where it fell, that position of the witocsw* before the magistrates. 

7 



126 



METEORITE. 



Brorah 
Monle. 



Lusatia. 



Meteorite. " Elias Antonio, ordinary judge of the term of Evorah 
' Monte, and inhabitant of the parish of Friexo, in the 
Herdade of Gayes, says, that, on the Iflth day of Fe- 
bruary, (1796,) between one and two o'clock in the 
afternoon, he heard two reports, similar to those of the 
explosion of mines ; after which he perceived a great 
ruml)ling noise, which lasted about two minutes. Look- 
ing up to the horizon, it was not obscured, neither was 
there any cloud or appearance from which he could 
conjecture the sound to have proceeded. He recollects 
likewise that the rumbling ran from north to east, the 
day being clear and serene. 

" Gregorio Calado, labourer in the Herdade of Pazo, 
and term of Redondo, says, that he heard the above- 
mentioned sound, and that a little while after, one of 
his servants, called Jose Fialho, brought him a stone of 
the colour of lead, weighing ten pounds, and irregu- 
lar in its figure, which stone the said Jose Fialho had 
found in a meer of the Herdade called Pasquinha, in 
the term of Evorah Monte ; for after the two reports 
and the rumbling sound, he heard some heavy body fall 
near him, and found this stone sunk in the ground, 
still warm, and the ground freshly moved. Four boys 
who were in the same part affirmed the same." 

The evidence here adduced is not very circumstan- 
tial ; yet, when taken in connection with similar cases, 
it tends to corroborate the general fact. 

March 8, 1796. After the fall of a fire-ball in Lu- 
satia, there was found a viscid substance, having the 
consistency, colour, and odour of a brown varnish. 
Chladni, who procsred a small portion of it, in a very 
dried state, conceived that it was principally composed 
of sulphur and carbon. 

March 12, 1798. Concerning the stone which is re- 
ported to have fallen near Villefranche, in the depart- 
ment of the Rhone, we are presented with a great va- 
riety of details; but we shall notice only a few of the 
most important. When it was transmitted to M. Sage, 
Member of the National Institute, and Professor of the 
First School of Mines, he hastily considered it as only 
a pyritous and magnetical ore of iron, although it bore 
no resemblance to anv known species of ore of that me- 
tal, since it contained nickel, silica, magnesia, and na- 
tive iron, which, when the stone was polished, shone 
like steel. It was of an ash-grey colour, granulated 
and speckled with grey shining metallic points. Its 
surface was covered on one side, with a dingy black 
enamel, about a third of a line in thickness ; and it 
acted very powerfully on the magnetic needle. When 
the Senator Chassel sent it to M. Sage, it was accom- 
panied with a historical notice of similar import with 
that which M. Leliivre of Villefranche, who saw and 
described the phenomenon on the spot, had already 
communicated. 

At six o'clock in the evening, a round body, which 
diffused the most vivid light, was observed in the vi- 
cinity of Villefranche, moving westward, and producing 
a hissing noise, like that of a bomb which traverses the 
air. This luminous body which was seen at the same 
time at Lyons, and on Mont Cenis, marked its passage 
by a red track of fire, and exploded when about 200 
toises from the earth, producing a loud report, and a 
commotion in the neighbourhood. One of the flaming 
fragments fell on the vineyard of Pierre Crepier, an in- 
habitant of Sales, making in the earth an opening of 
about twenty inches in depth, and eighteen in width. 
The analysis of Messrs. Vauquelin and Howard first 
prompted M. Sage to examine this fragment and its 



ViHe. 

franche. 



history with more critical accuracy, and, finally, to re- 
nounce his scepticism with regard to the existence of 
meteoric concretions. 

An account of the,same meteor was published in the 
Journal dc Physique, for Floreal, year 11, by M. de 
Drie, who visited the spot in 1802. From liis mi- 
nute and deliberate investigation, it appears, that, at 
the time above specified, a luminous and extraordinary 
globe, in the eastern quarter of the heavens, had scarce- 
ly arrested the attention of the inhabitants of Sales, 
and the adjacent villages, when its rapid approach, ac- 
companied by a terrible whizzing noise, like that of 
an irregular hollow body, traversing the atmosphere 
with unusual velocity, inspired the whole commune 
with alarm, especially when they observed it passing 
over their heads, at an inconsiderable elevation, leav- 
ing behind it a long train of light, and emitting, with 
an almost unceasing crackling, small bright flames, 
like little stars. Its fall was remarked by three labour- 
ers, at the distance of only fifty paces. Montillard, 
one of the three, a young man, who happened to be 
next the failing body, was struck with terror, and threw 
down his coat and bundle of sticks, that he might run 
the faster. The other two, Chardon and Lapoces, fled, 
with equal precipitation, to Sales, where the alarm had 
become general. These three witnesses attest the asto- 
nishing rapidity of the meteor's motion, and the hiss- 
ing which proceeded from the spot where it fell. Cre- 
pier, who happened to be at home, was so much terri- 
fied with the noise of its fall, witliin twenty yards of 
his house, that he locked himself up with his family, 
first in his cellar, and then in his private apartment, 
whence he ventured not to stir till next morning, when 
he was called to join Chardon, Lapoces, M. Blandel, 
and many others, who had repaired to the precise spot 
where they had seen the fire-ball enter into the earth ; 
and there, at the bottom of a wide aperture, eighteen 
inches deep, including the whole thickness of the 
mould, they found a large black mass, of an irregular- 
ly ovoid form, having some resemblance to a calf's head, 
completely incrusted with a black varnish, cracked in 
several places, and smelling of gun-powder. It was 
first of all brought to Crepier's liouse, and very close- 
ly examined : on breaking it, however, and observ- 
ing nothing but stone, indifference succeeded to the 
curiosity of the observers ; and they coolly attribut- 
ed its appearance to causes more or less superna- 
tural. 

The simplicity of most of the accounts, their perfect 
agreement in every important point, and the number 
and integrity of the witnesses, removed all doubt and 
suspicion from the mind of M. de Driie. 

The weight of the Villefranche stone, before it was 
broken, was about twenty pounds. Its black, vitrifi- 
ed, and opaque surface, gave fire with steel. Within, 
it was hard, earthy, of the colour of ashes, of a granu- 
lated texture, presenting difl'erent substances scattered 
through it, viz. iron, in grains, from the smallest visi- 
ble size to a line, or even more, in diameter, somewhat 
malleable, but harder and whiter than forged iron, 
white pyrites, both lamellar and granular, and ap- 
proaching, in colour, to nickel, some grey globules, 
which seemed to pret-jnt the characters of trap, and a 
very few and minute particles of steatite, inclining to 
an olive hue. On account of its heterogeneous com- 
position, its specific gravity could not be easily ascer- 
tained. One hundred parts of the mass gave, accord- 
ing to Vauquelin, 



METEORITE. 



127 



tI«Morlt*. 



Silica, 

Oxjd of iron, 
MMneaia, 
Nidcel, 
Lime, 



46 

33 
15 

2 

2 
103 



The cxccM of this result wm lucribed to the ab< 
of oxygen, by the native iron, during the 



December 10, IT9«. About eight o'clock in the 
evening, a very luminout meteor, in the Tonn of a 
lurgp globe of fire, and accompanied by a loud thun> 
dating naiee, wa* observed in the heavens by the inha> 
bilanta of Benares, and the parte adjacent. It was 
■aid to have ditcharf;^ a number of stooee near Krak- 
hut, a vill3|;c on the north aide of the river Gooroty, 
about fourteen miles from Benarc*. This meteor ap- 
peared in the wettem quarter of the hemitphere, and 
was vitilile only for a abort time, to several European*, 
as well a* natives, in difcrcnt parts of the country. 
In the netghboarbood ot Jnanpoor, alx>ut twelve miles 
from the saot whan the atoiMa fell, it waa diitincUy 
parceived oy variooa Ewvpcan Indies and gaKlenmi. 
iHm dtscribed it as a Urge ball of fire, aooooipenied 
by a rolUng noise, which uey oomnarcd to b*d plalooa 
firing. Mr. Judge DapU obeatvca the light to come 
into the room which be oecnpied, throogb the case- 
ment, and ao atniiicly aa to project shadows very dis- 
tinotlv on a dark-coloured carpet. 

When i t a l l i g u i B eofthe erent reached Benatea, Mr. 
Davie dMnntcbad aJBdicioos peieon to oMke the r*> 
The nadves, en being intcnagalcd, 
that they had eithce broken to piocea, or 
given to the ooUecior and others, all the alonca which 
UMy had gatheeed, bnt that others night itill befoond 
in the fields, by observing where the earth appeared 
to be recentlr turned up. Four were accordingly pro> 
enrad, and bnnght to .Mr. I)avu. They had sunk 
aboat sis inchei oiwp into fields, which seemed to have 
been freshly watcfeo, and aboot the distanca of a bun- 
dred yards from one another. The person deputed to 
obtain information, wa* likewise told by the inhabit- 
anta of the village, that, about eight o'clock in the 
•THiiiig, when they had retired to their dwellings, 
they observed a very brilliant light, proceeding as from 
the iky, aceomaaiad by a loud peal of thunder, which 
was immediateqr MIowed bv the noise of heavy bodies 
fidling in the nei g hb oi i rbood. 




Uncertain whatheri 
of their deitiea ndght not be eoocemed in tlus oecmw 
raaee^ they did not venture out till nest mondng; 
wbantfae first circumslanoe which attracted their at- 
tentioii was the broken appearance of the surfsce of 
the ground: and farther invcatigation oorrobacated 
these particulars. Mr. M'Lane, a gsntleman who r» 
itdod hard by Krak.hut, gave .Mr. Howard part of a 
stOBS^ which had been brought to him bjr the watch* 
maa who waa on duty at his house. This, he said, 
had (aOaB tlmncfa the top of hi* hut, which was close 
by, and bxiad nseif several inches in the floor, which 
I of bmdtmti aartfa. At the time that this meteor 



My a awJ , tibe sky waa perfectly setcne, and not a 
CMd had baHi aesD Mice the 11th of the 



month, nor 
kad tut been ob e m a d ibr many days mtter. 

" Of these atonc^" says Mr. Howard, '• I have scan 
eight, nearly perftct, boiidea ports of several others, 
which had been brokeB bjr the possessors, to distribuU 
SBHaig Ikair friends. Ine form of the more perfect 
to be that of an irr^uUr cube, roond- 



ed off at the edges ; but the angles were to be observ. >f eteorite. 
ed on roost of them. They were of various sizes, from '^^^•f^^ 
about three to upwards of four inches in their largest 
diameter ; one of them, measuring four inches and a 
quarter, weighed two pounds twelve ounces. In ap. 
pearsnce they were exactly similar: externally, they 
were covered with a hard black coat, or incrustation, 
which, in some parts, had the appearance of varnish, 
or bitumen ; and on most of them were fractures, 
which, from their being covered with matter similar to 
that of the coat, seemed to have been made in the fall, 
by the stones striking against each other, and to have 
passed through some medium, probably an intense 
heat, previous to their reaching the earth. Internally, 
they consiftetl of a number of small spherical bodies, 
of a slate colour, embciUled in a whitijih griity sub- 
stance, interspersed with bright shining spiculic, of a ' 
metallic or pyritical nature. The spherical bodies 
were much harder than the rest of the stone: the 
white gritty part /eadily crumbled, on being rubbed ^ 
with a hard biody; and, on being broken, a quantity 
attached itself to the magnet, but more particularly 
the ootside coat or crust, which appeared almost whol- 
ly attractalile by it. 

" It is well known there are no volcanos on the con- 
tinent of India; and, as far as I can learn, no stones 
have been met with in the earth in that part of the 
world, which bear the smallest resemblance to those 
above described." 

The history of the Benares meteor, then, speaks too 
distinctly for itself to stanil in need of commentary. 

April 5, 1799- Stones fell at Batonrouge, on the .Mia- Baton- 
sissippi. Uet/asl ChtvmicU of the War. rouge. 

April 5, 1800. At night, a body wholly luminous 
waa aesnto move over a portion of America witli pro- America. 
digiooa velocity. Its apparent sise was that of a large 
house seventy feet long, and its elevation above the 
surface of the earth about iOO yards. It diffused a 
light little inferior to that of the lun ; and those who 
saw it perceived a considerable degree of heat, but no 
electrical sensation. Immediately at\er it disappeared in 
the north-west, with a violent rushing noise, which in a 
few seconds was followed by a tremendous cra.>'h,and a 
very sensible vibration of the earth. Search being after- 
wards made in the place where the burning body fell, 
every vegetable was found bumt.or greatly scorched. an<l 
a considerable portion of the earth's surface broken up. 
" We have to Ument," remarks Mr. Howard, " that the 
authors of this account did not search deeper than the 
surface of the ground. Such an immense body, though 
moving in a horizuntal direction, couUl not but be bu- 
ried to a considerable depth. Should it have been more 
than the semblance of a body of a peculiar nature, the 
lapse of ages may perhaps effect what has now lieen ne- 
glected, and its magnitude and solitary situation be- 
conte the astonishment of future philosophers." Pkilo*. 
Mag. 

1801. M. Bory de Si. Vincnl, the ingenious author Itle aux 
of Voyage dan* let qunlra princifialet Islet des Mtrt TonnelltfSi 
dA/nque, relates, (torn. iii. p. 253,) thai in consequence 
of particular instructions Irom M. Hubert, he had, 
when on the Isle aux Tonneliers, made diligent search 
for the fragments of a stone which had been broken, 
and employed in the construction of a wall. Of these 
fragments he di s covered three ; one about the size of a 
melon, but too fast locked in the pkster to be detached, 
and the other two about the sise of an orange each, and 
which were easily separated. They all evidently be- 
longed to the ssme naas, and, though their fracture had 



128 



METEORITE. 



Bleieoriie. become rusty, one side of their external surface exhibi- 
'~"~v'^*' ted, like certain lavas, a dark and polished tint, while 
their identity with stones reputed atmospheric seemed 
to leave no doubt of their origin. In regard to their 
history, M. De^cmnbes informed the author, that some 
time before, probably in the year 1801, the ladies of 
the district were walking on the quay during a beauti- 
ful m.ionlight night, when nil of a sudden they perceiv- 
ed a luminous cloud advancing from the west, and ex- 
ploding with a very loud noise like the report of a can- 
non, but much more hollow, disclosing at the same time 
a beautiful ball of fire, in appearance perfectly sphe- 
ncA, and about a foot in diameter. When it broke 
from the cloud in which it had been conveyed, it was 
supposed to be half a league from the shore, to which 
it tended in a uniformly slanting direction, till it seem- 
ed to fall on the Isle aux Tonneliers. Several persons 
in the island of Bouvbou affirmed, that, on the same day, 
and at the same hour, they observed a luminous point 
in the air, which, from the path of its motion, could be 
no other than this globe of fire. 
Peiio. March 5 and 6, 1 803. A shower of red snow fell at 

Pezzo, at the extremity of the Valle Camonica. It was 
preceded by a violent wind on the 5th. Journal de 
Physique, ISO*. 

April 26, 1803. The history of the extraordinary 
L'Aigle. shower of stones at L'Aigle, in Normandy, first appear 



possible that thou canst make me perish thus .' Pardon, Meteorite 
I beseech thee, all the faults that I have committed.' '^"^"^ 
The most trifling objects, in fact, might create alarm ; 
for it is not improbable, that history offers no example 
of such a shower of stones as this. The piece which I 
send was detached from a large one weighing eleven 
pounds, which was found between the house of the 
Buats and Le Fertey. It is said, that a collector of 
curiosities purchased one of seventeen pounds weight, 
that he might send it to Paris. Every body in this 
country is desirous of possessing a whole stone, or a 
fragment of one, as an object of curiosity. The largest 
were darted with such violence, tliat they entered at 
least a foot into the earth. They are black on the out- 
side, and greyish, as you see, within, seeming to con- 
tain some pieces of metal and nitre. If you are the 
first to know of what ingredients they are composed, 
you will inform us. One fell near M. Boisdela Ville, 
who lives hard by Glos. He was much afraid, and 
took shelter under a tree. He has found a great num- 
ber of them of different sizes in his court- yard, his 
wheat fields, &c. without reckoning all those which the 
peasants have found elsewhere. Numberless stories, 
more or less absurd, have been circulated among the 
people. You know that our country is fertile in such 
tales. Cousin Moutardier sends one of these stones to 
Mademoiselle Hebert ; and he is not less eager than 



ed in tUe ensuing artless communication from M. Ma- we are, to know how these substances can becompress- 
^ -: J -_».-_ ..u-.. _.i — 1- u:_ i-.: .„,i -^ T)._:„ ed and petrified in the air. Do try to explain the pro- 

cess. 

" The person who gave me the largest stone which I 
send to you, went to take it at the mement that it fell, 
but it was so hot that it burned him. Several of his 
neighbours shared the same fate in attempting to lift 
it. 

" The elder Buat has just arrived, and desires us to 
a fire-ball was observed to hover over the 
Perhaps it was wild fire." 

At the sitting of the Institute on the 9th of May, 
Fourcroy read a letter addressed to Vauquelin, from 
the town of L'Aigle, containing among other details 
the following : 

On the 26th of April, about one o'clock, P. M. the 
sky being almost serene, a rolling noise like that of 
thunder was heard. It seemed to proceed from a 
single cloud, which was on the horizon, and which 
the inhabitants beheld with uneasiness, when, to their 
great surprize and terror, explosions like the reports of 
cannon, sometimes single and sometimes double, were 
heard, along with a violent hissing, — phenomena which 



rats, resident in that place, to his friend at Paris, 

" At L'Aigle, the I3lh Floreal, year 11. 

" An astonishing miracle has just occurred in our 
district. Here it is without alteration, addition, or di- 
minution. It is certain that it is the truth itself. 

" On Friday last, 6th Floreal, between one and two 
o'clock in the afternoon, we were roused by a murmur- 
ing noise like thunder. On going out, we were sur- 
prized to see the sky pretty clear, with the exception of add, that 
come small clouds. We took it for the noise of a car- meadow 
riage, or of fire in the neighbourhood. We were then 
in the meadow, to examine whence the noise proceeded, 
■when we observed all the inhabitants of Pont de Pierre 
at their windows and in gardens inquiring concerning 
a cloud, which passed in the direction of from south to 
northj and from which the noise issued, although that 
cloud presented nothing extraordinary in its appear- 
ance. But great was our astonishment when we learn- 
ed, that many and large stones had fallen from it, some 
of them weighing ten, eleven, and even seventeen 
pounds, in the space comprized between the house 
of the Buat family (half a league north north-east of 



I'Aigle) and Glos, passing by St. Nicholas, St. Pierre, 
&c. which struck us at first as a fable, but which was 
afterwards found to be true. 

" The following is the explanation given of this ex- 
traordinary event by all who witnessed it. 

" They heard a noise like that of a cannon, then a 
double report still loutler than the preceding, followed 
by a rumbling noise, which lasted about ten minutes, 
the same which we also heard, accompanied with hiss- 
ings caused by these stones, which were counteracted 
in their fall by the different currents of air, which is 
very natural in the case of such a sudden expansion. 
Nothing more was heard ; but it is remarkable, that 
previously to the explosion, the domestic fowls were 
alarmed, and the cows bellowed in an unusual manner. 
All the country folks were much dismayed, especially 
the women, who believed that the end of the world 
was at band. A labouring man at La Sapee fell pro- 
strate oQ the ground, exclaiming, ' Good God ! is it 



struck terror even into domestic animals ; for the cows 
bellowed, and the poultry fled to a place of shelter. This 
noise was succeeded by the fall of a great number of 
stones of different sizes, weigliing ten, eleven, and even 
seventeen pounds. The largest entered the earth to 
the depth of a foot. Several of these fell into the 
court-yard of M. Bois-de- la- Ville, and one of them very 
near him. Many curious persons collected some of 
them ; and Fourcroy laid before the Institute one of 
the fragments, which, when compared with that of the 
Villefranche specimen, presented at the meeting by 
Pictet, greatly resembled it in every point, exhibiting 
the same colour, texture, and black crust ; in a word, 
the fragments could not be distinguished from each 
other but by the siae. 

Lamarck then reported that he had received several 
letters, apprizing him of a fire-ball which had been seen 
to pass from east to west with great velocity on the 
same day, and at the same hour at which the event al« 



METEORITE, 



129 



!at}«d to took ^Me. ft wai added, that this meteor 
bad lieen wen at tea before it reached the continent. 

But we paM to the sul>stance of M. Biot's letter, ad^ 
dreaaed to the minister of the interior, andpubhshed in 
tba Jamrnal det Dtbatt. Thia gentleman, who is ad- 
vantagcooaly known over Europe for hij scientific at- 
taiiuDcnta, was deputed by gnvemment to repair to the 
■pot, and collect all the authentic facts. The contents 
of hit letter hare been since expanded into the form of 
a memoir, which manifests tbie caution and judgment 
that guided his inouirie*. 

M. Biot left Pans on the 25th of June, and, in place 
oTprooecdine directly to L'Aigle, went first to Alen^on, 
which Uea fiitcen league* to \ht west south* west of it. 
On bis waj, he waa informed that a globe of fire bad 
been observed moving towarda the north, and that its 
appearance was followed hj a violent explosion. From 
Alcn<,'on he journeyed through various village* to I.'Ai. 
gle, l>eing directed in hit p rogr ea* by the accounts of 
tbe inhabitants, who had all beard the explosion osi the 
day and at the hour specifie<l ; and almost all the resi- 
dent* of twenty hamlets declare«l, that they were eye*. 
witBtaae* of a drctMlful shower of stones which was 
darted from th« -meteor. Tbe summary of the evi* 
dencc wbicfa M. Biot collect wt, may be thus cxpreaa* 
•d. 

About one o'clock, P. M. the weather being serene, 
there wa* obeerved frum C'a«n, Pont-d'Auderoer, and 
theeoviraaaaf AJen^on, Falaite and Vrmeuil. a fiery 
giolic of u nc o m muo qUendour, and which moved in 
t^atoMMpbere with great rapidity. Soom mo— nta 
after, there wa* heard at L'Aigle, and for thirty Icagoet 
round in evcr^ direction, a violent explosion, wnich 
lasted five or six minutes. Three or fuur reports, like 
thoae of cannon, were followed by a kind of discharge, 
which rcaemlilrd tbe firinf; of musketry ; after whit h, 
there was beard a dreadful rumbling, like the Ixating 
of a drum. The air wa* calm, and the *ky serene, 
with the exception of a few clouds, such a* are coaa- 
mooly ob*crved at that seaaon. Tbe noise proce e ded 
from a anaail cloud which bad a rectangular form, the 
largest side being in a direction from eaat to wcac It 
appeared moiionleM all th« tiro« that tbe phenonenon 
lasted ; but the vapour* of which it was oompoacd were 
projected momentarily from different side*, by tbe ef« 
feet of the aucoessive exploaions. This cloud wa* about 
half a laagne to tbe north north-we«t of the toVn of 
L'Aigle, and at a grearelevation in tbe atmoiphcre ; 
for the inhabitant* of two hamlets, a league distant 
from each other, saw it at tbe same time above their 
beada. In the whole district over which this cloud 
waa *u*pendiid. there wa* heard a hissing noise like 
that of a atone discharged firom a sling ; and a great 
manv mineral masses, exactly airoilar to thoae diatin- 
guisbed by tbe name of mtUor-MoHU, were teen to 
fall. 

Tbe portion of counti^ in which these maaac* were 
p r oj ec t ed, form* an elliptical extant of nearly two leagoea 
and a half in length, and nearly one in breadth, the 
grcatcet dimi ei« m being in a direction from south-east 
to nortb-we*t, forming a declination of about i'i At. 
crcca. This direction, which the meteor must have 
followed, is exactiv that of Uie magnetic meridian, 
which is a remarkable result The grcateat of tbe 
atone* Tell at the soutb-caatem extremity of the large 
axis 6t the ellipse, the raiddle-sised in the centre, and 
tbe soMdlot at the north-western rxUrmity. Hence it 
appears that the largi«t fell first, at mi;^ht be naturally 
■uppoaed. The Urg«at of all liioac which fell weighed 

VOL. XIV. rjUIT 1. 



I'ilb. and the smallest which was subjected to M. Mfteorit*. 
Biot's inspection, ouly a thousandth port ul' that weight, ""^"Y"^^ 
or two French grot. 

As we cannot make room for an analysis of M. Biot's 
more extended communication, we khall be contented 
to select only two facts. 

The vicar of St. Micliel declared, that he ob-erved 
one of the ittones fall with a his»ing noise at the tVet of 
hU niece, in the court-yard of his parsonage, and that it 
rebounded more than a foot from the pavement.- He 
instantly requested his niece to fetch it ; but, as ihe 
waa too much alarmed, a woman, who happened also 
to be on the spot, took it up, and it was found in every 
respect to resemble the others. 

As one Piche, a wire-m.inufacturer in the village of 
Aun^t, was working with his men in the open air, a 
stone graxed hi* arm, and fell at his feet ; but it was 
*o hot, that, on attempting to take it up, be instantly 
let It fall again. , 

He who compares the various accounts of the L'Ai- 
gle meteor with a critical eye, may, no douht, detect 
aome apparent contradictions, but which, on reflection, 
will be found strictly conformable to truth. Thus, ac- 
cording to tome, the meteor had a rapid motion, others 
believed it to be stationary ; tome taw a very luminous 
ball of fire, and others only an ordinary cloud. Spec- 
tators, in fact, viewed it in different positions with re« 
card to its direction ; for tbev who happene<l to be in 
Um line of ita progrea* would *ee it stationary, for the 
same reaaoo that we fancy a ship under full sail to be 
motion I* ** when we are placed in its wake, or when we 
view it from a liarbour to which it is approaching in a 
atraight line ; they, on tbe other hand, who had a side 
view of it, would reckon ita motion the more rapid a* 
their position approached to a right angle with the line 
of its passage, while they who saw it from behind, as 
the inhabitanta of L'Aigle, would perceive only the 
cloud of vapour which it left in its train, and which, in 
tbe shade, would figure like a biasing tail, in the tame 
manner as the tmoke of a volcano appears black dur- 
ing the day and red at night ; lastly, they who were 
placed in front of the meteor would reckon it station^ 
ary, but brilliant and cloudleM. 

It dcaerve* to be remarked, that most of the stone*, 
for Mime day* after their descent, were verv friable ; 
that dieirgndually acnuire<l hardness ; and that, after 
they had lo*t the sulphureous odour on their surface, 
tiky still retained it in their substance, a* was disco- 
veml by breaking them. Professor S«ge submitted 
them to several onnparative trials with th<me of Ville* 
franche ; ai^d, although the L'Aigle specimens present- 
ed some gidbules of the sise of a small corianiler teed, 
of a darker grey than the roaaa, and not attractable by 
tbe magnet, yet, in re«pect of granular texture and ge- 
neral vpatl, the coincidence was so striking as to lead 
one to suppose that they were all parts of tbe same 
ma**. According to Fourcroy, who wa* also furnish- 
ed with documents and specimen*, most of the L'Aigle 
stones were irregular, piulygonal, often cuboid, tome- 
times sub-cuneifurin, and exceedingly various in their 
diameter and weight. They were all, he oli«crves, co- 
veretl with a black gravelly crust, consisting nf a fused 
matter, and fille«l with small agglutinated grains of iron. 
The greater part of them were broken at the cumcrt, ei- 
ther by their shock against one another, nr dy falling on 
bard bodies. The interior parts reseroMcd thoae of 
all the meteorite* analysed by Messrs. Howard and 
Vauquclin, being grey, somewhat varied in their thad- 
iogs, granulated, and a* it were scaly, split in many 

a 



ISO METEORITE. 

Meteorite, parts, and filled with brilliant metallic points, exactly their corroborative indications, refer to a portion of ter-' Melcorit 

^""V""^ cf the same aspect as those of other stones of the like ritory whicii has been accurately defined, and beyond ^"'Y^ 

kind. Of the two specimens which M. Biot presented whose precincts not a single corresponding mass has 

to Patrin, one was less compact, and of a lighter grey been found, nor a single individual who alleges that he 

than the other, and exhibited, besides., small patches of a saw a stone fall. Such incontrovertible evidence, then, 

rust colour. When immersed in water, it gave a hiss- will preclude the necessity of dilating on cases of infe- 

ing sound like the humming of a fly when held by one rior notoriety, and to which we are induced to advert, 

wing. As it began to dry, it was observed to be mark- principally for the purpose of completing our chrono- 

ed by curvilinear and parallel layers. The more com- logical catalogue, and deducing the known series of an 

pact specimen, when moistened, presented no such ap- occurrence, the solution of wliich is still somewhat 

pearances, but assumed the aspect of a grey porphyry, problematical. 

with a base of trap, mottled with small white spots, and July 4-, 1803. A ball of fire struck the White Bull Kast Nor 

speckled with metallic points. Inn, at East Norton, by which the chimney was thrown ton. 

Vauquelin's analysis of these stones yielded down, the roof partly torn off, the windows shattered to 

Silica 53 atoms, and the dairy, pantry, &c. converted into a heap 

Lime 1 of ruins. It appeared like a luminous ball of consider- 

Magnesia 9 able magnitude, and, on coming in contact with the 

Oxyd of iron .... 36 house, exploded with a great noise and a very oppres- 

Nickel 3 sive sulphureous smell. Some fragments of it were 

Sulphur 2 found near the spot, and were subjected to chemical 

— — analysis by a gentleman in the neighbourhood, who 
104 found them to consist of one-half siliceous clay, thirty- 
The addition of four per cent, may be attributed to the five parts of oxidated iron, twelve of magnesia, and a 
oxidation of the metals produced by the analysis. The- small portion of nickel, with some sulphur. The sur- 
nard reports, face was dark and varnished, as if in a state of fusion. 
Silica .46 ■ and bearing numerous globules of a whitish metal, con- 
Magnesia 10 taining sulphur and nickel. From some indentures on 

Oxyd of iron .... 45 the surface, it appeared probable that the ball was soft 

Nickel 2 when it descended. Where tlie fragments fell, the her- 

Sulphur 5 bage was burnt up. The meteor's motion in the air 

was very rapid, and apparently parallel to the horizon. 

108 Liter. Journal. 

'M. Laugier moreover detected a small proportion of October 5, 1 803. Stones fell near Avignon. Bibl. Avignon, 

chrome. M. Lambotin and others collected specimens Britan. 

of this extraordinary shower of stones, and distributed December 1 3, 1 803. The inhabitants of the village of st. Niche 

them among the curious. We have seen two fine sam- St. Nicholas, in Bavaria, were alarmed between eleven las. 

pies, one of them nearly entire, in Mr. Ferguson's col- and twelve o'clock, noon, by a noise which resembled the 

lection, which we have already repeatedly quoted. report of several cannons. A peasant, who went out of 

Previously to the memorable explosion above recit- his house to see what was the matter, observed the sky 

ed, no meteorites had been found in the hands of the to become dark and gloomy, heard a singular hissing in 

inhabitants of this district of country, nor in the mine- the air, and perceived something fall on a barn with a 

ralogical collections of the department, nor had the loud noise. On entering the barn, he found a stone 

slightest intimation of them occurred in the geological which had broken the rafters by its fall, -was still warm, 

documents of the environs of L,'Aigle. W.e may also smelled of sulphur, and weighed three pounds and a 

note, that the forges and mines of the district in ques- quarter. It was covered by a thin, blackish, and ap- 

tion produce nothing similar in the form of dross or ore ; parertjly bituminous incrustation. Its substance was of 

that the soil exhibits no traces of volcanos ; and that an ash-grey colour, earthy, and resembling hardened 

immediately consequent on the appearance of the me- clay, but without odour. It was found to contain 

teor, a determined space of ground was strewed with small shining particles of native iron, small bright 

stones of a peculiar character, and accompanied with grains of martial pyrites, which yielded a black pow- 

circumstances which could not formerly have escaped der when pounded, hard, and very bright flattened 

« observation. Again, nearly all the inhabitarite of 20 ham- masses, of a black and dark-brown hue, some minute 

lets, dispersed over the circumscribed space declare, that grains of a cubical form, and small yellowish transpa- 

they were eye-witnesses of a terrible fall of stones pro- rent laminae, with glass glance, having the appear- 

jected from the meteor. The young, the old, and those in ance, but not the hardness of quartz. Yellowish, 

the prime of life, individuals of both sexes, simple pea- white, and metallic points, probably native nickel, 

sants dwelling at a distance from one another, sagacious were discovered by the microscope. The chemical 

and rational workmen, respectable ecclesiastics, young analysis of 10,000 grains of this specimen, gave, 

soldiers devoid of fear, persons, in short, of various man- Iron, in the metallic state, . 1800 

ners, professions, and opinions, and united by no com- Brown oxyd of do. . . 2540 

mon ties, all concur in attesting a fact, which contri- Regulus of nickel, . . 1 350 

buted neither directly nor indirectly to promote their Magnesia .... 3250 

own interest ; and they all assign the manifestation of Silex, .... 1000 

this fact to the same day and the same hour. They Supposed sulphur, . . 60 

moreover point to obvious and existing consequences of " 

the fall of jtony masses ; and they aver, in terms inca- 10,000 

pable of ambiguity or misconstruction, that they really Journal de Physique, Gilb. An, Voighl's Mag. 

«aw these masses roll down on roofs, break branches of April 5, 1804. Three men at work in a field at Possil, n 

trees, rebound from the pavement, and produce smoke Possil, about three miles north from Glasgow, were Glasgow 

when they lighted on the soil. "These assertions, and alarmed by a singular noise, which seemed to proceed 



METEORITE. 



131 



MMMdtc. from the south-Mtt to the north>we«t, and continued, 
'■" y ■* as they supposed, for about two minute*. They com- 
pared it, at Ant, to four diachargea of cannon, after- 
ward* to the iound of a bell, or rather of a gong, with 
a violently whizzinf; noise ; and, lastly, they heard a 
soomI, a* if some hard body very forcibly struck the 
mrftce of the earth. At the same time, sixteen men 
who were at work in the Fossil stone auarry, thirty 
feet under the surface of the soil, heara a noise like 
the discharge of artillery, and then like the sound of 
hard substances hurliuj; downwards, over stones, and 
lasting, in the whole, for about the space of a minute. 
The overseer of the q«urry, and a man who was on a 
tnt, deacribed the noise as if continuing about two 
w i niittT. apparently beginning in the west, and pass- 
ing round oy the south, towards the east, at first like 
the firing of three or four cannons, at the distance of 
■ nflc and a half to the west of the auarry, and tciv 
i MMrt'rtg in a violent rushing, or whiaaing. Along 
with theae penona, there were two bovs, s«ie of ten, 
■od the otaier ti four year* of age, and ■ dog. which, 
on bearing the noise, ran home, leeniinglr in great 
twrcr. The overseer, too, waa ooiuideraM^ alarmed 
1^ a ariaty c w m o ti o n which ho UjaajscU m the at- 
luu a u h efa. " Casae down." exdMBod he, to the man 
oo the tree, " I think there ia aome judgiacnt ooaing 
upon us." The man hod a u wea ly got on the gnMBo, 
whaD aoDcthing atnack. with g iaaf t Ibree. in a drain, at 
thtf dJatanra of aboat aiaetv jmrda, aploahing mud and 
mtm tat twenty iMt raoad. The elder boy ub a ai so J 
tho apnoranoe at iBoko in the air, and aonietbiiv of 
a rodifaah ooloar, OMmng nptdly from the wcat. till it 
fell on the groaiid. A OHMnent befiire the atroke on 
dM earth was beard, the yonagor bov oiled out — 
"01/ M> a Tttkr (Mcfa a ■Boke,) aBading to the 
aaslli which he saw near the place where the body 
flliaathecraaad. On running up to thia spot, the 
ovenaor a b i w >a d a hole in the bottoai of the drain, 
whieb waa filling with water, aboat six inchea of it 
remaining (till empty. At the bottooi of this hole h« 
felt something hard, which he could not nunre with his 
hand. The opetatian of the shovel and mattock re- 
rcalcU two ptevaa of atone, which had penetrated a 
few inchea into the aoft sandy rock, and eighteen inches 
below the bottom of the drain, the bole being about 
fifteen inches in diameter. He waa not aensible of any 
particular heat in the water, or in the pieces of stone, 
nor of any aneaaamon smell in the latter, although he 
npiicd them to hia ixwtriU. One of the pieces waa 
■oa t two inchea long, the other aboat aix inchea long, 
fbar bread, and fbar thick, and Mnntad at the edgce 
and end. The ft aitwi aa of the two pieces exactly co- 
incided ; bat he eoald not say whether their separa- 
tion had been cActed by tfae violence of the fall, or a 
atroke of the n w ttnck . Aa he conceived them to be 
■araly piece* of wUBatone, they were, at fint. n^lect- 
ed ; bat a canAil aaarch beiag aaade for them, some 
days after, the aaallaBt llr ag — a t wa* icon found. The 
laigeat, however, having Dean a«ed a* a block in the 
oaarry, and having fallen anMNig mbbish, could not be 
aiacovered ; bat a fragment of it was found some daya 
after. The two recovered morsels, one of which is ims- 
in the Hanlerian museum, in the univcraity of 
fomMd the two extremes of the stone, and 
' bf the lUHMth black ratcmal coating, 
and the iatafaal otjfWi aapect. The lata Bobert Craw, 
fcrd of Poasll, Eaa. and aeveral of the professor* of 
the ■ al ta tidty of Glaagow, were at pain.i to aacertain 
*e preceding circumaHncaa. Mr. Crawfurd remark* 



ed, that both the fragments had a fishy, fetid smell, Metcoritr. 
when he first received them. The day on which the "^^"Y"^^ 
phenomenon took place, was cold ami cloudy ; and the 
noise of the explosion wa* heard a* far aa Falkirk, 
which is about twenty-four mile* to the east of Glas- 
gow. 

ISCH, or 1807. A stone fell near Dordrecht, /en Dordrtsht. 
Beck-Calioen. 

October 6, 1804. A violent explosion was heard. Apt. 
near Apt, in the department of Vaucluse, and for fif- 
teen leagues roun<l, accompanied by an extraordinary 
hissing, and the fall of a stone of about seven pound* 
weight. It was presented, by the minister of the in- 
terior, to the National Institute; and Vauquelin, who 
allutles to it in No. liV of the Annalet de Chimie, as- 
serts, that all its physical characters, and the detail* of 
the judicial report concerning it, are in perfect unison 
with our present state of knowledge on the subject. 
It is, however,' worthy of remark, that the detonation 
waa preceded by no luminous meteor. Laugier re- 
porta, aa the reaults of the chemical analysis of the 



Silica, 


S4 


Magneaia. 


UJS 


Iron, 


38.0S 


Nickel, 


0.3S 


Manganese, 
Solpour, 


0.8S 


. 9. 



96.69. 

ICaRh iS, 1805. Stones fell near Doroninsk, at no Doreaiatk. 
great distance ttam the river Indoga, in the govern- 
ment of Irkatscb, in Siberia. GUb. An. 

June, 1805. Ha'fr Kougas Ingigian, author of a 
work entitled, Egkamg~Biuankmn, printed at Venice, 
in 1807* makes me n tiwi of several atone* having fallen 
in one of the pabKc aqoarcs of Constantinople, called t'omianii' 
Aaa^rfaajd, Hair Mesrob Vartabete, an Armenian, nopic. 
wanawaiil ia chemistry, mineralogy, and in the phy- 
sical and mathematical sciences in grneral, translated 
the paaaage which gives an account of this event, into 
French, lor the perusal of .M. Tonnclier; and the lat* 
t«r, in the Journal of Mines for February 1808, brief- 
ly states, that the de*ccnt of the stone* took place in 
broad day, and «rith great violence ; that the people 
believed it to be the work of evil apirits ; that the 
agents of police verified the Gwrt ; and that a guard of 
Janiaaarii* wa« stationed on the spot, for tliree siacoes- 
aim flays and nights. The smell of sulphur which ac- 
flonpanicd the fall, and the black and scorched crust of 
the pieees collectetl, scarcely permit us to doubt ttiat 
they wen genuine meteorites. 

March 15, 1806. In the Journal dt Physique, tat 
June 1806, there is a short account of the fall of two 
aerolite; (for ao they are termed in the report,) by Dr. 
Hages and M. Dhombres-Firmas, both members of the 
Academy of Ghent. The particular* are nearly as 
follow :_ 

At half-past five (fdock in the evening, the inba- Alois, lu. 
bitants of Alaii, and the neighbouring pnri-ihes, heard 
two load explosions, between which only a few 
saoimds intanrinied, and which were both supposed to 
be the discharge of cannon. The rolling noise which 
succeeded, lasted ten or twelve minutes. Some dropa 
of rain had fallen in the morning ; the sky was clear 
at mid-day ; but clouds occasionally obscured the sun 
in the afternoon, when the centigrade thermometer in- 
dicated a maximum of 4- 1 2.5. The heavens became 
more cloudy and dark after the detonations. The 
5 



132 



METEORITE. 



Meteorite. Sieurs Penarier, father and son, who were in the 
^■"V'"*' . fields adjoining to the village of St. Etienne de L'Olm, 
about twelve kilometers from Alais, heard the two ex- 
plosions, which were not preceded by lightning, and 
which they at first supposed to be the firing of cannon 
at St. Hippolyte-le-fort ; but the rolling sound which 
succeeded, and which seemed to them to describe a 
curve in the heavens, from west to south, and from 
south to east, quickly undeceived them. As they 
looked more attentively at the clouds, an extraordinary 
hissing noise succeeded the rolling, and they distinct- 
ly perceived a blackish body proceeding from the 
clouds, obliquely advancing towards them from the 
north, and which, after passing over their heads, fell 
in a corn-field below the village, and broke in shivers, 
with a considerable noise. Accompanied by several of 
the alarmed villagers, they immediately went in quest 
of it, and found that it had pierced the soil, and bro- 
ken into dispersed fragments against a rocky stratum, 
only small splinters, which were diluted by the rain 
that fell two days after, remaining in the hollow form- 
ed by the falling mass. From the respective weights 
of the fragments, it w»s supposed that that of the en- 
tire stone might be 4000 grammes. Its form, so far as 
could be inferred from the fragments, was irregular 
and angular ; and it was black inlernally as well as on 
the surface, which last seemed to have undergone the 
action of fire. 

There fell, at the same time, at Valence, a village 
-near Alais, another stone, of a rudely cubical form, of 
the size of a child's head, and about four pounds 
weight. The persons who witnessed its descent, were 
Pierre Reboul, and son, Vincent Mazel, and Pierre 
Esperaudieu, servant to the mayor of Valence, who 
were labouring in the fields when the explosions and 
iolling noise mentioned above arrested their attention. 
According to their report, these noises were followed 
by another, resembling that of an iron pulley, by 
means of which a bucket is rapidly let down into a 
draw-well. On looking up, they perceived a black 
body moving from the north, in an oblique direction, 
which fell among them, about fifteen paces from Re- 
boul. They all ran to the spot, and found it half bu- 
ried in the earth, still hot, and split into three parts, 
which were again divided, as each was desirous of 
having a specimen. 

The Alais stone, according to Thenard, had such a 
strong resemblance to coal, that they who found it at- 
tempted to burn it. Its specific gravity was 19iO, con- 
sequently very inferior to that of other meteorites whose 
specific gravity has been ascertained. Its internal sub- 
stance exhibited some yellow specks of martial pyrites, 
and a great many cubical points, slightly united to 
one another, and so friable that the least pressure re- 
duced them to fragments of the size of grains of sand. 
It was destitute of savour, and insoluble in water. 
When heated in the open air, its black hue passed to 
a reddish yellow ; but, when heated in close vessels, 
remained unchanged. Before the common blow-pipe, 
it was infusible, without addition ; but, when mixed 
with borax, it readily melted, and communicated to 
that salt a greenish-yellow tinge. The same ingenious 
chemist states its component parts to be. 
Silica, . . 21 

Magnesia, . . 9 

Oxyd of iron, ' . 40 
Nickel, . . «.50 

Manganese, « . 2 
Sulphur, . . 3.5 

I 



Chrome, .' \ 1 Meteorite. 

Carbon, , . 2.5, ^"Hr"*^ 

the remainder being estimated as water. Vauquelin 
again reports. 

Silica, . . 30 

Magnesia, . . 11 
Iron, . . 38 

Nickel, . . 2 

Manganese, . . 2 
Sulphur, , . 1 

Chrome, , . 2.5 

Carbon, a trace, 
and the virtual import of these analyses was attested 
by Monge, Fourcroy, and BerthoUet. 

May 17, 1806". As Mr. William Paice, of Basing. Basing, 
stoke, Hants, was travelling with his cart, a few miles stoke. 
from liome, he met a person who inquired of him, 
whether he had seen a stream of fire descend from the 
air, like a falling star, there having been some thun- 
der just l)efore. Mr. Paice had not observed it ; but, 
going on a little farther, he found a large ball, or 
stone, which he took up, while yet hot, from the mid- 
dle of the road, threw it into his cart, and brought it 
home. It had a metallic appearance, and weighed 
two pounds and a half. Month. Mag. 

March 13, 1807. In the afternoon, the inhabitants Juchnow, 
of the Canton of Juchnow, in the government of Smo. 
lensko, were alarmed by an uncommonly loud noise, 
which they supposed to be thunder ; and two peasants 
being out in the fields, perceived, at the distance of 
forty paces, a black stone, of considerable magnitude, 
falling to the earth, which it penetrated to a consider, 
able depth beneath the snow. When dug up, it was 
found to be of an oblong quadrangular figure, of a 
blackish colour, resembling cast iron, and to weigh 
160 pounds. A fragment of this mass is preserved in 
the imperial cabinet of Vienna. Its specific gravity 
was 3.7 ; and Klaproth notes its constituents thus. 



Silica, 
Alumina, 
Lime, 
Magnesia, 
Oxyd of iron, 
Regulus of do. 
Nickel, 
Manganese,! 
Sulphur, J 



a trace. 



38 

1 

0.75 
14.25 
23 
17.60 

CiO 



97 



December 14, 1807. About half-past six o'clock in 
the morning, the people to the north of Weston, in Westo* 
Connecticut, North America, observed a fire-ball issu- 
ing from a very dark cloud. Its apparent diameter 
was equal to that of the half, or of two-thirds of the 
moon ; its light was vivid and sparkling, like that of 
incandescent iron, and it left behind it a pale and wav. 
ing luminous train, of a conical form, and ten or twelve 
times as long as the diameter of its body, but which 
was soon extinguished. This meteor, of which the 
apparent motion was less rapid than that of most 
others, continued visible for half a minute, during 
which it exhibited three successive bounds, with a di- 
minution of its lustre. About thirty or forty seconds 
after its extinction, there were heard, during three se- 
conds, three very loud reports, like the firing of a four 
pounder at a little distance ; and these were succeeded 
by a more prolonged and rolling noise. With the suc- 
cessive explosions, stones were darted in the environs 
of Weston, and eren into the town itself. These 



p PT*" 



METEORITE. 



135 



were fonnd in six tlifferent place*, nearly in the 
line of the meteor'i path, and from «ix to ten miles 
diatant from one another. They fell in the presence of 
many witnesaea, some plunging into soft soil, and 
others breaking into fragments against the rocks on 
which they h^pened to impinge. The most entire 
specimen weighed 35 lb., but a much larger was daah- 
c«l in pieces against a rock of mica-alate; and, from 
the amount of fragments collected, it was estimateil to 
have weighed 2(Wlb. At the moment of their fall, 
these stone* were hot and friable ; but they ^adually 
became hard by exposure to the air. They had the 
black external crust of other meteorites, and the usual 
grey cinereous aspect within, with whit»>greyish par* 
tklci^ of a rounded form, impacted in the masa, and a 
general granular texture, in which were observable, 
1. Globaica of the same nature with the stone, but 
uwimiting a more compact structure, a more aven 
mehtrc, and. under a strong light, indications of • 
lamellar texture, with the appearance of felspar ; 2. 
Grains of rery white metallic iron ; 3. Grains of ozyd 
of iron, of mat cokMr; and, 4. Shining yellow saU 
pbaiet of iroo, diaMaifaatad ia vary minute (rraiaa. 
Tkfir spaciec gravity varied flnm 8.S to 3.6, and their 
at refMTtcd by Wardan, yMdad, 



Silica. 
Ahuuna, 
Lim. 

Magnaaia, . 
OxydoTiraa. 


41 
1 

8 

16 
SO 


Mangaaaae, 

SalpSar, 

Chnoa, 


134 
2.33 



97 
li a mere outlioa of tha principal cirrumttan* 
aaa nialiTr to the Wcaton ph e woin eni j n , for the more 
ample dctaib af which we mutt refer our readers to an 
interesting mcnoir, inaerted in the Medical Itepository 
for 1807, the ioint pndoction of Mcaar*. SilUman and 
Kingaler, and tA another by Mr. Bowditcb, published 
in tSe twd volume of the .\mericau Acadamy of Arts 
■ad Sdmces, and repnnted in the SSth voinma of 
Nididaca's Journal. 

March 5 and 6. 1 808. A ahower of red snow fell, 
Ciralsls. during three nights, in Camiola, and over the whole 
Ac. aurface of Carau, Cadore, Belluno, and Feltri, to the 

height of five feet ten inches. The earth was pre* 
viooaly covered with tnow of a pure white, and the 
colooivd variety was again succeeded by tha etMBOMD 
soft, the two kinds remaining perfectly iKstinct, even 
during liquefaction. Wban a portion of the red was 
melted, and tbe water evaporated, a little finely divid* 
ed earth, of a rose hue, remained, not attractable by 
the magnet, and contiatiag of ailcs, alumina, and oxyd 
cf iron. The same phiWiMiuii was obsarvad, at the 
aame time, on tbe ii i wnta i ii e of the Valteline, Breada, 
and the I'yroi. 

April 19, 1806. At one o'clock, P.M. stones fell at 

BorgD S«i>- Barge San-Domino, near Pieve di Castignano, in the 

Oamiao, department of Taro, and in the neighbourhood of 

Parma and Placenai. (tui4k>tti, who aiialyxed a spe> 

found it to consist of, 

Silica, . M 

Magnesia, II 

Oxyd of iron, 39 

Nickel. 2.50 

Sulphur, 4 

I0<i.5O 



A specimen of this shower is preservetl in the Vi- Mcieortie. 
enna cabinet, a repository rich in the number of sam- '■ ""•'" "^ 
pies of this description of stunes. 

May 22, 1808. At six o'clock in the morning, a Stannero. 
shower of stones occurred at Stannem, near Iglau, in 
Moravia, attended with the usual circurosunces. These 
•tones are described as of a whitish cr blueish-grey, 
tender, friable, not magnetic, speckled with black 
points, containing very few visible meuUic particles, 
except some prominent grains, not attractable by the 
magnet, and probably pyritical. The exterior crust 
resembled a black, or brown varnish, very glossy and 
vitreous, having tbe surface marked by minute folds 
or wrinkles. 1 heir specific gravity was 3. 19 ; and the 
result of their analysis by Vauquefin, 



Silica, 


50 


Alumiiu, 


9 


Lime. 


13 


Iron, 


«9 


Nickel, a trace. 




Manganese, 
Sulphur, a trace. 


1 





101 
Moaer's report includes 2.5 of magnesia. 

Saptamber S, 1808. M. Keass, counsellor of mine*, 
baa pubiirfiad a MeoMiir on the meteorites which fell, 
at half-paat three o'clock, in tlic afternoon, near Litaa, LiMa> 
in Bohwnia; and from this document we have selected 

Foar dajpa aAar tha ataiit, tha majror of the district 
raeaivad an oAdal report on the subject, as did ai\er> 
wank M. Mcrfcl, eouaaellor of the government, who 
•onmunicated the wj i ilam * to tha Chancery. Liasa is a 
■Ball town, tituatod tarn wHaa west north-west from 
Prague ; and the district in which the stones fell is a 
plain which extends southwards to the banks of the 
Elbe. The soil, in general, is a dry meagn aand, fit 
only for the culture of rye, and the rocks which it 
oompriaea are of a ferruginous argillaceous sandstone. 
The field cm which the meteorites alighted had been 
recently ploughed, and had for its basis a very open, 
aandy earth, into which, nevertheless, one of the stones 
sunk only to the depth of four inches. Another, which 
fell on an adjoining field, of a somewhat more compact 
and argillaceous texture, penetrated four or five inches. 
A third fell in a small pine forest, on a sandy soil, co> 
vered here and there with green turf, and left, in like 
manner, a mark of four or five inches doep. I'hough 
all its angles were more or less fractured, it weighed 
five pounds, nine ounces and a half I'he most intel- 
ligent people in the neighbourhood, declared that they 
heard a violent detonation, like the discharge of many 
pieces of ordnance, followed by a noise like platoon 
firing, or a prolonf^ed beating ot drums, which lasted 
for twenty or twenty-five minutes. The sky, which 
had been perfectly clear, became covered as with a thin 
gauaa, thraogh which the sun's rays easily penetrated; 
but nobody perceived lightning, nor any luminous me> 
teor, nor felt any of that oppressive uneasiness which 
frequently indicate* an electnfied atrooaphere. Of tha 
four masses which were collected, the actual descent 
of none through the air appears to have been distinctly 
witncaaed : but some reapers, who took up one of them, 
at the moment that it struck the ground, felt it as cold 
as the surrounding stones ; and none of them stained 
tha fingers, ur emitted any sulphureous odour. In 
•ther respects, they bore a manifest resemblance to 
many of tboee which we have described, being com« 
poaed of mixed iogrcdients, of a pale cineroua grey co* 



On ship- 
board. 

Caiwell 
countj'. 



134 METEORITE. 

Meteorite, lour, and granular texture, traversed in every direc- black cloud very low, carried by a different current of Meteorite, 

^"""Y""^ tion, by small veins, and speckled with minute disse- air from the mass of clouds, from whence they ima- """^V** 

minated globules. Their specific gravity is stated at gined this stone to have proceeded ; it flew with the 

3.56, and Klaproth found them to contain, greatest velocity over their heads, and fell in a field. 

Silica 43 about tliree hundred yards from the house : they saw 

Alumina, • . , 1.25 it fall. It was immediately dug up, and taken into 
Lime, 0.50 the steward's office, where it remained two hours cool- 
Magnesia, ... 22 ing before it could be handled. This account I have 

Iron, 29 had from many who were present, and agree in the one 

Nickel, .... 0.50 story. I saw, myself, the hole the stone made in the 
Manganese, . . 0.25 ground ; it was not more than a foot in depth," &c. 
Sulphur, a trace This stone was not injured by the fall, and was of a 
I somewhat cubical shape, with the angles and edges of 
96.50 two sides rounded : the other two opposite sides ex- 
All the iron contained in the specimen submitted to hibited a very uneven surface, occasioned by depres- 
trial, appeared to be in the metallic state. The pecu- sions and prominences, as if a part had been broken 
liarities attending this case, are, detonation without previous to the heat to which it must have been ex- 
any luminous meteor, the very moderate impetus of the posed before its fall. It weighed seven pounds and 
falling bodies, and their want of sensible heat. three quarters ; and the entire surface was covered 
June 17, 1809. A stone, weighing six ounces, fell with a brownish-black, thin crust, evidently the effect 
on board an American vessel, in Lat. 30°, 65'. N. and of fusion, by an intense and rapid heat. On inspection 
Long. 70", 25'. W. Medic. Repos. Bibliot. Brilan. of its internal texture, there were distinguable, 1. Dark- 
January 30, 1810. At two o'clock, P.M. a fall of grey particles of malleable iron, without any regular 
meteorites occurred in Caswell county, North Ame- shape, of unequal magnitude, numerously dispersed, 
rica. Their descent was visible for a considerable and rendered bright when rubbed with a file ; 2. Some 
distance round ; and two reports were distinctly heard very small bright particles of iron ; 3. Particles of mar- 
at Hillsborough, thirty miles from the spot where the tial pyrites, of various colours, some being reddish-yel- 
fall took place. One of the fragments, weighing a low, some yellowish-white, and a very few of a pur- 
pound and three quarters, struck a tree near the place plish tinge ; 4. A very few round globules, about the 
where some woodcutters were at work, but who ran size of mustard-seed, of a greyish-brown, readily yield- 
home, without ever once looking behind them. En- ing to the file, and seeming to contain no metallic mat- 
couraged, however, by a woman, whose curiosity was ter. These several materials are cemented by a whit- 
superior to her fears, they returned with her, and found ish-grey earthy substance, while minute yellowish 
the stone, which was still hot. It is vaguely said to have brown spots, very close to one another, and proceeding 
been of a dark-brown colour, and porous. Phil. Mag. from oxyd of iron, are disseminated in the mass. Ac- 
vol. xxxvi. cording to Mr. Higgins, its specific gravity is 3670; 

July, 1810. A letter from Futty-Ghur, in the East and its analysis gave, in one instance, 
Indies, dated July 21st, presents us with the following Silica 48 25 

imperfect, but curious account of the phenomenon Macrn'esia <i 

which we have been considering. " I open this letter r ° ' ' -„ 

to let you know of a very odd circumstance which hap- Nick'pl ' ' iTi 

pened a few days ago, viz. — A large ball of fire fell Sulnhur ' 4 

from the clouds, which has burned five villages, de- ' ' __^_^_ 

stroyed the crops, and some men and women. This jqo 

Sbsbabad. happened near Shahabad, across the Ganges, about 

thirty miles northward from this place. I have heard , . ,. o-i- ac 

nothing further about this but a v^gue report." «»''' »" ^''*"' f '''*='' . ' ' ?? „ . 

August 10, 1810. In this stage of our historical Iron"^^'*' ' 42 

record, it will be proper to insert the ensuing letter >!■ l' 1 ' " i <;« 

from Maurice Crosbie Moore, Esq. to William Higgins, o i u ' ' * ^ 

■p '1 s,o > Sulphur, . 4 

" Sir, — I had the honour of receiving a letter, re- TnT?^ 

questing from me the particulars respecting a meteoric 

stone that fell near my house, in the county of Tippe- the excess being attributable to the absorption of oxy- 

rary, and which a short time ago I did myself the gen by the metallic bodies. 

pleasure of presenting to the Dublin Society. The November 23, 1810. At half after one o'clock, p. M. 

particulars are as follow : — Early last August, between three stones fell in the commune of Charsonville, in charson- 

eleven and twelve o'clock in the morning, I went from the department of tlie Loiret, and neighbourhood of ville. 

Moore's Fort to Limerick ; the day was dark and sul- Orleans. Their fall was accompanied by a series of 

try. I returned in a few days, and was immediately detonations, which lasted some minutes, and which, 

informed by my steward and butler, that a most won- along with the reverberations from the echoes, were 

derful phenomenon had occurred very soon after my heard as loud at Orleans, • Montargis, Salbri, Vierzon, 

departure ; they produced the stone, and gave the fol- and Blois, as at the place where the stones fell, excit- 

lowingaccountoftheoccurrence: — There had been thun- ing alarm from the apprehension of the blowing up of 

der ; some workmen, who were laying lead along the a powder magazine. These stones were precipitated 

gutters of my house, were suddenly astonishe<l at hear- perpendicularly, and without the appearance of any 

ing a whistling noise in the air ; one said, ' The chimney light or ball of fire. One of them took the ground at 

is on fire;' another said, • It proceeds from a swarm of Montelle, but was never discovered j and, of the other 

bees in the air.' On looking up, they observed a small two, one fell at Villenoi, and the other at Moulin- 



Tippertry. 



METEORITE 



135 



Mcttoritf. Brule, all whidi placet are within the distxnce of a 
^■"V"*^ mil*. One of the stones weighed about twenty poundt, 
and made a hole in the fn'unnd just large enough for its 
■dmiaaion, in a perpendicular direction, driving up the 
earth to the height of eight or tern feet. It wa» taken out 
half an hour after, when it wai still so hot that it could 
scarcely be held in the hand ; and it had a strong smell 
of gunpowder, which it retained till it was quite cold. 
TIm second formed a similar hole, three feet deep, 
weighed forty poands, and lay fourteen hours in the 
ground bafore it waa extracted, when it was quite 
cool. 

Both these stones were shapelesa masaea, irregularly 
ronndcd at the projections, contained rather more fer- 
tn|niiaiM globules than those of L'Aigle, and presented 
a ^fatcr colour, when broken. They were quickly 
ooiydated, very heavy, sufficiently hard to scratch glasa, 
of difficult frangibility, and characterised by an irregu- 
lar and very fme-grained fra'ture. The external crust 
waa the fourth part of a line in thickness, and of a 
black lah-grqr coloar, while the internal substance waa 
traversed by black lines, or veins, in all directions. 
The specific gravity of tbeae stones is mentioned, as 
Tarring from S.6 to S.7 ; and the specimen analysed 
by Vauquelin, afforded to that eminent chemist. 
Silica, .... 38.4 
Alumine, S.6 

Lime, . . . 4.S 

Magnesia, I S.6 

Iron, ... S5.8 

Nickel, .... 6 
llaiiRancs«, ... 0.6 

5 
1.5 



Chnme, 



99.7 



Thoalttb. 



The day on which these stones fell was remarkably 
aba and aerme, the sun shone as bright as in one of 
tht iaest dsys of autumn, and not a cloud appeared 
abore the hMison. 

March IS, 181 1. A meteorite, of the weight of fif. 
I pounds, fell to the earth, in the village of I'hon- 
lag h oroa k , cicpciitlaiit on the town of Romea. in the 
g wf iliu ent uf Ttchemigufl*, in Russia. Its fall was 
pRoedcd by three loud peals like thunder. When dug 
fVon the depth of more than three feet, in a thick Uyer 
of ice, it waa still hot. It was remarked, that, at the 
third dato o a t ion, tbara waa an cxtrsordinary explosion, 
■OGMDnaniad with a loud hiaaJng noise, and the difTu- 
sion of a great quantity of sparks. Cilb. Am. 
BalllBguU- July 8, 181 1. Stones, one of which weighed three 
la» ovaccs and a quarter, fell at Ballinguillas, in Spain. 

Bibliolk. BriioZ T.*B. 

April 10. 1818. According to the report of D'Au- 
buiason, chief engineer of mines, about eight o'clock in 
the evening, a Milliant light was seen in the atrno- 
■phere at Toulouse, and for several leagues around. 
The people at first supposed, tlut the powder maga- 
ainc of Toulouse had oeen blown up ; and, when it 
was discovered that this was unfounded, the light and 
noise were ascribed to some extraordinary meteor ; for 
the eold slate of the stmosphere, and the force of the 
explosion, did not admit the idea of its being a simple 
pMl of thuttder. A few days afterwards, it was ascer- 
tained that this phenomenon had been accompanied 
with a shower uf stones, at two leagues W. N. W. of 
Orensde, in the communes of Burgave, Camville, and 
Verdun, situated in the departments of the Upper Ga- 
ronne, and of the Tarn ana Garonne. As MOM speci< 



rToM- 



mens were sent to the prefect of the Upper Garonne, Meteohi*. 
that magistrate appointed a committee, composed of ^'■"nr'"' 
M. D'.Aubuisson, M. Saget, of the Academy of Sci- 
ences, Marque-Victor, professor of physics, and Carney, 
professor of mathematics, to proceed to the spot, and 
collect the det-tils of the phenomenon. 

The li^t which spread over the atmosphere, burst 
forth all at once. Although the sun had set an hour 
and a half before, and the air was dark, the light was 
so brilliant, tluit the Mayor of Grenade said he could 
read the smallest characters, and the Mayor of Camville 
compared it to the light of the sun, adding, that the 
town-clock was as vuible as at noon-day, and that a 
pin might have been picked up from the streets. The 
exact duration of this light was not remarked, some 
persons reckoning it at two minutes ; others at one ; and 
others, at still leas : but scarcely had it disappeared in 
the place where the meteorites fell, when tnere were 
heard in the air three violent detonations, similar 
to the report of large pieces of cannon, succeeding 
one another, with hardly any interval, and heard at 
Caatres, twenty leagues from the spot where the stones 
fell. They were followed by a very loud noise, which 
some compsred to that of heavy carriages rolling at 
once on the pavement ; others compared it to the sound 
of several drunls ; and others to a strong fire of mus« 
ketry, from the Spaniards having invadchd the country- 
This rolling noite seemed to issue from the N. E. and 
to proceed to the S. E. ; and, after it had passed over 
the ground situated between the farms of la Bordette 
and la Prad^, a sharp hissing noise was heard, which 
ended in eonaidarabie abodes, similar to grape-shot 
striking th« groaiMl, and produced by the fall of the 
netcontes. 

" I now," says M. D'Aubuiason, " give the informs- 
tion received, as to the Aerolites which were collected, 
or heard to fall. 

" I. The inhabitants of the little farm called la Bor- 
dette, distinctly heard two aiTolites fall ; one to the 
northward, in a field adjoining, which they have not 
yet found : the other was found about fifty paces to the 
south-east : the fragment w hich we have weighs three 
ounces, and the whole stone did not weigh six. 

" 2. At the cottage called Paris, (SOO metres above 
Pemejan) the inhabitants were at the door, liatening to 
the rolling noise over their heads, when they heard 
the noite of a body which fell in front of them. The 
master of the house then went back through the house, 
to shut the door of a stable, and, when there, he heard 
a second large body fall. The interval between the 
two roust have been about 75 seconds. This fact is of 
importance. 

" 3. At Pemejan, the inhabitants, equally alarmed 
at a stone which fell near them, took refuge in the 
house, when they heard a second hissing sound, fol- 
lowed by the noise of a body falling on the roof. 
Next day they found a tile broken, and a stone, weigh- 
ing about three ounces, resting on the lath. Havmg 
carefully examined thia spot, I found no contusion, nor 
any mark of fire on the wood of the roof. In the vi. 
cinity of the farm, two stones were found, which weigh- 
ed only a few ounces. 

" 4. At Richard, after the rolling noise, an explosion 
was heard in the air, and next day a stone, weighing 
eight ounces, was fmind. 

" 5. At Prad^re there fell, about one pace from the 
house, with considerable noise, and more than a minute 
after the detonations, an aerolite, weighing two pounds. 
It was not entirely sunk in the earth, and was not | 



/ 



136 



METEORITE. 



Brxleben. 



Chanton- 
■ajr. 



Gerace. 



Meteorite, ceived until two clays afterwards. A few seconds af- 
^"'V"' terwards a smaller stone fell, 40 paces in front of the 
house." 

The quantity of meteorites that fell on this occasion 
probably much exceeded the small number collected ; 
for the ground was partly in grass, and partly plough- 
ed up ; and the event took place when most of the in- 
habitants were in beti. Tlie description of these stones 
so nearly accords with that of several others already spe- 
cified, that it would be superfluous to note their aspect 
and properties. 

April 15, 1812. A stone, of the size of achild's head, 
fell at Erxleben ; and a specimen of it is in the posses- 
sion of Professor Haussmann, of Brunswick. Gilb. An. 
T. 40. and 41. 

August 5, 1812. Several stones, one of which weigh- 
ed 65lb., fell at Chantonnay, eight leagues north-west 
from Fontenay, in the department of La Vendee. Their 
structure is nearly analogous to that of the Barbotan 
specimens ; but they contain such a large proportion 
of iron in the metallic state, that they are susceptible 
of a brilliant polish, and of bearing the graving tool. 

March 14. 1813. A very remarkable phenomenon 
occurred at the town of Gerace, in Calabria, and is 
described by Professor Sementini of Naples. The wind 
was westerly, and heavy clouds were approaching the 
land, over the sea. About two o'clock, P. M. the wind 
fell, and the sky became quite dark. The clouds then 
assumed a red and threatening appearance ; thunder 
followed ; and there fell red rain and snow, mingled 
with red dust. The alarmed inhabitants, conceiving 
that the end of the world was at hand, flocked to the 
churches. The red dust was very fine, became black 
■when exposed to a red heat, and effervesced, when 
treated with acids. Its constituents were silica, car- 
bonate of lime, alumine, iron, and chrome. What ren- 
ders this precipitation the more remarkable is, that its 
ingredients are nearly the same with those of one of the 
varieties of meteorites ; and hence they probably have a 
similar origin. According to Chladni and others, stones 
■were observed to accompany the dust ; and, if so, the 
intimate connection of the two appearances can no longer 
be reasonably questioned. Sementini's analysis of the 
red powder gave, 

Silex, . . 

Alumine, 

Lime, . . 

Iron, . . . 

Chrome, . 

Carbon, . 



33 
15i 

1 
9 



844 
Should the defect afterwards be found to consist of 
nickel and magnesia, we might then witli safety main- 
tain their identity. 

On the present occasion, the coloured rain and snow 
seem to have fallen over a great extent of country ; for 
red rain fell in the two Calabrias, and on the opposite 
side of Abruzzo, the wind being at east and south-east. 
Snow and hail, of a yellow-red colour, fell over all 
Tuscany, with a north wind. Red snow fell at Tol- 
mezzo, and in the Carnian Alps, the wind being at 
north-east; and, finally, snow of a brownish-yellow, 
fell at Bologna, the wind being south-west. 

September 10, 1813. Samuel Maxwell, Esq. a gen- 
tleman of the highest respectability, and an ocular wit- 
ness of the scene which he describes, communicates, in 
subsUnce, the ensuing particulars to William Higgins, 
Esq, of the Dublin Society 



Friday mornina: being very calm and serene, and the Meteorite, 
sky being clear, about nine o'clock, a cloud appeared ^■"V^^ 
in the east, from which proceeded eleven distinct re- 
ports, somewhat resembling the discharge of heavy ar- 
tillery. These were immediately followed by a con- 
siderable noise, not unlike the beating of a large drum, 
which was succeeded by an uproar, resembling the con- 
tinuous discharge of musketry in line. The sky above 
the place whence this noise seemed to issue, became 
dark and agitated, emitted a hissing noise, and pro- 
jected with great violence, different masses of matter, 
which shaped their course, with great velocity, in a ho- 
rizontal direction towards the west. One of them, which 
was observed to descend, fell to the earth, and sunk 
into it more than a foot and a half, on the lands of 
Scagh, in the neighbourhood of Pobuck's Well, in the 
county of Limerick. Being immediately dug out, it Limericli. 
felt hot, and had a sulphureous smell, with the whole 
of its surface uniformly smooth and black, the entire 
mass weighing 17 lb. Six or seven more, but smaller 
and fractured, alighted at the same time with great 
force, in different places between the lands of Scagh 
and the village of Adare. Another very large mass 
passed with great rapidity, and a considerable noise, at 
no great distance from Mr. Maxwell, came to the ground 
on the lands of Brasky, and penetrated through a very 
hard and dry earth, to the depth of two feet. This last 
was not taken up for two days, when it was found to 
weigh about 65 lb. and to be fractured in many places. 
Another weighing above 24 lb. and very heavy for its 
bulk, but exhibiting no symptoms of fracture, fell on 
the lands of Faha. 

" There was no flash of lightning at the time of, or 
immediately before or after the explosion ; the day con- 
tinued very calxn and serene ; was rather close and sul« 
try, and without wind or rain. It is about three miles 
in a direct line from the lands of Brasky, where the 
very large stone descended to the place where the small 
one fell in Adare, and all the others fell intermediately ; 
but they appeared to descend horizontally, and as if 
discharged from a bomb, and scattered in the air." 

February 3, 1814. Stones fell in Bachmut, in Russia. Bachmut. 
Gilb. An. T. 50. Giese, who onalyscd a specimen, re- 
ports, 



Silica, . . 


. 44 


Alumine, 


. 3 


Magnesia, . 
Iron, . . . 


. 18 
. 21 


Nickel, . . 


. 2.50 


Manganese, 
Sulphur, 
Chrome, . . 


1 

.50 
.50 



90.50 

September 5, 1814. In the 92d volume of the 
jiiinalcsdc Chimie, M.de Saint- A mans relates the fol- 
lowing circumstance of what he terms, not improperly, 
uranolites, near Agen. 

A few minutes before mid-day, the wind being 
northerly, and the sky perfectly serene, a violent detona- 
tion was heard in the communes of Montpezat, Temple, 
Castelmoron, and Montelar, situated in the first, se- 
cond, and fourth arrondhsemens of the department of 
the Lot and Garonne. This unusual detonation was 
immediately followed by three or four others, at an in- 
terval of half a second, successively; and finally, by a 
rolling noise, at first resembling a discharge of mus- 
ketry, afterwards the rumbling of carriages; and, 
lastly, that of a large building falling down. These 



METEORITE. 



137 



MlgOJ. 



BoiMS, which proceeded from the centre of the 
depwtnicnt, were mure or less audible within a circle 
of Mrenl Icajjues. The reiicmblance and volume of 
the ctone* which were precipitated to the ground, on 
the MiMtion of the explosions, appear to have been 
coutideimble. Some were sent to the Prefect, who 
traiMmitted them to the minister of the interior, others 
were distributed among the curious, while many were 
picked up by the peasants, and venerated as reliqiies. 
Two are mentioned aa weighing eighteen pounds each. 
It ahould seem that they were not found warm at the 
moiDent of their fall ; that the heaviest sunk into a 
compact soil to the depth of eight or nine inches, and 
that one of them rebounded three or four feet from the 
ground. It is added, that they fell obliquely, making 
an angle of from 63 to 70 degrees with the horizontal 
line, and that they diverged in their fall, aifecting va- 
rious directions in the different communes in which 
tbey fell. " All the ipecinieiu of tbcM atones which I 
•aw," obeerres the reportar, " praamt no diaracter to 
the eye which can make them be diatingvished from 
those which I have hitherto had occasion to examine, 
or which I have in my eabinai : tfacjr vatnij saaroed 
to be more friable ancl mora porous than the latter." 
His account of the white cloud, too, which acomnp** 
nied the meteor, oorresponcU with those of such as have 
man tbaa ooce been observed to attend simiUr ap- 
paaninceSi 

July S, 1814. A great shower of ashes in the river 
St. Lawrence. Pkit. Mag. 

November 5, 1814. "A singular phenomenon," 
says s native philosopher of the spot, " has occurred in 
tha Ooab. I have beard the facu reUted by various 
parsons, who all concur in the same aocownL The cir- 
cumstanoes arc a* follow : On the Atb of November, be« 
ing Saturday, while half a waicfa of tha dav still re- 
mained, (i. e. half past four o'clock P. M.) there was 
6fat of all heard a dreadful peal of thunder, and then 
atones rained down in sight of the iuhabitanU of the 
oonntry, rarh stone being 13 or 13 seer* in weight. 
In the first pUce, wberesoerer thev fell a great dust 
rote from tlie ground ; and, after the dust sutisided, a 
heap of dust was formed, and in that dust were found 
the ttonci, a piece of one of which ia sent herewith. 

" In the district of Lank seven atones were found ; 
in the district of Bah weri.tlepcndant on Besuni Sumroo, 
ibur ; in the district of ( hal, belonging to the pergun. 
nah of Shawlif five ; at Kabout, balai4(iiig to the per. 
gun lah of Shawlif, five. In all njnatfan stooea ware 
found." PJuL Mag. BMUttM. Dritmn. 

About the end of September, 1815, the South Sea 
waa coireTe d to a great extent with dutt, supposed to 
have proceeded from the fall of a meteor. PktI. Mag. 

Octobers, 1HI5. At half-past eight o'clock, m the 
naming the sky being clear and serene, with a gentle 
easterly win<l, there wa» heard a rumbling noise like the 
discharge of musketrjr and artillery. This noise, which 
apparently proceeded from the north. ea«t, and from a 
grey cloud of sn iiidetenninate form, which hung over 
tha horison, had lasted a few minutes, when a man at 
work in a vineyard, at some distanca from Chassigny, 
a village situated about four leagues to the south-east of 
Langres, and who had his eye fixed on the cloud, hear- 
ing a whistling like that of a cannon ball, saw an opaque 
body fall ut a few paces from him, and which emitted a 
dense smoke. On . unninrr to tlic 'pot, he perceived a 
daapbola in the ground, ^ith fragmcnU of a peculiar 



sort of stone scattered aronnd it. Having picked up Meteorite, 
one of the pieces, he found it as hot as if it had been ""'Y""-' 
long expose<l to the ardf-nt rays of the sun. In const;- 
quence of his having brought it into the village, seve« 
ral of the inhabitants went out and collected specimens. 
Next day. Dr. Pistollet, ph^-sicinn at Langres, visited 
Chassigny, and having obtained one of the fragments, 
was struck with its resemblance to a meteorite which 
had been sent to him from Germany. He was, there* 
fore, induced to repair to the spot, and collected about 
sixty small pieces, some of which were soft and wet, 
and easily crumbled in the hand ; but all seemed to 
have belonged to one mass. In some of them the ex- 
ternal crust was of a deep black, and in others of a 
glossy chesnut-brown. On the blackest cru:>ts eleva- 
tions or swellings were observed, like the produce of 
ebullition suddenly arrested. Internally, these speci- 
mens were grey-white, with a light greenish tint, gra* 
nular, sufficiently soft to be 8cratche<I with a knife, 
composed of small brilliant and raised crystalline la- 
minir, and of a multitude of minute black ferruginous 
points, heavy, not magnetic, and interspersed with dis- 
tant small round pores. 

In this instance, Vauquelin's analysis sflTurded, 

Sdic* 33 90 

Oxidated iron ... SI 

M^naaia .... 82 

Chnaw 2 

98.90 
The Chassigny stones, therefore, are remarkable fur 
their crystalline texture, fur their want of nickel and 
sulphur, and for their more than ordinary proportiotu 
of magnesia and chrome. 

April 15, 1816. Coloured snow again fell in Italy, luty. 
particularly on Tonal and other mountains. It was of 
a brick red, and left an earthy powder very light and 
impalpable, unctuous to the touch, of an argillaceous 
odour, and sub-add, saline, and astringent taste. Twen- 
ty six grains, when analysed, gave the following re- 
sulu: 

Silex 8 

Iiw» 5 

Alumine S 

Lime 1 

Carbonic add 5 

Sulphur .25 

Empyreumatic oil . . . S 

Carbon 8 

Water 2 

Loss 2.25 



26 
1 W)6. A stone fell at Glastonbury, in Somersetshire. Ciaitea- 

Phil, Mag. buiy. 

May 2 and 3, 1817. There is reason to believe that 
masses of stone fell into the Baltic, because after the Baltic 
great meteor of Gottenburgh, a stream of fire was ob- 
served from Udensee to descend rapidly into the sasi in 
the south-east. ChUtdmi. 

November 3, 1817. According to the French news- Psris. 
papers, a meteor of considerable sise fell, in the nio.ii- 
ing, in the Rue de Richelieu, Paris, descending with 
so much force as to displace a part of the pave- 
ment, and to sink to some depth in the earth. It 
was acooapaaiad by a sulphureous smell, and seemed to 
have been recently in a state of ignition or combustion. 



VOL. Xir. PA«T I. 



•TlMB«n)piH«rwT.giu i\b.wmiit 



138 



METEORITE. 



Mstrorlle. 



Limoges. 



Slobodka. 



Alleged 
cases of the 
phenome- 
non to 
which no 
dates are 
assigned. 
Abydos. 
Potidtca. 

Mecc4. 



Sword of 
Antar. 

Krasno- 
jark. 



If such an incident really took place, it is to be hoped 
that some more distinct raemorinl of the particulars, and 
the exhibition of the stone itself will not be withholden 
from the public. 

In regard to the alleged fall of a frrcnt stone at Li- 
raoftes, on February 15, I81S, and which Chladni pro- 
bably copied from the public prints, the report seems 
to have been premature. See the npw edition of Noit- 
veau Dictionnaire d'llistoire Naiutelle, t. 26, p. 270, in 
the margin. 

July 29, O. S. 181 8. A stone of seven pounds weight 
fell at the village of Slobodka, in the province of Smo- 
lensko, and penetrated nearly sixteen inches into the 
ground. It had a brown crust with metallic spots. 
Ediit. Journ. of Science, No. 2. 

Before closing our chronological register, it will be 
proper shortly to advert to the mention of various real 
or alleged meteoric masses, the dates of whose history 
can no longer be ascertained. 

That which was preserved in the gymnasium of A- 
bydos, as quoted by Pliny. 

That which gave rise to the establishment of a colo- 
ny, at Potidaea. /(/. 

The black stone, and another deposited in the Caaba 
of Mecca. 

The thunderbolt, described in Antar, as black in ap- 
pearance, like a hard rock, brilliant and sparkling, and 
of which the blacksmith forged the sword of .\ntar. 

The mass of cellular iron, described by Pallas, Chlad- 
ni, Patrin, &c. and found near Krasnojark, in Siberia. 
The tradition of the Tartars assigns to it an atmosphe- 
ric origin ; and the analogy of its aspect, texture, and 
chemical characters with those of other chemical bodies, 
whose descent from the air is no longer questioned, 
powerfully tends to confirm the tradition. Although 
thte latter ascribes the formation of this extraordinary 
mass to a period which is lost in the remoteness of an- 
tiquity, its existence was first proclaimed, with the re- 
quisite circumstances of authenticity, to the learned of 
Europe in 1750, the year immediately subsequent to 
the discovery of a rich vein of iron ore, near Abakansk, 
by the Cossac Medvedief. As M. M. Mettich, inspec- 
tor of mines, examined this vein, he remarked that it 
was about seventeen inches thick, and that it traversed 
a grey and compact hornstone, which apparently com- 
posed the whole mountain. About 150 toises to the 
west of this mine he discovered a mass of iron, which 
he conjectured might weigh upwards of thirty poods. 
It was full of small, yellow, ar>d rough stones, of the 
size of a kernel of the cedar cone ; and it lay on the 
very ridge of the hill, which is covered with firs, with- 
out adhering to the rock. Being much puzzled to de- 
termine whether it had been formed naturally on the 
spot, or conveyed thither, he sought, with eager but 
fruitless diligence, for the slightest trace of any ancient 
iron forge. Dr. Pallas was likewise decidedly of opi- 
nion, that it could never have been produced in the 
rude furnaces or kilns of the Siberian miners, which 
were never known to yield more than fifty or si.\ty 
pounds of metal at a time ; whereas the present mass, 
before any fragments were detached from it, weighed 
somewhat more than 1680 pounds. The iron is of a 
coarse spongy texture, little contaminated by impuri- 
ties, perfectly flexible, and capable of being converted 
into small tools by a moderate heat. When exposed, 
however, to a high temperature, and especially when 
fused, it becomes dry and brittle, resolves into grains, 
and refuses to cohere or extend imderthe hammer. In 
its natural stat«, it is incrusted with a sort cf vamishi 



Eibenstock. 



which has protected it from rust ; but when this coat« Meteorite, 
ing is romoved, or when broken in the state of bar 
iron, the usual process of oxidation very readily takes 
place. The cavities in the mass are filled with a tran- 
sparent, amber-coloured substance, in the form of 
roundish grains or drops, presenting one or more flat 
and glossy surfaces. 'I'he mass has no regular form, 
but resembles a large, oblong, and somewhat flattened 
block, externally coated like the nodules of some of the 
blackish brown ores of iron. " This coating," says 
Pallas, " is also very rich in iron ; and even the trans- 
parent fluor yields some pounds of iron in the hundred. 
Wlioever will consider the mass itself, or large speci- 
mens of it, will not have the least doubt of its having 
been wrought by nature, since it has no one character 
of scoriaceous mntters melted by artificial fire, or of 
those commonly found among volcanos. No volcanic 
ground, indeed, has been remarked nearer the moun- 
tains of Yenissei than the extinct craters of Daouria, si- 
tuated at 1,500 miles to the east. 

The Siberian mass of native iron was first transport- 
ed to Krasnojark, where it was found to weigh fifteen 
quintals. In 1772, it was conveyed to St. Petersburg!), 
and deposited in the collections of the Imperial Aca- 
demy of Sciences. M. Patrin, who examined it in 
1778, describes it as a large bomb, somewhat flattened, 
and partly covered with a rough ochraceous crust. So 
hard and compact was it in its natural state, that three 
or four forgers employed between ten and twelve hours 
in detaching from it a fragment of two pounds weight. 

Of a similar description seems to have been the frag- 
ment which was found between Eibenstock and Jo- 
hanngeorgenstadt. — Another, probably from Norway, 
preserved in the Imperial Cabinet of Vienna. — A small 

mass, of some pounds weight, kept at Gotha .\ mass, 

found under the pavement of Aken, near Magdeburg. 
Loeber.—A mass of iron from the coast of Honduras. 
Annals of Phil- — Scattered masses of black rock, con- 
taining native iron, on the right bank of the Senegal. 
Compagtion, Forster, Golbern/. — A mass of iron at the 
Cape of Good Hope, in which Stromeyer detected the 
presence of cobalt. Von Marvin and Dankelman. 

In the Philnsopliical Transaclions for 1816, there is 
an interesting history aid account of a mass of native 
iron, found in the province of Bahia in Brazil, commu- Bahia. 
nicated by A. F. Mornay, Esq. to Dr. Wollaston. It 
ie about seven feet long, four feet wide, and two feet in 
thickness, its solid contents being rudely estimated on 
the spot at twenty cubic feet, and its weight at 1 4,000 lb. 
The colour of the top and sides is chesiiut, and the 
surface glossy, though not smooth, being slightly in- 
dented all over, as if hammered, while the hollow part 
underneath is covered with a flaky crust, whose exter- 
nal surface is rusty. Here we should nut overlook, 
tliat the cavities, or indentations on the surface, are 
sometimes also observed on well ascertained metenrites. 
Thus one of the Siena stones is described by Mr. King, 
" as having many rounded cavities on its surface ; as if 
the stone had been struck with small balls whilst it wag 
forming, and before it was hardened, which left their 
impressions. And some appearances of the same kind," 
he adds, " were found on one of the four surfaces of 
another stone in the possession of Soldani." The sur- 
face of the Yorkshire stone, too. presents similar cavi- 
ties or depressions. Wherever the Brazilian block is 
struck with a steel, it gives out abundance of sparks, 
and, when rubbed with a quartz pebble in the dark, 
it becomes beautifully luminous. It is not only magne- 
tic, but manifests well-defined poles. Small fragments 
6 



METEORITE. 



139 



Mtuorite. were deUcfaed from it with much difficultj, and re- 
''^'y^^ vealed an internal crystmllization, not previously uoticed 
in met«oric iron. From the obiervations and esperi- 
MMiU of I>r. Wollaaton on the specimen* transmitted 
tD turn, k appears that the texture o( this iron is not 
only cryttrilwp. bat that it ia dia|MMed to break in the 
forms of the M§uUr octohedron and tetrahedron, or in 
the rhoaoboMl, a combinatioa of hothtiMit farm*. 

<• Thcugfa the fra^pnenU," ohiervea the Ur. " are 
not in the least attMeti»ea»m a (j in > « , and have in them- 
•elves DO polarity; they ar« precisely like any other 
piacsa ot'the bcstsoft iron, and assume polarity in>tant- 
ly, according to the position in which they are iicid with 
tcspect to the magnetic axis of the earth. When a 
long fragment is held in a vertical position, iti lower 
extremity being then within SCf of the dip of the 
north magnetic pole, becomes north, and repels the 
north pol« of a magnetic needk tuspended horison- 
tally. But this power is in>tant]y reversed, by being 
suddenly inverted : so titat the appannt cantndidicn 
bKween the otnervcd poUrity or th« masa, and the 
seeming want ol' it in the frsgmenU, is thus completely 
removed. 

" Although Mr. Mae«n wmtnnMf entcted, that 
this iroa woold not difer fraoi th« many otmrs now on 
record that have been found ia various parts of the 
world, and frnm hi* experimaats was led to infer tt>e 
pretence of nickel, it appcurad doairable to ascertain 
this pomt with more precision than be had been ena- 
bled to do, and to doUfainc al»o in what proportian 
this peculiar ingredient of meteoric bodias might be 
fount) to prevail.'* Then, after detading tlw ttapa of 
Jus proeeas, he thus eondndc* : 

** From the jm sanca tt nickel in this mass, we can- 
ool but r^ard H as harmg the iaoM maiaoric origin with 
the various other spadaMMS that have been found ; and 
although in the spot whence it had baaa tnt maoved 
Mr. Momay discovere<l a bed of laaltar, Aont which it 
appear*, by analysis, that shailar iraa might be formed 
by art, it seems by far mere probable that.an opposite 
change baa really taken pkce, and that the whole of 
this su p posi d ar» is the result of progressive oxi<iation 
during a series of years, of which we have n" other evi- 
dence, and alTards the sole grounti on which a conjec- 
ture coul< I be formed 1^ the very remote period at which 
this problenwtic body has fallen upon the earth." 

Since the expalsiae of the Spanisnlt fruni the pn>> 
' "f" vince of the great Cbaeo Oulamba, the coontrr situa- 
ted to the south of the nrer Vermeio^ and to the west 
of the Parana, has been mostly abanaoacd. A few In- 
dians only inhal)it the district of St. Jago del Estero, to 
gather the honey and bees-wax which abound in the 
wood*. These Indians dtaeorered, in the middle of a 
verv extended plam, a considerable mas* of metal, 
which they reported to be iron. When the viceroy of 
Peru was apprised of this discover)', he was struck 
with the singularity of the phrnumrnon, because there 
are no hills in that part of the country, and scarcely a 
•tone of any description is to be found witlirn acircum- 
firrenoe of a hundred leagues. Some individuals, re- 
gaidlcas of every dancer, and (timulated by the pro- 
spect of gain, repaireclto the spot to obtain some por- 
tions of the metal, and actually conveyed specimens of 
h to Lima and Madrid ; but the only fruit of their 
toils, was the assurance that the sulMtance with which 
they had loaded themselves was very fine snd malleable 
inn. Aeoording to these adventurers, the vein ex- 
tended several leagues, and promise<l an abundant pro- 
duce. The viesroy of Rio de la PlaU, therefore, (lis- 
palcfaad Ooo Celis to examine the mais with greaUr ac- 



curacy, and to fix some settlers in the iteighbourhood, if Meteorite, 
be should jud^e the working beneficial. Celis depart- '*"V"*^ 
ed.accordiiigiy, from Iliu Salado, oii the 3d of Februar}-, 
I' 83, accutiipitaied by the requisite attendantc ; and, 
alter perioral :iig a juumry of seventy leagues, tlirough a 
fine level country, he reached the s|>ot, which, agreeably 
to his obtervatitMU, is in HI" liA' of south latitude. He 
found the ferrugiiiou* mass mostly buried in pure clay, 
lis external suruce was very comp.ict ; but, on brrak- 
'II it, he perceived that its substance 
.us if the whole had at one time un- 
d«r|{uii« fusion, hi the course of separating i5 or SO 
bits, the seventy chisei^i with which he had been fur- 
nished, were rendered useless. On removing the sur- 
rounding earth, he observed that all the surface which 
had been covered by the soil was invested with a layer 
of rust, of about mx inches thick, and which he ascribed 
to the humidity of the ground. Having rent it in two 
cliiTcrent places by the force of gunpowder, he exninin- 
ed the deepest chasm, and found it precisely of the 
aame nature with tiiat of the surface, and also with the 
earth which wasduij at a hundred pacts to the ea«t and 
west of thf mass. Ay he could not conceive the latter, 
under the circumstances in which he found it, to be 
produced hy any natural process, or conveyed by hu- 
iii.iii ineins, he presumed that it must have l>een pro- 
jected by some volcanic explosion. According to its 
cubical measure, and allowing a specific gravity some- 
what greater than that of iron, this enormous mass 
should weigh sbout 300 quintals. 

" The largest specimen of these substances which Dursog*. 
has ever been docribetl," observes Mr. Southey " has 
escsped the notice of all the philosophers who have 
written upon the subject. 

" Walkennaer, in a note to Aura's Trsvels, upon the 
mass of iron and nickel found in the Chaco, says that 
two other such masses have been discovered ; one 
which Pallas has described, and one which was dug up 
at A ken, near Magdeburg. Caspar de Villagra, in his 
Uitloria de la Nueva Mexico, mentions a fourth, evi- 
dently of the same nature as these, and considerably 
larger than the lar;|;est of them. The tradition of the 
natives concerning it, supports the most probable theory 
of its origin. A demon, in the form ot an old woman, 
appeared to two brothers, who were leading a horde or 
swarm of the ancient Mexicans, in search of a new 
eavntry ; she told them to separate, and threw down 
thisblockof iron, which she carried on her head, to be 
the boundary between them. 

" Villagra describes it as something like the back of 
a tortoise in sliape, and in weight about eight hundred 

r'ntal*; he calls it massy iron ; it was smooth, without 
sKchtCst rust, and there was neither mine near it. 
Iter vein of metal, nor any kind ot' stone any way re- 
sembling it. 

" The latitude where this ia found is 97 N. I'he his. 
tory of the expedit'on which Villagra accompanie<l, liir- 
nisnes some clue for seeking the spot, and it might pro. 
bably be discovered with little expenre of time or la- 
bour, by a party travelling from Mexico to Monterry." 

Ilumboldl's account of the Mexican sky-stone, re. 
duces the above dimensions something more than a 
half; but still it remains greatly larger than any other 
that has been yet descovercd. '• In the environ* of 
Durango," says this philosophic traveller, " is to be 
found insulated in the plain,the enormous mass uf malle- 
able iron and nickel, which is of the identical coinposi. 
tion of the aerolithos which fell in 17-^1, at Hraschina, 
ne.ir Agram, in Hungary. Specimens were communi- 
cated to me by the learned director of the Tribunal de 



140 



METEORITE. 



Meteorite, 



2aeateca3. 



Elbogen. 



Lenai-to> 
Greenland' 



Corollaries. 



Theory. 



Academi- 
cians of 
Paris. 



Mineria de Mexico, Don Fausto d'Elhuyar, which I de- 
posited in different cabinets in Europe, and of which 
M. M. Vauquflin and Klaproth published an analysis. 
This mass of Duranffo is affirmed to weigh upwards of 
IgOO myriagrammes, which is iOO more than the aero- 
lithos discovered at Otumpa by M. Rubin de Celis. M. 
Frederick Sonnenschmidt, a distinguished mineralogist, 
■who travelled over more of Mexico than myself, dis- 
covered also, in 1792, in the interior of the town of 
Zacatecas, a mass of malleable iron of the weight of 97 
myriagrammes, which, in its exterior and physical cha- 
racter, was found by him entirely analogous to the 
malleable iron described by the celebrated Pallas." 

In the42d and 4ith vols, of Gilbert's Annals, mention 
is made of meteoric iron at Elbogen, in Bohemia, which 
originally weighed 190 lbs. A fragment detached from 
it, and fashioned into the shape of a coin, has the pe- 
culiar property, whtn put into weak nitric acid, of be- 
ing attacked unequally, and of then exhibiting blackish 
particles, and others, of a whitish hue, in relief, whose 
mutual arrangements seem to depend on some law of 
crystallization. The Chevalier Schreibers, who first 
made this observation, found that it also applied to 
specimens of the Krasnojark mass ; and he is inclined 
to believe, that it probably extends to all native iron 
that has fallen from the atmosphere. 

Native iron is also supposed to have fallen near Le- 
narto in Hungary. Gilb. Ann. p. 49. 

Two masses in Greenland, from which the Esqui- 
maux manufacture a sort of small knives. Ross's Ac- 
count of an ExpeHkion to the Arctic Regions. Edin. 
Journ. of Science, No. 1. 

A few other detached masses of native iron have 
been quoted by different writers ; but as they contain 
no nickel, and have a different texture from the pre- 
ceding, their meteoric origin seems to be extremely 
doubtful. 

From the foregoing historical review of our subject, 
we may safely deduce a few general observations, or 
corollaries. 

That meteorites do really fall from the upper re- 
gions of the air to the earth, can no longer be doubted, 
unless we are determined to reject the evidence of hu- 
man testimony. Tliese bodies have a peculiar aspect, 
and peculiar characters, which belong to no native 
rocks, or stones with which we are acquainted. Their 
fall is usually accompanied by a luminous meteor, 
which is seldom visible for more than a few minutes, 
and generally disappears with explosions. These bo- 
dies appear to have fallen from various points of the 
heavens, at all periods, in all seasons of the year, at all 
hours, both of the day and the night, also in all coun- 
tries of the world, on mountains, and in plains, and 
without any particular relation to volcano!. The lu- 
minous meteor which precedes their fall, affects no 
constant or invariable direction. They are, for the 
most part, hot when they fall, and emit sulphureous 
vapours. As their descent usually takes place in calm, 
and often cloudless weather, their origin seems to be 
owing to some very different cause from that which 
produces rain or storm*. 

In our second volume, p. 641, to which we beg 
leave to refer, we have unfolded our own sentiments 
relative to the very problematical source of these occa- 
sional visitants of our planet ; and as these views still 
appear to us less exceptionable than any others which 
have been submitted to our notice, we shall glance at 
some of the latter with all suitable brevity. 

The opinion of the Parisian Academicians, who, in 



the middle of the last century, maintained that the Meteorite, 
stones in question merely resulted from a stroke of -"~r"^^ 
lightning on the spot in which they were found, will 
not, in the present day, bear a moment's examination ; 
for we have seen, that thunder and lightning do not ' 

necessarily acccjmpany the fall of meteorites ; and that 
these last differ from all the solid substances on the 
face of the globe. We will not deny, that lightning 
may tear up the soil, and convert it into a solid ma.ss; 
but we have no proof of its competency to project 
masses, so formed, into an indi finite height in the at- 
mosphere, nor to generate thousands of hard stones in 
fine cloudless weather. 

The supposition that such concretions have been Volcanic 
driven off from some of our volcanos, is scarcely less hypotheses, 
tenable ; for the compound lavas of burning mountains 
are never found remote from the scene of their forma- 
tion ; and none of them present the aspect and charac* 
ters of the bodies which we have described. Besides, 
most of the stony showers on record are represented as 
occurring when no remarkable volcanic eruption was 
known to have tr.ken place. The ashes of a violent 
eruption have frequently, from their levity, been waft- 
ed to a considerable distance ; but we are altogether 
unacquainted with any projectile force which can dart 
solid and heavy mas.ses hundreds of leagues, through 
such a dense medium as the atmosphere. Mr. King, 
indeed, is inclined to believe, that an immense cloud 
of ashes, pyritical dust, and particles of iron, forcibly 
propelled from Vesuvius to a very great height, be- 
came condensed in its fall, took fire from its motion in 
the air, and its electrical elements, and thus gave birth 
to the Siena stones. But he does not thus account for 
the presence of nickel in their composition, nor for the 
other obvious discrepancies between volcanic ashes and 
meteoric stones. In order to explain the direction of 
the cloud which proceeded from the north, he has re- 
course to the supposition, that it was at first driven, in 
its course, to the northward of Siena, and afterwards 
urged back by a contrary current of wind. But the 
cloud itself, and its destinies, are alike gratuitous: and 
it is much more conformable to what we know of pa- 
rallel cases, to conceive that the Siena phenomenon 
would have occurred at the time, and in the manner in 
which it did occur, although Vesuvius had remained 
in a state of perfect quiescence. 

In the boldness of his speculations, M. Bory de 
Saint Vincent takes a still wider flight, and sends forth 
his meteorites from immense depths, in some early- 
stage of the earth's existence, when ignivomous moun- 
tains, as he pompously denominates them, were en- 
dowed with propelling forces adequate to the disper- 
sion of matter into the regions of space, in which they 
were constrained, for ages, to obey the compound laws 
of impulse and gravitation, until, in the progress of 
time, their spiral revolutions terminated on the surface 
of their native planet. Before, however, we can tame- 
ly acquiesce in the terms of such an extravagant hy- 
pothesis, we may be permitted to call for the evidence 
of the existence of those ancient and wonder working 
volcanos, which could communicate planetary motion 
to chips of rock, without up-heaving the rocks them- 
selves 

The sagacious Troili, too, in his endeavours to ac- 
count for a fact which he has so triumphantly proved, 
labours to convince his readers that the Albereto stone 
must have been torn from the bowels of the earth, and 
projected to a great height by the powerful agency of 
subterraneous conflagration ; and these conflagrations 



METEORITE. 



141 



Meteorite, he conjnns np at pleasure to suit his purpose. On 
^■^ i "' guch a supposition, however, the bursting of stones 
from the surface of the earth, and tlieir ascent into the 
air, should be as frequently seen as their fall to the 
ground, and tome of the profound openings and iis- 
■nm occasioned by their violent passage through the 
atrata, ought, before now, to have been obser\-ed ; fur 
we are not entitled to presume that they were all ef. 
fected in the receues of foretts, or closed again, ai'ter 
the stones bad made their escape. Again, an expin- 
aive force conmensurate to the conditions of the hypo, 
thesis, would occasion wide and ruinous disorder, which 
could scarcely fail to be observed in every inhabited 
country. 
Aiwuipks Of ^c many who contend for tlie atmospheric for- 
ric bjp*. roation of meteorites, scarcely any two agree in regard 
to tb« manner in which such formation is effected. 
MnadMBbroedc, in one part of his writings, ascribes 
the descent of stone* from the air to earthquakes and 
Tolcanic eruptions ; an opinion which I iter observa- 
tions have disproved. In other pattage*, however, he 
leans to a modification of the atmospheric hypotheses, 
and attributes the origin of shooting stars to the ac- 
cumulation of volatile mattera avipended in the air. 
Wha««ver relation may subsist be t ween shooting star* 
aod tmj meteor*, the foraicr seem to move at a ranch 
greater distanee ftom the earth than the latter, and oc- 
oaaioa only a transient luminous appearance, in their 
peasage throueh the upper regioo* of the atmosphere. 
The Dutch pliilosopher, bowcver, adopta the common 
notion of their falling to the ground, and seems to con- 
foun<l their residue with IrcmeUa mottoc 

The late ingeniou*, but fanciful Patrin, who was s<v 
licitoaa to extend and illustrate his favourite doctrine 
•f a ragular circulation of gaseous fluids between the 
■chiatoae strata of the globe and its surrounding atmo- 
ipbere, very oan6deiitly deduced from this faoocd €U^ 
eolation the occasional ignition and concretion of por- 
tiooa at thcae fluids in the higher regions of the air. 
Bat h it a aaficient confutation of his theory, that it 
rests an aasMBed and very improbable fouwlations. 

In aid of the aeme cause, II. Salrctte had recourse 
to a very liberal exhibition of hydrogen gas, kindled 
by electricity during thunder atorm*. But we have 
aoown that thunder and metcora are distinct phenoaae- 
na : and this gentleenan'a magasinea of hydrogen r»> 
main to be proved. 

His countryraap. M. Isam, haa dragged his reader* 
into a tediodt and somewhat obscure cxpoaition of hi* 
own sentiments, founded on the pHndpie* of chemical 
combination ; but we are not certain that we perfectly 
comprehend his meaning ; and, at any rate, his infer. 
cnce* depend on admissions of gaseous substances, ar- 
ranged in spherical masses in the superior rf>mii. of 
the sir, and occasionally detached frinn their 

medium, an<l brought into one capable of c~ g 

with them ; a disposition uf things which may, or 
which may not exist, but of which we are entirely ig- 
Dortnt 

M. S'^guin thinks it not improbable that the consti- 
tuent principles of meteorites being trsnsported by 
chemical or mechanical means into toe upper portions 
of the atmosphere, where a vacuum, the cause of the 
noise of thunder, is produced, there remain sutpend- 
ed by solution, or otherwise ; but, although disscmi- 
natcd. being pressed by the external strata which fill 
the vacuum, they unite, conglomerate, and form a mass, 
the more Cfmsiderable in proportion to the quantity of 
materJela which it encounters in this place. Now, 



granting to this philosopher his conjectural premises. Meteorite, 
we have again to repeat, that the fall of meicoriics is """V™^ 
inde|iendent of thunder, and that the noi.-« of the ex- 
plosion, which so much resembles thunder as to have 
been ol\en confounded with it, is posterior to the con* 
solidation of the mass. 

In the 75th volume of the Annalet de Chimie, M. 
Marcel de Serres enters into the discussion of the ori- 
gin of meteorites : but much of his paper is occupied 
with a very rapid and imperfect recapitulation of the 
instances of their occurrence, and iniiJrntal notices of 
showers of tand, &c. His decided bias, however, ia 
to the generation of the«e bodies in the atmoKphere, 
from the contact of all the matters carried up by eva» 
porition, and the formation of metallic (larticlea dura 
ing the ignition. Yet, his solution of the prohlem is, 
on the whole, far from luninout ; nor is he altogither 
insensible to the difficulties with which it is encora^ 
passed. The total absence of oxygen in the Lissa 
atone, in |>articular, strikes him very forcibly. It is, 
besides, extremely difficult to conceive the machinery 
by which an immense field of gaseous, or highly at- 
tenuated matter in the air, can be instantaneously re- 
duced into the compass and consistency of a solid com- 
pact mass, of very moderate dimensions, and su.tpend* 
ed in the air, as if by enchantment, until it explodes, 
and is precipitated to the earth. 

Dr. Reynolds' Outline of the Theory of Meteors 
doc* not very materially differ from some of those to 
which we have just alluded ; for it proceeds on the 
supposition that minute portions of the earthy and me- 
tallic compounds of the surface of the globe.'being ex- 
posed to the sun's influi-nce, will be volatilized by the 
abiorpiion of heat, and thereby assuming the state of 
elastic fluids, will aacend, until they arrive at media of 
their own detuily, where, congregating into immense 
and highly concentrated volumes, they will explode, 
and exhibit all the appearances of meteoric stones and 
abowers. But the elevation of particles of stone and 
iron, however much attenuated, to the enormous height 
of a hundre<l miles above the earth's surface, is scarce- 
ly conceivable on any principle with which we are ac- 
quainted ; and their combustion and explosion, in such 
a lofky and frigid medium, are alike unsusceptible of 
aatisfactory explanation. 

NVc know not that Dr. Murray is more successful, 
when he insinuates, in one passage, that these bodies 
spring from the thunder storm, and when he resorts, 
in another, to the solvent agency of hydrogen, and the 
changes produced on different substances by the influ- 
ence of the electric fluid. That truly philosophic tra- 
veller and observer, Humboldt, who otudied the pre- 
sent subject with touch attention, is decidedly of opi. 
nion, that meteorites are foreign to the confines of our 
atmoftphere. 

The romantic notion, that they are the products of Lunar liy- 
lunar volcano*, haa derived some countenance from «»»'»«•'*• 
the speculations of the celebrated La Place, Poisson, 
Dr. Hution, and others, who have demonHtrated the 
abstract proposition, that a heavy IhmIv, projected with 
a velocity of about tiOOO feet in a second, may be driven 
beyond the sphere of the moon's attraction, into that 
of the earth. But the existence of any such volcanic 
force in the moon is purely hypothetical ; nay, the 
existence of volcanos at all in our satellite, begins to 
be very seriously questioned. Overlooking these con- 
siderations, however, as well as the combustion of sub- 
lunar substance* without the conUct of nlmosphcrical 
air, the occaaiunal arrival of iragmenu of such laya oa 



142 



METEOROLOGY. 



MeteoHte. the surface of the earth, would, on a fair computation 
" -" tf"^^ of chances, imply such a copious discharfje of volcanic 
matters, that the moon, by this time, shouUi consist of 
hardly any thing else. Further, if we may be allowed 
to reason from analogy, we should expect the volcanic 
productions of the moon to exhibit varieties of aspect 
and composition, and not a definite and precise num- 
ber of the same ingredients. The resistance which a 
body falling from our satellite, would experience in its 
transit through our atmosphere, combined with the 
two-fold motion of the earth, may sufficiently obviate 
the ordinary objection derived from the comparative- 
ly moderate impulse with which meteorites usually 
impinge on the earth's surface, but affords no solution 
of the more formidable difficulty, deduced from the 
want of coincidence, in point of time, between the 
descent of these stones and the moon's position, she 
being jis ofVen in their nadir as in their zenith. 
Cosmical l^r- Chladni, who, for years, has devoted much of 

hypothesis, his attention to the history of meteoric stones, long 
since intimidated his belief, that they are cosmic«l 
bodies, or fragments of planetary matter. As earthy, 
metallic, and other particles, form the principal com- 
ponent parts of our planet, among which iron is the 
prevailing ingredient, other planetary bodies, he af- 
firms, may consist of similar, or, perhaps, of the same 
component parts, though combined and modified in a 
very different manner. There may also be dense mat- 
ters, accumulated in smaller mass